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Sample records for genital hpv types

  1. Genital Warts (HPV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Genital Warts (HPV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Genital Warts (HPV) Print A ... HPV infection. How Do People Know They Have HPV? Most HPV infections have no signs or symptoms. ...

  2. Cutaneous human papillomavirus types detected on the surface of male external genital lesions: A case series within the HPV Infection in Men Study

    PubMed Central

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Jukic, Drazen M.; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik; Rollison, Dana E.; Sichero, Laura; Sirak, Bradley A.; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lu, Beibei; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) may be associated with cutaneous epithelial lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers. No study has systematically evaluated the presence of genus beta [β]-HPV in male genital skin or external genital lesions (EGLs). Objectives To examine cutaneous β-HPV types detected on the surface of EGLs in men and describe their presence prior to EGL development. Study design A retrospective case series was conducted among 69 men with pathologically confirmed EGLs (n=72) who participated in the HPV Infection in Men Study. Archived exfoliated cells collected from the surface of each EGL and normal genital skin specimens 6–12 months preceding EGL development were tested for β-HPV DNA using a type-specific multiplex genotyping assay. Results β-HPV DNA was detected on 61.1% of all EGLs, with types 38 (16.7%), 5 (15.3%), and 12 (12.5%) most commonly identified. HPV prevalence differed across pathological diagnoses, with the largest number of β-HPV types detected on condylomas. Most β-HPV types were detected on normal genital skin prior to EGL development, though the prevalence was lower on EGLs compared to preceding normal genital skin. Conclusions EGLs and the normal genital skin of men harbor a large number of β-HPV types; however, it appears that β-HPVs are unrelated to EGL development in men. Despite evidence to support a causal role in skin carcinogenesis at UVR-exposed sites, cutaneous HPV appears unlikely to cause disease at the UVR-unexposed genitals. PMID:24210970

  3. Gardasil 9 Protects against Additional HPV Types

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from a large randomized clinical trial that shows a new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine effectively prevented infection and disease caused seven HPV types that cause cancer and two HPV types that cause genital warts.

  4. Physical status of HPV types 16 and 18 in topographically different areas of genital tumours and in paired tumour-free mucosa.

    PubMed

    Badaracco, Gianna; Venuti, Aldo

    2005-07-01

    HPV16 and HPV18 integration into host cell DNA contributes to malignant transformation. Viral physical status was compared among samples from different tumour areas, and from tumour and paired non-lesional adjacent epithelium, in order to evaluate the levels of HPV integration that could account for local recurrences. Fifty-nine surgical biopsies were collected from 24 women with HPV16 and/or HPV18-associated genital tumours, including 3 preinvasive and 21 invasive lesions. HPV integration was analysed by type-specific and multiplex PCRs for E6, E1 and E2 sequences. Nine tumours contained HPV16, 1 HPV18 and 14 both viruses. Intra-tumour heterogeneity occurred in 3 of the 10 tumours with multiple sampling (30%), including different HPV16 physical forms between core and periphery in 2 cases, and different type of HPV infection in 1 case. Almost all tumours contained integrated forms of either HPV16 and/or HPV18. Analysis of the 15 tumour-free tissues displayed 11 HPV-positive (73%) and 4 HPV-negative tissues. HPV16 was pure integrated in 1 case, mixed in 1 and episomal in 8, whereas HPV18 was integrated in all 6 positive tissues (100%). When compared to the corresponding tumour, the positive control mucosa contained the same HPV type and the same physical status as the tumour in 6 cases, whereas 5 samples contained different HPV16 physical forms, episomal DNA being more frequent than in the lesion. These data showing the presence of high-risk HPV integrated forms in normal mucosa, especially in HPV18-positive cases, indicate that the research of viral integration in the adjacent tumour tissues may be a valuable tool in assessing risk factors for local recurrences.

  5. Prophylactic HPV vaccines: prospects for eliminating ano-genital cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, M

    2007-01-01

    Virtually all cases of cervical cancer and its precursor intra-epithelial lesions are a result of infection with one or other of a subset of genital human papillomaviruses (HPVs), suggesting that prevention of HPV infection by prophylactic vaccination would be a highly effective anticancer strategy. Two HPV L1 virus-like particle vaccines have been developed, a quadrivalent HPV16/18/6/11 product and a bivalent HPV16/18 product; both have been shown to be highly immunogenic with a good safety profile and 100% efficacy against HPV16/18-related high-grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3), implying that they will be effective at preventing HPV16/18-related cervical cancer. PMID:17375045

  6. [HPV detection in the mouth and cervix of patients with histological diagnosis suggestive of genital infection].

    PubMed

    De Guglielmo, Z; Avila, M; Veitía, D; Fernández, A; Venegas, C; Correnti de Plata, M

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluated HPV infection in the oral cavity (using oroscopy and exfoliative oral cytology) and its relation to genital infection in women with cytological diagnosis suggestive of HPV infection. The sample consisted of 60 patients who underwent oroscopy, cytology and viral determination in mouth and cervix by PCR using generic primers MY09/MY11 and MPCR. HPV DNA was detected in oral and genital mucosa in 48.33% and 73.3% of patients, respectively, yielding a concordance of 44.2% (k=0.44, moderate agreement). The most common viral types were low risk, especially type 6, found in 86.2% of oral samples and 65.9% of cervical specimens, alone or in combination with other types of low (11) or high oncogenic risk (16, 18, 33), with a concordance of 10.45% (k = 0.1, insignificant agreement). However, in relation to type 6, there was a concordance of 75.86% (k=0.7, high agreement). The cytology of the oral cavity had a sensitivity of 3.5% and a specificity of 93.6%. For oroscopy, sensitivity was 27.6% and specificity was 74.2%. The results indicate that HPV infection in the oral cavity of patients with genital infection could be frequent. The low concordance between HPV types suggests that HPV infection in the mouth and cervix has a different biological behavior.

  7. HPV

    MedlinePlus

    ... or high-risk. Low-risk HPV can cause genital warts. High-risk HPV can lead to cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, and anus in women. In men, it can lead to cancers of the anus and penis. Although some people develop genital warts from HPV infection, others have no symptoms. ...

  8. 9-Valent HPV vaccine for cancers, pre-cancers and genital warts related to HPV.

    PubMed

    Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Velicer, Christine; Luxembourg, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of nearly all cervical cancer cases as well as a substantial proportion of anal, vulvar, vaginal, penile and oropharyngeal cancers, making it responsible for approximately 5% of the global cancer burden. The first-generation HPV vaccines that is, quadrivalent HPV type 6/11/16/18 vaccine and bivalent HPV type 16/18 vaccine were licensed in 2006 and 2007, respectively. A second-generation 9-valent HPV type 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine with broader cancer coverage was initiated even before the first vaccines were approved. By preventing HPV infection and disease due to HPV31/33/45/52/58, the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to increase prevention of cervical cancer from 70 to 90%. In addition, the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to prevent 85-95% of HPV-related vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers. Overall, the 9vHPV vaccine addresses a significant unmet medical need, although further health economics and implementation research is needed.

  9. Stable marital relationship protects men from oral and genital HPV infections.

    PubMed

    Kero, K M; Rautava, J; Syrjänen, K; Kortekangas-Savolainen, O; Grenman, S; Syrjänen, S

    2014-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with sexual behavior. Changes in the sexual habits of couples and their impact on male genital and oral HPV infections were determined during 7 years of follow-up (FU). At baseline and 7 years FU, urethral, semen/penile, and oral samples were collected from 46 men and cervical and oral samples of their spouses for HPV DNA detection. Demographic data and risk factors of spouses were recorded by questionnaire at both time points and analyzed for concordance. HPV genotyping was done with the Multimetrix® kit. At baseline, 29.5 % of the male genital and 11 % of their oral samples tested positive. Incident genital HPV infection was found in 23 % and oral infection in 10.9 % of men. Genotype-specific persistence was detected in one man (HPV53) in genital samples. Moderate to almost perfect concordance of changes in sexual habits during FU among spouses were found. Changing partners [p = 0.028; odds ratio (OR) = 15; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.355-166.054] and marital status (p = 0.001; 95 % CI 0.000-0.002) increased the risk of incident genital HPV infections. The overall outcome of genital HPV disease in men was linked to the frequency of sexual intercourse (p = 0.023; 95 % CI 0.019-0.026) and changes in marital status (p = 0.022; 95 % CI 0.019-0.026), while oral HPV infections were associated with the number of sexual partners (p = 0.047; 95 % CI 0.041-0.052). Taken together, asymptomatic genital HPV infections among the men were common. The risk of incident genital HPV infections increased among men reporting a change of sexual partner during FU, implicating that a stable marital relationship protects against oral and genital HPV infection.

  10. Lower Female Genital Tract Tumors With Adenoid Cystic Differentiation: P16 Expression and High-risk HPV Detection.

    PubMed

    Xing, Deyin; Schoolmeester, J Kenneth; Ren, Zhiyong; Isacson, Christina; Ronnett, Brigitte M

    2016-04-01

    Lower female genital tract tumors with adenoid cystic differentiation are rare, and data on their relationship with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) are limited. Here we report the clinicopathologic features from a case series. Tumors with adenoid cystic differentiation, either pure or as part of a carcinoma with mixed differentiation, arising in the lower female genital tract were evaluated by means of immunohistochemical analysis for p16 expression and in situ hybridization using 1 or more probes for high-risk HPV (a high-risk probe covering multiple types, a wide-spectrum probe, and separate type-specific probes for HPV16 and HPV18) and when possible by polymerase chain reaction for high-risk HPV. Six cervical carcinomas with adenoid cystic differentiation admixed with various combinations of at least 1 other pattern of differentiation, including adenoid basal tumor (epithelioma and/or carcinoma), squamous cell carcinoma (basaloid or keratinizing), and small cell carcinoma were identified in patients ranging in age from 50 to 86 years (mean, 73 y; median, 76 y). All of these tumors were characterized by diffuse p16 expression. High-risk HPV was detected in 5 of 6 tested cases: 4 cases by in situ hybridization (all positive for HPV-wide-spectrum and HPV16) and 1 by polymerase chain reaction (HPV45). Seven pure adenoid cystic carcinomas (6 vulvar and 1 cervical) were identified in patients ranging in age from 27 to 74 years (mean, 48 y; median, 48 y). All of these tumors were characterized by variable p16 expression ranging from very limited to more extensive but never diffuse. No high-risk HPV was detected in any of these pure tumors. Lower female genital tract carcinomas with adenoid cystic differentiation appear to comprise 2 pathogenetically distinct groups. Cervical carcinomas with mixed differentiation, including adenoid cystic, adenoid basal, squamous, and small cell components, are etiologically related to high-risk HPV and can be identified by diffuse

  11. Human Papillomavirus Virus (HPV) Genotype- and Age-Specific Analyses of External Genital Lesions Among Men in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study

    PubMed Central

    Ingles, Donna J.; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Messina, Jane A.; Stoler, Mark H.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Sirak, Bradley A.; O'Keefe, Michael T.; Papenfuss, Mary; Gage, Christine; Carvalho da Silva, Roberto; Gonzalez Sosa, Rossana; Rojas Juarez, Oscar; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes external genital lesions (EGLs) in men, including condyloma and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). We sought to determine the incidence of pathologically confirmed EGLs, by lesion type, among men in different age groups and to evaluate the HPV types that were associated with EGL development. Methods. HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study participants who contributed ≥2 visits from 2009–2013 were included in the biopsy cohort. Genotyping by an HPV line-probe assay was performed on all pathologically confirmed EGLs. Age-specific analyses were conducted for incident EGLs, with Kaplan–Meier estimation of cumulative incidence. Results. This biopsy cohort included 2754 men (median follow-up duration, 12.4 months [interquartile range, 6.9–19.2 months]). EGLs (n = 377) were pathologically confirmed in 228 men, 198 of whom had incident EGLs. The cumulative incidence of any EGL was highest among men <45 years old and, for condyloma, decreased significantly over time with age. The genotype-specific incidence of EGL varied by pathological diagnoses, with high- and low-risk genotypes found in 15.6% and 73.2% of EGLs, respectively. Condyloma primarily contained HPV 6 or 11. While PeIN lesions primarily contained HPV 16, 1 PeIN III lesion was positive for HPV 6 only. Conclusion. Low- and high-risk HPV genotypes contribute to the EGL burden. Men remain susceptible to HPV-related EGLs throughout the life span, making it necessary to ensure the longevity of immune protection against the most common causative HPV genotypes. PMID:25344518

  12. Risk factors for and prevention of human papillomaviruses (HPV), genital warts and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Chelimo, Carol; Wouldes, Trecia A; Cameron, Linda D; Elwood, J Mark

    2013-03-01

    Genital HPV infection is associated with development of cervical cancer, cervical neoplasia, anogenital warts, and other anogenital cancers. A number of reviews have primarily addressed the role of HPV infection in cervical carcinogenesis, and differences in human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes found in cervical cancer cases by histology and geographical region. This review provides an informative summary of the broad body of literature on the burden of HPV, the risk factors for HPV infection, genital warts and cervical cancer, and preventive measures against these conditions in females. Studies have identified the main risk factors for genital HPV infection in females as follows: acquisition of new male partners; an increasing number of lifetime sexual partners both in females and their male partners; and having non-monogamous male partners. Cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination are the primary measures currently recommended to prevent cervical cancer. There is also an ongoing debate and conflicting findings on whether male circumcision and condom use protect against HPV infection and subsequent development of HPV-related illnesses in females.

  13. Comparison of INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping v2 with PCR product subcloning and sequencing for identification of genital human papillomavirus genotypes in African women.

    PubMed

    Didelot-Rousseau, Marie-Noëlle; Courgnaud, Valérie; Nagot, Nicolas; Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye; Konate, Issouf; Mayaud, Philippe; Weiss, Helen; Van de Perre, Philippe; Segondy, Michel

    2006-08-01

    The performance characteristics of the INNO-LiPA Genotyping v2 test for human papillomavirus (HPV) identification were assessed by comparing results with those obtained by PCR product sequencing after subcloning, in genital samples from 20 highly sexually exposed African women. The INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping v2 test identified more HPV types than subcloning/sequencing (56 versus 37, respectively). Overall, 86.5% (32/37) of the HPV types identified by subcloning/sequencing were identified by the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping v2 test, whereas 57.1% (32/56) of the HPV types identified by the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping v2 test were identified by subcloning/sequencing. Of the 20 clinical samples tested, 7 had identical types detected under both methods and a further 11 had more types detected under INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping v2 than subcloning/sequencing. Of the remaining two samples, the same number of types were detected under both methods, but different types were detected. INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping v2 test appears as a valid method for identifying HPV subtypes in women with multiple HPV infection. PMID:16675035

  14. Preventing cervical cancer and genital warts - How much protection is enough for HPV vaccines?

    PubMed

    Stanley, Margaret

    2016-07-01

    HPV associated disease is a global health problem: 5.2% of all cancers are HPV associated with HPV 16 and 18 accounting for 70% of cases of cervical cancer. Genital warts caused by HPV 6 and 11 have a lifetime risk of acquisition of 10%. HPV vaccines are subunit vaccines consisting of virus like particles comprised of the L1 major capsid protein. Two vaccines have been licenced since 2006/2007 and are in the National Immunisation programmes in 62 countries. Both vaccines include HPV 16 and 18 VLPs and one also includes HPV 6 and 11. The vaccines are highly immunogenic and well tolerated. Genital HPV is a sexually transmitted infection with peak incidence occurring just after the onset of sexual activity and the routine cohort for immunisation in almost all countries are adolescent girls 9-15 years of age with or without catch up for older adolescents and young women. Population effectiveness is now being demonstrated for these vaccines in countries with high vaccine coverage. HPV vaccines are highly immunogenic and effective and the original 3 dose schedules have already been reduced, for those 14 years and under, to 2 for both licenced vaccines. There is preliminary evidence that 1 dose of vaccine is as effective as 2 or 3 in preventing persistent HPV infection in the cervix in young women and further reductions in dosage may be possible if supported by appropriate virological, immunological and modelling studies.

  15. Preventing cervical cancer and genital warts - How much protection is enough for HPV vaccines?

    PubMed

    Stanley, Margaret

    2016-07-01

    HPV associated disease is a global health problem: 5.2% of all cancers are HPV associated with HPV 16 and 18 accounting for 70% of cases of cervical cancer. Genital warts caused by HPV 6 and 11 have a lifetime risk of acquisition of 10%. HPV vaccines are subunit vaccines consisting of virus like particles comprised of the L1 major capsid protein. Two vaccines have been licenced since 2006/2007 and are in the National Immunisation programmes in 62 countries. Both vaccines include HPV 16 and 18 VLPs and one also includes HPV 6 and 11. The vaccines are highly immunogenic and well tolerated. Genital HPV is a sexually transmitted infection with peak incidence occurring just after the onset of sexual activity and the routine cohort for immunisation in almost all countries are adolescent girls 9-15 years of age with or without catch up for older adolescents and young women. Population effectiveness is now being demonstrated for these vaccines in countries with high vaccine coverage. HPV vaccines are highly immunogenic and effective and the original 3 dose schedules have already been reduced, for those 14 years and under, to 2 for both licenced vaccines. There is preliminary evidence that 1 dose of vaccine is as effective as 2 or 3 in preventing persistent HPV infection in the cervix in young women and further reductions in dosage may be possible if supported by appropriate virological, immunological and modelling studies. PMID:27211079

  16. Comparison of risk factors, severity, and treatment of women with genital HPV.

    PubMed

    Kenney, J W

    1994-08-01

    The incidence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) has increased 10-fold in the past 5 years, and HPV has recently been linked with cervical carcinoma. This retrospective study compared risk behaviors and cofactors of HPV between two groups of women diagnosed with HPV. Women attending a Student Health Center were younger and more likely to have more sex partners, chlamydia, and other sexually transmitted disease infections than women attending private gynecologists. These women were older, and more likely to be former smokers and to have had gardnerella infections than the women students. Age at first sexual intercourse and duration of oral contraceptive use did not differ between the groups. Diagnostic reports of HPV were compared, and women attending gynecologists had significantly higher colposcopy impressions and cervical biopsies than the student group. Women attending private gynecologists were more likely to receive laser treatment on several genital sites, whereas students were more likely to receive trichloracetic acid or cryotherapy on their cervix only.

  17. HPV vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer; Genital warts - HPV vaccine; Cervical dysplasia - HPV vaccine; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine; Cancer of the cervix - HPV vaccine; ...

  18. Identification of multiple HPV types on spermatozoa from human sperm donors.

    PubMed

    Kaspersen, Maja D; Larsen, Peter B; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Fedder, Jens; Petersen, Gert Bruun; Bonde, Jesper; Höllsberg, Per

    2011-03-29

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) may cause sexually transmitted disease. High-risk types of HPV are involved in the development of cervical cell dysplasia, whereas low-risk types may cause genital condyloma. Despite the association between HPV and cancer, donor sperm need not be tested for HPV according to European regulations. Consequently, the potential health risk of HPV transmission by donor bank sperm has not been elucidated, nor is it known how HPV is associated with sperm. The presence of 35 types of HPV was examined on DNA from semen samples of 188 Danish sperm donors using a sensitive HPV array. To examine whether HPV was associated with the sperm, in situ hybridization were performed with HPV-6, HPV-16 and -18, and HPV-31-specific probes. The prevalence of HPV-positive sperm donors was 16.0% and in 66.7% of these individuals high-risk types of HPV were detected. In 5.3% of sperm donors, two or more HPV types were detected. Among all identified HPV types, 61.9% were high-risk types. In situ hybridization experiments identified HPV genomes particularly protruding from the equatorial segment and the tail of the sperm. Semen samples from more than one in seven healthy Danish donors contain HPV, most of them of high-risk types binding to the equatorial segment of the sperm cell. Most HPV-positive sperm showed decreased staining with DAPI, indicative of reduced content of DNA. Our data demonstrate that oncogenic HPV types are frequent in men.

  19. Types of female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    The two major types of female genital mutilation include clitoridectomy and excision with infibulation. Clitoridectomy involves removal of the clitoris, part of all of the labia minora, and, often, all external soft genital tissue. Excision with infibulation involves all of this as well as removing the sides of the labia majora, abrading the sides of the vulva, and joining the bleeding sides of the vulva with thorns or a paste. A small opening is all that is allowed to remain for the passage of urine and menstrual blood. In Western Africa, infibulation is accomplished by tying the legs of the affected girls together in a crossed position immediate after the operation. These girls are immobilized for several weeks until the wound has closed. Infibulation is sometimes referred to a "pharaonic" because it occurred in ancient Egypt. Infibulated women must be cut open to allow sexual intercourse or child birth. Women are traditionally reinfibulated after child birth and then reopened when the child is weaned. Female genital mutilation is performed in septic conditions using the same tool on a group of girls. Fatalities are blamed on evil spirits or are said to occur because the victim was not a virgin.

  20. HPV strain distribution in patients with genital warts in a female population sample

    PubMed Central

    Boda, Daniel; Neagu, Monica; Constantin, Carolina; Voinescu, Razvan Nicolae; Caruntu, Constantin; Zurac, Sabina; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Drakoulis, Nikolaos; Tsoukalas, Dimitrios; Tsatsakis, Aristides M.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the human cancer domain is still a subject of intensive study. In this study, we examined cervical swab samples from 713 females with genital warts, and tested the samples for high- and low-risk genital HPV. HPV genotyping was assessed using a Genotyping test that detects HPV by the amplification of target DNA using polymerase chain reaction and nucleic acid hybridization. In total, we detected 37 anogenital HPV DNA genotypes [6, 11, 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 40, 42, 45, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 58, 59, 61, 62, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73 (MM9), 81, 82 (MM4), 83 (MM7), 84 (MM8), IS39 and CP6108] and investigated the incidence of these genotypes in the patients with genital warts. We found differences in the distribution of high-/low-risk strains and the incidence of high-risk strains was found to occur mainly in females under 35 years of age. The data from our study suggest that a detailed oral, rectal and genital identification of high-risk strains should be performed to visualize the entire pattern of possible triggers of carcinogenesis.

  1. HPV strain distribution in patients with genital warts in a female population sample

    PubMed Central

    Boda, Daniel; Neagu, Monica; Constantin, Carolina; Voinescu, Razvan Nicolae; Caruntu, Constantin; Zurac, Sabina; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Drakoulis, Nikolaos; Tsoukalas, Dimitrios; Tsatsakis, Aristides M.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the human cancer domain is still a subject of intensive study. In this study, we examined cervical swab samples from 713 females with genital warts, and tested the samples for high- and low-risk genital HPV. HPV genotyping was assessed using a Genotyping test that detects HPV by the amplification of target DNA using polymerase chain reaction and nucleic acid hybridization. In total, we detected 37 anogenital HPV DNA genotypes [6, 11, 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 40, 42, 45, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 58, 59, 61, 62, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73 (MM9), 81, 82 (MM4), 83 (MM7), 84 (MM8), IS39 and CP6108] and investigated the incidence of these genotypes in the patients with genital warts. We found differences in the distribution of high-/low-risk strains and the incidence of high-risk strains was found to occur mainly in females under 35 years of age. The data from our study suggest that a detailed oral, rectal and genital identification of high-risk strains should be performed to visualize the entire pattern of possible triggers of carcinogenesis. PMID:27602111

  2. A case of HPV and acquired genital lymphangioma: over-lapping clinical features.

    PubMed

    Cestaro, Giovanni; De Rosa, Michele; Gentile, Maurizio; Massa, Salvatore

    2015-03-25

    Lymphatic malformation or lymphangioma is a benign proliferation of the lymphatics accounting for 4% of all vascular malformations and 26% of all benign vascular tumors. There are several reports about genital lymphangiomas mimicking venereal lesions, such as genital warts. Hereby we described a case of a 24 year old man affected by multiple vesicles and warts in genital area. All hematological and biochemical parameters, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Treponema Pallidum tests, C1-Inhibitor and C1-Q values were within limits. An accurate fulguration and wide excision of bigger lesions were performed. Histological examination showed numerous dilated lymphatic vessels in the superficial dermis with infiltration of inflammatory cells, that is a histopathological picture compatible with genital lymphangioma. Considering our clinical suspicion of condylomatosis, HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Genotyping, named INNOLiPA test, was performed, that revealed a genital infection by HPV - genotype 6. We think that our case can be considered an example of HPV infection and acquired genital lymphangioma overlap clinical syndrome. The patient presented any lesions one year after the procedure at follow-up examination.

  3. HPV vaccines to prevent cervical cancer and genital warts: an update.

    PubMed

    Dochez, Carine; Bogers, Johannes J; Verhelst, Rita; Rees, Helen

    2014-03-20

    Cervical cancer is an important public health problem worldwide, and especially in developing countries. The link between cervical cancer and oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been clearly established. Furthermore, non-oncogenic HPV are responsible for the majority of genital warts. Two prophylactic HPV vaccines are available, which have the potential of considerably reducing HPV-related morbidity and mortality. Both vaccines are based on virus-like particles of the L1 capsid protein, and are highly efficacious and immunogenic if given before exposure to HPV, i.e. to adolescent girls between 9 and 13 years of age in a three-dose schedule. This review describes the immunology of natural HPV infections and the immune response evoked through vaccination. The current duration of protection is 8.4 years with the bivalent vaccine (HPV16/18) and 5 years with the quadrivalent vaccine (HPV6/11/16/18). Research is on-going to evaluate the efficacy of the current vaccines in a two-dose schedule, as compared to the recommended three-dose schedule. To increase the protection, the development and testing of a nine-valent prophylactic HPV vaccine (HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) is being undertaken. Research is also directed towards therapeutic vaccines and the development of a prophylactic L2 vaccine.

  4. Shift in prevalence of HPV types in cervical cytology specimens in the era of HPV vaccination

    PubMed Central

    FISCHER, SONJA; BETTSTETTER, MARCUS; BECHER, ANDREA; LESSEL, MARLENE; BANK, CYRIL; KRAMS, MATTHIAS; BECKER, INGRID; HARTMANN, ARNDT; JAGLA, WOLFGANG; GAUMANN, ANDREAS

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present population-based cohort study was to analyze the association between the prevalence of 32 types of human papilloma virus (HPV) in 615 female patients with abnormal cervical cytopathology findings. In total, 32 HPV types were screened by DNA array technology. HPV infection was detected in 470 women (76.42%), 419 of whom (89.15%) were infected with ≥1 high-risk (HR)-HPV type. HPV16, which is recognized as the main HR-HPV type responsible for the development of cervical cancer, was observed in 32.98% of HPV+ participants, followed by HPV42 (18.09%), HPV31 (17.66%), HPV51 (13.83%), HPV56 (10.00%), HPV53 (8.72%) and HPV66 (8.72%). The prevalence of HR-HPV types, which may be suppressed directly (in the case of HPV16 and 18), or possibly via cross-protection (in the case of HPV31) following vaccination, was considerably lower in participants ≤22 years of age (HPV16, 28.57%; HPV18, 2.04%; HPV31, 6.12%), compared with participants 23–29 years of age (HPV16, 45.71%; HPV18, 7.86%; HPV31, 22.86%), who were less likely to be vaccinated. Consequently, the present study hypothesizes that there may be a continuous shift in the prevalence of HPV types as a result of vaccination. Furthermore, the percentage of non-vaccine HR-HPV types was higher than expected, considering that eight HPV types formerly classified as ‘low-risk’ or ‘probably high-risk’ are in fact HR-HPV types. Therefore, it may be important to monitor non-vaccine HPV types in future studies, and an investigation concerning several HR-HPV types as risk factors for the development of cervical cancer is required. PMID:27347187

  5. Immunotherapy of HPV infection-caused genital warts using low dose cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Zeng, Wanjiang; Cao, Yuchun; Liang, Xiaoyu; Huang, Bo

    2014-06-01

    Condylomata acuminata (CA), caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), is a common sexually transmitted disease with half a million new cases diagnosed in the United States per year and an annual increase in incidence in China. Conventional treatments, including topical cytotoxic agents, surgical excision and physical therapies, are traumatic, cause local side-effects and are invalid for subclinical or latent infection. Exploring immune approaches to eradicate HPV in CA therapeutics are highly desirable. Recent evidence shows that FOXP3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells are accumulated in genital warts where they mediate immunosuppression. Intriguingly, a low dose of cyclophosphamide (CY), a conventional chemotherapy drug, can selectively target Treg cells, thereby enhancing the function of HPV-specific T cells and NK cells leading to efficient clearance of HPV infection. These findings have important clinical significance, and could potentially lead to a therapeutic breakthrough for the treatment of CA.

  6. Integrative approach to diagnosis of genital human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection of female.

    PubMed

    Dunjic, Momir; Stanisic, Slavisa; Krstic, Dejan; Stanisic, Miodrag; Ignjatic, Z Jovanovic; Dunjic, Marija

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus from the papillomavirus family that is capable of infecting humans. Some types of HPVs cause warts, while others can lead to cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, oropharynx and anus. High-risk human papillomavirus (hr HPV) has been detected in almost all cervical squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. All patients examined by colposcopy. Cervical swab is routinely done and patients are screened with both HPV DNA by Real Time Polimerase Chain Reaction (RT PCR) testing and Pap testing. Pictures obtained by colposcopy were examined by indirect Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (BDORT) by using reference control substance (RCS): HPV 16, HPV 18, and Integrin α5 β1. BDORT was developed by Prof. Omura Y. of New York and received U.S. patent in 1993. For detection of HPV DNA we used RT PCR and standard Qiagen method which detect 18 types (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68, 6, 11, 42, 43, 44) of HPV from smear. From 63 patients where is BDORT indicated presence of HPV, in 49 patients (77.8%) RT PCR confirmed presence of HPV. From 63 patients in 54 patients (85.7%), we detected, by colposcopic exam, some kind of lesions associated with HPV infection. Results obtained by RT PCR: one type (1/18) of DNA HPV in 25 patients (51.02%), 2 types (2/18) in 15 patients (30.61%) and 3 types (3/18) in 9 patients (18.37%). Although BDORT results usually have higher sensitivity and detection rate is much higher, it can be used together with RT PCR in detection of HPV and cervical lesions associated with HPV infection. PMID:25693306

  7. Evaluating the Early Benefit of Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine on Genital Warts in Belgium: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Dominiak-Felden, Geraldine; Gobbo, Corrado; Simondon, François

    2015-01-01

    Genital warts (GWs) are common, with about 5% to 10% of people having at least one episode in their lifetime. They develop about 2–3 months after infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 6 and 11. The prophylactic quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV), protects against HPV6/11 infections and diseases. In Belgium, HPV vaccines started to be reimbursed in 2007 and have been fully reimbursed since December 2008 for women 12 to 18 years old. This study aimed at evaluating the real-life benefit of qHPV vaccine introduction in Belgium on GWs by measuring both vaccine impact (VI) at a population level and the direct effect of the qHPV vaccine at an individual level (vaccine effectiveness (VE)), using data from a large sick-fund (MLOZ) reimbursement database. A first reimbursement for imiquimod (most common first-line GWs treatment in Belgium) was used as a surrogate for a first GWs episode; reimbursement of qHPV vaccine was used as surrogate for vaccination. VI was estimated by comparing the incidence of GWs before and after qHPV vaccine introduction in Belgium (ecologic evaluation). VE was assessed by comparing GWs incidences in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated women, among women eligible for HPV vaccination. VI was evaluated in 9,223,384 person-years. Overall, GWs incidence rates decreased significantly between the pre- and post-vaccination periods (-8.1% (95% CI: -15.3; -0.3) for men and women aged 18–59 years. This decrease was highest in women targeted by the HPV vaccination programme (-72.1% (95% CI: -77.9; -64.7) in women aged 16–22 years, with a 43% vaccine uptake in 2013). A significant decrease was also observed in men aged 16-22 years (-51.1%, 95%CI: -67.6; -26.2), suggesting herd-protection. VE was evaluated in 369,881 person-years. Age-adjusted VE for fully vaccinated women was 88.0% (95% CI: 79.4; 93.0). VE was higher when the first dose was given younger and remained high for over 4 years post-vaccination in all ages. High VI and VE of the qHPV

  8. Therapeutic benefits of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser on single-site HPV lesions in the lower female genital tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urru, Giovanni; Moretti, Gianfranco

    1998-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown contradictory variable percentages of recurrent HPV lesions, after various therapies. The present study therefore evaluates the effectiveness of CO2 laser vaporization in the treatment of single-site HPV lesions of the lower female genital tract in order to confirm the conviction that physical therapy alone, in agreement with some findings reported in the literature, is capable of guaranteeing a high cure rate in selected patients. From January 1995 to June 1996, seventy- five female patients were treated with CO2 laser vaporization for single-site genital HPV lesions, some of which were associated with low-grade intra-epithelial neoplasia. The success rate after 12 months proved to be 97%. The pre-existing clinical symptoms disappeared in all the patients treated. No complication in the vaporization procedure was encountered.

  9. HPV and Genital Warts among Peruvian Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender People: Knowledge, Attitudes and Treatment Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Nureña, César R.; Brown, Brandon; Galea, Jerome T.; Sánchez, Hugo; Blas, Magaly M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have assessed the epidemiology of HPV infection among MSM, but no qualitative studies have specifically assessed how HPV and genital warts (GW) affect South American men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgendered women (TG). This study explored the knowledge, attitudes and experiences of Peruvian MSM and TG regarding HPV and GW. Methods We performed a qualitative study consisting of fifteen in-depth interviews and three focus groups carried out in Lima, Peru with diverse MSM and TG groups, including sex workers. Resulting data were analyzed by applying a systematic comparative and descriptive content analysis. Results While knowledge of HPV was limited, awareness of GW was common, particularly among TG persons and sex workers. Still, few participants recognized that GW are sexually transmitted, and many had problems differentiating between GW and other STI/anogenital conditions. Stigmatizing experiences were common during sexual encounters with people who had visible GW. Shame, emotional and physical troubles, and embarrassing sexual experiences were reported by individuals with GW. Search for treatment was mediated by peers, but stigma and apparent health services’ inability to deal with GW limited the access to effective medical care. Conclusions In Peru, public health interventions should strengthen services for HPV/GW management and increase accurate knowledge of the transmission, treatment, and sequelae of HPV/GW in MSM and TG populations. PMID:23516536

  10. Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), distribution of HPV types, and risk factors for infection in HPV-positive women.

    PubMed

    Santos Filho, M V C; Gurgel, A P A D; Lobo, C D P; Freitas, A C F; Silva-Neto, J C; Silva, L A F

    2016-07-14

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), the distribution of different HPV types, and the putative risk factors for infection among HPV-positive women from the State of Alagoas, Northeast Brazil. We analyzed data from 515 patients attending public and private health centers. HPV DNA from cervical samples was extracted and HPV genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction using MY09/11 consensus primers followed by direct sequencing. The chi-squared test for independence was used to assess statistical differences between the HPV groups. HPV DNA was found in 111 (21.55%) cervical samples. Twenty genotypes were detected: HPV6, 11, 16, 31, 33, 35, 39, 52, 53, 54, 58, 61, 62, 66, 70, 72, 81, 82, 83, and 84. In addition, multiple sexual partners (P = 0.002) and the use of oral contraceptives (P = 0.015) were associated with the presence of HPV. These findings may be relevant to the design of screening and vaccination strategies targeting specific groups of women in Northeast Brazil.

  11. Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), distribution of HPV types, and risk factors for infection in HPV-positive women.

    PubMed

    Santos Filho, M V C; Gurgel, A P A D; Lobo, C D P; Freitas, A C F; Silva-Neto, J C; Silva, L A F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), the distribution of different HPV types, and the putative risk factors for infection among HPV-positive women from the State of Alagoas, Northeast Brazil. We analyzed data from 515 patients attending public and private health centers. HPV DNA from cervical samples was extracted and HPV genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction using MY09/11 consensus primers followed by direct sequencing. The chi-squared test for independence was used to assess statistical differences between the HPV groups. HPV DNA was found in 111 (21.55%) cervical samples. Twenty genotypes were detected: HPV6, 11, 16, 31, 33, 35, 39, 52, 53, 54, 58, 61, 62, 66, 70, 72, 81, 82, 83, and 84. In addition, multiple sexual partners (P = 0.002) and the use of oral contraceptives (P = 0.015) were associated with the presence of HPV. These findings may be relevant to the design of screening and vaccination strategies targeting specific groups of women in Northeast Brazil. PMID:27421019

  12. US Assessment of HPV Types in Cancers: Implications for Current and 9-Valent HPV Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Elizabeth R.; Thompson, Trevor D.; Lynch, Charles F.; Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Lyu, Christopher W.; Steinau, Martin; Watson, Meg; Wilkinson, Edward J.; Hopenhayn, Claudia; Copeland, Glenn; Cozen, Wendy; Peters, Edward S.; Huang, Youjie; Saber, Maria Sibug; Altekruse, Sean; Goodman, Marc T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study sought to determine the prevaccine type-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)–associated cancers in the United States to evaluate the potential impact of the HPV types in the current and newly approved 9-valent HPV vaccines. Methods: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention partnered with seven US population-based cancer registries to obtain archival tissue for cancers diagnosed from 1993 to 2005. HPV testing was performed on 2670 case patients that were fairly representative of all participating cancer registry cases by age and sex. Demographic and clinical data were evaluated by anatomic site and HPV status. Current US cancer registry data and the detection of HPV types were used to estimate the number of cancers potentially preventable through vaccination. Results: HPV DNA was detected in 90.6% of cervical, 91.1% of anal, 75.0% of vaginal, 70.1% of oropharyngeal, 68.8% of vulvar, 63.3% of penile, 32.0% of oral cavity, and 20.9% of laryngeal cancers, as well as in 98.8% of cervical cancer in situ (CCIS). A vaccine targeting HPV 16/18 potentially prevents the majority of invasive cervical (66.2%), anal (79.4%), oropharyngeal (60.2%), and vaginal (55.1%) cancers, as well as many penile (47.9%), vulvar (48.6%) cancers: 24 858 cases annually. The 9-valent vaccine also targeting HPV 31/33/45/52/58 may prevent an additional 4.2% to 18.3% of cancers: 3944 cases annually. For most cancers, younger age at diagnosis was associated with higher HPV 16/18 prevalence. With the exception of oropharyngeal cancers and CCIS, HPV 16/18 prevalence was similar across racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions: In the United States, current vaccines will reduce most HPV-associated cancers; a smaller additional reduction would be contributed by the new 9-valent vaccine. PMID:25925419

  13. Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution and HPV type 16 E6 variants in two Spanish population groups with different levels of HPV infection risk.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, M; Torres, M; Muñoz, L; Fernández-García, E; Canals, J; Cabornero, A I; Aguilar, E; Ballesteros, J; Del Amo, J; García-Sáiz, A

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types and HPV type 16 (HPV16) variant distribution in two Spanish population groups, commercial sex workers and imprisoned women (CSW/IPW) and the general population. A multicenter cross-sectional study of 1,889 women from five clinical settings in two Spanish cities was conducted from May to November 2004. Oncogenic HPV infection was tested by an Hybrid Capture II (HC2) test, and positive samples were genotyped by direct sequencing using three different primer sets in L1 (MY09/11 and GP5+/GP6+) and E6/E7. HPV16 variants were identified by sequencing the E6, E2, and L1 regions. Four hundred twenty-five samples were positive for the HC2 test, 31.5% from CSW/IPW and 10.7% from the general population. HPV16 was the most frequent type. Distinct profiles of oncogenic HPV type prevalence were observed across the two populations. In order of decreasing frequency, HPV types 16, 31, 58, 66, 56, and 18 were most frequent in CSW/IPW women, and types 16, 31, 52, 68, 51, and 53 were most frequent in the general population. We analyzed HPV16 intratype variants, and a large majority (78.7%) belonged to the European lineage. AA variants were detected in 16.0% of cases. African variants belonging to classes Af1 (4.0%) and Af2 (1.3%) were detected. Different HPV types and HPV16 intratype variants are involved in oncogenic HPV infections in our population. These results suggest that HPV type distribution differs in CSW/IPW women and in the general population, although further analysis is necessary.

  14. Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type Distribution and HPV Type 16 E6 Variants in Two Spanish Population Groups with Different Levels of HPV Infection Risk

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, M.; Torres, M.; Muñoz, L.; Fernández-García, E.; Canals, J.; Cabornero, A. I.; Aguilar, E.; Ballesteros, J.; del Amo, J.; García-Sáiz, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types and HPV type 16 (HPV16) variant distribution in two Spanish population groups, commercial sex workers and imprisoned women (CSW/IPW) and the general population. A multicenter cross-sectional study of 1,889 women from five clinical settings in two Spanish cities was conducted from May to November 2004. Oncogenic HPV infection was tested by an Hybrid Capture II (HC2) test, and positive samples were genotyped by direct sequencing using three different primer sets in L1 (MY09/11 and GP5+/GP6+) and E6/E7. HPV16 variants were identified by sequencing the E6, E2, and L1 regions. Four hundred twenty-five samples were positive for the HC2 test, 31.5% from CSW/IPW and 10.7% from the general population. HPV16 was the most frequent type. Distinct profiles of oncogenic HPV type prevalence were observed across the two populations. In order of decreasing frequency, HPV types 16, 31, 58, 66, 56, and 18 were most frequent in CSW/IPW women, and types 16, 31, 52, 68, 51, and 53 were most frequent in the general population. We analyzed HPV16 intratype variants, and a large majority (78.7%) belonged to the European lineage. AA variants were detected in 16.0% of cases. African variants belonging to classes Af1 (4.0%) and Af2 (1.3%) were detected. Different HPV types and HPV16 intratype variants are involved in oncogenic HPV infections in our population. These results suggest that HPV type distribution differs in CSW/IPW women and in the general population, although further analysis is necessary. PMID:16597872

  15. Prevalence of type-specific HPV infection in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Berois, Nora; Heard, Isabelle; Fort, Zoraida; Alonso, Rafael; Sica, Adela; Moerzinger, Patricia; Rodriguez, Guillermo; Sancho-Garnier, Hélène; Osinaga, Eduardo; Favre, Michel

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work was to describe the prevalence of type-specific Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women attending organized cervical cancer screening program in Uruguay. Nine hundred sixty-five liquid cervical cell samples obtained after collection of cervical smears for cytology were assessed for HPV DNA using the Papillocheck system (Greiner BioOne). The overall prevalence of High-Risk (HR) HPV infections was 20.8% and increased from 16.5% in women with normal cytology to 93.3% in HSIL. Prevalence of HPV 16 and/or 18 was 6.3% and HPV 16 was the most prevalent genotype in normal cytology (3.6%). The five most prevalent genotypes were HPV 16, 31, 51, 56, and 39. The overall prevalence peaked below age 30. This study provides essential baseline information at national level on type-specific HPV prevalence in Uruguay before the introduction of HPV vaccination. It documents the current prevalence of each of the oncogenic genotypes in a population attending cervical cancer screening program, suggesting that at least 64.7% of high risk lesions are potentially preventable by available HPV vaccines, and possibly augmentable if cross-protection against non-vaccine HPV types 31, 33, and 45 is confirmed.

  16. HPV DNA prevalence and type distribution in anal carcinomas worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Alemany, L; Saunier, M; Alvarado, I; Quirós, B; Salmeron, J; Shin, HR; Pirog, E; Guimerà, N; Hernández, GA; Felix, A; Clavero, O; Lloveras, B; Kasamatsu, E; Goodman, MT; Hernandez, BY; Laco, J; Tinoco, L; Geraets, DT; Lynch, CF; Mandys, V; Poljak, M; Jach, R; Verge, J; Clavel, C; Ndiaye, C; Klaustermeier, J; Cubilla, A; Castellsagué, X; Bravo, IG; Pawlita, M; Quint, W; Muñoz, N; Bosch, FX; Sanjosé, S

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge about the human papillomaviruses (HPV) types in anal cancers in some world regions is scanty. Here we describe the HPV DNA prevalence and type distribution in a series of invasive anal cancers and anal intraepithelial neoplasias (AIN) grades 2/3 from 24 countries. We analyzed 43 AIN 2/3 cases and 496 anal cancers diagnosed from 1986 to 2011. After histopathological evaluation of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA25 system (version 1). A subset of 116 cancers was further tested for p16INK4a expression, a cellular surrogate marker for HPV-associated transformation. Prevalence ratios were estimated using multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance in cancer dataset. HPV DNA was detected in 88.3% of anal cancers (95%CI:85.1–91.0%) and in 95.4% of AIN 2/3 (95%CI:84.2–99.4%). Among cancers, the highest prevalence was observed in warty-basaloid subtype of squamous cell carcinomas, in younger patients and in North American geographical region. There were no statistically significant differences in prevalence by gender. HPV16 was the most frequent HPV type detected in both cancers (80.7%) and AIN 2/3 lesions (75.4%). HPV18 was the second most common type in invasive cancers (3.6%). p16INK4a overexpression was found in 95% of HPV DNA positive anal cancers. In view of HPV DNA results and high proportion of p16INK4a overexpression, infection by HPV is most likely to be a necessary cause for anal cancers in both men and women. The large contribution of HPV16 reinforces the potential impact of HPV vaccines in the prevention of these lesions. PMID:24817381

  17. [Developments in HPV vaccination].

    PubMed

    de Melker, Hester; Kenter, Gemma; van Rossum, Tekla; Conyn-van Spaendonck, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination against the human papilloma virus (HPV) has been included in the national Vaccination Programme of the Netherlands for 12-year-old girls since 2010. Vaccination coverage for the birth cohort of 1997 was 56.; there is a gradual increase in uptake. Continuous safety monitoring brought no new unknown serious side effects to light; many girls suffered from transient symptoms such as painful arm, fatigue and headache. After the current vaccines that protect against HPV types 2 and 4 types, respectively and induce some cross protection, vaccines are being developed that can induce broader protection. HPV vaccination of 12-year-old girls is cost-effective, even for relatively low vaccination coverage. The potential protection of HPV vaccination extends beyond prevention of cervical cancer by preventing other oncological manifestations of HPV infection in women as well as men and genital warts. The preventive HPV vaccines do not appear to be effective in treating existing abnormalities. PMID:23171565

  18. Comparison of real-time multiplex human papillomavirus (HPV) PCR assays with the linear array HPV genotyping PCR assay and influence of DNA extraction method on HPV detection.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Christine C; Swoyer, Ryan; Bryan, Janine T; Taddeo, Frank J

    2011-05-01

    Real-time human papillomavirus (HPV) type-specific multiplex PCR assays were developed to detect HPV DNA in specimens collected for the efficacy determination of the quadrivalent HPV (type 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine (Gardasil). We evaluated the concordance between type-specific multiplex HPV PCR and the widely used, commercially available Roche Linear Array genotyping PCR assay. Female genital swab specimens were tested for the presence of L1, E6, and E7 sequences of HPV type 6 (HPV6), HPV11, HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV45, HPV52, and HPV58 and E6 and E7 sequences of HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV51, HPV56, and HPV59 in type- and gene-specific real-time multiplex PCR assays. Specimens were also tested for the presence of L1 sequences using two versions of the Roche Linear Array genotyping assay. Measures of concordance of a modified version of the Linear Array and the standard Linear Array PCR assay were evaluated. With specimen DNA extraction using the Qiagen Spin blood kit held as the constant, multiplex PCR assays detect more HPV-positive specimens for the 14 HPV types common to both than either version of the Linear Array HPV genotyping assay. Type-specific agreements between the assays were good, at least 0.838, but were often driven by negative agreement in HPV types with low prevalence, as evidenced by reduced proportions of positive agreement. Overall HPV status agreements ranged from 0.615 for multiplex PCR and standard Linear Array to 0.881 for multiplex PCR and modified Linear Array. An alternate DNA extraction technique, that used by the Qiagen MinElute kit, impacted subsequent HPV detection in both the multiplex PCR and Linear Array assays.

  19. HPV infection-associated anogenital cyto-colpo-histological findings and molecular typing in HIV-positive women.

    PubMed

    Tso, F K; Rodrigues, C L L; Levi, J E; Mattosinho de Castro Ferraz, M G; Speck, N M G; Ribalta, J C L

    2015-12-21

    HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV) coinfection is increasing, especially in the anal canal (AC) and cervico-vaginal regions. We identified anal epithelium abnormalities related to high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) lesions in the lower genital tracts (LGTs) of HIV-positive women, described the HPV genotypes identified, and assessed the expression of E6/E7 oncogenes in coinfected patients. Ninety-eight women were enrolled in groups combining HIV status and presence or absence of HPV in the LGT. Anal and cervical smears were collected for cytology and HR-HPV assays using Cobas(®) and/or PapilloCheck(®). Samples with highly oncogenic HPV genotypes were confirmed by NucliSENS EasyQ(®). Forty-two HIV-positive (25-52; mean age 39.5) and 56 HIV-negative (18-58; mean age 35.7) patients were included. E2 and C1 groups presented AC alterations (P = 0.002); altered images for high-resolution anoscopy were higher in E1 and C2 (P < 0.001). Of the 29 women with alterations, 41.38% were HIV-negative and 58.62% were HIV-positive (P < 0.001). HIV-positive patients accounted for 29% of the anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (P = 0.015). The Cobas(®) positive result frequency was higher in three AC groups than in the other groups. There was variation in the number of HPV types in the cervico-vaginal samples among the study groups (P < 0.001). Anal cytology and anoscopy showed more altered findings in HIV-positive patients with HPV in the LGT. HR-HPV anal infections by various genotypes are common and are associated with cervical infections in HIV-positive patients. E6/E7 expression is apparently more common in the AC of HIV-positive women.

  20. [HPV vaccination].

    PubMed

    Stronski Huwiler, Susanne; Spaar, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Human Papilloma Viruses are associated with genital carcinoma (of the cervix, anus, vulva, vagina and the penis) as well as with non-genital carcinoma (oropharyngeal carcinoma) and genital warts. In Switzerland two highly efficient and safe vaccines are available. The safety of these vaccines has been repeatedly subject of controversial discussions, however so far post marketing surveillance has always been able to confirm the safety. In Switzerland girls and young women have been offered the HPV vaccination within cantonal programmes since 2008. 2015 the recommendation for the HPV-vaccination for boys and young men was issued, and starting July 1, 2016 they as well will be offered vaccination free of charge within the cantonal programmes. This article discusses the burden of disease, efficacy and safety of the vaccines and presents facts which are important for vaccinating these young people. Specifically, aspects of the decisional capacity of adolescents to consent to the vaccination are presented. Finally, the future perspective with a focus on a new vaccine with an enlarged spectrum of HPV-types is discussed. PMID:27268446

  1. Variability of human immunodeficiency virus-1 in the female genital reservoir during genital reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    LeGoff, J; Roques, P; Jenabian, M-A; Charpentier, C; Brochier, C; Bouhlal, H; Gresenguet, G; Frost, E; Pepin, J; Mayaud, P; Belec, L

    2015-09-01

    Clinical and subclinical genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivations have been associated with increases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genital shedding. Whether HSV-2 shedding contributes to the selection of specific genital HIV-1 variants remains unknown. We evaluated the genetic diversity of genital and blood HIV-1 RNA and DNA in 14 HIV-1/HSV-2-co-infected women, including seven with HSV-2 genital reactivation, and seven without as controls. HIV-1 DNA and HIV-1 RNA env V1-V3 sequences in paired blood and genital samples were compared. The HSV-2 selection pressure on HIV was estimated according to the number of synonymous substitutions (dS), the number of non-synonymous substitutions (dN) and the dS/dN ratio within HIV quasi-species. HIV-1 RNA levels in cervicovaginal secretions were higher in women with HSV-2 replication than in controls (p0.02). Plasma HIV-1 RNA and genital HIV-1 RNA and DNA were genetically compartmentalized. No differences in dS, dN and the dS/dN ratio were observed between the study groups for either genital HIV-1 RNA or plasma HIV-1 RNA. In contrast, dS and dN in genital HIV-1 DNA were significantly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital reactivation (p <0.01 and p <0.05, respectively). The mean of the dS/dN ratio in genital HIV-1 DNA was slightly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital replication, indicating a trend for purifying selection (p 0.056). HSV-2 increased the genetic diversity of genital HIV-1 DNA. These observations confirm molecular interactions between HSV-2 and HIV-1 at the genital tract level. PMID:26003280

  2. Currently approved prophylactic HPV vaccines.

    PubMed

    Harper, Diane M

    2009-12-01

    Cervarix and Gardasil are two prophylactic HPV vaccines designed primarily for cervical cancer prevention. Cervarix is effective against HPV-16, -18, -31, -33 and -45, the five most common cancer-causing types, including most causes of adenocarcinoma for which we cannot screen adequately. Gardasil is effective against HPV-16, 18 and 31, three common squamous cell cancer-causing types. In addition, Gardasil is effective against HPV-6 and -11, causes of genital warts and respiratory papillomatosis. The most important determinant of vaccine impact to reduce cervical cancer is its duration of efficacy. To date, Cervarix's efficacy is proven for 6.4 years and Gardasil's for 5 years.

  3. The burden and costs of prevention and management of genital disease caused by HPV in women: a population-based registry study in Finland.

    PubMed

    Salo, Heini; Leino, Tuija; Kilpi, Terhi; Auranen, Kari; Tiihonen, Petri; Lehtinen, Matti; Vänskä, Simopekka; Linna, Miika; Nieminen, Pekka

    2013-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the total burden and health care provider costs of prevention, management and treatment of HP-related genital disease outcomes including all organized and opportunistic screening tests. Information about HPV-related disease outcomes in the Finnish female population of 2.7 million was obtained from nationwide population-based registry data. We estimated the incidence, health care resource use, health provider costs and life years lost due to cervical, vaginal and vulvar cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, VaIN, VIN), cervical adenocarcinoma in situ, and external genital warts. The average annual disease burden of HPV-related genital disease in the female population of Finland comprises altogether 241 cases of cervical, vaginal and vulvar cancer, 2,898 new cases of CIN, 34,432 cases of minor cytological abnormalities, and almost 4,000 cases of external genital warts. The total annual costs of screening, further diagnostics and treatment of HPV-related genital disease were € 44.7 million of which the annual costs due to cervical cancer screening were € 22.4 million and due to diagnostics, management and treatment of HPV-related genital disease outcomes were € 22.3 million. The latter included € 8.4 million due to minor cervical abnormalities detected by the current cervical screening practice. The extensive opportunistic Pap testing fails to keep the incidence of cervical cancer from increasing among women aged 30-34. In addition opportunistic screening among this and younger age group detects a significant number of cytological abnormalities, most of which are probably treated unnecessarily.

  4. Accumulation of RNA homologous to human papillomavirus type 16 open reading frames in genital precancers

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, C.P.; Nuovo, G.; Friedman, D.; Silverstein, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    The accumulation of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16)-specific RNAs in tissue sections from biopsies of patients with genital precancers was studied by in situ hybridization with single-stranded /sup 35/S-labeled RNA. These analyses revealed that the most abundant early-region RNAs were derived from the E4 and E5 open reading frames (ORFs). RNAs homologous to the E6/E7 ORFs were also detected, whereas RNAs homologous to the intervening E1 ORF were not. This suggest that the E4 and E5 mRNAs are derived by splicing to the upstream E6/E7 ORFs, consistent with studies of HPV-11 in condylomata. Abundant RNAs homologous to the 5' portion of L1 were also detected. These RNAs were localized to the apical strata of the epithelium. HPV-16 RNAs accumulated in discrete regions of these lesions, and when present were most abundant in the upper cell layers of the precancerous epithelium. RNAs homologous to early ORFs were also detected in some germinal cells within the basal layer of the epithelium.

  5. Genital Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... the penis. You can get genital warts during oral, vaginal, or anal sex with an infected partner. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading HPV. HPV vaccines may help prevent some of the ...

  6. HPV detection and p53 alteration in squamous cell verrucous malignancies of the lower genital tract.

    PubMed

    Pilotti, S; Donghi, R; D'Amato, L; Giarola, M; Longoni, A; Della Torre, G; De Palo, G; Pierotti, M A; Rilke, F

    1993-12-01

    We examined five cases of verrucous carcinoma (VC) and two cases of giant condyloma of Buschke-Löwenstein (GCBL) associated with invasive squamous cell carcinoma (ISCC), by immunocytochemistry and molecular techniques. Neither human papillomavirus (HPV) footprints nor p53-altered expression and/or mutation were observed among the cases of VC. By contrast, both cases of GCBL with ISCC turned out to be HPV 6 or 11 positive, showed overexpression of p53 and, one of the two, a mutation in the nucleotide sequence of this tumor suppressor gene. The results point out that VC and GCBL with ISCC, in spite of some morphologic similarities, are two distinct entities, the former being unrelated to both HPV and p53 inactivation and the latter related to both. Regarding p53, immunocytochemical and molecular data on GCBL with ISCC suggest a role of mutant p53 in the progression of malignancy into invasion.

  7. HPV types and cofactors causing cervical cancer in Peru.

    PubMed

    Santos, C; Muñoz, N; Klug, S; Almonte, M; Guerrero, I; Alvarez, M; Velarde, C; Galdos, O; Castillo, M; Walboomers, J; Meijer, C; Caceres, E

    2001-09-28

    We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Peru of 198 women with histologically confirmed cervical cancer (173 squamous cell carcinomas and 25 cases of adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma) and 196 control women. Information on risk factors was obtained by personal interview. Using PCR-based assays on exfoliated cervical cells and biopsy specimens, HPV DNA was detected in 95.3% of women with squamous cell carcinoma and in 92.0% of women with adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma compared with 17.7% in control women. The age-adjusted odds ratio was 116.0 (95% Cl = 48.6-276.0) for squamous cell carcinoma and 51.4 (95% Cl = 11.4-232.0) for adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma. The commonest types in women with cervical cancer were HPV 16, 18, 31, 52 and 35. The association with the various HPV types was equally strong for the two most common types (HPV 16 and 18) as for the other less common types. In addition to HPV, long-term use of oral contraceptives and smoking were associated with an increased risk. HPV is the main cause of both squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma in Peruvian women. PMID:11592767

  8. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types 101 and 103 Isolated from Cervicovaginal Cells Lack an E6 Open Reading Frame (ORF) and are Related to Gamma-Papillomaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zigui; Schiffman, Mark; Herrero, Rolando; DeSalle, Rob; Burk, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    Complete genomes of HPV101 and HPV103 were PCR amplified and cloned from cervicovaginal cells of a 34-year-old female with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN 3) and a 30-year-old female with a normal Pap test, respectively. HPV101 and HPV103 contain 4 early genes (E7, E1, E2 and E4) and 2 late genes (L2 and L1), but both lack the canonical E6 ORF. Pairwise alignment similarity of the L1 ORF nucleotide sequences of HPV101 and HPV103 indicated that they are at least 30 % dissimilar to each other and all known PVs. However, similarities of the other ORFs (E7, E1, E2, and L2) indicated that HPV101 and HPV103 are most related to each other. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that these two types form a monophyletic clade, clustering together with the gamma- and pi-PV groups. These data demonstrated that HPV genomes closely related to papillomaviruses identified from cutaneous epithelia can be isolated from the genital mucosal region. Moreover, this is the first report of HPVs lacking an E6 ORF and phylogenetic evidence suggests this occurred subsequent to their emergence from the gamma-/pi-PVs. PMID:17125811

  9. More men than women make mucosal IgA antibodies to Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18: a study of oral HPV and oral HPV antibodies in a normal healthy population

    PubMed Central

    Marais, Dianne J; Sampson, Candice; Jeftha, Anthea; Dhaya, Dherendra; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Denny, Lynette; Rybicki, Edward P; Van Der Walt, Eric; Stephen, Lawrence XG; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2006-01-01

    Background We have previously shown the high prevalence of oral anti-human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) antibodies in women with HPV-associated cervical neoplasia. It was postulated that the HPV antibodies were initiated after HPV antigenic stimulation at the cervix via the common mucosal immune system. The present study aimed to further evaluate the effectiveness of oral fluid testing for detecting the mucosal humoral response to HPV infection and to advance our limited understanding of the immune response to HPV. Methods The prevalence of oral HPV infection and oral antibodies to HPV types 16, 18 and 11 was determined in a normal, healthy population of children, adolescents and adults, both male and female, attending a dental clinic. HPV types in buccal cells were determined by DNA sequencing. Oral fluid was collected from the gingival crevice of the mouth by the OraSure method. HPV-16, HPV-18 and HPV-11 antibodies in oral fluid were detected by virus-like particle-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. As a reference group 44 women with cervical neoplasia were included in the study. Results Oral HPV infection was highest in children (9/114, 7.9%), followed by adolescents (4/78, 5.1%), and lowest in normal adults (4/116, 3.5%). The predominant HPV type found was HPV-13 (7/22, 31.8%) followed by HPV-32 (5/22, 22.7%). The prevalence of oral antibodies to HPV-16, HPV-18 and HPV-11 was low in children and increased substantially in adolescents and normal adults. Oral HPV-16 IgA was significantly more prevalent in women with cervical neoplasia (30/44, 68.2%) than the women from the dental clinic (18/69, 26.1% P = 0.0001). Significantly more adult men than women displayed oral HPV-16 IgA (30/47 compared with 18/69, OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.09–12.1, P < 0.001) and HPV-18 IgA (17/47 compared with 13/69, OR 2.4, 95% CI 0.97–6.2, P = 0.04). Conclusion The increased prevalence of oral HPV antibodies in adolescent individuals compared with children was attributed to the

  10. More than 97% of human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16) was found with chrysotile asbestos & relatively smooth round tumor outline, and less than 3% was found with HPV-18 and tremolite asbestos & irregular sawtooth-like zigzag outline in breast cancer tissues in over 500 mammograms of female patients: their implications in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Jones, Marilyn K; Nihrane, Abdallah; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2013-01-01

    In the past, Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16) was considered to be the main cause of cancer in the oropharynx and genital organs. Cervical cancer of the uterus is the most well-known cancer associated with HPV-16. Among the oncogenic HPVs, types 16 and 18 are most responsible for the majority of the HPV-caused cancers. Recently, using EMF Resonance Phenomenon between 2 identical substances, we non-invasively measured HPV-16 and HPV-18 among 25 physicians and 25 dentists and found that all 50 have HPV-16 in oral cavities and oropharynx but not HPV-18. However most dentists have a stronger infection than physicians. Among them were 2 female dentists with breast cancer containing HPV-16 and strong infections of HPV-16 in the oral cavities and oropharynx. When the author checked their breast cancer positive areas as well as the mammograms of cancer positive areas, Chrysotile Asbestos co-existed with an infection of HPV-16. We then examined over 500 published mammograms of women with malignant breast cancer published by other institutes, and we found HPV-16 in more than 97% and HPV-18 in less than 3% of the breast cancer mammograms examined. Less than 0.4% of cases were found as a variety of combination of HPV-16 & HPV-18. We also discovered that breast cancer with HPV-16 always co-exists with increased Chrysotile Asbestos deposits, and the outline of the breast cancer positive area is a relatively smooth and round or oval shape, and breast cancer with HPV-18 always co-exists with increased Tremolite Asbestos, where the tumor outline is an irregular saw-tooth like zigzag pattern. Based on these findings, better methods of diagnosis, treatment and prevention with a vaccine can be developed. PMID:24494324

  11. More than 97% of human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16) was found with chrysotile asbestos & relatively smooth round tumor outline, and less than 3% was found with HPV-18 and tremolite asbestos & irregular sawtooth-like zigzag outline in breast cancer tissues in over 500 mammograms of female patients: their implications in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Jones, Marilyn K; Nihrane, Abdallah; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2013-01-01

    In the past, Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16) was considered to be the main cause of cancer in the oropharynx and genital organs. Cervical cancer of the uterus is the most well-known cancer associated with HPV-16. Among the oncogenic HPVs, types 16 and 18 are most responsible for the majority of the HPV-caused cancers. Recently, using EMF Resonance Phenomenon between 2 identical substances, we non-invasively measured HPV-16 and HPV-18 among 25 physicians and 25 dentists and found that all 50 have HPV-16 in oral cavities and oropharynx but not HPV-18. However most dentists have a stronger infection than physicians. Among them were 2 female dentists with breast cancer containing HPV-16 and strong infections of HPV-16 in the oral cavities and oropharynx. When the author checked their breast cancer positive areas as well as the mammograms of cancer positive areas, Chrysotile Asbestos co-existed with an infection of HPV-16. We then examined over 500 published mammograms of women with malignant breast cancer published by other institutes, and we found HPV-16 in more than 97% and HPV-18 in less than 3% of the breast cancer mammograms examined. Less than 0.4% of cases were found as a variety of combination of HPV-16 & HPV-18. We also discovered that breast cancer with HPV-16 always co-exists with increased Chrysotile Asbestos deposits, and the outline of the breast cancer positive area is a relatively smooth and round or oval shape, and breast cancer with HPV-18 always co-exists with increased Tremolite Asbestos, where the tumor outline is an irregular saw-tooth like zigzag pattern. Based on these findings, better methods of diagnosis, treatment and prevention with a vaccine can be developed.

  12. HPV Population Profiling in Healthy Men by Next-Generation Deep Sequencing Coupled with HPV-QUEST

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Li; Yao, Jin; Chang, Kaifen; Gardner, Brent P.; Yu, Fahong; Giuliano, Anna R.; Goodenow, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple-type human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection presents a greater risk for persistence in asymptomatic individuals and may accelerate cancer development. To extend the scope of HPV types defined by probe-based assays, multiplexing deep sequencing of HPV L1, coupled with an HPV-QUEST genotyping server and a bioinformatic pipeline, was established and applied to survey the diversity of HPV genotypes among a subset of healthy men from the HPV in Men (HIM) Multinational Study. Twenty-one HPV genotypes (12 high-risk and 9 low-risk) were detected in the genital area from 18 asymptomatic individuals. A single HPV type, either HPV16, HPV6b or HPV83, was detected in 7 individuals, while coinfection by 2 to 5 high-risk and/or low-risk genotypes was identified in the other 11 participants. In two individuals studied for over one year, HPV16 persisted, while fluctuations of coinfecting genotypes occurred. HPV L1 regions were generally identical between query and reference sequences, although nonsynonymous and synonymous nucleotide polymorphisms of HPV16, 18, 31, 35h, 59, 70, 73, cand85, 6b, 62, 81, 83, cand89 or JEB2 L1 genotypes, mostly unidentified by linear array, were evident. Deep sequencing coupled with HPV-QUEST provides efficient and unambiguous classification of HPV genotypes in multiple-type HPV infection in host ecosystems. PMID:26821041

  13. HPV Population Profiling in Healthy Men by Next-Generation Deep Sequencing Coupled with HPV-QUEST.

    PubMed

    Yin, Li; Yao, Jin; Chang, Kaifen; Gardner, Brent P; Yu, Fahong; Giuliano, Anna R; Goodenow, Maureen M

    2016-01-25

    Multiple-type human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection presents a greater risk for persistence in asymptomatic individuals and may accelerate cancer development. To extend the scope of HPV types defined by probe-based assays, multiplexing deep sequencing of HPV L1, coupled with an HPV-QUEST genotyping server and a bioinformatic pipeline, was established and applied to survey the diversity of HPV genotypes among a subset of healthy men from the HPV in Men (HIM) Multinational Study. Twenty-one HPV genotypes (12 high-risk and 9 low-risk) were detected in the genital area from 18 asymptomatic individuals. A single HPV type, either HPV16, HPV6b or HPV83, was detected in 7 individuals, while coinfection by 2 to 5 high-risk and/or low-risk genotypes was identified in the other 11 participants. In two individuals studied for over one year, HPV16 persisted, while fluctuations of coinfecting genotypes occurred. HPV L1 regions were generally identical between query and reference sequences, although nonsynonymous and synonymous nucleotide polymorphisms of HPV16, 18, 31, 35h, 59, 70, 73, cand85, 6b, 62, 81, 83, cand89 or JEB2 L1 genotypes, mostly unidentified by linear array, were evident. Deep sequencing coupled with HPV-QUEST provides efficient and unambiguous classification of HPV genotypes in multiple-type HPV infection in host ecosystems.

  14. Clinical management of HPV-related disease of the lower genital tract.

    PubMed

    Kyrgiou, M; Valasoulis, G; Founta, C; Koliopoulos, G; Karakitsos, P; Nasioutziki, M; Navrozoglou, I; Dalkalitsis, N; Paraskevaidis, E

    2010-09-01

    Cytology remains the mainstay for cervical screening. The need to achieve effective management, limit complications, and preserve reproductive function led to the popularity of local treatment. Although the cure rates for ablative and excisional methods are similar, the excisional method provides a more reliable histopathological diagnosis. Recent evidence revealed increased perinatal morbidity after treatment that appears to be related to the proportion of cervix removed. The human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test appears to enhance the detection of disease in primary screening, in the triage of minor cytological abnormalities, and in follow-up. Further research on the clinical application of a scoring system is ongoing. The vaccines are now available and appear to be safe, well tolerated, and highly efficacious in HPV naive women. A synergy of vaccination and screening will be required. Treatment for early cervical cancer is increasingly shifting toward more fertility-sparing surgical techniques. Careful selection of patients is essential. PMID:20840254

  15. [HPV-associated carcinomas of the female genital tract. Molecular mechanisms of development].

    PubMed

    Reuschenbach, M; Vinokurova, S; von Knebel Doeberitz, M

    2011-11-01

    Infections with human papillomaviruses (HPV) are a common occurrence in both men and women. In contrast HPV-associated neoplasias are relatively rare and occur only in certain areas of the body. The virus has obviously developed efficient mechanisms for its persistence without inducing too much damage to the host. The formation of neoplasia seems to be more an exception. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in the regulation of viral gene expression. Investigations have indicated that exactly the transition from the permissive infection stage to a transformation stage, where neoplastic alterations can occur due to expression of the viral oncogenes, is associated with certain methylation patterns of the viral genome which promote the expression of the oncogenes E6 and E7. The transforming stage is seen as the actual carcinogenic event and can be immunohistochemically detected by the biomarker p16(INK4a).

