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Sample records for genital hpv types

  1. Detection of HPV types and neutralizing antibodies in women with genital warts in Tianjin City, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-ling; Zhang, Chun-tao; Zhu, Xiao-ke; Wang, You-chun

    2010-02-01

    The serum samples and corresponding cervical swabs were collected from 50 women with genital warts from Tianjin city, China. The neutralizing antibodies against HPV-16, -18, -58, -45, -6 and -11 in serum samples were tested by using pseudovirus-based neutralization assays and HPV DNAs in cervical swabs were also tested by using a typing kit that can detect 21 types of HPV. The results revealed that 36% (18/50) of sera were positive for type-specific neutralizing antibodies with a titer range of 160-2560, of which 22%(11/50), 12%(6/50), 10%(5/50), 4%(2/50), 4%(2/50) and 2%(1/50) were against HPVs -6, -16, -18, -58, -45 and -11, respectively. Additionally, 60% (30/50) of samples were HPV DNA-positive, in which the most common types detected were HPV-68(18%), HPV-16(14%), HPV-58(12%), HPV-33(8%) and HPV-6, HPV-11, HPV-18 and HPV-52 (6% each). The concordance between HPV DNA and corresponding neutralizing antibodies was 56% (28/50) with a significant difference (P<0.05). The full-length sequences of five HPV types (HPV -42, -52, -53, -58 and -68) were determined and exhibited 98%-100% identities with their reported genomes. The present data may have utility for investigating the natural history of HPV infection and promote the development of HPV vaccines.

  2. Pathogenesis of genital HPV infection.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, A

    1993-01-01

    Clinical, subclinical, and latent human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are distinguished from HPV-associated neoplasia. Besides HPV additional cofactors are necessary to transform HPV infected tissue to intraepithelial or invasive neoplasia. Risk factors for the presence of HPV are high number of sexual partners, early cohabitarche, young age at first delivery, suppression and alteration of immune status, young age and hormonal influences. While the fact of a high number of sexual partners exclusively increases the risk of HPV infection, it is not known whether the other factors lead to either an increased risk for HPV infection and/or to HPV-associated neoplasia. Subclinical and latent genital HPV infections are highly prevalent. The prevalence rate depends on the sensitivity of the HPV detection system used, on age and sexual activity of the population screened, and on the number of subsequent examinations performed for each subject. Sexual transmission is the main pathway for genital HPV's, however, vertical, peripartal, and oral transmission are also possible. Seroreactivity against genital HPV may be due to an active infection or the result of contact with HPV earlier in life. Antibodies against the HPV 16 E7 protein indicate an increased risk for cervical cancer. Compared with humoral response cellular immune response is probably more important for regression of genital HPV infection: impaired cellular response is characterized by depletion of T helper/inducer cells and/or Langerhans cells and impaired function of natural killer cells and/or the infected keratinocyte. In condylomata replication and transcription of viral nucleic acids and antigen production coincide with cellular differentiation. However, the interaction between HPV and the keratinocyte on a molecular level in subclinical and latent disease is not well understood. Regression or persistence of subclinical and latent genital HPV infections as observed in longitudinal investigations show a

  3. Genital Warts (HPV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 26 and guys 11 through 21 get the HPV vaccine . The vaccine protects against some types of HPV ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC HPV Vaccine Talking to Your Partner About Condoms I Can' ...

  4. Human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution and serological response to HPV type 6 virus-like particles in patients with genital warts.

    PubMed Central

    Greer, C E; Wheeler, C M; Ladner, M B; Beutner, K; Coyne, M Y; Liang, H; Langenberg, A; Yen, T S; Ralston, R

    1995-01-01

    Thirty-nine patients with condylomas (12 women and 27 men) attending a dermatology clinic were tested for genital human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA and for seroprevalence to HPV type 6 (HPV6) L1 virus-like particles. The L1 consensus PCR system (with primers MY09 and MY11) was used to determine the presence and types of HPV in sample specimens. All 37 (100%) patients with sufficient DNA specimens were positive for HPV DNA, and 35 (94%) had HPV6 DNA detected at the wart site. Three patients (8%) had HPV11 detected at the wart site, and one patient had both HPV6 and -11 detected at the wart site. Thirteen additional HPV types were detected among the patients; the most frequent were HPV54 (8%) and HPV58 (8%). Baculovirus-expressed HPV6 L1 virus-like particles were used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to determine seroprevalence among the patients with warts. Seronegativity was defined by a control group of 21 women who were consistently PCR negative for HPV DNA. Seroprevalence was also determined for reference groups that included cytologically normal women who had detectable DNA from either HPV6 or HPV16 and women with HPV16-associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Among the asymptomatic women with HPV6, only 2 of 9 (22%) were seropositive, compared with 12 of 12 (100%) female patients with warts. A similar trend in increased HPV6 seropositivity with increased grade of disease was found with the HPV16 DNA-positive women, whose seroprevalence increased from 1 in 11 (9%) in cytologically normal women to 6 in 15 (40%) among women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 or 3. However, only 4 of 25 (16%) male patients were seropositive.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7559948

  5. Genital HPV infection progression to external genital lesions: The HIM Study

    PubMed Central

    Sudenga, Staci L.; Ingles, Donna J.; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes two types of external genital lesions (EGLs) in men: genital warts (condyloma) and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). Objective The purpose of this study was to describe genital HPV progression to a histopathologically confirmed HPV-related EGL. Design, Setting and Participants A prospective analysis nested within the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study was conducted among 3033 men. At each visit, visually distinct EGLs were biopsied, subjected to pathological evaluation, and categorized by pathological diagnoses. Genital swabs and biopsies were used to identify HPV types using the Linear Array genotyping method for swabs and INNO-LiPA for biopsies. Outcome Measurements EGL incidence was determined among 1788 HPV-positive men, and cumulative incidence rates at 6, 12, and 24 months were estimated. The proportion of HPV infections that progressed to EGL was also calculated, along with median time to EGL development. Results and Limitations Among 1788 HPV-positive men, 92 developed an incident EGL during follow-up (9 PeIN and 86 condyloma). During the first 12 months of follow-up, 16% of men with a genital HPV6 infection developed a HPV6-positive condyloma, and 22% of genital HPV11 infections progressed to an HPV11-positive condyloma. During the first 12-months of follow-up, 0.5% of men with a genital HPV16 infection developed an HPV16-positive PeIN. Although we expected PeIN to be a rare event, the sample size for PeIN (n=10) limited the types of analyses that could be performed. Conclusions Most EGLs develop following infection with HPV 6, 11, or 16, all of which could be prevented with the 4-valent HPV vaccine. Patient Summary In this study, we looked at genital HPV infections that can cause lesions in men. The HPV that we detected within the lesions could be prevented through a vaccine. PMID:26051441

  6. Cutaneous human papillomavirus types detected on the surface of male external genital lesions: A case series within the HPV Infection in Men Study

    PubMed Central

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Jukic, Drazen M.; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik; Rollison, Dana E.; Sichero, Laura; Sirak, Bradley A.; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lu, Beibei; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) may be associated with cutaneous epithelial lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers. No study has systematically evaluated the presence of genus beta [β]-HPV in male genital skin or external genital lesions (EGLs). Objectives To examine cutaneous β-HPV types detected on the surface of EGLs in men and describe their presence prior to EGL development. Study design A retrospective case series was conducted among 69 men with pathologically confirmed EGLs (n=72) who participated in the HPV Infection in Men Study. Archived exfoliated cells collected from the surface of each EGL and normal genital skin specimens 6–12 months preceding EGL development were tested for β-HPV DNA using a type-specific multiplex genotyping assay. Results β-HPV DNA was detected on 61.1% of all EGLs, with types 38 (16.7%), 5 (15.3%), and 12 (12.5%) most commonly identified. HPV prevalence differed across pathological diagnoses, with the largest number of β-HPV types detected on condylomas. Most β-HPV types were detected on normal genital skin prior to EGL development, though the prevalence was lower on EGLs compared to preceding normal genital skin. Conclusions EGLs and the normal genital skin of men harbor a large number of β-HPV types; however, it appears that β-HPVs are unrelated to EGL development in men. Despite evidence to support a causal role in skin carcinogenesis at UVR-exposed sites, cutaneous HPV appears unlikely to cause disease at the UVR-unexposed genitals. PMID:24210970

  7. Transforming growth factors beta 1 and 2 transcriptionally regulate human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 early gene expression in HPV-immortalized human genital epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Woodworth, C D; Notario, V; DiPaolo, J A

    1990-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) early proteins E6 and E7 have been implicated in maintenance of the malignant phenotype in cervical cancer. Transforming growth factors beta one and two (TGF betas 1 and 2), polypeptides that regulate cellular growth and differentiation, reversibly inhibited expression of the HPV16 E6 and E7 genes in several immortal genital epithelial cell lines. Loss of E6 and E7 protein expression followed a dramatic time- and dose-dependent decrease in E6 and E7 RNA levels and was accompanied by cessation of cell proliferation. TGF betas 1 and 2 inhibited HPV16 RNA expression at the transcriptional level; inhibition was dependent upon ongoing protein synthesis. TGF betas 1 and 2 also induced a six- to sevenfold increase in TGF beta 1 RNA. Cells became partially resistant to the inhibitory effects of TGF beta 1 on cell growth and HPV early gene expression after prolonged cultivation in vitro or after malignant transformation. Thus, TGF beta 1 may function as an autocrine regulator of HPV gene expression in infected genital epithelial cells. Images PMID:2168964

  8. Genital and cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) types in relation to conjunctival squamous cell neoplasia: A case-control study in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    de Koning, Maurits NC; Waddell, Keith; Magyezi, Joseph; Purdie, Karin; Proby, Charlotte; Harwood, Catherine; Lucas, Sebastian; Downing, Robert; Quint, Wim GV; Newton, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Background We investigated the role of infection with genital and cutaneous human papillomavirus types (HPV) in the aetiology of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (which includes both conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and carcinoma) using data and biological material collected as part of a case-control study in Uganda. Results Among 81 cases, the prevalence of genital and cutaneous HPV types in tumour tissue did not differ significantly by histological grade of the lesion. The prevalence of genital HPV types did not differ significantly between cases and controls (both 38%; Odds ratio [OR] 1.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4–2.7, p = 1.0). The prevalence of cutaneous HPV types was 22% (18/81) among cases and 3% (1/29) among controls (OR 8.0, 95% CI 1.0–169, p = 0.04). Conclusion We find no evidence of an association between genital HPV types and ocular surface squamous neoplasia. The prevalence of cutaneous HPV was significantly higher among cases as compared to controls. Although consistent with results from two other case-control studies, the relatively low prevalence of cutaneous HPV types among cases (which does not differ by histological grade of tumour) indicates that there remains considerable uncertainty about a role for cutaneous HPV in the aetiology of this tumour. PMID:18783604

  9. Gardasil 9 Protects against Additional HPV Types

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from a large randomized clinical trial that shows a new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine effectively prevented infection and disease caused by seven HPV types that cause cancer and two HPV types that cause genital warts.

  10. Is incidence of multiple HPV genotypes rising in genital infections?

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, Amir; Hajia, Masoud; Jamali, Firouzeh; Kharazi, Faranak

    2017-02-16

    Frequency of cervical cancer related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) has increased remarkably in less-developed countries. Hence, applying capable diagnostic methods is urgently needed, as is having a therapeutic strategy as an effective step for cervical cancer prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of various multi-type HPV infection patterns and their possible rising incidence in women with genital infections. This descriptive study was conducted on women who attended referral clinical laboratories in Tehran for genital infections from January 2012 until December 2013. A total of 1387 archival cervical scraping and lesion specimens were collected from referred women. HPV genotyping was performed using approved HPV commercial diagnostic technologies with either INNO-LiPA HPV or Geno Array Test kits. HPV was positive in 563 cases (40.59%) with mean age of 32.35±9.96. Single, multiple HPV genotypes and untypable cases were detected in 398 (70.69%), 160 (28.42%) and 5 (0.89%) cases, respectively. Multiple HPV infections were detected in 92 (57.5%), 42 (26.2%), 17 (10.6%) and 9 (5.7%) cases as two, three, four and five or more genotypes, respectively. The prevalence of 32 HPV genotypes was determined one by one. Seventeen HPV genotypes were identified in 95.78% of all positive infections. Five dominant genotypes, HPV6, 16, 53, 11 and 31, were identified in a total of 52.35%of the HPV positive cases. In the present study, we were able to evaluate the rate of multiple HPV types in genital infections. Nevertheless, it is necessary to evaluate the role of the dominant HPV low-risk types and the new probably high-risk genotypes, such as HPV53, in the increasing incidences of genital infections.

  11. High prevalence of genital HPV infection among long-term monogamous partners of women with cervical dysplasia or genital warts-Another reason for HPV vaccination of boys.

    PubMed

    Rob, Filip; Tachezy, Ruth; Pichlík, Tomáš; Rob, Lukáš; Kružicová, Zuzana; Hamšíková, Eva; Šmahelová, Jana; Hercogová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study on the occurrence of a specific type of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) among long-term monogamous male partners of women with cervical dysplasia and genital warts. The purpose of the study was to improve knowledge with regards to the management of these couples. The presence of genital HPV-DNA was detected by PCR with broad spectrum primers followed by hybridization. 82 males met the study criteria, 41 in each group. Genital HPV-DNA prevalence was 67.5% in the genital warts group and 72.2% in the cervical dysplasia group. The prevalence of high risk HPVs was higher in the cervical dysplasia group, while low risk HPVs were more prevalent in the genital warts group (p < .05). The prevalence of HPV in males was independent of the duration of the relationship (73.5% for 6-24 months and 66.7% for longer relationships). In conclusion, our results suggest that the prevalence of the genital HPV infection in both groups of male partners is comparable and very high, but the spectrum of HPV types varies significantly. The presence of the genital HPV infection in male sexual partners seems to be independent of the duration of the relationship. Applying the HPV vaccination to boys may prevent this phenomenon.

  12. HPV

    MedlinePlus

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are common viruses that can cause warts. There are more than 100 types of HPV. Most are harmless, but about 30 types put ... either low-risk or high-risk. Low-risk HPV can cause genital warts. High-risk HPV can ...

  13. Seroconversion Following Anal and Genital HPV Infection in Men: The HIM Study

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, Anna R.; Viscidi, Raphael; Torres, B. Nelson; Ingles, Donna J.; Sudenga, Staci L.; Villa, Luisa L.; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Abrahamsen, Martha; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmeron, Jorge; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Background Protection from naturally acquired human papillomavirus (HPV) antibodies may influence HPV infection across the lifespan. This study describes seroconversion rates following genital, anal, and oral HPV 6/11/16/18 infections in men and examines differences by HPV type and anatomic site. Methods Men with HPV 6/11/16/18 infections who were seronegative for those genotypes at the time of DNA detection were selected from the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Sera specimens collected ≤36 months after detection were analyzed for HPV 6/11/16/18 antibodies using a virus-like particle-based ELISA. Time to seroconversion was separately assessed for each anatomic site, stratified by HPV type. Results Seroconversion to ≥1 HPV type (6/11/16/18) in this sub-cohort (N=384) varied by anatomic site, with 6.3, 18.9, and 0.0% seroconverting following anal, genital, and oral HPV infection, respectively. Regardless of anatomic site, seroconversion was highest for HPV 6 (19.3%). Overall, seroconversion was highest following anal HPV 6 infection (69.2%). HPV persistence was the only factor found to influence seroconversion. Conclusions Low seroconversion rates following HPV infection leave men susceptible to recurrent infections that can progress to HPV-related cancers. This emphasizes the need for HPV vaccination in men to ensure immune protection against new HPV infections and subsequent disease. PMID:26688833

  14. HPV-related external genital lesions among men residing in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Roberto J C; Sudenga, Staci L; Sichero, Laura; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Galan, Lenice; Cintra, Ricardo; Torres, B Nelson; Stoler, Mark; Giuliano, Anna R; Villa, Luisa L

    2017-04-08

    The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of external genital lesions (EGLs), specifically histologically confirmed condyloma (genital warts) and Penile Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PeIN), and genital HPV infection progression to EGLs among healthy men aged 18-73 residing in Brazil. Subjects included 1118 men enrolled in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study between July 2005 and June 2009. At each visit, EGLs were biopsied and subjected to pathological evaluation. HPV status in genital swabs and biopsies was determined by Linear Array and INNO-LiPA, respectively. Age-specific EGLs incidence and the proportion and median time to EGL development were estimated. Kaplan-Meier cumulative incidence rates at 6, 12, and 24 months were determined. During follow-up, 73 men developed an incident EGL. Men could develop multiple EGLs and there were 36 men with condyloma, 27 men with lesions suggestive of condyloma, six men with PeIN, and 20 men with non-HPV lesions. HPV-positive men who developed EGLs were younger (p=0.002) than men that did not develop lesions. Among the 815 men with HPV infection, 4% progressed to EGL with the same HPV detected in the swab. During follow up, 15.7% of genital HPV-6 and HPV-11 infections progressed to condyloma (median progression time of nine months for HPV-6 versus 6.8 months for HPV-11). Approximately 1% of HPV-16 infections progressed to PeIN with a median progression time of 25 months. HPV types covered by the 4-valent HPV vaccine were detected in 82.3% and 83.3% of condyloma and PeIN, respectively. The high burden of HPV and high frequency of progression to disease underscores the need to offer HPV prophylactic vaccination to men to reduce the overall burden of infection and diseases caused by HPV.

  15. Refractory Genital HPV Infection and Adult-Onset Still Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xin; Zheng, Heyi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Adult-onset Still disease (AOSD) is a systemic autoimmune disease (AIID) that can develop after exposure to infectious agents. Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been reported to induce or exacerbate AIIDs, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). No guidelines are available for the management of genital warts in AOSD. Case report and literature review. We report a patient who was diagnosed AOSD in the setting of refractory and recurrent genital HPV infection, demonstrating a possible link between HPV infection and AOSD. In addition, we also discuss the management of genital warts in patients with AOSD. To the best of our knowledge, no previous cases of AOSD with genital HPV infection have been reported in literature. We then conclude that the patient AOSD may be triggered by primary HPV infection. Larger number of patient samples is needed to confirm whether HPV could trigger AOSD. PMID:27082556

  16. HPV and HPV Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... to come in contact with someone else’s skin. HPV vaccines can prevent infection with the types of HPV ... likely to cause cancer and genital warts. See HPV Vaccines for more on this. Having few sex partners ...

  17. Genital Warts

    MedlinePlus

    Genital warts Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Genital warts are one of the most common types of sexually transmitted ... human papillomavirus (HPV), the virus that causes genital warts, at some point during their lives. Women are ...

  18. Concordance of HPV-DNA in cervical dysplasia or genital warts in women and their monogamous long-term male partners.

    PubMed

    Rob, Filip; Tachezy, Ruth; Pichlík, Tomáš; Škapa, Petr; Rob, Lukáš; Hamšíková, Eva; Šmahelová, Jana; Hercogová, Jana

    2017-04-08

    Transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV) is a premise for development of cervical dysplasia and genital warts. This cross-sectional study assesses concordance of HPV types present in genital warts or cervical dysplasia in women and genital infection of their monogamous male partners in conjunction with seroprevalence of HPV-6,-11,-16 and -18 antibodies. Blood was taken from both women and men, as well a smear of the urogenital area of men. HPV DNA detection in women was done in fixed paraffin embedded tissues under histological control. Of 143 couples who agreed to participate in the study, 68 met inclusion criteria. Type-specific concordance was observed in 32.5% (13/40) of couples in which women had genital warts and in 32.1% (9/28) of couples in which women had cervical dysplasia. In multivariate analysis only smoking in women was associated with concordance (p<0.05). Prevalence of HPV-specific antibodies was high in male partners, but was not associated with presence of the same HPV type on their genitals. The same type-specific HPV antibodies were detected in 81.8% of men in couples with HPV-6 concordant genital warts, but only in 14.3% of men in couples with HPV-16 concordant cervical dysplasia (p<0.01). These results suggest that type-specific HPV concordance in genital warts and cervical dysplasia lesions of women and genital infection of their male partners is common and similar. Higher seroconversion in couples with HPV-6 concordant genital warts compared with couples with HPV-16 concordant cervical dysplasia may be explained by viral load exposure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. HPV16 E6 seropositivity among cancer-free men with oral, anal or genital HPV16 infection.

    PubMed

    Beachler, Daniel C; Waterboer, Tim; Campbell, Christine M Pierce; Ingles, Donna J; Kuhs, Krystle A Lang; Nyitray, Alan G; Hildesheim, Allan; Pawlita, Michael; Kreimer, Aimée R; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-12-01

    Antibodies against the Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6 oncoprotein appear years prior to clinical diagnosis of anal and oropharyngeal cancer, but whether they develop around the time of HPV infection is unclear. Serum samples from 173 cancer-free men from the Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men (HIM) Study were tested for HPV antibodies and DNA. HPV16 E6 seropositivity was low among men with oral HPV16-infection (1/28; 3.6%, 95%CI=0.0%-18.4%), anal HPV16-infection (1/61; 1.6%, 95%CI=0.0%-8.8%), and 24-month persistent genital HPV16-infection (1/84; 1.2%, 0.0-6.5%). This suggests E6 seroconversion may not occur around the time of oral, anal, or genital HPV16 acquisition.

  20. 9-Valent HPV vaccine for cancers, pre-cancers and genital warts related to HPV.

    PubMed

    Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Velicer, Christine; Luxembourg, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of nearly all cervical cancer cases as well as a substantial proportion of anal, vulvar, vaginal, penile and oropharyngeal cancers, making it responsible for approximately 5% of the global cancer burden. The first-generation HPV vaccines that is, quadrivalent HPV type 6/11/16/18 vaccine and bivalent HPV type 16/18 vaccine were licensed in 2006 and 2007, respectively. A second-generation 9-valent HPV type 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine with broader cancer coverage was initiated even before the first vaccines were approved. By preventing HPV infection and disease due to HPV31/33/45/52/58, the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to increase prevention of cervical cancer from 70 to 90%. In addition, the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to prevent 85-95% of HPV-related vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers. Overall, the 9vHPV vaccine addresses a significant unmet medical need, although further health economics and implementation research is needed.

  1. HPV vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer; Genital warts - HPV vaccine; Cervical dysplasia - HPV vaccine; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine; Cancer of the cervix - HPV vaccine; Abnormal ...

  2. Prevalence of genital, oral, and anal HPV infection among STI patients in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ciccarese, Giulia; Herzum, Astrid; Rebora, Alfredo; Drago, Francesco

    2016-12-09

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a carcinogenic agent responsible for tumor development in many sexually involved tissues. We present a survey on the prevalence of HPV infection in a risk population for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The studied population was formed by 125 STI clinic attendees, who took part in a screening program on STIs. To be included in the study, the patients had to show no overt clinical signs of HPV infection. Genital (cervical in women, urethral in men), anal, and oral samples were collected with ThinPrep liquid based cytology preparation system. Overall, of the screened population, 56% proved positive for genital HPV, 37% for oral HPV, and 42% for anal HPV infection. Our data indicate that in STI patients, HPV infection is more prevalent, than previously estimated. Further studies are needed to better understand the epidemiological burden of HPV in sexually involved tissues, especially in the oral mucosa.

  3. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine efficacy against disease related to vaccine and non-vaccine HPV types in males.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, Stephen E; Jessen, Heiko; Palefsky, Joel M; Giuliano, Anna R; Moreira, Edson D; Vardas, Eftyhia; Aranda, Carlos; Hillman, Richard J; Ferris, Daron G; Coutlee, Francois; Marshall, J Brooke; Vuocolo, Scott; Haupt, Richard M; Guris, Dalya; Garner, Elizabeth

    2013-08-20

    A small number of HPV types are related to a majority of HPV-related neoplastic lesions in humans. High-risk types such as HPV 16 and 18 are most often implicated, although other oncogenic and non-oncogenic HPV types can cause disease in men. The efficacy of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV) against external genital lesions and intra-anal disease related to HPV in men has been demonstrated. This report examines the vaccine's efficacy against disease due to 10 additional non-vaccine HPV types, as well as efficacy regardless of HPV detection. The data presented suggest that vaccinating males against HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 protects them against most vaccine HPV-type related anogenital disease. However, significant efficacy against disease due to non-vaccine HPV types was not seen. In addition, the data do not provide any evidence that vaccination with qHPV vaccine will increase the likelihood of disease caused by non-vaccine types in the short term.

  4. HPV vaccines to prevent cervical cancer and genital warts: an update.

    PubMed

    Dochez, Carine; Bogers, Johannes J; Verhelst, Rita; Rees, Helen

    2014-03-20

    Cervical cancer is an important public health problem worldwide, and especially in developing countries. The link between cervical cancer and oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been clearly established. Furthermore, non-oncogenic HPV are responsible for the majority of genital warts. Two prophylactic HPV vaccines are available, which have the potential of considerably reducing HPV-related morbidity and mortality. Both vaccines are based on virus-like particles of the L1 capsid protein, and are highly efficacious and immunogenic if given before exposure to HPV, i.e. to adolescent girls between 9 and 13 years of age in a three-dose schedule. This review describes the immunology of natural HPV infections and the immune response evoked through vaccination. The current duration of protection is 8.4 years with the bivalent vaccine (HPV16/18) and 5 years with the quadrivalent vaccine (HPV6/11/16/18). Research is on-going to evaluate the efficacy of the current vaccines in a two-dose schedule, as compared to the recommended three-dose schedule. To increase the protection, the development and testing of a nine-valent prophylactic HPV vaccine (HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) is being undertaken. Research is also directed towards therapeutic vaccines and the development of a prophylactic L2 vaccine.

  5. A case of HPV and acquired genital lymphangioma: over-lapping clinical features.

    PubMed

    Cestaro, Giovanni; De Rosa, Michele; Gentile, Maurizio; Massa, Salvatore

    2015-03-25

    Lymphatic malformation or lymphangioma is a benign proliferation of the lymphatics accounting for 4% of all vascular malformations and 26% of all benign vascular tumors. There are several reports about genital lymphangiomas mimicking venereal lesions, such as genital warts. Hereby we described a case of a 24 year old man affected by multiple vesicles and warts in genital area. All hematological and biochemical parameters, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Treponema Pallidum tests, C1-Inhibitor and C1-Q values were within limits. An accurate fulguration and wide excision of bigger lesions were performed. Histological examination showed numerous dilated lymphatic vessels in the superficial dermis with infiltration of inflammatory cells, that is a histopathological picture compatible with genital lymphangioma. Considering our clinical suspicion of condylomatosis, HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Genotyping, named INNOLiPA test, was performed, that revealed a genital infection by HPV - genotype 6. We think that our case can be considered an example of HPV infection and acquired genital lymphangioma overlap clinical syndrome. The patient presented any lesions one year after the procedure at follow-up examination.

  6. Prevalence of DNA-HPV in Male Sexual Partners of HPV-Infected Women and Concordance of Viral Types in Infected Couples

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Maria Gabrielle de Lima; Faria, Fabio Lopes; Gonçalves, Leonor; Souza, Maria do Carmo M.; Fernandes, Paula Ávila; Fernandes, Ana Paula

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of HPV infection in men remains important due to its association with genital warts and anorectal cancer, as well as to the role men play in HPV transmission to their female sexual partners. Asymptomatic men (n = 43), whose sexual partners had presented cervical HPV infection, were enrolled in this study. Among the 43 men, 23 had their female partner included and tested for HPV-DNA, totaling 23 couples. HPV-DNA was detected by PCR. Type specific PCR to detect HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 45 and 6/11 was performed. At least one type of HPV was detected in 86.0% (37/43) of the male patients and more than one HPV type was identified in 39.5% (17/43) of the samples, including high and low risk HPV. HPV-16 proved to be the most prevalent viral type in both male and female samples. Concordance of at least one viral type was observed in 56.5% (13/23) of the couples. Among couples that have shown concordance of viral types, 84.6% (11/13) of the men had the same high risk viral type presented by the female sexual partner. These data suggest that HPV infected men is an important reservoir, contributing to a higher transmission to women and maintenance of infection, and consequently, a higher risk of developing cervical cancer. HPV vaccination in men will protect not only them but will also have implications for their sexual partners. PMID:22815888

  7. HPV in genital cancers (at the exception of cervical cancer) and anal cancers.

    PubMed

    de Sanjosé, Silvia; Bruni, Laia; Alemany, Laia

    2014-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been firmly established as a central and necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer and it has been etiologically linked to other anogenital (vulva, vagina, anus and penis) and head and neck cancers, particularly oropharyngeal. Although being rare, the incidence of some of these cancers in some countries has increased in the last decades. HPV-related anogenital tumors share many risk factors with cervical cancer. The HPV aetiological contribution differs in each anatomical location reflecting differences in the natural history and viral tissue tropism. The highest prevalence of HPV DNA in cancers other than cervix has been described for anal, followed by vagina, penile and vulvar cancers. HPV16 has been described as the most common type detected in all cancer sites with different contributions being the highest in anal carcinoma (around 80% of HPV DNA positive anal cancers) and the lowest in vaginal cancers with a contribution similar to that found in cervical cancers (around 60%). Current HPV vaccines have already demonstrated their efficacy in preventing anogenital pre-neoplastic lesions caused by vaccine HPV types. HPV-based prevention tools like HPV vaccination and to a lesser extend screening (e.g. for anal cancer) can be useful measures for reducing the burden of these anogenital cancers.

  8. Impact of Serum Antibodies to HPV Serotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18 to Risks of Subsequent Genital HPV Infections in Men: The HIM Study.

    PubMed

    Pamnani, Shitaldas J; Sudenga, Staci L; Viscidi, Raphael; Rollison, Dana E; Torres, B Nelson; Ingles, Donna J; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmeron, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Huang, Yangxin; Borenstein, Amy; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-10-15

    Naturally induced serum antibodies against human papillomavirus (HPV) may affect risks of subsequent incident genital infections by HPV 6, 11, 16, or 18 in men. In this study, we examined the hypothesis by following 4,123 healthy men every 6 months (median follow-up time, 4.1 years). HPV antibodies were measured at baseline using a virus-like particle-based ELISA assay. Genital HPV genotypes were detected using Roche Linear Array. Incidence proportions and 6-month persistence proportions were calculated at 6-month intervals. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox models were used to assess genotype-specific cumulative incidence and HRs, respectively. HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 seroprevalence was 8.1%, 13.9%, 12.7%, and 10.8%, respectively. Significantly higher rates of incident infections were observed for HPV 16 among baseline-seropositive men [adjusted HR, 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.86], with similar but nonsignificant HRs for 6-month persistent infections. Risk of persistent HPV 18 infection was significantly lower among seropositive men in the unadjusted model (HR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.06-0.91), but not in the adjusted model (HR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.03-1.37). Incident and 6-month persistent infections for HPV 6 and 11 did not differ by baseline serostatus. Baseline serostatus among men was not associated with a reduction in subsequent incident genital HPV 6, 11, and 16 infections. However, protection against persistent HPV18 infections was observed in unadjusted models. Our research suggests a need of further studies to examine the potentially protective effects of naturally induced HPV18 antibodies in men. Cancer Res; 76(20); 6066-75. ©2016 AACR.

  9. Evaluating the Early Benefit of Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine on Genital Warts in Belgium: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Dominiak-Felden, Geraldine; Gobbo, Corrado; Simondon, François

    2015-01-01

    Genital warts (GWs) are common, with about 5% to 10% of people having at least one episode in their lifetime. They develop about 2-3 months after infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 6 and 11. The prophylactic quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV), protects against HPV6/11 infections and diseases. In Belgium, HPV vaccines started to be reimbursed in 2007 and have been fully reimbursed since December 2008 for women 12 to 18 years old. This study aimed at evaluating the real-life benefit of qHPV vaccine introduction in Belgium on GWs by measuring both vaccine impact (VI) at a population level and the direct effect of the qHPV vaccine at an individual level (vaccine effectiveness (VE)), using data from a large sick-fund (MLOZ) reimbursement database. A first reimbursement for imiquimod (most common first-line GWs treatment in Belgium) was used as a surrogate for a first GWs episode; reimbursement of qHPV vaccine was used as surrogate for vaccination. VI was estimated by comparing the incidence of GWs before and after qHPV vaccine introduction in Belgium (ecologic evaluation). VE was assessed by comparing GWs incidences in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated women, among women eligible for HPV vaccination. VI was evaluated in 9,223,384 person-years. Overall, GWs incidence rates decreased significantly between the pre- and post-vaccination periods (-8.1% (95% CI: -15.3; -0.3) for men and women aged 18-59 years. This decrease was highest in women targeted by the HPV vaccination programme (-72.1% (95% CI: -77.9; -64.7) in women aged 16-22 years, with a 43% vaccine uptake in 2013). A significant decrease was also observed in men aged 16-22 years (-51.1%, 95%CI: -67.6; -26.2), suggesting herd-protection. VE was evaluated in 369,881 person-years. Age-adjusted VE for fully vaccinated women was 88.0% (95% CI: 79.4; 93.0). VE was higher when the first dose was given younger and remained high for over 4 years post-vaccination in all ages. High VI and VE of the qHPV vaccine were

  10. Country-specific HPV-related genital disease among men residing in Brazil, Mexico and The United States: The HIM study.

    PubMed

    Sudenga, Staci L; Torres, B Nelson; Fulp, William J; Silva, Roberto; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Ingles, Donna J; Stoler, Mark; Messina, Jane L; Abrahamsen, Martha; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Salmeron, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Giuliano, Anna R

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the incidence of histopathologically confirmed condyloma and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN) and rates of genital HPV infection progression to these lesions differs by country (Brazil, Mexico and the U.S.). At each visit, lesions were biopsied and were categorized by pathologic diagnoses. The Linear Array genotyping method was used to identify HPV genotypes from genital swabs, while the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra method was used for tissue specimens. Age-specific analyses were conducted for lesion incidence by country, with Kaplan-Meier estimation of cumulative incidence. The proportion of HPV infections that progressed to condyloma and PeIN, the median time to lesion development and the incidence rates were estimated by country. When comparing demographic and sexual characteristics across the three countries, sexual orientation (p = 0.008) and lifetime number of female sexual partners (p < 0.0001) were differentially associated with lesion incidence in the three countries. Condyloma incidence in Brazil and the U.S. decreased with age, while incidence remained constant across the lifespan in Mexico. There were no differences by country and age for PeIN incidence. HPV types 6 and 11 were the most common types to progress to condyloma and HPV types 16, 6 and 11 were the most common types to progress to PeIN in all three countries. The continuous risk of condyloma and PeIN across all age groups and countries in this study emphasizes the need to ensure that strong HPV immunity, such as that obtained through vaccination, is maintained across the lifespan of men.

  11. Differences in incidence and co-occurrence of vaccine and nonvaccine human papillomavirus types in Finnish population before human papillomavirus mass vaccination suggest competitive advantage for HPV33.

    PubMed

    Merikukka, Marko; Kaasila, Marjo; Namujju, Proscovia B; Palmroth, Johanna; Kirnbauer, Reinhard; Paavonen, Jorma; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Lehtinen, Matti

    2011-03-01

    To understand likelihood of type replacement after vaccination against the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, we evaluated competition of the seven most common genital HPV types in a population sample of unvaccinated, fertile-aged Finnish women. First trimester sera from two consecutive pregnancies were retrieved from 3,183 Finnish women (mean age, 23.1 years) of whom 42.3% had antibodies to at least one HPV type (6/11/16/18/31/33/45) at the baseline. Antibody positivity to more than one HPV types by the second pregnancy was common among the baseline HPV seropositives. However, compared to baseline HPV-seronegative women, significantly increased incidence rate ratios (IRRs), indicating an increased risk to seroconvert for another HPV type, were consistently noted only for HPV33 among baseline HPV16 or HPV18 antibody (ab)-positive women: HPV(16ab only) (→) (16&33ab) IRR 2.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-5.4] and HPV(18ab only) (→) (18&33ab) IRR 2.5 (95% CI 1.1-6.0), irrespectively of the presence of antibodies to other HPV types at baseline: HPV(16ab) (→) (16&33ab) IRR 3.2 (95% CI 2.0-5.2) and HPV(18ab) (→) (18&33ab) IRR 3.6 (95% CI 2.1-5.9). Our findings suggest a possible competitive advantage for HPV33 over other genital HPV types in the unvaccinated population. HPV33 should be monitored for type replacement after HPV mass vaccination.

  12. Update of HPV-associated female genital cancers in the United States, 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    Watson, Meg; Saraiya, Mona; Wu, Xiaocheng

    2009-11-01

    In 2008, CDC published a supplement to the journal Cancer describing incidence patterns of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers prior to availability of an HPV vaccine. This report updates the information on HPV-associated female genital cancer incidence with more recent data, adds information on trends, and includes American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations. We used combined data from two federal cancer surveillance programs, CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, covering 92% of the U.S. population from 1999 to 2004, to examine recent trends and incidence of invasive cervical carcinoma and vaginal and vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Incidence of in situ vaginal and vulvar SCC are also presented. The average annual age-adjusted rate of cervical cancer among women of all races/ethnicities was 8.5/100,000. Annual cervical cancer incidence rates were highest but declined more rapidly among Hispanic and black women compared with non-Hispanic and white women. The rate of vulvar cancer among all women was 1.7/100,000 and was higher among white women than other racial groups. Vulvar cancer rates rose among black women (+2.9% per year) and were relatively stable among all other racial and ethnic groups over the 6-year period. Vaginal cancer was rare (rate 0.5/100,000); the rate was higher among black women than other racial groups and higher among Hispanic women than among non-Hispanic women. A significant decline of vaginal cancer was observed only among black women (-6.2% per year). This article confirms previous findings on racial disparities in HPV-associated female genital cancers. Any post-HPV vaccine declines in these cancers should be interpreted in light of current declines. Enhancing current cancer surveillance systems, combined with special studies to collect data on in situ or precancerous lesions of these cancers, will provide important information in

  13. Therapeutic benefits of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser on single-site HPV lesions in the lower female genital tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urru, Giovanni; Moretti, Gianfranco

    1998-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown contradictory variable percentages of recurrent HPV lesions, after various therapies. The present study therefore evaluates the effectiveness of CO2 laser vaporization in the treatment of single-site HPV lesions of the lower female genital tract in order to confirm the conviction that physical therapy alone, in agreement with some findings reported in the literature, is capable of guaranteeing a high cure rate in selected patients. From January 1995 to June 1996, seventy- five female patients were treated with CO2 laser vaporization for single-site genital HPV lesions, some of which were associated with low-grade intra-epithelial neoplasia. The success rate after 12 months proved to be 97%. The pre-existing clinical symptoms disappeared in all the patients treated. No complication in the vaporization procedure was encountered.

  14. High-risk HPV types and head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Dominique S; Langevin, Scott M; Eliot, Melissa; Nelson, Heather H; Pawlita, Michael; McClean, Michael D; Kelsey, Karl T

    2014-10-01

    Although HPV16 has been strongly implicated in oropharyngeal carcinogenesis, the role of other high-risk HPV types in the etiology of head and neck cancer remains unclear. To date, few data exist addressing the nature of the association between antibodies to oncogenic proteins of non-HPV16 HPVs in relation to head and neck cancer. We examined the relationship between multiple HPV types (HPV6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in a large population-based case-control study (1069 cases and 1107 controls). Serological measures for HPV types included antibodies to L1, E6 and/or E7. In a secondary analysis, we excluded HPV16 seropositive subjects to examine independent associations with other high-risk HPVs. All analyses were adjusted for age, race, sex, education, smoking and alcohol consumption. Statistically significant associations were observed for HPV16, 18, 33 and 52 and risk of HNSCC after mutually adjusting for HPV types. Among HPV16 seronegative subjects, elevated risks of HNSCC were observed for HPV18 E6 (OR = 4.19, 95% CI = 1.26-14.0), HPV33 E6 (OR = 7.96, 95% CI = 1.56-40.5) and HPV52 E7 (OR = 3.40, 95% CI = 1.16-9.99). When examined by tumor type, associations with HPV18 and HPV33 remained statistically significant for oropharyngeal cancer, and HPV52 was associated with oral cancer. In addition, magnitude of associations for HNSCC increased markedly with increasing number of seropositive high-risk HPV infections. High-risk HPV types, other than HPV16, are likely to be involved in the etiology of HNSCC.

  15. Community-Based Prevalence of Genital Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Infection: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed

    Sabeena, Sasidharanpillai; Bhat, Parvati V; Kamath, Veena; Bhat, Shashikala K; Nair, Sreekumaran; n, Ravishankar; Chandrabharani, Kiran; Arunkumar, Govindakarnavar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical cancer probably represents the best-studied human cancer caused by a viral infection and the causal association of this preventable cancer with human papilloma virus (HPV) is well established. Worldwide there is a scarcity of data regarding HPV prevalence with vast differences existing among populations. Objective: The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the community-based HPV prevalence estimates among asymptomatic women from urban and rural set ups and in participants of cancer screening clinics. Study design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: PubMed-Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, and Google scholar were systematically searched for studies providing prevalence data for HPV infection among asymptomatic women between 1986 and 2016. Results: The final analysis included 32 studies comprising a population of 224,320 asymptomatic women. The overall pooled HPV prevalence was 11% (95% confidence interval (CI), 9%-12%). The pooled HPV prevalence of 11% (95% CI, 9%-11%) was observed among women attending cervical cancer screening clinics. The pooled HPV prevalences were 10% (95% CI 8%-12%) and 11% (95% CI 4%-18%) from urban and rural areas respectively, indicating higher infection rates among the rural women with the least access to cancer screening and cancer care. Conclusion: The prevalence rates in this systematic quantitative review provide a reliable estimate of the burden of HPV infection among asymptomatic women from developed as well as developing nations. Rural women and women attending cervical cancer screening programmes feature higher genital HPV prevalences compared to their urban counterparts.

  16. Influence of evidence type and narrative type on HPV risk perception and intention to obtain the HPV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Nan, Xiaoli; Dahlstrom, Michael F; Richards, Adam; Rangarajan, Sarani

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the influence of evidence type (statistical, narrative, or hybrid) and narrative type (first-person or third-person) on risk perception about human papillomavirus (HPV) and behavioral intention to get the HPV vaccine. In total, 174 college students who had not received the HPV vaccine participated in a controlled experiment. Results show that the hybrid message containing both statistical and narrative descriptions of HPV resulted in greater perceived risk of getting HPV than either of the messages containing just one type of evidence--statistical or narrative. Moreover, the first-person narrative message led to greater risk perception about HPV than the third-person narrative message. Both evidence type and narrative type had an indirect effect on intention to get the HPV vaccine free of cost through HPV risk perception. Implications of the findings for vaccine risk communication are discussed.

  17. HPV and Genital Warts among Peruvian Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender People: Knowledge, Attitudes and Treatment Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Nureña, César R.; Brown, Brandon; Galea, Jerome T.; Sánchez, Hugo; Blas, Magaly M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have assessed the epidemiology of HPV infection among MSM, but no qualitative studies have specifically assessed how HPV and genital warts (GW) affect South American men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgendered women (TG). This study explored the knowledge, attitudes and experiences of Peruvian MSM and TG regarding HPV and GW. Methods We performed a qualitative study consisting of fifteen in-depth interviews and three focus groups carried out in Lima, Peru with diverse MSM and TG groups, including sex workers. Resulting data were analyzed by applying a systematic comparative and descriptive content analysis. Results While knowledge of HPV was limited, awareness of GW was common, particularly among TG persons and sex workers. Still, few participants recognized that GW are sexually transmitted, and many had problems differentiating between GW and other STI/anogenital conditions. Stigmatizing experiences were common during sexual encounters with people who had visible GW. Shame, emotional and physical troubles, and embarrassing sexual experiences were reported by individuals with GW. Search for treatment was mediated by peers, but stigma and apparent health services’ inability to deal with GW limited the access to effective medical care. Conclusions In Peru, public health interventions should strengthen services for HPV/GW management and increase accurate knowledge of the transmission, treatment, and sequelae of HPV/GW in MSM and TG populations. PMID:23516536

  18. Evaluation of a novel multiplex human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping assay for HPV types in skin warts.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Markus; de Koning, Maurits N C; Eekhof, Just A H; Quint, Wim G V; Pawlita, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) of the genera alpha, mu, and nu induce benign tumors of the cutaneous epithelia that constitute a significant burden for immunocompromised adults. Currently, no gold standard for genotyping of these HPV types exists. In this study, we describe the prevalence of genus alpha, mu, and nu HPV types in cutaneous warts. We developed a novel multiplex HPV genotyping assay, BSwart-PCR/MPG (BSwart), to type sensitively and specifically 19 cutaneous HPV types frequently found in warts. BSwart-PCR/MPG is based on a multiplex PCR using broad-spectrum primers and subsequent multiplex hybridization to type-specific probes coupled to Luminex beads. In a first application comprising 100 cutaneous warts, the assay was compared to another, recently described genotyping assay, the HSL-PCR/MPG. When a 10-fold dilution series was used, the detection limit was between 10 and 100 HPV genomes per PCR. When comparing the two assays, there was an excellent agreement in detecting dominant HPV types; however, we also obtained evidence for a higher sensitivity of the BSwart assay for multiple infections in these cutaneous warts. Using BSwart, HPV was found in 95% of wart preparations, with HPV1 being most prevalent, followed by types 27, 57, and 2. Both novel BSwart and HSL-PCR/MPG HPV genotyping assays are powerful high-throughput tools that could be used to learn more about the natural history of cutaneous HPV. They would be advantageous to monitor the efficacy of future skin HPV vaccines and to identify novel HPV vaccine candidates.

  19. Coinfection of human foreskin fragments with multiple human papillomavirus types (HPV-11, -40, and -LVX82/MM7) produces regionally separate HPV infections within the same athymic mouse xenograft.

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, N D; Koltun, W A; Cladel, N M; Budgeon, L R; Reed, C A; Kreider, J W; Welsh, P A; Patrick, S D; Yang, H

    1997-01-01

    The athymic mouse xenograft system was used to prepare infectious stocks of two additional anogenital tissue-targeting human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in a manner similar to that for the development of infectious stocks of HPV-11. An anal condyloma from a transplant patient was used as material for extraction of infectious virus, and human foreskin fragments were incubated with the virus suspension and transplanted subrenally into athymic mice. Partial viral sequencing indicated that two rare HPV types (HPV-40 and HPVLVX82/MM7) were concurrently present in both the patient condyloma and the foreskin xenografts, and passage of both types was achieved as a mixed infection with HPV-40 predominating. Xenografts that developed from simultaneous infection of human foreskin fragments with HPV-11, -40, and -LVX82/MM7 virions produced regionally separate areas of HPV-11 and -40 infection as determined by in situ hybridization. In addition, in situ hybridization with HPV-40 and HPVLVX82/MM7 DNA probes demonstrated that both of these HPV types were present as adjacent but separate infections within the same anal condyloma of the transplant patient. These studies indicate that multiple HPV types can simultaneously infect genital tissue and that each HPV type predominantly maintains regional separation within the same papilloma. PMID:9311811

  20. Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), distribution of HPV types, and risk factors for infection in HPV-positive women.

    PubMed

    Santos Filho, M V C; Gurgel, A P A D; Lobo, C D P; Freitas, A C F; Silva-Neto, J C; Silva, L A F

    2016-07-14

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), the distribution of different HPV types, and the putative risk factors for infection among HPV-positive women from the State of Alagoas, Northeast Brazil. We analyzed data from 515 patients attending public and private health centers. HPV DNA from cervical samples was extracted and HPV genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction using MY09/11 consensus primers followed by direct sequencing. The chi-squared test for independence was used to assess statistical differences between the HPV groups. HPV DNA was found in 111 (21.55%) cervical samples. Twenty genotypes were detected: HPV6, 11, 16, 31, 33, 35, 39, 52, 53, 54, 58, 61, 62, 66, 70, 72, 81, 82, 83, and 84. In addition, multiple sexual partners (P = 0.002) and the use of oral contraceptives (P = 0.015) were associated with the presence of HPV. These findings may be relevant to the design of screening and vaccination strategies targeting specific groups of women in Northeast Brazil.

  1. Genital human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Lowy, D R; Kirnbauer, R; Schiller, J T

    1994-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a common sexually transmitted disease that at the present time is not effectively controlled or treated. Many infections are inapparent and transient. However, some HPV infections result in persistent lesions that in some cases undergo carcinogenic progression. A subset of genital HPVs, designated high-risk types, are preferentially associated with high-grade dysplasias and carcinomas. About 90% of cervical cancers contain high-risk HPV DNA, most often HPV16. Development of a subunit vaccine against high-risk genital HPVs is a desirable and, it appears, an increasingly feasible long-term goal. The viral E6 and E7 oncoproteins are selectively maintained and expressed in progressed HPV tumors and could potentially be targets for therapeutic vaccines. The L1 major virion structural proteins have recently been shown to self-assemble into virus-like particles when expressed in insect cells. These particles might serve as the basis for a prophylactic vaccine to prevent genital HPV infection. Images PMID:8146136

  2. US Assessment of HPV Types in Cancers: Implications for Current and 9-Valent HPV Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Elizabeth R.; Thompson, Trevor D.; Lynch, Charles F.; Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Lyu, Christopher W.; Steinau, Martin; Watson, Meg; Wilkinson, Edward J.; Hopenhayn, Claudia; Copeland, Glenn; Cozen, Wendy; Peters, Edward S.; Huang, Youjie; Saber, Maria Sibug; Altekruse, Sean; Goodman, Marc T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study sought to determine the prevaccine type-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)–associated cancers in the United States to evaluate the potential impact of the HPV types in the current and newly approved 9-valent HPV vaccines. Methods: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention partnered with seven US population-based cancer registries to obtain archival tissue for cancers diagnosed from 1993 to 2005. HPV testing was performed on 2670 case patients that were fairly representative of all participating cancer registry cases by age and sex. Demographic and clinical data were evaluated by anatomic site and HPV status. Current US cancer registry data and the detection of HPV types were used to estimate the number of cancers potentially preventable through vaccination. Results: HPV DNA was detected in 90.6% of cervical, 91.1% of anal, 75.0% of vaginal, 70.1% of oropharyngeal, 68.8% of vulvar, 63.3% of penile, 32.0% of oral cavity, and 20.9% of laryngeal cancers, as well as in 98.8% of cervical cancer in situ (CCIS). A vaccine targeting HPV 16/18 potentially prevents the majority of invasive cervical (66.2%), anal (79.4%), oropharyngeal (60.2%), and vaginal (55.1%) cancers, as well as many penile (47.9%), vulvar (48.6%) cancers: 24 858 cases annually. The 9-valent vaccine also targeting HPV 31/33/45/52/58 may prevent an additional 4.2% to 18.3% of cancers: 3944 cases annually. For most cancers, younger age at diagnosis was associated with higher HPV 16/18 prevalence. With the exception of oropharyngeal cancers and CCIS, HPV 16/18 prevalence was similar across racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions: In the United States, current vaccines will reduce most HPV-associated cancers; a smaller additional reduction would be contributed by the new 9-valent vaccine. PMID:25925419

  3. Nasal Immunization of Mice with Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16) Virus-Like Particles or with the HPV-16 L1 Gene Elicits Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in Vaginal Draining Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Dupuy, Catherine; Buzoni-Gatel, Dominique; Touzé, Antoine; Bout, Daniel; Coursaget, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) infects the genital tract and is closely associated with the development of cervical cancer. HPV-16 initiates infection at the genital mucosal surface; thus, mucosal immune responses are likely to contribute to defense against HPV-16 infection. However, little information is available regarding the induction of immune responses in the genital tract mucosa. In this study, we evaluated the potential of intranasally administered papillomavirus vaccines to elicit both systemic and vaginal immune responses. HPV-16 virus-like particles (VLPs) produced by self-assembly of L1 protein and the HPV-16 L1 gene cloned into a mammalian expression vector were used as vaccines. Intranasally administered VLPs induced serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and vaginal IgA secretory antibodies. Very weak serum IgG and vaginal IgA responses were found after DNA immunization. Both splenic and vaginal lymphocytes could be activated by intranasal immunization with VLPs and the HPV-16 L1 gene. Activated CD4+ Th1-like T cells were shown to synthesize gamma interferon, and activated CD8+ T cells were demonstrated to be cytotoxic. PMID:10516012

  4. Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type Distribution and HPV Type 16 E6 Variants in Two Spanish Population Groups with Different Levels of HPV Infection Risk

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, M.; Torres, M.; Muñoz, L.; Fernández-García, E.; Canals, J.; Cabornero, A. I.; Aguilar, E.; Ballesteros, J.; del Amo, J.; García-Sáiz, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types and HPV type 16 (HPV16) variant distribution in two Spanish population groups, commercial sex workers and imprisoned women (CSW/IPW) and the general population. A multicenter cross-sectional study of 1,889 women from five clinical settings in two Spanish cities was conducted from May to November 2004. Oncogenic HPV infection was tested by an Hybrid Capture II (HC2) test, and positive samples were genotyped by direct sequencing using three different primer sets in L1 (MY09/11 and GP5+/GP6+) and E6/E7. HPV16 variants were identified by sequencing the E6, E2, and L1 regions. Four hundred twenty-five samples were positive for the HC2 test, 31.5% from CSW/IPW and 10.7% from the general population. HPV16 was the most frequent type. Distinct profiles of oncogenic HPV type prevalence were observed across the two populations. In order of decreasing frequency, HPV types 16, 31, 58, 66, 56, and 18 were most frequent in CSW/IPW women, and types 16, 31, 52, 68, 51, and 53 were most frequent in the general population. We analyzed HPV16 intratype variants, and a large majority (78.7%) belonged to the European lineage. AA variants were detected in 16.0% of cases. African variants belonging to classes Af1 (4.0%) and Af2 (1.3%) were detected. Different HPV types and HPV16 intratype variants are involved in oncogenic HPV infections in our population. These results suggest that HPV type distribution differs in CSW/IPW women and in the general population, although further analysis is necessary. PMID:16597872

  5. Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution and HPV type 16 E6 variants in two Spanish population groups with different levels of HPV infection risk.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, M; Torres, M; Muñoz, L; Fernández-García, E; Canals, J; Cabornero, A I; Aguilar, E; Ballesteros, J; Del Amo, J; García-Sáiz, A

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types and HPV type 16 (HPV16) variant distribution in two Spanish population groups, commercial sex workers and imprisoned women (CSW/IPW) and the general population. A multicenter cross-sectional study of 1,889 women from five clinical settings in two Spanish cities was conducted from May to November 2004. Oncogenic HPV infection was tested by an Hybrid Capture II (HC2) test, and positive samples were genotyped by direct sequencing using three different primer sets in L1 (MY09/11 and GP5+/GP6+) and E6/E7. HPV16 variants were identified by sequencing the E6, E2, and L1 regions. Four hundred twenty-five samples were positive for the HC2 test, 31.5% from CSW/IPW and 10.7% from the general population. HPV16 was the most frequent type. Distinct profiles of oncogenic HPV type prevalence were observed across the two populations. In order of decreasing frequency, HPV types 16, 31, 58, 66, 56, and 18 were most frequent in CSW/IPW women, and types 16, 31, 52, 68, 51, and 53 were most frequent in the general population. We analyzed HPV16 intratype variants, and a large majority (78.7%) belonged to the European lineage. AA variants were detected in 16.0% of cases. African variants belonging to classes Af1 (4.0%) and Af2 (1.3%) were detected. Different HPV types and HPV16 intratype variants are involved in oncogenic HPV infections in our population. These results suggest that HPV type distribution differs in CSW/IPW women and in the general population, although further analysis is necessary.

  6. Prevalence of type-specific HPV infection in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Berois, Nora; Heard, Isabelle; Fort, Zoraida; Alonso, Rafael; Sica, Adela; Moerzinger, Patricia; Rodriguez, Guillermo; Sancho-Garnier, Hélène; Osinaga, Eduardo; Favre, Michel

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work was to describe the prevalence of type-specific Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women attending organized cervical cancer screening program in Uruguay. Nine hundred sixty-five liquid cervical cell samples obtained after collection of cervical smears for cytology were assessed for HPV DNA using the Papillocheck system (Greiner BioOne). The overall prevalence of High-Risk (HR) HPV infections was 20.8% and increased from 16.5% in women with normal cytology to 93.3% in HSIL. Prevalence of HPV 16 and/or 18 was 6.3% and HPV 16 was the most prevalent genotype in normal cytology (3.6%). The five most prevalent genotypes were HPV 16, 31, 51, 56, and 39. The overall prevalence peaked below age 30. This study provides essential baseline information at national level on type-specific HPV prevalence in Uruguay before the introduction of HPV vaccination. It documents the current prevalence of each of the oncogenic genotypes in a population attending cervical cancer screening program, suggesting that at least 64.7% of high risk lesions are potentially preventable by available HPV vaccines, and possibly augmentable if cross-protection against non-vaccine HPV types 31, 33, and 45 is confirmed.

  7. HPV DNA prevalence and type distribution in anal carcinomas worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Alemany, L; Saunier, M; Alvarado, I; Quirós, B; Salmeron, J; Shin, HR; Pirog, E; Guimerà, N; Hernández, GA; Felix, A; Clavero, O; Lloveras, B; Kasamatsu, E; Goodman, MT; Hernandez, BY; Laco, J; Tinoco, L; Geraets, DT; Lynch, CF; Mandys, V; Poljak, M; Jach, R; Verge, J; Clavel, C; Ndiaye, C; Klaustermeier, J; Cubilla, A; Castellsagué, X; Bravo, IG; Pawlita, M; Quint, W; Muñoz, N; Bosch, FX; Sanjosé, S

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge about the human papillomaviruses (HPV) types in anal cancers in some world regions is scanty. Here we describe the HPV DNA prevalence and type distribution in a series of invasive anal cancers and anal intraepithelial neoplasias (AIN) grades 2/3 from 24 countries. We analyzed 43 AIN 2/3 cases and 496 anal cancers diagnosed from 1986 to 2011. After histopathological evaluation of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA25 system (version 1). A subset of 116 cancers was further tested for p16INK4a expression, a cellular surrogate marker for HPV-associated transformation. Prevalence ratios were estimated using multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance in cancer dataset. HPV DNA was detected in 88.3% of anal cancers (95%CI:85.1–91.0%) and in 95.4% of AIN 2/3 (95%CI:84.2–99.4%). Among cancers, the highest prevalence was observed in warty-basaloid subtype of squamous cell carcinomas, in younger patients and in North American geographical region. There were no statistically significant differences in prevalence by gender. HPV16 was the most frequent HPV type detected in both cancers (80.7%) and AIN 2/3 lesions (75.4%). HPV18 was the second most common type in invasive cancers (3.6%). p16INK4a overexpression was found in 95% of HPV DNA positive anal cancers. In view of HPV DNA results and high proportion of p16INK4a overexpression, infection by HPV is most likely to be a necessary cause for anal cancers in both men and women. The large contribution of HPV16 reinforces the potential impact of HPV vaccines in the prevention of these lesions. PMID:24817381

  8. Spotlight on the 9-valent HPV vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Lopalco, Pier Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Starting in 2006, vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) has been progressively implemented in most developed countries. Two vaccines have been successfully used, a bivalent vaccine targeting HPV-related cancers (bHPV) and a quadrivalent vaccine (qHPV) targeting both HPV-related cancers and genital warts. Between December 2014 and June 2015, a new nonavalent HPV vaccine (9vHPV) was granted marketing authorization in the USA and Europe. The 9vHPV was developed from the qHPV and includes five additional HPV types that should increase the level of protection toward HPV-related cancers. Efficacy and/or immunogenicity of 9vHPV has been assessed in eight clinical studies. The 9vHPV vaccine induced a very robust immune response against all vaccine types, with seroconversion rates close to 100%. The safety profile of 9vHPV is comparable to that of qHPV. Local reactions, especially swelling, have been more frequently reported after 9vHPV than qHPV, and this slightly increases when the 9vHPV is coadministered with other vaccines. The additional coverage offered by the 9vHPV may prevent a significant proportion of HPV-related cancers (variable between 8% and 18%) depending on the local distribution of high-risk HPV types in the population. It is impossible, at present, to anticipate the actual impact of the wide use of the 9vHPV in comparison with the bHPV or the qHPV, since it depends on many variables including duration of protection, potential cross-protection toward nonvaccine types, and herd immunity effect. PMID:28053505

  9. HPV genotypes concordance between sex partners.

    PubMed

    Benevolo, M; Mottolese, M; Marandino, F; Carosi, M; Diodoro, M G; Sentinelli, S; Visca, P; Rollo, F; Mariani, L; Vocaturo, G; Sindico, R; Di Giannuario, D; Perrone Donnorso, R; Pellicciotta, M; Vocaturo, A

    2007-12-01

    The HPV genotype concordance in the sexual couples could support the sexual viral transmission of HPV infection. The present study contains a case-report of a stable Italian sex couple harbouring the same five HPV genotypes in their genital samples. The female partner, affected by vulvar condilomatosis, evidenced positivity in her cervicovaginal scraping with high risk HPV DNA Hybrid Capture 2 test and was negative at liquid-based performed Pap Test and at colposcopic examination. The male partner was clinically healthy regarding his external genitalia. In both male and female genital scrapings, the following HPV genotypes were detected by means of a PCR-based assay: 6, 16, 53, 73 and 84. This considerably high genotype concordance does not appear to be casual and supports, in our opinion, the hypothesis that genital HPV types are sexually transmitted agents

  10. Comparison of real-time multiplex human papillomavirus (HPV) PCR assays with the linear array HPV genotyping PCR assay and influence of DNA extraction method on HPV detection.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Christine C; Swoyer, Ryan; Bryan, Janine T; Taddeo, Frank J

    2011-05-01

    Real-time human papillomavirus (HPV) type-specific multiplex PCR assays were developed to detect HPV DNA in specimens collected for the efficacy determination of the quadrivalent HPV (type 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine (Gardasil). We evaluated the concordance between type-specific multiplex HPV PCR and the widely used, commercially available Roche Linear Array genotyping PCR assay. Female genital swab specimens were tested for the presence of L1, E6, and E7 sequences of HPV type 6 (HPV6), HPV11, HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV45, HPV52, and HPV58 and E6 and E7 sequences of HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV51, HPV56, and HPV59 in type- and gene-specific real-time multiplex PCR assays. Specimens were also tested for the presence of L1 sequences using two versions of the Roche Linear Array genotyping assay. Measures of concordance of a modified version of the Linear Array and the standard Linear Array PCR assay were evaluated. With specimen DNA extraction using the Qiagen Spin blood kit held as the constant, multiplex PCR assays detect more HPV-positive specimens for the 14 HPV types common to both than either version of the Linear Array HPV genotyping assay. Type-specific agreements between the assays were good, at least 0.838, but were often driven by negative agreement in HPV types with low prevalence, as evidenced by reduced proportions of positive agreement. Overall HPV status agreements ranged from 0.615 for multiplex PCR and standard Linear Array to 0.881 for multiplex PCR and modified Linear Array. An alternate DNA extraction technique, that used by the Qiagen MinElute kit, impacted subsequent HPV detection in both the multiplex PCR and Linear Array assays.

  11. Impact of HPV infection in adolescent populations.

    PubMed

    Moscicki, Anna-Barbara

    2005-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The primary risk factors for acquiring HPV are generally associated with sexual activity. Evidence suggests that condoms provide some protection against infection and disease progression, but any genital contact is sufficient for HPV transmission. HPV is so common and transmissible that having just one sexual partner often results in infection. Indeed, cumulative prevalence rates are as high as 82% among adolescent women in select populations. As such, nearly all sexually active adolescents are at high risk for acquiring HPV. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV types (e.g., HPV 16 or 18) is considered necessary for the development of cervical cancer, whereas infection with low-risk HPV types (e.g., HPV 6 or 11) is associated with the development of genital warts and other low-grade genital abnormalities. Most infections are asymptomatic and are efficiently cleared by the immune system. Similarly, both low- and high-grade lesions caused by HPV can regress in adolescent and young adult women. Treatment guidelines allow for observation of adolescent women who develop low-grade lesions rather than immediate colposcopy. Nonetheless, a small percentage of adolescents will develop precancerous lesions that may progress to invasive cervical cancer. Adolescents should be given appropriate education about HPV and the dangers associated with infection; they should also be encouraged to obtain appropriate gynecological care after initiating sexual activity. This article discusses HPV infection and the causal role that HPV plays in the development of low- and high-grade genital lesions, cervical cancer, and genital warts.

  12. HPV infection-associated anogenital cyto-colpo-histological findings and molecular typing in HIV-positive women.

    PubMed

    Tso, F K; Rodrigues, C L L; Levi, J E; Mattosinho de Castro Ferraz, M G; Speck, N M G; Ribalta, J C L

    2015-12-21

    HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV) coinfection is increasing, especially in the anal canal (AC) and cervico-vaginal regions. We identified anal epithelium abnormalities related to high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) lesions in the lower genital tracts (LGTs) of HIV-positive women, described the HPV genotypes identified, and assessed the expression of E6/E7 oncogenes in coinfected patients. Ninety-eight women were enrolled in groups combining HIV status and presence or absence of HPV in the LGT. Anal and cervical smears were collected for cytology and HR-HPV assays using Cobas(®) and/or PapilloCheck(®). Samples with highly oncogenic HPV genotypes were confirmed by NucliSENS EasyQ(®). Forty-two HIV-positive (25-52; mean age 39.5) and 56 HIV-negative (18-58; mean age 35.7) patients were included. E2 and C1 groups presented AC alterations (P = 0.002); altered images for high-resolution anoscopy were higher in E1 and C2 (P < 0.001). Of the 29 women with alterations, 41.38% were HIV-negative and 58.62% were HIV-positive (P < 0.001). HIV-positive patients accounted for 29% of the anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (P = 0.015). The Cobas(®) positive result frequency was higher in three AC groups than in the other groups. There was variation in the number of HPV types in the cervico-vaginal samples among the study groups (P < 0.001). Anal cytology and anoscopy showed more altered findings in HIV-positive patients with HPV in the LGT. HR-HPV anal infections by various genotypes are common and are associated with cervical infections in HIV-positive patients. E6/E7 expression is apparently more common in the AC of HIV-positive women.

  13. Variability of human immunodeficiency virus-1 in the female genital reservoir during genital reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    LeGoff, J; Roques, P; Jenabian, M-A; Charpentier, C; Brochier, C; Bouhlal, H; Gresenguet, G; Frost, E; Pepin, J; Mayaud, P; Belec, L

    2015-09-01

    Clinical and subclinical genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivations have been associated with increases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genital shedding. Whether HSV-2 shedding contributes to the selection of specific genital HIV-1 variants remains unknown. We evaluated the genetic diversity of genital and blood HIV-1 RNA and DNA in 14 HIV-1/HSV-2-co-infected women, including seven with HSV-2 genital reactivation, and seven without as controls. HIV-1 DNA and HIV-1 RNA env V1-V3 sequences in paired blood and genital samples were compared. The HSV-2 selection pressure on HIV was estimated according to the number of synonymous substitutions (dS), the number of non-synonymous substitutions (dN) and the dS/dN ratio within HIV quasi-species. HIV-1 RNA levels in cervicovaginal secretions were higher in women with HSV-2 replication than in controls (p0.02). Plasma HIV-1 RNA and genital HIV-1 RNA and DNA were genetically compartmentalized. No differences in dS, dN and the dS/dN ratio were observed between the study groups for either genital HIV-1 RNA or plasma HIV-1 RNA. In contrast, dS and dN in genital HIV-1 DNA were significantly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital reactivation (p <0.01 and p <0.05, respectively). The mean of the dS/dN ratio in genital HIV-1 DNA was slightly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital replication, indicating a trend for purifying selection (p 0.056). HSV-2 increased the genetic diversity of genital HIV-1 DNA. These observations confirm molecular interactions between HSV-2 and HIV-1 at the genital tract level.

