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Sample records for genital tract-derived cell

  1. Modulation of Female Genital Tract-Derived Dendritic Cell Migration and Activation in Response to Inflammatory Cytokines and Toll-Like Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Shey, Muki S.; Maharaj, Niren; Archary, Derseree; Ngcapu, Sinaye; Garrett, Nigel; Abdool Karim, Salim; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.

    2016-01-01

    HIV transmission across the genital mucosa is a major mode of new HIV infections in women. The probability of infection may be influenced by several factors including recruitment and activation of HIV target cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs) and cytokine production, associated with genital inflammation. We evaluated the role of inflammatory cytokines and TLR signaling in migration and activation of genital tract DCs in the human cervical explant model. Hysterectomy tissues from 10 HIV-negative and 7 HIV-positive donor women were separated into ecto- and endocervical explants, and incubated with inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, MIP-1β) or agonists for TLR4 (LPS), TLR2/1 (PAM3) and TLR7/8 (R848). Migration (frequency) and activation (HLA-DR expression) of myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs and Langerhans cells were measured by flow cytometry. We observed that cytokines, LPS and PAM3 induced activation of migrating myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs. LPS induced a 3.6 fold lower levels of migration of plasmacytoid DCs from HIV-infected women compared with HIV-uninfected women (median activation indices of 2.932 vs 0.833). There was however a 4.5 fold increase in migration of Langerhans cells in HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected women in response to cytokines (median activation indices of 3.539 vs 0.77). Only TLR agonists induced migration and activation of DCs from endocervical explants. Hormonal contraception use was associated with an increase in activation of DC subsets in the endo and ectocervical explants. We conclude that inflammatory signals in the female genital tract induced DC migration and activation, with possible important implications for HIV susceptibility of cervical tissues. PMID:27171482

  2. EcPV2 DNA in equine genital squamous cell carcinomas and normal genital mucosa.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Lies; Willemsen, Anouk; Vanderstraeten, Eva; Bracho, Maria A; De Baere, Cindy; Bravo, Ignacio G; Martens, Ann

    2012-07-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents the most common genital malignant tumor in horses. Similar to humans, papillomaviruses (PVs) have been proposed as etiological agents and recently Equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) has been identified in a subset of genital SCCs. The goals of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of EcPV2 DNA in tissue samples from equine genital SCCs, penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and penile papillomas, using EcPV2-specific PCR, (2) to examine the prevalence of latent EcPV2 infection in healthy genital mucosa and (3) to determine genetic variability within EcPV2 and to disentangle phylogenetic relationships of EcPV2 among PVs. EcPV2 DNA was detected in all but one penile SCC (15/16), in all PIN lesions (8/8) and penile papillomas (4/4). Additionally, EcPV2 DNA was demonstrated in one of two metastasized lymph nodes, one contact metastasis in the mouth, two vaginal and one anal lesion. In healthy horses, EcPV2 DNA was detected in 10% (4/39) of penile swabs but in none of vulvovaginal swabs (0/20). This study confirms the presence of EcPV2 DNA in equine genital SCCs and shows its involvement in anal lesions, a lymph node and contact metastases. Latent EcPV2 presence was also shown in normal male genital mucosa. We found that different EcPV2 variants cocirculate among horses and that EcPV2 is related to the Delta+Zeta PVs and is only a very distant relative of high-risk human PVs causing genital cancer. Thus, similar viral tropism and similar malignant outcome of the infection do not imply close evolutionary relationship.

  3. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Axiotis, C A; Merino, M J; Duray, P H

    1991-03-15

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) of the female genital tract is rare. Four new cases are reported, and there is a review of the 38 cases in the literature. This disease may involve the vulva, vagina, cervix, endometrium, and ovary. Four distinct patient groups, segregated on the basis of initial presentation and subsequent anatomic extent of disease, were categorized as follows: (1) "pure" genital LCH, (2) genital LCH with subsequent multi-organ involvement, (3) oral or cutaneous LCH with subsequent genital and multi-organ involvement, and (4) diabetes insipidus with subsequent genital and multi-organ disease. Although involvement of the genital tract can occur at any age, it is most common in young adulthood. Clinically, LCH may mimic either primary neoplasia or various inflammatory lesions; the major pathologic differential diagnosis is venereal and other inflammatory diseases. The pure genital form may have a distinct nosologic position in the spectrum of LCH similar to the "pure," self-limited cutaneous histiocytosis seen in infants. There is no correlation between histologic findings and the outcome of the genital lesions. There is also no correlation between clinical presentation and/or the extent of involvement and outcome of genital lesions; complete regression, partial improvement, persistent lesions, and recurrences were seen in all four groups of patients. The treatment of genital LCH is not well defined and is highly individualized. Therapy has included surgery, radiation, topical corticosteroids, topical nitrogen mustard, systemic chemotherapy, and combination therapy; mixed results were obtained with all treatment modalities. Although no modality has been shown to yield a superior outcome, complete surgical excision is advocated as initial therapy.

  4. EcPV2 DNA in equine squamous cell carcinomas and normal genital and ocular mucosa.

    PubMed

    Vanderstraeten, Eva; Bogaert, Lies; Bravo, Ignacio G; Martens, Ann

    2011-01-27

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents the most common malignant tumour of the eye and external genitals in horses. Comparable to humans, papillomaviruses (PV) have been proposed as etiological agents of cancer in horses and recently, Equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) has been identified in genital SCCs. Hitherto it had never been demonstrated in ocular SCCs. The first goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of EcPV2 DNA in tissue samples from equine genital and ocular SCCs, genital papillomas and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) lesions, using EcPV2-specific PCR. The second goal was to investigate the possibility of latent EcPV2 infection in the genital and ocular mucosa of healthy horses on swabs obtained from the eye, penis, vulvovaginal region and cervix. EcPV2 DNA was detected in all genital SCCs (17/17), genital papillomas (8/8), PIN lesions (11/11) and ocular SCCs (9/9). In healthy horses, EcPV2 DNA was detected in 43% (17/40) of penile swabs, 53% (9/17) of vulvovaginal swabs, 47% (8/17) of cervical swabs and 57% (32/56) of ocular swabs. This study confirms the presence of EcPV2 DNA in equine genital SCCs. Moreover, we demonstrate for the first time its involvement in other genital lesions and in ocular SCCs and latent EcPV2 infections in normal genital (including cervical) and ocular equine mucosa. The close relatives of EcPV2 are associated to cutaneous lesions, and this virus is not related to high-risk human papillomaviruses causing cervical cancer. Thus, similar viral tropism does not imply close evolutionary relationship.

  5. Clear cell carcinoma of the female genital tract (not everything is as clear as it seems).

    PubMed

    Offman, Saul L; Longacre, Teri A

    2012-09-01

    Clear cell carcinoma has a storied history in the female genital tract. From the initial designation of ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma as "mesonephroma" to the linkage between vaginal clear cell carcinoma and diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero, gynecologic tract clear cell tumors have puzzled investigators, posed therapeutic dilemmas for oncologists, and otherwise presented major differential diagnostic challenges for pathologists. One of the most common errors in gynecologic pathology is misdiagnosis of clear cell carcinoma, on both frozen section and permanent section. Given the poor response to platinum-based chemotherapy for advanced-stage disease and increased risk of thromboembolism, accurate diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma is important in the female genital tract. This review (1) presents the clinical and pathologic features of female genital tract clear cell carcinomas; (2) highlights recent molecular developments; (3) identifies areas of potential diagnostic confusion; and (4) presents solutions for these diagnostic problems where they exist.

  6. Characteristics and Quantities of HIV Host Cells in Human Genital Tract Secretions

    PubMed Central

    Politch, Joseph A.; Marathe, Jai; Anderson, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected leukocytes have been detected in genital secretions from HIV-infected men and women and may play an important role in the sexual transmission of HIV. However, they have been largely overlooked in studies on mechanisms of HIV transmission and in the design and testing of HIV vaccine and microbicide candidates. This article describes the characteristics and quantities of leukocytes in male and female genital secretions under various conditions and also reviews evidence for the involvement of HIV-infected cells in both horizontal and vertical cell-associated HIV transmission. Additional research is needed in this area to better target HIV prevention strategies. PMID:25414414

  7. Genital Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... who have sex with women get genital warts? Yes. It is possible to get genital warts, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ... you have signs or symptoms of genital warts. Yes. It is possible to get genital warts, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ...

  8. Neisseria gonorrhoeae induced disruption of cell junction complexes in epithelial cells of the human genital tract.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Tirado, Carolina; Maisey, Kevin; Rodríguez, Felipe E; Reyes-Cerpa, Sebastián; Reyes-López, Felipe E; Imarai, Mónica

    2012-03-01

    Pathogenic microorganisms, such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, have developed mechanisms to alter epithelial barriers in order to reach subepithelial tissues for host colonization. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of gonococci on cell junction complexes of genital epithelial cells of women. Polarized Ishikawa cells, a cell line derived from endometrial epithelium, were used for experimental infection. Infected cells displayed a spindle-like shape with an irregular distribution, indicating potential alteration of cell-cell contacts. Accordingly, analysis by confocal microscopy and cellular fractionation revealed that gonococci induced redistribution of the adherens junction proteins E-cadherin and its adapter protein β-catenin from the membrane to a cytoplasmic pool, with no significant differences in protein levels. In contrast, gonococcal infection did not induce modification of either expression or distribution of the tight junction proteins Occludin and ZO-1. Similar results were observed for Fallopian tube epithelia. Interestingly, infected Ishikawa cells also showed an altered pattern of actin cytoskeleton, observed in the form of stress fibers across the cytoplasm, which in turn matched a strong alteration on the expression of fibronectin, an adhesive glycoprotein component of extracellular matrix. Interestingly, using western blotting, activation of the ERK pathway was detected after gonococcal infection while p38 pathway was not activated. All effects were pili and Opa independent. Altogether, results indicated that gonococcus, as a mechanism of pathogenesis, induced disruption of junction complexes with early detaching of E-cadherin and β-catenin from the adherens junction complex, followed by a redistribution and reorganization of actin cytoskeleton and fibronectin within the extracellular matrix. PMID:22146107

  9. Human papillomavirus-related basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder associated with genital tract human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Ginori, Alessandro; Barone, Aurora; Santopietro, Rosa; Barbanti, Gabriele; Cecconi, Filippo; Tripodi, Sergio Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is a biologically aggressive neoplasm mainly found in the head and neck region. Recently, four cases of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder have been reported, and three of them occurred in patients with neurogenic bladder, repeated catheterizations and human papillomavirus infection of the urinary tract. To the best of our knowledge, none of the patients affected by basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder described in the literature had documented genital involvement by human papillomavirus. Herein, we describe the case of a woman with neurogenic bladder affected by basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder and by a concomitant genital tract human papillomavirus infection.

  10. Antigenic properties of pleuropneumonia-like organisms from tissue cell cultures and the human genital area.

    PubMed

    BAILEY, J S; CLARK, H W; FELTS, W R; FOWLER, R C; BROWN, T M

    1961-10-01

    Bailey, Jack S. (George Washington University, Washington, D. C.), Harold W. Clark, William R. Felts, Richard C. Fowler, and Thomas McP. Brown. Antigenic properties of pleuropneumonia-like organisms from tissue cell cultures and the human genital area. J. Bacteriol. 82:542-547. 1961.-Antigens were prepared from several tissue culture and human genital strains of pleuropneumonia-like organisms (PPLO) by a method utilizing continuous agitation of the incubating cultures. Antisera were produced in rabbits by intravenous injection of suspensions of these organisms standardized turbidimetrically. The antigenic properties of the selected strains were compared by agglutination techniques supplemented by a test based upon the inhibition of growth of PPLO by specific antisera.The majority of tissue culture strains of PPLO studied, including contaminants from several HeLa cell lines, appeared to be antigenically similar to the human type 1 strains. However, one strain (Sp-1) from a HeLa cell line was found to be related to the human type 2 PPLO.

  11. Sclerosing variant of perivascular epithelioid cell tumor in the female genital organs.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Ohishi, Yoshihiro; Nishiyama, Kenichi; Fukuhara, Masao; Saitou, Toshiaki; Tsuneyoshi, Masazumi; Oda, Yoshinao

    2011-12-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComas), other than angiomyolipoma, clear cell 'sugar' tumor of the lung, and lymphangioleiomyomatosis, is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm that arises in the soft tissue and visceral organs. We report herein two cases of sclerosing PEComa; a distinctive variant of PEComa, which is characterized by extensive stromal hyalinization, occurring in the uterus and broad ligament. The patients were 34- and 51-year-old females with no family history of tuberous sclerosis complex. Macroscopically, the tumors had white to gray cut surfaces and were microscopically composed of predominantly spindle- to polygon-shaped cells with clear to slightly eosinophilic cytoplasm and pleomorphic nuclei focally arranged in a perivascular pattern, accompanied by marked stromal hyalinization. These tumor cells were immunohistochemically positive for HMB45 and α-smooth muscle actin. Although this variant of PEComa is very rare, this entity should be considered as a potential primary neoplasm of the female genital organs.

  12. Correlation between CD4 T cell Counts and Virus Compartmentalization in Genital and Systemic Compartments of HIV-infected Females

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Suman; Noel, Richard J.; Rodríguez, Nayra; Collado, Santiago; Munoz, Jhoanne; Kumar, Anil; Yamamura, Yashuhiro

    2011-01-01

    The majority of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) across the world occurs by heterosexual transmission and is likely mediated by virus present in genital secretions. In spite of this, infection is followed by clinical markers of the virus present in blood, which may not be representative of the virus involved in transmission. In fact, several studies have demonstrated that the genital tract represents a unique compartment for the virus. We assessed the relationship between immune system integrity, represented by CD4+ T cell counts, and the maintenance of viral compartmentalization between plasma and vaginal fluid virus in treatment naïve women from the Dominican Republic infected by the heterosexual transmission route. We cloned and sequenced cell free virus from plasma and genital fluid samples from six women to assess viral evolution, phylogenetic relatedness, and calculated co-receptor use for the C2V3 region of the envelope. Our analyses demonstrated plasma and vaginal fluid virus compartments remained intact only in samples from women with CD4+ T cell counts over 350 cells/μ1 majority of viral forms were predicted to use the CCR5 co-receptor, although several dual tropic forms were also identified. None of the clones were found to use the CXCR4 co-receptor even though many of the patients showed severe disease. Our findings lend further support to the role of an intact immune system in maintaining compartmentalization across blood and genital quasispecies and provide a compelling rationale to specifically consider genital tract viral forms in therapeutic and vaccine research. PMID:21745672

  13. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection in a newborn can cause meningitis (an inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord), seizures, and brain damage. How Is It Prevented? The best way to prevent genital herpes is abstinence. Teens who do have ...

  14. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on ... also infect their babies during childbirth. Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

  15. Genital chronic GVHD in men after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a single-center cross-sectional analysis of 155 patients.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Simon M; Haeusermann, Peter; Rovó, Alicia; Halter, Joerg P; Passweg, Jakob; Itin, Peter; Tichelli, André

    2013-11-01

    We assessed the prevalence and clinical features of genital skin changes in men after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and evaluated the correlation between genital chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) and other manifestations of cGVHD as well as sexual issues. In a cross-sectional cohort study, 155 male recipients alive 1 year or more after HSCT were assessed during their annual follow-up evaluation. Correlation between genital skin changes and other cGVHD manifestations was evaluated, and post-transplantation sexual contentment and sexual functioning were assessed by 2 self-assessment questionnaires, including the 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and the modified Brief Sexual Symptom Checklist (mBSSC). Median time between HSCT and genital examination was 5.9 years (range, 1 to 30.3 years). Thirty-one of 155 patients (20%) presented with genital skin changes. Twenty-one of those (13%) presented clinically inflammatory genital skin changes considered as genital cGVHD: 12 had inflammatory (noninfectious) balanoposthitis, 6 had lichen sclerosis-like lesions, 5 had phimosis, and 2 patients had more than 1 feature. Patients with inflammatory genital skin changes had a significantly higher coincidence of oral (P < .0001), ocular (P < .002), and/or cutaneous cGVHD (P < .026) when compared with patients without genital lesions. The rate of IIEF-5 questionnaire response was 59% (91 of 155). Among them, 67% reported erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction was significantly more frequent in patients with genital cGVHD (P = .0075). Seventy-five of 155 patients (48%) answered the mBSSC questionnaire. Only 40% of them reported sexual contentment. Genital skin changes in male recipients after allogeneic HSCT are frequent and seem to be an under-reported relevant late effect. Inflammatory genital skin changes can be considered as a form of genital cGVHD often associated with manifestations of extragenital

  16. [Systemic lymphoma cells with T precursor condition of extreme female genital tract. A case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Butrón Valdez, Karla; Ramírez Galves, Miguel; Germes Piña, Fernando; Ramos Martínez, Ernesto; Zamora Perea, Arturo

    2009-06-01

    Primary female genital tract non Hodgkin's lymphoma is a rare presentation for a common disease in the childhood, and its classification as primary extranodal lymphoma is still controversial. There are a few cases reported as a primary precursor B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma of the female genital tract, but there is not any case reported as primary precursor T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma of the ovary in childhood. Herein we describe a 16 years old young woman with bilateral ovarian tumors, paraaortic lymphoadenophaty and disseminate disease to the female genital tract including extension of the tumor to neighboring organs like the omentum and the appendix. Exploratory laparatomy were performed with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, hysterectomy, omentectomy, appendectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy, pelvic washings and with biopsy of vaginal vault. The chemotherapy regimen comprised of CHOP (Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin, Oncovin, Prednisone/Prednisolone) and methotrexate, 3 months later presents left facial hemiparesia follow by right facial hemiparesia, 7 months later presents more Central Nervous System (CNS) complications and apparently was complicated with acute lymphocitic leukemia and after 16 months from the diagnosis, following by a torpid evolution, the pacient finally died. PMID:19681371

  17. Genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Garland, Suzanne M; Steben, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Genital herpes is a relatively common infection caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type one or two (HSV-1, HSV-2) respectively. It is acquired most commonly via sexual activity. More recently there has been an increase in infections due to HSV-1. Most new cases of genital HSV are not diagnosed due to HSV infections having short-lived signs and symptoms, or in many instances are asymptomatic. Hence many people infected with HSV are unaware that they have it. The risk of transmission to a partner is highest during outbreak periods, when there are visible lesions, although genital HSV can also be transmitted during asymptomatic periods. Use of condoms and antiviral medications assist in preventing transmission. Antiviral agents are effective in controlling clinical episodes, but do not eradicate infection, which remains latent for the life of a patient. Despite the surge in vaccine research, there is unfortunately no readily available preventative or therapeutic vaccine for HSV to date.

  18. Genital Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... the penis. You can get genital warts during oral, vaginal, or anal sex with an infected partner. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading HPV. HPV vaccines may help prevent some of the ...

  19. Protective immunity against Chlamydia trachomatis can engage both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and bridge the respiratory and genital mucosae.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Catarina V; Zhang, Xuqing; Giovannone, Nicholas; Sennott, Erica L; Starnbach, Michael N

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the cellular populations and mechanisms responsible for overcoming immune compartmentalization is valuable for designing vaccination strategies targeting distal mucosae. In this study, we show that the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis infects the murine respiratory and genital mucosae and that T cells, but not Abs, elicited through intranasal immunization can protect against a subsequent transcervical challenge. Unlike the genital infection where CD8(+) T cells are primed, yet fail to confer protection, we found that intranasal priming engages both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, allowing for protection against genital infection with C. trachomatis. The protection is largely dependent on IFN-γ secretion by T cells. Moreover, different chemokine receptors are critical for C. trachomatis-specific CD4(+) T cells to home to the lung, rather than the CXCR3- and CCR5-dependent migration observed during genital infection. Overall, this study demonstrates that the cross-mucosa protective immunity against genital C. trachomatis infection following intranasal immunization is not dependent on Ab response but is mediated by not only CD4(+) T cells but also by CD8(+) T cells. This study provides insights for the development of vaccines against mucosal pathogens that threaten reproductive health worldwide.

  20. Polyclonal expansion of cervical cytobrush-derived T cells to investigate HIV-specific responses in the female genital tract

    PubMed Central

    Bere, Alfred; Denny, Lynette; Burgers, Wendy A; Passmore, Jo-Ann S

    2010-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -specific T-cell responses are detectable in the female genital tract of HIV-infected women but little is known about their frequency or the factors that influence their detection. We investigated the feasibility of polyclonal in vitro expansion of cervical cytobrush-derived T cells to investigate HIV-specific responses in the female genital tract in HIV-infected women. Cytobrush-derived cervical cells were isolated from 22 HIV-infected women and expanded with anti-CD3 and recombinant interleukin-2. Cervical T-cell lines were investigated for Gag-specific responses by interferon-γ ELISPOT and compared with those detected in matched blood samples. Cervical T-cell lines were established from 16/22 (72·7%) participants. Although the absolute number of CD3± cells recovered after expansion was positively associated with the number of cells isolated ex vivo (P = 0·01; R = 0·62), we observed a significant negative correlation between fold expansion and ex vivo cell number (P = 0·004; R = −0·68). We show that both the magnitude (P = 0·002; R = 0·7) and specific Gag regions targeted by cervical T-cell lines (P < 0·0001; R = 0·5) correlated significantly with those detected in blood. With one exception, cervical interferon-γ T-cell responses to Gag were detected only in HIV-infected women with blood Gag-specific response > 1000 spot-forming units/106 cells. We conclude that cervical Gag-specific T-cell responses in expanded lines are most easily detectable in women who have corresponding high-magnitude Gag-specific T-cell responses in blood. PMID:20201983

  1. Tumor necrosis factor alpha production from CD8+ T cells mediates oviduct pathological sequelae following primary genital Chlamydia muridarum infection.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Ashlesh K; Li, Weidang; Chaganty, Bharat K R; Kamalakaran, Sangamithra; Guentzel, M Neal; Seshu, J; Forsthuber, Thomas G; Zhong, Guangming; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2011-07-01

    The immunopathogenesis of Chlamydia trachomatis-induced oviduct pathological sequelae is not well understood. Mice genetically deficient in perforin (perforin(-/-) mice) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production (TNF-α(-/-) mice) displayed comparable vaginal chlamydial clearance rates but significantly reduced oviduct pathology (hydrosalpinx) compared to that of wild-type mice. Since both perforin and TNF-α are effector mechanisms of CD8(+) T cells, we evaluated the role of CD8(+) T cells during genital Chlamydia muridarum infection and oviduct sequelae. Following vaginal chlamydial challenge, (i) mice deficient in TAP I (and therefore the major histocompatibility complex [MHC] I pathway and CD8(+) T cells), (ii) wild-type mice depleted of CD8(+) T cells, and (iii) mice genetically deficient in CD8 (CD8(-/-) mice) all displayed similar levels of vaginal chlamydial clearance but significantly reduced hydrosalpinx, compared to those of wild-type C57BL/6 mice, suggesting a role for CD8(+) T cells in chlamydial pathogenesis. Repletion of CD8(-/-) mice with wild-type or perforin(-/-), but not TNF-α(-/-), CD8(+) T cells at the time of challenge restored hydrosalpinx to levels observed in wild-type C57BL/6 mice, suggesting that TNF-α production from CD8(+) T cells is important for pathogenesis. Additionally, repletion of TNF-α(-/-) mice with TNF-α(+/+) CD8(+) T cells significantly enhanced the incidence of hydrosalpinx and oviduct dilatation compared to those of TNF-α(-/-) mice but not to the levels found in wild-type mice, suggesting that TNF-α production from CD8(+) T cells and non-CD8(+) cells cooperates to induce optimal oviduct pathology following genital chlamydial infection. These results provide compelling new evidence supporting the contribution of CD8(+) T cells and TNF-α production to Chlamydia-induced reproductive tract sequelae.

  2. Uptake of tenofovir and emtricitabine into non-monocytic female genital tract cells with and without hormonal contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    James, Amanda Marie; King, Jennifer R; Ofotokun, Ighovwerha; Sheth, Anandi N; Acosta, Edward P

    2013-01-01

    Background Pre-exposure prophylaxis is becoming a strategic component used to control the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) epidemic. The goal of this study was to characterize intracellular uptake of tenofovir and emtricitabine using five surrogate cell lines of the female genital tract and determine whether exogenous hormones influence their uptake. Methods Surrogate cell lines, ie, THP-1 (representing macrophages), BC-3 (CD8+), Ect1/E6E7 (squamous epithelial), HeLa (CD4+), and TF-1 (dendritic), were incubated for one hour with tenofovir and emtricitabine to assess uptake. In separate experiments, ethinyl estradiol (EE) and etonogestrel (ET) individually and together (EE/ET) were added prior to, simultaneously, and after incubation. Intracellular phosphorylated tenofovir and emtricitabine were quantified using validated tandem mass spectrometry methods. Results HeLa and Ect1/E6E7 cells showed significantly increased uptake relative to THP-1 controls for both antiretrovirals. Individually, ethinyl estradiol and etonogestrel significantly altered antiretroviral uptake across all cell lines, except Ect1/E6E7 for tenofovir and HeLa for emtricitabine. Cellular uptake of tenofovir and emtricitabine in BC-3 and TF-1 cells were significantly lower when dosed one hour prior to EE/ET administration compared with each antiretroviral administered in the absence of EE/ET (tenofovir, 80 versus 470 fmol/106 for BC-3 and 77 versus 506 fmol/106 cells for TF-1; emtricitabine, 36 versus 12 fmol/106 for BC-3 and 75 versus 5 fmol/106 cells for TF-1; P < 0.01 for each). Conclusion These data suggest that intracellular uptake of tenofovir and emtricitabine within the female genital tract varies by cell type and in the presence of hormonal contraceptives. The potential clinical implications of these findings should be further evaluated in vivo. PMID:27186136

  3. HIV-specific T-cell responses detected in the genital tract of chronically HIV-infected women are largely monofunctional

    PubMed Central

    Bere, Alfred; Denny, Lynette; Naicker, Prinola; Burgers, Wendy A; Passmore, Jo-Ann S

    2013-01-01

    HIV-specific T cells that produce interferon-γ (IFN-γ) are present in the genital tract of HIV-infected women although these do not provide protection against genital HIV shedding. Because polyfunctional HIV-specific T cells have been implicated in better HIV control than those with a single function, this study aimed to investigate whether polyfunctional T cells were present at the female genital mucosa. Cervical cytobrush-derived T cells were obtained from chronically HIV-infected women and compared with blood. CD3+ T cells from both compartments were expanded with Dynal anti-CD3/CD28 expander beads for 14 days and flow cytometry was used to evaluate four T-cell functions (CD107a, IFN-γ, tumour necrosis factor-α and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β) from 16 women. The majority of Gag-specific T-cell responses in the female genital tract were monofunctional, although low frequencies of HIV Gag-specific polyfunctional CD8+ T cells were detected at the cervix in 81·3% (13/16) of women. The ability of CD8+ T cells at both the cervix and in blood to express CD107a and to exhibit polyfunctional responses (two or more functions) following Gag stimulation was inversely associated with plasma viral load and positively associated with blood CD4 counts, suggesting that clinical status impacted on the functionality of HIV-specific T cells at the mucosa, in a similar way to blood. HIV Gag-specific cervical T cells were largely monofunctional. Polyfunctional T cells were detected at the cervix in women with high blood CD4 count and low plasma viral load but these did not protect from HIV genital shedding. PMID:23374084

  4. HIV-specific T-cell responses detected in the genital tract of chronically HIV-infected women are largely monofunctional.