  16. Infection with high-risk HPV types among female sex workers in northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Huyen Thi Thanh; Ishizaki, Azumi; Nguyen, Cuong Hung; Tran, Vuong Thi; Matsushita, Kaori; Saikawa, Kunikazu; Hosaka, Norimitsu; Pham, Hung Viet; Bi, Xiuqiong; Ta, Van Thanh; Van Pham, Thuc; Ichimura, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    Vaccines against two high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV-16, and HPV-18, are in use currently, with high efficacy for preventing infections with these HPV types and consequent cervical cancers. However, circulating HPV types can vary with geography and ethnicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV types and the association between HPV types and abnormal cervical cytology among female sex workers in Northern Vietnam. Cervical swabs and plasma samples were collected from 281 female sex workers at two health centers in Hanoi and Hai Phong in 2009. The HPV L1 gene was amplified by PCR using original and modified GP5(+)/6(+) primers. Amplified PCR products were genotyped by the microarray system GeneSquare (KURABO) and/or clonal sequencing. Of the 281 women, 139 (49.5%) were positive for HPV DNA. Among the HPV-positive samples, 339 strains and 29 different types were identified. Multiple-type and high risk-type HPV infections were found in 85 (61.2%) and 124 (89.2%) women, respectively. The most common genotype was HPV-52, followed by HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-58. Abnormal cervical cytology was detected in 3.2% (9/281) of the women, and all of these samples were positive for HPV-DNA. Age ≤25 years and infection with human immunodeficiency virus were associated positively with HPV infection among the women while ever smoking was associated negatively. These results show that HPV-52 is most prevalent among female sex workers in Northern Vietnam, most of whom had normal cervical cytology. This information may be important for designing vaccination strategies in Vietnam.

  17. A six-year experience with anal cytology in women with HPV in the lower genital tract: utility, limitations, and clinical correlation.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, L H; Carballo, P; Lorenzo, M C Cabral; García, A; Suzuki, V; Tatti, S; Vighi, S; Díaz, L B

    2014-05-01

    This study assessed the utility and limitations of anal cytology as a screening method for women infected with human papilloma virus (HPV) in the lower genital tract. Furthermore, this study aimed to establish risk factors for pathological anal cytology/biopsy findings, the prevalence of anatomopathological lesions associated with positive anal brushings, and the frequency of concomitant lesions of the lower genital tract. A cross-sectional, retrospective, descriptive study in 207 women with HPV-associated lesions of the lower genital tract and 25 women with immunosuppression was carried out. Anal cytology, high resolution anoscopy, and biopsy of suspicious lesions were performed. In total, 232 anal brushings were performed: 184 (79.3%) were negative, 24 (10.34%) showed atypical squamous cells of undeterminated significance, 18 (7.7%) showed low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 6 (2.6%) showed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Cytohistological correlation was obtained for 70 cases. The sensitivity of anal cytology in detecting intraepithelial lesions was 70%, whereas the specificity was 93%. The sensitivity of the method for detecting high-grade lesions (84%) was higher, than that for detecting low-grade lesions (66%). The most frequently associated pathology was vulvar lesion. It is important to perform anal brushings in women who have had lower genital tract biopsies for HPV-associated lesions due to the high prevalence of anal lesions in such patients. Anal cytology is useful for detecting high-grade lesions but the sensitivity for detecting low-grade lesions is low. It is of the utmost importance to perform high-resolution anoscopy and biopsy in women with suspicious lesions in order to confirm the pathology.

  18. Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of HPV can cause serious health problems, including: Cervical cancer in women. In the United States, about 12,000 women get cervical or other genital cancers from HPV each year. Head and neck and ...

  19. International Standard Reagents for HPV Detection

    PubMed Central

    Pagliusi, Sonia R.; Garland, Suzanne M.

    2007-01-01

    Humam papillomavirus is the commonest genital viral infection in healthy sexually active subjects, and the presence of chronic or persistent HPV types in genital cells may constitute a prognostic marker of underlying, or predict future HPV-associated diseases. A variety of novel tests for detecting the presence of oncogenic HPV types in biological specimens have been reported. These are based on the various stages of infection and viral life cycle. HPV infects squamous epithelium with expression of various gene products intimately linked to epithelial cell differentiation. Hence, there are basically three classes of detectable markers directly derived from HPVs: molecular markers based on detection of nucleic acid sequences, serological markers based on detection of antibodies against viral proteins, and cellular markers based on detection of proteins expressed intracellularly, upon either infection or carcinogenesis. The nature of various assays and the development of international standard reagents for qualitative and quantitative assessment of assay performance are outlined. There is an increasing demand to develop standard tools to assess the quality of HPV detection systems, for regulatory and clinical management purposes. International standard reagents for HPV will help defining the analytical sensitivity and specificity of various detection methods, and will allow assuring that laboratory services used to evaluate disease burden, HPV vaccines, and cancer prevention strategies are accurate and comparable worldwide. The advancement of prophylactic vaccine candidates against HPV infections and related diseases stresses the increasing importance of HPV assays in monitoring the impact of HPV vaccination on disease burden. PMID:17627063

  20. Distribution of genital wart human papillomavirus genotypes in China: a multi-center study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lihong; Ci, Puwa; Shi, Jufang; Zhai, Kan; Feng, Xiaoli; Colombara, Danny; Wang, Wei; Qiao, Youlin; Chen, Wen; Wu, Yuping

    2013-10-01

    Although it is understood that low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes are associated with genital warts, there have been very few published studies reporting the genotype-specific prevalence of HPV among Chinese population. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of HPV genotypes in genital warts across China, and thus to evaluate the potential benefit of a quadrivalent HPV vaccine in this population. The tissue samples of a total of 1,005 genital warts cases were collected from seven geographical regions of China. HPV genotypes were analyzed using the general primer PCR and sequence-based typing method. Prevalence differences between sexes, geographical regions and age groups were assessed. The overall prevalence of HPV DNA in genital warts patients was 88.7% (891/1,005). Low-risk genotypes predominated, with a prevalence of 78.1% (785/1,005). The most prevalent genotypes were HPV-6 (41.3%), HPV-11 (37.6%) and HPV-16 (10.4%). Among HPV positive patients, single infections were more frequent (866/891, 97.2%) than co-infections (25/891, 2.8%). Both the overall prevalence of HPV DNA and that of HPV-6/-11/-16 (positive for any of the three types) decreased with age (P-trend = 0.010 and P-trend = 0.025, respectively). The prevalence of HPV-6/-11 (positive for either HPV type) and HPV-16 varied by geographic region (P = 0.003 and P ≤ 0.001, respectively). The prevalence of HPV-16 in female patients between urban and rural areas showed a marginally significant difference (P = 0.05). In sum, the results provide strong evidence that, in China, the most prevalent HPV genotypes in genital warts are HPV-6, HPV-11 and HPV-16. This indicates that a quadrivalent HPV vaccine may decrease the incidence of genital warts in the future.

  1. A cohort study of cervical screening using partial HPV typing and cytology triage.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Mark; Hyun, Noorie; Raine-Bennett, Tina R; Katki, Hormuzd; Fetterman, Barbara; Gage, Julia C; Cheung, Li C; Befano, Brian; Poitras, Nancy; Lorey, Thomas; Castle, Philip E; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2016-12-01

    HPV testing is more sensitive than cytology for cervical screening. However, to incorporate HPV tests into screening, risk-stratification ("triage") of HPV-positive women is needed to avoid excessive colposcopy and overtreatment. We prospectively evaluated combinations of partial HPV typing (Onclarity, BD) and cytology triage, and explored whether management could be simplified, based on grouping combinations yielding similar 3-year or 18-month CIN3+ risks. We typed ∼9,000 archived specimens, taken at enrollment (2007-2011) into the NCI-Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) HPV Persistence and Progression (PaP) cohort. Stratified sampling, with reweighting in the statistical analysis, permitted risk estimation of HPV/cytology combinations for the 700,000+-woman KPNC screening population. Based on 3-year CIN3+ risks, Onclarity results could be combined into five groups (HPV16, else HPV18/45, else HPV31/33/58/52, else HPV51/35/39/68/56/66/68, else HPV negative); cytology results fell into three risk groups ("high-grade," ASC-US/LSIL, NILM). For the resultant 15 HPV group-cytology combinations, 3-year CIN3+ risks ranged 1,000-fold from 60.6% to 0.06%. To guide management, we compared the risks to established "benchmark" risk/management thresholds in this same population (e.g., LSIL predicted 3-year CIN3+ risk of 5.8% in the screening population, providing the benchmark for colposcopic referral). By benchmarking to 3-year risk thresholds (supplemented by 18-month estimates), the widely varying risk strata could be condensed into four action bands (very high risk of CIN3+ mandating consideration of cone biopsy if colposcopy did not find precancer; moderate risk justifying colposcopy; low risk managed by intensified follow-up to permit HPV "clearance"; and very low risk permitting routine screening.) Overall, the results support primary HPV testing, with management of HPV-positive women using partial HPV typing and cytology.

  2. Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst and Type 2 Radical Genital Mutilation

    PubMed Central

    Birge, Ozer; Ozbey, Ertugrul Gazi; Arslan, Deniz; Erkan, Mustafa Melih; Demir, Feyza; Akgor, Utku

    2015-01-01

    About 100 million women are estimated to be circumcised globally. Various rates of complications have been encountered, especially after circumcision, such as bleeding, infection, shock, menstrual irregularity, difficulty in urination or common urinary tract infections, inguinal pain, difficulty in sexual intercourse, and genital circumcision scar especially at the vulvar region, and cystic or solid character mass in short and long term. Furthermore, the maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality increase due to bleeding and fistula, which develop after prolonged labor, travail, and difficult labors. Our aim in this paper was to discuss a 42-year-old multiparous female case who had undergone type 2 radical genital mutilation (circumcision) when she was 7 years of age, along with the literature, which has been evaluated for the gradually growing mass at the left inguinal canal region in the last 10 years and diagnosed as epidermoid inclusion cyst developing secondary to postcircumcision surgical ground trauma, since there was no other case found in the literature search that had been circumcised at such an early age and developing after circumcision at such advanced age, and, therefore, this is suggested to be the first case on this subject. PMID:26682078

  3. Unusual HPV types in oral warts in association with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Greenspan, D; de Villiers, E M; Greenspan, J S; de Souza, Y G; zur Hausen, H

    1988-11-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are associated with certain oral soft tissue lesions, such as papillomas, warts, condylomata, and focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH). HPV types 2, 6, 11, 16, and 18 have been identified in some of these oral lesions, while HPV 13 and 32 are associated with FEH. Little is known about the HPV types in oral warts of persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In this study, oral warts in 17 HIV-seropositive individuals were biopsied. Southern blot analyses were performed and the HPV types found were HPV 7 (7/17), 13 (1/17), 32 (1/17), and 18 (1/17). The presence of HPV type 7 is unusual in that it normally is found only in butcher's warts. There was no correlation between HPV type, histopathology, and clinical appearance of the lesions examined, except that the flat (FEH type) warts contained HPV types 13, 18 and 32 (1 of each). HIV infection appears to predispose individuals to oral infection with unusual HPV types.

  4. A cross sectional study of HPV type prevalence according to age and cytology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A cross sectional study to investigate HPV prevalence according to age and cytology. Methods Women presenting to a gynaecological outpatient clinic for a Pap smear test were included in the study (n=3177). All women had cervical cytology and HPV testing. Results Overall prevalence of any 24 HPV type analysed was 33.1% (95% CI 31.5% to 34.7%) and HPV 16 and HPV 42 were the most frequent (6.7% (95% CI 5.8% to 7.6%), 6.8% (95% CI 5.9% to 7.6%)), in total samples. Multiple HPV infection rate was 12.9% (95% CI 11.8% to 14.1%). High risk HPV (hrHPV) types were present in 27.4% (95% CI 25.8% to 28.9%) of the samples. HPV prevalence was highest among 14 to 19 y.o (46.6% (95% CI 40.7%-52.4%)) and second highest among 30–34 y.o. (39.7%, 95% CI 35.4%–44%). HPV 16 was highest among 20–24 (9.0% (95% CI 6.4%–11.6%)) and second highest among 50 to 54 y.o. (6.3% (95% CI 2.9% to 9.8%). In Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (LgSIL) cytology samples, the most frequently detected hrHPV types were: 16 (14.5% (95% CI 12.1% to 16.9%)), 51 (13.0% (95% CI 10.7% to 15.3%)) and 53 (9.1% (95% CI 7.2% to 11.1%)) and in High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HgSIL) were: HPV 16 (37.2% (95% CI 26.5% to 47.9%)), HPV 51 (17.9% (95% CI 9.4% to 26.5%)) and HPV 18 (12.8% (95% CI 5.4% to 20.2%)). Conclusions In the population studied, HPV 16 and 51 were the most frequent detected hrHPV types. HPV positivity, hrHPV and multiple HPV types infections were higher in young women, while HPV prevalence declined with increasing age and presented two peaks a higher (14–19 y.o.) and a lower one (30–34 y.o.) These results may contribute to the creation of a national screening programme. PMID:23363541

  5. Characterization of HPV16 L1 loop domains in the formation of a type-specific, conformational epitope

    PubMed Central

    Olcese, Vanessa A; Chen, Yan; Schlegel, Richard; Yuan, Hang

    2004-01-01

    Background Virus-like particles (VLPs) formed by the human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 capsid protein are currently being tested in clinical trials as prophylactic vaccines against genital warts and cervical cancer. The efficacy of these vaccines is critically dependent upon L1 type-specific conformational epitopes. To investigate the molecular determinants of the HPV16 L1 conformational epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody 16A, we utilized a domain-swapping approach to generate a series of L1 proteins composed of a canine oral papillomavirus (COPV) L1 backbone containing different regions of HPV16 L1. Results Gross domain swaps, which did not alter the ability of L1 to assemble into VLPs, demonstrated that the L1 N-terminus encodes at least a component of the 16A antigenic determinant. Finer epitope mapping, using GST-L1 fusion proteins, mapped the 16A epitope to the L1 variable regions I and possibly II within the N-terminus. Conclusions These results suggest that non-contiguous loop regions of L1 display critical components of a type-specific, conformational epitope. PMID:15260888

  6. A novel mucosal orthotopic murine model of human papillomavirus-associated genital cancers.

    PubMed

    Decrausaz, Loane; Gonçalves, Ana-Rita; Domingos-Pereira, Sonia; Pythoud, Christelle; Stehle, Jean-Christophe; Schiller, John; Jichlinski, Patrice; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

    2011-05-01

    Cervical cancer results from infection with high-risk type human papillomaviruses (HPV). Therapeutic vaccines aiming at controlling existing genital HPV infections and associated lesions are usually tested in mice with HPV-expressing tumor cells subcutaneously implanted into their flank. However, effective vaccine-induced regression of these ectopic tumors strongly contrasts with the poor clinical results of these vaccines produced in patients with HPV-associated genital neoplasia. To assess HPV therapeutic vaccines in a more relevant setting, we have, here, established an orthotopic mouse model where tumors in the genital mucosa (GM) develop after an intravaginal instillation of HPV16 E6/E7-expressing tumor cells transduced with a luciferase-encoding lentiviral vector for in vivo imaging of tumor growth. Tumor take was 80-90% after nonoxynol-9 induced damage of the epithelium. Tumors remained localized in the genital tract, and histological analysis showed that most tumors grew within the squamous epithelium of the vaginal wall. Those tumors induced (i) E7-specific CD8 T cells restricted to the GM and draining lymph nodes, in agreement with their mucosal location and (ii) high Foxp3+ CD4+ infiltrates, similarly to those found in natural non-regressing HPV lesions. This novel genital HPV-tumor model by requiring GM homing of vaccine-induced immune responses able to overcome local immuno-suppression may be more representative of the situation occurring in patients upon therapeutic vaccination. PMID:20635385

  7. A novel mucosal orthotopic murine model of human papillomavirus-associated genital cancers.

    PubMed

    Decrausaz, Loane; Gonçalves, Ana-Rita; Domingos-Pereira, Sonia; Pythoud, Christelle; Stehle, Jean-Christophe; Schiller, John; Jichlinski, Patrice; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

    2011-05-01

    Cervical cancer results from infection with high-risk type human papillomaviruses (HPV). Therapeutic vaccines aiming at controlling existing genital HPV infections and associated lesions are usually tested in mice with HPV-expressing tumor cells subcutaneously implanted into their flank. However, effective vaccine-induced regression of these ectopic tumors strongly contrasts with the poor clinical results of these vaccines produced in patients with HPV-associated genital neoplasia. To assess HPV therapeutic vaccines in a more relevant setting, we have, here, established an orthotopic mouse model where tumors in the genital mucosa (GM) develop after an intravaginal instillation of HPV16 E6/E7-expressing tumor cells transduced with a luciferase-encoding lentiviral vector for in vivo imaging of tumor growth. Tumor take was 80-90% after nonoxynol-9 induced damage of the epithelium. Tumors remained localized in the genital tract, and histological analysis showed that most tumors grew within the squamous epithelium of the vaginal wall. Those tumors induced (i) E7-specific CD8 T cells restricted to the GM and draining lymph nodes, in agreement with their mucosal location and (ii) high Foxp3+ CD4+ infiltrates, similarly to those found in natural non-regressing HPV lesions. This novel genital HPV-tumor model by requiring GM homing of vaccine-induced immune responses able to overcome local immuno-suppression may be more representative of the situation occurring in patients upon therapeutic vaccination.

  8. HPV Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... can cause problems like genital warts and some kinds of cancer, a vaccine is an important step in preventing infection and protecting against the spread of HPV. That's why doctors recommend that all girls and guys get the vaccine at these ages: ...

  9. Efficacy of Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine against HPV Infection and Disease in Males

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, Anna R.; Palefsky, Joel M.; Goldstone, Stephen; Moreira, Edson D.; Penny, Mary E.; Aranda, Carlos; Vardas, Eftyhia; Moi, Harald; Jessen, Heiko; Hillman, Richard; Chang, Yen-Hwa; Ferris, Daron; Rouleau, Danielle; Bryan, Janine; Marshall, J. Brooke; Vuocolo, Scott; Barr, Eliav; Radley, David; Haupt, Richard M.; Guris, Dalya

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) and diseases caused by HPV are common in boys and men. We report on the safety of a quadrivalent vaccine (active against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18) and on its efficacy in preventing the development of external genital lesions and anogenital HPV infection in boys and men. METHODS We enrolled 4065 healthy boys and men 16 to 26 years of age, from 18 countries in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. The primary efficacy objective was to show that the quadrivalent HPV vaccine reduced the incidence of external genital lesions related to HPV-6, 11, 16, or 18. Efficacy analyses were conducted in a per-protocol population, in which subjects received all three vaccinations and were negative for relevant HPV types at enrollment, and in an intention-to-treat population, in which subjects received vaccine or placebo, regardless of baseline HPV status. RESULTS In the intention-to-treat population, 36 external genital lesions were seen in the vaccine group as compared with 89 in the placebo group, for an observed efficacy of 60.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40.8 to 73.8); the efficacy was 65.5% (95% CI, 45.8 to 78.6) for lesions related to HPV-6, 11, 16, or 18. In the per-protocol population, efficacy against lesions related to HPV-6, 11, 16, or 18 was 90.4% (95% CI, 69.2 to 98.1). Efficacy with respect to persistent infection with HPV-6, 11, 16, or 18 and detection of related DNA at any time was 47.8% (95% CI, 36.0 to 57.6) and 27.1% (95% CI, 16.6 to 36.3), respectively, in the intention-to-treat population and 85.6% (97.5% CI, 73.4 to 92.9) and 44.7% (95% CI, 31.5 to 55.6) in the per-protocol population. Injection-site pain was significantly more frequent among subjects receiving quadrivalent HPV vaccine than among those receiving placebo (57% vs. 51%, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Quadrivalent HPV vaccine prevents infection with HPV-6, 11, 16, and 18 and the development of related external genital lesions in

  10. HPV Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... test for wider range of HPV types. 2009 Mar 13. US Food and Drug Administration. Available online ... approves two DNA tests to detect HPV. 2009 Mar 17. Infectious Disease News. Available online at http:// ...

  11. The HPV Vaccine: Framing the Arguments "for" and "against" Mandatory Vaccination of All Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vamos, Cheryl A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Daley, Ellen M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV), the virus responsible for cervical cancer, is the most common viral sexually transmitted infection in the United States. A vaccine was approved in 2006 that is effective in preventing the types of HPV responsible for 70% of cervical cancers and 90% of genital warts. Proposals for routine and mandatory HPV…

  12. Tampons: a novel patient-administered method for the assessment of genital human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Fairley, C K; Chen, S; Tabrizi, S N; Quinn, M A; McNeil, J J; Garland, S M

    1992-06-01

    Assessment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection usually requires a speculum examination to collect genital specimens. A technique using tampons as a patient-administered method for the collection of specimens was studied by dot blot hybridization (HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, and 33) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Tampons and cervical scrapes were collected from 48 consecutive women attending a dysplasia clinic. Tampons provided a significantly larger pellet volume (P less than .002) and more DNA (P less than .01) than scrapes. There was a close correlation when samples were analyzed for the presence of HPV DNA. Using dot blot hybridization, 8 cervical scrapes (17%) and 9 tampons (19%) were positive for HPV DNA (90% correlation). By PCR, 35 cervical scrapes (73%) and 33 tampons (69%) were positive for HPV DNA (88% correlation). Thus, tampon specimens are an easy method for assessment of genital HPV infection.

  13. Oral HPV prevalence in women positive for cervical HPV infection and their sexual partners: a German screening study.

    PubMed

    Uken, Ralf B; Brummer, Oliver; von Schubert-Bayer, Carolin; Brodegger, Thomas; Teudt, Ingo U

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) associated oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OSCC) is on the rise. With the HPV-positive uterine cervix as a reservoir, HPV-positive OSCC is discussed as a sexually transmitted disease. Mechanisms of HPV transmission to the oral cavity are poorly understood. To gain more insight into HPV-transmission routes, cervically HPV-positive women and their sexual partners are screened for oral HPV infection. Women with cervical dysplasia underwent HPV testing of the uterine cervix and tonsillar region via brush test. In addition, sexual partners received oral HPV testing. Tonsillar brush tests of patients admitted for routine surgery served as the control group. The HPV-PCR (Roche Linear Array Kit) was used to differentiate 37 HPV types. All participants completed a risk-factor questionnaire focusing on sexual habits. 101 women were tested HPV-positive at the cervix. Only 3/101 (3 %) were tested HPV-positive in the oropharynx. In 60/101 (60 %) women the sexual partner could be tested for oral HPV infection: testing was positive in 3/60 (5 %). No oral HPV was detected in the control group. The risk-factor questionnaire revealed significant differences between the female study- and control group in terms of age at first sexual intercourse and smoking habits. The limited data suggest that among sexual partners in Germany, HPV transmission to the oropharynx by oral-genital sex or by autoinoculation is a rare and unlikely event with low HPV concordance. Another explanation for the low oral prevalence could be an independent clearance of HPV from the oropharyngeal site compared to cervix uteri or at different time intervals.

  14. Identification of early proteins of the human papilloma viruses type 16 (HPV 16) and type 18 (HPV 18) in cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Seedorf, K; Oltersdorf, T; Krämmer, G; Röwekamp, W

    1987-01-01

    We have sequenced 1730 bp of human papilloma virus type 18 (HPV 18) DNA containing the open reading frames (ORF) E6, E7, the N-terminal part of E1 and, additionally, 120 bp of the N-terminal part of L1. Based on these sequencing data, together with the human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV 16) DNA sequence published recently, we identified and cloned the ORF E6, E7, E1 and L1 of HPV 18 and the ORF E6, E7, E1, E4, E5, L2 and L1 of HPV 16 into prokaryotic expression vectors. The expression system used provides fusions to the N-terminal part of the MS2 polymerase gene controlled by the heat-inducible lambda PL promoter. Using the purified fusion proteins as immunogens we raised antisera against the proteins encoded by the ORF E6, E7 and E1 of HPV 18 as well as those encoded by the ORF E6, E7, E4 and L1 of HPV 16. By Western blot analysis we could show that the E7 gene product is the most abundant protein in cell lines containing HPV 16 or HPV 18 DNA. It is a cytoplasmic protein of 15 kd in the SiHa and the CaSki cell lines which contain HPV 16 DNA, and 12 kd in the HeLa, the C4-1 and the SW756 cell lines which contain HPV 18 DNA. These results were confirmed by in vitro translation of hybrid-selected HPV 16 and HPV 18 specific poly(A)+ RNA from SiHa, CaSki and HeLa cells. Additionally, these experiments led to the identification of an 11-kd E6 and a 10-kd E4 protein in the CaSki cell line as well as a 70-kd E1 protein in HeLa cells. PMID:3034571

  15. Male circumcision and prevalence of genital human papillomavirus infection in men: a multinational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Accumulated evidence from epidemiological studies and more recently from randomized controlled trials suggests that male circumcision (MC) may substantially protect against genital HPV infection in men. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between MC and genital HPV infection in men in a large multinational study. Methods A total of 4072 healthy men ages 18–70 years were enrolled in a study conducted in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Enrollment samples combining exfoliated cells from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum were analyzed for the presence and genotyping of HPV DNA by PCR and linear array methods. Prevalence ratios (PR) were used to estimate associations between MC and HPV detection adjusting for potential confounders. Results MC was not associated with overall prevalence of any HPV, oncogenic HPV types or unclassified HPV types. However, MC was negatively associated with non-oncogenic HPV infections (PR 0.85, 95% confident interval: 0.76-0.95), in particular for HPV types 11, 40, 61, 71, and 81. HPV 16, 51, 62, and 84 were the most frequently identified genotypes regardless of MC status. Conclusions This study shows no overall association between MC and genital HPV infections in men, except for certain non-oncogenic HPV types for which a weak association was found. However, the lack of association with MC might be due to the lack of anatomic site specific HPV data, for example the glans penis, the area expected to be most likely protected by MC. PMID:23327450

  16. Population- and type-specific clustering of multiple HPV types across diverse risk populations in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Mollers, Madelief; Vriend, Henrike J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; van Bergen, Jan E A M; King, Audrey J; Lenselink, Charlotte H; Bekkers, Ruud L M; Meijer, Chris J L M; de Melker, Hester E; Bogaards, Johannes A

    2014-05-15

    In view of possible type replacement upon introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, we aimed to explore patterns of type-specific clustering across populations with various background infection risks. A total of 3,874 women from 3 cross-sectional studies in the Netherlands (in 2007-2009) provided vaginal self-samples, which were tested for 25 HPV genotypes by a sensitive molecular assay (SPF10 line probe assay, DDL Diagnostic Laboratory, Voorburg, the Netherlands). The number of concurrent HPV infections per woman was studied by Poisson regression. Associations between HPV types were investigated by generalized estimating equation analyses. The prevalence of any HPV type was 14% in a population-based study, 54% in a chlamydia screening intervention study, and 73% in a study among attendees of sexually transmitted infection clinics. Overall, multiple HPV infections were detected in 26% of the women. The number of concurrent HPV infections conformed to an overdispersed Poisson distribution, even after correction for known risk factors. Types differed significantly in their tendencies to be involved in coinfections, but no evidence for particular type-type interactions was found. Moreover, the strongest associations were observed in the lowest-risk population and vice versa.We found no indications of pairwise interactions, but our findings do suggest that clustering differs among HPV types and varies across risk groups.

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconversion in women with genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Plourde, P J; Pepin, J; Agoki, E; Ronald, A R; Ombette, J; Tyndall, M; Cheang, M; Ndinya-Achola, J O; D'Costa, L J; Plummer, F A

    1994-08-01

    Genital ulcers are implicated as a risk factor enhancing susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. A prospective study to determine the incidence of and risk factors associated with acquisition of HIV-1 in women with genital ulcers was done. HIV-1-seronegative women with genital ulcers attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Nairobi were followed to HIV-1 seroconversion over a 6-month period. Of 81 women, 10 seroconverted to HIV-1. The crude 6-month incidence of HIV-1 infection was 12%. Risk factors associated with seroconversion included cervical ectopy (rate ratio [RR], 4.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-15.6) and pelvic inflammatory disease (RR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.9-20.4). Thus, cervical ectopy and pelvic inflammatory disease may increase susceptibility to HIV-1 in women with genital ulcers.

  18. E4 Antibodies Facilitate Detection and Type-Assignment of Active HPV Infection in Cervical Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marnane, Rebecca; Dewar, Vincent; Molijn, Anco; Quint, Wim; Van Hoof, Christine; Struyf, Frank; Colau, Brigitte; Jenkins, David; Doorbar, John

    2012-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the cause of nearly all cases of cervical cancer. Although the detection of HPV DNA has proved useful in cervical diagnosis, it does not necessarily predict disease presence or severity, and cannot conclusively identify the causative type when multiple HPVs are present. Such limitations may be addressed using complementary approaches such as cytology, laser capture microscopy, and/or the use of infection biomarkers. One such infection biomarker is the HPV E4 protein, which is expressed at high level in cells that are supporting (or have supported) viral genome amplification. Its distribution in lesions has suggested a role in disease staging. Here we have examined whether type-specific E4 antibodies may also allow the identification and/or confirmation of causal HPV-type. To do this, type-specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against three E4 proteins (HPV-16, -18, and -58) were generated and validated by ELISA and western blotting, and by immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining of epithelial rafts containing these individual HPV types. Type-specific detection of HPV and its associated disease was subsequently examined using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical intra-epithelial neoplasias (CIN, (n = 247)) and normal controls (n = 28). All koilocytotic CIN1 lesions showed type-specific E4 expression of their respective HPV types. Differences were noted amongst E4 expression patterns in CIN3. HPV-18 E4 was not detected in any of the 6 HPV-18 DNA-positive CIN3 lesions examined, whereas in HPV-16 and -58 CIN3, 28/37 (76%) and 5/9 (55.6%) expressed E4 respectively, usually in regions of epithelial differentiation. Our results demonstrate that type-specific E4 antibodies can be used to help establish causality, as may be required when multiple HPV types are detected. The unique characteristics of the E4 biomarker suggest a role in diagnosis and patient management particularly when used in combination

  19. Human Papillomavirus neutralizing and cross-reactive antibodies induced in HIV-positive subjects after vaccination with quadrivalent and bivalent HPV vaccines.

    PubMed

    Faust, Helena; Toft, Lars; Sehr, Peter; Müller, Martin; Bonde, Jesper; Forslund, Ola; Østergaard, Lars; Tolstrup, Martin; Dillner, Joakim

    2016-03-18

    Ninety-one HIV-infected individuals (61 men and 30 women) were randomized to vaccination either with quadrivalent (Gardasil™) or bivalent (Cervarix™) HPV vaccine. Neutralizing and specific HPV-binding serum antibodies were measured at baseline and 12 months after the first vaccine dose. Presence of neutralizing and binding antibodies had good agreement (average Kappa for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 was 0.65). At baseline, 88% of subjects had antibodies against at least one genital HPV. Following vaccination with Cervarix™, all subjects became seropositive for HPV16 and 18. After Gardasil™ vaccination, 96% of subjects seroconverted for HPV16 and 73% for HPV18. Levels of HPV16-specific antibodies were <1 international unit (IU) in 87% of study subjects before vaccination but >10IU in 85% of study subjects after vaccination. Antibodies against non-vaccine HPV types appeared after Gardasil™ vaccination for >50% of vaccinated females for HPV 31, 35 and 73 and for >50% of Cervarix™-vaccinated females for HPV 31, 33, 35, 45, 56 and 58. Cross-reactivity with non-genital HPV types was also detected. In conclusion, HIV-infected subjects responded to HPV vaccination with induction of neutralizing antibodies against both vaccine and non-vaccine types.

  20. Post hoc analysis of the PATRICIA randomized trial of the efficacy of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16)/HPV-18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against incident and persistent infection with nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types using an alternative multiplex type-specific PCR assay for HPV DNA.

    PubMed

    Struyf, Frank; Colau, Brigitte; Wheeler, Cosette M; Naud, Paulo; Garland, Suzanne; Quint, Wim; Chow, Song-Nan; Salmerón, Jorge; Lehtinen, Matti; Del Rosario-Raymundo, M Rowena; Paavonen, Jorma; Teixeira, Júlio C; Germar, Maria Julieta; Peters, Klaus; Skinner, S Rachel; Limson, Genara; Castellsagué, Xavier; Poppe, Willy A J; Ramjattan, Brian; Klein, Terry D; Schwarz, Tino F; Chatterjee, Archana; Tjalma, Wiebren A A; Diaz-Mitoma, Francisco; Lewis, David J M; Harper, Diane M; Molijn, Anco; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; David, Marie-Pierre; Dubin, Gary

    2015-02-01

    The efficacy of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16)/HPV-18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infections with HPV in the Papilloma Trial against Cancer in Young Adults (PATRICIA) was evaluated using a combination of the broad-spectrum L1-based SPF10 PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA)/line probe assay (LiPA25) system with type-specific PCRs for HPV-16 and -18. Broad-spectrum PCR assays may underestimate the presence of HPV genotypes present at relatively low concentrations in multiple infections, due to competition between genotypes. Therefore, samples were retrospectively reanalyzed using a testing algorithm incorporating the SPF10 PCR-DEIA/LiPA25 plus a novel E6-based multiplex type-specific PCR and reverse hybridization assay (MPTS12 RHA), which permits detection of a panel of nine oncogenic HPV genotypes (types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58, and 59). For the vaccine against HPV types 16 and 18, there was no major impact on estimates of vaccine efficacy (VE) for incident or 6-month or 12-month persistent infections when the MPTS12 RHA was included in the testing algorithm versus estimates with the protocol-specified algorithm. However, the alternative testing algorithm showed greater sensitivity than the protocol-specified algorithm for detection of some nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types. More cases were gained in the control group than in the vaccine group, leading to higher point estimates of VE for 6-month and 12-month persistent infections for the nonvaccine oncogenic types included in the MPTS12 RHA assay (types 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58, and 59). This post hoc analysis indicates that the per-protocol testing algorithm used in PATRICIA underestimated the VE against some nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types and that the choice of the HPV DNA testing methodology is important for the evaluation of VE in clinical trials. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00122681.).

  1. HPV: diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, Jon K

    2012-09-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the world. Almost 80% of the world's population is exposed by the age of 50. HPV can cause oropharyngeal, genital, and anal cancers. It also causes genital warts. There is no cure for HPV but vaccines are available to prevent infection by the most common HPV viruses; unfortunately, usage is low. Most people will clear HPV spontaneously. Those who do not are at high risk for developing malignancy. Treatment mainstays are destruction and excision of the lesions. PMID:22828099

  2. Cross-Reactivity, Epitope Spreading, and De Novo Immune Stimulation Are Possible Mechanisms of Cross-Protection of Nonvaccine Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types in Recipients of HPV Therapeutic Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Mayumi; Greenfield, William; Moerman-Herzog, Andrea; Coleman, Hannah N

    2015-07-01

    Numerous versions of human papillomavirus (HPV) therapeutic vaccines designed to treat individuals with established HPV infection, including those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), are in development because approved prophylactic vaccines are not effective once HPV infection is established. As human papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16) is the most commonly detected type worldwide, all versions of HPV therapeutic vaccines contain HPV-16, and some also contain HPV-18. While these two HPV types are responsible for approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases, there are other high-risk HPV types known to cause malignancy. Therefore, it would be of interest to assess whether these HPV therapeutic vaccines may confer cross-protection against other high-risk HPV types. Data available from a few clinical trials that enrolled subjects with CINs regardless of the HPV type(s) present demonstrated clinical responses, as measured by CIN regression, in subjects with both vaccine-matched and nonvaccine HPV types. The currently available evidence demonstrating cross-reactivity, epitope spreading, and de novo immune stimulation as possible mechanisms of cross-protection conferred by investigational HPV therapeutic vaccines is discussed.

  3. The Natural History of Genital Human Papillomavirus Among HIV-Negative Men Having Sex With Men and Men Having Sex With Women

    PubMed Central

    Nyitray, Alan G.; Chang, Mihyun; Villa, Luisa L.; Carvalho da Silva, Roberto J.; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Abrahamsen, Martha; Papenfuss, Mary; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmerón, Jorge; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–negative men having sex with men (MSM) bear a substantial burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)–associated disease, prospective studies of genital HPV infection in this population are scarce. Methods. HPV genotyping was conducted on genital samples from men (aged 18–70 years) from Brazil, Mexico, or the United States who provided specimens at 6-month intervals for up to 4 years. Eligibility criteria included no history of genital warts or HIV infection. Evaluable specimens were collected from 564 MSM and 3029 men having sex with women (MSW). Incidence and clearance estimates with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results. The 12-month cumulative incidence of genital HPV was high in both MSM (25%; 95% confidence interval, 21%–30%) and MSW (21%; 20%–23%). After stratifying by city, MSM and MSW incidence rates were comparable, with 3 exceptions where MSM had higher incidence in ≥1 city: the group of quadrivalent vaccine types, HPV-45, and HPV-11. Median times to HPV-16 clearance were also comparable, with point estimates of >6 months for both MSM and MSW. Conclusions. Unlike with many other sexually transmitted infections, genital HPV natural history may be similar in HIV-negative MSM and MSW. Study periods of ≤6 months, however, may not be long enough to accurately measure the persistence of these infections in men. PMID:25649172

  4. Comparison of the immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine for oncogenic non-vaccine types HPV-31 and HPV-45 in healthy women aged 18-45 years.

    PubMed

    Einstein, Mark H; Baron, Mira; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Fox, Bradley; Scholar, Sofia; Rosen, Jeffrey; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Lebacq, Marie; van der Most, Robbert; Moris, Philippe; Giannini, Sandra L; Schuind, Anne; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique

    2011-12-01

    Protection against oncogenic non-vaccine types (cross-protection) offered by human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines may provide a significant medical benefit. Available clinical efficacy data suggest the two licensed vaccines (HPV-16/18 vaccine, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (GSK), and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine, Merck & Co., Inc.) differ in terms of protection against oncogenic non-vaccine HPV types -31/45. The immune responses induced by the two vaccines against these two non-vaccine HPV types (cross-reactivity) was compared in an observer-blind study up to Month 24 (18 mo post-vaccination), in women HPV DNA-negative and seronegative prior to vaccination for the HPV type analyzed (HPV-010 [NCT00423046]). Geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) measured by pseudovirion-based neutralization assay (PBNA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were similar between vaccines for HPV-31/45. Seropositivity rates for HPV-31 were also similar between vaccines; however, there was a trend for higher seropositivity with the HPV-16/18 vaccine (13.0-16.7%) versus the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (0.0-5.0%) for HPV-45 with PBNA, but not ELISA. HPV-31/45 cross-reactive memory B-cell responses were comparable between vaccines. Circulating antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell frequencies were higher for the HPV-16/18 vaccine than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (HPV-31 [geometric mean ratio [GMR] =2.0; p=0.0002] and HPV-45 [GMR=2.6; p=0.0092]), as were the proportion of T-cell responders (HPV-31, p=0.0009; HPV-45, p=0.0793). In conclusion, immune response to oncogenic non-vaccine HPV types -31/45 was generally similar for both vaccines with the exception of T-cell response which was higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine. Considering the differences in cross-protective efficacy between the two vaccines, the results might provide insights into the underlying mechanism(s) of protection.

  5. Comparison of the immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine for oncogenic non-vaccine types HPV-31 and HPV-45 in healthy women aged 18–45 years

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Mira; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Fox, Bradley; Scholar, Sofia; Rosen, Jeffrey; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Lebacq, Marie; van der Most, Robbert; Moris, Philippe; Giannini, Sandra L; Schuind, Anne; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Protection against oncogenic non-vaccine types (cross-protection) offered by human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines may provide a significant medical benefit. Available clinical efficacy data suggest the two licensed vaccines [HPV-16/18 vaccine, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (GSK), and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine, Merck and Co., Inc.,] differ in terms of protection against oncogenic non-vaccine HPV types -31/45. The immune responses induced by the two vaccines against these two non-vaccine HPV types (cross-reactivity) was compared in an observer-blind study up to Month 24 (18 mo postvaccination), in women HPV DNA-negative and seronegative prior to vaccination for the HPV type analyzed [HPV-010 (NCT00423046)]. Geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) measured by pseudovirion-based neutralization assay (PBNA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ) were similar between vaccines for HPV-31/45. Seropositivity rates for HPV-31 were also similar between vaccines; however, there was a trend for higher seropositivity with the HPV-16/18 vaccine (13.0–16.7%) vs. the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (0.0–5.0%) for HPV-45 with PBNA, but not ELISA . HPV-31/45 cross-reactive memory B-cell responses were comparable between vaccines. Circulating antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell frequencies were higher for the HPV-16/18 vaccine than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine {HPV-31 [geometric mean ratio (GMR) = 2.0; p = 0.0002] and HPV-45 [GMR = 2.6; p = 0.0092]}, as were the proportion of T-cell responders (HPV-31, p = 0.0009; HPV-45, p = 0.0793). In conclusion, immune response to oncogenic non-vaccine HPV types -31/45 was generally similar for both vaccines with the exception of T-cell response which was higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine. Considering the differences in cross-protective efficacy between the two vaccines, the results might provide insights into the underlying mechanism(s) of protection. PMID:22048172

  6. Phylogenetically related, clinically different: human papillomaviruses 6 and 11 variants distribution in genital warts and in laryngeal papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Godínez, J M; Nicolás-Párraga, S; Pimenoff, V N; Mengual-Chuliá, B; Muñoz, N; Bosch, F X; Sánchez, G I; McCloskey, J; Bravo, I G

    2014-06-01

    Genital warts (GWs) and laryngeal papillomatosis (LP) are two usually benign pathologies related to infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs), mainly HPV6 and HPV11. The aim of this work was to describe the genetic diversity of HPV6 and HPV11 isolates found in GWs and LPs, and to analyse the differential involvement of viral variants in either lesion. A total of 231 samples diagnosed as GWs (n = 198) or LP (n = 33) and caused by HPV6 or HPV11 monoinfections were analysed. The phylogenetic relationships of the retrieved viral sequences were explored. We have identified the long control region and the intergenic E2-L2 region as the two most variable regions in both HPV6 and HPV11 genomes. We have generated new HPV6 (n = 166) or HPV11 (n = 65) partial sequences from GWs and LPs lesions spanning both regions and studied them in the context of all available sequences of both types (final n = 412). Our results show a significant (p <0.01) differential presence of HPV6 variants among both pathologies, with HPV6 B variants being preferentially found in GW versus LP samples. No differential involvement of HPV11 variants was observed. Our findings suggest that different HPV6 variants may either show differential tropism or have different potential to induce lesions in different epithelia.

  7. Comparison of real-time multiplex human papillomavirus (HPV) PCR assays with INNO-LiPA HPV genotyping extra assay.

    PubMed

    Else, Elizabeth A; Swoyer, Ryan; Zhang, Yuhua; Taddeo, Frank J; Bryan, Janine T; Lawson, John; Van Hyfte, Inez; Roberts, Christine C

    2011-05-01

    Real-time type-specific multiplex human papillomavirus (HPV) PCR assays were developed to detect HPV DNA in samples collected for the efficacy determination of the quadrivalent HPV (type 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine (Gardasil). Additional multiplex (L1, E6, and E7 open reading frame [ORF]) or duplex (E6 and E7 ORF) HPV PCR assays were developed to detect high-risk HPV types, including HPV type 31 (HPV31), HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58, and HPV59. Here, we evaluated clinical specimen concordance and compared the limits of detection (LODs) between multiplex HPV PCR assays and the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra assay, which detects 28 types, for the 14 HPV types common to both of these methods. Overall HPV detection agreement rates were >90% for swabs and >95% for thin sections. Statistically significant differences in detection were observed for HPV6, HPV16, HPV18, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV56, HPV58, and HPV59 in swabs and for HPV45, HPV58, and HPV59 in thin sections. Where P was <0.05, discordance was due to detection of more HPV-positive samples by the multiplex HPV PCR assays. LODs were similar for eight HPV types, significantly lower in multiplex assays for five HPV types, and lower in INNO-LiPA for HPV6 only. LODs were under 50 copies for all HPV types, with the exception of HPV39, HPV58, and HPV59 in the INNO-LiPA assay. The overall percent agreement for detection of 14 HPV types between the type-specific multiplex HPV PCR and INNO-LiPA genotyping assays was good. The differences in positive sample detection favored multiplex HPV PCR, suggesting increased sensitivity of HPV DNA detection by type-specific multiplex HPV PCR assays.

  8. Transmission of genital human papillomavirus infections is unlikely through the floor and seats of humid dwellings in countries of high-level hygiene.

    PubMed

    Puranen, M; Syrjänen, K; Syrjänen, S

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the transmission of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) through the floor and seats of humid dwellings, samples were collected with a toothbrush from the floor and seat surfaces of humid dwellings; showers, saunas and dressing rooms. The survey included 3 bathing resorts, 1 indoor swimming pool, 2 schools and 2 private homes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the human beta-globin gene and HPV DNA. The results for HPV DNA amplification were confirmed by Southern blot hybridization under low stringency using a probe mixture of HPV types 6, 16, 18 and 31. beta-globin could be amplified only from 3 sample taken from a dressing room of and indoor public swimming pool. No HPV DNA-positive samples were found. These results indicate that transmission of genital HPV infection via floor or seat surfaces in the above dwellings in general or family use is highly unlikely.

  9. Comparison between Urine and Cervical Samples for HPV DNA Detection and Typing in Young Women in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cómbita, Alba Lucía; Gheit, Tarik; González, Paula; Puerto, Devi; Murillo, Raúl Hernando; Montoya, Luisa; Vorsters, Alex; Van Keer, Severien; Van Damme, Pierre; Tommasino, Massimo; Hernández-Suárez, Gustavo; Sánchez, Laura; Herrero, Rolando; Wiesner, Carolina

    2016-09-01

    Urine sampling for HPV DNA detection has been proposed as an effective method for monitoring the impact of HPV vaccination programs; however, conflicting results have been reported. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of optimized urine HPV DNA testing in women aged 19 to 25 years. Optimization process included the use of first void urine, immediate mixing of urine with DNA preservative, and the concentration of all HPV DNA, including cell-free DNA fragments. Urine and cervical samples were collected from 535 young women attending cervical screening at health centers from two Colombian cities. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using an HPV type-specific multiplex genotyping assay, which combines multiplex polymerase chain reaction with bead-based Luminex technology. Concordance between HPV DNA detection in urine and cervical samples was determined using kappa statistics and McNemar tests. The accuracy of HPV DNA testing in urine samples was evaluated measuring sensitivity and specificity using as reference the results obtained from cervical samples. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA11.2 software. The findings revealed an overall HPV prevalence of 60.00% in cervical samples and 64.72% in urine samples, HPV-16 being the most frequent HPV type detected in both specimens. Moreover, our results indicate that detection of HPV DNA in first void urine provides similar results to those obtained with cervical samples and can be used to monitor HPV vaccination trials and programs as evidenced by the substantial concordance found for the detection of the four vaccine types. Cancer Prev Res; 9(9); 766-71. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27417431

  10. [Prevention of HPV cancer related through HPV-9: state of the art, potential benefits and open issues].

    PubMed

    Mariani, Luciano; Bonanni, Paolo; Castiglia, Paolo; Chiamenti, Giampietro; Conforti, Giorgio; Conversano, Michele; Icardi, Giancarlo; Maio, Tommasa; Mennini, Francesco; Prato, Rosa; Scotti, Silvestro; Signorelli, Carlo; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    HPV vaccines currently marketed in Italy (bivalent and quadrivalent against HPV 16-18 and HPV and 6,11,16,18 respectively) are an extraordinary tool for the primary prevention of HPV related diseases, particularly of the cervical cancer. Although the implementation of the organized vaccination programs has already translated (for some endpoint) in confirmation of clinical efficacy, remains excluded a significant proportion of the diseases linked to non-vaccine HPV types. The new nonavalent vaccine (HPV9), of impending commercialization, represents an evolution of the quadrivalent, the composition of which are added five high-risk HPV types (HPV 31,33,45,52,58). The high clinical-immunological efficacy in experimental trials against the new genotypes (> 96% for CIN2 +), and the equivalence immunogenic to the four already present in the previous vaccine, will render the use of HPV9 a tool able to control in an even more effective HPV disease. The potential of the new vaccine is linked to the reduction of the HPV cancer burden by 2-20% according to anatomical site, with major benefits for cervical cancer, vulvo-vaginal, penile and more limited benefits for anal tumours. Moreover, the potential benefits could be also linked to the reduction of incidence of pre-neoplastic lesions arising in the lower-genital tract, especially in the cervix (CIN2-3), so often cause lengthy and expensive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In the face of this broad provision of benefit from HPV9 vaccine, we have also to consider all the variables related to its introduction in the vaccination calendars: the market price, the schedule of administration (currently in three doses) and data regarding the cost-effectiveness. The authors recognize the new vaccine (currently registered only in the US) a lot of potential in the prevention of HPV-related diseases.

  11. Post Hoc Analysis of the PATRICIA Randomized Trial of the Efficacy of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16)/HPV-18 AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine against Incident and Persistent Infection with Nonvaccine Oncogenic HPV Types Using an Alternative Multiplex Type-Specific PCR Assay for HPV DNA

    PubMed Central

    Colau, Brigitte; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Naud, Paulo; Garland, Suzanne; Quint, Wim; Chow, Song-Nan; Salmerón, Jorge; Lehtinen, Matti; Del Rosario-Raymundo, M. Rowena; Paavonen, Jorma; Teixeira, Júlio C.; Germar, Maria Julieta; Peters, Klaus; Skinner, S. Rachel; Limson, Genara; Castellsagué, Xavier; Poppe, Willy A. J.; Ramjattan, Brian; Klein, Terry D.; Schwarz, Tino F.; Chatterjee, Archana; Tjalma, Wiebren A. A.; Diaz-Mitoma, Francisco; Lewis, David J. M.; Harper, Diane M.; Molijn, Anco; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; David, Marie-Pierre; Dubin, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16)/HPV-18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infections with HPV in the Papilloma Trial against Cancer in Young Adults (PATRICIA) was evaluated using a combination of the broad-spectrum L1-based SPF10 PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA)/line probe assay (LiPA25) system with type-specific PCRs for HPV-16 and -18. Broad-spectrum PCR assays may underestimate the presence of HPV genotypes present at relatively low concentrations in multiple infections, due to competition between genotypes. Therefore, samples were retrospectively reanalyzed using a testing algorithm incorporating the SPF10 PCR-DEIA/LiPA25 plus a novel E6-based multiplex type-specific PCR and reverse hybridization assay (MPTS12 RHA), which permits detection of a panel of nine oncogenic HPV genotypes (types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58, and 59). For the vaccine against HPV types 16 and 18, there was no major impact on estimates of vaccine efficacy (VE) for incident or 6-month or 12-month persistent infections when the MPTS12 RHA was included in the testing algorithm versus estimates with the protocol-specified algorithm. However, the alternative testing algorithm showed greater sensitivity than the protocol-specified algorithm for detection of some nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types. More cases were gained in the control group than in the vaccine group, leading to higher point estimates of VE for 6-month and 12-month persistent infections for the nonvaccine oncogenic types included in the MPTS12 RHA assay (types 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58, and 59). This post hoc analysis indicates that the per-protocol testing algorithm used in PATRICIA underestimated the VE against some nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types and that the choice of the HPV DNA testing methodology is important for the evaluation of VE in clinical trials. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00122681.) PMID:25540273

  12. [Vaccines as an agent for immunization against HPV].

    PubMed

    Zardo, Geisa Picksius; Farah, Flávia Peixoto; Mendes, Fernanda Gabriela; Franco, Camila Ament Giuliani Dos Santos; Molina, Giseli Vieira Machado; Melo, Gislaine Nochetti de; Kusma, Solena Ziemer

    2014-09-01

    Considered a highly prevalent infection throughout the world, the human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus that infects the genital mucosa and has high carcinogenic potential, being related to an increased risk of lower genital tract lesions, such as cervical cancer. This cancer is responsible for the deaths of about 231,000 women per year worldwide, which means that HPV is a major problem for public health. Knowing that the most effective and cost-effective way to control an infectious disease is the development of vaccines, two prophylactic vaccines have been developed and approved in Brazil, one of which is bivalent and the other is tetravalent. This review of the literature seeks to present the characteristics of the HPV virus, types of vaccines available on the market, their indications and contraindications, their adverse effects, their effectiveness, their geometric mean titer (GMT) and their cost-effectiveness.

  13. Risk of cervical HPV infection and prevalence of vaccine-type and other high-risk HPV types among sexually active teens and young women (13-26 years) enrolled in the VALHIDATE study.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Giovanna; Fasolo, Michela; Mazza, Francesca; Ricci, Elena; Esposito, Susanna; Frati, Elena; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Cetin, Irene; Gramegna, Maria; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    HPV vaccination is expected to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. The greatest and the earliest health gains will be ensured by high vaccine coverage among all susceptible people. The high costs and the risk of a reduced cost/effectiveness ratio in sexually active girls still represent the main obstacles for a more widespread use of HPV vaccination in many countries. Data on the rate, risk factors, and HPV types in sexually active women could provide information for the evaluation of vaccination policies extended to broader age cohorts. Sexually active women aged 13-26 years enrolled in an Italian cohort study were screened for cervical HPV infections; HPV-DNA positive samples were genotyped by InnoLipa HPV Genotyping Extra or by RFLP genotype analysis.: Among the 796 women meeting the inclusion criteria, 10.80% (95% CI 8.65-12.96) were HPV-DNA infected. Age>18 years, lifetime sexual partners>1, and history of STIs were associated to higher risk of HPV infection in the multivariable models adjusted for age, lifetime sexual partners, and time of sexual exposure. The global prevalence of the four HPV vaccine-types was 3.02% (95% CI 1.83-4.20) and the cumulative probability of infection from at least one vaccine-type was 12.82% in 26-years-old women and 0.78% in 18-years-old women.: Our data confirm most of the previously reported findings on the risk factors for HPV infections. The low prevalence of the HPV vaccine-types found may be useful for the evaluation of the cost/efficacy and the cost/effectiveness of broader immunization programs beyond the 12-years-old cohort. PMID:24423757

  14. Risk of cervical HPV infection and prevalence of vaccine-type and other high-risk HPV types among sexually active teens and young women (13–26 years) enrolled in the VALHIDATE study

    PubMed Central

    Orlando, Giovanna; Fasolo, Michela; Mazza, Francesca; Ricci, Elena; Esposito, Susanna; Frati, Elena; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Cetin, Irene; Gramegna, Maria; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Tanzi, Elisabetta; group, VALHIDATE study

    2014-01-01

    HPV vaccination is expected to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. The greatest and the earliest health gains will be ensured by high vaccine coverage among all susceptible people. The high costs and the risk of a reduced cost/effectiveness ratio in sexually active girls still represent the main obstacles for a more widespread use of HPV vaccination in many countries. Data on the rate, risk factors, and HPV types in sexually active women could provide information for the evaluation of vaccination policies extended to broader age cohorts. Sexually active women aged 13–26 years enrolled in an Italian cohort study were screened for cervical HPV infections; HPV-DNA positive samples were genotyped by InnoLipa HPV Genotyping Extra or by RFLP genotype analysis. Among the 796 women meeting the inclusion criteria, 10.80% (95% CI 8.65–12.96) were HPV-DNA infected. Age >18 years, lifetime sexual partners >1, and history of STIs were associated to higher risk of HPV infection in the multivariable models adjusted for age, lifetime sexual partners, and time of sexual exposure. The global prevalence of the four HPV vaccine-types was 3.02% (95% CI 1.83–4.20) and the cumulative probability of infection from at least one vaccine-type was 12.82% in 26-years-old women and 0.78% in 18-years-old women. Our data confirm most of the previously reported findings on the risk factors for HPV infections. The low prevalence of the HPV vaccine-types found may be useful for the evaluation of the cost/efficacy and the cost/effectiveness of broader immunization programs beyond the 12-years-old cohort. PMID:24423757

  15. A papillomavirus related to HPV type 13 in oral focal epithelial hyperplasia in the pygmy chimpanzee.

    PubMed

    Van Ranst, M; Fuse, A; Sobis, H; De Meurichy, W; Syrjänen, S M; Billiau, A; Opdenakker, G

    1991-08-01

    An epizootic of focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Morbus Heck in a pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus) colony is described. Papovavirus-like particles were observed in the nuclei of epithelial cells. Analysis of the DNA of the lesions revealed an episomal papillomavirus-specific band with a molecular size of approximately 8,000 bp. In situ hybridization under high stringency conditions showed cross-hybridization between the chimpanzee papillomavirus DNA and human papillomavirus (HPV) type 13. The latter virus is uniquely associated with oral disease in man. This is the first demonstration of the association of a HPV 13-related pygmy chimpanzee papillomavirus (PCPV) and oral epithelial hyperplasia in a nonhuman primate.

  16. Overactive bladder after female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) type III.

    PubMed

    Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Dällenbach, Patrick

    2013-10-04

    A 27-year-old Somali woman with type III a-b female genital mutilation/cutting, consulted because of slow micturition, voiding efforts, urgency and urge incontinence (overactive bladder). She also referred primary dysmenorrhoea and superficial dyspareunia making complete sexual intercourses impossible. We treated her by defibulation and biofeedback re-educative therapy. We also offered a multidisciplinary counselling. At 5 months follow-up, urgency and urge incontinence had resolved and she became pregnant.

  17. From the monovalent to the nine-valent HPV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Pils, S; Joura, E A

    2015-09-01

    An investigational monovalent human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 virus-like particle vaccine has been shown to prevent persistent infection and cervical disease related to HPV 16 and was proof of concept (2002). Designed to prevent the bulk of invasive cervical cancer, quadrivalent (HPV 6/11/16/18) and bivalent (HPV 16/18) vaccines have been available since 2006 and 2007, respectively. They are highly effective in preventing HPV 16/18-related cervical precancer; the quadrivalent version also prevents genital warts related to HPV 6/11. It has been shown that the precursors of vulvar, vaginal and anal cancer related to the vaccine types are effectively prevented. This led to a paradigm shift from a female-only cervical cancer vaccine to a vaccine for the prevention of HPV-related disease and cancer for both sexes. Vaccination before the start of sexual activity is most effective, and consequently most programs target 9- to 12-year-olds. Additionally, recent studies have proven the noninferior immunoresponse of a two-dose schedule in these age cohorts. Gender-neutral vaccination has become more common; it improves coverage and also provides protection to all males. Recently a nine-valent HPV vaccine (HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) was licensed; it provides high and consistent protection against infections and diseases related to these types, with ∼90% of cervical and other HPV-related cancers and precancers potentially being avoided. Coverage is key. Efforts must be made to provide HPV vaccination in low-resource countries that lack screening programs. In countries with cervical cancer screening, HPV vaccination will greatly affect screening algorithms.

  18. The Most Common Type of HPV in Women with Atypical Squamous Cell of Undetermined Significance (ASCUS) in Pap Smear in Iran-Yazd

    PubMed Central

    Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Tabatabaie, Afsarosadat; Dehghani-Firoozabadi, Alie; Shamsi, Farima; Baghianimoghaddam, Maleknaz; Dargahi, Mandana; Yazian, Pouria; Mojahed, Shahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical cancer is the third most gynecological cancer and one of the common causes of cancer death in women in Iran and the other developing countries. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is a known Risk factor in cervical cancer, but according to HPV deference types, the high risk and low risks differ. Material and method: We evaluate the most common high risk and low risk HPV type in 180 females with an atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) results in pap smear in Gynecological Oncology Clinic in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital in Yazd, Iran within 2012 to 2014.HPV typing was done with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The data obtained were recorded in a questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS software. Result: More common low risk HPV type in ASCUS patients was type 6 (63.6%) and then type 11 (36.4%). Type 16 was the most common high risk HPV type. Discussion: HPV DNA typing for better management of women With ASCUS is important and this study showed HPV type 16 is the most prevalent type in ASCUS patients. It seems the living region is important in HPV type distribution and Quadri-valant Vaccine can prevent cervical cancer in Iran because the most common low risk HPV is type6 and 11, and HPV 16 is the most common high risk HPV. PMID:26759533

  19. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and levonorgestrel increase genital mucosal permeability and enhance susceptibility to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection

    PubMed Central

    Calla, Nirk E Quispe; Miguel, Rodolfo D Vicetti; Boyaka, Prosper N; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Kaur, Balveen; Trout, Wayne; Pavelko, Stephen D; Cherpes, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a hormonal contraceptive especially popular in areas with high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). While observational studies identify DMPA as an important STI risk factor, mechanisms underlying this connection are undefined. Levonorgestrel (LNG) is another progestin used for hormonal contraception, but its effect on STI susceptibility is much less explored. Using a mouse model of genital HSV-2 infection, we herein found DMPA and LNG similarly reduced genital expression of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1α (DSG1α), enhanced access of inflammatory cells to genital tissue by increasing mucosal epithelial permeability, and increased susceptibility to viral infection. Additional studies with uninfected mice revealed DMPA-mediated increases in mucosal permeability promoted tissue inflammation by facilitating endogenous vaginal microbiota invasion. Conversely, concomitant treatment of mice with DMPA and intravaginal estrogen restored mucosal barrier function and prevented HSV-2 infection. Evaluating ectocervical biopsy tissue from women before and 1 month after initiating DMPA remarkably revealed inflammation and barrier protection were altered by treatment identically to changes seen in progestin-treated mice. Together, our work reveals DMPA and LNG diminish the genital mucosal barrier; a first-line defense against all STI, but may offer foundation for new contraceptive strategies less compromising of barrier protection. PMID:27007679

  20. Genital warts

    MedlinePlus

    Condylomata acuminata; Penile warts; Human papillomavirus (HPV); Venereal warts; Condyloma; HPV DNA test; Sexually transmitted disease (STD) - warts; Sexually transmitted infection (STI) - warts; LSIL-HPV; Low- ...

  1. External Genital Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Associated Factors Among Heterosexual Men on 5 Continents

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, Anna R.; Goldstone, Stephen; Palefsky, Joel M.; Moreira, Edson D.; Penny, Mary E.; Aranda, Carlos; Jessen, Heiko; Moi, Harald; Ferris, Daron G.; Liaw, Kai-Li; Marshall, J. Brooke; Vuocolo, Scott; Barr, Eliav; Haupt, Richard M.; Garner, Elizabeth I.O.; Guris, Dalya

    2011-01-01

    Background. We examined the baseline prevalence of penile, scrotal, and perineal/perianal human papillomavirus (HPV) in heterosexual men (HM). We also evaluated baseline characteristics of HM to assess factors associated with prevalent HPV detection. Methods. We tested serum samples from 3463 HM aged 16–24 years with 1–5 lifetime female sexual partners for antibodies to HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18. We collected baseline swab specimens for the detection of DNA of HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, and 59 from 3 areas: penile, scrotal, and perineal/perianal. Risk factors for prevalent HPV DNA detection were evaluated. Results. The prevalence of any tested HPV type was 18.7% at the penis, 13.1% at the scrotum, 7.9% at the perineal/perianal region, and 21.0% at any site. Having >3 lifetime female sexual partners had the greatest impact on HPV prevalence: odds ratio (OR) 3.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1–4.9) for HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18; and OR 4.5 (95% CI 3.3–6.1) for all HPV types tested. HPV DNA detection was highest in Africa. Neither condom usage nor circumcision was associated with HPV DNA prevalence. Conclusion. Genital-HPV DNA detection is common in young, sexually active HM. We found HPV to be most prevalent in African men and least prevalent in men from the Asia-Pacific region. Increased numbers of sexual partners was an important risk factor for HPV DNA prevalence. PMID:21148497

  2. Human papillomavirus infections in Mexican women with normal cytology, precancerous lesions, and cervical cancer: type-specific prevalence and HPV coinfections.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I; Salgado-Bernabé, Manuel Eduardo; Ramos-González, Norma Patricia; Ortega-Cervantes, Laura; Arias-Flores, Rafael; Medina-Díaz, Irma M; Hernández-Garza, Fernando; Santos-López, Gerardo; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence and genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) provides the basis for designing HPV prevention programs. The prevalence rates of type-specific HPV and coinfections in samples of Mexican women were investigated in 822 women aged 18-87 years. HPV detection was performed using a Linear Array™ genotyping test. HPV infection was found in 12.4% of controls, 46.3% of those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1, and 100% of those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 or cervical cancer. HPV 16 was the most prevalent type in all diagnosis groups. The HPV types most frequently found in cervical cancers were 16, 18, 45, 52, 58, and 39; HPV types 16, 62, 51, 84, 18, 53, and CP6108 were the most prevalent in control women. Considering HPV-positive samples only, coinfections occurred most often in controls (63%) and were less frequent in those with cervical cancer (26%). The most frequent viral types in coinfections with HPV 16 in control women were HPV 62, 51, and 84; in women with cervical cancers, HPV 18, 39, and 70 were most common. In conclusion, in addition to HPV types 16 and 18, types 45, 39, 58, 52, and 71 were found in cervical cancers in Mexican women (78%); among them, only 65% were attributable to HPV types 16 and 18. Therefore, it is necessary to consider these viral types in the design of new vaccines, and to determine whether certain HPV types coinfecting with HPV 16 in precursor lesions determine tumor progression or regression.

  3. Parenteral is more efficient than mucosal immunization to induce regression of human papillomavirus-associated genital tumors.

    PubMed

    Decrausaz, Loane; Domingos-Pereira, Sonia; Duc, Mélanie; Bobst, Martine; Romero, Pedro; Schiller, John T; Jichlinski, Patrice; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

    2011-08-01

    Cervical cancer is a public health concern as it represents the second cause of cancer death in women worldwide. High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the etiologic agents, and HPV E6 and/or E7 oncogene-specific therapeutic vaccines are under development to treat HPV-related lesions in women. Whether the use of mucosal routes of immunization may be preferable for inducing cell-mediated immune responses able to eradicate genital tumors is still debated because of the uniqueness of the female genital mucosa (GM) and the limited experimentation. Here, we compared the protective activity resulting from immunization of mice via intranasal (i.n.), intravaginal (IVAG) or subcutaneous (s.c.) routes with an adjuvanted HPV type 16 E7 polypeptide vaccine. Our data show that s.c. and i.n. immunizations elicited similar frequencies and avidity of TetE71CD81 and E7-specific Interferon-gamma-secreting cells in the GM, whereas slightly lower immune responses were induced by IVAG immunization. In a novel orthotopic murine model, both s.c. and i.n. immunizations allowed for complete long-term protection against genital E7-expressing tumor challenge. However, only s.c. immunization induced complete regression of already established genital tumors. This suggests that the higher E7-specific systemic response observed after s.c. immunization may contribute to the regression of growing genital tumors, whereas local immune responses may be sufficient to impede genital challenges. Thus, our data show that for an efficiently adjuvanted protein-based vaccine, parenteral vaccination route is superior to mucosal vaccination route for inducing regression of established genital tumors in a murine model of HPV-associated genital cancer.

  4. Significantly Reduced Genoprevalence of Vaccine-Type HPV-16/18 Infections among Vaccinated Compared to Non-Vaccinated Young Women 5.5 Years after a Bivalent HPV-16/18 Vaccine (Cervarix®) Pilot Project in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kumakech, Edward; Berggren, Vanja; Wabinga, Henry; Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella; Helenius, Gisela; Kaliff, Malin; Karlsson, Mats; Kirimunda, Samuel; Musubika, Caroline; Andersson, Sören

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and some predictors for vaccine and non-vaccine types of HPV infections among bivalent HPV vaccinated and non-vaccinated young women in Uganda. This was a comparative cross sectional study 5.5 years after a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccination (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) pilot project in western Uganda. Cervical swabs were collected between July 2014-August 2014 and analyzed with a HPV genotyping test, CLART® HPV2 assay (Genomica, Madrid Spain) which is based on PCR followed by microarray for determination of genotype. Blood samples were also tested for HIV and syphilis infections as well as CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte levels. The age range of the participants was 15-24 years and mean age was 18.6(SD 1.4). Vaccine-type HPV-16/18 strains were significantly less prevalent among vaccinated women compared to non-vaccinated women (0.5% vs 5.6%, p 0.006, OR 95% CI 0.08(0.01-0.64). At type-specific level, significant difference was observed for HPV16 only. Other STIs (HIV/syphilis) were important risk factors for HPV infections including both vaccine types and non-vaccine types. In addition, for non-vaccine HPV types, living in an urban area, having a low BMI, low CD4 count and having had a high number of life time sexual partners were also significant risk factors. Our data concurs with the existing literature from other parts of the world regarding the effectiveness of bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine in reducing the prevalence of HPV infections particularly vaccine HPV- 16/18 strains among vaccinated women. This study reinforces the recommendation to vaccinate young girls before sexual debut and integrate other STI particularly HIV and syphilis interventions into HPV vaccination packages.