  14. HPV Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessed March 2, 2015. Human papillomavirus: Genital HPV infection fact sheet. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/STD/HPV/STDFact-HPV.htm. Accessed March 2, 2015. Palefsky JM. Epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections. http://www.uptodate.com/ ...

  15. Monitoring the control of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and related diseases in Australia: towards a national HPV surveillance strategy.

    PubMed

    Brotherton, Julia M L; Kaldor, John M; Garland, Suzanne M

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes a possible multifaceted approach to human papillomavirus (HPV) related surveillance in Australia following implementation of a national HPV vaccination program. We describe eight main components: monitoring of vaccine coverage, vaccine safety, type-specific HPV infection surveillance, cervical cytology (Pap screening) coverage and screen detected lesion prevalence, cervical cancer incidence and mortality, genital wart incidence, incidence of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about HPV and HPV vaccination. Australia is well placed to monitor the impact of its HPV vaccination program as well as to measure vaccine effectiveness with existing HPV vaccines, cervical screening and cancer registries.

  16. [HPV vaccination].

    PubMed

    Stronski Huwiler, Susanne; Spaar, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Human Papilloma Viruses are associated with genital carcinoma (of the cervix, anus, vulva, vagina and the penis) as well as with non-genital carcinoma (oropharyngeal carcinoma) and genital warts. In Switzerland two highly efficient and safe vaccines are available. The safety of these vaccines has been repeatedly subject of controversial discussions, however so far post marketing surveillance has always been able to confirm the safety. In Switzerland girls and young women have been offered the HPV vaccination within cantonal programmes since 2008. 2015 the recommendation for the HPV-vaccination for boys and young men was issued, and starting July 1, 2016 they as well will be offered vaccination free of charge within the cantonal programmes. This article discusses the burden of disease, efficacy and safety of the vaccines and presents facts which are important for vaccinating these young people. Specifically, aspects of the decisional capacity of adolescents to consent to the vaccination are presented. Finally, the future perspective with a focus on a new vaccine with an enlarged spectrum of HPV-types is discussed.

  17. Accumulation of RNA homologous to human papillomavirus type 16 open reading frames in genital precancers

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, C.P.; Nuovo, G.; Friedman, D.; Silverstein, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    The accumulation of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16)-specific RNAs in tissue sections from biopsies of patients with genital precancers was studied by in situ hybridization with single-stranded /sup 35/S-labeled RNA. These analyses revealed that the most abundant early-region RNAs were derived from the E4 and E5 open reading frames (ORFs). RNAs homologous to the E6/E7 ORFs were also detected, whereas RNAs homologous to the intervening E1 ORF were not. This suggest that the E4 and E5 mRNAs are derived by splicing to the upstream E6/E7 ORFs, consistent with studies of HPV-11 in condylomata. Abundant RNAs homologous to the 5' portion of L1 were also detected. These RNAs were localized to the apical strata of the epithelium. HPV-16 RNAs accumulated in discrete regions of these lesions, and when present were most abundant in the upper cell layers of the precancerous epithelium. RNAs homologous to early ORFs were also detected in some germinal cells within the basal layer of the epithelium.

  18. Genital warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... take part in high-risk sexual activities. An HPV vaccine is available: It protects against the HPV types ... of 3 shots. Ask your provider whether the HPV vaccine is right for you or child. Alternative Names ...

  19. A Study of HPV Typing for the Management of HPV-Positive ASC-US Cervical Cytologic Results

    PubMed Central

    Schiffman, Mark; Vaughan, Laurence; Raine-Bennett, Tina R.; Castle, Philip E.; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Gage, Julia C.; Fetterman, Barbara; Befano, Brian; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Background In US cervical screening, immediate colposcopy is recommended for women with HPV-positive ASC-US (equivocal) cytology. We evaluated whether partial typing by Onclarity™ (BD) might identify HPV-positive women with low enough CIN3+ risk to permit 1-year follow-up instead. Methods The NCI-Kaiser Permanente Northern California Persistence and Progression Cohort includes a subset of 13,890 women aged 21+ with HC2 (Qiagen)-positive ASC-US at enrollment; current median follow-up is 3.0 years. Using stratified random sampling, we typed 2,079 archived enrollment specimens including 329 women subsequently diagnosed with CIN3+, 563 with CIN2, and 1,187 with typing channel, using Kaplan-Meier methods. Results The 3-year CIN3+ risk for all HC2-positive women with ASC-US was 5.2%; this establishes the “benchmark” risk for colposcopic referral. Hierarchically, 3-year cumulative risks for each typing channel were 16.0% for HPV16, 7.4% for HPV18, 7.0% for HPV31, 7.1% for grouped HPV33/58, 4.4% for HPV52, 3.9% for HPV45, 2.7% for HPV51, 1.6% for HPV39/68/35, and 1.3% for HPV59/56/66. Discussion ASC-US linked to HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, or HPV33/58 warrants immediate colposcopy. Optimal management of women with HPV52 or HPV45 is uncertain. Risk of women with only HPV51, HPV39/68/35, or HPV59/56/66 might be low enough to recommend 1-year retesting permitting viral clearance. This strategy would defer colposcopy for 40% of women with HPV-positive ASC-US, half of whom would be cotest-negative at 1-year return. Approximately 10% of those with CIN3 diagnosable at enrollment would be delayed 1 year instead. Cost-effectiveness analyses are needed. PMID:26148763

  20. End-of-study safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of quadrivalent HPV (types 6, 11, 16, 18) recombinant vaccine in adult women 24–45 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Castellsagué, X; Muñoz, N; Pitisuttithum, P; Ferris, D; Monsonego, J; Ault, K; Luna, J; Myers, E; Mallary, S; Bautista, O M; Bryan, J; Vuocolo, S; Haupt, R M; Saah, A

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous analyses from a randomised trial in women aged 24–45 years have shown the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccine to be efficacious in the prevention of infection, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and external genital lesions (EGLs) related to HPV 6/11/16/18. In this report, we present end-of-study efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity data with a median follow-up time of 4.0 years. Methods: We enrolled 3819 24–45-year-old women with no history of cervical disease or genital warts in the past 5 years. Women received quadrivalent vaccine or placebo at day 1, and at months 2 and 6. Ascertainment of CIN/EGL was accomplished through Pap testing, genital inspection, and cervicovaginal sampling (every 6 months). The main analysis was conducted in a per-protocol efficacy population (that received three doses, was naive to the relevant HPV types at day 1, and remained free of infection through month 7). Efficacy was also estimated in other naive and non-naive populations. Results: Vaccine efficacy against the combined incidence of persistent infection, CIN/EGL related to HPV6/11/16/18 in the per-protocol population was 88.7% (95% CI: 78.1, 94.8). Efficacy for women who were seropositive and DNA negative for the relevant vaccine HPV type at the time of enrolment who received at least 1 dose was 66.9% (95% CI: 4.3, 90.6). At month 48, 91.5, 92.0, 97.4, and 47.9% of vaccinated women were seropositive to HPV 6/11/16/18, respectively. No serious vaccine-related adverse experiences were reported. Conclusions: The qHPV vaccine demonstrated high efficacy, immunogenicity, and acceptable safety in women aged 24–45 years, regardless of previous exposure to HPV vaccine type. PMID:21629249

  1. More than 97% of human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16) was found with chrysotile asbestos & relatively smooth round tumor outline, and less than 3% was found with HPV-18 and tremolite asbestos & irregular sawtooth-like zigzag outline in breast cancer tissues in over 500 mammograms of female patients: their implications in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Jones, Marilyn K; Nihrane, Abdallah; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2013-01-01

    In the past, Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16) was considered to be the main cause of cancer in the oropharynx and genital organs. Cervical cancer of the uterus is the most well-known cancer associated with HPV-16. Among the oncogenic HPVs, types 16 and 18 are most responsible for the majority of the HPV-caused cancers. Recently, using EMF Resonance Phenomenon between 2 identical substances, we non-invasively measured HPV-16 and HPV-18 among 25 physicians and 25 dentists and found that all 50 have HPV-16 in oral cavities and oropharynx but not HPV-18. However most dentists have a stronger infection than physicians. Among them were 2 female dentists with breast cancer containing HPV-16 and strong infections of HPV-16 in the oral cavities and oropharynx. When the author checked their breast cancer positive areas as well as the mammograms of cancer positive areas, Chrysotile Asbestos co-existed with an infection of HPV-16. We then examined over 500 published mammograms of women with malignant breast cancer published by other institutes, and we found HPV-16 in more than 97% and HPV-18 in less than 3% of the breast cancer mammograms examined. Less than 0.4% of cases were found as a variety of combination of HPV-16 & HPV-18. We also discovered that breast cancer with HPV-16 always co-exists with increased Chrysotile Asbestos deposits, and the outline of the breast cancer positive area is a relatively smooth and round or oval shape, and breast cancer with HPV-18 always co-exists with increased Tremolite Asbestos, where the tumor outline is an irregular saw-tooth like zigzag pattern. Based on these findings, better methods of diagnosis, treatment and prevention with a vaccine can be developed.

  2. HPV Population Profiling in Healthy Men by Next-Generation Deep Sequencing Coupled with HPV-QUEST

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Li; Yao, Jin; Chang, Kaifen; Gardner, Brent P.; Yu, Fahong; Giuliano, Anna R.; Goodenow, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple-type human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection presents a greater risk for persistence in asymptomatic individuals and may accelerate cancer development. To extend the scope of HPV types defined by probe-based assays, multiplexing deep sequencing of HPV L1, coupled with an HPV-QUEST genotyping server and a bioinformatic pipeline, was established and applied to survey the diversity of HPV genotypes among a subset of healthy men from the HPV in Men (HIM) Multinational Study. Twenty-one HPV genotypes (12 high-risk and 9 low-risk) were detected in the genital area from 18 asymptomatic individuals. A single HPV type, either HPV16, HPV6b or HPV83, was detected in 7 individuals, while coinfection by 2 to 5 high-risk and/or low-risk genotypes was identified in the other 11 participants. In two individuals studied for over one year, HPV16 persisted, while fluctuations of coinfecting genotypes occurred. HPV L1 regions were generally identical between query and reference sequences, although nonsynonymous and synonymous nucleotide polymorphisms of HPV16, 18, 31, 35h, 59, 70, 73, cand85, 6b, 62, 81, 83, cand89 or JEB2 L1 genotypes, mostly unidentified by linear array, were evident. Deep sequencing coupled with HPV-QUEST provides efficient and unambiguous classification of HPV genotypes in multiple-type HPV infection in host ecosystems. PMID:26821041

  3. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mammas, Ioannis N; Sourvinos, George; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2009-03-01

    Human papilloma viruses (HPV) are common pathogens associated with a wide range of cutaneous and mucosal infections in childhood. Different HPV types can cause common warts, genital warts, low-grade as well as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Anogenital warts represent an issue with legal and clinical implications and evaluation of children for the possibility of sexual abuse should be considered in all cases. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis has also been associated with HPV infection in a variety of studies. The recently introduced HPV vaccination is expected to prevent HPV-related cervical cancer in adulthood; however, HPV infection will continue to affect children.

  4. Detection of oncogenic genital human papillomavirus (HPV) among HPV negative older and younger women after 7 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Brogaard, Kim Agerholm; Munk, Christian; Iftner, Thomas; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge on risk factors of being human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive among older women is sparse. The aim was to determine the frequency of oncogenic HPV appearance after 7 years among initially HPV-negative women and to examine potential risk factors that influence the occurrence of HPV in older women using multiple logistic regression. For comparison, a younger cohort of women examined under identical study settings was included. This prospective cohort study comprised 1,577 older women (age 40-50 at enrolment) and 2,920 women aged 22-32. Participants were interviewed and underwent a gynecological examination at two time points (7 years apart). Cervical samples were tested for HPV using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and only women who tested HC2-negative at baseline were included. The HPV prevalence among older and younger women was 6.4% and 10.7%, respectively, and there was no "second peak" observed among older women. Recent sexual partners were a strong determinant of HPV appearance irrespective of age. Lifetime number of sexual partners was a significant risk factor for HPV appearance among older women, even after adjustment for recent sexual behavior. In addition, menopause was associated with a non-significantly increased risk of HPV appearance at follow-up. In conclusion, appearance of HPV in previously HPV-negative older women may be due to both recent sexual behavior and previous exposure that is, reactivation of a latent HPV infection.

  5. HPV Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    HPV CANCER PREVENTION HPV VACCINE IS CANCER PREVENTION HPV vaccine protects against HPV types that most commonly cause ... professionals are the key to protecting adolescents from HPV cancers. VACCINATE YOUR 11-12 YEAR OLDS. www. cdc. ...

  6. Infection with high-risk HPV types among female sex workers in northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Huyen Thi Thanh; Ishizaki, Azumi; Nguyen, Cuong Hung; Tran, Vuong Thi; Matsushita, Kaori; Saikawa, Kunikazu; Hosaka, Norimitsu; Pham, Hung Viet; Bi, Xiuqiong; Ta, Van Thanh; Van Pham, Thuc; Ichimura, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    Vaccines against two high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV-16, and HPV-18, are in use currently, with high efficacy for preventing infections with these HPV types and consequent cervical cancers. However, circulating HPV types can vary with geography and ethnicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV types and the association between HPV types and abnormal cervical cytology among female sex workers in Northern Vietnam. Cervical swabs and plasma samples were collected from 281 female sex workers at two health centers in Hanoi and Hai Phong in 2009. The HPV L1 gene was amplified by PCR using original and modified GP5(+)/6(+) primers. Amplified PCR products were genotyped by the microarray system GeneSquare (KURABO) and/or clonal sequencing. Of the 281 women, 139 (49.5%) were positive for HPV DNA. Among the HPV-positive samples, 339 strains and 29 different types were identified. Multiple-type and high risk-type HPV infections were found in 85 (61.2%) and 124 (89.2%) women, respectively. The most common genotype was HPV-52, followed by HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-58. Abnormal cervical cytology was detected in 3.2% (9/281) of the women, and all of these samples were positive for HPV-DNA. Age ≤25 years and infection with human immunodeficiency virus were associated positively with HPV infection among the women while ever smoking was associated negatively. These results show that HPV-52 is most prevalent among female sex workers in Northern Vietnam, most of whom had normal cervical cytology. This information may be important for designing vaccination strategies in Vietnam.

  7. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Upper Genital Tract: Utility of p16INK4a Expression and HPV DNA Status in its Differential Diagnosis from Extended Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Su Hyun; Son, Eun-Mi; Sung, Chang Okh

    2013-01-01

    Background Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the upper genital tract, including the endometrium, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, is extremely rare. It must be distinguished from the mucosal extension of primary cervical SCC because determination of the primary tumor site is important for tumor staging. However, patients with SCC of the fallopian tubes or ovarian surface have often undergone prior hysterectomy with inadequate examination of the cervix, making it difficult to determine the primary site. Methods We compared histologic findings, p16INK4a expression, and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA status in four patients with primary SCC of the upper genital tract and five patients with primary cervical SCC extending to the mucosa of the upper genital tract. Results All five SCCs of cervical origin showed strong expression of p16INK4a, whereas all four SCCs of the upper genital tract were negative, although one showed weak focal staining. Three of the five cervical SCCs were positive for HPV16 DNA, whereas all four primary SCCs of the upper genital tract were negative for HPV DNA. Conclusions Although a thorough histological examination is important, immunonegativity for p16INK4a and negative for HPV DNA may be useful adjuncts in determining primary SCCs of the upper genital tract. PMID:24421848

  8. Development of a human papillomavirus competitive luminex immunoassay for 9 HPV types

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Christine; Green, Tina; Hess, Erica; Matys, Katie; Brown, Martha J; Haupt, Richard M; Luxembourg, Alain; Vuocolo, Scott; Saah, Alfred; Antonello, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In the clinical trials of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccine, antibodies were measured by a competitive Luminex immunoassay (HPV-4 cLIA). A nine-valent HPV (9vHPV) vaccine targeting the types in the qHPV vaccine (HPV6/11/16/18), as well as 5 of the next most frequent HPV types found in cervical cancers worldwide (HPV31/33/45/52/58) is under development. To support the 9vHPV vaccine program, a nine-multiplexed cLIA (HPV-9 cLIA) was developed. Antibody titers were determined in a competitive format, where type-specific phycoerythrin (PE)-labeled, neutralizing mAbs (mAbs-PE) compete with an individual’s serum antibodies for binding to conformationally sensitive, neutralizing epitopes on the VLPs. Neutralizing antibody levels were quantitated against a reference standard - a pool of sera from 6 Rhesus macaques that were immunized with the 9vHPV vaccine. Specificity of the mAbs was assessed by measuring their individual binding capacities to the type-specific and non-type-specific VLPs at alternative concentrations of the mAbs. Antibody assignments to the HPV-9 cLIA reference standard for HPV6/11/16/18 were determined to provide for a measure of consistency in serostatus assignment between the HPV-4 and HPV-9 cLIAs. Antibody assignments to the HPV-9 reference standard for HPV31/33/45/52/58 were obtained by calibration to HPV11 using a direct binding IgG assay. For each HPV VLP type, the cross-reactivity of the mAb-PEs in the HPV-9 cLIA was <1% (i.e., the mAb-PEs result in <1% non-specific binding). The antibody concentrations assigned to the HPV-9 cLIA reference standard for types 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 were 3,817, 2,889, 23,061, 5,271, 3,942, 2,672, 1,489, 1274, and 2263 mMU/mL, respectively. PMID:25424920

  9. Development of a human papillomavirus competitive luminex immunoassay for 9 HPV types.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Christine; Green, Tina; Hess, Erica; Matys, Katie; Brown, Martha J; Haupt, Richard M; Luxembourg, Alain; Vuocolo, Scott; Saah, Alfred; Antonello, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In the clinical trials of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccine, antibodies were measured by a competitive Luminex immunoassay (HPV-4 cLIA). A nine-valent HPV (9vHPV) vaccine targeting the types in the qHPV vaccine (HPV6/11/16/18), as well as 5 of the next most frequent HPV types found in cervical cancers worldwide (HPV31/33/45/52/58) is under development. To support the 9vHPV vaccine program, a nine-multiplexed cLIA (HPV-9 cLIA) was developed. Antibody titers were determined in a competitive format, where type-specific phycoerythrin (PE)-labeled, neutralizing mAbs (mAbs-PE) compete with an individual's serum antibodies for binding to conformationally sensitive, neutralizing epitopes on the VLPs. Neutralizing antibody levels were quantitated against a reference standard - a pool of sera from 6 Rhesus macaques that were immunized with the 9vHPV vaccine. Specificity of the mAbs was assessed by measuring their individual binding capacities to the type-specific and non-type-specific VLPs at alternative concentrations of the mAbs. Antibody assignments to the HPV-9 cLIA reference standard for HPV6/11/16/18 were determined to provide for a measure of consistency in serostatus assignment between the HPV-4 and HPV-9 cLIAs. Antibody assignments to the HPV-9 reference standard for HPV31/33/45/52/58 were obtained by calibration to HPV11 using a direct binding IgG assay. For each HPV VLP type, the cross-reactivity of the mAb-PEs in the HPV-9 cLIA was <1% (i.e., the mAb-PEs result in <1% non-specific binding). The antibody concentrations assigned to the HPV-9 cLIA reference standard for types 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 were 3,817, 2,889, 23,061, 5,271, 3,942, 2,672, 1,489, 1274, and 2263 mMU/mL, respectively.

  10. Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst and Type 2 Radical Genital Mutilation

    PubMed Central

    Birge, Ozer; Ozbey, Ertugrul Gazi; Arslan, Deniz; Erkan, Mustafa Melih; Demir, Feyza; Akgor, Utku

    2015-01-01

    About 100 million women are estimated to be circumcised globally. Various rates of complications have been encountered, especially after circumcision, such as bleeding, infection, shock, menstrual irregularity, difficulty in urination or common urinary tract infections, inguinal pain, difficulty in sexual intercourse, and genital circumcision scar especially at the vulvar region, and cystic or solid character mass in short and long term. Furthermore, the maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality increase due to bleeding and fistula, which develop after prolonged labor, travail, and difficult labors. Our aim in this paper was to discuss a 42-year-old multiparous female case who had undergone type 2 radical genital mutilation (circumcision) when she was 7 years of age, along with the literature, which has been evaluated for the gradually growing mass at the left inguinal canal region in the last 10 years and diagnosed as epidermoid inclusion cyst developing secondary to postcircumcision surgical ground trauma, since there was no other case found in the literature search that had been circumcised at such an early age and developing after circumcision at such advanced age, and, therefore, this is suggested to be the first case on this subject. PMID:26682078

  11. A cohort study of cervical screening using partial HPV typing and cytology triage.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Mark; Hyun, Noorie; Raine-Bennett, Tina R; Katki, Hormuzd; Fetterman, Barbara; Gage, Julia C; Cheung, Li C; Befano, Brian; Poitras, Nancy; Lorey, Thomas; Castle, Philip E; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2016-12-01

    HPV testing is more sensitive than cytology for cervical screening. However, to incorporate HPV tests into screening, risk-stratification ("triage") of HPV-positive women is needed to avoid excessive colposcopy and overtreatment. We prospectively evaluated combinations of partial HPV typing (Onclarity, BD) and cytology triage, and explored whether management could be simplified, based on grouping combinations yielding similar 3-year or 18-month CIN3+ risks. We typed ∼9,000 archived specimens, taken at enrollment (2007-2011) into the NCI-Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) HPV Persistence and Progression (PaP) cohort. Stratified sampling, with reweighting in the statistical analysis, permitted risk estimation of HPV/cytology combinations for the 700,000+-woman KPNC screening population. Based on 3-year CIN3+ risks, Onclarity results could be combined into five groups (HPV16, else HPV18/45, else HPV31/33/58/52, else HPV51/35/39/68/56/66/68, else HPV negative); cytology results fell into three risk groups ("high-grade," ASC-US/LSIL, NILM). For the resultant 15 HPV group-cytology combinations, 3-year CIN3+ risks ranged 1,000-fold from 60.6% to 0.06%. To guide management, we compared the risks to established "benchmark" risk/management thresholds in this same population (e.g., LSIL predicted 3-year CIN3+ risk of 5.8% in the screening population, providing the benchmark for colposcopic referral). By benchmarking to 3-year risk thresholds (supplemented by 18-month estimates), the widely varying risk strata could be condensed into four action bands (very high risk of CIN3+ mandating consideration of cone biopsy if colposcopy did not find precancer; moderate risk justifying colposcopy; low risk managed by intensified follow-up to permit HPV "clearance"; and very low risk permitting routine screening.) Overall, the results support primary HPV testing, with management of HPV-positive women using partial HPV typing and cytology.

  12. Expression of membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase in papillomavirus-positive cells: role of the human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and HPV8 E7 gene products.

    PubMed

    Smola-Hess, Sigrun; Pahne, Jenny; Mauch, Cornelia; Zigrino, Paola; Smola, Hans; Pfister, Herbert J

    2005-05-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade extracellular matrix. They are involved in cellular proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. MT-1 MMP, a membrane-bound MMP, is expressed in carcinomas of the uterine cervix in vivo. This type of cancer is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Here it was shown that keratinocytes transformed with HPV16 or HPV18 in vitro, and HPV-positive cervical carcinoma cell lines, constitutively expressed MT-1 MMP. Expression of the E7 protein from the mucosal and cutaneous high-risk types HPV16 and HPV8, but not from the cutaneous low-risk type HPV1, was sufficient to induce MT-1 MMP expression in primary human keratinocytes and HaCaT cells. As a consequence, MMP-2 was activated. MT-1 MMP expression might play a role in the HPV life cycle by promoting proliferation of host cells and might contribute to their invasive phenotype during malignant progression.

  13. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type Distribution in Females with Abnormal Cervical Cytology. A Correlation with Histological Study

    PubMed Central

    Cobo, Fernando; Concha, Ángel; Ortiz, Marta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine human papillomavirus (HPV) types distribution in cervical preneoplasic lesions in a Southern Spanish population and their relationship between HPV type and grade of histopathological abnormality. Finally, 232 cervical samples from 135 women with previous cytological abnormalities were included in this study. Colposcopy studies and biopsies were performed. Haematoxylin-eosin stained slides were observed and detection of HPV DNA in cervical swabs was carried out with use of a polymerase chain reaction and microarrays technology. The relationship between the presence of HPV infection and diagnostic variables was evaluated. HPV 16 was the most common type followed by HPV 58, 51, 33 and 31. However, the two HPV types targeted in the prophylactic vaccines such as HPV type 16 and 18 were detected in only 37 (21.2%) and 2 (1.1%) cases respectively. Thirty-three (18.9%) of samples were infected with multiple types, the majority of them with two types. In addition, during the follow-up of patients many changes in type distribution were observed. Several studies will be necessary in order to evaluate the HPV type distribution for therapeutically and prophylactic purposes such as vaccine treatment. Also, because of the differences obtained depending of use of various DNA technologies, the performance of some comparative studies of the different methods from detection of HPV would be advisable in a high population of patients and with the most homogeneous conditions possible. PMID:19750125

  14. Prevalence of cervical infection with HPV type 16 and 18 in Vietnam: implications for vaccine campaign

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Expanded Program on Immunization currently considers offering Human Papilomavirus vaccine on a routine basis in Vietnam. However, as the current available vaccine can prevent only two types HPV 16 and 18, before implementing a large-scale vaccine campaign we need information about the prevalence of infection with only HPV 16 and 18 in Viet Nam. This study was done in 5 large cities in Vietnam to estimate the prevalence of HPV 16 and/or 18 infections and to explore the distribution of other high risk types of HPV among married women in these provinces. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional design with multistage sampling. The sample size included 4500 married women in two rounds (aged ranged from 18-69 years old, median age: 40 year old). Participant were randomly selected, interviewed and given gynaecological examinations. HPV infection status (by real-time PCR kit using TaqMan probe) and HPV genotyping test (by Reverse dot blot) were done for all participants. Results The prevalence of cervical infection with HPV type 16 and/or 18 among married women in this study ranged from 3.1% to 7.4%. Many positive HPV cases (ranged from 24.5% to 56.8%) were infected with other type of high risk HPV which can lead to cervical cancer and cannot prevented by currently available vaccines. In addition to HPV 16 and/or 18, most common types of high risk HPV were types 58, 52, 35 and 45. Awareness about HPV and HPV vaccines was still low in the study samples. Discussion While it is relevant to implement an HPV vaccine campaign in Viet Nam, it is important to note that one can be infected with multiple types of HPV. Vaccination does not protected against all type of high risk HPV types. Future vaccine campaigns should openly disclose this information to women receiving vaccines. Conclusion High prevalence of infection with HPV high risk types was observed in this study. As HPV infection has a high correlation with cervical cancer, this study emphasizes the need

  15. Laser micro-dissection and qPCR for identifying specific HPV types responsible for malignancy in penile lesions.

    PubMed

    Lebelo, Ramokone L; Thys, Sofie; Benoy, Ina; Depuydt, Christophe E; Bogers, John-Paul; Bida, Meshack N; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to identify specific human papillomavirus (HPV) type responsible for malignancy in penile tissue samples using laser micro-dissection and TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The study was based on two pre-malignant and seven malignant penile tissue samples and laser micro-dissection was performed on all. Genotyping was performed on whole tissue sections and laser micro-dissection samples using qPCR. Two whole tissue section samples were HPV negative while seven were HPV positive. In four samples that were single HPV infections with whole tissue section PCR, identical HPV types were confirmed with laser micro-dissection PCR. Clearly confirming that the single HPV type detected is responsible for malignancy. In two samples that had multiple HPV infections with whole tissue section PCR, only one HPV type with the highest viral load was detected with laser micro-dissection PCR, suggesting that the HPV type with the highest viral load is most likely the cause of that particular lesion. HPV 11 and/or HPV 16 were the only types detected with laser micro-dissection PCR in these cases, compared to multiple HPV types (HPV 11, HPV 16, HPV 18, HPV 31, HPV 33, HPV 35, and HPV 39) initially detected with whole tissue section PCR. HPV 11 was associated with verrucous lesions while HPV 16 was associated with squamous cell carcinoma and PIN 3 lesions. This study confirms that laser micro-dissection and qPCR are essential tools in identifying the HPV types responsible for malignancy in penile lesions, particularly in samples with multiple infections.

  16. New generic primer system targeting mucosal/genital and cutaneous human papillomaviruses leads to the characterization of HPV 115, a novel Beta-papillomavirus species 3

    PubMed Central

    Chouhy, Diego; Gorosito, Mario; Sánchez, Adriana; Serra, Esteban C; Bergero, Adriana; Bussy, Ramón Fernandez; Giri, Adriana A

    2009-01-01

    We explored the cutaneotropic HPV genetic diversity in 71 subjects from Argentina. New generic primers (CUT) targeting 88 mucosal/cutaneous HPV were designed and compared to FAP primers. Overall, 69 different HPV types/putative types were identified, being 17 of them novel putative types. Phylogenetic analysis of partial L1 sequences grouped 2 novel putative types in the Beta-PV, 14 in the Gamma-PV and 1 in the Mu-PV genera. CUT primers showed broader capacity than FAP primers in detecting different genera/species and novel putative types (p<0.01). Using overlapping PCR, the full-length genome of a Beta-PV putative type was amplified and cloned. The new virus, designated HPV 115, encodes 5 early genes and 2 late genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated HPV 115 as the most divergent type within the genus Beta-PV species 3. This report is the first providing data on cutaneous HPVs circulating in South America and expands our knowledge of the Papillomaviridae family. PMID:19948351

  17. Influence of HPV type on prognosis in patients diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Cuschieri, K; Brewster, D H; Graham, C; Nicoll, S; Williams, A R W; Murray, G I; Millan, D; Johannessen, I; Hardie, A; Cubie, H A

    2014-12-01

    While much is known about the influence of HPV type on the progression of pre-invasive cervical lesions, the impact of HPV type on cervical cancer prognosis is less evidenced. Thus, we assessed the impact of HPV type on the survival of women diagnosed with cervical cancer. A total of 370 cases of cervical cancer were assessed. Univariate analysis is presented using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and log-rank statistics and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were generated using age group, socio-economic deprivation, FIGO stage, differentiation and HPV type. HPV grouping was considered in a number of ways with particular reference to the presence or absence of HPV 16 and/or 18. In the univariate analysis, FIGO, age at diagnosis and treatment were associated with poorer survival (p < 0.0001) as was absence of HPV 16 and/or 18 (p = 0.0460). The 25% mortality time in the non-HPV 16/18 vs. HPV16/18 positive group was 615 days and 1,307 days respectively. An unadjusted Cox PH model based HPV16/18 vs. no HPV 16/18 resulted in a hazard ratio of 0.669 (0.450, 0.995). Adjusting for deprivation, FIGO and age group resulted in a hazard ratio of 0.609 (0.395, 0.941) p = 0.025. These data indicate that cancers associated with HPV 16 and/or 18 do not confer worse survival compared to cancers associated with other types, and may indicate improved survival. Consequently, although HPV vaccine is likely to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer it may not indirectly improve cervical cancer survival by reducing the burden of those cancers caused by HPV16/18.

  18. The next generation of HPV vaccines: nonavalent vaccine V503 on the horizon.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Archana

    2014-11-01

    HPV infection with 'high-risk' genotypes is associated with ano-genital and oropharyngeal cancers. Two currently licensed prophylactic HPV vaccines designed to prevent disease associated with HPV 16 and 18 are in use around the world. Both vaccines have very high efficacy for prevention of vaccine type-associated cervical precancers, preventing approximately 70% of these lesions. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine has also been shown to prevent HPV16/18-associated vaginal, vulvar and anal precancers, and HPV6/11-associated ano-genital warts. To broaden protection against HPV genotypes not in the current vaccines, 'second-generation' vaccines with additional genotypes are under development. Merck, Sharp and Dohme has submitted a Biologics License Application for its investigational nonavalent HPV vaccine V503 to the US FDA, with standard review being granted. The nonavalent HPV vaccine appears to be safe and effective in preventing persistent infection and precancerous lesions associated with HPV types 16/18/31/33/45/52/58, as well as genital warts related to HPV types 6 and 11.

  19. Immortalization capacity of HPV types is inversely related to chromosomal instability.

    PubMed

    Schütze, Denise M; Krijgsman, Oscar; Snijders, Peter J F; Ylstra, Bauke; Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Mardin, Balca R; Stütz, Adrian M; Korbel, Jan O; de Winter, Johan P; Meijer, Chris J L M; Quint, Wim G V; Bosch, Leontien; Wilting, Saskia M; Steenbergen, Renske D M

    2016-06-21

    High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) types induce immortalization of primary human epithelial cells. Previously we demonstrated that immortalization of human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) is HPV type dependent, as reflected by the presence or absence of a crisis period before reaching immortality. This study determined how the immortalization capacity of ten hrHPV types relates to DNA damage induction and overall genomic instability in HFKs.Twenty five cell cultures obtained by transduction of ten hrHPV types (i.e. HPV16/18/31/33/35/45/51/59/66/70 E6E7) in two or three HFK donors each were studied.All hrHPV-transduced HFKs showed an increased number of double strand DNA breaks compared to controls, without exhibiting significant differences between types. However, immortal descendants of HPV-transduced HFKs that underwent a prior crisis period (HPV45/51/59/66/70-transduced HFKs) showed significantly more chromosomal aberrations compared to those without crisis (HPV16/18/31/33/35-transduced HFKs). Notably, the hTERT locus at 5p was exclusively gained in cells with a history of crisis and coincided with increased expression. Chromothripsis was detected in one cell line in which multiple rearrangements within chromosome 8 resulted in a gain of MYC.Together we demonstrated that upon HPV-induced immortalization, the number of chromosomal aberrations is inversely related to the viral immortalization capacity. We propose that hrHPV types with reduced immortalization capacity in vitro, reflected by a crisis period, require more genetic host cell aberrations to facilitate immortalization than types that can immortalize without crisis. This may in part explain the observed differences in HPV-type prevalence in cervical cancers and emphasizes that changes in the host cell genome contribute to HPV-induced carcinogenesis.

  20. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and levonorgestrel increase genital mucosal permeability and enhance susceptibility to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.

    PubMed

    Quispe Calla, N E; Vicetti Miguel, R D; Boyaka, P N; Hall-Stoodley, L; Kaur, B; Trout, W; Pavelko, S D; Cherpes, T L

    2016-11-01

    Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a hormonal contraceptive especially popular in areas with high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Although observational studies identify DMPA as an important STI risk factor, mechanisms underlying this connection are undefined. Levonorgestrel (LNG) is another progestin used for hormonal contraception, but its effect on STI susceptibility is much less explored. Using a mouse model of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection, we herein found that DMPA and LNG similarly reduced genital expression of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1α (DSG1α), enhanced access of inflammatory cells to genital tissue by increasing mucosal epithelial permeability, and increased susceptibility to viral infection. Additional studies with uninfected mice revealed that DMPA-mediated increases in mucosal permeability promoted tissue inflammation by facilitating endogenous vaginal microbiota invasion. Conversely, concomitant treatment of mice with DMPA and intravaginal estrogen restored mucosal barrier function and prevented HSV-2 infection. Evaluating ectocervical biopsy tissue from women before and 1 month after initiating DMPA remarkably revealed that inflammation and barrier protection were altered by treatment identically to changes seen in progestin-treated mice. Together, our work reveals DMPA and LNG diminish the genital mucosal barrier; a first-line defense against all STI, but may offer foundation for new contraceptive strategies less compromising of barrier protection.

  1. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at http://www.cdc.gov/hpv. HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...

  2. Pap and HPV Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... be screened for cervical cancer? Yes. Because current HPV vaccines do not protect against all HPV types that ... DES) and Cancer HPV and Cancer Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines Understanding Cervical Changes: A Health Guide for Women ...

  3. Case report: symptomatic oral herpes simplex virus type 2 and asymptomatic genital shedding.

    PubMed

    Olin, Laura; Wald, Anna

    2006-05-01

    A 42-year-old bisexual man with a history of recurrent oral herpes and no history of genital herpes was noted to have antibody to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) only. During a symptomatic oral recurrence, HSV-2 was found in a perioral lesion as well as in the genital area.

  4. Genital Warts (HPV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to protect against STDs. Condoms are a good defense against warts, but they can't completely protect ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  5. Vaccines against human papillomavirus infections: protection against cancer, genital warts or both?

    PubMed

    Joura, E A; Pils, S

    2016-12-01

    Since 2006, three vaccines against infections and disease caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) became available in Europe-in 2006 a quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine, in 2007 a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine and in 2015 a nonavalent HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine. HPV 16 and 18 are the most oncogenic HPV strains, causing about 70% of cervical and other HPV-related cancers, HPV 6 and 11 cause 85% of all genital warts. The additional types of the polyvalent vaccine account for about 20% of invasive cervical cancer and >35% of pre-cancer. The potential differences between these vaccines caused some debate. All three vaccines give a robust and long-lasting protection against the strains in the various vaccines. The promise of cross-protection against other types (i.e. HPV 31/33/45) and hence a broader cancer protection was not fulfilled because these observations were confounded by the vaccine efficacy against the vaccine types. Furthermore, cross-protection was not consistent over various studies, not durable and not consistently seen in the real world experience. The protection against disease caused by oncogenic HPV strains was not compromised by the protection against low-risk types causing genital warts. The most effective cancer protection to date can be expected by the nonavalent vaccine, data indicate a 97% efficacy against cervical and vulvovaginal pre-cancer caused by these nine HPV types.

  6. Human papillomavirus (HPV): making the case for 'Immunisation for All'.

    PubMed

    Prue, G; Lawler, M; Baker, P; Warnakulasuriya, S

    2016-08-05

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) contributes to the most common sexually transmitted infections, with repeated and persistent infection with particular types causing disease in both men and women. Infection with low-risk HPV types can lead to genital warts and benign lesions of the oral cavity, while high-risk types can cause various HPV-related malignancies. The incidence of head and neck cancers has been rising in the past number of decades mostly due to oropharyngeal cancer linked to HPV infection. HPV vaccination has been shown to be effective for cervical and other anogenital HPV-related cancers, and there is significant potential for HPV vaccination to prevent oropharyngeal cancers, given that the HPV types implicated in this disease can be protected against by the HPV vaccine. Few countries have implemented a universal HPV vaccination programme for males and females, with many countries arguing that female-only vaccination programmes protect males via herd immunity and that men who have sex with men will be protected via targeted vaccination programmes. We argue these may be limited in their effectiveness. We propose that the most effective, practical, ethical and potentially cost-effective solution is universal HPV vaccination that might lead to control of HPV-related diseases in men and women alike.

  7. One virus, one lesion--individual components of CIN lesions contain a specific HPV type.

    PubMed

    Quint, Wim; Jenkins, David; Molijn, Anco; Struijk, Linda; van de Sandt, Miekel; Doorbar, John; Mols, Johann; Van Hoof, Christine; Hardt, Karin; Struyf, Frank; Colau, Brigitte

    2012-05-01

    In 20-40% of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) and in 4-8% of cervical carcinoma tissue specimens, multiple HPV genotypes have been detected. Whole tissue section (WTS) PCR does not determine how the individual types relate causally to complex and multiple CIN. Our objective was to determine whether laser capture micro-dissection (LCM) with HPV PCR genotyping (LCM-PCR) could accurately recover type-specific HPV DNA from epithelial cells in individual areas of CIN and normal epithelium, and whether one or more viruses are present in one lesion. For that, histologically selected samples of CIN and normal epithelium were isolated by LCM and analysed by the SPF(10) PCR/LiPA(25) (version 1) HPV genotyping system for 25 HPV genotypes. HPV genotypes detected in 756 areas of CIN (grade 1, 2 or 3) by LCM-PCR were compared with results obtained by WTS-PCR in 60 cases (74 biopsies). We showed that when a single HPV type is detected by WTS-PCR, that type was almost always (94%; 29/31) recovered by LCM-PCR from CIN. When multiple HPV types were present by WTS-PCR, their distribution within histological sections could be mapped by LCM-PCR. Association of a single HPV type with a discrete area of CIN was found for 93% (372/399) of LCM fragments analysed by PCR. We found colliding CIN lesions associated with separate HPV types and only 62% (61/99) of HPV types detected by WTS-PCR were found in CIN by LCM-PCR. Therefore, the LCM-PCR technique was found very accurate for high-resolution HPV genotyping and for assigning an individual HPV type to an area of CIN. At LCM level, in cervical biopsy sections with multiple HPV infections, the relation between HPV types and CIN lesions is often complex. Almost every HPV type found in CIN by LCM-PCR is associated with a biological separate independent CIN lesion-one virus, one lesion.

  8. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Concordance in Heterosexual Couples

    PubMed Central

    Widdice, Lea E.; Breland, David J.; Jonte, Janet; Farhat, Sepideh; Ma, Yifei; Leonard, Anthony C.; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Few studies have examined the relationships between sexual or hygienic behaviors and HPV transmission. Our objectives were to (1) describe HPV concordance between the anogenital, oral and palmar areas of monogamous, heterosexual couples and (2) determine sexual behaviors, hygienic practices, sexual histories and characteristics associated with HPV anogenital concordance. Methods Couples were recruited from women who developed an incident HPV infection while enrolled in a longitudinal HPV natural history study that recruited from 2 family-planning clinics. Men were their monogamous partners of at least three months. Samples were tested for HPV-DNA of 37 high- and low-risk genotypes. Questionnaires completed privately assessed health, sexual, hygienic history and behaviors. Results 25 couples enrolled between February 2006 and July 2007; none had received HPV vaccine. The average age was 25 years (SD 6) for men and 23 years (SD 3) for women. HPV-84 was the most commonly shared HPV type in the anogenital and palmar areas. HPV-16 was the only shared oral-HPV type. 68% of couples had type-specific anogenital concordance. Receiving finger-anal sex (p=.05), sharing towels (p=.04), longer time since last intercourse (p=.03 women and .02 men), and men washing their genitals after sex (p=.03) were associated with decreased likelihood of concordance. Persistence of incident HPV types in women was associated with HPV in men (p=.002). Conclusions Our findings show that certain hygienic and sexual behaviors are associated with anogenital concordance between healthy, monogamous, heterosexual couples. Future studies are needed to see if these detections reflect contamination, transient or established infections. PMID:20638007

  9. HPV Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... test for wider range of HPV types. 2009 Mar 13. US Food and Drug Administration. Available online ... approves two DNA tests to detect HPV. 2009 Mar 17. Infectious Disease News. Available online at http:// ...

  10. The HPV Vaccine: Framing the Arguments "for" and "against" Mandatory Vaccination of All Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vamos, Cheryl A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Daley, Ellen M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV), the virus responsible for cervical cancer, is the most common viral sexually transmitted infection in the United States. A vaccine was approved in 2006 that is effective in preventing the types of HPV responsible for 70% of cervical cancers and 90% of genital warts. Proposals for routine and mandatory HPV…

  11. An analysis of HPV infection incidence and clearance by genotype and age in men: The HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study

    PubMed Central

    Ingles, Donna J.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J.; Sudenga, Staci L.; Lu, Beibei; Schabath, Matthew B.; Papenfuss, Mary R.; Abrahamsen, Martha E.; Salmeron, Jorge; Villa, Luisa L.; Ponce, Eduardo Lazcano; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Genital HPV infection in men causes benign and cancerous lesions, the incidence of which differs by age. The goal of this work was to comprehensively evaluate incidence and clearance of individual HPV genotypes among men by age group. Methods HIV-negative men ages 18–70 with no history of anogenital cancer were recruited for the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Participants completed clinical exams and questionnaires every six months for up to ~4 years. Genital specimens underwent HPV genotyping, with associations between age and HPV assessed using Cox analyses. Results 4085 men were followed for a median of 48.6 months (range: 0.3–94.0). Significantly lower HPV incidence rates were observed among the oldest age group (55–70 years) for grouped high-risk (incidence rate ratio [IRR]=0.71), HPV16 (IRR=0.54), grouped low-risk (IRR=0.74), and HPV6 (IRR=0.57) infections compared to men ages 18–24. However, incidence of the grouped 9-valent HPV vaccine types remained constant across the lifespan. Likelihood of HPV6 and HPV16 clearance remained constant until age 54, then increased significantly for men ages 55–70 (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]=1.92 and 1.65, respectively). Conclusions Men remain susceptible to HPV infections throughout their lifespan, highlighting the need for prevention efforts with long-lasting duration. PMID:27547836

  12. Oral HPV prevalence in women positive for cervical HPV infection and their sexual partners: a German screening study.

    PubMed

    Uken, Ralf B; Brummer, Oliver; von Schubert-Bayer, Carolin; Brodegger, Thomas; Teudt, Ingo U

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) associated oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OSCC) is on the rise. With the HPV-positive uterine cervix as a reservoir, HPV-positive OSCC is discussed as a sexually transmitted disease. Mechanisms of HPV transmission to the oral cavity are poorly understood. To gain more insight into HPV-transmission routes, cervically HPV-positive women and their sexual partners are screened for oral HPV infection. Women with cervical dysplasia underwent HPV testing of the uterine cervix and tonsillar region via brush test. In addition, sexual partners received oral HPV testing. Tonsillar brush tests of patients admitted for routine surgery served as the control group. The HPV-PCR (Roche Linear Array Kit) was used to differentiate 37 HPV types. All participants completed a risk-factor questionnaire focusing on sexual habits. 101 women were tested HPV-positive at the cervix. Only 3/101 (3 %) were tested HPV-positive in the oropharynx. In 60/101 (60 %) women the sexual partner could be tested for oral HPV infection: testing was positive in 3/60 (5 %). No oral HPV was detected in the control group. The risk-factor questionnaire revealed significant differences between the female study- and control group in terms of age at first sexual intercourse and smoking habits. The limited data suggest that among sexual partners in Germany, HPV transmission to the oropharynx by oral-genital sex or by autoinoculation is a rare and unlikely event with low HPV concordance. Another explanation for the low oral prevalence could be an independent clearance of HPV from the oropharyngeal site compared to cervix uteri or at different time intervals.

  13. Concurrence of oral and genital human papillomavirus infection in healthy men: a population-based cross-sectional study in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fangfang; Hang, Dong; Deng, Qiuju; Liu, Mengfei; Xi, Longfu; He, Zhonghu; Zhang, Chaoting; Sun, Min; Liu, Ying; Li, Jingjing; Pan, Yaqi; Ning, Tao; Guo, Chuanhai; Liang, Yongmei; Xu, Ruiping; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, a primary cause of genital cancer, is also related to the increasing incidence of oropharyngeal cancer among young men. Relatively little is known about the concurrence of oral and genital infection among healthy individuals. Oral and genital swab exfoliated cells were collected simultaneously from 2566 men in rural China. Using general primer-mediated (SPF1/GP6+) PCR and sequencing, HPV testing results were obtained from 2228 men with both valid oral and genital specimens (β-globin-positive). The prevalence of HPV infection was 6.7% in the oral cavity and 16.9% for the external genitalia. Among 43 men (1.9%, 43/2228) with oral-genital coinfection, 60.5% (26/43) harbored an identical HPV type at both sites. The risk of oral HPV infection was higher among men with genital infection than among uninfected men (11.4% vs. 5.7%, Adjusted OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.6–3.4). In addition, having multiple lifetime sexual partners was a significant risk for oral-genital HPV coinfection (Adjusted OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.0–7.0; 2 partners vs. 1 partner). These findings provide a basis for further understanding the natural history and transmission dynamics of oral HPV infection. PMID:26503510

  14. Warts (genital)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction External genital warts (EGWs) are sexually transmitted benign epidermal growths caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), on the anogenital areas of both females and males. About 50% to 60% of sexually active women aged 18 to 49 years have been exposed to HPV infection, but only 10% to 15% will have genital warts. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for external genital warts? What are the effects of interventions to prevent transmission of external genital warts? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to December 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 55 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: bi- and trichloroacetic acid; condoms; cryotherapy; electrosurgery; imiquimod; intralesional, topical, or systemic interferons; laser surgery; podophyllin; podophyllotoxin; surgical excision; and vaccines. PMID:21418685

  15. cis-Acting components of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA replication: linker substitution analysis of the HPV type 11 origin.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, J; Botchan, M R

    1995-01-01

    Papillomavirus DNA replication requires the viral trans-acting factors E1 and E2 in addition to the host cell's general replication machinery. The origins of DNA replication in bovine and human papillomavirus genomes have been localized to a specific part of the upstream regulatory region (URR) which includes recognition sites for E1 and E2 proteins. To fine map cis-acting elements influencing human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV-11) DNA replication and to determine the relative contributions of such sites, we engineered consecutive linker substitution mutations across a region of 158 bp in the HPV-11 origin and tested mutant origins for replication function in a cell-based transient replication assay. Our results both confirm and extend the findings of others. E2 binding sites are the major cis components of HPV-11 DNA replication, and there is evidence for synergy between these sites. Differential capacity of the three E2 binding sites within the origin to affect replication may be attributed, at least in part, to context. At least one E2 binding site is essential for replication. The imperfect AT-rich palindrome of the E1 helicase binding site is not essential since replication occurs even in the absence of this sequence. However, replication is enhanced by the presence of the palindromic sequence in the HPV-11 origin. Sequence components adjacent to the E1 and E2 binding sites, comprising AT-rich and purine-rich elements and the consensus TATA box sequence, probably contribute to the overall efficiency of replication, though they are nonessential. None of the other cis elements of the HPV-11 origin region analyzed seems to influence replication significantly in the system described. The HPV-11 origin of DNA replication therefore differs from those of the other papovaviruses, simian virus 40 and polyomavirus, inasmuch as an intact helicase binding site and adjacent AT-rich components, while influential, are not absolutely essential. PMID:7815528

  16. Comparison of MY09/11 consensus PCR and type-specific PCRs in the detection of oncogenic HPV types.

    PubMed

    Depuydt, C E; Boulet, G A V; Horvath, C A J; Benoy, I H; Vereecken, A J; Bogers, J J

    2007-01-01

    The causal relationship between persistent infection with high-risk HPV and cervical cancer has resulted in the development of HPV DNA detection systems. The widely used MY09/11 consensus PCR targets a 450bp conserved sequence in the HPV L1 gene, and can therefore amplify a broad spectrum of HPV types. However, limitations of these consensus primers are evident, particularly in regard to the variability in detection sensitivity among different HPV types. This study compared MY09/11 PCR with type-specific PCRs in the detection of oncogenic HPV types. The study population comprised 15, 774 patients. Consensus PCR failed to detect 522 (10.9%) HPV infections indicated by type-specific PCRs. A significant correlation between failure of consensus PCR and HPV type was found. HPV types 51, 68 and 45 were missed most frequently. The clinical relevance of the HPV infections missed by MY09/11 PCR was reflected in the fraction of cases with cytological abnormalities and in follow-up, showing 104 (25.4%) CIN2+ cases. The MY09/11 false negativity could be the result of poor sensitivity, mismatch of MY09/11 primers or disruption of L1 target by HPV integration or DNA degradation. Furthermore, MY09/11 PCR lacked specificity for oncogenic HPVs. Diagnostic accuracy of the PCR systems, in terms of sensitivity (MY09/11 PCR: 87.9%; type-specific PCRs: 98.3%) and specificity (MY09/11 PCR: 38.7%; type-specific PCRs: 76.14%), and predictive values for histologically confirmed CIN2+, suggest that type-specific PCRs could be used in a clinical setting as a reliable screening tool.

  17. Type I interferon signaling exacerbates Chlamydia muridarum genital infection in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Uma M; Prantner, Daniel; Sikes, James D; Andrews, Charles W; Goodwin, Anna M; Nagarajan, Shanmugam; Darville, Toni

    2008-10-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) induced during in vitro chlamydial infection exert bactericidal and immunomodulatory functions. To determine the precise role of type I IFNs during in vivo chlamydial genital infection, we examined the course and outcome of Chlamydia muridarum genital infection in mice genetically deficient in the receptor for type I IFNs (IFNAR(-/-) mice). A significant reduction in chlamydial shedding and duration of lower genital tract infection was observed in IFNAR(-/-) mice in comparison to the level of chlamydial shedding and duration of infection in wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, IFNAR(-/-) mice developed less chronic oviduct pathology in comparison to that in WT mice. Compared to the WT, IFNAR(-/-) mice had a greater number of chlamydial-specific T cells in their iliac lymph nodes 21 days postinfection. IFNAR(-/-) mice also exhibited earlier and enhanced CD4 T-cell recruitment to the cervical tissues, which was associated with increased expression of CXCL9 in the genital secretions of IFNAR(-/-) mice, but not with expression of CXCL10, which was reduced in the genital secretions of IFNAR(-/-) mice. These data suggest that type I IFNs exacerbate C. muridarum genital infection through an inhibition of the chlamydial-specific CD4 T-cell response.

  18. Impact of vaccination on 14 high-risk HPV type infections: a mathematical modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Vänskä, Simopekka; Auranen, Kari; Leino, Tuija; Salo, Heini; Nieminen, Pekka; Kilpi, Terhi; Tiihonen, Petri; Apter, Dan; Lehtinen, Matti

    2013-01-01

    The development of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection to cervical cancer is a complicated process. We considered solely hrHPV infections, thus avoiding the confounding effects of disease progression, screening, and treatments. To analyse hrHPV epidemiology and to estimate the overall impact of vaccination against infections with hrHPVs, we developed a dynamic compartmental transmission model for single and multiple infections with 14 hrHPV types. The infection-related parameters were estimated using population-based sexual behaviour and hrHPV prevalence data from Finland. The analysis disclosed the important role of persistent infections in hrHPV epidemiology, provided further evidence for a significant natural immunity, and demonstrated the dependence of transmission probability estimates on the model structure. The model predicted that vaccinating girls at 80% coverage will result in a 55% reduction in the overall hrHPV prevalence and a higher 65% reduction in the prevalence of persistent hrHPV infections in females. In males, the reduction will be 42% in the hrHPV prevalence solely by the herd effect from the 80% coverage in girls. If such high coverage among girls is not reached, it is still possible to reduce the female hrHPV prevalence indirectly by the herd effect if also boys are included in the vaccination program. On the other hand, any herd effects in older unvaccinated cohorts were minor. Limiting the epidemiological model to infection yielded improved understanding of the hrHPV epidemiology and of mechanisms with which vaccination impacts on hrHPV infections.

  19. Diversity and uncommon HPV types in HIV seropositive and seronegative women attending an STI clinic

    PubMed Central

    de Mattos, Adriana Tonani; de Freitas, Luciana Bueno; Lima, Bettina Moulin Coelho; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa; Spano, Liliana Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Given the causal relationship between specific types of HPV with cervical cancer and precursor lesions, it is important to identify the viral type involved. The aim of this study is to access the prevalence of HPV types in HIV seropositive and seronegative women. Accordingly, 77 HPV positive cervical samples were obtained from 284 women (seropositive (n=112) and seronegative (n=172) for HIV) who attended a Sexually Transmitted Infection clinic, in Vitoria, Southeastern Brazil. Viral DNA was amplified by PCR using MY09/MY11 degenerated primers and the genotyping was performed by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Seventy five out of the 77 HPV samples were genotyped: 6, 11, 13, 16, 18, 26, 31, 31b, 32, 33, 34, 35, 52, 53, 55, 56, 58, 59, 61, 62, 64, 66, 71, 81, 83, 84. The most prevalent type was HPV16 followed by HPV types 6, 11 and 53. Fifty five percent and 45% belonged to high and low risk types, respectively. High risk types corresponded to 59% and 54.5% of the HPV detected in HIV seronegative and seropositive women, respectively. The uncommon HPV 13 type in cervical samples was also observed in this study. The oncogenic types were more common in the HIV seronegative samples and the number of cases with multiple infections was similar for the two groups. HPV typing is not only important clinically for the establishment of monitoring and treatment of a patient, it also provides knowledge of the viral types circulating in a population, which is of interest in the development of prevention and treatment programs for this disease. PMID:24031694

  20. Mother-infant transfer of anti-human papillomavirus (HPV) antibodies following vaccination with the quadrivalent HPV (type 6/11/16/18) virus-like particle vaccine.

    PubMed

    Matys, Katie; Mallary, Sara; Bautista, Oliver; Vuocolo, Scott; Manalastas, Ricardo; Pitisuttithum, Punee; Saah, Alfred

    2012-06-01

    The exploratory immunogenicity objective of this analysis was to characterize the titer of vaccine human papillomavirus (HPV)-type immunoglobulins in both peripartum maternal blood and the cord blood of infants born to women who received blinded therapy. Data were derived from a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy study (protocol 019; NCT00090220). This study enrolled 3,819 women between the ages of 24 and 45 years from 38 international study sites between 18 June 2004 and 30 April 2005. Data in the current analysis are from subjects enrolled in Philippines and Thailand. For each of HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, maternal anti-HPV was found in cord blood samples. Furthermore, HPV titers in cord blood samples were highly positively correlated with maternal HPV titers. Additionally, there were instances when anti-HPV antibodies were no longer detectable in maternal serum samples and yet were detected in matched cord blood samples. These results demonstrate that quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine-induced antibodies cross the placenta and could potentially provide some benefit against vaccine-type HPV infection and related diseases such as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

  1. Mother-Infant Transfer of Anti-Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Antibodies following Vaccination with the Quadrivalent HPV (Type 6/11/16/18) Virus-Like Particle Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Matys, Katie; Mallary, Sara; Bautista, Oliver; Vuocolo, Scott; Manalastas, Ricardo; Pitisuttithum, Punee

    2012-01-01

    The exploratory immunogenicity objective of this analysis was to characterize the titer of vaccine human papillomavirus (HPV)-type immunoglobulins in both peripartum maternal blood and the cord blood of infants born to women who received blinded therapy. Data were derived from a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy study (protocol 019; NCT00090220). This study enrolled 3,819 women between the ages of 24 and 45 years from 38 international study sites between 18 June 2004 and 30 April 2005. Data in the current analysis are from subjects enrolled in Philippines and Thailand. For each of HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, maternal anti-HPV was found in cord blood samples. Furthermore, HPV titers in cord blood samples were highly positively correlated with maternal HPV titers. Additionally, there were instances when anti-HPV antibodies were no longer detectable in maternal serum samples and yet were detected in matched cord blood samples. These results demonstrate that quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine-induced antibodies cross the placenta and could potentially provide some benefit against vaccine-type HPV infection and related diseases such as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. PMID:22518014

  2. Linear viral load increase of a single HPV-type in women with multiple HPV infections predicts progression to cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Depuydt, Christophe E; Thys, Sofie; Beert, Johan; Jonckheere, Jef; Salembier, Geert; Bogers, Johannes J

    2016-11-01

    Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is strongly associated with development of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cancer (CIN3+). In single type infections, serial type-specific viral-load measurements predict the natural history of the infection. In infections with multiple HPV-types, the individual type-specific viral-load profile could distinguish progressing HPV-infections from regressing infections. A case-cohort natural history study was established using samples from untreated women with multiple HPV-infections who developed CIN3+ (n = 57) or cleared infections (n = 88). Enriched cell pellet from liquid based cytology samples were subjected to a clinically validated real-time qPCR-assay (18 HPV-types). Using serial type-specific viral-load measurements (≥3) we calculated HPV-specific slopes and coefficient of determination (R(2) ) by linear regression. For each woman slopes and R(2) were used to calculate which HPV-induced processes were ongoing (progression, regression, serial transient, transient). In transient infections with multiple HPV-types, each single HPV-type generated similar increasing (0.27copies/cell/day) and decreasing (-0.27copies/cell/day) viral-load slopes. In CIN3+, at least one of the HPV-types had a clonal progressive course (R(2)  ≥ 0.85; 0.0025copies/cell/day). In selected CIN3+ cases (n = 6), immunostaining detecting type-specific HPV 16, 31, 33, 58 and 67 RNA showed an even staining in clonal populations (CIN3+), whereas in transient virion-producing infections the RNA-staining was less in the basal layer compared to the upper layer where cells were ready to desquamate and release newly-formed virions. RNA-hybridization patterns matched the calculated ongoing processes measured by R(2) and slope in serial type-specific viral-load measurements preceding the biopsy. In women with multiple HPV-types, serial type-specific viral-load measurements predict the natural history of the

  3. Human Papillomavirus neutralizing and cross-reactive antibodies induced in HIV-positive subjects after vaccination with quadrivalent and bivalent HPV vaccines.

    PubMed

    Faust, Helena; Toft, Lars; Sehr, Peter; Müller, Martin; Bonde, Jesper; Forslund, Ola; Østergaard, Lars; Tolstrup, Martin; Dillner, Joakim

    2016-03-18

    Ninety-one HIV-infected individuals (61 men and 30 women) were randomized to vaccination either with quadrivalent (Gardasil™) or bivalent (Cervarix™) HPV vaccine. Neutralizing and specific HPV-binding serum antibodies were measured at baseline and 12 months after the first vaccine dose. Presence of neutralizing and binding antibodies had good agreement (average Kappa for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 was 0.65). At baseline, 88% of subjects had antibodies against at least one genital HPV. Following vaccination with Cervarix™, all subjects became seropositive for HPV16 and 18. After Gardasil™ vaccination, 96% of subjects seroconverted for HPV16 and 73% for HPV18. Levels of HPV16-specific antibodies were <1 international unit (IU) in 87% of study subjects before vaccination but >10IU in 85% of study subjects after vaccination. Antibodies against non-vaccine HPV types appeared after Gardasil™ vaccination for >50% of vaccinated females for HPV 31, 35 and 73 and for >50% of Cervarix™-vaccinated females for HPV 31, 33, 35, 45, 56 and 58. Cross-reactivity with non-genital HPV types was also detected. In conclusion, HIV-infected subjects responded to HPV vaccination with induction of neutralizing antibodies against both vaccine and non-vaccine types.

  4. E4 Antibodies Facilitate Detection and Type-Assignment of Active HPV Infection in Cervical Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marnane, Rebecca; Dewar, Vincent; Molijn, Anco; Quint, Wim; Van Hoof, Christine; Struyf, Frank; Colau, Brigitte; Jenkins, David; Doorbar, John

    2012-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the cause of nearly all cases of cervical cancer. Although the detection of HPV DNA has proved useful in cervical diagnosis, it does not necessarily predict disease presence or severity, and cannot conclusively identify the causative type when multiple HPVs are present. Such limitations may be addressed using complementary approaches such as cytology, laser capture microscopy, and/or the use of infection biomarkers. One such infection biomarker is the HPV E4 protein, which is expressed at high level in cells that are supporting (or have supported) viral genome amplification. Its distribution in lesions has suggested a role in disease staging. Here we have examined whether type-specific E4 antibodies may also allow the identification and/or confirmation of causal HPV-type. To do this, type-specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against three E4 proteins (HPV-16, -18, and -58) were generated and validated by ELISA and western blotting, and by immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining of epithelial rafts containing these individual HPV types. Type-specific detection of HPV and its associated disease was subsequently examined using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical intra-epithelial neoplasias (CIN, (n = 247)) and normal controls (n = 28). All koilocytotic CIN1 lesions showed type-specific E4 expression of their respective HPV types. Differences were noted amongst E4 expression patterns in CIN3. HPV-18 E4 was not detected in any of the 6 HPV-18 DNA-positive CIN3 lesions examined, whereas in HPV-16 and -58 CIN3, 28/37 (76%) and 5/9 (55.6%) expressed E4 respectively, usually in regions of epithelial differentiation. Our results demonstrate that type-specific E4 antibodies can be used to help establish causality, as may be required when multiple HPV types are detected. The unique characteristics of the E4 biomarker suggest a role in diagnosis and patient management particularly when used in combination

  5. Post hoc analysis of the PATRICIA randomized trial of the efficacy of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16)/HPV-18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against incident and persistent infection with nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types using an alternative multiplex type-specific PCR assay for HPV DNA.

    PubMed

    Struyf, Frank; Colau, Brigitte; Wheeler, Cosette M; Naud, Paulo; Garland, Suzanne; Quint, Wim; Chow, Song-Nan; Salmerón, Jorge; Lehtinen, Matti; Del Rosario-Raymundo, M Rowena; Paavonen, Jorma; Teixeira, Júlio C; Germar, Maria Julieta; Peters, Klaus; Skinner, S Rachel; Limson, Genara; Castellsagué, Xavier; Poppe, Willy A J; Ramjattan, Brian; Klein, Terry D; Schwarz, Tino F; Chatterjee, Archana; Tjalma, Wiebren A A; Diaz-Mitoma, Francisco; Lewis, David J M; Harper, Diane M; Molijn, Anco; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; David, Marie-Pierre; Dubin, Gary

    2015-02-01

    The efficacy of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16)/HPV-18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infections with HPV in the Papilloma Trial against Cancer in Young Adults (PATRICIA) was evaluated using a combination of the broad-spectrum L1-based SPF10 PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA)/line probe assay (LiPA25) system with type-specific PCRs for HPV-16 and -18. Broad-spectrum PCR assays may underestimate the presence of HPV genotypes present at relatively low concentrations in multiple infections, due to competition between genotypes. Therefore, samples were retrospectively reanalyzed using a testing algorithm incorporating the SPF10 PCR-DEIA/LiPA25 plus a novel E6-based multiplex type-specific PCR and reverse hybridization assay (MPTS12 RHA), which permits detection of a panel of nine oncogenic HPV genotypes (types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58, and 59). For the vaccine against HPV types 16 and 18, there was no major impact on estimates of vaccine efficacy (VE) for incident or 6-month or 12-month persistent infections when the MPTS12 RHA was included in the testing algorithm versus estimates with the protocol-specified algorithm. However, the alternative testing algorithm showed greater sensitivity than the protocol-specified algorithm for detection of some nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types. More cases were gained in the control group than in the vaccine group, leading to higher point estimates of VE for 6-month and 12-month persistent infections for the nonvaccine oncogenic types included in the MPTS12 RHA assay (types 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58, and 59). This post hoc analysis indicates that the per-protocol testing algorithm used in PATRICIA underestimated the VE against some nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types and that the choice of the HPV DNA testing methodology is important for the evaluation of VE in clinical trials. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00122681.).

  6. Multiple high-risk HPV genotypes are grouped by type and are associated with viral load and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Del Río-Ospina, L; Soto-DE León, S C; Camargo, M; Sánchez, R; Moreno-Pérez, D A; Pérez-Prados, A; Patarroyo, M E; Patarroyo, M A

    2017-02-10

    Investigating whether high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) types tend to become grouped in a particular way and whether factors are associated with such grouping is important for measuring the real impact of vaccination. In total, 219 women proving positive for HPV as detected by real-time PCR were included in the study. Each sample was analysed for detecting and quantifying six viral types and the hydroxymethylbilane synthase gene. Multiple correspondence analysis led to determining grouping patterns for six HR-HPV types and simultaneous association with multiple variables and whether viral load was related to the coexistence of other viral types. Two grouping profiles were identified: the first included HPV-16 and HPV-45 and the second profile was represented by HPV-31, HPV-33 and HPV-58. Variables such as origin, contraceptive method, births and pregnancies, educational level, healthcare affiliation regime, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and viral load were associated with these grouping profiles. Different socio-demographic characteristics were found when coinfection occurred by phylogenetically related HPV types and when coinfection was due to non-related types. Biological characteristics, the number of viral copies, temporality regarding acquiring infection and competition between viral types could influence the configuration of grouping patterns. Characteristics related to women and HPV, influence such interactions between coexisting HPV types reflecting the importance of their evaluation.