    PubMed

    Bere, Alfred; Denny, Lynette; Naicker, Prinola; Burgers, Wendy A; Passmore, Jo-Ann S

    2013-07-01

    HIV-specific T cells that produce interferon-γ (IFN-γ) are present in the genital tract of HIV-infected women although these do not provide protection against genital HIV shedding. Because polyfunctional HIV-specific T cells have been implicated in better HIV control than those with a single function, this study aimed to investigate whether polyfunctional T cells were present at the female genital mucosa. Cervical cytobrush-derived T cells were obtained from chronically HIV-infected women and compared with blood. CD3(+) T cells from both compartments were expanded with Dynal anti-CD3/CD28 expander beads for 14 days and flow cytometry was used to evaluate four T-cell functions (CD107a, IFN-γ, tumour necrosis factor-α and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β) from 16 women. The majority of Gag-specific T-cell responses in the female genital tract were monofunctional, although low frequencies of HIV Gag-specific polyfunctional CD8(+) T cells were detected at the cervix in 81·3% (13/16) of women. The ability of CD8(+) T cells at both the cervix and in blood to express CD107a and to exhibit polyfunctional responses (two or more functions) following Gag stimulation was inversely associated with plasma viral load and positively associated with blood CD4 counts, suggesting that clinical status impacted on the functionality of HIV-specific T cells at the mucosa, in a similar way to blood. HIV Gag-specific cervical T cells were largely monofunctional. Polyfunctional T cells were detected at the cervix in women with high blood CD4 count and low plasma viral load but these did not protect from HIV genital shedding.

  5. Topical Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2) Vaccination with Human Papillomavirus Vectors Expressing gB/gD Ectodomains Induces Genital-Tissue-Resident Memory CD8+ T Cells and Reduces Genital Disease and Viral Shedding after HSV-2 Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Çuburu, Nicolas; Wang, Kening; Goodman, Kyle N.; Pang, Yuk Ying; Thompson, Cynthia D.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Cohen, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT No herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) vaccine has been licensed for use in humans. HSV-2 glycoproteins B (gB) and D (gD) are targets of neutralizing antibodies and T cells, but clinical trials involving intramuscular (i.m.) injection of HSV-2 gB and gD in adjuvants have not been effective. Here we evaluated intravaginal (ivag) genetic immunization of C57BL/6 mice with a replication-defective human papillomavirus pseudovirus (HPV PsV) expressing HSV-2 gB (HPV-gB) or gD (HPV-gD) constructs to target different subcellular compartments. HPV PsV expressing a secreted ectodomain of gB (gBsec) or gD (gDsec), but not PsV expressing a cytoplasmic or membrane-bound form, induced circulating and intravaginal-tissue-resident memory CD8+ T cells that were able to secrete gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as moderate levels of serum HSV neutralizing antibodies. Combined immunization with HPV-gBsec and HPV-gDsec (HPV-gBsec/gDsec) vaccines conferred longer survival after vaginal challenge with HSV-2 than immunization with HPV-gBsec or HPV-gDsec alone. HPV-gBsec/gDsec ivag vaccination was associated with a reduced severity of genital lesions and lower levels of viral shedding in the genital tract after HSV-2 challenge. In contrast, intramuscular vaccination with a soluble truncated gD protein (gD2t) in alum and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) elicited high neutralizing antibody titers and improved survival but did not reduce genital lesions and viral shedding. Vaccination combining ivag HPV-gBsec/gDsec and i.m. gD2t-alum-MPL improved survival and reduced genital lesions and viral shedding. Finally, high levels of circulating HSV-2-specific CD8+ T cells, but not serum antibodies, correlated with reduced viral shedding. Taken together, our data underscore the potential of HPV PsV as a platform for a topical mucosal vaccine to control local manifestations of primary HSV-2 infection. IMPORTANCE Genital herpes is a highly prevalent chronic

  6. Modeling the transcriptome of genital tract epithelial cells and macrophages in healthy mucosa versus mucosa inflamed by Chlamydia muridarum infection.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Raymond M; Kerr, Micah S

    2015-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital serovars are intracellular bacteria that parasitize human reproductive tract epithelium. As the principal cell type supporting bacterial replication, epithelial cells are central to Chlamydia immunobiology initially as sentries and innate defenders, and subsequently as collaborators in adaptive immunity-mediated bacterial clearance. In asymptomatic individuals who do not seek medical care a decisive struggle between C. trachomatis and host defenses occurs at the epithelial interface. For this study, we modeled the immunobiology of epithelial cells and macrophages lining healthy genital mucosa and inflamed/infected mucosa during the transition from innate to adaptive immunity. Upper reproductive tract epithelial cell line responses were compared to bone marrow-derived macrophages utilizing gene expression microarray technology. Those comparisons showed minor differences in the intrinsic innate defenses of macrophages and epithelial cells. Major lineage-specific differences in immunobiology relate to epithelial collaboration with adaptive immunity including an epithelial requirement for inflammatory cytokines to express MHC class II molecules, and a paucity and imbalance between costimulatory and coinhibitory ligands on epithelial cells that potentially limits sterilizing immunity (replication termination) to Chlamydia-specific T cells activated with limited or unconventional second signals.

  7. Female genital tract immunization: evaluation of candidate immunoadjuvants on epithelial cell secretion of CCL20 and dendritic/Langerhans cell maturation.

    PubMed

    Cremel, Magali; Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Genin, Christian; Delézay, Olivier

    2006-07-17

    The female genital tract is an important site for numerous pathogens entry. Local immunization, generating specific mucosal IgA and systemic IgG, represents an interesting alternative immunization pathway. However, such a vaccine strategy needs mucosal adjuvants to obtain the best immune response. Considering that the immunization process is mainly dependent on the capture and on the transport of the antigen by Langerhans cells, we evaluated potential adjuvant molecules by analysing their effects on the CCL20 secretion by endocervical and exocervical/vaginal epithelial cells as well as on dendritic cell and Langerhans cell maturation. We demonstrated that DC-Chol and Zymosan are the most efficient mucosal candidate immunoadjuvants that generate a strong increase of CCL20 secretion by the two epithelial cell lines and the maturation of dendritic and Langerhans cells, respectively.

  8. CD4+ T cell expression of MyD88 is essential for normal resolution of Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection1

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, Lauren C.; Sullivan, Jeanne E.; Zurenski, Matthew A.; Mintus, Margaret; Tomasak, Tammy E.; Prantner, Daniel; Nagarajan, Uma M.; Darville, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Resolution of Chlamydia genital tract infection is delayed in the absence of MyD88. In these studies, we first used bone marrow chimeras to demonstrate a requirement for MyD88 expression by hematopoietic cells in the presence of a wild-type epithelium. Using mixed bone marrow chimeras we then determined that MyD88 expression was specifically required in the adaptive immune compartment. Furthermore, adoptive transfer experiments revealed that CD4+ T cell expression of MyD88 was necessary for normal resolution of genital tract infection. This requirement was associated with a reduced ability of MyD88−/− CD4+ T cells to accumulate in the draining lymph nodes and genital tract when exposed to the same inflammatory milieu as wild-type CD4+ T cells. We also demonstrated that the impaired infection control we observed in the absence of MyD88 could not be recapitulated by deficiencies in TLR or IL-1R signaling. In vitro, we detected an increased frequency of apoptotic MyD88−/− CD4+ T cells upon activation in the absence of exogenous ligands for receptors upstream of MyD88. These data reveal an intrinsic requirement for MyD88 in CD4+ T cells during Chlamydia infection and indicate that the importance of MyD88 extends beyond innate immune responses by directly influencing adaptive immunity. PMID:24038087

  9. Genital Warts (HPV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Genital Warts (HPV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Genital Warts (HPV) Print A ... HPV infection. How Do People Know They Have HPV? Most HPV infections have no signs or symptoms. ...

  10. Anti-HIV-1 Activity of Elafin Is More Potent than Its Precursor's, Trappin-2, in Genital Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Drannik, Anna G.; Nag, Kakon; Yao, Xiao-Dan; Henrick, Bethany M.; Jain, Sumiti; Ball, T. Blake; Plummer, Francis A.; Wachihi, Charles; Kimani, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Cervicovaginal lavage fluid (CVL) is a natural source of anti-HIV-1 factors; however, molecular characterization of the anti-HIV-1 activity of CVL remains elusive. In this study, we confirmed that CVLs from HIV-1-resistant (HIV-R) compared to HIV-1-susceptible (HIV-S) commercial sex workers (CSWs) contain significantly larger amounts of serine antiprotease trappin-2 (Tr) and its processed form, elafin (E). We assessed anti-HIV-1 activity of CVLs of CSWs and recombinant E and Tr on genital epithelial cells (ECs) that possess (TZM-bl) or lack (HEC-1A) canonical HIV-1 receptors. Our results showed that immunodepletion of 30% of Tr/E from CVL accounted for up to 60% of total anti-HIV-1 activity of CVL. Knockdown of endogenous Tr/E in HEC-1A cells resulted in significantly increased shedding of infectious R5 and X4 HIV-1. Pretreatment of R5, but not X4 HIV-1, with either Tr or E led to inhibition of HIV-1 infection of TZM-bl cells. Interestingly, when either HIV-1 or cells lacking canonical HIV-1 receptors were pretreated with Tr or E, HIV-1 attachment and transcytosis were significantly reduced, and decreased attachment was not associated with altered expression of syndecan-1 or CXCR4. Determination of 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of Tr and E anti-HIV-1 activity indicated that E is ∼130 times more potent than its precursor, Tr, despite their equipotent antiprotease activities. This study provides the first experimental evidence that (i) Tr and E are among the principal anti-HIV-1 molecules of CVL; (ii) Tr and E affect cell attachment and transcytosis of HIV-1; (iii) E is more efficient than Tr regarding anti-HIV-1 activity; and (iv) the anti-HIV-1 effect of Tr and E is contextual. PMID:22345469

  11. High-risk human papilloma virus infection decreases the frequency of dendritic Langerhans' cells in the human female genital tract

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Mendez-Cruz, Rene; Ojeda-Ortiz, Jorge; Muñoz-Molina, Rebeca; Balderas-Carrillo, Oscar; de la Luz Diaz-Soberanes, Maria; Lebecque, Serge; Saeland, Sem; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Garcia-Carranca, Alejandro; Ullrich, Stephen E; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo

    2006-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are often arranged in planar layers in tissues with high antigenic exposure, such as skin and mucosae. Providing an en face view, this arrangement optimizes in situ analysis regarding morphology (even of individual dendrites), topographic distribution (regular/clustered) and quantification. The few reports on human genital DC usually utilize single markers and conventional sections, restricting immunolabelling only to cell parts sectioned by the cut. To better assess DC in situ, we labelled epithelial sheets, prepared from fresh cervix biopsies, with antibodies to major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-CII, CD1a and Langerin, revealing (with each of these markers) a dense DC network in a planar-like, regular distribution. Using the hybrid capture system to detect the high-risk mucotropic human papilloma virus (HPV) group, 16 positive and five negative women were studied and the results were compared between these groups. DC frequency per area was substantially reduced (to ≈ 50% for the three markers) in samples from all HPV-infected patients compared with samples from controls. Unlike HPV– samples, Langerin+ DC in HPV+ cervix exhibited a highly accentuated dendritic appearance. We believe this to be the first study using these three DC-restricted markers (Langerin, CD1a and MHC-CII) in cervical epithelial sheets from high-risk HPV+ donors and also the first study to demonstrate the morphological and quantitative changes triggered by high-risk HPV infection. Cervical DC reduction in early, premalignant high-risk HPV infection might represent viral subversion strategies interfering with efficient antigen handling by the immune system's peripheral sentinels, the DC, perhaps hampering appropriate recruitment and subsequent development of effector (cytotoxic) T cells. PMID:16423058

  12. Male genital lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  13. Early genital naming.

    PubMed

    Fraley, M C; Nelson, E C; Wolf, A W; Lozoff, B

    1991-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical impression that young girls are given little or confusing information about their genitals, a sample of 117 mothers with 1- to 4-year-old children were asked which words for genitals, if any, they used with their children. The ethnically and socioeconomically heterogeneous sample was composed of 63 girls and 54 boys, with the average ages of 26 and 29 months, respectively. Neither boys nor girls were likely to be given a standard anatomical genital term, although many children received colorful colloquial expressions. However, girls were less likely than boys to receive a term for their genitals. Receiving names for genitals was related to certain family circumstances, such as higher parental education, exposure to adult male nudity, having a sibling of the opposite sex, and cosleeping. Pediatric health professionals have the opportunity to contribute to early sex education by conveying accurate information regarding genital terms in the course of routine physical examinations. PMID:1939685

  14. Genital herpes - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Herpes - genital -self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... genital herpes can be treated. Follow your health care provider's instructions for treatment and follow-up.

  15. Intravaginal TLR agonists increase local vaccine-specific CD8 T cells and human papillomavirus-associated genital-tumor regression in mice.

    PubMed

    Domingos-Pereira, S; Decrausaz, L; Derré, L; Bobst, M; Romero, P; Schiller, J T; Jichlinski, P; Nardelli-Haefliger, D

    2013-03-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV)-related cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Despite active development, HPV E6/E7 oncogene-specific therapeutic vaccines have had limited clinical efficacy to date. Here, we report that intravaginal (IVAG) instillation of CpG-ODN (TLR9 agonist) or poly-(I:C) (TLR3 agonist) after subcutaneous E7 vaccination increased ~fivefold the number of vaccine-specific interferon-γ-secreting CD8 T cells in the genital mucosa (GM) of mice, without affecting the E7-specific systemic response. The IVAG treatment locally increased both E7-specific and total CD8 T cells, but not CD4 T cells. This previously unreported selective recruitment of CD8 T cells from the periphery by IVAG CpG-ODN or poly-(I:C) was mediated by TLR9 and TLR3/melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 signaling pathways, respectively. For CpG, this recruitment was associated with a higher proportion of GM-localized CD8 T cells expressing both CCR5 and CXCR3 chemokine receptors and E-selectin ligands. Most interestingly, IVAG CpG-ODN following vaccination led to complete regression of large genital HPV tumors in 75% of mice, instead of 20% with vaccination alone. These findings suggest that mucosal application of immunostimulatory molecules might substantially increase the effectiveness of parenterally administered vaccines.

  16. HPV detection and p53 alteration in squamous cell verrucous malignancies of the lower genital tract.

    PubMed

    Pilotti, S; Donghi, R; D'Amato, L; Giarola, M; Longoni, A; Della Torre, G; De Palo, G; Pierotti, M A; Rilke, F

    1993-12-01

    We examined five cases of verrucous carcinoma (VC) and two cases of giant condyloma of Buschke-Löwenstein (GCBL) associated with invasive squamous cell carcinoma (ISCC), by immunocytochemistry and molecular techniques. Neither human papillomavirus (HPV) footprints nor p53-altered expression and/or mutation were observed among the cases of VC. By contrast, both cases of GCBL with ISCC turned out to be HPV 6 or 11 positive, showed overexpression of p53 and, one of the two, a mutation in the nucleotide sequence of this tumor suppressor gene. The results point out that VC and GCBL with ISCC, in spite of some morphologic similarities, are two distinct entities, the former being unrelated to both HPV and p53 inactivation and the latter related to both. Regarding p53, immunocytochemical and molecular data on GCBL with ISCC suggest a role of mutant p53 in the progression of malignancy into invasion.

  17. Noninfectious genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Kirshen, Carly; Edwards, Libby

    2015-12-01

    Noninfectious genital ulcers are much more common than ulcers arising from infections. Still, it is important to take a thorough history of sexual activity and a sexual abuse screen. A physical exam should include skin, oral mucosa, nails, hair, vulva, and vaginal mucosa if needed. The differential diagnosis of noninfectious genital ulcers includes: lipschütz ulcers, complex aphthosis, Behçet's syndrome, vulvar metastatic Crohn's disease, hidradenitis suppurativa, pyoderma gangrenosum, pressure ulcers, and malignancies. It is important to come to the correct diagnosis to avoid undue testing, stress, and anxiety in patients experiencing genital ulcerations.

  18. Primary human epithelial cell culture system for studying interactions between female upper genital tract and sexually transmitted viruses, HSV-2 and HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Kaushic, Charu; Nazli, Aisha; Ferreira, Victor H; Kafka, Jessica K

    2011-10-01

    Evidence from clinical and epidemiological studies indicates that women are disproportionately susceptible to sexually transmitted viral infections. To understand the underlying biological basis for this increased susceptibility, more studies are needed to examine the acute events in the female reproductive tract following exposure to viruses during sexual transmission. The epithelial lining of the female reproductive tract is the primary barrier that sexually transmitted viruses, such as HIV-1 and HSV-2 need to infect or traverse, in order to initiate and establish productive infection. We have established an ex-vivo primary culture system to grow genital epithelial cells from upper reproductive tract tissues of women. Using these cultures, we have extensively examined the interactions between epithelial cells of the female genital tract and HSV-2 and HIV-1. In this review, we describe in detail the experimental protocol to grow these cultures, monitor their differentiation and inoculate with HSV-2 and HIV-1. Prospective use of these cultures to re-create the microenvironment in the reproductive tract is discussed.

  19. Effects of Yeast and Bacterial Commensals and Pathogens of the Female Genital Tract on the Transepithelial Electrical Resistance of HeLa Cells.

    PubMed

    Tsata, Vassiliki; Velegraki, Aristea; Ioannidis, Anastasios; Poulopoulou, Cornelia; Bagos, Pantelis; Magana, Maria; Chatzipanagiotou, Stylianos

    2016-01-01

    Commensals of the human body can shift to a pathogenic phase when the host immune system is impaired. This study aims to investigate the effect of seven yeast and two bacterial commensals and opportunistic pathogens isolated from blood and the female genital tract on the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) of human cervical epithelial cell cultures (HeLa). The pathogens Candida tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, caused a significant decrease in TER as compared to the controls; Lactobacillus spp caused a significant increase in TER versus the controls and Escherichia coli had no effect on the TER of the cell monolayers. The above data show that Candida spp., S. cerevisiae and Lactobacillus spp. have a non-selective effect on the TER of HeLa cell monolayers. These results are consistent with the in vivo non-selective action of these microorganisms on the various human mucosal epithelia. PMID:27335621

  20. Targeting the Genital Tract Mucosa with a Lipopeptide/Recombinant Adenovirus Prime/Boost Vaccine Induces Potent and Long-Lasting CD8+ T Cell Immunity Against Herpes: Importance of Myeloid Differentiation Factor 881

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiuli; Dervillez, Xavier; Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; Badakhshan, Tina; Bettahi, Ilham; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2012-01-01

    Targeting the mucosal immune system of the genital tract (GT) with subunit vaccines failed to induce potent and durable local CD8+ T cell immunity, crucial for protection against many sexually transmitted viral (STV) pathogens, including herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) that causes genital herpes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential of a novel lipopeptide/adenovirus type 5 (Lipo/rAdv5) prime/boost mucosal vaccine for induction of CD8+ T cell immunity to protect the female genital tract from herpes. The lipopeptide and the rAdv5 vaccine express the immunodominant HSV-2 CD8+ T cell epitope (gB498-505) and both were delivered intravaginally (IVAG) in the progesterone-induced B6 mouse model of genital herpes. Compared to its homologous lipopeptide/lipopeptide (Lipo/Lipo); the Lipo/rAdv5 prime/boost immunized mice: (i) developed potent and sustained HSV-specific CD8+ T cells, detected in both the GT draining nodes (GT-DLN) and in the vaginal mucosa (VM); (ii) had significantly lower virus titers; (iii) had decreased overt signs of genital herpes disease; and (iv) did not succumb to lethal infection (p < 0.005), following intravaginal HSV-2 challenge. Polyfunctional CD8+ T cells, producing IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 and exhibiting cytotoxic activity, were associated with protection (p < 0.005). The protective CD8+ T cell response was significantly compromised in the absence of the adaptor myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) (p = 0.0001). Taken together, these findings indicate that targeting the VM with a Lipo/rAdv5 prime/boost vaccine elicits a potent, MyD88-dependent, and long-lasting mucosal CD8+ T cell protective immunity against sexually transmitted herpes infection and disease. PMID:23018456

  1. Progesterone Levels Associate with a Novel Population of CCR5+CD38+ CD4 T Cells Resident in the Genital Mucosa with Lymphoid Trafficking Potential.

    PubMed

    Swaims-Kohlmeier, Alison; Haaland, Richard E; Haddad, Lisa B; Sheth, Anandi N; Evans-Strickfaden, Tammy; Lupo, L Davis; Cordes, Sarah; Aguirre, Alfredo J; Lupoli, Kathryn A; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Ofotukun, Igho; Hart, Clyde E; Kohlmeier, Jacob E

    2016-07-01

    The female genital tract (FGT) provides a means of entry to pathogens, including HIV, yet immune cell populations at this barrier between host and environment are not well defined. We initiated a study of healthy women to characterize resident T cell populations in the lower FGT from lavage and patient-matched peripheral blood to investigate potential mechanisms of HIV sexual transmission. Surprisingly, we observed FGT CD4 T cell populations were primarily CCR7(hi), consistent with a central memory or recirculating memory T cell phenotype. In addition, roughly half of these CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells expressed CD69, consistent with resident memory T cells, whereas the remaining CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells lacked CD69 expression, consistent with recirculating memory CD4 T cells that traffic between peripheral tissues and lymphoid sites. HIV susceptibility markers CCR5 and CD38 were increased on FGT CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells compared with blood, yet migration to the lymphoid homing chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 was maintained. Infection with GFP-HIV showed that FGT CCR7(hi) memory CD4 T cells are susceptible HIV targets, and productive infection of CCR7(hi) memory T cells did not alter chemotaxis to CCL19 and CCL21. Variations of resident CCR7(hi) FGT CD4 T cell populations were detected during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and longitudinal analysis showed the frequency of this population positively correlated to progesterone levels. These data provide evidence women may acquire HIV through local infection of migratory CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells, and progesterone levels predict opportunities for HIV to access these novel target cells.

  2. Progesterone Levels Associate with a Novel Population of CCR5+CD38+ CD4 T Cells Resident in the Genital Mucosa with Lymphoid Trafficking Potential.

    PubMed

    Swaims-Kohlmeier, Alison; Haaland, Richard E; Haddad, Lisa B; Sheth, Anandi N; Evans-Strickfaden, Tammy; Lupo, L Davis; Cordes, Sarah; Aguirre, Alfredo J; Lupoli, Kathryn A; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Ofotukun, Igho; Hart, Clyde E; Kohlmeier, Jacob E

    2016-07-01

    The female genital tract (FGT) provides a means of entry to pathogens, including HIV, yet immune cell populations at this barrier between host and environment are not well defined. We initiated a study of healthy women to characterize resident T cell populations in the lower FGT from lavage and patient-matched peripheral blood to investigate potential mechanisms of HIV sexual transmission. Surprisingly, we observed FGT CD4 T cell populations were primarily CCR7(hi), consistent with a central memory or recirculating memory T cell phenotype. In addition, roughly half of these CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells expressed CD69, consistent with resident memory T cells, whereas the remaining CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells lacked CD69 expression, consistent with recirculating memory CD4 T cells that traffic between peripheral tissues and lymphoid sites. HIV susceptibility markers CCR5 and CD38 were increased on FGT CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells compared with blood, yet migration to the lymphoid homing chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 was maintained. Infection with GFP-HIV showed that FGT CCR7(hi) memory CD4 T cells are susceptible HIV targets, and productive infection of CCR7(hi) memory T cells did not alter chemotaxis to CCL19 and CCL21. Variations of resident CCR7(hi) FGT CD4 T cell populations were detected during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and longitudinal analysis showed the frequency of this population positively correlated to progesterone levels. These data provide evidence women may acquire HIV through local infection of migratory CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells, and progesterone levels predict opportunities for HIV to access these novel target cells. PMID:27233960

  3. Genital soft tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Schoolmeester, John K; Fritchie, Karen J

    2015-07-01

    Mesenchymal neoplasms of the vulvovaginal and inguinoscrotal regions are among the most diagnostically challenging specimens in the pathology laboratory owing largely to their unique intersection between general soft tissue tumors and relatively genital-specific mesenchymal tumors. Genital stromal tumors are a unique subset of soft tissue tumors encountered at this location, and this group includes fibroepithelial stromal polyp, superficial (cervicovaginal) myofibroblastoma, cellular angiofibroma, mammary-type myofibroblastoma, angiomyofibroblastoma and aggressive angiomyxoma. Aside from the striking morphologic and immunophenotypic similarity that is seen with these entities, there is evidence that a subset of genital stromal tumors may be linked genetically. This review will focus on simplifying this group of tumors and provide the pathologist or dermatopathologist with practical management information. Smooth muscle tumors of the external genitalia will also be discussed.