  5. Significantly Reduced Genoprevalence of Vaccine-Type HPV-16/18 Infections among Vaccinated Compared to Non-Vaccinated Young Women 5.5 Years after a Bivalent HPV-16/18 Vaccine (Cervarix®) Pilot Project in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Berggren, Vanja; Wabinga, Henry; Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella; Helenius, Gisela; Kaliff, Malin; Karlsson, Mats; Kirimunda, Samuel; Musubika, Caroline; Andersson, Sören

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and some predictors for vaccine and non-vaccine types of HPV infections among bivalent HPV vaccinated and non-vaccinated young women in Uganda. This was a comparative cross sectional study 5.5 years after a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccination (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) pilot project in western Uganda. Cervical swabs were collected between July 2014-August 2014 and analyzed with a HPV genotyping test, CLART® HPV2 assay (Genomica, Madrid Spain) which is based on PCR followed by microarray for determination of genotype. Blood samples were also tested for HIV and syphilis infections as well as CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte levels. The age range of the participants was 15–24 years and mean age was 18.6(SD 1.4). Vaccine-type HPV-16/18 strains were significantly less prevalent among vaccinated women compared to non-vaccinated women (0.5% vs 5.6%, p 0.006, OR 95% CI 0.08(0.01–0.64). At type-specific level, significant difference was observed for HPV16 only. Other STIs (HIV/syphilis) were important risk factors for HPV infections including both vaccine types and non-vaccine types. In addition, for non-vaccine HPV types, living in an urban area, having a low BMI, low CD4 count and having had a high number of life time sexual partners were also significant risk factors. Our data concurs with the existing literature from other parts of the world regarding the effectiveness of bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine in reducing the prevalence of HPV infections particularly vaccine HPV- 16/18 strains among vaccinated women. This study reinforces the recommendation to vaccinate young girls before sexual debut and integrate other STI particularly HIV and syphilis interventions into HPV vaccination packages. PMID:27482705

  6. Significantly Reduced Genoprevalence of Vaccine-Type HPV-16/18 Infections among Vaccinated Compared to Non-Vaccinated Young Women 5.5 Years after a Bivalent HPV-16/18 Vaccine (Cervarix®) Pilot Project in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kumakech, Edward; Berggren, Vanja; Wabinga, Henry; Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella; Helenius, Gisela; Kaliff, Malin; Karlsson, Mats; Kirimunda, Samuel; Musubika, Caroline; Andersson, Sören

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and some predictors for vaccine and non-vaccine types of HPV infections among bivalent HPV vaccinated and non-vaccinated young women in Uganda. This was a comparative cross sectional study 5.5 years after a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccination (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) pilot project in western Uganda. Cervical swabs were collected between July 2014-August 2014 and analyzed with a HPV genotyping test, CLART® HPV2 assay (Genomica, Madrid Spain) which is based on PCR followed by microarray for determination of genotype. Blood samples were also tested for HIV and syphilis infections as well as CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte levels. The age range of the participants was 15-24 years and mean age was 18.6(SD 1.4). Vaccine-type HPV-16/18 strains were significantly less prevalent among vaccinated women compared to non-vaccinated women (0.5% vs 5.6%, p 0.006, OR 95% CI 0.08(0.01-0.64). At type-specific level, significant difference was observed for HPV16 only. Other STIs (HIV/syphilis) were important risk factors for HPV infections including both vaccine types and non-vaccine types. In addition, for non-vaccine HPV types, living in an urban area, having a low BMI, low CD4 count and having had a high number of life time sexual partners were also significant risk factors. Our data concurs with the existing literature from other parts of the world regarding the effectiveness of bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine in reducing the prevalence of HPV infections particularly vaccine HPV- 16/18 strains among vaccinated women. This study reinforces the recommendation to vaccinate young girls before sexual debut and integrate other STI particularly HIV and syphilis interventions into HPV vaccination packages. PMID:27482705

  7. HPV Vaccine - Gardasil: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent HPV. It may be given to both males and females. This vaccine can prevent most cases of cervical ... and genital warts and anal cancer in both males and females. Protection from HPV vaccine is expected to be ...

  8. Protect Yourself Against HPV | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.hhs.gov/opa/reproductive-health/stis/hpv/ Human Papillomavirus Block this cervical-cancer causing virus More than ... active people get a genital infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) at some point in their lives, but ...

  9. Epidemiology of oral HPV in the oral mucosa in women without signs of oral disease from Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Losa, María Del Refugio; Barrera, Ernesto Soria; Herrera-Pech, Verónica; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Puerto-Solís, Marylin; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe

    2015-03-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are considered necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, there is no doubt that some types of oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with HR-HPV. The epidemiology of oral HPV infections in healthy subjects remains unclear due to a lack of knowledge. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections of the oral mucosa without pathology. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 390 women seeking prenatal care, Pap smears, family planning or gynecological diseases were studied. Oral cells were collected by direct swab sampling. Information regarding sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, infectious diseases, contraceptive history and tobacco and alcohol consumption were obtained through direct interviews. HPV and genotypes were detected by type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that 14% of the women studied had an oral HPV infection. Women ≤ 20 years of age had the highest HPV prevalence (24.5%). In total, seven genotypes were identified, including the high-risk genotypes 16, 18, 58 and 59 and the low-risk genotypes 6, 81 and 13, the latter of which is a type exclusive to oral mucosa. Sexual behavior was not associated with the presence of genital HPV types in the oral mucosa. Genital HPV types were present in the oral mucosa of women without associated clinical manifestations; however, sexual behavior was not associated with infection, and therefore others routes of transmission should be explored.

  10. Epidemiology of oral HPV in the oral mucosa in women without signs of oral disease from Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Losa, María Del Refugio; Barrera, Ernesto Soria; Herrera-Pech, Verónica; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Puerto-Solís, Marylin; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe

    2015-03-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are considered necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, there is no doubt that some types of oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with HR-HPV. The epidemiology of oral HPV infections in healthy subjects remains unclear due to a lack of knowledge. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections of the oral mucosa without pathology. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 390 women seeking prenatal care, Pap smears, family planning or gynecological diseases were studied. Oral cells were collected by direct swab sampling. Information regarding sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, infectious diseases, contraceptive history and tobacco and alcohol consumption were obtained through direct interviews. HPV and genotypes were detected by type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that 14% of the women studied had an oral HPV infection. Women ≤ 20 years of age had the highest HPV prevalence (24.5%). In total, seven genotypes were identified, including the high-risk genotypes 16, 18, 58 and 59 and the low-risk genotypes 6, 81 and 13, the latter of which is a type exclusive to oral mucosa. Sexual behavior was not associated with the presence of genital HPV types in the oral mucosa. Genital HPV types were present in the oral mucosa of women without associated clinical manifestations; however, sexual behavior was not associated with infection, and therefore others routes of transmission should be explored. PMID:26221121

  11. Epidemiology of oral HPV in the oral mucosa in women without signs of oral disease from Yucatan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Losa, María del Refugio; Barrera, Ernesto Soria; Herrera-Pech, Verónica; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Puerto-Solís, Marylin; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are considered necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, there is no doubt that some types of oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with HR-HPV. The epidemiology of oral HPV infections in healthy subjects remains unclear due to a lack of knowledge. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections of the oral mucosa without pathology. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 390 women seeking prenatal care, Pap smears, family planning or gynecological diseases were studied. Oral cells were collected by direct swab sampling. Information regarding sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, infectious diseases, contraceptive history and tobacco and alcohol consumption were obtained through direct interviews. HPV and genotypes were detected by type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that 14% of the women studied had an oral HPV infection. Women ≤ 20 years of age had the highest HPV prevalence (24.5%). In total, seven genotypes were identified, including the high-risk genotypes 16, 18, 58 and 59 and the low-risk genotypes 6, 81 and 13, the latter of which is a type exclusive to oral mucosa. Sexual behavior was not associated with the presence of genital HPV types in the oral mucosa. Genital HPV types were present in the oral mucosa of women without associated clinical manifestations; however, sexual behavior was not associated with infection, and therefore others routes of transmission should be explored. PMID:26221121

  12. Genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Garland, Suzanne M; Steben, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Genital herpes is a relatively common infection caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type one or two (HSV-1, HSV-2) respectively. It is acquired most commonly via sexual activity. More recently there has been an increase in infections due to HSV-1. Most new cases of genital HSV are not diagnosed due to HSV infections having short-lived signs and symptoms, or in many instances are asymptomatic. Hence many people infected with HSV are unaware that they have it. The risk of transmission to a partner is highest during outbreak periods, when there are visible lesions, although genital HSV can also be transmitted during asymptomatic periods. Use of condoms and antiviral medications assist in preventing transmission. Antiviral agents are effective in controlling clinical episodes, but do not eradicate infection, which remains latent for the life of a patient. Despite the surge in vaccine research, there is unfortunately no readily available preventative or therapeutic vaccine for HSV to date.

  13. Analysis of Multiple HPV E6 PDZ Interactions Defines Type-Specific PDZ Fingerprints That Predict Oncogenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Miranda; Myers, Michael P.; Guarnaccia, Corrado; Banks, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    The high-risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) E6 oncoproteins are characterised by the presence of a class I PDZ-binding motif (PBM) on their extreme carboxy termini. The PBM is present on the E6 proteins derived from all cancer-causing HPV types, but can also be found on some related non-cancer-causing E6 proteins. We have therefore been interested in investigating the potential functional differences between these different E6 PBMs. Using an unbiased proteomic approach in keratinocytes, we have directly compared the interaction profiles of these different PBMs. This has allowed us to identify the potential PDZ target fingerprints of the E6 PBMs from 7 different cancer-causing HPV types, from 3 HPV types with weak cancer association, and from one benign HPV type that possesses an ancestral PBM. We demonstrate a striking increase in the number of potential PDZ targets bound by each E6 PBM as cancer-causing potential increases, and show that the HPV-16 and HPV-18 PBMs have the most flexibility in their PDZ target selection. Furthermore, the specific interaction with hScrib correlates directly with increased oncogenic potential. In contrast, hDlg is bound equally well by all the HPV E6 PBMs analysed, indicating that this is an evolutionarily conserved interaction, and was most likely one of the original E6 PBM target proteins that was important for the occupation of a potential new niche. Finally, we present evidence that the cell junction components ZO-2 and β-2 syntrophin are novel PDZ domain–containing targets of a subset of high-risk HPV types. PMID:27483446

  14. HPV related diseases in males: a heavy vaccine-preventable burden.

    PubMed

    Canepa, P; Orsi, A; Martini, M; Icardi, G

    2013-06-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has a significant impact in male's health, as cause of clinical manifestations ranging from genital warts to several cancers of the anogenital and aero-digestive tract. HPV types which most frequently affect men are 6, 11, 16 and 18, included in the HPV quadrivalent vaccine, recently approved for use in males by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA). Although several data about the safety and efficacy of quadrivalent vaccine are available, the implementation of proper immunization plans dedicate to male's population cannot ignore the knowledge of the characteristics of the disease in men, which in some aspects should be clarify, in particular clearance of type-specific HPV infections and transmission dynamics. Purpose of this review is to summarise the main information about the burden and the natural history of the HPV related disease in males.

  15. Female genital mutilation/cutting type IV in Cambodia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Irion, Olivier; de Tejada, Begoña Martinez

    2015-12-01

    Nontherapeutic female genital modifications can cause short- and long-term consequences. Caregivers should promote women's self knowledge on genitals' anatomy and physiology, and psychophysical and sexual health. They should also inform on possible negative consequences of vulvar nontherapeutic alterations requested and avoid the medicalization of female genital mutilation.

  16. Analysis of risk-structured vaccination model for the dynamics of oncogenic and warts-causing HPV types.

    PubMed

    Alsaleh, Aliya A; Gumel, Abba B

    2014-07-01

    A new deterministic model is designed and used to assess the community-wide impact of mass vaccination of new sexually active individuals on the dynamics of the oncogenic and warts-causing HPV types. Rigorous qualitative analyses of the model, which incorporates the two currently available anti-HPV vaccines, reveal that it undergoes competitive exclusion when the reproduction of one HPV risk type (low/high) exceeds unity, while that of the other HPV risk type is less than unity. For the case when the reproduction numbers of the two HPV risk types (low/high) exceed unity, the two risk types co-exist. It is shown that the sub-model with the low-risk HPV types only has at least one endemic equilibrium whenever the associated reproduction threshold exceeds unity. Furthermore, this sub-model undergoes a re-infection-induced backward bifurcation under certain conditions. In the absence of the re-infection of recovered individuals and cancer-induced mortality in males, the associated disease-free equilibrium of the full (risk-structured) model is shown to be globally asymptotically stable whenever the reproduction number of the model is less than unity (that is, the full model does not undergo backward bifurcation under this setting). It is shown, via numerical simulations, that the use of the Gardasil vaccine could lead to the effective control of HPV in the community if the coverage rate is in the range of 73-95 % (84 %). If 70 % of the new sexually active susceptible females are vaccinated with the Gardasil vaccine, additionally vaccinating 34-56 % (45 %) of the new sexually active susceptible males can lead to the effective community-wide control (or elimination) of the HPV types. PMID:25033777

  17. OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral protection against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection by enhancing type I interferon production

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ji Eun; Lee, Myeong Sup; Kim, Young-Joon; Lee, Heung Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) interferes with virus replication, promotes antiviral responses, and controls innate and adaptive immune responses to certain viruses. Recently, we reported that 2’–5’ oligoadenylate synthetase-like 1 (OASL1) negatively regulates type I IFN production by inhibiting the translation of the type I IFN-regulating master transcription factor, IRF7. Notably, while OASL1-deficient mice induce robust production of type I IFN and are resistant to systemic viral infection, the effects of OASL1 during localized viral infection has not been studied. To this end, we investigated the role of OASL1 during mucosal HSV-2 infection of the genital tract. Oasl1−/− mice exhibited better survival rates than wild type (WT) mice following intravaginal HSV-2 infection, and suppressed virus replication more efficiently despite comparable recruitment of effector immune cells. Moreover, Ly6Chigh monocytes, and not pDCs or other cell types, displayed enhanced production of type I IFNs in Oasl1−/− mice in response to HSV-2 infection. Furthermore, cytotoxic T cell responses including IFN-γ production were accelerated in Oasl1−/− mice after mucosal HSV-2 infection. Collectively, these results demonstrate that OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral immunity against local mucosal viral infection and suggest that OASL1 could be a therapeutic target for treatment of HSV-2 infection of the genital mucosa. PMID:26750802

  18. HPV and HPV Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... HPV Testing Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) What are viruses? Viruses are very small organisms – most cannot even be ... and “hijack” the cell’s machinery to make more viruses. Viruses can enter the body through the mucous ...

  19. Pathogenic role of the eight probably/possibly carcinogenic HPV types 26, 53, 66, 67, 68, 70, 73 and 82 in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Halec, Gordana; Alemany, Laia; Lloveras, Belen; Schmitt, Markus; Alejo, Maria; Bosch, Franz X; Tous, Sara; Klaustermeier, Jo Ellen; Guimerà, Nuria; Grabe, Niels; Lahrmann, Bernd; Gissmann, Lutz; Quint, Wim; Bosch, Francesc X; de Sanjose, Silvia; Pawlita, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Eight HPV types (HPV26, 53, 66, 67, 68, 70, 73 and 82) that are phylogenetically closely related to 12 WHO-defined high-risk (HR) HPV have been rarely but consistently identified as single HPV infections in about 3% of cervical cancer (CxCa) tissues. Due to lack of biological data, these types are referred to as probable/possible (p) HR-HPV. To analyse their biological activity in direct comparison to HR-HPV types, we selected 55 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) CxCa tissues harbouring single pHR-HPV infections (2-13 cases per type) and 266 tissues harbouring single HR-HPV (7-40 cases per type) from a worldwide, retrospective, cross-sectional study. Single HPV infection was verified by two genotyping methods. Presence of type-specific spliced E6*I mRNA transcripts and expression of cellular proteins indicative of HPV transformation were assessed in all cases. In 55 CxCa tissues with pHR-HPV, E6*I mRNA expression was 100%; high p16(INK4a) , 98%; low pRb, 96%; low CyD1, 93%; and low p53, 84%. Compared to HPV16 tissues as a reference, individual frequencies of these five markers did not differ significantly, either for any of the eight pHR-HPV and the 11 other HR types individually or for the groups of pHR and HR types without HPV16. We conclude that the eight pHR-HPV types, when present as a single infection in CxCa, are biologically active and affect the same cellular pathways as any of the fully recognized carcinogenic HR-HPV types. Therefore we have provided molecular evidence of carcinogenicity for types currently classified as probably/possibly carcinogenic. Although this evidence is crucial for HPV-type carcinogenicity classification, per se it is not sufficient for inclusion of these HPV types into population-wide primary and secondary prevention programmes. Such decisions have to include careful estimation of effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses.

  20. HPV-Linked Cancers Still Climbing in U.S.

    MedlinePlus

    ... genital or otherwise -- can get HPV, scientists say. Oral cancers in particular are HPV-related, said Dr. Jill ... consider this as 'true' sexual activity," Rabin said. Oral-genital sex also places teens at risk for penile, rectal and vulvar-vaginal cancers, she said. "The reason the vaccine is given ...

  1. Association Study between Cervical Lesions and Single or Multiple Vaccine-Target and Non-Vaccine Target Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types in Women from Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Chagas, Bárbara Simas; Comar, Manola; Gurgel, Ana Pavla Almeida Diniz; Paiva, Sérgio; Seraceni, Silva; de Freitas, Antonio Carlos; Crovella, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    We performed an association between high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and single or multiple vaccine-target as well as non-vaccine target Human papillomavirus (HPV) types. Using bead-based HPV genotyping, 594 gynecological samples were genotyped. An association between squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) and presence of HPV16, 18, 31, 58 and 56 types were calculated. The risk was estimated by using odds ratio (OR) and 95% of confidence intervals (CI). A total of 370 (62.3%) women were HPV positive. Among these, 157 (42.7%) presented a single HPV infection, and 212 (57.3%) were infected by more than one HPV type. HPV31 was the most prevalent genotype, regardless single and multiple HPV infections. Single infection with HPV31 was associated with LSIL (OR=2.32; 95%CI: 1.01 to 5.32; p=0.04); HPV31 was also associated with LSIL (OR=3.28; 95%CI: 1.74 to 6.19; p= 0.0002) and HSIL (OR=3.82; 95%CI: 2.10 to 6.97; p<0.001) in multiple HPV infections. Risk to harbor cervical lesions was observed in multiple HPV infections with regard to the HPV56 (OR=5.39; 95%CI: 2.44 to 11.90; p<0.001for LSIL; OR=5.37; 95%CI: 2.71 to 10.69; p<0.001) and HPV58 (OR=3.29; 95%CI: 1.34 to 8.09; p=0.0091 for LSIL; OR=3.55; 95%CI: 1.56 to 8.11; p=0.0026) genotypes. In addition, women coinfected with HPV16/31/56 types had 6 and 5-fold increased risk of HSIL (OR=6.46; 95%CI: 1.89 to 22.09; p=0.002) and LSIL (OR=5.22; 95%CI: 1.10 to 24.70; p=0.03), respectively. Multiple HPV infections without HPV16/18 has 2-fold increased risk of HSIL (OR=2.57; 95%CI: 1.41 to 4.70; p=0.002) and LSIL OR=2.03; 95%CI: 1.08 to 3.79; p=0.02). The results of this study suggest that single and multiple vaccine target as well as non-vaccine target HPV types are associated with LSIL and HSIL. These finding should be taken into consideration in the design of HPV vaccination strategies. PMID:26176537

  2. Cervicovaginal human papillomavirus (HPV)-infection before and after hysterectomy: evidence of different tissue tropism for oncogenic and nononcogenic HPV types in a cohort of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Burk, Robert D; Zhong, Ye; Minkoff, Howard; Massad, L Stewart; Xue, Xiaonan; Watts, D Heather; Anastos, Kathryn; Palefsky, Joel M; Levine, Alexandra M; Colie, Christine; Castle, Philip E; Strickler, Howard D

    2012-09-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is detected in nearly all cervical cancers and approximately half of vaginal cancers. However, vaginal cancer is an order of magnitude less common than cervical cancer, not only in the general population but also among women with HIV/AIDS. It is interesting therefore that recent studies found that HPV was common in both normal vaginal and cervical tissue, with higher prevalence of nononcogenic HPV types in the vagina. In our investigation, we prospectively examined HPV infection in 86 HIV-positive and 17 HIV-negative women who underwent hysterectomy during follow-up in a longitudinal cohort. Cervicovaginal lavage specimens were obtained semi-annually and tested for HPV DNA by polymerase chain reaction. To address possible selection biases associated with having a hysterectomy, subjects acted as their own comparison group--before versus after hysterectomy. The average HPV prevalence was higher in HIV-positive than HIV-negative women both before (59% vs. 12%; p < 0.001) and after hysterectomy (56% vs. 6%; p < 0.001). Multivariate random effects models (within-individual comparisons) demonstrated significantly lower HPV prevalence [odds ratio (OR) = 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.59-0.85) after hysterectomy. The association of HPV prevalence with hysterectomy was similar among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. However, hysterectomy had greater effects on oncogenic (OR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.35-0.66) than nononcogenic HPV types (OR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.71-1.11; P(interaction) = 0.002). Overall, we observed greater reductions in oncogenic than nononcogenic HPV prevalence after hysterectomy. If correct, these data could suggest that oncogenic HPV have greater tropism for cervical compared to vaginal epithelium, consistent with the lower incidence of vaginal than cervical cancer.

  3. HPV prevalence and type-distribution in cervical cancer and premalignant lesions of the cervix: A population-based study from Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lesley A; O'Rorke, Michael A; Wilson, Robbie; Jamison, Jackie; Gavin, Anna T

    2016-07-01

    Assessment of Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and genotype distribution is important for monitoring the impact of prophylactic HPV vaccination. This study aimed to demonstrate the HPV genotypes predominating in pre-malignant and cervical cancers in Northern Ireland (NI) before the vaccination campaign has effect. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks from 2,303 women aged 16-93 years throughout NI were collated between April 2011 and February 2013. HPV DNA was amplified by PCR and HPV genotyping undertaken using the Roche(®) linear array detection kit. In total, 1,241 out of 1,830 eligible samples (68.0%) tested positive for HPV, with the majority of these [1,181/1,830 (64.5%)] having high-risk (HR) HPV infection; 37.4% were positive for HPV-16 (n = 684) and 5.1% for HPV-18 (n = 93). HPV type-specific prevalence was 48.1%, 65.9%, 81.3%, 92.2%, and 64.3% among cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) Grades I-III, squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) cases, respectively. Most SCC cases (81.3%) had only one HPV genotype detected and almost a third (32.0%) of all cervical pathologies were HPV negative including 51.9% of CIN I (n = 283), 34.1% CIN II (n = 145), 18.7% of CIN III (n = 146), 7.8% of SCC (n = 5), and 35.7% of AC (n = 5) cases. This study provides important baseline data for monitoring the effect of HPV vaccination in NI and for comparison with other UK regions. The coverage of other HR-HPV genotypes apart from 16 and 18, including HPV-45, 31, 39, and 52, and the potential for cross protection, should be considered when considering future polyvalent vaccines.

  4. Comparison of clinical performances among Roche Cobas HPV, RFMP HPV PapilloTyper and Hybrid Capture 2 assays for detection of high-risk types of human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shinae; Kwon, Min-Jung; Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Hyosoon; Woo, Hee-Yeon

    2015-09-01

    The cervical cancer screening guidelines suggest that early detection of HPV16 and HPV18 is helpful for identifying women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade two or higher. We comparatively evaluated three HPV DNA assays, Roche Cobas HPV, RFMP HPV PapilloTyper, and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). A total of 861 cervical swab samples from women over 30 years of age were classified into two groups, that is, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and non-HSIL, according to cervical cytology results and analyzed by three assays. The results of direct sequencing or Linear array HPV genotyping test were considered true when the three assays presented discrepancies. The concordance rates between Roche Cobas HPV versus RFMP HPV PapilloTyper, RFMP HPV PapilloTyper versus HC2, and Roche Cobas versus HC2 were 94.5%, 94.3%, and 95.9%, respectively. For detection of HPV16 and HPV18, Roche Cobas HPV showed the concordance rates of 98.3% (κ = 0.73) and 99.4% (κ = 0.40) with the confirmation tests, respectively; and RFMP HPV PapilloTyper showed the concordance rates of 99.5% (κ = 0.92) and 100.0% (κ = 1.00), respectively. In conclusion, Roche Cobas HPV, RFMP HPV PapilloTyper, and HC2 showed high agreement rates. Roche Cobas HPV and RFMP HPV PapilloTyper are particularly useful, since both provide HPV specific genotypes, HPV16 and HPV18.

  5. A comparative analysis of the epidemiological impact and disease cost-savings of HPV vaccines in France

    PubMed Central

    Bresse, Xavier; Adam, Marjorie; Largeron, Nathalie; Roze, Stephane; Marty, Remi

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to compare the epidemiological and economic impact of 16/18 bivalent and 6/11/16/18 quadrivalent HPV vaccination in France, considering differences in licensed outcomes, protection against non-vaccine HPV types and prevention of HPV-6/11-related diseases. The differential impact of the two vaccines was evaluated using a published model adapted to the French setting. The target population was females aged 14–23 y and the time horizon was 100 y. A total of eight different scenarios compared vaccination impact in terms of reduction in HPV-16/18-associated carcinomas (cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal, penile and head and neck), HPV-6/11-related genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and incremental reduction in cervical cancer due to potential cross-protection. Quadrivalent vaccine was associated with total discounted cost savings ranging from EUR 544–1,020 million vs. EUR 177–538 million with the bivalent vaccination (100-y time horizon). Genital wart prevention thanks to quadrivalent HPV vaccination accounted for EUR 306–380 million savings (37–56% of costs saved). In contrast, the maximal assumed cross-protection against cervical cancer resulted in EUR 13–33 million savings (4%). Prevention of vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers accounted for additional EUR 71–89 million savings (13%). In France, the quadrivalent HPV vaccination would result in significant incremental epidemiological and economic benefits vs. the bivalent vaccination, driven primarily by prevention of genital. The present analysis is the first in the French setting to consider the impact of HPV vaccination on all HPV diseases and non-vaccine types. PMID:23563511

  6. Genital Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... who have sex with women get genital warts? Yes. It is possible to get genital warts, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ... you have signs or symptoms of genital warts. Yes. It is possible to get genital warts, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ...

  7. Prophylactic HPV vaccination: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Castle, P E; Maza, M

    2016-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the necessary cause of cervical cancer, the fourth most common cancer and cause of cancer-related death in females worldwide. HPV also causes anal, vaginal, vulvar, penile, and oropharyngeal cancer. Prophylactic HPV vaccines based on recombinantly expressed virus-like particles have been developed. Two first-generation, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved vaccines prevent infections and disease caused by HPV16 and HPV18, the two HPV genotypes that cause approximately 70% of cervical cancer, and one of these vaccines also prevents HPV6 and HPV11, the two HPV genotypes that cause 90% of genital warts. A next-generation vaccine, recently approved by the U.S. FDA, targets HPV16, HPV18, and five additional HPV genotypes that together causes approximately 90% of cervical cancer as well as HPV6 and HPV11. In clinical trials, these vaccines have shown high levels of efficacy against disease and infections caused by the targeted HPV genotypes in adolescent females and males and older females. Data indicate population effectiveness, and therefore cost effectiveness, is highest in HPV-naive young females prior to becoming sexually active. Countries that implemented HPV vaccination before 2010 have already experienced decreases in population prevalence of targeted HPV genotypes and related anogenital diseases in women and via herd protection in heterosexual men. Importantly, after more than 100 million doses given worldwide, HPV vaccination has demonstrated an excellent safety profile. With demonstrated efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and safety, universal HPV vaccination of all young, adolescent women, and with available resources at least high-risk groups of men, should be a global health priority. Failure to do so will result in millions of women dying from avertable cervical cancers, especially in low- and middle-income countries, and many thousands of women and men dying from other HPV-related cancers.

  8. A content analysis of news coverage of the HPV vaccine by U.S. newspapers, January 2002-June 2005.

    PubMed

    Calloway, Crystal; Jorgensen, Cynthia M; Saraiya, Mona; Tsui, Jennifer

    2006-09-01

    Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Of the 100 HPV types, HPV type 16 and HPV type 18 have been demonstrated to cause cervical cancer. Two pharmaceutical manufacturers have developed and tested HPV vaccines and are applying to the FDA for licensure. This research describes the content of HPV vaccine information contained in news articles. The Lexis-Nexis database was used to identify 25 articles on HPV that were published in 285 U.S. newspapers from January 1, 2003 to June 17, 2005. The coding schema captured information about the news event and source, as well as HPV and cervical cancer, transmission, vaccine, potential impact of the vaccine, and its relationship to PAP tests. The content analysis revealed that the news coverage of HPV vaccine provides information on the experimental status and efficacy of the vaccine, explains link between HPV and cervical cancer, and reports the manufacturers by name, as well as relies on them for a news source. Detailed information about HPV, however, was frequently missing which could lead to an incomplete picture or lack of understanding of the complexity of HPV and cervical cancer. As a major source of medical information, the media can be particularly important in educating policy makers and the general public about new scientific advances. Public health officials may wish to collaborate with journalists, health educators, healthcare providers, and women's health advocates to ensure that future educational initiatives explain the complexity of the association of HPV and cervical cancer and to stress the importance of continued cervical cancer screening. PMID:16999634

  9. [HPV-associated cutaneous lesions].

    PubMed

    Kiyofumi, Egawa

    2008-12-01

    More than 100 HPV genotypes are presently distinguished by comparing the DNA sequence of the L1 ORF of each HPV. Two important aspects of the nature of this group of heterogeneous viruses are the way in which specific HPV genotypes are associated with distinct clinical and histological morphologies and the way specific HPV genotypes affect distinct anatomical sites. The former is best evidenced by the HPV type specific cytopathic or cytopathogenic effect (CPE), whereas the latter is suggested by the marked preference of each HPV genotype for specific tissues and sites. Recent studies have also suggested that specific HPV genotypes may target epithelial stem cells at specific anatomical sites. HPV type-specific CPE is the central schema when we analyze and understand the HPV-associated diseases. The concept was suggested by the characterization of distinct HPVs from different types of warts: HPV 2/27/57 from common warts, HPV 3/10/28 from flat warts, HPV 6/11 from condyloma acuminatum, and HPV 5/8 from lesions of epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV). In this paper, I summarize recent advances in HPV study field, especially on HPV-associated cutaneous lesions. These include inclusion warts, HPV-associated epidermoid cysts, HPV type specific activation of melanogenesis, a double infection with HPV 1 and HPV 63 within a single cell, primary target cells and life cycle of the virus, and the identification of novel genes that are associated EV. The HPV-associated cutaneous lesions thus pose important problems to be resolved in virology and human pathology. PMID:19374195

  10. A prospective study of the relationship between genital herpes and carcinoma of the uterine cervix. I. Seroepidemiology of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in women with a previous history of clinically diagnosed genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, B F

    1982-01-01

    The development of a simple, sensitive and reliable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the exact titration of herpes simplex virus type 1 -- and type 2 -- specific antibodies in human serum has made it possible to perform large serological HSV type-specific diagnosis of clinical cases of post and present genital HSV infections. The distribution of HSV type-specific IgG antibody in 473 sera from women with a first episode of symptomatic genital herpes (group A), 602 sera from women with a previous history of symptomatic genital herpes (group B) and 945 sera from non-selected adult Danes (controls, group C) gave the following results: 34 percent of the women in group B had antibodies only to HSV type compared to 6 and 4 percent in group A and C respectively. 64 percent of women in group A were sero-negative, while only 9 and 18 percent sero-negative were found in group B and C respectively. A majority of the sero-negative in group A seroconverted. One third developed antibodies to HSV type 1 and two thirds to HSV type 2.

  11. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine for the prevention of cervical cancer and HPV-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Skinner, S Rachel; Apter, Dan; De Carvalho, Newton; Harper, Diane M; Konno, Ryo; Paavonen, Jorma; Romanowski, Barbara; Roteli-Martins, Cecilia; Burlet, Nansa; Mihalyi, Attila; Struyf, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Vaccines are available against human papillomavirus (HPV), the causal agent of cervical and other cancers. Efficacy data from the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine clinical trial program were reviewed. Six randomized, controlled phase II/III trials evaluating cervical endpoints enrolled women from diverse populations and geographical locations. The program analyzed extensively the cohorts most relevant from a public health perspective: the total vaccinated cohort (TVC), approximating a general population including those with existing or previous HPV infection, and TVC-naïve, approximating a population of young women before sexual debut. Results show that the vaccine reduces HPV-16/18 infection and associated cervical endpoints in women regardless of age, location, or sexual experience. It provides cross-protection against some non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types and types causing genital warts, and may be effective against vulvar, oral, and anal HPV infection. Early epidemiology data following its introduction suggest a decline in the prevalence of vaccine and some non-vaccine HPV types. PMID:26902666

  12. HPV vaccine (human papillomavirus) Cervarix - what you need to know

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Cervarix® Vaccine Information Statement: www.cdc.gov/vaccines/ ... What is HPV? Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most ... in the United States. More than half of sexually active men and ...

  13. HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Gardasil Vaccine - What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine - Gardasil® Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc. ... WHAT IS HPV? Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most ... in the United States. More than half of sexually active men and ...

  14. Alcohol consumption and prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among US men in the HIM (HPV in Men) Study

    PubMed Central

    Schabath, Matthew B.; Thompson, Zachary J.; Egan, Kathleen M.; Torres, B. Nelson; Nguyen, Anthony; Papenfuss, Mary R.; Abrahamsen, Martha E.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Moderate alcohol consumption can impair host defense against viral infections. The objective of this cross-sectional analysis was to assess the association between alcohol intake and prevalent HPV infection among U.S. men enrolled in the HIM (HPV in Men) Study utilizing quantitative alcohol intake measured from a food frequency questionnaire. Methods The HIM study is a prospective, multinational study of the natural history of HPV infection. For this report we restricted our analyses to men from the US cohort (No. = 1,313). Samples from the corona of glans penis, penile shaft, and scrotum were combined for HPV DNA testing. Self-reported alcohol intake was quantified by grams of alcohol intake per day. Multivariable prevalence ratios (mPR) were used to assess the association between alcohol intake and HPV infections. Results Prevalent infections were significantly higher among men in the highest quartile of alcohol intake and multivariable models revealed that the highest quartile of alcohol intake was associated with significantly increased risks for any- (mPR=1.13; 95% CI 1.00–1.27) and oncogenic (mPR=1.35; 95% CI 1.08–1.68) HPV types. The fourth quartile of alcohol intake was associated with elevated risks for prevalent HPV infection across all strata of number of sexual partners and among never- and current smokers, but not among former smokers. Conclusions These results demonstrate that high intake of alcohol is associated with an increased risk for prevalent HPV infections among men. The biological role that alcohol plays in genital HPV infection remains understudied and limited epidemiologic data exist especially among men. PMID:25278617

  15. Human Female Genital Tract Infection by the Obligate Intracellular Bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis Elicits Robust Type 2 Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Vicetti Miguel, Rodolfo D.; Harvey, Stephen A. K.; LaFramboise, William A.; Reighard, Seth D.; Matthews, Dean B.; Cherpes, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    While Chlamydia trachomatis infections are frequently asymptomatic, mechanisms that regulate host response to this intracellular Gram-negative bacterium remain undefined. This investigation thus used peripheral blood mononuclear cells and endometrial tissue from women with or without Chlamydia genital tract infection to better define this response. Initial genome-wide microarray analysis revealed highly elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 10 and other molecules characteristic of Type 2 immunity (e.g., fibrosis and wound repair) in Chlamydia-infected tissue. This result was corroborated in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry studies that showed extant upper genital tract Chlamydia infection was associated with increased co-expression of CD200 receptor and CD206 (markers of alternative macrophage activation) by endometrial macrophages as well as increased expression of GATA-3 (the transcription factor regulating TH2 differentiation) by endometrial CD4+ T cells. Also among women with genital tract Chlamydia infection, peripheral CD3+ CD4+ and CD3+ CD4- cells that proliferated in response to ex vivo stimulation with inactivated chlamydial antigen secreted significantly more interleukin (IL)-4 than tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ, or IL-17; findings that repeated in T cells isolated from these same women 1 and 4 months after infection had been eradicated. Our results thus newly reveal that genital infection by an obligate intracellular bacterium induces polarization towards Type 2 immunity, including Chlamydia-specific TH2 development. Based on these findings, we now speculate that Type 2 immunity was selected by evolution as the host response to C. trachomatis in the human female genital tract to control infection and minimize immunopathological damage to vital reproductive structures. PMID:23555586

  16. Identification of a Novel Human Papillomavirus, Type HPV199, Isolated from a Nasopharynx and Anal Canal, and Complete Genomic Characterization of Papillomavirus Species Gamma-12

    PubMed Central

    Oštrbenk, Anja; Kocjan, Boštjan J.; Hošnjak, Lea; Li, Jingjing; Deng, Qiuju; Šterbenc, Anja; Poljak, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The novel human papillomavirus type 199 (HPV199) was initially identified in a nasopharyngeal swab sample obtained from a 25 year-old immunocompetent male. The complete genome of HPV199 is 7,184 bp in length with a GC content of 36.5%. Comparative genomic characterization of HPV199 and its closest relatives showed the classical genomic organization of Gammapapillomaviruses (Gamma-PVs). HPV199 has seven major open reading frames (ORFs), encoding five early (E1, E2, E4, E6, and E7) and two late (L1 and L2) proteins, while lacking the E5 ORF. The long control region (LCR) of 513 bp is located between the L1 and E6 ORFs. Phylogenetic analysis additionally confirmed that HPV-199 clusters into the Gamma-PV genus, species Gamma-12, additionally containing HPV127, HV132, HPV148, HPV165, and three putative HPV types: KC5, CG2 and CG3. HPV199 is most closely related to HPV127 (nucleotide identity 77%). The complete viral genome sequence of additional HPV199 isolate was determined from anal canal swab sample. Two HPV199 complete viral sequences exhibit 99.4% nucleotide identity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first member of Gamma-PV with complete nucleotide sequences determined from two independent clinical samples. To evaluate the tissue tropism of the novel HPV type, 916 clinical samples were tested using HPV199 type-specific real-time PCR: HPV199 was detected in 2/76 tissue samples of histologically confirmed common warts, 2/108 samples of eyebrow hair follicles, 2/137 anal canal swabs obtained from individuals with clinically evident anal pathology, 4/184 nasopharyngeal swabs and 3/411 cervical swabs obtained from women with normal cervical cytology. Although HPV199 was found in 1.4% of cutaneous and mucosal samples only, it exhibits dual tissue tropism. According to the results of our study and literature data, dual tropism of all Gamma-12 members is highly possible. PMID:26375679

  17. Estimating the clinical benefits of vaccinating boys and girls against HPV-related diseases in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HPV is related to a number of cancer types, causing a considerable burden in both genders in Europe. Female vaccination programs can substantially reduce the incidence of HPV-related diseases in women and, to some extent, men through herd immunity. The objective was to estimate the incremental benefit of vaccinating boys and girls using the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in Europe versus girls-only vaccination. Incremental benefits in terms of reduction in the incidence of HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18-related diseases (including cervical, vaginal, vulvar, anal, penile, and head and neck carcinomas and genital warts) were assessed. Methods The analysis was performed using a model constructed in Microsoft®Excel, based on a previously-published dynamic transmission model of HPV vaccination and published European epidemiological data on incidence of HPV-related diseases. The incremental benefits of vaccinating 12-year old girls and boys versus girls-only vaccination was assessed (70% vaccine coverage were assumed for both). Sensitivity analyses around vaccine coverage and duration of protection were performed. Results Compared with screening alone, girls-only vaccination led to 84% reduction in HPV 16/18-related carcinomas in females and a 61% reduction in males. Vaccination of girls and boys led to a 90% reduction in HPV 16/18-related carcinomas in females and 86% reduction in males versus screening alone. Relative to a girls-only program, vaccination of girls and boys led to a reduction in female and male HPV-related carcinomas of 40% and 65%, respectively and a reduction in the incidence of HPV 6/11-related genital warts of 58% for females and 71% for males versus girls-only vaccination. Conclusions In Europe, the vaccination of 12-year old boys and girls against HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 would be associated with substantial additional clinical benefits in terms of reduced incidence of HPV-related genital warts and carcinomas versus girls-only vaccination. The incremental

  18. Incidence and duration of type-specific human papillomavirus infection in high-risk HPV-naïve women: results from the control arm of a phase II HPV-16/18 vaccine trial

    PubMed Central

    Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Naud, Paulo; Roteli-Martins, Cecilia M; de Carvalho, Newton S; de Borba, Paola C; Teixeira, Julio C; Blatter, Mark; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Harper, Diane M; Romanowski, Barbara; Tyring, Stephen K; Ramjattan, Brian; Schuind, Anne; Dubin, Gary; Franco, Eduardo L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Persistence of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is necessary for cervical carcinogenesis. We evaluated incidence and duration of type-specific HPV infections and the influence of age and number of sexual partners. Methods Data were obtained from 553 women (15–25 years), who were seronegative and DNA-negative for high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types and were enrolled in the placebo arm of a randomised trial of the HPV-16/18 vaccine (NCT00689741/NCT00120848). They were followed for 6.3 years. Cervicovaginal samples were self-collected at 3-month intervals for up to 27 months, and cervical samples were collected by clinicians at 6-month intervals until study end. Samples were tested for HPV types using a broad-spectrum PCR assay. Incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were used to estimate the association among age, sexual habits and HPV acquisition. Results Incidence rates (95% CI) using cervical samples were 11.8 (10.4 to 13.4) and 5.6 (4.7 to 6.6) per 1000 women-months for HR-HPVs and low-risk HPVs (LR-HPVs), respectively. Equivalent rates in combined cervicovaginal and cervical samples were 17.2 (15.4 to 19.2) and 6.9 (5.9 to 8.0), respectively. 54 per cent of HR-HPV types from combined cervicovaginal and cervical samples persisted for 1 year compared with 32.3% for LR-HPV types. The risk of acquiring any HPV infection was higher among women aged <21 years (RR=1.33, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7) and women having >1 sexual partner (RR=1.83, 95% CI 1.4 to 2.4) at baseline. Conclusions HR-HPV infections were more common and lasted longer on average than LR-HPV infections. HPV acquisition was more common in younger women with multiple sexual partners. Trial registration number NCT00689741, NCT00120848; Post-results. PMID:27566633

  19. HPV vaccines: their pathology-based discovery, benefits, and adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Alcina F; de Andrade, Cecilia V; Russomano, Fabio B; Rodrigues, Luana S L; Oliveira, Nathalia S; Provance, David William; Nuovo, Gerard J

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine illustrates the power of in situ-based pathologic analysis in better understanding and curing diseases. The 2 available HPV vaccines have markedly reduced the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias, genital warts, and cervical cancer throughout the world. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, health care officials, and parents to refuse providing the recommended vaccination to the target population. The aims of the study were to discuss the discovery of HPV vaccine and review scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines. The strong type-specific immunity against HPV in humans has been known for more than 25 years. Multiple studies confirm the positive risk benefit of HPV vaccination with minimal documented adverse effects. The most common adverse effect, injection site pain, occurred in about 10% of girls and was less than the rate reported for other vaccines. Use of HPV vaccine should be expanded into more diverse populations, mainly in low-resource settings.

  20. HPV vaccines: their pathology-based discovery, benefits, and adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Alcina F; de Andrade, Cecilia V; Russomano, Fabio B; Rodrigues, Luana S L; Oliveira, Nathalia S; Provance, David William; Nuovo, Gerard J

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine illustrates the power of in situ-based pathologic analysis in better understanding and curing diseases. The 2 available HPV vaccines have markedly reduced the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias, genital warts, and cervical cancer throughout the world. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, health care officials, and parents to refuse providing the recommended vaccination to the target population. The aims of the study were to discuss the discovery of HPV vaccine and review scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines. The strong type-specific immunity against HPV in humans has been known for more than 25 years. Multiple studies confirm the positive risk benefit of HPV vaccination with minimal documented adverse effects. The most common adverse effect, injection site pain, occurred in about 10% of girls and was less than the rate reported for other vaccines. Use of HPV vaccine should be expanded into more diverse populations, mainly in low-resource settings. PMID:26321154

  1. Differential effects of human papillomavirus type 6, 16, and 18 DNAs on immortalization and transformation of human cervical epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pecoraro, G.; Morgan, D.; Defendi, V. )

    1989-01-01

    The human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with specific benign and malignant lesions of the skin and mucosal epithelia. Cloned viral DNAs from HPV types 6b, 16, and 18 associated with different pathological manifestations of genital neoplasia in vivo were introduced into primary human cervical epithelial cells by electroporation. Cells transfected with HPV16 or HPV18 DNA acquired indefinite lifespans, distinct morphological alterations, and anchorage-independent growth (HPV18), and contain integrated transcriptionally active viral genomes. HPV6b or plasmid electroporated cells senesced at low passage. The alterations in growth and differentiation of the cells appear to reflect the progressive oncogenic processes that result in cervical carcinoma in vivo.

  2. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection Among HIV-Seronegative Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Palefsky, Joel M.; Giuliano, Anna R.; Moreira, Edson D.; Aranda, Carlos; Jessen, Heiko; Hillman, Richard J.; Ferris, Daron G.; Coutlee, Francois; Liaw, Kai-Li; Marshall, J. Brooke; Zhang, Xuehong; Vuocolo, Scott; Barr, Eliav; Haupt, Richard M.; Guris, Dalya; Garner, Elizabeth I.O.

    2011-01-01

    Background. We examined the baseline prevalence of penile, scrotal, perineal/perianal, and intra-anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–seronegative men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. Data were analyzed from 602 MSM aged 16–27 years with ≤5 lifetime sexual partners. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to HPV6/11/16/18. Swab samples were collected separately from several anogenital areas for detection of HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59 DNA. Results. The prevalence of any tested HPV type was 18.5% at the penis, 17.1% at the scrotum, 33.0% at the perineal/perianal region, 42.4% in the anal canal, and 48.0% at any site. Overall, 415 MSM (69.7%) were negative to HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 at enrollment by both serology and DNA detection. Men residing in Europe and Latin America had significantly increased risk of HPV infection at external genital sites and the anal canal compared to men from Australia. Tobacco use and greater number of lifetime sexual partners was associated with higher HPV infection prevalence. Conclusions. The prevalence of HPV infection is high among young sexually active MSM, with the anal canal being the most common site of infection. Lifetime number of sexual partners was the most important modifiable risk factor for anogenital HPV infection. PMID:21148498

  3. Integrating Clinical, Community, and Policy Perspectives on HPV Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, María E.; Allen, Jennifer D.; Mistry, Ritesh; Kahn, Jessica A.

    2010-01-01

    Infection with genital human papillomavirus (HPV) may cause anogenital cancers, oropharyngeal cancers, anogenital warts, and respiratory papillomas. Two prophylactic vaccines (a bivalent and a quadrivalent vaccine) are now licensed and currently in use in a number of countries. Both vaccines prevent infection with HPV-16 and HPV-18, which together cause approximately 70% of cervical cancers, and clinical trials have demonstrated 90%-100% efficacy in preventing precancerous cervical lesions attributable to HPV-16 and HPV-18. One vaccine also prevents HPV-6 and HPV-11, which cause 90% of genital warts. A growing literature describes associations between psychosocial, interpersonal, organizational, and societal factors that influence HPV vaccination acceptability. This paper summarizes the current literature and presents an integrated perspective, taking into account these diverse influences. The resulting integrated model can be used as a heuristic tool for organizing factors at multiple levels to guide intervention development and future research. PMID:20001821

  4. PreTect HPV-Proofer: real-time detection and typing of E6/E7 mRNA from carcinogenic human papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Molden, Tor; Kraus, Irene; Skomedal, Hanne; Nordstrøm, Trine; Karlsen, Frank

    2007-06-01

    Monitoring human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA expression may provide an accurate and informative diagnostic approach for detection of oncogene activity related to the development of severe dysplasia or cervical carcinoma. A multiplex nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) assay, utilizing molecular beacon probes for real-time detection was developed for the identification of E6/E7 mRNA from HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45. The assay is called PreTect HPV-Proofer and this report describes the development and the analytical performance of the assay. The reproducibility of PreTect HPV-Proofer with regard to a positive result was found to be between 96 and 100%, depending on HPV type. The melting temperature for the different molecular beacons was in the range of 48-55 degrees C, indicating conformational stability, i.e. the molecular beacons will not get activated by the 41 degrees C annealing temperature, but will be activated by the annealing to the target itself. The limit of detection for HPV 16 was ten SiHa or CaSki cells and for HPV 18 one HeLa cell. No cross reactivity was observed with E6/E7 mRNA from the other tested HPV types. mRNA from cervical cells was also successfully amplified after more than one year of storage. In conclusion, the PreTect HPV-Proofer assay, individually identifying E6/E7 mRNA expression from five carcinogenic HPV types, is a reproducible assay that may serve as a valuable tool in monitoring HPV infections producing proteins with a transforming potential.

  5. Human papillomavirus type-specific prevalence in women referred for colposcopic examination in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiurong; Liu, Zhizhong; Su, Jianrong; Yan, Donghui; Sun, Wei; Zeng, Zhaoying

    2014-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with several disorders of the genital tract, skin, and oropharynx. This study investigated the prevalence of infection by 37 HPV genotypes among women of the Beijing area in China. Cervical specimens from 1,082 patients and 165 healthy controls were tested for HPV genotypes using a chip hybridization assay. Based on the local pathology, patients were divided into cervicitis and cervical lesion groups. Overall HPV infection rates were 30.5% for the cervicitis group and 78.4% for the cervical lesion group; whereas infection rates for high-risk HPV types (i.e., those associated with cervical cancers) were 24.0% and 73.4%, respectively. The most common HPV genotypes were HPV 52, 16, 81, 58, and 18 in healthy controls, HPV 52, 61, 55, 16, and 53 in those with cervicitis, HPV 52, 16, 33, 39, and 58 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1, HPV 16, 58, 31, 52, and 33 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or grade 3, and HPV 16, 33, 18, 52, and 58 in cervical cancer. Established high-risk HPV showed two peaks, in patients aged 30-34 and 55-79 years. In Beijing, HPV 16, 52, 58, and 33 are the most prevalent HPV types in women with cervical lesions, which should affect development of a cervical cancer vaccination for local use.

  6. Type-Specific HPV Prevalence in Cervical Cancer and High-Grade Lesions in Latin America and the Caribbean: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ciapponi, Agustín; Bardach, Ariel; Glujovsky, Demián; Gibbons, Luz; Picconi, María Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Latin America and the Caribbean (LA&C), showing some of the highest incidence and mortality rates worldwide. Information on HPV type distribution in high-grade cervical lesions (HSIL) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is crucial to predict the future impact of HPV16/18 vaccines and screening programmes, and to establish an appropriate post-vaccinal virologic surveillance. The aim was to assess the prevalence of HPV types in HSIL and ICC in studies in LA&C. Methods and Findings We performed a systematic review, following the MOOSE guidelines for systematic reviews of observational studies, and the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Inclusion criteria were at least ten cases of HSIL/ICC, and HPV-type elicitation. The search, without language restrictions, was performed in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, LILACS from inception date to December 2009, proceedings, reference lists and consulting experts. A meta-analysis was performed using arc-sine transformations to stabilize the variance of simple proportions. Seventy-nine studies from 18 countries were identified, including 2446 cases of HSIL and 5540 of ICC. Overall, 46.5% of HSIL cases harbored HPV 16 and 8.9% HPV18; in ICC, 53.2% of cases harbored HPV 16 and13.2% HPV 18. The next five most common types, in decreasing frequency, were HPV 31, 58, 33, 45, and 52. Study's limitations comprise the cross-sectional design of most included studies and their inherent risk of bias, the lack of representativeness, and variations in the HPV type-specific sensitivity of different PCR protocols. Conclusions This study is the broadest summary of HPV type distribution in HSIL and ICC in LA&C to date. These data are essential for local decision makers regarding HPV screening and vaccination policies. Continued HPV surveillance would be useful, to assess the potential for changing type-specific HPV prevalence in the post

  7. HPV DNA test

    MedlinePlus

    ... is generally not recommended for detecting low-risk HPV infections. ... Human papilloma virus - testing; Abnormal Pap smear - HPV testing; LSIL-HPV testing, Low-grade dysplasia - HPV testing; HSIL - HPV testing; High-grade dysplasia - HPV testing; HPV ...

  8. Development and evaluation of multiplexed immunoassay for detection of antibodies to HPV vaccine types

    PubMed Central

    Panicker, G.; Rajbhandari, I.; Gurbaxani, B.M.; Querec, T.D.; Unger, E.R.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable antibody based-assays are needed to evaluate the immunogenicity of current vaccines, impact of altered dosing schemes or of new vaccine formulations. An ideal assay platform would allow multiplex type-specific detection with minimal sample requirement. We used the Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) electrochemiluminescence based detection platform to develop a multiplex direct virus-like particle (VLP) ELISA to detect antibodies to HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 with a protocol developed for detection using the SI 6000 imager (M4ELISA). MSD prepared the plates in the 7-spot/well format, using the purified VLPs (4 spots) and PBS + BSA pH 7.4 (3 blank spots). Three-point titrations and the parallel line method were used to calculate antibody levels. Dynamic range, precision, and stability of pre-printed plates were determined using a panel of previously characterized sera. Cut-off values using children’s sera were established using 99% RLU limits based on the 4-parameter Johnson Su best fit curve. Results of the M4ELISA were compared to competitive Luminex Immunoassay (cLIA) on n = 4454 sera from a predominantly unvaccinated cohort. Using a VLP coating concentration of 80 μg/ml with BSA provided the most robust RLU signal for all types. The dynamic range of the assay was about 1000 fold, with assay variability under 25% for each of the four vaccine types. Long-term stability of the plates extended to about 7 months from the time plates was received in the laboratory after printing. There was moderate agreement (κ = 0.38–0.54) between M4ELISA and cLIA, with antibody detection for each of the 4 types more frequent with M4ELISA. Quantitative analysis however showed a good correlation between concordant samples by both assays (ρ ≥ 0.6). The MSD platform shows promise for simultaneous quantitation of the antibody responses to four HPV vaccine types in a high-throughput manner. PMID:25554636

  9. HPV16-E7 Expression in skin induces TSLP secretion, type 2 ILC infiltration and atopic dermatitis-like lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bergot, Anne-Sophie; Monnet, Nastasia; Tran, Le Son; Mittal, Deepak; Al-Kouba, Jane; Steptoe, Raymond J.; Grimbaldeston, Michele A.; Frazer, Ian H.; Wells, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common pruritic and inflammatory skin disorder with unknown etiology. Most commonly occurring during early childhood, atopic dermatitis is associated with eczematous lesions and lichenification, in which the epidermis becomes hypertrophied resulting in thickening of the skin. In this study, we report an atopic dermatitis-like pathophysiology results in a murine model following the expression of the high-risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 oncoprotein E7 in keratinocytes under the Keratin 14 promoter. We show that HPV 16 E7 expression in the skin is associated with skin thickening, acanthosis and light spongiosis. Locally, HPV 16 E7 expressing skin secreted high levels of TSLP and contained increased numbers of ILCs. High levels of circulating IgE were associated with increased susceptibility to skin allergy in a model of cutaneous challenge, and to airway bronchiolar inflammation, enhanced airway goblet cell metaplasia and mucus production in a model of atopic march. Surprisingly, skin pathology occurred independently of T-cells and mast cells. Thus, our findings suggest that the expression of a single HPV oncogene in the skin can drive the onset of atopic dermatitis-like pathology through the induction of TSLP and type 2 ILC infiltration. PMID:25601274

  10. Papillomaviral Infections of the Female Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Malcolm G.

    1992-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common organism to infect the human genital tract, affecting as much as half, or more, of the sexually active population. This virus has become widely recognized through the well publicized relationship with genital tract neoplasia and through new diagnostic technologies, such as monoclonal antibody analysis, DNA hybridization, and the polymerase chain reaction. This paper describes the full spectrum of HPV infections, starting with pathogenesis and continuing to clinical manifestations, and discusses significance, diagnosis, and management. PMID:21221347

  11. Antibiotic Susceptibility and Sequence Type Distribution of Ureaplasma Species Isolated from Genital Samples in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sarah C; Tinguely, Regula; Droz, Sara; Hilty, Markus; Donà, Valentina; Bodmer, Thomas; Endimiani, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Antibiotic resistance in Ureaplasma urealyticum/Ureaplasma parvum and Mycoplasma hominis is an issue of increasing importance. However, data regarding the susceptibility and, more importantly, the clonality of these organisms are limited. We analyzed 140 genital samples obtained in Bern, Switzerland, in 2014. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed by using the Mycoplasma IST 2 kit and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. MICs for ciprofloxacin and azithromycin were obtained in broth microdilution assays. Clonality was analyzed with PCR-based subtyping and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), whereas quinolone resistance and macrolide resistance were studied by sequencing gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes, as well as 23S rRNA genes and genes encoding L4/L22 ribosomal proteins. A total of 103 samples were confirmed as positive for U. urealyticum/U. parvum, whereas 21 were positive for both U. urealyticum/U. parvum and M. hominis. According to the IST 2 kit, the rates of nonsusceptibility were highest for ciprofloxacin (19.4%) and ofloxacin (9.7%), whereas low rates were observed for clarithromycin (4.9%), erythromycin (1.9%), and azithromycin (1%). However, inconsistent results between microdilution and IST 2 kit assays were recorded. Various sequence types (STs) observed previously in China (ST1, ST2, ST4, ST9, ST22, and ST47), as well as eight novel lineages, were detected. Only some quinolone-resistant isolates had amino acid substitutions in ParC (Ser83Leu in U. parvum of serovar 6) and ParE (Val417Thr in U. parvum of serovar 1 and the novel Thr417Val substitution in U. urealyticum). Isolates with mutations in 23S rRNA or substitutions in L4/L22 were not detected. This is the first study analyzing the susceptibility of U. urealyticum/U. parvum isolates in Switzerland and the clonality outside China. Resistance rates were low compared to those in other countries. We hypothesize that some hyperepidemic STs spread worldwide via sexual intercourse

  12. Antibiotic Susceptibility and Sequence Type Distribution of Ureaplasma Species Isolated from Genital Samples in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sarah C; Tinguely, Regula; Droz, Sara; Hilty, Markus; Donà, Valentina; Bodmer, Thomas; Endimiani, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Antibiotic resistance in Ureaplasma urealyticum/Ureaplasma parvum and Mycoplasma hominis is an issue of increasing importance. However, data regarding the susceptibility and, more importantly, the clonality of these organisms are limited. We analyzed 140 genital samples obtained in Bern, Switzerland, in 2014. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed by using the Mycoplasma IST 2 kit and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. MICs for ciprofloxacin and azithromycin were obtained in broth microdilution assays. Clonality was analyzed with PCR-based subtyping and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), whereas quinolone resistance and macrolide resistance were studied by sequencing gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes, as well as 23S rRNA genes and genes encoding L4/L22 ribosomal proteins. A total of 103 samples were confirmed as positive for U. urealyticum/U. parvum, whereas 21 were positive for both U. urealyticum/U. parvum and M. hominis. According to the IST 2 kit, the rates of nonsusceptibility were highest for ciprofloxacin (19.4%) and ofloxacin (9.7%), whereas low rates were observed for clarithromycin (4.9%), erythromycin (1.9%), and azithromycin (1%). However, inconsistent results between microdilution and IST 2 kit assays were recorded. Various sequence types (STs) observed previously in China (ST1, ST2, ST4, ST9, ST22, and ST47), as well as eight novel lineages, were detected. Only some quinolone-resistant isolates had amino acid substitutions in ParC (Ser83Leu in U. parvum of serovar 6) and ParE (Val417Thr in U. parvum of serovar 1 and the novel Thr417Val substitution in U. urealyticum). Isolates with mutations in 23S rRNA or substitutions in L4/L22 were not detected. This is the first study analyzing the susceptibility of U. urealyticum/U. parvum isolates in Switzerland and the clonality outside China. Resistance rates were low compared to those in other countries. We hypothesize that some hyperepidemic STs spread worldwide via sexual intercourse

  13. Isolation of a novel human papillomavirus (type 51) from a cervical condyloma

    SciTech Connect

    Nuovo, G.J.; Crum, C.P.; Levine, R.U.; Silverstein, S.J. ); De Villiers, E.M. )

    1988-04-01

    The authors cloned the DNA from a novel human papillomavirus (HPV) present in a cervical condyloma. When DNA from this isolate was hybridized at high stringency with HPV types 1 through 50 (HPV-1 through HPV-50), it showed weak homology with HPV-6 and -16 and stronger homology with HPV-26. A detailed restriction endonuclease map was prepared which showed marked differences from the maps for other HPVs that have been isolated from the female genital tract. Reassociation kinetic analysis revealed that HPV-26 and this new isolate were less than 10% homologous; hence, the new isolate is a noel strain of HPV. The approximate positions of the open reading frames of the new strain were surmised by hybridization with probes derived from individual open reading frames of HPV-16. In an analysis of 175 genital biopsies from patients with abnormal Papanicolaou smears, sequences hybridizing under highly stringent conditions to probes from this novel HPV type were found in 4.2, 6.1, and 2.4% of biopsies containing normal squamous epithelium, condylomata, and intraepithelial neoplasia, respectively. In addition, sequences homologous to probes from this novel isolate were detected in one of five cervical carcinomas examined.

  14. Men's Perceptions and Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Cervical Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPartland, Tara S.; Weaver, Bethany A.; Lee, Shu-Kuang; Koutsky, Laura A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors assessed young men's knowledge and perceptions of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection to identify factors that predict intention to make positive behavioral changes. Male university students aged 18 to 25 years completed a self-report instrument to assess knowledge and perceptions of genital HPV infection. If diagnosed with…

  15. HPV type concordance in sexual couples determines the effect of condoms on regression of flat penile lesions.

    PubMed

    Bleeker, M C G; Berkhof, J; Hogewoning, C J A; Voorhorst, F J; van den Brule, A J C; Starink, T M; Snijders, P J F; Meijer, C J L M

    2005-04-25

    We earlier demonstrated, in a randomised clinical trial, that the regression time of flat penile lesions in male sexual partners of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) was shorter in men who used condoms compared to those who did not. To further evaluate this finding, we examined whether the effect of condom use on the regression of flat penile lesions depends on the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) type concordance in sexual couples, as determined in cervical and penile scrapes by GP5+/6+ PCR testing. A Cox model with time-dependent covariates showed a beneficial effect of condoms on regression of flat penile lesions in concordant couples (hazard ratio 2.63, 95% CI 1.07-6.48) but not in those who were nonconcordant. When both partners harboured different HPV types, no effect of condoms was found (hazard ratio 0.90, 95% CI 0.27-2.96). Delayed regression of flat penile lesions was associated with either stable lesions or with new penile lesions developing at sites surrounding pre-existing lesions suggesting reinfection of the penile epithelium. We conclude that condom use blocks sexual HPV transmission by preventing reinfection and development of new penile lesions in men who are susceptible to the same type as present in the female partner.

  16. A prospective analysis of smoking and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among men in The HPV in Men (HIM) Study

    PubMed Central

    Schabath, Matthew B.; Villa, Luisa L.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmerón, Jorge; Abrahamsen, Martha E.; Papenfuss, Mary R.; Quiterio, Manuel; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    At present it is unknown whether the higher prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among smokers in men is attributed to a higher probability of acquiring an infection or because of longer infection persistence. Thus, we investigated the role of smoking on the (acquisition) and clearance (persistence) of genital HPV infections among 4,026 men in The HPV in Men (HIM) Study, a multinational prospective study of the natural history of genital HPV infection in men. Genital HPV infections were grouped any-, oncogenic-, and non-oncogenic HPV infections and smoking status was categorized as current-, former, and never smokers. The incidence of any-, oncogenic-, and non-oncogenic HPV infections was significantly higher among current smokers compared to former- and never smokers (P < 0.01). In multivariable analyses adjusting for sexual behavior and potential confounders, when compared to never smokers, current smokers exhibited significantly higher probability of acquiring any- (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 – 1.50) and non-oncogenic (HR = 1.21; 95% CI 1.00 – 1.45) infections and a borderline significant probability for oncogenic infections (HR = 1.18; 95% CI 0.98 – 1.41). Although the median duration of HPV infection was generally longer among current smokers, we found no statistically significant associations in the multivariable analyses. Overall, these results demonstrated that current smoking exhibited the highest incidence and highest probability of acquiring genital HPV infections. PMID:24222514

  17. Characterization of Serum Antibodies from Women Immunized with Gardasil: A Study of HPV-18 Infection of Primary Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsu-Kun; Wei, Qing; Moldoveanu, Zina; Huh, Warner K.; Lan Vu, Huong; Broker, Thomas R.; Mestecky, Jiri; Chow, Louise T.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalent human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect human epithelial tissues. Infections by the mucosotropic HPV genotypes cause hyperproliferative ano-genital lesions. Persistent infections by high-risk (HR) HPVs such as HPV-16, HPV-18 and related types can progress to high grade intraepithelial neoplasias and cancers. Prophylactic HPV vaccines are based on DNA-free virus-like particles (VLPs) composed of the major capsid protein L1 of HPV-16, -18, -6 and -11 (Gardasil) or HPV-16 and -18 (Cervarix). Sera from vaccinated animals effectively prevent HPV pseudovirions to infect cell lines and mouse cervical epithelia. Both vaccines have proven to be highly protective in people. HPV pseudovirions are assembled in HEK293TT cells from matched L1 and L2 capsid proteins to encapsidate a reporter gene. Pseudovirions and genuine virions have structural differences and they infect cell lines or primary human keratinocytes (PHKs) with different efficiencies. In this study, we show that sera and isolated IgG from women immunized with Gardasil prevent authentic HPV-18 virions from infecting PHKs, whereas non-immune sera and purified IgG thereof are uniformly ineffective. Using early passage PHKs, neutralization is achieved only if immune sera are added within 2 to 4 h of infection. We attribute the timing effect to a conformational change in HPV virions, thought to occur upon initial binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) on the cell surface. This interpretation is consistent with the inability of immune IgG bound to or taken up by PHKs to neutralize the virus. Interestingly, the window of neutralization increases to 12 to 16 h in slow growing, late passage PHKs, suggestive of altered cell surface molecules. In vivo, this window might be further lengthened by the time required to activate the normally quiescent basal cells to become susceptible to infection. Our observations help explain the high efficacy of HPV vaccines. PMID:27113165

  18. Characterization of serum antibodies from women immunized with Gardasil: A study of HPV-18 infection of primary human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsu-Kun; Wei, Qing; Moldoveanu, Zina; Huh, Warner K; Vu, Huong Lan; Broker, Thomas R; Mestecky, Jiri; Chow, Louise T

    2016-06-01

    The prevalent human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect human epithelial tissues. Infections by the mucosotropic HPV genotypes cause hyperproliferative ano-genital lesions. Persistent infections by high-risk (HR) HPVs such as HPV-16, HPV-18 and related types can progress to high grade intraepithelial neoplasias and cancers. Prophylactic HPV vaccines are based on DNA-free virus-like particles (VLPs) composed of the major capsid protein L1 of HPV-16, -18, -6 and -11 (Gardasil) or HPV-16 and -18 (Cervarix). Sera from vaccinated animals effectively prevent HPV pseudovirions to infect cell lines and mouse cervical epithelia. Both vaccines have proven to be highly protective in people. HPV pseudovirions are assembled in HEK293TT cells from matched L1 and L2 capsid proteins to encapsidate a reporter gene. Pseudovirions and genuine virions have structural differences and they infect cell lines or primary human keratinocytes (PHKs) with different efficiencies. In this study, we show that sera and isolated IgG from women immunized with Gardasil prevent authentic HPV-18 virions from infecting PHKs, whereas non-immune sera and purified IgG thereof are uniformly ineffective. Using early passage PHKs, neutralization is achieved only if immune sera are added within 2-4h of infection. We attribute the timing effect to a conformational change in HPV virions, thought to occur upon initial binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) on the cell surface. This interpretation is consistent with the inability of immune IgG bound to or taken up by PHKs to neutralize the virus. Interestingly, the window of neutralization increases to 12-16h in slow growing, late passage PHKs, suggestive of altered cell surface molecules. In vivo, this window might be further lengthened by the time required to activate the normally quiescent basal cells to become susceptible to infection. Our observations help explain the high efficacy of HPV vaccines.

  19. Characterization of serum antibodies from women immunized with Gardasil: A study of HPV-18 infection of primary human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsu-Kun; Wei, Qing; Moldoveanu, Zina; Huh, Warner K; Vu, Huong Lan; Broker, Thomas R; Mestecky, Jiri; Chow, Louise T

    2016-06-01

    The prevalent human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect human epithelial tissues. Infections by the mucosotropic HPV genotypes cause hyperproliferative ano-genital lesions. Persistent infections by high-risk (HR) HPVs such as HPV-16, HPV-18 and related types can progress to high grade intraepithelial neoplasias and cancers. Prophylactic HPV vaccines are based on DNA-free virus-like particles (VLPs) composed of the major capsid protein L1 of HPV-16, -18, -6 and -11 (Gardasil) or HPV-16 and -18 (Cervarix). Sera from vaccinated animals effectively prevent HPV pseudovirions to infect cell lines and mouse cervical epithelia. Both vaccines have proven to be highly protective in people. HPV pseudovirions are assembled in HEK293TT cells from matched L1 and L2 capsid proteins to encapsidate a reporter gene. Pseudovirions and genuine virions have structural differences and they infect cell lines or primary human keratinocytes (PHKs) with different efficiencies. In this study, we show that sera and isolated IgG from women immunized with Gardasil prevent authentic HPV-18 virions from infecting PHKs, whereas non-immune sera and purified IgG thereof are uniformly ineffective. Using early passage PHKs, neutralization is achieved only if immune sera are added within 2-4h of infection. We attribute the timing effect to a conformational change in HPV virions, thought to occur upon initial binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) on the cell surface. This interpretation is consistent with the inability of immune IgG bound to or taken up by PHKs to neutralize the virus. Interestingly, the window of neutralization increases to 12-16h in slow growing, late passage PHKs, suggestive of altered cell surface molecules. In vivo, this window might be further lengthened by the time required to activate the normally quiescent basal cells to become susceptible to infection. Our observations help explain the high efficacy of HPV vaccines. PMID:27113165

  20. Evaluation of the Cepheid herpes simplex virus typing real-time PCR assay using dermal and genital specimens.

    PubMed

    Podzorski, Raymond P

    2006-10-01

    The Cepheid herpes simplex virus (HSV) (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) typing multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was evaluated for its ability to detect HSV in dermal and genital specimens stored in M5 media. Swab specimens (n = 114) for HSV testing were placed in M5 media and split between our laboratory and a highly experienced reference laboratory. Aliquots for testing with the Cepheid assay were processed using a simple boil-and-go procedure and then run in a SmartCycler II (Cepheid). Aliquots tested at the reference laboratory were processed using a MagNA Pure LC DNA extractor (Roche Molecular Systems, Alameda, CA) and tested by the Roche HSV real-time PCR assay. Both laboratories detected 35 positives. Of the positive specimens, the Cepheid assay typed 16 as HSV 1 and 19 as HSV 2; the reference laboratory typed 15 as HSV 1, 19 as HSV 2, and 1 as HSV indeterminate. Our results demonstrate that the Cepheid real-time PCR assay, using specimens subjected to minimal specimen processing, performed as well as the Roche real-time PCR assay, using DNA extracts, for the detection of HSV DNA in genital and dermal specimens.