  7. Cross-Reactivity, Epitope Spreading, and De Novo Immune Stimulation Are Possible Mechanisms of Cross-Protection of Nonvaccine Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types in Recipients of HPV Therapeutic Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Mayumi; Greenfield, William; Moerman-Herzog, Andrea; Coleman, Hannah N

    2015-07-01

    Numerous versions of human papillomavirus (HPV) therapeutic vaccines designed to treat individuals with established HPV infection, including those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), are in development because approved prophylactic vaccines are not effective once HPV infection is established. As human papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16) is the most commonly detected type worldwide, all versions of HPV therapeutic vaccines contain HPV-16, and some also contain HPV-18. While these two HPV types are responsible for approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases, there are other high-risk HPV types known to cause malignancy. Therefore, it would be of interest to assess whether these HPV therapeutic vaccines may confer cross-protection against other high-risk HPV types. Data available from a few clinical trials that enrolled subjects with CINs regardless of the HPV type(s) present demonstrated clinical responses, as measured by CIN regression, in subjects with both vaccine-matched and nonvaccine HPV types. The currently available evidence demonstrating cross-reactivity, epitope spreading, and de novo immune stimulation as possible mechanisms of cross-protection conferred by investigational HPV therapeutic vaccines is discussed.

  8. Seroprevalence and Associated Factors of 9-Valent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types among Men in the Multinational HIM Study

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shams; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Rollison, Dana E.; Wang, Wei; Waterboer, Tim; Michel, Angelika; Pawlita, Michael; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano Ponce, Eduardo; Borenstein, Amy R.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Recently a 9-valent HPV (9vHPV) prophylactic vaccine was licensed. Seroprevalence prior to vaccine dissemination is needed for monitoring vaccine effectiveness over time. Few studies have assessed the seroprevalence of 9vHPV types in men. Objectives To investigate the seroprevalence of 9vHPV vaccine types and associated risk factors among men residing in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Methods Six hundred men were randomly selected from the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Archived serum specimens collected at enrollment were tested for antibodies against nine HPV types (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58) using a glutathione S-transferase (GST) L1-based multiplex serologic assay. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and sexual behavior data at enrollment were collected through a questionnaire. Binomial proportions were used to estimate seroprevalence and logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with seropositivity of type-specific and grouped (i.e. 9vHPV, high-risk 9vHPV, low risk 9vHPV, and five-additional) HPV types. Results Overall, 28.3% of men were seropositive for at least one of the 9vHPV vaccine types, 14.0% for at least one of the seven high-risk types (16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58) and 11.2% for at least one of the five high-risk types (31, 33, 45, 52 and 58) not included in the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, and 17.4% for at least one of the low-risk types (6/11). In multivariate analyses, odds ratios adjusted (AOR) for country of residence, age, marital status, smoking, number of anal sex lifetime partners, compared to men with no anal sex lifetime partners, men with ≥2 partners were more likely to be seropositive for grouped HPV [(9vHPV: AOR 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40–4.54), (high-risk 9vHPV: AOR 2.18; 95%CI: 1.05–4.50) and (low-risk 9vHPV: AOR 2.12; 95%CI: 1.12–4.03)], and individual HPV types 6, 16, 33 and

  9. Protecting our patients from HPV and HPV-related diseases: the role of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Martin C

    2006-11-01

    The clinical burden of disease resulting from human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is substantial and extends from genital warts to cytologic abnormalities to cervical, vaginal, and vulvar cancers and their associated precursor lesions. In addition, HPV is implicated in anal, penile, and head and neck cancers. Thus, HPV-related disease constitutes a significant burden for both men and women. Large phase 2 and 3 clinical trials with a quadrivalent preventive HPV vaccine (HPV 6/11/16/18) and phase 2 trials with a bivalent preventive HPV vaccine (HPV 16/18) have demonstrated that both products are highly efficacious in preventing type-specific HPV infections and HPV-related disease and are well tolerated. Nearly all recipients demonstrate a robust immunologic response that currently appears to be durable for 4 or more years. Immunogenicity data among girls 9 to 15 years of age were used to "bridge" efficacy data from quadrivalent HPV vaccine trials completed to date. In June 2006, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the quadrivalent HPV vaccine for use among females 9 to 26 years of age. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has recommended the 3-dose series for girls 11 to 12 years of age, catch-up vaccination for girls and women 13 to 26 years of age, and permissive use as early as age 9. Computer models projecting the impact of these preventive HPV vaccines predict that they will be cost-effective and beneficial to the population; the use of preventive HPV vaccines will complement continued cytologic screening programs. Trials are under way to evaluate the duration of immune response as well as efficacy among men and women 27 years of age and older. Girls and women within the targeted age ranges should be offered vaccination to achieve the disease prevention potential of these vaccines.

  10. Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Prevent HPV: There are 3 types of HPV vaccine: Cervarix , Gardasil , and Gardasil-9​​ . See the table ... vaccine must be given before sexual activity begins. HPV vaccine can be started at 9 years. It is ...

  11. Comparison of the immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine for oncogenic non-vaccine types HPV-31 and HPV-45 in healthy women aged 18-45 years.

    PubMed

    Einstein, Mark H; Baron, Mira; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Fox, Bradley; Scholar, Sofia; Rosen, Jeffrey; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Lebacq, Marie; van der Most, Robbert; Moris, Philippe; Giannini, Sandra L; Schuind, Anne; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique

    2011-12-01

    Protection against oncogenic non-vaccine types (cross-protection) offered by human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines may provide a significant medical benefit. Available clinical efficacy data suggest the two licensed vaccines (HPV-16/18 vaccine, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (GSK), and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine, Merck & Co., Inc.) differ in terms of protection against oncogenic non-vaccine HPV types -31/45. The immune responses induced by the two vaccines against these two non-vaccine HPV types (cross-reactivity) was compared in an observer-blind study up to Month 24 (18 mo post-vaccination), in women HPV DNA-negative and seronegative prior to vaccination for the HPV type analyzed (HPV-010 [NCT00423046]). Geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) measured by pseudovirion-based neutralization assay (PBNA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were similar between vaccines for HPV-31/45. Seropositivity rates for HPV-31 were also similar between vaccines; however, there was a trend for higher seropositivity with the HPV-16/18 vaccine (13.0-16.7%) versus the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (0.0-5.0%) for HPV-45 with PBNA, but not ELISA. HPV-31/45 cross-reactive memory B-cell responses were comparable between vaccines. Circulating antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell frequencies were higher for the HPV-16/18 vaccine than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (HPV-31 [geometric mean ratio [GMR] =2.0; p=0.0002] and HPV-45 [GMR=2.6; p=0.0092]), as were the proportion of T-cell responders (HPV-31, p=0.0009; HPV-45, p=0.0793). In conclusion, immune response to oncogenic non-vaccine HPV types -31/45 was generally similar for both vaccines with the exception of T-cell response which was higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine. Considering the differences in cross-protective efficacy between the two vaccines, the results might provide insights into the underlying mechanism(s) of protection.

  12. Prevalence of type-specific HPV infection by age and grade of cervical cytology: data from the ARTISTIC trial.

    PubMed

    Sargent, A; Bailey, A; Almonte, M; Turner, A; Thomson, C; Peto, J; Desai, M; Mather, J; Moss, S; Roberts, C; Kitchener, H C

    2008-05-20

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer and premalignant dysplasia. Type-specific HPV prevalence data provide a basis for assessing the impact of HPV vaccination programmes on cervical cytology. We report high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) type-specific prevalence data in relation to cervical cytology for 24,510 women (age range: 20-64; mean age 40.2 years) recruited into the ARTISTIC trial, which is being conducted within the routine NHS Cervical Screening Programme in Greater Manchester. The most common HR-HPV types were HPV16, 18, 31, 51 and 52, which accounted for 60% of all HR-HPV types detected. There was a marked decline in the prevalence of HR-HPV infection with age, but the proportion due to each HPV type did not vary greatly with age. Multiple infections were common below the age of 30 years but less so between age 30 and 64 years. Catch-up vaccination of this sexually active cohort would be expected to reduce the number of women with moderate or worse cytology by 45%, but the number with borderline or mild cytology would fall by only 7%, giving an overall reduction of 12% in the number of women with abnormal cytology and 27% in the number with any HR-HPV infection. In the absence of broader cross-protection, the large majority of low-grade and many high-grade abnormalities may still occur in sexually active vaccinated women.

  13. Phylogenetically related, clinically different: human papillomaviruses 6 and 11 variants distribution in genital warts and in laryngeal papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Godínez, J M; Nicolás-Párraga, S; Pimenoff, V N; Mengual-Chuliá, B; Muñoz, N; Bosch, F X; Sánchez, G I; McCloskey, J; Bravo, I G

    2014-06-01

    Genital warts (GWs) and laryngeal papillomatosis (LP) are two usually benign pathologies related to infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs), mainly HPV6 and HPV11. The aim of this work was to describe the genetic diversity of HPV6 and HPV11 isolates found in GWs and LPs, and to analyse the differential involvement of viral variants in either lesion. A total of 231 samples diagnosed as GWs (n = 198) or LP (n = 33) and caused by HPV6 or HPV11 monoinfections were analysed. The phylogenetic relationships of the retrieved viral sequences were explored. We have identified the long control region and the intergenic E2-L2 region as the two most variable regions in both HPV6 and HPV11 genomes. We have generated new HPV6 (n = 166) or HPV11 (n = 65) partial sequences from GWs and LPs lesions spanning both regions and studied them in the context of all available sequences of both types (final n = 412). Our results show a significant (p <0.01) differential presence of HPV6 variants among both pathologies, with HPV6 B variants being preferentially found in GW versus LP samples. No differential involvement of HPV11 variants was observed. Our findings suggest that different HPV6 variants may either show differential tropism or have different potential to induce lesions in different epithelia.

  14. HPV type distribution in invasive cervical cancers in Italy: pooled analysis of three large studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence of HPV types in invasive cervical cancers in Italy from 1996 to 2008. Methods A pooled analysis of the three largest case series typed to date was performed. HPV typing was performed on paraffin-embedded slices. Molecular analyses were performed in four laboratories. Multivariate analyses were performed to test the associations between calendar time, age, and geographical area and the proportion of types 16/18. Results Out of 574 cancers, 24 (4.2%) were HPV negative. HPV 16 and 18 were responsible for 74.4% (378/508) and 80.3% (49/61) of the squamous cancers and adenocarcinomas, respectively. Other frequent types were 31 (9.5%), 45 (6.4%), and 58 (3.3%) for squamous cancers and 45 (13.3%), 31, 35, and 58 (5.0%) for adenocarcinomas. The proportion of HPV 16 and/or 18 decreased with age (p-value for trend <0.03), while it increased in cancers diagnosed in more recent years (p-value for trend < 0.005). Conclusions The impact of HPV 16/18 vaccine on cervical cancer will be greater for early onset cancers. In vaccinated women, screening could be started at an older age without reducing protection. PMID:23110797

  15. Isolation and characterization of human papillomavirus type 6-specific T cells infiltrating genital warts.

    PubMed Central

    Hong, K; Greer, C E; Ketter, N; Van Nest, G; Paliard, X

    1997-01-01

    The potential role of T cells in the control of human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV-6) infections is an appealing premise, but their actual role has been sparsely investigated. Since HPV-6 infections are confined to the epithelium, such an investigation should focus on the T cells present at the site of infection (i.e., the warts). Therefore, we isolated wart-infiltrating lymphocytes (WIL) from patients with clinically diagnosed anogenital warts. These WIL were characterized by their phenotype and their specificity for E7 and L1 proteins of HPV-6. The phenotype of WIL varied drastically from patient to patient, as determined by their expression of CD4, CD8, T-cell receptor alpha/beta chain (TCR alpha beta), and TCR gamma delta. Despite this heterogeneity in phenotype, HPV-6 E7 and/or L1-specific WIL, as determined by lymphoproliferation, could be isolated from more than 75% of the patients studied. Among all L1 peptides recognized by WIL, peptides 311-330 and 411-430 were the most consistently detected, with seven of nine patients for whom L1 peptide reactivity was observed responding to at least one of them. Moreover, the HPV-6 epitopic peptides recognized by WIL differed to some extent from those recognized by peripheral T cells. PMID:9261360

  16. A study of the impact of adding HPV types to cervical cancer screening and triage tests.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Mark; Khan, Michelle J; Solomon, Diane; Herrero, Rolando; Wacholder, Sholom; Hildesheim, Allan; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Bratti, Maria C; Wheeler, Cosette M; Burk, Robert D

    2005-01-19

    Use of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in cervical cancer prevention is increasing rapidly. A DNA test for 13 HPV types that can cause cervical cancer is approved in the United States for co-screening with cytology of women >or=30 years old and for triage of women of all ages with equivocal cytology. However, most infections with HPV are benign. We evaluated trade-offs between specificity and sensitivity for approximately 40 HPV types in predicting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 and cancer in two prospective studies: a population-based screening study that followed 6196 women aged 30-94 years from Costa Rica for 7 years and a triage study that followed 3363 women aged 18-90 years with equivocal cytology in four U.S. centers for 2 years. For both screening and triage, testing for more than about 10 HPV types decreased specificity more than it increased sensitivity. The minimal increases in sensitivity and in negative predictive value achieved by adding HPV types to DNA tests must be weighed against the projected burden to thousands of women falsely labeled as being at high risk of cervical cancer.

  17. Comparison of real-time multiplex human papillomavirus (HPV) PCR assays with INNO-LiPA HPV genotyping extra assay.

    PubMed

    Else, Elizabeth A; Swoyer, Ryan; Zhang, Yuhua; Taddeo, Frank J; Bryan, Janine T; Lawson, John; Van Hyfte, Inez; Roberts, Christine C

    2011-05-01

    Real-time type-specific multiplex human papillomavirus (HPV) PCR assays were developed to detect HPV DNA in samples collected for the efficacy determination of the quadrivalent HPV (type 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine (Gardasil). Additional multiplex (L1, E6, and E7 open reading frame [ORF]) or duplex (E6 and E7 ORF) HPV PCR assays were developed to detect high-risk HPV types, including HPV type 31 (HPV31), HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58, and HPV59. Here, we evaluated clinical specimen concordance and compared the limits of detection (LODs) between multiplex HPV PCR assays and the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra assay, which detects 28 types, for the 14 HPV types common to both of these methods. Overall HPV detection agreement rates were >90% for swabs and >95% for thin sections. Statistically significant differences in detection were observed for HPV6, HPV16, HPV18, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV56, HPV58, and HPV59 in swabs and for HPV45, HPV58, and HPV59 in thin sections. Where P was <0.05, discordance was due to detection of more HPV-positive samples by the multiplex HPV PCR assays. LODs were similar for eight HPV types, significantly lower in multiplex assays for five HPV types, and lower in INNO-LiPA for HPV6 only. LODs were under 50 copies for all HPV types, with the exception of HPV39, HPV58, and HPV59 in the INNO-LiPA assay. The overall percent agreement for detection of 14 HPV types between the type-specific multiplex HPV PCR and INNO-LiPA genotyping assays was good. The differences in positive sample detection favored multiplex HPV PCR, suggesting increased sensitivity of HPV DNA detection by type-specific multiplex HPV PCR assays.

  18. Chimeric L2-Based Virus-Like Particle (VLP) Vaccines Targeting Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses (HPV).

    PubMed

    Huber, Bettina; Schellenbacher, Christina; Shafti-Keramat, Saeed; Jindra, Christoph; Christensen, Neil; Kirnbauer, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    Common cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) types induce skin warts, whereas species beta HPV are implicated, together with UV-radiation, in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in immunosuppressed patients. Licensed HPV vaccines contain virus-like particles (VLP) self-assembled from L1 major capsid proteins that provide type-restricted protection against mucosal HPV infections causing cervical and other ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal carcinomas and warts (condylomas), but do not target heterologous HPV. Experimental papillomavirus vaccines have been designed based on L2 minor capsid proteins that contain type-common neutralization epitopes, to broaden protection to heterologous mucosal and cutaneous HPV types. Repetitive display of the HPV16 L2 cross-neutralization epitope RG1 (amino acids (aa) 17-36) on the surface of HPV16 L1 VLP has greatly enhanced immunogenicity of the L2 peptide. To more directly target cutaneous HPV, L1 fusion proteins were designed that incorporate the RG1 homolog of beta HPV17, the beta HPV5 L2 peptide aa53-72, or the common cutaneous HPV4 RG1 homolog, inserted into DE surface loops of HPV1, 5, 16 or 18 L1 VLP scaffolds. Baculovirus expressed chimeric proteins self-assembled into VLP and VLP-raised NZW rabbit immune sera were evaluated by ELISA and L1- and L2-based pseudovirion (PsV) neutralizing assays, including 12 novel beta PsV types. Chimeric VLP displaying the HPV17 RG1 epitope, but not the HPV5L2 aa53-72 epitope, induced cross-neutralizing humoral immune responses to beta HPV. In vivo cross-protection was evaluated by passive serum transfer in a murine PsV challenge model. Immune sera to HPV16L1-17RG1 VLP (cross-) protected against beta HPV5/20/24/38/96/16 (but not type 76), while antisera to HPV5L1-17RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV20/24/96 only, and sera to HPV1L1-4RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV4 challenge. In conclusion, RG1-based VLP are promising next generation vaccine candidates to target cutaneous HPV

  19. Chimeric L2-Based Virus-Like Particle (VLP) Vaccines Targeting Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses (HPV)

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Bettina; Schellenbacher, Christina; Shafti-Keramat, Saeed; Jindra, Christoph; Christensen, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Common cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) types induce skin warts, whereas species beta HPV are implicated, together with UV-radiation, in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in immunosuppressed patients. Licensed HPV vaccines contain virus-like particles (VLP) self-assembled from L1 major capsid proteins that provide type-restricted protection against mucosal HPV infections causing cervical and other ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal carcinomas and warts (condylomas), but do not target heterologous HPV. Experimental papillomavirus vaccines have been designed based on L2 minor capsid proteins that contain type-common neutralization epitopes, to broaden protection to heterologous mucosal and cutaneous HPV types. Repetitive display of the HPV16 L2 cross-neutralization epitope RG1 (amino acids (aa) 17–36) on the surface of HPV16 L1 VLP has greatly enhanced immunogenicity of the L2 peptide. To more directly target cutaneous HPV, L1 fusion proteins were designed that incorporate the RG1 homolog of beta HPV17, the beta HPV5 L2 peptide aa53-72, or the common cutaneous HPV4 RG1 homolog, inserted into DE surface loops of HPV1, 5, 16 or 18 L1 VLP scaffolds. Baculovirus expressed chimeric proteins self-assembled into VLP and VLP-raised NZW rabbit immune sera were evaluated by ELISA and L1- and L2-based pseudovirion (PsV) neutralizing assays, including 12 novel beta PsV types. Chimeric VLP displaying the HPV17 RG1 epitope, but not the HPV5L2 aa53-72 epitope, induced cross-neutralizing humoral immune responses to beta HPV. In vivo cross-protection was evaluated by passive serum transfer in a murine PsV challenge model. Immune sera to HPV16L1-17RG1 VLP (cross-) protected against beta HPV5/20/24/38/96/16 (but not type 76), while antisera to HPV5L1-17RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV20/24/96 only, and sera to HPV1L1-4RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV4 challenge. In conclusion, RG1-based VLP are promising next generation vaccine candidates to target cutaneous

  20. Comparison between Urine and Cervical Samples for HPV DNA Detection and Typing in Young Women in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cómbita, Alba Lucía; Gheit, Tarik; González, Paula; Puerto, Devi; Murillo, Raúl Hernando; Montoya, Luisa; Vorsters, Alex; Van Keer, Severien; Van Damme, Pierre; Tommasino, Massimo; Hernández-Suárez, Gustavo; Sánchez, Laura; Herrero, Rolando; Wiesner, Carolina

    2016-09-01

    Urine sampling for HPV DNA detection has been proposed as an effective method for monitoring the impact of HPV vaccination programs; however, conflicting results have been reported. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of optimized urine HPV DNA testing in women aged 19 to 25 years. Optimization process included the use of first void urine, immediate mixing of urine with DNA preservative, and the concentration of all HPV DNA, including cell-free DNA fragments. Urine and cervical samples were collected from 535 young women attending cervical screening at health centers from two Colombian cities. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using an HPV type-specific multiplex genotyping assay, which combines multiplex polymerase chain reaction with bead-based Luminex technology. Concordance between HPV DNA detection in urine and cervical samples was determined using kappa statistics and McNemar tests. The accuracy of HPV DNA testing in urine samples was evaluated measuring sensitivity and specificity using as reference the results obtained from cervical samples. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA11.2 software. The findings revealed an overall HPV prevalence of 60.00% in cervical samples and 64.72% in urine samples, HPV-16 being the most frequent HPV type detected in both specimens. Moreover, our results indicate that detection of HPV DNA in first void urine provides similar results to those obtained with cervical samples and can be used to monitor HPV vaccination trials and programs as evidenced by the substantial concordance found for the detection of the four vaccine types. Cancer Prev Res; 9(9); 766-71. ©2016 AACR.

  1. The influence of multiple human papillomavirus types on the risk of genotype-concordant incident infections of the anus and cervix: the Hawaii HPV cohort study.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Marc T; McDuffie, Katharine; Hernandez, Brenda Y; Wilkens, Lynne R; Zhu, Xuemei; Thompson, Pamela J; Killeen, Jeffrey; Kamemoto, Lori; Shvetsov, Yurii B

    2011-02-01

    The influence of multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) types on detection of concordant incident HPV infections of the cervix or anus following infection at the other anatomic site was examined in a cohort of 897 women. Multiple HPV infections at the anus were not significantly associated with subsequent acquisition of a concordant cervical infection, whereas prior coinfections in the cervix increased risk of a new cervical HPV infection. Incident anal HPV infections following concordant cervical HPV infections increased significantly among women with preexisting cervical or anal coinfections. Potential synergy in acquisition of cervical and anal HPV infections has implications for prophylactic vaccine effectiveness.

  2. Comparison of the novel human papillomavirus 4 auto-capillary electrophoresis test with the hybrid capture 2 assay and with the PCR HPV typing set test in the detection of high-risk HPV including HPV 16 and 18 genotypes in cervical specimens.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jin Hwa; Song, Seung Hun; Kim, Jong Kee; Han, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Jae Kwan

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the novel human papillomavirus (HPV) detection method, the HPV 4 Auto-capillary Electrophoresis (ACE) test with the hybrid capture (HC) 2 assay for the detection of high-risk HPVs. In addition, we compared the HPV 4 ACE test with the polymerase chain reaction HPV Typing Set test for the detection of HPV 16 and HPV 18 genotypes. One hundred ninety-nine cervical swab samples obtained from women with previous abnormal Pap smears were subjected to testing with the three HPV tests. The HPV 4 ACE test and the HC 2 assay showed substantial agreement for detection of high-risk HPVs (85.4%, kappa=0.71). The HPV 4 ACE test also showed substantial agreement with the PCR HPV Typing Set test in the detection of HPV 16 and HP V 18 genotypes (89.9%, kappa=0.65). In correlation with cytologic results, the sensitivities and specificities of the HPV 4 ACE test and HC 2 assay were 92.9% vs. 92.9% and 48.1% vs. 50.8%, respectively, when high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were regarded as abnormal cytologies. The novel HPV 4 ACE test is a valuable tool for the detection of high-risk HPVs and for genotyping of HPV 16 and HPV 18.

  3. Epidemiological impact of a genital herpes type 2 vaccine for young females.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yijun; Qesmi, Redouane; Wang, Qian; Steben, Marc; Wu, Jianhong; Heffernan, Jane M

    2012-01-01

    Genital Herpes, which is caused by Herpes Simplex Virus-1 or -2 (HSV-1, -2, predominantly HSV-2) is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that causes a chronic latent infection with outbreak episodes linked to transmission. Antiviral therapies are effective in reducing viral shedding during these episodes, but are ineffective as a whole since many outbreaks are asymptomatic or have mild symptoms. Thus, the development of a vaccine for genital herpes is needed to control this disease. The question of how to implement such a vaccine program is an important one, and may be similar to the vaccination program for Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) for young females. We have developed a mathematical model to describe the epidemiology of vaccination targeting young females against HSV-2. The model population is delineated with respect to age group, sexual activity and infection status including oral infection of HSV-1, which may affect vaccine efficacy. A threshold parameter R(C), which determines the level of vaccine uptake needed to eradicate HSV-2, is found. Computer simulation shows that an adolescent-only vaccination program may be effective in eliminating HSV-2 disease, however, the success of extinction greatly depends on the level of vaccine uptake, the vaccine efficacy, the age of sexual maturity and safe sex practices. However, the time course of eradication would take many years. We also investigate the prevalence of infection in the total population and in women between 16-30 years of age before and after vaccination has been introduced, and show that the adolescent-only vaccination program can be effective in reducing disease prevalence in these populations depending on the level of vaccine uptake and vaccine efficacy. This will also result in a decrease of maternal-fetal transmission of HSV-2 infection. Another important, if commonsense, conclusion is that vaccination of some females reduces infection in men, which then reduces infection in women.

  4. The Prevalence of High-Risk HPV Types and Factors Determining Infection in Female Colombian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Del Río-Ospina, Luisa; Soto-De León, Sara Cecilia; Camargo, Milena; Sánchez, Ricardo; Mancilla, Cindy Lizeth; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin

    2016-01-01

    This study reports six HR-HPV types’ infection prevalence discriminated by species and multiple infection in unvaccinated Colombian female adolescents, as well as some factors modulating the risk of infection. HPV DNA for six high-risk viral types was identified in cervical samples taken from 2,134 12–19 year-old females using conventional generic and type-specific PCR. Binomial logistical regression analysis was used for modelling HR-HPV infection and multiple infection risk. The interaction between variables in a stepwise model was also included in such analysis. Viral DNA was detected in 48.97% of the females; 28.52% of them had multiple infections, HPV-16 being the most frequently occurring type (37.44%). Cytological abnormality prevalence was 15.61%. Being over 16 years-old (1.66: 1.01–2.71 95%CI), white ethnicity (4.40: 1.16–16.73 95%CI), having had 3 or more sexual partners (1.77: 1.11–2.81 95%CI) and prior sexually-transmitted infections (STI) (1.65: 1.17–2.32 95%CI) were associated with a greater risk of HPV infection. Having given birth was related to a higher risk of infection by A7 species and antecedent of abortion to less risk of coinfection. Where the females in this study came from also influenced the risk of infection by A7 species as female adolescents from the Andean region had a lower risk of infection (0.42: 0.18–0.99 95%CI). The presence of factors related to risky sexual behaviour in the study population indicated that public health services should pay special attention to female adolescents to modify the risk of infection by high-risk HPV types and decrease their impact on this age group. PMID:27846258

  5. Detection and Quantitation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in the Female Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Penny; Bremer, James; Wasserman, Steven S.; Nowicki, Marek; Driscoll, Barbara; Polsky, Bruce; Kovacs, Andrea; Reichelderfer, Patricia S.

    2000-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was detected in the genital tracts of 59% of 225 women by RNA PCR and in 7% of the women by culture. In a comparison of two sampling methods, endocervical swabs were more sensitive than cervicovaginal lavage for HIV-1 RNA detection by PCR but not by culture and their sensitivity was independent of the concentration of HIV-1 RNA. PMID:11015409

  6. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and levonorgestrel increase genital mucosal permeability and enhance susceptibility to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection

    PubMed Central

    Calla, Nirk E Quispe; Miguel, Rodolfo D Vicetti; Boyaka, Prosper N; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Kaur, Balveen; Trout, Wayne; Pavelko, Stephen D; Cherpes, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a hormonal contraceptive especially popular in areas with high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). While observational studies identify DMPA as an important STI risk factor, mechanisms underlying this connection are undefined. Levonorgestrel (LNG) is another progestin used for hormonal contraception, but its effect on STI susceptibility is much less explored. Using a mouse model of genital HSV-2 infection, we herein found DMPA and LNG similarly reduced genital expression of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1α (DSG1α), enhanced access of inflammatory cells to genital tissue by increasing mucosal epithelial permeability, and increased susceptibility to viral infection. Additional studies with uninfected mice revealed DMPA-mediated increases in mucosal permeability promoted tissue inflammation by facilitating endogenous vaginal microbiota invasion. Conversely, concomitant treatment of mice with DMPA and intravaginal estrogen restored mucosal barrier function and prevented HSV-2 infection. Evaluating ectocervical biopsy tissue from women before and 1 month after initiating DMPA remarkably revealed inflammation and barrier protection were altered by treatment identically to changes seen in progestin-treated mice. Together, our work reveals DMPA and LNG diminish the genital mucosal barrier; a first-line defense against all STI, but may offer foundation for new contraceptive strategies less compromising of barrier protection. PMID:27007679

  7. From the monovalent to the nine-valent HPV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Pils, S; Joura, E A

    2015-09-01

    An investigational monovalent human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 virus-like particle vaccine has been shown to prevent persistent infection and cervical disease related to HPV 16 and was proof of concept (2002). Designed to prevent the bulk of invasive cervical cancer, quadrivalent (HPV 6/11/16/18) and bivalent (HPV 16/18) vaccines have been available since 2006 and 2007, respectively. They are highly effective in preventing HPV 16/18-related cervical precancer; the quadrivalent version also prevents genital warts related to HPV 6/11. It has been shown that the precursors of vulvar, vaginal and anal cancer related to the vaccine types are effectively prevented. This led to a paradigm shift from a female-only cervical cancer vaccine to a vaccine for the prevention of HPV-related disease and cancer for both sexes. Vaccination before the start of sexual activity is most effective, and consequently most programs target 9- to 12-year-olds. Additionally, recent studies have proven the noninferior immunoresponse of a two-dose schedule in these age cohorts. Gender-neutral vaccination has become more common; it improves coverage and also provides protection to all males. Recently a nine-valent HPV vaccine (HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) was licensed; it provides high and consistent protection against infections and diseases related to these types, with ∼90% of cervical and other HPV-related cancers and precancers potentially being avoided. Coverage is key. Efforts must be made to provide HPV vaccination in low-resource countries that lack screening programs. In countries with cervical cancer screening, HPV vaccination will greatly affect screening algorithms.

  8. Risk of cervical HPV infection and prevalence of vaccine-type and other high-risk HPV types among sexually active teens and young women (13-26 years) enrolled in the VALHIDATE study.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Giovanna; Fasolo, Michela; Mazza, Francesca; Ricci, Elena; Esposito, Susanna; Frati, Elena; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Cetin, Irene; Gramegna, Maria; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    HPV vaccination is expected to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. The greatest and the earliest health gains will be ensured by high vaccine coverage among all susceptible people. The high costs and the risk of a reduced cost/effectiveness ratio in sexually active girls still represent the main obstacles for a more widespread use of HPV vaccination in many countries. Data on the rate, risk factors, and HPV types in sexually active women could provide information for the evaluation of vaccination policies extended to broader age cohorts. Sexually active women aged 13-26 years enrolled in an Italian cohort study were screened for cervical HPV infections; HPV-DNA positive samples were genotyped by InnoLipa HPV Genotyping Extra or by RFLP genotype analysis.: Among the 796 women meeting the inclusion criteria, 10.80% (95% CI 8.65-12.96) were HPV-DNA infected. Age>18 years, lifetime sexual partners>1, and history of STIs were associated to higher risk of HPV infection in the multivariable models adjusted for age, lifetime sexual partners, and time of sexual exposure. The global prevalence of the four HPV vaccine-types was 3.02% (95% CI 1.83-4.20) and the cumulative probability of infection from at least one vaccine-type was 12.82% in 26-years-old women and 0.78% in 18-years-old women.: Our data confirm most of the previously reported findings on the risk factors for HPV infections. The low prevalence of the HPV vaccine-types found may be useful for the evaluation of the cost/efficacy and the cost/effectiveness of broader immunization programs beyond the 12-years-old cohort.

  9. Warts (non-genital)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Warts are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), of which there are over 100 types. HPV probably infects the skin via areas of minimal trauma. Risk factors include use of communal showers, occupational handling of meat, and immunosuppression. In immunocompetent people, warts are harmless and resolve as a result of natural immunity within months or years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for warts (non-genital)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 17 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic, review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: intralesional bleomycin; intralesional candida antigen; contact immunotherapy; cryotherapy; duct tape occlusion; photodynamic treatment; pulsed dye laser; surgical procedures; and topical salicylic acid. PMID:24921240

  10. Seroprevalence of Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses and the Risk of External Genital Lesions in Men: A Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shams; Rollison, Dana E.; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Waterboer, Tim; Michel, Angelika; Pawlita, Michael; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano Ponce, Eduardo; Wang, Wei; Borenstein, Amy R.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    Background A variety of cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPV) are detectable in genital epithelial lesions in men and non-melanoma skin cancer patients. It remains unclear whether these viruses are associated causally with skin lesions. To date, no study has prospectively examined the association between cutaneous HPV seropositivity and development of external genital lesions (EGLs) in men. Objectives To examine the association between seropositivity to cutaneous HPV types and the risk of subsequent development of EGLs. Methods A nested case-control study including 163 incident EGL cases and 352 EGL-free controls in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study cohort was conducted. Cases were ascertained at each of up to 10 biannual clinical visits and verified through biopsy and pathological diagnoses. EGLs were categorized as condyloma, suggestive of condyloma, penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN), and other EGLs. Archived serum specimens collected at baseline were tested for antibodies against 14 cutaneous HPV typestypes (5, 8, 12, 14, 17, 22, 23, 24, 38, and 47), α type 27, γ type 4, μ type 1, and ν type 41) using a GST L1-based multiplex serology assay. Socio-demographic and sexual behavior data were collected through a questionnaire. Using logistic regression, adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Results Overall, seropositivity to ≥1 cutaneous HPV type (any-HPV) and ≥1 β types (any-β) was 58.3% and 37.5% among other EGL cases, 71.6% and 46.8% among condyloma, 66.8% and 50.0% among PeIN, and 71.9% and 38.4% among controls, respectively. Type-specific seropositivity was most common for ɤ-HPV 4, μ-HPV 1, and β-HPV 8. No statistically significant association was observed between any-HPV, any-β, and type-specific HPV seropositivity and subsequent development of EGLs across all pathological diagnoses. Conclusions Overall, seropositivity to cutaneous HPV was common among men; however, it appears that cutaneous

  11. Human papillomavirus infections in Mexican women with normal cytology, precancerous lesions, and cervical cancer: type-specific prevalence and HPV coinfections.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I; Salgado-Bernabé, Manuel Eduardo; Ramos-González, Norma Patricia; Ortega-Cervantes, Laura; Arias-Flores, Rafael; Medina-Díaz, Irma M; Hernández-Garza, Fernando; Santos-López, Gerardo; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence and genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) provides the basis for designing HPV prevention programs. The prevalence rates of type-specific HPV and coinfections in samples of Mexican women were investigated in 822 women aged 18-87 years. HPV detection was performed using a Linear Array™ genotyping test. HPV infection was found in 12.4% of controls, 46.3% of those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1, and 100% of those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 or cervical cancer. HPV 16 was the most prevalent type in all diagnosis groups. The HPV types most frequently found in cervical cancers were 16, 18, 45, 52, 58, and 39; HPV types 16, 62, 51, 84, 18, 53, and CP6108 were the most prevalent in control women. Considering HPV-positive samples only, coinfections occurred most often in controls (63%) and were less frequent in those with cervical cancer (26%). The most frequent viral types in coinfections with HPV 16 in control women were HPV 62, 51, and 84; in women with cervical cancers, HPV 18, 39, and 70 were most common. In conclusion, in addition to HPV types 16 and 18, types 45, 39, 58, 52, and 71 were found in cervical cancers in Mexican women (78%); among them, only 65% were attributable to HPV types 16 and 18. Therefore, it is necessary to consider these viral types in the design of new vaccines, and to determine whether certain HPV types coinfecting with HPV 16 in precursor lesions determine tumor progression or regression.

  12. Significantly Reduced Genoprevalence of Vaccine-Type HPV-16/18 Infections among Vaccinated Compared to Non-Vaccinated Young Women 5.5 Years after a Bivalent HPV-16/18 Vaccine (Cervarix®) Pilot Project in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Berggren, Vanja; Wabinga, Henry; Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella; Helenius, Gisela; Kaliff, Malin; Karlsson, Mats; Kirimunda, Samuel; Musubika, Caroline; Andersson, Sören

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and some predictors for vaccine and non-vaccine types of HPV infections among bivalent HPV vaccinated and non-vaccinated young women in Uganda. This was a comparative cross sectional study 5.5 years after a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccination (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) pilot project in western Uganda. Cervical swabs were collected between July 2014-August 2014 and analyzed with a HPV genotyping test, CLART® HPV2 assay (Genomica, Madrid Spain) which is based on PCR followed by microarray for determination of genotype. Blood samples were also tested for HIV and syphilis infections as well as CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte levels. The age range of the participants was 15–24 years and mean age was 18.6(SD 1.4). Vaccine-type HPV-16/18 strains were significantly less prevalent among vaccinated women compared to non-vaccinated women (0.5% vs 5.6%, p 0.006, OR 95% CI 0.08(0.01–0.64). At type-specific level, significant difference was observed for HPV16 only. Other STIs (HIV/syphilis) were important risk factors for HPV infections including both vaccine types and non-vaccine types. In addition, for non-vaccine HPV types, living in an urban area, having a low BMI, low CD4 count and having had a high number of life time sexual partners were also significant risk factors. Our data concurs with the existing literature from other parts of the world regarding the effectiveness of bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine in reducing the prevalence of HPV infections particularly vaccine HPV- 16/18 strains among vaccinated women. This study reinforces the recommendation to vaccinate young girls before sexual debut and integrate other STI particularly HIV and syphilis interventions into HPV vaccination packages. PMID:27482705

  13. Addition of a single E2 binding site to the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 long control region enhances killing of HPV positive cells via HPV E2 protein-regulated herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase-mediated suicide gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rachna; Palefsky, Joel M

    2010-07-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is associated with the development of anogenital cancers and their precursor lesions, intraepithelial neoplasia. Treatment strategies against HPV-induced intraepithelial neoplasia are not HPV specific and mostly consist of physical removal or ablation of lesions. We had previously designed an HPV-specific approach to kill HPV-infected cells by the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (TK) gene driven by HPV E2 binding to E2-binding sites (E2BS) in the native HPV16 long control region. E2-induced TK expression renders the cells sensitive to the prodrug ganciclovir. To optimize this therapeutic approach, we modified the native long control region by adding variable numbers of E2BS adjacent to E2BS4, resulting in greatly increased cell death in HPV-positive cell lines with variable levels of E2 protein expression and no reduction in HPV specificity. Our results showed maximum increase in TK expression and cell killing when one additional E2BS was added adjacent to E2BS. As HPV-infected patients also exhibit variable E2 expression across lesions and within a lesion, this approach may potentiate the clinical utility of the herpes simplex virus type 1 TK/ganciclovir therapeutic approach.

  14. Epidemiology of oral HPV in the oral mucosa in women without signs of oral disease from Yucatan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Losa, María del Refugio; Barrera, Ernesto Soria; Herrera-Pech, Verónica; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Puerto-Solís, Marylin; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are considered necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, there is no doubt that some types of oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with HR-HPV. The epidemiology of oral HPV infections in healthy subjects remains unclear due to a lack of knowledge. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections of the oral mucosa without pathology. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 390 women seeking prenatal care, Pap smears, family planning or gynecological diseases were studied. Oral cells were collected by direct swab sampling. Information regarding sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, infectious diseases, contraceptive history and tobacco and alcohol consumption were obtained through direct interviews. HPV and genotypes were detected by type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that 14% of the women studied had an oral HPV infection. Women ≤ 20 years of age had the highest HPV prevalence (24.5%). In total, seven genotypes were identified, including the high-risk genotypes 16, 18, 58 and 59 and the low-risk genotypes 6, 81 and 13, the latter of which is a type exclusive to oral mucosa. Sexual behavior was not associated with the presence of genital HPV types in the oral mucosa. Genital HPV types were present in the oral mucosa of women without associated clinical manifestations; however, sexual behavior was not associated with infection, and therefore others routes of transmission should be explored. PMID:26221121

  15. Epidemiology of oral HPV in the oral mucosa in women without signs of oral disease from Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Losa, María Del Refugio; Barrera, Ernesto Soria; Herrera-Pech, Verónica; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Puerto-Solís, Marylin; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe

    2015-03-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are considered necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, there is no doubt that some types of oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with HR-HPV. The epidemiology of oral HPV infections in healthy subjects remains unclear due to a lack of knowledge. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections of the oral mucosa without pathology. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 390 women seeking prenatal care, Pap smears, family planning or gynecological diseases were studied. Oral cells were collected by direct swab sampling. Information regarding sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, infectious diseases, contraceptive history and tobacco and alcohol consumption were obtained through direct interviews. HPV and genotypes were detected by type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that 14% of the women studied had an oral HPV infection. Women ≤ 20 years of age had the highest HPV prevalence (24.5%). In total, seven genotypes were identified, including the high-risk genotypes 16, 18, 58 and 59 and the low-risk genotypes 6, 81 and 13, the latter of which is a type exclusive to oral mucosa. Sexual behavior was not associated with the presence of genital HPV types in the oral mucosa. Genital HPV types were present in the oral mucosa of women without associated clinical manifestations; however, sexual behavior was not associated with infection, and therefore others routes of transmission should be explored.

  16. [Investigation of HPV-DNA in cervical smear samples by two different methods: MY09/11 consensus PCR and type-specific real-time PCR].

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Fatih; Gümral, Ramazan; Sener, Kenan; Yiğit, Nuri; Dede, Murat; Yapar, Mehmet; Kubar, Ayhan

    2012-10-01

    Cervical cancer that has been proven to be associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the second most common cancer in women worldwide and is a leading cause of cancer deaths in women in developing countries. Cervical cancers can be detected in the early stages by screening programs since a long latency period exists between the beginning of HPV infection and the development of cervical cancer. HPV-DNA testing is widely used throughout the world and today is an important part of cervical cancer screening programs. In this study, we analyzed the presence of HPV-DNA in 356 cervical smear samples by two different methods which are MY09/11 consensus real-time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR) and type-specific Rt-PCR. All samples were also tested by type-specific PCR, regardless of consensus PCR results. PCR analysis were performed using the type- specific primers and TaqMan probes that were designed for a total of 13 different HPV types; two low risk HPV and 11 high risk HPV types. A total of 142 different isolates, 95 being high risk HPV isolates, 39 low risk HPV isolates and eight unidentified isolates, were determined in 109 (30.6%) smear samples that were defined as HPV-DNA positive by at least one of the two methods. Frequencies of detection of high risk HPV types in HPV-positive samples were as follows respectively: HPV-16; 32 (33.7%), HPV-52; 12 (12.6%), HPV-58; 11 (11.6%), HPV-18; 7 (7.4%), HPV-31; 7 (7.4%), HPV-35; 7 (7.4%), HPV-68; 6 (6.3%), HPV-33; 4 (4.2%), HPV-82; 4 (4.2%), HPV-39; 3 (3.2%) and HPV-45; 2 (2.1%). Various cytologic atypia were reported in 84 (23.6%) smear samples according to the simultaneously performed cytopathologic examination. Single HPV type was detected in 72 (71.3%) and multiple HPV types were detected in 29 (28.7%) of 101 smear samples with the exception of the unidentified isolates by type-specific RtPCR. HPV-18, HPV-33 and HPV-35 had higher detection rates of 7.4, 3.7 and 3.0 fold in mixed infections than single ones

  17. Genital Warts

    PubMed Central

    Yanofsky, Valerie R.; Patel, Rita V.

    2012-01-01

    External genital warts, also known as condylomata acuminata, are extremely common, with between 500,000 to one million new cases diagnosed each year in the United States alone. To date, more than 120 distinct subtypes of human papillomavirus have been identified. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 rarely give rise to cervical cancers, but are responsible for 90 percent of the cases of genital warts. The current treatment options are largely centered upon removal of the warts rather than elimination of the underlying viral infection. A wide range of therapies are presently in use, which are highly variable and can differ dramatically with respect to cost, side-effect profiles, dosing schedules, duration of treatment, and overall effectiveness. As of yet, no definitive therapy has emerged as the ideal standard of care in the treatment of genital warts, and therapy selection generally occurs in a patient-specific manner. PMID:22768354

  18. Genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Garland, Suzanne M; Steben, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Genital herpes is a relatively common infection caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type one or two (HSV-1, HSV-2) respectively. It is acquired most commonly via sexual activity. More recently there has been an increase in infections due to HSV-1. Most new cases of genital HSV are not diagnosed due to HSV infections having short-lived signs and symptoms, or in many instances are asymptomatic. Hence many people infected with HSV are unaware that they have it. The risk of transmission to a partner is highest during outbreak periods, when there are visible lesions, although genital HSV can also be transmitted during asymptomatic periods. Use of condoms and antiviral medications assist in preventing transmission. Antiviral agents are effective in controlling clinical episodes, but do not eradicate infection, which remains latent for the life of a patient. Despite the surge in vaccine research, there is unfortunately no readily available preventative or therapeutic vaccine for HSV to date.

  19. Ten years of HPV vaccines: State of art and controversies.

    PubMed

    Angioli, Roberto; Lopez, Salvatore; Aloisi, Alessia; Terranova, Corrado; De Cicco, Carlo; Scaletta, Giuseppe; Capriglione, Stella; Miranda, Andrea; Luvero, Daniela; Ricciardi, Roberto; Montera, Roberto; Plotti, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) represents one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and it has been related to cervical cancer. The HPV vaccines prevent infection with certain species of HPV associated with the development of cervical cancer or genital warts. We carried out a PubMed search up to 2015 evaluating all randomized studies published in literature. This review discusses the current status of HPVs vaccines on the global market, efficacy, safety profiles, controversies and future vaccine developments. Three HPVs vaccines are currently on the global market: bivalent, quadrivalent and ninevalent. Bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines can protect against almost 70% of cervical HPV-related cancerous and precancerous conditions and the ninevalent vaccine, instead, provides a protection against almost 90%. The use of vaccinations raised several controversies in the last years and, currently, is not possible to establish which type of vaccine is most effective, however all of them are safe.

  20. Variants in human papillomavirus receptor and associated genes are associated with type-specific HPV infection and lesion progression of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jian; Cao, Zhu; Zhang, Jianyang; Chen, Tingting; Yang, Shizhou; Huang, Yongjie; Hong, Die; Li, Yang; Chen, Xiaojing; Wang, Xinyu; Cheng, Xiaodong; Lu, Weiguo; Xie, Xing

    2016-06-28

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infects cervical epithelial cells through cellular membrane receptors, and then induces the initiation and progression of cervical cancer. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may impact the susceptibility and outcome of diseases, but it's still unknown whether variant in HPV receptor and associated genes is associated with type-specific HPV infection and cervical lesion progression. We examined 96 SNPs in 8 genes which may participate in the HPV infection process in 875 samples with HPV negative or single HPV16, 18, 52, 58 positive from 3299 cervical exfoliated cell samples, by Illumina BeadXpress VeraCode platform, and analyzed the correlation between the SNPs and type-specific HPV infection and cervical lesions progression. We found rs28384376 in EGFR and rs12034979 in HSPG2 significantly correlated to HPV16 infection; rs2575738, rs2575712, rs2575735 in SDC2 and rs6697265 in HSPG2 significantly correlated to HPV18 infection; rs10510097 in FGFR2, rs12718946 in EGFR significantly correlated to HPV52 infection; rs4947972 in EGFR, rs2981451 in FGFR2, rs2575735 in SDC2 significantly correlated to HPV58 infection. And rs3135772, rs1047057 and rs2556537 in FGFR2, rs12034979 in HSPG2, rs16894821 in SDC2 significantly correlated to cervical lesion progression induced by HPV16 infection; rs6697265 and rs6680566 in HSPG2, rs16860426 in ITGA6 by HPV18 infection; rs878949 in HSPG2, rs12718946 and rs12668175 in EGFR by HPV52 infection; no SNP by HPV58 infection. Our findings suggest that HPV receptor and associated gene variants may influence the susceptibilities to HPV type-specific infection and cervical lesion progression, which might have a potential application value in cervical cancer screening and therapy.

  1. A mechanism for the induction of type 2 immune responses by a protease allergen in the genital tract

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ji Eun; Oh, Dong Sun; Jung, Hi Eun

    2017-01-01

    The genital mucosa is a barrier that is constantly exposed to a variety of pathogens, allergens, and external stimuli. Although both allergen exposure and parasite infections frequently occur in the genital area, the mechanism by which immune responses—particularly type 2 immunity—are induced has rarely been studied in the genital mucosa. Here, we demonstrate the induction of T helper type 2 (Th2) immunity in the genital mucosa in response to a model allergen, the protease papain. Intravaginal papain immunization induced type 2 immunity in a manner that was dependent on protease activity and the estrous phase of the mice. In addition, IL-33 was released from the vaginal epithelia after intravaginal papain immunization, leading to the activation of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). Moreover, the IL-33–MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88) signaling pathway was critical for the induction of type 2 immunity. We also found that Th2 differentiation in response to intravaginal papain treatment requires a specific dendritic cell (DC) subset that is controlled by interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4). These findings suggest that type 2 immunity is induced by a unique mechanism in the genital tract, which is an important, but often overlooked, barrier surface. PMID:28137851

  2. Analysis of Multiple HPV E6 PDZ Interactions Defines Type-Specific PDZ Fingerprints That Predict Oncogenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Miranda; Myers, Michael P.; Guarnaccia, Corrado; Banks, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    The high-risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) E6 oncoproteins are characterised by the presence of a class I PDZ-binding motif (PBM) on their extreme carboxy termini. The PBM is present on the E6 proteins derived from all cancer-causing HPV types, but can also be found on some related non-cancer-causing E6 proteins. We have therefore been interested in investigating the potential functional differences between these different E6 PBMs. Using an unbiased proteomic approach in keratinocytes, we have directly compared the interaction profiles of these different PBMs. This has allowed us to identify the potential PDZ target fingerprints of the E6 PBMs from 7 different cancer-causing HPV types, from 3 HPV types with weak cancer association, and from one benign HPV type that possesses an ancestral PBM. We demonstrate a striking increase in the number of potential PDZ targets bound by each E6 PBM as cancer-causing potential increases, and show that the HPV-16 and HPV-18 PBMs have the most flexibility in their PDZ target selection. Furthermore, the specific interaction with hScrib correlates directly with increased oncogenic potential. In contrast, hDlg is bound equally well by all the HPV E6 PBMs analysed, indicating that this is an evolutionarily conserved interaction, and was most likely one of the original E6 PBM target proteins that was important for the occupation of a potential new niche. Finally, we present evidence that the cell junction components ZO-2 and β-2 syntrophin are novel PDZ domain–containing targets of a subset of high-risk HPV types. PMID:27483446

  3. In vitro assessment of the effect of vaccine-targeted human papillomavirus (HPV) depletion on detection of non-vaccine HPV types: implications for post-vaccine surveillance studies.

    PubMed

    Cornall, Alyssa M; Phillips, Samuel; Cummins, Eleanor; Garland, Suzanne M; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2015-03-01

    In populations where the prevalence of vaccine-targeted HPV types has been reduced significantly due to widespread vaccination of the target population, the sensitivity of some consensus PCR-based assays to detect remaining HPV types may be altered, leading to misrepresentations of prevalence. Importantly, this may lead to false indications of type replacement in vaccinated populations. To assess whether excess vaccine-targeted HPV DNA resulted in reduced detection of other genotypes on the Roche HPV linear array genotype assay, simulated samples containing 1000 copies of one or two high-risk HPV DNA genomes in the presence and the absence of 10,000 copies of the HPV16 genome were tested. HPV16 alone did not affect detection of other high-risk genotypes; however when HPV16 and an additional genotype were present, detection of HPV31, 33, 51 or 59 was impeded, indicating potential for misrepresentation of population-based prevalence of these genotypes and false evidence for type replacement following vaccination.

  4. Low prevalence of oral and nasal human papillomavirus in employees performing CO2-laser evaporation of genital warts or loop electrode excision procedure of cervical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Kofoed, Kristian; Norrbom, Christina; Forslund, Ola; Møller, Charlotte; Frøding, Ligita P; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Markauskas, Algirdas; Blomberg, Maria; Baumgartner-Nielsen, Jane; Madsen, Jakob Torp; Strauss, Gitte; Madsen, Klaus G; Sand, Carsten

    2015-02-01

    Risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission during laser vaporisation of genital warts or loop electrode excision procedure is controversial. An oral rinse, a nasal swabs, history of HPV related diseases and data on HPV exposure were collected from 287 employees at departments of dermato-venerology and gynaecology in Denmark. A mucosal HPV type was found among 5.8% of employees with experience of laser treatment of genital warts as compared to 1.7% of those with no experience (p = 0.12). HPV prevalence was not higher in employees participating in electrosurgical treatment or cryotherapy of genital warts, or loop electrode excision procedure compared with those who did not. HPV 6 or 11 were not detected in any samples. Hand warts after the age of 24 years was more common among dermatology than among non-dermatology personnel (18% vs. 8.0%, p = 0.03). Mucosal HPV types are infrequent in the oral and nasal cavity of health care personnel, however, employees at departments of dermato-venereology are at risk of acquiring hand warts.

  5. Genital Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... transmitted disease (STD) caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The warts are soft, moist, pink, or flesh- ... completely eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading HPV. HPV vaccines may help prevent some of the ...

  6. OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral protection against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection by enhancing type I interferon production.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Eun; Lee, Myeong Sup; Kim, Young-Joon; Lee, Heung Kyu

    2016-01-11

    Type I interferon (IFN) interferes with virus replication, promotes antiviral responses, and controls innate and adaptive immune responses to certain viruses. Recently, we reported that 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase-like 1 (OASL1) negatively regulates type I IFN production by inhibiting the translation of the type I IFN-regulating master transcription factor, IRF7. Notably, while OASL1-deficient mice induce robust production of type I IFN and are resistant to systemic viral infection, the effects of OASL1 during localized viral infection has not been studied. To this end, we investigated the role of OASL1 during mucosal HSV-2 infection of the genital tract. Oasl1(-/-) mice exhibited better survival rates than wild type (WT) mice following intravaginal HSV-2 infection, and suppressed virus replication more efficiently despite comparable recruitment of effector immune cells. Moreover, Ly6C(high) monocytes, and not pDCs or other cell types, displayed enhanced production of type I IFNs in Oasl1(-/-) mice in response to HSV-2 infection. Furthermore, cytotoxic T cell responses including IFN-γ production were accelerated in Oasl1(-/-) mice after mucosal HSV-2 infection. Collectively, these results demonstrate that OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral immunity against local mucosal viral infection and suggest that OASL1 could be a therapeutic target for treatment of HSV-2 infection of the genital mucosa.

  7. Haemophilus influenzae type B genital infection and septicemia in pregnant woman: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Supram, Hosuru Subramanya; Gokhale, Shishir; Bhatta, Dharm Raj; Sharma, JSS; Shrestha, Junu

    2014-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) type B a non-motile, aerobic, gram negative cocobacillus is a commensal of upper respiratory tract. Genitourinary infection due to H. influenzae has been reported but bacteremia associated with such infection appears to be rare. We report a case of 19 years young primigravida with complaints of amenorrhea of 32 weeks and 5 days, pyrexia, abdominal pain and blood stained discharge per vaginum. H. influenzae type B was recovered from the genital tract as well as blood of the mother indicating maternal septicemia. Septicemia caused by H. influenzae type B in pregnant women following vaginal colonization and infection is rare. It has been reported in many parts of world over the years; to the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case from Nepal. H. influenzae should be considered as a potential maternal, fetal, and neonatal pathogen.

  8. Comparison of different assays to assess human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16- and 18-specific antibodies after HPV infection and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Scherpenisse, Mirte; Schepp, Rutger M; Mollers, Madelief; Mooij, Sofie H; Meijer, Chris J L M; Berbers, Guy A M; van der Klis, Fiona R M

    2013-08-01

    We compared the measurement of human papillomavirus (HPV)-specific serum antibody levels with the virus-like-particle multiplex immunoassay (VLP-MIA), competitive Luminex immunoassay (cLIA), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) L1-based MIA. Using a large panel of serum samples, these assays showed mutually good correlations for both naturally induced and vaccine-derived HPV-specific antibody levels. However, an adaptation of the GST L1-based MIA resulted in an improved correlation with both cLIA and VLP-MIA.

  9. Comparison of Different Assays To Assess Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type 16- and 18-Specific Antibodies after HPV Infection and Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Schepp, Rutger M.; Mollers, Madelief; Mooij, Sofie H.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.

    2013-01-01

    We compared the measurement of human papillomavirus (HPV)-specific serum antibody levels with the virus-like-particle multiplex immunoassay (VLP-MIA), competitive Luminex immunoassay (cLIA), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) L1-based MIA. Using a large panel of serum samples, these assays showed mutually good correlations for both naturally induced and vaccine-derived HPV-specific antibody levels. However, an adaptation of the GST L1-based MIA resulted in an improved correlation with both cLIA and VLP-MIA. PMID:23740920

  10. Multi-site study of HPV type-specific prevalence in women with cervical cancer, intraepithelial neoplasia and normal cytology, in England

    PubMed Central

    Howell-Jones, R; Bailey, A; Beddows, S; Sargent, A; de Silva, N; Wilson, G; Anton, J; Nichols, T; Soldan, K; Kitchener, H

    2010-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of the prevalence of type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) infections is necessary to predict the expected, and to monitor the actual, impact of HPV immunisation and to design effective screening strategies for vaccinated populations. Methods: Residual specimens of cervical cytology (N=4719), CIN3/CGIN and cervical cancer biopsies (N=1515) were obtained from sites throughout England, anonymised and tested for HPV DNA using the Linear Array typing system (Roche). Results: The prevalence of HPV 16 and/or 18 (with or without another high-risk (HR) type) was 76% in squamous cell carcinomas, 82% in adeno/adenosquamous carcinomas and 63% and 91% in CIN3 and CGIN, respectively. Of all HR HPV-infected women undergoing cytology, non-vaccine HPV types only were found in over 60% of those with mild dyskaryosis or below, and in <20% of those with cancer. In women of all ages undergoing screening, HR HPV prevalence was 16% and HPV 16 and/or 18 prevalence was 5%. Conclusion: Pre-immunisation, high-grade cervical disease in England was predominantly associated with HPV 16 and/or 18, which promises a high impact from HPV immunisation in due course. Second-generation vaccines and screening strategies need to consider the best ways to detect and prevent disease due to the remaining HR HPV types. PMID:20628396

  11. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... to another person's genitals. Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) . It can cause sores in the genital ... TOPIC Talking to Your Partner About Condoms About Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Talking to Your Partner About STDs 5 ...

  12. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and genital and urinary tract infections in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Arakaki, Richard F

    2016-05-01

    Coincident with the high and increasing worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), a growing armamentarium of antidiabetes medications has been introduced to target different organ systems that play a role in the pathophysiology of T2D. Among these, the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors were introduced in the United States in 2013 as a new treatment option to address the hyperglycemia associated with T2D. SGLT-2 inhibitors decrease renal glucose reabsorption, resulting in glucosuria, alleviation of hyperglycemia, and modest weight loss and are associated with a low risk of hypoglycemia. The SGLT-2 inhibitors have been linked to an increased incidence of genital mycotic infections and, to a lesser extent, urinary tract infections, which may limit their utility in some patients. This review examines the prevalence, recurrence rates, treatment options, and responses to treatment of genital and urinary tract infections in patients with T2D receiving SGLT-2 inhibitors, with the aim of guiding clinicians in the most effective use of these agents for the treatment of hyperglycemia.

  13. Genetic variability and phylogeny of high risk HPV type 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 L1 gene in Greek women.

    PubMed

    Ntova, Chara Kleio; Kottaridi, Christine; Chranioti, Aikaterini; Spathis, Aris; Kassanos, Dimitrios; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Karakitsos, Petros

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores nucleotide variability, phylogeny and association with cervical neoplasia in high risk HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 collected from Greek women. Of the 1894 women undergoing routine cervical cytology examination, 160 samples test positive for single infections of HPV type 16 (n = 104), HPV 31 (n = 40), HPV 33 (n = 7), HPV 18 (n = 5), and HPV 45 (n = 4) were typed by microarrays method, amplified by PCR then sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. For HPV 16, 9 variants with nucleotide variations were included into the study. For HPV 31, 33, 18 and 45, nucleotide variations were identified in 6, 4, 2 and 3 variants, respectively. The Bayesian inference and Maximum Parsimony methods were used in order to construct the phylogenetic trees. When types were analyzed independently HPV 16 (European and non-European) and HPV 18 (African and non-African) formed distinct clades. The genomic characterization of HPV variants will be important for illuminating the geographical relatedness and biological differences and for the determination of their risk.

  14. Genetic Variability and Phylogeny of High Risk HPV Type 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 L1 Gene in Greek Women

    PubMed Central

    Ntova, Chara Kleio; Kottaridi, Christine; Chranioti, Aikaterini; Spathis, Aris; Kassanos, Dimitrios; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Karakitsos, Petros

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores nucleotide variability, phylogeny and association with cervical neoplasia in high risk HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 collected from Greek women. Of the 1894 women undergoing routine cervical cytology examination, 160 samples test positive for single infections of HPV type 16 (n = 104), HPV 31 (n = 40), HPV 33 (n = 7), HPV 18 (n = 5), and HPV 45 (n = 4) were typed by microarrays method, amplified by PCR then sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. For HPV 16, 9 variants with nucleotide variations were included into the study. For HPV 31, 33, 18 and 45, nucleotide variations were identified in 6, 4, 2 and 3 variants, respectively. The Bayesian inference and Maximum Parsimony methods were used in order to construct the phylogenetic trees. When types were analyzed independently HPV 16 (European and non-European) and HPV 18 (African and non-African) formed distinct clades. The genomic characterization of HPV variants will be important for illuminating the geographical relatedness and biological differences and for the determination of their risk. PMID:22312235

  15. Pathogenic role of the eight probably/possibly carcinogenic HPV types 26, 53, 66, 67, 68, 70, 73 and 82 in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Halec, Gordana; Alemany, Laia; Lloveras, Belen; Schmitt, Markus; Alejo, Maria; Bosch, Franz X; Tous, Sara; Klaustermeier, Jo Ellen; Guimerà, Nuria; Grabe, Niels; Lahrmann, Bernd; Gissmann, Lutz; Quint, Wim; Bosch, Francesc X; de Sanjose, Silvia; Pawlita, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Eight HPV types (HPV26, 53, 66, 67, 68, 70, 73 and 82) that are phylogenetically closely related to 12 WHO-defined high-risk (HR) HPV have been rarely but consistently identified as single HPV infections in about 3% of cervical cancer (CxCa) tissues. Due to lack of biological data, these types are referred to as probable/possible (p) HR-HPV. To analyse their biological activity in direct comparison to HR-HPV types, we selected 55 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) CxCa tissues harbouring single pHR-HPV infections (2-13 cases per type) and 266 tissues harbouring single HR-HPV (7-40 cases per type) from a worldwide, retrospective, cross-sectional study. Single HPV infection was verified by two genotyping methods. Presence of type-specific spliced E6*I mRNA transcripts and expression of cellular proteins indicative of HPV transformation were assessed in all cases. In 55 CxCa tissues with pHR-HPV, E6*I mRNA expression was 100%; high p16(INK4a) , 98%; low pRb, 96%; low CyD1, 93%; and low p53, 84%. Compared to HPV16 tissues as a reference, individual frequencies of these five markers did not differ significantly, either for any of the eight pHR-HPV and the 11 other HR types individually or for the groups of pHR and HR types without HPV16. We conclude that the eight pHR-HPV types, when present as a single infection in CxCa, are biologically active and affect the same cellular pathways as any of the fully recognized carcinogenic HR-HPV types. Therefore we have provided molecular evidence of carcinogenicity for types currently classified as probably/possibly carcinogenic. Although this evidence is crucial for HPV-type carcinogenicity classification, per se it is not sufficient for inclusion of these HPV types into population-wide primary and secondary prevention programmes. Such decisions have to include careful estimation of effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses.

  16. Genital Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... who have sex with women get genital warts? Yes. It is possible to get genital warts, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ... you have signs or symptoms of genital warts. Yes. It is possible to get genital warts, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ...

  17. HPV prevalence and type-distribution in cervical cancer and premalignant lesions of the cervix: A population-based study from Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lesley A; O'Rorke, Michael A; Wilson, Robbie; Jamison, Jackie; Gavin, Anna T

    2016-07-01

    Assessment of Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and genotype distribution is important for monitoring the impact of prophylactic HPV vaccination. This study aimed to demonstrate the HPV genotypes predominating in pre-malignant and cervical cancers in Northern Ireland (NI) before the vaccination campaign has effect. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks from 2,303 women aged 16-93 years throughout NI were collated between April 2011 and February 2013. HPV DNA was amplified by PCR and HPV genotyping undertaken using the Roche(®) linear array detection kit. In total, 1,241 out of 1,830 eligible samples (68.0%) tested positive for HPV, with the majority of these [1,181/1,830 (64.5%)] having high-risk (HR) HPV infection; 37.4% were positive for HPV-16 (n = 684) and 5.1% for HPV-18 (n = 93). HPV type-specific prevalence was 48.1%, 65.9%, 81.3%, 92.2%, and 64.3% among cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) Grades I-III, squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) cases, respectively. Most SCC cases (81.3%) had only one HPV genotype detected and almost a third (32.0%) of all cervical pathologies were HPV negative including 51.9% of CIN I (n = 283), 34.1% CIN II (n = 145), 18.7% of CIN III (n = 146), 7.8% of SCC (n = 5), and 35.7% of AC (n = 5) cases. This study provides important baseline data for monitoring the effect of HPV vaccination in NI and for comparison with other UK regions. The coverage of other HR-HPV genotypes apart from 16 and 18, including HPV-45, 31, 39, and 52, and the potential for cross protection, should be considered when considering future polyvalent vaccines.

  18. Influence of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E2 polymorphism on quantification of HPV-16 episomal and integrated DNA in cervicovaginal lavages from women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Naoufel; Brazete, Jessica; Hankins, Catherine; Money, Deborah; Fontaine, Julie; Koushik, Anita; Rachlis, Anita; Pourreaux, Karina; Ferenczy, Alex; Franco, Eduardo; Coutlée, François

    2008-07-01

    Integrated human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) viral loads are currently estimated by quantification with real-time PCR of HPV-16 E6 (RT-E6 and HPV-16 PG) and E2 (RT-E2-1) DNA. We assessed the influence of HPV-16 E2 polymorphism on quantification of integrated HPV-16 DNA in anogenital specimens. HPV-16 E2 was sequenced from 135 isolates (123 from European and 12 from non-European lineages). An assay targeting conserved HPV-16 E2 sequences (RT-E2-2) was optimized and applied with RT-E6 and RT-E2-1 on 139 HPV-16-positive cervicovaginal lavages collected from 74 women [58 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive and 16 HIV-seronegative]. Ratios of HPV-16 copies measured with RT-E2-2 and RT-E2-1 obtained with African 2 (median=3.23, range=1.92-3.49) or Asian-American (median=3.78, range=1.47-37) isolates were greater than those obtained with European isolates (median=1.02, range=0.64-1.80; P<0.02 for each comparison). The distribution of HPV-16 E2 copies measured in 139 samples with RT-E2-2 (median=6150) and RT-E2-1 (median=8960) were different (P<0.0001). The risk of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN-2,3) compared with women without CIN was increased with higher HPV-16 total [odds ratio (OR)=2.17, 95 % confidence interval (CI)=1.11-4.23], episomal (OR=2.14, 95 % CI=1.09-4.19), but not for HPV-16 integrated viral load (OR=1.71, 95 % CI=0.90-3.26), after controlling for age, race, CD4 count, HIV and HPV-16 polymorphism. The proportion of samples with an E6/E2 ratio >2 in women without squamous intraepithelial lesion (7 of 35) was similar to that of women with CIN-2,3 (5 of 11, P=0.24) or CIN-1 (5 of 14, P=0.50). HPV-16 E2 polymorphism was a significant factor that influenced measures of HPV-16 integrated viral load.

  19. Comparison of the detection of HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 by type-specific DNA- and E6/E7 mRNA-based assays of HPV DNA positive women with abnormal Pap smears.