  4. Bovine Genital Mycoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Doig, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Infection, lesions and clinical significance of Acheloplasmas, Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium in genital disease of cattle are described. A more detailed account is given of ureaplasma infections. Acute and chronic forms of granular vulvitis in both field and experimental disease are described as well as the role of the organism in abortion. Recovery rates of ureaplasma and mycoplasma from semen and preputial washings in bulls are outlined and their significance in disease is discussed. There are problems in differentiating pathogenic from nonpathogenic isolates. Methods are being developed to treat semen for these organisms. This paper provides a concise summary of clinical and microbiological aspects of bovine genital mycoplasmosis. PMID:7337908

  5. Nonspecific genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta

    2014-01-01

    Recent intervention of nonspecific genital ulcers has added refreshing dimensions to genital ulcer disease. It was considered pertinent to dwell on diverse clinical presentation and diagnostic strategies. It seems to possess spectrum. It includes infective causes, Epstein Bar Virus, tuberculosis, Leishmaniasis, HIV/AIDS related ulcers and amoebiasis. Noninfective causes are immunobullous disorders, aphthosis, Behcet's disease (BD), inflammatory bowel disease, lichen planus and lichen sclerosis et atrophicus, drug reactions, premalignant and malignant conditions, pyoderma gangrenosum, and hidradenitis suppurativa. The diagnostic features and treatment option of each disorder are succinctly outlined for ready reference.

  6. Cervicovaginal bacteria are a major modulator of host inflammatory responses in the female genital tract

    PubMed Central

    Anahtar, Melis N.; Byrne, Elizabeth H.; Doherty, Kathleen E.; Bowman, Brittany A.; Yamamoto, Hidemi S.; Soumillon, Magali; Padavattan, Nikita; Ismail, Nasreen; Moodley, Amber; Sabatini, Mary E.; Ghebremichael, Musie S.; Nusbaum, Chad; Huttenhower, Curtis; Virgin, Herbert W.; Ndung’u, Thumbi; Dong, Krista L.; Walker, Bruce D.; Fichorova, Raina N.; Kwon, Douglas S.

    2015-01-01

    Colonization by Lactobacillus in the female genital tract is thought to be critical for maintaining genital health. However, little is known about how genital microbiota influence host immune function and modulate disease susceptibility. We studied a cohort of asymptomatic young South African women and found that the majority of participants had genital communities with low Lactobacillus abundance and high ecological diversity. High diversity communities strongly correlated with genital pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Transcriptional profiling suggested that genital antigen presenting cells sense gram-negative bacterial products in situ via Toll-like receptor 4 signaling, contributing to genital inflammation through activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway and recruitment of lymphocytes by chemokine production. Our study proposes a mechanism by which cervicovaginal microbiota impact genital inflammation and thereby may affect a woman's reproductive health, including her risk of acquiring HIV. PMID:25992865

  7. Female genital actinomycosis.

    PubMed

    Beedham, T; Ellice, R; Smith, H; Usherwood, M M

    1979-10-01

    Four cases of female genital actinomycosis are added to the reported total of about 300. The relationship of the disease to the normal microbial flora, intrauterine contraceptive device usage and pelvic sepsis is explored. It is suggested that the disease may be more frequent than hitherto realized.

  8. Healing of Genital Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…

  9. Female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees. PMID:8400925

  10. Idiopathic genital ulcers in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J; Clark, R A; Watts, D H; Till, M; Arrastia, C; Schuman, P; Cohn, S E; Young, M; Bessen, L; Greenblatt, R; Vogler, M; Swindells, S; Boyer, P

    1996-12-01

    A national survey of investigators caring for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women was undertaken to describe the clinical presentation of idiopathic genital ulcer disease. Patients with negative syphilis and herpes simplex testing and/or negative genital ulcer biopsy were included in this study. Study participants (n = 29) were generally severely immunocompromised (median CD4 cell count was 50/mm3, and 68% had an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]-defining opportunistic process). Thirty-seven percent had coexistent oral ulcers and 19% had their genital ulcer progress to fistula formation (four rectovaginal and one vaginal-perineal). There was generally a favorable response to topical, systemic, and intralesional steroid treatment. This study suggests that idiopathic or probable aphthous genital ulcers in women have similar clinical characteristics to aphthous oroesophageal ulcers. Although infrequent, these genital ulcers can cause severe morbidity. Further research is warranted to better define the pathophysiology and optimal management.

  11. Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aswath, Manju; Pandit, Lakshmi V.; Kashyap, Karthik; Ramnath, Raguram

    2016-01-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a phenomenon, in which afflicted women experience spontaneous genital arousal, unresolved by orgasms and triggered by sexual or nonsexual stimuli, eliciting stress. The current case is a 40-year-old female who experienced such orgasms for about a month. Physical examination, investigations, and psychological testing were noncontributory. Carbamazepine (600 mg) was discontinued due to a lack of response. She improved significantly with supportive therapy. Various neuropsychological conditions, pelvic pathology, medications, etc., have been associated with this disorder. Pharmacologic strategies have included the use of antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and analgesics. Validation, psycho-education, identifying triggers, distraction techniques, and pelvic massage have been tried. Living with PGAD is very demanding. There is a lack of understanding of the problem, shame, and hesitation to seek help. The syndrome has been recently described, and understanding is still evolving. PMID:27570347

  12. A Dual-Modality Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Vaccine for Preventing Genital Herpes by Using Glycoprotein C and D Subunit Antigens To Induce Potent Antibody Responses and Adenovirus Vectors Containing Capsid and Tegument Proteins as T Cell Immunogens

    PubMed Central

    Mahairas, Gregory G.; Shaw, Carolyn E.; Huang, Meei-Li; Koelle, David M.; Posavad, Christine; Corey, Lawrence; Friedman, Harvey M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We evaluated a genital herpes prophylactic vaccine containing herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoproteins C (gC2) and D (gD2) to stimulate humoral immunity and UL19 (capsid protein VP5) and UL47 (tegument protein VP13/14) as T cell immunogens. The HSV-2 gC2 and gD2 proteins were expressed in baculovirus, while the UL19 and UL47 genes were expressed from replication-defective adenovirus vectors. Adenovirus vectors containing UL19 and UL47 stimulated human and murine CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. Guinea pigs were either (i) mock immunized; (ii) immunized with gC2/gD2, with CpG and alum as adjuvants; (iii) immunized with the UL19/UL47 adenovirus vectors; or (iv) immunized with the combination of gC2/gD2-CpG/alum and the UL19/UL47 adenovirus vectors. Immunization with gC2/gD2 produced potent neutralizing antibodies, while UL19 and UL47 also stimulated antibody responses. After intravaginal HSV-2 challenge, the mock and UL19/UL47 adenovirus groups developed severe acute disease, while 2/8 animals in the gC2/gD2-only group and none in the combined group developed acute disease. No animals in the gC2/gD2 or combined group developed recurrent disease; however, 5/8 animals in each group had subclinical shedding of HSV-2 DNA, on 15/168 days for the gC2/gD2 group and 13/168 days for the combined group. Lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia were positive for HSV-2 DNA and latency-associated transcripts for 5/8 animals in the gC2/gD2 group and 2/8 animals in the combined group. None of the differences comparing the gC2/gD2-only group and the combined group were statistically significant. Therefore, adding the T cell immunogens UL19 and UL47 to the gC2/gD2 vaccine did not significantly reduce genital disease and vaginal HSV-2 DNA shedding compared with the excellent protection provided by gC2/gD2 in the guinea pig model. IMPORTANCE HSV-2 infection is a common cause of genital ulcer disease and a significant public health concern. Genital herpes increases the risk of

  13. Genital rhabdomyoma of the urethra in an infant girl.

    PubMed

    Lu, David Y; Chang, Sue; Cook, Heather; Alizadeh, Yalda; Karam, Amer K; Moatamed, Neda A; Dry, Sarah M

    2012-04-01

    Extracardiac rhabdomyomas are rare benign entities that usually occur in the head and neck region. Although genital rhabdomyoma is known to occur in the lower genital tract of young and middle-aged women, involvement of the anatomically adjacent urethra by rhabdomyoma is exceedingly rare. We present a case of genital rhabdomyoma arising from the urethra of an infant girl. The tumor was characterized by the submucosal presence of mature-appearing rhabdomyoblastic cells containing conspicuous cross-striations, with the cells set in a collagenous stroma. Necrosis and mitoses were absent. Skeletal muscle differentiation of the tumor cells was supported by positive immunohistochemical staining for desmin and myogenin. To our knowledge, this is the first case of urethral genital-type rhabdomyoma in a child.

  14. Target cell limitation constrains chlamydial load in persistent infections: results from mathematical modelling applied to mouse genital tract infection data.

    PubMed

    Craig, Andrew P; Rank, Roger G; Bowlin, Anne K; Wand, Handan; Wilson, David P

    2015-02-01

    The interactions between chlamydial pathogens and their host contribute to the outcome of infection. Nonresolving infections in immunodeficient mice can provide insights into these mechanisms by allowing observation of a form of persistent infection. Using a mathematical model, we predict that in a nonresolving infection, the number of chlamydiae in the host will attain a stable equilibrium and that this equilibrium will be independent of the inoculum size. We test this hypothesis by infecting RAG(-/-) mice with 10(4)-10(7) inclusion-forming units (IFU) of Chlamydia muridarum and comparing the IFU levels at equilibrium. There were no statistically significant differences in equilibrium IFU levels between the reference group and other inoculation groups, supporting the hypothesis. Using the mathematical model, we estimated that at equilibrium just 3% of the chlamydiae infect a target cell. We predict that the equilibrium IFU level is highly sensitive to the rate of replenishment of healthy cells. The limitation of target cells is a key driver of infection dynamics, affecting both the peak of infection and the equilibrium level of persistent infections. Target cell limitation likely plays an important role in the dynamics of human infections as well.

  15. Acute genital ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers. PMID:24473429

  16. Acute genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-28

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers.

  17. Genital burns and vaginal delivery.

    PubMed

    Pant, R; Manandhar, V; Wittgenstein, F; Fortney, J A; Fukushima, C

    1995-07-01

    Obstetric complications may result from burn scarring in the genital area. Women in developing countries typically squat around cooking fires, and burns are common. This recent case in Nepal describes obstructed labor in a young woman whose genital area had extensive scarring from a cooking fire injury. Proper antenatal assessment by health care providers can reduce the risk to mothers and infants of the consequences of a birth canal damaged or obstructed by burn scarring.

  18. Memory CD4(+) T cells are the earliest detectable human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected cells in the female genital mucosal tissue during HIV-1 transmission in an organ culture system.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Phalguni; Collins, Kelly B; Ratner, Deena; Watkins, Simon; Naus, Gregory J; Landers, Daniel V; Patterson, Bruce K

    2002-10-01

    The virologic and cellular factors that are involved in transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) across the female genital tissue are poorly understood. We have recently developed a human cervical tissue-derived organ culture model to study heterosexual transmission of HIV-1 that mimics the in vivo situation. Using this model we investigated the role of phenotypic characteristics of HIV-1 and identified the cell types that are first infected during transmission. Our data indicate that the cell-free R5 HIV-1 was more efficiently transmitted than cell-free X4 HIV-1. Cell-free and cell-associated HIV-1 had comparable transmission efficiency regardless of whether the virus was of R5 or X4 type. We have demonstrated that memory CD4(+) T cells and not Langerhans cells were the first HIV-1 RNA-positive cells detected at the epithelial-submucosal junction 6 h after virus exposure. Multicolor laser confocal microscopy demonstrated a globular distribution of HIV-1 gag-pol mRNA in the cytoplasm, and the distribution of CD4 and the CD45RO isoform was irregular on the cellular membrane. At 96 h postinoculation, in addition to memory CD4(+) T cells, HIV-1 RNA-positive Langerhans cells and macrophages were also detected. The identification of CD4(+) T cells in the tissue at 6 h was confirmed by flow cytometric simultaneous immunophenotyping and ultrasensitive fluorescence in situ hybridization assay on immune cells isolated from disaggregated tissue. Furthermore, PMPA [9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl] adenine], an antiretroviral compound, and UC781, a microbicide, inhibited HIV-1 transmission across the mucosa, indicating the utility of the organ culture to screen topical microbicides for their ability to block sexual transmission of HIV-1.

  19. Male genital trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, G.H.; Gilbert, D.A.

    1988-07-01

    We have attempted to discuss genital trauma in relatively broad terms. In most cases, patients present with relatively minimal trauma. However, because of the complexity of the structures involved, minimal trauma can lead to significant disability later on. The process of erection requires correct functioning of the arterial, neurologic, and venous systems coupled with intact erectile bodies. The penis is composed of structures that are compliant and distensible to the limits of their compliance. These structures therefore tumesce in equal proportion to each other, allowing for straight erection. Relatively minimal trauma can upset this balance of elasticity, leading to disabling chordee. Likewise, relatively minimal injuries to the vascular erectile structures can lead to significantly disabling spongiofibrosis. The urethra is a conduit of paramount importance. Whereas the development of stricture is generally related to the nature of the trauma, the extent of stricture and of attendant complications is clearly a function of the immediate management. Overzealous debridement can greatly complicate subsequent reconstruction. A delicate balance between aggressive initial management and maximal preservation of viable structures must be achieved. 38 references.

  20. [DNA adducts in human female genital organs].

    PubMed

    Postawski, Krzysztof; Przadka-Rabaniuk, Dorota; Monist, Marta; Baranowski, Włodzimierz

    2007-12-01

    DNA adducts, one of genetic damages markers, precede and finally can lead to oncogenic mutations. They appear in genome as a result of DNA bases damages caused by various and numerous environmental factors eg. ultraviolet light, ionic radiation, toxins and also endogenic substances, for example estrogens. It is believed that the creation of DNA adducts is a necessary but insufficient process for the neoplastic transformation of the cell. The following review presents concise knowledge about the DNA adducts creation and their sequels served in healthy and cancerous tissues of the female genital organs, on the base of the available data. PMID:18411923

  1. [Genital ulcers--what's new?].

    PubMed

    Abu Raya, Bahaa; Bamberger, Ellen; Srugo, Isaac

    2013-08-01

    The most common infectious causes of genital ulcers are herpes simplex virus and syphilis. However, mixed infections can occur and genital ulcer may increase the risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus. Although the history and physical examination can narrow the differential diagnosis, there is a need for initial routine laboratory testing for the most common pathogens that includes: for syphilis: serologic screening and dark field examination of the lesion; for herpes simplex virus: serology, vial culture and/or polymerase chain reaction. Human immunodeficiency testing is mandatory. Recently, some clinical laboratories adapted the reverse screening algorithm for syphilis (initial treponemal test, and, if positive, followed by non-treponemal test) that may potentially lead to overtreatment. Early and prompt therapy may decrease the risk of transmission of the infectious agent to others. This article reviews the infectious pathogens causing genital ulcers, their unique clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C. PMID:23515242

  3. Simultaneous genital ulcer and meningitis: a case of EBV infection

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Jairo Tavares; Lopes, Leonardo da Costa; Prokopowitsch, Aleksander Snioka

    2016-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a broad spectrum of diseases, mainly because of its genomic characteristics, which result in different latency patterns in immune cells and infective mechanisms. The patient described in this report is a previously healthy young man who presented to the emergency department with clinical features consistent with meningitis and genital ulcers, which raised concern that the herpes simplex virus was the causative agent. However, the polymerase chain reaction of cerebral spinal fluid was positive for EBV. The authors highlight the importance of this infection among the differential diagnosis of central nervous system involvement and genital ulceration. PMID:27547743

  4. Genital ulcers, other sexually transmitted diseases, and the sexual transmission of HIV.

    PubMed

    Piot, P; Laga, M

    1989-03-11

    There is increasing evidence that genital ulceration, including syphilis, chancroid, and herpes simplex type 2, increases susceptibility to HIV infection. It may be that the HIV penetrates more easily through ulcerated membranes or that the lymphocytes associated with the inflammatory response present target cells for HIV infection. There is also evidence that HIV-infected women with genital ulcers are themselves more infective due to shedding of the virus in the genital tract. Nonulcerative sexually-transmitted diseases have also been associated as cofactors of HIV infection. Programs for the control of sexually transmitted diseases should be strengthened and should focus on eliminating chancroid, which is easily treated with antibiotics. Patients with genital ulcer disease should receive counseling, so that they will know that untreated genital ulcers increase the risk of HIV infection.

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus, genital ulcers and the male foreskin: synergism in HIV-1 transmission.

    PubMed

    Jessamine, P G; Plummer, F A; Ndinya Achola, J O; Wainberg, M A; Wamola, I; D'Costa, L J; Cameron, D W; Simonsen, J N; Plourde, P; Ronald, A R

    1990-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies in Nairobi and elsewhere in Africa, have shown that men infected with HIV-1 more commonly have a history of genital ulcer disease compared to uninfected men. In one study, HIV infected men were three times as likely to have a recent history of genital ulcers. In a prospective study of seronegative men, those presenting with chancroid had a five-fold risk of seroconversion during follow-up compared to men presenting with urethritis. Uncircumcised men had an increased risk of seroconversion which was independent of their risk of genital ulcer disease. Over 95% of attributable risk in men with STD was either genital ulceration or the presence of a foreskin. Genital ulcers are a major risk factor for HIV infection among prostitutes. The increased risk is about 10-fold among prostitutes with ulcers compared to a cohort who did not. We hypothesize from these studies that genital ulcers are the major portals of entry for HIV infection and also increased shedding of virus infected cells into the vaginal secretions. HIV seropositive prostitutes are more susceptible to chancroid with a two-fold increase in the prevalence of genital ulcers as compared to HIV negative women. The use of condoms by their clients prevents both genital ulcer disease and HIV acquisition among prostitutes. Chancroid is more difficult to treat in HIV infected men with one-third of patients failing single dose treatment regimens as compared to less than five percent of men without HIV infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Genital reconstruction in exstrophy patients

    PubMed Central

    Nerli, R. B.; Shirol, S. S.; Guntaka, Ajay; Patil, Shivagouda; Hiremath, Murigendra B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Surgery for bladder exstrophy has been evolving over the last four to five decades. Because survival has become almost universal, the focus has changed in the exstrophy-epispadias complex to improving quality of life. The most prevalent problem in the long-term function of exstrophy patients is the sexual activity of the adolescent and adult males. The penis in exstrophy patients appears short because of marked congenital deficiency of anterior corporal tissue. Many patients approach for genital reconstruction to improve cosmesis as well as to correct chordee. We report our series of male patients seeking genital reconstruction following exstrophy repair in the past. Materials and Methods: Fourteen adolescent/adult male patients attended urology services during the period January 2000-December 2009 seeking genital reconstruction following exstrophy repair in the past. Results: Three patients underwent epispadias repair, four patients had chordee correction with cosmetic excision of skin tags and seven patients underwent chordee correction with penile lengthening. All patients reported satisfaction in the answered questionnaire. Patients undergoing penile lengthening by partial corporal dissection achieved a mean increase in length of 1.614 ± 0.279 cm dorsally and 1.543 ± 0.230 cm ventrally. The satisfactory rate assessed by the Short Form-36 (SF-36) showed that irrespective of the different genital reconstructive procedures done, the patients were satisfied with cosmetic and functional outcome. Conclusions: Surgical procedures have transformed the management in these patients with bladder exstrophy. Bladders can be safely placed within the pelvis, with most patients achieving urinary continence and cosmetically acceptable external genitalia. Genital reconstruction in the form of correction of chordee, excision of ugly skin tags and lengthening of penis can be performed to give the patients a satisfactory cosmetic and functional system. PMID:23204655

  7. Female genital cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Heywood, Mark; Lemyre, Madeleine; Marcoux, Violaine; Menard, Chantal; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Singh, Sukhbir; Shapiro, Jodi; Akhtar, Saima; Camire, Bruno; Christilaw, Jan; Corey, Julie; Nelson, Erin; Pierce, Marianne; Robertson, Deborah; Simmonds, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Objectif : Fournir aux gynécologues canadiens des directives factuelles en matière de chirurgie esthétique génitale chez la femme, en réponse au nombre grandissant de demandes (et d’interventions) de chirurgie vaginale et vulvaire se situant bien au-delà des reconstructions traditionnellement indiquées sur le plan médical. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en 2011 et en 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (« female genital cosmetic surgery »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en mai 2012. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Recommandations 1. Un des rôles importants des obstétriciens-gynécologues devrait consister à aider les femmes à comprendre leur anatomie et à en respecter les variantes qui leur sont propres. (III-A) 2. Lorsqu’une femme demande la tenue d’interventions esthétiques vaginales, une anamnèse médicale, sexuelle et gynécologique exhaustive devrait être obtenue et l’absence de tout dysfonctionnement

  8. Female genital mutilations - a testimony.

    PubMed

    Youssouf, Samia

    2013-02-01

    In Djibouti, the prevalence of female genital mutilations (FGMs) amounts to 98% and the practice is still in use. When I left, in 1999, I knew I would involve myself in the fight against FGMs and I describe here the outcome of an obstacle course of more than ten years duration. This paper is written on behalf of innumerable women, who could give you a similar account. PMID:23205512

  9. Types of female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    The two major types of female genital mutilation include clitoridectomy and excision with infibulation. Clitoridectomy involves removal of the clitoris, part of all of the labia minora, and, often, all external soft genital tissue. Excision with infibulation involves all of this as well as removing the sides of the labia majora, abrading the sides of the vulva, and joining the bleeding sides of the vulva with thorns or a paste. A small opening is all that is allowed to remain for the passage of urine and menstrual blood. In Western Africa, infibulation is accomplished by tying the legs of the affected girls together in a crossed position immediate after the operation. These girls are immobilized for several weeks until the wound has closed. Infibulation is sometimes referred to a "pharaonic" because it occurred in ancient Egypt. Infibulated women must be cut open to allow sexual intercourse or child birth. Women are traditionally reinfibulated after child birth and then reopened when the child is weaned. Female genital mutilation is performed in septic conditions using the same tool on a group of girls. Fatalities are blamed on evil spirits or are said to occur because the victim was not a virgin.

  10. A cloudy bag and genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Liesker, J; van Elsacker-Niele, A M; Blanken, R; Halma, C

    2006-05-01

    A 30-year-old patient treated with CCPD presented with genital ulcers and a culture-negative peritonitis. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was cultured from the effluent and the genital lesions. Primary HSV-2 infection was diagnosed by serology. This is the first documented case of PD peritonitis caused by HSV-2. We speculate that cases of culture-negative PD peritonitis may be due to recurrences of genital herpes.

  11. Genital contact allergy: A diagnosis missed

    PubMed Central

    Marfatia, Yogesh S.; Patel, Dimpal; Menon, Devi S.; Naswa, Smriti

    2016-01-01

    Genital allergy should be considered as a possible diagnosis in all patients with genital soreness or irritation for which no infection or dermatosis can be identified and in whom symptoms remain unchanged or worsen with treatment. It is an underreported and underdiagnosed condition as patients may not complain about symptoms in this area. Moreover, diagnosis and therapy may not often be conducted by a dermatologist or allergologist. Therefore, many cases of allergic diseases in the genital area remain undetected. PMID:27190404

  12. Genetics Home Reference: hand-foot-genital syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions hand-foot-genital syndrome hand-foot-genital syndrome Enable Javascript to view the ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Hand-foot-genital syndrome is a rare condition that ...

  13. Modifications of the genital kidney proximal and distal tubules for sperm transport in Notophthalmus viridescens (Amphibia, Urodela, Salamandridae).

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Abbigail E; Siegel, Dustin S

    2014-08-01

    Male salamanders use nephrons from the genital kidney to transport sperm from the testicular lobules to the Wolffian duct. The microstructure of the epithelia of the genital kidney proximal tubule and distal tubule was studied over 1 year in a population of Notophthalmus viridescens from Crawford and Pike counties in central Missouri. Through ultrastructural analysis, we were able to support the hypothesis that the genital kidney nephrons are modified to aid in the transportation of sperm. A lack of folding of the basal plasma membrane, in both the genital kidney proximal and distal tubules when compared to the pelvic kidney proximal and distal tubules, reduces the surface area and thus likely decreases the efficiency of reabsorption in these nephron regions of the genital kidney. Ciliated epithelial cells are also present along the entire length of the genital kidney proximal tubule, but are lacking in the epithelium of the pelvic kidney proximal tubule. The exact function of these cilia remains unknown, but they may aid in mixing of seminal fluids or the transportation of immature sperm through the genital kidney nephrons. Ultrastructural analysis of proximal and distal tubules of the genital kidney revealed no seasonal variation in cellular activity and no mass production of seminal fluids throughout the reproductive cycle. Thus, we failed to support the hypothesis that the cellular activity of the epithelia lining the genital kidney nephrons is correlated to specific events in the reproductive cycle. The cytoplasmic contents and overall structure of the genital and pelvic kidney epithelial cells were similar to recent observations in Ambystoma maculatum, with the absence of abundant dense bodies apically in the epithelial cells lining the genital kidney distal tubule.