  1. Numerical simulation of a two-sex human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryani, I.; Adi-Kusumo, F.

    2014-02-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a major cause of cervical cancer, precancerous lesions, cancer and other disease. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Although HPV virus primarily affects woman but it can also affects man because it cause of cancer of the anus, vulva, vagina, penis and some other cancers. HPV vaccines now used to prevent cervical cancer and genital warts because the vaccine protect against four types of HPV that most commonly cause disease are types 6, 11, 16, and 18. This paper is sequel work of Elbasha (2008). Difference with Elbasha (2008) are give alternative proof global stability, numerical simulation and interpretation. Global stability of the equilibrium on the model of a two-sex HPV vaccination were explored by using Lyapunov. Although we use the same lyapunov function, we use the largest invariant set to proof the global stability. The result show that the global stability of the equilibrium depends on the effective reproduction number (R). If R < 1 then the infection-free equilibrium is asymptotically stable globally. If R > 1 then endemic equilibrium have globally asymptotically stable properties. Then equilibrium proceed with the interpretation of numerical simulation.

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of the DNA of a new human papillomavirus (HPV 30) from a laryngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kahn, T; Schwarz, E; zur Hausen, H

    1986-01-15

    DNA from a human laryngeal carcinoma was molecularly cloned in Lambda L47. The gene library was screened for human papillomavirus (HPV)-related sequences by hybridization analysis with 32P-labelled HPV 16 DNA at conditions of low stringency (Tm -40 degrees C). One of the clones (4-5) with an insert of 7.8 kb showed cross-hybridization with most of the known HPV types (Tm -40 degrees C), and with several of them even under more stringent conditions (Tm -30 degrees C). No signal was detected under high-stringency conditions (Tm -20 degrees C). The co-linear alignment of clone 4-5 with HPV 16 DNA could be demonstrated by hybridization experiments and also by partial DNA sequence analysis. We conclude that clone 4-5 represents a new HPV type tentatively designated HPV 30. HPV 30 DNA was also detected in 2 genital lesions but not in 41 laryngeal carcinomas analyzed so far. Its presence in other tumor DNA is now under investigation. PMID:3000955

  3. Detection of human papillomavirus type 6/11 DNA in conjunctival papillomas by in situ hybridization with radioactive probes

    SciTech Connect

    McDonnell, P.J.; McDonnell, J.M.; Kessis, T.; Green, W.R.; Shah, K.V.

    1987-11-01

    Twenty-three conjunctival papillomas and 28 conjunctival dysplasias were examined for human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA sequences by in situ hybridization with nick-translated /sup 35/S-labeled HPV probes. Adjacent paraffin sections were hybridized with HPV type 2, 6, 16, and 18 probes at Tm - 17 degrees C. Fifteen tissues, all papillomas, displayed positive hybridization with the HPV-6 probe. Infection with HPV-6 (or the closely related HPV-11) appeared to be responsible for most of the conjunctival papillomas of children and young adults. The presence of genital tract HPV-6 in these lesions suggests that some of the infections were acquired during passage through an infected birth canal. The lack of hybridization in adult conjunctival dysplasias indicates either that HPVs are not associated with this condition or that the probes and the technique utilized were not adequate for demonstration of this association.

  4. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection in a newborn can cause meningitis (an inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord), seizures, and brain damage. How Is It Prevented? The best way to prevent genital herpes is abstinence. Teens who do have ...

  5. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on ... also infect their babies during childbirth. Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

  6. Simultaneous PCR detection of Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 from genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Orle, K A; Gates, C A; Martin, D H; Body, B A; Weiss, J B

    1996-01-01

    A multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay with colorimetric detection was devised for the simultaneous amplification of DNA targets from Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. By using target-specific oligonucleotides in a microwell format, 298 genital ulcer swab specimens collected in New Orleans during three intervals from 1992 through 1994 were evaluated. The results of the M-PCR assay were compared with the results of dark-field microscopy and H. ducreyi culture on two different culture media. HSV culture results were available for 99 specimens collected during the third interval. Confirmatory PCR assays targeting different gene sequences for each of the three organisms were used to validate the M-PCR results. Specimens were resolved as positive for the determination of sensitivity if the reference diagnostic test was positive or if the results of both the M-PCR and the confirmatory PCR were positive. The resolved sensitivities of M-PCR for HSV, H. ducreyi, and T. pallidum were 100, 98.4, and 91%, respectively. The resolved sensitivities of HSV culture, H. ducreyi culture, and dark-field microscopy were 71.8, 74.2, and 81%, respectively. These results indicate that the M-PCR assay is more sensitive than standard diagnostic tests for the detection of HSV, H. ducreyi, and T. pallidum from genital ulcers.

  7. HPV and oral lesions: preventive possibilities, vaccines and early diagnosis of malignant lesions.

    PubMed

    Testi, D; Nardone, M; Melone, P; Cardelli, P; Ottria, L; Arcuri, C

    2015-01-01

    The importance of HPV in world healthy is high, in fact high-risk HPV types contribute significantly to viral associated neoplasms. In this article we will analyze vary expression of HPV in oral cavity both benign and malignant, their prevalence and the importance in early diagnosis and prevention. The classical oral lesions associated with human papillomavirus are squamous cell papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris and focal epithelial hyperplasia. Overall, HPV types 2, 4, 6, 11, 13 and 32 have been associated with benign oral lesions while HPV types 16 and 18 have been associated with malignant lesions, especially in cancers of the tonsils and elsewhere in the oropharynx. Transmission of the virus can occur with direct contact, genital contact, anal and oral sex; latest studies suggest a salivary transmission and from mother to child during delivery. The number of lifetime sexual partners is an important risk factor for the development of HPV-positive head-neck cancer. Oral/oropharyngeal cancer etiologically associated with HPV having an increased survival and a better prognostic (85%-90% to five years). There is no cure for the virus. There are two commercially available prophylactic vaccines against HPV today: the bivalent (16 and 18) Cervarix® and the tetravalent (6, 11, 16 and 18) Gardasil® and new vaccine Gardasil 9 (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) was approved in the United States. To be effective, such vaccination should start before "sexual puberty". The vaccine could be an important preventive strategy, in fact the scientific community is in agreement on hypothesis that blocking the contagion it may also limit the distance complications as the oropharyngeal cancer.

  8. HPV and oral lesions: preventive possibilities, vaccines and early diagnosis of malignant lesions.

    PubMed

    Testi, D; Nardone, M; Melone, P; Cardelli, P; Ottria, L; Arcuri, C

    2015-01-01

    The importance of HPV in world healthy is high, in fact high-risk HPV types contribute significantly to viral associated neoplasms. In this article we will analyze vary expression of HPV in oral cavity both benign and malignant, their prevalence and the importance in early diagnosis and prevention. The classical oral lesions associated with human papillomavirus are squamous cell papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris and focal epithelial hyperplasia. Overall, HPV types 2, 4, 6, 11, 13 and 32 have been associated with benign oral lesions while HPV types 16 and 18 have been associated with malignant lesions, especially in cancers of the tonsils and elsewhere in the oropharynx. Transmission of the virus can occur with direct contact, genital contact, anal and oral sex; latest studies suggest a salivary transmission and from mother to child during delivery. The number of lifetime sexual partners is an important risk factor for the development of HPV-positive head-neck cancer. Oral/oropharyngeal cancer etiologically associated with HPV having an increased survival and a better prognostic (85%-90% to five years). There is no cure for the virus. There are two commercially available prophylactic vaccines against HPV today: the bivalent (16 and 18) Cervarix® and the tetravalent (6, 11, 16 and 18) Gardasil® and new vaccine Gardasil 9 (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) was approved in the United States. To be effective, such vaccination should start before "sexual puberty". The vaccine could be an important preventive strategy, in fact the scientific community is in agreement on hypothesis that blocking the contagion it may also limit the distance complications as the oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:27555904

  9. HPV and oral lesions: preventive possibilities, vaccines and early diagnosis of malignant lesions

    PubMed Central

    TESTI, D.; NARDONE, M.; MELONE, P.; CARDELLI, P.; OTTRIA, L.; ARCURI, C.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The importance of HPV in world healthy is high, in fact high-risk HPV types contribute significantly to viral associated neoplasms. In this article we will analyze vary expression of HPV in oral cavity both benign and malignant, their prevalence and the importance in early diagnosis and prevention. The classical oral lesions associated with human papillomavirus are squamous cell papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris and focal epithelial hyperplasia. Overall, HPV types 2, 4, 6, 11, 13 and 32 have been associated with benign oral lesions while HPV types 16 and 18 have been associated with malignant lesions, especially in cancers of the tonsils and elsewhere in the oropharynx. Transmission of the virus can occur with direct contact, genital contact, anal and oral sex; latest studies suggest a salivary transmission and from mother to child during delivery. The number of lifetime sexual partners is an important risk factor for the development of HPV-positive head-neck cancer. Oral/oropharyngeal cancer etiologically associated with HPV having an increased survival and a better prognostic (85%–90% to five years). There is no cure for the virus. There are two commercially available prophylactic vaccines against HPV today: the bivalent (16 and 18) Cervarix® and the tetravalent (6, 11, 16 and 18) Gardasil® and new vaccine Gardasil 9 (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) was approved in the United States. To be effective, such vaccination should start before “sexual puberty”. The vaccine could be an important preventive strategy, in fact the scientific community is in agreement on hypothesis that blocking the contagion it may also limit the distance complications as the oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:27555904

  10. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) L1 Serum Antibodies and the Risk of Subsequent Oral HPV Acquisition in Men: The HIM Study.

    PubMed

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Viscidi, Raphael P; Torres, B Nelson; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Villa, Luisa L; Kreimer, Aimée R; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-07-01

    The role of antibody-mediated immunity in preventing newly acquired oral human papillomavirus (HPV) is not well understood. Among 1618 men participating in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study, we evaluated oral rinses for HPV DNA and baseline sera for HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18 L1 antibodies. Thirty percent of men (486) were seropositive for ≥1 HPV type, and 25 men developed incident oral HPV infection (HPV-6 was detected in 7, HPV-11 in 0, HPV-16 in 17, and HPV-18 in 1). Cox models revealed that men with circulating antibodies to HPV-6, -11, -16, or -18 were not less likely to acquire type-specific oral HPV than men without antibodies (hazard ratio for the risk of acquiring HPV-6, -11, -16, or -18, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, .56-4.76).

  11. Confirmation of herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in herpes-like genital lesions by a simple complement-fixation test.

    PubMed

    Arsenakis, M; May, J T

    1982-02-01

    The presence of complement-fixing antibody to an early herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) antigen (the AG-4 antigen) was correlated with HSV-2 infection in the sera of patients with genital herpes. Eighty-eight per cent of sera taken two weeks after clinical diagnosis of a primary or recurrent herpes infection in patients, confirmed to have HSV-2 by virus isolation and typing, contained the anti-AG-4 complement-fixing antibody. None of the patients with genital HSV-1 had the antibody, and only 9% of controls or patients with facial HSV-1 infection had positive results for the antibody. This correlation was used to identify genital HSV-2 infections when either no virus sample had been taken or when virus isolations had been unsuccessful. Thus, a simple complement-fixation test can confirm an HSV-2 virus infection without isolation of the virus from the herpetic lesion.

  12. HPV Infections Decrease in the U.S.

    Cancer.gov

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types targeted by the quadrivalent HPV vaccine has declined by nearly two-thirds among teenage girls since HPV vaccination was recommended in the United States.

  13. A Contemporary Review of HPV and Penile Cancer.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Kelly L; Culkin, Daniel J

    2016-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a widespread sexually transmitted infection. In both men and women, HPV infection can result in a spectrum of genitourinary manifestations ranging from genital warts to cancer. Cervical cancer is nearly always associated with high-risk HPV infection. For men, penile cancer can develop following or independently of HPV infection. Basaloid and warty subtypes of penile squamous cell carcinoma are most frequently associated with HPV infection. Further research into the molecular alterations caused by HPV infection may provide prognostic markers and future treatment targets. Until an effective treatment for HPV infection is developed, prevention will remain the focus of disease control. For women, vaccination is increasingly utilized to prevent HPV infection and subsequent cervical cancer development. New recommendations for routine male vaccination may further reduce cancers for both men and women.

  14. Efficacy of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16 and 18) vaccine (GARDASIL) in Japanese women aged 18-26 years.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Ebihara, Keiko; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Noda, Kiichiro

    2013-04-01

    A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled phase II trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a prophylactic quadrivalent vaccine targeting the human papillomavirus (HPV) types most frequently associated with cervical cancer (types 16/18) and genital warts (types 6/11) in Japanese women aged 18-26 years. Participants were randomly assigned to either quadrivalent HPV (types 6/11/16/18) L1 virus-like particle vaccine (GARDASIL) (n = 509) or placebo (n = 512). Participants underwent regular gynecological examinations, cervicovaginal sampling for HPV DNA, testing for serum neutralizing antibodies to HPV and Papanicolau testing. The primary end-point was the combined incidence of persistent infection with HPV types 6, 11, 16 or 18 and cervical or external genital disease (i.e. cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, cervical cancer or external genital lesions related to HPV 6, 11, 16 or 18. Primary analyses were done per protocol. Combined incidence of persistent infection or disease with HPV 6, 11, 16 or 18 fell by 87.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 59.2-97.6; P < 0.001), with HPV 6 or 11 by 73.1% (95% CI, -1.1-97.3; P = 0.0756) and with HPV 16 or 18 by 94.5% (95% CI, 65.2-99.9; P < 0.001) in those assigned vaccine compared with those assigned placebo. The median duration of follow up after month 7 in subjects was 23 months. In addition, the vaccine was well tolerated in Japanese women aged 18-26 years. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine could significantly reduce the acquisition of infection and clinical disease caused by HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18.

  15. HPV vaccination for prevention of skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vinzón, Sabrina E; Rösl, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous papillomaviruses are associated with specific skin diseases, such as extensive wart formation and the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), especially in immunosuppressed patients. Hence, clinical approaches are required that prevent such lesions. Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines confer type-restricted protection against HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18, responsible of 90% of genital warts and 70% of cervical cancers, respectively. However, they do not protect against less prevalent high-risk types or cutaneous HPVs. Over the past few years, several studies explored the potential of developing vaccines targeting cutaneous papillomaviruses. These vaccines showed to be immunogenic and prevent skin tumor formation in certain animal models. Furthermore, under conditions mimicking the ones found in the intended target population (i.e., immunosuppression and in the presence of an already established infection before vaccination), recent preclinical data shows that immunization can still be effective. Strategies are currently focused on finding vaccine formulations that can confer protection against a broad range of papillomavirus-associated diseases. The state-of-the-art of these approaches and the future directions in the field will be presented. PMID:25692212

  16. Male genital lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  17. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, 18) L1 virus-like-particle vaccine in Latin American women.

    PubMed

    Perez, Gonzalo; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; García, Patricia J; Muñoz, Nubia; Villa, Luisa L; Bryan, Janine; Taddeo, Frank J; Lu, Shuang; Esser, Mark T; Vuocolo, Scott; Sattler, Carlos; Barr, Eliav

    2008-03-15

    The prevalence of HPV infection in Latin America is among the highest in the world. A quadrivalent (types 6/11/16/18) human papillomavirus L1 virus-like-particle vaccine has been shown to be 95-100% effective in preventing HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical and genital disease in women naive to vaccine HPV types. A total of 6,004 female subjects aged 9-24 were recruited from Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala and Peru. Subjects were randomized to immunization with intramuscular (deltoid) injections of HPV vaccine or placebo at enrollment (day 1), month 2 and month 6. Among vaccinated subjects in the per-protocol population from Latin America, quadrivalent HPV vaccine was 92.8 and 100% effective in preventing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and external genital lesions related to vaccine HPV types, respectively. These data support vaccination of adolescents and young adults in the region, which is expected to greatly reduce the burden of cervical and genital cancers, precancers and genital warts. PMID:18000825

  18. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Genital Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... page. Skip Navigation U.S. Department of Health and Human Services • National Institutes of Health Temas de Salud ... RELATED GOVERNMENT SITES U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health USA.gov

  19. Molecular beacon-based real-time PCR method for detection of 15 high-risk and 5 low-risk HPV types.

    PubMed

    Takács, Tibor; Jeney, Csaba; Kovács, Laura; Mózes, Johanna; Benczik, Márta; Sebe, Attila

    2008-04-01

    Detection of HPV infections requires a robust time-effective single-step method for efficient screening. A molecular beacon-based one-step multiplex real-time PCR system was developed to detect 15 high-risk (HPV types 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68) and 5 low-risk HPV types (HPV types 6, 11, 42, 43, 44). Molecular beacons detecting high-risk types are 5'-FAM-3'-DABCYL-labelled, molecular beacons for low-risk detection are 5'-TET-3'-DABCYL-labelled, while the internal control added before sample DNA extraction is detected by a 5'-FAM-TexasRed-3'-DABCYL wavelength-shifting molecular beacon. Accordingly, fluorescent data for HPV detection are collected at 530 nm for high-risk types, 560 nm in case of low-risk types and the reaction internal control is detected at 610 nm on a Roche LightCycler 2.0 instrument. The sensitivity for detected types varies between 22 and 700 copies/reaction. The clinical performance was tested on 161 clinical sample DNAs. The MB-RT PCR results were compared to the typing results obtained by the L1F/L1R PCR and hybridization-based system described previously, and the concordance rate between the two systems was 89.44%. The favorable characteristics shown by this multiplex single-step real-time HPV detection system make this promising approach worthy for further development and application for clinical screening.

  20. Human papillomavirus type 16 virus-like particles expressed in attenuated Salmonella typhimurium elicit mucosal and systemic neutralizing antibodies in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Nardelli-Haefliger, D; Roden, R B; Benyacoub, J; Sahli, R; Kraehenbuhl, J P; Schiller, J T; Lachat, P; Potts, A; De Grandi, P

    1997-01-01

    Attenuated strains of Salmonella are attractive live vaccine candidates for eliciting mucosal as well as systemic immune responses. The ability to induce immune responses in the reproductive tract may be critical for the effectiveness of a prophylactic vaccine against genital human papillomaviruses (HPV), which are important etiologic agents in the development of cervical cancer. To examine the potential of a live Salmonella-based vaccine to prevent genital HPV infection, the L1 major capsid protein from HPV type 16 (HPV16) was constitutively expressed in the PhoPc strain of Salmonella typhimurium. As demonstrated by electron microscopy, the L1 protein expressed in these bacteria assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) that resemble authentic papillomavirus virions. This is the first demonstration that papillomavirus VLPs can self-assemble in prokaryotes. BALB/c mice were immunized with the HPV16 L1 recombinant PhoPc strain by the oral and nasal routes. Despite a low stability of the L1-expressing plasmid in vivo, a double nasal immunization was effective in inducing L1-specific serum antibodies that recognized mainly native, but not disassembled, VLPs. These antibodies effectively neutralized HPV16 pseudotyped virions in an in vitro infectivity assay. Conformationally dependent anti-VLP immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG were also detected in oral and vaginal secretions, indicating that potentially protective antibody responses were elicited at mucosal sites. Recombinant attenuated Salmonella expressing HPV capsids may represent a promising vaccine candidate against genital HPV infection. PMID:9234794

  1. HPV - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Creole (Kreyol) Hmong (Hmoob) Khmer (Khmer) Korean (한국어) Oromo (Afaan Oromo) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog ( ... Action Coalition; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Oromo (Afaan Oromo) Genital Warts/HPV English Biqiltuwwan Dhagna- ...

  2. Human Papillomavirus Type 6 and 11 Genetic Variants Found in 71 Oral and Anogenital Epithelial Samples from Australia

    PubMed Central

    Danielewski, Jennifer A.; Garland, Suzanne M.; McCloskey, Jenny; Hillman, Richard J.; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variation of 49 human papillomavirus (HPV) 6 and 22 HPV11 isolates from recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) (n = 17), genital warts (n = 43), anal cancer (n = 6) and cervical neoplasia cells (n = 5), was determined by sequencing the long control region (LCR) and the E6 and E7 genes. Comparative analysis of genetic variability was examined to determine whether different disease states resulting from HPV6 or HPV11 infection cluster into distinct variant groups. Sequence variation analysis of HPV6 revealed that isolates cluster into variants within previously described HPV6 lineages, with the majority (65%) clustering to HPV6 sublineage B1 across the three genomic regions examined. Overall 72 HPV6 and 25 HPV11 single nucleotide variations, insertions and deletions were observed within samples examined. In addition, missense alterations were observed in the E6/E7 genes for 6 HPV6 and 5 HPV11 variants. No nucleotide variations were identified in any isolates at the four E2 binding sites for HPV6 or HPV11, nor were any isolates found to be identical to the HPV6 lineage A or HPV11 sublineage A1 reference genomes. Overall, a high degree of sequence conservation was observed between isolates across each of the regions investigated for both HPV6 and HPV11. Genetic variants identified a slight association with HPV6 and anogenital lesions (p = 0.04). This study provides important information on the genetic diversity of circulating HPV 6 and HPV11 variants within the Australian population and supports the observation that the majority of HPV6 isolates cluster to the HPV6 sublineage B1 with anogenital lesions demonstrating an association with this sublineage (p = 0.02). Comparative analysis of Australian isolates for both HPV6 and HPV11 to those from other geographical regions based on the LCR revealed a high degree of sequence similarity throughout the world, confirming previous observations that there are no geographically specific

  3. High-Throughput Profiling of the Humoral Immune Responses Against Thirteen Human Papillomavirus Types by Proteome Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Luevano, Martha; Bernard, Hans-Ulrich; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A.; Trevino, Victor; Garcia-Carranca, Alejandro; Villa, Luisa L.; Monk, Bradley J.; Tan, Xiaolin; Davies, D. Huw; Felgner, Phil L.; Kalantari, Mina

    2010-01-01

    We have developed microarrays with all eight proteins encoded by 13 different human papillomavirus types associated with anogenital cancer (HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 53), genital warts (HPV-6, 11), or skin lesions (HPV-1, 2, 4, 5). We analyzed the seroprevalence of antibodies in 546 patients, which had either cervical carcinomas, or precursor lesions, or which were asymptomatic. All patient groups contained sera ranging from high reactivity against multiple HPV proteins to low or no reactivity. Computational analyses showed the E7 proteins of carcinogenic HPV types as significantly more reactive in cancer patients compared to asymptomatic individuals and discriminating between cancer and HSIL or LSIL patients. Antibodies against E4 and E5 had the highest seroprevalence, but did not exhibit differential reactivity relative to pathology. Our study introduces a new approach to future evaluation of the overall antigenicity of HPV proteins and cross-reaction between homologous proteins. PMID:20554302

  4. Oral human papillomavirus infection in men might contribute to HPV serology.

    PubMed

    Syrjänen, S; Waterboer, T; Kero, K; Rautava, J; Syrjänen, K; Grenman, S; Pawlita, M

    2015-02-01

    The prospective Finnish Family HPV Study evaluated the dynamics of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection within families. Here, we focused on HPV serology in men. Seroprevalence at baseline, seroconversion and decay of low-risk (LR)-HPV6 and 11, and high risk (HR)-HPV16, 18 and 45 L1 antibodies in 122 men at 12, 24 and 36 months were determined using Luminex-based multiplex HPV serology, and correlated with demographic data. At baseline, seropositivity to HPV6, 11, 16, 18 and 45 was observed in 41.0, 11.5, 23.0, 13.9 and 5.7 % of the men, respectively. In univariate analysis, LR-HPV seropositivity was related to smoking status, history of genital warts and being seropositive to HR-HPV. Oral HR-HPV DNA and baseline LR-HPV seropositivity predicted HR-HPV seropositivity. Seroconversion to HPV6, 11, 16, 18 and 45 antigens during follow-up was found in 24.6, 11.5, 5.7, 5.7 and 0.8 %, respectively. Seroconversion to LR-HPV was negatively related to a higher number of children and oral sex, and positively associated with seroconversion to HR-HPV. In multivariate analysis, the same predictors remained significant except for the number of children. In univariate generalised estimating equations (GEE) for HR-HPV, being seroconverted to LR-HPV was the only predictor, but lost its significance in multivariate analyses. Decay of all HPV L1 antibodies was rare and observed in 0-2 %. The HPV antibody profile in men was dominated by response to HPV6, also showing the highest cumulative seroconversion. Oral HPV infection might affect HPV serology: (1) HPV DNA in oral mucosa is associated with baseline HR-HPV seropositivity and (2) practising oral sex significantly reduces longitudinal seroconversion to HPV6 and/or 11.

  5. Genital soft tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Schoolmeester, John K; Fritchie, Karen J

    2015-07-01

    Mesenchymal neoplasms of the vulvovaginal and inguinoscrotal regions are among the most diagnostically challenging specimens in the pathology laboratory owing largely to their unique intersection between general soft tissue tumors and relatively genital-specific mesenchymal tumors. Genital stromal tumors are a unique subset of soft tissue tumors encountered at this location, and this group includes fibroepithelial stromal polyp, superficial (cervicovaginal) myofibroblastoma, cellular angiofibroma, mammary-type myofibroblastoma, angiomyofibroblastoma and aggressive angiomyxoma. Aside from the striking morphologic and immunophenotypic similarity that is seen with these entities, there is evidence that a subset of genital stromal tumors may be linked genetically. This review will focus on simplifying this group of tumors and provide the pathologist or dermatopathologist with practical management information. Smooth muscle tumors of the external genitalia will also be discussed.

  6. Serial type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) load measurement allows differentiation between regressing cervical lesions and serial virion productive transient infections.

    PubMed

    Depuydt, Christophe E; Jonckheere, Jef; Berth, Mario; Salembier, Geert M; Vereecken, Annie J; Bogers, Johannes J

    2015-08-01

    Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is strongly associated with the development of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or cancer. Not all persistent infections lead to cancer. Viral load measured at a single time-point is a poor predictor of the natural history of HPV infections. However the profile of viral load evolution over time could distinguish nonprogressive from progressive (carcinogenic) infections. A retrospective natural history study was set up using a Belgian laboratory database including more than 800,000 liquid cytology specimens. All samples were submitted to qPCR identifying E6/E7 genes of 18 HPV types. Viral load changes over time were assessed by the linear regression slope. Database search identified 261 untreated women with persistent type-specific HPV DNA detected (270 infections) in at least three of the last smears for a average period of 3.2 years. Using the coefficient of determination (R²) infections could be subdivided in a latency group (n = 143; R² < 0.85) and a regressing group (n = 127; R² ≥ 0.85). In (≥ 3) serial viral load measurements, serial transient infections with latency is characterized by a nonlinear limited difference in decrease or increase of type-specific viral load (R² < 0.85 and slopes between 2 measurements 0.0010 and -0.0010 HPV copies/cell per day) over a longer period of time (1553 days), whereas regression of a clonal cell population is characterized by a linear (R² ≥ 0.85) decrease (-0.0033 HPV copies/cell per day) over a shorter period of time (708 days; P < 0.001). Using serial HPV type-specific viral load measurements we could for the first time identify regressing CIN2 and CIN3 lesions. Evolution of the viral load is an objective measurable indicator of the natural history of HPV infections and could be used for future triage in HPV-based cervical screening programs.

  7. Racial differences in the incidence and clearance of human papillomavirus (HPV): The HPV in Men (HIM) Study

    PubMed Central

    Schabath, Matthew B.; Villa, Luisa L.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J.; Akogbe, Gabriel O.; Abrahamsen, Martha E.; Papenfuss, Mary R.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmerón, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background This analysis assessed the acquisition (incidence) and persistence (clearance) of HPV infection by self-reported race among men in The HPV in Men (HIM) Study, a multinational prospective study of the natural history of genital HPV infections. Methods Self-reported race was categorized as White, Black, Asian/Pacific Islander (PI), or multiple and mixed race. Genital samples were combined for HPV DNA testing and categorized by any-, oncogenic-, and non-oncogenic HPV infections. Results Asian/PI race had significantly the lowest incidence of any-, oncogenic-, and non-oncogenic HPV infection (P < 0.001). In multivariable analyses Asian/PI race was associated with a lower probability of acquiring any- (HR=0.63; 95% CI 0.42–0.95) and non-oncogenic HPV infection (HR=0.61; 95% CI 0.40–0.93) when compared to Whites. No significant associations were evident for Asian/PI race for clearance. Multiple and mixed race was significantly associated with lower probability of acquiring non-oncogenic HPV infection (HR=0.83; 95% CI 0.69–0.99) and borderline significant associations were observed for any HPV (HR=0.91) and oncogenic infections (HR=0.92). Multiple and mixed race was associated with a lower probability of clearing any- (HR=0.92; 95% CI 0.84–1.00) and oncogenic HPV infections (HR=0.85; 95% CI 0.75–0.95). Conclusion Asian/PI race had the lowest incidence of HPV and exhibited a lower probability of acquiring new HPV infections. Multiple and mixed race had the second lowest incidence of infection and was associated with a lower probability of acquiring and clearing a HPV infection. Impact Race-specific differences in HPV infection could be due to behavior, innate genetic differences, or circulating intratypic HPV variants. PMID:23872745

  8. A novel vaccine for cervical cancer: quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16 and 18) recombinant vaccine (Gardasil®)

    PubMed Central

    Govan, Vandana A

    2008-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and remains a public health problem worldwide. There is strong evidence that HPV causes cervical, vulva and vaginal cancers, genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. The current treatments for HPV-induced infections are ineffective and recurrence is common-place. Therefore, to reduce the burden of HPV-induced infections, several studies have investigated the effi cacy of different prophylactic vaccines in clinical human trials directed against HPV types 6, 11, 16, or 18. Notably, these HPV types contribute to a signifi cant proportion of disease worldwide. This review will focus on the published results of Merck & Co’s prophylactic quadrivalent recombinant vaccine targeting HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 (referred to as Gardasil®). Data from the Phase III trial demonstrated that Gardasil was 100% effi cacious in preventing precancerous lesions of the cervix, vulva, and vagina and effective against genital warts. Due to the success of these human clinical trials, the FDA approved the registration of Gardasil on the 8 June 2006. In addition, since Gardasil has been effi cacious for 5 years post vaccination, the longest evaluation of an HPV vaccine, it is expected to reduce the incidence of these type specifi c HPV-induced diseases in the future. PMID:18728721

  9. Human papillomavirus and other genital infections in indigenous women from Paraguay: a cross-sectional analytical study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of cervical cancer in Paraguay is among the highest in the world, with the human papillomavirus (HPV) being a necessary factor for cervical cancer. Knowledge about HPV infection among indigenous women is limited. This cross-sectional study analyzed the frequency of HPV and other genital infections in indigenous Paraguayan women of the Department of Presidente Hayes. Methods This study included 181 sexually active women without cervical lesions. They belonged to the following ethnicities: Maká (n = 40); Nivaclé (n = 23); Sanapaná (n = 33); Enxet Sur (n = 51) and Toba-Qom (n = 34). The detection of HPV and other gynecological infectious microorganisms was performed by either molecular methods (for Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis), gram staining and/or culture (for Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida sp, Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae), serological methods (for Treponema pallidum, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) or cytology (cervical inflammation). Results A high prevalence (41.4%) of women positive for at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI) was found (23.2% any-type HPV, 11.6% T pallidum, 10.5% T vaginalis, 9.9% C trachomatis and 0.6% HIV) with 12.2% having more than one STI. HPV infection was the most frequent, with 16.1% of women positive for high-risk HPV types. There was a statistically significant association observed between any-type HPV and C trachomatis (p = 0.004), which indicates that the detection of one of these agents should suggest the presence of the other. There was no association between any-type HPV and other genital infections or cervical inflammation, suggesting that other mechanism could exist to favor infection with the virus. Conclusion This multidisciplinary work suggests that STIs are frequent, making it necessary to implement control measures and improve diagnosis in order to increase the number of cases detected, especially in

  10. Ubiquitination and proteasome degradation of the E6 proteins of human papillomavirus types 11 and 18.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Deborah; Kazemi, Shirin; Li, Suiyang; Massimi, Paola; Banks, Lawrence; Koromilas, Antonis E; Matlashewski, Greg

    2004-06-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are aetiological agents for genital warts and cervical cancer, the different pathologies of which are dependent on the type of HPV infection. Oncogenic HPV types associated with cancer are carcinogens by virtue of their oncogene products, which target key regulators of cell proliferation and apoptosis. The viral E6 protein from oncogenic HPV types plays a central role in carcinogenesis by exploiting the cellular proteasome degradation pathway in order to mediate the degradation of cellular proteins, most notably the prototype tumour suppressor protein p53. Much less is known about the cellular targets of E6 from the non-oncogenic HPV types associated with genital warts. It is also unclear what factors influence the level and stability of the viral E6 proteins in cells. This report demonstrates that both oncogenic and non-oncogenic HPV E6 proteins (from types 18 and 11, respectively) are ubiquitinated and targeted for degradation by the 26S proteasome. E6 domains required for the induction of p53 or DLG degradation, or E6AP binding, are not involved in proteasome-mediated degradation of HPV-18 E6. These results provide insight into the cellular modulation of E6 protein levels from both high-risk and low-risk HPV types. PMID:15166424

  11. Epidemiology and natural history of human papillomavirus infections in the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Ault, Kevin A

    2006-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Although the majority of sexually active adults will be infected with HPV at least once in their lives, it is sexually active women less than 25 years of age who consistently have the highest rates of infection. Besides youth and gender, common risk factors for HPV infection and clinical sequelae of infection include high number of sexual partners and coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis or herpes simplex virus. Most HPV infections are cleared by the immune system and do not result in clinical complications. Clinical sequelae in cases of low-risk HPV infection consist of genital warts, and clinical manifestations of high-risk HPV infection include abnormal Pap test results, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and cervical cancer. LSIL, HSIL, and cervical cancer carry significant morbidity and/or mortality; genital warts and abnormal Pap test results are often significant sources of psychosocial distress. Currently, there are neither effective means of preventing HPV transmission nor cures for clinical manifestations: infection can only be prevented via complete sexual abstinence, while treatment for clinical sequelae such as genital warts and cytologic abnormalities consists of removing the problematic cells and watching for recurrence; this method consumes significant health care resources and is costly. New prophylactic HPV vaccines promise to dramatically reduce the incidence of HPV infection, genital warts, and cytologic abnormalities. PMID:16967912

  12. Detection of human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid in the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Czeglédy, J; Gergely, L; Hernádi, Z; Póka, R

    1989-01-01

    A total of 336 biopsies, scrapes and exfoliated cells from the cervix and from the lower genital tract were screened for human papilloma (HP) viral sequences of types 6, 11, 16 and 18 by Southern blot, dot blot and filter in situ (FISH) hybridizations with cloned 32P-radiolabeled HPV DNA probes. The specimens included cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN I-III), carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma of the cervix and vagina, adenocarcinomas, vulvar and vaginal condylomata acuminata and healthy epithelial samples. The oncogenic HPV 16 was found in 46% of the cervical carcinomas. Most of the type 16 occurrences (75%) represented the third stage of inoperable cases. Similarly, HPV 18 was also most frequently present in this stage as well as in carcinoma in situ and in CIN III (25%, 18%). At the same time, in condylomata acuminata, types 6 and 11 were detectable in 88.7% of cares. In all, 13.5% of the normal samples harboured HPV DNA. PMID:2559306

  13. The four steps in the prevention of human papillomavirus-associated neoplasia: considerations for preventive measures, screening, disease impact, and potential overtreatments in HPV-related pathology.

    PubMed

    Liverani, Carlo A

    2013-11-01

    There is no cure currently available for HPV infections, although ablative and excisional treatments of some dysplasias often result in a clinical and virological cure. Effective control measures of HPV-associated cancers rely on the prevention at four different levels. Apart from sexual abstinence, primary prevention is realized through vaccines targeting the most frequent HPV types: negative attitudes towards HPV vaccination and high costs are the main obstacles. The aim of secondary prevention is to detect precancerous changes before they develop into invasive cancer, while tertiary prevention involves actual treatment of high-grade lesions: in many countries routine screening with cytology is being challenged with HPV DNA testing. Quaternary prevention comprehends those actions adopted to mitigate or avoid unnecessary or excessive medical interventions, and may well be addressed in avoiding treatments for low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. Though some gynecologists commonly recommend treatment for low-grade disease and women tend to prefer active management if not properly informed, harms arising from unnecessary treatments, increased costs, work overload for second-level health services, and induced psychosocial distress are causing on-going problems. Prevention efforts of genital HPV-associated cancers should concentrate in: (1) enhancing primary prevention through vaccination of all eligible subjects, (2) achieving high levels of adherence to routine screening programs, (3) treating precancerous lesions, and (4) monitoring current guidelines recommendations to avoid overtreatments. Novel research projects should be designed to study the delicate mechanisms of immune response to HPV. PMID:23974280

  14. HPV Vaccine Effective at Multiple Anatomic Sites

    Cancer.gov

    A new study from NCI researchers finds that the HPV vaccine protects young women from infection with high-risk HPV types at the three primary anatomic sites where persistent HPV infections can cause cancer. The multi-site protection also was observed at l

  15. [The importance of HPV vaccination in men].

    PubMed

    Sehnal, Borek; Chlíbek, Roman; Sláma, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    The important goal of immunization programs in many countries is the reduction of the incidence of cervical cancer using either the quadrivalent (Silgard/Gardasil) or the bivalent (Cervarix) HPV (human papillomavirus) vaccine. Nevertheless, HPV infection is associated with the development of cancers of anus, vagina, vulva and penis, and cancers of the head and neck and genital warts, too. Large trials for both vaccines find efficacy against HPV-related infection and different HPV associated diseases.Infection with HPV and diseases caused by HPV are common in boys and men, too. Approximately 5.2 % of all cancers are HPV associated and the burden of HPV associated disease in men is now comparable to that in women in economically developed countries. Randomized control trials demonstrate robust antibody responses and high efficacy also in men. Several countries recommend gender-neutral vaccination.Detailed cost effective modeling has preceded these decisions showing that when the burden of disease in men is included in the models then, depending upon vaccine price, coverage of a vaccinated population, and other factors male vaccination can become cost effective. Vaccine price had a decisive impact on results. However, increasing coverage in girls is substantially more effective and cost-effective than expanding vaccination coverage to boys and should be considered a priority. Since 2012, vaccination of girls at the age of 13-14 years has been covered from the health insurance in the Czech Republic. PMID:27481200

  16. Long-term persistence of oral human papillomavirus type 16: the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study.

    PubMed

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Kreimer, Aimée R; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William; O'Keefe, Michael T; Ingles, Donna J; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R

    2015-03-01

    Persistent infection with oral HPV16 is believed to drive the development of most oropharyngeal cancers. However, patterns of oral HPV16 persistence remain understudied, particularly among HIV-negative individuals. Oral HPV16 persistence was evaluated among 1,626 participants of the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Twenty-three oral HPV16-positive men who provided an oral gargle sample on ≥2 study visits were included in the analysis. Archived oral samples from all follow-up visits were tested for HPV16 using Linear Array and INNO-LiPA detection methods. Persistence was evaluated using consecutive HPV16-positive visits held approximately 6 months apart and using the Kaplan-Meier method. Oral HPV16-positive men were aged 18 to 64 years [median, 36 years; interquartile range (IQR), 25-42] and were followed for a median of 44.4 months (IQR, 29.9-49.5). Of 13 incident infections, 4 (30.8%) persisted ≥12 months, 1 (10.0%) persisted ≥24 months, and none persisted ≥36 months [median infection duration, 7.3 months; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.4-NA)]. Of 10 prevalent infections, 9 (90.0%) persisted ≥12 months, 8 (80.0%) persisted ≥24 months, 4 (57.1%) persisted ≥36 months, and 2 (40.0%) persisted ≥48 months (median infection duration, NA). Twelve-month persistence of incident infections increased significantly with age (Ptrend = 0.028). Prevalent oral HPV16 infections in men persisted longer than newly acquired infections, and persistence appeared to increase with age. These findings may explain the high prevalence of oral HPV observed at older ages. Understanding oral HPV16 persistence will aid in the identification of men at high-risk of developing HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer.

  17. Long-term persistence of oral human papillomavirus type 16: The HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Christine M. Pierce; Kreimer, Aimée R.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William; O’Keefe, Michael T.; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2014-01-01

    Persistent infection with oral HPV16 is believed to drive the development of most oropharyngeal cancers. However, patterns of oral HPV16 persistence remain understudied, particularly among HIV-negative individuals. Oral HPV16 persistence was evaluated among 1626 participants of the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Twenty-three oral HPV16-positive men who provided an oral gargle sample on ≥2 study visits were included in the analysis. Archived oral samples from all follow-up visits were tested for HPV16 using Linear Array and INNO-LiPA detection methods. Persistence was evaluated using consecutive HPV16-positive visits held approximately 6 months apart and using the Kaplan-Meier method. Oral HPV16-positive men were aged 18–64 years (median, 36 years; IQR, 25–42) and were followed for a median of 44.4 months (IQR, 29.9–49.5). Of 13 incident infections, 4 (30.8%) persisted ≥12 months, 1 (10.0%) persisted ≥24 months, and none persisted ≥36 months (median infection duration, 7.3 months [95% CI, 6.4–NA]). Of 10 prevalent infections, 9 (90.0%) persisted ≥12 months, 8 (80.0%) persisted ≥24 months, 4 (57.1%) persisted ≥36 months, and 2 (40.0%) persisted ≥48 months (median infection duration, NA). Twelve-month persistence of incident infections increased significantly with age (P trend=0.028). Prevalent oral HPV16 infections in men persisted longer than newly acquired infections, and persistence appeared to increase with age. These findings may explain the high prevalence of oral HPV observed at older ages. Understanding oral HPV16 persistence will aid in the identification of men at high-risk of developing HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:25575501

  18. Robust In Vitro and In Vivo Neutralization against Multiple High-Risk HPV Types Induced by a Thermostable Thioredoxin-L2 Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Hanna; Ribeiro-Müller, Lis; Canali, Elena; Bolchi, Angelo; Tommasino, Massimo; Ottonello, Simone; Müller, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Current prophylactic virus-like particle (VLP) human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are based on the L1 major capsid protein and provide robust but virus type-restricted protection. Moreover, VLP vaccines have a high production cost, require cold-chain storage, and are thus not readily implementable in developing countries, which endure 85% of the cervical cancer-related death burden worldwide. In contrast with L1, immunization with minor capsid protein L2 elicits broad cross-neutralization, and we previously showed that insertion of a peptide spanning amino acids 20-38 of L2 into bacterial thioredoxin (Trx) greatly enhances its immunogenicity. Building on this finding, we use, here, four different neutralization assays to demonstrate that low doses of a trivalent Trx-L2 vaccine, incorporating L2(20-38) epitopes from HPV16, HPV31 and HPV51, and formulated in a human-compatible adjuvant, induce broadly protective responses. Specifically, we show that this vaccine, which uses a far-divergent archaebacterial thioredoxin as scaffold and is amenable to an easy one-step thermal purification, induces robust cross-neutralization against 12 of the 13 known oncogenic HPV types. Immune performance measured with two different in vitro neutralization assays was corroborated by the results of mouse cervico-vaginal challenge and passive transfer experiments indicating robust cross-protection also in vivo. Altogether, our results attest to the potential of Trx-L2 as a thermostable second-generation HPV vaccine particularly well suited for low-resource countries.

  19. Correlation of E6 and E7 levels in high-risk HPV16 type cervical lesions with CCL20 and Langerhans cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, B; Xue, M

    2015-09-08

    The human papillomavirus (HPV)16 E6 and E7 correlation with chemokine ligand (CCL)20 expression and Langerhans cells (LCs) in cervical lesions was investigated. We enrolled 43 patients with surgically treated cervical lesions from the Department of Gynecology in our hospital, and 20 controls without cervical lesions. Subjects were divided by pathology: HPV16(-) and HPV16(+) normal cervical groups (N = 10 each), and HPV16(+) cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), cervical invasive carcinoma (N = 15 each), and in situ carcinoma (N = 13) groups. E6, E7, the LC surface marker CD1a, and CCL20 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. E6 and E7 in HPV16-type lesions were correlated with CCL20 and LCs. The average high power field cell numbers of CD1a+ LCs in the HPV(-) and HPV(+) normal cervix groups, and the CINI-II, CINIII in situ and cervical carcinoma groups were 22.89 ± 4.84, 13.7 ± 2.26, 9.2 ± 1.68, 5.9 ± 1.59, and 5.5 ± 1.58, respectively. Significant between-group differences existed except between cervical carcinoma and CINIII groups (P < 0.05). CCL20+ rates in each group were 70, 60, 60, 15.38, and 13.33%, respectively. E6/E7-positive expression rates in each group were 20/20, 66.7/66.7, 76.9/69.2, and 86.67/73.3%, respectively. CCL20 was positively correlated with CD1a (r = 0.649), and negatively correlated with E7 (r = -0.946) and E6 (r = -0.949). CD1a was negatively correlated with E6 (r = -0.632) and E7 (r = -0.632). Downregulation of CCL20 leading to LC decline is a key factor in cervical lesions. High-risk HPV-type lesions might inhibit the chemokine CCL20 through E6 and E7 to escape the immune response.

  20. Exploring the Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Communication Preferences of the General Public regarding HPV: Findings from CDC Focus Group Research and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Allison L.; Shepeard, Hilda

    2007-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted virus in the United States, causing genital warts, cervical cell abnormalities, and cervical cancer in women. To inform HPV education efforts, 35 focus groups were conducted with members of the general public, stratified by gender, race/ethnicity, and urban/rural…

  1. E7 Oncoprotein of Novel Human Papillomavirus Type 108 Lacking the E6 Gene Induces Dysplasia in Organotypic Keratinocyte Cultures ▿

    PubMed Central

    Nobre, Rui Jorge; Herráez-Hernández, Elsa; Fei, Jian-Wei; Langbein, Lutz; Kaden, Sylvia; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele

    2009-01-01

    The genome organization of the novel human papillomavirus type 108 (HPV108), isolated from a low-grade cervical lesion, deviates from those of other HPVs in lacking an E6 gene. The three related HPV types HPV103, HPV108, and HPV101 were isolated from cervicovaginal cells taken from normal genital mucosa (HPV103) and low-grade (HPV108) and high-grade cervical (HPV101) intraepithelial neoplasia (Z. Chen, M. Schiffman, R. Herrero, R. DeSalle, and R. D. Burk, Virology 360:447-453, 2007, and this report). Their unusual genome organization, against the background of considerable phylogenetic distance from the other HPV types usually associated with lesions of the genital tract, prompted us to investigate whether HPV108 E7 per se is sufficient to induce the above-mentioned clinical lesions. Expression of HPV108 E7 in organotypic keratinocyte cultures increases proliferation and apoptosis, focal nuclear polymorphism, and polychromasia. This is associated with irregular intra- and extracellular lipid accumulation and loss of the epithelial barrier. These alterations are linked to HPV108 E7 binding to pRb and inducing its decrease, an increase in PCNA expression, and BrdU incorporation, as well as increased p53 and p21CIP1 protein levels. A delay in keratin K10 expression, increased expression of keratins K14 and K16, and loss of the corneal proteins involucrin and loricrin have also been noted. These modifications are suggestive of infection by a high-risk papillomavirus. PMID:19153227

  2. Human papillomavirus detection and genotyping, by HC2, full-spectrum HPV and molecular beacon real-time HPV assay in an Irish colposcopy clinic.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Helen; Pilkington, Loretto; McInerney, Jamie; Jeney, Csaba; Benczik, Márta; Cleary, Sinead; von Bunau, Gunther; Turner, Michael; D'Arcy, Tom; O' Toole, Sharon; Pal-Szenthe, Borbála; Kaltenecker, Borbàla; Mózes, Johanna; Kovács, Anette; Solt, Agnes; Bolger, Noel; O'Leary, John; Martin, Cara

    2014-06-01

    Cervical screening programmes are moving towards HPV testing as part of the screening process and as a triage for colposcopy. Three HPV detection methods were evaluated using cervical cytology specimens from colposcopy patients. PreservCyt™ liquid based cytology specimens from 241 women attending colposcopy clinics with greater than 2 persistently abnormal smears were recruited through the Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital, Dublin. HPV DNA was detected by Hybrid Capture (HC2) for 13 high-risk HPV types, Full-Spectrum HPV (FS-HPV) for 49 high and low-risk types and Molecular Beacon Real-Time HPV assay (MBRT-HPV) for 16 high and low-risk types. HPV genotyping was performed using Linear Array HPV Assay (LA-HPV). HPV was detected in 83.3% (195/234), 91.9% (217/236) and 80.1% (169/211) of cytology specimens by HC2, FS-HPV and MBRT-HPV, HPV DNA detection assays. The sensitivity of the assays for the detection of high-risk HPV in cytology specimens that had a Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2+ result by histology were, 98%, 97% and 94% for HC2, FS-HPV and MBRT-HPV assays with positive predictive values of 94.1%, 94.1% and 97.3%. The most common HPV genotypes were HPV 16, 31, 33, 58, 42, 61 and 53, and the most common high-risk HPV genotypes were HPV 16, 31, 33, 58, 18, 45, 59, 51, 56 and 39, with detection of multiple infections in 57.7% of all cases. FS-HPV and MBRT-HPV are highly sensitive and have a similarly high PPV as the HC2 assay for detection of HPV in patients with Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2+ disease. HPV genotyping of women with persistent abnormalities is warranted prior to the introduction of HPV DNA testing in a colposcopy setting.

  3. Update on the treatment of genital warts.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeld, Noah

    2013-06-01

    This review summarizes new treatments from the last seven years employed for the treatment of genital warts caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Imquimod 3.75% is a new agent with fewer side effects and perhaps a better dosing schedule than imquimod 5%, but is not more effective. Sinecatechins/Polyphenon E 15%, a novel extract from green tea can be effective against genital warts but requires three times a day dosing and is not more effective than existing treatments; the treatment course is 12-16 weeks. Photodynamic therapy combined with other destructive modalities might increase the cure rate for genital warts. The quadrivalent vaccine against HPV 6, 11, 16, 18 is decreasing the incidence of warts in the western world but the evidence does not support vaccination as a treatment for those already infected by HPV. Hyperthermia and immunomodulators might be positive additions to the armamentarium of clinicians. In sum, there are new tools that physicians can use but none is really a great advance over what was available a decade ago. PMID:24011309

  4. HPV Carcinomas in Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reusser, Nicole M.; Downing, Christopher; Guidry, Jacqueline; Tyring, Stephen K.

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can result in pre-malignancies or overt malignancies of the skin and mucosal surfaces. HPV-related illnesses are an important personal and public health problem causing physical, mental, sexual and financial detriments. Moreover, this set of malignancies severely affects the immunosuppressed population, particularly HIV-positive patients and organ-transplant recipients. There is growing incidence of HPV-associated anogenital malignancies as well as a decrease in the average age of affected patients, likely related to the rising number of high-risk individuals. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of HPV-related malignancy. Current treatment options for HPV infection and subsequent disease manifestations include imiquimod, retinoids, intralesional bleomycin, and cidofovir; however, primary prevention with HPV vaccination remains the most effective strategy. This review will discuss anogenital lesions in immunocompromised patients, cutaneous warts at nongenital sites, the association of HPV with skin cancer in immunocompromised patients, warts and carcinomas in organ-transplant patients, HIV-positive patients with HPV infections, and the management of cutaneous disease in the immunocompromised patient. PMID:26239127

  5. HPV Prevalence in Multiple Anatomical Sites among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Blas, Magaly M.; Brown, Brandon; Menacho, Luis; Alva, Isaac E.; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Carcamo, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    Background Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted viral infection worldwide. HPV is highly prevalent in sexually active men who have sex with men (MSM) and has been associated with anal cancer, penile cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer. Methods From March to September 2011, we conducted a cross-sectional study of HPV prevalence among MSM above age 18 years. Participants were recruited using respondent driven sampling at Clinica Cayetano Heredia. All participants provided anal, genital, and oral samples for HPV DNA testing, and blood for HIV and HPV antibody testing. Results A total of 200 MSM were recruited in the study. The mean age was 34 years (range 18–59 years, SD = 9.4) and101 participants were HIV negative (99 HIV positive). HPV 6/11/16/18 or quadrivalent HPV vaccine (HPV4) genotype seroprevalence among HIV negative and positive MSM was 64.3% (55%-75.9%) and 93.8% (87.6%-99.2%) respectively (p<0.001). HIV positivity was associated with a higher prevalence of HPV4 and HPV 16/18 DNA at external genital sites and the anal canal. HPV4 DNA prevalence at external genital sites among HIV negative and positive MSM was 14.9% and 28.7% (p = 0.02) respectively, at anal canal was 50.9% and 79.0% (p = 0.001), and at the oral cavity was 9.9% and 8.5% (p = 0.6). Conclusions HPV4 seroprevalence was high in our study among both HIV positives and negatives, with HPV DNA prevalence much lower, and the anal canal being the anatomical site with the highest HPV DNA prevalence. HPV prevention interventions are needed among MSM at high-risk for HIV infection. PMID:26437318

  6. Bax and Bak expression in cervical smears of women with low-and high-risk HPV types: A study of 120 cases

    PubMed Central

    Klapsinou, Eirini; Argyri, Elena; Panotopoulou, Efstathia; Daskalopoulou, Dimitra; Patsouris, Efstratios; Nonni, Afroditi; Lazaris, Andreas C; Thomopoulou, Georgia-Heleni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is known to be involved in the carcinogenesis of squamous cells in uterine cervix cancer, mostly by binding and inactivating the p53 and pRb tumor suppressor genes. Lately, evidence has emerged suggesting that HPV oncoproteins may interact with proteins involved in cellular apoptosis as well. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the expression of proapoptotic proteins Bax and Bak in women with low-risk and high-risk HPV types as opposed to HPV-negative women, and in women with normal pap smear compared to women with abnormal Papanicolau test (Pap) smear. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 liquid-based cervical samples were subtyped for HPV types with microarray hybridization and then stained and evaluated immunocytochemically for Bax and Bak expression. Statistical analysis was performed on the Bax and Bak scores (percentage of positive cells × staining intensity), the overall percentage of positive cells, and the most prevalent staining intensity group found in each sample. Results: A weak association between negative Bax staining and cytologically normal Pap smears was discovered, whereas cytologically abnormal samples tended to stain weakly or moderately positive. No other statistically significant difference was found in the other analyzed parameters. Conclusion: Cytologically normal pap smears seem to have a slight tendency to stain negative for Bax as opposed to cytologically abnormal pap smears. Although the association is weak, it is an indication that there might be a connection between the expression of Bax and the development of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia, which warrants further investigation in larger-scale studies. PMID:26811568

  7. A cloudy bag and genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Liesker, J; van Elsacker-Niele, A M; Blanken, R; Halma, C

    2006-05-01

    A 30-year-old patient treated with CCPD presented with genital ulcers and a culture-negative peritonitis. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was cultured from the effluent and the genital lesions. Primary HSV-2 infection was diagnosed by serology. This is the first documented case of PD peritonitis caused by HSV-2. We speculate that cases of culture-negative PD peritonitis may be due to recurrences of genital herpes.

  8. The comparison of the effect of LTR72 and MF59 adjuvants on mouse humoral response to intranasal immunisation with human papillomavirus type 6b (HPV-6b) virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Greer, C E; Petracca, R; Buonamassa, D T; Di Tommaso, A; Gervase, B; Reeve, R L; Ugozzoli, M; Van Nest, G; De Magistris, M T; Bensi, G

    2000-12-01

    Infections with genital human papillomaviruses (HPV) are likely to be neutralised more efficiently if a mucosal immune response can be elicited at the viral entry site. Local IgA antibodies are highly induced when antigens are co-administered with mucosal adjuvants, such as cholera toxin (CT) and Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin (LT) which, however, are not expected to have wide application because of their pronounced toxicity. We have immunised mice intranasally with HPV-6b virus-like particles (VLPs) and a genetically modified LT-derived molecule with only residual toxicity, LTR72, and compared the humoral responses with those obtained following systemic immunisation with VLPs and the MF59 adjuvant. Titration of anti-HPV antibodies in sera and vaginal secretions established that LTR72 was able to elicit higher serum and mucosal IgA titers, in addition to IgG serum levels, comparable to those obtained by parenteral immunisation. These results confirm the potential of toxin-derived adjuvants and extend their use in combination with HPV antigens.

  9. Association of Genital Infections Other Than Human Papillomavirus with Pre-Invasive and Invasive Cervical Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Ishita; Mandal, Ranajit; Kundu, Pratip; Biswas, Jaydip

    2016-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-established causative agent of malignancy of the female genital tract and a common Sexually Transmitted Infection. The probable co-factors that prevent spontaneous clearance of HPV and progression to neoplasia are genital tract infections from organisms like Chlamydia, Trichomonas vaginalis etc, smoking, nutritional deficiencies and multiparity. Inflammatory conditions can lead to pre-neoplastic manifestations in the cervical epithelium; however their specific role in cervical carcinogenesis is not yet established. Therefore it is imperative to study the likely association between HPV and co-infection with various common pathogens in the genital tract of women having cervical precancer or cancer. A "Pubmed" search was made for articles in Literature on this topic using the words: Cervical neoplasia, HPV, co-infections, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN), Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida, Chlamydia and the relevant information obtained was used to draft the review. PMID:27042571

  10. Association of Genital Infections Other Than Human Papillomavirus with Pre-Invasive and Invasive Cervical Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Ranajit; Kundu, Pratip; Biswas, Jaydip

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-established causative agent of malignancy of the female genital tract and a common Sexually Transmitted Infection. The probable co-factors that prevent spontaneous clearance of HPV and progression to neoplasia are genital tract infections from organisms like Chlamydia, Trichomonas vaginalis etc, smoking, nutritional deficiencies and multiparity. Inflammatory conditions can lead to pre-neoplastic manifestations in the cervical epithelium; however their specific role in cervical carcinogenesis is not yet established. Therefore it is imperative to study the likely association between HPV and co-infection with various common pathogens in the genital tract of women having cervical precancer or cancer. A “Pubmed” search was made for articles in Literature on this topic using the words: Cervical neoplasia, HPV, co-infections, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN), Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida, Chlamydia and the relevant information obtained was used to draft the review. PMID:27042571

  11. Reducing HPV-associated Cancer Globally

    PubMed Central

    Lowy, Douglas R.; Schiller, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers are a major worldwide public health concern. Virtually all cervical cancer is HPV-related, with 70% caused by HPV16 and -18. Variable proportions of certain non-cervical cancers (e.g., anal, vulvar, oropharyngeal) are HPV-related; over 90% of the HPV-related ones are related to HPV16, -18. The HPV-related cancers are dominated by cervical cancer in the developing world, where cervical cancer screening is limited. In this setting, widespread uptake of current HPV vaccines by adolescent girls could reduce this cancer's incidence and mortality by approximately two-thirds, with cost-effective screening programs of adult women having the potential to reduce mortality more rapidly. In the industrialized world, non-cervical HPV-related cancers, especially oropharyngeal, are rapidly increasing, and now rival the incidence of cervical cancer, whose rates continue to decline thanks to established cervical screening programs. Therefore, reducing HPV-associated non-cervical cancers with HPV vaccination has greater importance in the industrialized world, especially since there are no approved screening programs for these cancers. Preventing the substantial number of non-cervical HPV cancers in men will require either “herd” immunity through high vaccination rates in females or male vaccination. Current HPV vaccination can complement cervical screening in protecting against cervical cancer and may permit the safe reduction of screening intensity in industrialized countries. Second-generation HPV vaccines (active against a broader array of cervical cancer–related HPV types) could prevent an even higher proportion of cervical precancer and cancer and might permit further reductions in screening intensity. PMID:22219162

  12. The clinical utility of HPV DNA testing in cervical cancer screening strategies.

    PubMed

    Bhatla, Neerja; Moda, Nidhi

    2009-09-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be the commonest cause of death among women in developing countries, largely due to the failure to the inability to sustain effective cytology-based screening programs. While this burden may come down following implementation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, screening will still be required. HPV DNA testing is a promising new technology for cervical cancer prevention and is the most reproducible of all cervical cancer screening tests. Presently, the two assays most widely used for the detection of genital types are the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Hybrid Capture 2 assays (hc2). Rapid, affordable tests are expected to be available soon. HPV DNA testing can be used in a variety of clinical scenarios that include primary screening in women older than 30 yr; as an adjunctive test to cytology; in the triage of women with an equivocal cytologic report, e.g., ASC-US; or for follow-up post-treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). HPV DNA testing can also be performed on self-collected samples, which allows screening in remote areas and also in women who refuse gynecologic examination.

  13. Pre-vaccination prevalence of infections with 25 non-high-risk human papillomavirus types among 1,000 Slovenian women in cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Učakar, Veronika; Poljak, Mario; Oštrbenk, Anja; Klavs, Irena

    2014-10-01

    Cervical infections with non-high-risk human papillomavirus (non-HR-HPV) types have been associated with genital warts and a fraction of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. The pre-vaccination prevalence of cervical infections with 25 non-HR-HPV types has been estimated, regardless of and without the coexistence of infection with HR-HPV types among Slovenian women 20-64 years old in cervical cancer screening, overall and according to age and cytology result. One thousand cervical specimens selected randomly from 4,455 specimens collected in 2010 in the Slovenian HPV prevalence survey were tested with Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test. Prevalence of cervical infections with any of the 25 non-HR-HPV types was 10.0% (95% CI: 8.1-11.9%) and with exclusively non-HR-HPV types 4.5% (95% CI: 3.2-5.8%). Prevalence of infections with any non-HR-HPV types among women with normal cytology was 8.8%, with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance 30.4%, with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions 60.0%, and with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions 7.7%. Non-HR-HPV types without coexisting HR-HPV types were found in 4.0% of women with normal cytology, 26.1% with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 6.7% with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and none with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Non-HR-HPV type cervical infections without coexisting HR-HPV infections were common among Slovenian women in cervical cancer screening with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, while rare in those with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse. J. Med. Virol. 86: 1772-1779, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Novel genital alphapapillomaviruses in baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) with cervical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Bergin, I L; Bell, J D; Chen, Z; Zochowski, M K; Chai, D; Schmidt, K; Culmer, D L; Aronoff, D M; Patton, D L; Mwenda, J M; Wood, C E; Burk, R D

    2013-01-01

    Genital Alphapapillomavirus (αPV) infections are one of the most common sexually transmitted human infections worldwide. Women infected with the highly oncogenic genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are at high risk for development of cervical cancer. Related oncogenic αPVs exist in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques. Here the authors identified 3 novel genital αPV types (PhPV1, PhPV2, PhPV3) by PCR in cervical samples from 6 of 15 (40%) wild-caught female Kenyan olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis). Eleven baboons had koilocytes in the cervix and vagina. Three baboons had dysplastic proliferative changes consistent with cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). In 2 baboons with PCR-confirmed PhPV1, 1 had moderate (CIN2, n = 1) and 1 had low-grade (CIN1, n = 1) dysplasia. In 2 baboons with PCR-confirmed PhPV2, 1 had low-grade (CIN1, n = 1) dysplasia and the other had only koilocytes. Two baboons with PCR-confirmed PhPV3 had koilocytes only. PhPV1 and PhPV2 were closely related to oncogenic macaque and human αPVs. These findings suggest that αPV-infected baboons may be useful animal models for the pathogenesis, treatment, and prophylaxis of genital αPV neoplasia. Additionally, this discovery suggests that genital αPVs with oncogenic potential may infect a wider spectrum of non-human primate species than previously thought.

  15. HPV Awareness and Willingness to HPV Vaccination among High-Risk Men attending an STI Clinic in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Colón-López, Vivian; Del Toro-Mejías, Lizbeth M.; Ortiz, Ana P.; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Palefsky, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective An HPV vaccine has been approved for men aged 9 to 26 in the US for the prevention of genital warts and anal cancer. The purpose of this study is to describe 1) HPV vaccine awareness, 2) willingness to get the HPV vaccine and 3) perceived susceptibility to HPV-related cancers and genital warts among men 18–26 years old who attend an STI clinic in San Juan, Puerto Rico (PR). Methods A cross-sectional pilot study consisting of 206 HIV+/HIV− men. For purpose of this analysis, only those participants aged ≤26 years old were included in this analysis (n=46). Results None of the study participants had been vaccinated against HPV. Fewer than a third knew about the HPV vaccine (28.3%). However, more than half (76.9%) were willing to be vaccinated against HPV. Information sources about the HPV vaccine included their female sexual partners (13.0%), a female sexual partner who received the vaccine (8.7%) and a male sexual partner (2.2%). Most participants reported that the main reason that would increase their willingness to get vaccinated was if a physician recommend the vaccine (95.7%). Perceived susceptibility was low, particularly for anal and oral cancer. Conclusion This pilot study shows poor awareness of the HPV vaccine, although willingness to getting the HPV vaccine was high among those who knew about the vaccine. Future studies should try to evaluate this paradox and study in depth willingness and barriers to vaccination among male sub-groups, such as men who have sex with men (MSM). These studies should also evaluate predictors of uptake of the HPV vaccine among men in this and other STI clinics in PR, in order to develop interventions to increase male vaccination. PMID:23844472

  16. Does intention to recommend HPV vaccines impact HPV vaccination rates?

    PubMed

    Feemster, Kristen A; Middleton, Maria; Fiks, Alexander G; Winters, Sarah; Kinsman, Sara B; Kahn, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    Despite recommendations for routine vaccination, HPV vaccination rates among adolescent females have remained low. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine whether clinician intention to recommend HPV vaccines predicts HPV vaccine series initiation among previously unvaccinated 11 to 18 year-old girls (N=18,083) who were seen by a pediatric clinician (N=105) from a large primary care network within 3 years of vaccine introduction. We used multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations, Cox Regression and standardized survival curves to measure the association between clinician intention and time to and rate of first HPV vaccine receipt among eligible females. All models adjusted for patient age, race/ethnicity, payor category, visit type, and practice location. Eighty-5 percent of eligible 11 to 12 year-old and 95% of 13 to 18 year-old girls were seen by a provider reporting high intention to recommend HPV vaccines. However, only 30% of the cohort initiated the HPV vaccine series and the mean number of days from first eligible visit to series initiation was 190 (95% C.I. 184.2, 195.4). After adjusting for covariates, high clinician intention was modestly associated with girls' likelihood of HPV vaccine series initiation (OR 1.36; 95 % C.I. 1.07, 1.71) and time to first HPV vaccination (HR 1.22; 95% 1.06, 1.40). Despite high intention to vaccinate among this cohort of pediatric clinicians, overall vaccination rates for adolescent girls remained low. These findings support ongoing efforts to develop effective strategies to translate clinician intention into timely HPV vaccine receipt.

  17. Does intention to recommend HPV vaccines impact HPV vaccination rates?

    PubMed Central

    Feemster, Kristen A; Middleton, Maria; Fiks, Alexander G; Winters, Sarah; Kinsman, Sara B; Kahn, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    Despite recommendations for routine vaccination, HPV vaccination rates among adolescent females have remained low. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine whether clinician intention to recommend HPV vaccines predicts HPV vaccine series initiation among previously unvaccinated 11 to 18 year-old girls (N = 18,083) who were seen by a pediatric clinician (N = 105) from a large primary care network within 3 years of vaccine introduction. We used multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations, Cox Regression and standardized survival curves to measure the association between clinician intention and time to and rate of first HPV vaccine receipt among eligible females. All models adjusted for patient age, race / ethnicity, payor category, visit type, and practice location. Eighty-5 percent of eligible 11 to 12 year-old and 95% of 13 to 18 year-old girls were seen by a provider reporting high intention to recommend HPV vaccines. However, only 30% of the cohort initiated the HPV vaccine series and the mean number of days from first eligible visit to series initiation was 190 (95% C.I. 184.2, 195.4). After adjusting for covariates, high clinician intention was modestly associated with girls’ likelihood of HPV vaccine series initiation (OR 1.36; 95 % C.I. 1.07, 1.71) and time to first HPV vaccination (HR 1.22; 95% 1.06, 1.40). Despite high intention to vaccinate among this cohort of pediatric clinicians, overall vaccination rates for adolescent girls remained low. These findings support ongoing efforts to develop effective strategies to translate clinician intention into timely HPV vaccine receipt. PMID:25483470

  18. Effects of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein Vaccines and CLDC Adjuvant on Genital Herpes Infection in the Guinea Pig

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, David I; Earwood, Julie D.; Bravo, Fernando J.; Cohen, Gary H; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Clark, Jennifer R.; Fairman, Jeffrey; Cardin, Rhonda D.

    2011-01-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are common but results from vaccine trials with HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) have been disappointing. We therefore compared a similar HSV gD2 vaccine, to a further truncated gD2 vaccine, to a vaccine with gD2 plus gB2 and gH2/gL2 and to a vaccine with only gB2 and gH2/gL2 in a guinea pig model of genital herpes. All vaccines were administered with cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC) as an adjuvant. All vaccines significantly decreased the severity of acute genital disease and vaginal virus replication compared to the placebo group. The majority of animals in all groups developed at least one episode of recurrent disease but the frequency of recurrent disease was significantly reduced by each vaccine compared to placebo. No vaccine was significantly more protective than gD2 alone for any of the parameters described above. No vaccine decreased recurrent virus shedding. When protection against acute infection of dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord was evaluated all vaccines decreased the per cent of animal with detectable virus and the quantity of virus but again no vaccine was significantly more protective than another. Improvements in HSV-2 vaccines may require inclusion of more T cell targets, more potent adjuvants or live virus vaccines. PMID:21238569

  19. HPV and Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... time in their life. Although most HPV infections go away on their own without causing problems, HPV ... me? Most of the time HPV infections completely go away and don’t cause any health problems. ...