    PubMed

    Salimović-Bešić, Irma; Tomić-Čiča, Anja; Smailji, Admir; Hukić, Mirsada

    2013-12-01

    This study compares the type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test with E6/E7 mRNA detection assay because of their importance in cervical cancer screening programs. A total of 105 women with positive high-risk Hybrid Capture 2 or Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV screening test and an abnormal cervical Pap smear were enrolled in the study. HPV typing was performed by multiplex real-time PCR (HPV High Risk Typing Real-TM test). HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 E6/E7 mRNAs were determined by type-specific real-time NASBA assay (NucliSENS EasyQ HPV v1.1). Infections caused by HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 types increased with severity of cervical cytology (p=0.008). Global positivity of five HPV E6/E7 mRNAs was lower than DNA positivity within women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (p=0.016; p=0.008). High agreement of the tests was found in the groups of women with low-grade (p=1.000; p=0.063) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (p=0.250; p=0.125). Type-specific agreement of both diagnostic approaches was high regardless of cytology. Based on the found differences between HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 E6/E7 mRNA and DNA positivity, further study is needed to test the role of mRNA testing in the triage of women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in Pap smear.

  20. The diagnosis of genital herpes – beyond culture: An evidence-based guide for the utilization of polymerase chain reaction and herpes simplex virus type-specific serology

    PubMed Central

    Ratnam, S; Severini, A; Zahariadis, G; Petric, M; Romanowski, B

    2007-01-01

    Accurate identification of persons with genital herpes is necessary for optimal patient management and prevention of transmission. Because of inherent inaccuracies, clinical diagnosis of genital herpes should be confirmed by laboratory testing for the causative agents herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV type 2 (HSV-2). Further identification of the HSV type is valuable for counselling on the natural history of infection and risk of transmission. Laboratory methods include antigen detection, culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and conventional and type-specific serology (TSS). PCR has, by far, the greater sensitivity and should be the test of choice for symptomatic cases. HSV-2 TSS is indicated for patients with genital lesions in whom antigen detection, culture or PCR fail to detect HSV, and for patients who are asymptomatic but have a history suggestive of genital herpes. HSV-2 TSS is further indicated for patients infected with HIV. HSV-2 TSS along with HSV-1 TSS may be considered, as appropriate, in evaluating infection and/or immune status in couples discordant for genital herpes, women who develop their first clinical episode of genital herpes during pregnancy, asymptomatic pregnant women whose partners have a history of genital herpes or HIV infection, and women contemplating pregnancy or considering sexual partnership with those with a history of genital herpes. The above should be performed in conjunction with counselling of infected persons and their sex partners. PMID:18923735

  1. Association between HPV types and species groups and cervical neoplasia from a high-risk area for cervical cancer, Goiânia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Andrea Alves; Figueiredo Alves, Rosane Ribeiro; Costa, Maria Cecília; Villa, Luísa Lina; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos; Mauricette Derchain, Sophie Françoise; Dos Santos Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida; Rabelo-Santos, Silvia Helena

    2011-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of single or multiple-human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and phylogenetic groups on the prevalence and severity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in women undergoing colposcopy after an abnormal cervical smear. Colposcopy was performed in 198 cases and biopsy was performed in 193 patients. All specimens were tested for 27 HPV genotypes using the Roche polymerase chain reaction reverse line blot assay. The overall prevalence of HPV infection in women with an abnormal cervical smear was 86% (171 of 198). The prevalence of HPV 16 in high-grade CIN (2/3) was 52% (40 of 76), being detected in 88.8% of cases (8 of 9) of invasive carcinoma. The prevalence of HPV types 31 and 35 in high-grade CIN was 10.5% (8 of 76) and 6.6% (5 of 76), respectively. Single or multiple-type infection involving HPV 16 were significantly associated with a diagnosis of high-grade neoplasia (≥ CIN 2) [odds ratio (OR) 6.49; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.88-23.44 and OR: 3.65; 95% CI: 1.13-12.15] even after adjustment for HPV-DNA. A statistically significant association was also found between HPV 16 and the other HPV types belonging to species α 9 and a diagnosis of high-grade neoplasia (OR: 7.62; 95% CI: 1.28-51.58); however, no association was found between HPV 16 and the other HPV types belonging to species α 7. HPV 16 is the most important predictor of high-grade cervical neoplasia. Multiple-type infections are predictors of high-grade cervical neoplasia when type 16 is present.

  2. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine for the prevention of cervical cancer and HPV-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Skinner, S Rachel; Apter, Dan; De Carvalho, Newton; Harper, Diane M; Konno, Ryo; Paavonen, Jorma; Romanowski, Barbara; Roteli-Martins, Cecilia; Burlet, Nansa; Mihalyi, Attila; Struyf, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Vaccines are available against human papillomavirus (HPV), the causal agent of cervical and other cancers. Efficacy data from the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine clinical trial program were reviewed. Six randomized, controlled phase II/III trials evaluating cervical endpoints enrolled women from diverse populations and geographical locations. The program analyzed extensively the cohorts most relevant from a public health perspective: the total vaccinated cohort (TVC), approximating a general population including those with existing or previous HPV infection, and TVC-naïve, approximating a population of young women before sexual debut. Results show that the vaccine reduces HPV-16/18 infection and associated cervical endpoints in women regardless of age, location, or sexual experience. It provides cross-protection against some non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types and types causing genital warts, and may be effective against vulvar, oral, and anal HPV infection. Early epidemiology data following its introduction suggest a decline in the prevalence of vaccine and some non-vaccine HPV types.

  3. Human Female Genital Tract Infection by the Obligate Intracellular Bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis Elicits Robust Type 2 Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Vicetti Miguel, Rodolfo D.; Harvey, Stephen A. K.; LaFramboise, William A.; Reighard, Seth D.; Matthews, Dean B.; Cherpes, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    While Chlamydia trachomatis infections are frequently asymptomatic, mechanisms that regulate host response to this intracellular Gram-negative bacterium remain undefined. This investigation thus used peripheral blood mononuclear cells and endometrial tissue from women with or without Chlamydia genital tract infection to better define this response. Initial genome-wide microarray analysis revealed highly elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 10 and other molecules characteristic of Type 2 immunity (e.g., fibrosis and wound repair) in Chlamydia-infected tissue. This result was corroborated in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry studies that showed extant upper genital tract Chlamydia infection was associated with increased co-expression of CD200 receptor and CD206 (markers of alternative macrophage activation) by endometrial macrophages as well as increased expression of GATA-3 (the transcription factor regulating TH2 differentiation) by endometrial CD4+ T cells. Also among women with genital tract Chlamydia infection, peripheral CD3+ CD4+ and CD3+ CD4- cells that proliferated in response to ex vivo stimulation with inactivated chlamydial antigen secreted significantly more interleukin (IL)-4 than tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ, or IL-17; findings that repeated in T cells isolated from these same women 1 and 4 months after infection had been eradicated. Our results thus newly reveal that genital infection by an obligate intracellular bacterium induces polarization towards Type 2 immunity, including Chlamydia-specific TH2 development. Based on these findings, we now speculate that Type 2 immunity was selected by evolution as the host response to C. trachomatis in the human female genital tract to control infection and minimize immunopathological damage to vital reproductive structures. PMID:23555586

  4. Prepubertal vaccination of mice against experimental infection of the genital tract with type 2 herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Skinner, G R; Williams, D R; Moles, A W; Sargent, A

    1980-01-01

    Pre-pubertal immunisation of mice with a formalin-inactivated type 1 and 2 herpes simplex virus vaccine conferred a level of life-long protection against primary type 2 genital infection. Protection levels were better with type 1 vaccine and strikingly influenced by vaccine dosage where a one-hundred-fold reduction from the standard vaccine dosage diminished protection to insignificant levels. Vaccine efficacy was not significantly affected by the method of virus inactivation, the number of immunisations or the age of the mouse at immunisation. Vaccination conferred better protection than previous type 2 genital infection; this may be a consequence of a higher antigenic dose, more acceptable antigenic presentation or to a perversion of the immune response in a latently infected animal to homologous virus challenge.

  5. Identification of a Novel Human Papillomavirus, Type HPV199, Isolated from a Nasopharynx and Anal Canal, and Complete Genomic Characterization of Papillomavirus Species Gamma-12

    PubMed Central

    Oštrbenk, Anja; Kocjan, Boštjan J.; Hošnjak, Lea; Li, Jingjing; Deng, Qiuju; Šterbenc, Anja; Poljak, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The novel human papillomavirus type 199 (HPV199) was initially identified in a nasopharyngeal swab sample obtained from a 25 year-old immunocompetent male. The complete genome of HPV199 is 7,184 bp in length with a GC content of 36.5%. Comparative genomic characterization of HPV199 and its closest relatives showed the classical genomic organization of Gammapapillomaviruses (Gamma-PVs). HPV199 has seven major open reading frames (ORFs), encoding five early (E1, E2, E4, E6, and E7) and two late (L1 and L2) proteins, while lacking the E5 ORF. The long control region (LCR) of 513 bp is located between the L1 and E6 ORFs. Phylogenetic analysis additionally confirmed that HPV-199 clusters into the Gamma-PV genus, species Gamma-12, additionally containing HPV127, HV132, HPV148, HPV165, and three putative HPV types: KC5, CG2 and CG3. HPV199 is most closely related to HPV127 (nucleotide identity 77%). The complete viral genome sequence of additional HPV199 isolate was determined from anal canal swab sample. Two HPV199 complete viral sequences exhibit 99.4% nucleotide identity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first member of Gamma-PV with complete nucleotide sequences determined from two independent clinical samples. To evaluate the tissue tropism of the novel HPV type, 916 clinical samples were tested using HPV199 type-specific real-time PCR: HPV199 was detected in 2/76 tissue samples of histologically confirmed common warts, 2/108 samples of eyebrow hair follicles, 2/137 anal canal swabs obtained from individuals with clinically evident anal pathology, 4/184 nasopharyngeal swabs and 3/411 cervical swabs obtained from women with normal cervical cytology. Although HPV199 was found in 1.4% of cutaneous and mucosal samples only, it exhibits dual tissue tropism. According to the results of our study and literature data, dual tropism of all Gamma-12 members is highly possible. PMID:26375679

  6. Incidence and duration of type-specific human papillomavirus infection in high-risk HPV-naïve women: results from the control arm of a phase II HPV-16/18 vaccine trial

    PubMed Central

    Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Naud, Paulo; Roteli-Martins, Cecilia M; de Carvalho, Newton S; de Borba, Paola C; Teixeira, Julio C; Blatter, Mark; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Harper, Diane M; Romanowski, Barbara; Tyring, Stephen K; Ramjattan, Brian; Schuind, Anne; Dubin, Gary; Franco, Eduardo L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Persistence of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is necessary for cervical carcinogenesis. We evaluated incidence and duration of type-specific HPV infections and the influence of age and number of sexual partners. Methods Data were obtained from 553 women (15–25 years), who were seronegative and DNA-negative for high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types and were enrolled in the placebo arm of a randomised trial of the HPV-16/18 vaccine (NCT00689741/NCT00120848). They were followed for 6.3 years. Cervicovaginal samples were self-collected at 3-month intervals for up to 27 months, and cervical samples were collected by clinicians at 6-month intervals until study end. Samples were tested for HPV types using a broad-spectrum PCR assay. Incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were used to estimate the association among age, sexual habits and HPV acquisition. Results Incidence rates (95% CI) using cervical samples were 11.8 (10.4 to 13.4) and 5.6 (4.7 to 6.6) per 1000 women-months for HR-HPVs and low-risk HPVs (LR-HPVs), respectively. Equivalent rates in combined cervicovaginal and cervical samples were 17.2 (15.4 to 19.2) and 6.9 (5.9 to 8.0), respectively. 54 per cent of HR-HPV types from combined cervicovaginal and cervical samples persisted for 1 year compared with 32.3% for LR-HPV types. The risk of acquiring any HPV infection was higher among women aged <21 years (RR=1.33, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7) and women having >1 sexual partner (RR=1.83, 95% CI 1.4 to 2.4) at baseline. Conclusions HR-HPV infections were more common and lasted longer on average than LR-HPV infections. HPV acquisition was more common in younger women with multiple sexual partners. Trial registration number NCT00689741, NCT00120848; Post-results. PMID:27566633

  7. Post-licensure monitoring of HPV vaccine in the United States.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Lauri E; Hariri, Susan; Unger, Elizabeth R; Saraiya, Mona; Datta, S Deblina; Dunne, Eileen F

    2010-07-05

    Post-licensure evaluation of vaccines plays an important role in monitoring the progress of immunization programs, demonstrating population impact of vaccines, and providing data for ongoing policy decisions. Two human papillomovirus (HPV) vaccines are licensed and recommended for use in females in the United States, a quadrivalent human HPV vaccine, licensed in 2006 and a bivalent vaccine HPV vaccine licensed in 2009. HPV vaccination is recommended for females 11 or 12 years of age with catch-up vaccination through age 26 years. Post-licensure monitoring of the HPV vaccine program has included some of the same systems established for other vaccines, such as those for vaccine safety and coverage monitoring. However, monitoring HPV vaccine impact on infection and disease outcomes has required new efforts. While there are well established cancer registries in the United States, it will take decades before the impact of vaccine on cervical cancer is observed. More proximal measures of vaccine impact include outcomes such as prevalence of HPV vaccine types, incidence of cervical precancers and genital warts. We review systems in place or being established for post-licensure monitoring of HPV vaccine in the United States.

  8. HPV vaccines: their pathology-based discovery, benefits, and adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Alcina F; de Andrade, Cecilia V; Russomano, Fabio B; Rodrigues, Luana S L; Oliveira, Nathalia S; Provance, David William; Nuovo, Gerard J

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine illustrates the power of in situ-based pathologic analysis in better understanding and curing diseases. The 2 available HPV vaccines have markedly reduced the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias, genital warts, and cervical cancer throughout the world. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, health care officials, and parents to refuse providing the recommended vaccination to the target population. The aims of the study were to discuss the discovery of HPV vaccine and review scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines. The strong type-specific immunity against HPV in humans has been known for more than 25 years. Multiple studies confirm the positive risk benefit of HPV vaccination with minimal documented adverse effects. The most common adverse effect, injection site pain, occurred in about 10% of girls and was less than the rate reported for other vaccines. Use of HPV vaccine should be expanded into more diverse populations, mainly in low-resource settings.

  9. Differential effects of human papillomavirus type 6, 16, and 18 DNAs on immortalization and transformation of human cervical epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pecoraro, G.; Morgan, D.; Defendi, V. )

    1989-01-01

    The human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with specific benign and malignant lesions of the skin and mucosal epithelia. Cloned viral DNAs from HPV types 6b, 16, and 18 associated with different pathological manifestations of genital neoplasia in vivo were introduced into primary human cervical epithelial cells by electroporation. Cells transfected with HPV16 or HPV18 DNA acquired indefinite lifespans, distinct morphological alterations, and anchorage-independent growth (HPV18), and contain integrated transcriptionally active viral genomes. HPV6b or plasmid electroporated cells senesced at low passage. The alterations in growth and differentiation of the cells appear to reflect the progressive oncogenic processes that result in cervical carcinoma in vivo.

  10. Genital herpes simplex virus type 1 in women: detection in cervicovaginal specimens from gynecological practices in the United States.

    PubMed

    Peña, Kristen C; Adelson, Martin E; Mordechai, Eli; Blaho, John A

    2010-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and -2) are significant human pathogens causing clinically indistinguishable facial and genital lesions. Recently, the number of reported genital herpes cases caused by type 1 virus has increased. Identifying the HSV type is of clinical importance to determine proper treatment, as there is no licensed vaccine or cure. We assessed, by PCR, the frequency of HSV-1 and HSV-2 present in more than 60,000 clinical cervicovaginal specimens derived from samples originating from 43 continental U.S. states. Fourteen percent were positive for HSV-1 and/or HSV-2. This likely represents subclinal shedding. It was not a measurement of the prevalence of HSV infection. While the majority were HSV-2, 32% were HSV-1. The distribution of HSV types varied between the states with the largest number of specimens, New Jersey, Florida, and Texas. Specimens from women under the age of 24 had an HSV-1 positivity rate of 47 percent. Importantly, in New Jersey, an observed age effect was the disproportionately high prevalence of genital HSV-1 in young women. This represents the largest analysis of HSV types reported and has important public health implications, particularly for younger women.

  11. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... who have sex with women get genital herpes? Yes. It is possible to get genital herpes, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ... sex and avoid sexual activity during an outbreak. Yes. It is possible to get genital herpes, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ...

  12. HPV Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness HPV Vaccine KidsHealth > For Teens > HPV Vaccine Print A A ... starting at age 9. continue How Does the Vaccine Work? The HPV vaccine is approved for people ...

  13. HPV Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness HPV Vaccine KidsHealth > For Teens > HPV Vaccine A A A ... starting at age 9. continue How Does the Vaccine Work? The HPV vaccine is approved for people ...

  14. Integrating Clinical, Community, and Policy Perspectives on HPV Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, María E.; Allen, Jennifer D.; Mistry, Ritesh; Kahn, Jessica A.

    2010-01-01

    Infection with genital human papillomavirus (HPV) may cause anogenital cancers, oropharyngeal cancers, anogenital warts, and respiratory papillomas. Two prophylactic vaccines (a bivalent and a quadrivalent vaccine) are now licensed and currently in use in a number of countries. Both vaccines prevent infection with HPV-16 and HPV-18, which together cause approximately 70% of cervical cancers, and clinical trials have demonstrated 90%-100% efficacy in preventing precancerous cervical lesions attributable to HPV-16 and HPV-18. One vaccine also prevents HPV-6 and HPV-11, which cause 90% of genital warts. A growing literature describes associations between psychosocial, interpersonal, organizational, and societal factors that influence HPV vaccination acceptability. This paper summarizes the current literature and presents an integrated perspective, taking into account these diverse influences. The resulting integrated model can be used as a heuristic tool for organizing factors at multiple levels to guide intervention development and future research. PMID:20001821

  15. Epidemiologic natural history and clinical management of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Disease: a critical and systematic review of the literature in the development of an HPV dynamic transmission model

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Natural history models of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and disease have been used in a number of policy evaluations of technologies to prevent and screen for HPV disease (e.g., cervical cancer, anogenital warts), sometimes with wide variation in values for epidemiologic and clinical inputs. The objectives of this study are to: (1) Provide an updated critical and systematic review of the evidence base to support epidemiologic and clinical modeling of key HPV disease-related parameters in the context of an HPV multi-type disease transmission model which we have applied within a U.S. population context; (2) Identify areas where additional studies are particularly needed. Methods Consistent with our and other prior HPV natural history models, the literature review was confined to cervical disease and genital warts. Between October 2005 and January 2006, data were gathered from the published English language medical literature through a search of the PubMed database and references were examined from prior HPV natural history models and review papers. Study design and data quality from individual studies were compared and analyses meeting pre-defined criteria were selected. Results Published data meeting review eligibility criteria were most plentiful for natural history parameters relating to the progression and regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) without HPV typing, and data concerning the natural history of HPV disease due to specific HPV types were often lacking. Epidemiologic evidence to support age-dependency in the risk of progression and regression of HPV disease was found to be weak, and an alternative hypothesis concerning the time-dependence of transition rates is explored. No data were found on the duration of immunity following HPV infection. In the area of clinical management, data were observed to be lacking on the proportion of clinically manifest anogenital warts that are treated and the proportion of cervical cancer

  16. Comparison of FFPE histological versus LBP cytological samples for HPV detection and typing in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geehyuk; Cho, Hyemi; Lee, Dongsup; Park, Sunyoung; Lee, Jiyoung; Wang, Hye-Young; Kim, Sunghyun; Park, Kwang Hwa; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2017-02-27

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is closely associated with cervical cancer. This study analyzed HPV genotype prevalence in 75 cases of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from patients diagnosed with cervical cancer. Genotype prevalence was assessed using Reverse Blot Assay (REBA) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which target the HPV L1 and HPV E6/E7 genes, respectively. HPV DNA chip tests were also performed using liquid based preparation (LBP) cytological samples from the same patients who provided the FFPE histological samples. We observed a slight difference in HPV genotype distribution as assessed by DNA chip versus REBA. One possible explanation for this difference is that normal regions could be mixed with lesion regions when cytological samples are extracted from each patient with cancer. For the detection of moderate dysplasia, the main target of diagnosis, this difference is anticipated to be greater. We also made several unexpected observations. For example, HPV multi-infection was not detected. Moreover, the rate of HPV positivity varied radically depending on the cancer origin, e.g. squamous cell carcinoma versus adenocarcinoma. Our results imply that it is important to determine whether cytological specimens are suitable for HPV genotyping analysis and cervical cancer diagnosis. Future research on the mechanisms underlying cervical cancer pathogenesis is also necessary.

  17. HPV type 16 in conjunctival and junctional papilloma, dysplasia, and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Saegusa, M; Takano, Y; Hashimura, M; Okayasu, I; Shiga, J

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To clarify the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the development of papilloma, dysplasia, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell epithelioma arising from the eyelids, including the tunica conjunctiva palpebrum (conjunctiva), its junction to epidemis of eyelid skin (junction), and eyelid skin. METHODS--Sixteen cases of papilloma, four of dysplasia, four of squamous cell carcinoma, and 12 of basal cell epithelioma were examined using formalin fixed and paraffin embedded samples. Detection of HPV-DNA was performed by PCR-RFLP and in situ hybridisation (ISH) methods. RESULTS--HPV-16 was detected in 12/16 papillomas (75%), 2/4 dysplasias (50%), and 1/4 squamous cell carcinomas (25%) but in none of the basal cell epitheliomas. No other HPV subtypes were found. ISH assay showed positive signals in only two cases of dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma. The mean age of HPV-16 positive dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma cases (81.7 years) was significantly higher than that of HPV-16 positive papilloma cases (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS--Based on the presence of HPV-16 in both benign and malignant lesions and the age distribution, it seems likely that HPV-16 alone may be incapable of causing development of conjunctival and junctional dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma, and that any correlation between the papilloma-squamous cell carcinoma sequence and HPV infection may be due to rare events. Images PMID:8567996

  18. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Answers HPV and Cancer HPV Cancer Screening HPV Vaccines HPV Vaccine Safety For Clinicians Why is HPV Vaccine Important Clinician Factsheets Schedules & Recommendations Answering Parents Questions ...

  19. HPV and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Answers HPV and Cancer HPV Cancer Screening HPV Vaccines HPV Vaccine Safety For Clinicians Why is HPV Vaccine Important Clinician Factsheets Schedules & Recommendations Answering Parents Questions ...

  20. Potential coverage of circulating HPV types by current and developing vaccines in a group of women in Bosnia and Herzegovina with abnormal Pap smears.

    PubMed

    Salimović-Bešić, I; Hukić, M

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in a group of Bosnian-Herzegovinian women with abnormal cytology and to assess their potential coverage by vaccines. HPVs were identified by multiplex real-time PCR test (HPV High Risk Typing Real-TM; Sacace Biotechnologies, Italy) of 105 women with an abnormal cervical Pap smear and positive high-risk (HR) HPV DNA screening test. The most common genotypes in the study were HPV-16 (32·6%, 48/147), HPV-31 (14·3%, 21/147), HPV-51 (9·5%, 14/147) and HPV-18 (7·5%, 11/147). The overall frequency of HR HPV-16 and/or HPV-18, covered by currently available vaccines [Gardasil® (Merck & Co., USA) and Cervarix®; (GlaxoSmithKline, UK)] was lower than the overall frequency of other HPVs detected in the study (40·1%, 59/174, P = 0·017). Group prevalence of HR HPVs targeted by a nine-valent vaccine in development (code-named V503) was higher than total frequency of other HPVs detected (68·0%, 100/147, P < 0·001). Development of cervical cytological abnormalities was independent of the presence of multiple infections (χ 2 = 0·598, P = 0·741). Compared to other HPVs, dependence of cervical diagnosis and HPV-16, -18 (P = 0·008) and HPV-16, -18, -31 (P = 0·008) infections were observed. Vaccines targeting HR HPV-16, -18 and -31 might be an important tool in the prevention of cervical disease in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  1. Association Between Type-specific HPV Infections and hTERT DNA Methylation in Patients with Invasive Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    MOLANO, MÓNICA; MORENO-ACOSTA, PABLO; MORALES, NICOLÁS; BURGOS, MARCELA; BUITRAGO, LINA; GAMBOA, OSCAR; ALVAREZ, RAYNER; M. GARLAND, SUZANNE; N. TABRIZI, SEPEHR; D.M. STEENBERGEN, RENSKE; CARLOS MEJÍA, JUAN

    2016-01-01

    Background: There exists limited information on the role of hTERT methylation, and its association with type-specific HPV infections in cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Eighty-seven frozen samples were analyzed for type-specific HPV infection using a GP5+/GP6+ PCR-RLB assay (RLB). hTERT DNA methylation analysis was performed using a newly developed PCR-RLB-hTERT. Results: Ninety-three percent of samples were HPV-positive and fifteen different types were detected. hTERT methylation analysis of region 1 revealed no methylation in 78.8% of the samples and partial methylation in 21.2%. In region two, 68.2% showed no methylation and 31.8% showed a pattern of partial methylation. An association between the alpha 9 and alpha 7 species with a pattern of no methylation of hTERT in the region 1 was established (p=0.02 and p=0.03, respectively). Conclusion: Differences in patterns of methylation of the hTERT core promoter [region 1 (nt -208 to -1) and region 2 (nt +1 to +104) relative to first ATG] are related to the HPV species present. PMID:27807071

  2. Type-Specific HPV Prevalence in Cervical Cancer and High-Grade Lesions in Latin America and the Caribbean: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ciapponi, Agustín; Bardach, Ariel; Glujovsky, Demián; Gibbons, Luz; Picconi, María Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Latin America and the Caribbean (LA&C), showing some of the highest incidence and mortality rates worldwide. Information on HPV type distribution in high-grade cervical lesions (HSIL) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is crucial to predict the future impact of HPV16/18 vaccines and screening programmes, and to establish an appropriate post-vaccinal virologic surveillance. The aim was to assess the prevalence of HPV types in HSIL and ICC in studies in LA&C. Methods and Findings We performed a systematic review, following the MOOSE guidelines for systematic reviews of observational studies, and the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Inclusion criteria were at least ten cases of HSIL/ICC, and HPV-type elicitation. The search, without language restrictions, was performed in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, LILACS from inception date to December 2009, proceedings, reference lists and consulting experts. A meta-analysis was performed using arc-sine transformations to stabilize the variance of simple proportions. Seventy-nine studies from 18 countries were identified, including 2446 cases of HSIL and 5540 of ICC. Overall, 46.5% of HSIL cases harbored HPV 16 and 8.9% HPV18; in ICC, 53.2% of cases harbored HPV 16 and13.2% HPV 18. The next five most common types, in decreasing frequency, were HPV 31, 58, 33, 45, and 52. Study's limitations comprise the cross-sectional design of most included studies and their inherent risk of bias, the lack of representativeness, and variations in the HPV type-specific sensitivity of different PCR protocols. Conclusions This study is the broadest summary of HPV type distribution in HSIL and ICC in LA&C to date. These data are essential for local decision makers regarding HPV screening and vaccination policies. Continued HPV surveillance would be useful, to assess the potential for changing type-specific HPV prevalence in the post

  3. Comparison of the Cobas 4800 Human Papillomavirus test against a combination of the Amplicor Human Papillomavirus and the Linear Array tests for detection of HPV types 16 and 18 in cervical samples.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Samuel Bernal; Palomares, José Carlos; Artura, Antonio; Parra, Manuel; Cabezas, Jose Luis; Romo, Jose Ma; Martín-Mazuelos, Estrella

    2012-03-01

    The greater prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 compared to the other high-risk HPV types of cervical cancer led to the development of clinical tests that detect both types separately from other genotypes. One method is the Roche Cobas 4800 HPV test, which is based on a real-time PCR. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Cobas 4800 HPV test for detecting genotypes 16 and 18 by comparing the results with those obtained in a combination of the Roche Amplicor HPV assay and the Roche Linear Array (LA) HPV genotyping assay. Excellent concordance was found between both methods (92.7%, kappa value=0.872). The Cobas 4800 HPV test could be used as a single test for identifying HPV types 16 and 18 directly from clinical specimens.

  4. [Prevalence of cervical infection by human papilloma virus (HPV) in the Caucasian and Guaraní populations residing in the province of Misiones, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Tonon, S A; Picconi, M A; Zinovich, J B; Nardari, W; Mampaey, M; Galuppo, J A; Bos, P D; Badano, I; Di Lello, F A; Basiletti, J; González, J V; Alonio, L V; Teyssié, A R

    2003-01-01

    A genital infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) of a high risk type is necessary for the development of cervical carcinoma. HPV viral distribution among diverse world populations is not homogeneous, viral reservoirs having been detected in particular regions that can interact when humans engage in active contacts. Such viral dynamics alters the population cervical cancer relative risk, particularly when the prevalence of HPV oncogenic risk types is high. We have compared women exposed to different social, cultural and environmental conditions regarding cervical HPV infection, analyzing two populations from Misiones, Argentina: White urban women and--Guarani indian women living in the rain forest. Demographic, clinical and sexual behavior data were collected and cytological, colposcopical and virological analysis performed. Detection and genotypification of HPV was performed by PCR-RFLP. The prevalence for generic HPV infection found was high in both populations, urban women: 43%, Guarani indians: 60%, with a statistically significant difference. These values were positively associated to age of first intercourse, number of male partners and smoking history. HPV type-specific prevalences showed a relative homogeneity between populations when the main representatives of the high risk (16 and 18: 23%) and low risk (6 y 11: 12%) types were grouped together. However, the presence of other viral types was notoriously different, representing only 9% in urban women and 29% in Guarani indians with particularly high risk HPV types (33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 58, 67, 68). This situation might be of importance for future viral dynamics, phylogenetic and vaccine formulation studies.

  5. Immunization with a highly attenuated replication-competent herpes simplex virus type 1 mutant, HF10, protects mice from genital disease caused by herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chenhong; Goshima, Fumi; Kamakura, Maki; Mutoh, Yoshifumi; Iwata, Seiko; Kimura, Hiroshi; Nishiyama, Yukihiro

    2012-01-01

    Genital herpes is an intractable disease caused mainly by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 (HSV-2), and is a major concern in public health. A previous infection with HSV type 1 (HSV-1) enhances protection against primary HSV-2 infection to some extent. In this study, we evaluated the ability of HF10, a naturally occurring replication-competent HSV-1 mutant, to protect against genital infection in mice caused by HSV-2. Subcutaneous inoculation of HF10-immunized mice against lethal infection by HSV-2, and attenuated the development of genital ulcer diseases. Immunization with HF10 inhibited HSV-2 replication in the mouse vagina, reduced local inflammation, controlled emergence of neurological dysfunctions of HSV-2 infection, and increased survival. In HF10-immunized mice, we observed rapid and increased production of interferon-γ in the vagina in response to HSV-2 infection, and numerous CD4(+) and a few CD8(+) T cells localized to the infective focus. CD4(+) T cells invaded the mucosal subepithelial lamina propria. Thus, the protective effect of HF10 was related to induction of cellular immunity, mediated primarily by Th1 CD4(+) cells. These data indicate that the live attenuated HSV-1 mutant strain HF10 is a promising candidate antigen for a vaccine against genital herpes caused by HSV-2.

  6. Comparison of oncogenic HPV type-specific viral DNA load and E6/E7 mRNA detection in cervical samples: results from a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Broccolo, Francesco; Fusetti, Lisa; Rosini, Sandra; Caraceni, Donatella; Zappacosta, Roberta; Ciccocioppo, Lucia; Matteoli, Barbara; Halfon, Philippe; Malnati, Mauro S; Ceccherini-Nelli, Luca

    2013-03-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) genotype viral load and E6/E7 mRNA detection are proposed as surrogate markers of malignant cervical lesion progression. Currently, the use of commercially available DNA-based or mRNA-based tests is under investigation. In this study, the viral DNA load and E6/E7 mRNA detection of the five most common HR-HPV types detected in cervical cancer worldwide were compared in 308 cervical samples by using in-house type-specific quantitative real-time PCR assays and PreTect HPV-Proofer test, respectively. Sensitivity and negative predictive values were higher for the HPV-DNA assays combined (95.0% and 96.0%, respectively) than the RNA assays (77.0% and 88.0%, respectively); conversely, the mRNA test showed a higher specificity and higher positive predictive value (81.7% and 66.9%, respectively) than the DNA test (58.6% and 52.5%, respectively) for detecting histology-confirmed high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. A significantly higher association between viral DNA load and severity of disease was observed for HPV 16 and 31 (γ = 0.62 and γ = 0.40, respectively) than for the other HPV types screened. A good degree of association between the two assays was found for detection of HPV 16 (k = 0.83), HPV 18 (k = 0.72), HPV 33 (k = 0.66), and HPV 45 (k = 0.60) but not for HPV 31 (k = 0.24). Sequence analysis in L1 and E6-LCR regions of HPV 31 genotypes showed a high level of intra-type variation. HR-HPV viral DNA load was significantly higher in E6/E7 mRNA positive than negative samples (P < 0.001), except for HPV 31. These findings suggest that transcriptional and replicative activities can coexist within the same sample.

  7. Comparison of washing and swabbing procedures for collecting genital fluids to assess cervicovaginal shedding of herpes simplex virus type 2 DNA.

    PubMed

    Ndjoyi-Mbiguino, Angélique; Ozouaki, Francis; Legoff, Jérôme; Mbopi-Kéou, François-Xavier; Si-Mohamed, Ali; Onas, Isabelle Ndombi; Avoune, Evelyne; Bélec, Laurent

    2003-06-01

    Asymptomatic genital shedding of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) DNA was evidenced by real-time PCR in 25 (13.2%) of 188 cervicovaginal lavage samples and in only 13 (6.9%) paired cervicovaginal samples from 188 HSV-2-seropositive, nonpregnant childbearing-aged human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative women living in Gabon. These observations demonstrate that cervicovaginal washing is more suitable than endocervicovaginal swabbing for detecting and quantifying HSV-2 DNA by PCR in female genital secretions.

  8. HPV16-E7 Expression in skin induces TSLP secretion, type 2 ILC infiltration and atopic dermatitis-like lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bergot, Anne-Sophie; Monnet, Nastasia; Tran, Le Son; Mittal, Deepak; Al-Kouba, Jane; Steptoe, Raymond J.; Grimbaldeston, Michele A.; Frazer, Ian H.; Wells, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common pruritic and inflammatory skin disorder with unknown etiology. Most commonly occurring during early childhood, atopic dermatitis is associated with eczematous lesions and lichenification, in which the epidermis becomes hypertrophied resulting in thickening of the skin. In this study, we report an atopic dermatitis-like pathophysiology results in a murine model following the expression of the high-risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 oncoprotein E7 in keratinocytes under the Keratin 14 promoter. We show that HPV 16 E7 expression in the skin is associated with skin thickening, acanthosis and light spongiosis. Locally, HPV 16 E7 expressing skin secreted high levels of TSLP and contained increased numbers of ILCs. High levels of circulating IgE were associated with increased susceptibility to skin allergy in a model of cutaneous challenge, and to airway bronchiolar inflammation, enhanced airway goblet cell metaplasia and mucus production in a model of atopic march. Surprisingly, skin pathology occurred independently of T-cells and mast cells. Thus, our findings suggest that the expression of a single HPV oncogene in the skin can drive the onset of atopic dermatitis-like pathology through the induction of TSLP and type 2 ILC infiltration. PMID:25601274

  9. Breast cancer and human papillomavirus infection: No evidence of HPV etiology of breast cancer in Indian women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Two clinically relevant high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types 16 and 18 are etiologically associated with the development of cervical carcinoma and are also reported to be present in many other carcinomas in extra-genital organ sites. Presence of HPV has been reported in breast carcinoma which is the second most common cancer in India and is showing a fast rising trend in urban population. The two early genes E6 and E7 of HPV type 16 have been shown to immortalize breast epithelial cells in vitro, but the role of HPV infection in breast carcinogenesis is highly controversial. Present study has therefore been undertaken to analyze the prevalence of HPV infection in both breast cancer tissues and blood samples from a large number of Indian women with breast cancer from different geographic regions. Methods The presence of all mucosal HPVs and the most common high-risk HPV types 16 and 18 DNA was detected by two different PCR methods - (i) conventional PCR assays using consensus primers (MY09/11, or GP5+/GP6+) or HPV16 E6/E7 primers and (ii) highly sensitive Real-Time PCR. A total of 228 biopsies and corresponding 142 blood samples collected prospectively from 252 patients from four different regions of India with significant socio-cultural, ethnic and demographic variations were tested. Results All biopsies and blood samples of breast cancer patients tested by PCR methods did not show positivity for HPV DNA sequences in conventional PCRs either by MY09/11 or by GP5+/GP6+/HPV16 E6/E7 primers. Further testing of these samples by real time PCR also failed to detect HPV DNA sequences. Conclusions Lack of detection of HPV DNA either in the tumor or in the blood DNA of breast cancer patients by both conventional and real time PCR does not support a role of genital HPV in the pathogenesis of breast cancer in Indian women. PMID:21247504

  10. Isolation of a novel human papillomavirus (type 51) from a cervical condyloma

    SciTech Connect

    Nuovo, G.J.; Crum, C.P.; Levine, R.U.; Silverstein, S.J. ); De Villiers, E.M. )

    1988-04-01

    The authors cloned the DNA from a novel human papillomavirus (HPV) present in a cervical condyloma. When DNA from this isolate was hybridized at high stringency with HPV types 1 through 50 (HPV-1 through HPV-50), it showed weak homology with HPV-6 and -16 and stronger homology with HPV-26. A detailed restriction endonuclease map was prepared which showed marked differences from the maps for other HPVs that have been isolated from the female genital tract. Reassociation kinetic analysis revealed that HPV-26 and this new isolate were less than 10% homologous; hence, the new isolate is a noel strain of HPV. The approximate positions of the open reading frames of the new strain were surmised by hybridization with probes derived from individual open reading frames of HPV-16. In an analysis of 175 genital biopsies from patients with abnormal Papanicolaou smears, sequences hybridizing under highly stringent conditions to probes from this novel HPV type were found in 4.2, 6.1, and 2.4% of biopsies containing normal squamous epithelium, condylomata, and intraepithelial neoplasia, respectively. In addition, sequences homologous to probes from this novel isolate were detected in one of five cervical carcinomas examined.

  11. Prevalence of High-Risk HPV Types and Abnormal Cervical Cytology in American Indian/Alaska Native Women, 2003–2005

    PubMed Central

    Alfonsi, Grace A.; Datta, S. Deblina; Mickiewicz, Theresa; Koutsky, Laura A.; Ghanem, Khalil; Hagensee, Michael; Kerndt, Peter; Hsu, Katherine; Weinstock, Hillard; Shlay, Judith C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We described prevalence estimates of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), HPV types 16 and 18, and abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear tests among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Methods A total of 9,706 women presenting for cervical screening in a sentinel network of 26 clinics (sexually transmitted disease, family planning, and primary care) received Pap smears and HR-HPV type-specific testing. We compared characteristics of 291 women self-identified as AI/AN with other racial/ethnic minority groups. Results In our population, AI/AN and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women had similar age- and clinic-adjusted prevalences of HR-HPV (29.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 23.9, 34.3 for AI/AN women vs. 25.8%, 95% CI 24.4, 27.2 for NHW women), HPV 16 and 18 (6.7%, 95% CI 3.9, 9.6 for AI/AN women vs. 8.8%, 95% CI 7.9, 9.7 for NHW women), and abnormal Pap smear test results (16%, 95% CI 11.7, 20.3 for AI/AN women vs. 14.9%, 95% CI 13.7, 16.0 for NHW women). AI/AN women had a higher prevalence of HR-HPV than Hispanic women, and a similar prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 as compared with Hispanic and African American women. Conclusions We could not demonstrate differences in the prevalence of HR-HPV, HPV 16 and 18, or abnormal Pap smear test results between AI/AN and NHW women. This finding should improve confidence in the benefit of HPV vaccine and Pap smear screening in the AI/AN population as an effective strategy to reduce rates of cervical cancer. PMID:21553660

  12. HPV prevalence among healthy Italian male sexual partners of women with cervical HPV infection.

    PubMed

    Benevolo, Maria; Mottolese, Marcella; Marandino, Ferdinando; Carosi, Mariantonia; Diodoro, Maria Grazia; Sentinelli, Steno; Visca, Paolo; Rollo, Francesca; Mariani, Luciano; Vocaturo, Giuseppe; Sindico, Roberto; Terrenato, Irene; Donnorso, Raffaele Perrone; Vocaturo, Amina

    2008-07-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of cervical cancer and is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Only limited and controversial data are available regarding HPV transmission in male sexual partners of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and the genotype distribution of HPV in penile scrapings of a series of Italian men, who had no visible penile lesions and were partners of women who were affected, or had been affected previously by cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or who were infected with HPV. The concordance of the viral group in the infected partners was determined. A total of 77 penile scrapings were screened for HPV infection by the polymerase chain reaction, while 59 cervicovaginal brushings of their female partners were tested. 35% of evaluable male samples and 64% of female sexual partners were found to be HPV positive. In the 55 simultaneously evaluable couples, a concordance of 45% was found, 11 couples (20%) with both partners being HPV negative and 14 couples (25%) with both partners HPV positive (P=0.001). Six out of the 14 couples (43%), where both partners were HPV positive, harbored the same HPV genotype group. These data, although preliminary, could support further the hypothesis that male HPV infection is more frequent in sexual partners of HPV positive or women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia indicating that men could represent an important source of HPV transmission between sex partners.

  13. Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in tissue culture fluid and in genital secretions by the spermicide benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed Central

    Wainberg, M A; Spira, B; Bleau, G; Thomas, R

    1990-01-01

    We have shown that the spermicidal agent benzalkonium chloride can exert a direct inhibitory effect on the viral reverse transcriptase activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) when utilized at concentrations of 0.05% and higher. Exposure of HIV-1 to this disinfectant at concentrations of more than 0.05% was able to completely destroy viral infectivity, as assessed on susceptible target cells. We have further shown that HIV-1, which is present in both seminal and genital secretions, can be inactivated in such fluids by direct exposure to benzalkonium chloride. PMID:1688873

  14. Men's Perceptions and Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Cervical Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPartland, Tara S.; Weaver, Bethany A.; Lee, Shu-Kuang; Koutsky, Laura A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors assessed young men's knowledge and perceptions of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection to identify factors that predict intention to make positive behavioral changes. Male university students aged 18 to 25 years completed a self-report instrument to assess knowledge and perceptions of genital HPV infection. If diagnosed with…

  15. Detection and differentiation of human papillomavirus genotypes HPV-6 and HPV-11 by FRET-based real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Kocjan, Bostjan J; Seme, Katja; Poljak, Mario

    2008-11-01

    A real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assay was developed based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) hybridization probe technology, allowing very sensitive and specific detection of HPV-6 and HPV-11, reliable differentiation of HPV-6 and HPV-11, as well as prototypic and non-prototypic HPV-6 genomic variants, in a single PCR reaction. The primers and probe were designed on the basis of multiple alignments of 74 HPV-6 E2 gene sequences and 20 HPV-11 E2 gene sequences. Testing on defined plasmid standards showed that the RT-PCR allowed simple and reliable identification of HPV-6 and HPV-11 using type specific amplification followed by probe-specific post-amplification dissociation analysis. Sensitivity, assessed by probit analysis at a 95% detection level, was 42.9, 43.4, and 25.3 DNA copies per assay for prototypic and non-prototypic HPV-6 variants and HPV-11, respectively. The results obtained by the developed assay on 51 HPV DNA-negative samples and 149 HPV DNA-positive samples, including 81 HPV-6 positive samples (19 prototypic and 62 non-prototypic HPV-6 variants), 28 HPV-11 positive samples, 10 samples of HPV-44 and HPV-74 (the closest relatives of HPV-6 and HPV-11) and 30 samples of 15 other important alpha HPV, showed complete agreement with those obtained with the INNO-LiPA human papillomavirus (HPV) Genotyping Assay and HPV-6 E2 and E6 gene sequencing.

  16. Unexpected high prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 seropositivity and HSV genital shedding in pregnant women living in an East Paris suburban area.

    PubMed

    LeGoff, Jérôme; Saussereau, Elodie; Boulanger, Marie-Christine; Chemin, Cécile; Si-Mohamed, Ali; Bélec, Laurent; Maisonneuve, Lydia

    2007-09-01

    Both herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) seroprevalence and the proportion of HSV-1 genital ulcers are increasing in industrialized countries. The consequences of these epidemiological changes, in pregnant women in France, for both the genital shedding of HSV and vertical transmission, have been poorly evaluated. The HSV-1 and HSV-2 seroprevalence and the rate of subclinical genital shedding of herpes close to delivery were evaluated in pregnant women, with no history of genital herpes, living in the East Paris suburban area. HSV-2 antibody prevalence of 26% was significantly associated with country of origin and was higher than that reported in 2002 in French women from the general population (18%). HSV-2 and HSV-1 genital reactivations were observed in 10% of HSV-2 seropositive and in 4% of HSV-1 seropositive and HSV-2 seronegative women, respectively. The high rates of HSV-2 seropositivity and subclinical herpes genital shedding observed in this study should be considered to promote a national survey in pregnant women to propose strategies to prevent the spread of HSV within the population and to the neonate.

  17. Numerical simulation of a two-sex human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryani, I.; Adi-Kusumo, F.

    2014-02-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a major cause of cervical cancer, precancerous lesions, cancer and other disease. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Although HPV virus primarily affects woman but it can also affects man because it cause of cancer of the anus, vulva, vagina, penis and some other cancers. HPV vaccines now used to prevent cervical cancer and genital warts because the vaccine protect against four types of HPV that most commonly cause disease are types 6, 11, 16, and 18. This paper is sequel work of Elbasha (2008). Difference with Elbasha (2008) are give alternative proof global stability, numerical simulation and interpretation. Global stability of the equilibrium on the model of a two-sex HPV vaccination were explored by using Lyapunov. Although we use the same lyapunov function, we use the largest invariant set to proof the global stability. The result show that the global stability of the equilibrium depends on the effective reproduction number (R). If R < 1 then the infection-free equilibrium is asymptotically stable globally. If R > 1 then endemic equilibrium have globally asymptotically stable properties. Then equilibrium proceed with the interpretation of numerical simulation.

  18. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Some persons who contract genital herpes have concerns about how it will impact their overall health, ... a patient’s relationships. 10 Clinicians can address these concerns by encouraging patients to recognize that while herpes ...

  19. Detection of human papillomavirus type 6/11 DNA in conjunctival papillomas by in situ hybridization with radioactive probes

    SciTech Connect

    McDonnell, P.J.; McDonnell, J.M.; Kessis, T.; Green, W.R.; Shah, K.V.

    1987-11-01

    Twenty-three conjunctival papillomas and 28 conjunctival dysplasias were examined for human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA sequences by in situ hybridization with nick-translated /sup 35/S-labeled HPV probes. Adjacent paraffin sections were hybridized with HPV type 2, 6, 16, and 18 probes at Tm - 17 degrees C. Fifteen tissues, all papillomas, displayed positive hybridization with the HPV-6 probe. Infection with HPV-6 (or the closely related HPV-11) appeared to be responsible for most of the conjunctival papillomas of children and young adults. The presence of genital tract HPV-6 in these lesions suggests that some of the infections were acquired during passage through an infected birth canal. The lack of hybridization in adult conjunctival dysplasias indicates either that HPVs are not associated with this condition or that the probes and the technique utilized were not adequate for demonstration of this association.

  20. Vaccines and microbicides preventing HIV-1, HSV-2, and HPV mucosal transmission.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Damjan S; Piguet, Vincent

    2010-02-01

    HIV-1, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and human papillomavirus (HPV), among other sexually transmitted infections, represent a major burden for global health. Initial insights into the mucosal transmission of these viral pathogens have raised optimism with regard to the rapid generation of protective vaccines. Nevertheless, setbacks for HIV-1 and HSV-2 vaccines have seriously challenged the initial enthusiasm. Recently, two new vaccines that efficiently prevented HPV infection have renewed the hope that vaccinal prevention of viral mucosal sexually transmitted infections is possible. HIV-1 and HSV-2 differ from HPV, and each virus needs to be tackled with a distinct approach. However, vaccines are not the only possible answer. Topically applied agents (microbicides) are an attractive alternative in the prevention of HIV-1 and HSV-2 mucosal transmission. Progress in understanding the mechanisms of genital transmission of HIV-1 and HSV-2 is required for successful vaccine or microbicide candidates to emerge from current approaches.

  1. The prevalence of HPV infections in HPV-vaccinated women from the general population.

    PubMed

    Hamsikova, Eva; Smahelova, Jana; Ludvikova, Viera; Salakova, Martina; Rychla, Jana; Skrenkova, Jana; Rob, Lukas; Tachezy, Ruth

    2017-03-15

    Currently, three prophylactic HPV vaccines are commercially available to prevent HPV 16/18 infection and associated lesions. The aim of the study was to assess markers of HPV infection in women/girls before vaccination and to ascertain the prevalence and spectrum of post-vaccination HPV types. Three hundred and thirty subjects of which 75 were virgins were enrolled. Before the first dose of the HPV vaccine and 1, 3 and 5 years after the completion of HPV vaccination, the samples for cytology, HPV detection and anti-HPV antibody response were taken. At enrolment, HPV DNA was detected in 38% of sexually active girls/women. At the first, second and third follow-up, HPV DNA was found in 40, 45, and 39% of them. The seroprevalence rates to HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 in these subjects were 31, 21, 18 and 10%. On the follow-up significantly higher levels of antibodies to HPV 16/18 were found after application of divalent vaccine. Results of the study demonstrate high prevalence of HPV infection in young women. In a substantial number of women, HPV-specific antibodies as well as high-risk HPV types were detected. HPV-specific antibodies were also frequently found in non-sexually active girls. The acquisition of HPV after the onset of sexual life was very fast.

  2. HPV and oral lesions: preventive possibilities, vaccines and early diagnosis of malignant lesions

    PubMed Central

    TESTI, D.; NARDONE, M.; MELONE, P.; CARDELLI, P.; OTTRIA, L.; ARCURI, C.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The importance of HPV in world healthy is high, in fact high-risk HPV types contribute significantly to viral associated neoplasms. In this article we will analyze vary expression of HPV in oral cavity both benign and malignant, their prevalence and the importance in early diagnosis and prevention. The classical oral lesions associated with human papillomavirus are squamous cell papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris and focal epithelial hyperplasia. Overall, HPV types 2, 4, 6, 11, 13 and 32 have been associated with benign oral lesions while HPV types 16 and 18 have been associated with malignant lesions, especially in cancers of the tonsils and elsewhere in the oropharynx. Transmission of the virus can occur with direct contact, genital contact, anal and oral sex; latest studies suggest a salivary transmission and from mother to child during delivery. The number of lifetime sexual partners is an important risk factor for the development of HPV-positive head-neck cancer. Oral/oropharyngeal cancer etiologically associated with HPV having an increased survival and a better prognostic (85%–90% to five years). There is no cure for the virus. There are two commercially available prophylactic vaccines against HPV today: the bivalent (16 and 18) Cervarix® and the tetravalent (6, 11, 16 and 18) Gardasil® and new vaccine Gardasil 9 (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) was approved in the United States. To be effective, such vaccination should start before “sexual puberty”. The vaccine could be an important preventive strategy, in fact the scientific community is in agreement on hypothesis that blocking the contagion it may also limit the distance complications as the oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:27555904

  3. Screening, HPV Vaccine Can Prevent Cervical Cancer: FDA

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163464.html Screening, HPV Vaccine Can Prevent Cervical Cancer: FDA Agency recommends getting ... by the human papillomavirus (HPV). An FDA-approved vaccine called Gardasil 9 protects against 9 HPV types ...

  4. How Many Cancers Are Linked with HPV Each Year?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in cancers: implications for current and 9-valent HPV vaccines. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2015;107: ... prevented by the bivalent, quadrivalent, and 9-valent HPV vaccines. c HPV types 31/33/45/52/58 ...

  5. HPV Infections Decrease in the U.S.

    Cancer.gov

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types targeted by the quadrivalent HPV vaccine has declined by nearly two-thirds among teenage girls since HPV vaccination was recommended in the United States.

  6. A Contemporary Review of HPV and Penile Cancer.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Kelly L; Culkin, Daniel J

    2016-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a widespread sexually transmitted infection. In both men and women, HPV infection can result in a spectrum of genitourinary manifestations ranging from genital warts to cancer. Cervical cancer is nearly always associated with high-risk HPV infection. For men, penile cancer can develop following or independently of HPV infection. Basaloid and warty subtypes of penile squamous cell carcinoma are most frequently associated with HPV infection. Further research into the molecular alterations caused by HPV infection may provide prognostic markers and future treatment targets. Until an effective treatment for HPV infection is developed, prevention will remain the focus of disease control. For women, vaccination is increasingly utilized to prevent HPV infection and subsequent cervical cancer development. New recommendations for routine male vaccination may further reduce cancers for both men and women.

  7. Male Genital Lichen Sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  8. Seroepidemiology of Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) L2 and Generation of L2-Specific Human Chimeric Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Joshua W.; Jagu, Subhashini; Wu, Wai-Hong; Viscidi, Raphael P.; Macgregor-Das, Anne; Fogel, Jessica M.; Kwak, Kihyuck; Daayana, Sai; Kitchener, Henry; Stern, Peter L.; Gravitt, Patti E.; Trimble, Cornelia L.

    2015-01-01

    Presently, the seroprevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) minor capsid antigen L2-reactive antibody is not well understood, and no serologic standard exists for L2-specific neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, we screened a total of 1,078 serum samples for HPV16 L2 reactivity, and these were obtained from four prior clinical studies: a population-based (n = 880) surveillance study with a high-risk HPV DNA prevalence of 10.8%, a cohort study of women (n = 160) with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and two phase II trials in women with high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) receiving imiquimod therapy combined with either photodynamic therapy (PDT) (n = 19) or vaccination with a fusion protein comprising HPV16 L2, E7, and E6 (TA-CIN) (n = 19). Sera were screened sequentially by HPV16 L2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and then Western blot. Seven of the 1,078 serum samples tested had L2-specific antibodies, but none were detectably neutralizing for HPV16. To develop a standard, we substituted human IgG1 sequences into conserved regions of two rodent monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for neutralizing epitopes at HPV16 L2 residues 17 to 36 and 58 to 64, creating JWW-1 and JWW-2, respectively. These chimeric MAbs retained neutralizing activity and together reacted with 33/34 clinically relevant HPV types tested. In conclusion, our inability to identify an HPV16 L2-specific neutralizing antibody response even in the sera of patients with active genital HPV disease suggests the subdominance of L2 protective epitopes and the value of the chimeric MAbs JWW-1 and JWW-2 as standards for immunoassays to measure L2-specific human antibodies. PMID:25972404

  9. Genital shedding of herpes simplex virus type 2 in childbearing-aged and pregnant women living in Gabon.

    PubMed

    Ozouaki, Francis; Ndjoyi-Mbiguino, Angélique; Legoff, Jérôme; Onas, Isabelle Ndombi; Kendjo, Eric; Si-Mohamed, Ali; Mbopi-Kéou, François-Xavier; Malkin, Jean-Elie; Bélec, Laurent

    2006-02-01

    The prevalence of genital shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 and related risk factors was evaluated in a prospective population of 355 women attending the Maternity Joséphine Bongo, in Libreville, Gabon. We found a high prevalence (66%) of HSV-2 seropositivity, with a high proportion, 14%, of women harbouring HSV-2 DNA shedding in their genital secretions. HSV-2 genital shedding was positively associated with previous episodes of genital blisters, current genital ulcer, current genital blister, HIV seropositivity and HSV-2 seropositivity. The high prevalence of HSV-2 in childbearing-aged population indicates that young women living in Gabon are at high risk for HIV acquisition in HIV-seronegative women sexually exposed to HIV, for HIV transmission in HIV-infected women co-infected by HSV-2 and finally for HSV-2 vertical transmission during pregnancy.

  10. Variants in interleukin family of cytokines genes influence clearance of high risk HPV in HIV-1 coinfected African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sudenga, Staci L; Wiener, Howard W; Shendre, Aditi; Wilson, Craig M; Tang, Jianming; Shrestha, Sadeep

    2013-12-01

    Our work aimed to examine the potential influence of variants in interleukin/interleukin receptors genes on high-risk (HR-HPV) HPV clearance. Clearance of genital HR-HPV infection was evaluated for 134 HIV-1 seropositive African-American female adolescents from the Reaching for Excellence in Adolescent Care and Health (REACH) cohort. Genotyping targeted 225 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the exons, 5' untranslated region (UTR) and 3' UTR sequences of 27 immune-related candidate genes encoding interleukin family of cytokines. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine the association of type-specific HPV clearance adjusting for time-varying CD4+ T-cell count and low-risk (LR-HPV) HPV co-infections. HR-HPV clearance rates were significantly (p < 0.001) associated with five SNPs (rs228942, rs419598, rs315950, rs7737000, and rs9292618) mapped to coding and regulatory regions in three genes (IL2RB, IL1RN, and IL7R). These data suggest that the analyzed genetic variants in interleukin family of cytokines modulate HR-HPV clearance in HIV-1 seropositive African-Americans that warrants replication.

  11. HPV vaccination for prevention of skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vinzón, Sabrina E; Rösl, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous papillomaviruses are associated with specific skin diseases, such as extensive wart formation and the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), especially in immunosuppressed patients. Hence, clinical approaches are required that prevent such lesions. Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines confer type-restricted protection against HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18, responsible of 90% of genital warts and 70% of cervical cancers, respectively. However, they do not protect against less prevalent high-risk types or cutaneous HPVs. Over the past few years, several studies explored the potential of developing vaccines targeting cutaneous papillomaviruses. These vaccines showed to be immunogenic and prevent skin tumor formation in certain animal models. Furthermore, under conditions mimicking the ones found in the intended target population (i.e., immunosuppression and in the presence of an already established infection before vaccination), recent preclinical data shows that immunization can still be effective. Strategies are currently focused on finding vaccine formulations that can confer protection against a broad range of papillomavirus-associated diseases. The state-of-the-art of these approaches and the future directions in the field will be presented. PMID:25692212

  12. Comparison of Washing and Swabbing Procedures for Collecting Genital Fluids To Assess Cervicovaginal Shedding of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 DNA

    PubMed Central

    Ndjoyi-Mbiguino, Angélique; Ozouaki, Francis; Legoff, Jérôme; Mbopi-Kéou, François-Xavier; Si-Mohamed, Ali; Onas, Isabelle Ndombi; Avoune, Evelyne; Bélec, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    Asymptomatic genital shedding of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) DNA was evidenced by real-time PCR in 25 (13.2%) of 188 cervicovaginal lavage samples and in only 13 (6.9%) paired cervicovaginal samples from 188 HSV-2-seropositive, nonpregnant childbearing-aged human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative women living in Gabon. These observations demonstrate that cervicovaginal washing is more suitable than endocervicovaginal swabbing for detecting and quantifying HSV-2 DNA by PCR in female genital secretions. PMID:12791898

  13. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, 18) L1 virus-like-particle vaccine in Latin American women.

    PubMed

    Perez, Gonzalo; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; García, Patricia J; Muñoz, Nubia; Villa, Luisa L; Bryan, Janine; Taddeo, Frank J; Lu, Shuang; Esser, Mark T; Vuocolo, Scott; Sattler, Carlos; Barr, Eliav

    2008-03-15

    The prevalence of HPV infection in Latin America is among the highest in the world. A quadrivalent (types 6/11/16/18) human papillomavirus L1 virus-like-particle vaccine has been shown to be 95-100% effective in preventing HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical and genital disease in women naive to vaccine HPV types. A total of 6,004 female subjects aged 9-24 were recruited from Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala and Peru. Subjects were randomized to immunization with intramuscular (deltoid) injections of HPV vaccine or placebo at enrollment (day 1), month 2 and month 6. Among vaccinated subjects in the per-protocol population from Latin America, quadrivalent HPV vaccine was 92.8 and 100% effective in preventing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and external genital lesions related to vaccine HPV types, respectively. These data support vaccination of adolescents and young adults in the region, which is expected to greatly reduce the burden of cervical and genital cancers, precancers and genital warts.

  14. Attack rates of human papillomavirus type 16 and cervical neoplasia in primiparous women and field trial designs for HPV16 vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Kibur, M; Geijerstamm, V; Pukkala, E; Koskela, P; Luostarinen, T; Paavonen, J; Schiller, J; Wang, Z; Dillner, J; Lehtinen, M

    2000-01-01

    Background: Identification of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) as the major risk factor for cervical neoplasia, and mass production of DNA free HPV capsids have paved the way to preventive vaccination trials. Design of such trials requires reliable attack rate data. Objective: Determination of (1) HPV16 and (2) cervical neoplasia attack rates in primiparous women. Estimation of actuarial sample sizes for HPV16 vaccination phase IV trials. Design: A longitudinal cohort study. Methods: Population based Finnish Maternity Cohort (FMC) and Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR) were linked for the identification of two cohorts of primiparous women: (1) a random subsample of the FMC: 1656 women with two pregnancies between 1983–9 or 1990–6 and living in the Helsinki metropolitan area, and (2) all 72 791 primiparous women living in the same area during 1983–94. Attack rate for persistent HPV16 infection (1) was estimated in 1279 seronegative women by proportion of seroconversions between the first and the second pregnancy. Comparable 10 year cumulative incidence rate (CR) of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III and cervical cancer (CIN III+) (2) was estimated based on cases registered at the FCR during 1991–4. Results: The HPV16 attack rates were 13.8% (<18 years), 7.0% (18–19 years), 2.3% (21 years), 2.4% (23 years), and 4.5% (<25 years). Number of vaccinees required for a 5 year efficacy trial with persistent HPV16 infection as the end point ranged between 1000 and 3900, assuming 80% power, 90%–70% vaccine efficacy (VE), and misclassification. The CRs of CIN III+ were 0.33% (<18 years), 0.44% (18–19 years), 0.21% (20–24 years), and 0.28% (<25 years). Number of vaccinees required for a 10 year efficacy trial with HPV16 positive CIN III+ as the end point was 15 000 assuming 80% power, 90% VE, and 75% aetiological fraction of CIN III+ for HPV16. Conclusions: The attack rates of HPV16 and CIN III+ identify primiparous women under 25 years of age among

  15. Human papillomavirus type 16 virus-like particles expressed in attenuated Salmonella typhimurium elicit mucosal and systemic neutralizing antibodies in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Nardelli-Haefliger, D; Roden, R B; Benyacoub, J; Sahli, R; Kraehenbuhl, J P; Schiller, J T; Lachat, P; Potts, A; De Grandi, P

    1997-01-01

    Attenuated strains of Salmonella are attractive live vaccine candidates for eliciting mucosal as well as systemic immune responses. The ability to induce immune responses in the reproductive tract may be critical for the effectiveness of a prophylactic vaccine against genital human papillomaviruses (HPV), which are important etiologic agents in the development of cervical cancer. To examine the potential of a live Salmonella-based vaccine to prevent genital HPV infection, the L1 major capsid protein from HPV type 16 (HPV16) was constitutively expressed in the PhoPc strain of Salmonella typhimurium. As demonstrated by electron microscopy, the L1 protein expressed in these bacteria assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) that resemble authentic papillomavirus virions. This is the first demonstration that papillomavirus VLPs can self-assemble in prokaryotes. BALB/c mice were immunized with the HPV16 L1 recombinant PhoPc strain by the oral and nasal routes. Despite a low stability of the L1-expressing plasmid in vivo, a double nasal immunization was effective in inducing L1-specific serum antibodies that recognized mainly native, but not disassembled, VLPs. These antibodies effectively neutralized HPV16 pseudotyped virions in an in vitro infectivity assay. Conformationally dependent anti-VLP immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG were also detected in oral and vaginal secretions, indicating that potentially protective antibody responses were elicited at mucosal sites. Recombinant attenuated Salmonella expressing HPV capsids may represent a promising vaccine candidate against genital HPV infection. PMID:9234794

  16. Human papillomavirus type 6 and 11 genetic variants found in 71 oral and anogenital epithelial samples from Australia.

    PubMed

    Danielewski, Jennifer A; Garland, Suzanne M; McCloskey, Jenny; Hillman, Richard J; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variation of 49 human papillomavirus (HPV) 6 and 22 HPV11 isolates from recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) (n = 17), genital warts (n = 43), anal cancer (n = 6) and cervical neoplasia cells (n = 5), was determined by sequencing the long control region (LCR) and the E6 and E7 genes. Comparative analysis of genetic variability was examined to determine whether different disease states resulting from HPV6 or HPV11 infection cluster into distinct variant groups. Sequence variation analysis of HPV6 revealed that isolates cluster into variants within previously described HPV6 lineages, with the majority (65%) clustering to HPV6 sublineage B1 across the three genomic regions examined. Overall 72 HPV6 and 25 HPV11 single nucleotide variations, insertions and deletions were observed within samples examined. In addition, missense alterations were observed in the E6/E7 genes for 6 HPV6 and 5 HPV11 variants. No nucleotide variations were identified in any isolates at the four E2 binding sites for HPV6 or HPV11, nor were any isolates found to be identical to the HPV6 lineage A or HPV11 sublineage A1 reference genomes. Overall, a high degree of sequence conservation was observed between isolates across each of the regions investigated for both HPV6 and HPV11. Genetic variants identified a slight association with HPV6 and anogenital lesions (p = 0.04). This study provides important information on the genetic diversity of circulating HPV 6 and HPV11 variants within the Australian population and supports the observation that the majority of HPV6 isolates cluster to the HPV6 sublineage B1 with anogenital lesions demonstrating an association with this sublineage (p = 0.02). Comparative analysis of Australian isolates for both HPV6 and HPV11 to those from other geographical regions based on the LCR revealed a high degree of sequence similarity throughout the world, confirming previous observations that there are no geographically specific variants for these HPV types.

  17. Genital injuries in adults.

    PubMed

    White, Catherine

    2013-02-01

    The examination of the rape victim should focus on the therapeutic, forensic and psychological needs of the individual patient. One aspect will be an examination for ano-genital injuries. From a medical perspective, they tend to be minor and require little in the way of treatment. They must be considered when assessing the risk of blood-borne viruses and the need for prophylaxis. From a forensic perspective, an understanding of genital injury rates, type of injury, site and healing may assist the clinician to interpret the findings in the context of the allegations that have been made. There are many myths and misunderstandings about ano-genital injuries and rape. The clinician has a duty to dispel these.

  18. Molecular beacon-based real-time PCR method for detection of 15 high-risk and 5 low-risk HPV types.

    PubMed

    Takács, Tibor; Jeney, Csaba; Kovács, Laura; Mózes, Johanna; Benczik, Márta; Sebe, Attila

    2008-04-01

    Detection of HPV infections requires a robust time-effective single-step method for efficient screening. A molecular beacon-based one-step multiplex real-time PCR system was developed to detect 15 high-risk (HPV types 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68) and 5 low-risk HPV types (HPV types 6, 11, 42, 43, 44). Molecular beacons detecting high-risk types are 5'-FAM-3'-DABCYL-labelled, molecular beacons for low-risk detection are 5'-TET-3'-DABCYL-labelled, while the internal control added before sample DNA extraction is detected by a 5'-FAM-TexasRed-3'-DABCYL wavelength-shifting molecular beacon. Accordingly, fluorescent data for HPV detection are collected at 530 nm for high-risk types, 560 nm in case of low-risk types and the reaction internal control is detected at 610 nm on a Roche LightCycler 2.0 instrument. The sensitivity for detected types varies between 22 and 700 copies/reaction. The clinical performance was tested on 161 clinical sample DNAs. The MB-RT PCR results were compared to the typing results obtained by the L1F/L1R PCR and hybridization-based system described previously, and the concordance rate between the two systems was 89.44%. The favorable characteristics shown by this multiplex single-step real-time HPV detection system make this promising approach worthy for further development and application for clinical screening.