  14. Modifications of the genital kidney proximal and distal tubules for sperm transport in Notophthalmus viridescens (Amphibia, Urodela, Salamandridae).

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Abbigail E; Siegel, Dustin S

    2014-08-01

    Male salamanders use nephrons from the genital kidney to transport sperm from the testicular lobules to the Wolffian duct. The microstructure of the epithelia of the genital kidney proximal tubule and distal tubule was studied over 1 year in a population of Notophthalmus viridescens from Crawford and Pike counties in central Missouri. Through ultrastructural analysis, we were able to support the hypothesis that the genital kidney nephrons are modified to aid in the transportation of sperm. A lack of folding of the basal plasma membrane, in both the genital kidney proximal and distal tubules when compared to the pelvic kidney proximal and distal tubules, reduces the surface area and thus likely decreases the efficiency of reabsorption in these nephron regions of the genital kidney. Ciliated epithelial cells are also present along the entire length of the genital kidney proximal tubule, but are lacking in the epithelium of the pelvic kidney proximal tubule. The exact function of these cilia remains unknown, but they may aid in mixing of seminal fluids or the transportation of immature sperm through the genital kidney nephrons. Ultrastructural analysis of proximal and distal tubules of the genital kidney revealed no seasonal variation in cellular activity and no mass production of seminal fluids throughout the reproductive cycle. Thus, we failed to support the hypothesis that the cellular activity of the epithelia lining the genital kidney nephrons is correlated to specific events in the reproductive cycle. The cytoplasmic contents and overall structure of the genital and pelvic kidney epithelial cells were similar to recent observations in Ambystoma maculatum, with the absence of abundant dense bodies apically in the epithelial cells lining the genital kidney distal tubule. PMID:24643856

  15. Immunohistochemical investigations of genital ulcers caused by Haemophilus ducreyi.

    PubMed

    Abeck, D; Freinkel, A L; Korting, H C; Szeimis, R M; Ballard, R C

    1997-09-01

    To gain information on the specific composition of the inflammatory infiltrate of genital ulcers caused by Haemophilus ducreyi, biopsies of 6 genital ulcers which were diagnosed as chancroid on clinical and microbiological grounds were subjected to immunohistochemical investigations after conventional haematoxylineosin staining. A variety of antibodies reactive against B- and T-cells, plasma cells and granulocytes were used with each tissue sections. The lymphocytic infiltrate of chancroid ulcers consisted of both B- and T-lymphocytes and showed a cluster-like formation. B-lymphocytes were preferentially localized perivascularly in the middle layer, T-lymphocytes mainly in the deep layer of the inflamed oedematous tissue. Results stress the importance of both B- and T-cell mediated immune responses in Haemophilus ducreyi infection.

  16. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and levonorgestrel increase genital mucosal permeability and enhance susceptibility to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection

    PubMed Central

    Calla, Nirk E Quispe; Miguel, Rodolfo D Vicetti; Boyaka, Prosper N; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Kaur, Balveen; Trout, Wayne; Pavelko, Stephen D; Cherpes, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a hormonal contraceptive especially popular in areas with high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). While observational studies identify DMPA as an important STI risk factor, mechanisms underlying this connection are undefined. Levonorgestrel (LNG) is another progestin used for hormonal contraception, but its effect on STI susceptibility is much less explored. Using a mouse model of genital HSV-2 infection, we herein found DMPA and LNG similarly reduced genital expression of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1α (DSG1α), enhanced access of inflammatory cells to genital tissue by increasing mucosal epithelial permeability, and increased susceptibility to viral infection. Additional studies with uninfected mice revealed DMPA-mediated increases in mucosal permeability promoted tissue inflammation by facilitating endogenous vaginal microbiota invasion. Conversely, concomitant treatment of mice with DMPA and intravaginal estrogen restored mucosal barrier function and prevented HSV-2 infection. Evaluating ectocervical biopsy tissue from women before and 1 month after initiating DMPA remarkably revealed inflammation and barrier protection were altered by treatment identically to changes seen in progestin-treated mice. Together, our work reveals DMPA and LNG diminish the genital mucosal barrier; a first-line defense against all STI, but may offer foundation for new contraceptive strategies less compromising of barrier protection. PMID:27007679

  17. Genital warts and infection with human immunodeficiency virus in high-risk women in Burkina Faso: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Human papillomaviruses are the most common sexually transmitted infections, and genital warts, caused by HPV-6 and 11, entail considerable morbidity and cost. The natural history of genital warts in relation to HIV-1 infection has not been described in African women. We examined risk factors for genital warts in a cohort of high-risk women in Burkina Faso, in order to further describe their epidemiology. Methods A prospective study of 765 high-risk women who were followed at 4-monthly intervals for 27 months in Burkina Faso. Logistic and Cox regression were used to identify factors associated with prevalent, incident and persistent genital warts, including HIV-1 serostatus, CD4+ count, and concurrent sexually transmitted infections. In a subset of 306 women, cervical HPV DNA was tested at enrolment. Results Genital wart prevalence at baseline was 1.6% (8/492) among HIV-uninfected and 7.0% (19/273) among HIV-1 seropositive women. Forty women (5.2%) experienced at least one incident GW episode. Incidence was 1.1 per 100 person-years among HIV-uninfected women, 7.4 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count >200 cells/μL and 14.6 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count ≤200 cells/μL. Incident genital warts were also associated with concurrent bacterial vaginosis, and genital ulceration. Antiretroviral therapy was not protective against incident or persistent genital warts. Detection of HPV-6 DNA and abnormal cervical cytology were strongly associated with incident genital warts. Conclusions Genital warts occur much more frequently among HIV-1 infected women in Africa, particularly among those with low CD4+ counts. Antiretroviral therapy did not reduce the incidence or persistence of genital warts in this population. PMID:21251265

  18. Predictors of Genital Pain in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Melissa A.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of genital pain in healthy young adult women, limited research has addressed genital pain during intercourse using contemporary models of multidimensional sexual function. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to identify differences in sexual functioning in women who experience genital pain compared to pain free women; (2) to identify predictors of sexual functioning in women with and without genital pain; and (3) to identify predictors of sexual satisfaction in women with and without genital pain. Sexually active female undergraduates (n = 651) were administered the Female Sexual Function Index and the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory. We evaluated the sexual factors that impact the sexual function of women with any pain (including high and low pain groups) versus women with no history of pain. Women with genital pain reported greater rates of sexual dysfunction as compared to pain-free women; however, sexual functioning in the high versus low pain groups was distinguished primarily by vaginal lubrication. Women in the high pain group showed negative correlations between domains of sexual satisfaction and genital pain frequency and intensity that were not found in the low pain group. For pain-free women, intercourse played a strong role in sexual satisfaction, whereas non-intercourse sexual behavior was central to sexual satisfaction in women who reported pain. The evaluation of levels of genital pain may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the impairment of sexual function, sexual behavior, and sexual satisfaction. PMID:17674182

  19. Experiential Interventions for Clients with Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Anne L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores potential benefits of incorporating concepts and interventions from experimental therapy to help clients with psychosocial difficulties in learning to live with genital herpes. Recommends experimental counseling of two-chair dialog, empty chair, and metaphor for helping clients with emotional sequelae of genital herpes. Presents case…

  20. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease. PMID:27358569

  1. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease. PMID:27358569

  2. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease.

  3. Prevention agenda for genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Handsfield, H H; Stone, K M; Wasserheit, J N

    1999-04-01

    Few meeting participants envisioned a prevention and control program on the scale or scope of CDC's programs to prevent HIV infection, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydial infection, but all agreed that the virtual absence of public health interventions to prevent genital herpes is no longer appropriate in light of evolving epidemiologic knowledge and other research advances. The ultimate scope of a national genital herpes prevention effort will depend in part on the results of the recommended research agenda, which probably will evolve over the better part of a decade. Numerous other STD prevention partners will also need to contribute to this effort and help to determine the makeup of future programs. Substantial new fiscal resources will be required both to implement the proposed research agenda and, depending on the results, to undertake the prevention efforts indicated by those studies. Competing STD prevention priorities and other national health needs will influence the availability of those resources. The consultants' meeting and the research and program activities summarized above are described in more detail in the full meeting report, which is posted on the Division's web site (www.cdc.gov/nchstp/dstd/dstdp.html) or may be requested directly from the Division. DSTDP is interested in receiving comments and suggestions about herpes prevention.

  4. Ano-genital granulomatosis: the counterpart of oro-facial granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    van de Scheur, M R; van der Waal, R I F; van der Waal, I; Stoof, T J; van Deventer, S J H

    2003-03-01

    Ano-genital granulomatosis encompasses the previously recognized clinical entities of vulvitis granulomatosa, posthitis granulomatosa, and ano-perineitis granulomatosa. We report three patients with ano-genital granulomatosis. The pathological features of the disease are lymphoedema and the presence of non-caseating giant cell granulomas. These granulomas are histologically indistinguishable from those found in both Crohn's disease and sarcoidosis, therefore, patients with ano-genital granulomatosis with accompanying gastro-intestinal or pulmonary symptoms should be investigated for the presence of Crohn's disease or sarcoidosis, respectively. The value of ano-genital granulomatosis as a unifying clinicopathologic concept is to provide a label for the affliction as well as to stimulate a careful search for possibly underlying systemic disorders, thus also permitting a more specific approach to therapy.

  5. [Genetic regulation of human genital papillomaviruses].

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Salas, L M; López-Bayghen, E

    1995-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) specifically infect stratified epithelial cells, causing benign and malignant neoplasia. Several elements directing this virus' genetic expression are present in a non-coding region called LCR. HPV infection starts in the basal cells of stratified epithelia, where a particular combination of cellular factors interacting with the LCR starts the transcription of the viral E6 and E7 oncogenes. The E6 and E7 genes alter the cell cycle because they interact and inactivate tumor suppressor proteins: E6 binds and degrades protein p53 and E7 associates with p105RB. E1 and E2 are the next synthesized proteins. E2 blocks the early transcription and permits E1 specific binding to the viral origin of replication located within the LCR, initiating the viral genome replication. Following the course of viral infection, the E2-induced E6 and E7 down-regulation releases p53 and p105RB proteins, and the differentiation process can continue. Then, a putative late promoter can activate the capsid genes L1 and L2. At this step, mature virions can be detected in the upper layers of the epithelium. Disruption in E2 gene transcription is usually associated to genital malignant neoplasia. In the absence of E2, E6 and E7 remain constitutively expressed, sustaining the immortality of the infected cell and blocking the epithelial differentiation program.

  6. Antiviral CD8+ T cells in the genital tract control viral replication and delay progression to AIDS after vaginal SIV challenge in rhesus macaques immunized with virulence attenuated SHIV 89.6

    PubMed Central

    Genescà, M.; McChesney, M.B.; Miller, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Genescà M, McChesney MB, Miller CJ (Center for Comparative Medicine and California National Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA, USA). Antiviral CD8+ T cells in the genital tract control viral replication and delay progression to AIDS after vaginal SIV challenge in rhesus macaques immunized with virulence attenuated SHIV 89.6 (Review). The recently failed clinical efficacy trial of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) vaccine that elicits antiviral CD8+ T-cell responses has emphasized the challenge of producing an effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/rhesus monkey model of AIDS, live-attenuated lentivirus ‘vaccines’ provide the best protection from uncontrolled viral replication and clinical disease after pathogenic SIV challenge. This review summarizes a recent series of studies in which we show that after vaginal SIV challenge of rhesus macaques immunized with an attenuated lentivirus protection from uncontrolled viral replication is primarily mediated by CD8+ T cells in the vaginal mucosa. Immunization with a chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) results in a systemic infection that induces a moderate population of SIV-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells with cytolytic potential in the vaginal mucosa. Depletion of CD8+ T cells at the time of SIV challenge completely abrogates the protection mediated by prior infection with attenuated SHIV. Further after vaginal SIV challenge, the only significant expansion of SIV-specific T cells occurs in the vagina in these animals. No significant expansion of T-cell responses was observed in systemic lymphoid tissues. Thus, the presence of SIV-specific CD8+ T cells in the vagina on the day of vaginal SIV challenge and a modest expansion of local effector T cells is sufficient to stop uncontrolled SIV replication. It seems that T-cell based vaccine strategies that can elicit mucosal effector CD8+ T-cell

  7. Male genital lichen sclerosus in recipients of bone marrow transplants.

    PubMed

    Thomas, L J; Shim, T N; Borysiewicz, C; Dinneen, M; Fawcett, H; Roy, A; Francis, N; Bunker, C B

    2016-07-01

    We describe two patients who received haematopoietic stem cell marrow transplantation, and developed male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc), one of whom also had squamous carcinoma in situ (Bowen disease). MGLSc has previously been associated with graft-versus-host disease. Various aetiological factors for LSc have been proposed, including a role for chronic occluded epithelial exposure to urine. A number of factors imply that the risk of malignant transformation in this bone marrow transplant group is likely to be higher than the overall figure of 2-9% cited for MGLSc. It is vital, therefore, that clinicians involved in the care of those with haematological malignancies are adequately prepared to examine the genitals of their patients, and to recognize and refer any suspect penile lesions. PMID:26936088

  8. Female genital mutilation in Greece.

    PubMed

    Vrachnis, N; Salakos, N; Iavazzo, C; Iliodromiti, Z; Bakalianou, K; Kouiroukidou, P; Creatsas, G

    2012-01-01

    The number of migrants and refugees with a female genital mutilation (FGM) living in Greece is rising. This study explores the characteristics and psychosexual issues of women with FGM who were examined in the 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Athens Medical School, Greece during the year 2009. The women were asked to fill out an anonymous questionnaire asking for demographic data, obstetric history, current complaints, and psychosexual problems. The results are presented and discussed, as FGM is a new reality for Greece. Healthcare providers have to familiarize themselves with issues related to FGM and improve their skills in transcultural care, so as to manage and support women with FGM adequately.

  9. Treatment of genital warts: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Davidovici, Batya

    2010-01-01

    There are two opposing approaches in the treatment of genital warts: (1) the traditional approach advocates complete elimination of all lesions, and (2) a second approach regards condyloma as merely a cosmetic nuisance. After a long journey through many arguments and scientific papers, we have concluded that many unknowns, uncertainties, and controversies concerning the value of treatment of genital warts in terms of clearing and curing the disease (ie, eradicating the viruses, preventing cancer, and reducing infectivity). There is no consensus at present of whether treatment of men with evidence of genital human papillomavirus infection influences the natural history of their female sex partner's cervical disease. PMID:20797516

  10. [Lipschütz acute genital ulcer].

    PubMed

    Kluger, N; Garcia, C; Guillot, B

    2009-10-01

    Lipschütz acute genital ulcer is a rare distinctive cause of nonvenereal acute genital ulcers that occurs particularly in adolescents described in 1913. We report here a typical case that occurred in a 24-year-old virgin woman who developed flu-like symptoms and painful genital ulcers that healed spontaneously within a week and without any infection (Epstein Barr Virus, toxoplasmosis, salmonella). The physiopathogeny remains unknown. However, there are body of evidences pointing out a possible link to several nonvenereal infections, including mainly Epstein-Barr virus acute infection. This rare benign but disabling entity should be known by gynecologists.

  11. A case of HPV and acquired genital lymphangioma: over-lapping clinical features.

    PubMed

    Cestaro, Giovanni; De Rosa, Michele; Gentile, Maurizio; Massa, Salvatore

    2015-03-25

    Lymphatic malformation or lymphangioma is a benign proliferation of the lymphatics accounting for 4% of all vascular malformations and 26% of all benign vascular tumors. There are several reports about genital lymphangiomas mimicking venereal lesions, such as genital warts. Hereby we described a case of a 24 year old man affected by multiple vesicles and warts in genital area. All hematological and biochemical parameters, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Treponema Pallidum tests, C1-Inhibitor and C1-Q values were within limits. An accurate fulguration and wide excision of bigger lesions were performed. Histological examination showed numerous dilated lymphatic vessels in the superficial dermis with infiltration of inflammatory cells, that is a histopathological picture compatible with genital lymphangioma. Considering our clinical suspicion of condylomatosis, HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Genotyping, named INNOLiPA test, was performed, that revealed a genital infection by HPV - genotype 6. We think that our case can be considered an example of HPV infection and acquired genital lymphangioma overlap clinical syndrome. The patient presented any lesions one year after the procedure at follow-up examination.

  12. Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 508 Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes) WHAT IS HERPES? HSV ... virus 1 (HSV1) is the common cause of cold sores (oral herpes) around the mouth. HSV2 normally ...

  13. Genital ulcers: their diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Sacks, S L

    1987-08-01

    THIS ARTICLE OFFERS SOME BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF THREE MAJOR CAUSES OF GENITAL ULCERS: syphilis, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and chancroid. The author also discusses differential diagnoses and suggests an approach to treatment.

  14. Diagnosis and management of genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Roett, Michelle A; Mayor, Mejebi T; Uduhiri, Kelechi A

    2012-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus infection and syphilis are the most common causes of genital ulcers in the United States. Other infectious causes include chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale (donovanosis), secondary bacterial infections, and fungi. Noninfectious etiologies, including sexual trauma, psoriasis, Behçet syndrome, and fixed drug eruptions, can also lead to genital ulcers. Although initial treatment of genital ulcers is generally based on clinical presentation, the following tests should be considered in all patients: serologic tests for syphilis and darkfield microscopy or direct fluorescent antibody testing for Treponema pallidum, culture or polymerase chain reaction test for herpes simplex virus, and culture for Haemophilus ducreyi in settings with a high prevalence of chancroid. No pathogen is identified in up to 25 percent of patients with genital ulcers. The first episode of herpes simplex virus infection is usually treated with seven to 10 days of oral acyclovir (five days for recurrent episodes). Famciclovir and valacyclovir are alternative therapies. One dose of intramuscular penicillin G benzathine is recommended to treat genital ulcers caused by primary syphilis. Treatment options for chancroid include a single dose of intramuscular ceftriaxone or oral azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, or erythromycin. Lymphogranuloma venereum and donovanosis are treated with 21 days of oral doxycycline. Treatment of noninfectious causes of genital ulcers varies by etiology, and ranges from topical wound care for ulcers caused by sexual trauma to consideration of subcutaneous pegylated interferon alfa-2a for ulcers caused by Behçet syndrome.

  15. A novel mucosal orthotopic murine model of human papillomavirus-associated genital cancers.

    PubMed

    Decrausaz, Loane; Gonçalves, Ana-Rita; Domingos-Pereira, Sonia; Pythoud, Christelle; Stehle, Jean-Christophe; Schiller, John; Jichlinski, Patrice; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

    2011-05-01

    Cervical cancer results from infection with high-risk type human papillomaviruses (HPV). Therapeutic vaccines aiming at controlling existing genital HPV infections and associated lesions are usually tested in mice with HPV-expressing tumor cells subcutaneously implanted into their flank. However, effective vaccine-induced regression of these ectopic tumors strongly contrasts with the poor clinical results of these vaccines produced in patients with HPV-associated genital neoplasia. To assess HPV therapeutic vaccines in a more relevant setting, we have, here, established an orthotopic mouse model where tumors in the genital mucosa (GM) develop after an intravaginal instillation of HPV16 E6/E7-expressing tumor cells transduced with a luciferase-encoding lentiviral vector for in vivo imaging of tumor growth. Tumor take was 80-90% after nonoxynol-9 induced damage of the epithelium. Tumors remained localized in the genital tract, and histological analysis showed that most tumors grew within the squamous epithelium of the vaginal wall. Those tumors induced (i) E7-specific CD8 T cells restricted to the GM and draining lymph nodes, in agreement with their mucosal location and (ii) high Foxp3+ CD4+ infiltrates, similarly to those found in natural non-regressing HPV lesions. This novel genital HPV-tumor model by requiring GM homing of vaccine-induced immune responses able to overcome local immuno-suppression may be more representative of the situation occurring in patients upon therapeutic vaccination. PMID:20635385

  16. A novel mucosal orthotopic murine model of human papillomavirus-associated genital cancers.

    PubMed

    Decrausaz, Loane; Gonçalves, Ana-Rita; Domingos-Pereira, Sonia; Pythoud, Christelle; Stehle, Jean-Christophe; Schiller, John; Jichlinski, Patrice; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

    2011-05-01

    Cervical cancer results from infection with high-risk type human papillomaviruses (HPV). Therapeutic vaccines aiming at controlling existing genital HPV infections and associated lesions are usually tested in mice with HPV-expressing tumor cells subcutaneously implanted into their flank. However, effective vaccine-induced regression of these ectopic tumors strongly contrasts with the poor clinical results of these vaccines produced in patients with HPV-associated genital neoplasia. To assess HPV therapeutic vaccines in a more relevant setting, we have, here, established an orthotopic mouse model where tumors in the genital mucosa (GM) develop after an intravaginal instillation of HPV16 E6/E7-expressing tumor cells transduced with a luciferase-encoding lentiviral vector for in vivo imaging of tumor growth. Tumor take was 80-90% after nonoxynol-9 induced damage of the epithelium. Tumors remained localized in the genital tract, and histological analysis showed that most tumors grew within the squamous epithelium of the vaginal wall. Those tumors induced (i) E7-specific CD8 T cells restricted to the GM and draining lymph nodes, in agreement with their mucosal location and (ii) high Foxp3+ CD4+ infiltrates, similarly to those found in natural non-regressing HPV lesions. This novel genital HPV-tumor model by requiring GM homing of vaccine-induced immune responses able to overcome local immuno-suppression may be more representative of the situation occurring in patients upon therapeutic vaccination.

  17. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary model of human genital Chlamydia infection. PMID:26411309

  18. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2015-09-28

    Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

  19. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: An update

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Meenakshi; Sood, Seema; Mukherjee, Anjan; Muralidhar, Sumathi; Bala, Manju

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with. PMID:24135174

  20. Controversial issues: female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Richards, D

    2000-01-01

    As immigrant women from African countries enter the U.S., Canada, Australia, and Western Europe, western health care providers are beginning to see patients affected by the cultural practice of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). Unfamiliar with the practice, either medically or culturally, these providers are turning to medical librarians for information. Complicating the issue are the strong negative feelings most western health care workers have about FGM, which appears to them to be both barbaric and cruel. These feelings may conflict strongly with those of their immigrant patients, who regard the practice as normal and desirable. Both medical and cultural information are needed for the professional to provide treatment of medical conditions, while also establishing a good relationship with the FGM affected patient. This article identifies and describes the most important refereed journal article databases, available now over the Internet, providing both medical and cultural information on FGM, and the most useful Web sites for health professionals, librarians, and interested laypersons who need information about this difficult multicultural issue. PMID:11299679

  1. Laser hair removal for genital gender affirming surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, William R.; Garrett, Giorgia L.; Arron, Sarah T.