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of 48 papillomavirus types and 28 subtypes and variants: a showcase for the molecular evolution of DNA viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, S Y; Bernard, H U; Ong, C K; Chan, S P; Hofmann, B; Delius, H

    1992-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are attractive models for studying the molecular evolution of DNA viruses because of the large number of isolates that exhibit genomic diversity and host species and tissue specificity. To examine their relationship, we selected two amino acid sequences, one of 52 residues within the early gene E1 and the other of 44 residues within the late gene L1, which allowed insertion- and deletion-free alignment of all accessible papillomavirus sequences. We constructed phylogenetic trees from the amino acid and corresponding nucleotide sequences from 28 published and 20 newly determined animal and human papillomavirus (HPV) genomic sequences by using distance matrix, maximum-likelihood, and parsimony methods. The trees agreed in all important topological aspects. One major branch with two clearly separated clusters contained 11 HPV types associated with epidermodysplasia verruciformis. A second major branch had all the papillomaviruses involved in genital neoplasia and, in distant relationship, the cutaneous papillomaviruses HPV type 2a (HPV-2a), HPV-3, and HPV-10 as well as the "butcher's" papillomavirus HPV-7 and two simian papillomaviruses. Four artiodactyl (even-toed hoofed mammal) papillomaviruses, the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus, and avian (chaffinch) papillomavirus type 1 formed a third major branch. Last, four papillomaviruses exhibited little affinity to any of these three branches; these were the cutaneous types HPV-1a, HPV-4, and HPV-41 and B-group bovine papillomavirus type 4. The phylogeny suggests that some branches of papillomavirus evolution are restricted to particular target tissues and that a general process of long-term papillomavirus-host coevolution has occurred. This latter hypothesis is still conjectural because of bias in the current data base for human types and the paucity of animal papillomavirus sequences. The comparison of evolutionary distances for the most closely related types with those of 28 subtypes and variants of

  1. HPV vaccination's second act: promotion, competition, and compulsion.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jason L

    2010-10-01

    Developments regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines will transform HPV vaccination in the United States while simultaneously raising several new policy and ethical concerns. Policymakers, vaccine manufacturers, and the public health community must now respond to the presence of competing vaccines that are similar but distinct, particularly with respect to genital wart prevention and the benefits of vaccinating males. This work arises in the shadow of the contentious introduction of the HPV vaccine Gardasil (Merck & Co, Inc, Whitehouse Station, NJ) in 2006, particularly the opposition to efforts in many states to require the vaccine for school attendance. I review the current status of HPV vaccine policy in the United States and examine issues of public health ethics and policy central to ongoing and future HPV vaccination programs.

  2. HPV testing as a screen for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Annekathryn

    2015-06-30

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as a necessary factor in the development of pre-invasive and invasive cancers of the lower genital tract, of which cervical cancer is the most prevalent. A molecular understanding of malignant transformation and epidemiologic information has led to the development of many strategies for detection and early intervention. Newer tests for oncogenic subtypes of HPV have made it possible to predict the risk of future development of cervical cancer. This review summarizes the current understanding of HPV related disease and examines the role of HPV testing as a screening tool for cervical cancer. It summarizes the data from prospective and randomized controlled trials on HPV screening from Europe and North America and includes smaller studies from low and middle income countries where cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women.

  3. Increasing HPV vaccination series completion rates via text message reminders.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Elaine C; Derouin, Anne; Gagliano, Martha; Thompson, Julie A; Blood-Siegfried, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most frequently diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. It is associated with the development of cervical, anal-genital, and oral-pharyngeal cancers. The rate of HPV infection among adolescents and young adults in the United States remains high, and completion rates of an HPV vaccine series remain low. At an urban pediatric clinic, adolescent and young adult participants aged 11 to 22 years (n = 37) received text message reminders for their second and third dose of HPV vaccine over an 8-month study period. Of the participants receiving text message reminders, 14% completed the vaccine series at the optimal time, whereas 0% of an interested group (n = 43) and only 3% of a standard care group (n = 232) completed the vaccine series at the optimal time. Findings support the use of text message reminders to improve HPV vaccine series completion rates in a pediatric practice. PMID:24200295

  4. Multilocus Sequence Typing of Genital Chlamydia trachomatis in Norway Reveals Multiple New Sequence Types and a Large Genetic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Gravningen, Kirsten; Christerson, Linus; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Simonsen, Gunnar Skov; Ödman, Kristina; Ståhlsten, Anna; Herrmann, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Background The Chlamydia trachomatis incidence rate in Finnmark, the most northern and sparsely populated county in Norway, has been twice the national average. This population based cross-sectional study among Finnmark high school students had the following aims: i) to examine distribution of multilocus sequence types (STs) of C. trachomatis in a previously unmapped area, ii) to compare chlamydia genetic diversity in Finnmark with that of two urban regions, and iii) to compare discriminatory capacity of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) with conventional ompA sequencing in a large number of chlamydia specimens. Methodology ompA sequencing and a high-resolution MLST system based on PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of five highly variable genetic regions were used. Eighty chlamydia specimens from adolescents aged 15–20 years in Finnmark were collected in five high schools (n = 60) and from routine clinical samples in the laboratory (n = 20). These were compared to routine clinical samples from adolescents in Tromsø (n = 80) and Trondheim (n = 88), capitals of North and Central Norway, respectively. Principal Findings ompA sequencing detected 11 genotypes in 248 specimens from all three areas. MLST displayed 50 STs providing a five-fold higher resolution. Two-thirds of all STs were novel. The common ompA E/Bour genotype comprised 46% and resolved into 24 different STs. MLST identified the Swedish new variant of C. trachomatis not discriminated by ompA sequencing. Simpson's discriminatory index (D) was 0.93 for MLST, while a corrected Dc was 0.97. There were no statistically significant differences in ST genetic diversity between geographic areas. Finnmark had an atypical genovar distribution with G being predominant. This was mainly due to expansion of specific STs of which the novel ST161 was unique for Finnmark. Conclusions/Significance MLST revealed multiple new STs and a larger genetic diversity in comparison to ompA sequencing and proved

  5. Human papillomavirus type 16 E6/E7-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes for adoptive immunotherapy of HPV-associated malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Carlos A; Narala, Neeharika; Vyas, Gayatri M; Leen, Ann M; Gerdemann, Ulrike; Sturgis, Erich M; Anderson, Matthew L; Savoldo, Barbara; Heslop, Helen E; Brenner, Malcolm K; Rooney, Cliona M

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines prevent human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancer but, although these tumors express foreign, viral antigens (E6 and E7 proteins), they have little benefit in established malignancies, likely due to negative environmental cues that block tumor recognition and induce T-cell anergy in vivo. We postulated that we could identify mechanisms by which ex vivo stimulation of T cells could reactivate and expand tumor-directed T-cell lines from HPV cancer patients for subsequent adoptive immunotherapy. A total of 68 patients with HPV-associated cancers were studied. Peripheral blood T cells were stimulated with monocyte-derived dendritic cells loaded with pepmixes [peptide libraries of 15-mers overlapping by 11 amino acids (aa)] spanning E6/E7, in the presence or absence of specific accessory cytokines. The resulting T-cell lines were further expanded with pepmix-loaded activated B-cell blasts. Interferon-γ release and cytotoxic responses to E6/E7 were assessed. We successfully reactivated and expanded (>1200-fold) E6-specific/E7-specific T cells from 8/16 cervical and 33/52 oropharyngeal cancer patients. The presence of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-7, IL-12, and IL-15 is critical for this process. These T-cell lines possess the desirable characteristics of polyclonality, multiple T-cell subset representation (including the memory compartment) and a TH1 bias, and may eliminate E6/E7 targets. In conclusion, we have shown it is possible to robustly generate HPV16 E6/E7-directed T-cell lines from patients with HPV16-associated cancers. Because our technique is scalable and good-manufacturing procedures-compliant, these lines could be used for adoptive cellular immunotherapy of patients with HPV16 cancers.

  6. Giving Boys a Shot: The HPV Vaccine's Portrayal in Canadian Newspapers.

    PubMed

    Perez, Samara; Fedoruk, Claire; Shapiro, Gilla K; Rosberger, Zeev

    2016-12-01

    In January 2012, the National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) of Canada recommended that males aged 9-26 years receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to protect against genital warts and HPV-associated cancers. Estimated HPV vaccine uptake rates for Canadian males are extremely low. Using a content analysis of Canadian newspaper articles, this study investigated what information about the HPV vaccine was relayed to the public, and how this content was portrayed following the 2012 male HPV vaccine recommendation. A search was conducted using Proquest Canadian Newsstand Complete for newspaper articles published between January 1, 2012, and September 1, 2014. Researchers coded 232 articles on several relevant dimensions: article information; epidemiological information; public policy information; article topic; article and title tone; and informant testimony. The majority of articles (93%) mentioned that girls are eligible for the HPV vaccine, whereas only half (49%) mentioned male eligibility. While most articles associated HPV with cervical cancer (85%), fewer indicated its relation to other HPV-associated cancers (59%) or genital warts (52%). Most articles (60%) were positive or neutral (22%) in tone toward the HPV vaccine, while few had mixed messages (11%) or were negative (6%). Less than 5% of articles reported on issues of morality, suggesting that fears that the HPV vaccine causes promiscuity have largely subsided. Notably, article tone toward male vaccination became progressively more positive over time. However, half of the articles did not mention the vaccine's approval for males, and articles tended to report HPV's relation to cervical cancer over other HPV-associated cancers. The Canadian public may thus be unaware of male eligibility and the importance of HPV vaccine for males. The collaboration of researchers, health care providers, and policymakers with journalists is critical in order to disseminate complete and accurate HPV and HPV

  7. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease. PMID:27358569

  8. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease. PMID:27358569

  9. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease.

  10. Programmable protein arrays for immunoprofiling HPV-associated cancers.

    PubMed

    Ewaisha, Radwa; Meshay, Ian; Resnik, Jack; Katchman, Benjamin A; Anderson, Karen S

    2016-04-01

    Over 600,000 cancers each year are attributed to the human papillomavirus (HPV), including cervical, anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers (OPC). A key challenge in understanding HPV immunobiology is the diversity of oncogenic HPV types and the need for multiplexed display of HPV antigens to measure antibody responses. We have generated custom HPV protein microarrays displaying 98 proteins as C-terminal GST fusion proteins, representing eight antigens of two low-risk HPV types (HPV6 and 11) and ten oncogenic high-risk HPV types (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52 and 58). We demonstrate robust and reproducible protein expression of 96/98 of the antigens using a human cell lysate expression system. The target epitopes and specificities of four monoclonal antibodies were identified. Using sera from ten patients with newly diagnosed OPC and ten controls, we demonstrate specific IgG seroreactivity to HPV16 E1, E2, and E7 (a fold increase of 1.52, 2.19 and 1.35 in cases vs. controls, respectively, all p < 0.005), confirming our prior data on an ELISA platform. We also detect HPV52 E7 Abs in serum from a patient with cervical cancer. The HPV protein array has potential for rapid identification of serologic responses to 12 HPV types. PMID:27089055

  11. Acceptability of HPV vaccine for males and preferences for future education programs among Appalachian residents.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Paul L; Oldach, Benjamin R; Randle, Katherine E; Katz, Mira L

    2014-03-01

    Appalachia is a geographic region with several disparities related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, yet little is known about acceptability of HPV vaccine for males among Appalachian residents. HPV vaccine acceptability and preferences for future HPV vaccine education programs were examined among residents of Appalachian Ohio. Focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted with Appalachian Ohio residents between July and October 2011. Participants (n = 102 from 24 focus groups and 5 in-depth interviews) included four key stakeholder groups: health care providers, community leaders, parents with adolescent sons, and young adult men ages 18 to 26 years. Support for vaccinating males against HPV was high among participants, despite low awareness and knowledge about HPV vaccine for males. Participants reported three categories of potential barriers to vaccinating males against HPV: concerns about vaccine safety and side effects, access to care and vaccination logistics, and gender and cultural issues. Participants reported that HPV vaccine was viewed as being only for females in their communities and that receiving the vaccine may be emasculating or embarrassing to males. Participants suggested that future HPV vaccine education programs mainly target parents, include basic information about HPV-related diseases and HPV vaccine (e.g., number of doses, cost), and present the vaccine as having the potential to prevent cancer (as opposed to preventing genital warts). Acceptability of HPV vaccine for males was high among residents of Appalachian Ohio. Future HPV vaccine education programs in Appalachia should address common potential barriers to vaccination and help destigmatize vaccination among males.

  12. MassARRAY Spectrometry Is More Sensitive than PreTect HPV-Proofer and Consensus PCR for Type-Specific Detection of High-Risk Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Cervical Cancer▿

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Partha; Chandna, Puneet; Bamezai, R. N. K.; Siddiqi, Maqsood; Saranath, Dhananjaya; Lear, Adrian; Ratnam, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Type-specific detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) is indicated for better risk stratification and clinical management of women testing positive for HPV and for epidemiologic surveillance. MassARRAY spectrometry (MassARRAY; Sequenom) is a novel method for type-specific detection of 15 high-risk oncogenic HPV types: HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, -56, -58, -59, -66, -68, and -73. PreTect HPV-Proofer (Proofer; Norchip) is a type-specific assay that detects E6/E7 mRNA from five high-risk oncogenic HPV types: HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, and -45. The performance of these tests for type-specific identification of HPV was assessed with cervical specimens from 192 cases of cervical cancer in comparison with consensus MY09/MY11 PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing (consensus PCR). The overall HPV detection rates were 94.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.7, 97.9), 83.3% (95% CI, 78.1, 88.5), and 86.5% (95% CI, 81.7, 91.3) for MassARRAY, Proofer, and consensus PCR, respectively. All tests were negative in six (3.1%) of the 192 cases. Considering only the specimens that contained at least one of the five types targeted by Proofer, the detection rates were 96.6%, 91.4%, and 86.9% for MassARRAY, Proofer, and consensus PCR, respectively. MassARRAY detected multiple infections in 14.1%, Proofer detected multiple infections in 3.6%, and consensus PCR failed to detect any multiple infections. The agreement was highest at 86.0% (kappa = 0.76) between MassARRAY and Proofer and lowest at 81.8% (kappa = 0.69) between Proofer and consensus PCR. In conclusion, MassARRAY is a highly sensitive and accurate method for type-specific detection of oncogenic HPV in cervical cancer, with Proofer showing impressive performance. PMID:21813716

  13. MassARRAY spectrometry is more sensitive than PreTect HPV-Proofer and consensus PCR for type-specific detection of high-risk oncogenic human papillomavirus genotypes in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Basu, Partha; Chandna, Puneet; Bamezai, R N K; Siddiqi, Maqsood; Saranath, Dhananjaya; Lear, Adrian; Ratnam, Sam

    2011-10-01

    Type-specific detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) is indicated for better risk stratification and clinical management of women testing positive for HPV and for epidemiologic surveillance. MassARRAY spectrometry (MassARRAY; Sequenom) is a novel method for type-specific detection of 15 high-risk oncogenic HPV types: HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, -56, -58, -59, -66, -68, and -73. PreTect HPV-Proofer (Proofer; Norchip) is a type-specific assay that detects E6/E7 mRNA from five high-risk oncogenic HPV types: HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, and -45. The performance of these tests for type-specific identification of HPV was assessed with cervical specimens from 192 cases of cervical cancer in comparison with consensus MY09/MY11 PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing (consensus PCR). The overall HPV detection rates were 94.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.7, 97.9), 83.3% (95% CI, 78.1, 88.5), and 86.5% (95% CI, 81.7, 91.3) for MassARRAY, Proofer, and consensus PCR, respectively. All tests were negative in six (3.1%) of the 192 cases. Considering only the specimens that contained at least one of the five types targeted by Proofer, the detection rates were 96.6%, 91.4%, and 86.9% for MassARRAY, Proofer, and consensus PCR, respectively. MassARRAY detected multiple infections in 14.1%, Proofer detected multiple infections in 3.6%, and consensus PCR failed to detect any multiple infections. The agreement was highest at 86.0% (kappa = 0.76) between MassARRAY and Proofer and lowest at 81.8% (kappa = 0.69) between Proofer and consensus PCR. In conclusion, MassARRAY is a highly sensitive and accurate method for type-specific detection of oncogenic HPV in cervical cancer, with Proofer showing impressive performance.

  14. Second-Generation Prophylactic HPV Vaccines: Successes and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Mitchell; Tumban, Ebenezer; Chackerian, Bryce

    2015-01-01

    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the causative factor in cervical cancer has led to the development of the HPV vaccines Gardasil and Cervarix. These vaccines effectively protect against two HPV types associated with 70% of cervical cancer cases. Despite this success, researchers continue to develop second generation HPV vaccines to protect against more HPV types and allow increased uptake in developing countries. While a reformulated vaccine based on the current technology is currently in clinical trials, another strategy consists of targeting highly conserved epitopes in the minor capsid protein of HPV, L2. Vaccines targeting L2 induce broadly neutralizing antibodies, capable of blocking infection by a wide range of HPV types. Several vaccine designs have been developed to optimize the display of L2 epitopes to the immune system and to reduce the cost of manufacture and distribution. L2-based vaccines show considerable promise as a potential next-generation HPV vaccine. PMID:24350614

  15. Cervical HPV Infection in Female Sex Workers: A Global Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Soohoo, Melissa; Blas, Magaly; Byraiah, Gita; Carcamo, Cesar; Brown, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Approximately 291 million women worldwide are HPV DNA carriers. Studies have indicated that having multiple sexual partners may lead to higher HPV transmission. Thus female sex workers (FSWs) may be at greater risk of infection compared to the general population. Herein we review publications with data on FSW cervical HPV test results. We also examine variations of HPV prevalence and risk behaviors by region. Knowledge of prevalent HPV types in FSWs may lead to improved prevention measures and assist in understanding vaccination in high-risk groups. Methods: We conducted a review of the literature by searching PUBMED using the terms “prostitution” or “female sex workers”, “human papillomavirus” or “HPV”, and “prevalence” or “PCR” to find articles. We excluded studies without HPV testing or HPV type specific results, or unconventional HPV testing. Results: A total of 35 peer-reviewed publications were included in our review. High risk HPV types 16 and 18 ranged from 1.1-38.9‰ in prevalence. In addition to high-risk HPV types, newer studies reported non-carcinogenic HPV types also of high prevalence. The most prevalent HPV types reported among FSWs included HPV 6 (11.5%), 16 (38.9%), 18 (23.1%), 31 (28.4%), 52 (32.7%), and 58 (26.0%). Conclusions: Female sex workers have an overall high prevalence of HPV infection of high-risk types as evident through various testing methods. FSWs are thought to be at increased risk of cervical cancer because of high HPV exposure. This highlights the need for HPV and cervical prevention campaigns tailored to FSWs. PMID:24511334

  16. Reprogrammed CRISPR-Cas9 targeting the conserved regions of HPV6/11 E7 genes inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in E7-transformed keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Chen; Cai, Zhi-Ming; Zhang, Xue-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The persistence infection of low-risk type (type 6 or type 11) of human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of genital warts. Given the high rate of recurrence after treatment, the use of a new molecular agent is certain to be of value. The aim of this study was to achieve targeted inactivation of viral E 7 gene in keratinocytes using the reprogrammed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) 9 system. To accomplish this, a universal CRISPR-Cas9 system for targeting both HPV6/11 E 7 genes was constructed by using a dual guide RNA vector. After transfection of the vector into E 7-transformed keratinocytes, the expression level of E 7 protein was measured using western-blot analysis and the sequence of the E 7 gene was determined using Sanger sequencing. Cell proliferation was analyzed by CCK-8 assay, and cell apoptosis was evaluated by Hoechst 33258 staining, flow cytometry analysis and ELISA assay. The results indicated that both HPV6/11 E 7 genes can be inactivated by the single CRISPR-Cas9 system. Furthermore, silencing of E 7 led to inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in E 7-transformed keratinocytes but not in normal keratinocytes. Our data suggested that the reprogrammed CRISPR-Cas9 system has the potential for the development of an adjuvant therapy for genital warts.

  17. Evaluation of the polyclonal ELISA HPV serology assay as a biomarker for HPV exposure

    PubMed Central

    Coseo, Sarah E.; Porras, Carolina; Dodd, Lori E.; Hildesheim, Allan; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Herrero, Rolando; Wacholder, Sholom; Gonzalez, Paula; Sherman, Mark E.; Jimenez, Silvia; Solomon, Diane; Bougelet, Catherine; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Quint, Wim; Safaeian, Mahboobeh

    2011-01-01

    Background Seropositivity to HPV16 and 18 antibodies is used as a measure of cumulative HPV exposure and as a stratifier of HPV exposure for vaccine efficacy analyses. Overall performance of these assays, as a measure of HPV exposure, has not been evaluated. Methods Using data from the enrollment phase of the HPV16/18 vaccine trial in Costa Rica, we evaluated the performance of the polyclonal ELISA HPV16 and 18 serological assays as a measure of HPV exposure. Biological (for eg. HPV infection at the cervix) and behavioral characteristics (for eg. lifetime number of sexual partners) with known associations with current and past HPV infection were used to define cases and controls (HPV exposed vs. not exposed). Pre-vaccination serum was measured for antibodies against HPV16 and HPV18 by ELISA; cervical samples were tested for HPV DNA using PCR SPF10/LiPA25. ELISA results were analyzed using receiver-operator-characteristic curves (ROC); performance was evaluated at the manufacturer set cutpoint (HPV16 =8, HPV18 =7) and at cutpoints chosen to optimize sensitivity and specificity (HPV16 =34, HPV18 =60). Results Defining cases as type-specific HPV DNA positive with high-grade abnormal cytolzogy (i.e. combined molecular and microscopic markers of infection), HPV16-ELISA gave sensitivity that was lower at the optimal cutpoint than the manufacturer cutpoint (62.2 compared with 75.7, respectively; p=0.44). However, specificity was higher (85.3 compared with 70.4, respectively; p<0.0001). Similarly, HPV18-ELISA gave sensitivity that was lower at the optimal cutpoint than the manufacturer cutpoint (34.5 compared with 51.7, respectively; p=0.40), with higher specificities (94.9 compared with 72.6, respectively; p<0.0001). Conclusions Modifying cutpoints did not improve the low sensitivity. The low sensitivity of this assay does not support its use for risk stratification or clinical settings. PMID:21934576

  18. Awareness of Diagnosis and Knowledge of HPV in Women Patients: Data from a Multi-Site Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCree, Donna Hubbard; Daley, Ellen M.; Gorbach, Pamina; Hamm, Robert M.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Brandt, Heather M.; McFarlane, Mary; Kerndt, Peter; McDermott, Robert J.; Perrin, Karen M.; St. Lawrence, Janet S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Persistent infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with cervical and other anogenital cancers. Purpose: This paper reports results of awareness of an HPV diagnosis and HPV knowledge from a multi-site study of HPV knowledge, attitudes and behavior, and the impact of an HPV diagnosis on women and their…

  19. Prevalence and Genotype Distribution of HPV Infection in China: Analysis of 51,345 HPV Genotyping Results from China's Largest CAP Certified Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zhengyu; Yang, Huaitao; Li, Zaibo; He, Xuekui; Griffith, Christopher C.; Chen, Xiamen; Guo, Xiaolei; Zheng, Baowen; Wu, Shangwei; Zhao, Chengquan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of cervical Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection varies greatly worldwide and data regarding HPV prevalence and genotypes in China are limited. Methods: HPV testing results were retrospectively examined at KingMed Diagnostics, the largest independent pathology laboratory in China, from January 2011 to June 2014. All testing was performed using the 26 HPV Genotyping Panel of TellgenplexTM xMAP™ HPV DNA Test assay (TELLGEN, Shanghai, China). Overall prevalence, age-specific prevalence and genotype distributions were analyzed. Results: A total of 51,345 samples were tested and the overall HPV prevalence was 26%, with 21.12% positive for high risk (HR) HPV and 8.37% positive for low risk HPV. 80% of HPV positive cases were positive for a single HPV type. The three most common HR HPV types detected were HPV-52, -16, and -58, in descending order. HPV-18 was only the 6th most common type. When women were divided into three age groups: <30, 30-49, ≥50 years, HR HPV had the highest prevalence rate in women <30 years, and the lowest rate in women 30-49 years of age. The distribution of HR HPV genotypes also varied among these three age groups. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is largest routine clinical practice report of HPV prevalence and genotypes in a population of women having limited cervical cancer screening. HPV-52 was the most prevalent HR HPV type in this population of women followed by HPV-16 and HPV-58. The overall and age-specific prevalence and genotype distribution of HR HPV are different in this Chinese population compared to that reported from Western countries. PMID:27326245

  20. Strategies for Developing Oral Vaccines for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Induced Cancer using Nanoparticle mediated Delivery System.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Kouzi, Samir A; Hussain, Muhammad Delwar

    2015-01-01

    Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) are a diverse group of small non-enveloped DNA viruses. Some HPVs are classified as low-risk as they are very rarely associated with neoplasia or cancer in the general population, and cause lenient warts. Other HPVs are considered as high-risk types because they are responsible for several important human cancers, including cervical cancer, a large proportion of other anogenital cancers, and a growing number of head and neck cancers. Transmission of HPV occurs primarily by skin-to-skin contact. The risk of contracting genital HPV infection and cervical cancer is influenced by sexual activity. Currently two prophylactic HPV vaccines, Gardasil® (Merck, USA) and Cervarix® (GlaxoSmithKline, UK), are available and recommended for mass immunization of adolescents. However, these vaccines have limitations as they are expensive and require cold chain storage and trained personnel to administer them by injection. The use of nano or micro particulate vaccines could address most of these limitations as they are stable at room temperature, inexpensive to produce and distribute to resource poor regions, and can be administered orally without the need for adjuvants in the formulation. Also it is possible to increase the efficiency of these particulate vaccines by decorating the surface of the nano or micro particulates with suitable ligands for targeted delivery. Oral vaccines, which can be delivered using particulate formulations, have the added potential to stimulate mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue located in the digestive tract and the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, both of which are important for the induction of effective mucosal response against many viruses. In addition, oral vaccines provide the opportunity to reduce production and administration costs and are very patient compliant. This review elaborately discusses different strategies that can be pursued to develop a nano or micro particulate oral vaccine for HPV induced cancers and

  1. Strategies for Developing Oral Vaccines for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Induced Cancer using Nanoparticle mediated Delivery System.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Kouzi, Samir A; Hussain, Muhammad Delwar

    2015-01-01

    Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) are a diverse group of small non-enveloped DNA viruses. Some HPVs are classified as low-risk as they are very rarely associated with neoplasia or cancer in the general population, and cause lenient warts. Other HPVs are considered as high-risk types because they are responsible for several important human cancers, including cervical cancer, a large proportion of other anogenital cancers, and a growing number of head and neck cancers. Transmission of HPV occurs primarily by skin-to-skin contact. The risk of contracting genital HPV infection and cervical cancer is influenced by sexual activity. Currently two prophylactic HPV vaccines, Gardasil® (Merck, USA) and Cervarix® (GlaxoSmithKline, UK), are available and recommended for mass immunization of adolescents. However, these vaccines have limitations as they are expensive and require cold chain storage and trained personnel to administer them by injection. The use of nano or micro particulate vaccines could address most of these limitations as they are stable at room temperature, inexpensive to produce and distribute to resource poor regions, and can be administered orally without the need for adjuvants in the formulation. Also it is possible to increase the efficiency of these particulate vaccines by decorating the surface of the nano or micro particulates with suitable ligands for targeted delivery. Oral vaccines, which can be delivered using particulate formulations, have the added potential to stimulate mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue located in the digestive tract and the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, both of which are important for the induction of effective mucosal response against many viruses. In addition, oral vaccines provide the opportunity to reduce production and administration costs and are very patient compliant. This review elaborately discusses different strategies that can be pursued to develop a nano or micro particulate oral vaccine for HPV induced cancers and

  2. Understanding HPV Disease and Prevention: A Guide for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood-Rayermann, Suzy; McIntyre, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) causes 99.7% of all cervical cancers. HPV Types 16 and 18 are responsible for approximately 77% of cases, and peak prevalence occurs in females younger than 25 years of age. The recent implementation of HPV vaccination provides females with the opportunity to prevent infection. School nurses are advocates of…

  3. HPV prophylactic vaccination in males improves the clearance of semen infection.

    PubMed

    Foresta, Carlo; Garolla, Andrea; Parisi, Saverio; Ghezzi, Marco; Bertoldo, Alessandro; Di Nisio, Andrea; De Toni, Luca

    2015-10-01

    •We evaluated whether seroconversion in males influences HPV semen infection.•Naturally seroconverted patients showed reduced prevalence of HPV semen infection.•Naturally seroconverted patients also showed virtual absence of HPV multiple infection.•Prophylactic HPV vaccination induced clearance within 12 months from recruitment.•Seroconversion represents a key process involved in the clearance of the HPV.Available prophylactic vaccinations are considered of protective value for genital condyloma and precancerous lesions in female, but cost-effectiveness of the use of HPV vaccine in males is largely underinvestigated. HPV detection in semen is also an emerging problem in couples eligible for assisted reproduction techniques, since persistent infections are not compatible with repeated 6-months counselling-cycles to allow any spontaneous clearance of the virus in older infertile couples.In this study, we provide evidence that the development of seroconversion in human males affected by HPV infection in the genito-urinary tract, detected by HPV-DNA presence in the semen, has beneficial effects on the clearance of a viral load. Moreover, administration of prophylactic vaccination to HPV infected-seronegative patients induced seroconversion within 6 months from the first dosage administration, achieving 10 folds-higher antibody titre compared to natural seroconversion. If vaccine administration ameliorates the clearance of HPV semen infection, this could be a potential benefit to overcome fertility problems related to persistent HPV infections in males, after an obvious cost-effectiveness analysis.

  4. Genital Tract HIV RNA Levels and Their Associations with Human Papillomavirus Infection and Risk of Cervical Pre-Cancer

    PubMed Central

    GHARTEY, Jeny; KOVACS, Andrea; BURK, Robert D.; MASSAD, L. Stewart; MINKOFF, Howard; XIE, Xianhong; D’SOUZA, Gypsyamber; XUE, Xiaonan; WATTS, D. Heather; LEVINE, Alexandra M.; EINSTEIN, Mark H.; COLIE, Christine; ANASTOS, Kathryn; ELTOUM, Isam-Eldin; HEROLD, Betsy C.; PALEFSKY, Joel M.; STRICKLER, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Plasma HIV RNA levels have been associated with risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical neoplasia in HIV-seropositive women. However, little is known regarding local genital tract HIV RNA levels and their relation with cervical HPV and neoplasia. Design/Methods In an HIV-seropositive women’s cohort with semi-annual follow-up, we conducted a nested case-control study of genital tract HIV RNA levels and their relation with incident high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions sub-classified as severe (severe HSIL), as provided for under the Bethesda 2001 classification system. Specifically, 66 incident severe HSIL were matched to 130 controls by age, CD4+ count, HAART use, and other factors. We also studied HPV prevalence, incident detection, and persistence in a random sample of 250 subjects. Results Risk of severe HSIL was associated with genital tract HIV RNA levels (odds ratio comparing HIV RNA ≥ the median among women with detectable levels versus undetectable [ORVL] 2.96; 95% CI: 0.99–8.84; Ptrend=0.03). However, this association became non-significant (Ptrend=0.51) following adjustment for plasma HIV RNA levels. There was also no association between genital tract HIV RNA levels and the prevalence of any HPV or oncogenic HPV. However, the incident detection of any HPV (Ptrend=0.02) and persistence of oncogenic HPV (Ptrend=0.04) were associated with genital tract HIV RNA levels, after controlling plasma HIV RNA levels. Conclusion These prospective data suggest that genital tract HIV RNA levels are not a significant independent risk factor for cervical pre-cancer in HIV-seropositive women, but leave open the possibility that they may modestly influence HPV infection, an early stage of cervical tumoriogenesis. PMID:24694931

  5. Role of bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) in diseases of cattle. Recent findings on BoHV-5 association with genital disease.

    PubMed

    Favier, P A; Marin, M S; Pérez, S E

    2012-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) belongs to the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, genus Varicellovirus. This virus is a major causative agent of non-suppurative meningoencephalitis in young cattle. It was first isolated in 1962 from a neurological disease outbreak in Australia. BoHV-5 is genetically and antigenically related to bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1), a highly prevalent virus responsible for respiratory and genital disease in cattle. Initially, BoHV-5 was considered a subtype of BoHV-1 (BoHV-1.3). However, the exclusive presentation of outbreaks of neurological disease suggested that the virus was a new agent with characteristics of neuropathogenicity. Even though both are neurotropic viruses, only BoHV-5 is capable of replicating extensively in the central nervous system and inducing neurological disease. Occasionally, encephalitis caused by BoHV-1 has been reported. Like other alpha-herpesviruses, BoHV-5 can establish latency in nervous ganglia and, by stress factors or glucocorticoid treatment, latent virus can be reactivated. During episodes of reactivation, the virus is excreted in nasal, ocular and genital secretions and transmitted to other susceptible hosts. Recently, BoHV-5 has been associated with infection of the reproductive tract. The virus has been isolated and the presence of viral DNA has been demonstrated in semen samples from Brazil and Australia and natural transmission of the virus through contaminated semen has also been described. Embryos and oocytes are permissive for BoHV-5 infection and BoHV-5 DNA has been detected in the central nervous system of aborted fetuses. The objective of this review is to compile the limited information on the recent association between BoHV-5 and reproductive disorders in cattle. PMID:26623291

  6. Role of bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) in diseases of cattle. Recent findings on BoHV-5 association with genital disease

    PubMed Central

    Favier, P.A.; Marin, M.S.; Pérez, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) belongs to the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, genus Varicellovirus. This virus is a major causative agent of non-suppurative meningoencephalitis in young cattle. It was first isolated in 1962 from a neurological disease outbreak in Australia. BoHV-5 is genetically and antigenically related to bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1), a highly prevalent virus responsible for respiratory and genital disease in cattle. Initially, BoHV-5 was considered a subtype of BoHV-1 (BoHV-1.3). However, the exclusive presentation of outbreaks of neurological disease suggested that the virus was a new agent with characteristics of neuropathogenicity. Even though both are neurotropic viruses, only BoHV-5 is capable of replicating extensively in the central nervous system and inducing neurological disease. Occasionally, encephalitis caused by BoHV-1 has been reported. Like other alpha-herpesviruses, BoHV-5 can establish latency in nervous ganglia and, by stress factors or glucocorticoid treatment, latent virus can be reactivated. During episodes of reactivation, the virus is excreted in nasal, ocular and genital secretions and transmitted to other susceptible hosts. Recently, BoHV-5 has been associated with infection of the reproductive tract. The virus has been isolated and the presence of viral DNA has been demonstrated in semen samples from Brazil and Australia and natural transmission of the virus through contaminated semen has also been described. Embryos and oocytes are permissive for BoHV-5 infection and BoHV-5 DNA has been detected in the central nervous system of aborted fetuses. The objective of this review is to compile the limited information on the recent association between BoHV-5 and reproductive disorders in cattle. PMID:26623291

  7. Smoking increases oral HPV persistence among men: 7-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kero, K; Rautava, J; Syrjänen, K; Willberg, J; Grenman, S; Syrjänen, S

    2014-01-01

    Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is the key event in the progression of HPV lesions, and more data are urgently needed on asymptomatic oral HPV infections in men. Asymptomatic fathers-to-be (n = 131, mean age 28.9 years) were enrolled in the cohort, sampled by serial oral scrapings at baseline and at 2-month, 6-month, 12-month, 24-month, 36-month, and 7-year follow-up visits to accomplish persistent and cleared HPV infections. HPV genotyping was performed using nested PCR and Multimetrix® assay. Covariates of persistent and cleared oral HPV infections were analysed using generalised estimating equation (GEE) and Poisson regression. Altogether, 17 HPV genotypes were detected in male oral mucosa point prevalence, varying from 15.1 % to 31.1 %. Genotype-specific HPV persistence was detected in 18/129 men the mean persistence time ranging from 6.0 to 30.7 months. History of genital warts decreased (p = 0.0001; OR = 0.41, 95 % CI 0.33-0.51) and smoking increased (p = 0.033, OR = 1.92, 95 % CI 1.05-3.50) the risk of persistent species 7/9 HPV infections. Of the 74 HPV-positive men, 71.6 % cleared their infection actuarial and crude clearance times, varying between 1.4 and 79.6 months. No independent predictors were identified for species 7/9 clearance. At the last follow-up-visit, 50.1 % of the fathers had oral mucosal changes, correlating only with smoking (p = 0.046). To conclude, most of the persisting oral infections in males were caused by HPV16. Smoking increased while previous genital warts decreased oral HR-HPV persistence. No predictors of HR-HPV clearance were disclosed.

  8. Early genital naming.

    PubMed

    Fraley, M C; Nelson, E C; Wolf, A W; Lozoff, B

    1991-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical impression that young girls are given little or confusing information about their genitals, a sample of 117 mothers with 1- to 4-year-old children were asked which words for genitals, if any, they used with their children. The ethnically and socioeconomically heterogeneous sample was composed of 63 girls and 54 boys, with the average ages of 26 and 29 months, respectively. Neither boys nor girls were likely to be given a standard anatomical genital term, although many children received colorful colloquial expressions. However, girls were less likely than boys to receive a term for their genitals. Receiving names for genitals was related to certain family circumstances, such as higher parental education, exposure to adult male nudity, having a sibling of the opposite sex, and cosleeping. Pediatric health professionals have the opportunity to contribute to early sex education by conveying accurate information regarding genital terms in the course of routine physical examinations. PMID:1939685

  9. Antiviral medication in sexually transmitted diseases. Part I: HSV, HPV.

    PubMed

    Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska, Beata; Majewska, Anna; Malejczyk, Magdalena; Mlynarczyk, Grazyna; Majewski, Slawomir

    2013-11-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the world and important cause of morbidity and mortality. Especially STDs of viral etiology are difficult to cure. In many cases the antiviral therapy can relieve the symptoms but not eliminate the virus. During the past decades, considerable progress has been made in the development of antiviral drugs. One of the oldest antiviral medications is acyclovir (ACV). It is approved to treat initial and recurrent genital herpes and as a suppressive therapy in severe recurrent genital infections as well. Drug resistance to ACV and related drugs is seen among immunocompromised hosts, including human immunodeficiency virus HIV-infected patients. Resistant infections can be managed by second-line drugs - foscarnet or cidofovir- but they are more toxic than ACV. In case of HPV there is not known specific target for the medication and that is why the substances used in human papilloma virus HPV infection therapy are either antimitotics or immunomodulators. The Part I review focuses on mechanisms of actions and mechanisms of resistance to antiviral agents used in a treatment of the genital herpes and genital HPV infection. In Part II we will show the therapeutic options in other sexually transmitted infections: hepatitis B, C and HIV. PMID:24032509

  10. Genital herpes - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Herpes - genital -self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... genital herpes can be treated. Follow your health care provider's instructions for treatment and follow-up.

  11. Biological evidence for a causal role of HPV16 in a small fraction of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Halec, G; Holzinger, D; Schmitt, M; Flechtenmacher, C; Dyckhoff, G; Lloveras, B; Höfler, D; Bosch, F X; Pawlita, M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a causal factor in virtually all cervical and a subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OP-SCC), whereas its role in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (L-SCC) is unclear. Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (N=154) and deep-frozen tissues (N=55) of 102 L-SCC patients were analysed for the presence of 51 mucosal HPV types. HPV DNA-positive (HPV DNA+) cases were analysed for E6*I mRNA transcripts of all high risk (HR)/probably/possibly (p)HR-HPV identified, and for HPV type 16 (HPV16) viral load. Expression of p16INK4a, pRb, cyclin D1 and p53 was analysed by immunohistochemistry. Results: Ninety-two patients were valid in DNA analysis, of which 32 (35%) had at least one HPV DNA+ sample. Among the 29 single infections, 22 (76%) were HPV16, 2 (7%) HPV56 and 1 each (4%) HPV45, HPV53, HPV70, HPV11 and HPV42. Three cases harboured HPV16 with HPV33 (twice) or HPV45. Only 32% of HPV DNA+ findings were reproducible. Among HPV16 DNA+ L-SCC, 2 out of 23 (9%) had high viral loads, 5 out of 25 (21%) expressed E6*I mRNA and 3 out of 21 (14%) showed high p16INK4a and low pRb expression (all three HPV16 RNA-positive), immunohistochemical marker combination not identified in any other HPV DNA+ or HPV DNA-negative (HPV DNA−) L-SCC, respectively. Conclusion: HPV type 16 has a causative role in a small subgroup of L-SCC (<5% in this German hospital series). PMID:23778529

  12. Comparative immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Mira; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Fox, Bradley; Scholar, Sofia; Rosen, Jeffrey; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Meric, Dorothée; Dessy, Francis J; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique; Dubin, Gary

    2011-01-01

    In this observer-blind study (NCT00423046), women (N = 1,106), stratified by age (18–26, 27–35, 36–45 y), were randomized (1:1) to receive the HPV-16/18 vaccine (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Months 0, 1, 6) or the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (Gardasil® Merck and Co., Inc., Months 0, 2, 6). Month 7 results were previously reported; we now report Month 24 results. In the according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity (seronegative and DNA-negative at baseline for HPV type analyzed), seropositivity rates of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) [pseudovirion-based neutralization assay] were, across all age strata, 100% (HPV-16/18 vaccine) and 97.5–100% (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine) for HPV-16, and 99.0–100% (HPV-16/18 vaccine) and 72.3–84.4% (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine) for HPV-18. Corresponding geometric mean titers (GMTs) were 2.4–5.8-fold higher for HPV-16 and 7.7–9.4-fold higher for HPV-18 with the HPV-16/18 vaccine vs. the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine; HPV-16 and HPV-18 GMTs were significantly higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (p < 0.0001) in the total vaccinated cohort (received ≥1 vaccine dose, irrespective of baseline sero/DNA-status). Similar results were obtained using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ). Positivity rates and GMTs of antigen-specific IgG antibodies in cervicovaginal secretions (ELISA) were not significantly different between vaccines. At Month 24, CD4+ T-cell responses for HPV-16 and HPV-18 were higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine; memory B-cell response was higher for HPV-18 with the HPV-16/18 vaccine and similar between vaccines for HPV-16. Both vaccines were generally well tolerated. Although an immunological correlate of protection has not been defined, differences in the magnitude of immune response between vaccines may represent determinants of duration of protection. PMID:22048173

  13. Human papillomaviruses prevalence and genital co-infections in HIV-seropositive women in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).

    PubMed

    Sagna, T; Djigma, F; Zeba, M; Bisseye, C; Karou, S D; Ouermi, D; Pietra, V; Gnoula, C; Sanogo, K; Nikiema, J B; Simpore, J

    2010-10-01

    The vaginal swabs among HIV-positive women in Africa often revealed opportunistic infections such as human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Mycoplasma that induce respectively cervix cancer and diseases such as vaginosis, abortions, infertility in through salpingitis. The purposes of this study were to: (1) seek for, the prevalence of pathogens such as HPV and Mycoplasma; (2) characterize the strains of HPV and estimate their prevalence; (3) identify among these women, those who were co-infected by these pathogens in order to cure them. From February 2009 to January 2010, 156 HIV-positive women attending our medical centers and aged from 19-45 years (mean age 33.65 +/- 5.75 years) had voluntarily accepted vaginal specimen's tests. PCR, ELISA and molecular hybridization were used for the identification and characterization of these pathogens. The results revealed the presence of Mycoplasma and HPV in 25.64 and 58.33% cases, respectively. The following HPV genotypes and the following prevalence were recorded: HPV-50'S (24.11%), HPV-18 (21.28%), HPV-30'S (18.44%) and HPV-16 (5.67%). The study also enable the identification of co-infections such as HPV-18 strains with HPV-30'S (5.67%) and HPV-30'S with HPV-50'S (3.55%). Other germs infecting the female genital tract including Candida albicans (20.51%), Escherichia coli (12.18%), Treponema pallidum (3.85%), Streptococcus agalactiae (3.21%) and Staphylococcus aureus (1.92%) were isolated. This preliminary research work showed the incidence of several genital pathogens, this could be a springboard for nationwide epidemiological study on HPV strains circulating in Burkina Faso. PMID:21313918

  14. HPV testing and vaccination in Europe.

    PubMed

    Leeson, Simon C; Alibegashvili, Tamar; Arbyn, Marc; Bergeron, Christine; Carriero, Carmine; Mergui, Jean-Luc; Nieminen, Pekka; Prendiville, Walter; Redman, Charles W E; Rieck, Gudrun C; Quaas, Jens; Petry, K Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Current cytology-based screening has a moderate sensitivity to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN 3) and cervical cancer even in those states providing rigorous quality control of their cervical screening programs. The impact of vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 as well as the incorporation of HPV testing on the detection of CIN 3 and cancer is discussed. HPV testing used as a triage for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, test of cure after treatment, and HPV-based primary screening may improve current cervical screening programs.HPV testing as a triage test for ASCUS seems to offer an improved sensitivity, with a similar specificity as compared to repeat cytology for diagnosing high-grade CIN and has been recommended throughout most EU states. HPV testing as a triage test for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions has a low specificity and is not recommended in most member states. HPV test of cure offers an improved sensitivity compared to cytology for women with persistent cervical precancer after treatment. HPV-based cervical cancer screening is more effective than screening with cytology. The effects of HPV-based screening depend on the organization of the program and on adherence to algorithms for screening triage. Otherwise, it is likely that HPV-based screening will increase the referral rate to colposcopy including more women with no detectable cervical lesion. HPV vaccination will require many years to evaluate any beneficial effects on cervical cancer incidence and mortality.

  15. HPV testing and vaccination in Europe.

    PubMed

    Leeson, Simon C; Alibegashvili, Tamar; Arbyn, Marc; Bergeron, Christine; Carriero, Carmine; Mergui, Jean-Luc; Nieminen, Pekka; Prendiville, Walter; Redman, Charles W E; Rieck, Gudrun C; Quaas, Jens; Petry, K Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Current cytology-based screening has a moderate sensitivity to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN 3) and cervical cancer even in those states providing rigorous quality control of their cervical screening programs. The impact of vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 as well as the incorporation of HPV testing on the detection of CIN 3 and cancer is discussed. HPV testing used as a triage for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, test of cure after treatment, and HPV-based primary screening may improve current cervical screening programs.HPV testing as a triage test for ASCUS seems to offer an improved sensitivity, with a similar specificity as compared to repeat cytology for diagnosing high-grade CIN and has been recommended throughout most EU states. HPV testing as a triage test for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions has a low specificity and is not recommended in most member states. HPV test of cure offers an improved sensitivity compared to cytology for women with persistent cervical precancer after treatment. HPV-based cervical cancer screening is more effective than screening with cytology. The effects of HPV-based screening depend on the organization of the program and on adherence to algorithms for screening triage. Otherwise, it is likely that HPV-based screening will increase the referral rate to colposcopy including more women with no detectable cervical lesion. HPV vaccination will require many years to evaluate any beneficial effects on cervical cancer incidence and mortality. PMID:23774078

  16. Prevalent Serum Antibody Is Not a Marker of Immune Protection against Acquisition of Oncogenic HPV16 in Men

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Beibei; Viscidi, Raphael P.; Wu, Yougui; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Nyitray, Alan G.; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Carvalho da Silva, Roberto J.; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmeron, Jorge; Smith, Danelle C.; Abrahamsen, Martha E.; Papenfuss, Mary R.; Stockwell, Heather G.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2012-01-01

    In women, naturally induced anti–human papilloma virus (HPV) serum antibodies are a likely marker of host immune protection against subsequent HPV acquisition and progression to precancerous lesions and cancers. However, it is unclear whether the same is the case in men. In this study, we assessed the risk of incident genital infection and 6-month persistent genital infection with HPV16 in relation to baseline serostatus in a cohort of 2,187 men over a 48-month period. Genital swabs were collected every 6 months and tested for HPV presence. Incidence proportions by serostatus were calculated at each study visit to examine whether potential immune protection attenuated over time. Overall, incidence proportions did not differ statistically between baseline seropositive and seronegative men at any study visit or over the follow-up period. The risk of incident and 6-month persistent infection was not associated with baseline serostatus or baseline serum antibody levels in the cohort. Our findings suggest that baseline HPV seropositivity in men is not associated with reduced risk of subsequent HPV16 acquisition. Thus, prevalent serum antibodies induced by prior infection may not be a suitable marker for subsequent immune protection against genital HPV16 acquisition in men. PMID:22123925

  17. [The impact of natural history and genital tract distribution of human papillomavirus on technology for cervical cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Wu, Z N; Chen, W

    2016-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the necessary cause of cervical cancer. There is a close relationship between the amount of DNA, mRNA and protein expression in the natural history of virus and the cervical lesion. This article is aimed to elaborate the natural history and genital tract distribution of high risk HPV, and also evaluate the HPV based cervical cancer screening technology from the perspective of the natural history of HPV, which is meaningful for screening and clinical practice in devising and utilizing different detection technology.

  18. HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Topics Mammography Women and Diabetes HPV, HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy Menopause More Women's Health Topics Resources for You Human Papillomavirus Vaccine HPV Information in Other Languages Women ...

  19. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases HPV-Associated Cancers Gynecologic Cancers Redirect CDC - Screening Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You are being redirected to the HPV Cancer Screening page. Please update your bookmarks to the link ...

  20. Development of therapeutic HPV vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Trimble, Cornelia L; Frazer, Ian H

    2011-01-01

    At least 15% of human malignant diseases are attributable to the consequences of persistent viral or bacterial infection. Chronic infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types is a necessary, but insufficient, cause in the development of more cancers than any other virus. Currently available prophylactic vaccines have no therapeutic effect for established infection or for disease. Early disease is characterised by tissue sequestration. However, because a proportion of intraepithelial HPV-associated disease undergoes immune-mediated regression, the development of immunotherapeutic strategies is an opportunity to determine proof-of-principle for therapeutic vaccines. In this Review, we discuss recent progress in this field and priorities for future clinical investigations. PMID:19796749

  1. The quality of life of patients with genital warts: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genital warts, which are caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), are one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in Europe. Although genital warts are commonly perceived as a non-serious condition, treatment is often long, of varying effectiveness and the recurrence rate is high. Very few studies have been performed on the personal consequences of genital warts. The aim of this qualitative study, set in Denmark, was to examine the ways in which genital warts may affect patients' quality of life. Methods To obtain an in-depth understanding of patients' perceptions of genital warts, we used qualitative focus-group interviews with five men and five women aged between 18 and 30 years who had genital warts. The interview guide was based on a literature review that identified important issues and questions. The data were analysed using a medical anthropological approach. Results Patients' experiences were related to cultural conceptions of venereal diseases and the respective identities and sexuality of the sexes. The disease had negative psychological and social effects both for men and for women and it affected their sex and love lives, in particular. The psychological burden of the disease was increased by the uncertain timeline and the varying effectiveness of treatment. We identified a need for more patient information about the disease and its psycho-sexual aspects. Conclusions The men and women participating in this study considered their quality of life to be significantly lowered because of genital warts. The experiences described by the participants give insights that may be valuable in treatment and counselling. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine that has now been added to the childhood vaccination programme for girls in Denmark for the prevention of cervical cancer can also prevent 90% of cases of genital warts. Our results suggest that HPV vaccination could considerably reduce the largely unacknowledged psychological and social

  2. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection: a Mozambique overview.

    PubMed

    Pizzol, Damiano; Putoto, Giovanni; Chhaganlal, Kajal D

    2016-06-01

    Human Papillomavirus is agent of the most common sexually transmitted disease which is able to infect mucosal and cutaneous membranes of the anogenital region, upper aerodigestive tract, and other head and neck mucosal regions. Although mainly HPV infection can be asymptomatic and transient, it may persist and give rise to various lesions such as warts, condyloma dysplasia and cancers depending on low or high risk type of HPV infection. Moreover, growing recent evidence suggests a role of this virus in male and female fertility. To date no effective prevention, test, treatment and control strategies are provided for people in developing countries despite the reported high incidence of HPV both in women and men. This paper reviews the more recent literature about HPV infection highlighting epidemiology, related pathologies and possible fertility effects of HPV in male and female with particular attention to the Mozambique context.

  3. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Is Associated With Genital Tract Mucosal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Mhatre, Mohak; McAndrew, Thomas; Carpenter, Colleen; Burk, Robert D.; Einstein, Mark H.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical studies demonstrate increased prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated disease in HIV-infected individuals and an increased risk of HIV acquisition in HPV-infected individuals. The mechanisms underlying this synergy are not defined. We hypothesize that women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) will exhibit changes in soluble mucosal immunity that may promote HPV persistence and facilitate HIV infection. Methods The concentrations of immune mediators and endogenous anti-Escherichia coli activity in genital tract secretions collected by cervicovaginal lavage were compared in HIV-negative women with high-risk HPV-positive (HRHPV+) CIN-3 (n = 37), HRHPV+ CIN-1 (n = 12), or PAP-negative control subjects (n = 57). Results Compared with control subjects, women with CIN-3 or CIN-1 displayed significantly higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, and IL-8 (P < 0.002) and significantly lower levels of anti-inflammatory mediators and antimicrobial peptides, including IL-1 receptor antagonist, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (P < 0.01), and human β defensins 2 and 3 (P < 0.02). There was no significant difference in endogenous anti-E. coli activity after controlling for age and sample storage time. Conclusion HRHPV+ CIN is characterized by changes in soluble mucosal immunity that could contribute to HPV persistence. The observed mucosal inflammation suggests a mechanism that may also contribute to the epidemiologic link between persistent HPV and HIV. PMID:22801340

  4. Prophylactic HPV vaccination and anal cancer.

    PubMed

    Stier, Elizabeth A; Chigurupati, Nagasudha L; Fung, Leslie

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of anal cancer is increasing. High risk populations include HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV-negative MSM, HIV-positive women and heterosexual men and women with a history of cervical cancer. HPV has been detected in over 90% of anal cancers. HPV16 is the most common genotype detected in about 70% of anal cancers. The quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine has been demonstrated to prevent vaccine associated persistent anal HPV infections as well as anal intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2-3 (AIN2+) in young MSM not previously infected. A retrospective analysis also suggests that qHPV vaccination of older MSM treated for AIN2+ may significantly decrease the risk of recurrence of the AIN2+. The HPV types detected in anal cancer are included in the 9-valent vaccine. Thus, the 9-valent HPV vaccine, when administered to boys and girls prior to the onset of sexual activity, should effectively prevent anal cancer. PMID:26933898

  5. Genetic polymorphisms and HPV infection in oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Limei; Song, Xicheng; Li, Guojun

    2015-10-01

    Despite declining smoking rates in the United States, the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC, including oral cavity and oropharynx) is rising in young adults. The reasons have been attributed to changes in sexual behaviors and the increasingly prevalent infection of oncogenic subtypes of human papillomavirus (HPV), principally type16 and occasionally type18. However, only small proportion of individuals who have contracted HPV infection will develop OSCC, suggesting that there is an inter-individual variation in susceptibility to HPV infection and related OSCC. Identification of susceptible biomarkers for HPV status would be useful to identify those individuals who are susceptible to HPV infection, to refine the prognostication of HPV associated OSCC, and ultimately to improve prevention efforts for OSCC and potentially other HPV-associated diseases. Our public health OSCC prevention paradigm will need to expand beyond tobacco and alcohol control.

  6. Detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Garlick, J A; Calderon, S; Buchner, A; Mitrani-Rosenbaum, S

    1989-03-01

    Five focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) specimens from four patients were examined by Southern blot hybridization analysis to determine the specific human papillomavirus (HPV) types present. The histomorphologic features of these specimens were also evaluated and a broad variety of changes including koilocytes, mitosoid cells, ballooning cells and cells showing individual cell keratinization were noted. FEH lesions from the three patients sharing a familial relationship demonstrated HPV DNA sequences that were either the prototype HPV-13 or a very closely related HPV-13 subtype. These patients also showed similar clinical features. Lesional tissue from the other patient was found to harbor HPV DNA sequences similar to HPV-32. In view of these findings it is suggested that these specific HPV types are associated with the characteristic FEH histomorphology described.

  7. Increasing HPV vaccination through policy for public health benefit.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Heather M; Pierce, Jennifer Young; Crary, Ashley

    2016-06-01

    Vaccines against specific types of human papillomavirus (HPV) linked to cancer and other diseases have been met with mixed acceptance globally and in the United States. Policy-level interventions have been shown to be effective in increasing public health benefit. Government policies and mandates may result in improved HPV vaccination coverage and reduced disease burden, and alternative policies that improve unhindered access to HPV vaccination may allow success as well. The purpose of this commentary is to summarize policy efforts to maximize the public health benefit of HPV vaccination. We examine selected examples of HPV vaccination policy in global contexts and in the United States.

  8. Commercially available molecular tests for human papillomaviruses (HPV): 2015 update.

    PubMed

    Poljak, Mario; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Oštrbenk, Anja; Seme, Katja

    2016-03-01

    Commercial molecular tests for human papillomaviruses (HPV) are invaluable diagnostic tools in cervical carcinoma screening and management of women with cervical precancerous lesions as well as important research tools for epidemiological studies, vaccine development, and implementation and monitoring of vaccination programs. In this third inventory of commercial HPV tests, we identified 193 distinct commercial HPV tests and at least 127 test variants available on the market in 2015, which represents a 54% and 79% increase in the number of distinct HPV tests and variants, respectively, in comparison to our last inventory performed in 2012. Identified HPV tests were provisionally divided into eight main groups and several subgroups. Among the 193 commercial HPV tests, all but two target alpha-HPV types only. Although the number of commercial HPV tests with at least one published study in peer-reviewed literature has increased significantly in the last three years, several published performance evaluations are still not in line with agreed-upon standards in the HPV community. Manufacturers should invest greater effort into evaluating their products and publishing validation/evaluation results in peer-reviewed journals. To achieve this, more clinically oriented external quality-control panels and initiatives are required. For evaluating the analytical performance of the entire range of HPV tests currently on the market, more diverse and reliable external quality-control programs based on international standards for all important HPV types are indispensable. The performance of a wider range of HPV tests must be promptly evaluated on a variety of alternative clinical specimens. In addition, more complete HPV assays containing validated sample-extraction protocols and appropriate internal controls are urgently needed. Provision of a broader range of automated systems allowing large-scale HPV testing as well as the development of reliable, rapid, and affordable molecular

  9. Genital warts and infection with human immunodeficiency virus in high-risk women in Burkina Faso: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Human papillomaviruses are the most common sexually transmitted infections, and genital warts, caused by HPV-6 and 11, entail considerable morbidity and cost. The natural history of genital warts in relation to HIV-1 infection has not been described in African women. We examined risk factors for genital warts in a cohort of high-risk women in Burkina Faso, in order to further describe their epidemiology. Methods A prospective study of 765 high-risk women who were followed at 4-monthly intervals for 27 months in Burkina Faso. Logistic and Cox regression were used to identify factors associated with prevalent, incident and persistent genital warts, including HIV-1 serostatus, CD4+ count, and concurrent sexually transmitted infections. In a subset of 306 women, cervical HPV DNA was tested at enrolment. Results Genital wart prevalence at baseline was 1.6% (8/492) among HIV-uninfected and 7.0% (19/273) among HIV-1 seropositive women. Forty women (5.2%) experienced at least one incident GW episode. Incidence was 1.1 per 100 person-years among HIV-uninfected women, 7.4 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count >200 cells/μL and 14.6 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count ≤200 cells/μL. Incident genital warts were also associated with concurrent bacterial vaginosis, and genital ulceration. Antiretroviral therapy was not protective against incident or persistent genital warts. Detection of HPV-6 DNA and abnormal cervical cytology were strongly associated with incident genital warts. Conclusions Genital warts occur much more frequently among HIV-1 infected women in Africa, particularly among those with low CD4+ counts. Antiretroviral therapy did not reduce the incidence or persistence of genital warts in this population. PMID:21251265

  10. Cost of Preventing, Managing, and Treating Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-Related Diseases in Sweden before the Introduction of Quadrivalent HPV Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Östensson, Ellinor; Fröberg, Maria; Leval, Amy; Hellström, Ann-Cathrin; Bäcklund, Magnus; Zethraeus, Niklas; Andersson, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Objective Costs associated with HPV-related diseases such as cervical dysplasia, cervical cancer, and genital warts have not been evaluated in Sweden. These costs must be estimated in order to determine the potential savings if these diseases were eradicated and to assess the combined cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening. The present study aimed to estimate prevention, management, and treatment costs associated with cervical dysplasia, cervical cancer, and genital warts from a societal perspective in Sweden in 2009, 1 year before the quadrivalent HPV vaccination program was implemented. Methods and Materials Data from the Swedish cervical cancer screening program was used to calculate the costs associated with prevention (cytological cervical cancer screening), management (colposcopy and biopsy following inadequate/abnormal cytological results), and treatment of CIN. Swedish official statistics were used to estimate treatment costs associated with cervical cancer. Published epidemiological data were used to estimate the number of incident, recurrent, and persistent cases of genital warts; a clinical expert panel assessed management and treatment procedures. Estimated visits, procedures, and use of medications were used to calculate the annual cost associated with genital warts. Results From a societal perspective, total estimated costs associated with cervical cancer and genital warts in 2009 were €106.6 million, of which €81.4 million (76%) were direct medical costs. Costs associated with prevention, management, and treatment of CIN were €74 million; screening and management costs for women with normal and inadequate cytology alone accounted for 76% of this sum. The treatment costs associated with incident and prevalent cervical cancer and palliative care were €23 million. Estimated costs for incident, recurrent and persistent cases of genital warts were €9.8 million. Conclusion Prevention, management, and treatment costs

  11. Comparison of SPF10 real-time PCR and conventional PCR in combination with the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra assay for the detection and typing of human papillomavirus in cervical samples.

    PubMed

    Micalessi, M I; Boulet, G A; Pillet, S; Jacquet, J; Pozzetto, B; Bogers, J J; Bourlet, T

    2013-12-01

    The novel SPF10 real-time PCR assay allows the simultaneous amplification and detection of the HPV target. That way, LiPA analysis of the HPV-negative samples can be avoided, reducing workload and cost. This study aims to evaluate the performance of the SPF10 real-time PCR in combination with the LiPA assay for HPV detection and typing in cervical samples. Thirty-nine cervical samples were subjected to the SPF10 conventional PCR in combination with the LiPA assay. Subsequently, the SPF10 real-time PCR was performed to enable the comparison between the SPF10 conventional and the real-time PCR results. In case of discrepancy, the samples were subjected to the CLART HPV2 assay. As a result, 27 out of 39 samples were identified as HPV-positive by the SPF10 real-time PCR and were genotyped further by the LiPA assay. Twenty samples (74.1%) showed an absolute agreement between the conventional and real-time SPF10 PCR (concordant), three (11.1%) displayed additional or fewer types (compatible), two (7.4%) did not show any similarity between both assays (discordant) and the remaining two (7.4%) were LiPA-negative. The two assays showed an excellent strength of agreement for individual (κ=0.932) and multiple genotype detection (κ=0.834). In conclusion, the two SPF10 PCR methods are comparable. Therefore, the SPF10 real-time PCR with subsequent LiPA could be used for the detection and genotyping of HPV in cervical samples.

  12. Polymorphism of the capsid L1 gene of human papillomavirus types 31, 33, and 35.

    PubMed

    Cornut, Gilbert; Gagnon, Simon; Hankins, Catherine; Money, Deborah; Pourreaux, Karina; Franco, Eduardo L; Coutlée, François

    2010-07-01

    The L1 gene encodes for the major capsid protein of human papillomaviruses (HPV). There is limited information on the polymorphism of L1 for types related to HPV-16. This report explores the polymorphism of L1 in phylogenetically related types 31, 33, and 35 compared to HPV-16. Genital specimens collected from 732 HIV-seropositive and 323 HIV-seronegative women were screened for HPV DNA with consensus L1 PCR. Cervical samples positive for HPV-16 (n = 74), HPV-31 (n = 78), HPV-33 (n = 37), and HPV-35 (n = 58) were further characterized by PCR-sequencing of the complete L1 gene. The number of nucleotide substitutions within L1 ranged from 19 for HPV-33 to 52 for HPV-31. The ratio of the number of variants/number of isolates tested was higher for HPV-31 (56.4%, P = 0.05) and HPV-35 (60.3%, P = 0.04) compared to HPV-16 (40.5%), while this ratio was lower for HPV-33 (24.3%), although not significantly (P = 0.14). The maximal distance between HPV variants was greater in the five putative surface-exposed loops of L1 than in sequences outside the loops (P < 0.01). Synonymous variations were encountered in 1.7% (95% CI 1.1-2.3) of nucleotides inside the L1 loops and 2.4% (95% CI1.2-3.7) of nucleotides outside the L1 loops. Non-synonymous variations were encountered in 1.8% (95% CI 1.1-2.5) of nucleotides within the L1 loops and 0.2% (95% CI 0-0.4) of nucleotides outside the loops. dN/dS ratios were below 1.0 in extra-loop and intra-loop regions, but they were lower in extra-loop regions. These results suggest that sequences within and outside the hypervariable loops of L1 were under selective constraint.

  13. Nonendemic HPV-Positive Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Association With Poor Prognosis

    SciTech Connect

    Stenmark, Matthew H.; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Schipper, Matthew; Walline, Heather M.; Komarck, Christine; Feng, Felix Y.; Worden, Francis P.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Prince, Mark E.; Bradford, Carol R.; Mukherji, Suresh K.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Carey, Thomas E.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in nonendemic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and assess the prognostic implications of viral status. Methods and Materials: Paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 62 patients with primary NPC diagnosed between 1985 and 2011 were analyzed for EBV and high-risk HPV. EBV status was determined by the use of in situ hybridization for EBV encoded RNA. HPV status was assessed with p16 immunohistochemistry and multiplex polymerase chain reaction MassArray for determination of HPV type. Proportional hazards models were used to compare the risk of death among patients as stratified by viral status. Results: Of 61 evaluable tumors, 26 (43%) were EBV-positive/HPV-negative, 18 (30%) were HPV-positive/EBV-negative, and 17 (28%) were EBV/HPV-negative. EBV and HPV infection was mutually exclusive. HPV positivity was significantly correlated with World Health Organization grade 2 tumors, older age, and smoking (all P<.001). The racial distribution of the study population was 74% white, 15% African American, and 11% Asian/Middle Eastern. Among HPV-positive patients, 94% were white. At a median follow-up time of 7 years, HPV-positive and EBV/HPV-negative tumors exhibited worse outcomes than did EBV-positive tumors, including decreased overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 2.98, P=.01; and HR 3.89, P=.002), progression-free survival (HR 2.55, P=.02; and HR 4.04, P<.001), and locoregional control (HR 4.01, P=.03; and HR 6.87, P=.001). Conclusion: In our Midwestern population, high-risk HPV infection may play an etiologic role in the development of nonendemic, EBV-negative NPC. Compared with EBV-positive NPC, HPV-positive and EBV/HPV-negative NPC are associated with worse outcomes. A larger confirmatory study is needed to validate these findings.

  14. Human papillomavirus DNA in men who have sex with men: type-specific prevalence, risk factors and implications for vaccination strategies

    PubMed Central

    King, E M; Gilson, R; Beddows, S; Soldan, K; Panwar, K; Young, C; Prah, P; Jit, M; Edmunds, W J; Sonnenberg, P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of girls will have relatively little effect on HPV-related disease in men who have sex with men (MSM). We determined HPV prevalence and risk factors in MSM to inform the potential effectiveness of vaccinating MSM. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 522 MSM aged 18–40 attending a London sexual health clinic who completed a computer-assisted self-interview. Urine and two swabs (anal and penile/scrotal/perianal) were collected and tested using an in-house Luminex-based HPV genotyping system. Results: Prevalence of DNA of the vaccine-preventable HPV types in ano-genital specimens of men was 87/511 (17.0%), 166/511 (32.5%) and 232/511 (45.4%) for the bivalent (HPV16/18), quadrivalent (HPV6/11/16/18) and nonavalent (HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) vaccine types, respectively. A total of 25.1% had one of the quadrivalent types, and 7.4% had 2+ types. Median age at first anal sex was 19 (IQR 17–23) and at first clinic attendance was 24 (IQR 20–27). The increase in the odds of any HPV infection per year of age was 4.7% (95% CI 1.2–8.4). Conclusions: On the basis of the current infection status, most MSM, even among a high-risk population attending a sexual health clinic, are not currently infected with the vaccine-type HPV. A targeted vaccination strategy for MSM in the UK could have substantial benefits. PMID:25791874

  15. [In vivo identification of YB-1 protein, interacting with the enhancer of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 18, using antibodies to a synthetic peptide].

    PubMed

    Spitkovskiĭ, D D; Roĭer, G D; Mazurenko, N N; Mikhaleva, I I; Prudchenko, I A; Korbukh, I A; Sukhova, N M; Kiselev, F L

    1993-01-01

    Enhancer sequences of human papilloma virus (HPV) type 18 were used for screening of HeLa cells cDNA library in lambda gt11 using the protein binding method. Clones with YB I gene homology sequences were isolated. This gene is coding the protein which binds the regulatory region of Y gene of main histocompatibility complex (HLA 11). The YB I transcripts were revealed in all tested samples of cervical carcinomas. To analyze the protein the rabbit antibodies were produced to synthetic peptide, which corresponds to the most hydrophilic region of the protein. This antipeptide serum allowed to identify the nuclear 42K protein in HeLa cells as well as in normal fibroblasts. PMID:8387154

  16. Human papilloma virus (HPV) molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kroupis, Christos; Vourlidis, Nikolaos

    2011-11-01

    Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is becoming a menace worldwide, especially to the developing world, due to its involvement in a variety of malignancies, with cervical cancer being the most important and prevalent. There are many HPV types; HPV 16/18 are the most carcinogenic but few others are also characterized as high-risk (HR). They can cause a variety of low- or high-grade cellular abnormalities, most frequently detected in a routine Pap test. Most infections clear within 2 years, however, a minority persists and potentially could progress to cervical cancer. Molecular tests detecting HPV DNA, RNA or proteins are now being available either commercially or in-house developed. DNA detection is nowadays an established tool for diagnosis and monitoring of HPV-related disease, however, there is lack of a reference method and standardization with reference materials. The various available test formats create confusion on which molecular test to choose and what are its limitations. Therefore, the need for lab accreditation and participation in proficiency testing has to be stressed. Novel HPV biomarkers (RNA, protein etc.) are now intensively examined for their inclusion as adjunct tools. Recently, developed prophylactic vaccines for HPV 16/18 have already proven safe and efficient and raise high expectations for the complete eradication of these types in the future.

  17. Transcriptional regulatory elements in the noncoding region of human papillomavirus type 6

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tzyy-Choou.