  19. High-Throughput Profiling of the Humoral Immune Responses Against Thirteen Human Papillomavirus Types by Proteome Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Luevano, Martha; Bernard, Hans-Ulrich; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A.; Trevino, Victor; Garcia-Carranca, Alejandro; Villa, Luisa L.; Monk, Bradley J.; Tan, Xiaolin; Davies, D. Huw; Felgner, Phil L.; Kalantari, Mina

    2010-01-01

    We have developed microarrays with all eight proteins encoded by 13 different human papillomavirus types associated with anogenital cancer (HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 53), genital warts (HPV-6, 11), or skin lesions (HPV-1, 2, 4, 5). We analyzed the seroprevalence of antibodies in 546 patients, which had either cervical carcinomas, or precursor lesions, or which were asymptomatic. All patient groups contained sera ranging from high reactivity against multiple HPV proteins to low or no reactivity. Computational analyses showed the E7 proteins of carcinogenic HPV types as significantly more reactive in cancer patients compared to asymptomatic individuals and discriminating between cancer and HSIL or LSIL patients. Antibodies against E4 and E5 had the highest seroprevalence, but did not exhibit differential reactivity relative to pathology. Our study introduces a new approach to future evaluation of the overall antigenicity of HPV proteins and cross-reaction between homologous proteins. PMID:20554302

  20. Oral human papillomavirus infection in men might contribute to HPV serology.

    PubMed

    Syrjänen, S; Waterboer, T; Kero, K; Rautava, J; Syrjänen, K; Grenman, S; Pawlita, M

    2015-02-01

    The prospective Finnish Family HPV Study evaluated the dynamics of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection within families. Here, we focused on HPV serology in men. Seroprevalence at baseline, seroconversion and decay of low-risk (LR)-HPV6 and 11, and high risk (HR)-HPV16, 18 and 45 L1 antibodies in 122 men at 12, 24 and 36 months were determined using Luminex-based multiplex HPV serology, and correlated with demographic data. At baseline, seropositivity to HPV6, 11, 16, 18 and 45 was observed in 41.0, 11.5, 23.0, 13.9 and 5.7 % of the men, respectively. In univariate analysis, LR-HPV seropositivity was related to smoking status, history of genital warts and being seropositive to HR-HPV. Oral HR-HPV DNA and baseline LR-HPV seropositivity predicted HR-HPV seropositivity. Seroconversion to HPV6, 11, 16, 18 and 45 antigens during follow-up was found in 24.6, 11.5, 5.7, 5.7 and 0.8 %, respectively. Seroconversion to LR-HPV was negatively related to a higher number of children and oral sex, and positively associated with seroconversion to HR-HPV. In multivariate analysis, the same predictors remained significant except for the number of children. In univariate generalised estimating equations (GEE) for HR-HPV, being seroconverted to LR-HPV was the only predictor, but lost its significance in multivariate analyses. Decay of all HPV L1 antibodies was rare and observed in 0-2 %. The HPV antibody profile in men was dominated by response to HPV6, also showing the highest cumulative seroconversion. Oral HPV infection might affect HPV serology: (1) HPV DNA in oral mucosa is associated with baseline HR-HPV seropositivity and (2) practising oral sex significantly reduces longitudinal seroconversion to HPV6 and/or 11.

  1. Genital Herpes

    PubMed Central

    Scappatura, F. Philip

    1987-01-01

    The author reviews the prevalence of genital herpes, outlines the typical clinical courses of the disease in its primary and recurrent forms. He discusses the physical, psychological and social effects of this sexually transmitted disease and provides three protocols for the use of oral acyclovir in its treatment. PMID:21263803

  2. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... best way to prevent genital herpes is abstinence. Teens who do have sex must properly use a latex condom every time ... Date reviewed: February 2016 previous 1 • ... Boyfriend Has an STD Before We Have Sex? Telling Your Partner You Have an STD Contact ...

  3. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on your genital or rectal area, buttocks, and thighs. You can get it from having vaginal, anal, or ... of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

  4. Real-time duplex PCR for simultaneous HPV 16 and HPV 18 DNA quantitation.

    PubMed

    Jacquin, Elise; Saunier, Maëlle; Mauny, Frédéric; Schwarz, Elisabeth; Mougin, Christiane; Prétet, Jean-Luc

    2013-11-01

    HPV 16 and HPV 18 are responsible for more than 75% of cervical cancers and high HPV 16 loads are associated with both prevalent and incident lesions. The objective of the present study was to develop a method allowing the detection and quantitation of HPV 16 and 18 DNA to improve future strategies for cervical cancer screening. A duplex real-time PCR allowing the simultaneous quantitation of both HPV 16 and HPV 18 was carried out. Mixes of HPV 16 and HPV 18 whole genome plasmids were prepared to test a wide range of viral DNA concentrations. The values obtained for each mix of plasmids with the simplex and the duplex PCR were very close to the theoretical values except when a HPV type represented only 1:1000 genome equivalent or lower than the concurrent type. Cervical samples harboring HPV 16, HPV 18 or both types were tested by comparing the results with simplex and duplex real-time PCR assays. HPV 16 and HPV 18 genome titers were similar with the two assays. In conclusion, the real-time duplex PCR proved to be robust for HPV 16 and HPV 18 DNA quantitation.

  5. Human papillomavirus and other genital infections in indigenous women from Paraguay: a cross-sectional analytical study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of cervical cancer in Paraguay is among the highest in the world, with the human papillomavirus (HPV) being a necessary factor for cervical cancer. Knowledge about HPV infection among indigenous women is limited. This cross-sectional study analyzed the frequency of HPV and other genital infections in indigenous Paraguayan women of the Department of Presidente Hayes. Methods This study included 181 sexually active women without cervical lesions. They belonged to the following ethnicities: Maká (n = 40); Nivaclé (n = 23); Sanapaná (n = 33); Enxet Sur (n = 51) and Toba-Qom (n = 34). The detection of HPV and other gynecological infectious microorganisms was performed by either molecular methods (for Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis), gram staining and/or culture (for Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida sp, Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae), serological methods (for Treponema pallidum, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) or cytology (cervical inflammation). Results A high prevalence (41.4%) of women positive for at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI) was found (23.2% any-type HPV, 11.6% T pallidum, 10.5% T vaginalis, 9.9% C trachomatis and 0.6% HIV) with 12.2% having more than one STI. HPV infection was the most frequent, with 16.1% of women positive for high-risk HPV types. There was a statistically significant association observed between any-type HPV and C trachomatis (p = 0.004), which indicates that the detection of one of these agents should suggest the presence of the other. There was no association between any-type HPV and other genital infections or cervical inflammation, suggesting that other mechanism could exist to favor infection with the virus. Conclusion This multidisciplinary work suggests that STIs are frequent, making it necessary to implement control measures and improve diagnosis in order to increase the number of cases detected, especially in

  6. Application value of different transformation zone types and its genetic relationship with high-risk HPV type in diagnosis and therapy of cervical disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Zhou, Jia-De

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the influence of different types of transformation zone (TZ) on positive surgical margin of loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) and the significance of infection of different genetic high-risk HPV for cervical intraepithelial neoplasm. The clinical data of patients who had CIN2+ and received LEEP during January to December 2013 was investigated. The conditions of positive surgical margin of patients of different transformation zone (type I, II, III) were analyzed. The clinical high-risk types of HPV were divided into three groups, including A5/6, A7 and A9, compared with the pathological conditions of pre-operation and post-operation of the patients in respective group. The results indicated that type III transformation zone is more likely to cause positive cutting margin. For CIN2+ patients, sensitivity and specificity are 0.89% and 79.56% in group A5/6, and negative and positive predicted value (NPV, PPV) are 40% and 5%. The sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV in group A7 is 12.5%, 44.08%, 29.49% and 21.21%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV in group A9 is 88.99%, 87.09%, 85.26%, 81.51%, respectively. Transformation zone type was correlated positively with positive cutting margin percentage (r = 0.8732, P < 0.05). Compared with type I, type II and III transformation zone is more likely to cause pathological upgrades. In conclusion, different types of transformation zone and high-risk HPV have clinical significance in causing positive cutting margin of surgery and disease extent.

  7. Serial type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) load measurement allows differentiation between regressing cervical lesions and serial virion productive transient infections.

    PubMed

    Depuydt, Christophe E; Jonckheere, Jef; Berth, Mario; Salembier, Geert M; Vereecken, Annie J; Bogers, Johannes J

    2015-08-01

    Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is strongly associated with the development of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or cancer. Not all persistent infections lead to cancer. Viral load measured at a single time-point is a poor predictor of the natural history of HPV infections. However the profile of viral load evolution over time could distinguish nonprogressive from progressive (carcinogenic) infections. A retrospective natural history study was set up using a Belgian laboratory database including more than 800,000 liquid cytology specimens. All samples were submitted to qPCR identifying E6/E7 genes of 18 HPV types. Viral load changes over time were assessed by the linear regression slope. Database search identified 261 untreated women with persistent type-specific HPV DNA detected (270 infections) in at least three of the last smears for a average period of 3.2 years. Using the coefficient of determination (R²) infections could be subdivided in a latency group (n = 143; R² < 0.85) and a regressing group (n = 127; R² ≥ 0.85). In (≥ 3) serial viral load measurements, serial transient infections with latency is characterized by a nonlinear limited difference in decrease or increase of type-specific viral load (R² < 0.85 and slopes between 2 measurements 0.0010 and -0.0010 HPV copies/cell per day) over a longer period of time (1553 days), whereas regression of a clonal cell population is characterized by a linear (R² ≥ 0.85) decrease (-0.0033 HPV copies/cell per day) over a shorter period of time (708 days; P < 0.001). Using serial HPV type-specific viral load measurements we could for the first time identify regressing CIN2 and CIN3 lesions. Evolution of the viral load is an objective measurable indicator of the natural history of HPV infections and could be used for future triage in HPV-based cervical screening programs.

  8. Adjuvant effect of Japanese herbal medicines on the mucosal type 1 immune responses to human papillomavirus (HPV) E7 in mice immunized orally with Lactobacillus-based therapeutic HPV vaccine in a synergistic manner.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Ayumi; Kawana, Kei; Yokoyama, Terufumi; Adachi, Katsuyuki; Yamashita, Aki; Tomio, Kensuke; Kojima, Satoko; Oda, Katsutoshi; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Kozuma, Shiro

    2012-08-03

    The Japanese herbal medicines, Juzen-taiho-to (JTT) and Hochu-ekki-to (HET), have been shown to enhance humoral immune responses to vaccine antigen when used as adjuvants for prophylactic vaccines. However, their adjuvant effect on mucosal cellular immune responses remains unstudied. The precursor lesion of cervical cancer, high-grade CIN that expresses HPV E7 oncoprotein ubiquitously is a target for HPV therapeutic vaccines that elicit mucosal E7-specific type 1 T cell responses. We have demonstrated that oral immunization with recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing HPV16 E7 (LacE7) is more effective in eliciting mucosal E7-specific IFNγ-producing cells than subcutaneous or intramuscular antigen delivery. Here we report the synergistic effect of an oral Lactobacillus-based vaccine and Japanese herbal medicines on mucosal immune responses. Oral immunization of mice with LacE7 plus either a Japanese herbal medicine (JTT or HET) or a mucosal adjuvant, heated-labile enterotoxin T subunit (LTB), promotes systemic E7-specific type 1 T cell responses but not mucosal responses. Administration of LacE7 plus either Japanese herbal medicine and LTB enhanced mucosal E7-specific type 1 T cell response to levels approximately 3-fold higher than those after administration of LacE7 alone. Furthermore, secretion of IFNγ and IL-2 into the intestinal lumen was observed after oral administration of LacE7 and was enhanced considerably by the addition of Japanese herbal medicines and LTB. Our data indicated that Japanese herbal medicines, in synergy with Lactobacillus and LTB, enhance the mucosal type 1 immune responses to orally immunized antigen. Japanese herbal medicines may be excellent adjuvants for oral Lactobacillus-based vaccines and oral immunization of LacE7, HET and LTB may have the potential to elicit extremely high E7-specific mucosal cytotoxic immune response to HPV-associated neoplastic lesions.

  9. The potential role of HPV vaccination in the prevention of infectious complications of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bonde, Ulla; Joergensen, Jan Stener; Mogensen, Ole; Lamont, Ronald F

    2014-11-01

    There is now incontrovertible evidence that HPV is the cause of almost all cases of genital warts, cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer. Moreover the current review of the recent literature on HPV in relation to pregnancy found strong indications that HPV plays an important role in adverse outcomes of pregnancy. HPV may contribute to infertility and may increase the risk of miscarriage. Recent studies indicate a significant rate of vertical transmission of HPV between mother and child but whether the mode of delivery makes a difference to the risk of transmission remains unknown. HPV infection appears to be correlated with both spontaneous preterm birth and preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes.

  10. Influence of Physiologic Folate Deficiency on Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV16)-harboring Human Keratinocytes in Vitro and in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Suhong; Tang, Ying-Sheng; Khan, Rehana A.; Zhang, Yonghua; Kusumanchi, Praveen; Stabler, Sally P.; Jayaram, Hiremagalur N.; Antony, Aśok C.

    2012-01-01

    Although HPV16 transforms infected epithelial tissues to cancer in the presence of several co-factors, there is insufficient molecular evidence that poor nutrition has any such role. Because physiological folate deficiency led to the intracellular homocysteinylation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 (hnRNP-E1) and activated a nutrition-sensitive (homocysteine-responsive) posttranscriptional RNA operon that included interaction with HPV16 L2 mRNA, we investigated the functional consequences of folate deficiency on HPV16 in immortalized HPV16-harboring human (BC-1-Ep/SL) keratinocytes and HPV16-organotypic rafts. Although homocysteinylated hnRNP-E1 interacted with HPV16 L2 mRNA cis-element, it also specifically bound another HPV16 57-nucleotide poly(U)-rich cis-element in the early polyadenylation element (upstream of L2̂L1 genes) with greater affinity. Together, these interactions led to a profound reduction of both L1 and L2 mRNA and proteins without effects on HPV16 E6 and E7 in vitro, and in cultured keratinocyte monolayers and HPV16-low folate-organotypic rafts developed in physiological low folate medium. In addition, HPV16-low folate-organotypic rafts contained fewer HPV16 viral particles, a similar HPV16 DNA viral load, and a much greater extent of integration of HPV16 DNA into genomic DNA when compared with HPV16-high folate-organotypic rafts. Subcutaneous implantation of 18-day old HPV16-low folate-organotypic rafts into folate-replete immunodeficient mice transformed this benign keratinocyte-derived raft tissue into an aggressive HPV16-induced cancer within 12 weeks. Collectively, these studies establish a likely molecular linkage between poor folate nutrition and HPV16 and predict that nutritional folate and/or vitamin-B12 deficiency, which are both common worldwide, will alter the natural history of HPV16 infections and also warrant serious consideration as reversible co-factors in oncogenic transformation of HPV16-infected tissues to cancer

  11. Influence of physiologic folate deficiency on human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16)-harboring human keratinocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Suhong; Tang, Ying-Sheng; Khan, Rehana A; Zhang, Yonghua; Kusumanchi, Praveen; Stabler, Sally P; Jayaram, Hiremagalur N; Antony, Asok C

    2012-04-06

    Although HPV16 transforms infected epithelial tissues to cancer in the presence of several co-factors, there is insufficient molecular evidence that poor nutrition has any such role. Because physiological folate deficiency led to the intracellular homocysteinylation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 (hnRNP-E1) and activated a nutrition-sensitive (homocysteine-responsive) posttranscriptional RNA operon that included interaction with HPV16 L2 mRNA, we investigated the functional consequences of folate deficiency on HPV16 in immortalized HPV16-harboring human (BC-1-Ep/SL) keratinocytes and HPV16-organotypic rafts. Although homocysteinylated hnRNP-E1 interacted with HPV16 L2 mRNA cis-element, it also specifically bound another HPV16 57-nucleotide poly(U)-rich cis-element in the early polyadenylation element (upstream of L2L1 genes) with greater affinity. Together, these interactions led to a profound reduction of both L1 and L2 mRNA and proteins without effects on HPV16 E6 and E7 in vitro, and in cultured keratinocyte monolayers and HPV16-low folate-organotypic rafts developed in physiological low folate medium. In addition, HPV16-low folate-organotypic rafts contained fewer HPV16 viral particles, a similar HPV16 DNA viral load, and a much greater extent of integration of HPV16 DNA into genomic DNA when compared with HPV16-high folate-organotypic rafts. Subcutaneous implantation of 18-day old HPV16-low folate-organotypic rafts into folate-replete immunodeficient mice transformed this benign keratinocyte-derived raft tissue into an aggressive HPV16-induced cancer within 12 weeks. Collectively, these studies establish a likely molecular linkage between poor folate nutrition and HPV16 and predict that nutritional folate and/or vitamin-B(12) deficiency, which are both common worldwide, will alter the natural history of HPV16 infections and also warrant serious consideration as reversible co-factors in oncogenic transformation of HPV16-infected tissues to cancer.

  12. Adverse Psychosexual Impact Related to the Treatment of Genital Warts and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Campaner, Adriana Bittencourt; Vespa Junior, Nelson; Giraldo, Paulo César; Leal Passos, Mauro Romero

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To compare the psychosexual impact related to the treatment of genital warts and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in women. Methods. 75 patients presenting with HPV-induced genital lesions, belonging to one of two patient groups, were included in the study: 29 individuals with genital warts (GWs) and 46 individuals with CIN grades 2 or 3 (CIN 2/3). Initially, medical charts of each woman were examined for extraction of data on the type of HPV-induced infection and treatment administered. Subjects were interviewed to collect sociodemographic data as well as personal, gynecologic, obstetric, and sexual history. After this initial anamnesis, the Sexual Quotient-Female Version (SQ-F) questionnaire was applied to assess sexual function. After application of the questionnaire, patients answered specific questions produced by the researchers, aimed at assessing the impact of the disease and its treatment on their sexual lives. Results. It is noteworthy that patients with CIN 2/3 had statistically similar classification of sexual quotient to patients with GWs (P = 0.115). However, patients with GWs more frequently gave positive answers to the specific questions compared to patients with CIN 2/3. Conclusion. Based on these findings, it is clear that GWs have a greater impact on sexual behavior compared to CIN 2/3. PMID:26316956

  13. Morbidity and mortality of vulvar and vaginal cancers: Impact of 2-, 4-, and 9-valent HPV vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Tommy R.; Graybill, Whitney S.; Pierce, Jennifer Young

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaginal and vulvar cancers do not account for a large proportion of gynecologic malignancies but their impact is significant. Both vaginal and vulvar lesions have precursors and display levels of dysplasia before progression to invasive disease. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a known causative agent of such dysplasia and can be detected now more readily than ever with adequate recognition techniques and provider awareness. Although HPV vaccination is still lagging compared to other recommended childhood vaccinations, the impact on lower genital tract neoplasia is promising. The bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines have been shown to be efficacious and the newest nonavalent vaccine should add even more of impact on coverage of cancer-causing HPV types. Although it is still early to show true clinical and population-based disease reduction due to low disease incidence and relatively short time of vaccine availability, the potential is noteworthy. PMID:26901390

  14. A multiplex real-time PCR-platform integrated into automated extraction method for the rapid detection and measurement of oncogenic HPV type-specific viral DNA load from cervical samples.

    PubMed

    Broccolo, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The persistent infection with most frequent high-risk (HR)-HPV types (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45, -52, and -58) is considered to be the true precursor of neoplastic progression. HR-HPV detection and genotyping is the most effective and accurate approach in screening of the early cervical lesions and cervical cancer, although also the HR-HPV DNA load is considered an ancillary marker for persistent HPV infection. Here, it is described an in-house multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR)-based typing system for the rapid detection and quantitation of the most common HR-HPV genotypes from cervical cytology screening tests. First, a separate qPCR assay to quantify a single-copy gene is recommended prior to screening (prescreening assay) to verify the adequate cellularity of the sample and the quality of DNA extracted and to normalize the HPV copy number per genomic DNA equivalent in the sample. Subsequently, to minimize the number of reactions, two multiplex qPCR assays (first line screening) are performed to detect and quantify HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45, -52, and -58 (HPV-18 and -45 are measured together by single-fluorophore). In addition, a multiplex qPCR assay specific for HPV-18 and HPV-45 is also available to type precisely the samples found to be positive for one of the two strains. Finally, two nucleic acid extraction methods are proposed by using a 96-well plate format: one manual method (supported by centrifuge or by vacuum) and one automated method integrated into a robotic liquid handler workstation to minimize material and hands-on time. In conclusion, this system provides a reliable high-throughput method for the rapid detection and quantitation of HR-HPV DNA load in cervical samples.

  15. HPV-type-specific response of cervical cancer cells to cisplatin after silencing replication licensing factor MCM4.

    PubMed

    Das, Mitali; Prasad, Shyam Babu; Yadav, Suresh Singh; Modi, Arusha; Singh, Sunita; Pradhan, Satyajit; Narayan, Gopeshwar

    2015-12-01

    Minichoromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins play key role in cell cycle progression by licensing DNA replication only once per cell cycle. These proteins are found to be overexpressed in cervical cancer cells. In this study, we depleted MCM4, one of the MCM 2-7 complex components by RNA interference (RNAi) in four cervical cancer cell lines. The four cell lines were selected on the basis of their human papillomavirus (HPV) infection: HPV16-positive SiHa, HPV18-positive ME-180, HPV16- and HPV18-positive CaSki, and HPV-negative C-33A. The MCM4-deficient cells irrespective of their HPV status grow for several generations and maintain regular cell cycle. We did not find any evidence of augmented response to a short-term (48 h) cisplatin treatment in these MCM4-deficient cells. However, MCM4-/HPV16+ SiHa cells cannot withstand a prolonged treatment (up to 5 days) of even a sublethal dosage of cisplatin. They show increased chromosomal instability compared to their control counterparts. On the other hand, MCM4-deficient CaSki cells (both HPV16+ and 18+) remain resistant to a prolonged exposure to cisplatin. Our study indicates that cervical cancer cells may be using excess MCMs as a backup for replicative stress; however, its regulatory mechanism is dependent on the HPV status of the cells.

  16. HPV Vaccine Effective at Multiple Anatomic Sites

    Cancer.gov

    A new study from NCI researchers finds that the HPV vaccine protects young women from infection with high-risk HPV types at the three primary anatomic sites where persistent HPV infections can cause cancer. The multi-site protection also was observed at l

  17. Robust In Vitro and In Vivo Neutralization against Multiple High-Risk HPV Types Induced by a Thermostable Thioredoxin-L2 Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Hanna; Ribeiro-Müller, Lis; Canali, Elena; Bolchi, Angelo; Tommasino, Massimo; Ottonello, Simone; Müller, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Current prophylactic virus-like particle (VLP) human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are based on the L1 major capsid protein and provide robust but virus type-restricted protection. Moreover, VLP vaccines have a high production cost, require cold-chain storage, and are thus not readily implementable in developing countries, which endure 85% of the cervical cancer-related death burden worldwide. In contrast with L1, immunization with minor capsid protein L2 elicits broad cross-neutralization, and we previously showed that insertion of a peptide spanning amino acids 20-38 of L2 into bacterial thioredoxin (Trx) greatly enhances its immunogenicity. Building on this finding, we use, here, four different neutralization assays to demonstrate that low doses of a trivalent Trx-L2 vaccine, incorporating L2(20-38) epitopes from HPV16, HPV31 and HPV51, and formulated in a human-compatible adjuvant, induce broadly protective responses. Specifically, we show that this vaccine, which uses a far-divergent archaebacterial thioredoxin as scaffold and is amenable to an easy one-step thermal purification, induces robust cross-neutralization against 12 of the 13 known oncogenic HPV types. Immune performance measured with two different in vitro neutralization assays was corroborated by the results of mouse cervico-vaginal challenge and passive transfer experiments indicating robust cross-protection also in vivo. Altogether, our results attest to the potential of Trx-L2 as a thermostable second-generation HPV vaccine particularly well suited for low-resource countries.

  18. In vitro generation and type-specific neutralization of a human papillomavirus type 16 virion pseudotype.

    PubMed Central

    Roden, R B; Greenstone, H L; Kirnbauer, R; Booy, F P; Jessie, J; Lowy, D R; Schiller, J T

    1996-01-01

    We report a system for generating infectious papillomaviruses in vitro that facilitates the analysis of papillomavirus assembly, infectivity, and serologic relatedness. Cultured hamster BPHE-1 cells harboring autonomously replicating bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) genomes were infected with recombinant Semliki Forest viruses that express the structural proteins of BPV1. When plated on C127 cells, extracts from cells expressing L1 and L2 together induced numerous transformed foci that could be specifically prevented by BPV neutralizing antibodies, demonstrating that BPV infection was responsible for the focal transformation. Extracts from BPHE-1 cells expressing L1 or L2 separately were not infectious. Although Semliki Forest virus-expressed L1 self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs), viral DNA was detected in particles only when L2 was coexpressed with L1, indicating that genome encapsidation requires L2. Expression of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) L1 and L2 together in BPHE-1 cells also yielded infectious virus. These pseudotyped virions were neutralized by antiserum to HPV16 VLPs derived from European (114/K) or African (Z-1194) HPV16 variants but not by antisera to BPV VLPs, to a poorly assembling mutant HPV16 L1 protein, or to VLPs of closely related genital HPV types. Extracts from BPHE-1 cells coexpressing BPV L1 and HPV16 L2 or HPV16 L1 and BPV L2 were not infectious. We conclude that (i) mouse C127 cells express the cell surface receptor for HPV16 and are able to uncoat HPV16 capsids; (ii) if a papillomavirus DNA packaging signal exists, then it is conserved between the BPV and HPV16 genomes; (iii) functional L1-L2 interaction exhibits type specificity; and (iv) protection by HPV virus-like particle vaccines is likely to be type specific. PMID:8709207

  19. Inverse relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 early gene expression and cell differentiation in nude mouse epithelial cysts and tumors induced by HPV-positive human cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Dürst, M; Bosch, F X; Glitz, D; Schneider, A; zur Hausen, H

    1991-01-01

    Two human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16)-immortalized human keratinocyte cell lines (HPK) were shown to have retained the ability for differentiation after subcutaneous injection into nude mice. These properties were maintained even at late passage. HPK cells gave rise to transiently growing cysts which exhibited an epitheliumlike architecture. Moreover, differentiation-specific markers such as cytokeratin 10, involucrin, and filaggrin were shown to be expressed in an ordered succession. RNA-RNA in situ hybridization revealed heterogeneous and low levels of HPV 16 E6-E7 RNA in the basal layer of the cysts. In contrast, in progressively growing tumors induced by HPK cells containing an activated ras oncogene (EJ-ras) or in tumors induced by the cervical carcinoma cell line CaSki, high levels of E6-E7-specific RNA could be detected. Irrespective of the growth potential of these cell lines in nude mice, viral transcription was always more evident in the basal layer and in proliferatively active cells rather than in differentiated cells. This contrasts with viral gene expression in HPV 16 positive low-grade cervical dysplasia, in which abundant viral transcriptional activity was mapped to the upper third of the epithelium. It is suggested that the physical state of the viral DNA, i.e., integrated viral DNA in the cell lines as opposed to extrachromosomal DNA in low-grade cervical dysplasia, may influence viral gene regulation. Images PMID:1846200

  20. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines On This Page What are human papillomaviruses? Which ... infections? Can HPV infections be prevented? What HPV vaccines are available? Who should get the HPV vaccines? ...

  1. Human Pappilomavirus (HPV) induced cancers and prevention by immunization.

    PubMed

    Khaliq, Sheikh Abdul; Shyum Naqvi, Syed Baqir; Fatima, Anab

    2012-10-01

    Incidences of different types of cancer are increasing in Pakistan, among which cancer of Cervix and Respiratory pappilomatosis are of great concern because of their association with human Pappilomavirus (HPV). Cervical cancers typically distress women of middle age or older; however it may affect women in any age after the puberty. Two serotypes of HPV (16 & 18) accounts 70% of cervical cancer cases, while HPV (6 & 11) are considered low-risk viruses associated with genital warts (Condyloma acuminata) and Respiratory pappilomatosis in both gender. Generally, there is transient role of HPV in human body and are removed by immune system in or around 1 year. Data from different Pakistani hospitals provides sound evidence for increasing trends of cervical cancer, which is, being developing country imperative for us. As the cost of cancer management is increasing day by day with poor survival rate and its burden is borne by patient, their family or society in-large, so if screening or prevention is possible then there would be need to identify target population for screening and vaccination. By quality adjusted life year (QALY) measurement, the data from different sources indicates that adolescent age is the appropriate target population and is cost effective for vaccination. Two vaccines manufactured by recombinant DNA technology are licensed in some parts of the world for prevention of HPV related cancers, however both have certain advantage over another, as one of the vaccines contains viral like proteins of two HPV serotypes 16 & 18 and provide additional cross protection against HPV type 13 and 45 with 100% seroprotection, while the other vaccine, being quadrivalent offers protection against four serotypes 6, 11, 16 and 18. Both vaccines tolerability and safety profiles are similar and acceptable, however bivalent vaccine appears to provide long-lasting immunity by the development of memory B-cells hypothetically due to difference of adsorbing agent used by

  2. Application of a multiplex PCR to cervical cells collected by a paper smear for the simultaneous detection of all mucosal human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and typing of high-risk HPV types 16 and 18.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shirish; Bharti, Alok C; Mahata, Sutapa; Hussain, Showket; Hedau, Suresh; Sharma, Rajyashri; Pillai, M Radhakrishna; Krishna, Sudhir; Chiplunkar, Shubhada; Tongaonkar, Hemant; Das, Bhudev C

    2010-11-01

    A simple paper smear (PS) method for dry collection and storage of cervical specimens was employed to develop an easy multiplex (MPX) PCR for simultaneous detection of generic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) as well as typing of the high-risk HPV-16 and -18, the two clinically most important HPV genotypes, which are responsible for more than 80 % of cervical cancers. Multiplexing was performed with a small amount of DNA eluted by boiling from a single PS punch in a single tube and using a mixture of four pairs of primers specific for the HPV L1 consensus sequence, HPV-16, HPV-18 and the β-globin gene. Sixty HPV-positive biopsies and corresponding PS specimens from cervical cancer patients as well as cervical smears from 100 healthy women with or without abnormal cytology were collected both as PSs and in PBS. Detection of HPV DNA from cervical biopsies collected in PBS and corresponding cervical scrapes on a PS or in PBS by conventional and MPX-PCR showed a concordance of 100 % and adequacy of 93 %. A similar comparative study in cervical scrapes from normal women also revealed 100 % concordance. The technique was validated in a multicentric study at four different national laboratories. PSs collected by different centres showed variable adequacy (73-82 %) but the use of multiple PS discs for DNA extraction significantly increased the adequacy. Integration of PSs with MPX-PCR for the detection and typing of HPVs is a highly convenient, efficient, simple and cost-effective method for large-scale clinico-epidemiological studies and is also suitable for HPV vaccine monitoring programmes in resource-poor settings.

  3. Exploring the Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Communication Preferences of the General Public regarding HPV: Findings from CDC Focus Group Research and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Allison L.; Shepeard, Hilda

    2007-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted virus in the United States, causing genital warts, cervical cell abnormalities, and cervical cancer in women. To inform HPV education efforts, 35 focus groups were conducted with members of the general public, stratified by gender, race/ethnicity, and urban/rural…

  4. Development and Characterization of an HPV Type-16 Specific Modified DNA Aptamer for the Improvement of Potency Assays.

    PubMed

    Trausch, Jeremiah J; Shank-Retzlaff, Mary; Verch, Thorsten

    2017-03-21

    Measuring vaccine potency is critical for vaccine release and is often accomplished using antibody-based ELISAs. Antibodies can be associated with significant drawbacks that are often overlooked including lot-to-lot variability, problems with cell-line maintenance, limited stability, high cost, and long discovery lead times. Here, we address many of these issues through the development of an aptamer, known as a slow off-rate modified DNA aptamer (SOMAmer), which targets a vaccine antigen in the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Gardasil. The aptamer, termed HPV-07, was selected to bind the Type 16 virus-like-particle (VLP) formed by the self-assembling capsid protein L1. It is capable of binding with high sensitivity (EC50 of 0.1 to 0.4 μg/mL depending on assay format) while strongly discriminating against other VLP types. The aptamer competes for binding with the neutralizing antibody H16.V5, indicating at least partial recognition of a neutralizing and clinically relevant epitope. This makes it a useful reagent for measuring both potency and stability. When used in an ELISA format, the aptamer displays both high precision (intermediate precision of 6.3%) and a large linear range spanning from 25% to 200% of a typical formulation. To further exploit the advantages of aptamers, a simplified mix and read assay was also developed. This assay format offers significant time and resource reductions compared to a traditional ELISA. These results show aptamers are suitable reagents for biological potency assays, and we expect that their implementation could improve upon current assay formats.

  5. A genital tract peptide epitope vaccine targeting TLR-2 efficiently induces local and systemic CD8 + T cells and protects against herpes simplex virus type 2 challenge

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, G; Nesburn, AB; Wu, M; Zhu, X; Carpenter, D; Wechsler, SL; You, S; BenMohamed, L

    2015-01-01

    The next generation of needle-free mucosal vaccines is being rationally designed according to rules that govern the way in which the epitopes are recognized by and stimulate the genital mucosal immune system. We hypothesized that synthetic peptide epitopes extended with an agonist of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2), that are abundantly expressed by dendritic and epithelial cells of the vaginal mucosa, would lead to induction of protective immunity against genital herpes. To test this hypothesis, we intravaginally (IVAG) immunized wild-type B6, TLR-2 (TLR2 −/−) or myeloid differentiation factor 88 deficient (MyD88 −/−) mice with a herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) CD8 + T-cell peptide epitope extended by a palmitic acid moiety (a TLR-2 agonist). IVAG delivery of the lipopeptide generated HSV-2-specific memory CD8 + cytotoxic T cells both locally in the genital tract draining lymph nodes and systemically in the spleen. Moreover, lipopeptide-immunized TLR2 −/− and MyD88 −/− mice developed significantly less HSV-specific CD8 + T-cell response, earlier death, faster disease progression, and higher vaginal HSV-2 titers compared to lipopeptide-immunized wild-type B6 mice. IVAG immunization with self-adjuvanting lipid-tailed peptides appears to be a novel mucosal vaccine approach, which has attractive practical and immunological features. PMID:19129756

  6. Genital Problems in Infants (Female)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Schedules Nutrient Shortfall Questionnaire Genital Problems in Infants (Female)Any deformity or change in the genitals is ... and Children Foot Problems Genital Problems in Infants (Female) Genital Problems in Infants (Male) Genital Problems in ...

  7. HPV Carcinomas in Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reusser, Nicole M.; Downing, Christopher; Guidry, Jacqueline; Tyring, Stephen K.

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can result in pre-malignancies or overt malignancies of the skin and mucosal surfaces. HPV-related illnesses are an important personal and public health problem causing physical, mental, sexual and financial detriments. Moreover, this set of malignancies severely affects the immunosuppressed population, particularly HIV-positive patients and organ-transplant recipients. There is growing incidence of HPV-associated anogenital malignancies as well as a decrease in the average age of affected patients, likely related to the rising number of high-risk individuals. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of HPV-related malignancy. Current treatment options for HPV infection and subsequent disease manifestations include imiquimod, retinoids, intralesional bleomycin, and cidofovir; however, primary prevention with HPV vaccination remains the most effective strategy. This review will discuss anogenital lesions in immunocompromised patients, cutaneous warts at nongenital sites, the association of HPV with skin cancer in immunocompromised patients, warts and carcinomas in organ-transplant patients, HIV-positive patients with HPV infections, and the management of cutaneous disease in the immunocompromised patient. PMID:26239127

  8. Comparison of Transcription-Mediated Amplification and PCR Assay Results for Various Genital Specimen Types for Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium

    PubMed Central

    Wroblewski, Jennifer K. H.; Manhart, Lisa E.; Dickey, Kathleen A.; Hudspeth, Marie K.; Totten, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is now recognized as a possible cause of several idiopathic sexually transmitted disease (STD) syndromes. However, due to the difficulty of culture of this fastidious bacterium, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are necessary for its detection in patient specimens. In the current study we compared a newly developed research-only transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) assay (Gen-Probe Incorporated) to our in-house DNA-based PCR assay for detection of M. genitalium. The relative performance characteristics of these two NAATs were assessed with genital specimens from 284 women and 352 men reporting to an STD clinic in Seattle, WA. Among the women, M. genitalium was detected by the TMA and PCR assays in 36 (13%) and 39 (14%) vaginal swab specimens, respectively (κ = 0.923); 26 (9%) and 23 (8%) cervical swab specimens, respectively (κ = 0.843); and 25 (9%) and 28 (10%) urine specimens, respectively (κ = 0.687). Among the M. genitalium-positive women, the relative sensitivities of detection for the TMA and PCR assays were 84% and 91%, respectively, for vaginal swab specimens; 60% and 53%, respectively, for cervical swab specimens; and 58% and 65%, respectively, for urine specimens. By using an infected patient (a woman positive at any site by TMA assay and at any site by PCR) as a proxy for a “gold standard,” the specificities of detection were >99.5% for both the TMA and the PCR assays. Among the men, M. genitalium was detected in 24 urine specimens (6.8%) by the TMA assay, 26 (7.4%) urine specimens by PCR assay, and 32 urine specimens (9%) by either test (κ = 0.791). We conclude that the M. genitalium TMA and PCR assays are highly specific and that vaginal swab specimens are the most sensitive specimen type for the detection of M. genitalium in women. PMID:16954265

  9. HPV Prevalence in Multiple Anatomical Sites among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Blas, Magaly M.; Brown, Brandon; Menacho, Luis; Alva, Isaac E.; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Carcamo, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    Background Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted viral infection worldwide. HPV is highly prevalent in sexually active men who have sex with men (MSM) and has been associated with anal cancer, penile cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer. Methods From March to September 2011, we conducted a cross-sectional study of HPV prevalence among MSM above age 18 years. Participants were recruited using respondent driven sampling at Clinica Cayetano Heredia. All participants provided anal, genital, and oral samples for HPV DNA testing, and blood for HIV and HPV antibody testing. Results A total of 200 MSM were recruited in the study. The mean age was 34 years (range 18–59 years, SD = 9.4) and101 participants were HIV negative (99 HIV positive). HPV 6/11/16/18 or quadrivalent HPV vaccine (HPV4) genotype seroprevalence among HIV negative and positive MSM was 64.3% (55%-75.9%) and 93.8% (87.6%-99.2%) respectively (p<0.001). HIV positivity was associated with a higher prevalence of HPV4 and HPV 16/18 DNA at external genital sites and the anal canal. HPV4 DNA prevalence at external genital sites among HIV negative and positive MSM was 14.9% and 28.7% (p = 0.02) respectively, at anal canal was 50.9% and 79.0% (p = 0.001), and at the oral cavity was 9.9% and 8.5% (p = 0.6). Conclusions HPV4 seroprevalence was high in our study among both HIV positives and negatives, with HPV DNA prevalence much lower, and the anal canal being the anatomical site with the highest HPV DNA prevalence. HPV prevention interventions are needed among MSM at high-risk for HIV infection. PMID:26437318

  10. Young Hungarian Students' Knowledge about HPV and Their Attitude Toward HPV Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Balla, Bettina Claudia; Terebessy, András; Tóth, Emese; Balázs, Péter

    2016-12-29

    (1) Background: Hungarys's estimated cervical cancer mortality was 6.9/100,000 in 2012, above the average of the EU27 countries (3.7/100,000) in the same year. Since 2014, the bivalent HPV vaccine has been offered to schoolgirls aged 12-13. (2) Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1022 high school seniors (492 girls, 530 boys) in 19 randomly selected schools in Budapest. Our anonymous questionnaire contained 54 items: basic socio-demographic data, knowledge about HPV infection/cervical cancer and HPV vaccination. (3) Results: 54.9% knew that HPV caused cervical cancer, and 52.1% identified HPV as an STD. Knowledge of risk factors such as promiscuity (46.9%) and early sexual activity (15.6%) was low, but higher than that of further HPV-induced diseases: genital warts (in females 9.9%, in males 9%), anal cancer (in females 2.2%, in males 1.9%), penile cancer (9.4%), and vulvar cancer (7.8%). A percentage of 14.6% feared getting infected, and 35.7% supported compulsory HPV vaccination. A percentage of 51.2% would have their future children vaccinated-significantly more girls than boys. (4) Conclusion: Our results support the findings of previous studies about young adults' HPV-related knowledge, which was poor, especially regarding pathologies in men. Despite the low level of awareness, the students' attitude was mostly positive when asked about vaccinating their future children.

  11. Association of Genital Infections Other Than Human Papillomavirus with Pre-Invasive and Invasive Cervical Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Ranajit; Kundu, Pratip; Biswas, Jaydip

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-established causative agent of malignancy of the female genital tract and a common Sexually Transmitted Infection. The probable co-factors that prevent spontaneous clearance of HPV and progression to neoplasia are genital tract infections from organisms like Chlamydia, Trichomonas vaginalis etc, smoking, nutritional deficiencies and multiparity. Inflammatory conditions can lead to pre-neoplastic manifestations in the cervical epithelium; however their specific role in cervical carcinogenesis is not yet established. Therefore it is imperative to study the likely association between HPV and co-infection with various common pathogens in the genital tract of women having cervical precancer or cancer. A “Pubmed” search was made for articles in Literature on this topic using the words: Cervical neoplasia, HPV, co-infections, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN), Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida, Chlamydia and the relevant information obtained was used to draft the review. PMID:27042571

  12. Reducing HPV-associated Cancer Globally

    PubMed Central

    Lowy, Douglas R.; Schiller, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers are a major worldwide public health concern. Virtually all cervical cancer is HPV-related, with 70% caused by HPV16 and -18. Variable proportions of certain non-cervical cancers (e.g., anal, vulvar, oropharyngeal) are HPV-related; over 90% of the HPV-related ones are related to HPV16, -18. The HPV-related cancers are dominated by cervical cancer in the developing world, where cervical cancer screening is limited. In this setting, widespread uptake of current HPV vaccines by adolescent girls could reduce this cancer's incidence and mortality by approximately two-thirds, with cost-effective screening programs of adult women having the potential to reduce mortality more rapidly. In the industrialized world, non-cervical HPV-related cancers, especially oropharyngeal, are rapidly increasing, and now rival the incidence of cervical cancer, whose rates continue to decline thanks to established cervical screening programs. Therefore, reducing HPV-associated non-cervical cancers with HPV vaccination has greater importance in the industrialized world, especially since there are no approved screening programs for these cancers. Preventing the substantial number of non-cervical HPV cancers in men will require either “herd” immunity through high vaccination rates in females or male vaccination. Current HPV vaccination can complement cervical screening in protecting against cervical cancer and may permit the safe reduction of screening intensity in industrialized countries. Second-generation HPV vaccines (active against a broader array of cervical cancer–related HPV types) could prevent an even higher proportion of cervical precancer and cancer and might permit further reductions in screening intensity. PMID:22219162

  13. FRET-based detection and genotyping of HPV-6 and HPV-11 causing recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Combrinck, Catharina E; Seedat, Riaz Y; Burt, Felicity J

    2013-05-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a potentially life-threatening disease caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), usually HPV types 6 and 11. The conventional method used for detection and typing the RRP isolates in our laboratory is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing method. A real-time PCR assay based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) probe technology was developed for the detection and rapid genotyping of HPV-6 and-11 isolates from biopsy material. The primers and probes were designed using multiple alignments of HPV-6 and HPV-11 partial E6 and E7 sequences that included prototypic and non-prototypic variants. Real-time PCR followed by probe-specific melting-curve analysis allowed differentiation of HPV-6 and HPV-11. HPV-6 and HPV-11 amplicons were used to determine detection limits and inter- and intra-assay variability. The detection limit of the assay was 12.8 DNA copies for HPV-6 and 22.5 DNA copies for HPV-11. A total of 60 isolates were genotyped using the FRET real-time PCR assay and a 100% concordance was obtained when results were compared with genotyping based on conventional DNA sequencing. The real-time PCR assay based on FRET technology was able to detect and rapidly genotype HPV from tissue biopsy obtained from patients with RRP. The assay reduces the time required for genotyping from three working days to less than a day.

  14. The clinical utility of HPV DNA testing in cervical cancer screening strategies.

    PubMed

    Bhatla, Neerja; Moda, Nidhi

    2009-09-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be the commonest cause of death among women in developing countries, largely due to the failure to the inability to sustain effective cytology-based screening programs. While this burden may come down following implementation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, screening will still be required. HPV DNA testing is a promising new technology for cervical cancer prevention and is the most reproducible of all cervical cancer screening tests. Presently, the two assays most widely used for the detection of genital types are the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Hybrid Capture 2 assays (hc2). Rapid, affordable tests are expected to be available soon. HPV DNA testing can be used in a variety of clinical scenarios that include primary screening in women older than 30 yr; as an adjunctive test to cytology; in the triage of women with an equivocal cytologic report, e.g., ASC-US; or for follow-up post-treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). HPV DNA testing can also be performed on self-collected samples, which allows screening in remote areas and also in women who refuse gynecologic examination.

  15. Intravaginal immunization with HPV vectors induces tissue-resident CD8+ T cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Çuburu, Nicolas; Graham, Barney S.; Buck, Christopher B.; Kines, Rhonda C.; Pang, Yuk-Ying S.; Day, Patricia M.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Schiller, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The induction of persistent intraepithelial CD8+ T cell responses may be key to the development of vaccines against mucosally transmitted pathogens, particularly for sexually transmitted diseases. Here we investigated CD8+ T cell responses in the female mouse cervicovaginal mucosa after intravaginal immunization with human papillomavirus vectors (HPV pseudoviruses) that transiently expressed a model antigen, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) M/M2, in cervicovaginal keratinocytes. An HPV intravaginal prime/boost with different HPV serotypes induced 10-fold more cervicovaginal antigen-specific CD8+ T cells than priming alone. Antigen-specific T cell numbers decreased only 2-fold after 6 months. Most genital antigen-specific CD8+ T cells were intra- or subepithelial, expressed αE-integrin CD103, produced IFN-γ and TNF-α, and displayed in vivo cytotoxicity. Using a sphingosine-1-phosphate analog (FTY720), we found that the primed CD8+ T cells proliferated in the cervicovaginal mucosa upon HPV intravaginal boost. Intravaginal HPV prime/boost reduced cervicovaginal viral titers 1,000-fold after intravaginal challenge with vaccinia virus expressing the CD8 epitope M2. In contrast, intramuscular prime/boost with an adenovirus type 5 vector induced a higher level of systemic CD8+ T cells but failed to induce intraepithelial CD103+CD8+ T cells or protect against recombinant vaccinia vaginal challenge. Thus, HPV vectors are attractive gene-delivery platforms for inducing durable intraepithelial cervicovaginal CD8+ T cell responses by promoting local proliferation and retention of primed antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. PMID:23143305

  16. Novel genital alphapapillomaviruses in baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) with cervical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Bergin, I L; Bell, J D; Chen, Z; Zochowski, M K; Chai, D; Schmidt, K; Culmer, D L; Aronoff, D M; Patton, D L; Mwenda, J M; Wood, C E; Burk, R D

    2013-01-01

    Genital Alphapapillomavirus (αPV) infections are one of the most common sexually transmitted human infections worldwide. Women infected with the highly oncogenic genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are at high risk for development of cervical cancer. Related oncogenic αPVs exist in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques. Here the authors identified 3 novel genital αPV types (PhPV1, PhPV2, PhPV3) by PCR in cervical samples from 6 of 15 (40%) wild-caught female Kenyan olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis). Eleven baboons had koilocytes in the cervix and vagina. Three baboons had dysplastic proliferative changes consistent with cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). In 2 baboons with PCR-confirmed PhPV1, 1 had moderate (CIN2, n = 1) and 1 had low-grade (CIN1, n = 1) dysplasia. In 2 baboons with PCR-confirmed PhPV2, 1 had low-grade (CIN1, n = 1) dysplasia and the other had only koilocytes. Two baboons with PCR-confirmed PhPV3 had koilocytes only. PhPV1 and PhPV2 were closely related to oncogenic macaque and human αPVs. These findings suggest that αPV-infected baboons may be useful animal models for the pathogenesis, treatment, and prophylaxis of genital αPV neoplasia. Additionally, this discovery suggests that genital αPVs with oncogenic potential may infect a wider spectrum of non-human primate species than previously thought.

  17. Cutaneous HPV and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Accardi, Rosita; Gheit, Tarik

    2014-12-01

    Papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small non-enveloped icosahedral viruses that infect the keratinocytes of skin and mucosa. The cutaneous HPV types are represented mainly by the beta and gamma genera, which are widely present in the skin of normal individuals. More than 40 beta-HPV types and 50 gamma-HPV types have been isolated, and these numbers are continuously growing. The main cause of non-melanoma skin cancer is exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, cutaneous HPVs that belong to the beta genus may act as a co-carcinogen with UVR. The association between beta-HPVs and skin cancer was first reported in patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), who frequently develop cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) on sun-exposed areas. Isolation of HPVs from the lesions suggested that HPVs might act as a co-carcinogen with UVR in EV patients. Beta-HPVs may also play a role in cutaneous SCC in immunocompromised non-EV and in immunocompetent individuals. Several studies have reported an association of viral DNA and/or antibodies to beta HPV types with SCC. Interestingly, HPV prevalence and viral load decrease during skin carcinogenesis, being significantly higher in actinic keratosis than in SCC, suggesting that the virus may play a role in the early stages of tumour development (the "hit-and-run" hypothesis). Concordantly, in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that E6 and E7 from certain cutaneous HPV types display transforming activities, further confirming their potential role in carcinogenesis.

  18. Divergence of reiterated sequences in a series of genital isolates of herpes simplex virus type 1 from individual patients.

    PubMed

    Umene, Kenichi; Kawana, Takashi

    2003-04-01

    Both serotypes of herpes simplex virus (HSV), HSV-1 and HSV-2, are aetiological agents of genital herpes, although genital herpes caused by HSV-1 recurs less frequently. The HSV-1 genome contains a number of short, tandemly repeated sequences, and some reiterated sequences can serve as sensitive markers for the differentiation of HSV-1 strains. In the present study, variation in reiterations (assumed to be due to different copy numbers of tandemly repeated sequences) was examined in HSV-1 isolates from genital lesions from the same individual. Six sets (three primary-recurrence sets and three multiple-recurrence sets) of HSV-1 isolates were analysed: the primary-recurrence set consisted of two isolates (one isolated at a primary episode and the other at a recurrent episode) from the same individual; the multiple-recurrence set consisted of plural isolates from different episodes of recurrence in the same individual. Variations in length of the major DNA fragment, containing reiteration I (within the a sequence) and/or reiteration IV (within introns of genes US1 and US12), were detected between isolates of each multiple-recurrence set, but not of the primary-recurrence set. Thus, HSV-1 isolates of multiple-recurrence sets are assumed to have diverged more widely within each set than those of primary-recurrence sets, probably because of more rounds of virus DNA replication. This divergence of reiterations seems to indicate a forward step in the division of HSV-1 from a common ancestor into different lineages.

  19. HPV Awareness and Willingness to HPV Vaccination among High-Risk Men attending an STI Clinic in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Colón-López, Vivian; Del Toro-Mejías, Lizbeth M.; Ortiz, Ana P.; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Palefsky, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective An HPV vaccine has been approved for men aged 9 to 26 in the US for the prevention of genital warts and anal cancer. The purpose of this study is to describe 1) HPV vaccine awareness, 2) willingness to get the HPV vaccine and 3) perceived susceptibility to HPV-related cancers and genital warts among men 18–26 years old who attend an STI clinic in San Juan, Puerto Rico (PR). Methods A cross-sectional pilot study consisting of 206 HIV+/HIV− men. For purpose of this analysis, only those participants aged ≤26 years old were included in this analysis (n=46). Results None of the study participants had been vaccinated against HPV. Fewer than a third knew about the HPV vaccine (28.3%). However, more than half (76.9%) were willing to be vaccinated against HPV. Information sources about the HPV vaccine included their female sexual partners (13.0%), a female sexual partner who received the vaccine (8.7%) and a male sexual partner (2.2%). Most participants reported that the main reason that would increase their willingness to get vaccinated was if a physician recommend the vaccine (95.7%). Perceived susceptibility was low, particularly for anal and oral cancer. Conclusion This pilot study shows poor awareness of the HPV vaccine, although willingness to getting the HPV vaccine was high among those who knew about the vaccine. Future studies should try to evaluate this paradox and study in depth willingness and barriers to vaccination among male sub-groups, such as men who have sex with men (MSM). These studies should also evaluate predictors of uptake of the HPV vaccine among men in this and other STI clinics in PR, in order to develop interventions to increase male vaccination. PMID:23844472

  20. Does intention to recommend HPV vaccines impact HPV vaccination rates?

    PubMed

    Feemster, Kristen A; Middleton, Maria; Fiks, Alexander G; Winters, Sarah; Kinsman, Sara B; Kahn, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    Despite recommendations for routine vaccination, HPV vaccination rates among adolescent females have remained low. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine whether clinician intention to recommend HPV vaccines predicts HPV vaccine series initiation among previously unvaccinated 11 to 18 year-old girls (N=18,083) who were seen by a pediatric clinician (N=105) from a large primary care network within 3 years of vaccine introduction. We used multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations, Cox Regression and standardized survival curves to measure the association between clinician intention and time to and rate of first HPV vaccine receipt among eligible females. All models adjusted for patient age, race/ethnicity, payor category, visit type, and practice location. Eighty-5 percent of eligible 11 to 12 year-old and 95% of 13 to 18 year-old girls were seen by a provider reporting high intention to recommend HPV vaccines. However, only 30% of the cohort initiated the HPV vaccine series and the mean number of days from first eligible visit to series initiation was 190 (95% C.I. 184.2, 195.4). After adjusting for covariates, high clinician intention was modestly associated with girls' likelihood of HPV vaccine series initiation (OR 1.36; 95 % C.I. 1.07, 1.71) and time to first HPV vaccination (HR 1.22; 95% 1.06, 1.40). Despite high intention to vaccinate among this cohort of pediatric clinicians, overall vaccination rates for adolescent girls remained low. These findings support ongoing efforts to develop effective strategies to translate clinician intention into timely HPV vaccine receipt.

  1. Characteristics of human papillomaviruses infection in men with genital warts in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaogang; Li, Liang; Lai, Yongxian; Liu, Qinxiu; Yan, Jianna; Tang, Yichen

    2016-08-16

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) infected men causes continued transmission of HPV to women. The prevalence of 15 high-risk HPV strains (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66 and 68) and 6 low-risk HPV strains (HPV6, 11, 42, 43, 44 and CP8304) were evaluated in 935 males with genital warts. Of the 447 (447/935, 47.8%) HPV DNA positive subjects, 230 (24.6%), 356 (38.1%) and 139 (14.9%) were infected by high-risk, low-risk and both high and low-risk HPV respectively. Of the 356 low-risk HPV infected subjects, 333(93.5%) were infected by single HPV strain; 203 (57.0%), 147 (41.3%), 24 (6.7%) and 5 (1.4%) were infected with HPV genotype 6, 11, CP8304 and 44 respectively; population with age ≤ 20 showed the highest infection rate. High-risk HPV are also highly prevalent in our patients, genotype 16, 58, 51, 39, 52 and 53 are the top five prevalent genotypes with infection rates of 27.4%, 18.7%, 14.3%, 13.9%, 12.6% and 12.6% respectively; only 68.3% subjects were sole infection; subjects with 41 ≤ age ≤ 50 showed the highest infection rate. Both high and low-risk HPV are highly prevalent in men with genital warts, its impact on women HPV control and prevention need further evaluation.

  2. Characteristics of human papillomaviruses infection in men with genital warts in Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yongxian; Liu, Qinxiu; Yan, Jianna; Tang, Yichen

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) infected men causes continued transmission of HPV to women. The prevalence of 15 high-risk HPV strains (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66 and 68) and 6 low-risk HPV strains (HPV6, 11, 42, 43, 44 and CP8304) were evaluated in 935 males with genital warts. Of the 447 (447/935, 47.8%) HPV DNA positive subjects, 230 (24.6%), 356 (38.1%) and 139 (14.9%) were infected by high-risk, low-risk and both high and low-risk HPV respectively. Of the 356 low-risk HPV infected subjects, 333(93.5%) were infected by single HPV strain; 203 (57.0%), 147 (41.3%), 24 (6.7%) and 5 (1.4%) were infected with HPV genotype 6, 11, CP8304 and 44 respectively; population with age ≤ 20 showed the highest infection rate. High-risk HPV are also highly prevalent in our patients, genotype 16, 58, 51, 39, 52 and 53 are the top five prevalent genotypes with infection rates of 27.4%, 18.7%, 14.3%, 13.9%, 12.6% and 12.6% respectively; only 68.3% subjects were sole infection; subjects with 41 ≤ age ≤ 50 showed the highest infection rate. Both high and low-risk HPV are highly prevalent in men with genital warts, its impact on women HPV control and prevention need further evaluation. PMID:27270315

  3. Multisite HPV16/18 Vaccine Efficacy Against Cervical, Anal, and Oral HPV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kreimer, Aimée R.; Schiffman, Mark; Herrero, Rolando; Wacholder, Sholom; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Lowy, Douglas R.; Porras, Carolina; Schiller, John T.; Quint, Wim; Jimenez, Silvia; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Struijk, Linda; Schussler, John; Hildesheim, Allan; Gonzalez, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (CVT) reports separately demonstrated vaccine efficacy against HPV16 and HPV18 (HPV16/18) infections at the cervical, anal, and oral regions; however, the combined overall multisite efficacy (protection at all three sites) and vaccine efficacy among women infected with HPV16 or HPV18 prior to vaccination are less known. Methods: Women age 18 to 25 years from the CVT were randomly assigned to the HPV16/18 vaccine (Cervarix) or a hepatitis A vaccine. Cervical, oral, and anal specimens were collected at the four-year follow-up visit from 4186 women. Multisite and single-site vaccine efficacies (VEs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed for one-time detection of point prevalent HPV16/18 in the cervical, anal, and oral regions four years after vaccination. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The multisite woman-level vaccine efficacy was highest among “naïve” women (HPV16/18 seronegative and cervical HPV high-risk DNA negative at vaccination) (vaccine efficacy = 83.5%, 95% CI = 72.1% to 90.8%). Multisite woman-level vaccine efficacy was also demonstrated among women with evidence of a pre-enrollment HPV16 or HPV18 infection (seropositive for HPV16 and/or HPV18 but cervical HPV16/18 DNA negative at vaccination) (vaccine efficacy = 57.8%, 95% CI = 34.4% to 73.4%), but not in those with cervical HPV16 and/or HPV18 DNA at vaccination (anal/oral HPV16/18 VE = 25.3%, 95% CI = -40.4% to 61.1%). Concordant HPV16/18 infections at two or three sites were also less common in HPV16/18-infected women in the HPV vaccine vs control arm (7.4% vs 30.4%, P < .001). Conclusions: This study found high multisite vaccine efficacy among “naïve” women and also suggests the vaccine may provide protection against HPV16/18 infections at one or more anatomic sites among some women infected with these types prior to HPV16/18 vaccination. PMID:26467666

  4. Genital Warts (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to other people. continue Prevention and Treatment The HPV vaccine is approved for people 9 to 26 years ... Answers About Sex Your Child's Immunizations: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Should Girls Who Aren't Sexually Active Be ...

  5. Ano-Genital Warts and HIV Status– A Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shimpa; Gulbake, Arvind

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Ano-Genital Warts (AGW) like other Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) is associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. This study of AGW was done in HIV positive and HIV negative patients. Aim To study the risk factors and clinical presentations of ano-genital warts in HIV positive and negative patients. Materials and Methods A comparative, cross-sectional, descriptive study of 25 HIV positive and 25 HIV negative (n=50) AGW patients between 15-60 years of both sex was conducted in Dr. D. Y. Patil Hospital and Research Centre from July 2014 to July 2016. Results Significant association of HIV positivity (p<0.05) was observed between age group of 15-30 years and HIV negative status (p<0.05) in age group of 31-45 years. HIV positive status significantly higher in patients with self-admitted multiple sexual partners (p<0.01), homosexuality (p<0.05) and presentation with anal warts (p<0.01). HIV negative status correlated significantly with single sexual partner admission (p<0.01) and hetero-sexuality (p<0.05). Gender did not show significant association with number of sexual partners or HIV positivity. Extra-genital or only genital warts had no association with HIV status. Co-STDs though more in number in ser-positive group, did not show any significant association with HIV positivity (p>0.05). No patient presented with changes of malignancy. Four were adolescents below 19 years. Two patients had atypical presentations of giant condylomata i.e., Buschke-Lowenstein Tumour (BLT). Conclusion HIV positivity was significantly associated with the risk factors of age below 30 years, homo sexuality and multiple sexual partners. Anal warts were significantly common in HIV positive patients. Four adolescents with AGW underline the need for high risk behaviour counselling. No patient had malignant ano-genital warts. Follow up of these patients with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) sub-typing is necessary. PMID:28274028

  6. [The evolution of forms of hermaphroditism in Cyclophyllidea (Cestoda). 1. Morpho-functional causes of the formation of tapeworms with the protandrous type of genital apparatus development].

    PubMed

    Guliaev, V D

    2005-01-01

    Morpho-fuctional causes of the formation of protandrous Cyclophyllidea (tapeworms) have been studied. Two forms of protandry are described. The protandry type I is typical for polymeric (polysegmental) Hymenolepididae. It appears independently in different taxa of this family (Aploparaksis, Echinatrium, Wardium, Diorchis and others) while the narrow-strobila forms with a low prolificacy of proglottids are formed. The development of this living form of hymenolepidids is ecologically caused by the high density of their aggregation in intestines of hosts. The primordium results in the development of genitals in the juvenile strobila proglottids with the limited internal space. Due to this process, parallel morphogenesis of male and female gonads is proved to be impossible. A selection leading to the overtaking development of testicles and copulative apparatus regarding morphogenesis of ovary and vitellarium is based an earlier maturation of testicles and group copulation of proglottids with and underdeveloped ovary that is typical in original euandrogyne forms. The group insemination of proglottids from a polysegmented strobila reduces the number of copulation and improves an efficiency of cross-copulation of tapeworms and. As a result, morpho-functional zones of male proglottids characterized by an immature ovary and those of fertile female segments losing their testicles are differentiated in the strobila. The protandry type II is typical of mesomeric tapeworms (Dilepididae, Schistotaeniidae, Anoplocephalidae). It is also resulted from a limited space of proglottids for developing the hermaphroditic genital apparatus. This is caused by the shift of genital morphogenesis process into juvenile proglottids and also by the enlargement of gonad sizes as the result of a selection for a higher prolificacy of proglottids. The dissociation of the development of male and female gonads takes place because of the retardation of ovary morphogenesis.

  7. HPV and Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... time in their life. Although most HPV infections go away on their own without causing problems, HPV ... me? Most of the time HPV infections completely go away and don’t cause any health problems. ...

  8. A prospective analysis of smoking and human papillomavirus infection among men in the HPV in Men Study.

    PubMed

    Schabath, Matthew B; Villa, Luisa L; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmerón, Jorge; Abrahamsen, Martha E; Papenfuss, Mary R; Quiterio, Manuel; Giuliano, Anna R

    2014-05-15

    At present it is unknown whether the higher prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among smokers in men is attributed to a higher probability of acquiring an infection or because of longer infection persistence. Thus, we investigated the role of smoking on the incidence (acquisition) and clearance (persistence) of genital HPV infections among 4,026 men in the HPV in Men (HIM) Study, a multinational prospective study of the natural history of genital HPV infection in men. Genital HPV infections were grouped by any, oncogenic and nononcogenic HPV infections and smoking status was categorized as current, former and never smokers. The incidence of any, oncogenic and nononcogenic HPV infections was significantly higher among current smokers compared to former and never smokers (p < 0.01). In multivariable analyses adjusting for sexual behavior and potential confounders, when compared to never smokers, current smokers exhibited significantly higher probability of acquiring any [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.50] and nononcogenic (HR = 1.21; 95% CI 1.00-1.45) infections and a borderline significant probability for oncogenic infections (HR = 1.18; 95% CI 0.98-1.41). Although the median duration of HPV infection was generally longer among current smokers, we found no statistically significant associations in the multivariable analyses. Overall, these results demonstrated that current smoking exhibited the highest incidence and highest probability of acquiring genital HPV infections.

  9. HPV testing as a screen for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Annekathryn

    2015-06-30

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as a necessary factor in the development of pre-invasive and invasive cancers of the lower genital tract, of which cervical cancer is the most prevalent. A molecular understanding of malignant transformation and epidemiologic information has led to the development of many strategies for detection and early intervention. Newer tests for oncogenic subtypes of HPV have made it possible to predict the risk of future development of cervical cancer. This review summarizes the current understanding of HPV related disease and examines the role of HPV testing as a screening tool for cervical cancer. It summarizes the data from prospective and randomized controlled trials on HPV screening from Europe and North America and includes smaller studies from low and middle income countries where cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women.

  10. Genotype-specific concordance of oral and genital human papillomavirus infections among marital couples is low.

    PubMed

    Kero, K; Rautava, J; Louvanto, K; Syrjänen, K; Grenman, S; Syrjänen, S

    2016-04-01

    Data on genotype-specific concordance of oral-oral and genital-oral HPV infections among marital couples are key to understand HPV transmission between spouses. Genotype-specific concordance of HPV infections (oral/genital) and their co-variates among 131 marital couples were determined during 6-year follow-up (FU). Seven oral scrapings were taken from both spouses, accompanied by six genital samplings from the women and one (at baseline) from the male partners. HPV-genotyping was performed by nested PCR and a Luminex®-based Multimetrix Assay. Demographic data were collected with questionnaires at baseline and study conclusion. Prevalence of oral HPV varied from 10.3 to 27.0 % and 15.8 to 31.3 % in women and men, respectively. At baseline, 37.6 % of the male genital samples were HPV-positive while in female genital samples, HPV prevalence varied from 13.3 to 59.4 %. Only 15 couples had HPV genotype-specific concordance (oral-oral n = 7; male oral-female genital n = 9; female oral-male genital n = 2). In the nested case-control setting, higher number of deliveries (OR 0.145, 95%CI 0.030-0.706, p = 0.017) and higher number of intercourse (OR 0.488, 95%CI 0.243-0.978, p = 0.043) decreased the likelihood of concordant HPV infections while practicing oral sex increased the risk (OR 0.299, 95%CI 0.120-0.748, p = 0.010). In multivariate analysis, the likelihood of concordance was decreased by higher number of pregnancies of the female partner (p = 0.020) and by higher frequency of intercourse reported by the male spouse (p = 0.027). To conclude, asymptomatic HPV infections were common in both spouses while genotype-specific concordance was low. This supports the view that HPV profile of the spouses has been established before the current marital relationship.

  11. Genital sores - male

    MedlinePlus

    ... or ulcer [called a chancre] on the genitals) Granuloma inguinale (small, beefy-red bumps appear on the ... nih.gov/pubmed/26042815 . Read More Chancroid Donovanosis (granuloma inguinale) Genital warts Itching Molluscum contagiosum Urination - painful ...