    2016-01-01

    Genital gender affirming surgery (GAS) involves reconstruction of the genitals to match a patient’s identified sex. The use of hair-bearing flaps in this procedure may result in postoperative intra-vaginal and intra-urethral hair growth and associated complications, including lower satisfaction with genital GAS. Despite the significant increase in genital GAS within the past 50 years, there is limited data regarding hair removal practices in preparation for genital GAS and notable variation in hair removal techniques among dermatologists and other practitioners. We present a literature review, recommendations from our experience, and a practical laser hair removal (LHR) approach to hair removal prior to genital GAS. PMID:27298787

  2. Laser hair removal for genital gender affirming surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, William R; Garrett, Giorgia L; Arron, Sarah T; Garcia, Maurice M

    2016-06-01

    Genital gender affirming surgery (GAS) involves reconstruction of the genitals to match a patient's identified sex. The use of hair-bearing flaps in this procedure may result in postoperative intra-vaginal and intra-urethral hair growth and associated complications, including lower satisfaction with genital GAS. Despite the significant increase in genital GAS within the past 50 years, there is limited data regarding hair removal practices in preparation for genital GAS and notable variation in hair removal techniques among dermatologists and other practitioners. We present a literature review, recommendations from our experience, and a practical laser hair removal (LHR) approach to hair removal prior to genital GAS. PMID:27298787

  3. Causes and Consequences of Genital Evolution.

    PubMed

    Langerhans, R Brian; Anderson, Christopher M; Heinen-Kay, Justa L

    2016-10-01

    The study of genital diversity has experienced rapidly burgeoning attention over the past few decades. This research has shown that male genitalia in internally fertilizing animals exhibit remarkably rapid and complex evolution. In recent years, a consensus has emerged that sexual selection is responsible for much of the observed genital diversity, with natural selection largely playing a subsidiary role. Despite enhanced understanding of the key proximate forms of selection responsible for genital evolution, we still have a poor grasp of the broader, ultimate causes and consequences of the striking diversity of genitalia. Here, we highlight three topics that have so far received comparatively little attention and yet could prove critically important. First, we encourage investigation of ecology's direct and indirect roles in genital diversification, as ecological variation can influence selection on genitalia in several ways, perhaps especially by influencing the context of sexual selection. Second, we need more research into the effects of genital divergence on speciation, as genital differences could enhance reproductive isolation through either a lock-and-key process (where selection directly favors reproductive isolation) or as an incidental by-product of divergence. Third, we echo recent calls for increased research on female genitalia, as non-trivial female genital diversity exists, and multiple mechanisms can lead to rapid diversification of female genitalia. For all three topics, we review theory and empirical data, and describe specific research approaches for tackling these questions. We hope this work provides a roadmap toward increased understanding of the causes and consequences of the conspicuous diversity of primary sexual traits, and thus toward new insights into the evolution of complex traits and the phenotypic causes of speciation. PMID:27600556

  4. Detoxified Haemophilus ducreyi cytolethal distending toxin and induction of toxin specific antibodies in the genital tract.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, Annika; Fernandez-Rodrigues, Julia; Ahlman, Karin; Lagergård, Teresa

    2010-08-16

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes genital ulceration (chancroid), a sexually transmitted infection and still an important factor which contributes to the spread of HIV in developing countries. The bacterium produces a cytolethal distending toxin (HdCDT) causing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis/necrosis of human cells and contributes to the aggravation of ulcers. The aim of the study was to induce toxin-neutralizing antibodies in the genital tract of mice. Repeated subcutaneous (sc) immunisations with 5-10microg active HdCDT induced low levels of serum anti-HdCDT IgG without neutralizing capacity. High levels of specific IgG1 antibodies in serum and genital tract were generated after sc immunisations with 10microg formaldehyde detoxified HdCDT toxoid alone and the addition of aluminium salts or RIBI (based on the lipid A moiety) as adjuvant further increased the level of serum antibodies. A high correlation was found between elevated levels of anti-HdCDT IgG in sera, the level of neutralizing activity and the antibody level in genital tract (r=0.8). Thus, induction of high antibody levels specific to HdCDT in the genital tissue can be achieved by parenteral immunisation with the toxoid. The HdCDT toxoid can be considered as a candidate component in vaccine against chancroid. PMID:20609397

  5. Glycogen Levels in Undiluted Genital Fluid and Their Relationship to Vaginal pH, Estrogen, and Progesterone

    PubMed Central

    Mirmonsef, Paria; Hotton, Anna L.; Gilbert, Douglas; Gioia, Casey J.; Maric, Danijela; Hope, Thomas J.; Landay, Alan L.; Spear, Gregory T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Colonization of the female lower genital tract with Lactobacillus provides protection against STIs and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Growth of genital Lactobacillus is postulated to depend on epithelial cell-produced glycogen. However, the amount of cell-free glycogen in genital fluid available for utilization by Lactobacillus is not known. Methods Eighty-five genital fluid samples from 7 pre-menopausal women taken over 4–6 weeks were obtained using the Instead SoftCup® (EvoFem, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) by consented donors. Cell-free glycogen and glucose in genital fluids and estrogen and progesterone in blood were quantified. Findings Glycogen ranged from 0.1–32 μg/μl. There were significant differences between women in glycogen over the observation period. There was a strong negative correlation between glycogen and vaginal pH (r = -0.542, p<0.0001). In multivariable analysis, free glycogen levels were significantly negatively associated with both vaginal pH and progesterone (p < 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively). Estrogen, glucose, age, sexual intercourse 24 hours prior to visit, and days after the initial visit were not significantly associated with free glycogen levels. Conclusion Cell-free glycogen concentrations can be very high, up to 3% of genital fluid, and are strongly associated with acidic vaginal pH. However, the fluctuations in glycogen levels in individuals and differences between individuals do not appear to be associated with estrogen. PMID:27093050

  6. Genital injuries in boys and abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, C J; Osman, J

    2007-01-01

    Aims To describe a cohort of boys with genital injuries in whom child abuse was suspected. Methods Boys with genital injury (penile and/or scrotal) and referred to paediatricians in Leeds, population 750 000, with concerns regarding possible abuse from 1983 to 2003 were identified from medical reports. Results 86 boys (average age 62.7 months, median age 48 months) were referred between 1983 and 2003. The injury was judged inflicted in 63, unexplained, suspicious or inconsistent with the history given in 17 and accidental in six. The number of discrete injuries ranged from one in 57, two in 15, three in 12, to more than three in two cases. Genital injuries included burns in seven boys, bruises in 27, incised wounds, lacerations or scars in 39, and other traumatic lesions in 27. Non‐genital findings included anal findings in 28, >10 bruises in 17, fractures in three, burns in 12, mouth injuries in four, brain and retinal haemorrhages in one, and poor nourishment or underweight in 14. The categories of abuse were physical (eight), sexual (19), both physical and sexual (eight), physical and neglect (four), and physical, sexual and neglect (one). The category of abuse was unspecified in 39 children. Conclusions Genital injury in boys may be the result of abuse which may be physical or sexual in nature. PMID:17376938

  7. Repertoire of Chemokine Receptor Expression in the Female Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Bruce K.; Landay, Alan; Andersson, Jan; Brown, Clark; Behbahani, Homira; Jiyamapa, Dan; Burki, Zareefa; Stanislawski, Donna; Czerniewski, Mary Ann; Garcia, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases, genital ulcer disease, and progesterone therapy increase susceptibility to lentivirus transmission. Infection of cells by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is dependent on expression of specific chemokine receptors known to function as HIV co-receptors. Quantitative kinetic reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was developed to determine the in vivo expression levels of CCR5, CXCR4, CCR3, CCR2b, and the cytomegalovirus-encoded US28 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cervical biopsies from 12 women with and without sexually transmitted diseases, genital ulcer disease, and progesterone-predominant conditions. Our data indicate that CCR5 is the major HIV co-receptor expressed in the female genital tract, and CXCR4 is the predominantly expressed HIV co-receptor in peripheral blood. CCR5 mRNA expression in the ectocervix was 10-fold greater than CXCR4, 20-fold greater than CCR2b, and 100-fold greater than CCR3. In peripheral blood, CXCR4 expression was 1.5-fold greater than CCR5, 10-fold greater than CCR2b, and 15-fold greater than CCR3. US28 was not expressed in cervical tissue despite expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from five individuals. CCR5 was significantly increased (p < 0.02) in biopsies from women with sexually transmitted diseases and others who were progesterone predominant. In vitro studies demonstrate that progesterone increases CCR5, CXCR4, and CCR3 expression and decreases CCR2b expression in lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Characterization of chemokine receptors at the tissue level provides important information in identifying host determinants of HIV-1 transmission. PMID:9708808

  8. Genital tract infections and infertility.

    PubMed

    Pellati, Donatella; Mylonakis, Ioannis; Bertoloni, Giulio; Fiore, Cristina; Andrisani, Alessandra; Ambrosini, Guido; Armanini, Decio

    2008-09-01

    Infectious agents can impair various important human functions, including reproduction. Bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites are able to interfere with the reproductive function in both sexes. Infections of male genito-urinary tract account for about 15% of the case of male infertility. Infections can affect different sites of the male reproductive tract, such as the testis, epididymis and male accessory sex glands. Spermatozoa themselves subsequently can be affected by urogenital infections at different levels of their development, maturation and transport. Among the most common microorganisms involved in sexually transmitted infections, interfering with male fertility, there are the Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Less frequently male infertility is due to non-sexually transmitted epididymo-orchitis, mostly caused by Escherichia coli. In female, the first two microorganisms are certainly involved in cervical, tubal, and peritoneal damage, while Herpes simplex cervicitis is less dangerous. The overall importance of cervical involvement is still under discussion. Tubo-peritoneal damage seems to be the foremost manner in which microorganisms interfere with human fertility. C. trachomatis is considered the most important cause of tubal lacerations and obstruction, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and adhesions. N. gonorrhoeae, even though its overall incidence seems to decline, is still to be considered in the same sense, while bacterial vaginosis should not be ignored, as causative agents can produce ascending infections of the female genital tract. The role of infections, particularly co-infections, as causes of the impairment of sperm quality, motility and function needs further investigation. Tropical diseases necessitate monitoring as for their diffusion or re-diffusion in the western world. PMID:18456385

  9. Educating women about normal female genital appearance variation.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Gemma; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-03-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of two online resources aimed at improving women's knowledge of the variation in normal female genital appearance and their attitudes towards their own genitals. The first consisted of a photographic array of normal female genitals and the second consisted of a video addressing digital airbrushing of women's genitals in media images. A sample of 136 female undergraduate students were randomly assigned to view the photographs, video, both the photographs and video, or neither. The video significantly increased women's perceptions of genital appearance diversity as well as awareness of digital airbrushing of genital images. Owing to relatively low levels of genital appearance concern, there was no effect of either resource on women's attitudes towards their own genitals; however, women who viewed the video indicated they would pass on their knowledge to help other women. Our results suggest that an educational video could be a useful tool. PMID:26723015

  10. Injections Might Help Prevent Genital Herpes Transmission for Months: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... Injections Might Help Prevent Genital Herpes Transmission for Months: Study Three-shot regimen seems to control lesions ... placebo group. Testing was repeated periodically for 12 months after dosing and included analyzing genital swab samples ...

  11. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Christine; Corey, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward.

  12. Papillomaviral Infections of the Female Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Malcolm G.

    1992-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common organism to infect the human genital tract, affecting as much as half, or more, of the sexually active population. This virus has become widely recognized through the well publicized relationship with genital tract neoplasia and through new diagnostic technologies, such as monoclonal antibody analysis, DNA hybridization, and the polymerase chain reaction. This paper describes the full spectrum of HPV infections, starting with pathogenesis and continuing to clinical manifestations, and discusses significance, diagnosis, and management. PMID:21221347

  13. Can You Get Genital Herpes from a Cold Sore?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cuts? Can You Get Genital Herpes From a Cold Sore? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can You Get Genital Herpes From a Cold Sore? Print A A A Text Size Can you get genital herpes from a cold sore? – Lucy* Yes — it is possible to get ...

  14. Female genital mutilation and reporting duties for all clinical personnel.

    PubMed

    Cropp, Gabrielle; Armstrong, Jane

    2016-07-01

    Female genital mutilation is illegal. It is now mandatory for health-care professionals to report female genital mutilation to the police. Professionals caring for women and girls of all ages must understand how female genital mutilation presents, and what action to take. PMID:27388382

  15. Female genital mutilation and reporting duties for all clinical personnel.

    PubMed

    Cropp, Gabrielle; Armstrong, Jane

    2016-07-01

    Female genital mutilation is illegal. It is now mandatory for health-care professionals to report female genital mutilation to the police. Professionals caring for women and girls of all ages must understand how female genital mutilation presents, and what action to take.

  16. Genital ulcers associated with human immunodeficiency virus-related immunosuppression in female sex workers in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Ghys, P D; Diallo, M O; Ettiègne-Traoré, V; Yeboué, K M; Gnaoré, E; Lorougnon, F; Kalé, K; Van Dyck, E; Brettegaard, K; Hoyi, Y M

    1995-11-01

    A cross-sectional study among female sex workers in Abidjan was conducted to study the association between sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and HIV-related immunosuppression. Among 1209 women tested for HIV, 962 (80%) were seropositive. HIV infection was independently associated with a longer duration of sex work, a lower price for intercourse, being an immigrant, and having a positive Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test (P < .05). Genital ulcers (25% vs. 5%), genital warts (14% vs. 4%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (32% vs. 16%), Trichomonas vaginalis (27% vs. 17%), and syphilis (27% vs. 17%) were more frequent (P < .05) in HIV-infected than -uninfected women. Among HIV-infected women, the proportions with a genital ulcer were 17%, 25%, and 36% for those with > 28%, 14%-28%, and < 14% CD4 cells, respectively (P < .001). This study suggests that genital ulcers are an opportunistic disease in female sex workers in Abidjan.

  17. [Medical and legal aspects of genital mutilation and circumcision part I: female genital mutilation (FGM)].

    PubMed

    Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Laux, Johannes; Friedl, Hannah; Zedler, Barbara; Bratzke, Hansjürgen; Parzeller, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is considered to be against the law and against morality not only in Western countries, although a woman of age and able to consent may sometimes think differently. The procedure may have serious physical and emotional consequences for the girl or woman. Nevertheless there are attempts to justify the procedure with medical and hygienic pseudoarguments, ideology, freedom of religion, cultural identity and social adequacy. Outside the Western world, some people claim that religion and culture alone justify the practice. In Germany, parents can lose the right to determine the residence of their daughter, if she is faced with the risk of genital mutilation in order to prevent that the child or girl is taken to her home country. Genital mutilation as a gender-specific threat is recognized as a reason to grant asylum or prevent deportation. Proposals to make genital mutilation a separate punishable offence are presently discussed by the legislator.

  18. Parenteral is more efficient than mucosal immunization to induce regression of human papillomavirus-associated genital tumors.

    PubMed

    Decrausaz, Loane; Domingos-Pereira, Sonia; Duc, Mélanie; Bobst, Martine; Romero, Pedro; Schiller, John T; Jichlinski, Patrice; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

    2011-08-01

    Cervical cancer is a public health concern as it represents the second cause of cancer death in women worldwide. High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the etiologic agents, and HPV E6 and/or E7 oncogene-specific therapeutic vaccines are under development to treat HPV-related lesions in women. Whether the use of mucosal routes of immunization may be preferable for inducing cell-mediated immune responses able to eradicate genital tumors is still debated because of the uniqueness of the female genital mucosa (GM) and the limited experimentation. Here, we compared the protective activity resulting from immunization of mice via intranasal (i.n.), intravaginal (IVAG) or subcutaneous (s.c.) routes with an adjuvanted HPV type 16 E7 polypeptide vaccine. Our data show that s.c. and i.n. immunizations elicited similar frequencies and avidity of TetE71CD81 and E7-specific Interferon-gamma-secreting cells in the GM, whereas slightly lower immune responses were induced by IVAG immunization. In a novel orthotopic murine model, both s.c. and i.n. immunizations allowed for complete long-term protection against genital E7-expressing tumor challenge. However, only s.c. immunization induced complete regression of already established genital tumors. This suggests that the higher E7-specific systemic response observed after s.c. immunization may contribute to the regression of growing genital tumors, whereas local immune responses may be sufficient to impede genital challenges. Thus, our data show that for an efficiently adjuvanted protein-based vaccine, parenteral vaccination route is superior to mucosal vaccination route for inducing regression of established genital tumors in a murine model of HPV-associated genital cancer.

  19. Genital evolution: why are females still understudied?

    PubMed

    Ah-King, Malin; Barron, Andrew B; Herberstein, Marie E

    2014-05-01

    The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias. PMID:24802812

  20. Ritual genital cutting of female minors.

    PubMed

    Davis, Dena S

    2010-05-01

    The traditional custom of ritual cutting and alteration of the genitalia of female infants, children, and adolescents, referred to as female genital mutilation or female genital cutting (FGC), persists primarily in Africa and among certain communities in the Middle East and Asia. Immigrants in the United States from areas in which FGC is common may have daughters who have undergone a ritual genital procedure or may request that such a procedure be performed by a physician. The American Academy of Pediatrics believes that pediatricians and pediatric surgical specialists should be aware that this practice has life-threatening health risks for children and women. The American Academy of Pediatrics opposes all types of female genital cutting that pose risks of physical or psychological harm, counsels its members not to perform such procedures, recommends that its members actively seek to dissuade families from carrying out harmful forms of FGC, and urges its members to provide patients and their parents with compassionate education about the harms of FGC while remaining sensitive to the cultural and religious reasons that motivate parents to seek this procedure for their daughters.

  1. Female genital mutilation in eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Missailidis, K; Gebre-Medhin, M

    2000-07-01

    In Ethiopians at large, women and men are caught in a vicious circle of erroneous expectations and a mute consensus that maintains female genital mutilation (FGM). We have shown clear signs of erosion of this practice and the potential for further influence and change.

  2. Female genital mutilation in eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Missailidis, K; Gebre-Medhin, M

    2000-07-01

    In Ethiopians at large, women and men are caught in a vicious circle of erroneous expectations and a mute consensus that maintains female genital mutilation (FGM). We have shown clear signs of erosion of this practice and the potential for further influence and change. PMID:10963253

  3. Genital Evolution: Why Are Females Still Understudied?

    PubMed Central

    Ah-King, Malin; Barron, Andrew B.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2014-01-01

    The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias. PMID:24802812

  4. Predictors of genital injury after nonconsensual intercourse.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sarah L; Parker, Barbara J; Bourguignon, Cheryl M

    2009-01-01

    Understanding differences in genital injuries after nonconsensual and consensual intercourse is an important element of prosecuting sexual assault cases. In order to determine if the injury patterns and total surface area of genital injuries can differentiate between the types of intercourse (consensual or non-consensual), eighty women were examined after non-consensual (retrospective chart review, n = 40) and consensual (recruited, n = 40) intercourse within 48 hours using colposcopy, toluidine blue dye, and digital photography to document genital injuries. Differences between types of injuries found in the nonconsensual and consensual groups, based on the univariate analysis, were found with the number of sites (NoS) with ecchymosis (p < 0.01) and NoS with redness (p < 0.01). Based on the logistic hierarchical regression model, 85% of the nonconsensual group and 90% of the consensual group were classified correctly by using the NoS with tears, ecchymosis, abrasions, and redness and SA of injury when controlling for time from intercourse to examination. The NoS with redness (p = 0.017), NoS with ecchymosis, and SA of injury (p = 0.039) were individually predictive. The NoS with ecchymosis were also a significant finding when addressed as an individual block (p < 0.001). In this small sample, exploratory study, while controlling for time, the injury patterns and total SA of genital injuries were able to correctly classify the nonconsensual group 85% of the time. Replication of this study with a larger sample is essential.

  5. Genital trauma in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Diane F

    2008-06-01

    Traumatic wounds of the female genitalia include accidental straddle injuries or impalement, chemical or thermal burns, insufflation injuries, blunt trauma, or crush injuries. Children and adolescents may be victims of rape, sexual abuse, and female genital mutilation. Information is provided on epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management. Treatment guidelines are offered using the best evidence available, and recommendations are provided when data are limited.

  6. Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, David J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes…

  7. Computational modeling and simulation of genital tubercle development.

    PubMed

    Leung, Maxwell C K; Hutson, M Shane; Seifert, Ashley W; Spencer, Richard M; Knudsen, Thomas B

    2016-09-01

    Hypospadias is a developmental defect of urethral tube closure that has a complex etiology involving genetic and environmental factors, including anti-androgenic and estrogenic disrupting chemicals; however, little is known about the morphoregulatory consequences of androgen/estrogen balance during genital tubercle (GT) development. Computer models that predictively model sexual dimorphism of the GT may provide a useful resource to translate chemical-target bipartite networks and their developmental consequences across the human-relevant chemical universe. Here, we describe a multicellular agent-based model of genital tubercle (GT) development that simulates urethrogenesis from the sexually-indifferent urethral plate stage to urethral tube closure. The prototype model, constructed in CompuCell3D, recapitulates key aspects of GT morphogenesis controlled by SHH, FGF10, and androgen pathways through modulation of stochastic cell behaviors, including differential adhesion, motility, proliferation, and apoptosis. Proper urethral tube closure in the model was shown to depend quantitatively on SHH- and FGF10-induced effects on mesenchymal proliferation and epithelial apoptosis-both ultimately linked to androgen signaling. In the absence of androgen, GT development was feminized and with partial androgen deficiency, the model resolved with incomplete urethral tube closure, thereby providing an in silico platform for probabilistic prediction of hypospadias risk across combinations of minor perturbations to the GT system at various stages of embryonic development. PMID:27180093

  8. Computational modeling and simulation of genital tubercle development.

    PubMed

    Leung, Maxwell C K; Hutson, M Shane; Seifert, Ashley W; Spencer, Richard M; Knudsen, Thomas B

    2016-09-01

    Hypospadias is a developmental defect of urethral tube closure that has a complex etiology involving genetic and environmental factors, including anti-androgenic and estrogenic disrupting chemicals; however, little is known about the morphoregulatory consequences of androgen/estrogen balance during genital tubercle (GT) development. Computer models that predictively model sexual dimorphism of the GT may provide a useful resource to translate chemical-target bipartite networks and their developmental consequences across the human-relevant chemical universe. Here, we describe a multicellular agent-based model of genital tubercle (GT) development that simulates urethrogenesis from the sexually-indifferent urethral plate stage to urethral tube closure. The prototype model, constructed in CompuCell3D, recapitulates key aspects of GT morphogenesis controlled by SHH, FGF10, and androgen pathways through modulation of stochastic cell behaviors, including differential adhesion, motility, proliferation, and apoptosis. Proper urethral tube closure in the model was shown to depend quantitatively on SHH- and FGF10-induced effects on mesenchymal proliferation and epithelial apoptosis-both ultimately linked to androgen signaling. In the absence of androgen, GT development was feminized and with partial androgen deficiency, the model resolved with incomplete urethral tube closure, thereby providing an in silico platform for probabilistic prediction of hypospadias risk across combinations of minor perturbations to the GT system at various stages of embryonic development.

  9. Genital psoriasis awareness program: physical and psychological care for patients with genital psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Meeuwis, Kim A P; de Hullu, Joanne A; IntHout, Joanna; Hendriks, Iris M P; Sparreboom, Emilie E; Massuger, Leon F A G; van de Kerkhof, Peter C M; van Rossum, Michelle M

    2015-02-01

    Genital psoriasis is a neglected manifestation of psoriasis, although it affects numerous patients and has major effects on sexual quality of life (SQoL). We aimed to assess the value of specialised care for patients with genital psoriasis. Patients were treated for at least one year at a specialised research outpatient clinic with extensive attention for genital lesions and SQoL. The genital lesions were treated according to a stepwise algorithm. First follow-up was planned after 6 weeks; subsequent follow-up visits were scheduled every 3 months. At every visit, psoriasis severity and SQoL were measured with validated tools. Differences in scores between visits were analysed by a mixed model for repeated measures. Forty-two patients were included (M:F = 25:17). All objective and subjective genital psoriasis severity and QoL parameters improved significantly within the first follow-up period of approximately 6 weeks. In female patients, SQoL also significantly improved. In conclusion, genital psoriasis can relatively easy be treated within limited time exposure, resulting in significant improvement of QoL. Prompt and simple adjustments in the provided care are enough to accomplish this.

  10. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah; Erneholm, Karin; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular (IM) prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Göttingen Minipig model with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC), we showed that the genital IgA was locally produced in the genital mucosa. The highly significant inverse correlation between the vaginal IgA SC response and the chlamydial load suggests that IgA in the minipig model is involved in protection against C. trachomatis. This is important both for our understanding of protective immunity and future vaccination strategies against C. trachomatis and genital pathogens in general. PMID:26734002

  11. Variability of human immunodeficiency virus-1 in the female genital reservoir during genital reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    LeGoff, J; Roques, P; Jenabian, M-A; Charpentier, C; Brochier, C; Bouhlal, H; Gresenguet, G; Frost, E; Pepin, J; Mayaud, P; Belec, L

    2015-09-01

    Clinical and subclinical genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivations have been associated with increases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genital shedding. Whether HSV-2 shedding contributes to the selection of specific genital HIV-1 variants remains unknown. We evaluated the genetic diversity of genital and blood HIV-1 RNA and DNA in 14 HIV-1/HSV-2-co-infected women, including seven with HSV-2 genital reactivation, and seven without as controls. HIV-1 DNA and HIV-1 RNA env V1-V3 sequences in paired blood and genital samples were compared. The HSV-2 selection pressure on HIV was estimated according to the number of synonymous substitutions (dS), the number of non-synonymous substitutions (dN) and the dS/dN ratio within HIV quasi-species. HIV-1 RNA levels in cervicovaginal secretions were higher in women with HSV-2 replication than in controls (p0.02). Plasma HIV-1 RNA and genital HIV-1 RNA and DNA were genetically compartmentalized. No differences in dS, dN and the dS/dN ratio were observed between the study groups for either genital HIV-1 RNA or plasma HIV-1 RNA. In contrast, dS and dN in genital HIV-1 DNA were significantly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital reactivation (p <0.01 and p <0.05, respectively). The mean of the dS/dN ratio in genital HIV-1 DNA was slightly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital replication, indicating a trend for purifying selection (p 0.056). HSV-2 increased the genetic diversity of genital HIV-1 DNA. These observations confirm molecular interactions between HSV-2 and HIV-1 at the genital tract level. PMID:26003280

  12. [Bone loss in women with malignant genital neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Magnowski, Piotr; Wolski, Hubert; Magnowska, Magdalena; Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, women with genital cancers live longer due to early diagnosis and better treatment schemes. Only few studies assessed bone mass in patients with genital cancer Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by progressive loss of bone mass, weakening of the spatial structure of the bone, and increased susceptibility to fractures. Osteopenia is a condition of reduced, but not yet reaching the pathological values, bone density in relation to norms for age and sex. Metastases are the primary cause of death in cancer patients. It is estimated that approximately half of people dying due to cancer have bone metastases. Osteoporosis in neoplastic disease may occur due to bone metastases or therapy-related adverse effects, i.e. reduced bone mineral density (BMD). Bone microenvironment provides a good medium for the growth of cancer cells. BMD of the femur and spine should be measured by DXA. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the techniques used to detect bone metastases. Lifestyle is the key to improving the quality of life and maximize any pharmacological treatment in cancer patients. It is proposed that treatment of cancer without bone metastases does not require therapy increasing bone mass. Further studies in women treated for gynecological malignancies undergoing oophorectomy and adjuvant treatment are needed to elucidate the mechanisms associated with bone loss.