    1989-01-01

    The structure and function of the transcriptional regulatory region of human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV-6) has been investigated. To investigate tissue specific gene expression, a sensitive method to detect and localize HPV-6 viral DNA, mRNA and protein in plastic-embedded tissue sections of genital and respiratory tract papillomata by using in situ hybridization and immunoperoxidase assays has been developed. This method, using ultrathin sections and strand-specific {sup 3}H labeled riboprobes, offers the advantages of superior morphological preservation and detection of viral genomes at low copy number with good resolution, and the modified immunocytochemistry provides better sensitivity. The results suggest that genital tract epithelium is more permissive for HPV-6 replication than respiratory tract epithelium. To study the tissue tropism of HPV-6 at the level of regulation of viral gene expression, the polymerase chain reaction was used to isolate the noncoding region (NCR) of HPV-6 in independent isolates. Nucleotide sequence analysis of molecularly cloned DNA identified base substitutions, deletions/insertions and tandem duplications. Transcriptional regulatory elements in the NCR were assayed in recombinant plasmids containing the bacterial gene for chloramphenicol acetyl transferase.

  18. Parents' knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow young males to receive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Banura, Cecily; Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Mirembe, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The Ministry of Health in Uganda in collaboration with the Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH) supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008-2009 vaccinated approximately 10,000 girls with the bivalent humanpapilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. We assessed parent's knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow son(s) to receive HPV vaccines in future through a cross-sectional survey of secondary school boys aged 10-23 years in 4 districts. 377 questionnaires were distributed per district and 870 were used in analysis. Parents that had ever heard about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines; those who would allow daughter(s) to be given the vaccine and those who thought that HPV infection was associated with genital warts were more willing to allow son(s) to receive the HPV vaccine. Unwilling parents considered HPV vaccination of boys unimportant (p = 0.003), believed that only females should receive the vaccine (p = 0.006), thought their son(s) couldn't contract HPV (p = 0.010), didn't know about HPV sexual transmissibility (p = 0.002), knew that males could not acquire HPV (p = 0.000) and never believed that the HPV vaccines could protect against HPV (p = 0.000). Acceptance of HPV vaccination of daughters and likelihood of recommending HPV vaccines to son(s) of friends and relatives predicted parental willingness to allow sons to receive HPV vaccines. Probable HPV vaccination of boys is a viable complement to that of girls. Successfulness of HPV vaccination relies on parental acceptability and sustained sensitization about usefulness of HPV vaccines even for boys is vital. PMID:25203053

  19. Noninfectious genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Kirshen, Carly; Edwards, Libby

    2015-12-01

    Noninfectious genital ulcers are much more common than ulcers arising from infections. Still, it is important to take a thorough history of sexual activity and a sexual abuse screen. A physical exam should include skin, oral mucosa, nails, hair, vulva, and vaginal mucosa if needed. The differential diagnosis of noninfectious genital ulcers includes: lipschütz ulcers, complex aphthosis, Behçet's syndrome, vulvar metastatic Crohn's disease, hidradenitis suppurativa, pyoderma gangrenosum, pressure ulcers, and malignancies. It is important to come to the correct diagnosis to avoid undue testing, stress, and anxiety in patients experiencing genital ulcerations.

  20. Are 20 human papillomavirus types causing cervical cancer?

    PubMed

    Arbyn, Marc; Tommasino, Massimo; Depuydt, Christophe; Dillner, Joakim

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there was consistent and sufficient epidemiological, experimental and mechanistic evidence of carcinogenicity to humans for 12 HPV types (HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58 and HPV59) for cervical cancer. Therefore, these types were considered as 1A carcinogens. They all belong to the family of the α-Papillomaviridae, in particular to the species α5 (HPV51), α6 (HPV56), α7 (HPV18, HPV39, HPV45, HPV59) and α9 (HPV16, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV52, HPV58). Less evidence is available for a thirteenth type (HPV68, α7), which is classified as a 2A carcinogen (probably carcinogenic). Moreover, seven other phylogenetically related types (HPV26, HPV53, HPV66, HPV67, HPV68, HPV70 and HPV73) were identified as single HPV infections in certain rare cases of cervical cancer and were considered possibly carcinogenic (2B carcinogens). Recently, Halec et al [7] demonstrated that the molecular signature of HPV-induced carcinogenesis (presence of type-specific spliced E6*| mRNA; increased expression of p16; and decreased expression of cyclin D1, p53 and Rb) was similar in cervical cancers containing single infections with one of the eight afore-mentioned 2A or 2B carcinogens to those in cancers with single infections with group 1 carcinogens. Ninety six percent of cervical cancers are attributable to one of the 13 most common HPV types (groups 1 and 2A). Including the additional seven HPV types (group 2B) added 2.6%, to reach a total of 98.7% of all HPV-positive cervical cancers. From recently updated meta-analyses, it was shown that HPV68, HPV26, HPV66, HPV67, HPV73 and HPV82 were significantly more common in cancer cases than in women with normal cervical cytology, suggesting that for these HPV types, an upgrading of the carcinogen classification could be considered. However, there is no need to include them in HPV screening tests or vaccines, given their rarity in

  1. A Comparison of Clinical Outcomes Between HPV Positive and HPV Negative Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Oropharynx.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is now recognized as a major risk factor for the development of oropharyngeal head and neck cancers, specifically HPV type 16. HPV-16 positive oropharyngeal cancer may in fact represent a distinct disease entity which is associated with improved prognosis and survival (National Cancer Institute, 2016). In this study, we examined the characteristics of patients with early stage HPV-16 positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and their post-operative course contrasting the findings to patients with HPV-16 negative tumors. Overall, it was noted that 30-day readmissions and surgical site infections are not affected by the HPV status of the tumor. Robotic surgery is used more frequently with patients who were positive for the HPV infection, and the data suggest that there is a trend toward shorter length of hospital stays as well as a difference in postoperative complications.

  2. Differential expression of cellular microRNAs in HPV-11 transfected cells. An analysis by three different array platforms and qRT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Dreher, Anita; Rossing, Maria; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Norrild, Bodil

    2010-12-17

    Human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV-11) infects the genital and the respiratory tract leading to condylomas and respiratory papillomatosis. HPV infections are restricted to epithelial tissue and the progression through the virus lifecycle is tightly coordinated to the differentiation of the host cell. The changes of cellular microRNAs by HPV-11 gene expression were investigated in a cell culture model of HaCaT cells transfected with HPV-11, with the goal of understanding which cellular processes were affected by the virus. Human microRNA profiling was conducted on three different array platform systems and because very few microRNAs (miR-663, -638, -149* and -92b*) were consistently found in all three array data sets we performed extensive statistical analyses of the array data and the qRT-PCR validation. We assume that the most reliable differentially expressed microRNAs are the ones identified by more than one array platform. We also show that TaqMan® qRT-PCR validation is of limited use for less abundant microRNAs.

  3. Characterization of human papillomavirus type 66 from an invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed Central

    Tawheed, A R; Beaudenon, S; Favre, M; Orth, G

    1991-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA sequences coexisting with HPV16 and HPV45 were cloned from an invasive cervical carcinoma. The cloned HPV was shown to be a novel type, named HPV66, and is related to HPV56 (an HPV detected in cervical cancer). After screening 160 anogenital biopsies, four specimens exhibited histological features of intraepithelial neoplasia and contained HPV66 sequences. Of these, three were found to be associated with another HPV type. Images PMID:1663515

  4. Genital Warts (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC About Birth Control: What Parents Need to Know About Condoms Questions and Answers About Sex Your Child's Immunizations: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Should Girls Who Aren't ...

  5. Immunohistochemical staining of Langerhans cells in HPV-positive and HPV-negative cases of oral squamous cells carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Karuza Maria Alves; SOARES, Rosilene Calazans; OLIVEIRA, Márcio Campos; PINTO, Leão Pereira; COSTA, Antônio de Lisboa Lopes

    2011-01-01

    The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has been strongly implicated in development of some cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, the immunological system somehow reacts against the presence of this virus. Among the cells involved in such mechanism of defense Langerhans cells (LC) stand out, which are responsible for processing and presenting antigens. Objectives The purposes of this study were to investigate the presence of HPV DNA and to evaluate the immunohistochemical reactivity for Langerhans cells between HPV-positive and HPV-negative OSCC. Twenty-seven cases of OSSC were evaluated. Material and Methods DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue samples and amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for the detection of HPV DNA. Viral typing was performed by dot blot hybridization. Immunohistochemistry was performed by the Streptavidin-biotin technique. Results From the 27 cases, 9 (33.3%) were HPV-positive and 18 (66.0%) HPV-negative. HPV 18 was the most prevalent viral type (100% cases) and infection with HPV-16 (co-infection) was detected in only 1 case. In the OSCC specimens examined, immunoreactivity to S-100 antibody was detected in all cases, with a mean number of 49.48±30.89 Langerhans cells positive for immunostaining. The mean number of immunostained Langerhans cells was smaller in the HPV-positive cases (38 cells/case) than in the HPV-negative cases (42.5 cells/case), but this difference was not significant (p=0.38). Conclusions The low frequency of detection of HPV DNA in OSCC indicates a possible participation of the virus in the development and progression of only a subgroup of these tumors. There was no association between the immunohistochemical labeling for Langerhans cells (S-100+) and HPV infection of in OSSC. These findings suggest that the presence of HPV in such OSCC cases could not alter the immunological system, particularly the Langerhans cells. PMID:21710097

  6. Cellular immune responses to HPV-18, -31, and -53 in healthy volunteers immunized with recombinant HPV-16 L1 virus-like particles

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, Ligia A.; Harro, Clayton D.; Kemp, Troy J.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Schiller, John T.; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Hildesheim, Allan

    2006-09-30

    Human papillomavirus-like particles (HPV VLP) are candidate vaccines that have shown to be efficacious in reducing infection and inducing robust antiviral immunity. Neutralizing antibodies generated by vaccination are largely type-specific, but little is known about the type-specificity of cellular immune responses to VLP vaccination. To determine whether vaccination with HPV-16 L1VLP induces cellular immunity to heterologous HPV types (HPV-18, HPV-31, and HPV-53), we examined proliferative and cytokine responses in vaccine (n = 11) and placebo (n = 5) recipients. Increased proliferative and cytokine responses to heterologous types were observed postvaccination in some individuals. The proportion of women responding to heterologous types postvaccination (36%-55%) was lower than that observed in response to HPV-16 (73%). Response to HPV-16 VLP predicted response to other types. The strongest correlations in response were observed between HPV-16 and HPV-31, consistent with their phylogenetic relatedness. In summary, PBMC from HPV-16 VLP vaccine recipients can respond to L1VLP from heterologous HPV types, suggesting the presence of conserved T cell epitopes.

  7. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Ty21a expressing human papillomavirus type 16 L1 as a potential live vaccine against cervical cancer and typhoid fever.

    PubMed

    Fraillery, Dominique; Baud, David; Pang, Susana Yuk-Ying; Schiller, John; Bobst, Martine; Zosso, Nathalie; Ponci, Françoise; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

    2007-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines based on L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) can prevent HPV-induced genital neoplasias, the precursors of cervical cancer. However, most cervical cancers occur in developing countries, where the implementation of expensive vaccines requiring multiple injections will be difficult. A live Salmonella-based vaccine could be a lower-cost alternative. We previously demonstrated that high HPV type 16 (HPV16)-neutralizing titers are induced after a single oral immunization of mice with attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains expressing a codon-optimized version of HPV16 L1 (L1S). To allow the testing of this type of vaccine in women, we constructed a new L1-expressing plasmid, kanL1S, and tested kanL1S recombinants of three Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi vaccine strains shown to be safe in humans, i.e., Ty21a, the actual licensed typhoid vaccine, and two highly immunogenic typhoid vaccine candidates, Ty800 and CVD908-htrA. In an intranasal mouse model of Salmonella serovar Typhi infection, Ty21a kanL1S was unique in inducing HPV16-neutralizing antibodies in serum and genital secretions, while anti-Salmonella responses were similar to those against the parental Ty21a vaccine. Electron microscopy examination of Ty21a kanL1S lysates showed that L1 assembled in capsomers and capsomer aggregates but not well-ordered VLPs. Comparison to the neutralizing antibody response induced by purified HPV16 L1 VLP immunizations in mice suggests that Ty21a kanL1S may be an effective prophylactic HPV vaccine. Ty21a has been widely used against typhoid fever in humans with a remarkable safety record. These finds encourage clinical testing of Ty21a kanL1S as a combined typhoid fever/cervical cancer vaccine with the potential for worldwide application.

  8. Educational interventions to increase HPV vaccination acceptance: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Linda Y.; Bonhomme, Lize-Anne; Cooper, Spring Chenoa; Joseph, Jill G.; Zimet, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been available for protection against HPV-associated cervical cancer and genital warts since 2006. Nonetheless, uptake has varied among countries and populations within countries. Studies have found that individuals’ knowledge and attitudes toward the vaccine are associated with immunization uptake. The purpose of the current review is to summarize and evaluate the evidence for educational interventions to increase HPV vaccination acceptance. Methods We searched the databases of PubMed and Web of Science for English-language articles describing educational interventions designed to improve HPV vaccination uptake, intention or attitude. Results We identified 33 studies of HPV vaccination educational interventions: 7 tested the effectiveness of interventions with parents, 8 with adolescents or young adults, and 18 compared the effectiveness of different message frames in an educational intervention among adolescents, young adults or their parents. Most studies involved populations with higher educational attainment and most interventions required participants to be literate. The minority of studies used the outcome of HPV vaccine uptake. Well-designed studies adequately powered to detect change in vaccine uptake were rare and generally did not demonstrate effectiveness of the tested intervention. Conclusions There is not strong evidence to recommend any specific educational intervention for wide-spread implementation. Future studies are required to determine the effectiveness of culturally-competent interventions reaching diverse populations. PMID:24530401

  9. Acquisition and Persistence of Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18 Among Men With High-HPV Viral Load Infections in a Circumcision Trial in Kisumu, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Senkomago, Virginia; Backes, Danielle M.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Poole, Charles; Agot, Kawango; Moses, Stephen; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Hesselink, Albertus T.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.; Bailey, Robert C.; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Circumcision and lower human papillomavirus (HPV) viral loads in men are possibly associated with a reduced risk of HPV transmission to women. However, the association between male circumcision and HPV viral load remains unclear. Methods. Swab specimens from the glans and shaft of the penis were collected from men enrolled in a circumcision trial in Kisumu, Kenya. GP5+/6+ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify HPV DNA types. HPV-16 and HPV-18 loads were measured with a LightCycler real-time PCR and classified as high (>250 copies/scrape) or low (≤250 copies/scrape). Results. A total of 1159 men were randomly assigned to undergo immediate circumcision, and 1140 men were randomly assigned to the control arm (these individuals were asked to remain uncircumcised until the study ended). The hazard of acquisition of high-viral load infections in the glans was lower in the circumcision arm, compared with the control arm, for HPV-16 (hazard ratio [HR], 0.32 [95% confidence interval {CI}, .20–.49]) and HPV-18 (HR, 0.34 [95% CI, .21–.54]). The 6-month risk of HPV persistence among men with high-viral load infections in the glans at baseline was lower in the circumcision arm, compared with the control arm, for HPV-16 (risk ratio [RR], 0.36 [95% CI, .18–.72]) and HPV-18 (RR 0.34 [95% CI, .13–.86]). Weaker and less precise results were obtained for shaft samples. Conclusions. Male circumcision could potentially reduce the risk of HPV transmission to women by reducing the hazard of acquisition, and the risk of persistence of high-HPV viral load infections in the glans in men. PMID:25261492

  10. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genital shedding in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women receiving effective combination antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Péré, Héléne; Rascanu, Aida; LeGoff, Jérome; Matta, Mathieu; Bois, Frédéric; Lortholary, Olivier; Leroy, Valériane; Launay, Odile; Bélec, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of genital shedding of HSV-2 DNA was assessed in HIV-1-infected women taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA and HSV DNA loads were measured during 12-18 months using frozen plasma, PBMC and cervicovaginal lavage samples from 22 HIV-1-infected women, including 17 women naive for antiretroviral therapy initiating cART and 5 women with virological failure switching to a new regimen. Nineteen (86%) women were HSV-2-seropositive. Among HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women, HIV-1 RNA loads showed a rapid fall from baseline after one month of cART, in parallel in paired plasma and cervicovaginal secretions. In contrast, HIV-1 DNA loads did not show significant variations from baseline up to 18 months of treatment in both systemic and genital compartments. HSV DNA was detected at least once in 12 (63%) of 19 women during follow up: HSV-2 shedding in the genital compartment was observed in 11% of cervicovaginal samples at baseline and in 16% after initiating or switching cART. Cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA loads were strongly associated with plasma HIV-1 RNA loads over time, but not with cervicovaginal HSV DNA loads. Reactivation of genital HSV-2 replication frequently occurred despite effective cART in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women. Genital HSV-2 replication under cART does not influence cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA or DNA shedding.

  11. Potential Anti-HPV and Related Cancer Agents from Marine Resources: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shi-Xin; Zhang, Xiao-Shuang; Guan, Hua-Shi; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the studies on the prevention and treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) which is closely related to the cervical cancer and other genital diseases are attracting more and more attention all over the world. Marine-derived polysaccharides and other bioactive compounds have been shown to possess a variety of anti-HPV and related cancer activities. This paper will review the recent progress in research on the potential anti-HPV and related cancer agents from marine resources. In particular, it will provide an update on the anti-HPV actions of heparinoid polysaccharides and bioactive compounds present in marine organisms, as well as the therapeutic vaccines relating to marine organisms. In addition, the possible mechanisms of anti-HPV actions of marine bioactive compounds and their potential for therapeutic application will also be summarized in detail. PMID:24705500

  12. Performance of a Cartridge-Based Assay for Detection of Clinically Significant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection: Lessons from VALGENT (Validation of HPV Genotyping Tests).

    PubMed

    Cuschieri, Kate; Geraets, Daan; Cuzick, Jack; Cadman, Louise; Moore, Catherine; Vanden Broeck, Davy; Padalko, Elisaveta; Quint, Wim; Arbyn, Marc

    2016-09-01

    The Validation of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Genotyping Tests (VALGENT) studies offer an opportunity to clinically validate HPV assays for use in primary screening for cervical cancer and also provide a framework for the comparison of analytical and type-specific performance. Through VALGENT, we assessed the performance of the cartridge-based Xpert HPV assay (Xpert HPV), which detects 14 high-risk (HR) types and resolves HPV16 and HPV18/45. Samples from women attending the United Kingdom cervical screening program enriched with cytologically abnormal samples were collated. All had been previously tested by a clinically validated standard comparator test (SCT), the GP5+/6+ enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert HPV for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher (CIN2+) and CIN3+ relative to those of the SCT were assessed as were the inter- and intralaboratory reproducibilities according to international criteria for test validation. Type concordance for HPV16 and HPV18/45 between the Xpert HPV and the SCT was also analyzed. The Xpert HPV detected 94% of CIN2+ and 98% of CIN3+ lesions among all screened women and 90% of CIN2+ and 96% of CIN3+ lesions in women 30 years and older. The specificity for CIN1 or less (≤CIN1) was 83% (95% confidence interval [CI], 80 to 85%) in all women and 88% (95% CI, 86 to 91%) in women 30 years and older. Inter- and intralaboratory agreements for the Xpert HPV were 98% and 97%, respectively. The kappa agreements for HPV16 and HPV18/45 between the clinically validated reference test (GP5+/6+ LMNX) and the Xpert HPV were 0.92 and 0.91, respectively. The clinical performance and reproducibility of the Xpert HPV are comparable to those of well-established HPV assays and fulfill the criteria for use in primary cervical cancer screening.

  13. HPV Vaccination: Evaluation of Reminder Prompts for Doses 2 & 3

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-24

    Human Papilloma Virus Infection Type 11; Human Papilloma Virus Infection Type 16; Human Papilloma Virus Infection Type 18; Human Papilloma Virus Infection Type 6; Cervical Cancer; Genital Warts; Oropharyngeal Cancer

  14. HPV Vaccination: An Investigation of Physician Reminders and Recommendation Scripts

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Human Papilloma Virus Infection Type 11; Human Papilloma Virus Infection Type 16; Human Papilloma Virus Infection Type 18; Human Papilloma Virus Infection Type 6; Cervical Cancer; Genital Warts; Oropharyngeal Cancer

  15. Characterization of Two Novel Gammapapillomaviruses, HPV179 and HPV184, Isolated from Common Warts of a Renal-Transplant Recipient

    PubMed Central

    Hošnjak, Lea; Kocjan, Boštjan J.; Pirš, Branko; Seme, Katja; Poljak, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Gammapapillomavirus (Gamma-PV) is a diverse and rapidly expanding PV-genus, currently consisting of 76 fully characterized human papillomavirus (HPV) types. In this study, DNA genomes of two novel HPV types, HPV179 and HPV184, obtained from two distinct facial verrucae vulgares specimens of a 64 year-old renal-transplant recipient, were fully cloned, sequenced and characterized. HPV179 and HPV184 genomes comprise 7,228-bp and 7,324-bp, respectively, and contain four early (E1, E2, E6 and E7) and two late genes (L1 and L2); the non-coding region is typically positioned between L1 and E6 genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the L1 nucleotide sequence placed both novel types within the Gamma-PV genus: HPV179 was classified as a novel member of species Gamma-15, additionally containing HPV135 and HPV146, while HPV184 was classified as a single member of a novel species Gamma-25. HPV179 and HPV184 type-specific quantitative real-time PCRs were further developed and used in combination with human beta-globin gene quantitative real-time PCR to determine the prevalence and viral load of the novel types in the patient’s facial warts and several follow-up skin specimens, and in a representative collection, a total of 569 samples, of HPV-associated benign and malignant neoplasms, hair follicles and anal and oral mucosa specimens obtained from immunocompetent individuals. HPV179 and HPV184 viral loads in patients’ facial warts were estimated to be 2,463 and 3,200 genome copies per single cell, respectively, suggesting their active role in the development of common warts in organ-transplant recipients. In addition, in this particular patient, both novel types had established a persistent infection of the skin for more than four years. Among immunocompetent individuals, HPV179 was further detected in low-copy numbers in a few skin specimens, indicating its cutaneous tissue tropism, while HPV184 was further detected in low-copy numbers in one mucosal and a few skin specimens

  16. Acceptability of HPV vaccine for males and preferences for future education programs among Appalachian residents.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Paul L; Oldach, Benjamin R; Randle, Katherine E; Katz, Mira L

    2014-03-01

    Appalachia is a geographic region with several disparities related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, yet little is known about acceptability of HPV vaccine for males among Appalachian residents. HPV vaccine acceptability and preferences for future HPV vaccine education programs were examined among residents of Appalachian Ohio. Focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted with Appalachian Ohio residents between July and October 2011. Participants (n = 102 from 24 focus groups and 5 in-depth interviews) included four key stakeholder groups: health care providers, community leaders, parents with adolescent sons, and young adult men ages 18 to 26 years. Support for vaccinating males against HPV was high among participants, despite low awareness and knowledge about HPV vaccine for males. Participants reported three categories of potential barriers to vaccinating males against HPV: concerns about vaccine safety and side effects, access to care and vaccination logistics, and gender and cultural issues. Participants reported that HPV vaccine was viewed as being only for females in their communities and that receiving the vaccine may be emasculating or embarrassing to males. Participants suggested that future HPV vaccine education programs mainly target parents, include basic information about HPV-related diseases and HPV vaccine (e.g., number of doses, cost), and present the vaccine as having the potential to prevent cancer (as opposed to preventing genital warts). Acceptability of HPV vaccine for males was high among residents of Appalachian Ohio. Future HPV vaccine education programs in Appalachia should address common potential barriers to vaccination and help destigmatize vaccination among males. PMID:24085197

  17. Vaginal superficial myofibroblastoma: a rare mesenchymal tumor of the lower female genital tract and a study of its association with viral infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Lan; Su, Tzu-Cheng; Shen, Ko-Hung; Lin, Shu-Hui; Wang, Hsin-Kai; Hsu, Jui-Chang; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2012-06-01

    Superficial myofibroblastoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor in the lower female genital tract. The exact etiology of superficial myofibroblastoma remains unclear. The association of viral infection and mesenchymal tumors has been well established in some particular types of soft tissue tumors. In the lower female genital tract, the intimate correlation of viral infection and tumor pathogenesis has been also proposed. We present a 59-year-old woman with postcoital bleeding for 1 month. The pelvic examination revealed a 2-cm polypoid mass mimicking leiomyoma at the vaginal fornix. Local excision was performed, and the pathological examination revealed a superficial myofibroblastoma. No tumor recurrence was noted during the 12-month follow-up. Pathological differential diagnosis of this tumor from other mesenchymal tumors is essential because of its distinct clinicopathological features. Furthermore, fluorescence in situ hybridization of human papilloma virus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), as well as immunohistochemical staining of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), was negative in tumor cells. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first group to study the possible relationship of viral infection and the occurrence of this mesenchymal tumor. Our results suggested no association of vaginal superficial myofibroblastoma and infection with HPV, EBV, or HHV8.

  18. Attitude, Acceptability and Knowledge of HPV Vaccination among Local University Students in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Vico Chung Lim; Wong, Ho Ting; Yeung, Pui Chun Au; Choi, Yuk Ki; Fok, Michelle Sum Yue; Mak, Oi In; Wong, Hing Yu; Wong, Kim Ho; Wong, Shui Yan; Wong, Yee Shan; Wong, Eugene Ying Yeung

    2016-01-01

    The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has the great potential to prevent HPV-related infections for millions of women and men worldwide. However, the success of the vaccine is highly dependent on the vaccination rate. Factors influencing the attitudes of undergraduate students towards HPV vaccination should be studied. This is a cross-sectional survey that was conducted to estimate the HPV vaccination rate among undergraduate students in Hong Kong, and to identify the predictors of their attitude towards HPV vaccination. The results showed that the HPV vaccination rate was 13.3%. Factors related to knowledge of vaccination were the main predictors of the students’ attitude towards vaccination (there were seven predictors, with B = 1.36 to 2.30; p < 0.05), followed by gender (B = −1.40; p < 0.05), acceptable maximum price (B = 0.35; p < 0.05), and willingness to receive the HPV vaccine if it can protect against cervical/anal cancer and genital warts (B = −1.90; p < 0.001). The regression model that was developed based on the predictors had a moderate effect size (adj-R2 = 0.33). To conclude, the HPV vaccination rate among undergraduate students in Hong Kong was low. They should be provided with more active education and activities to promote HPV vaccination to improve their knowledge on the subject. PMID:27187424

  19. Attitude, Acceptability and Knowledge of HPV Vaccination among Local University Students in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Vico Chung Lim; Wong, Ho Ting; Yeung, Pui Chun Au; Choi, Yuk Ki; Fok, Michelle Sum Yue; Mak, Oi In; Wong, Hing Yu; Wong, Kim Ho; Wong, Shui Yan; Wong, Yee Shan; Wong, Eugene Ying Yeung

    2016-01-01

    The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has the great potential to prevent HPV-related infections for millions of women and men worldwide. However, the success of the vaccine is highly dependent on the vaccination rate. Factors influencing the attitudes of undergraduate students towards HPV vaccination should be studied. This is a cross-sectional survey that was conducted to estimate the HPV vaccination rate among undergraduate students in Hong Kong, and to identify the predictors of their attitude towards HPV vaccination. The results showed that the HPV vaccination rate was 13.3%. Factors related to knowledge of vaccination were the main predictors of the students' attitude towards vaccination (there were seven predictors, with B = 1.36 to 2.30; p < 0.05), followed by gender (B = -1.40; p < 0.05), acceptable maximum price (B = 0.35; p < 0.05), and willingness to receive the HPV vaccine if it can protect against cervical/anal cancer and genital warts (B = -1.90; p < 0.001). The regression model that was developed based on the predictors had a moderate effect size (adj-R² = 0.33). To conclude, the HPV vaccination rate among undergraduate students in Hong Kong was low. They should be provided with more active education and activities to promote HPV vaccination to improve their knowledge on the subject. PMID:27187424

  20. HPV and head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Dufour, X; Beby-Defaux, A; Agius, G; Lacau St Guily, J

    2012-02-01

    Head and neck cancer is frequent worldwide and oropharyngeal locations are presently sharply on the increase, in relation with an increasing incidence of oropharyngeal infection by oncogenic type-16 human papillomavirus (HPV). The clinical and biologic profile of these patients is distinct from that of other oropharyngeal carcinoma patients, with earlier onset, cystic cervical nodes and basaloid carcinoma histopathology. Detection of intratumoral viral DNA is essential to confirm the role of HPV, and E6/E7 mRNA expression is the most relevant indicator for stratification. Several methods can reveal intratumoral oncogenic HPV DNA, but PCR with hybridization is the most sensitive and most widely used. According to several reports, prognosis in terms of survival and locoregional control is better in HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma than in oropharyngeal carcinoma associated with smoking and alcohol consumption. The future lies in vaccination, but further studies will determine whether the rate of oropharyngeal carcinoma falls in women vaccinated against cervical cancer.

  1. Fewer doses of HPV vaccine result in immune response similar to three-dose regimen

    Cancer.gov

    NCI scientists report that two doses of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, trademarked as Cervarix, resulted in similar serum antibody levels against two of the most carcinogenic types of HPV (16 and 18), compared to a standard three dose regimen.

  2. HPV and cervical cancer testing and prevention: knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes among Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Vanslyke, Jan Gaylord; Baum, Julie; Plaza, Veronica; Otero, Maria; Wheeler, Cosette; Helitzer, Deborah L

    2008-05-01

    Cervical cancer is a preventable disease resulting from infection with high-risk types of sexually transmitted human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Public knowledge of HPVs and their link to cervical cancer is limited. Participation in cervical cancer prevention programs, including Pap and HPV screening and HPV vaccine acceptance, is crucial for limiting the incidence of cervical cancer. Hispanic women suffer the highest cervical cancer incidence rates in the United States. In this study, we conducted community-based focus groups with Hispanic women to explore knowledge and attitudes relating to cervical cancer, HPV, HPV testing, and HPV vaccination. Study findings suggest a need to increase public health literacy in relation to HPV, the link between HPV and cervical cancer, and HPV primary and secondary prevention options. Health care providers should be prepared to share information with patients that supports and promotes informed decision making about HPV testing and vaccines and their complementary roles in cervical cancer screening and prevention.

  3. The human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 oncoproteins promotes nuclear localization of active caspase 8

    SciTech Connect

    Manzo-Merino, Joaquin; Lizano, Marcela

    2014-02-15

    The HPV-16 E6 and E6{sup ⁎} proteins have been shown previously to be capable of regulating caspase 8 activity. We now show that the capacity of E6 to interact with caspase 8 is common to diverse HPV types, being also seen with HPV-11 E6, HPV-18 E6 and HPV-18 E6{sup ⁎}. Unlike most E6-interacting partners, caspase 8 does not appear to be a major proteasomal target of E6, but instead E6 appears able to stimulate caspase 8 activation, without affecting the overall apoptotic activity. This would appear to be mediated in part by the ability of the HPV E6 oncoproteins to recruit active caspase 8 to the nucleus. - Highlights: • Multiple HPV E6 oncoproteins interact with the caspase 8 DED domain. • HPV E6 stimulates activation of caspase 8. • HPV E6 promotes nuclear accumulation of caspase 8.

  4. Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in youth and cervical HPV prevalence in women attending a youth clinic in Sweden, a follow up-study 2013-2014 after gradual introduction of public HPV vaccination.

    PubMed

    Grün, Nathalie; Ährlund-Richter, Andreas; Franzén, Joar; Mirzaie, Leila; Marions, Lena; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Dalianis, Tina

    2015-01-01

    During 2009-2011, we reported that the oral and cervical prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) was high by international standards at 9.3% and 74%, respectively, in youth aged 15-23 years attending a youth clinic in Stockholm. After gradual introduction of public HPV vaccination during 2007-2012, between 2013 and 2014, when 73% of the women were HPV-vaccinated, but not necessarily before their sexual debut, oral HPV prevalence had dropped to 1.4% as compared with 9.3% in 2009-2011 (p < 0.00001). Cervical HPV prevalence was high and common cervical high-risk types were HPV51, 56, 59, 73, 16, 39, 52, and 53. However, it was shown that HPV16, 31, and 70 were significantly less common among HPV-vaccinated women than among those who had not received the vaccine.

  5. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and genotype frequency in the oral mucosa of newborns in Milan, Italy.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, M; Zappa, A; Bianchi, S; Frati, E; Colzani, D; Amendola, A; Tanzi, E

    2012-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cutaneous and mucosal infections in both adults and children. In order to evaluate HPV prevalence and the spectrum of genotypes in the oral cavity of paediatric subjects, a retrospective study was carried out on oral-pharyngeal swabs collected from 177 newborns aged 0-6 months. HPV-DNA was detected by a nested-PCR; the viral typing was made through DNA sequencing. HPV infection was identified in 25 subjects (14.1%) and the sequence analysis showed eight distinct genotypes. These data confirm HPV detection in newborn oral mucosa. Further investigations are needed to clarify the methods of HPV acquisition.

  6. Rational Design of Peptide Vaccines Against Multiple Types of Human Papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Dey, Sumanta; De, Antara; Nandy, Ashesh

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) occurs in many types, some of which cause cervical, genital, and other cancers. While vaccination is available against the major cancer-causing HPV types, many others are not covered by these preventive measures. Herein, we present a bioinformatics study for the designing of multivalent peptide vaccines against multiple HPV types as an alternative strategy to the virus-like particle vaccines being used now. Our technique of rational design of peptide vaccines is expected to ensure stability of the vaccine against many cycles of mutational changes, elicit immune response, and negate autoimmune possibilities. Using the L1 capsid protein sequences, we identified several peptides for potential vaccine design for HPV 16, 18, 33, 35, 45, and 11 types. Although there are concerns about the epitope-binding affinities for the peptides identified in this process, the technique indicates possibilities of multivalent, adjuvanted, peptide vaccines against a wider range of HPV types, and tailor-made different combinations of the peptides to address frequency variations of types over different population groups as required for prophylaxis and at lower cost than are in use at the present time.

  7. Rational Design of Peptide Vaccines Against Multiple Types of Human Papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Sumanta; De, Antara; Nandy, Ashesh

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) occurs in many types, some of which cause cervical, genital, and other cancers. While vaccination is available against the major cancer-causing HPV types, many others are not covered by these preventive measures. Herein, we present a bioinformatics study for the designing of multivalent peptide vaccines against multiple HPV types as an alternative strategy to the virus-like particle vaccines being used now. Our technique of rational design of peptide vaccines is expected to ensure stability of the vaccine against many cycles of mutational changes, elicit immune response, and negate autoimmune possibilities. Using the L1 capsid protein sequences, we identified several peptides for potential vaccine design for HPV 16, 18, 33, 35, 45, and 11 types. Although there are concerns about the epitope-binding affinities for the peptides identified in this process, the technique indicates possibilities of multivalent, adjuvanted, peptide vaccines against a wider range of HPV types, and tailor-made different combinations of the peptides to address frequency variations of types over different population groups as required for prophylaxis and at lower cost than are in use at the present time. PMID:27279731

  8. An improved rearranged Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E7 DNA vaccine candidate (HPV-16 E7SH) induces an E7 wildtype-specific T cell response.

    PubMed

    Ohlschläger, Peter; Pes, Michaela; Osen, Wolfram; Dürst, Matthias; Schneider, Achim; Gissmann, Lutz; Kaufmann, Andreas M

    2006-04-01

    A new and very promising approach in vaccine development is the application of naked DNA. In comparison to conventional vaccines it offers several advantages, especially if there is a need for the development of low cost vaccines. Infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (hr-HPVs) is the major risk factor for the development of cervical cancer (cc), the third most common cancer in women worldwide. The HPV E7 oncogene is constitutively expressed in HPV-infected cells and represents an excellent target for immune therapy of HPV-related disease. Therefore, we chose the HPV-16 E7 as model antigen in the development of a therapeutic DNA vaccine candidate. For safety reasons the use of a transforming gene like the HPV-16 E7 for DNA vaccination is not feasible in humans. In consequence we have generated an artificial ("shuffled") HPV-16 E7-gene (HPV-16 E7SH), containing all putative cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTLs) epitopes and exhibiting high safety features. Here, we show the induction of a strong E7-wildtype (E7WT) directed cellular and humoral immune response including tumor protection and regression after in vivo immunization in the murine system. Moreover, the vaccine candidate demonstrated immunogenicity in humans, demonstrated by priming of antigen-specific T cells in vitro. Importantly, the artificial HPV-gene has completely lost its transforming properties as measured in soft agar transformation assays. These results may be of importance for the development of vaccines based on oncogenes or oncoproteins. PMID:16472545

  9. Self-assembly of in vitro-translated human papillomavirus type 16 L1 capsid protein into virus-like particles and antigenic reactivity of the protein.

    PubMed Central

    Iyengar, S; Shah, K V; Kotloff, K L; Ghim, S J; Viscidi, R P

    1996-01-01

    The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) L1 capsid protein is the major component of the HPV virion. We prepared L1 protein of HPV-16 in a cell-free system. The L1 gene was cloned in an expression plasmid and transcribed and translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate. The expressed protein had the molecular mass (55 kDa) expected for the L1 protein, and it assembled into virus-like particles that closely resembled papillomavirus virions. The protein retained conformational epitopes, as evidenced by its reactivity with monoclonal antibodies which recognize only intact viral particles. In radioimmunoprecipitation assays with sera from college women grouped by their genital tract HPV DNA status, high reactivity was found in 68% of HPV-16 DNA-positive women, in 23% of women with other HPVs, and in 19% of HPV-negative women. In comparison, none of the sera of children were reactive. The results of the radioimmunoprecipitation assays showed a significant correlation with results obtained with the same sera in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with virus-like particles produced in baculovirus (chi-square test for linear trend, P = 0.0023). Although the amounts of L1 protein obtained are small, the ability to produce virus-like particles by in vitro translation may be useful in the study of virus assembly, virus binding, and the immunological response to HPV infection. PMID:8914767

  10. [Genetic regulation of human genital papillomaviruses].

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Salas, L M; López-Bayghen, E

    1995-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) specifically infect stratified epithelial cells, causing benign and malignant neoplasia. Several elements directing this virus' genetic expression are present in a non-coding region called LCR. HPV infection starts in the basal cells of stratified epithelia, where a particular combination of cellular factors interacting with the LCR starts the transcription of the viral E6 and E7 oncogenes. The E6 and E7 genes alter the cell cycle because they interact and inactivate tumor suppressor proteins: E6 binds and degrades protein p53 and E7 associates with p105RB. E1 and E2 are the next synthesized proteins. E2 blocks the early transcription and permits E1 specific binding to the viral origin of replication located within the LCR, initiating the viral genome replication. Following the course of viral infection, the E2-induced E6 and E7 down-regulation releases p53 and p105RB proteins, and the differentiation process can continue. Then, a putative late promoter can activate the capsid genes L1 and L2. At this step, mature virions can be detected in the upper layers of the epithelium. Disruption in E2 gene transcription is usually associated to genital malignant neoplasia. In the absence of E2, E6 and E7 remain constitutively expressed, sustaining the immortality of the infected cell and blocking the epithelial differentiation program.

  11. Therapeutic management of cutaneous and genital warts.

    PubMed

    Ockenfels, Hans Michael

    2016-09-01

    During their lifetime, at least 10 % of the population will be infected by human papillomaviruses (HPV), clinically characterized by the formation of cutaneous or genital warts. Although warts are ubiquitous, there are no defined treatments. Especially in the first six months, warts frequently resolve without therapeutic intervention. This complicates the interpretation of study data, given that many studies do not differentiate between newly infected patients and those with infections that have persisted for a long time. Similarly, most studies do not take location, size, and thickness of lesions into account, either. The objective of the present review article is to analyze the study data currently available, taking into consideration both subtypes and locations - factors exceedingly crucial in clinical practice. In particular, the distinction between new-onset and chronic recalcitrant warts is reflected in a therapeutic algorithm. In the case of genital warts, the algorithm is more clearly determined by the extent of the area affected rather than the longevity of lesions. In immunocompetent individuals, any therapeutic intervention must be aimed at achieving complete resolution. PMID:27607030

  12. Relationship between Humoral Immune Responses against HPV16, HPV18, HPV31 and HPV45 in 12-15 Year Old Girls Receiving Cervarix® or Gardasil® Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Godi, Anna; Bissett, Sara L.; Miller, Elizabeth; Beddows, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines confer protection against the oncogenic genotypes HPV16 and HPV18 through the generation of type-specific neutralizing antibodies raised against virus-like particles (VLP) representing these genotypes. The vaccines also confer a degree of cross-protection against HPV31 and HPV45, which are genetically-related to the vaccine types HPV16 and HPV18, respectively, although the mechanism is less certain. There are a number of humoral immune measures that have been examined in relation to the HPV vaccines, including VLP binding, pseudovirus neutralization and the enumeration of memory B cells. While the specificity of responses generated against the vaccine genotypes are fairly well studied, the relationship between these measures in relation to non-vaccine genotypes is less certain. Methods We carried out a comparative study of these immune measures against vaccine and non-vaccine genotypes using samples collected from 12–15 year old girls following immunization with three doses of either Cervarix® or Gardasil® HPV vaccine. Results The relationship between neutralizing and binding antibody titers and HPV-specific memory B cell levels for the vaccine genotypes, HPV16 and HPV18, were very good. The proportion of responders approached 100% for both vaccines while the magnitude of these responses induced by Cervarix® were generally higher than those following Gardasil® immunization. A similar pattern was found for the non-vaccine genotype HPV31, albeit at a lower magnitude compared to its genetically-related vaccine genotype, HPV16. However, both the enumeration of memory B cells and VLP binding responses against HPV45 were poorly related to its neutralizing antibody responses. Purified IgG derived from memory B cells demonstrated specificities similar to those found in the serum, including the capacity to neutralize HPV pseudoviruses. Conclusions These data suggest that pseudovirus neutralization should be used as the

  13. Bovine Genital Mycoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Doig, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Infection, lesions and clinical significance of Acheloplasmas, Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium in genital disease of cattle are described. A more detailed account is given of ureaplasma infections. Acute and chronic forms of granular vulvitis in both field and experimental disease are described as well as the role of the organism in abortion. Recovery rates of ureaplasma and mycoplasma from semen and preputial washings in bulls are outlined and their significance in disease is discussed. There are problems in differentiating pathogenic from nonpathogenic isolates. Methods are being developed to treat semen for these organisms. This paper provides a concise summary of clinical and microbiological aspects of bovine genital mycoplasmosis. PMID:7337908

  14. Nonspecific genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta

    2014-01-01

    Recent intervention of nonspecific genital ulcers has added refreshing dimensions to genital ulcer disease. It was considered pertinent to dwell on diverse clinical presentation and diagnostic strategies. It seems to possess spectrum. It includes infective causes, Epstein Bar Virus, tuberculosis, Leishmaniasis, HIV/AIDS related ulcers and amoebiasis. Noninfective causes are immunobullous disorders, aphthosis, Behcet's disease (BD), inflammatory bowel disease, lichen planus and lichen sclerosis et atrophicus, drug reactions, premalignant and malignant conditions, pyoderma gangrenosum, and hidradenitis suppurativa. The diagnostic features and treatment option of each disorder are succinctly outlined for ready reference.

  15. Anal, penile, and oral high-risk HPV infections and HPV seropositivity in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Vera M; Mooij, Sofie H; Mollers, Madelief; Snijders, Peter J F; Speksnijder, Arjen G C L; King, Audrey J; de Vries, Henry J C; van Eeden, Arne; van der Klis, Fiona R M; de Melker, Hester E; van der Sande, Marianne A B; van der Loeff, Maarten F Schim

    2014-01-01

    The effects of single or multiple concordant HPV infections at various anatomical sites on type-specific HPV seropositivity are currently unknown. In this cross-sectional study we assessed whether high-risk HPV infections at various anatomical sites (i.e., anal canal, penile shaft, and oral cavity), as well as concordant infections at multiple anatomical sites, were associated with type-specific seropositivity in HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM. MSM aged ≥ 18 years were recruited in Amsterdam, the Netherlands (2010-2011). Baseline anal, penile, and oral samples were analyzed for HPV DNA and genotyped using a highly sensitive PCR and reverse line blot assay. Virus-like particle (VLP) based multiplex immunoassay was used to asses HPV-specific serum antibodies against L1 VLPs. The associations between HPV infections and type-specific seropositivity of seven high-risk HPV types (7-hrHPV: types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) were estimated using logistic regression analyses with generalized estimating equations. We found that 86% of 306 HIV-positive MSM and 62% of 441 HIV-negative MSM were seropositive for at least one 7-hrHPV type. 69% of HIV-positive and 41% of HIV-negative MSM were infected with at least one 7-hrHPV type at the anus, penis, or oral cavity. In multivariable analyses, 7-hrHPV seropositivity was associated with type-specific anal (and not penile) 7-hrHPV infection, and did not significantly increase with a higher number of infected anatomical sites. Oral 7-hrHPV infection showed a positive, albeit non-significant, association with seropositivity. In conclusion, seropositivity among MSM appears to be largely associated with anal HPV infection, irrespective of additionally infected anatomical sites.

  16. Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in focal epithelial hyperplasia by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Padayachee, A; van Wyk, C W

    1991-05-01

    Eighteen cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) were investigated for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) group specific antigen by immunocytochemistry and HPV types 1, 6, 11, 13, 16, 18 and 32 by DNA in situ hybridization employing biotinylated probes. Seven (39%) specimens demonstrated the presence of HPV group specific antigen. Fifteen (83%) specimens were positive for HPV DNA: 9 (60%) showed HPV 32, of which 6 were on non-keratinized mucosa and 3 on border of keratinized and non-keratinized mucosa; 5 (33%) showed HPV 13, 4 lesions on keratinized mucosa and 1 on non-keratinized mucosa; 1 (7%) specimen on non-keratinized mucosa showed HPV-11 related. Two specimens on different sites from one patient showed the same HPV type and one patient had, in addition to FEH, a squamous papilloma also demonstrating the same HPV type. Results show a specific HPV distribution pattern in the epithelium indicating areas of high viral concentration adjacent to areas of low or no viral concentration. This study also indicates the possibility of tissue-site specificity or a latent infection and the possibility of a yet unidentified HPV type associated with FEH. It is suggested that future monitoring of patients be carried out with special reference to HPV type and anatomical distribution pattern for FEH lesions.

  17. Female genital actinomycosis.

    PubMed

    Beedham, T; Ellice, R; Smith, H; Usherwood, M M

    1979-10-01

    Four cases of female genital actinomycosis are added to the reported total of about 300. The relationship of the disease to the normal microbial flora, intrauterine contraceptive device usage and pelvic sepsis is explored. It is suggested that the disease may be more frequent than hitherto realized.

  18. Healing of Genital Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…

  19. Female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees. PMID:8400925

  20. HPV genotypes detected in cervical cancers from Alaska Native women, 1980–2007

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Janet J.; Unger, Elizabeth R.; Dunne, Eileen F.; Murphy, Neil J.; Tiesinga, James; Koller, Kathy R.; Swango-Wilson, Amy; Philemonof, Dino; Lounmala, Xay; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Steinau, Martin; Hennessy, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine prevents cervical pre-cancers and cancers caused by HPV types 16 and 18. This study provides information on the HPV types detected in cervical cancers of Alaska Native (AN) women. Methods Cases of invasive cervical cancer diagnosed in AN women aged 18 and above between 1980 and 2007 were identified from the Alaska Native Tumor Registry. A representative formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archived pathology block was retrieved and serially sectioned to allow histologic confirmation of lesion (first and last sections) and PCR testing of intervening sections. Extracted DNA was tested for HPV using Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Diagnostics) with additional INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Assay (Innogenetics) testing on negative or inadequate specimens. All specimens were tested for a minimum 37 HPV types. Results Of 62 cervical cancer specimens evaluated, 57 (91.9%) contained one or more HPV types. Thirty-eight (61.2%) cancers contained HPV types 16 or 18, and 18 (29%) contained an oncogenic type other than type 16 or 18. Conclusions Overall, almost two-thirds (61.2%) of the archived cervical cancers had detectible HPV types 16 or 18, a finding similar to studies of US women. As expected, a proportion of cancers would not be prevented by the current vaccines. HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening are important prevention strategies for AN women. PMID:23984281

  1. HPV Vaccine Acceptance in a Clinic-Based Sample of Women in the Rural South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Heather M.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; McCree, Donna H.; Wright, Marcie S.; Davis, Jennifer; Hutto, Brent E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a very common sexually transmitted infection linked to cervical disease. Vaccines for some types of HPV were in development at the time of the study. Purpose: The study examined HPV vaccine acceptability among underserved women in a rural region of the southeastern U.S. with high rates of cervical cancer…

  2. Human papillomavirus-related Diseases: Oropharynx Cancers and Potential Implications for Adolescent HPV Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Gillison, Maura L.

    2008-01-01

    Molecular and epidemiological data now support an etiologic role for oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral cancers in women and men. Recent studies have demonstrated an increase in the incidence of HPV-associated oral cancers in the United States (US). Moreover, the incidence rates for these cancers are higher in men than women. Oral HPV infections acquired through oral sex appear to be the principal risk factor for HPV-associated oral cancers. Despite reports in the popular press that the prevalence of oral sexual behaviors is increasing in the adolescent population, trends in these behaviors over time are largely unavailable. However, data indicate that oral-genital contact is frequently practiced among adolescents; adolescents do not typically consider this a risky behavior. The majority of oral cancers (approximately 90%) caused by HPV are identified as HPV 16 positive. Therefore, HPV-associated oral cancers could be prevented by a prophylactic vaccine if the vaccine were demonstrated to be capable of preventing oral HPV 16 infection. These findings have created new potential opportunities for the primary prevention of oral cancers. PMID:18809146

  3. mRNA sequencing of novel cell lines from human papillomavirus type-16 related vulval intraepithelial neoplasia: consequences of expression of HPV16 E4 and E5.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Dean; Onions, Tiffany; Raybould, Rachel; Flynn, Áine; Tristram, Amanda; Meyrick, Sian; Giles, Peter; Ashelford, Kevin; Hibbitts, Samantha; Fiander, Alison; Powell, Ned

    2014-09-01

    Vulval intraepithelial neoplasia is a precursor of vulval cancer and is commonly caused by infection with Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Development of topical treatments for vulval intraepithelial neoplasia requires appropriate in vitro models. This study evaluated the feasibility of primary culture of vulval intraepithelial neoplasia biopsy tissue to produce cell lines for use as in vitro models. A potentially immortal cell line was produced which gave rise to three monoclonal lines. These lines were characterized for HPV genomic integration and for viral gene expression using ligation-mediated PCR and quantitative PCR. Distinct patterns of viral integration and gene expression were observed among the three lines. Integration and expression data were validated using deep sequencing of mRNA. Gene ontology analyses of these data also demonstrated that expression of the HPV16 E4 and E5 proteins resulted in substantial changes in the composition of the cell membrane and extracellular space, associated with alterations in cell adhesion and differentiation. These data illustrate the diverse patterns of HPV gene expression potentially present within a single lesion. The derived cell lines provide useful models to investigate the biology of vulval intraepithelial neoplasia and the interactions between different HPV gene products and potential therapeutic agents. PMID:24898764

  4. HPV vaccination: The most pragmatic cervical cancer primary prevention strategy.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2015-10-01

    The evidence that high-risk HPV infections cause cervical cancers has led to two new approaches for cervical cancer control: vaccination to prevent HPV infections, and HPV screening to detect and treat cervical precancerous lesions. Two vaccines are currently available: quadrivalent vaccine targeting oncogenic HPV types 16, 18, 6, and 11, and bivalent vaccine targeting HPV 16 and 18. Both vaccines have demonstrated remarkable immunogenicity and substantial protection against persistent infection and high-grade cervical cancer precursors caused by HPV 16 and 18 in HPV-naïve women, and have the potential to prevent 70% of cervical cancers in adequately vaccinated populations. HPV vaccination is now implemented in national programs in 62 countries, including some low- and middle-income countries. The early findings from routine national programs in high-income countries are instructive to encourage low- and middle-income countries with a high risk of cervical cancer to roll out HPV vaccination programs and to introduce resource-appropriate cervical screening programs.

  5. The Impact of High-Risk HPV Genotypes Other Than HPV 16/18 on the Natural Course of Abnormal Cervical Cytology: A Korean HPV Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    So, Kyeong A; Kim, Mi Jung; Lee, Ki-Heon; Lee, In-Ho; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Hwang, Chang-Sun; Jeong, Mi Seon; Kee, Mee-Kyung; Kang, Chun; Cho, Chi Heum; Kim, Seok Mo; Hong, Sung Ran; Kim, Ki Tae; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Jong Sup; Kim, Tae Jin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) other than HPV 16/18 on the natural course of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Materials and Methods The study population was derived from the Korean HPV cohort (2010-2014). Women aged 20 to 60 who satisfied the criteria of having both HPV infection and abnormal cervical cytology of either ASC-US or LSIL were recruited from five institutions nationwide. Enrolled patients underwent cervical cytology and HPV DNA testing every 6 months. Results A total of 1,158 patients were enrolled. The 10 most common HPV types were HPV 16 (12.3%), 58 (10.0%), 56 (8.8%), 53 (8.4%), 52 (7.7%), 39 (6.2%), 18 (6.0%), 51 (5.7%), 68 (5.1%), and 66 (4.6%). Among these patients, 636 women were positive for high-risk HPVs other than HPV 16 or 18, and 429 women were followed for more than 6 months. Cytology evaluations showed progression in 15.3% of women, no change in 22.6%, and regression in 62.1% of women at 12 months. In cases of HPV 58 single infection, a more highly significant progression rate, compared to other high-risk types, was observed at 6 months (relative risk [RR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04 to 5.30; p < 0.001) and 12 months (RR, 5.03; 95% CI, 2.56 to 9.91; p < 0.001). Conclusion HPV genotypes numbered in the 50s were frequent in Korean women with ASC-US and LSIL. HPV 58 was the second most common type, with a high progression rate of cervical cytology. PMID:26987394

  6. Evaluation of a Radionovela to Promote HPV Vaccine Awareness and Knowledge Among Hispanic Parents

    PubMed Central

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Rodriguez, Hector P.; Thompson, Beti

    2014-01-01

    Hispanic women have more than a 1.5-fold increased cervical cancer incidence and mortality compared to non-Hispanic white women in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control recommends the HPV vaccine for females at ages 11 and 12 years, though it is approved for females aged 9–26 to protect against the primary types of high-risk HPV (HPV-16 and HPV-18) that cause approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases. Few culturally-tailored Spanish HPV vaccine awareness programs have been developed. This study evaluates the efficacy of a Spanish radionovela as an educational tool. Rural Hispanic parents of daughters aged 9–17 (n = 88; 78 mothers and 10 fathers) were randomized to listen to the HPV vaccine radionovela or to another public service announcement. Participants completed a 30 min pretest posttest questionnaire. Parents who listened to the HPV radionovela (intervention group) scored higher on six knowledge and belief items. They were more likely to confirm that HPV is a common infection (70% vs. 48%, P = .002), to deny that women are able to detect HPV (53% vs. 31%, P = .003), to know vaccine age recommendations (87% vs. 68%, P = .003), and to confirm multiple doses (48% vs. 26%, P = .03) than control group parents. The HPV vaccine radionovela improved HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge and attitudes. Radionovela health education may be an efficacious strategy to increase HPV vaccine awareness among Hispanic parents. PMID:21452030

  7. Knowledge and awareness of HPV and the HPV vaccine among young women in the first routinely vaccinated cohort in England.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, Harriet L; Marlow, Laura A V; Hibbitts, Sam; Pollock, Kevin G; Waller, Jo

    2013-02-01

    A national school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme has been available for 12-13 year old females in the UK since 2008, offering protection against HPV types 16 and 18, which are responsible for the majority of cervical cancer. Little is known about HPV knowledge in girls who have been offered the vaccine. Girls offered the school-based vaccine in the first routine cohort (n=1033) were recruited from 13 schools in London three years post-vaccination. Participants completed a questionnaire about HPV awareness, knowledge about HPV and the vaccine, and demographic characteristics including vaccine status. About a fifth of the girls reported they were unaware of the HPV infection. Among those who reported being aware of HPV (n=759) knowledge was relatively low. Approximately half of the participants knew that HPV infection causes cervical cancer, condoms can reduce the risk of transmission and that cervical screening is needed regardless of vaccination status. These results are helpful in benchmarking HPV-related knowledge in vaccinated girls and could be used in the development of appropriate educational messages to accompany the first cervical screening invitation in this cohort in the future.

  8. Comparison of Hybribio GenoArray and Roche human papillomavirus (HPV) linear array for HPV genotyping in anal swab samples.

    PubMed

    Low, Huey Chi; Silver, Michelle I; Brown, Brandon J; Leng, Chan Yoon; Blas, Magaly M; Gravitt, Patti E; Woo, Yin Ling

    2015-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally associated with anal cancer, as HPV DNA is detected in up to 90% of anal intraepithelial neoplasias and anal cancers. With the gradual increase of anal cancer rates, there is a growing need to establish reliable and clinically relevant methods to detect anal cancer precursors. In resource-limited settings, HPV DNA detection is a potentially relevant tool for anal cancer screening. Here, we evaluated the performance of the Hybribio GenoArray (GA) for genotyping HPV in anal samples, against the reference standard Roche Linear Array (LA). Anal swab samples were obtained from sexually active men who have sex with men. Following DNA extraction, each sample was genotyped using GA and LA. The overall interassay agreement, type-specific, and single and multiple genotype agreements were evaluated by kappa statistics and McNemar's χ(2) tests. Using GA and LA, 68% and 76% of samples were HPV DNA positive, respectively. There was substantial interassay agreements for the detection of all HPV genotypes (κ = 0.70, 86% agreement). Although LA was able to detect more genotypes per sample, the interassay agreement was acceptable (κ = 0.53, 63% agreement). GA had poorer specific detection of HPV genotypes 35, 42, and 51 (κ < 0.60). In conclusion, GA and LA showed good interassay agreement for the detection of most HPV genotypes in anal samples. However, the detection of HPV DNA in up to 76% of anal samples warrants further evaluation of its clinical significance. PMID:25502520

  9. Comparison of Hybribio GenoArray and Roche Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Linear Array for HPV Genotyping in Anal Swab Samples

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Michelle I.; Brown, Brandon J.; Leng, Chan Yoon; Blas, Magaly M.; Gravitt, Patti E.; Woo, Yin Ling

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally associated with anal cancer, as HPV DNA is detected in up to 90% of anal intraepithelial neoplasias and anal cancers. With the gradual increase of anal cancer rates, there is a growing need to establish reliable and clinically relevant methods to detect anal cancer precursors. In resource-limited settings, HPV DNA detection is a potentially relevant tool for anal cancer screening. Here, we evaluated the performance of the Hybribio GenoArray (GA) for genotyping HPV in anal samples, against the reference standard Roche Linear Array (LA). Anal swab samples were obtained from sexually active men who have sex with men. Following DNA extraction, each sample was genotyped using GA and LA. The overall interassay agreement, type-specific, and single and multiple genotype agreements were evaluated by kappa statistics and McNemar's χ2 tests. Using GA and LA, 68% and 76% of samples were HPV DNA positive, respectively. There was substantial interassay agreements for the detection of all HPV genotypes (κ = 0.70, 86% agreement). Although LA was able to detect more genotypes per sample, the interassay agreement was acceptable (κ = 0.53, 63% agreement). GA had poorer specific detection of HPV genotypes 35, 42, and 51 (κ < 0.60). In conclusion, GA and LA showed good interassay agreement for the detection of most HPV genotypes in anal samples. However, the detection of HPV DNA in up to 76% of anal samples warrants further evaluation of its clinical significance. PMID:25502520

  10. The HPV Vaccination Crisis

    Cancer.gov

    Following the release of a consensus statement from the NCI-Designated Cancer Centers urging HPV vaccination in the United States, Dr. Noel Brewer discusses the country’s low vaccination rates and how clinicians can help to improve them.

  11. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the throat, including the soft palate , the base of the tongue, and the tonsils ): About 70 ... persistent infection and genital warts ( 21 ). Analyses of data from women participating in a clinical trial of ...

  12. [Prognostic and predictive value of koilocytosis, expression of e6 hpv types 16/18, p16ink4a, p53 in locally advanced squamous cell carcinomas of oral cavity and oropharynx, associated with human papillomavirus].

    PubMed

    Riaboshapka, A N

    2014-11-01

    To determine the predictive and prognostic value of koilocytosis, expression of E6 HPV types 16/18, p16INK4a, p53 in patients with locally advanced HPV-associated squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity and oropharynx. In biopsy specimens of squamous cell carcinomas of oral cavity and oropharynx from 60 patients performed koylocytes count, immunohistochemical detection of HPV 16/18 types E6 protein, proteins p16INK4a and p53. Koilocytosis was detected in 50 patients (83.3%); in all 60 patients (100%) were simultaneous expression of p16INK4a and E6 HPV types 16/18; p53 expression was found in 37 patients (61.7%). After combined treatment (induction chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy) stable disease (SD) was detected in 11 patients (18.3%), partial response (PR) - in 25 patients (41.7%), complete response (CR) - in 24 patients (40.0%). There were no cases of disease progression. Treatment effect correlated with expression of p16INK4a (ρ = 0.3, p = 0.024) and expression of p53 (ρ = - 0.3, p = 0.019). Patients with a low expression of p16INK4a (2 points) and high expression of p53 (4 "+") had a high level of SD and had no CR. For all patients, the median of overall survival (OS) was 17 months, 1-year cumulative survival rate was 66.7%, 2-year cumulative survival rate - 35.0%. Median of overall survival was correlated with koilocytosis (ρ=0.5, p<0,001) and expression of E6 HPV types 16/18 (ρ=0.9, p<0.001), p16INK4a (ρ=0.9, p=0.037), p53 (ρ=-0.9; p<0.001). Patients with low expression of p53 (0 and 1 "+") had cumulative 1-year survival rates 87% and 90%, respectively (p<0.001), 2-year survival rates - 52% and 80%, respectively (p=0.015). In the Cox proportional hazards model the significant prognostic factors were prevalence of primary tumor (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3 - 3.5, p=0.003) and p53 expression (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1=1.7, p=0.016). High expression of p16INK4a associated with a high effect of combined treatment, high expression of a p53 - with low effect of

  13. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in genital lesions by enzymatic in situ hybridization with Fast Red and laser scanning confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lizard, G; Chignol, M C; Roignot, P; Souchier, C; Chardonnet, Y; Schmitt, D

    1997-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection with potentially oncogenic types 16 or 18 is common in genital lesions especially in uterine carcinomas. In such lesions, in situ hybridization with non-radioactive probes is a powerful tool for the histopathologist to detect and type HPV DNA either on cell deposits or on tissue sections. The use of an immunohistochemical method involving alkaline phosphatase and Fast Red TR salt/naphthol AS-MX phosphate is proposed for use with conventional bright-field or fluorescence microscopy as well as by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The alkaline phosphatase-Fast Red reaction has the advantage of producing a red precipitate that permits the detection of in situ hybridization signals by bright-field microscopy, and of obtaining a strong red fluorescence characterized by a lack of bleaching when excited by a green light. Therefore, the alkaline phosphatase-Fast Red reaction is well adapted for observations by fluorescence and confocal microscopy, the latter method allowing the detection, in tissue sections of cervical intraepithelial lesions, of small punctate and large diffuse hybridization signals, considered as integrated and episomal states of HPV DNA respectively. The combination of in situ hybridization with the alkaline phosphatase-Fast Red reaction and confocal microscopy is particularly convincing when hybridization signals are of small size and/or of low fluorescence intensity, especially if they are present in various focal planes; in such conditions, infected cells are easily detected by three-dimensional reconstruction. Therefore, this combination is a suitable method for identifying and characterizing HPV DNA in cells and tissue sections.

  14. Predictors of genital injury after nonconsensual intercourse.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sarah L; Parker, Barbara J; Bourguignon, Cheryl M

    2009-01-01

    Understanding differences in genital injuries after nonconsensual and consensual intercourse is an important element of prosecuting sexual assault cases. In order to determine if the injury patterns and total surface area of genital injuries can differentiate between the types of intercourse (consensual or non-consensual), eighty women were examined after non-consensual (retrospective chart review, n = 40) and consensual (recruited, n = 40) intercourse within 48 hours using colposcopy, toluidine blue dye, and digital photography to document genital injuries. Differences between types of injuries found in the nonconsensual and consensual groups, based on the univariate analysis, were found with the number of sites (NoS) with ecchymosis (p < 0.01) and NoS with redness (p < 0.01). Based on the logistic hierarchical regression model, 85% of the nonconsensual group and 90% of the consensual group were classified correctly by using the NoS with tears, ecchymosis, abrasions, and redness and SA of injury when controlling for time from intercourse to examination. The NoS with redness (p = 0.017), NoS with ecchymosis, and SA of injury (p = 0.039) were individually predictive. The NoS with ecchymosis were also a significant finding when addressed as an individual block (p < 0.001). In this small sample, exploratory study, while controlling for time, the injury patterns and total SA of genital injuries were able to correctly classify the nonconsensual group 85% of the time. Replication of this study with a larger sample is essential.

  15. In situ DNA hybridization analysis of human papillomavirus (HPV) sequences in benign oral mucosal lesions.

    PubMed

    Syrjänen, S M; Syrjänen, K J; Happonen, R P; Lamberg, M A

    1987-01-01

    A series of 144 surgically treated benign oral mucosal lesions were analysed using an in situ DNA hybridization technique with 35S-labeled human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA probes to demonstrate the DNA of HPV types 6, 11, 13, and 16, in routinely processed, paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens. These lesions and an additional 62 benign oral mucosal biopsy specimens (total, 206 specimens) were also assessed by the indirect immunoperoxidase (IP-PAP) technique to detect the expression of HPV structural proteins (viral antigens). A total of 54/206 (26.2%) lesions were observed to express HPV antigens, being found in 45/92 (48.9%) of the squamous cell papillomas/condylomas, in 1/54 fibrous hyperplasias, in 1/8 true fibromas, and in 7/8 (87.5%) of the focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) lesions. Of the HPV DNA-positive lesions, 15/45 (33.3%) expressed HPV antigens, the expression not being related to any particular HPV type. HPV DNA sequences were found in 45/144 (31.3%) of the lesions. HPV DNA was present with the highest frequency in FEH (83.3%), followed by the papilloma/condyloma group (33.8%), papillary hyperplasia (28.6%), fibrous hyperplasia (24.4%), and true fibromas (14.3%). The most frequent HPV type was HPV 11, representing 37.8% of the DNA-positive lesions. HPV 13 DNA, previously regarded as specific to FEH, was disclosed as a single HPV type in seven cases, and as a double infection by HPV 11 and 13 in an additional three cases, including all five morphologically distinct entities. Noteworthy is the discovery of the high-risk HPV type 16 DNA in 17.8% of the DNA-positive lesions, four papilloma/condyloma lesions, three fibrous hyperplasias, and one FEH.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. EcPV2 DNA in equine genital squamous cell carcinomas and normal genital mucosa.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Lies; Willemsen, Anouk; Vanderstraeten, Eva; Bracho, Maria A; De Baere, Cindy; Bravo, Ignacio G; Martens, Ann

    2012-07-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents the most common genital malignant tumor in horses. Similar to humans, papillomaviruses (PVs) have been proposed as etiological agents and recently Equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) has been identified in a subset of genital SCCs. The goals of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of EcPV2 DNA in tissue samples from equine genital SCCs, penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and penile papillomas, using EcPV2-specific PCR, (2) to examine the prevalence of latent EcPV2 infection in healthy genital mucosa and (3) to determine genetic variability within EcPV2 and to disentangle phylogenetic relationships of EcPV2 among PVs. EcPV2 DNA was detected in all but one penile SCC (15/16), in all PIN lesions (8/8) and penile papillomas (4/4). Additionally, EcPV2 DNA was demonstrated in one of two metastasized lymph nodes, one contact metastasis in the mouth, two vaginal and one anal lesion. In healthy horses, EcPV2 DNA was detected in 10% (4/39) of penile swabs but in none of vulvovaginal swabs (0/20). This study confirms the presence of EcPV2 DNA in equine genital SCCs and shows its involvement in anal lesions, a lymph node and contact metastases. Latent EcPV2 presence was also shown in normal male genital mucosa. We found that different EcPV2 variants cocirculate among horses and that EcPV2 is related to the Delta+Zeta PVs and is only a very distant relative of high-risk human PVs causing genital cancer. Thus, similar viral tropism and similar malignant outcome of the infection do not imply close evolutionary relationship.