  12. Genital sores - female

    MedlinePlus

    ... painless sores. Less common infections such as chancroid , granuloma inguinale , molluscum contagiosum , and syphilis may also cause ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 16. Read More Chancroid Donovanosis (granuloma inguinale) Genital herpes Genital warts Melanoma Molluscum contagiosum ...

  13. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease. PMID:27358569

  14. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease.

  15. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Answers HPV and Cancer HPV Cancer Screening HPV Vaccines HPV Vaccine Safety For Clinicians Why is HPV Vaccine Important Clinician Factsheets Schedules & Recommendations Answering Parents Questions ...

  16. Giving Boys a Shot: The HPV Vaccine's Portrayal in Canadian Newspapers.

    PubMed

    Perez, Samara; Fedoruk, Claire; Shapiro, Gilla K; Rosberger, Zeev

    2016-12-01

    In January 2012, the National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) of Canada recommended that males aged 9-26 years receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to protect against genital warts and HPV-associated cancers. Estimated HPV vaccine uptake rates for Canadian males are extremely low. Using a content analysis of Canadian newspaper articles, this study investigated what information about the HPV vaccine was relayed to the public, and how this content was portrayed following the 2012 male HPV vaccine recommendation. A search was conducted using Proquest Canadian Newsstand Complete for newspaper articles published between January 1, 2012, and September 1, 2014. Researchers coded 232 articles on several relevant dimensions: article information; epidemiological information; public policy information; article topic; article and title tone; and informant testimony. The majority of articles (93%) mentioned that girls are eligible for the HPV vaccine, whereas only half (49%) mentioned male eligibility. While most articles associated HPV with cervical cancer (85%), fewer indicated its relation to other HPV-associated cancers (59%) or genital warts (52%). Most articles (60%) were positive or neutral (22%) in tone toward the HPV vaccine, while few had mixed messages (11%) or were negative (6%). Less than 5% of articles reported on issues of morality, suggesting that fears that the HPV vaccine causes promiscuity have largely subsided. Notably, article tone toward male vaccination became progressively more positive over time. However, half of the articles did not mention the vaccine's approval for males, and articles tended to report HPV's relation to cervical cancer over other HPV-associated cancers. The Canadian public may thus be unaware of male eligibility and the importance of HPV vaccine for males. The collaboration of researchers, health care providers, and policymakers with journalists is critical in order to disseminate complete and accurate HPV and HPV

  17. Acceptability of HPV vaccine for males and preferences for future education programs among Appalachian residents.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Paul L; Oldach, Benjamin R; Randle, Katherine E; Katz, Mira L

    2014-03-01

    Appalachia is a geographic region with several disparities related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, yet little is known about acceptability of HPV vaccine for males among Appalachian residents. HPV vaccine acceptability and preferences for future HPV vaccine education programs were examined among residents of Appalachian Ohio. Focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted with Appalachian Ohio residents between July and October 2011. Participants (n = 102 from 24 focus groups and 5 in-depth interviews) included four key stakeholder groups: health care providers, community leaders, parents with adolescent sons, and young adult men ages 18 to 26 years. Support for vaccinating males against HPV was high among participants, despite low awareness and knowledge about HPV vaccine for males. Participants reported three categories of potential barriers to vaccinating males against HPV: concerns about vaccine safety and side effects, access to care and vaccination logistics, and gender and cultural issues. Participants reported that HPV vaccine was viewed as being only for females in their communities and that receiving the vaccine may be emasculating or embarrassing to males. Participants suggested that future HPV vaccine education programs mainly target parents, include basic information about HPV-related diseases and HPV vaccine (e.g., number of doses, cost), and present the vaccine as having the potential to prevent cancer (as opposed to preventing genital warts). Acceptability of HPV vaccine for males was high among residents of Appalachian Ohio. Future HPV vaccine education programs in Appalachia should address common potential barriers to vaccination and help destigmatize vaccination among males.

  18. Oxidative Stress and HPV Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    De Marco, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Extensive experimental work has conclusively demonstrated that infection with certain types of human papillomaviruses, the so-called high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), represent a most powerful human carcinogen. However, neoplastic growth is a rare and inappropriate outcome in the natural history of HPV, and a number of other events have to concur in order to induce the viral infection into the (very rare) neoplastic transformation. From this perspective, a number of putative viral, host, and environmental co-factors have been proposed as potential candidates. Among them oxidative stress (OS) is an interesting candidate, yet comparatively underexplored. OS is a constant threat to aerobic organisms being generated during mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, as well as during inflammation, infections, ionizing irradiation, UV exposure, mechanical and chemical stresses. Epithelial tissues, the elective target for HPV infection, are heavily exposed to all named sources of OS. Two different types of cooperative mechanisms are presumed to occur between OS and HPV: I) The OS genotoxic activity and the HPV-induced genomic instability concur independently to the generation of the molecular damage necessary for the emergence of neoplastic clones. This first mode is merely a particular form of co-carcinogenesis; and II) OS specifically interacts with one or more molecular stages of neoplastic initiation and/or progression induced by the HPV infection. This manuscript was designed to summarize available data on this latter hypothesis. Experimental data and indirect evidences on promoting the activity of OS in viral infection and viral integration will be reviewed. The anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenetic role of NO (nitric oxide) and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) will be discussed together with the OS/HPV cooperation in inducing cancer metabolism adaptation. Unexplored/underexplored aspects of the OS interplay with the HPV-driven carcinogenesis will be

  19. Identification of HPV Types and Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex in Historical Long-Term Preserved Formalin Fixed Tissues in Different Human Organs

    PubMed Central

    Hühns, Maja; Erbersdobler, Andreas; Obliers, Annette; Röpenack, Paula

    2017-01-01

    University anatomical-pathological collections represent huge sources of human tissues and preparations from a variety of different diseases. With the help of modern genetic and histological methods, preserved fixed tissues from pathological collections can be used to re-evaluate former diagnoses. We analysed 25 specimens from our pathological collection with ages ranging from 78 to 112 years. The tissues originated from the oral cavity, lip, tongue, lung, bone, kidney, spleen, thymus, larynx, lymph node, penis and uterine cervix with an original diagnosis of epithelial cancers or tuberculosis. Amplifiable DNA was extracted and in epithelial cancers, potential HPV infection was investigated. Specimens with an original diagnosis of tuberculosis were examined for mycobacterial infection. The tissues were also examined using modern histological methods. Our data showed that in 24/25 specimens the histological structure was preserved and in 10/11 specimens the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma could be confirmed. Additionally, HPV type 16 was detected in 8 specimens. The histological pattern of tuberculosis was found in 11/14 specimens and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was ascertained in four specimens. Our study showed that pathogens such as HPV or Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be detected in historical pathological preparations, and that these collections are suitable for further epidemiological research. PMID:28114406

  20. Comparison of the Cobas 4800 HPV and HPV 9G DNA Chip Tests for Detection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Specimens of Women with Consecutive Positive HPV Tests But Negative Pap Smears

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Sun-Young; Park, Eun Su; Kim, Jiyoung; Kang, Jun; Lee, Jae Jun; Bae, Yoonjin; Kim, Sang-Il; Maeng, Lee-So

    2015-01-01

    Detecting high-risk (HR) HPV is important for clinical management of women with persistent HPV-positive and Pap-negative results. The Cobas 4800 HPV test is the first FDA-approved HPV DNA test that can be used alone as a first-line screening tool. The HPV 9G DNA chip test is a PCR-based DNA microarray assay. We evaluated the patients of consecutive HPV-positivity on HPV 9G DNA chip test without cytologic abnormalities. We then compared the performances of HPV 9G DNA chip and the Cobas 4800 HPV tests for detecting HR HPV with each other and confirmed HPV genotyping using direct sequencing. All 214 liquid-based cytology specimens were collected from 100 women with consecutive HPV-positive and Pap-negative results on the HPV 9G DNA chip test between May 2012 and Dec 2013, but only 180 specimens were available for comparing HPV test results. The HPV 9G DNA chip and the Cobas 4800 HPV tests agreed with each other in 81.7% of the samples, and the concordance rate was greater than 97.2% for detecting HPV-16 or -18. For HR genotypes other than HPV types 16 and 18, the two tests agreed for 81.1% of the samples. The sensitivity of both assays for detecting HR HPV was 100%, regardless of HR genotypes. The HPV 9G DNA chip test may be as effective as the Cobas 4800 HPV test in detecting HR HPV, and has a similar ability to identify HPV-16 and -18. PMID:26469982

  1. Concomitance of oncogenic HPV types, CHEK2 gene mutations, and CYP1B1 gene polymorphism as an increased risk factor for malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Constantinou, Maria; Pietrusiński, Michał; Kępczyński, Łukasz; Jędrzejczyk, Adam; Rożniecki, Marek; Marks, Piotr; Kałużewski, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Urinary bladder carcinoma ranks the fourth position in malignancy incidence rates in men (6.1%) and the 17th position in women (1.6%). In general, neoplastic diseases should be approached from two perspectives: prevention with implementation of prophylactic measures and early diagnostics. Prophylactics is possible in the preclinical phase of neoplasm, being both justified and plausible in patients from high–risk groups. Thus, it is particularly important to select such groups, not only by referring to environmental carcinogenic factors (occupational and extra–occupational) but also from genetic predisposition, which may be conductive for neoplasm formation. The mutations / polymorphisms of CHEK2 and CYP1B1 genes predispose to neoplasm via multiorgan mechanisms, while the human papilloma virus (HPV) may participate in the neoplastic transformation as an environmental factor. Material and methods 131 patients with diagnosed urinary bladder cancer were qualified to the study. Mutations/polymorphisms of CHEK2 (IVS2 + 1G > A gene, 1100delC, del5395, I157T) and CYP1B1– 355T/T were identified by the PCR in DNA isolated directly from the tumor and from peripheral blood. The ELISA test was used for the studies of 37 HPV genotypes in DNA, isolated tumour tissue. Results 11 mutations of CHEK2 gene were found, 355T/T polymorphism if CYP1B1 gene occurred in 18 patients (12.9%). Oncogenic HPV was found in 36 (29.3%), out of 123 examined patients. Conclusions The concomitance of CHEK2 gene mutations or 355T/T polymorphism of CYP1B1 gene and the presence of oncogenic HPV types statistically significantly correlates with histological malignancy grades of urinary bladder carcinoma. PMID:24578981

  2. MassARRAY Spectrometry Is More Sensitive than PreTect HPV-Proofer and Consensus PCR for Type-Specific Detection of High-Risk Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Cervical Cancer▿

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Partha; Chandna, Puneet; Bamezai, R. N. K.; Siddiqi, Maqsood; Saranath, Dhananjaya; Lear, Adrian; Ratnam, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Type-specific detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) is indicated for better risk stratification and clinical management of women testing positive for HPV and for epidemiologic surveillance. MassARRAY spectrometry (MassARRAY; Sequenom) is a novel method for type-specific detection of 15 high-risk oncogenic HPV types: HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, -56, -58, -59, -66, -68, and -73. PreTect HPV-Proofer (Proofer; Norchip) is a type-specific assay that detects E6/E7 mRNA from five high-risk oncogenic HPV types: HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, and -45. The performance of these tests for type-specific identification of HPV was assessed with cervical specimens from 192 cases of cervical cancer in comparison with consensus MY09/MY11 PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing (consensus PCR). The overall HPV detection rates were 94.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.7, 97.9), 83.3% (95% CI, 78.1, 88.5), and 86.5% (95% CI, 81.7, 91.3) for MassARRAY, Proofer, and consensus PCR, respectively. All tests were negative in six (3.1%) of the 192 cases. Considering only the specimens that contained at least one of the five types targeted by Proofer, the detection rates were 96.6%, 91.4%, and 86.9% for MassARRAY, Proofer, and consensus PCR, respectively. MassARRAY detected multiple infections in 14.1%, Proofer detected multiple infections in 3.6%, and consensus PCR failed to detect any multiple infections. The agreement was highest at 86.0% (kappa = 0.76) between MassARRAY and Proofer and lowest at 81.8% (kappa = 0.69) between Proofer and consensus PCR. In conclusion, MassARRAY is a highly sensitive and accurate method for type-specific detection of oncogenic HPV in cervical cancer, with Proofer showing impressive performance. PMID:21813716

  3. MassARRAY spectrometry is more sensitive than PreTect HPV-Proofer and consensus PCR for type-specific detection of high-risk oncogenic human papillomavirus genotypes in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Basu, Partha; Chandna, Puneet; Bamezai, R N K; Siddiqi, Maqsood; Saranath, Dhananjaya; Lear, Adrian; Ratnam, Sam

    2011-10-01

    Type-specific detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) is indicated for better risk stratification and clinical management of women testing positive for HPV and for epidemiologic surveillance. MassARRAY spectrometry (MassARRAY; Sequenom) is a novel method for type-specific detection of 15 high-risk oncogenic HPV types: HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, -56, -58, -59, -66, -68, and -73. PreTect HPV-Proofer (Proofer; Norchip) is a type-specific assay that detects E6/E7 mRNA from five high-risk oncogenic HPV types: HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, and -45. The performance of these tests for type-specific identification of HPV was assessed with cervical specimens from 192 cases of cervical cancer in comparison with consensus MY09/MY11 PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing (consensus PCR). The overall HPV detection rates were 94.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.7, 97.9), 83.3% (95% CI, 78.1, 88.5), and 86.5% (95% CI, 81.7, 91.3) for MassARRAY, Proofer, and consensus PCR, respectively. All tests were negative in six (3.1%) of the 192 cases. Considering only the specimens that contained at least one of the five types targeted by Proofer, the detection rates were 96.6%, 91.4%, and 86.9% for MassARRAY, Proofer, and consensus PCR, respectively. MassARRAY detected multiple infections in 14.1%, Proofer detected multiple infections in 3.6%, and consensus PCR failed to detect any multiple infections. The agreement was highest at 86.0% (kappa = 0.76) between MassARRAY and Proofer and lowest at 81.8% (kappa = 0.69) between Proofer and consensus PCR. In conclusion, MassARRAY is a highly sensitive and accurate method for type-specific detection of oncogenic HPV in cervical cancer, with Proofer showing impressive performance.

  4. Cervical HPV Infection in Female Sex Workers: A Global Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Soohoo, Melissa; Blas, Magaly; Byraiah, Gita; Carcamo, Cesar; Brown, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Approximately 291 million women worldwide are HPV DNA carriers. Studies have indicated that having multiple sexual partners may lead to higher HPV transmission. Thus female sex workers (FSWs) may be at greater risk of infection compared to the general population. Herein we review publications with data on FSW cervical HPV test results. We also examine variations of HPV prevalence and risk behaviors by region. Knowledge of prevalent HPV types in FSWs may lead to improved prevention measures and assist in understanding vaccination in high-risk groups. Methods: We conducted a review of the literature by searching PUBMED using the terms “prostitution” or “female sex workers”, “human papillomavirus” or “HPV”, and “prevalence” or “PCR” to find articles. We excluded studies without HPV testing or HPV type specific results, or unconventional HPV testing. Results: A total of 35 peer-reviewed publications were included in our review. High risk HPV types 16 and 18 ranged from 1.1-38.9‰ in prevalence. In addition to high-risk HPV types, newer studies reported non-carcinogenic HPV types also of high prevalence. The most prevalent HPV types reported among FSWs included HPV 6 (11.5%), 16 (38.9%), 18 (23.1%), 31 (28.4%), 52 (32.7%), and 58 (26.0%). Conclusions: Female sex workers have an overall high prevalence of HPV infection of high-risk types as evident through various testing methods. FSWs are thought to be at increased risk of cervical cancer because of high HPV exposure. This highlights the need for HPV and cervical prevention campaigns tailored to FSWs. PMID:24511334

  5. Genital herpes: a review.

    PubMed

    Beauman, John G

    2005-10-15

    Genital herpes simplex virus infection is a recurrent, lifelong disease with no cure. The strongest predictor for infection is a person's number of lifetime sex partners. The natural history includes first-episode mucocutaneous infection, establishment of latency in the dorsal root ganglion, and subsequent reactivation. Most infections are transmitted via asymptomatic viral shedding. Classic outbreaks consist of a skin prodrome and possible constitutional symptoms such as headache, fever, and inguinal lymphadenopathy. As the infection progresses, papules, vesicles on an erythematous base, and erosions appear over hours to days. These lesions usually crust, re-epithelialize, and heal without scarring. First-episode infections are more extensive: primary lesions last two to six weeks versus approximately one week for lesions in recurrent disease. Atypical manifestations are common. Infected persons experience a median of four recurrences per year after their first episode, but rates vary greatly. Genital herpes simplex virus type 2 recurs six times more frequently than type 1. Viral culture is preferred over polymerase chain reaction testing for diagnosis. Serologic testing can be useful in persons with a questionable history. Effective oral antiviral medications are available for initial, episodic, and suppressive therapy but are not a cure. There is some evidence that alternative therapies such as L-lysine, zinc, and some herbal preparations may offer some benefit. Counseling patients about the risk of transmission is crucial and helps prevent the spread of disease and neonatal complications.

  6. Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) genomes integrated in head and neck cancers and in HPV-16-immortalized human keratinocyte clones express chimeric virus-cell mRNAs similar to those found in cervical cancers.

    PubMed

    Lace, Michael J; Anson, James R; Klussmann, Jens P; Wang, Dong Hong; Smith, Elaine M; Haugen, Thomas H; Turek, Lubomir P

    2011-02-01

    Many human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive high-grade lesions and cancers of the uterine cervix harbor integrated HPV genomes expressing the E6 and E7 oncogenes from chimeric virus-cell mRNAs, but less is known about HPV integration in head and neck cancer (HNC). Here we compared viral DNA status and E6-E7 mRNA sequences in HPV-16-positive HNC tumors to those in independent human keratinocyte cell clones derived from primary tonsillar or foreskin epithelia immortalized with HPV-16 genomes. Three of nine HNC tumors and epithelial clones containing unintegrated HPV-16 genomes expressed mRNAs spliced from HPV-16 SD880 to SA3358 and terminating at the viral early gene p(A) signal. In contrast, most integrated HPV genomes in six HNCs and a set of 31 keratinocyte clones expressed HPV-16 major early promoter (MEP)-initiated mRNAs spliced from viral SD880 directly to diverse cellular sequences, with a minority spliced to SA3358 followed by a cellular DNA junction. Sequence analysis of chimeric virus-cell mRNAs from HNC tumors and keratinocyte clones identified viral integration sites in a variety of chromosomes, with some located in or near growth control genes, including the c-myc protooncogene and the gene encoding FAP-1 phosphatase. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that HPV integration in cancers is a stochastic process resulting in clonal selection of aggressively expanding cells with altered gene expression of integrated HPV genomes and potential perturbations of cellular genes at or near viral integration sites. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that this selection also takes place and can be studied in primary human keratinocytes in culture.

  7. Awareness of Diagnosis and Knowledge of HPV in Women Patients: Data from a Multi-Site Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCree, Donna Hubbard; Daley, Ellen M.; Gorbach, Pamina; Hamm, Robert M.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Brandt, Heather M.; McFarlane, Mary; Kerndt, Peter; McDermott, Robert J.; Perrin, Karen M.; St. Lawrence, Janet S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Persistent infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with cervical and other anogenital cancers. Purpose: This paper reports results of awareness of an HPV diagnosis and HPV knowledge from a multi-site study of HPV knowledge, attitudes and behavior, and the impact of an HPV diagnosis on women and their…

  8. Characterization of novel cutaneous human papillomavirus genotypes HPV-150 and HPV-151.

    PubMed

    Kovanda, Anja; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Luzar, Boštjan; Bravo, Ignacio G; Poljak, Mario

    2011-01-01

    DNA from two novel HPV genotypes, HPV-150 and HPV-151, isolated from hair follicles of immuno-competent individuals, was fully cloned, sequenced and characterized. The complete genomes of HPV-150 and HPV-151 are 7,436-bp and 7,386-bp in length, respectively. Both contain genes for at least six proteins, namely E6, E7, E1, E2, L2, L1, as well as a non-coding upstream regulatory region located between the L1 and E6 genes: spanning 416-bp in HPV-150 (genomic positions 7,371 to 350) and 322-bp in HPV-151 (genomic positions 7,213 to 148). HPV-150 and HPV-151 are phylogenetically placed within the Betapapillomavirus genus and are most closely related to HPV-96 and HPV-22, respectively. As in other members of this genus, the intergenic E2-L2 region is very short and does not encode for an E5 gene. Both genotypes contain typical zinc binding domains in their E6 and E7 proteins, but HPV-151 lacks the regular pRb-binding core sequence within its E7 protein. In order to assess the tissue predilection and clinical significance of the novel genotypes, quantitative type-specific real-time PCR assays were developed. The 95% detection limits of the HPV-150 and HPV-151 assays were 7.3 copies/reaction (range 5.6 to 11.4) and 3.4 copies/reaction (range 2.5 to 6.0), respectively. Testing of a representative collection of HPV-associated mucosal and cutaneous benign and malignant neoplasms and hair follicles (total of 540 samples) revealed that HPV-150 and HPV-151 are relatively rare genotypes with a cutaneous tropism. Both genotypes were found in sporadic cases of common warts and SCC and BCC of the skin as single or multiple infections usually with low viral loads. HPV-150 can establish persistent infection of hair follicles in immuno-competent individuals. A partial L1 sequence of a putative novel HPV genotype, related to HPV-150, was identified in a squamous cell carcinoma of the skin obtained from a 64-year old immuno-compromised male patient.

  9. Evaluation of the polyclonal ELISA HPV serology assay as a biomarker for HPV exposure

    PubMed Central

    Coseo, Sarah E.; Porras, Carolina; Dodd, Lori E.; Hildesheim, Allan; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Herrero, Rolando; Wacholder, Sholom; Gonzalez, Paula; Sherman, Mark E.; Jimenez, Silvia; Solomon, Diane; Bougelet, Catherine; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Quint, Wim; Safaeian, Mahboobeh

    2011-01-01

    Background Seropositivity to HPV16 and 18 antibodies is used as a measure of cumulative HPV exposure and as a stratifier of HPV exposure for vaccine efficacy analyses. Overall performance of these assays, as a measure of HPV exposure, has not been evaluated. Methods Using data from the enrollment phase of the HPV16/18 vaccine trial in Costa Rica, we evaluated the performance of the polyclonal ELISA HPV16 and 18 serological assays as a measure of HPV exposure. Biological (for eg. HPV infection at the cervix) and behavioral characteristics (for eg. lifetime number of sexual partners) with known associations with current and past HPV infection were used to define cases and controls (HPV exposed vs. not exposed). Pre-vaccination serum was measured for antibodies against HPV16 and HPV18 by ELISA; cervical samples were tested for HPV DNA using PCR SPF10/LiPA25. ELISA results were analyzed using receiver-operator-characteristic curves (ROC); performance was evaluated at the manufacturer set cutpoint (HPV16 =8, HPV18 =7) and at cutpoints chosen to optimize sensitivity and specificity (HPV16 =34, HPV18 =60). Results Defining cases as type-specific HPV DNA positive with high-grade abnormal cytolzogy (i.e. combined molecular and microscopic markers of infection), HPV16-ELISA gave sensitivity that was lower at the optimal cutpoint than the manufacturer cutpoint (62.2 compared with 75.7, respectively; p=0.44). However, specificity was higher (85.3 compared with 70.4, respectively; p<0.0001). Similarly, HPV18-ELISA gave sensitivity that was lower at the optimal cutpoint than the manufacturer cutpoint (34.5 compared with 51.7, respectively; p=0.40), with higher specificities (94.9 compared with 72.6, respectively; p<0.0001). Conclusions Modifying cutpoints did not improve the low sensitivity. The low sensitivity of this assay does not support its use for risk stratification or clinical settings. PMID:21934576

  10. The genital herpes problem in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Guerra, B; Puccetti, C; Cervi, F

    2012-10-01

    Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted infection. In reproductive age it involves the additional risk of vertical transmission to the neonate. Rates of transmission are affected by the viral type and whether the infection around delivery is primary or recurrent. Neonatal herpes is a rare but very severe complication of genital herpes infection and is caused by contact with infected genital secretions at the time of labor. Maternal acquisition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the third trimester of pregnancy carries the highest risk of neonatal transmission. Prevention of neonatal herpes depends on preventing acquisition of genital HSV infection during late pregnancy and avoiding exposure of the infant to herpetic lesions during delivery. Uninfected woman should be counselled about the need of avoiding sexual contact during the third trimester. Elective caesarean section before the onset of labor is the choice mode of delivery for women with genital lesions or with prodromal symptoms near the term, even if it offers only a partial protection against neonatal infection. Antiviral suppressive therapy is used from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in pregnant women with recurrences to prevent genital lesions at the time of labor so reducing the need of caesarean sections. Currently, routine maternal serologic screening is not yet recommended. Because most mothers of infants who acquire neonatal herpes lack histories of clinically evident genital herpes, researchers should focus on the recognition of asymptomatic primary genital HSV infections.

  11. Prevalence and Genotype Distribution of HPV Infection in China: Analysis of 51,345 HPV Genotyping Results from China's Largest CAP Certified Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zhengyu; Yang, Huaitao; Li, Zaibo; He, Xuekui; Griffith, Christopher C.; Chen, Xiamen; Guo, Xiaolei; Zheng, Baowen; Wu, Shangwei; Zhao, Chengquan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of cervical Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection varies greatly worldwide and data regarding HPV prevalence and genotypes in China are limited. Methods: HPV testing results were retrospectively examined at KingMed Diagnostics, the largest independent pathology laboratory in China, from January 2011 to June 2014. All testing was performed using the 26 HPV Genotyping Panel of TellgenplexTM xMAP™ HPV DNA Test assay (TELLGEN, Shanghai, China). Overall prevalence, age-specific prevalence and genotype distributions were analyzed. Results: A total of 51,345 samples were tested and the overall HPV prevalence was 26%, with 21.12% positive for high risk (HR) HPV and 8.37% positive for low risk HPV. 80% of HPV positive cases were positive for a single HPV type. The three most common HR HPV types detected were HPV-52, -16, and -58, in descending order. HPV-18 was only the 6th most common type. When women were divided into three age groups: <30, 30-49, ≥50 years, HR HPV had the highest prevalence rate in women <30 years, and the lowest rate in women 30-49 years of age. The distribution of HR HPV genotypes also varied among these three age groups. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is largest routine clinical practice report of HPV prevalence and genotypes in a population of women having limited cervical cancer screening. HPV-52 was the most prevalent HR HPV type in this population of women followed by HPV-16 and HPV-58. The overall and age-specific prevalence and genotype distribution of HR HPV are different in this Chinese population compared to that reported from Western countries. PMID:27326245

  12. Development and evaluation of the quantitative real-time PCR assay in detection and typing of herpes simplex virus in swab specimens from patients with genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junlian; Yi, Yong; Chen, Wei; Si, Shaoyan; Yin, Mengmeng; Jin, Hua; Liu, Jianjun; Zhou, Jinlian; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    Genital herpes (GH), which is caused mainly by herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 and HSV-1, remains a worldwide problem. Laboratory confirmation of GH is important, particularly as there are other conditions which present similarly to GH, while atypical presentations of GH also occur. Currently, virus culture is the classical method for diagnosis of GH, but it is time consuming and with low sensitivity. A major advance for diagnosis of GH is to use Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In this study, to evaluate the significance of the real-time PCR method in diagnosis and typing of genital HSV, the primers and probes targeted at HSV-1 DNA polymerase gene and HSV-2 glycoprotein D gene fraction were designed and applied to amplify DNA from HSV-1 or HSV-2 by employing the real-time PCR technique. Then the PCR reaction system was optimized and evaluated. HSV in swab specimens from patients with genital herpes was detected by real-time PCR. The real-time PCR assay showed good specificity for detection and typing of HSV, with good linear range (5×10(2)~5×10(8) copies/ml, r=0.997), a sensitivity of 5×10(2) copies/ml, and good reproducibility (intra-assay coefficients of variation 2.29% and inter-assay coefficients of variation 4.76%). 186 swab specimens were tested for HSV by real-time PCR, and the positive rate was 23.7% (44/186). Among the 44 positive specimens, 8 (18.2%) were positive for HSV-1 with a viral load of 8.5546×10(6) copies/ml and 36 (81.2%) were positive for HSV-2 with a viral load of 1.9861×10(6) copies/ml. It is concluded that the real-time PCR is a specific, sensitive and rapid method for the detection and typing of HSV, which can be widely used in clinical diagnosis of GH.

  13. Understanding HPV Disease and Prevention: A Guide for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood-Rayermann, Suzy; McIntyre, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) causes 99.7% of all cervical cancers. HPV Types 16 and 18 are responsible for approximately 77% of cases, and peak prevalence occurs in females younger than 25 years of age. The recent implementation of HPV vaccination provides females with the opportunity to prevent infection. School nurses are advocates of…

  14. Seroprevalence of cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) among men in the multinational HPV Infection in Men study.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shams; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Waterboer, Tim; Rollison, Dana E; Ingles, Donna J; Torres, B Nelson; Michel, Angelika; Sudenga, Staci L; Pawlita, Michael; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano Ponce, Eduardo; Borenstein, Amy R; Wang, Wei; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-12-01

    Data on cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) seroprevalence are primarily derived from skin cancer case-control studies. Few studies have reported the seroprevalence of cutaneous HPV among healthy men. This study investigated the seroprevalence of cutaneous HPV types and associated risk factors among men residing in Brazil, Mexico and the USA. Six hundred men were randomly selected from the HPV Infection in Men study. Archived serum specimens were tested for antibodies against 14 cutaneous HPV genotypes, β-HPV types (5/8/12/14/17/22/23/24/38/48), α-HPV 27, γ-HPV 4, µ-HPV1 and ν-HPV 41 using a glutathione S-transferase L1-based multiplex serology assay. Risk factor data were collected by a questionnaire. Binomial proportions were used to estimate seroprevalence, and logistic regression to examine factors associated with seropositivity. Overall, 65.4 % of men were seropositive to ≥1 of the 14 cutaneous HPV types, and 39.0 % were positive for ≥1 β-HPV types. Seroprevalence was 8.9, 30.9, 28.6 and 9.4 % for α-HPV 27, γ-HPV 4, µ-HPV 1 and ν-HPV 41, respectively. In multivariate analyses, seropositivity for any cutaneous HPV type was associated with higher education [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.75; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.08-2.83], and seropositivity of any β-HPV type was significantly associated with increasing age (AOR 1.72; 95 % CI 1.12-2.63, for men aged 31-44 years vs men aged 18-30 years). Other factors associated with various type-specific cutaneous HPV seropositivity included country, circumcision and lifetime number of male sexual partners. These data indicate that exposure to cutaneous HPV is common. Future studies are needed to assess the role of cutaneous HPV in diseases.

  15. Characterization of Human Papillomavirus Type 154 and Tissue Tropism of Gammapapillomaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Ure, Agustín Enrique; Forslund, Ola

    2014-01-01

    The novel human papillomavirus type 154 (HPV154) was characterized from a wart on the crena ani of a three-year-old boy. It was previously designated as the putative HPV type FADI3 by sequencing of a subgenomic FAP amplicon. We obtained the complete genome by combined methods including rolling circle amplification (RCA), genome walking through an adapted method for detection of integrated papillomavirus sequences by ligation-mediated PCR (DIPS-PCR), long-range PCR, and finally by cloning of four overlapping amplicons. Phylogenetically, the HPV154 genome clustered together with members of the proposed species Gammapapillomavirus 11, and demonstrated the highest identity in L1 to HPV136 (68.6%). The HPV154 was detected in 3% (2/62) of forehead skin swabs from healthy children. In addition, the different detection sites of 62 gammapapillomaviruses were summarized in order to analyze their tissue tropism. Several of these HPV types have been detected from multiple sources such as skin, oral, nasal, and genital sites, suggesting that the gammapapillomaviruses are generalists with a broader tissue tropism than previously appreciated. The study expands current knowledge concerning genetic diversity and tropism among HPV types in the rapidly growing gammapapillomavirus genus. PMID:24551244

  16. Role of bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) in diseases of cattle. Recent findings on BoHV-5 association with genital disease

    PubMed Central

    Favier, P.A.; Marin, M.S.; Pérez, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) belongs to the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, genus Varicellovirus. This virus is a major causative agent of non-suppurative meningoencephalitis in young cattle. It was first isolated in 1962 from a neurological disease outbreak in Australia. BoHV-5 is genetically and antigenically related to bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1), a highly prevalent virus responsible for respiratory and genital disease in cattle. Initially, BoHV-5 was considered a subtype of BoHV-1 (BoHV-1.3). However, the exclusive presentation of outbreaks of neurological disease suggested that the virus was a new agent with characteristics of neuropathogenicity. Even though both are neurotropic viruses, only BoHV-5 is capable of replicating extensively in the central nervous system and inducing neurological disease. Occasionally, encephalitis caused by BoHV-1 has been reported. Like other alpha-herpesviruses, BoHV-5 can establish latency in nervous ganglia and, by stress factors or glucocorticoid treatment, latent virus can be reactivated. During episodes of reactivation, the virus is excreted in nasal, ocular and genital secretions and transmitted to other susceptible hosts. Recently, BoHV-5 has been associated with infection of the reproductive tract. The virus has been isolated and the presence of viral DNA has been demonstrated in semen samples from Brazil and Australia and natural transmission of the virus through contaminated semen has also been described. Embryos and oocytes are permissive for BoHV-5 infection and BoHV-5 DNA has been detected in the central nervous system of aborted fetuses. The objective of this review is to compile the limited information on the recent association between BoHV-5 and reproductive disorders in cattle. PMID:26623291

  17. [Prevention of cervical cancer (II): prophylactic HPV vaccination, current knowledge, practical procedures and new issues].

    PubMed

    Monsonego, Joseph

    2007-04-01

    Despite the considerable success of early screening for prevention of cervical cancer, Pap smears have not fulfilled the hopes that it would lead to a large-scale reduction of this cancer's incidence. Screening appears to be useful for a tiny portion of the world population, although a relatively large portion must put up with its limitations and disadvantages. Human papilloma viruses (HPV) 16 and 18 are responsible for two thirds of all cervical cancers worldwide. The condylomata (condyloma acuminatum), or genital warts, induced by HPV 6 and 11 are frequent among the young and difficult to manage. The extent and burden of HPV infection are considerable, as is the psychological and emotional impact of the diseases associated with it. Because cancer of the cervix is the final consequence of chronic HPV infection, it can be prevented by vaccination. A prophylactic vaccine to protect against the precancerous and cancerous lesions associated with HPV should save lives, reduce expensive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, and have substantial individual and collective benefits. Clinical trials of anti-HPV vaccines for the prevention of cervical cancer and condyloma have shown remarkable results and an efficacy unequaled in the history of vaccination against infectious diseases. Vaccine efficacy has been shown only in young girls never exposed to the virus and only for the lesions associated with the specific viral types in the vaccine. Preliminary data indicate that the vaccination is effective in women who have previously eliminated naturally the virus. It has no therapeutic effects on existing lesions or in healthy virus carriers. Practical questions remain to be resolved. If the vaccination is left to individual initiative and vaccination coverage is insufficient, there will be no perceptible reduction in the frequency of cervical cancer. Vaccination policies will not be identical in poor countries, where the disease represents one of the leading causes of

  18. Young Hungarian Students’ Knowledge about HPV and Their Attitude Toward HPV Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Balla, Bettina Claudia; Terebessy, András; Tóth, Emese; Balázs, Péter

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Hungarys’s estimated cervical cancer mortality was 6.9/100,000 in 2012, above the average of the EU27 countries (3.7/100,000) in the same year. Since 2014, the bivalent HPV vaccine has been offered to schoolgirls aged 12–13. (2) Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1022 high school seniors (492 girls, 530 boys) in 19 randomly selected schools in Budapest. Our anonymous questionnaire contained 54 items: basic socio-demographic data, knowledge about HPV infection/cervical cancer and HPV vaccination. (3) Results: 54.9% knew that HPV caused cervical cancer, and 52.1% identified HPV as an STD. Knowledge of risk factors such as promiscuity (46.9%) and early sexual activity (15.6%) was low, but higher than that of further HPV-induced diseases: genital warts (in females 9.9%, in males 9%), anal cancer (in females 2.2%, in males 1.9%), penile cancer (9.4%), and vulvar cancer (7.8%). A percentage of 14.6% feared getting infected, and 35.7% supported compulsory HPV vaccination. A percentage of 51.2% would have their future children vaccinated—significantly more girls than boys. (4) Conclusion: Our results support the findings of previous studies about young adults’ HPV-related knowledge, which was poor, especially regarding pathologies in men. Despite the low level of awareness, the students’ attitude was mostly positive when asked about vaccinating their future children. PMID:28036070

  19. Comparative immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Mira; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Fox, Bradley; Scholar, Sofia; Rosen, Jeffrey; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Meric, Dorothée; Dessy, Francis J; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique; Dubin, Gary

    2011-01-01

    In this observer-blind study (NCT00423046), women (N = 1,106), stratified by age (18–26, 27–35, 36–45 y), were randomized (1:1) to receive the HPV-16/18 vaccine (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Months 0, 1, 6) or the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (Gardasil® Merck and Co., Inc., Months 0, 2, 6). Month 7 results were previously reported; we now report Month 24 results. In the according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity (seronegative and DNA-negative at baseline for HPV type analyzed), seropositivity rates of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) [pseudovirion-based neutralization assay] were, across all age strata, 100% (HPV-16/18 vaccine) and 97.5–100% (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine) for HPV-16, and 99.0–100% (HPV-16/18 vaccine) and 72.3–84.4% (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine) for HPV-18. Corresponding geometric mean titers (GMTs) were 2.4–5.8-fold higher for HPV-16 and 7.7–9.4-fold higher for HPV-18 with the HPV-16/18 vaccine vs. the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine; HPV-16 and HPV-18 GMTs were significantly higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (p < 0.0001) in the total vaccinated cohort (received ≥1 vaccine dose, irrespective of baseline sero/DNA-status). Similar results were obtained using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ). Positivity rates and GMTs of antigen-specific IgG antibodies in cervicovaginal secretions (ELISA) were not significantly different between vaccines. At Month 24, CD4+ T-cell responses for HPV-16 and HPV-18 were higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine; memory B-cell response was higher for HPV-18 with the HPV-16/18 vaccine and similar between vaccines for HPV-16. Both vaccines were generally well tolerated. Although an immunological correlate of protection has not been defined, differences in the magnitude of immune response between vaccines may represent determinants of duration of protection. PMID:22048173

  20. Detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) -specific cell-mediated immune responses in guinea pigs during latent HSV-2 genital infection.

    PubMed

    Perry, Clarice L; Banasik, Brianne N; Gorder, Summer R; Xia, Jingya; Auclair, Sarah; Bourne, Nigel; Milligan, Gregg N

    2016-12-01

    Genital infections with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) are a source of considerable morbidity and are a health concern for newborns exposed to virus during vaginal delivery. Additionally, HSV-2 infection diminishes the integrity of the vaginal epithelium resulting in increased susceptibility of individuals to infection with other sexually transmitted pathogens. Understanding immune protection against HSV-2 primary infection and immune modulation of virus shedding events following reactivation of the virus from latency is important for the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. Although the murine model of HSV-2 infection is useful for understanding immunity following immunization, it is limited by the lack of spontaneous reactivation of HSV-2 from latency. Genital infection of guinea pigs with HSV-2 accurately models the disease of humans including the spontaneous reactivation of HSV-2 from latency and provides a unique opportunity to examine virus-host interactions during latency. Although the guinea pig represents an accurate model of many human infections, relatively few reagents are available to study the immunological response to infection. To analyze the cell-mediated immune response of guinea pigs at extended periods of time after establishment of HSV-2 latency, we have modified flow-cytometry based proliferation assays and IFN-γ ELISPOT assays to detect and quantify HSV-specific cell-mediated responses during latent infection of guinea pigs. Here we demonstrate that a combination of proliferation and ELISPOT assays can be used to quantify and characterize effecter function of virus-specific immune memory responses during HSV-latency.

  1. [Herpes serology for genital herpes].

    PubMed

    Legoff, Jérôme; Aymard, Michèle; Braig, Suzanne; Ramel, Françoise; Dreno, Brigitte; Bélec, Laurent; Malkin, Jean-Elie

    2008-09-01

    The epidemiology of genital herpes is changing. The seroprevalence of HSV-2 infections is increasing, while HSV-1 is an increasingly common cause of herpetic ulcerations. The reference examination provides direct diagnosis after viral isolation in a cell culture or genome amplification. Herpes serology is indicated principally if direct examination is negative and in the absence of lesions. Non-type-specific serology detects antibodies common to HSV-1 and HSV-2. Its specificity and sensitivity are excellent, and it is approved as a reimbursable laboratory procedure. It cannot specify the viral type involved. Type-specific serology can distinguish between anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 antibodies. Currently available kits have a sensitivity and specificity, depending on the population studied, of 90 to 100%. It is not approved as a reimbursable laboratory procedure. HSV-1-specific serology cannot diagnose old HSV-1 genital infections, but seropositivity for HSV-2 generally suffices to diagnose HSV-2 genital herpes. The indication for type-specific serology must be discussed according to clinical context. The value of non-type-specific serology is limited.

  2. Enrichment of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactive mucosal T cells in the human female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Posavad, C M; Zhao, L; Dong, L; Jin, L; Stevens, C E; Magaret, A S; Johnston, C; Wald, A; Zhu, J; Corey, L; Koelle, D M

    2017-01-04

    Local mucosal cellular immunity is critical in providing protection from HSV-2. To characterize and quantify HSV-2-reactive mucosal T cells, lymphocytes were isolated from endocervical cytobrush and biopsy specimens from 17 HSV-2-infected women and examined ex vivo for the expression of markers associated with maturation and tissue residency and for functional T-cell responses to HSV-2. Compared with their circulating counterparts, cervix-derived CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were predominantly effector memory T cells (CCR7-/CD45RA-) and the majority expressed CD69, a marker of tissue residency. Co-expression of CD103, another marker of tissue residency, was highest on cervix-derived CD8+ T cells. Functional HSV-2 reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were detected in cervical samples and a median of 17% co-expressed CD103. HSV-2-reactive CD4+ T cells co-expressed IL-2 and were significantly enriched in the cervix compared with blood. This first direct ex vivo documentation of local enrichment of HSV-2-reactive T cells in the human female genital mucosa is consistent with the presence of antigen-specific tissue-resident memory T cells. Ex vivo analysis of these T cells may uncover tissue-specific mechanisms of local control of HSV-2 to assist the development of vaccine strategies that target protective T cells to sites of HSV-2 infection.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 4 January 2017; doi:10.1038/mi.2016.118.

  3. Mouse strain-dependent chemokine regulation of the genital tract T helper cell type 1 immune response.

    PubMed

    Darville, T; Andrews, C W; Sikes, J D; Fraley, P L; Braswell, L; Rank, R G

    2001-12-01

    Vaginal infection with the mouse pneumonitis agent of Chlamydia trachomatis (MoPn) produces shorter courses of infection in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice than in C3H/HeN mice, while C57BL/6 mice are more resistant to oviduct pathology. A robust Th1 response is extremely important in host defense against chlamydia. In this study we examined gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), interleukin 10 (IL-10), and the T-cell-regulatory chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) to determine if differences in these responses were associated with the differential courses of infection seen in these three strains of mice. Increased and prolonged IFN-gamma responses and lower IL-10 responses were observed in the C57BL/6 strain compared to BALB/c and C3H. Examination of genital tract chemokines revealed a marked predominance of MIP-1alpha over MCP-1 only in the C57 strain. Thus, a pattern of high MIP-1alpha and low MCP-1 levels during the first week of infection is associated with an increased Th1 response and a shorter, more benign chlamydial infection. Inhibition of the MCP-1 response in C3H mice increased their later T-cell production of IFN-gamma but decreased their early IFN-gamma response and had no effect on the course or outcome of infection. Inhibition of MCP-1 is not beneficial in chlamydial infection because of its pleiotropic effects.

  4. Cancer Immunology and HPV.

    PubMed

    Wollenberg, Barbara

    HNSCC is a heterogeneous group of tumors located in the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx. Originally, tobacco and alcohol exposures were the main risk factors for HNSCC. In the last two decades, HPV infections have been identified as a risk factor for HNSCC, especially for oropharyngeal tumors. Whereas the HPV-induced oropharyngeal carcinomas predominantly express the HPV16 related E6 and E7 oncoproteins, the HPV-negative HNSCC are associated with an overexpression of p53. However, if the therapy successes for HPV-negative and HPV-positive HNSCCs are compared, there are significantly higher total survival rates for HPV-positive oropharyngeal tumors compared to HPV-negative tumors. It is important to understand this phenomenon in order to improve and adapt therapy concepts.

  5. HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask your doctor if you should get the HPV Vaccine. What else can I do to lower my ... the body. To Learn More About HPV Human Papillomavirus Vaccine More in For Women Medication Safety for Women ¡ ...

  6. Prophylactic HPV vaccination and anal cancer.

    PubMed

    Stier, Elizabeth A; Chigurupati, Nagasudha L; Fung, Leslie

    2016-06-02

    The incidence of anal cancer is increasing. High risk populations include HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV-negative MSM, HIV-positive women and heterosexual men and women with a history of cervical cancer. HPV has been detected in over 90% of anal cancers. HPV16 is the most common genotype detected in about 70% of anal cancers. The quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine has been demonstrated to prevent vaccine associated persistent anal HPV infections as well as anal intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2-3 (AIN2+) in young MSM not previously infected. A retrospective analysis also suggests that qHPV vaccination of older MSM treated for AIN2+ may significantly decrease the risk of recurrence of the AIN2+. The HPV types detected in anal cancer are included in the 9-valent vaccine. Thus, the 9-valent HPV vaccine, when administered to boys and girls prior to the onset of sexual activity, should effectively prevent anal cancer.

  7. HPV vaccination with Gardasil: a breakthrough in women's health.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Engy; Bachmann, Gloria

    2006-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) represents one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. Although infection is often self-limited, a percentage of women with HPV infection will go on to develop cervical precancerous or cancerous lesions. It is estimated that HPV16 is responsible for approximately half of all cervical cancers worldwide. Several studies have tested vaccines directed against specific HPV types, namely types 6, 11, 16 and 18. This paper reviews these studies, particularly focusing on a quadrivalent (type 6, 11, 16 and 18) HPV L1 virus-like particle vaccine under investigation in Phase III trials at present. Data indicate that this vaccine, referred to as Gardasil, can prevent precancerous cervical lesions and early in situ cervical cancers with few adverse effects, and the vaccine has been approved by the FDA for this indication. Another vaccine, HPV16 L1, directed solely against HPV16, has also been demonstrated to be effective (at present, follow-up has been for up to 48 months) in providing protection against persistent infection with this viral strain and preventing HPV16-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3, while producing minimal adverse effects in recipients. Given the lack of a pharmacological intervention that can eradicate HPV in infected individuals and the prevalence of cervical cancer secondary to HPV infection across the world, the HPV vaccine represents a significant breakthrough in women's health.

  8. Increasing HPV vaccination through policy for public health benefit.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Heather M; Pierce, Jennifer Young; Crary, Ashley

    2016-06-02

    Vaccines against specific types of human papillomavirus (HPV) linked to cancer and other diseases have been met with mixed acceptance globally and in the United States. Policy-level interventions have been shown to be effective in increasing public health benefit. Government policies and mandates may result in improved HPV vaccination coverage and reduced disease burden, and alternative policies that improve unhindered access to HPV vaccination may allow success as well. The purpose of this commentary is to summarize policy efforts to maximize the public health benefit of HPV vaccination. We examine selected examples of HPV vaccination policy in global contexts and in the United States.

  9. Increasing HPV vaccination through policy for public health benefit

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Heather M.; Pierce, Jennifer Young; Crary, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccines against specific types of human papillomavirus (HPV) linked to cancer and other diseases have been met with mixed acceptance globally and in the United States. Policy-level interventions have been shown to be effective in increasing public health benefit. Government policies and mandates may result in improved HPV vaccination coverage and reduced disease burden, and alternative policies that improve unhindered access to HPV vaccination may allow success as well. The purpose of this commentary is to summarize policy efforts to maximize the public health benefit of HPV vaccination. We examine selected examples of HPV vaccination policy in global contexts and in the United States. PMID:26669416

  10. Comparison of the immunogenicity of Cervarix® and Gardasil® human papillomavirus vaccines for oncogenic non-vaccine serotypes HPV-31, HPV-33, and HPV-45 in HIV-infected adults.

    PubMed

    Toft, Lars; Tolstrup, Martin; Müller, Martin; Sehr, Peter; Bonde, Jesper; Storgaard, Merete; Østergaard, Lars; Søgaard, Ole S

    2014-01-01

    Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have excess risk of developing human papillomavirus (HPV)-related disease. A substantial fraction of HPV-associated cancers is caused by HPV serotypes not included in the currently available vaccines. Among healthy women, both Cervarix(®) (HPV-16/18, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, GSK) and Gardasil(®) (HPV-6/11/16/18, Merck) have demonstrated partial cross-protection against certain oncogenic non-vaccine HPV-types. Currently, there are no available data on vaccine-induced cross-protection in men and little is known about cross-reactive immunity after HPV-vaccination of HIV-infected individuals. In an investigator-initiated trial, we randomized 91 HIV-positive men and women to receive vaccination with Cervarix(®) or Gardasil(®). The HPV-DNA status of the participants was determined with pcr before and after immunization. Cross-reactive antibody responses against HPV-31, HPV-33, and HPV-45 were evaluated for up to 12 months using a pseudovirion-based neutralization assay (PBNA). Geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) were compared among vaccine groups and genders at 7 and 12 months.: Both vaccines induced anti-HPV-31, -33, and -45 neutralizing antibodies in participants who were seronegative and HPV-DNA negative for those types at study entry. Geometric mean antibody titers were comparable between vaccine groups. Interestingly, anti-HPV-31 and -33 antibody titers were higher among women compared with men at 7 and 12 months.: In conclusion, both licensed HPV-vaccines induced cross-neutralizing antibodies against frequent oncogenic non-vaccine serotypes HPV-31, HPV-33, and HPV-45 in HIV-infected adults, and women had greater serological responses against HPV-31 and -33 compared with men.

  11. Commercially available molecular tests for human papillomaviruses (HPV): 2015 update.

    PubMed

    Poljak, Mario; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Oštrbenk, Anja; Seme, Katja

    2016-03-01

    Commercial molecular tests for human papillomaviruses (HPV) are invaluable diagnostic tools in cervical carcinoma screening and management of women with cervical precancerous lesions as well as important research tools for epidemiological studies, vaccine development, and implementation and monitoring of vaccination programs. In this third inventory of commercial HPV tests, we identified 193 distinct commercial HPV tests and at least 127 test variants available on the market in 2015, which represents a 54% and 79% increase in the number of distinct HPV tests and variants, respectively, in comparison to our last inventory performed in 2012. Identified HPV tests were provisionally divided into eight main groups and several subgroups. Among the 193 commercial HPV tests, all but two target alpha-HPV types only. Although the number of commercial HPV tests with at least one published study in peer-reviewed literature has increased significantly in the last three years, several published performance evaluations are still not in line with agreed-upon standards in the HPV community. Manufacturers should invest greater effort into evaluating their products and publishing validation/evaluation results in peer-reviewed journals. To achieve this, more clinically oriented external quality-control panels and initiatives are required. For evaluating the analytical performance of the entire range of HPV tests currently on the market, more diverse and reliable external quality-control programs based on international standards for all important HPV types are indispensable. The performance of a wider range of HPV tests must be promptly evaluated on a variety of alternative clinical specimens. In addition, more complete HPV assays containing validated sample-extraction protocols and appropriate internal controls are urgently needed. Provision of a broader range of automated systems allowing large-scale HPV testing as well as the development of reliable, rapid, and affordable molecular

  12. Detection of immunoglobulin M antibodies to glycoprotein G-2 by western blot (immunoblot) for diagnosis of initial herpes simplex virus type 2 genital infections.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, D W; Field, P R; Irving, W L; Packham, D R; Cunningham, A L

    1993-01-01

    Western blots (immunoblots) for the detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies specific for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 in patients' sera were developed. The locations of the type-specific glycoprotein G (gpG-2) of HSV-2 (92- and 140-kDa forms) and glycoprotein C of HSV-1 (gpC-1), which carries mostly type-specific antigenic epitopes, were checked with specific monoclonal antibodies. Western blot assays for IgM antibody to gpC-1 or gpG-2 were performed after depletion of IgG by precipitation with anti-human IgG. In patients with primary HSV-2 genital infections, seroconversion of IgM and IgG antibodies to both the 92- and 140-kDa forms of gpG-2 was observed, although both antibodies appeared in convalescent-phase serum after the first week. IgM and IgG antibodies to low-molecular-size polypeptides (40 to 65 kDa) were the first antibodies observed in patients with primary infection, but these antibodies were cross-reactive with HSV-1 and HSV-2. However, in patients with recurrent HSV-2 infections, IgG antibodies to both forms of gpG-2 and the low-molecular-size polypeptides were found no matter how early after onset the patient was bled, and IgM to gpG-2 did not appear. In patients with nonprimary initial genital HSV-2 infections, IgG antibody to HSV-1 was demonstrated in the first serum specimen, and HSV-2-specific IgM was found in 39% of the serum specimens. Hence, the Western blot assay can be used to test for IgM antibody to gpG-2, allowing for the retrospective diagnosis of inital HSV-2 infections and its use as a supplementary test to the gpG-2 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays developed elsewhere. In contrast, IgM antibody to gpG-2 is not usually detected in patients with recurrent HSV-2 infections. Images PMID:7508453

  13. Genome-wide methylation and expression differences in HPV(+) and HPV(−) squamous cell carcinoma cell lines are consistent with divergent mechanisms of carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sartor, Maureen A; Dolinoy, Dana C; Jones, Tamara R; Colacino, Justin A; Prince, Mark EP; Carey, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    Oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) are associated with nearly all cervical cancers and are increasingly important in the etiology of oropharyngeal tumors. HPV-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) have distinct risk profiles and appreciate a prognostic advantage compared to HPV-negative HNSCC. Promoter hypermethylation is widely recognized as a mechanism in the progression of HNSCC, but the extent to which this mechanism is consistent between HPV(+) and HPV(−) tumors is unknown. To investigate the epigenetic regulation of gene expression in HPV-induced and carcinogen-induced cancers, we examined genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression in HPV(+) and HPV(−) SCC cell lines. We used two platforms: the Illumina Infinium Methylation BeadArray and tiling arrays, and confirmed illustrative examples with pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. These analyses indicate that HPV(+) cell lines have higher DNA methylation in genic and LINE-1 regions than HPV(−) cell lines. Differentially methylated loci between HPV(+) and HPV(−) cell lines significantly correlated with HPV-typed HNSCC primary tumor DNA methylation levels. Novel findings include higher promoter methylation of polycomb repressive complex 2 target genes in HPV(+) cells compared to HPV(−) cells and increased expression of DNMT3A in HPV(+) cells. Additionally, CDKN2A and KRT8 were identified as interaction hubs among genes with higher methylation and lower expression in HPV(−) cells. Conversely, RUNX2, IRS-1 and CCNA1 were major hubs with higher methylation and lower expression in HPV(+) cells. Distinct HPV(+) and HPV(−) epigenetic profiles should provide clues to novel targets for development of individualized therapeutic strategies. PMID:21613826

  14. Polymorphism of the capsid L1 gene of human papillomavirus types 31, 33, and 35.

    PubMed

    Cornut, Gilbert; Gagnon, Simon; Hankins, Catherine; Money, Deborah; Pourreaux, Karina; Franco, Eduardo L; Coutlée, François

    2010-07-01

    The L1 gene encodes for the major capsid protein of human papillomaviruses (HPV). There is limited information on the polymorphism of L1 for types related to HPV-16. This report explores the polymorphism of L1 in phylogenetically related types 31, 33, and 35 compared to HPV-16. Genital specimens collected from 732 HIV-seropositive and 323 HIV-seronegative women were screened for HPV DNA with consensus L1 PCR. Cervical samples positive for HPV-16 (n = 74), HPV-31 (n = 78), HPV-33 (n = 37), and HPV-35 (n = 58) were further characterized by PCR-sequencing of the complete L1 gene. The number of nucleotide substitutions within L1 ranged from 19 for HPV-33 to 52 for HPV-31. The ratio of the number of variants/number of isolates tested was higher for HPV-31 (56.4%, P = 0.05) and HPV-35 (60.3%, P = 0.04) compared to HPV-16 (40.5%), while this ratio was lower for HPV-33 (24.3%), although not significantly (P = 0.14). The maximal distance between HPV variants was greater in the five putative surface-exposed loops of L1 than in sequences outside the loops (P < 0.01). Synonymous variations were encountered in 1.7% (95% CI 1.1-2.3) of nucleotides inside the L1 loops and 2.4% (95% CI1.2-3.7) of nucleotides outside the L1 loops. Non-synonymous variations were encountered in 1.8% (95% CI 1.1-2.5) of nucleotides within the L1 loops and 0.2% (95% CI 0-0.4) of nucleotides outside the loops. dN/dS ratios were below 1.0 in extra-loop and intra-loop regions, but they were lower in extra-loop regions. These results suggest that sequences within and outside the hypervariable loops of L1 were under selective constraint.

  15. Nonendemic HPV-Positive Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Association With Poor Prognosis

    SciTech Connect

    Stenmark, Matthew H.; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Schipper, Matthew; Walline, Heather M.; Komarck, Christine; Feng, Felix Y.; Worden, Francis P.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Prince, Mark E.; Bradford, Carol R.; Mukherji, Suresh K.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Carey, Thomas E.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in nonendemic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and assess the prognostic implications of viral status. Methods and Materials: Paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 62 patients with primary NPC diagnosed between 1985 and 2011 were analyzed for EBV and high-risk HPV. EBV status was determined by the use of in situ hybridization for EBV encoded RNA. HPV status was assessed with p16 immunohistochemistry and multiplex polymerase chain reaction MassArray for determination of HPV type. Proportional hazards models were used to compare the risk of death among patients as stratified by viral status. Results: Of 61 evaluable tumors, 26 (43%) were EBV-positive/HPV-negative, 18 (30%) were HPV-positive/EBV-negative, and 17 (28%) were EBV/HPV-negative. EBV and HPV infection was mutually exclusive. HPV positivity was significantly correlated with World Health Organization grade 2 tumors, older age, and smoking (all P<.001). The racial distribution of the study population was 74% white, 15% African American, and 11% Asian/Middle Eastern. Among HPV-positive patients, 94% were white. At a median follow-up time of 7 years, HPV-positive and EBV/HPV-negative tumors exhibited worse outcomes than did EBV-positive tumors, including decreased overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 2.98, P=.01; and HR 3.89, P=.002), progression-free survival (HR 2.55, P=.02; and HR 4.04, P<.001), and locoregional control (HR 4.01, P=.03; and HR 6.87, P=.001). Conclusion: In our Midwestern population, high-risk HPV infection may play an etiologic role in the development of nonendemic, EBV-negative NPC. Compared with EBV-positive NPC, HPV-positive and EBV/HPV-negative NPC are associated with worse outcomes. A larger confirmatory study is needed to validate these findings.

  16. Comparison of SPF10 real-time PCR and conventional PCR in combination with the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra assay for the detection and typing of human papillomavirus in cervical samples.

    PubMed

    Micalessi, M I; Boulet, G A; Pillet, S; Jacquet, J; Pozzetto, B; Bogers, J J; Bourlet, T

    2013-12-01

    The novel SPF10 real-time PCR assay allows the simultaneous amplification and detection of the HPV target. That way, LiPA analysis of the HPV-negative samples can be avoided, reducing workload and cost. This study aims to evaluate the performance of the SPF10 real-time PCR in combination with the LiPA assay for HPV detection and typing in cervical samples. Thirty-nine cervical samples were subjected to the SPF10 conventional PCR in combination with the LiPA assay. Subsequently, the SPF10 real-time PCR was performed to enable the comparison between the SPF10 conventional and the real-time PCR results. In case of discrepancy, the samples were subjected to the CLART HPV2 assay. As a result, 27 out of 39 samples were identified as HPV-positive by the SPF10 real-time PCR and were genotyped further by the LiPA assay. Twenty samples (74.1%) showed an absolute agreement between the conventional and real-time SPF10 PCR (concordant), three (11.1%) displayed additional or fewer types (compatible), two (7.4%) did not show any similarity between both assays (discordant) and the remaining two (7.4%) were LiPA-negative. The two assays showed an excellent strength of agreement for individual (κ=0.932) and multiple genotype detection (κ=0.834). In conclusion, the two SPF10 PCR methods are comparable. Therefore, the SPF10 real-time PCR with subsequent LiPA could be used for the detection and genotyping of HPV in cervical samples.

  17. Parents' knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow young males to receive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Banura, Cecily; Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Mirembe, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The Ministry of Health in Uganda in collaboration with the Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH) supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008-2009 vaccinated approximately 10,000 girls with the bivalent humanpapilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. We assessed parent's knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow son(s) to receive HPV vaccines in future through a cross-sectional survey of secondary school boys aged 10-23 years in 4 districts. 377 questionnaires were distributed per district and 870 were used in analysis. Parents that had ever heard about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines; those who would allow daughter(s) to be given the vaccine and those who thought that HPV infection was associated with genital warts were more willing to allow son(s) to receive the HPV vaccine. Unwilling parents considered HPV vaccination of boys unimportant (p = 0.003), believed that only females should receive the vaccine (p = 0.006), thought their son(s) couldn't contract HPV (p = 0.010), didn't know about HPV sexual transmissibility (p = 0.002), knew that males could not acquire HPV (p = 0.000) and never believed that the HPV vaccines could protect against HPV (p = 0.000). Acceptance of HPV vaccination of daughters and likelihood of recommending HPV vaccines to son(s) of friends and relatives predicted parental willingness to allow sons to receive HPV vaccines. Probable HPV vaccination of boys is a viable complement to that of girls. Successfulness of HPV vaccination relies on parental acceptability and sustained sensitization about usefulness of HPV vaccines even for boys is vital.

  18. Performance evaluation of Anyplex™II HPV28 detection kit in a routine diagnostic setting: comparison with the HPV Sign® Genotyping Test.

    PubMed

    Marcuccilli, Fabbio; Farchi, Francesca; Mirandola, Walter; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Paba, Pierpaolo; Bonanno, Elena; Perno, Carlo Federico; Ciotti, Marco

    2015-06-01

    Anyplex™II HPV28 is a new PCR assay designed for HPV genotyping. It can detect 28 HPV types including 19 high-risk and 9 low-risk types. This study evaluated the performance of Anyplex™II HPV28 on 123 fresh cervical samples screened in parallel with HPV Sign® Genotyping Test. Of the 123 samples screened, 93 were positive, 15 negative, and 15 discordant. The total number of HPV positive samples combined was 108: 38 single infections and 70 multiple infections. The agreement between the two tests was 87.8%, κ=0.592. Genotype specific agreement was strong for HPV 16 (k=0.761), HPV 18 (k=0.674), and HPV 35 (k=0.796). Sensitivity and specificity of Anyplex™II HPV28 assay using HPV Sign® Genotyping Test as reference was 84.8% and 94%; conversely, sensitivity and specificity of HPV Sign® Genotyping Test was 29% and 99.5%. Anyplex™II HPV28 assay is a sensitive and specific assay suitable for HPV genotyping but requires clinical validation.

  19. HPV vaccine cross-protection: Highlights on additional clinical benefit.

    PubMed

    De Vincenzo, Rosa; Ricci, Caterina; Conte, Carmine; Scambia, Giovanni

    2013-09-01

    Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are administered in vaccination programs, targeted at young adolescent girls before sexual exposure, and in catch-up programs for young women in some countries. All the data indicate that HPV-virus-like particles (VLPs) effectively prevent papillomavirus infections with a high level of antibodies and safety. Since non-vaccine HPV types are responsible for about 30% of cervical cancers, cross-protection would potentially enhance primary cervical cancer prevention efforts. High levels of specific neutralizing antibodies can be generated after immunization with HPV VLPs. Immunity to HPV is type-specific. However, if we consider the phylogenetic tree including the different HPV types, we realize that a certain degree of cross-protection is possible, due to the high homology of some viral types with vaccine ones. The assessment of cross-protective properties of HPV vaccines is an extremely important matter, which has also increased public health implications and could add further value to their preventive potential. The impact of cross-protection is mostly represented by a reduction of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia CIN2-3 more than what expected. In this article we review the mechanisms and the effectiveness of Bivalent (HPV-16/-18) and Quadrivalent (HPV-6/-11/-16/-18) HPV vaccine cross-protection, focusing on the critical aspects and the potential biases in clinical trials, in order to understand how cross-protection could impact on clinical outcomes and on the new perspectives in post-vaccine era.

  20. Transcriptional regulatory elements in the noncoding region of human papillomavirus type 6

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tzyy-Choou.

    1989-01-01

    The structure and function of the transcriptional regulatory region of human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV-6) has been investigated. To investigate tissue specific gene expression, a sensitive method to detect and localize HPV-6 viral DNA, mRNA and protein in plastic-embedded tissue sections of genital and respiratory tract papillomata by using in situ hybridization and immunoperoxidase assays has been developed. This method, using ultrathin sections and strand-specific {sup 3}H labeled riboprobes, offers the advantages of superior morphological preservation and detection of viral genomes at low copy number with good resolution, and the modified immunocytochemistry provides better sensitivity. The results suggest that genital tract epithelium is more permissive for HPV-6 replication than respiratory tract epithelium. To study the tissue tropism of HPV-6 at the level of regulation of viral gene expression, the polymerase chain reaction was used to isolate the noncoding region (NCR) of HPV-6 in independent isolates. Nucleotide sequence analysis of molecularly cloned DNA identified base substitutions, deletions/insertions and tandem duplications. Transcriptional regulatory elements in the NCR were assayed in recombinant plasmids containing the bacterial gene for chloramphenicol acetyl transferase.

  1. Female Genital Mutilation

    MedlinePlus

    ... practice of FGM. In 2010, WHO published a "Global strategy to stop health care providers from performing female ... practices Health risks of female genital mutilation (FGM) Global strategy to stop health-care providers from performing female ...

  2. Genital herpes simplex.

    PubMed Central

    Tummon, I. S.; Dudley, D. K.; Walters, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and cancer of the cervix. No effective treatment is as yet available. Weekly monitoring for virus by cervical culture from 32 weeks' gestation is recommended for women with a history of genital herpes and for those whose sexual partner has such a history. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:7020907

  3. Reconstruction of the external genitals and repair of skin defects of the perineal region using three types of lateral groin flap.

    PubMed

    Sun, G C; Zhong, A G; He, W; Du, P; Song, W M; Ma, J G

    1990-04-01

    Three types of lateral groin flap have been applied to reconstruct the external genitals and to repair skin defects in the perineal region. A single lateral groin flap was used to construct a vagina for 2 patients who had congenital absence of vagina. A composite flap containing iliac crest bone was applied to reconstruct the penis in 11 patients: 8 suffered traumatic amputation and 3 had congenital micropenis. A coaxial pedicle flap of the lateral groin and abdominal area was used to repair skin defects of the penis and scrotum after resection of the elephantiasis caused by recurrent erysipelas in 2 patients, and to relieve postburn scar contracture in the perineal region in another. Using this operative technique, 14 flaps survived completely with satisfactory results; 70% of one composite flap was lost as a result of hematoma. In the single-flap group, the distal portion (3 x 5 cm) of one flap necrosed and was resected and resurfaced with a free skin graft; the final result was good.

  4. Comparable Genital Tract Infection, Pathology, and Immunity in Rhesus Macaques Inoculated with Wild-Type or Plasmid-Deficient Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar D

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yanyan; Frazer, Lauren C.; O'Connell, Catherine M.; Tarantal, Alice F.; Andrews, Charles W.; O'Connor, Shelby L.; Russell, Ali N.; Sullivan, Jeanne E.; Poston, Taylor B.; Vallejo, Abbe N.