  13. Consequences of nongenomic actions of estradiol on pathogenic genital tract response

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Estradiol is a steroid hormone that regulates the structure and function of the female reproductive system. In addition to its genomic effects, which are mediated by activated nuclear receptors, estradiol elicits a variety of rapid signaling events independently of transcriptional or genomic regulation. These nongenomic actions influence the milieu of the genital tract, which changes the ability of pathogens to infect the genital tract. This review discusses our current knowledge regarding the mechanisms and relevance of nongenomic estradiol signaling in the genital tract that could change the ability of pathogens to invade epithelial cells. PubMed was searched through January 1980 for papers related to estradiol actions in the ovary, fallopian tube, uterus and cervix. The mechanisms conveying these rapid effects consist of a multitude of signaling molecules and include cross-talk with slower transcriptional actions. The nongenomic actions of estradiol that influence the infectious abilities of pathogens occur either directly on the genital tract cells or indirectly by modulating the local and systemic immune systems. Additional in-depth characterization of the response is required before the normal and pathological reproductive functions of the nongenomic estradiol pathway can be targeted for pharmacological intervention. PMID:23351368

  14. The testicular sperm ducts and genital kidney of male Ambystoma maculatum (Amphibia, Urodela, Ambystomatidae).

    PubMed

    Siegel, Dustin S; Aldridge, Robert D; Rheubert, Justin L; Gribbins, Kevin M; Sever, David M; Trauth, Stanley E

    2013-03-01

    The ducts associated with sperm transport from the testicular lobules to the Wolffian ducts in Ambystoma maculatum were examined with transmission electron microscopy. Based on the ultrastructure and historical precedence, new terminology for this network of ducts is proposed that better represents primary hypotheses of homology. Furthermore, the terminology proposed better characterizes the distinct regions of the sperm transport ducts in salamanders based on anatomy and should, therefore, lead to more accurate comparisons in the future. While developing the above ontology, we also tested the hypothesis that nephrons from the genital kidney are modified from those of the pelvic kidney due to the fact that the former nephrons function in sperm transport. Our ultrastructural analysis of the genital kidney supports this hypothesis, as the basal plasma membrane of distinct functional regions of the nephron (proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, and collecting tubule) appear less folded (indicating decreased surface area and reduced reabsorption efficiency) and the proximal convoluted tubule possesses ciliated epithelial cells along its entire length. Furthermore, visible luminal filtrate is absent from the nephrons of the genital kidney throughout their entire length. Thus, it appears that the nephrons of the genital kidney have reduced reabsorptive capacity and ciliated cells of the proximal convoluted tubule may increase the movement of immature sperm through the sperm transport ducts or aid in the mixing of seminal fluids within the ducts.

  15. In defence of genital autonomy for children.

    PubMed

    Earp, Brian D

    2016-03-01

    Arora and Jacobs (2016) assume that liberal societies should tolerate non-therapeutic infant male circumcision, and argue that it follows from this that they should similarly tolerate-or even encourage-what the authors regard as 'de minimis' forms of female genital mutilation (as defined by the World Health Organization). In this commentary, I argue that many serious problems would be likely to follow from a policy of increased tolerance for female genital mutilation, and that it may therefore be time to consider a less tolerant attitude toward non-therapeutic infant male circumcision. Ultimately, I suggest that children of whatever sex or gender should be free from having healthy parts of their most intimate sexual organs either damaged or removed, before they can understand what is at stake in such an intervention and agree to it themselves. PMID:26792817

  16. In defence of genital autonomy for children.

    PubMed

    Earp, Brian D

    2016-03-01

    Arora and Jacobs (2016) assume that liberal societies should tolerate non-therapeutic infant male circumcision, and argue that it follows from this that they should similarly tolerate-or even encourage-what the authors regard as 'de minimis' forms of female genital mutilation (as defined by the World Health Organization). In this commentary, I argue that many serious problems would be likely to follow from a policy of increased tolerance for female genital mutilation, and that it may therefore be time to consider a less tolerant attitude toward non-therapeutic infant male circumcision. Ultimately, I suggest that children of whatever sex or gender should be free from having healthy parts of their most intimate sexual organs either damaged or removed, before they can understand what is at stake in such an intervention and agree to it themselves.

  17. Insects are Crawling in My Genital Warts

    PubMed Central

    Dhawan, Jyoti; Singh, Saurabh; Gupta, Somesh

    2011-01-01

    A 23-year-old woman presented with large exophytic genital wart arising from perineum, vulva, introitus of the vagina, and inner aspect of thighs. Patient developed severe itching and formication (insect-crawling sensation) in the lesions for past 1 week, though careful examination did not reveal any insects. Considering that the disease was causing psychological stress and physical symptoms, radiofrequency excision was planned. However, during the procedure, several maggots appeared from the crypts. The procedure was abandoned and maggots were removed manually. Subsequently external giant warts were removed using radiofrequency device. There was no recurrence of excised warts during 3 month follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of maggots in genital warts. PMID:21976905

  18. Genital incarceration: an unusual case report

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Darby J.; Mador, David

    2010-01-01

    Incarceration or strangulation of the penis is a rare clinical situation that requires emergent urologic management to prevent potentially devastating outcomes. Many different techniques have been described in the literature to remove genital foreign objects, but there is no universally successful technique. We present an unusual and challenging case involving incarceration of both the penis and scrotum by multiple metallic rings that required operative removal using an orthopedic high-speed drill. PMID:23293693

  19. Surgical reconstruction in female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Gültekin, İsmail Burak; Altınboğa, Orhan; Dur, Rıza; Kara, Osman Fadıl; Küçüközkan, Tuncay

    2016-06-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an unusual condition for our country. However, an increase in FGM in future days can be predicted with the increasing numbers of exchange students coming from African countries, migration of refugees and socioeconomic relations with the African countries. We want to share our experience of two FGM victims admitted to our clinic with the request of reconstructive vulvar surgery before their marriage. Both women had WHO Type III FGM. Physical examination findings and surgical reconstruction techniques were presented.

  20. HIV-1 Genital Shedding is Suppressed in the Setting of High Genital Antiretroviral Drug Concentrations Throughout the Menstrual Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Anandi N.; Evans-Strickfaden, Tammy; Haaland, Richard; Martin, Amy; Gatcliffe, Chelsea; Adesoye, Adebola; Omondi, Michael W.; Lupo, L. Davis; Danavall, Damien; Easley, Kirk; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Pau, Chou-Pong; Hart, Clyde; Ofotokun, Igho

    2014-01-01

    Background. It is not known if fluctuations in genital tract antiretroviral drug concentrations correlate with genital virus shedding in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected women on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods. Among 20 HIV-infected women on ART (tenofovir [TFV], emtricitabine [FTC], and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir [ATV]) with suppressed plasma virus loads, blood and cervicovaginal samples collected twice weekly for 3 weeks were tested for antiretroviral concentrations, HIV-1 RNA, and proviral DNA. Results. Cervicovaginal:plasma antiretroviral concentration ratios were highest for FTC (11.9, 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.66–16.3), then TFV (3.52, 95% CI, 2.27–5.48), and ATV (2.39, 95% CI, 1.69–3.38). Within- and between-person variations in plasma and genital antiretroviral concentrations were observed. Low amounts of genital HIV-1 RNA (<50 copies/mL) were detected in 45% of women at 16% of visits. Genital HIV-1 DNA was detected in 70% of women at 35% of visits. Genital virus detection was associated with higher concentrations of mucosal leukocytes but not with genital antiretroviral concentrations, menstrual cycle phase, bacterial vaginosis, genital bleeding, or plasma virus detection. Conclusions. Standard doses of ART achieved higher genital than plasma concentrations across the menstrual cycle. Therapeutic ART suppresses genital virus shedding throughout the menstrual cycle, even in the presence of factors reported to increase virus shedding. PMID:24643223

  1. Update on the treatment of genital warts.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeld, Noah

    2013-06-01

    This review summarizes new treatments from the last seven years employed for the treatment of genital warts caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Imquimod 3.75% is a new agent with fewer side effects and perhaps a better dosing schedule than imquimod 5%, but is not more effective. Sinecatechins/Polyphenon E 15%, a novel extract from green tea can be effective against genital warts but requires three times a day dosing and is not more effective than existing treatments; the treatment course is 12-16 weeks. Photodynamic therapy combined with other destructive modalities might increase the cure rate for genital warts. The quadrivalent vaccine against HPV 6, 11, 16, 18 is decreasing the incidence of warts in the western world but the evidence does not support vaccination as a treatment for those already infected by HPV. Hyperthermia and immunomodulators might be positive additions to the armamentarium of clinicians. In sum, there are new tools that physicians can use but none is really a great advance over what was available a decade ago. PMID:24011309

  2. Gamma Interferon Is Required for Optimal Antibody-Mediated Immunity against Genital Chlamydia Infection

    PubMed Central

    Naglak, Elizabeth K.; Morrison, Sandra G.

    2016-01-01

    Defining the mechanisms of immunity conferred by the combination of antibody and CD4+ T cells is fundamental to designing an efficacious chlamydial vaccine. Using the Chlamydia muridarum genital infection model of mice, which replicates many features of human C. trachomatis infection and avoids the characteristic low virulence of C. trachomatis in the mouse, we previously demonstrated a significant role for antibody in immunity to chlamydial infection. We found that antibody alone was not protective. Instead, protection appeared to be conferred through an undefined antibody-cell interaction. Using gene knockout mice and in vivo cellular depletion methods, our data suggest that antibody-mediated protection is dependent on the activation of an effector cell population in genital tract tissues by CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, the CD4+ T cell-secreted cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-γ) was found to be a key component of the protective antibody response. The protective function of IFN-γ was not related to the immunoglobulin class or to the magnitude of the Chlamydia-specific antibody response or to recruitment of an effector cell population to genital tract tissue. Rather, IFN-γ appears to be necessary for activation of the effector cell population that functions in antibody-mediated chlamydial immunity. Our results confirm the central role of antibody in immunity to chlamydia reinfection and demonstrate a key function for IFN-γ in antibody-mediated protection. PMID:27600502

  3. Advances in diagnosis and management of genital injuries.

    PubMed

    Chang, Andrew J; Brandes, Steven B

    2013-08-01

    External genital trauma is uncommon. However when it occurs, it can cause long-term physical, psychological, and functional quality-of-life sequelae. Rapid and proper treatment can help preserve cosmesis and function. Therefore, the treating physician must have a high index of suspicion when evaluating genital injuries. This article reviews the proper initial assessment of the injury as well as the immediate and delayed operative management of genital trauma.

  4. Sexually Monomorphic Maps and Dimorphic Responses in Rat Genital Cortex.

    PubMed

    Lenschow, Constanze; Copley, Sean; Gardiner, Jayne M; Talbot, Zoe N; Vitenzon, Ariel; Brecht, Michael

    2016-01-11

    Mammalian external genitals show sexual dimorphism [1, 2] and can change size and shape upon sexual arousal. Genitals feature prominently in the oldest pieces of figural art [3] and phallic depictions of penises informed psychoanalytic thought about sexuality [4, 5]. Despite this longstanding interest, the neural representations of genitals are still poorly understood [6]. In somatosensory cortex specifically, many studies did not detect any cortical representation of genitals [7-9]. Studies in humans debate whether genitals are represented displaced below the foot of the cortical body map [10-12] or whether they are represented somatotopically [13-15]. We wondered what a high-resolution mapping of genital representations might tell us about the sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain. We identified genital responses in rat somatosensory cortex in a region previously assigned as arm/leg cortex. Genital responses were more common in males than in females. Despite such response dimorphism, we observed a stunning anatomical monomorphism of cortical penis and clitoris input maps revealed by cytochrome-oxidase-staining of cortical layer 4. Genital representations were somatotopic and bilaterally symmetric, and their relative size increased markedly during puberty. Size, shape, and erect posture give the cortical penis representation a phallic appearance pointing to a role in sexually aroused states. Cortical genital neurons showed unusual multi-body-part responses and sexually dimorphic receptive fields. Specifically, genital neurons were co-activated by distant body regions, which are touched during mounting in the respective sex. Genital maps indicate a deep homology of penis and clitoris representations in line with a fundamentally bi-sexual layout [16] of the vertebrate brain. PMID:26725197

  5. Epidemiology and natural history of human papillomavirus infections in the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Ault, Kevin A

    2006-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Although the majority of sexually active adults will be infected with HPV at least once in their lives, it is sexually active women less than 25 years of age who consistently have the highest rates of infection. Besides youth and gender, common risk factors for HPV infection and clinical sequelae of infection include high number of sexual partners and coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis or herpes simplex virus. Most HPV infections are cleared by the immune system and do not result in clinical complications. Clinical sequelae in cases of low-risk HPV infection consist of genital warts, and clinical manifestations of high-risk HPV infection include abnormal Pap test results, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and cervical cancer. LSIL, HSIL, and cervical cancer carry significant morbidity and/or mortality; genital warts and abnormal Pap test results are often significant sources of psychosocial distress. Currently, there are neither effective means of preventing HPV transmission nor cures for clinical manifestations: infection can only be prevented via complete sexual abstinence, while treatment for clinical sequelae such as genital warts and cytologic abnormalities consists of removing the problematic cells and watching for recurrence; this method consumes significant health care resources and is costly. New prophylactic HPV vaccines promise to dramatically reduce the incidence of HPV infection, genital warts, and cytologic abnormalities. PMID:16967912

  6. Plac8-dependent and iNOS-dependent mechanisms clear Chlamydia muridarum infections from the genital tract1

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Raymond M.; Kerr, Micah S.; Slaven, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital serovars replicate predominately in genital tract epithelium. This tissue tropism poses a unique challenge for host defense and vaccine development. Studies utilizing the Chlamydia muridarum mouse model have shown that CD4 T cells are critical for clearing genital tract infections. In vitro studies have shown that CD4 T cells terminate infection by up regulating epithelial iNOS transcription and nitric oxide production. However, this mechanism is not critical as iNOS-deficient mice clear infections normally. We recently showed that a subset of Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cell clones could terminate replication in epithelial cells using an iNOS-independent mechanism requiring T cell degranulation. We advance that work using microarrays to compare iNOS-dependent and iNOS-independent CD4 T cell clones. Plac8 was differentially expressed by clones having the iNOS-independent mechanism. Plac8-deficient mice had delayed clearance of infection, and Plac8-deficient mice treated with the iNOS-inhibitor N-monomethyl-L-arginine were largely unable to resolve genital tract infections over 8 weeks. These results demonstrate that there are two independent and redundant T cell mechanisms for clearing C. muridarum genital tract infections; one dependent on iNOS, the other dependent on Plac8. While T cells subsets are routinely defined by cytokine profiles, there may be important subdivisions by effector function, in this case CD4Plac8. PMID:22238459

  7. Sexual and natural selection both influence male genital evolution.

    PubMed

    House, Clarissa M; Lewis, Zenobia; Hodgson, Dave J; Wedell, Nina; Sharma, Manmohan D; Hunt, John; Hosken, David J

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and divergent evolution of male genital morphology is a conspicuous and general pattern across internally fertilizing animals. Rapid genital evolution is thought to be the result of sexual selection, and the role of natural selection in genital evolution remains controversial. However, natural and sexual selection are believed to act antagonistically on male genital form. We conducted an experimental evolution study to investigate the combined effects of natural and sexual selection on the genital-arch lobes of male Drosophila simulans. Replicate populations were forced to evolve under lifetime monogamy (relaxed sexual selection) or lifetime polyandry (elevated sexual selection) and two temperature regimes, 25°C (relaxed natural selection) or 27°C (elevated natural selection) in a fully factorial design. We found that natural and sexual selection plus their interaction caused genital evolution. Natural selection caused some aspects of genital form to evolve away from their sexually selected shape, whereas natural and sexual selection operated in the same direction for other shape components. Additionally, sexual and natural selection tended to favour larger genitals. Thus we find that the underlying selection driving genital evolution is complex, does not only involve sexual selection, and that natural selection and sexual selection do not always act antagonistically.

  8. Tetraploid/Diploid Mosaicism in Cultured Genital Skin Fibroblasts: Is It Causally Related to Penoscrotal Hypospadias?

    PubMed

    Giltay, Jacques C; Klijn, Aart J; de Jong, Tom P V M; Kats, Peter; van Breugel, Marjolijn; Lens, Susan; Vromans, Martijn; van der Veken, Lars T; Hochstenbach, Ron

    2016-07-01

    Tetraploid/diploid mosaicism is a rare chromosomal abnormality that is infrequently reported in patients with severe developmental delay, growth retardation, and short life span. Here, we present a 6-year-old patient with severe penoscrotal hypospadias and a coloboma of the left eye but with normal growth, normal psychomotor development, and without dysmorphisms. We considered a local, mosaic sex chromosomal aneuploidy as a possible cause of his genital anomaly and performed karyotyping in cultured fibroblasts from the genital skin, obtained during surgical correction. Tetraploid/diploid (92,XXYY/46,XY) mosaicism was found in 43/57 and 6/26 metaphases in 2 separate cultures, respectively. Buccal smear cells, blood lymphocytes, and cells from urine sediment all showed diploidy. We investigated whether this chromosomal abnormality could be found in other patients with severe hypospadias and karyotyped genital fibroblasts of 6 additional patients but found only low frequencies (<11%) of tetraploid cells, not statistically different from those found in control males with no hypospadias. This is the first time tetraploid mosaicism is found in such a high percentage in a patient without psychomotor retardation, dysmorphisms or growth delay. Although the relationship between this observed mosaicism in cultured cells and the underlying pathogenetic mechanism in penoscrotal hypospadias remains to be determined, our data clearly illustrate the power of cytogenetic techniques in detecting mosaicism compared to next-generation sequencing techniques, in which DNA pooled from multiple cells is used. PMID:27587991

  9. Murine MicroRNA-214 regulates intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM1) gene expression in genital Chlamydia muridarum infection

    PubMed Central

    Arkatkar, Tanvi; Gupta, Rishein; Li, Weidang; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Wali, Shradha; Neal Guentzel, M; Chambers, James P; Christenson, Lane K; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2015-01-01

    The hallmark of chlamydial infection is the development of upper genital pathology in the form of hydrosalpinx and oviduct and/or tubal dilatation. Although molecular events leading to genital tissue presentation and cellular architectural remodelling are unclear, early-stage host immune responses are believed to contribute to these long-term sequelae. Recently, we reported the contribution of selected infection-associated microRNAs (miRs) in the generation of host immunity at early-stage infection (day 6 after intravaginal Chlamydia muridarum challenge in C57BL/6 mice). In this report, we describe the contribution of an infection-associated microRNA, i.e. miR-214, to host immunity. Chlamydia muridarum infection in the C57BL/6 mouse genital tract significantly down-regulated miR-214 while up-regulating intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) gene expression. These in vivo observations were confirmed by establishing direct regulation of ICAM-1 by miR-214 in ex vivo genital cell cultures in the presence of miR-214 mimic and inhibitor. Because, ICAM-1 contributes to recruitment of neutrophils following infection, we also demonstrated that alteration of ICAM1 by miR-214 in interleukin-17A-deficient (IL-17A−/−) mice correlated with reduction of neutrophils infiltrating genital tissue at day 6 after challenge. Additionally, these early-stage events resulted in significantly decreased genital pathology in IL-17A−/− mice compared with C57BL/6 mice. This report provides evidence for early-stage regulation of ICAM1 by microRNAs, resulting in reduction of genital pathology associated with chlamydial infection. PMID:25865776

  10. The Effects of Chronic Binge Alcohol on the Genital Microenvironment of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Female Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Loganantharaj, Nisha; Nichols, Whitney A.; Bagby, Gregory J.; Volaufova, Julia; Dufour, Jason; Martin, David H.; Nelson, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol abuse is a widespread problem among those at risk for and living with HIV and can impact transmission and disease progression. In this study we sought to use the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-macaque model to evaluate the immunological and virological changes in the genital microenvironment of females exposed to chronic alcohol. Female rhesus macaques were treated with alcohol (n=6) or isocaloric sucrose (n=6) for 3 months and then inoculated with SIVmac251. To assess the effects of chronic alcohol on SIV disease and the genital microenvironment, we quantified plasma and genital SIV levels, measured inflammatory cells in genital fluids, and characterized microbial flora by gram stains over 10 weeks post-SIV infection. Following 3 months of alcohol/sucrose treatment, significant differences were observed in the vaginal microenvironment of alcohol-treated animals as compared to controls. Microbial flora of alcohol-treated animals had decreased levels of lactobacillus morphotypes and increased levels of gram-positive cocci relative to sucrose controls. Alcohol-treated animals were also more likely to have white blood cells in vaginal fluids prior to SIV inoculation, which persisted through viral set point. Similar levels of cell-free SIV were observed in plasma and vaginal fluids of both groups, but alcohol-treated animals had a higher incidence and levels of cell-associated SIV shed in vaginal secretions. Chronic alcohol treatment negatively impacts the genital microenvironment prior to and over the course of SIV infection and may increase the risk of genital virus shedding and transmission. PMID:24902876

  11. Acute genital injury in the prepubertal girl.

    PubMed

    Pokorny, S F; Pokorny, W J; Kramer, W

    1992-05-01

    In an effort to develop guidelines for the management of acute genital injuries in prepubertal girls, we categorized 32 cases by the object that allegedly caused the injury: straddle injuries, nonpenetrating injuries, penetrating injuries, and torque injuries. Using these categories and the anatomic features of symmetry and/or hymenal transection, we determined that the most dangerous injuries were the penetrating injuries that were symmetric and transected the hymen; in this series these were all the result of sexual assault. Future studies are needed to determine if these unique injuries can be managed with less physical and psychosocial trauma to the young patient. PMID:1595800

  12. Female genital mutilation: perspectives, risks, and complications.

    PubMed

    Morris, R I

    1999-03-01

    Female genital mutilation, traditionally known as female circumcision, is a surgically unnecessary modification of the female genitalia, practiced in nations in Africa, the Arab Peninsula, among some communities in Asia, and among immigrants and refugees from these areas who have settled in other areas. The practice is known across socio-economic classes and among many different ethnic and cultural groups, including Christians, Muslims, Jews, and followers of indigenous African religions. As people from these areas immigrate to North America, health care professionals need to understand the important aspects of this growing problem, including management of complications, cultural attitudes, and sensitivities. PMID:10373987

  13. Surgical reconstruction in female genital mutilation

    PubMed Central

    Gültekin, İsmail Burak; Altınboğa, Orhan; Dur, Rıza; Kara, Osman Fadıl; Küçüközkan, Tuncay

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an unusual condition for our country. However, an increase in FGM in future days can be predicted with the increasing numbers of exchange students coming from African countries, migration of refugees and socioeconomic relations with the African countries. We want to share our experience of two FGM victims admitted to our clinic with the request of reconstructive vulvar surgery before their marriage. Both women had WHO Type III FGM. Physical examination findings and surgical reconstruction techniques were presented. PMID:27274899

  14. [Use of topical methisoprinol (Viruxan) in female genital condylomatosis].

    PubMed

    Penna, C; Fallani, M G; Cariti, G; Menichetti, M; Bracco, G L; Bellanti, G; Cioffi, M; Marchionni, M

    1989-01-01

    Medical therapy of genital condylomatosis seems to be the most rational strategy, since this pathology is characterised by highly frequent recurrences after destructive physical therapy alone. Successful therapy of female genital condylomatosis with methisoprinol (Viruxan), administered as ointment and/or vaginal ovules is reported. The drug proved to be efficient both in curing this viral infection and preventing its recurrences. PMID:2472583

  15. The Emergence of the "s"-Genitive in Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perridon, Harry

    2013-01-01

    The -"s" genitives of English and Swedish play an important role in grammaticalization theory, as they are often used as counterexamples to the main tenet of that theory, viz. that grammatical change is unidirectional. In this paper I look at the emergence of the -"s" genitive in Danish, hoping that it may shed some new light on the evolution of…

  16. 21 CFR 884.5960 - Genital vibrator for therapeutic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Genital vibrator for therapeutic use. 884.5960 Section 884.5960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5960 Genital vibrator...

  17. Peripheral ganglia supplying the genital smooth musculature in the female pig: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    PANU, RINO; BO MINELLI, LUISA; BOTTI, MADDALENA; GAZZA, FERDINANDO; ACONE, FRANCA; PALMIERI, GIOVANNI

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to locate the sensory and autonomic ganglia innervating the female genital musculature in pigs. The retrograde neuronal tracers horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or fast blue (FB) were injected into the left retractor clitoridis muscle (RCM), which was treated as a typical model of the genital smooth musculature. Labelled cells were found in ipsilateral dorsal root ganglia Sl–S4, in bilateral sympathetic paravertebral ganglia from L5–L6 or L6–L7 to S3 and in the left and right caudal mesenteric ganglion. In two of the five animals treated, presumably preganglionic parasympathetic cells were labelled in the ipsilateral intermediate grey substance of the segments Sl–S2. PMID:11554508

  18. Protection from genital herpes disease, seroconversion and latent infection in a non-lethal murine genital infection model by immunization with an HSV-2 replication-defective mutant virus.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Fernando M; Knipe, David M

    2016-01-15

    Viral vaccines have traditionally protected against disease, but for viruses that establish latent infection, it is desirable for the vaccine to reduce infection to reduce latent infection and reactivation. While seroconversion has been used in clinical trials of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccines to measure protection from infection, this has not been modeled in animal infection systems. To measure the ability of a genital herpes vaccine candidate to protect against various aspects of infection, we established a non-lethal murine model of genital HSV-2 infection, an ELISA assay to measure antibodies specific for infected cell protein 8 (ICP8), and a very sensitive qPCR assay. Using these assays, we observed that immunization with HSV-2 dl5-29 virus reduced disease, viral shedding, seroconversion, and latent infection by the HSV-2 challenge virus. Therefore, it may be feasible to obtain protection against genital disease, seroconversion and latent infection by immunization, even if sterilizing immunity is not achieved.

  19. Bipolar aphthosis presenting as mutilating genital ulcers in women.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Somesh; Ajith, C; Malhotra, S; Kumar, Bhushan

    2004-01-01

    Three women with large, mutilating genital ulcers of long duration, destroying almost the lower half of the external genitalia, are reported. They had a history of recurrent oral ulcers as well. All patients had been diagnosed as having 'genital ulcer syndrome' in the past and had been treated with antimicrobials. Histopathology of the biopsy from the margin of the ulcer revealed features of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Considering the history, clinical features and histology, a diagnosis of bipolar aphthosis was made in all patients. All patients responded well to immunosuppressive therapy. The cases are reported because of the presence of genital ulcers of an unusually large size, mutilating character and their close similarity to genital ulcers due to sexually transmitted diseases, especially genital herpes and donovanosis.