  17. Sterile α Motif Domain Containing 9 Is a Novel Cellular Interacting Partner to Low-Risk Type Human Papillomavirus E6 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia; Dupuis, Crystal; Tyring, Stephen K.; Underbrink, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Low-risk type human papillomavirus (HPV) 6 and 11 infection causes recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) and genital warts. RRP is the most common benign tumor of the larynx in children with frequent relapses. Repeated surgeries are often needed to improve vocal function and prevent life-threatening respiratory obstruction. Currently, there are no effective treatments available to completely eliminate these diseases, largely due to limited knowledge regarding their viral molecular pathogenesis. HPV E6 proteins contribute to cell immortalization by interacting with a variety of cellular proteins, which have been well studied for the high-risk type HPVs related to cancer progression. However, the functions of low-risk HPV E6 proteins are largely unknown. In this study, we report GST-pulldown coupled mass spectrometry analysis with low-risk HPV E6 proteins that identified sterile alpha motif domain containing 9 (SAMD9) as a novel interacting partner. We then confirmed the interaction between HPV-E6 and SAMD9 using co-immunoprecipitation, proximity ligation assay, and confocal immunofluorescence staining. The SAMD9 gene is down-regulated in a variety of neoplasms and deleteriously mutated in normophosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis. Interestingly, SAMD9 also has antiviral functions against poxvirus. Our study adds to the limited knowledge of the molecular properties of low-risk HPVs and describes new potential functions for the low-risk HPV E6 protein. PMID:26901061

  18. Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aswath, Manju; Pandit, Lakshmi V.; Kashyap, Karthik; Ramnath, Raguram

    2016-01-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a phenomenon, in which afflicted women experience spontaneous genital arousal, unresolved by orgasms and triggered by sexual or nonsexual stimuli, eliciting stress. The current case is a 40-year-old female who experienced such orgasms for about a month. Physical examination, investigations, and psychological testing were noncontributory. Carbamazepine (600 mg) was discontinued due to a lack of response. She improved significantly with supportive therapy. Various neuropsychological conditions, pelvic pathology, medications, etc., have been associated with this disorder. Pharmacologic strategies have included the use of antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and analgesics. Validation, psycho-education, identifying triggers, distraction techniques, and pelvic massage have been tried. Living with PGAD is very demanding. There is a lack of understanding of the problem, shame, and hesitation to seek help. The syndrome has been recently described, and understanding is still evolving. PMID:27570347

  19. Topical Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2) Vaccination with Human Papillomavirus Vectors Expressing gB/gD Ectodomains Induces Genital-Tissue-Resident Memory CD8+ T Cells and Reduces Genital Disease and Viral Shedding after HSV-2 Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Çuburu, Nicolas; Wang, Kening; Goodman, Kyle N.; Pang, Yuk Ying; Thompson, Cynthia D.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Cohen, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT No herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) vaccine has been licensed for use in humans. HSV-2 glycoproteins B (gB) and D (gD) are targets of neutralizing antibodies and T cells, but clinical trials involving intramuscular (i.m.) injection of HSV-2 gB and gD in adjuvants have not been effective. Here we evaluated intravaginal (ivag) genetic immunization of C57BL/6 mice with a replication-defective human papillomavirus pseudovirus (HPV PsV) expressing HSV-2 gB (HPV-gB) or gD (HPV-gD) constructs to target different subcellular compartments. HPV PsV expressing a secreted ectodomain of gB (gBsec) or gD (gDsec), but not PsV expressing a cytoplasmic or membrane-bound form, induced circulating and intravaginal-tissue-resident memory CD8+ T cells that were able to secrete gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as moderate levels of serum HSV neutralizing antibodies. Combined immunization with HPV-gBsec and HPV-gDsec (HPV-gBsec/gDsec) vaccines conferred longer survival after vaginal challenge with HSV-2 than immunization with HPV-gBsec or HPV-gDsec alone. HPV-gBsec/gDsec ivag vaccination was associated with a reduced severity of genital lesions and lower levels of viral shedding in the genital tract after HSV-2 challenge. In contrast, intramuscular vaccination with a soluble truncated gD protein (gD2t) in alum and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) elicited high neutralizing antibody titers and improved survival but did not reduce genital lesions and viral shedding. Vaccination combining ivag HPV-gBsec/gDsec and i.m. gD2t-alum-MPL improved survival and reduced genital lesions and viral shedding. Finally, high levels of circulating HSV-2-specific CD8+ T cells, but not serum antibodies, correlated with reduced viral shedding. Taken together, our data underscore the potential of HPV PsV as a platform for a topical mucosal vaccine to control local manifestations of primary HSV-2 infection. IMPORTANCE Genital herpes is a highly prevalent chronic

  20. Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection among Women in Bangladesh: Findings from a Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Quamrun; Sultana, Farhana; Alam, Anadil; Islam, Jessica Yasmine; Rahman, Mustafizur; Khatun, Fatema; Alam, Nazmul; Dasgupta, Sushil Kanta; Marions, Lena; Ashrafunnessa; Kamal, Mohammed; Cravioto, Alejandro; Reichenbach, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been no population-based study on human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence or its genotypes in Bangladesh; a country eligible for GAVI funding for HPV vaccine. Methods We used baseline survey data of a prospective cohort study that was conducted in one urban and one rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 997 urban and 905 rural married women, aged 13 to 64 years, were enrolled in the baseline during July-December, 2011. Information was collected on socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors for HPV infection followed by gynecological examination and collection of endocervical samples using the cervical cytobrush (Digene cervical sampler). HPV DNA testing was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using a consensus primer set. Results Prevalence of any HPV infection was 7.7% with no significant difference between urban and rural women. Most common high-risk genotypes were HPV16, HPV66, HPV18, HPV45, HPV31 and HPV53. Urban women working as housemaids or garment workers were at higher risk of any HPV infection (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.13–4.11) compared to housewives. Rural women whose husband lived overseas were almost two times more likely to have any HPV infection (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.05–3.55) compared to women whose husbands lived with them. Conclusion The prevalence of HPV infection among Bangladeshi women is similar to other regions of Asia. However, type-specific patterns are different. The study findings will inform the formulation of HPV vaccination policies in Bangladesh, monitoring the impact of vaccination programmes, and the identification of target populations for screening. PMID:25271836

  1. Prevalence and genotype distribution of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) among women in urban Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiujie; Wallin, Keng-Ling; Duan, Meng; Gharizadeh, Baback; Zheng, Biying; Qu, Pengpeng

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the prevalence and genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women in urban Tianjin, China. A cervical cancer screening program for 2,000 women aged 21-65 years old was performed in urban Tianjin from April to October in 2013. The program included ThinPrep cytologic tests (TCT), HPV DNA detection and genotyping using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with Pyrosequencing technology. Colposcopy examination and biopsy were needed if TCT reported greater or equal atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). One thousand nine hundred seventy-eight women were enrolled in the final study, 14.71% (291/1,978) of women were tested HPV positive. Of HPV-positive specimens, 248 (85.22%) and 43 (14.78%) were infected with high- and low-risk HPV genotypes, respectively. Twenty-eight types of HPV were detected in all, the most frequently detected types were HPV16, 58, 18, and 66 orderly. The single infection rate was 92.28% among HPV-positive samples while the multiple infection rate was 7.72%. Among multiple infection models, HPV16 was the most common type co-infection with other types. This study is, to our knowledge, the first population-based survey to provide data on HPV infection and genotype distribution among women in urban Tianjin, China. There was a high prevalence of HPV infection in this area, and HPV16, 58, 18, 66 were the most frequently detected genotypes. Our study provide important information regarding the necessity of early cervical cancer screenings and prophylactic HPV vaccinations, and the knowledge of HPV distribution can also inform us about the HPV ecological change after the vaccination.

  2. Dose-dependent regulation of the early promoter of human papillomavirus type 18 by the viral E2 protein.

    PubMed

    Steger, G; Corbach, S

    1997-01-01

    The activity of the E6/E7 promoter of genital human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is positively and negatively modulated by a complex interplay between a variety of cellular transcription factors and the virally encoded E2 protein. The long control region of genital HPVs contains four E2 binding sites in conserved positions, two of which are very close to the TATA box. Binding of E2 to these two sites has been shown to repress the promoter. To carefully analyze the effect of E2 on the activity of the early promoter P105 of HPV18, we used an in vitro transcription system, which allowed titration of the amount of E2 protein. We found that low amounts of HPV18 E2 stimulated the promoter, whereas increasing amounts resulted in promoter repression. When the affinity was analyzed, it became obvious that E2 bound with highest affinity to E2 binding site 4 (BS-4), located 500 bp upstream of the promoter. The promoter most proximal binding site (BS-1) was the weakest site. Transient transfection assays confirmed that small amounts of HPV type (HPV18) E2 and also of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) E2 were able to activate the P105, which was dependent on an intact BS-4. The positive role of BS-4 was also obvious at higher E2 concentrations, since mutation of BS-4 enhanced repression. In contrast to HPV18 E2, BPV1 E2 bound better to BS-1 and, in correlation, was able to more strongly repress the P105 in vivo. Our results suggest a dose-dependent regulation of the HPV18 E6/E7 promoter by E2 due to variable occupancy of its binding sites, which have antagonizing effects on the activity of the E6/E7 promoter.

  3. Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Induces HPV-Specific Antibodies in the Oral Cavity: Results From the Mid-Adult Male Vaccine Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Ligia A.; Kemp, Troy J.; Torres, B. Nelson; Isaacs-Soriano, Kimberly; Ingles, Donna; Abrahamsen, Martha; Pan, Yuanji; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmeron, Jorge; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Human papillomavirus virus type 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18 cause a large proportion of oropharyngeal cancers, which are increasing in incidence among males, and vaccine efficacy against oral HPV infections in men has not been previously evaluated. Methods. Sera and saliva collected in mouthwash and Merocel sponges at day 1 and month 7 were obtained from 150 men aged 27–45 years from Tampa, Florida, and Cuernavaca, Mexico, who received Gardasil at day 1 and months 2 and 6. Specimens were tested for anti–HPV-16 and anti–HPV-18 immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels by an L1 virus-like particle–based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. All participants developed detectable serum anti–HPV-16 and anti–HPV-18 antibodies, and most had detectable antibodies in both oral specimen types at month 7 (HPV-16 was detected in 93.2% of mouthwash specimens and 95.7% of sponge specimens; HPV-18 was detected in 72.1% and 65.5%, respectively). Antibody concentrations in saliva were approximately 3 logs lower than in serum. HPV-16– and HPV-18–specific antibody levels, normalized to total IgG levels, in both oral specimen types at month 7 were significantly correlated with serum levels (for HPV-16, ρ was 0.90 for mouthwash specimens and 0.92 for sponge specimens; for HPV-18, ρ was 0.89 and 0.86, respectively). Conclusions. This is the first study demonstrating that vaccination of males with Gardasil induces HPV antibody levels at the oral cavity that correlate with circulating levels. PMID:27511896

  4. Reduced Prevalence of Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 4 Years after Bivalent HPV Vaccination in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Rolando; Quint, Wim; Hildesheim, Allan; Gonzalez, Paula; Struijk, Linda; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Porras, Carolina; Schiffman, Mark; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Solomon, Diane; Jimenez, Silvia; Schiller, John T.; Lowy, Douglas R.; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Wacholder, Sholom; Kreimer, Aimée R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, particularly with type 16, causes a growing fraction of oropharyngeal cancers, whose incidence is increasing, mainly in developed countries. In a double-blind controlled trial conducted to investigate vaccine efficacy (VE) of the bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine against cervical infections and lesions, we estimated VE against prevalent oral HPV infections 4 years after vaccination. Methods and Findings A total of 7,466 women 18–25 years old were randomized (1∶1) to receive the HPV16/18 vaccine or hepatitis A vaccine as control. At the final blinded 4-year study visit, 5,840 participants provided oral specimens (91·9% of eligible women) to evaluate VE against oral infections. Our primary analysis evaluated prevalent oral HPV infection among all vaccinated women with oral and cervical HPV results. Corresponding VE against prevalent cervical HPV16/18 infection was calculated for comparison. Oral prevalence of identifiable mucosal HPV was relatively low (1·7%). Approximately four years after vaccination, there were 15 prevalent HPV16/18 infections in the control group and one in the vaccine group, for an estimated VE of 93·3% (95% CI = 63% to 100%). Corresponding efficacy against prevalent cervical HPV16/18 infection for the same cohort at the same visit was 72·0% (95% CI = 63% to 79%) (p versus oral VE = 0·04). There was no statistically significant protection against other oral HPV infections, though power was limited for these analyses. Conclusions HPV prevalence four years after vaccination with the ASO4-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccine was much lower among women in the vaccine arm compared to the control arm, suggesting that the vaccine affords strong protection against oral HPV16/18 infection, with potentially important implications for prevention of increasingly common HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov, Registry number NCT00128661 PMID:23873171

  5. Studying the HPV life cycle in 3A trophoblasts and resulting pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; You, Hong; Hermonat, Paul L

    2005-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) productive infection has been long considered to be restricted to the squamous epithelium. However, we have demonstrated that both HPV type 16 (HPV-16) and type 31b (HPV-31b) productively replicate in a trophoblast cell line, 3A. Trophoblasts are an important cell type, as these are the cells of the placenta that directly contact maternal tissues. There are a number of studies that suggest that HPV infection may be found commonly in placental material and might be linked with spontaneous abortions. This chapter describes the preparation and transfection of HPV genomes into 3A cells, suggests ways to analyze viral replication and transcription, and describes how to assay the effect of HPV infection on the ability of the trophoblasts to bind endometrial cells.

  6. Perceptions of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection and acceptability of HPV vaccine among men attending a sexual health clinic differ according to sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Massimo; Vescio, Maria Fenicia; Donà, Maria Gabriella; Latini, Alessandra; Frasca, Mirko; Colafigli, Manuela; Farinella, Massimo; Rezza, Giovanni; Cristaudo, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Our aim was to gain a better understanding of the knowledge about Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection and attitudes toward the HPV vaccine among men at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI). A self-administered questionnaire was completed by attendees of the largest STI Center in Rome, Italy, from April to June 2013. Determinants of vaccine acceptability were investigated using a Structured Equation Model. A total of 423 males participated in the survey: 296 (70.0%) men who have sex with men (MSM) and 127 (30.0%) men who have sex with women (MSW). Only one half of the participants knew that HPV is the cause of genital warts (56.9% of MSM vs. 49.5% of MSW, p=0.28). Even less were aware that HPV causes cancer in men (37.2% vs. 27.3%, p=0.08). MSW were more likely to indicate HPV as a cause of cervical cancer (80.8% vs. 69.3%, p=0.03) and to have heard about the vaccine (58.3 vs. 43.6%, p=0.01). Moreover, 72.1% of MSM and 70.3% of MSW were willing to be vaccinated. A rise of one-unit in the HPV awareness score increased the OR of vaccine acceptability among MSM by 25% (OR 1.25, 95%CI: 1.05-1.49; p=0.013). Differently, only attitudes had a relevant effect on willingness to be vaccinated among MSW (OR 3.32, 95%CI: 1.53-7.17; p=0.002). Efforts should be made to maximize awareness of HPV, especially as a causative agent of genital warts and male cancers, and to reinforce positive attitudes toward vaccination among men visiting STI centers. PMID:26752151

  7. Incidence and persistence of carcinogenic genital human papillomavirus infections in young women with or without Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection.

    PubMed

    Vriend, Henrike J; Bogaards, Johannes A; van Bergen, Jan E A M; Brink, Antoinette A T P; van den Broek, Ingrid V F; Hoebe, Christian J P A; King, Audrey J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Wolffs, Petra F G; de Melker, Hester E

    2015-10-01

    We assessed whether infection with chlamydia increases the incidence of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and if HPV persistence is affected by chlamydia co-infection. For 1982 women (16-29 years-old) participating in two consecutive rounds of a chlamydia screening implementation trial, swabs were polymerase chain reaction tested to detect chlamydia and 14 carcinogenic HPV genotypes. HPV type-specific incidence and persistence rates were stratified for chlamydia positivity at follow-up. Associations were assessed by multilevel logistic regression analyses with correction for sexual risk factors. HPV type-specific incidence ranged from 1.4% to 8.9% and persistence from 22.7% to 59.4% after a median follow-up of 11 months (interquartile range: 11-12). Differences in 1-year HPV persistence rates between chlamydia -infected and noninfected women were less distinct than differences in HPV incidence rates (pooled adjusted odds ratios of 1.17 [95% CI: 0.69-1.96] and 1.84 [95% CI: 1.36-2.47], respectively). The effect of chlamydia co-infection on HPV-infection risk did not significantly differ by HPV genotype. In conclusion, infection with chlamydia increases the risk of infection by carcinogenic HPV types and may enhance persistence of some HPV types. Although these findings could reflect residual confounding through unobserved risk factors, our results do give reason to explore more fully the association between chlamydia and HPV type-specific acquisition and persistence.

  8. How Many Cancers Are Linked with HPV Each Year?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Year Rates by Race and Ethnicity HPV-Associated Anal Cancer HPV-Associated Cervical Cancer HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal ... Associated Vulvar Cancer Rates by State HPV-Associated Anal Cancer HPV-Associated Cervical Cancer HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal ...

  9. Evaluating HPV-negative CIN2+ in the ATHENA trial.

    PubMed

    Petry, Karl Ulrich; Cox, J Thomas; Johnson, Kristin; Quint, Wim; Ridder, Ruediger; Sideri, Mario; Wright, Thomas C; Behrens, Catherine M

    2016-06-15

    A post hoc analysis of the ATHENA study was performed to determine whether true HPV-negative cervical lesions occur and whether they have clinical relevance. The ATHENA database was searched for all CIN2 or worse (CIN2+) cases with cobas HPV-negative results and comparison was made with Linear Array (LA) and Amplicor to detect true false-negative HPV results. Immunostaining with p16 was performed on these cases to identify false-positive histology results. H&E slides were re-reviewed by the study pathologists with knowledge of patient age, HPV test results and p16 immunostaining. Those with positive p16 immunostaining and/or a positive histopathology review underwent whole tissue section HPV PCR by the SPF10/LiPA/RHA system. Among 46,887 eligible women, 497 cases of CIN2+ were detected, 55 of which tested negative by the cobas(®) HPV Test (32 CIN2, 23 CIN3/ACIS). By LA and/or Amplicor, 32 CIN2+ (20 CIN2, 12 CIN3/ACIS) were HPV positive and categorized as false-negatives by cobas HPV; nine of 12 false-negative CIN3/ACIS cases were p16+. There were 23 cases (12 CIN2, 11 CIN3/ACIS) negative by all HPV tests; seven of 11 CIN3/ACIS cases were p16+. H&E slides were available for six cases for re-review and all were confirmed as CIN3/ACIS. Tissue PCR was performed on the six confirmed CIN3/ACIS cases (and one without confirmation): four were positive for HPV types not considered oncogenic, two were positive for oncogenic genotypes and one was indeterminate. In summary, subanalysis of a large cervical cancer screening study did not identify any true CIN3/ACIS not attributable to HPV. PMID:26851121

  10. Clinical and virologic response to episodic acyclovir for genital ulcers among HIV-1 seronegative, herpes simplex virus type 2 seropositive African women: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Baeten, Jared M; Reid, Stewart E; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Hughes, James P; Wang, Richard S; Wilcox, Ellen; Limbada, Mohammed; Akpomiemie, Godspower; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna; Celum, Connie

    2012-01-01

    In a randomized trial among African women with recurrent genital herpes, episodic acyclovir therapy resulted in modestly greater likelihood of lesion healing (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.48, P = 0.098; mean, 5.1 vs. 6.0 days) and cessation of herpes simplex virus shedding (HR = 1.88, P = 0.008; mean, 3.0 vs. 5.0 days) compared with placebo, similar to results of studies in high-income countries (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT00808405).

  11. [HPV prophylactic vaccines].

    PubMed

    Konopnicki, D

    2014-09-01

    Since 2007, two prophylactic vaccines against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV. induced lesions (both precancerous dysplasia and cancer) have been registered in Belgium. In multicentre randomized trials including more than 64,000 patients, these vaccines were shown to be highly efficient against the occurrence of condyloma and of dysplastic lesion in the cervix, vagina and vulva in females and in the anus in males. These vaccines display an excellent tolerance and safety profile, the most common adverse event being minor and transient side effects at the injection site. The protection given by these vaccines is more important in subjects that have not been in contact with HPV previously ; moreover the title of neutralizing antibodies against HPV are significantly higher in children vaccinated before 15 years-old age compared to young person vaccinated after this age. For these two reasons, it is recommended to vaccinate before the first sexual relationships. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that vaccination by two doses given at 0 and 6 months in children before 15 years-old was equivalent to the three doses scheme that should be given at 0, 1 or 2 and 6 months in subjects aged 15 years or more. In the countries that have achieved a high vaccine coverage among their young female population, the prevalence of HPV infection and the incidence of high grade cervical dysplasia have significantly decreased while condyloma has almost disappeared four years after the implementation of HPV vaccination. In HIV-positive subjects who are particularly susceptible to infection and lesions induced by HPV, vaccination brings levels of antibody comparable to what is found in the general population with similar safety. PMID:25675641

  12. Ritual genital cutting of female minors.

    PubMed

    Davis, Dena S

    2010-05-01

    The traditional custom of ritual cutting and alteration of the genitalia of female infants, children, and adolescents, referred to as female genital mutilation or female genital cutting (FGC), persists primarily in Africa and among certain communities in the Middle East and Asia. Immigrants in the United States from areas in which FGC is common may have daughters who have undergone a ritual genital procedure or may request that such a procedure be performed by a physician. The American Academy of Pediatrics believes that pediatricians and pediatric surgical specialists should be aware that this practice has life-threatening health risks for children and women. The American Academy of Pediatrics opposes all types of female genital cutting that pose risks of physical or psychological harm, counsels its members not to perform such procedures, recommends that its members actively seek to dissuade families from carrying out harmful forms of FGC, and urges its members to provide patients and their parents with compassionate education about the harms of FGC while remaining sensitive to the cultural and religious reasons that motivate parents to seek this procedure for their daughters.

  13. Estimation of the incidence of genital warts and the cost of illness in Germany: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hillemanns, Peter; Breugelmans, J Gabrielle; Gieseking, Friederike; Bénard, Stève; Lamure, Emilie; Littlewood, Kavi J; Petry, Karl U

    2008-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. HPV is also responsible for benign condylomata acuminata, also known as genital warts. We assessed the incidence of genital warts in Germany and collected information on their management to estimate the annual cost of disease. Methods This was a multi-centre observational (cross-sectional) study of genital warts in Germany. Data were collected from gynecologists, dermatologists, and urologists seeing patients with genital warts between February and April 2005. The number of patients with new and recurrent genital warts was used to estimate the incidence in Germany. We assessed resource use for patients with genital warts seen during a two-month period as well as retrospective resource use twelve months prior to the inclusion visit through a chart review. The mean costs of treatment of patients with genital warts from third-party payer and societal perspectives were estimated, and the total annual cost of genital warts was then calculated. Results For the incidence calculation 217 specialists provided information on 848 patients and 214 specialists provided resource use data for 617 patients to assess resource consumption. The incidence of new and recurrent cases of genital warts was 113.7 and 34.7 per 100 000, respectively, for women aged 14–65 years consulting gynecologists. The highest incidence was observed in women aged 14–25 years (171.0 per 100 000) for new cases and in women aged 26–45 years (53.1 per 100 000) for recurrent cases. The sample size for males was too small to allow a meaningful estimate of the incidence. The mean direct cost per patient with new genital warts was estimated at 378 euros (95% CI: 310.8–444.9); for recurrent genital warts at 603 euros (95% CI: 436.5–814.5), and for resistant genital warts at 1,142 euros (95% CI: 639.6–1752.3). The overall cost to third-party payers was estimated at 49.0 million euros, and the total societal cost at 54

  14. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html File Formats Help: How ...

  15. Genetic Diversity in the Major Capsid L1 Protein of HPV-16 and HPV-18 in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    King, Audrey J.; Sonsma, Jan A.; Vriend, Henrike J.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Feltkamp, Mariet C.; Koopmans, Marion P. G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Intratypic molecular variants of human papillomavirus (HPV) type-16 and -18 exist. In the Netherlands, a bivalent vaccine, composed of recombinant L1 proteins from HPV-16 and -18, is used to prevent cervical cancer since 2009. Long-term vaccination could lead to changes in HPV-16 and -18 virus population, thereby hampering vaccination strategies. We determined the genetic diversity of the L1 gene in HPV-16 and -18 viral strains circulating in the Netherlands at the start of vaccination in order to understand the baseline genetic diversity in the Dutch population. Methods DNA sequences of the L1 gene were determined in HPV-16 (n = 241) and HPV-18 (n = 108) positive anogenital samples collected in 2009 and 2011 among Dutch 16- to 24-year old female and male attendees of the sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics. Phylogenetic analysis was performed and sequences were compared to reference sequences HPV-16 (AF536179) and HPV-18 (X05015) using BioNumerics 7.1. Results For HPV-16, ninety-five single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were identified, twenty–seven (28%) were non-synonymous variations. For HPV-18, seventy-one SNPs were identified, twenty-nine (41%) were non-synonymous. The majority of the non-silent variations were located in sequences encoding alpha helix, beta sheet or surface loops, in particular in the immunodominant FG loop, and may influence the protein secondary structure and immune recognition. Conclusions This study provides unique pre-vaccination/baseline data on the genetic L1 diversity of HPV-16 and -18 viruses circulating in the Netherlands among adolescents and young adults. PMID:27070907

  16. Pros, cons, and ethics of HPV vaccine in teens—Why such controversy?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection remains one of the most commonly sexually transmitted infections in both females and males. HPV viruses are associated with several manifestations including genital warts, but more importantly for urology practitioners, cervical and penile carcinomas and recurrent genital condylomata in both sexes. The incidence of HPV-related carcinomas has increased in cervical, oropharyngeal, vulvar, penile, and anal cancers. Effective vaccines have been available for almost a decade, but widespread adoption of vaccine administration has been problematic for multiple reasons. Many countries (over 100) have adopted vaccine programs for females and an increasing number of countries are extending the indications to include males between the ages of 9-26. There still seems to be controversy surrounding these universal vaccination programs as well as some ethical and practical concerns regarding the administration of a vaccine for diseases that are associated with sexual contact in both sexes, especially during the early adolescent years. Objective The objective was to provide a review of the available literature so pediatric and adult urologists may be more aware of the issues related to HPV vaccination in order to more effectively counsel patients and parents regarding the risks, benefits, and public health issues regarding HPV vaccination. This topic is especially relevant to pediatric urologists who see patients in the target age group for the HPV vaccine. There has been an explosion of literature regarding HPV vaccination programs and the relative difficulty in adopting the vaccine series with a completion rate of under 50% of patients in the recommended age ranges for vaccination. Methods Articles were obtained from an extensive Medline literature search (1998-present) to evaluate the current HPV vaccination regimens for teenagers with special emphasis on the urologically focused disease burden. Results The adoption of universal

  17. [Secondary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of female genital tract].

    PubMed

    Kovachev, S; Nacheva, A; Ganovska, A; Ivanov, A; Gigov, P; Vassilev, N

    2014-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL) are a separate group of blood diseases, which includes all types of lymphomas, without Hodgkin lymphomas. The incidence of NHL in the female genital system is 0.5% of all the NHL. They develop in the female genital organs primary or affect them secondary. Secondary development of the genital non-Hodgkin's lymphoma we have when the biopsy of a lymph node that precedes the diagnosis of the disease is before the development of a genital tumor or we can find a genital tumor--along with simultaneous involvement of the lymph nodes or extra genital authority. We present a clinical case of 56 years patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with secondary genital involvement. From ultrasonography, computed axial tomography and Tu markers that were maiden we have suspicion for ovarian tumor with mechanical pressure over pyelocalix system due to left hidroureter and left hydronephrosis II degree. That was the only reason for urgent surgical treatment with intraoperative histologic diagnosis of NHL. The postoperative chemotherapy in combination with surgical treatment in our case had a good and long-lasting disease survivor effect. One year after the operation and the chemotherapy in the patient, there is no evidence of relapse.

  18. Use of HPV testing for cervical screening in vaccinated women--Insights from the SHEVa (Scottish HPV Prevalence in Vaccinated Women) study.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Ramya; Kavanagh, Kimberley; Cubie, Heather Ann; Serrano, Itziar; Wennington, Holli; Hopkins, Mark; Pan, Jiafeng; Pollock, Kevin G; Palmer, Tim J; Cuschieri, Kate

    2016-06-15

    The management of cervical disease is changing worldwide as a result of HPV vaccination and the increasing use of HPV testing for cervical screening. However, the impact of vaccination on the performance of HPV based screening strategies is unknown. The SHEVa (Scottish HPV Prevalence in Vaccinated women) projects are designed to gain insight into the impact of vaccination on the performance of clinically validated HPV assays. Samples collated from women attending for first cervical smear who had been vaccinated as part of a national "catch-up" programme were tested with three clinically validated HPV assays (2 DNA and 1 RNA). Overall HR-HPV and type specific positivity was assessed in total population and according to underlying cytology and compared to a demographically equivalent group of unvaccinated women. HPV prevalence was significantly lower in vaccinated women and was influenced by assay-type, reducing by 23-25% for the DNA based assays and 32% for the RNA assay (p = 0.0008). All assays showed over 75% reduction of HPV16 and/or 18 (p < 0.0001) whereas the prevalence of non 16/18 HR-HPV was not significantly different in vaccinated vs unvaccinated women. In women with low grade abnormalities, the proportion associated with non 16/18 HR-HPV was significantly higher in vaccinated women (p < 0.0001). Clinically validated HPV assays are affected differentially when applied to vaccinated women, dependent on assay chemistry. The increased proportion of non HPV16/18 infections may have implications for clinical performance, consequently, longitudinal studies linking HPV status to disease outcomes in vaccinated women are warranted.

  19. Use of HPV testing for cervical screening in vaccinated women--Insights from the SHEVa (Scottish HPV Prevalence in Vaccinated Women) study.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Ramya; Kavanagh, Kimberley; Cubie, Heather Ann; Serrano, Itziar; Wennington, Holli; Hopkins, Mark; Pan, Jiafeng; Pollock, Kevin G; Palmer, Tim J; Cuschieri, Kate

    2016-06-15

    The management of cervical disease is changing worldwide as a result of HPV vaccination and the increasing use of HPV testing for cervical screening. However, the impact of vaccination on the performance of HPV based screening strategies is unknown. The SHEVa (Scottish HPV Prevalence in Vaccinated women) projects are designed to gain insight into the impact of vaccination on the performance of clinically validated HPV assays. Samples collated from women attending for first cervical smear who had been vaccinated as part of a national "catch-up" programme were tested with three clinically validated HPV assays (2 DNA and 1 RNA). Overall HR-HPV and type specific positivity was assessed in total population and according to underlying cytology and compared to a demographically equivalent group of unvaccinated women. HPV prevalence was significantly lower in vaccinated women and was influenced by assay-type, reducing by 23-25% for the DNA based assays and 32% for the RNA assay (p = 0.0008). All assays showed over 75% reduction of HPV16 and/or 18 (p < 0.0001) whereas the prevalence of non 16/18 HR-HPV was not significantly different in vaccinated vs unvaccinated women. In women with low grade abnormalities, the proportion associated with non 16/18 HR-HPV was significantly higher in vaccinated women (p < 0.0001). Clinically validated HPV assays are affected differentially when applied to vaccinated women, dependent on assay chemistry. The increased proportion of non HPV16/18 infections may have implications for clinical performance, consequently, longitudinal studies linking HPV status to disease outcomes in vaccinated women are warranted. PMID:26845632

  20. Comparison of HPV prevalence between HPV-vaccinated and non-vaccinated young adult women (20-26 years).

    PubMed

    Guo, Fangjian; Hirth, Jacqueline M; Berenson, Abbey B

    2015-01-01

    There is some concern about the effectiveness of the HPV vaccine among young adult women due to the risk of prior HPV infection. This study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012 data to evaluate the effectiveness of HPV vaccination among women 20-26 years of age who were vaccinated after 12 years of age. This cross-sectional study examined 878 young adult women (20-26 years) with complete information on HPV prevalence and HPV vaccination status from NHANES 2007-2012. Vaginal swab specimens were analyzed for HPV DNA by L1 consensus polymerase chain reaction followed by type-specific hybridization. Multivariate logistic regression models controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviors were used to compare type-specific HPV prevalence between vaccinated and unvaccinated women. A total of 21.4% of young adult women surveyed through NHANES between 2007 and 2012 received the HPV vaccine. Vaccinated women had a lower prevalence of vaccine types than unvaccinated women (7.4% vs 17.1%, prevalence ratio 0.43, 95% CI 0.21-0.88). The prevalence of high-risk nonvaccine types was higher among vaccinated women than unvaccinated women (52.1% vs 40.4%, prevalence ratio 1.29, 95% CI 1.06-1.57), but this difference was attenuated after adjusting for sexual behavior variables (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.19, 95% CI 0.99-1.43). HPV vaccination was effective against all 4 vaccine types in young women vaccinated after age 12. However, vaccinated women had a higher prevalence of high-risk nonvaccine types, suggesting that they may benefit from newer vaccines covering additional types.

  1. Global Improvement in Genotyping of Human Papillomavirus DNA: the 2011 HPV LabNet International Proficiency Study

    PubMed Central

    Eklund, Carina; Forslund, Ola; Wallin, Keng-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and internationally comparable human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA genotyping is essential for HPV vaccine research and for HPV surveillance. The HPV Laboratory Network (LabNet) has designed international proficiency studies that can be issued regularly and in a reproducible manner. The 2011 HPV genotyping proficiency panel contained 43 coded samples composed of purified plasmids of 16 HPV types (HPV6, -11, -16, -18, -31, -33, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, -56, -58, -59, -66, -68a, and -68b) and 3 extraction controls. Tests that detected 50 IU of HPV16 and HPV18 and 500 genome equivalents for the other 14 HPV types in both single and multiple infections were considered proficient. Ninety-six laboratories worldwide submitted 134 data sets. Twenty-five different HPV genotyping assay methods were used, including the Linear Array, line blot/INNO-LiPA, PapilloCheck, and PCR Luminex assays. The major oncogenic HPV types, HPV16 and HPV18, were proficiently detected in 97.0% (113/116) and 87.0% (103/118) of the data sets, respectively. In 2011, 51 data sets (39%) were 100% proficient for the detection of at least one HPV type, and 37 data sets (28%) were proficient for all 16 HPV types; this was an improvement over the panel results from the 2008 and 2010 studies, when <25 data sets (23% and 19% for 2008 and 2010, respectively) were fully proficient. The improvement was also evident for the 54 laboratories that had also participated in the previous proficiency studies. In conclusion, a continuing global proficiency program has documented worldwide improvement in the comparability and reliability of HPV genotyping assay performances. PMID:24478473

  2. Reduction in HPV 16/18 prevalence in sexually active young women following the introduction of HPV immunisation in England☆

    PubMed Central

    Mesher, D.; Soldan, K.; Howell-Jones, R.; Panwar, K.; Manyenga, P.; Jit, M.; Beddows, S.; Gill, O.N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Reduction in the prevalence of vaccine type HPV infection in young women is an early indication of the impact of the HPV immunisation programme and a necessary outcome if the subsequent impact on cervical cancer is to be realised. Methods Residual vulva-vaginal swab (VVS) specimens from young women aged 16–24 years undergoing chlamydia screening in community sexual health services (formerly known as family planning clinics), general practice (GP), and youth clinics in 2010–2012 were submitted from 10 laboratories in seven regions around England. These specimens were linked to demographic and sexual behaviour data reported with the chlamydia test, anonymised, and tested for type-specific HPV DNA using a multiplex PCR and Luminex-based genotyping test. Estimated immunisation coverage was calculated and findings were compared to a baseline survey conducted prior to the introduction of HPV immunisation in 2008. Results A total of 4664 eligible specimens were collected and 4178 had a valid test result. The post-immunisation prevalence of HPV 16/18 infection was lowest in this youngest age group (16–18 years) and increased with age. This increase with age was a reversal of the pattern seen prior to immunisation and was inversely associated with estimates of age-specific immunisation coverage (65% for 16–18 year olds). The prevalence of HPV 16/18 infection in the post-immunisation survey was 6.5% amongst 16–18 year olds, compared to 19.1% in the similar survey conducted prior to the introduction of HPV immunisation. Conclusions These findings are the first indication that the national HPV immunisation programme is successfully preventing HPV 16/18 infection in sexually active young women in England. The reductions seen suggest, for the estimated coverage, high vaccine effectiveness and some herd-protection benefits. Continued surveillance is needed to determine the effects of immunisation on non-vaccine HPV types. PMID:24211166

  3. International standardization and classification of human papillomavirus types.

    PubMed

    Bzhalava, Davit; Eklund, Carina; Dillner, Joakim

    2015-02-01

    Established Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types, up to HPV202, belong to 49 species in five genera. International standardization in classification and quality standards for HPV type designation and detection is ensured by the International HPV Reference Center. The center i) receives clones of potentially novel HPV types, re-clones and re-sequences them. If confirmed, an HPV type number is assigned and posted on www.hpvcenter.se. ii) distributes reference clone samples, for academic research, under Material Transfer Agreements agreed with the originator. iii) provides preliminary checking of whether new sequences represent novel types iv) issues international proficiency panels for HPV genotyping. The rate of HPV type discovery is increasing, probably because of metagenomic sequencing. γ-genus today contains 79HPV types and 27 species, surpassing ∝ and β genera with 65 and 51HPV types, respectively. Regular issuing of proficiency panels based on HPV reference clones has resulted in global improvement of HPV genotyping services.

  4. [HPV infection might play a role in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer in immunocompetent individuals].

    PubMed

    Birch-Johansen, Fatima; Norrild, Bodil; Olesen, Anne Braae; Jensen, Allan; Kjær, Susanne Krüger

    2012-02-13

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary for the development of cervical cancer and is also involved in vulvar, anus, penis and head and neck cancer. Little is known about the role of HPV infection in non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Through a systematic review of the literature, we studied the HPV prevalence in immunocompetent individuals in relation to NMSC. We found that HPV, including multiple HPV types, tended to be more prevalent in NMSC, especially in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) compared to basal cell carcinoma and healthy skin, indicating a potential link between HPV and SCC in immunocompetent individuals.

  5. Are Fewer Cervical Cancer Screenings Needed After HPV Vaccine?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Fewer Cervical Cancer Screenings Needed After HPV Vaccine? Less testing could reduce risk of false positives ... cervical cancer screening depends on the type of vaccine she had, the researchers said. Women vaccinated with ...

  6. EUROarray human papillomavirus (HPV) assay is highly concordant with other commercial assays for detection of high-risk HPV genotypes in women with high grade cervical abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Cornall, A M; Poljak, M; Garland, S M; Phillips, S; Machalek, D A; Tan, J H; Quinn, M A; Tabrizi, S N

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the EUROIMMUN EUROArray HPV genotyping assay against the Roche Cobas 4800, Roche HPV Amplicor, Roche Linear Array and Qiagen Hybrid Capture 2 assays in the detection of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) from liquid based cervical cytology samples collected from women undergoing follow-up for abnormal cervical cytology results. Cervical specimens from 404 women undergoing management of high-grade cytological abnormality were evaluated by EUROarray HPV for detection of HR-HPV genotypes and prediction of histologically-confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher (≥CIN2). The results were compared to Hybrid Capture 2, Cobas 4800 HPV, Amplicor and Linear Array HPV. Positivity for 14 HR-HPV types was 80.0 % for EUROarray (95 % CI; 75.7-83.8 %). Agreement (κ, 95 % CI) between the EUROarray and other HPV tests for detection of HR-HPV was good to very good [Hybrid Capture κ = 0.62 (0.54-0.71); Cobas κ = 0.81 (0.74-0.88); Amplicor κ = 0.68 (0.60-0.77); Linear Array κ = 0.77 (0.70-0.85)]. For detection of HR-HPV, agreement with EUROarray was 87.90 % (Hybrid Capture), 93.58 % (Cobas), 92.84 % (Amplicor) and 92.59 % (Linear Array). Detection of HR-HPV was not significantly different between EUROarray and any other test (p < 0.001). EUROarray was concordant with other assays evaluated for detection of high-risk HPV and showed sensitivity and specificity for detection of ≥ CIN2 of 86 % and 71 %, respectively. PMID:27048314

  7. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of adolescents in the South African private health sector: Lessons from the HPV demonstration project in KwaZulu-Natal.

    PubMed

    Tathiah, N; Naidoo, M; Moodley, I

    2015-11-01

    In South Africa (SA), >4,000 women die annually of cervical cancer, a disease caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Infections caused by certain genotypes of HPV increase the risk of cervical cancer. HIV-infected women in particular are more likely to have persistent HPV infection, with higher-risk genotypes. In SA, two vaccines (HPV quadrivalent (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) vaccine, recombinant (Gardasil) and HPV bivalent (types 16 and 18) vaccine, recombinant (Cervarix)) are currently registered for the prevention of HPV-related disease. In the past, there have been significant challenges to achieving high coverage and uptake of vaccination–contributory factors include cost and lack of awareness. An HPV demonstration project among schoolgirls in rural KwaZulu-Natal showed that high vaccine uptake is achievable. In 2014, the National Department of Health launched the national HPV vaccination programme among female learners attending public schools. Awareness of HPV vaccination among healthcare providers, education of parents, teachers and learners, and avoidance of missed opportunities for vaccination are vital to the success of the programme. Primary healthcare practitioners may play an important role in cervical cancer prevention by identifying and offering vaccination to girls who miss the opportunity to be vaccinated at school. HPV vaccination should be considered as one arm of a comprehensive programme of cervical cancer prevention and control. PMID:26937512

  8. Surgical reconstruction in female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Gültekin, İsmail Burak; Altınboğa, Orhan; Dur, Rıza; Kara, Osman Fadıl; Küçüközkan, Tuncay

    2016-06-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an unusual condition for our country. However, an increase in FGM in future days can be predicted with the increasing numbers of exchange students coming from African countries, migration of refugees and socioeconomic relations with the African countries. We want to share our experience of two FGM victims admitted to our clinic with the request of reconstructive vulvar surgery before their marriage. Both women had WHO Type III FGM. Physical examination findings and surgical reconstruction techniques were presented.

  9. Genital rhabdomyoma of the urethra in an infant girl.

    PubMed

    Lu, David Y; Chang, Sue; Cook, Heather; Alizadeh, Yalda; Karam, Amer K; Moatamed, Neda A; Dry, Sarah M

    2012-04-01

    Extracardiac rhabdomyomas are rare benign entities that usually occur in the head and neck region. Although genital rhabdomyoma is known to occur in the lower genital tract of young and middle-aged women, involvement of the anatomically adjacent urethra by rhabdomyoma is exceedingly rare. We present a case of genital rhabdomyoma arising from the urethra of an infant girl. The tumor was characterized by the submucosal presence of mature-appearing rhabdomyoblastic cells containing conspicuous cross-striations, with the cells set in a collagenous stroma. Necrosis and mitoses were absent. Skeletal muscle differentiation of the tumor cells was supported by positive immunohistochemical staining for desmin and myogenin. To our knowledge, this is the first case of urethral genital-type rhabdomyoma in a child.

  10. Specific Magnetic Isolation of E6 HPV16 Modified Magnetizable Particles Coupled with PCR and Electrochemical Detection

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez Jimenez, Ana Maria; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Dostalova, Simona; Krejcova, Ludmila; Michalek, Petr; Richtera, Lukas; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-01-01

    The majority of carcinomas that were developed due to the infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) are caused by high-risk HPV types, HPV16 and HPV18. These HPV types contain the E6 and E7 oncogenes, so the fast detection of these oncogenes is an important point to avoid the development of cancer. Many different HPV tests are available to detect the presence of HPV in biological samples. The aim of this study was to design a fast and low cost method for HPV identification employing magnetic isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and electrochemical detection. These assays were developed to detect the interactions between E6-HPV16 oncogene and magnetizable particles (MPs) using commercial Dynabeads M-280 Streptavidin particles and laboratory-synthesized “homemade” particles called MANs (MAN-37, MAN-127 and MAN-164). The yields of PCR amplification of E6-HPV16 oncogene bound on the particles and after the elution from the particles were compared. A highest yield of E6-HPV16 DNA isolation was obtained with both MPs particles commercial M-280 Streptavidin and MAN-37 due to reducing of the interferents compared with the standard PCR method. A biosensor employing the isolation of E6-HPV16 oncogene with MPs particles followed by its electrochemical detection can be a very effective technique for HPV identification, providing simple, sensitive and cost-effective analysis. PMID:27164078

  11. Specific Magnetic Isolation of E6 HPV16 Modified Magnetizable Particles Coupled with PCR and Electrochemical Detection.

    PubMed

    Jimenez Jimenez, Ana Maria; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Dostalova, Simona; Krejcova, Ludmila; Michalek, Petr; Richtera, Lukas; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-05-05

    The majority of carcinomas that were developed due to the infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) are caused by high-risk HPV types, HPV16 and HPV18. These HPV types contain the E6 and E7 oncogenes, so the fast detection of these oncogenes is an important point to avoid the development of cancer. Many different HPV tests are available to detect the presence of HPV in biological samples. The aim of this study was to design a fast and low cost method for HPV identification employing magnetic isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and electrochemical detection. These assays were developed to detect the interactions between E6-HPV16 oncogene and magnetizable particles (MPs) using commercial Dynabeads M-280 Streptavidin particles and laboratory-synthesized "homemade" particles called MANs (MAN-37, MAN-127 and MAN-164). The yields of PCR amplification of E6-HPV16 oncogene bound on the particles and after the elution from the particles were compared. A highest yield of E6-HPV16 DNA isolation was obtained with both MPs particles commercial M-280 Streptavidin and MAN-37 due to reducing of the interferents compared with the standard PCR method. A biosensor employing the isolation of E6-HPV16 oncogene with MPs particles followed by its electrochemical detection can be a very effective technique for HPV identification, providing simple, sensitive and cost-effective analysis.

  12. Molecular genotyping of HPV L1 gene in low-risk and high-risk populations in Bangkok

    PubMed Central

    Leaungwutiwong, Pornsawan; Bamrungsak, Busara; Jittmittraphap, Akanitt; Maneekan, Pannamas; Kosoltanapiwat, Nathamon; Kalambaheti, Thareerat; Kelley, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in Thailand are a public health concern but information on HPV infection in sex workers and men who have sex with men (MSM) is limited. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV among low- and high-risk, HIV-negative populations. Methods A total of 300 participants were categorized as general women, female sex workers, MSM, and MSM sex workers. HPV infections were identified by the Papanicolaou (Pap) test and nested-PCR. A phylogenetic analysis of partial HPV L1 genes was performed. Results Abnormal cytology was found in 5% of general women, 10% of female sex workers, 24% of MSM and 28% of MSM sex workers. HPV was detected in 9% of general women, 13% of female sex workers and 30% in both MSM and the MSM sex workers. The prevalence of HPV high-risk genotypes was significantly higher in female sex workers and MSM while low-risk genotypes and genital warts were significantly higher in MSM sex workers. Significantly more patients with genital warts and CIN I/AIN I harbored low-risk genotypes while those with CIN II/AIN II harbored high-risk genotypes. Conclusion High- and low-risk HPV genotypes persist in high-risk groups in Bangkok. Some genotypes infecting at-risk populations are not vaccine-preventable. These findings may help to elucidate the prevalence of HPV infections in Thailand and serve as the basis for additional investigations into risk factors for these populations. PMID:25763674

  13. Molecular epidemiology of HPV infection using a clinical array methodology in 2952 women in Greece.

    PubMed

    Tsiodras, S; Hatzakis, A; Spathis, A; Margari, N; Meristoudis, C; Chranioti, A; Kyrgiou, M; Panayiotides, J; Kassanos, D; Petrikkos, G; Nasioutziki, M; Loufopoulos, A; Paraskevaidis, E; Karakitsos, P

    2011-08-01

    The molecular epidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in a sample of Greek women (n = 2952, mean age 42.2 ± 13.3 years) was examined. HPV prevalence was 50.7% (95% confidence interval, 48.8-52.6). The most frequent HPV types were HPV 53, 51 and 66 (10.2%, 9.4% and 9.3%, respectively). HPV positivity was associated with age, age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners and duration of sexual relationship, while marriage or multiparity protected against infection (all p <0.001). Follow-up of this cohort will assist in predicting the effect of vaccination with the new HPV vaccines on future screening with HPV-based tests for cervical cancer. PMID:21595788

  14. Population-based p16 and HPV positivity rates in oropharyngeal cancer in Southeast Scotland.

    PubMed

    Wells, L A R; Junor, E J; Conn, B; Pattle, S; Cuschieri, K

    2015-10-01

    We assessed a population-based cohort of patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in Southeast Scotland over 13 months. p16 and human papilloma virus (HPV) expression were determined, and correlated with stage, treatment, smoking and alcohol history, and disease outcomes. Retrospective analysis was performed on 60 patients. p16 immunohistochemistry and HPV genotyping were performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. HPV infection (as defined by p16 positivity and/or HPV PCR positivity) was identified in 57% of samples, while dual positives were detected in 45% of cases. HPV16 was most prevalent of the HPV types and was associated with 90% of positive samples. Cause-specific 1-year and 2-year survivals were 82.5% and 78.2%, respectively. The p16-positive and HPV-positive groups demonstrated significantly increased cause-specific survival in comparison with their negative counterparts.

  15. HPV immunohistochemical testing and cervical dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    MUREŞAN, DANIEL; ROTAR, IOANA CRISTINA; APOSTOL, SILVANA; COROIU, GEORGIANA; STAMATIAN, FLORIN

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) infection represents a necessary condition for cervical carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of HPV testing using an immunohistochemical staining kit with implications upon both diagnosis and treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Methods Seventy-nine patients and eighty-six controls were enrolled in the study. Each patient had completed a physical examination, gynecological examination with cervical sampling using a liquid-based cytology system and also colposcopy. The cervical samples were analyzed according to Bethesda terminology and HPV-HR immunohistochemical staining was performed. In all the patients with high-grade lesion a surgical excision procedure was performed followed by pathological examination of the specimen. The collected data were analyzed using statistical software. Results The colposcopic examination has detected acetowhite modifications of the cervical epithelium in 47% of patients with ASC-US (Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance) in 71% of patients with LSIL (Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) and in 100% of patients with HSIL ( High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion). The biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of LSIL in 27% of biopsy specimens in patients with ASC-US and in 79.99% of patients with LSIL respectively. In all patients with HSIL the diagnosis was CIN II or higher. The percentage of HPV-HR (Human Papilloma Virus – High Risk) positivity porportionaly increased with the severity of cytological diagnosis: 30% in ASC-US, 42.86% in LSIL and 75% in HSIL patients. The sensitivity of detection of HPV-HR was 50% with CI 95% [17.45;82.55] for ASC-US, 77.77% with CI 95% [51.91;92.62] for LSIL and 81.81% with CI 95% [58.99;94.00] for HSIL. Conclusion HPV testing can be an important screening tool for cervical dysplasia. The HPV testing targeting high risk types is indicated for ASC-US and LSIL triage. The present work

  16. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA from a vulvar carcinoma in situ is present as head-to-tail dimeric episomes with a deletion in the non-coding region.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, I M; Simpson, S; Macnab, J C; Clements, J B

    1987-02-01

    A number of genital cancer biopsy samples were screened for the presence of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) DNA sequences. One of these samples (a vulvar carcinoma in situ) was found to contain more than 100 copies of HPV-16 DNA sequences per cell. Using this tumour DNA, a genomic library was constructed in bacteriophage lambda and the library was screened for recombinant phage containing HPV-16 sequences. Five recombinant phage clones were isolated and their DNA was analysed by restriction endonuclease digestion and blot hybridization. All five recombinants contained two copies of the HPV-16 genome present in a head-to-tail arrangement. The data are consistent with the presence of HPV-16 sequences in the tumour DNA arranged as genomic dimers in a circular episomal configuration. The HPV-16 genomes contained a deletion within the non-coding region, a region which includes the viral origin of DNA replication and transcriptional control sequences. Possible consequences of this deletion for viral replication and transcription are discussed. PMID:3029284

  17. Distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes detected by routine pap smear in Uyghur-Muslim women from Karasay Township Hotan (Xinjiang, China).

    PubMed

    Mijit, Fatima; Ablimit, Tangnur; Abduxkur, Guzalnur; Abliz, Guzalnur

    2015-11-01

    HPV infection is an important public health problem in developing countries. We investigated HPV genotypes in the Uyghur female population of Karasay Township, Hotan region. A population-based cervical cancer screening was conducted for 4,500 women in Karasay Township, Xinjiang Hotan, China. A total of 900 women were selected by systematic sampling with a 5:1 proportion (ages 20-69). The subjects completed a questionnaire and consented to HPV typing and Pap smear examination. Colposcopic biopsies were performed for patients with cytological abnormalities (≥ ASCUS). A total of 117 of the 900 women (13%) assessed were infected with HPV. The most common subtype was HPV-16, and other common high-risk types included HPV-58 and HPV-39. A total of 40 women (4.44%) were identified with abnormal cytology (≥ ASCUS) by Pap smear. A significant link was found between HPV prevalence and cytological diagnosis. The HPV infection rates for the patients with cervical inflammation, CIN, and cancer were 18.18%, 64.71%, and 100%, respectively. Significant differences in HPV infection rates were found among the patients with the three groups of pathological results. In Karasay, the HPV infection rate in Uyghur women is lower than previously reported; however, the proportion infected with HR-HPV is higher. HPV-16, HPV-58, and HPV-39 are the most prevalent genotypes.

  18. HPV16 synthetic long peptide (HPV16-SLP) vaccination therapy of patients with advanced or recurrent HPV16-induced gynecological carcinoma, a phase II trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16)-induced gynecological cancers, in particular cervical cancers, are found in many women worldwide. The HPV16 encoded oncoproteins E6 and E7 are tumor-specific targets for the adaptive immune system permitting the development of an HPV16-synthetic long peptide (SLP) vaccine with an excellent treatment profile in animal models. Here, we determined the toxicity, safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the HPV16 SLP vaccine in patients with advanced or recurrent HPV16-induced gynecological carcinoma. Methods Patients with HPV16-positive advanced or recurrent gynecological carcinoma (n = 20) were subcutaneously vaccinated with an HPV16-SLP vaccine consisting of a mix of 13 HPV16 E6 and HPV16 E7 overlapping long peptides in Montanide ISA-51 adjuvant. The primary endpoints were safety, toxicity and tumor regression as determined by RECIST. In addition, the vaccine-induced T-cell response was assessed by proliferation and associated cytokine production as well as IFNγ-ELISPOT. Results No systemic toxicity beyond CTCAE grade II was observed. In a few patients transient flu-like symptoms were observed. In 9 out of 16 tested patients vaccine-induced HPV16-specific proliferative responses were detected which were associated with the production of IFNγ, TNFα, IL-5 and/or IL-10. ELISPOT analysis revealed a vaccine-induced immune response in 11 of the 13 tested patients. The capacity to respond to the vaccine was positively correlated to the patient’s immune status as reflected by their response to common recall antigens at the start of the trial. Median survival was 12.6 ± 9.1 months. No regression of tumors was observed among the 12 evaluable patients. Nineteen patients died of progressive disease. Conclusions The HPV16-SLP vaccine was well tolerated and induced a broad IFNγ-associated T-cell response in patients with advanced or recurrent HPV16-induced gynecological carcinoma but neither induced tumor regression nor

  19. Prevalence of IgG Antibodies against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) type 6, 11, 16, and 18 Virus-Like Particles in Women of Childbearing Age in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okonko, I O; Ofoedu, V

    2015-01-01

    Most HPV prevalence studies have been carried out in high-resource countries with few studies focused on low-resource regions where highest HPV prevalence in the world occurs. This study reports on prevalence of IgG antibodies against HPVs among women of childbearing age in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. One hundred and eighty-two consented women (age-range 19-45 years) were consecutively recruited. Demographic/behavioral data and 5 mL blood samples were collected from each woman. Plasma of each sample was assayed for HPV-6/11/16/18 virus-like particles using a HPV IgG ELISA kit. The overall anti-HPV prevalence was 4.9% while 7.7% with itching/wound in the private part tested positive. Most (88.9%) of the seropositive women were sexually active. Group-specific seropositivity was low (0.0-10.0%). It also showed that all the 9(100.0%) who tested positive to the HPV responded "yes" to no information on the source of HPV information. Being younger, married, high educational level, religion, and lack of information on HPV were the main correlates of HPV positivity among these women. None was vaccinated and would have been naturally exposed to at least one of HPV-6/11/16/18. With 4.9% seropositivity and lack of information regarding HPV among these women, this study recommends a statewide enlightenment campaign and vaccination.

  20. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, A.F.; Andrade, C.V.; Russomano, F.B.; Rodrigues, L.L.S.; Oliveira, N.S.; Provance, D.W.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits. PMID:27074168

  1. Acute genital ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers. PMID:24473429

  2. Acute genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-28

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers.

  3. Interventions to increase HPV vaccination coverage: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Smulian, Elizabeth A.; Mitchell, Krista R.; Stokley, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We reviewed intervention studies designed to increase human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage to further understand the impact interventions can have on HPV vaccination coverage. We searched 5 databases for intervention studies published from June 2006 to May 2015. Studies were included if they quantitatively measured HPV vaccination coverage as an outcome and were conducted in the United States. We abstracted outcomes, methods, and results from each study and classified by type of intervention conducted. Findings from 34 studies suggest many types of intervention strategies can increase HPV vaccination coverage in different settings, and with modest cost. Interventions were effective especially when implemented in combination at both provider and community levels. However, not all interventions showed significant effects on coverage. More research is needed to identify the best methods for widespread implementation of effective strategies. PMID:26838959

  4. Detection and Analysis of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in Breast Cancer Patients by an Effective Method of HPV Capture

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Lv, Yonggang; Wu, Jinghua; Zhuang, Xuehan; Zhang, Juliang; Zhao, Yi; Huang, Haodong; Fan, Jing; Yao, Qing; He, Chenyang; Zhang, Xiuqing; Huang, Chen; Chen, Jianghao; Wang, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Despite an increase in the number of molecular epidemiological studies conducted in recent years to evaluate the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and the risk of breast carcinoma, these studies remain inconclusive. Here we aim to detect HPV DNA in various tissues from patients with breast carcinoma using the method of HPV capture combined with massive paralleled sequencing (MPS). To validate the confidence of our methods, 15 cervical cancer samples were tested by PCR and the new method. Results showed that there was 100% consistence between the two methods.DNA from peripheral blood, tumor tissue, adjacent lymph nodes and adjacent normal tissue were collected from seven malignant breast cancer patients, and HPV type 16(HPV16) was detected in 1/7, 1/7, 1/7and 1/7 of patients respectively. Peripheral blood, tumor tissue and adjacent normal tissue were also collected from two patients with benign breast tumor, and 1/2, 2/2 and 2/2 was detected to have HPV16 DNA respectively. MPS metrics including mapping ratio, coverage, depth and SNVs were provided to characterize HPV in samples. The average coverage was 69% and 61.2% for malignant and benign samples respectively. 126 SNVs were identified in all 9 samples. The maximum number of SNVs was located in the gene of E2 and E4 among all samples. Our study not only provided an efficient method to capture HPV DNA, but detected the SNVS, coverage, SNV type and depth. The finding has provided further clue of association between HPV16 and breast cancer. PMID:24614680

  5. Second-generation prophylactic HPV vaccines: current options and future strategies for vaccines development.

    PubMed

    Fruscalzo, Arrigo; Londero, Ambrogio P; Bertozzi, Serena; Lellè, Ralf J

    2016-02-01

    Two vaccines focused on the prevention of HPV-related diseases have been introduced in the last decade, the quadrivalent vaccine Gardasil and the bivalent vaccine Cervarix. They are targeted to prevent precancerous and cancerous lesions not only of the cervix, but also of the vulva, vagina, anal and head-neck region. Furthermore, the protection of the quadrivalent vaccine Gardasil includes also genital warts and recurrent respiratory Papillomatosis, two benign conditions with high socio-economic impact. Although their efficacy in reducing the burden of HPV-related pathologies has been already documented, second-generation HPV vaccines are being developed in order to overcome major limitations, above all the cost of production, distribution and acceptance, thus promoting an easier access to vaccination, especially in developing countries. Recently a new multivalent VLP vaccine active against nine HPV subtypes, called Gardasil 9 (Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA), has been approved, showing promising preliminary results. In this article, we outline the strategies adopted for second-generation HPV vaccine engineering, the latest HPV vaccines available at this time, as well as those currently in development.

  6. Correlation between ebv co-infection and HPV16 genome integrity in Tunisian cervical cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Kahla, Saloua; Oueslati, Sarra; Achour, Mongia; Kochbati, Lotfi; Chanoufi, Mohamed Badis; Maalej, Mongi; Oueslati, Ridha

    2012-01-01

    Infection with high risk Human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is necessary but not sufficient to cause cervical carcinoma. This study explored whether multiple HR-HPV or coinfection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) influence the integration status of HPV16 genome. The presence and typing of HPV in a series of 125 cervical specimens were assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the specific primers for the HPV L1 region. As for EBV infection, the viral EBNA1 gene was used for its detection through PCR amplification. Disruption of the HPV E2 gene was assessed by amplification of the entire E2 gene with single set of primers, while E2 transcripts were evaluated by a reverse transcription PCR method (RT-PCR). The overall prevalence of HPVDNA was of 81.8% in cervical cancers versus 26.9% in benign lesions. In HPV positive cases, HPV16 and HPV18 were the most prevalent types, followed by HPV types 33, 31. EBV EBNA1 prevalence was statistically more frequent in cervical carcinomas than in benign lesions (29.5%, vs 9.6%; P=0.01). No viral infection was detected in healthy control women. The uninterrupted E2 gene was correlated with the presence of E2 transcripts originating from the HPV episomal forms. It was observed that integration was more common in HPV18 and EBV coinfection. The presence of EBV caused a five-fold [OR= 5; CI= 1.15-21.8; P = 0.04] increase in the risk of HPV16 genome integration in the host genome. This study indicates that EBV infection is acting as a cofactor for induction of cervical cancer by favoring HPVDNA integration. PMID:24031886

  7. Cancer Experts Endorse CDC's HPV Vaccine Guidelines

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Cancer Experts Endorse CDC's HPV Vaccine Guidelines Boys and girls should start the shots at age 11 or ... on HPV vaccination: HPV vaccination should begin for girls and boys at 11 or 12 years, but children as ...

  8. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Cancer.gov

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  9. HPV vaccine stimulates cytotoxic activity of killer dendritic cells and natural killer cells against HPV-positive tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bergh, Johan M J; Guerti, Khadija; Willemen, Yannick; Lion, Eva; Cools, Nathalie; Goossens, Herman; Vorsters, Alex; Van Tendeloo, Viggo F I; Anguille, Sébastien; Van Damme, Pierre; Smits, Evelien L J M

    2014-01-01

    Cervarix™ is approved as a preventive vaccine against infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) strains 16 and 18, which are causally related to the development of cervical cancer. We are the first to investigate in vitro the effects of this HPV vaccine on interleukin (IL)-15 dendritic cells (DC) as proxy of a naturally occurring subset of blood DC, and natural killer (NK) cells, two innate immune cell types that play an important role in antitumour immunity. Our results show that exposure of IL-15 DC to the HPV vaccine results in increased expression of phenotypic maturation markers, pro-inflammatory cytokine production and cytotoxic activity against HPV-positive tumour cells. These effects are mediated by the vaccine adjuvant, partly through Toll-like receptor 4 activation. Next, we demonstrate that vaccine-exposed IL-15 DC in turn induce phenotypic activation of NK cells, resulting in a synergistic cytotoxic action against HPV-infected tumour cells. Our study thus identifies a novel mode of action of the HPV vaccine in boosting innate immunity, including killing of HPV-infected cells by DC and NK cells. PMID:24979331

  10. Comparative humoral and cellular immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in healthy women aged 18-45 years: follow-up through Month 48 in a Phase III randomized study.

    PubMed

    Einstein, Mark H; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Takacs, Peter; Catteau, Grégory; Dessy, Francis J; Moris, Philippe; Lin, Lan; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported higher anti-HPV-16 and -18 immune responses induced by HPV-16/18 vaccine compared with HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine at Month 7 (one month after completion of full vaccination series) in women aged 18-45 y in an observer-blind study NCT00423046; the differences of immune response magnitudes were maintained up to Month 24. Here we report follow-up data through Month 48. At Month 48, in according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity (seronegative and DNA-negative for HPV type analyzed at baseline), geometric mean titers of serum neutralizing antibodies were 2.0- to 5.2-fold higher (HPV-16) and 8.6- to 12.8-fold higher (HPV-18) in HPV-16/18 vaccine group than in HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine group. The majority of women in both vaccine groups remained seropositive for HPV-16. The same trend was observed for HPV-18 in HPV-16/18 vaccine group; however, seropositivity rates in HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine group decreased considerably, particularly in the older age groups. In the total vaccinated cohort (regardless of baseline serological and HPV-DNA status), anti-HPV-16 and -18 neutralizing antibody levels induced by HPV-16/18 vaccine were higher than those induced by HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine. CD4+ T-cell response for HPV-16 and HPV-18 was higher in HPV-16/18 vaccine group than in HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine group. Memory B-cell responses appeared similar between vaccine groups. Both vaccines were generally well tolerated. Overall, the higher immune response observed with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was maintained up to Month 48. A head-to-head study incorporating clinical endpoints would be required to confirm whether the observed differences in immune response between the vaccines influence the duration of protection they provided.

  11. Flagellin is a strong vaginal adjuvant of a therapeutic vaccine for genital cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shee Eun; Hong, Seol Hee; Verma, Vivek; Lee, Youn Suhk; Duong, Tra-My Nu; Jeong, Kwangjoon; Uthaman, Saji; Sung, Young Chul; Lee, Jae-Tae; Park, In-Kyu; Min, Jung-Joon; Rhee, Joon Haeng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cervical cancer is a high-incidence female cancer most commonly caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) infection of the genital mucosa. Immunotherapy targeting HPV-derived tumor antigens (TAs) has been widely studied in animal models and in patients. Because the female genital tract is a portal for the entry of HPV and a highly compartmentalized system, the development of topical vaginal immunotherapy in an orthotopic cancer model would provide an ideal therapeutic. Thus, we examined whether flagellin, a potent mucosal immunomodulator, could be used as an adjuvant for a topical therapeutic vaccine for female genital cancer. Intravaginal (IVAG) co-administration of the E6/E7 peptides with flagellin resulted in tumor suppression and long-term survival of tumor-bearing mice. In contrast to IVAG vaccination, intranasal (IN) or subcutaneous (SC) immunization did not induce significant tumor suppression in the same model. The vaginal adjuvant effect of the flagellin was completely abolished in Toll-like receptor-5 (TLR5) knock-out mice. IVAG immunization with the E6/E7 peptides plus flagellin induced the accumulation of CD4+ and CD8+ cells and the expression of T cell activation-related genes in the draining genital lymph nodes (gLNs). The co-administered flagellin elicited antigen-specific IFNγ production in the gLNs and spleen. The intravaginally administered flagellin was found in association with CD11c+ cells in the gLNs. Moreover, after immunization with a flagellin and the E6/E7 peptides, the TLR5 expression in gLN cells was significantly upregulated. These results suggest that flagellin serves as a potent vaginal adjuvant for a therapeutic peptide cancer vaccine through the activation of TLR5 signaling. PMID:27057462

  12. Immunological response to quadrivalent HPV vaccine in treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Tjon Pian Gi, Robin E A; San Giorgi, Michel R M; Pawlita, Michael; Michel, Angelika; van Hemel, Bettien M; Schuuring, Ed M D; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Dikkers, Frederik G

    2016-10-01

    Aim of this study was to explore influence of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (Gardasil(®)) on the immune status of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) patients. In retrospective observational study, six RRP patients who received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine and whose HPV seroreactivity was measured were included. Multiplex HPV Serology was used to determine HPV-specific antibodies pre- and post-vaccination. Surgical interventions and patient records were analyzed. Five HPV6 and 1 HPV11 infected patient were included. Mean antibody reactivity against the associated HPV type rose from 1125 median fluorescence intensity (MFI) pre-vaccination to 4690 MFI post-vaccination (p < 0.001). Median post-vaccination follow-up was 4 years. Poisson regression analysis showed that the quadrivalent HPV vaccine decreased the incidence rate of surgeries. The immune system of RRP patients is able to increase antibody reactivity against the associated HPV type. A double blind randomized controlled trial is needed to determine whether this immunological increase can cause decrease in number of surgeries.

  13. Genital burns and vaginal delivery.

    PubMed

    Pant, R; Manandhar, V; Wittgenstein, F; Fortney, J A; Fukushima, C

    1995-07-01

    Obstetric complications may result from burn scarring in the genital area. Women in developing countries typically squat around cooking fires, and burns are common. This recent case in Nepal describes obstructed labor in a young woman whose genital area had extensive scarring from a cooking fire injury. Proper antenatal assessment by health care providers can reduce the risk to mothers and infants of the consequences of a birth canal damaged or obstructed by burn scarring.

  14. Molekulare Diagnostik der HPV Infektion

    PubMed Central

    Wentzensen, PD Dr. med. Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) cause the majority of cervical cancers and other anogentical cancers. Large randomized trials have shown that HPV testing can be efficiently used for primary cervical cancer screening. Other applications include the triage of abnormal cytology results and the follow-up of women after treatment. Many assays have been developed to measure DNA, RNA, and proteins of HPV. The various tests can have very different applications. It is important to validate HPV assays before they are implemented in screening or clinical care. PMID:21845360

  15. Efficacy of the HPV-16/18 Vaccine: Final according to protocol results from the blinded phase of the randomized Costa Rica HPV-16/18 Vaccine Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hildesheim, Allan; Wacholder, Sholom; Catteau, Gregory; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary; Herrero, Rolando

    2014-01-01

    Background A community-based randomized trial was conducted in Costa Rica to evaluate the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (NCT00128661). The primary objective was to evaluate efficacy of the vaccine to prevent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or more severe disease (CIN2+) associated with incident HPV-16/18 cervical infections. Secondary objectives were to evaluate efficacy against CIN2+ associated with incident cervical infection by any oncogenic HPVs and to evaluate duration of protection against incident cervical infection with HPV-16/18. Vaccine safety and immunogenicity over the 4-year follow-up were also evaluated. Methods We randomized (3,727 HPV arm; 3,739 Control arm), vaccinated (HPV-16/18 or Hepatitis A) and followed (median 53.8 months) 7,466 healthy women aged 18-25 years. 5,312 women (2,635 HPV arm; 2,677 Control arm) were included in the according to protocol analysis for efficacy. The full cohort was evaluated for safety. Immunogenicity was considered on a subset of 354 (HPV-16) and 379 (HPV-18) women. HPV type was assessed by PCR on cytology specimens. Immunogenicity was assessed using ELISA and inhibition enzyme immunoassays. Disease outcomes were histologically confirmed. Vaccine efficacy and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were computed. Results Vaccine efficacy was 89.8% (95% CI: 39.5 - 99.5; N=11 events total) against HPV-16/18 associated CIN2+, 59.9% (95% CI: 20.7 - 80.8; N=39 events total) against CIN2+ associated with non-HPV-16/18 oncogenic HPVs and 61.4% (95% CI: 29.5-79.8; N=51 events total) against CIN2+ irrespective of HPV type. The vaccine had an acceptable safety profile and induced robust and long-lasting antibody responses. Conclusions Our findings confirm the high efficacy and immunogenicity of the HPV-16/18 vaccine against incident HPV infections and cervical disease associated with HPV-16/18 and other oncogenic HPV types. These results will serve as a benchmark to which we can compare future findings from ongoing extended

  16. Focal epithelial hyperplasia by human papillomavirus (HPV)-32 misdiagnosed as HPV-16 and treated with combination of retinoids, imiquimod and quadrivalent HPV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Gemigniani, Franco; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Ferrer, Berta; García-Patos, Vicente

    2015-12-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck's disease is a rare, benign and asymptomatic mucosal proliferation associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, mainly with genotypes 13 and 32. We report a florid case of FEH in an 11-year-old Haitian girl with systemic lupus erythematosus receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Cryotherapy was previously performed on numerous occasions with no results. We decided to prescribe a non-invasive and more comfortable treatment. A combination of topical retinoid and imiquimod cream was well tolerated and led to an important improvement. The evidence of infection by HPV-16 detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, prompted us to prescribe the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (types 6, 11,16 and 18). Subsequent PCR sequencing with generic primers GP5-GP6 and further BLAST comparative analysis confirmed that genomic viral sequence in our case truly corresponded with HPV-32. This molecular misdiagnosis can be explained by the similarity between genomic sequences of both HPV-16 and -32 genotypes. At the 1-year follow up, we observed total clinical improvement and no recurrences of the disease. Complete healing in this case may correspond to a potential action of topical retinoid, imiquimod and the cross-protection mechanism of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine.