    2015-01-01

    Rhesus macaques were studied to directly address the potential for plasmid-deficient Chlamydia trachomatis to serve as a live attenuated vaccine in the genital tract. Five repeated cervical inoculations of rhesus macaques with wild-type serovar D strain D/UW-3/Cx or a plasmid-deficient derivative of this strain, CTD153, resulted in infections with similar kinetics and induced comparable levels of protective immunity. After all animals received five challenges with D/UW-3/Cx, levels of inflammation observed grossly and histologically were similar between the groups. Animals in both groups developed evidence of oviduct dilatation; however, reduced oviduct dilatation was observed for “controllers,” i.e., animals without detectable chlamydial DNA in the fimbriae at weeks 5 and 12. Grouping animals into “ascenders” and “controllers” revealed that elevated early T cell responses were associated with protection, whereas higher antibody responses were associated with ascension. Protected animals shared common major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles. Overall, genetic differences of individual animals, rather than the presence or absence of the chlamydial plasmid in the primary infecting strain, appeared to play a role in determining the outcome of infection. PMID:26216426

  5. Comparable Genital Tract Infection, Pathology, and Immunity in Rhesus Macaques Inoculated with Wild-Type or Plasmid-Deficient Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar D.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yanyan; Frazer, Lauren C; O'Connell, Catherine M; Tarantal, Alice F; Andrews, Charles W; O'Connor, Shelby L; Russell, Ali N; Sullivan, Jeanne E; Poston, Taylor B; Vallejo, Abbe N; Darville, Toni

    2015-10-01

    Rhesus macaques were studied to directly address the potential for plasmid-deficient Chlamydia trachomatis to serve as a live attenuated vaccine in the genital tract. Five repeated cervical inoculations of rhesus macaques with wild-type serovar D strain D/UW-3/Cx or a plasmid-deficient derivative of this strain, CTD153, resulted in infections with similar kinetics and induced comparable levels of protective immunity. After all animals received five challenges with D/UW-3/Cx, levels of inflammation observed grossly and histologically were similar between the groups. Animals in both groups developed evidence of oviduct dilatation; however, reduced oviduct dilatation was observed for "controllers," i.e., animals without detectable chlamydial DNA in the fimbriae at weeks 5 and 12. Grouping animals into "ascenders" and "controllers" revealed that elevated early T cell responses were associated with protection, whereas higher antibody responses were associated with ascension. Protected animals shared common major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles. Overall, genetic differences of individual animals, rather than the presence or absence of the chlamydial plasmid in the primary infecting strain, appeared to play a role in determining the outcome of infection.

  6. Cellular immune responses to HPV-18, -31, and -53 in healthy volunteers immunized with recombinant HPV-16 L1 virus-like particles

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, Ligia A.; Harro, Clayton D.; Kemp, Troy J.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Schiller, John T.; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Hildesheim, Allan

    2006-09-30

    Human papillomavirus-like particles (HPV VLP) are candidate vaccines that have shown to be efficacious in reducing infection and inducing robust antiviral immunity. Neutralizing antibodies generated by vaccination are largely type-specific, but little is known about the type-specificity of cellular immune responses to VLP vaccination. To determine whether vaccination with HPV-16 L1VLP induces cellular immunity to heterologous HPV types (HPV-18, HPV-31, and HPV-53), we examined proliferative and cytokine responses in vaccine (n = 11) and placebo (n = 5) recipients. Increased proliferative and cytokine responses to heterologous types were observed postvaccination in some individuals. The proportion of women responding to heterologous types postvaccination (36%-55%) was lower than that observed in response to HPV-16 (73%). Response to HPV-16 VLP predicted response to other types. The strongest correlations in response were observed between HPV-16 and HPV-31, consistent with their phylogenetic relatedness. In summary, PBMC from HPV-16 VLP vaccine recipients can respond to L1VLP from heterologous HPV types, suggesting the presence of conserved T cell epitopes.

  7. Immunohistochemical staining of Langerhans cells in HPV-positive and HPV-negative cases of oral squamous cells carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Karuza Maria Alves; SOARES, Rosilene Calazans; OLIVEIRA, Márcio Campos; PINTO, Leão Pereira; COSTA, Antônio de Lisboa Lopes

    2011-01-01

    The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has been strongly implicated in development of some cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, the immunological system somehow reacts against the presence of this virus. Among the cells involved in such mechanism of defense Langerhans cells (LC) stand out, which are responsible for processing and presenting antigens. Objectives The purposes of this study were to investigate the presence of HPV DNA and to evaluate the immunohistochemical reactivity for Langerhans cells between HPV-positive and HPV-negative OSCC. Twenty-seven cases of OSSC were evaluated. Material and Methods DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue samples and amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for the detection of HPV DNA. Viral typing was performed by dot blot hybridization. Immunohistochemistry was performed by the Streptavidin-biotin technique. Results From the 27 cases, 9 (33.3%) were HPV-positive and 18 (66.0%) HPV-negative. HPV 18 was the most prevalent viral type (100% cases) and infection with HPV-16 (co-infection) was detected in only 1 case. In the OSCC specimens examined, immunoreactivity to S-100 antibody was detected in all cases, with a mean number of 49.48±30.89 Langerhans cells positive for immunostaining. The mean number of immunostained Langerhans cells was smaller in the HPV-positive cases (38 cells/case) than in the HPV-negative cases (42.5 cells/case), but this difference was not significant (p=0.38). Conclusions The low frequency of detection of HPV DNA in OSCC indicates a possible participation of the virus in the development and progression of only a subgroup of these tumors. There was no association between the immunohistochemical labeling for Langerhans cells (S-100+) and HPV infection of in OSSC. These findings suggest that the presence of HPV in such OSCC cases could not alter the immunological system, particularly the Langerhans cells. PMID:21710097

  8. Analysis of E2 gene integrity in HPV16 and HPV58 viruses isolated from women with cervical pathology

    PubMed Central

    González-Losa, María del R; Puerto-Solis, Marylin; Tenorio Ruiz, Juan; Rosado-López, Ariel I; Hau-Aviles, Oscar; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Cisneros-Cutz, Isidro; Conde-Ferráez, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA into human cells accompanied by the disruption of the viral genome has been described as a prerequisite for cancer development. This study aimed to investigate E2 gene integrity of HPV16 and HPV58 viruses isolated from infected women with cervical lesions. Forty-two HPV16- and 31 HPV58-positive samples were analysed. E2 integrity was assumed when all fragments covering the E2 gene were amplified with specific polymerase chain reaction primers. Overall, in 59% of the samples, at least one fragment was not amplified in HPV16- (57%) and HPV58-positive samples (61%). Samples from high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions had the highest frequency of E2 gene disruptions (73%), followed by samples from low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (63%) and, finally, samples from invasive cervical cancer (35%). Association between the integrity status of the E2 gene, and lesion grade was assessed by the chi-squared test applied to the combined set of viruses (p = 0.6555) or to populations of the same virus type (HPV58, p = 0.3101; HPV16, p = 0.3024). In conclusion, in this study, no association was found between the presence of E2 gene disruptions and the grade of cervical lesions caused by HPV16 and HPV58. PMID:27812600

  9. Preclinical Model To Test Human Papillomavirus Virus (HPV) Capsid Vaccines In Vivo Using Infectious HPV/Cottontail Rabbit Papillomavirus Chimeric Papillomavirus Particles▿

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Andres F.; Culp, Timothy D.; Cladel, Nancy M.; Balogh, Karla K.; Budgeon, Lynn R.; Buck, Christopher B.; Christensen, Neil D.

    2006-01-01

    A human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine consisting of virus-like particles (VLPs) was recently approved for human use. It is generally assumed that VLP vaccines protect by inducing type-specific neutralizing antibodies. Preclinical animal models cannot be used to test for protection against HPV infections due to species restriction. We developed a model using chimeric HPV capsid/cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) genome particles to permit the direct testing of HPV VLP vaccines in rabbits. Animals vaccinated with CRPV, HPV type 16 (HPV-16), or HPV-11 VLPs were challenged with both homologous (CRPV capsid) and chimeric (HPV-16 capsid) particles. Strong type-specific protection was observed, demonstrating the potential application of this approach. PMID:17005666

  10. Infection and integration of high-risk human papillomavirus in HPV-associated cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chu-Yi; Li, Fan; Zeng, Yi; Tang, Min-zhong; Huang, Yulu; Li, Jin-Tao; Zhong, Ru-Gang

    2015-04-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) have been associated with many human cancers in clinical studies. Integration of HPV into the human genome is a suspected etiological factor in the induction of some HPV-associated cancers. The characteristics of HPV integration in certain HPV-integrated cancer cells remain unclear. In this study, ten HPV-associated carcinoma cell lines were evaluated for the presence, genotype, and integration status of HPV by nested polymerase chain reaction. The HPV genome did not insert in the genome of a mammary cancer cell line (MCF7), adrenal neuroblastoma cell line (NH-6), or three esophageal carcinoma cell lines (KYSE150, KYSE450 and KYSE140). HPV type 18 DNA did infect cell lines of tongue cancer (Tca83), hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep G2), and lung carcinoma (A549), but the HPV type 18 genes were not transcribed into mRNA. However, HPV type 18 integrated into the genomes of the esophageal carcinoma cell lines EC9706 and EC109, and the integration sites for both cell lines were in loci 8q24, which is a gene desert area adjacent to fragile sites. We speculate that HPV transcripts are more likely to integrate near highly susceptible fragile sites. This study suggests that HPV integration is still a significant issue that needs to be fully examined and can possibly be used as individualized biomarkers for the early diagnosis of HPV-related cancers.

  11. Educational interventions to increase HPV vaccination acceptance: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Linda Y.; Bonhomme, Lize-Anne; Cooper, Spring Chenoa; Joseph, Jill G.; Zimet, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been available for protection against HPV-associated cervical cancer and genital warts since 2006. Nonetheless, uptake has varied among countries and populations within countries. Studies have found that individuals’ knowledge and attitudes toward the vaccine are associated with immunization uptake. The purpose of the current review is to summarize and evaluate the evidence for educational interventions to increase HPV vaccination acceptance. Methods We searched the databases of PubMed and Web of Science for English-language articles describing educational interventions designed to improve HPV vaccination uptake, intention or attitude. Results We identified 33 studies of HPV vaccination educational interventions: 7 tested the effectiveness of interventions with parents, 8 with adolescents or young adults, and 18 compared the effectiveness of different message frames in an educational intervention among adolescents, young adults or their parents. Most studies involved populations with higher educational attainment and most interventions required participants to be literate. The minority of studies used the outcome of HPV vaccine uptake. Well-designed studies adequately powered to detect change in vaccine uptake were rare and generally did not demonstrate effectiveness of the tested intervention. Conclusions There is not strong evidence to recommend any specific educational intervention for wide-spread implementation. Future studies are required to determine the effectiveness of culturally-competent interventions reaching diverse populations. PMID:24530401

  12. HIV Type 2 Protease, Reverse Transcriptase, and Envelope Viral Variation in the PBMC and Genital Tract of ARV-Naive Women in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Hawes, Stephen E.; Wong, Kim G.; Raugi, Dana N.; Agne, Habibatou D.; Critchlow, Cathy W.; Kiviat, Nancy B.; Sow, Papa Salif

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Unique viral variants and resistance mutations may occur in the genital tract of HIV-2 ARV-naive infected women. We sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed protease (PR), reverse transcriptase (RT), and envelope (ENV) from PBMC and genital tract samples from four ARV-naive women in Senegal. HIV-2 protease polymorphisms that predict HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI) resistance were common. Two subjects had protease mutations (T77I and I64V) in genital tract samples that were not found in PBMCs. One subject had the HIV-2 reverse transcriptase M184I mutation in CVL DNA (but not PBMCs) that is known to confer 3TC/FTC resistance in HIV-2. In another subject, the reverse transcriptase A62V mutation was also found in CVL-RNA but not PBMCs. We found no significant difference in ENV variants between PBMCs and the genital tract. HIV-2 RT and PR mutations in the genital tract of ARV-naive females may have implications for transmitted HIV-2 resistance and ARV therapy. PMID:18544024

  13. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genital shedding in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women receiving effective combination antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Péré, Héléne; Rascanu, Aida; LeGoff, Jérome; Matta, Mathieu; Bois, Frédéric; Lortholary, Olivier; Leroy, Valériane; Launay, Odile; Bélec, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of genital shedding of HSV-2 DNA was assessed in HIV-1-infected women taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA and HSV DNA loads were measured during 12-18 months using frozen plasma, PBMC and cervicovaginal lavage samples from 22 HIV-1-infected women, including 17 women naive for antiretroviral therapy initiating cART and 5 women with virological failure switching to a new regimen. Nineteen (86%) women were HSV-2-seropositive. Among HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women, HIV-1 RNA loads showed a rapid fall from baseline after one month of cART, in parallel in paired plasma and cervicovaginal secretions. In contrast, HIV-1 DNA loads did not show significant variations from baseline up to 18 months of treatment in both systemic and genital compartments. HSV DNA was detected at least once in 12 (63%) of 19 women during follow up: HSV-2 shedding in the genital compartment was observed in 11% of cervicovaginal samples at baseline and in 16% after initiating or switching cART. Cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA loads were strongly associated with plasma HIV-1 RNA loads over time, but not with cervicovaginal HSV DNA loads. Reactivation of genital HSV-2 replication frequently occurred despite effective cART in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women. Genital HSV-2 replication under cART does not influence cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA or DNA shedding.

  14. Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping of cutaneous warts in Greek children.

    PubMed

    Giannaki, Maria; Kakourou, Talia; Theodoridou, Maria; Syriopoulou, Vassiliki; Kabouris, Marios; Louizou, Eirini; Chrousos, George

    2013-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) infects the squamous epithelium of the skin and produces common warts, plantar warts, and flat warts, which occur commonly on the hands, face, and feet. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of HPV in warts in children in order to associate the virus with the disease. Sixty-eight children with clinically diagnosed cutaneous warts were recruited. Skin biopsy samples were examined and DNA was extracted using a commercially available kit. To distinguish between the HPV types, we used a specific pair of primers to amplify the HPV DNA. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of the L1 region was followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and Luminex xMAP technology. HPV 57 was the predominant type in our study, although the detection of the high-risk HPV type 16 in 33% of our positive samples indicates the presence of mucosal high-risk HPV types in the skin of children. It seems that the newly introduced Luminex assay maximized the discrimination of genotypes even in the case of multiple HPV infections. Or findings also suggest the presence of high-risk HPV types in cutaneous warts.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Mexico: a transmission dynamic model-based evaluation.

    PubMed

    Insinga, Ralph P; Dasbach, Erik J; Elbasha, Elamin H; Puig, Andrea; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam

    2007-12-21

    We examined the potential health outcomes and cost-effectiveness of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) 6/11/16/18 vaccination strategies in the Mexican population using a multi-HPV type dynamic transmission model. Assuming similar cervical screening practices, with or without vaccination, we examined the incremental cost-effectiveness of vaccination strategies for 12 year-old females, with or without male vaccination, and temporary age 12-24 catch-up vaccination for females or both sexes. The most effective strategy therein was vaccination of 12-year-olds, plus a temporary 12-24-year-old catch-up program covering both sexes; whereby HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical cancer, high-grade cervical precancer, and genital wart incidence was reduced by 84-98% during year 50 following vaccine introduction. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios in the primary analyses ranged from approximately 3000 dollars (U.S.) per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained for female vaccination strategies to approximately 16000 dollars /QALY for adding male vaccination with catch-up.

  16. Potential Anti-HPV and Related Cancer Agents from Marine Resources: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shi-Xin; Zhang, Xiao-Shuang; Guan, Hua-Shi; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the studies on the prevention and treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) which is closely related to the cervical cancer and other genital diseases are attracting more and more attention all over the world. Marine-derived polysaccharides and other bioactive compounds have been shown to possess a variety of anti-HPV and related cancer activities. This paper will review the recent progress in research on the potential anti-HPV and related cancer agents from marine resources. In particular, it will provide an update on the anti-HPV actions of heparinoid polysaccharides and bioactive compounds present in marine organisms, as well as the therapeutic vaccines relating to marine organisms. In addition, the possible mechanisms of anti-HPV actions of marine bioactive compounds and their potential for therapeutic application will also be summarized in detail. PMID:24705500

  17. Characterization of Two Novel Gammapapillomaviruses, HPV179 and HPV184, Isolated from Common Warts of a Renal-Transplant Recipient

    PubMed Central

    Hošnjak, Lea; Kocjan, Boštjan J.; Pirš, Branko; Seme, Katja; Poljak, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Gammapapillomavirus (Gamma-PV) is a diverse and rapidly expanding PV-genus, currently consisting of 76 fully characterized human papillomavirus (HPV) types. In this study, DNA genomes of two novel HPV types, HPV179 and HPV184, obtained from two distinct facial verrucae vulgares specimens of a 64 year-old renal-transplant recipient, were fully cloned, sequenced and characterized. HPV179 and HPV184 genomes comprise 7,228-bp and 7,324-bp, respectively, and contain four early (E1, E2, E6 and E7) and two late genes (L1 and L2); the non-coding region is typically positioned between L1 and E6 genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the L1 nucleotide sequence placed both novel types within the Gamma-PV genus: HPV179 was classified as a novel member of species Gamma-15, additionally containing HPV135 and HPV146, while HPV184 was classified as a single member of a novel species Gamma-25. HPV179 and HPV184 type-specific quantitative real-time PCRs were further developed and used in combination with human beta-globin gene quantitative real-time PCR to determine the prevalence and viral load of the novel types in the patient’s facial warts and several follow-up skin specimens, and in a representative collection, a total of 569 samples, of HPV-associated benign and malignant neoplasms, hair follicles and anal and oral mucosa specimens obtained from immunocompetent individuals. HPV179 and HPV184 viral loads in patients’ facial warts were estimated to be 2,463 and 3,200 genome copies per single cell, respectively, suggesting their active role in the development of common warts in organ-transplant recipients. In addition, in this particular patient, both novel types had established a persistent infection of the skin for more than four years. Among immunocompetent individuals, HPV179 was further detected in low-copy numbers in a few skin specimens, indicating its cutaneous tissue tropism, while HPV184 was further detected in low-copy numbers in one mucosal and a few skin specimens

  18. Characterization of two novel gammapapillomaviruses, HPV179 and HPV184, isolated from common warts of a renal-transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Hošnjak, Lea; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Pirš, Branko; Seme, Katja; Poljak, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Gammapapillomavirus (Gamma-PV) is a diverse and rapidly expanding PV-genus, currently consisting of 76 fully characterized human papillomavirus (HPV) types. In this study, DNA genomes of two novel HPV types, HPV179 and HPV184, obtained from two distinct facial verrucae vulgares specimens of a 64 year-old renal-transplant recipient, were fully cloned, sequenced and characterized. HPV179 and HPV184 genomes comprise 7,228-bp and 7,324-bp, respectively, and contain four early (E1, E2, E6 and E7) and two late genes (L1 and L2); the non-coding region is typically positioned between L1 and E6 genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the L1 nucleotide sequence placed both novel types within the Gamma-PV genus: HPV179 was classified as a novel member of species Gamma-15, additionally containing HPV135 and HPV146, while HPV184 was classified as a single member of a novel species Gamma-25. HPV179 and HPV184 type-specific quantitative real-time PCRs were further developed and used in combination with human beta-globin gene quantitative real-time PCR to determine the prevalence and viral load of the novel types in the patient's facial warts and several follow-up skin specimens, and in a representative collection, a total of 569 samples, of HPV-associated benign and malignant neoplasms, hair follicles and anal and oral mucosa specimens obtained from immunocompetent individuals. HPV179 and HPV184 viral loads in patients' facial warts were estimated to be 2,463 and 3,200 genome copies per single cell, respectively, suggesting their active role in the development of common warts in organ-transplant recipients. In addition, in this particular patient, both novel types had established a persistent infection of the skin for more than four years. Among immunocompetent individuals, HPV179 was further detected in low-copy numbers in a few skin specimens, indicating its cutaneous tissue tropism, while HPV184 was further detected in low-copy numbers in one mucosal and a few skin specimens

  19. Acceptability of HPV Vaccine for Males and Preferences for Future Education Programs Among Appalachian Residents

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Paul L.; Oldach, Benjamin R.; Randle, Katherine E.; Katz, Mira L.

    2014-01-01

    Appalachia is a geographic region with several disparities related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, yet little is known about acceptability of HPV vaccine for males among Appalachian residents. HPV vaccine acceptability and preferences for future HPV vaccine education programs were examined among residents of Appalachian Ohio. Focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted with Appalachian Ohio residents between July and October 2011. Participants (n = 102 from 24 focus groups and 5 in-depth interviews) included four key stakeholder groups: health care providers, community leaders, parents with adolescent sons, and young adult men ages 18 to 26 years. Support for vaccinating males against HPV was high among participants, despite low awareness and knowledge about HPV vaccine for males. Participants reported three categories of potential barriers to vaccinating males against HPV: concerns about vaccine safety and side effects, access to care and vaccination logistics, and gender and cultural issues. Participants reported that HPV vaccine was viewed as being only for females in their communities and that receiving the vaccine may be emasculating or embarrassing to males. Participants suggested that future HPV vaccine education programs mainly target parents, include basic information about HPV-related diseases and HPV vaccine (e.g., number of doses, cost), and present the vaccine as having the potential to prevent cancer (as opposed to preventing genital warts). Acceptability of HPV vaccine for males was high among residents of Appalachian Ohio. Future HPV vaccine education programs in Appalachia should address common potential barriers to vaccination and help destigmatize vaccination among males. PMID:24085197

  20. Star-PAP controls HPV E6 regulation of p53 and sensitizes cells to VP-16.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Anderson, R A

    2014-02-13

    Cervical cancer is the most common genital malignancy and the high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV type 16, 18 and 31, and so on) are major agents for its cause. A key switch for the onset of cervical cancers by HPVs is the cellular degradation of the tumor-suppressor p53 that is mediated by the HPV-generated E6 protein. E6 forms a complex with the E3 ubiquitin-ligase E6-associated protein (E6AP) leading to p53 degradation. The components that control E6 expression and the mechanisms for regulation of the expression in host cells remain undefined. Here we show that the nuclear noncanonical poly(A) polymerase (PAP) speckle targeted PIPKIα regulated PAP (Star-PAP) controls E6 mRNA polyadenylation and expression and modulates wild-type p53 levels as well as cell cycle profile in high-risk HPV-positive cells. In the absence of Star-PAP, treatment of cells with the chemotherapeutic drug VP-16 dramatically reduced E6 and increased p53 levels. This diminished both cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth required for cancer progression, indicating a synergism between VP-16 treatment and the loss of Star-PAP. This identifies Star-PAP as a potential drug target for the treatment of HPV-positive cancer cells. These data provide a mechanistic basis for increasing the sensitivity and efficiency of chemotherapy in the treatment of cancers that have low levels of wild-type p53.

  1. Recent advances in management of genital herpes.

    PubMed Central

    Tétrault, I.; Boivin, G.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on new diagnostic tests and antiviral strategies for managing genital herpes. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Treatment guidelines are based on randomized clinical trials and recommendations from the Expert Working Group on Canadian Guidelines for Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Recommendations concerning other aspects of managing genital herpes (e.g., indications for using type-specific serologic tests) are mainly based on expert opinion. MAIN MESSAGE: Genital herpes is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, affecting about 20% of sexually active people; up to 80% of cases are undiagnosed. Because of frequent atypical presentation and the emotional burden associated with genital herpes, clinical diagnosis should be confirmed by viral culture. Type-specific serologic assays are now available, but their use is often restricted to special situations and requires adequate counseling. New antivirals (valacyclovir and famciclovir) with improved pharmacokinetic profiles have now been approved for episodic treatment of recurrences and suppressive therapy. CONCLUSION: Wise use of new diagnostic assays for herpes simplex coupled with more convenient treatment regimens should provide better management of patients with genital herpes. Images Figure 1 PMID:10955181

  2. Fewer doses of HPV vaccine result in immune response similar to three-dose regimen

    Cancer.gov

    NCI scientists report that two doses of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, trademarked as Cervarix, resulted in similar serum antibody levels against two of the most carcinogenic types of HPV (16 and 18), compared to a standard three dose regimen.

  3. HPV infection among rural American Indian women and urban white women in South Dakota: an HPV prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background High-risk strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause cervical cancer. American Indian (AI) women in the Northern Plains of the U.S. have significantly higher incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer than White women in the same geographical area. We compared HPV prevalence, patterns of HPV types, and infection with multiple HPV types in AI and White women living in South Dakota, U.S. Methods We analyzed the HPV status of cervical samples collected in 2006-2008 from women aged 18-65 years who attended two rural AI reservation clinics (n = 235) or an urban clinic in the same area serving mostly White women (n = 246). Data collection occurred before HPV vaccination was available to study participants. HPV DNA was amplified by using the L1 consensus primer system and an HPV Linear Array detection assay to identify HPV types. We used chi-square tests to compare HPV variables, with percentages standardized by age and lifetime number of sexual partners. Results Compared to White women, AI women were younger (p = 0.01) and reported more sexual partners (p < 0.001). A lower percentage of AI women tested negative for HPV infection compared to Whites (58% [95% CI = 51-65] vs. 77% [95% CI = 71-82]; p < 0.001), and a higher percentage of AI women were infected by oncogenic types (30% [95% CI = 25-36] vs. 16% [95% CI = 11-21]; p = 0.001). Infections among AI women showed a wider variety and very different pattern of HPV types, including a higher prevalence of mixed HPV infections (19% [95% CI = 26-38] vs. 7% [95% CI = 4-11]; p = 0.001). AI women had a higher percentage of HPV infections that were not preventable by HPV vaccination (32% [95% CI = 26-38] vs. 15% [95% CI = 11-21]; p < 0.001). Conclusions A higher HPV burden and a different HPV genotyping profile may contribute to the high rate of cervical cancer among AI women. PMID:21943050

  4. Attitude, Acceptability and Knowledge of HPV Vaccination among Local University Students in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Vico Chung Lim; Wong, Ho Ting; Yeung, Pui Chun Au; Choi, Yuk Ki; Fok, Michelle Sum Yue; Mak, Oi In; Wong, Hing Yu; Wong, Kim Ho; Wong, Shui Yan; Wong, Yee Shan; Wong, Eugene Ying Yeung

    2016-01-01

    The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has the great potential to prevent HPV-related infections for millions of women and men worldwide. However, the success of the vaccine is highly dependent on the vaccination rate. Factors influencing the attitudes of undergraduate students towards HPV vaccination should be studied. This is a cross-sectional survey that was conducted to estimate the HPV vaccination rate among undergraduate students in Hong Kong, and to identify the predictors of their attitude towards HPV vaccination. The results showed that the HPV vaccination rate was 13.3%. Factors related to knowledge of vaccination were the main predictors of the students’ attitude towards vaccination (there were seven predictors, with B = 1.36 to 2.30; p < 0.05), followed by gender (B = −1.40; p < 0.05), acceptable maximum price (B = 0.35; p < 0.05), and willingness to receive the HPV vaccine if it can protect against cervical/anal cancer and genital warts (B = −1.90; p < 0.001). The regression model that was developed based on the predictors had a moderate effect size (adj-R2 = 0.33). To conclude, the HPV vaccination rate among undergraduate students in Hong Kong was low. They should be provided with more active education and activities to promote HPV vaccination to improve their knowledge on the subject. PMID:27187424

  5. Attitude, Acceptability and Knowledge of HPV Vaccination among Local University Students in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Vico Chung Lim; Wong, Ho Ting; Yeung, Pui Chun Au; Choi, Yuk Ki; Fok, Michelle Sum Yue; Mak, Oi In; Wong, Hing Yu; Wong, Kim Ho; Wong, Shui Yan; Wong, Yee Shan; Wong, Eugene Ying Yeung

    2016-05-11

    The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has the great potential to prevent HPV-related infections for millions of women and men worldwide. However, the success of the vaccine is highly dependent on the vaccination rate. Factors influencing the attitudes of undergraduate students towards HPV vaccination should be studied. This is a cross-sectional survey that was conducted to estimate the HPV vaccination rate among undergraduate students in Hong Kong, and to identify the predictors of their attitude towards HPV vaccination. The results showed that the HPV vaccination rate was 13.3%. Factors related to knowledge of vaccination were the main predictors of the students' attitude towards vaccination (there were seven predictors, with B = 1.36 to 2.30; p < 0.05), followed by gender (B = -1.40; p < 0.05), acceptable maximum price (B = 0.35; p < 0.05), and willingness to receive the HPV vaccine if it can protect against cervical/anal cancer and genital warts (B = -1.90; p < 0.001). The regression model that was developed based on the predictors had a moderate effect size (adj-R² = 0.33). To conclude, the HPV vaccination rate among undergraduate students in Hong Kong was low. They should be provided with more active education and activities to promote HPV vaccination to improve their knowledge on the subject.

  6. The role of anticipated regret and health beliefs in HPV vaccination intentions among young adults.

    PubMed

    Christy, Shannon M; Winger, Joseph G; Raffanello, Elizabeth W; Halpern, Leslie F; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Mosher, Catherine E

    2016-06-01

    Although cognitions have predicted young adults' human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine decision-making, emotion-based theories of healthcare decision-making suggest that anticipatory emotions may be more predictive. This study examined whether anticipated regret was associated with young adults' intentions to receive the HPV vaccine above and beyond the effects of commonly studied cognitions. Unvaccinated undergraduates (N = 233) completed a survey assessing Health Belief Model (HBM) variables (i.e., perceived severity of HPV-related diseases, perceived risk of developing these diseases, and perceived benefits of HPV vaccination), anticipatory emotions (i.e., anticipated regret if one were unvaccinated and later developed genital warts or HPV-related cancer), and HPV vaccine intentions. Anticipated regret was associated with HPV vaccine intentions above and beyond the effects of HBM variables among men. Among women, neither anticipated regret nor HBM variables showed consistent associations with HPV vaccine intentions. Findings suggest that anticipatory emotions should be considered when designing interventions to increase HPV vaccination among college men.

  7. The human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 oncoproteins promotes nuclear localization of active caspase 8

    SciTech Connect

    Manzo-Merino, Joaquin; Lizano, Marcela

    2014-02-15

    The HPV-16 E6 and E6{sup ⁎} proteins have been shown previously to be capable of regulating caspase 8 activity. We now show that the capacity of E6 to interact with caspase 8 is common to diverse HPV types, being also seen with HPV-11 E6, HPV-18 E6 and HPV-18 E6{sup ⁎}. Unlike most E6-interacting partners, caspase 8 does not appear to be a major proteasomal target of E6, but instead E6 appears able to stimulate caspase 8 activation, without affecting the overall apoptotic activity. This would appear to be mediated in part by the ability of the HPV E6 oncoproteins to recruit active caspase 8 to the nucleus. - Highlights: • Multiple HPV E6 oncoproteins interact with the caspase 8 DED domain. • HPV E6 stimulates activation of caspase 8. • HPV E6 promotes nuclear accumulation of caspase 8.

  8. HPV Vaccination: An Investigation of Physician Reminders and Recommendation Scripts

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Human Papilloma Virus Infection Type 11; Human Papilloma Virus Infection Type 16; Human Papilloma Virus Infection Type 18; Human Papilloma Virus Infection Type 6; Cervical Cancer; Genital Warts; Oropharyngeal Cancer

  9. HPV Vaccination: Evaluation of Reminder Prompts for Doses 2 & 3

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-24

    Human Papilloma Virus Infection Type 11; Human Papilloma Virus Infection Type 16; Human Papilloma Virus Infection Type 18; Human Papilloma Virus Infection Type 6; Cervical Cancer; Genital Warts; Oropharyngeal Cancer

  10. HPV status and favourable outcome in vulvar squamous cancer.

    PubMed

    Wakeham, Katie; Kavanagh, Kim; Cuschieri, Kate; Millan, David; Pollock, Kevin G; Bell, Sarah; Burton, Kevin; Reed, Nicholas S; Graham, Sheila V

    2017-03-01

    It is universally accepted that high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is the cause of cervical dysplasia and cancer. More recently, it has been shown that HPV is also a marker of clinical outcome in oropharyngeal cancer. However, contemporary information is lacking on both the prevalence of HPV infection in vulvar cancer (VSCC), its precursor lesion, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and the influence of HPV-status on the prognosis of this malignancy. We have conducted a detailed population-based study to examine rates of progression of VIN to VSCC, type-specific HPV prevalence in vulvar disease and the influence of HPV status on clinical outcome in VSCC. We observed that the age at which women are diagnosed with VSCC is falling and there is a significant time gap between first diagnosis of VIN and progression to invasive disease. HR-HPV infection was detected in 87% (97/112) cases of VIN and 52% cases (32/62) of VSCC. The presence of HR-HPV in squamous intraepithelial lesion was associated with lower rates of progression to invasive cancer (hazard ratio, 0.22, p = 0.001). In the adjusted analysis, HR-HPV was associated with improved progression-free survival of VSCC compared to those with HPV negative tumours (hazard ratio, 0.32, p = 0.02).

  11. [Metastatic oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in cervical lymph nodes associated to HPV infection type 16 and 45; clinical, morphological and molecular study of two cases].

    PubMed

    Soria-Céspedes, Danny; Canchola Aguilar, Guadalupe; Lara-Torres, César Octavio; Sánchez-Marle, Juan Felipe; Hernández-Peña, Roberto Enrique; Ortiz-Hidalgo, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma has been identified as a distinct entity within squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. In contrast to carcinomas associated with alcohol and/or tobacco, this subtype occurs at younger age, with frequent absence of classic risk factors, correlation with oral sexual habits, strong predilection for the palatial tonsils and the base of the tongue (lingual tonsils), basaloid or lymphoepithelial differentiation, higher degree of radiosensitivity, and overall better survival. We report two cases of lymph node, metastatic, poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma that were positive by immunohistochemistry for p16 with detection of HPV-16 and HPV-45 by PCR.

  12. Optimization of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) L1 expression in plants: comparison of the suitability of different HPV-16 L1 gene variants and different cell-compartment localization.

    PubMed

    Maclean, J; Koekemoer, M; Olivier, A J; Stewart, D; Hitzeroth, I I; Rademacher, T; Fischer, R; Williamson, A-L; Rybicki, E P

    2007-05-01

    Virus-like particle-based vaccines for high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) appear to have great promise; however, cell culture-derived vaccines will probably be very expensive. The optimization of expression of different codon-optimized versions of the HPV-16 L1 capsid protein gene in plants has been explored by means of transient expression from a novel suite of Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary expression vectors, which allow targeting of recombinant protein to the cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or chloroplasts. A gene resynthesized to reflect human codon usage expresses better than the native gene, which expresses better than a plant-optimized gene. Moreover, chloroplast localization allows significantly higher levels of accumulation of L1 protein than does cytoplasmic localization, whilst ER retention was least successful. High levels of L1 (>17% total soluble protein) could be produced via transient expression: the protein assembled into higher-order structures visible by electron microscopy, and a concentrated extract was highly immunogenic in mice after subcutaneous injection and elicited high-titre neutralizing antibodies. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing a human codon-optimized gene linked to a chloroplast-targeting signal expressed L1 at levels up to 11% of the total soluble protein. These are the highest levels of HPV L1 expression reported for plants: these results, and the excellent immunogenicity of the product, significantly improve the prospects of making a conventional HPV vaccine by this means.

  13. Control of HPV infection and related cancer through vaccination.

    PubMed

    Tran, Nam Phuong; Hung, Chien-Fu; Roden, Richard; Wu, T-C

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted virus, and its associated diseases continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in over 600 million infected individuals. Major progress has been made with preventative vaccines, and clinical data have emerged regarding the efficacy and cross-reactivity of the two FDA approved L1 virus like particle (VLP)-based vaccines. However, the cost of the approved vaccines currently limits their widespread use in developing countries which carry the greatest burden of HPV-associated diseases. Furthermore, the licensed preventive HPV vaccines only contain two high-risk types of HPV (HPV-16 and HPV-18) which can protect only up to 75 % of all cervical cancers. Thus, second generation preventative vaccine candidates hope to address the issues of cost and broaden protection through the use of more multivalent L1-VLPs, vaccine formulations, or alternative antigens such as L1 capsomers, L2 capsid proteins, and chimeric VLPs. Preventative vaccines are crucial to controlling the transmission of HPV, but there are already hundreds of millions of infected individuals who have HPV-associated lesions that are silently progressing toward malignancy. This raises the need for therapeutic HPV vaccines that can trigger T cell killing of established HPV lesions, including HPV-transformed tumor cells. In order to stimulate such antitumor immune responses, therapeutic vaccine candidates deliver HPV antigens in vivo by employing various bacterial, viral, protein, peptide, dendritic cell, and DNA-based vectors. This book chapter will review the commercially available preventive vaccines, present second generation candidates, and discuss the progress of developing therapeutic HPV vaccines.

  14. HPV-16 E2 contributes to induction of HPV-16 late gene expression by inhibiting early polyadenylation.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Cecilia; Somberg, Monika; Li, Xiaoze; Backström Winquist, Ellenor; Fay, Joanna; Ryan, Fergus; Pim, David; Banks, Lawrence; Schwartz, Stefan

    2012-05-22

    We provide evidence that the human papillomavirus (HPV) E2 protein regulates HPV late gene expression. High levels of E2 caused a read-through at the early polyadenylation signal pAE into the late region of the HPV genome, thereby inducing expression of L1 and L2 mRNAs. This is a conserved property of E2 of both mucosal and cutaneous HPV types. Induction could be reversed by high levels of HPV-16 E1 protein, or by the polyadenylation factor CPSF30. HPV-16 E2 inhibited polyadenylation in vitro by preventing the assembly of the CPSF complex. Both the N-terminal and hinge domains of E2 were required for induction of HPV late gene expression in transfected cells as well as for inhibition of polyadenylation in vitro. Finally, overexpression of HPV-16 E2 induced late gene expression from a full-length genomic clone of HPV-16. We speculate that the accumulation of high levels of E2 during the viral life cycle, not only turns off the expression of the pro-mitotic viral E6 and E7 genes, but also induces the expression of the late HPV genes L1 and L2.

  15. HPV-16 E2 contributes to induction of HPV-16 late gene expression by inhibiting early polyadenylation

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Cecilia; Somberg, Monika; Li, Xiaoze; Backström Winquist, Ellenor; Fay, Joanna; Ryan, Fergus; Pim, David; Banks, Lawrence; Schwartz, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We provide evidence that the human papillomavirus (HPV) E2 protein regulates HPV late gene expression. High levels of E2 caused a read-through at the early polyadenylation signal pAE into the late region of the HPV genome, thereby inducing expression of L1 and L2 mRNAs. This is a conserved property of E2 of both mucosal and cutaneous HPV types. Induction could be reversed by high levels of HPV-16 E1 protein, or by the polyadenylation factor CPSF30. HPV-16 E2 inhibited polyadenylation in vitro by preventing the assembly of the CPSF complex. Both the N-terminal and hinge domains of E2 were required for induction of HPV late gene expression in transfected cells as well as for inhibition of polyadenylation in vitro. Finally, overexpression of HPV-16 E2 induced late gene expression from a full-length genomic clone of HPV-16. We speculate that the accumulation of high levels of E2 during the viral life cycle, not only turns off the expression of the pro-mitotic viral E6 and E7 genes, but also induces the expression of the late HPV genes L1 and L2. PMID:22617423

  16. Correlates of HPV knowledge among low-income, minority mothers with a child 9 – 17 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Davlin, S.L.; Berenson, A.B.; Rahman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective To assess the level of HPV knowledge among low income, minority mothers with a child between the ages of 9 – 17 years. Design Women who sought care at a university-based clinic and had at least one child aged 9 to 17 years were approached. A total of 638 mothers were recruited. Only those who had heard of HPV were included in the correlation analyses (n = 468). Main Outcome Measures HPV knowledge was assessed utilizing a self-administered questionnaire consisting of 20 questions. Results There were differences between those who had heard of HPV and those who had not. More of those who had not heard of HPV were Hispanic (63%), low-income (89%), and did not graduate high school (59%). Of those who had heard of HPV, the majority did not answer 50% of questions correctly. Few knew the vaccine could prevent genital warts (19.7%). Factors independently associated with HPV knowledge included age, personal history of HPV, cervical dysplasia or cervical cancer, acquiring knowledge from ≥2 sources, having known someone with HPV or cervical cancer, having seen a brochure on the vaccine, and having seen an advertisement for the vaccine. Conclusions Knowledge regarding HPV is low among low-income women with children in the target age range for HPV vaccination. Increased awareness should focus on genital warts and other cancers, since this population has virtually no knowledge of other health outcomes related to HPV infection. Educational programs tailored to this population need to be developed to increase vaccination. PMID:25444051

  17. Cross-protection of the Bivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Against Variants of Genetically Related High-Risk HPV Infections

    PubMed Central

    Harari, Ariana; Chen, Zigui; Rodríguez, Ana Cecilia; Hildesheim, Allan; Porras, Carolina; Herrero, Rolando; Wacholder, Sholom; Panagiotou, Orestis A.; Befano, Brian; Burk, Robert D.; Schiffman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background. Results from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (CVT) demonstrated partial cross-protection by the bivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, which targets HPV-16 and HPV-18, against HPV-31, -33, and -45 infection and an increased incidence of HPV-51 infection. Methods. A study nested within the CVT intention-to-treat cohort was designed to assess high-risk HPV variant lineage–specific vaccine efficacy (VE). The 2 main end points were (1) long-term incident infections persisting for ≥2 years and/or progression to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (ie, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 [CIN 2/3]) and (2) incident transient infections lasting for <2 years. For efficiency, incident infections due to HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -35, -45, and -51 resulting in persistent infection and/or CIN 2/3 were matched (ratio, 1:2) to the more-frequent transient viral infections, by HPV type. Variant lineages were determined by sequencing the upstream regulatory region and/or E6 region. Results. VEs against persistent or transient infections with HPV-16, -18, -33, -35, -45, and -51 did not differ significantly by variant lineage. As the possible exception, VEs against persistent infection and/or CIN 2/3 due to HPV-31 A/B and HPV-31C variants were −7.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], −33.9% to 0%) and 86.4% (95% CI, 65.1%–97.1%), respectively (P = .02 for test of equal VE). No difference in VE was observed by variant among transient HPV-31 infections (P = .68). Conclusions. Overall, sequence variation at the variant level does not appear to explain partial cross-protection by the bivalent HPV vaccine. PMID:26518044

  18. Prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 and attitudes toward HPV vaccination trials in patients with cervical cancer in Mali

    PubMed Central

    Téguété, Ibrahima; Dolo, Amadou; Sangare, Kotou; Sissoko, Abdoulaye; Rochas, Mali; Beseme, Sarah; Tounkara, Karamoko; Yekta, Shahla; De Groot, Anne S.; Koita, Ousmane A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is one of the most common and lethal cancers in West Africa. Even though vaccines that protect against the most common Human papillomavirus (HPV) strains, 16 and 18, are currently in use in developed countries, the implementation of these vaccines in developing countries has been painfully slow, considering the pre-eminence of HPV-associated cervical cancer among women in those countries. Aim We performed serological and PCR-based assessment of blood and tissue specimens obtained from women undergoing cervical cancer-related surgery at a major urban hospital in Bamako. Since several therapeutic HPV vaccines are currently in clinical trials, we also assessed willingness to participate in HPV cancer vaccine trials. Methods Blood and biopsy samples of 240 women were evaluated for HPV types 16 and 18 by serology and PCR. Knowledge regarding the HPV vaccine and autonomy to decide to vaccinate their own child was assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Results HPV 16 and 18 were identified in 137/166 (82.5%) cervical cancer biopsy samples by PCR. Co-infection with both HPV 16 and 18 was significantly more frequent in women over 50 years of age than in younger women (63.0% vs. 37.0%). 44% of study participants said they would be willing to vaccinate their child with HPV vaccine. Only 39% of women participating in this study reported that they would be able to make an autonomous decision to receive HPV vaccination. Permission from a male spouse or head of household was identified as important for participation by 59% of the women. Conclusion This study provides strong support for the introduction of currently available HPV vaccines in Mali, and also provides key information about conditions for obtaining informed consent for HPV vaccine trials and HPV vaccination in Mali. PMID:28231334

  19. Promoting HPV Vaccination Online.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moon J; Cho, Jieun

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of message framing and online media channel on young adults' perceived severity of human papillomavirus (HPV), perceived barriers and benefits of getting HPV vaccination, and behavioral intention to get vaccinated. An experiment was conducted with 142 college students. We found an interaction effect: The loss-framed message posted on Facebook was more effective in increasing the number of people who expressed their willingness to get HPV vaccination than the gain-framed message presented on Facebook. However, this framing effect was not found when the identical message was presented on an online newspaper. People's perceptions of severity of HPV and barriers of getting HPV vaccination were also influenced, depending on which media channel the information was circulated.

  20. Healing of Genital Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…

  1. Female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees.

  2. Evaluation of the detection of 14 high-risk human papillomaviruses with HPV 16 and HPV 18 genotyping for cervical cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    BIAN, MEI-LU; CHENG, JIAO-YING; MA, LI; CONG, XIAO; LIU, JUN; CHEN, YING; CHEN, XI

    2013-01-01

    The American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) suggests that women ≥30 years old, with a negative cytopathological test but a positive high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) test should undergo HPV 16 and HPV 18 genotyping. If this test is positive, immediate cervical pathology is required. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and clinical value of testing for 14 HR HPVs with HPV 16 and HPV 18 genotyping for cervical cancer (CC) screening. A total of 424 females from the China-Japan Friendship Hospital were selected and randomly divided into two groups (A and B). All participants underwent two different testing methods: the liquid-based cytology test (LCT) and a HPV DNA test. For the HPV DNA test, participants in group A underwent the hybrid capture II (HC-II) testing method while participants in group B were tested using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR; HBRT-H14) method. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade II or greater using HBRT-H14 were 96.30, 78.17, 23.21 and 99.68%, respectively. In Group B, compared with other HR HPV types, HPV 16 and HPV 18 infection led to the increased possibility of cervical lesions graded CIN II or higher (8.11 and 51.28%, respectively). A significant difference in the rates of CC and CIN II or higher was observed among women who were i) infected with HPV 16 and/or HPV 18, ii) infected with other HR HPV types and iii) diagnosed as negative for HR HPV infection (χ2=93.976, P=0.0001). In conclusion, HBRT-H14 is applicable for CC screening with the advantage of genotyping for HPV 16 and HPV 18, which may help to improve triage management for women with negative cytology. PMID:24223668

  3. Association between human papillomavirus (HPV) 16, HPV18, and other HR-HPV viral load and the histological classification of cervical lesions: Results from a large-scale cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zeni; Qin, Yu; Yu, Lulu; Lin, Chunqing; Wang, Hong; Cui, Jianfeng; Liu, Bin; Liao, Yiqun; Warren, De'Andre; Zhang, Xun; Chen, Wen

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between HPV viral load and histological grades in the development of cervical cancer is in argument. It is helpful to better understand the association by quantitatively detecting viral load of HPV16, 18, and a pool of 12 other high-risk HPV type (OT) independently on the samples of precancer and cancer. A cross-sectional study was performed in five medical centers of China. Histological diagnosis made by local pathologists was adjudicated via a pathology expert panel. A fully automated real-time PCR test was used for the measurement of HPV16, 18, OT, and human β-globin gene. A total of 2,513 women [1,341 normal, 209 low grade intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 392 high grade intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), 520 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and 51 adenocarcinoma (ADC)] were included. There is a linear increase in the total 14 HPV viral load with histological grade from normal to SCC. This trend was not observed in HPV18 infection but HPV16. The viral load for OT was low in normal, peaked in LSIL and HSIL, and declined in SCC and ADC. In the co-infection of HPV16 and HPV18, HPV16 viral load was significantly higher than HPV18 in LSIL and HSIL. In co-infection of HPV16 and OT, higher HPV16 viral load was also seen in SCC and ADC. Viral load of HPV16 increases with cervical lesion grade and is predominant in cervical cancer. HPV18 viral load is low in precancer, but going up in cancer. OT viral load shows inverse trend of HPV18. J. Med. Virol. 89:535-541, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping in cervical cancer screening: A large-scale evaluation of the cobas HPV test

    PubMed Central

    Schiffman, Mark; Boyle, Sean; Raine-Bennett, Tina; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Gage, Julia C.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Kornegay, Janet R; Apple, Raymond; Aldrich, Carrie; Erlich, Henry A.; Tam, Thanh; Befano, Brian; Burk, Robert D.; Castle, Philip E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The cobas® HPV Test (“cobas”, Roche Molecular Systems) detects HPV16 and HPV18 individually, and a pool of 12 other high-risk (HR) HPV types. The test is approved for 1) ASC-US triage to determine need for colposcopy, 2) combined screening with cytology (“co-testing”), and 3) primary HPV screening. Methods To assess the possible value of HPV16/18 typing, >17,000 specimens from a longitudinal cohort study of initially HPV-positive women (HC2, Qiagen) were retested with cobas. To study accuracy, cobas genotyping results were compared to those of an established method, the LINEAR ARRAY HPV Genotyping Test (LA, Roche Molecular Systems). Clinical value of the typing strategy was evaluated by linking the cobas results (supplemented by other available typing results) to 3-year cumulative risks of CIN3+. Results Grouped hierarchically (HPV16, else HPV18, else other HR types, else negative), the kappa statistic for agreement between cobas and LA was 0.86 (95%CI=0.86-0.87). In all 3 scenarios, HPV16-positive women were at much higher 3-year risk of CIN3+ than HPV16-negative women: women aged 21 and older with ASC-US (14.5%, 95%CI=13.5%-15.5% versus 3.5%, 95%CI=3.3%-3.6%); women aged 30 and older that were HPV-positive cytology-negative (10.3%, 95%CI=9.6%-11.1% versus 2.3%, 95%CI=2.2%-2.4%); and all women 25 and older that were HPV-positive (18.5%, 95%CI=17.8%-19.2% versus 4.3%, 95%CI=4.2%-4.4%). Conclusion The cobas and LA results show excellent agreement. The data support HPV16 typing. Impact HPV16 typing is useful in the management of HPV- positive/cytology-negative women in co-testing, of all HPV-positive women in primary HPV testing, and perhaps in the management of HPV-positive women with ASC-US. PMID:26088703

  5. Cervical HPV Natural History Among Young Western Cape, South African Women: The Randomized Control EVRI Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sudenga, Staci L.; Torres, B. Nelson; Botha, Matthys H.; Zeier, Michele; Abrahamsen, Martha E.; Glashoff, Richard H.; Engelbrecht, Susan; der Loeff, Maarten F. Schim Van; der Laan, Louvina E. Van; Kipping, Siegfried; Taylor, Douglas; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this analysis was to assess human papillomavirus (HPV) infection persistence and incidence 7-months post-enrollment by HPV vaccine study arm (vaccine or placebo). Methods HIV-negative, sexually active women aged 16-24 years in the Western Cape, South Africa, were enrolled in the EVRI Trial and were randomized to receive 4-valent HPV vaccine or placebo. Cervical specimens were collected at enrollment and at the 7-month visit and were genotyped for HPV. HPV prevalence, persistence, and incidence were calculated. Prevalence ratios and odds ratios were calculated to assess factors associated with a prevalent and incident HPV infection. Results HPV incidence rates were marginally higher for the placebo group (n=163) compared to the vaccine group (n=169). A large proportion of the prevalent high risk (HR-HPV) HPV types (49%) persisted over the 7-month period in both arms. Prevalent HR-HPV infection was significantly associated with a prevalent gonorrhea infection and detection of Herpes simplex type 2 antibodies. Incident HR-HPV infection was significantly associated with abnormal cervical cytology at enrollment and younger age. Conclusions Women living in geographic areas, such as southern Africa, at high-risk for HPV need to receive HPV vaccination at a very young age to maximally prevent infection and subsequent disease. PMID:26476151

  6. Knowledge, Awareness and Attitude on HPV, HPV Vaccine and Cervical Cancer among the College Students in India

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Shazia; Labani, Satyanarayana; Das, Bhudev C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Infection of specific high risk Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is known to cause cervical cancer and two prophylactic vaccines have been developed against two major high risk HPV types 16 and 18 for prevention of cervical cancer. Because of societal, religious and ethical issues associated with the vaccination of adolescent girls in India together with lack of awareness about HPV and HPV vaccines, no successful HPV immunization program has been employed in India. Objective To determine knowledge, awareness and attitude of college students on HPV, HPV vaccine and cervical cancer. Method A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in a total of 1580 undergraduate students between the age group 16–26 years comprising 684 girls and 876 boys. Results Out of a total of 1580 students, girls had more knowledge about cervical cancer (82.45%, p<0.001), HPV (45.61%, p<0.001) and HPV vaccines (44%, p<0.001) when compared to those in boys. However, knowledge about the types of HPV and vaccines was poor. Interestingly, students from biology-major had more knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer (81.89%, p<0.001) and HPV (46.58%, <0.001) when compared to non-biology students. Girls from both biology and non-biology group had higher awareness compared to boys. Analysis of odds ratio (ORs) along with 95% CI showed older girls with 1.2 to 3 fold (p<0.05) higher knowledge than boys. All students agreed that girls should get vaccinated against HPV (p<0.001). Conclusion It is suggested that there is a need for educational intervention and awareness campaigns to augment HPV immunization program for control of cervical cancer in India. PMID:27861611

  7. Comparison of the f-HPV typing™ and Hybrid Capture II® assays for detection of high-risk HPV genotypes in cervical samples.

    PubMed

    Cañadas, María-Paz; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Darwich, Laila; Sirera, Guillermo; Coll, Josep; Clotet, Bonaventura; Videla, Sebastian

    2012-07-01

    Human papillomavirus genotyping is being considered in cervical screening programs and for monitoring the effectiveness of HPV vaccination. Both approaches require access to fast, easy and high-throughput technology. The aim of this study was to compare a new commercial assay (f-HPV typing™) with the Hybrid Capture II® (HC2) to detect HPV infection. The F-HPV typing is a multiplex fluorescent PCR method recognizing E6 and E7 regions of 13 high-risk (HR) HPV types, the same set of HR-types targeted HC2 test. A subset of 157 cervical samples was tested with both assays. The percentage of positive HR-HPV DNA samples was 24% (37/155) by HC2 and 33% (49/155) by f-HPV typing. Concordant results were found in 133/155 (overall agreement, 85.8%; Cohen's kappa=0.65). The analytical sensitivity and specificity of f-HPV were 97.6 and 93, respectively. In conclusion, this study shows that the f-HPV assay provides a good alternative to HC2 to detect HPV infection, allowing simple and rapid HPV genotyping and detecting multiple infections.

  8. HPV Vaccine Acceptance in a Clinic-Based Sample of Women in the Rural South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Heather M.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; McCree, Donna H.; Wright, Marcie S.; Davis, Jennifer; Hutto, Brent E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a very common sexually transmitted infection linked to cervical disease. Vaccines for some types of HPV were in development at the time of the study. Purpose: The study examined HPV vaccine acceptability among underserved women in a rural region of the southeastern U.S. with high rates of cervical cancer…

  9. Genital human papillomavirus infection in women from the Zagreb region.

    PubMed

    Marijan, Tatjana; Vranes, Jasmina; Mlinarić-Dzepina, Ana; Leskovar, Vladimira; Knezević, Jasna; Kvaternik, Matea

    2007-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection, especially among young, sexually active individuals. As persistent infection with oncogenic types may lead to cervical cancer, HPV testing is a useful tool to screen for women at risk for subsequent development of cervical cancer. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) infection in different age groups of cytologically selected women from the Zagreb region, and to evaluate the frequency and results of repeat hrHPV testing. During a one-year study period (November 2005 to November 2006), a total of 3,440 cervical samples from women attending gynecological services of public and private health care systems were received. They were tested for 13 hrHPV genotypes by the polymerase chain reaction based AMPLICOR HPV test (Roche Molecular Systems). The overall prevalence of hrHPV was 34.6%. Most samples were obtained from women aged 21-30 years (44.2%), followed by the 31-40 (27.6%), 41-50 (15.7%), 51-60 (5.3%) and 261 (2.4%) age groups. Out of 3,227 cervical samples obtained from women of known age, 4.9% were obtained from the group of girls younger than 21, in which the highest prevalence of hrHPV (49.4%) was found. A similar prevalence was observed in women aged 21-30 (45.1%). The prevalence gradually decreased with age. During the study period, repeat hrHPV testing was performed in samples from 66 women at different intervals. Out of 28 women that were hrHPV negative on initial testing, only five women turned positive on repeat testing. Out of 38 women that were positive on initial testing, in one-third hrHPV could not be detected on repeat testing. As expected, hrHPV infection was highly prevalent in female adolescents and young women. Further investigation on repeat hrHPV testing is needed to assess virus clearance and rate of newly acquired infection.

  10. Genome-wide gene expression profiles of HPV-positive and HPV-negative oropharyngeal cancer: potential implications for treatment choices

    PubMed Central

    Lohavanichbutr, Pawadee; Houck, John; Fan, Wenhong; Yueh, Bevan; Mendez, Eduardo; Futran, Neal; Doody, David R.; Upton, Melissa P.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Zhao, Lue Ping; Chen, Chu

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the difference in gene expression between human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and HPV-negative oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Design We used Affymetrix U133 plus 2.0 arrays to examine gene expression profiles of OSCC and normal oral tissue. HPV DNA was detected using PCR followed by the Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test, and the differentially expressed genes were analyzed to examine their potential biological roles using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Software (IPA 5.0). Subjects Tumor tissue from 119 primary OSCC patients and normal oral tissue from 35 patients without cancer, all of whom were treated at three University of Washington-affiliated medical centers. Results HPV DNA was found in 41 of 119 (34.5%) tumors and 2 of 35 (5.7%) normal tissue samples, with 39 of 43 HPV being HPV type 16; there was a higher prevalence of HPV DNA in oropharyngeal cancer (23 of 31) than in oral cavity cancer (18 of 88). We found no significant difference in gene expression between HPV-positive and HPV-negative oral cavity cancer but found 446 probe sets (347 known genes) differentially expressed between HPV-positive and HPV-negative oropharyngeal cancer. The most prominent functions of these genes are DNA replication, DNA repair, and cell cycle. Some genes differentially expressed between HPV-positive and HPV-negative oropharyngeal cancer (e.g., TYMS, STMN1, CCND1 and RBBP4) are involved in chemotherapy or radiation sensitivity. Conclusion These results suggest that differences in the biology of HPV-positive and HPV-negative oropharyngeal cancer may have implications for the management of patients with these different tumors. PMID:19221247

  11. HPV vaccination: The most pragmatic cervical cancer primary prevention strategy.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2015-10-01

    The evidence that high-risk HPV infections cause cervical cancers has led to two new approaches for cervical cancer control: vaccination to prevent HPV infections, and HPV screening to detect and treat cervical precancerous lesions. Two vaccines are currently available: quadrivalent vaccine targeting oncogenic HPV types 16, 18, 6, and 11, and bivalent vaccine targeting HPV 16 and 18. Both vaccines have demonstrated remarkable immunogenicity and substantial protection against persistent infection and high-grade cervical cancer precursors caused by HPV 16 and 18 in HPV-naïve women, and have the potential to prevent 70% of cervical cancers in adequately vaccinated populations. HPV vaccination is now implemented in national programs in 62 countries, including some low- and middle-income countries. The early findings from routine national programs in high-income countries are instructive to encourage low- and middle-income countries with a high risk of cervical cancer to roll out HPV vaccination programs and to introduce resource-appropriate cervical screening programs.

  12. HPV disease transmission protection and control

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Neil D.

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) represent a large collection of viral types associated with significant clinical disease of cutaneous and mucosal epithelium. HPV-associated cancers are found in anogenital and oral mucosa, and at various cutaneous sites. Papillomaviruses are highly species and tissue restricted, and these viruses display both mucosotropic, cutaneotropic or dual tropism for epithelial tissues. A subset of HPV types, predominantly mucosal, are also oncogenic and cancers with these HPV types account for more than 200,000 deaths world-wide. Host control of HPV infections requires both innate and adaptive immunity, but the viruses have developed strategies to escape immune detection. Viral proteins can disrupt both innate pathogen-sensing pathways and T-cell based recognition and subsequent destruction of infected tissues. Current treatments to manage HPV infections include mostly ablative strategies in which recurrences are common and only active disease is treated. Although much is known about the papillomavirus life cycle, viral protein functions, and immune responsiveness, we still lack knowledge in a number of key areas of PV biology including tissue tropism, site-specific cancer progression, codon usage profiles, and what are the best strategies to mount an effective immune response to the carcinogenic stages of PV disease. In this review, disease transmission, protection and control are discussed together with questions related to areas in PV biology that will continue to provide productive opportunities of discovery and to further our understanding of this diverse set of human viral pathogens. PMID:28357382

  13. Evaluation of a Radionovela to Promote HPV Vaccine Awareness and Knowledge Among Hispanic Parents

    PubMed Central

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Rodriguez, Hector P.; Thompson, Beti

    2014-01-01

    Hispanic women have more than a 1.5-fold increased cervical cancer incidence and mortality compared to non-Hispanic white women in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control recommends the HPV vaccine for females at ages 11 and 12 years, though it is approved for females aged 9–26 to protect against the primary types of high-risk HPV (HPV-16 and HPV-18) that cause approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases. Few culturally-tailored Spanish HPV vaccine awareness programs have been developed. This study evaluates the efficacy of a Spanish radionovela as an educational tool. Rural Hispanic parents of daughters aged 9–17 (n = 88; 78 mothers and 10 fathers) were randomized to listen to the HPV vaccine radionovela or to another public service announcement. Participants completed a 30 min pretest posttest questionnaire. Parents who listened to the HPV radionovela (intervention group) scored higher on six knowledge and belief items. They were more likely to confirm that HPV is a common infection (70% vs. 48%, P = .002), to deny that women are able to detect HPV (53% vs. 31%, P = .003), to know vaccine age recommendations (87% vs. 68%, P = .003), and to confirm multiple doses (48% vs. 26%, P = .03) than control group parents. The HPV vaccine radionovela improved HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge and attitudes. Radionovela health education may be an efficacious strategy to increase HPV vaccine awareness among Hispanic parents. PMID:21452030

  14. Efficiency of MY09/11 consensus PCR in the detection of multiple HPV infections.

    PubMed

    Şahiner, Fatih; Kubar, Ayhan; Gümral, Ramazan; Ardıç, Medine; Yiğit, Nuri; Şener, Kenan; Dede, Murat; Yapar, Mehmet

    2014-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing has become an important component of cervical cancer screening programs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficiency of MY09/11 consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of multiple HPV infections. For this purpose, MY09/11 PCR was compared to an original TaqMan-based type-specific real-time PCR assay, which can detect 20 different HPV types. Of the 654 samples, 34.1% (223/654) were HPV DNA positive according to at least one method. The relative sensitivities of MY09/11 PCR and type-specific PCR were 80.7% (180/223) and 97.8% (218/223), respectively. In all, 352 different HPV isolates (66 low-risk and 286 high-risk or probable high-risk types) were identified in 218 samples, but 5 samples, which were positive by consensus PCR only, could not be genotyped. The distribution of the 286 high-risk or probable high-risk HPVs were as follows: 24.5% HPV-16, 8.4% HPV-52, 7.7% HPV-51, 6.3% HPV-39, 6.3% HPV-82, 5.6% HPV-35, 5.6% HPV-58, 5.6% HPV-66, 5.2% HPV-18, 5.2% HPV-68, and 19.6% the other 8 types. A single HPV type was detected in 57.3% (125/218) of the genotyped samples, and multiple HPV types were found in the remaining 42.7% (93/218). The false-negative rates of MY09/11 PCR were found to be 17.4% in single infections, 23.3% in multiple infections, and 34.6% in multiple infections that contained 3 or more HPV types, with the condition that the low-risk types HPV-6 and HPV-11 be considered as a monotype. These data suggest that broad-range PCR assays may lead to significant data loss and that type-specific PCR assays can provide accurate and reliable results during cervical cancer screening.

  15. Surgical Management of Giant Genital Condyloma Acuminata by Using Double Keystone Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Mochtar, Chaidir A.; Hamid, Agus Rizal A. H.; Sukasah, Chaula L.

    2016-01-01

    Condyloma acuminata in the external genitalia (genital warts) is a sexually transmitted disease that is often caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). We report a case of giant genital condyloma acuminata in a 35-year-old male patient with HIV comorbidity treated by wide surgical excision. Excision defect was covered with split thickness skin graft (STSG) and double keystone flaps. There was no complication after surgery. Ten months following surgery, there was no new condyloma lesion and the patient had normal voiding and erectile functions. PMID:27974988

  16. Human papillomavirus genotype spectrum in Czech women: correlation of HPV DNA presence with antibodies against HPV-16, 18, and 33 virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Tachezy, R; Hamsíková, E; Hájek, T; Mikysková, I; Smahel, M; Van Ranst, M; Kanka, J; Havránková, A; Rob, L; Guttner, V; Slavík, V; Anton, M; Kratochvíl, B; Kotrsová, L; Vonka, V

    1999-08-01

    Because the biological spectrum of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes present in cervical cancer lesions varies according to the geographical region studied, and because little genotype information is available for Central and Eastern European countries, we studied the endemic HPV-genotype spectrum in cervical samples collected from women visiting gynaecological departments of selected hospitals in the Czech Republic. In a series of 389 samples, 171 (44.0%) were positive for HPV DNA using a consensus-primer polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Genotyping of the HPV PCR products was done using dot-blot hybridisation with type-specific oligonucleotide probes and thermocycle DNA sequencing. Twenty-two different HPV types were detected, HPV-16 being the most prevalent type irrespective of severity of the lesions (55.0%). Multiple HPV types were found in 16.4% of our HPV-DNA-positive samples. The prevalence of HPV infection was 23.0% in women with normal findings and 59.4% in patients with cervical neoplasia, and increased significantly with the severity of the disease: 52.9% in low-grade lesions, 58.0% in high-grade lesions, and 73.5% in cervical carcinomas (P for trend < .00001). In the sera of 191 subjects, 89 with normal findings and 102 with different forms of cervical neoplasia, the prevalence of HPV-specific IgG antibodies was tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using virus-like particles (VLPs) of HPV-16, -18, and -33. Antibodies were significantly more prevalent in HPV-DNA-positive than in HPV-DNA-negative women and there was no association with age. In agreement with the results of HPV genotyping, antibodies reactive with HPV-16 VLPs were the most frequent and, moreover, their prevalence increased with the cervical lesion severity. About half of the subjects with smears in which either HPV-16 or HPV-33 DNA had been detected possessed antibodies reactive with homotypic VLPs. With HPV-18-DNA-positive subjects, however, fewer than 25% displayed

  17. Genotypes and prevalence of HPV single and multiple concurrent infections in women with HSIL.

    PubMed

    Beca, Francisco; Pinheiro, Jorge; Rios, Elisabete; Pontes, Patricia; Amendoeira, Isabel

    2014-11-01

    The contribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) types to the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer has been established for a long time. However, the role of phylogenetically related and rare variants remains uncertain, as well as the influence of concurrent multiple HPV genotypes infection. We aimed at studying the prevalence of several HPV genotypes infecting women with single versus concurrent multiple HPV genotypes infection with a HSIL diagnosis in a cervical cytology. We conducted a cross-sectional study using Thin-Prep(®) liquid-based cervical cytology specimens with the diagnosis of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), in which HPV genotype was sequentially tested. Genotypes were determined with a PapilloCheck(®) system, a DNA-Chip for the type-specific identification of 18 high-risk and six low-risk types of HPV. Of the total study population, 176 cases had a diagnosis of HSIL and positive HPV genotyping result, being HPV16 the most prevalent genotype (48.86%; 95%CI: 41.58-56.19) followed by HPV31 (14.20%; 95%CI: 9.75-20.18). Concurrent multiple HPV genotypes were detected in 36.93% (95%CI: 30.15-44.27) of the patients. The prevalence of the 10 most common HPV genotypes detected varied significantly according to the presence of single vs. concurrent multiple HPV genotypes (P = 0.022). Moreover, women with concurrent multiple HPV genotypes were on average 3.53 (95%CI: 0.43-6.64) years younger than women with single genotype infection. Our results suggest that women with multiple genotype HPV infection differ in terms of age and distribution of the most prevalent HPV genotypes. Additionally, we provide further evidence of the predominance of HPV16 in HSIL lesions of the uterine cervix.