  20. Labial hair tourniquet: unusual complication of an unrepaired genital laceration.

    PubMed

    Dua, Anahita; Jamshidi, Ramin; Lal, Dave R

    2013-07-01

    Hair tourniquet syndrome has been recognized as a medical entity since the 1600 s. Appendages develop acute ischemia from tightening of hair strands circumferentially wrapped around them. Most commonly affected sites are fingers, toes, and penis, but limited reports have described involvement of the female genitalia. Although hair strangulation involving the labia minora or clitoris has been described, it typically occurs in young children. We present a case of an adolescent girl with a labial appendage hair tourniquet resulting from a previous unrepaired genital laceration. This is one of the oldest patients in whom a genital hair tourniquet has been reported, as well as description of a posttraumatic genital appendage. Genital hair tourniquets are medical emergencies that require prompt diagnosis and treatment to avoid tissue necrosis and possible amputation. Genital trauma in general requires surgical evaluation.

  1. A review of famciclovir in the management of genital herpes.

    PubMed Central

    Faro, S

    1998-01-01

    The frequent occurrence of genital herpes continues to be a serious clinical problem. Although not life threatening, the physical symptoms of the disease, and the ensuing psychosocial complications, can be overwhelming to patients. The life cycle of the herpes simplex virus is complex, comprising multiple stages. Following infection, the virus establishes life-long latency in its host and can reactivate at any time as a recurrent infection. Successful management of genital herpes simplex infections involves patient education and psychological support, as well as antiviral agents. The antiviral agent famciclovir has been shown to shorten the course and decrease the severity of episodes of recurrent genital herpes. In addition, famciclovir has been shown to be effective in suppressing recurrent genital herpes. A review of the clinical experience with famciclovir in the treatment of genital herpes is presented. PMID:9678146

  2. Flagellin is a strong vaginal adjuvant of a therapeutic vaccine for genital cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shee Eun; Hong, Seol Hee; Verma, Vivek; Lee, Youn Suhk; Duong, Tra-My Nu; Jeong, Kwangjoon; Uthaman, Saji; Sung, Young Chul; Lee, Jae-Tae; Park, In-Kyu; Min, Jung-Joon; Rhee, Joon Haeng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cervical cancer is a high-incidence female cancer most commonly caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) infection of the genital mucosa. Immunotherapy targeting HPV-derived tumor antigens (TAs) has been widely studied in animal models and in patients. Because the female genital tract is a portal for the entry of HPV and a highly compartmentalized system, the development of topical vaginal immunotherapy in an orthotopic cancer model would provide an ideal therapeutic. Thus, we examined whether flagellin, a potent mucosal immunomodulator, could be used as an adjuvant for a topical therapeutic vaccine for female genital cancer. Intravaginal (IVAG) co-administration of the E6/E7 peptides with flagellin resulted in tumor suppression and long-term survival of tumor-bearing mice. In contrast to IVAG vaccination, intranasal (IN) or subcutaneous (SC) immunization did not induce significant tumor suppression in the same model. The vaginal adjuvant effect of the flagellin was completely abolished in Toll-like receptor-5 (TLR5) knock-out mice. IVAG immunization with the E6/E7 peptides plus flagellin induced the accumulation of CD4+ and CD8+ cells and the expression of T cell activation-related genes in the draining genital lymph nodes (gLNs). The co-administered flagellin elicited antigen-specific IFNγ production in the gLNs and spleen. The intravaginally administered flagellin was found in association with CD11c+ cells in the gLNs. Moreover, after immunization with a flagellin and the E6/E7 peptides, the TLR5 expression in gLN cells was significantly upregulated. These results suggest that flagellin serves as a potent vaginal adjuvant for a therapeutic peptide cancer vaccine through the activation of TLR5 signaling. PMID:27057462

  3. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences. PMID:26759415

  4. [Carcinosarcomas in female genital tracts: general review].

    PubMed

    Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Trone, Jane-Chloé; Casteillo, François; Forest, Fabien; Pacaut, Cécile; Moncharmont, Coralie; Espenel, Sophie; Vallard, Alexis; Langrand Escure, Julien; Collard, Olivier; Peoc'h, Michel; Magné, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Carcinosarcoma, also known as mixed mesodermal tumor or malignant mixed Mullerian tumor (MMMT) is a pathological entity combining a sarcomatous and a carcinomatous component. Found in thoracic, digestive, genitourinary, liver or skin locations, the most common location is the female genital tract. In gynecological tumors, carcinosarcoma accounts for about 2-5% of endometrial cancers, and 1% of ovarian cancers. To date, there is no consensus on the therapeutic strategy. It relies mostly on maximum cytoreductive surgery. Adjuvant therapy remains controversial, and few prospective studies investigating its interest. Retrospective studies show the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy based on platinum in most cases. Radiation therapy has a place in the adjuvant situations of endometrial and cervical carcinosarcoma. A more detailed pathological knowledge, and the use of targeted therapies may be promising in this histological subtype whose prognosis remains very poor. The objective of this study is to present the main principles of carcinosarcoma management in female genital tracts, describing pathological and prognostic features at the same time.

  5. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences.

  6. Therapeutic management of cutaneous and genital warts.

    PubMed

    Ockenfels, Hans Michael

    2016-09-01

    During their lifetime, at least 10 % of the population will be infected by human papillomaviruses (HPV), clinically characterized by the formation of cutaneous or genital warts. Although warts are ubiquitous, there are no defined treatments. Especially in the first six months, warts frequently resolve without therapeutic intervention. This complicates the interpretation of study data, given that many studies do not differentiate between newly infected patients and those with infections that have persisted for a long time. Similarly, most studies do not take location, size, and thickness of lesions into account, either. The objective of the present review article is to analyze the study data currently available, taking into consideration both subtypes and locations - factors exceedingly crucial in clinical practice. In particular, the distinction between new-onset and chronic recalcitrant warts is reflected in a therapeutic algorithm. In the case of genital warts, the algorithm is more clearly determined by the extent of the area affected rather than the longevity of lesions. In immunocompetent individuals, any therapeutic intervention must be aimed at achieving complete resolution. PMID:27607030

  7. Solitary fibrous tumor of the female genital tract a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Biedrzycki, Olaf James; Singh, Naveena; Habeeb, Hani; Wathen, Neville; Faruqi, Asma

    2007-07-01

    Originally thought to be limited to mesothelial-lined surfaces, solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) has now been reported in numerous extrathoracic sites. The female genital tract is among the rarest reported sites involving SFT, and only a handful of cases have been described. Although features pointing to a more malignant biological behavior have been described, these tumors remain unpredictable in their clinical course. We present a case of primary SFT originating in the vulva of a 45-year-old woman, only the fourth such case and only the ninth case of primary SFT of the female genital tract. The tumor presented as a 60-mm, well-circumscribed, painless lump and comprised bland spindle cells in a collagenized stroma with hypercellular and hypocellular foci. Immunohistochemically, the spindle cells were strongly positive for CD34, Bcl 2, and vimentin, with focal positivity for CD99. Immunohistochemical staining for MNF116, desmin, smooth muscle actin, ER, PR, and S100 was negative. There has been no recurrence after 6 months. We discuss the principal differential diagnoses of spindle cell mesenchymal tumors of the vulva and review the previously published cases of primary SFTs originating in the female genital tract. We also stress the importance of informing clinicians involved in these cases of the potential for an unpredictable clinical outcome.

  8. Female Genital Dialogues: Female Genital Self-Image, Sexual Dysfunction, and Quality of Life in Patients With Vitiligo With and Without Genital Affection.

    PubMed

    Sarhan, Deena; Mohammed, Ghada F A; Gomaa, Amal H A; Eyada, Moustafa M K

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo has a major effect on sexual health because of the disfiguring skin lesions affecting self-image and self-esteem. However, this topic has not explored. This article aimed to assess the effect of vitiligo on genital self-image, sexual function, and quality of life in female patients. This cross-sectional study included 50 sexually active women with vitiligo and 25 women without vitiligo. All participants subjected to full history taking and examination. Extent of vitiligo was assessed with the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score, sexual function with the Female Sexual Function Index, genital self-image with Female Genital Self-Image Score and quality of life with the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaires. The main outcome measures were correlation between Vitiligo Area Scoring Index, Female Genital Self-Image Score, Female Sexual Function Index, and Dermatology Life Quality Index domains was determined using t test and Pearson correlation. This study revealed a negative correlation between the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score and sexual satisfaction. Vitiligo Area Scoring Index and Dermatology Life Quality Index score was significantly correlated with Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score alone and with Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index alone and with both the Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score and the Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index (p <.05). Sexual and psychological assessment of patients with vitiligo is imperative to improve outcomes and increase patients' compliance with treatment.

  9. Association of lower genital tract inflammation with objective evidence of endometritis.

    PubMed Central

    Peipert, J F; Ness, R B; Soper, D E; Bass, D

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the association between lower genital tract inflammation and objectively diagnosed endometritis. We analyzed the first 157 patients enrolled in the PEACH study, a multicenter randomized clinical trial designed to compare the effectiveness of outpatient and inpatient therapy for PID. Women less than 38 years of age, who presented with a history of pelvic discomfort for 30 days or less and who were found to have pelvic organ tenderness (uterine or adnexal tenderness) on bimanual examination, were initially invited to participate. After recruitment of the first 58 patients (group 1) we added the presence of leukorrhea, mucopurulent cervicitis, or untreated positive test for N. gonorrhoeae or C. trachomatis to the inclusion criteria (group 2, N = 99). We compared rates of endometritis in the two groups and calculated the sensitivity, specificity, and predicted values of the presence of white blood cells in the vaginal wet preparation. The rate of upper genital tract infection in group 1 was 46.5% (27/58) compared to 49.5% (49/99) in group 2. Microbiologic evidence of either N. gonorrhoeae or C. trachomatis increased from 22.4% in group 1 to 38.3% in group 2. The presence of vaginal white blood cells or mucopus has a high sensitivity (88.9%), but a low specificity (19.4%) for the diagnosis of upper genital-tract infection. Assessment of the lower genital tract for evidence of infection or inflammation is a valuable component of the diagnostic evaluation of pelvic inflammatory disease. The presence of either mucopus or vaginal white blood cells is a highly sensitive test for endometritis in patients with pelvic pain and tenderness. PMID:10805362

  10. Phenotypic engineering unveils the function of genital morphology.

    PubMed

    Hotzy, Cosima; Polak, Michal; Rönn, Johanna L; Arnqvist, Göran

    2012-12-01

    The rapidly evolving and often extraordinarily complex appearance of male genital morphology of internally fertilizing animals has been recognized for centuries. Postcopulatory sexual selection is regarded as the likely evolutionary engine of this diversity, but direct support for this hypothesis is limited. We used two complementary approaches, evolution through artificial selection and microscale laser surgery, to experimentally manipulate genital morphology in an insect model system. We then assessed the competitive fertilization success of these phenotypically manipulated males and studied the fate of their ejaculate in females using high-resolution radioisotopic labeling of ejaculates. Males with longer genital spines were more successful in gaining fertilizations, providing experimental evidence that male genital morphology influences success in postcopulatory reproductive competition. Furthermore, a larger proportion of the ejaculate moved from the reproductive tract into the female body following mating with males with longer spines, suggesting that genital spines increase the rate at which seminal fluid passes into the female hemolymph. Our results show that genital morphology affects male competitive fertilization success and imply that sexual selection on genital morphology may be mediated in part through seminal fluid. PMID:23103188

  11. [Secondary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of female genital tract].

    PubMed

    Kovachev, S; Nacheva, A; Ganovska, A; Ivanov, A; Gigov, P; Vassilev, N

    2014-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL) are a separate group of blood diseases, which includes all types of lymphomas, without Hodgkin lymphomas. The incidence of NHL in the female genital system is 0.5% of all the NHL. They develop in the female genital organs primary or affect them secondary. Secondary development of the genital non-Hodgkin's lymphoma we have when the biopsy of a lymph node that precedes the diagnosis of the disease is before the development of a genital tumor or we can find a genital tumor--along with simultaneous involvement of the lymph nodes or extra genital authority. We present a clinical case of 56 years patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with secondary genital involvement. From ultrasonography, computed axial tomography and Tu markers that were maiden we have suspicion for ovarian tumor with mechanical pressure over pyelocalix system due to left hidroureter and left hydronephrosis II degree. That was the only reason for urgent surgical treatment with intraoperative histologic diagnosis of NHL. The postoperative chemotherapy in combination with surgical treatment in our case had a good and long-lasting disease survivor effect. One year after the operation and the chemotherapy in the patient, there is no evidence of relapse.

  12. Genital herpes and its treatment in relation to preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, De-Kun; Raebel, Marsha A; Cheetham, T Craig; Hansen, Craig; Avalos, Lyndsay; Chen, Hong; Davis, Robert

    2014-12-01

    To examine the risks of genital herpes and antiherpes treatment during pregnancy in relation to preterm delivery (PTD), we conducted a multicenter, member-based cohort study within 4 Kaiser Permanente regions: northern and southern California, Colorado, and Georgia. The study included 662,913 mother-newborn pairs from 1997 to 2010. Pregnant women were classified into 3 groups based on genital herpes diagnosis and treatment: genital herpes without treatment, genital herpes with antiherpes treatment, and no herpes diagnosis or treatment (unexposed controls). After controlling for potential confounders, we found that compared with being unexposed, having untreated genital herpes during first or second trimester was associated with more than double the risk of PTD (odds ratio (OR) = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.80, 2.76). The association was stronger for PTD due to premature rupture of membrane (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 2.53, 5.06) and for early PTD (≤35 weeks gestation) (OR = 2.87, 95% CI: 2.22, 3.71). In contrast, undergoing antiherpes treatment during pregnancy was associated with a lower risk of PTD compared with not being treated, and the PTD risk was similar to that observed in the unexposed controls (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.38). The present study revealed increased risk of PTD associated with genital herpes infection if left untreated and a potential benefit of antiherpes medications in mitigating the effect of genital herpes infection on the risk of PTD.

  13. The immune response against Chlamydia suis genital tract infection partially protects against re-infection.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Evelien; Devriendt, Bert; Yin, Lizi; Chiers, Koen; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2014-09-25

    The aim of the present study was to reveal the characteristic features of genital Chlamydia suis infection and re-infection in female pigs by studying the immune response, pathological changes, replication of chlamydial bacteria in the genital tract and excretion of viable bacteria. Pigs were intravaginally infected and re-infected with C. suis strain S45, the type strain of this species. We demonstrated that S45 is pathogenic for the female urogenital tract. Chlamydia replication occurred throughout the urogenital tract, causing inflammation and pathology. Furthermore, genital infection elicited both cellular and humoral immune responses. Compared to the primo-infection of pigs with C. suis, re-infection was characterized by less severe macroscopic lesions and less chlamydial elementary bodies and inclusions in the urogenital tract. This indicates the development of a certain level of protection following the initial infection. Protective immunity against re-infection coincided with higher Chlamydia-specific IgG and IgA antibody titers in sera and vaginal secretions, higher proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), higher percentages of blood B lymphocytes, monocytes and CD8⁺ T cells and upregulated production of IFN-γ and IL-10 by PBMC.

  14. [Symptomatology and treatment of persistent genital arousal disorder. Case report].

    PubMed

    Erős, Erika; Brockhauser, Ildikó; Pólyán, Edina

    2015-04-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder is a rare condition among women characterized by unwanted and intrusive sexual arousal that can persist for an extended period of time and unrelated to sexual desire or sexual stimuli. Since its first documentation in 2001, numerous studies have been dedicated to investigate its specifics. The persistent genital arousal occurs in the absence of sexual interest and fantasies and it causes excessive psychological suffering. Masturbation, spontaneous orgasm or sexual intercourse can offer only a temporary relief. Researches provide a limited insight into the characteristics of persistent genital arousal disorder. This paper presents a case and summarizes the scientific findings on prevalence, etiology and treatment perspectives. PMID:25845321

  15. Female genital mutilation (FGM): Australian midwives' knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Ogunsiji, Olayide

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a women's health and human rights issue attracting global interest. My purpose in this qualitative study was to report the knowledge and attitudes of Australian midwives toward FGM. Verbatim transcription and thematic analysis of semistructured interviews with 11 midwives resulted in these themes: knowledge of female genital mutilation and attitude toward female genital mutilation. Significant gaps in knowledge about FGM featured prominently. The midwives expressed anger toward FGM and empathy for affected women. Recommendations include increased information on FGM and associated legislation among midwives and other health providers in countries where FGM may be encountered.

  16. Female genital mutilation (FGM): Australian midwives' knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Ogunsiji, Olayide

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a women's health and human rights issue attracting global interest. My purpose in this qualitative study was to report the knowledge and attitudes of Australian midwives toward FGM. Verbatim transcription and thematic analysis of semistructured interviews with 11 midwives resulted in these themes: knowledge of female genital mutilation and attitude toward female genital mutilation. Significant gaps in knowledge about FGM featured prominently. The midwives expressed anger toward FGM and empathy for affected women. Recommendations include increased information on FGM and associated legislation among midwives and other health providers in countries where FGM may be encountered. PMID:25558808

  17. Transformation of the genital epithelial tract occurs early in California sea lion development

    PubMed Central

    Barragán-Vargas, Cecilia; Montano-Frías, Jorge; Ávila Rosales, Germán; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R.; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2016-01-01

    An unusually high prevalence of metastatic urogenital carcinoma has been observed in free-ranging California sea lions stranded off the coast of California in the past two decades. No cases have been reported for sea lions in the relatively unpolluted Gulf of California. We investigated occurrence of genital epithelial transformation in 60 sea lions (n=57 pups and 3 adult females) from the Gulf of California and examined whether infection by a viral pathogen previously found to be associated with urogenital carcinoma accounted for such alterations. We also explored the contribution of MHC class II gene expression on transformation. Cellular alterations, such as squamous cell atypia (ASC), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were observed in 42% of the pups and in 67% of the adult females. Normal genital epithelium was more common in male than female pups. ASC was five times more likely to occur in older pups. Epithelial alterations were unrelated to infection by the potentially oncogenic otarine type I gammaherpesvirus (OtHV-1), but ASCUS was more common in pups with marked and severe inflammation. Expression of MHC class II DRB loci (Zaca DRB-D) by peripheral antigen-presenting leucocytes showed a slightly ‘protective’ effect for ASC. We propose that transformation of the California sea lion genital epithelium is relatively common in young animals, increases with age and is probably the result of infection by an unidentified pathogen. Expression of a specific MHC class II gene, suggestive of presentation of specific antigenic peptides to immune effectors, appears to lower the risk of transformation. Our study provides the first evidence that epithelial transformation of the California sea lion genital tract is relatively common, even from an early age, and raises questions regarding differences in sea lion cancer-detection and -repair success between geographical regions. PMID:27069641

  18. Transformation of the genital epithelial tract occurs early in California sea lion development.

    PubMed

    Barragán-Vargas, Cecilia; Montano-Frías, Jorge; Ávila Rosales, Germán; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2016-03-01

    An unusually high prevalence of metastatic urogenital carcinoma has been observed in free-ranging California sea lions stranded off the coast of California in the past two decades. No cases have been reported for sea lions in the relatively unpolluted Gulf of California. We investigated occurrence of genital epithelial transformation in 60 sea lions (n=57 pups and 3 adult females) from the Gulf of California and examined whether infection by a viral pathogen previously found to be associated with urogenital carcinoma accounted for such alterations. We also explored the contribution of MHC class II gene expression on transformation. Cellular alterations, such as squamous cell atypia (ASC), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were observed in 42% of the pups and in 67% of the adult females. Normal genital epithelium was more common in male than female pups. ASC was five times more likely to occur in older pups. Epithelial alterations were unrelated to infection by the potentially oncogenic otarine type I gammaherpesvirus (OtHV-1), but ASCUS was more common in pups with marked and severe inflammation. Expression of MHC class II DRB loci (Zaca DRB-D) by peripheral antigen-presenting leucocytes showed a slightly 'protective' effect for ASC. We propose that transformation of the California sea lion genital epithelium is relatively common in young animals, increases with age and is probably the result of infection by an unidentified pathogen. Expression of a specific MHC class II gene, suggestive of presentation of specific antigenic peptides to immune effectors, appears to lower the risk of transformation. Our study provides the first evidence that epithelial transformation of the California sea lion genital tract is relatively common, even from an early age, and raises questions regarding differences in sea lion cancer-detection and -repair success between geographical regions. PMID:27069641

  19. Transformation of the genital epithelial tract occurs early in California sea lion development.

    PubMed

    Barragán-Vargas, Cecilia; Montano-Frías, Jorge; Ávila Rosales, Germán; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2016-03-01

    An unusually high prevalence of metastatic urogenital carcinoma has been observed in free-ranging California sea lions stranded off the coast of California in the past two decades. No cases have been reported for sea lions in the relatively unpolluted Gulf of California. We investigated occurrence of genital epithelial transformation in 60 sea lions (n=57 pups and 3 adult females) from the Gulf of California and examined whether infection by a viral pathogen previously found to be associated with urogenital carcinoma accounted for such alterations. We also explored the contribution of MHC class II gene expression on transformation. Cellular alterations, such as squamous cell atypia (ASC), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were observed in 42% of the pups and in 67% of the adult females. Normal genital epithelium was more common in male than female pups. ASC was five times more likely to occur in older pups. Epithelial alterations were unrelated to infection by the potentially oncogenic otarine type I gammaherpesvirus (OtHV-1), but ASCUS was more common in pups with marked and severe inflammation. Expression of MHC class II DRB loci (Zaca DRB-D) by peripheral antigen-presenting leucocytes showed a slightly 'protective' effect for ASC. We propose that transformation of the California sea lion genital epithelium is relatively common in young animals, increases with age and is probably the result of infection by an unidentified pathogen. Expression of a specific MHC class II gene, suggestive of presentation of specific antigenic peptides to immune effectors, appears to lower the risk of transformation. Our study provides the first evidence that epithelial transformation of the California sea lion genital tract is relatively common, even from an early age, and raises questions regarding differences in sea lion cancer-detection and -repair success between geographical regions.

  20. Genital powder use and risk of ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of 8,525 cases and 9,859 controls

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Kathryn L.; Karageorgi, Stalo; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Merritt, Melissa A.; Lurie, Galina; Thompson, Pamela J.; Carney, Michael E.; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Akushevich, Lucy; Lo-Ciganic, Wei-Hsuan; Cushing-Haugen, Kara; Sieh, Weiva; Moysich, Kirsten; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Nagle, Christina M.; Berchuck, Andrew; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pike, Malcolm; Ness, Roberta B.; Webb, Penelope M.; Rossing, Mary Anne; Schildkraut, Joellen; Risch, Harvey; Goodman, Marc T.

    2013-01-01

    Genital powder use has been associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in some, but not all, epidemiologic investigations, possibly reflecting the carcinogenic effects of talc particles found in most of these products. Whether risk increases with number of genital-powder applications and for all histologic types of ovarian cancer also remains uncertain. Therefore, we estimated the association between self-reported genital powder use and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in eight population-based case-control studies. Individual data from each study was collected and harmonized. Lifetime number of genital-powder applications was estimated from duration and frequency of use. Pooled odds ratios were calculated using conditional logistic regression matched on study and age and adjusted for potential confounders. Subtype-specific risks were estimated according to tumor behavior and histology. 8,525 cases and 9,859 controls were included in the analyses. Genital powder use was associated with a modest increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (odds ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.15–1.33) relative to women who never used powder. Risk was elevated for invasive serous (1.20, 1.09–1.32), endometrioid (1.22, 1.04–1.43), and clear cell (1.24, 1.01–1.52) tumors, and for borderline serous tumors (1.46, 1.24–1.72). Among genital powder users, we observed no significant trend (p=0.17) in risk with increasing number of lifetime applications (assessed in quartiles). We noted no increase in risk among women who only reported non-genital powder use. In summary, genital powder use is a modifiable exposure associated with small-to-moderate increases in risk of most histologic subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:23761272

  1. Human Female Genital Tract Infection by the Obligate Intracellular Bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis Elicits Robust Type 2 Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Vicetti Miguel, Rodolfo D.; Harvey, Stephen A. K.; LaFramboise, William A.; Reighard, Seth D.; Matthews, Dean B.; Cherpes, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    While Chlamydia trachomatis infections are frequently asymptomatic, mechanisms that regulate host response to this intracellular Gram-negative bacterium remain undefined. This investigation thus used peripheral blood mononuclear cells and endometrial tissue from women with or without Chlamydia genital tract infection to better define this response. Initial genome-wide microarray analysis revealed highly elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 10 and other molecules characteristic of Type 2 immunity (e.g., fibrosis and wound repair) in Chlamydia-infected tissue. This result was corroborated in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry studies that showed extant upper genital tract Chlamydia infection was associated with increased co-expression of CD200 receptor and CD206 (markers of alternative macrophage activation) by endometrial macrophages as well as increased expression of GATA-3 (the transcription factor regulating TH2 differentiation) by endometrial CD4+ T cells. Also among women with genital tract Chlamydia infection, peripheral CD3+ CD4+ and CD3+ CD4- cells that proliferated in response to ex vivo stimulation with inactivated chlamydial antigen secreted significantly more interleukin (IL)-4 than tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ, or IL-17; findings that repeated in T cells isolated from these same women 1 and 4 months after infection had been eradicated. Our results thus newly reveal that genital infection by an obligate intracellular bacterium induces polarization towards Type 2 immunity, including Chlamydia-specific TH2 development. Based on these findings, we now speculate that Type 2 immunity was selected by evolution as the host response to C. trachomatis in the human female genital tract to control infection and minimize immunopathological damage to vital reproductive structures. PMID:23555586

  2. [Prevalence of genital anomalies in young football players].