  17. Vietnamese Health Care Providers' Preferences Regarding Recommendation of HPV Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Asiedu, Gladys B; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Kremers, Walter K; Ngo, Quang V; Nguyen, Nguyen V; Barenberg, Benjamin J; Tran, Vinh D; Dinh, Tri A

    2015-01-01

    Physician recommendation is an important predictor of HPV vaccine acceptance; however, physician willingness and preferences regarding HPV vaccination may be influenced by factors including patient age, vaccine type, and cost. A cross-sectional survey was administered to a convenience sample of health care providers in Da Nang, Vietnam, to evaluate awareness, perceptions about HPV and HPV vaccines, and willingness to vaccinate a female patient. Willingness to vaccinate was evaluated using a full-factorial presentation of scenarios featuring the following factors: vaccine cost (free vs 1,000,000 VND), patient age (12, 16, or 22 years), and HPV vaccine type (bivalent vs quadrivalent). Responses from 244 providers were analyzed; providers had a mean age of 34±11.9 years; a majority were female, married, and had children of their own. Thirty-six percent specialized in obstetrics/gynecology and 24% were providers in family medicine. Of the three factors considered in conjoint analysis, vaccine cost was the most important factor in willingness to vaccinate, followed by patient age, and vaccine type. The most favorable scenario for vaccinating a female patient was when the vaccine was free, the patient was 22 years of age, and the HPV4 vaccine was described. In multivariable analysis, older age, being a physician, being married, and having children were all associated with increased willingness to recommend HPV vaccination (p<0.05). Provider willingness is an important aspect of successful HPV vaccination programs; identifying preferences and biases in recommendation patterns will highlight potential areas for education and intervention.

  18. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Prevalence in Nasal and Antrochoanal Polyps and Association with Clinical Data

    PubMed Central

    Knör, Mareike; Tziridis, Konstantin; Agaimy, Abbas; Zenk, Johannes; Wendler, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The pathogenesis of sinonasal polyposis remains unclear, in spite of several investigative approaches. Antrochoanal polyps, a subgroup of sinonasal polyposis along with allergic- and chronic-inflammatory nasal polyps, mostly originate from the maxillary sinus and develop as a unilateral, pedunculated mass towards the nasopharynx. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is discussed as a possible causative and influencing factor in development and progression of sinonasal polyposis. This study aims to elucidate HPV frequency in nasal polyps and antrochoanal polyps. Materials and Methods Genomic DNA from 257 tissue specimens (166 nasal polyps, 39 antrochoanal polyps and 52 nasal turbinates) was subjected to three different established HPV- polymerase chain reaction assays, testing for 37 low- and high-risk HPV. In addition, immunohistochemical analyses for HPV16 were carried out, as well as immunohistochemistry and western blots of p16, a biomarker for HPV induced cancer. Results HPV-DNA was detected in 53.8% of antrochoanal polyps, 15.1% of nasal polyps, and 5.8% of nasal turbinates. HPV16 was the predominant type with a detection rate of 76% in nasal polyps and 62% in antrochoanal polyps. Immunohistochemically, HPV positive tissues stained positive for HPV16 antigens and p16 in epithelial cell layers. No significant p16 overexpression was traceable in antrochoanal polyps, nasal polyps and nasal turbinates by western blot. There was no correlation of HPV-status with sex, age, smoking, alcohol consumption or allergic background. Conclusion The present study shows a significant frequency of high-risk type HPV16 in antrochoanal polyps. Absence of oncogenic transformation or correlation of the HPV-status with clinical data suggests a latent superinfection, possibly because of anatomical proximity to the oropharynx. PMID:26509801

  19. Comparison of Human Papillomavirus Detection by Aptima HPV and cobas HPV Tests in a Population of Women Referred for Colposcopy following Detection of Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance by Pap Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Philip E.; Eaton, Barbara; Reid, Jennifer; Dockter, Janel

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared the cobas HPV test to the Aptima HPV assay (AHPV) and the Aptima HPV 16 18/45 genotype assay (AHPV GT) for high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) detection, clinical performance in detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) or more severe (CIN2+) diagnoses, and risk stratification by partial HPV genotyping. The cobas HPV test is a DNA test that separately and concurrently detects HPV16, HPV18, and a pool of 12 other hrHPV types. AHPV is an RNA test for a pool of 14 hrHPV genotypes, and AHPV GT is an RNA test run on AHPV-positive results to detect HPV16 separately from HPV18 and HPV45, which are detected together. In a population of patients (n = 988) referred for colposcopy because of a cervical Pap cytology result of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), a cervical scrape specimen was taken, placed into a ThinPrep Pap test vial containing PreservCyt liquid cytology medium, and tested in a blinded fashion with cobas and AHPV and with AHPV GT for AHPV-positive results. The final diagnoses were based on a consensus panel review of the biopsy specimen histology. AHPV and cobas were equally sensitive for CIN2+ diagnoses (89.4% each; P = 1.000), and AHPV was more specific than cobas (63.1% versus 59.3%; P ≤ 0.001). The percent total agreement, percent positive agreement, and kappa value were 90.9%, 81.1%, and 0.815, respectively. Risk stratification using partial HPV genotyping was similar for the two assays. AHPV and AHPV GT had similar sensitivity and risk stratification to cobas HPV, but they were more specific than cobas HPV. PMID:25653409

  20. High Prevalence and Genotype Diversity of Anal HPV Infection among MSM in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Supindham, Taweewat; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Utaipat, Utaiwan; Miura, Toshiyuki; Ruanpeng, Darin; Chotirosniramit, Nuntisa; Kosashunhanan, Natthapol; Sugandhavesa, Patcharaphan; Saokhieo, Pongpun; Songsupa, Radchanok; Siriaunkgul, Sumalee; Wongthanee, Antika

    2015-01-01

    Background HPV infection is common and may cause cancer among men who have sex with men (MSM). Anal HPV infection (HPV+) was found in 85% of HIV-positive (HIV+) and 59% of HIV-negative (HIV-) MSM in Bangkok, central Thailand. As little is known about HPV in this group in northern Thailand, we studied MSM subgroups comprised of gay men (GM), bisexual men (BM), and transgender women (TGW). Methods From July 2012 through January 2013, 85 (42.5% of 200) GM, 30 (15%) BM, and 85 (42.5%) TGW who practiced receptive anal intercourse were recruited after informed consent, followed by self-assisted computer interview, HIV testing, and anal swabs for HPV genotyping. Results Of 197 adequate specimens, the overall prevalence of any HPV was 157 (80%). Prevalence was 89% (76/85) in GM, 48% (14/29) in BM, and 81% (67/83) in TGW. The most common high-risk types were HPV16 (27% of 197), HPV58 (23%), and HPV51 (18%). Prevalence of high-risk types was 74% in 85 GM, 35% in 29 BM, and 71% in 83 TGW. Prevalence of any HPV type, or high-risk type, was 100% and 94%, respectively, among 48 HIV+ MSM, 70% and 54% among 120 HIV- MSM. Of the 197 specimens, 36% (70) had HPV types 16 and/or 18 in the bivalent vaccine, compared to 48% (95) with ≥1 of types 16/18/06/11 in the quadrivalent, 56% (111) for 16/18/31/33/45/52/58 in the 7-valent, and 64% (126) for 16/18/31/33/45/52/58/06/11 in the 9-valent. HIV+, GM, and TGW were independently associated with HPV infection. Conclusions We found higher rates of both any HPV and high-risk types than previous studies. Among the heretofore unstudied TGW, their equivalent HPV rates were comparable to GM. Current and investigational HPV vaccines could substantially protect GM, BM, and TGW from the serious consequences of HPV infection especially among HIV + MSM. PMID:25932915

  1. Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-associated Oral Cancers and Treatment Strategies.

    PubMed

    Sathish, N; Wang, X; Yuan, Y

    2014-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is known to be associated with several types of human cancer, including cervical, vulvar, vaginal, penile, anal, and head-and-neck cancers. Among these cancers, HPV-associated head-and-neck cancers, inclusive of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas (OCSCC), have recently risen dramatically in men under 50 years old. Within 20 years, the percentage of HPV-positive OSCC in total OSCC went from less than 20% to more than 70% in the United States and some European countries. This article reviews the incidence trend and pathogenesis of HPV-associated head-and-neck cancers as well as current treatment modalities for the disease.

  2. Using the Health Belief Model to Examine the Link between HPV Knowledge and Self-Efficacy for Preventive Behaviors of Male Students at a Two-Year College in New York City.

    PubMed

    Grace-Leitch, Lisa; Shneyderman, Yuliya

    2016-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common and easily transmitted sexually transmitted infections in the United States; infected individuals are frequently unaware that they are carriers, and transmission occurs unknowingly. Infection can lead to genital warts or cervical, penile, anal, or oral cancer. The object of this study was to examine the link between HPV knowledge and self-efficacy for preventive behaviors among college students as well as HPV vaccine acceptability. A cross-sectional survey of students at a two-year college in New York City was conducted electronically. The current study focuses on male students (N = 120). We found that HPV knowledge was low among this sample, but that self-efficacy and vaccine acceptability were high. Self-efficacy and perceived susceptibility to HPV predicted vaccine acceptability, but not condom use. The challenge for health care practitioners and health educators is to provide focused, comprehensive education about HPV without causing undue fear.

  3. Male genital trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, G.H.; Gilbert, D.A.

    1988-07-01

    We have attempted to discuss genital trauma in relatively broad terms. In most cases, patients present with relatively minimal trauma. However, because of the complexity of the structures involved, minimal trauma can lead to significant disability later on. The process of erection requires correct functioning of the arterial, neurologic, and venous systems coupled with intact erectile bodies. The penis is composed of structures that are compliant and distensible to the limits of their compliance. These structures therefore tumesce in equal proportion to each other, allowing for straight erection. Relatively minimal trauma can upset this balance of elasticity, leading to disabling chordee. Likewise, relatively minimal injuries to the vascular erectile structures can lead to significantly disabling spongiofibrosis. The urethra is a conduit of paramount importance. Whereas the development of stricture is generally related to the nature of the trauma, the extent of stricture and of attendant complications is clearly a function of the immediate management. Overzealous debridement can greatly complicate subsequent reconstruction. A delicate balance between aggressive initial management and maximal preservation of viable structures must be achieved. 38 references.

  4. Detection of systemic and mucosal HPV-specific IgG and IgA antibodies in adolescent girls one and two years after HPV vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Scherpenisse, Mirte; Mollers, Madelief; Schepp, Rutger M.; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; de Melker, Hester E.; Berbers, Guy A.M.; van der Klis, Fiona R.M.

    2013-01-01

    The bivalent HPV16/18 vaccine induces high antibody concentrations in serum while data about antibody responses in the cervix are limited. In this study, we investigated pre- and post-vaccination antibody responses against seven high-risk HPV types by detection of IgG and IgA HPV-specific antibodies in cervical secretion samples (CVS) and serum. From an HPV vaccine monitoring study CVS and serum samples were available (pre-vaccination (n = 297), one year (n = 211) and two years (n = 141) post-dose-one vaccination) from girls aged 14–16 y. The girls were vaccinated with the bivalent HPV vaccine at months 0, 1 and 6. CVS was self-sampled using a tampon. Samples were tested for HPV-specific antibodies (HPV16/18/31/33/45/52/58) by a VLP-based multiplex immunoassay. Post-vaccination, IgG and IgA antibody levels for HPV16/18 were detectable in CVS and amounted to 2% and 1% of the IgG and IgA antibody levels observed in serum, respectively. The antibody levels remained constant between one and two years after vaccination. The correlation between CVS and serum was similar for IgG and IgA vaccine-derived antibody levels for HPV16 (rs = 0.58, rs = 0.54) and HPV18 (rs = 0.50, rs = 0.55). Vaccine-derived IgG antibody levels against cross-reactive HPV types in CVS and in serum were highest for HPV45. No IgA cross-reactive antibody responses could be detected in CVS. Post-vaccination, HPV16/18 IgG and IgA antibodies are not only detectable in serum but also in CVS. The correlation of HPV16/18 IgG antibody levels between serum and CVS suggests that vaccine induced HPV antibodies transudate and/or exudate from the systemic circulation to the cervical mucosa to provide protection against HPV infections. PMID:23149693

  5. Transmission of human papillomavirus DNA from patient to surgical masks, gloves and oral mucosa of medical personnel during treatment of laryngeal papillomas and genital warts.

    PubMed

    Ilmarinen, Taru; Auvinen, Eeva; Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Ranki, Annamari; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2012-11-01

    The risk of occupational human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission from patient to medical personnel during laser vaporization procedures remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of HPV transmission from the patient to the protective surgical masks, gloves and oral mucosa of medical personnel during the treatment of laryngeal papillomas and genital warts. The study involved five male patients scheduled for the surgical treatment of laryngeal papillomas, and five male patients undergoing carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser treatment for urethral warts. Oral mucosa specimens were obtained from the study patients and the employees pre- and postoperatively. Samples were collected from the HPV-infected patient tissue, and from the surgical masks and gloves used by the employees. A total of 120 samples were analyzed for the presence of HPV DNA by PCR, using the degenerated MY09/11/HMB01 primers. After the papilloma procedures, the surgeons' gloves tested HPV positive in one of the five cases and those of the surgical nurse in three of the five cases. After the treatment of genital warts, HPV DNA corresponding to the patient tissue specimens was present in all the samples obtained from the surgical gloves of the operators. All oral mucosa samples obtained from 18 different employees tested HPV negative, as did the surgical mask specimens. According to our study, HPV may contaminate protective equipment, most of all surgical gloves, but transmission of HPV DNA to medical personnel is unlikely to occur provided that protective surgical gloves and masks are applied and disposed of properly.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors for oral HPV infection in young Australians.

    PubMed

    Antonsson, Annika; Cornford, Michelle; Perry, Susan; Davis, Marcia; Dunne, Michael P; Whiteman, David C

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated head and neck cancers is increasing, but the prevalence of oral HPV infection in the wider community remains unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence of, and identify risk factors for, oral HPV infection in a sample of young, healthy Australians. For this study, we recruited 307 Australian university students (18-35 years). Participants reported anonymously about basic characteristics, sexual behaviour, and alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs use. We collected oral rinse samples from all participants for HPV testing and typing. Seven of 307 (2.3%) students tested positive for oral HPV infection (3 HPV-18, one each of HPV-16, -67, -69, -90), and six of them were males (p = 0.008). Compared to HPV negative students, those with oral HPV infection were more likely to have received oral sex from more partners in their lifetime (p = 0.0004) and in the last year (p = 0.008). We found no statistically significant associations with alcohol consumption, smoking or numbers of partners for passionate kissing or sexual intercourse. In conclusion, oral HPV infection was associated with male gender and receiving oral sex in our sample of young Australians.

  7. Effectiveness Modelling and Economic Evaluation of Primary HPV Screening for Cervical Cancer Prevention in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Jie-Bin; Simms, Kate; Smith, Megan; Lewis, Hazel; Neal, Harold; Canfell, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Background New Zealand (NZ) is considering transitioning from 3-yearly cervical cytology screening in women 20–69 years (current practice) to primary HPV screening. We evaluated HPV-based screening in both HPV-unvaccinated women and cohorts offered HPV vaccination in New Zealand (vaccination coverage ~50%). Methods A complex model of HPV transmission, vaccination, cervical screening, and invasive cervical cancer was extensively validated against national population-based datasets. Sixteen potential strategies for HPV screening were considered. Results Most primary HPV strategies were more effective than current practice, for both unvaccinated women and cohorts offered vaccination. The optimal strategy for both groups was 5-yearly HPV screening in women aged 25–69 years with partial genotyping for HPV 16/18 and referral to colposcopy, and cytological triage of other oncogenic types. This is predicted to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality by a further 12–16% and to save 4–13% annually in program costs (excluding overheads). The findings are sensitive to assumptions about future adherence to initiating screening at 25 years. Conclusion Primary HPV screening with partial genotyping would be more effective and less costly than the current cytology-based screening program, in both unvaccinated women and cohorts offered vaccination. These findings have been considered in a review of cervical screening in NZ. PMID:27187495

  8. HPV16 E6 regulates annexin 1 (ANXA1) protein expression in cervical carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Calmon, Marilia Freitas; Sichero, Laura; Boccardo, Enrique; Villa, Luisa Lina; Rahal, Paula

    2016-09-01

    Annexin 1 (ANXA1) is a substrate for E6AP mediated ubiquitylation. It has been hypothesized that HPV 16 E6 protein redirects E6AP away from ANXA1, increasing its stability and possibly contributing to viral pathogenesis. We analyzed ANXA1 expression in HPV-positive and negative cervical carcinoma-derived cells, in cells expressing HPV-16 oncogenes and in cells transduced with shRNA targeting E6AP. We observed that ANXA1 protein expression increased in HPV-16-positive tumor cells, in keratinocytes expressing HPV-16 E6wt (wild-type) or E6/E7 and C33 cells expressing HPV-16 E6wt. ANXA1 protein expression decreased in cells transfected with E6 Dicer-substrate RNAs (DsiRNA) and C33 cells cotransduced with HPV-16 E6wt and E6AP shRNA. Moreover, colony number and proliferation rate decreased in HPV16-positive cells transduced with ANXA1 shRNA. We observed that in cells infected with HPV16, the E6 binds to E6AP to degrade p53 and upregulate ANXA1. We suggest that ANXA1 may play a role in HPV-mediated carcinogenesis. PMID:27240147

  9. Human Papillomavirus Infection and Vaccination: Awareness and Knowledge of HPV and Acceptability of HPV Vaccine among Mothers of Teenage Daughters in Weihai, Shandong, China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiandong; Li, Ruiying; Li, Meilan; Wang, Jianguang; Zhang, Dongfeng; Xu, Aiqiang

    2016-01-01

    In preparation for the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, we investigated awareness and knowledge of HPV/HPV vaccine and potential acceptability to HPV vaccine among mothers with a teenage daughter in Weihai, Shandong, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 with a sample of 1850 mothers who had a daughter (aged 9–17 years) attending primary, junior and senior high schools. In the final sample (N = 1578, response rate 85.30%), awareness of HPV was reported by 305 (19.32%) mothers. Awareness varied significantly by daughter’s age (P<0.01), mother’s education level (P<0.01), mother’s occupation (P<0.01), household income (P<0.01) and residence type (P<0.01). Knowledge about HPV/HPV vaccine was poor with a mean total score of 3.56 (SD = 2.40) out of a possible score of 13. Mothers with a higher education level reported higher levels of knowledge (P = 0.02). Slightly more than one-fourth (26.49%) of mothers expressed their potential acceptability of HPV vaccine for their daughters. Acceptability increased along with increased daughters’ age (P<0.01), household income (P<0.01) and knowledge level (P<0.01). House wives and unemployed mothers had the highest acceptability (P<0.01). The most common reasons for not accepting HPV vaccination were “My daughter is too young to have risk of cervical cancer (30.95%)”, “The vaccine has not been widely used, and the decision will be made after it is widely used (24.91%)”, “Worry about the safety of the vaccine (22.85%)”. Awareness and knowledge of HPV/HPV vaccines are poor and HPV vaccine acceptability is low among these Chinese mothers. These results may help inform appropriate health education programs in this population. PMID:26766565

  10. Human Papillomavirus Infection and Vaccination: Awareness and Knowledge of HPV and Acceptability of HPV Vaccine among Mothers of Teenage Daughters in Weihai, Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Xu, Minglei; Sun, Jiandong; Li, Ruiying; Li, Meilan; Wang, Jianguang; Zhang, Dongfeng; Xu, Aiqiang

    2016-01-01

    In preparation for the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, we investigated awareness and knowledge of HPV/HPV vaccine and potential acceptability to HPV vaccine among mothers with a teenage daughter in Weihai, Shandong, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 with a sample of 1850 mothers who had a daughter (aged 9-17 years) attending primary, junior and senior high schools. In the final sample (N = 1578, response rate 85.30%), awareness of HPV was reported by 305 (19.32%) mothers. Awareness varied significantly by daughter's age (P<0.01), mother's education level (P<0.01), mother's occupation (P<0.01), household income (P<0.01) and residence type (P<0.01). Knowledge about HPV/HPV vaccine was poor with a mean total score of 3.56 (SD = 2.40) out of a possible score of 13. Mothers with a higher education level reported higher levels of knowledge (P = 0.02). Slightly more than one-fourth (26.49%) of mothers expressed their potential acceptability of HPV vaccine for their daughters. Acceptability increased along with increased daughters' age (P<0.01), household income (P<0.01) and knowledge level (P<0.01). House wives and unemployed mothers had the highest acceptability (P<0.01). The most common reasons for not accepting HPV vaccination were "My daughter is too young to have risk of cervical cancer (30.95%)", "The vaccine has not been widely used, and the decision will be made after it is widely used (24.91%)", "Worry about the safety of the vaccine (22.85%)". Awareness and knowledge of HPV/HPV vaccines are poor and HPV vaccine acceptability is low among these Chinese mothers. These results may help inform appropriate health education programs in this population.

  11. Human Papillomavirus Infection and Vaccination: Awareness and Knowledge of HPV and Acceptability of HPV Vaccine among Mothers of Teenage Daughters in Weihai, Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Xu, Minglei; Sun, Jiandong; Li, Ruiying; Li, Meilan; Wang, Jianguang; Zhang, Dongfeng; Xu, Aiqiang

    2016-01-01

    In preparation for the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, we investigated awareness and knowledge of HPV/HPV vaccine and potential acceptability to HPV vaccine among mothers with a teenage daughter in Weihai, Shandong, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 with a sample of 1850 mothers who had a daughter (aged 9-17 years) attending primary, junior and senior high schools. In the final sample (N = 1578, response rate 85.30%), awareness of HPV was reported by 305 (19.32%) mothers. Awareness varied significantly by daughter's age (P<0.01), mother's education level (P<0.01), mother's occupation (P<0.01), household income (P<0.01) and residence type (P<0.01). Knowledge about HPV/HPV vaccine was poor with a mean total score of 3.56 (SD = 2.40) out of a possible score of 13. Mothers with a higher education level reported higher levels of knowledge (P = 0.02). Slightly more than one-fourth (26.49%) of mothers expressed their potential acceptability of HPV vaccine for their daughters. Acceptability increased along with increased daughters' age (P<0.01), household income (P<0.01) and knowledge level (P<0.01). House wives and unemployed mothers had the highest acceptability (P<0.01). The most common reasons for not accepting HPV vaccination were "My daughter is too young to have risk of cervical cancer (30.95%)", "The vaccine has not been widely used, and the decision will be made after it is widely used (24.91%)", "Worry about the safety of the vaccine (22.85%)". Awareness and knowledge of HPV/HPV vaccines are poor and HPV vaccine acceptability is low among these Chinese mothers. These results may help inform appropriate health education programs in this population. PMID:26766565

  12. Epidemiology of HPV Genotypes among HIV Positive Women in Kenya: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Sonia; Wusiman, Aibibula; Boily, Marie Claude; Kariisa, Mbabazi; Mabeya, Hillary; Luchters, Stanley; Forland, Frode; Rossi, Rodolfo; Callens, Steven; vanden Broeck, Davy

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a scarcity of data on the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in the HIV positive population and in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in Kenya. This may be different from genotypes found in abnormal cytology. Yet, with the advent of preventive HPV vaccines that target HPV 16 and 18, and the nonavalent vaccine targeting 90% of all ICC cases, such HPV genotype distribution data are indispensable for predicting the impact of vaccination and HPV screening on prevention. Even with a successful vaccination program, vaccinated women will still require screening to detect those who will develop ICC from other High risk (HR) HPV genotypes not prevented by current vaccines. The aim of this review is to report on the prevalence of pHR/HR HPV types and multiple pHR/HR HPV genotypes in Kenya among HIV positive women with normal, abnormal cytology and ICC. Methods PUBMED, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and PROQUEST were searched for articles on HPV infection up to August 2nd 2016. Search terms were HIV, HPV, Cervical Cancer, Incidence or Prevalence, and Kenya. Results The 13 studies included yielded a total of 2116 HIV-infected women, of which 89 had ICC. The overall prevalence of pHR/HR HPV genotypes among HIV-infected women was 64% (95%CI: 50%-77%). There was a borderline significant difference in the prevalence of pHR/HR HPV genotypes between Female Sex workers (FSW) compared to non-FSW in women with both normal and abnormal cytology. Multiple pHR/HR HPV genotypes were highly prominent in both normal cytology/HSIL and ICC. The most prevalent HR HPV genotypes in women with abnormal cytology were HPV 16 with 26%, (95%CI: 23.0%-30.0%) followed by HPV 35 and 52, with 21% (95%CI: 18%-25%) and 18% (95%CI: 15%-21%), respectively. In women with ICC, the most prevalent HPV genotypes were HPV 16 (37%; 95%CI: 28%-47%) and HPV 18 (24%; 95%CI: 16%-33%). Conclusion HPV 16/18 gains prominence as the severity of cervical disease increases, with HPV 16/18 accounting for 61

  13. ONCOGENIC HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HPV) INFECTIONS IN 18 TO 24 YEAR OLD FEMALE ONLINE DATERS

    PubMed Central

    Barrere, Alexis; Stern, Joshua E.; Feng, Qinghua; Hughes, James P.; Winer, Rachel L.

    2015-01-01

    Background While risk factors for HPV infections in young women are well-defined, the risk associated with meeting male sex partners via the internet is unclear. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 282 18-24-year old women who reported using Internet dating websites in the past year. Women were mailed vaginal self-sampling kits for PCR-based HPV genotyping (including 19 oncogenic types) and sexual behavior and health history questionnaires. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate risk factors for prevalent oncogenic HPV infections. Results 35% of women reported having met a male sex partner via the Internet in the past 6 months, and 42% reported a history of HPV vaccination. The prevalence of oncogenic HPV infection was 37%, and 9% of women tested positive for HPV-16 or HPV-18. Having met a male sex partner via the Internet in the past 6 months was not significantly associated with oncogenic HPV infection. In multivariate analyses, variables associated with an increased likelihood of oncogenic HPV infection included male partners in the past 6 months who were reported to have ≥1 concurrent partnership (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]=1.51,95%CI:1.11-2.06) and not always using condoms with male partners in the past 6 months (aPR=1.86,95%CI:1.05-3.30). Self-reporting a history of receiving ≥1 dose of HPV vaccine was inversely associated with testing positive for HPV-16 or HPV-18 (aPR=0.39,95%CI:0.16–0.97). Conclusions While measures of recent sexual behavior were associated with prevalent oncogenic HPV infection, male partners met online were not associated with an increased likelihood of infection in this cohort of young women. PMID:26267875

  14. PCR and Genotyping for HPV in Cervical Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Pradyot; Patne, Shashikant C U; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Kumar, Mohan; Mishra, Mukti Nath; Gulati, Anil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To devise nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (NMPCR) protocol for detection of mucosal human papilloma viruses (HPVs) and typing of HPV-16 and -18 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues of carcinoma cervix (CaCx). Settings and Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: NMPCR was done for simultaneous detection of HPV, targeting 134 bp L1 capsid gene employing GP+/mGP+ primers and typing of genotypes-16 and -18, targeting E6/E7 gene from 34 FFPE tissue blocks of CaCx and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Detection of 142 bp consensus sequence of L1 capsid gene was performed by nested PCR employing MY/GP+ primers. Sequencing of selected PCR amplicons of the later protocol obtained from control cell line DNA and 5 select samples were done for validation of the NMPCR protocol. Statistical Analysis Used: Calculation of percentage from the Microsoft Excel Software. Results: Of 26 FFPE samples of CaCx, 17 (65.3%) samples were found positive for HPV by NMPCR. Amplicons of 142 bp L1 capsid gene employing MY/GP+ primers were observed in 11 (42.3%) samples of CaCx. Nearly 25% samples of CIN were positive for HPV. On sequence analysis, it was observed that the sample typed as HPV-16 by NMPCR was found to be the same on sequencing of amplicons obtained after MY/GP+ nested PCR. Conclusions: This study indicates the usefulness of our NMPCR protocol for detection of mucosal HPVs and typing of HPV-16 and -18 from FFPE tissue samples of CaCx. The NMPCR protocol may be used to detect HPV and type common genotypes-16 and -18 in fresh tissue of cervical biopsy or scrape samples for screening of CaCx. PMID:27621560

  15. PCR and Genotyping for HPV in Cervical Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Pradyot; Patne, Shashikant C U; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Kumar, Mohan; Mishra, Mukti Nath; Gulati, Anil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To devise nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (NMPCR) protocol for detection of mucosal human papilloma viruses (HPVs) and typing of HPV-16 and -18 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues of carcinoma cervix (CaCx). Settings and Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: NMPCR was done for simultaneous detection of HPV, targeting 134 bp L1 capsid gene employing GP+/mGP+ primers and typing of genotypes-16 and -18, targeting E6/E7 gene from 34 FFPE tissue blocks of CaCx and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Detection of 142 bp consensus sequence of L1 capsid gene was performed by nested PCR employing MY/GP+ primers. Sequencing of selected PCR amplicons of the later protocol obtained from control cell line DNA and 5 select samples were done for validation of the NMPCR protocol. Statistical Analysis Used: Calculation of percentage from the Microsoft Excel Software. Results: Of 26 FFPE samples of CaCx, 17 (65.3%) samples were found positive for HPV by NMPCR. Amplicons of 142 bp L1 capsid gene employing MY/GP+ primers were observed in 11 (42.3%) samples of CaCx. Nearly 25% samples of CIN were positive for HPV. On sequence analysis, it was observed that the sample typed as HPV-16 by NMPCR was found to be the same on sequencing of amplicons obtained after MY/GP+ nested PCR. Conclusions: This study indicates the usefulness of our NMPCR protocol for detection of mucosal HPVs and typing of HPV-16 and -18 from FFPE tissue samples of CaCx. The NMPCR protocol may be used to detect HPV and type common genotypes-16 and -18 in fresh tissue of cervical biopsy or scrape samples for screening of CaCx.

  16. Population-based study for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in young women in Japan: A multicenter study by the Japanese human papillomavirus disease education research survey group (J-HERS).

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Maehama, Toshiyuki; Ideta, Kazuhisa; Irie, Takuya

    2016-02-01

    A multi-center study was conducted to examine 6,628 eligible Japanese women aged from 16 to 50 years for uterine cervical abnormality and HPV infection with a liquid based-cytology test and a novel HPV test using the PCR-SSOP-Luminex(®) method identifying 31 HPV genotypes. In 3,047 normal subjects, the overall prevalence across all HPV types was 25%, while that of the common 13 high-risk (Common-13HR) types (HPV-16, 18. 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, and 68) was 17%, and that of the definite high-risk (Definite-HR) types (HPV-16, 18. 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, and 58) was 12%. For Definite-HR, HPV-52, 16, and 58 were the most common, HPV-31 was relatively common, and HPV-18 was less common, while HPV-33, 35, and 45 were rare. Seven Definite-HR excluding HPV-45 and seven Possible-HR (HPV-39, 51, 56, 66, 68, 70, and 82) HPV types were identified as a single type infection in patients with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse. The Common-13HR types were detected in 89% of subjects with HSIL, whereas either Definite-HR or Possible-HR types were detected in 95% of HSIL. These 1420 HPV types appear to be involved with HSIL or worse in Japan. The prevalences of multiple-type HPV infections were identified in roughly half of HPV-positive subjects, and decreased significantly with age in normal population and abnormal cytology groups, although the prevalences of single-type infections increased with age in the latter group. Most HPV infections are cleared for some years, while a certain HR-HPV type persists to induce HSIL.

  17. Immunogenicity of next-generation HPV vaccines in non-human primates: Measles-vectored HPV vaccine versus Pichia pastoris recombinant protein vaccine.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Gaurav; Giannino, Viviana; Rishi, Narayan; Glueck, Reinhard

    2016-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide. HPVs are oncogenic small double-stranded DNA viruses that are the primary causal agent of cervical cancer and other types of cancers, including in the anus, oropharynx, vagina, vulva, and penis. Prophylactic vaccination against HPV is an attractive strategy for preventing cervical cancer and some other types of cancers. However, there are few safe and effective vaccines against HPV infections. Current first-generation commercial HPV vaccines are expensive to produce and deliver. The goal of this study was to develop an alternate potent HPV recombinant L1-based vaccines by producing HPV virus-like particles into a vaccine that is currently used worldwide. Live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines have a well-established safety and efficacy record, and recombinant MV (rMV) produced by reverse genetics may be useful for generating candidate HPV vaccines to meet the needs of the developing world. We studied in non-human primate rMV-vectored HPV vaccine in parallel with a classical alum adjuvant recombinant HPV16L1 and 18L1 protein vaccine produced in Pichia pastoris. A combined prime-boost approach using both vaccines was evaluated, as well as immune interference due to pre-existing immunity against the MV. The humoral immune response induced by the MV, Pichia-expressed vaccine, and their combination as priming and boosting approaches was found to elicit HPV16L1 and 18L1 specific total IgG and neutralizing antibody titres. Pre-existing antibodies against measles did not prevent the immune response against HPV16L1 and 18L1.

  18. Immunogenicity of next-generation HPV vaccines in non-human primates: Measles-vectored HPV vaccine versus Pichia pastoris recombinant protein vaccine.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Gaurav; Giannino, Viviana; Rishi, Narayan; Glueck, Reinhard

    2016-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide. HPVs are oncogenic small double-stranded DNA viruses that are the primary causal agent of cervical cancer and other types of cancers, including in the anus, oropharynx, vagina, vulva, and penis. Prophylactic vaccination against HPV is an attractive strategy for preventing cervical cancer and some other types of cancers. However, there are few safe and effective vaccines against HPV infections. Current first-generation commercial HPV vaccines are expensive to produce and deliver. The goal of this study was to develop an alternate potent HPV recombinant L1-based vaccines by producing HPV virus-like particles into a vaccine that is currently used worldwide. Live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines have a well-established safety and efficacy record, and recombinant MV (rMV) produced by reverse genetics may be useful for generating candidate HPV vaccines to meet the needs of the developing world. We studied in non-human primate rMV-vectored HPV vaccine in parallel with a classical alum adjuvant recombinant HPV16L1 and 18L1 protein vaccine produced in Pichia pastoris. A combined prime-boost approach using both vaccines was evaluated, as well as immune interference due to pre-existing immunity against the MV. The humoral immune response induced by the MV, Pichia-expressed vaccine, and their combination as priming and boosting approaches was found to elicit HPV16L1 and 18L1 specific total IgG and neutralizing antibody titres. Pre-existing antibodies against measles did not prevent the immune response against HPV16L1 and 18L1. PMID:27523740

  19. Surgical reconstruction in female genital mutilation

    PubMed Central

    Gültekin, İsmail Burak; Altınboğa, Orhan; Dur, Rıza; Kara, Osman Fadıl; Küçüközkan, Tuncay

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an unusual condition for our country. However, an increase in FGM in future days can be predicted with the increasing numbers of exchange students coming from African countries, migration of refugees and socioeconomic relations with the African countries. We want to share our experience of two FGM victims admitted to our clinic with the request of reconstructive vulvar surgery before their marriage. Both women had WHO Type III FGM. Physical examination findings and surgical reconstruction techniques were presented. PMID:27274899

  20. [Genital ulcers--what's new?].

    PubMed

    Abu Raya, Bahaa; Bamberger, Ellen; Srugo, Isaac

    2013-08-01

    The most common infectious causes of genital ulcers are herpes simplex virus and syphilis. However, mixed infections can occur and genital ulcer may increase the risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus. Although the history and physical examination can narrow the differential diagnosis, there is a need for initial routine laboratory testing for the most common pathogens that includes: for syphilis: serologic screening and dark field examination of the lesion; for herpes simplex virus: serology, vial culture and/or polymerase chain reaction. Human immunodeficiency testing is mandatory. Recently, some clinical laboratories adapted the reverse screening algorithm for syphilis (initial treponemal test, and, if positive, followed by non-treponemal test) that may potentially lead to overtreatment. Early and prompt therapy may decrease the risk of transmission of the infectious agent to others. This article reviews the infectious pathogens causing genital ulcers, their unique clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C. PMID:23515242

  2. Local immunological reactivity in oral squamous cell lesions of possible HPV (human papillomavirus) origin.

    PubMed

    Syrjänen, K J; Syrjänen, S M; Lamberg, M A; Happonen, R P

    1983-01-01

    The immunocompetent cells (B and T lymphocytes, mononuclear phagocytes, MPS cells) known to be responsible for the rejection of the HPV- (Human Papillomavirus) induced tumors in the skin (warts) were analyzed in the infiltrates of 63 oral squamous cell lesions of suspected HPV origin (Condyloma, CA; Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia, FEH; Squamous Cell Papilloma, SQP) as well as in tumors thought to be unrelated to HPV (Fibrous Hyperplasia, FH; Papillary Hyperplasia, PH; True Fibroma, TF; Keratoacanthoma, KA), using the ANAE (acid alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase) technique. All tumors were also stained by the indirect immunoperoxidase-PAP method for the demonstration of HPV antigens. Of the SQP's, 60% were HPV-positive, as were 80% of CA's and one third of FEH's. In addition, 1/18 FH's and 2/14 PH's stained HPV-positive. On electron microscopy, viral particles could be disclosed within the nuclei of HPV-lesions. The highest proportions of the T and MPS cells (the elements of cell-mediated immunity) were found in CA's and SQP's (15-17%), as compared with the values of less than 10% in all others. The infiltrates in FEH's also showed low values of MPS and T cells, interpreted to suggest an etiology of the HPV type (determining the type of immune reaction) different from that of CA and SQP. HPV-positivity in the lesions did not influence the distribution of the immunocompetent cells. The results indicate that immunological mechanisms are involved in HPV lesions of the oral cavity as they are at other sites. The role of HPV in the etiology of these (and possibly of the oral squamous cell carcinoma) was discussed. Further analyses of the lymphocyte subsets are needed to establish the role of host reactions in the development and eradication of HPV lesions in oral cavity.

  3. P16(INK4A) immunostaining is a strong indicator for high-risk-HPV-associated oropharyngeal carcinomas and dysplasias, but is unreliable to predict low-risk-HPV-infection in head and neck papillomas and laryngeal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Mooren, Jeroen J; Gültekin, Sibel E; Straetmans, Jos M J A A; Haesevoets, Annick; Peutz-Kootstra, Carine J; Huebbers, Christian U; Dienes, Hans P; Wieland, Ulrike; Ramaekers, Frans C S; Kremer, Bernd; Speel, Ernst-Jan M; Klussmann, Jens P

    2014-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a risk factor for the development of benign and malignant mucosal head and neck lesions. P16(INK4A) is often used as a surrogate marker for HPV-infection, although there is still controversy with respect its reliability. Our aim was to determine if p16(INK4A) overexpression can accurately predict both high-risk and low-risk-HPV-presence in (pre)malignant and benign head and neck lesions. P16(INK4A) immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 162 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC), 14 tonsillar and 23 laryngeal dysplasias, and 20 tonsillar and 27 laryngeal papillomas. PCR, enzyme-immunoassay and FISH analysis were used to assess HPV-presence and type. Of the 162 OPSCC and 14 tonsillar dysplasias, 51 (31%) and 10 (71%) were HPV16-positive, respectively. All tonsillar papillomas were HPV-negative and four laryngeal dysplasias and 26 laryngeal papillomas were positive for HPV6 or -11. P16(INK4A) immunohistochemistry revealed a strong nuclear and cytoplasmic staining in 50 out of 51 HPV16-positive and 5 out of 111 HPV-negative OPSCC (p < 0.0001) and in all HPV16-positive tonsillar dysplasias, whereas highly variable staining patterns were detected in the papillomas and laryngeal dysplasias, irrespective of the HPV-status. In addition, the latter lesions generally showed a higher nuclear than cytoplasmic p16(INK4A) immunostaining intensity. In conclusion, our data show that strong nuclear and cytoplasmic p16(INK4A) overexpression is a reliable surrogate indicator for HPV16 in OPSCC and (adjacent) dysplasias. For HPV6 or -11-positive and HPV-negative benign and premalignant lesions of the tonsil and larynx, however, p16(INK4A) immunostaining is highly variable and cannot be recommended to predict HPV-presence. PMID:24127203

  4. Economic and humanistic burden of external genital warts.

    PubMed

    Raymakers, Adam J N; Sadatsafavi, Mohsen; Marra, Fawziah; Marra, Carlo A

    2012-01-01

    External genital warts (EGW) are a sexually transmitted infection caused by various strains of human papillomavirus (HPV). Several studies have described the direct and indirect costs of EGW, while others have reported on the burden of EGW in terms of the impact on the quality of life (QOL) of patients. The arrival of a quadrivalent HPV vaccine that protects against both cervical cancer and EGW requires a proper understanding of the impact of vaccines on costs and QOL. Using pre-defined search terms and inclusion/exclusion criteria, we performed a systematic review of the economic and humanistic burden of EGW. The focus of our review was on literature describing the direct and indirect costs of EGW per episode of care (EoC) or per year, as well as the impact of EGW on disease-specific, generic, or preference-based QOL measures. We also reviewed the literature on the national economic burden of EGW from the perspectives of different countries. Other aspects of EGW management that can inform economic modelling studies, such as length of EoC, number of physician visits and indirect costs, were also explored. Our review sheds light on the high economic and humanistic burden of EGW and important differences in the costs between men and women, as well as the differences in health resource utilization and costs across countries. Our study also highlights the dearth of information on the impact of EGW on the QOL and productivity of patients.

  5. Genital HSV Shedding among Kenyan Women Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Manguro, Griffins O.; Masese, Linnet N.; Deya, Ruth W.; Magaret, Amalia; Wald, Anna; McClelland, R. Scott; Graham, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Genital ulcer disease (GUD) prevalence increases in the first month of antiretroviral treatment (ART), followed by a return to baseline prevalence by month 3. Since most GUD is caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), we hypothesized that genital HSV detection would follow a similar pattern after treatment initiation. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 122 HSV-2 and HIV-1 co-infected women with advanced HIV disease who initiated ART and were followed closely with collection of genital swab specimens for the first three months of treatment. Results At baseline, the HSV detection rate was 32%, without significant increase in genital HSV detection noted during the first month or the third month of ART. HIV-1 shedding declined during this period; no association was also noted between HSV and HIV-1 shedding during this period. Conclusion Because other studies have reported increased HSV detection in women initiating ART and we have previously reported an increase in GUD during early ART, it may be prudent to counsel HIV-1 infected women initiating ART that HSV shedding in the genital tract may continue after ART initiation. PMID:27683204

  6. Surgical salvage improves overall survival for HPV-positive and HPV-negative recurrent locoregional and distant metastatic oropharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Theresa; Qualliotine, Jesse R.; Ha, Patrick K.; Califano, Joseph A.; Kim, Young; Saunders, John R.; Blanco, Ray; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Zhang, Zhe; Chung, Christine H.; Kiess, Ana; Gourin, Christine G.; Koch, Wayne; Richmon, Jeremy D.; Agrawal, Nishant; Eisele, David W.; Fakhry, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) tumor status and surgical salvage are associated with improved prognosis for patients with recurrent oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Current data regarding types of surgery and the impact of surgery for distant metastatic disease are limited. Methods A retrospective analysis of patients with recurrent OPSCC from two institutions between 2000-2012 was performed. P16 immunohistochemistry and/or in situ hybridization, as clinically available, were used to determine HPV tumor status. Clinical characteristics, distribution of recurrence site and treatment modalities were compared by HPV tumor status. Overall survival was examined by Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards methods. Results The study included 108 patients with 65 locoregional and 43 distant metastatic first recurrences. The majority were HPV-positive (n=80). HPV-positive tumor status was associated with longer time to recurrence (p<0.01). Anatomic site distribution of recurrences did not differ by HPV tumor status. HPV-positive tumor status (adjusted HR [aHR] 0.23 (95%CI 0.09-0.58), p=0.002), longer time to recurrence (≥1 year; aHR 0.36 (0.18-0.74), p=0.006), and surgical salvage (aHR 0.26 (0.12-0.61), p=0.002) were independently associated with overall survival after recurrence. Surgical salvage was independently associated with improved overall survival compared to non-surgical treatment in both locoregional (aHR 0.15 (0.04-0.56), p=0.005) and distant metastatic recurrence (aHR 0.19 (0.05-0.75), p=0.018). Conclusions Surgical salvage is associated with improved overall survival for recurrent locoregional and distant metastatic OPSCC, independent of HPV tumor status. Further prospective data is needed to confirm the role of surgical salvage for distant metastases. PMID:25782027

  7. [Guidelines for application of molecular tests identyfying HR HPV DNA in the prevention of cervical cancer. Statement of experts from PGS (PTG) and NCLD (KIDL)].

    PubMed

    2013-05-01

    DNA from high risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV-HR) is detected in virtually all cervical cancer samples. Most of HPV infections are transient, some persist and lead to development of neoplastics or even cervical cancer lesions. Cervical cancer screening programs are designed to detect early precancerous changes, which should decrease the cancer morbidity and mortality and reduce the costs of diagnosis and treatment. The most effective are screening programs that use cytological and HPV testing. Screening with this method are proven to reduce both the incidence and mortality from cervical cancer WOMEN AGED 21-29 YEARS: HPV testing should not be used to screen women aged 21-29 years, either as a stand-alone test or as a cotest with cytology DNA HPV HR testing in this group of women is recommended in diagnostics ofASCUS. Women DNA HPV positive with ASCUS should be referred to colposcopy WOMEN AGED 30-65 YEARS: Screening by HPV testing alone is not recommended. Women should be screened with cytology and HPV testing every 5 years or cytology alone every 3 years (acceptable). DNA HPV HR /+/, PAP /-/: Two options are recommended. Option 1: 12-months follow-up with contesting (PAP and DNA HPV HR tests). Option 2: Test for HPV16 or HPV16/18 genotypes. If HPV16 or HPV16/18 positive: refer to colposcopy If HPV16 or HPV16/18 negative:12-months follow-up with cotesting. DNA HPV HR /-/, ASC-US: Repetition of cytology in 12 moths is recommended. WOMEN AGED >65 YEARS: No screening is recommended following adequate negative prior to screening. Women with a history of CIN2 or a more severe diagnosis should continue routine screening for at least 20 years. WOMEN HPV VACCINATED: Follow age-specific recommendations (same as unvaccinated women). REQUIREMENTS OF DNA HPV HR TESTS IN CERVICAL SCREENING: The DNA HPV tests used in cervical screening should detect as much as possible of 14 HPV HR types (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66 i 68) and genotyping HPV 16

  8. Impact of HPV infection on the clinical outcome of p-CAIR trial in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Snietura, Miroslaw; Piglowski, Wojciech; Jaworska, Magdalena; Mucha-Malecka, Anna; Wozniak, Grzegorz; Lange, Dariusz; Suwinski, Rafal

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyse the influence of HPV infection on the outcome of a randomized clinical trial of conventional (CF) versus 7-days-a-week postoperative radiotherapy (p-CAIR) for squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (SCCHN). Between 2001 and 2004, 279 patients with high-risk SCC of the larynx or cancer of the oral cavity/oropharynx were randomized to receive 63 Gy in fractions of 1.8 Gy given 5 days a week or 7 days a week (Radiother Oncol 87:155-163, 2008). The presence of HPV DNA in 131 archival paraffin blocks was assessed with multiplex quantitative real-time PCR using five consensus primers for the conservative L1 region and molecular beacon probes targeting 14 high-risk HPV subtypes. Following the RT-PCR procedure, we could determine the presence and type of HPV16, HPV18 and the other 12 less frequent oncogenic subtypes. Out of 131 samples, 9 were positive for HPV infection (6.9%), all of them with HPV16 subtype. None of the 65 laryngeal tumours was HPV positive. The 5-year LRC in HPV-positive patients was 100%, compared to 58% in the HPV-negative group (p = 0.02, log-rank test). Amongst 122 patients with HPV-negative tumours, 5-year LRC was 50.3% in p-CF versus 65.2 in p-CAIR (p = 0.37). HPV infection was associated with low expression of EGFR and cyclin D. This study demonstrates a favourable outcome for HPV-positive patients with SCCHN treated with postoperative radiotherapy. While considering the small number of HPV+ tumours, the data set can be considered as hypothesis generating only, the outcome raises new questions on the necessity of aggressive postoperative treatment in HPV+ patients.

  9. Quantifying the broader economic consequences of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Germany applying a government perspective framework.

    PubMed

    Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Connolly, Mark P; Remy, Vanessa

    2015-12-01

    HPV infections can cause substantial burden in females and males as it is associated with several genital cancers, in addition to genital warts. Traditional economic evaluations often focus on quantifying cost-effectiveness, however, it is increasingly recognized that vaccinations may generate broader benefits not captured in cost-effectiveness analysis. Τhe aim of this study was to evaluate the broader economic consequences associated with HPV vaccination in males and females and to conduct a lifetime cost-benefit analysis of investing in universal vaccination in Germany from the perspective of government. Methodologies from generational accounting, human capital and health economics were combined to estimate the broader economic consequences of HPV vaccination including the fiscal impact for the government. A cohort model was developed simulating the medical costs and average lifetime fiscal transfers between the government and 12-year-old immunized and non-immunized males and females. To estimate tax revenue attributed to vaccination-related changes in morbidity and mortality, direct and indirect tax rates were linked to differences in age- and gender-specific earnings. Based on HPV vaccination costs, the base case cost-benefit analysis demonstrated that investing 1 in universal HPV vaccination could yield 1.7 in gross tax revenue over the lifetime of the cohorts. After taking into consideration the governmental transfers, universal HPV vaccination in Germany could result in incremental positive net discounted taxes (i.e. tax revenue-transfers) from 62 million for the German government. The vaccination of males and females with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine is likely to have positive effects on public finances.

  10. HPV prevalence and genotypes in different histological subtypes of cervical adenocarcinoma, a worldwide analysis of 760 cases.

    PubMed

    Pirog, Edyta C; Lloveras, Belen; Molijn, Anco; Tous, Sara; Guimerà, Núria; Alejo, Maria; Clavero, Omar; Klaustermeier, Joellen; Jenkins, David; Quint, Wim Gv; Xavier Bosch, Francesc; Alemany, Laia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-12-01

    The goal of our study was to provide comprehensive data on the worldwide human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in patients with invasive cervical adenocarcinoma in correlation with histologic tumor subtypes, geographical location, patients' age, and duration of sample storage. Paraffin-embedded samples of 760 cervical adenocarcinoma cases were collected worldwide. A three-level pathology review of cases was performed to obtain consensus histologic diagnoses and 682 cases were determined to be eligible for further analysis. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA(25) system (version 1). Classic cervical adenocarcinoma accounted for 83.1% of cases, while rare histological variants accounted for a few percent of cases individually. HPV positivity varied significantly between the different histologic tumor subtypes. Classic cervical adenocarcinoma showed high HPV positivity (71.8%), while other adenocarcinoma types had significantly lower HPV prevalence (endometrioid 27.3%, serous 25%, clear cell 20%, not otherwise specified 13.9%, and minimal deviation 8.3%). In all, 91.8% of HPV-positive tumors showed the presence of a single viral type and in 7% of cases multiple viral types were detected. Three HPV genotypes, HPV 16, 18, and 45, dominated in all adenocarcinomas and together accounted for 94.1% of HPV-positive tumors. HPV16 was the most common and found in 50.9% of HPV-positive cases, followed by HPV18 (31.6%) and HPV45 (11.6%). HPV prevalence varied depending on geographical region, patient age, and sample storage time. Tumors from older patients and tumor samples with longer storage time showed lower HPV prevalence. Our results indicate that HPV vaccines may prevent up to 82.5% (HPV16/18) and up to 95.3% (9-valent vaccine) of HPV-positive cervical adenocarcinomas, mostly the classic type. HPV testing and vaccination will not provide full coverage for a very small subset of classical adenocarcinomas and most of the rare

  11. [Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in Belém, Pará State, Brazil, in the oral cavity of individuals without clinically diagnosable injuries].

    PubMed

    Araújo, Marizeli Viana de Aragão; Pinheiro, Helder Henrique Costa; Pinheiro, João de Jesus Viana; Quaresma, Juarez Antônio Simões; Fuzii, Hellen Thais; Medeiros, Rita Catarina

    2014-05-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine HPV prevalence in the oral cavity of individuals without clinically diagnosable lesions and to identify the respective HPV types. A total of 166 samples were analyzed from patients 18 years or older in the State of Pará, Brazil. Samples were collected by sterile brush scraping in the oral cavity. HPV detection used polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Infected samples were typed as HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 52, and 58. HPV was present in 40 samples (24.1%). Three samples (7.5%) were positive for HPV 6, five (12.5%) for HPV 18, and one (2.5%) for HPV 58.

  12. Warts and All: HPV in Primary Immunodeficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Leiding, Jennifer W.; Holland, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is almost universal and eventually asymptomatic, but pathologic infection with HPV is severe, recurrent, and recalcitrant to therapy. It is also an underappreciated manifestation of primary immunodeficiency. Mutations in EVER1, EVER2, GATA2, CXCR4, and DOCK8 are typically associated with extensive HPV infections, whereas several other primary immune defects have severe HPV much less frequently. We review immunodeficiencies with severe HPV infections and the mechanisms underlying them. PMID:23036745

  13. Female genital mutilation: cultural awareness and clinical considerations.

    PubMed

    Braddy, Cathleen M; Files, Julia A

    2007-01-01

    Clinicians in the United States are increasingly encountering girls and women who have undergone female genital mutilation. To foster a more trusting relationship with such patients, health care providers must have an accurate understanding of the cultural background surrounding this practice, a working knowledge of the different types of female genital mutilation procedures that may be encountered, and an awareness of both the acute and long-term complications. Some of these complications are potentially fatal, and the correct clinical diagnosis can be lifesaving.

  14. A randomized trial of immunotherapy for persistent genital warts

    PubMed Central

    Jardine, David; Lu, Jieqiang; Pang, James; Palmer, Cheryn; Tu, Quanmei; Chuah, John; Frazer, Ian H.

    2012-01-01

    Aim To determine whether immunotherapy with HPV6 L1 virus like particles (VLPs) without adjuvant (VLP immunotherapy) reduces recurrence of genital warts following destructive therapy. Trial design A randomized placebo controlled blinded study of treatment of recurrent genital warts amenable to destructive therapy, conducted independently in Australia and China. Methods Patients received conventional destructive therapy of all evident warts together with intramuscular administration of 1, 5 or 25 µg of VLP immunotherapy, or of placebo immunotherapy (0.9% NaCl), as immunotherapy at week 0 and week 4. Primary outcome, assessed at week 8, was recurrence of visible warts. Results Of 33 protocol compliant Brisbane recipients of placebo immunotherapy, 11 were disease free at two months, and a further 9 demonstrated reduction of > 50% in total wart area. Wart area reduction following destructive treatment correlated with prior duration of disease. Among 102 protocol compliant Brisbane recipients of VLP immunotherapy, disease reduction was significantly greater than among the placebo immunotherapy (50% ± s.e.m. 7%) recipients for subjects receiving 5 µg or 25 µg of VLP immunotherapy/dose (71% ± s.e.m.7%) but not for those receiving 1 µg VLP immunotherapy/dose (42% ± 7%). Of 52 protocol compliant placebo immunotherapy recipients in Wenzhou, 37 were disease free at two months, and a further 8 had > 50% disease reduction. Prior disease duration was much shorter in Wenzhou subject (8.1 ± 1.1 mo) than in Brisbane subjects (53.7 ± 5.5 mo). No significant reduction in mean wart area was observed for the 168 Wenzhou protocol compliant subjects who also received VLP immunotherapy. Conclusions This study confirms the findings in a previous open label trial that administration of VLP immunotherapy may assist in clearance of recurrent genital warts in patients for whom destructive therapy is unsuccessful and that unsuccessful destructive therapy is more common with increasing

  15. Female genital mutilation and childbirth: a case report.

    PubMed

    McCleary, P H

    1994-12-01

    Over 80 million women in more than 30 countries have undergone female genital mutilation, also called female circumcision, according to World Health Organization estimates. Over the past decade 70,000 Somalians have become residents in Canada, 50,000 of whom live in Toronto, Ontario. Many of the women are of childbearing age, and 99.5 percent of women in Somalia are reported to have been genitally mutilated. Canadian medical organizations have published position statements prohibiting the practice. This case report describes the pregnancy and childbirth of a Somalian woman with the infibulation type of procedure. When perinatal health professionals are aware of and sensitive to the cultural and medical implications and sequelae of female genital mutilation, they will give better care to affected women. PMID:7766244

  16. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Christiane Maria Moreira; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gomes, Francis de Assis Moraes; Amaral, Rose; Passos, Mauro Romero Leal; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine da Silveira

    2007-04-01

    Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD)--syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum; and other non-STD disorders (NSTD)--Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53). Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female genital ulcers. The

  17. Incidence and persistence of carcinogenic genital human papillomavirus infections in young women with or without Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Vriend, Henrike J; Bogaards, Johannes A; van Bergen, Jan E A M; Brink, Antoinette A T P; van den Broek, Ingrid V F; Hoebe, Christian J P A; King, Audrey J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Wolffs, Petra F G; de Melker, Hester E

    2015-01-01

    We assessed whether infection with chlamydia increases the incidence of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and if HPV persistence is affected by chlamydia co-infection. For 1982 women (16–29 years-old) participating in two consecutive rounds of a chlamydia screening implementation trial, swabs were polymerase chain reaction tested to detect chlamydia and 14 carcinogenic HPV genotypes. HPV type-specific incidence and persistence rates were stratified for chlamydia positivity at follow-up. Associations were assessed by multilevel logistic regression analyses with correction for sexual risk factors. HPV type-specific incidence ranged from 1.4% to 8.9% and persistence from 22.7% to 59.4% after a median follow-up of 11 months (interquartile range: 11–12). Differences in 1-year HPV persistence rates between chlamydia -infected and noninfected women were less distinct than differences in HPV incidence rates (pooled adjusted odds ratios of 1.17 [95% CI: 0.69–1.96] and 1.84 [95% CI: 1.36–2.47], respectively). The effect of chlamydia co-infection on HPV-infection risk did not significantly differ by HPV genotype. In conclusion, infection with chlamydia increases the risk of infection by carcinogenic HPV types and may enhance persistence of some HPV types. Although these findings could reflect residual confounding through unobserved risk factors, our results do give reason to explore more fully the association between chlamydia and HPV type-specific acquisition and persistence. PMID:26194784

  18. Establishment of an in vitro equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) neutralization assay and a VLP-based vaccine for protection of equids against EcPV2-associated genital tumors.

    PubMed

    Schellenbacher, Christina; Shafti-Keramat, Saeed; Huber, Bettina; Fink, Dieter; Brandt, Sabine; Kirnbauer, Reinhard

    2015-12-01

    The consistent and specific presence of Equus caballus papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) DNA and mRNA in equine genital squamous cell carcinoma (gSCC) is suggestive of an etiological role in tumor development. To further validate this concept, EcPV2-neutralizing serum antibody titers were determined by an EcPV2 pseudovirion (PsV) neutralization assay. Furthermore, an EcPV2 L1 virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccine was generated and its prophylactic efficacy evaluated in vivo. All 6/6 gSCC-affected, but only 3/20 tumor-free age-matched animals revealed EcPV2-neutralizing serum antibody titers by PsV assay. Vaccination of NZW rabbits and BalbC mice with EcPV2 L1 VLP using Freund׳s or alum respectively as adjuvant induced high-titer neutralizing serum antibodies (1600-12,800). Passive transfer with rabbit EcPV2-VLP immune sera completely protected mice from experimental vaginal EcPV2 PsV infection. These findings support the impact of EcPV2 in equine gSCC development and recommend EcPV2 L1 VLP as prophylactic vaccine against EcPV2 infection and associated disease in equids.

  19. Establishment of an in vitro equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) neutralization assay and a VLP-based vaccine for protection of equids against EcPV2-associated genital tumors.

    PubMed

    Schellenbacher, Christina; Shafti-Keramat, Saeed; Huber, Bettina; Fink, Dieter; Brandt, Sabine; Kirnbauer, Reinhard

    2015-12-01

    The consistent and specific presence of Equus caballus papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) DNA and mRNA in equine genital squamous cell carcinoma (gSCC) is suggestive of an etiological role in tumor development. To further validate this concept, EcPV2-neutralizing serum antibody titers were determined by an EcPV2 pseudovirion (PsV) neutralization assay. Furthermore, an EcPV2 L1 virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccine was generated and its prophylactic efficacy evaluated in vivo. All 6/6 gSCC-affected, but only 3/20 tumor-free age-matched animals revealed EcPV2-neutralizing serum antibody titers by PsV assay. Vaccination of NZW rabbits and BalbC mice with EcPV2 L1 VLP using Freund׳s or alum respectively as adjuvant induced high-titer neutralizing serum antibodies (1600-12,800). Passive transfer with rabbit EcPV2-VLP immune sera completely protected mice from experimental vaginal EcPV2 PsV infection. These findings support the impact of EcPV2 in equine gSCC development and recommend EcPV2 L1 VLP as prophylactic vaccine against EcPV2 infection and associated disease in equids. PMID:26519597

  20. Identification of the human papillomavirus type 6b L1 open reading frame protein in condylomas and corresponding antibodies in human sera.

    PubMed

    Li, C C; Shah, K V; Seth, A; Gilden, R V

    1987-09-01

    Genital warts (condylomata acuminata) are among the most frequent sexually transmitted infections. Human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV-6), which is etiologically related to a majority of these lesions, has not been propagated in tissue culture. We generated two forms of HPV-6 viral antigens: a chemically synthesized oligopeptide (referred to as the C-terminal synthetic peptide) corresponding to residues 482 to 495 of the 500-amino-acid-long L1 open reading frame (ORF), and a bacterially expressed 54-kilodalton (kDa) fusion protein containing the N-terminal 13 amino acids encoded by the lambda bacteriophage cII gene followed by one vector-insert junctional residue and 462 amino acids of the L1 ORF sequence (residues 39 to 500). The cII-L1 fusion protein was specifically recognized by an antipeptide serum directed against the N-terminal 13 amino acids derived from the cII gene, an antiserum raised against the C-terminal synthetic peptide, and a genus-specific serum prepared by immunization with disrupted viral capsids. The 54-kDa fusion protein was purified, and the sequence of its first 36 amino acids was determined and found to be as predicted by the DNA sequence. Both the genus-specific anticapsid serum and the antiserum raised against the fusion protein identified authentic L1 ORF proteins in HPV-1-induced (58 kDa) and HPV-6/11-induced (56 kDa) papillomas. The synthetic peptide antiserum recognized the 56- to 58-kDa protein in HPV-6-induced warts, but not in HPV-1- or HPV-11-infected specimens. Using the fusion protein as antigen in immunoassays, we were able to detect the corresponding antibodies in human sera. PMID:3039162

  1. Clinical Study of Styping Detection of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection with Microarray from Paraffinembedded Specimens of Cervical Cancer and Precursor Lesions.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai; Wang, Xubo; Geng, Jianxiang; Zhao, Xue

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in Jiangsu, China was investigated. A total of 93 cases with cervical cancer and 176 CINII-III tissue samples were obtained from women undergoing biopsy or surgery. The 1047 exfoliated cervical cell samples were collected with cervical brush in physical examination women. HPV DNA and typing were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene-chip. The results showed that HPV DNA was detected in 82 cases with cervical cancer (88.17%), HPV 16 being detected in 65 (69.89%) cases, HPV 18 in 12 (12.90%) cases, HPV 33 in 10 (10.75%) cases, HPV 31 in 4 (4.30%) cases, and HPV 45 in 3 (3.23%) cases. HPV DNA was detected in 154 cases with CINII-III (87.50%), HPV 16 being detected in 92 (52.27%) cases, HPV 18 in 50 (28.41%) cases, HPV 33 in 25 (14.21%) cases, HPV 58 in 25 (14.21%) cases, and HPV 31 in 20 (11.36%) cases. About 20.43% cervical cancer and 38.64% CINII-III specimens exhibited multiple infections (p < 0.01). The total positive rate, single infection and mixed infection rate of the CINII-III and SCC group all had a significant difference (p < 0.05) when compared with the normal cells group. The total positive rate, single infection rate and mixed infection rate of CINII-III group did not show significant difference (p > 0.05) when compared with SCC group. CINII-III and SCC had all intimate relation with HPV infection. The high prevalence of HPV 16, 18, 33, 31 and 58 in Jiangsu (China) deserves more attention, as it has important implications for the successful use of HPV vaccine and choice of diagnostic methods. PMID:26716195

  2. Evaluation of the Long-Term Anti-Human Papillomavirus 6 (HPV6), 11, 16, and 18 Immune Responses Generated by the Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Saah, Alfred; Munk, Christian; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Enerly, Espen; Hortlund, Maria; Sigurdardottir, Lara G.; Vuocolo, Scott; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Dillner, Joakim

    2015-01-01

    This quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) (HPV6, -11, -16, and -18) vaccine long-term follow-up (LTFU) study is an ongoing extension of a pivotal clinical study (FUTURE II) taking place in the Nordic region. The LTFU study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness, immunogenicity, and safety of the qHPV vaccine (Gardasil) for at least 10 years following completion of the base study. The current report presents immunogenicity data from testing samples of the year 5 LTFU visit (approximately 9 years after vaccination). FUTURE II vaccination arm subjects, who consented to being followed in the LTFU, donated serum at regular intervals and in 2012. Anti-HPV6, -11, -16, and -18 antibodies were detected by the competitive Luminex immunoassay (cLIA), and in addition, serum samples from 2012 were analyzed by the total IgG Luminex immunoassay (LIA) (n = 1,598). cLIA geometric mean titers (GMTs) remained between 70% and 93% of their month 48 value depending on HPV type. For all HPV types, the lower bound of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the year 9 GMTs remained above the serostatus cutoff value. The proportion of subjects who remained seropositive based on the IgG LIA was higher than the proportion based on cLIA, especially for anti-HPV18. As expected, the anti-HPV serum IgG and cLIA responses were strongly correlated for all HPV types. Anti-HPV GMTs and the proportion of vaccinated individuals who are seropositive remain high for up to 9 years of follow-up after vaccination. PMID:26084514

  3. [Cervix uteri lesions and human papiloma virus infection (HPV): detection and characterization of DNA/HPV using PCR (polymerase chain reaction].

    PubMed

    Serra, H; Pista, A; Figueiredo, P; Urbano, A; Avilez, F; De Oliveira, C F

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes was estimated by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in archival paraffin was embedded tissues. The case group consisted of 84 women aged 21-67 years (mean, 40 years) who were referred to the Department of Gynaecology (Oncology Centre, Coimbra) with citopathologically abnormal smears. This group was selected from a population of women who had undergone a screening programme (1990/94) in Central Region of Portugal. All these patients (n = 84) had a colposcopic directed cervical biopsy. HPV detection and typing was performed by the PCR method in the Department of Virology (National Health Care Institute, Lisbon). The prevalence of DNA/HPV found, concerning all epithelial cervical lesions studied and classified as squamous intra-epithelial lesions (SIL) and cervical cancer was 97.8%. On the basis of the data presented in this study, it was estimated that there was a statistically significant prevalence of low risk HPV types (HPV 6/11) in low grade SIL, 83.3%, and a statistically significant prevalence of high risk HPV types (HPV 16,18,31,33,51) in high grade SIL, 58.4%, as well as cervical cancer lesions in 100%. We conclude that there was a statistically significant difference between women with low and high grade SIL for HPV infection, with low and high risk HPV types, respectively. The risk factors for cervical cancer investigated (age at first sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners, parity, use of oral contraceptives) were not associated to statistically significant differences concerning low grade SIL and high grade SIL. The clinical and therapeutic procedures were evaluated for the same five years (1990/94). It may be concluded that there would be no significant difference in clinical procedure for high grade lesions and cervical cancer, in which the treatment had been frequently radical (cone biopsies, simple or radical hysterectomy) and in which the HPV infection persisted frequently and was

  4. HPV Infection in Cervical and Other Cancers in Saudi Arabia: Implication for Prevention and Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Alsbeih, Ghazi

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is closely associated with cervical cancer that the incidence of this tumor is regarded as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in countries lacking epidemiological studies. HPV is also implicated in subsets of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. Although cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, its reported incidence is low in Saudi Arabia, ranking number 12 between all cancers in females and accounts only for 2.4% of all new cases, despite the lack of national screening programs. However, the limited available studies from Saudi Arabia indicate that HPV prevalence and genotypes’ distribution in invasive cervical cancer show similar pattern as in the world. Cytology screening (Pap smear) and HPV vaccinations are the two preventive measures against cervical cancer. The two available vaccines are effective against the two most common HPV genotypes (HPV-16 and -18). Since 92% of cervical tumors in the Kingdom are infected with HPV of which 78% are HPV-16 and -18 genotypes, vaccination is expected to protect against more than two-third of cervical cancers in Saudi Arabia. Nevertheless, due to its low incidence (2.1/100,000 women), a proper cost-effectiveness analysis is required to justify the implementation of a costly vaccine bearing in mind that