  18. Comparison of Hybribio GenoArray and Roche human papillomavirus (HPV) linear array for HPV genotyping in anal swab samples.

    PubMed

    Low, Huey Chi; Silver, Michelle I; Brown, Brandon J; Leng, Chan Yoon; Blas, Magaly M; Gravitt, Patti E; Woo, Yin Ling

    2015-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally associated with anal cancer, as HPV DNA is detected in up to 90% of anal intraepithelial neoplasias and anal cancers. With the gradual increase of anal cancer rates, there is a growing need to establish reliable and clinically relevant methods to detect anal cancer precursors. In resource-limited settings, HPV DNA detection is a potentially relevant tool for anal cancer screening. Here, we evaluated the performance of the Hybribio GenoArray (GA) for genotyping HPV in anal samples, against the reference standard Roche Linear Array (LA). Anal swab samples were obtained from sexually active men who have sex with men. Following DNA extraction, each sample was genotyped using GA and LA. The overall interassay agreement, type-specific, and single and multiple genotype agreements were evaluated by kappa statistics and McNemar's χ(2) tests. Using GA and LA, 68% and 76% of samples were HPV DNA positive, respectively. There was substantial interassay agreements for the detection of all HPV genotypes (κ = 0.70, 86% agreement). Although LA was able to detect more genotypes per sample, the interassay agreement was acceptable (κ = 0.53, 63% agreement). GA had poorer specific detection of HPV genotypes 35, 42, and 51 (κ < 0.60). In conclusion, GA and LA showed good interassay agreement for the detection of most HPV genotypes in anal samples. However, the detection of HPV DNA in up to 76% of anal samples warrants further evaluation of its clinical significance.

  19. Knowledge and awareness of HPV and the HPV vaccine among young women in the first routinely vaccinated cohort in England.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, Harriet L; Marlow, Laura A V; Hibbitts, Sam; Pollock, Kevin G; Waller, Jo

    2013-02-04

    A national school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme has been available for 12-13 year old females in the UK since 2008, offering protection against HPV types 16 and 18, which are responsible for the majority of cervical cancer. Little is known about HPV knowledge in girls who have been offered the vaccine. Girls offered the school-based vaccine in the first routine cohort (n=1033) were recruited from 13 schools in London three years post-vaccination. Participants completed a questionnaire about HPV awareness, knowledge about HPV and the vaccine, and demographic characteristics including vaccine status. About a fifth of the girls reported they were unaware of the HPV infection. Among those who reported being aware of HPV (n=759) knowledge was relatively low. Approximately half of the participants knew that HPV infection causes cervical cancer, condoms can reduce the risk of transmission and that cervical screening is needed regardless of vaccination status. These results are helpful in benchmarking HPV-related knowledge in vaccinated girls and could be used in the development of appropriate educational messages to accompany the first cervical screening invitation in this cohort in the future.

  20. Can You Get Genital Herpes from a Cold Sore?

    MedlinePlus

    ... during any type of sex (oral, vaginal, or anal). Girls should have their partners use a dental_ ... BC Date reviewed: January 2015 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Genital Herpes ...

  1. Persistent genital arousal and restless genitalia: sexual dysfunction or subtype of vulvodynia?

    PubMed

    Markos, A R; Dinsmore, Wallace

    2013-11-01

    We conducted a literature review of patients' conditions described under persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome, vulvodynia and male genital skin pain of unknown aetiology (penoscrotodynia). Our aim is to improve the understanding of the condition, unify nomenclature and promote evidence-based practice. The most prominent symptom in persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome is a spontaneous, unwelcomed, intrusive and distressing vulval sensation. There are similarities between the clinical presentation of vulvodynia, penoscrotodynia, persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome patients. The aetiology of persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome, similar to vulvodynia, could be better explained in terms of neuro-vascular dysfunction, genital peripheral neuropathy and/or dysfunctional micro-vascular arterio-venous shunting. Erythromelalgia lends itself to explain some cases of restless genital syndrome, who have concurrent restless legs syndrome; and therefore draw parallels with the red scrotum syndrome. The published literature supports the concept of classifying restless genital syndrome as a sub-type of vulvodynia rather than sexual dysfunction.

  2. mRNA sequencing of novel cell lines from human papillomavirus type-16 related vulval intraepithelial neoplasia: consequences of expression of HPV16 E4 and E5.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Dean; Onions, Tiffany; Raybould, Rachel; Flynn, Áine; Tristram, Amanda; Meyrick, Sian; Giles, Peter; Ashelford, Kevin; Hibbitts, Samantha; Fiander, Alison; Powell, Ned

    2014-09-01

    Vulval intraepithelial neoplasia is a precursor of vulval cancer and is commonly caused by infection with Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Development of topical treatments for vulval intraepithelial neoplasia requires appropriate in vitro models. This study evaluated the feasibility of primary culture of vulval intraepithelial neoplasia biopsy tissue to produce cell lines for use as in vitro models. A potentially immortal cell line was produced which gave rise to three monoclonal lines. These lines were characterized for HPV genomic integration and for viral gene expression using ligation-mediated PCR and quantitative PCR. Distinct patterns of viral integration and gene expression were observed among the three lines. Integration and expression data were validated using deep sequencing of mRNA. Gene ontology analyses of these data also demonstrated that expression of the HPV16 E4 and E5 proteins resulted in substantial changes in the composition of the cell membrane and extracellular space, associated with alterations in cell adhesion and differentiation. These data illustrate the diverse patterns of HPV gene expression potentially present within a single lesion. The derived cell lines provide useful models to investigate the biology of vulval intraepithelial neoplasia and the interactions between different HPV gene products and potential therapeutic agents.

  3. Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aswath, Manju; Pandit, Lakshmi V.; Kashyap, Karthik; Ramnath, Raguram

    2016-01-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a phenomenon, in which afflicted women experience spontaneous genital arousal, unresolved by orgasms and triggered by sexual or nonsexual stimuli, eliciting stress. The current case is a 40-year-old female who experienced such orgasms for about a month. Physical examination, investigations, and psychological testing were noncontributory. Carbamazepine (600 mg) was discontinued due to a lack of response. She improved significantly with supportive therapy. Various neuropsychological conditions, pelvic pathology, medications, etc., have been associated with this disorder. Pharmacologic strategies have included the use of antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and analgesics. Validation, psycho-education, identifying triggers, distraction techniques, and pelvic massage have been tried. Living with PGAD is very demanding. There is a lack of understanding of the problem, shame, and hesitation to seek help. The syndrome has been recently described, and understanding is still evolving. PMID:27570347

  4. Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder.

    PubMed

    Aswath, Manju; Pandit, Lakshmi V; Kashyap, Karthik; Ramnath, Raguram

    2016-01-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a phenomenon, in which afflicted women experience spontaneous genital arousal, unresolved by orgasms and triggered by sexual or nonsexual stimuli, eliciting stress. The current case is a 40-year-old female who experienced such orgasms for about a month. Physical examination, investigations, and psychological testing were noncontributory. Carbamazepine (600 mg) was discontinued due to a lack of response. She improved significantly with supportive therapy. Various neuropsychological conditions, pelvic pathology, medications, etc., have been associated with this disorder. Pharmacologic strategies have included the use of antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and analgesics. Validation, psycho-education, identifying triggers, distraction techniques, and pelvic massage have been tried. Living with PGAD is very demanding. There is a lack of understanding of the problem, shame, and hesitation to seek help. The syndrome has been recently described, and understanding is still evolving.

  5. The HPV Vaccination Crisis

    Cancer.gov

    Following the release of a consensus statement from the NCI-Designated Cancer Centers urging HPV vaccination in the United States, Dr. Noel Brewer discusses the country’s low vaccination rates and how clinicians can help to improve them.

  6. Genitals and ethnicity: the politics of genital modifications.

    PubMed

    Johnsdotter, Sara; Essén, Birgitta

    2010-05-01

    The discrepancy in societal attitudes toward female genital cosmetic surgery for European women and female genital cutting in primarily African girl children and women raises the following fundamental question. How can it be that extensive genital modifications, including reduction of labial and clitoral tissue, are considered acceptable and perfectly legal in many European countries, while those same societies have legislation making female genital cutting illegal, and the World Health Organization bans even the "pricking" of the female genitals? At present, tensions are obvious as regards the modification of female genitalia, and current legislation and medical practice show inconsistencies in relation to women of different ethnic backgrounds. As regards the right to health, it is questionable both whether genital cosmetic surgery is always free of complications and whether female genital cutting always leads to them. Activists, national policymakers and other stakeholders, including cosmetic genital surgeons, need to be aware of these inconsistencies and find ways to resolve them and adopt non-discriminatory policies. This is not necessarily an issue of either permitting or banning all forms of genital cutting, but about identifying a consistent and coherent stance in which key social values - including protection of children, bodily integrity, bodily autonomy, and equality before the law - are upheld.

  7. Oral HPV infection and sexuality: a cross-sectional study in women.

    PubMed

    Ragin, Camille; Edwards, Robert; Larkins-Pettigrew, Margaret; Taioli, Emanuela; Eckstein, Stacy; Thurman, Natalie; Bloome, Jessica; Markovic, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the main risk factor for cervical cancers and is associated with close to 36% of oropharyngeal cancers. There is increasing evidence that oral HPV transmission is related to sexual behavior but to our knowledge studies that involve women who have sex with women have not been performed. We examined the prevalence of oral HPV according to sexual behavior among a population-based sample of 118 women and have made some inferences of possible predictors of oral HPV infection. Women were categorized as heterosexual (history of vaginal sex and/or oral sex with males only, n = 75), bisexual (history of vaginal sex and oral sex with females, n = 32) and other (no history of vaginal sex but oral sex with females [homosexuals], virgins and women with incomplete sexual exposure data, n = 11) The prevalence of oral HPV infection was 12/118 (10.2%) for the overall study population and was not significantly different between heterosexual and bisexual women (10.7% (8/75) vs. 12.5% (4/32), p = 0.784). There was no oral HPV detected among homosexual women, virgins or among women where sexual exposure was unknown. Never smokers were more likely to be oral HPV+ compared to former smokers (Adjusted Odds Ratio (Adj OR) = 0.1, 95% CI, 0.0-1.1) and there was no difference in risk between never smokers and current smokers (Adj OR = 0.7, 95% CI, 0.1-4.6). Twenty-five percent (3/12) of oral HPV+ women had a history of HPV and/or genital warts compared to 9% (10/106) of oral HPV-women (p = 0.104). For the women with a history of vaginal sex (n = 110), oral HPV status was statistically significantly different according to oral sex exposure (p = 0.039). A higher proportion of oral HPV-positive women reported that they had no history of oral sex exposure compared to oral HPV-negative women (4/12, 33% vs. 7/98, 8%). The prevalence of cervical HPV infection did not vary between heterosexuals and bisexuals (35.7% (25/70) vs. 35.5% (11/31), p-value 0.411) and for all

  8. [Prognostic and predictive value of koilocytosis, expression of e6 hpv types 16/18, p16ink4a, p53 in locally advanced squamous cell carcinomas of oral cavity and oropharynx, associated with human papillomavirus].

    PubMed

    Riaboshapka, A N

    2014-11-01

    To determine the predictive and prognostic value of koilocytosis, expression of E6 HPV types 16/18, p16INK4a, p53 in patients with locally advanced HPV-associated squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity and oropharynx. In biopsy specimens of squamous cell carcinomas of oral cavity and oropharynx from 60 patients performed koylocytes count, immunohistochemical detection of HPV 16/18 types E6 protein, proteins p16INK4a and p53. Koilocytosis was detected in 50 patients (83.3%); in all 60 patients (100%) were simultaneous expression of p16INK4a and E6 HPV types 16/18; p53 expression was found in 37 patients (61.7%). After combined treatment (induction chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy) stable disease (SD) was detected in 11 patients (18.3%), partial response (PR) - in 25 patients (41.7%), complete response (CR) - in 24 patients (40.0%). There were no cases of disease progression. Treatment effect correlated with expression of p16INK4a (ρ = 0.3, p = 0.024) and expression of p53 (ρ = - 0.3, p = 0.019). Patients with a low expression of p16INK4a (2 points) and high expression of p53 (4 "+") had a high level of SD and had no CR. For all patients, the median of overall survival (OS) was 17 months, 1-year cumulative survival rate was 66.7%, 2-year cumulative survival rate - 35.0%. Median of overall survival was correlated with koilocytosis (ρ=0.5, p<0,001) and expression of E6 HPV types 16/18 (ρ=0.9, p<0.001), p16INK4a (ρ=0.9, p=0.037), p53 (ρ=-0.9; p<0.001). Patients with low expression of p53 (0 and 1 "+") had cumulative 1-year survival rates 87% and 90%, respectively (p<0.001), 2-year survival rates - 52% and 80%, respectively (p=0.015). In the Cox proportional hazards model the significant prognostic factors were prevalence of primary tumor (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3 - 3.5, p=0.003) and p53 expression (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1=1.7, p=0.016). High expression of p16INK4a associated with a high effect of combined treatment, high expression of a p53 - with low effect of

  9. Prevalence and genotype distribution of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) among women in urban Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiujie; Wallin, Keng-Ling; Duan, Meng; Gharizadeh, Baback; Zheng, Biying; Qu, Pengpeng

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the prevalence and genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women in urban Tianjin, China. A cervical cancer screening program for 2,000 women aged 21-65 years old was performed in urban Tianjin from April to October in 2013. The program included ThinPrep cytologic tests (TCT), HPV DNA detection and genotyping using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with Pyrosequencing technology. Colposcopy examination and biopsy were needed if TCT reported greater or equal atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). One thousand nine hundred seventy-eight women were enrolled in the final study, 14.71% (291/1,978) of women were tested HPV positive. Of HPV-positive specimens, 248 (85.22%) and 43 (14.78%) were infected with high- and low-risk HPV genotypes, respectively. Twenty-eight types of HPV were detected in all, the most frequently detected types were HPV16, 58, 18, and 66 orderly. The single infection rate was 92.28% among HPV-positive samples while the multiple infection rate was 7.72%. Among multiple infection models, HPV16 was the most common type co-infection with other types. This study is, to our knowledge, the first population-based survey to provide data on HPV infection and genotype distribution among women in urban Tianjin, China. There was a high prevalence of HPV infection in this area, and HPV16, 58, 18, 66 were the most frequently detected genotypes. Our study provide important information regarding the necessity of early cervical cancer screenings and prophylactic HPV vaccinations, and the knowledge of HPV distribution can also inform us about the HPV ecological change after the vaccination.

  10. Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Induces HPV-Specific Antibodies in the Oral Cavity: Results From the Mid-Adult Male Vaccine Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Ligia A.; Kemp, Troy J.; Torres, B. Nelson; Isaacs-Soriano, Kimberly; Ingles, Donna; Abrahamsen, Martha; Pan, Yuanji; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmeron, Jorge; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Human papillomavirus virus type 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18 cause a large proportion of oropharyngeal cancers, which are increasing in incidence among males, and vaccine efficacy against oral HPV infections in men has not been previously evaluated. Methods. Sera and saliva collected in mouthwash and Merocel sponges at day 1 and month 7 were obtained from 150 men aged 27–45 years from Tampa, Florida, and Cuernavaca, Mexico, who received Gardasil at day 1 and months 2 and 6. Specimens were tested for anti–HPV-16 and anti–HPV-18 immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels by an L1 virus-like particle–based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. All participants developed detectable serum anti–HPV-16 and anti–HPV-18 antibodies, and most had detectable antibodies in both oral specimen types at month 7 (HPV-16 was detected in 93.2% of mouthwash specimens and 95.7% of sponge specimens; HPV-18 was detected in 72.1% and 65.5%, respectively). Antibody concentrations in saliva were approximately 3 logs lower than in serum. HPV-16– and HPV-18–specific antibody levels, normalized to total IgG levels, in both oral specimen types at month 7 were significantly correlated with serum levels (for HPV-16, ρ was 0.90 for mouthwash specimens and 0.92 for sponge specimens; for HPV-18, ρ was 0.89 and 0.86, respectively). Conclusions. This is the first study demonstrating that vaccination of males with Gardasil induces HPV antibody levels at the oral cavity that correlate with circulating levels. PMID:27511896

  11. Study comparing human papillomavirus (HPV) real-time multiplex PCR and Hybrid Capture II INNO-LiPA v2 HPV genotyping PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Iftner, Thomas; Germ, Liesje; Swoyer, Ryan; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Breugelmans, J Gabrielle; Munk, Christian; Stubenrauch, Frank; Antonello, Joseph; Bryan, Janine T; Taddeo, Frank J

    2009-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA genotyping is an essential test to establish efficacy in HPV vaccine clinical trials and HPV prevalence in natural history studies. A number of HPV DNA genotyping methods have been cited in the literature, but the comparability of the outcomes from the different methods has not been well characterized. Clinically, cytology is used to establish possible HPV infection. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of HPV multiplex PCR assays compared to those of the testing scheme of the Hybrid Capture II (HCII) assay followed by an HPV PCR/line hybridization assay (HCII-LiPA v2). SurePath residual samples were split into two aliquots. One aliquot was subjected to HCII testing followed by DNA extraction and LiPA v2 genotyping. The second aliquot was shipped to a second laboratory, where DNA was extracted and HPV multiplex PCR testing was performed. Comparisons were evaluated for 15 HPV types common in both assays. A slightly higher proportion of samples tested positive by the HPV multiplex PCR than by the HCII-LiPA v2 assay. The sensitivities of the multiplex PCR assay relative to those of the HCII-LiPA v2 assay for HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, for example, were 0.806, 0.646, 0.920, and 0.860, respectively; the specificities were 0.986, 0.998, 0.960, and 0.986, respectively. The overall comparability of detection of the 15 HPV types was quite high. Analyses of DNA genotype testing compared to cytology results demonstrated a significant discordance between cytology-negative (normal) and HPV DNA-positive results. This demonstrates the challenges of cytological diagnosis and the possibility that a significant number of HPV-infected cells may appear cytologically normal.

  12. Reduced Prevalence of Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 4 Years after Bivalent HPV Vaccination in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Rolando; Quint, Wim; Hildesheim, Allan; Gonzalez, Paula; Struijk, Linda; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Porras, Carolina; Schiffman, Mark; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Solomon, Diane; Jimenez, Silvia; Schiller, John T.; Lowy, Douglas R.; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Wacholder, Sholom; Kreimer, Aimée R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, particularly with type 16, causes a growing fraction of oropharyngeal cancers, whose incidence is increasing, mainly in developed countries. In a double-blind controlled trial conducted to investigate vaccine efficacy (VE) of the bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine against cervical infections and lesions, we estimated VE against prevalent oral HPV infections 4 years after vaccination. Methods and Findings A total of 7,466 women 18–25 years old were randomized (1∶1) to receive the HPV16/18 vaccine or hepatitis A vaccine as control. At the final blinded 4-year study visit, 5,840 participants provided oral specimens (91·9% of eligible women) to evaluate VE against oral infections. Our primary analysis evaluated prevalent oral HPV infection among all vaccinated women with oral and cervical HPV results. Corresponding VE against prevalent cervical HPV16/18 infection was calculated for comparison. Oral prevalence of identifiable mucosal HPV was relatively low (1·7%). Approximately four years after vaccination, there were 15 prevalent HPV16/18 infections in the control group and one in the vaccine group, for an estimated VE of 93·3% (95% CI = 63% to 100%). Corresponding efficacy against prevalent cervical HPV16/18 infection for the same cohort at the same visit was 72·0% (95% CI = 63% to 79%) (p versus oral VE = 0·04). There was no statistically significant protection against other oral HPV infections, though power was limited for these analyses. Conclusions HPV prevalence four years after vaccination with the ASO4-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccine was much lower among women in the vaccine arm compared to the control arm, suggesting that the vaccine affords strong protection against oral HPV16/18 infection, with potentially important implications for prevention of increasingly common HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov, Registry number NCT00128661 PMID:23873171

  13. Evaluating HPV-negative CIN2+ in the ATHENA trial.

    PubMed

    Petry, Karl Ulrich; Cox, J Thomas; Johnson, Kristin; Quint, Wim; Ridder, Ruediger; Sideri, Mario; Wright, Thomas C; Behrens, Catherine M

    2016-06-15

    A post hoc analysis of the ATHENA study was performed to determine whether true HPV-negative cervical lesions occur and whether they have clinical relevance. The ATHENA database was searched for all CIN2 or worse (CIN2+) cases with cobas HPV-negative results and comparison was made with Linear Array (LA) and Amplicor to detect true false-negative HPV results. Immunostaining with p16 was performed on these cases to identify false-positive histology results. H&E slides were re-reviewed by the study pathologists with knowledge of patient age, HPV test results and p16 immunostaining. Those with positive p16 immunostaining and/or a positive histopathology review underwent whole tissue section HPV PCR by the SPF10/LiPA/RHA system. Among 46,887 eligible women, 497 cases of CIN2+ were detected, 55 of which tested negative by the cobas(®) HPV Test (32 CIN2, 23 CIN3/ACIS). By LA and/or Amplicor, 32 CIN2+ (20 CIN2, 12 CIN3/ACIS) were HPV positive and categorized as false-negatives by cobas HPV; nine of 12 false-negative CIN3/ACIS cases were p16+. There were 23 cases (12 CIN2, 11 CIN3/ACIS) negative by all HPV tests; seven of 11 CIN3/ACIS cases were p16+. H&E slides were available for six cases for re-review and all were confirmed as CIN3/ACIS. Tissue PCR was performed on the six confirmed CIN3/ACIS cases (and one without confirmation): four were positive for HPV types not considered oncogenic, two were positive for oncogenic genotypes and one was indeterminate. In summary, subanalysis of a large cervical cancer screening study did not identify any true CIN3/ACIS not attributable to HPV.

  14. Perceptions of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection and acceptability of HPV vaccine among men attending a sexual health clinic differ according to sexual orientation

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Massimo; Vescio, Maria Fenicia; Donà, Maria Gabriella; Latini, Alessandra; Frasca, Mirko; Colafigli, Manuela; Farinella, Massimo; Rezza, Giovanni; Cristaudo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Our aim was to gain a better understanding of the knowledge about Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection and attitudes toward the HPV vaccine among men at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI). A self-administered questionnaire was completed by attendees of the largest STI Center in Rome, Italy, from April to June 2013. Determinants of vaccine acceptability were investigated using a Structured Equation Model. A total of 423 males participated in the survey: 296 (70.0%) men who have sex with men (MSM) and 127 (30.0%) men who have sex with women (MSW). Only one half of the participants knew that HPV is the cause of genital warts (56.9% of MSM vs. 49.5% of MSW, p=0.28). Even less were aware that HPV causes cancer in men (37.2% vs. 27.3%, p=0.08). MSW were more likely to indicate HPV as a cause of cervical cancer (80.8% vs. 69.3%, p=0.03) and to have heard about the vaccine (58.3 vs. 43.6%, p=0.01). Moreover, 72.1% of MSM and 70.3% of MSW were willing to be vaccinated. A rise of one-unit in the HPV awareness score increased the OR of vaccine acceptability among MSM by 25% (OR 1.25, 95%CI: 1.05–1.49; p=0.013). Differently, only attitudes had a relevant effect on willingness to be vaccinated among MSW (OR 3.32, 95%CI: 1.53–7.17; p=0.002). Efforts should be made to maximize awareness of HPV, especially as a causative agent of genital warts and male cancers, and to reinforce positive attitudes toward vaccination among men visiting STI centers. PMID:26752151

  15. Prevalence of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Aruhuri, Bernadette; Tarivonda, Len; Tenet, Vanessa; Sinha, Rohit; Snijders, Peter J F; Clifford, Gary; Pang, James; McAdam, Margaret; Meijer, Chris J L M; Frazer, Ian H; Franceschi, Silvia

    2012-05-01

    To provide information on human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and the distribution of individual HPV types in Pacific Islands, we conducted a population-based survey in Vanuatu, South Pacific. Nine hundred and eighty-seven women between 18 and 64 years of age were included. GP5(+)/6(+)-mediated PCR assay was used for HPV testing. The prevalence of 44 HPV types was 28.4% corresponding to an age (world)-standardized prevalence of 25.0% [95% confidence interval (CI), 21.9%-28.0%]. The prevalence of high-risk (HR) HPV types was 21.7% (age-standardized prevalence of 19.2%; 95% CI, 16.4%-22.0%). Among 840 women with adequate cytologic results, 13.6% showed cervical abnormalities, including 3.6% with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and 0.8% with invasive cervical carcinoma. HPV prevalence declined from 46.1% in women aged ≤21 to 15.3% in those ≥45 years. Being single was significantly associated with HPV positivity. HR HPV findings by PCR assay and hybrid capture 2 (HC2; conducted in Vanuatu) were moderately correlated (κ test = 0.59). The positive predictive values of HR HPV positivity for HSIL or worse were 27.6% for PCR and 35.2% for HC2 among women aged ≥30. Nearly half of screening-positive women could not be reevaluated mainly on account of the difficulty to trace back women. The availability of a rapid HPV testing method that allows see-and-treat approaches at the same visit would be, therefore, essential. On account of their high cumulative burden of cervical lesions, also women older than 40 years should be included in at least the first screening round in unscreened populations.

  16. Molecular characterization of p16-immunopositive but HPV DNA-negative oropharyngeal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Rietbergen, Michelle M; Snijders, Peter J F; Beekzada, Derakshan; Braakhuis, Boudewijn J M; Brink, Arjen; Heideman, Daniëlle A M; Hesselink, Albertus T; Witte, Birgit I; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Baatenburg-De Jong, Robert J; Leemans, C René; Brakenhoff, Ruud H

    2014-05-15

    Recent studies have reported that p16 protein overexpression qualifies as a surrogate marker identifying an oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). However, there is still a percentage of OPSCCs that are positive for p16 immunohistochemistry (p16 IHC) but lack HPV DNA. The objective of this study was to characterize this group at the molecular level by performing sensitive HPV DNA- and RNA-based PCR methods and genetic profiling. All patients diagnosed with an OPSCC in the period 2000-2006 in two Dutch university medical centers were included (n = 841). The presence of HPV in a tumor sample was tested by p16 IHC followed by an HPV DNA GP5+/6+ PCR. p16 IHC scored positive in 195 samples, of which 161 were HPV DNA-positive and 34 (17%) HPV DNA-negative. In the latter group, a SPF10-LiPA25 assay, an HPV16 type-specific E7 PCR and an E6 mRNA RT-PCR were performed. Next, ten of these cases were further analyzed for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of 15 microsatellite markers at chromosome arms 3p, 9p and 17p. Of the 34 p16-positive but PCR-negative OPSCCs, two samples tested positive by SPF10 assay, HPV16 E7 PCR and HPV16 E6 mRNA RT-PCR. Three samples tested positive by SPF10 assay but negative by the HPV16-specific assays. Nine of ten cases that were tested for LOH showed a genetic pattern comparable to that of HPV-negative tumors. This study categorizes p16-positive but HPV DNA-negative OPSCCs as HPV-negative tumors based on genetic profiling. This study highlights the importance of performing HPV testing in addition to p16 IHC for proper identification of HPV-associated OPSCCs.

  17. HPV16 Seropositivity and Subsequent HPV16 Infection Risk in a Naturally Infected Population: Comparison of Serological Assays

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Wen; Ghosh, Arpita; Porras, Carolina; Markt, Sarah C.; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Wacholder, Sholom; Kemp, Troy J.; Pinto, Ligia A.; Gonzalez, Paula; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Esser, Mark T.; Matys, Katie; Meuree, Ariane; Quint, Wim; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Safaeian, Mahboobeh

    2013-01-01

    Background Several serological assays have been developed to detect antibodies elicited against infections with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16. The association between antibody levels measured by various assays and subsequent HPV infection risk may differ. We compared HPV16-specific antibody levels previously measured by a virus-like particle (VLP)-based direct enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) with levels measured by additional assays and evaluated the protection against HPV16 infection conferred at different levels of the assays. Methodology/Principal Findings Replicate enrollment serum aliquots from 388 unvaccinated women in the control arm of the Costa Rica HPV vaccine trial were measured for HPV16 seropositivity using three serological assays: a VLP-based direct ELISA; a VLP-based competitive Luminex immunoassay (cLIA); and a secreted alkaline phosphatase protein neutralization assay (SEAP-NA). We assessed the association of assay seropositivity and risk of subsequent HPV16 infection over four years of follow-up by calculating sampling-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and HPV16 seropositivity based on standard cutoff from the cLIA was significantly associated with protection from subsequent HPV16 infection (OR = 0.48, CI = 0.27–0.86, compared with seronegatives). Compared with seronegatives, the highest seropositive tertile antibody levels from the direct ELISA (OR = 0.53, CI = 0.28–0.90) as well as the SEAP-NA (OR = 0.20, CI = 0.06, 0.64) were also significantly associated with protection from HPV16 infection. Conclusions/Significance Enrollment HPV16 seropositivity by any of the three serological assays evaluated was associated with protection from subsequent infection, although cutoffs for immune protection were different. We defined the assays and seropositivity levels after natural infection that better measure and translate to protective immunity. PMID:23301022

  18. Genetic Diversity in the Major Capsid L1 Protein of HPV-16 and HPV-18 in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    King, Audrey J.; Sonsma, Jan A.; Vriend, Henrike J.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Feltkamp, Mariet C.; Koopmans, Marion P. G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Intratypic molecular variants of human papillomavirus (HPV) type-16 and -18 exist. In the Netherlands, a bivalent vaccine, composed of recombinant L1 proteins from HPV-16 and -18, is used to prevent cervical cancer since 2009. Long-term vaccination could lead to changes in HPV-16 and -18 virus population, thereby hampering vaccination strategies. We determined the genetic diversity of the L1 gene in HPV-16 and -18 viral strains circulating in the Netherlands at the start of vaccination in order to understand the baseline genetic diversity in the Dutch population. Methods DNA sequences of the L1 gene were determined in HPV-16 (n = 241) and HPV-18 (n = 108) positive anogenital samples collected in 2009 and 2011 among Dutch 16- to 24-year old female and male attendees of the sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics. Phylogenetic analysis was performed and sequences were compared to reference sequences HPV-16 (AF536179) and HPV-18 (X05015) using BioNumerics 7.1. Results For HPV-16, ninety-five single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were identified, twenty–seven (28%) were non-synonymous variations. For HPV-18, seventy-one SNPs were identified, twenty-nine (41%) were non-synonymous. The majority of the non-silent variations were located in sequences encoding alpha helix, beta sheet or surface loops, in particular in the immunodominant FG loop, and may influence the protein secondary structure and immune recognition. Conclusions This study provides unique pre-vaccination/baseline data on the genetic L1 diversity of HPV-16 and -18 viruses circulating in the Netherlands among adolescents and young adults. PMID:27070907

  19. Use of HPV testing for cervical screening in vaccinated women--Insights from the SHEVa (Scottish HPV Prevalence in Vaccinated Women) study.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Ramya; Kavanagh, Kimberley; Cubie, Heather Ann; Serrano, Itziar; Wennington, Holli; Hopkins, Mark; Pan, Jiafeng; Pollock, Kevin G; Palmer, Tim J; Cuschieri, Kate

    2016-06-15

    The management of cervical disease is changing worldwide as a result of HPV vaccination and the increasing use of HPV testing for cervical screening. However, the impact of vaccination on the performance of HPV based screening strategies is unknown. The SHEVa (Scottish HPV Prevalence in Vaccinated women) projects are designed to gain insight into the impact of vaccination on the performance of clinically validated HPV assays. Samples collated from women attending for first cervical smear who had been vaccinated as part of a national "catch-up" programme were tested with three clinically validated HPV assays (2 DNA and 1 RNA). Overall HR-HPV and type specific positivity was assessed in total population and according to underlying cytology and compared to a demographically equivalent group of unvaccinated women. HPV prevalence was significantly lower in vaccinated women and was influenced by assay-type, reducing by 23-25% for the DNA based assays and 32% for the RNA assay (p = 0.0008). All assays showed over 75% reduction of HPV16 and/or 18 (p < 0.0001) whereas the prevalence of non 16/18 HR-HPV was not significantly different in vaccinated vs unvaccinated women. In women with low grade abnormalities, the proportion associated with non 16/18 HR-HPV was significantly higher in vaccinated women (p < 0.0001). Clinically validated HPV assays are affected differentially when applied to vaccinated women, dependent on assay chemistry. The increased proportion of non HPV16/18 infections may have implications for clinical performance, consequently, longitudinal studies linking HPV status to disease outcomes in vaccinated women are warranted.

  20. International standardization and classification of human papillomavirus types.

    PubMed

    Bzhalava, Davit; Eklund, Carina; Dillner, Joakim

    2015-02-01

    Established Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types, up to HPV202, belong to 49 species in five genera. International standardization in classification and quality standards for HPV type designation and detection is ensured by the International HPV Reference Center. The center i) receives clones of potentially novel HPV types, re-clones and re-sequences them. If confirmed, an HPV type number is assigned and posted on www.hpvcenter.se. ii) distributes reference clone samples, for academic research, under Material Transfer Agreements agreed with the originator. iii) provides preliminary checking of whether new sequences represent novel types iv) issues international proficiency panels for HPV genotyping. The rate of HPV type discovery is increasing, probably because of metagenomic sequencing. γ-genus today contains 79HPV types and 27 species, surpassing ∝ and β genera with 65 and 51HPV types, respectively. Regular issuing of proficiency panels based on HPV reference clones has resulted in global improvement of HPV genotyping services.

  1. Patterns of genital injury in female sexual assault victims.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, L; Brown, C R; Crowley, S; Peck, R

    1997-03-01

    New colposcopic protocols for US forensic examiners enable documentation of genital trauma in 87-92% of rape victims--a significant improvement over protocols based on gross visualization or toluidine blue dye enhancement. It remains unresearched, however, whether colposcopic genital findings in sexual assault victims differ substantially from those in women who have had consensual intercourse. Thus, the type, extent, and distribution of genital injuries observed through colposcopy in 311 rape victims seen by the San Luis Obispo (California) County's Suspected Abuse Response Team in 1985-93 were compared to genital changes in 75 healthy women who had engaged in consensual intercourse in the past 24 hours. 213 assault victims (68%) had evidence of anogenital trauma. Among the 178 women (57%) with nongenital trauma, 132 (74%) also had genital injury (tears, ecchymoses, abrasions, redness, and swelling). The most common trauma site was the posterior fourchette (70%). Examination findings were significantly greater at 24 hours after rape than at 72 hours or more, but almost half the women seen at 72 hours or more after assault had positive genital findings. The injury pattern was not affected by age. In the consensual sex group, trauma was noted in eight women (11%). The proportion with genital injury was significantly higher for women reporting nonconsensual sex than those reporting consensual sex.

  2. Association of cutis laxa and genital prolapse: a case report.

    PubMed

    Paladini, Dario; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Mandato, Vincenzo Dario; Guerra, Germano; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Mauriello, Silvana; Nappi, Carmine

    2007-11-01

    Cutis laxa (CL) is an extremely inherited or acquired connective tissue disorder characterised by a markedly reduced systemic elastin content. Genital abnormalities in patients with CL have been rarely reported. We report such a case in a 48-year-old CL patient affected by genital prolapse, focusing on immunohistological and molecular biology assessment of elastin and collagen type I, III, VI content in the main uterine ligaments. The woman was referred to our department for the onset of a rapidly progressing genital prolapse and urinary incontinence. The patient underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and sacrocolpopexy. Punch biopsies from both cardinal and uterosacral ligaments revealed a dramatic reduction in elastin and an increase in collagen type VI content. The present report seems to underline the central role exerted primarily by elastin in the supportive connective tissue and might contribute to the knowledge of extracellular matrix abnormalities at the basis of genital abnormalities in CL patients.

  3. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html File Formats Help: How ...

  4. HPV Genotype Distribution in Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia among HIV-Infected Women in Pune, India

    PubMed Central

    Mane, Arati; Nirmalkar, Amit; Risbud, Arun R.; Vermund, Sten H.; Mehendale, Sanjay M.; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.

    2012-01-01

    Background The distribution of HPV genotypes, their association with rigorously confirmed cervical precancer endpoints, and factors associated with HPV infection have not been previously documented among HIV-infected women in India. We conducted an observational study to expand this evidence base in this population at high risk of cervical cancer. Methods HIV-infected women (N = 278) in Pune, India underwent HPV genotyping by Linear Array assay. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) disease ascertainment was maximized by detailed assessment using cytology, colposcopy, and histopathology and a composite endpoint. Results CIN2+ was detected in 11.2% while CIN3 was present in 4.7% participants. HPV genotypes were present in 52.5% (146/278) and ‘carcinogenic’ HPV genotypes were present in 35.3% (98/278) HIV-infected women. ‘Possibly carcinogenic’ and ‘non/unknown carcinogenic’ HPV genotypes were present in 14.7% and 29.5% participants respectively. Multiple (≥2) HPV genotypes were present in half (50.7%) of women with HPV, while multiple ‘carcinogenic’ HPV genotypes were present in just over a quarter (27.8%) of women with ‘carcinogenic’ HPV. HPV16 was the commonest genotype, present in 12% overall, as well as in 47% and 50% in CIN2+ and CIN3 lesions with a single carcinogenic HPV infection, respectively. The carcinogenic HPV genotypes in declining order of prevalence overall included HPV 16, 56, 18, 39, 35, 51, 31, 59, 33, 58, 68, 45 and 52. Factors independently associated with ‘carcinogenic’ HPV type detection were reporting ≥2 lifetime sexual partners and having lower CD4+ count. HPV16 detection was associated with lower CD4+ cell counts and currently receiving combination antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion HPV16 was the most common HPV genotype, although a wide diversity and high multiplicity of HPV genotypes was observed. Type-specific attribution of carcinogenic HPV genotypes in CIN3 lesions in HIV-infected women, and etiologic

  5. Predictive Factors for Outcome and Quality of Life in HPV-Positive and HPV-Negative HNSCC.

    PubMed

    Hess, Jochen

    Infection with high-risk types of the human papilloma virus (HPV) is an etiological risk factor for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and associated with a better response to therapy and improved survival. A better understanding of the molecular principles underlying the differences in clinical behavior could pave the way to establish more effective and less toxic therapy for HPV-positive OPSCC and their HPV-negative counterparts. Compelling experimental evidence demonstrates that extensive global reprogramming of epigenetic profiles is as important as genetic mutations during neoplastic transformation and malignant progression, including HPV-positive OPSCC. In this chapter, the current knowledge on HPV-related alterations in DNA methylation, histone modification, and chromosome remodeling will be summarized and assessment of cancer-related profiles will be discussed as a valuable tool to gain important diagnostic or prognostic information for therapeutic decision-making and clinical management of HNSCC patients.

  6. Genital herpes - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Herpes - genital - self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... Call your health care provider if you have any of the following: Symptoms of an outbreak that worsen despite medicine and self-care ...

  7. Integrating epidemiology, psychology, and economics to achieve HPV vaccination targets.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sanjay; Chapman, Gretchen B; Galvani, Alison P

    2008-12-02

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provide an opportunity to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. Optimization of cervical cancer prevention programs requires anticipation of the degree to which the public will adhere to vaccination recommendations. To compare vaccination levels driven by public perceptions with levels that are optimal for maximizing the community's overall utility, we develop an epidemiological game-theoretic model of HPV vaccination. The model is parameterized with survey data on actual perceptions regarding cervical cancer, genital warts, and HPV vaccination collected from parents of vaccine-eligible children in the United States. The results suggest that perceptions of survey respondents generate vaccination levels far lower than those that maximize overall health-related utility for the population. Vaccination goals may be achieved by addressing concerns about vaccine risk, particularly those related to sexual activity among adolescent vaccine recipients. In addition, cost subsidizations and shifts in federal coverage plans may compensate for perceived and real costs of HPV vaccination to achieve public health vaccination targets.

  8. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Cervarix)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a previous dose of HPV vaccine, should not get the vaccine. Tell your doctor if the person getting vaccinated has any severe allergies, including an allergy to latex. HPV vaccine is not recommended for pregnant women. However, receiving HPV vaccine when pregnant is ...

  9. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Gardasil)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a previous dose of HPV vaccine, should not get the vaccine. Tell your doctor if the person getting vaccinated has any severe allergies, including an allergy to yeast. HPV vaccine is not recommended for pregnant women. However, receiving HPV vaccine when pregnant is ...

  10. Oral squamous papilloma and condyloma acuminatum as manifestations of buccal-genital infection by human papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Helena Lucia B.; Rabelo, Priscila C.; de Santana, Maria Rúbia F.; Ferreira, Dennis Carvalho; Filho, Antônio C.

    2009-01-01

    Genital infection by human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted disease (STD), has increased considerably due to the changes in sexual behaviour and an increase in the practice of oral sex. HPV, in a parallel manner, has been closely studied due to its oncogenic potential. We present the case of a 27-year-old patient, with a multi-partner sexual history and frequent practice of oral sex, who suffered from warts lesions on the genitalia and tongue. Squamous papilloma was diagnosed from a tongue biopsy. The treatment of the oral lesion was by way of surgery, without relapse in the first two years. Our discussion in this report is regarding the HPV infection in the oral cavity. PMID:21938114

  11. [Genital lichen sclerosus].

    PubMed

    Héla, Zakraoui; Samy, Fenniche; Rym, Benmously; Hajlaoui, Khaoula; Hayet, Marrak; Mohamed, Ben Ayed; Inçaf, Mokhtar

    2005-03-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease which origin remains unknown. Its prevalence ranges from one in 300 to one in 1000 of all patients referred to a dermatology clinic in the seventeenth. Through the analysis of a hospital survey, we outline the epidemio-clinical aspects of this dermatosis. Over a 19-year period (1984-2002), we have conducted a retrospective and monocentric study of all patients with genital lichen sclerosus were examined at the dermatology department of Habib Thameur hospital. Thirty-four patients suffered from lichen sclerosus. There were 33 female and only one male (sex-ratio: 0.03). All patients underwent topical corticosteroid therapy (level I, II or IV). The recovery rate of lichen sclerosus was about 20% (7/34). An epidermoid carcinoma occurred in three patients. The frequency of lichen sclerosus in our study is estimated at 1,8 new cases per year. This frequency is probably under-estimated because of some patients' reluctance to seek help. A relatively low recovery rate of genital lichen sclerosus was found in our study. This may be related to an inadequate follow up added to an insufficient treatment adherence.

  12. Genital Herpes: A Review.

    PubMed

    Groves, Mary Jo

    2016-06-01

    Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease, affecting more than 400 million persons worldwide. It is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) and characterized by lifelong infection and periodic reactivation. A visible outbreak consists of single or clustered vesicles on the genitalia, perineum, buttocks, upper thighs, or perianal areas that ulcerate before resolving. Symptoms of primary infection may include malaise, fever, or localized adenopathy. Subsequent outbreaks, caused by reactivation of latent virus, are usually milder. Asymptomatic shedding of transmissible virus is common. Although HSV-1 and HSV-2 are indistinguishable visually, they exhibit differences in behavior that may affect management. Patients with HSV-2 have a higher risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Polymerase chain reaction assay is the preferred method of confirming HSV infection in patients with active lesions. Treatment of primary and subsequent outbreaks with nucleoside analogues is well tolerated and reduces duration, severity, and frequency of recurrences. In patients with HSV who are HIV-negative, treatment reduces transmission of HSV to uninfected partners. During pregnancy, antiviral prophylaxis with acyclovir is recommended from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in women with a history of genital herpes. Elective cesarean delivery should be performed in laboring patients with active lesions to reduce the risk of neonatal herpes.

  13. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein H Interacts with Integrin αvβ3 To Facilitate Viral Entry and Calcium Signaling in Human Genital Tract Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheshenko, Natalia; Trepanier, Janie B.; González, Pablo A.; Eugenin, Eliseo A.; Jacobs, William R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry requires multiple interactions at the cell surface and activation of a complex calcium signaling cascade. Previous studies demonstrated that integrins participate in this process, but their precise role has not been determined. These studies were designed to test the hypothesis that integrin αvβ3 signaling promotes the release of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) stores and contributes to viral entry and cell-to-cell spread. Transfection of cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting integrin αvβ3, but not other integrin subunits, or treatment with cilengitide, an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) mimetic, impaired HSV-induced Ca2+ release, viral entry, plaque formation, and cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in human cervical and primary genital tract epithelial cells. Coimmunoprecipitation studies and proximity ligation assays indicated that integrin αvβ3 interacts with glycoprotein H (gH). An HSV-2 gH-null virus was engineered to further assess the role of gH in the virus-induced signaling cascade. The gH-2-null virus bound to cells and activated Akt to induce a small Ca2+ response at the plasma membrane, but it failed to trigger the release of cytoplasmic Ca2+ stores and was impaired for entry and cell-to-cell spread. Silencing of integrin αvβ3 and deletion of gH prevented phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the transport of viral capsids to the nuclear pore. Together, these findings demonstrate that integrin signaling is activated downstream of virus-induced Akt signaling and facilitates viral entry through interactions with gH by activating the release of intracellular Ca2+ and FAK phosphorylation. These findings suggest a new target for HSV treatment and suppression. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex viruses are the leading cause of genital disease worldwide, the most common infection associated with neonatal encephalitis, and a major cofactor for HIV acquisition and transmission. There is no effective vaccine

  14. Human papillomavirus reactivation following treatment of genital graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Sri, T; Merideth, M A; Pulanic, T Klepac; Childs, R; Stratton, P

    2013-08-01

    Vaginal chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a common complication of stem cell transplantation. Human papillomavirus (HPV) disease can reactivate after transplantation, presumably because of immune factors affecting systemic immunity, such as waning antibody titers, impaired T- and B-lymphocyte responses, and the use of immunosuppressive therapies. However, a relationship between the use of local immunosuppressive agents and HPV reactivation and spread has not been previously described, to our knowledge. A 30-year-old woman, 2 years post transplant receiving systemic cyclosporine for cGVHD, was treated with vaginal dilators, topical corticosteroids, and estrogen for vaginal cGVHD. Colposcopy and biopsy for abnormal cytology revealed condylomatous cervicitis. Over the next 4 months, while continuing dilator therapy, linear verrucous lesions developed in the vagina and vulva, and were successfully treated with laser therapy. Use of local immunosuppression and dilators for genital GVHD can enhance spread of HPV infection. Integration of HPV screening and treatment into the care of women with genital cGVHD and development of strategies to manage both conditions simultaneously are warranted.

  15. Human papillomavirus reactivation following treatment of genital graft-versus-host-disease

    PubMed Central

    Sri, T.; Merideth, M.A.; Pulanic, T.K.; Childs, R.; Stratton, P.

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGVHD) is a common complication of stem cell transplantation. Human papillomavirus (HPV) disease can reactivate after transplantation, presumably because of immune factors affecting systemic immunity, such as waning antibody titers, impaired T- and B- lymphocyte responses, and the use of immunosuppressive therapies. However, a relationship between the use of local immunosuppressive agents and HPV reactivation and spread has not been previously described, to our knowledge. A 30-year-old woman, 2 years post transplant receiving systemic cyclosporine for cGVHD, was treated with vaginal dilators, topical corticosteroids, and estrogen for vaginal cGVHD. Colposcopy and biopsy for abnormal cytology revealed condylomatous cervicitis. Over the next 4 months. while continuing dilator therapy, linear verrucous lesions developed in the vagina and vulva, and were successfully treated with laser therapy. Use of local immunosuppression and dilators for genital GVHD can enhance spread of HPV infection. Integration of HPV screening and treatment into the care of women with genital cGVHD and development of strategies to manage both conditions simultaneously is warranted. PMID:23710698

  16. Human genital epithelial cells capture cell-free human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and transmit the virus to CD4+ Cells: implications for mechanisms of sexual transmission.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiwei; Chen, Zhiwei; Phillips, David M

    2003-11-15

    Sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) accounts for the majority of new infections worldwide. However, the mechanism of viral transmission across the mucosal barrier is poorly understood. By use of an ectocervical epithelium-derived cell line, we found that the cells are capable of sequestering large amounts of HIV particles but are refractory to cell-free viral infection. The sequestered virus particles remained infectious for >/=6 days and resisted treatment with trypsin. Upon coculture with CD4(+)-susceptible cells, epithelial cells can effectively transmit the virus to these cells, which can result in robust infection of the target cells. Inhibitory studies have shown that heparan sulfate moiety of cell-surface proteoglycans is involved in the viral attachment to these CD4-negative epithelial cells. Genital epithelial cells may play active roles in sequestering, protecting, and transferring virus during sexual transmission of HIV.

  17. Specific Magnetic Isolation of E6 HPV16 Modified Magnetizable Particles Coupled with PCR and Electrochemical Detection

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez Jimenez, Ana Maria; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Dostalova, Simona; Krejcova, Ludmila; Michalek, Petr; Richtera, Lukas; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-01-01

    The majority of carcinomas that were developed due to the infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) are caused by high-risk HPV types, HPV16 and HPV18. These HPV types contain the E6 and E7 oncogenes, so the fast detection of these oncogenes is an important point to avoid the development of cancer. Many different HPV tests are available to detect the presence of HPV in biological samples. The aim of this study was to design a fast and low cost method for HPV identification employing magnetic isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and electrochemical detection. These assays were developed to detect the interactions between E6-HPV16 oncogene and magnetizable particles (MPs) using commercial Dynabeads M-280 Streptavidin particles and laboratory-synthesized “homemade” particles called MANs (MAN-37, MAN-127 and MAN-164). The yields of PCR amplification of E6-HPV16 oncogene bound on the particles and after the elution from the particles were compared. A highest yield of E6-HPV16 DNA isolation was obtained with both MPs particles commercial M-280 Streptavidin and MAN-37 due to reducing of the interferents compared with the standard PCR method. A biosensor employing the isolation of E6-HPV16 oncogene with MPs particles followed by its electrochemical detection can be a very effective technique for HPV identification, providing simple, sensitive and cost-effective analysis. PMID:27164078

  18. Impact of 2-, 4- and 9-valent HPV vaccines on morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Luckett, Rebecca; Feldman, Sarah

    2016-06-02

    Cervical cancer causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most cervical cancers are associated with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV), and vaccination with any of 3 available HPV vaccines is anticipated to greatly reduce the burden of cervical cancer. This review provides an overview of the burden of HPV, the efficacy and clinical effectiveness of the bivalent (HPV 16, 18), quadrivalent (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18) and 9vHPV (HPV 6, 11, 16, 1831, 33, 45, 52, 58) vaccines in order to assess the anticipated impact on cervical cancer. All three vaccines show high efficacy in prevention of vaccine-specific HPV-type infection and associated high-grade cervical dysplasia in HPV-naïve women. Early clinical effectiveness data for the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccine demonstrate reduced rates of HPV 16 and 18 prevalence in vaccinated cohorts; data evaluating cervical dysplasia and cervical procedures as outcomes will shed further light on the clinical effectiveness of both vaccines. The bivalent vaccine has demonstrated cross-protection to non-vaccine HPV types, including the types in the 9vHPV vaccine. No clinical effectiveness data is yet available for the 9vHPV vaccine.  While HPV vaccination has great promise to reduce cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, estimated benefits are largely theoretical at present. Large population-based clinical effectiveness studies will provide long-term immunogenicity and effectiveness, as well as assessment of cervical cancer as an endpoint, particularly as young vaccinated women enter the appropriate age range to initiate screening for cervical cancer. Strengthening screening and treatment programs will likely have the greatest impact in the short-term on cervical cancer morbidity and mortality.

  19. Genital rhabdomyoma of the urethra in an infant girl.

    PubMed

    Lu, David Y; Chang, Sue; Cook, Heather; Alizadeh, Yalda; Karam, Amer K; Moatamed, Neda A; Dry, Sarah M

    2012-04-01

    Extracardiac rhabdomyomas are rare benign entities that usually occur in the head and neck region. Although genital rhabdomyoma is known to occur in the lower genital tract of young and middle-aged women, involvement of the anatomically adjacent urethra by rhabdomyoma is exceedingly rare. We present a case of genital rhabdomyoma arising from the urethra of an infant girl. The tumor was characterized by the submucosal presence of mature-appearing rhabdomyoblastic cells containing conspicuous cross-striations, with the cells set in a collagenous stroma. Necrosis and mitoses were absent. Skeletal muscle differentiation of the tumor cells was supported by positive immunohistochemical staining for desmin and myogenin. To our knowledge, this is the first case of urethral genital-type rhabdomyoma in a child.

  20. Detection, genotyping and quantitation of multiple hpv infections in south African women with cervical squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lebelo, Ramokone L; Bogers, Johannes J; Thys, Sofie; Depuydt, Christophe; Benoy, Ina; Selabe, S Gloria; Bida, Meshack N; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    In Africa, data is limited on quantitation of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in women with multiple infections. This study applied a real time PCR (qPCR) assay for detection, genotyping and quantitation of multiple HPV infections in 90 tissue blocks of South African women with cervical squamous cell carcinoma. One sample with multiple HPV types was subjected to laser micro-dissection and qPCR. Four samples were negative for β-globin and these were excluded from the analysis. The HPV DNA positivity rate was 93.0% (80/86). All 80 positives showed the presence of HR HPV types; HPV 68 was the only type negative in all the samples. Overall, HPV 16 was positive in most of the samples (88.8%), followed by HPV 56 (28.7%), HPV 18 (20.0%) and HPV 39 (18.7%). More than half of the samples (65.0%) had multiple infections. HPV 16 was present in majority of single (85.7%) and multiple infections (90.4%). HPV 16 showed higher viral loads in 70.3% of the HPV 16 co-infected samples. In one multiple infected sample laser micro-dissection and qPCR identified HPV 18 with higher viral load as the most likely cause of the invasive lesion. There is large number of multiple HPV infections in South African women with cervical squamous cell carcinoma. HPV 16 is the most frequently detected type and often presents with higher viral load, suggesting it could be responsible for pathogenesis of the lesions in the majority of cases.

  1. AKT1 loss correlates with episomal HPV16 in vulval intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Ekeowa-Anderson, Arucha L; Purdie, Karin J; Gibbon, Karen; Byrne, Carolyn R; Arbeit, Jeffrey M; Harwood, Catherine A; O'Shaughnessy, Ryan F L

    2012-01-01

    Anogenital malignancy has a significant association with high-risk mucosal alpha-human papillomaviruses (alpha-PV), particularly HPV 16 and 18 whereas extragenital SCC has been linked to the presence of cutaneous beta and gamma-HPV types. Vulval skin may be colonised by both mucosal and cutaneous (beta-, mu-, nu- and gamma-) PV types, but there are few systematic studies investigating their presence and their relative contributions to vulval malignancy. Dysregulation of AKT, a serine/threonine kinase, plays a significant role in several cancers. Mucosal HPV types can increase AKT phosphorylation and activity whereas cutaneous HPV types down-regulate AKT1 expression, probably to weaken the cornified envelope to promote viral release. We assessed the presence of mucosal and cutaneous HPV in vulval malignancy and its relationship to AKT1 expression in order to establish the corresponding HPV and AKT1 profile of normal vulval skin, vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and vulval squamous cell carcinoma (vSCC). We show that HPV16 is the principle HPV type present in VIN, there were few detectable beta types present and AKT1 loss was not associated with the presence of these cutaneous HPV. We show that HPV16 early gene expression reduced AKT1 expression in transgenic mouse epidermis. AKT1 loss in our VIN cohort correlated with presence of high copy number, episomal HPV16. Maintained AKT1 expression correlated with low copy number, an increased frequency of integration and increased HPV16E7 expression, a finding we replicated in another untyped cohort of vSCC. Since expression of E7 reflects tumour progression, these findings suggest that AKT1 loss associated with episomal HPV16 may have positive prognostic implications in vulval malignancy.

  2. Implementing HPV vaccines: public knowledge, attitudes, and the need for education.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Amrita

    This article reviews qualitative research on public knowledge and attitudes to HPV vaccines, focusing on socio-economically challenged populations. Keyword searches were conducted on MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science for relevant peer-reviewed literature in English. A high acceptance of HPV vaccines was found despite low knowledge about HPV (types, prevalence, transmission, health risks, and cervical screening). Facilitators of HPV vaccine uptake included fear of cancer and desire to protect children's health. Barriers included low knowledge levels, perception of HPV vaccines as potential causes of sexual disinhibition, concerns about vaccine costs, social stigma, adverse effects, and parental unwillingness to permit vaccination of pre-adolescent children. Despite acceptance of HPV vaccines, implementation in low-resource settings faces social and economic difficulties. To pursue and strengthen cervical screening in these settings, public education about HPV is key.

  3. Population-based p16 and HPV positivity rates in oropharyngeal cancer in Southeast Scotland.

    PubMed

    Wells, L A R; Junor, E J; Conn, B; Pattle, S; Cuschieri, K

    2015-10-01

    We assessed a population-based cohort of patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in Southeast Scotland over 13 months. p16 and human papilloma virus (HPV) expression were determined, and correlated with stage, treatment, smoking and alcohol history, and disease outcomes. Retrospective analysis was performed on 60 patients. p16 immunohistochemistry and HPV genotyping were performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. HPV infection (as defined by p16 positivity and/or HPV PCR positivity) was identified in 57% of samples, while dual positives were detected in 45% of cases. HPV16 was most prevalent of the HPV types and was associated with 90% of positive samples. Cause-specific 1-year and 2-year survivals were 82.5% and 78.2%, respectively. The p16-positive and HPV-positive groups demonstrated significantly increased cause-specific survival in comparison with their negative counterparts.

  4. Molecular genotyping of HPV L1 gene in low-risk and high-risk populations in Bangkok

    PubMed Central

    Leaungwutiwong, Pornsawan; Bamrungsak, Busara; Jittmittraphap, Akanitt; Maneekan, Pannamas; Kosoltanapiwat, Nathamon; Kalambaheti, Thareerat; Kelley, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in Thailand are a public health concern but information on HPV infection in sex workers and men who have sex with men (MSM) is limited. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV among low- and high-risk, HIV-negative populations. Methods A total of 300 participants were categorized as general women, female sex workers, MSM, and MSM sex workers. HPV infections were identified by the Papanicolaou (Pap) test and nested-PCR. A phylogenetic analysis of partial HPV L1 genes was performed. Results Abnormal cytology was found in 5% of general women, 10% of female sex workers, 24% of MSM and 28% of MSM sex workers. HPV was detected in 9% of general women, 13% of female sex workers and 30% in both MSM and the MSM sex workers. The prevalence of HPV high-risk genotypes was significantly higher in female sex workers and MSM while low-risk genotypes and genital warts were significantly higher in MSM sex workers. Significantly more patients with genital warts and CIN I/AIN I harbored low-risk genotypes while those with CIN II/AIN II harbored high-risk genotypes. Conclusion High- and low-risk HPV genotypes persist in high-risk groups in Bangkok. Some genotypes infecting at-risk populations are not vaccine-preventable. These findings may help to elucidate the prevalence of HPV infections in Thailand and serve as the basis for additional investigations into risk factors for these populations. PMID:25763674

  5. Distinctive distribution of HPV genotypes in cervical cancers in multi-ethnic Suriname: implications for prevention and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Grunberg, M G; Chan, M; Adhin, M R

    2017-01-01

    Suriname is ranked as high-risk country for cervical cancer, but recent national data of HPV prevalence and distribution in cervical cancer is scarce. In a retrospective cross-sectional study, cervical cancer incidence, HPV prevalence and HPV-type-specific distribution were investigated in all cervical cancer cases (n = 111), diagnosed in two consecutive years. HPV presence and type-specific prevalence were determined in paraffin-embedded biopsies utilizing master-nested multiplex PCR assays, targeting 14 HPV types. The age-standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer was 22·4/100 000 women, justifying revision of the current international ranking of Suriname. Eleven HPV types were detected, with the most common types in descending order of frequency: 16, 18, 45, 66, 58/52/35. HPV16 was predominant, although with markedly low presence (25%). HPV16 or 18 infections were detected in 43% of the cases, while 28% were untyped, implicating a divergent HPV-type distribution in Suriname with significant variation in the prevalence of less common high-risk virus types and/or presence of HPV16 variants. HPV-type distribution differed between ethnic groups. A vaccination efficacy of just 28-30% was anticipated, next to an uneven vaccination impact in different ethnic groups, cautioning Suriname and other multi-ethnic countries to tailor the information presented to different ethnic communities.

  6. Acute genital ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers. PMID:24473429

  7. Genomic characterization of a novel human papillomavirus (HPV-117) with a high viral load in a persisting wart.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Anja; Gottschling, Marc; Förster, Jana; Röwert-Huber, Joachim; Stockfleth, Eggert; Nindl, Ingo

    2010-03-30

    Warts from immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients (OTR) persist over years and may progress into non-melanoma skin cancer. Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are considered the causal agents for the development of such warts. We isolated the novel type HPV-117 from a persisting wart by rolling circle amplification. One hundred eighteen warts from immunocompetent patients (IC) and 49 warts from OTR were analyzed by HPV-117 E6 type-specific PCR. As inferred from a phylogenetic analysis, the new type HPV-117 belonged to alpha-PV species 2, including the most similar types HPV-10 and HPV-94. The general prevalence of HPV-117 in warts was 2% in IC (2/118), and 12% in OTR (6/49). The high viral load in dysplastic cells of a Verruca vulgaris was shown by in situ hybridization. Our results suggest an active role of the novel type in the development of cutaneous warts of OTR.

  8. Patterns of persistent HPV infection after treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN): A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Sarah R; Le, Tam; Lockhart, Alexandre; Sanusi, Ayodeji; Dal Santo, Leila; Davis, Meagan; McKinney, Dana A; Brown, Meagan; Poole, Charles; Willame, Corinne; Smith, Jennifer S

    2017-01-25

    A systematic review of the literature was conducted to determine the estimates of and definitions for human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence in women following treatment of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN). A total of 45 studies presented data on post-treatment HPV persistence among 6,106 women. Most studies assessed HPV persistence after loop excision (42%), followed by conization (7%), cryotherapy (11%), laser treatment (4%), interferon-alpha, therapeutic vaccination, and photodynamic therapy (2% each) and mixed treatment (38%). Baseline HPV testing was conducted before or at treatment for most studies (96%). Follow-up HPV testing ranged from 1.5 to 80 months after baseline. Median HPV persistence tended to decrease with increasing follow-up time, declining from 27% at 3 months after treatment to 21% at 6 months, 15% at 12 months, and 10% at 24 months. Post-treatment HPV persistence estimates varied widely and were influenced by patient age, HPV-type, detection method, treatment method, and minimum HPV post-treatment testing interval. Loop excision and conization appeared to outperform cryotherapy procedures in terms of their ability to clear HPV infection. This systematic review provides evidence for the substantial heterogeneity in post-treatment HPV DNA testing practices and persistence estimates.

  9. Senegal outlaws female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Ciment, J

    1999-02-06

    Senegal has joined Burkina Faso, the Central African Republic, Djibouti, Ghana, and Togo in outlawing female genital mutilation and assigning penalties of up to five years imprisonment to those who order or perform the procedure. Currently, 20% of Senegalese women have undergone female genital mutilation, and many girls are thought to have died as a result. UN agencies have made their opposition to female genital mutilation clear and have argued that women attempting to avoid the procedure should be granted asylum in other countries.

  10. HPV Vaccine and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... vaccines are given as an injection in a series of three doses at three different times. They are licensed for males and females between ... pregnancy to complete any remaining shots in the series. Can I receive ... baby received the HPV vaccine around the time that I got pregnant. Is there a risk ...

  11. Deep sequencing of HPV16 genomes: A new high-throughput tool for exploring the carcinogenicity and natural history of HPV16 infection

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Michael; Boland, Joseph F.; Schiffman, Mark; Zhang, Xijun; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Yang, Qi; Chen, Zigui; Yu, Kai; Mitchell, Jason; Roberson, David; Bass, Sara; Burdette, Laurie; Machado, Moara; Ravichandran, Sarangan; Luke, Brian; Machiela, Mitchell J.; Andersen, Mark; Osentoski, Matt; Laptewicz, Michael; Wacholder, Sholom; Feldman, Ashlie; Raine-Bennett, Tina; Lorey, Thomas; Castle, Philip E.; Yeager, Meredith; Burk, Robert D.; Mirabello, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    For unknown reasons, there is huge variability in risk conferred by different HPV types and, remarkably, strong differences even between closely related variant lineages within each type. HPV16 is a uniquely powerful carcinogenic type, causing approximately half of cervical cancer and most other HPV-related cancers. To permit the large-scale study of HPV genome variability and precancer/cancer, starting with HPV16 and cervical cancer, we developed a high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) whole-genome method. We designed a custom HPV16 AmpliSeq™ panel that generated 47 overlapping amplicons covering 99% of the genome sequenced on the Ion Torrent Proton platform. After validating with Sanger, the current “gold standard” of sequencing, in 89 specimens with concordance of 99.9%, we used our NGS method and custom annotation pipeline to sequence 796 HPV16-positive exfoliated cervical cell specimens. The median completion rate per sample was 98.0%. Our method enabled us to discover novel SNPs, large contiguous deletions suggestive of viral integration (OR of 27.3, 95% CI 3.3–222, P=0.002), and the sensitive detection of variant lineage coinfections. This method represents an innovative high-throughput, ultra-deep coverage technique for HPV genomic sequencing, which, in turn, enables the investigation of the role of genetic variation in HPV epidemiology and carcinogenesis. PMID:26645052

  12. Papillomavirus infections in the oral and genital mucosa of asymptomatic women.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ledy Horto Santos; Santos, Larissa Silva; Silva, Carolina Oliveira; Augusto, Everton Faccini; Neves, Felipe Piedade Gonçalves

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been found in several regions of the body, including the oral cavity. Recently, this virus has been associated with oropharyngeal cancer, but little is known about HPV transmission to the oral cavity. We carried out a study to investigate concurrent oral and cervical infections in 76 asymptomatic women attending a healthcare program. Demographic and behavior data were obtained through a structured questionnaire. Oral and cervical mucosa scrapings were collected and stored for DNA extraction. HPV DNA amplification was performed by polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR) using both primers My09/My11 and FAP59/64, followed by HPV typing with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP) and sequencing. The data collected revealed no risk factors for HPV infection in these 76 women. HPV prevalence of 9.2 and 5.3% was found in cervical and oral mucosa, respectively. Concurrent infections by discordant types were detected in one case only. Sequencing procedures allowed us to detect a new putative HPV 17 subtype from the Betapapillomavirus genus. Our results support the view that cervical and oral HPV infections are independent events. The observed low prevalence of both oral and cervical HPV infections could be associated with attendance in a healthcare program.

  13. Prevalence of IgG Antibodies against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) type 6, 11, 16, and 18 Virus-Like Particles in Women of Childbearing Age in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okonko, I O; Ofoedu, V

    2015-01-01

    Most HPV prevalence studies have been carried out in high-resource countries with few studies focused on low-resource regions where highest HPV prevalence in the world occurs. This study reports on prevalence of IgG antibodies against HPVs among women of childbearing age in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. One hundred and eighty-two consented women (age-range 19-45 years) were consecutively recruited. Demogr