    PubMed

    Mónaco, M; Verdugo, F; Bodell, M; Avendaño, E; Til, L; Drobnic, F

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of genital examination (GE) during the Pre-participation Physical Examination (PPE) is to identify the state of maturity, and rule out any genital pathology. To describe genital anomalies (GA) and estimate the awareness of GE in young football players. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 280 elite football players from the results of PPE over two seasons. There was a detection rate of 5.4% GA, with varicocele being 3.2%, and of which only 13% were aware of their condition. Although this study shows a low incidence of genital abnormality in the study population, only 13% were aware of the GE prior to assessment. These findings demonstrate a low incidence of GA in this population. While GE is recommended during PPE, it is not a routine practice performed by family doctors or sports medicine specialists. This article attempts to raise awareness of the importance of GE in PPE as a preventive health strategy.

  3. Botulinum toxin for the treatment of genital pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Romito, Silvia; Bottanelli, Mara; Pellegrini, Maria; Vicentini, Silvana; Rizzuto, Niccolò; Bertolasi, Laura

    2004-01-01

    Our purpose was to test the effect of botulinum toxin injections on hypertonic pelvic floor muscles of patients suffering from genital pain syndromes. We report two cases of women complaining of a genital pain syndrome resistant to pharmacological therapies and rehabilitation exercises associated with a documented involuntary tonic contraction of the levator ani muscle as a defense reaction triggered by vulvar pain. We performed botulinum toxin injections into the levator ani with the intent to relieve pelvic muscular spasms. Within a few days after the injections both the patients reported a complete resolution of the painful symptomatology, lasting for several months. Our experience suggests that botulinum injections are indicated in patients with genital pain syndrome with documented pelvic muscle hyperactivity, whose symptoms arise not only from genital inflammation and lesions, but also, and sometimes chiefly, from levator ani myalgia.

  4. Pathogenesis of endometritis and salpingitis in a guinea pig model of chlamydial genital infection.

    PubMed Central

    Rank, R. G.; Sanders, M. M.

    1992-01-01

    The development of tubal obstruction and subsequent infertility is a major sequelum of upper genital tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis; however, little is known about the pathogenesis of the infection. In this investigation, the authors present a detailed study of the progression of ascending chlamydial infection in female guinea pigs resulting from intravaginal inoculation of the Chlamydia psittaci agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). Isolation of chlamydiae from different tissues of the genital tract revealed definitive evidence for ascending infection that was not dose-related. By 7 days after infection, GPIC was isolated from the endometrium and oviducts of 78% of the animals. Pathologic changes analogous to those seen in human chlamydial disease, including polymorphonuclear, mononuclear, and plasma cell infiltration, were seen in the endometrium and oviducts, although not all isolation positive animals developed overt tubal disease. Long-term fibrosis, often in combination with hydrosalpinx, was noted in the mesosalpingeal tissue in 20% of the animals. Thus, the guinea pig:GPIC system represents a model for ascending chlamydial infection resulting from vaginal inoculation of normal guinea pigs that closely approximates the disease as seen in humans and can be used to study the pathogenesis of chlamydial genital infection. Images Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:1562052

  5. Intravaginal Zinc Oxide Tetrapod Nanoparticles as Novel Immunoprotective Agents against Genital Herpes.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Thessicar E; Hadigal, Satvik R; Yakoub, Abraam M; Mishra, Yogendra Kumar; Bhattacharya, Palash; Haddad, Christine; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Adelung, Rainer; Prabhakar, Bellur S; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-06-01

    Virtually all efforts to generate an effective protection against the life-long, recurrent genital infections caused by HSV-2 have failed. Apart from sexual transmission, the virus can also be transmitted from mothers to neonates, and it is a key facilitator of HIV coacquisition. In this article, we uncover a nanoimmunotherapy using specially designed zinc oxide tetrapod nanoparticles (ZOTEN) with engineered oxygen vacancies. We demonstrate that ZOTEN, when used intravaginally as a microbicide, is an effective suppressor of HSV-2 genital infection in female BALB/c mice. The strong HSV-2 trapping ability of ZOTEN significantly reduced the clinical signs of vaginal infection and effectively decreased animal mortality. In parallel, ZOTEN promoted the presentation of bound HSV-2 virions to mucosal APCs, enhancing T cell-mediated and Ab-mediated responses to the infection, and thereby suppressing a reinfection. We also found that ZOTEN exhibits strong adjuvant-like properties, which is highly comparable with alum, a commonly used adjuvant. Overall, to our knowledge, our study provides the very first evidence for the protective efficacy of an intravaginal microbicide/vaccine or microbivac platform against primary and secondary female genital herpes infections. PMID:27183601

  6. Pathogenesis of endometritis and salpingitis in a guinea pig model of chlamydial genital infection.

    PubMed

    Rank, R G; Sanders, M M

    1992-04-01

    The development of tubal obstruction and subsequent infertility is a major sequelum of upper genital tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis; however, little is known about the pathogenesis of the infection. In this investigation, the authors present a detailed study of the progression of ascending chlamydial infection in female guinea pigs resulting from intravaginal inoculation of the Chlamydia psittaci agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). Isolation of chlamydiae from different tissues of the genital tract revealed definitive evidence for ascending infection that was not dose-related. By 7 days after infection, GPIC was isolated from the endometrium and oviducts of 78% of the animals. Pathologic changes analogous to those seen in human chlamydial disease, including polymorphonuclear, mononuclear, and plasma cell infiltration, were seen in the endometrium and oviducts, although not all isolation positive animals developed overt tubal disease. Long-term fibrosis, often in combination with hydrosalpinx, was noted in the mesosalpingeal tissue in 20% of the animals. Thus, the guinea pig:GPIC system represents a model for ascending chlamydial infection resulting from vaginal inoculation of normal guinea pigs that closely approximates the disease as seen in humans and can be used to study the pathogenesis of chlamydial genital infection.

  7. Amputee fetishism and genital mutilation: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Wise, T N; Kalyanam, R C

    2000-01-01

    A case is presented of a 49-year-old man who amputated his penis following instructions that he had obtained from the Internet. The patient had a long-standing amputee fetish, which evolved into eroticized genital mutilation. The transformation of the preferred fetish occurred in a setting of depression due to environmental stressors. The literature about amputee fetishism, also called "apotemnophilia," is reviewed, and possible connections with the genital mutilation are discussed.

  8. Female genital alteration: a compromise solution.

    PubMed

    Arora, Kavita Shah; Jacobs, Allan J

    2016-03-01

    Despite 30 years of advocacy, the prevalence of non-therapeutic female genital alteration (FGA) in minors is stable in many countries. Educational efforts have minimally changed the prevalence of this procedure in regions where it has been widely practiced. In order to better protect female children from the serious and long-term harms of some types of non-therapeutic FGA, we must adopt a more nuanced position that acknowledges a wide spectrum of procedures that alter female genitalia. We offer a revised categorisation for non-therapeutic FGA that groups procedures by effect and not by process. Acceptance of de minimis procedures that generally do not carry long-term medical risks is culturally sensitive, does not discriminate on the basis of gender, and does not violate human rights. More morbid procedures should not be performed. However, accepting de minimis non-therapeutic f FGA procedures enhances the effort of compassionate practitioners searching for a compromise position that respects cultural differences but protects the health of their patients. PMID:26902479

  9. Support growing for eradicating female genital cutting.

    PubMed

    1999-12-01

    Female genital cutting (FGC), a prevalent practice in most African countries not just seriously endangers a girl's lifetime health, but it is also considered a human rights violation. In June 1999, the Intra-Agency Working Group on FGC held a symposium with US Agency for International Development (USAID) staff to explore ways of incorporating into USAID program activities to eradicate the practice of FGC. One of the presentations at the symposium concerned "circumcision with words". This ceremony is an alternative rite of passage; it is conducted through a 5-day seclusion, culminating in a 1-day celebration including feasting and gift giving. The alternative rites include 1) self-esteem and coping with criticism; 2) responsibility for one¿s own decision; 3) dating and courtship; 4) coping with peer pressure; 5) personal hygiene; 6) marriage; 7) pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease and AIDS prevention; 8) contraception; 9) FGC, early marriage, and gender empowerment, including the rights of the girl child; 10) respect for community; and 11) respect for elders. Alternative rites of passage are gaining community acceptance and by Kenya Medical Association. None of the girls who participated in the ceremony were circumcised later. PMID:12295634

  10. Transnodal Lymphangiography in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Genital Lymphedema

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, F. M. Martinez-Rodrigo, J.; Marti-Bonmati, L.; Santos, E.; Forner, I.; Lloret, M.; Perez-Enguix, D.; Garcia-Marcos, R.

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To report the success of groin nodal lymphography in the diagnosis and treatment of genital lymphedema. Methods and Materials: We present one female (8 years old [patient no. 1]) and two male (69 and [patient no. 2] 31 years old [patient no. 3], respectively) patients with genital lymphedema in whom conservative treatment failed. The girl also had lymphorrhagia. Genital lymphedema was caused by radical cystectomy (patient no. 2), lymphatic hyperplasia (patient no. 1), and idiopathic lymphangitis (patient no. 3). All of them underwent ultrasound-guided bilateral groin lymph node puncture. Afterward, 4-8 ml Lipiodol Ultra-Fluide (Guerbet) were injected at a rate of 0.2 ml/s. Lipiodol progression was assessed by fluoroscopy. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis was performed immediately after and again at 24 h after the procedure to confirm the leak. The follow-up period was 15, 13, and 9 months, respectively. Technical success was considered as bilateral pelvic and abdominal filling of lymphatic vessels. Therapeutic success was considered as improvement or disappearance of genital lymphedema and/or lymphorrhagia. Results: Lipiodol leak to the scrotum was observed in patients no. 2 and 3. Lymphaticopelvic fistula and genital lymphatic hyperplasia were seen in patient no. 1. Genital lymphedema diminished within 1 week and almost disappeared in two cases (patients no. 1 and 3) or significantly improved (patient no. 2). lymphorrhagia also resolved in patient no. 1. No recurrence or worsening was detected during follow-up. Conclusion: Therapeutic lymphangiography by lymph node injection seems to be effective to treat genital lymphedema. Lymph node puncture lymphangiography is feasible and less cumbersome than pedal lymphangiography.

  11. Nonoverlapping Clinical and Mutational Patterns in Melanomas from the Female Genital Tract and Atypical Genital Nevi.

    PubMed

    Yélamos, Oriol; Merkel, Emily A; Sholl, Lauren Meldi; Zhang, Bin; Amin, Sapna M; Lee, Christina Y; Guitart, Gerta E; Yang, Jingyi; Wenzel, Alexander T; Bunick, Christopher G; Yazdan, Pedram; Choi, Jaehyuk; Gerami, Pedram

    2016-09-01

    Genital melanomas (GM) are the second most common cancer of the female external genitalia and may be confused with atypical genital nevi (AGN), which exhibit atypical histological features but have benign behavior. In this study, we compared the clinical, histological, and molecular features of 19 GM and 25 AGN. We described chromosomal copy number aberrations and the mutational status of 50 oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in both groups. Our study showed that a pigmented lesion occurring in mucosal tissue, particularly in postmenopausal women, was more likely to be a melanoma than a nevus. GM had high levels of chromosomal instability, with many copy number aberrations. Furthermore, we found a completely nonoverlapping pattern of oncogenic mutations when comparing GM and AGN. In GM, we report somatic mutations in KIT and TP53. Conversely, AGN had frequent BRAF V600E mutations, which were not seen in any of the GM. Our results show that GM and AGN have distinct clinical and molecular changes and that GM have a different mutational pattern compared with AGN.

  12. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Christiane Maria Moreira; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gomes, Francis de Assis Moraes; Amaral, Rose; Passos, Mauro Romero Leal; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine da Silveira

    2007-04-01

    Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD)--syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum; and other non-STD disorders (NSTD)--Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53). Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female genital ulcers. The

  13. Genital powder use and risk of ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of 8,525 cases and 9,859 controls.

    PubMed

    Terry, Kathryn L; Karageorgi, Stalo; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Merritt, Melissa A; Lurie, Galina; Thompson, Pamela J; Carney, Michael E; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Akushevich, Lucy; Lo-Ciganic, Wei-Hsuan; Cushing-Haugen, Kara; Sieh, Weiva; Moysich, Kirsten; Doherty, Jennifer A; Nagle, Christina M; Berchuck, Andrew; Pearce, Celeste L; Pike, Malcolm; Ness, Roberta B; Webb, Penelope M; Rossing, Mary Anne; Schildkraut, Joellen; Risch, Harvey; Goodman, Marc T

    2013-08-01

    Genital powder use has been associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in some, but not all, epidemiologic investigations, possibly reflecting the carcinogenic effects of talc particles found in most of these products. Whether risk increases with number of genital powder applications and for all histologic types of ovarian cancer also remains uncertain. Therefore, we estimated the association between self-reported genital powder use and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in eight population-based case-control studies. Individual data from each study were collected and harmonized. Lifetime number of genital powder applications was estimated from duration and frequency of use. Pooled ORs were calculated using conditional logistic regression matched on study and age and adjusted for potential confounders. Subtype-specific risks were estimated according to tumor behavior and histology. 8,525 cases and 9,859 controls were included in the analyses. Genital powder use was associated with a modest increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer [OR, 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-1.33] relative to women who never used powder. Risk was elevated for invasive serous (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09-1.32), endometrioid (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.04-1.43), and clear cell (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.52) tumors, and for borderline serous tumors (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.24-1.72). Among genital powder users, we observed no significant trend (P = 0.17) in risk with increasing number of lifetime applications (assessed in quartiles). We noted no increase in risk among women who only reported nongenital powder use. In summary, genital powder use is a modifiable exposure associated with small-to-moderate increases in risk of most histologic subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer.

  14. Cutaneous human papillomavirus types detected on the surface of male external genital lesions: A case series within the HPV Infection in Men Study

    PubMed Central

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Jukic, Drazen M.; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik; Rollison, Dana E.; Sichero, Laura; Sirak, Bradley A.; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lu, Beibei; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) may be associated with cutaneous epithelial lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers. No study has systematically evaluated the presence of genus beta [β]-HPV in male genital skin or external genital lesions (EGLs). Objectives To examine cutaneous β-HPV types detected on the surface of EGLs in men and describe their presence prior to EGL development. Study design A retrospective case series was conducted among 69 men with pathologically confirmed EGLs (n=72) who participated in the HPV Infection in Men Study. Archived exfoliated cells collected from the surface of each EGL and normal genital skin specimens 6–12 months preceding EGL development were tested for β-HPV DNA using a type-specific multiplex genotyping assay. Results β-HPV DNA was detected on 61.1% of all EGLs, with types 38 (16.7%), 5 (15.3%), and 12 (12.5%) most commonly identified. HPV prevalence differed across pathological diagnoses, with the largest number of β-HPV types detected on condylomas. Most β-HPV types were detected on normal genital skin prior to EGL development, though the prevalence was lower on EGLs compared to preceding normal genital skin. Conclusions EGLs and the normal genital skin of men harbor a large number of β-HPV types; however, it appears that β-HPVs are unrelated to EGL development in men. Despite evidence to support a causal role in skin carcinogenesis at UVR-exposed sites, cutaneous HPV appears unlikely to cause disease at the UVR-unexposed genitals. PMID:24210970

  15. Genital HSV Shedding among Kenyan Women Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Manguro, Griffins O.; Masese, Linnet N.; Deya, Ruth W.; Magaret, Amalia; Wald, Anna; McClelland, R. Scott; Graham, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Genital ulcer disease (GUD) prevalence increases in the first month of antiretroviral treatment (ART), followed by a return to baseline prevalence by month 3. Since most GUD is caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), we hypothesized that genital HSV detection would follow a similar pattern after treatment initiation. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 122 HSV-2 and HIV-1 co-infected women with advanced HIV disease who initiated ART and were followed closely with collection of genital swab specimens for the first three months of treatment. Results At baseline, the HSV detection rate was 32%, without significant increase in genital HSV detection noted during the first month or the third month of ART. HIV-1 shedding declined during this period; no association was also noted between HSV and HIV-1 shedding during this period. Conclusion Because other studies have reported increased HSV detection in women initiating ART and we have previously reported an increase in GUD during early ART, it may be prudent to counsel HIV-1 infected women initiating ART that HSV shedding in the genital tract may continue after ART initiation. PMID:27683204

  16. Stopping female genital mutilation. An update.

    PubMed

    Gamble, A

    1995-01-01

    There is widespread consensus among many individuals, countries, and organizations that female genital mutilation (FGM) is a human rights abuse. France, Britain, Sweden, and Switzerland have passed legislation forbidding medical personnel from performing FGM, eighteen African countries have made official statements against FGM, and FGM was an issue in the 1993 World Health Assembly, the 1993 World Human Rights Conference, and the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. True change, however, depends upon a transformation in the informal economic, social, and political structures which perpetuate women's dependency upon marriage and men. The Research Action Information Network for the Bodily Integrity of Women (RAINBOW) and the Development Law and Policy Unit of the Columbia University School of Public Health introduced the Global Action Against FGM (GAAFGM) Project in June 1994. The project is designed to integrate action against FGM into existing health and human rights programs and to pool available resources against FGM. GAAFGM has also coordinated an interagency working group comprised of international agencies, in-country grassroots organizations, and women's groups, which met for the first time in November 1994. The project should provide considerable information and leadership on the issue. On another front, participants in the most recent preparatory meeting for the upcoming Beijing Conference noted the existence of a strong recognition that FGM is a problem upon which the international community should act. The author notes recent litigation brought by the Egyptian Organization for Human Rights against the grand sheik of Al-Azhar University for issuing a fatwa declaring female circumcision an Islamic duty. In addition, a Ghanaian may be granted refugee status in Canada on the basis of her efforts to avoid mutilation if deported to her country of origin.

  17. Genital Appearance Dissatisfaction: Implications for Women's Genital Image Self-Consciousness, Sexual Esteem, Sexual Satisfaction, and Sexual Risk.

    PubMed

    Schick, Vanessa R; Calabrese, Sarah K; Rima, Brandi N; Zucker, Alyssa N

    2010-09-01

    Findings regarding the link between body image and sexuality have been equivocal, possibly because of the insensitivity of many of body image measures to potential variability across sensory aspects of the body (e.g., appearance versus odor), individual body parts (e.g., genitalia versus thighs), and social settings (e.g., public versus intimate). The current study refined existing methods of evaluating women's body image in the context of sexuality by focusing upon two highly specified dimensions: satisfaction with the visual appearance of the genitalia and self-consciousness about the genitalia during a sexual encounter. Genital appearance dissatisfaction, genital image self-consciousness, and multiple facets of sexuality were examined with a sample of 217 undergraduate women using an online survey. Path analysis revealed that greater dissatisfaction with genital appearance was associated with higher genital image self-consciousness during physical intimacy, which, in turn, was associated with lower sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction, and motivation to avoid risky sexual behavior. These findings underscore the detrimental impact of negative genital perceptions on young women's sexual wellbeing, which is of particular concern given their vulnerability at this stage of sexual development as well as the high rates of sexually transmitted infections within this age group. Interventions that enhance satisfaction with the natural appearance of their genitalia could facilitate the development of a healthy sexual self-concept and provide long-term benefits in terms of sexual safety and satisfaction.

  18. Genital Appearance Dissatisfaction: Implications for Women’s Genital Image Self-Consciousness, Sexual Esteem, Sexual Satisfaction, and Sexual Risk

    PubMed Central

    Schick, Vanessa R.; Calabrese, Sarah K.; Rima, Brandi N.; Zucker, Alyssa N.

    2010-01-01

    Findings regarding the link between body image and sexuality have been equivocal, possibly because of the insensitivity of many of body image measures to potential variability across sensory aspects of the body (e.g., appearance versus odor), individual body parts (e.g., genitalia versus thighs), and social settings (e.g., public versus intimate). The current study refined existing methods of evaluating women’s body image in the context of sexuality by focusing upon two highly specified dimensions: satisfaction with the visual appearance of the genitalia and self-consciousness about the genitalia during a sexual encounter. Genital appearance dissatisfaction, genital image self-consciousness, and multiple facets of sexuality were examined with a sample of 217 undergraduate women using an online survey. Path analysis revealed that greater dissatisfaction with genital appearance was associated with higher genital image self-consciousness during physical intimacy, which, in turn, was associated with lower sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction, and motivation to avoid risky sexual behavior. These findings underscore the detrimental impact of negative genital perceptions on young women’s sexual wellbeing, which is of particular concern given their vulnerability at this stage of sexual development as well as the high rates of sexually transmitted infections within this age group. Interventions that enhance satisfaction with the natural appearance of their genitalia could facilitate the development of a healthy sexual self-concept and provide long-term benefits in terms of sexual safety and satisfaction. PMID:20824180

  19. Female genital mutilation. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association.

    PubMed

    1995-12-01

    Female genital mutilation is the medically unnecessary modification of female genitalia. Female genital mutilation typically occurs at about 7 years of age, but mutilated women suffer severe medical complications throughout their adult lives. Female genital mutilation most frequently occurs in Africa, the Middle East, and Muslim parts of Indonesia and Malaysia, and it is generally part of a ceremonial induction into adult society. Recent political and economic problems in these regions, however, have increased the numbers of students and refugees to the United States. Consequently, US physicians are treating an increasing number of mutilated patients. The Council on Scientific Affairs recommends that US physicians join the World Health Organization, the World Medical Association, and other major health care organizations in opposing all forms of medically unnecessary surgical modification of the female genitalia. PMID:7474278

  20. Microbial diseases of the genital system of rams or bucks.

    PubMed

    Gouletsou, P G; Fthenakis, G C

    2015-12-14

    Objective of the present paper is to review microbial diseases of the genital system of male small ruminants. The paper reviews the infections and the diseases by taking an organ approach within the genital system, whilst relevant health management actions are also discussed. Diseases of the genital organs of male small ruminants include orchitis, of bacterial or viral aetiology, epididymitis, primarily caused by Brucella ovis, by other bacteria as well (e.g., Actinobacillus seminis, Haemophilus somni), infections of the accessory glands, orf, other infections of the penis or prepuce and infections of the scrotum. The health management of rams/bucks include the appropriate diagnostic investigations, the relevant therapeutic approaches and, finally, the preventive measures. PMID:26209019

  1. Female genital mutilation and childbirth: a case report.

    PubMed

    McCleary, P H

    1994-12-01

    Over 80 million women in more than 30 countries have undergone female genital mutilation, also called female circumcision, according to World Health Organization estimates. Over the past decade 70,000 Somalians have become residents in Canada, 50,000 of whom live in Toronto, Ontario. Many of the women are of childbearing age, and 99.5 percent of women in Somalia are reported to have been genitally mutilated. Canadian medical organizations have published position statements prohibiting the practice. This case report describes the pregnancy and childbirth of a Somalian woman with the infibulation type of procedure. When perinatal health professionals are aware of and sensitive to the cultural and medical implications and sequelae of female genital mutilation, they will give better care to affected women. PMID:7766244

  2. Fitness consequences of artificial selection on relative male genital size.

    PubMed

    Booksmythe, Isobel; Head, Megan L; Keogh, J Scott; Jennions, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Male genitalia often show remarkable differences among related species in size, shape and complexity. Across poeciliid fishes, the elongated fin (gonopodium) that males use to inseminate females ranges from 18 to 53% of body length. Relative genital size therefore varies greatly among species. In contrast, there is often tight within-species allometric scaling, which suggests strong selection against genital-body size combinations that deviate from a species' natural line of allometry. We tested this constraint by artificially selecting on the allometric intercept, creating lines of males with relatively longer or shorter gonopodia than occur naturally for a given body size in mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki. We show that relative genital length is heritable and diverged 7.6-8.9% between our up-selected and down-selected lines, with correlated changes in body shape. However, deviation from the natural line of allometry does not affect male success in assays of attractiveness, swimming performance and, crucially, reproductive success (paternity). PMID:27188478

  3. [Female genital mutilations, forced marriages, and early pregnancies].

    PubMed

    Henrion, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Female genital mutilations, as well as forcible childhood marriage and their correlate adolescent pregnancies are traditional practices which, not only violate the dignity, but also jeopardize the health, and even the life, of women and their children. The complications of genital mutilations are frequent for a number of reasons: the fact that the clitoris is highly vascularized, the nature of the mutilations, excision or infibulation, and the poor conditions of hygiene. The short term complications are pain, hemorrhage, shock, and urinary retention. Medium term complications include gangrene, septicemia, tetanus, pelvic inflammatory disease, HIV/AIDS, and hepatitis B or C infections. Serious sequelae may occur, including infertility and gynecologic disorders, and sexual life is invariably altered. The main obstetrical complications of genital mutilations are genital lacerations involving the labia minor and the perineum, which can lead to hemorrhage and sequelae such as urinary or anal incontinence, recto-vaginal and vesico-vaginal fistulas. The role of doctors, which is delicate because these customs are entrenched, is to detect genital mutilations, repair them and prevent them, by participating in health education programs. The consequences of forcible childhood marriage are serious, besides the fact that this is a disguised form of rape. The obstetrical risks favored by the underdevelopment of the uterus and the pelvis, include uterine rupture, preeclampsia and eclampsia, and obstetrical hemorrhage. The fetus/neonate are jeopardized by these complications, which can result in perinatal asphyxia and death, as well as the high rates of intrauterine growth retardation and preterm delivery. The impact of genital mutilations on delivery are compounded in childhood pregnancies for anatomical reasons, but also because these adolescents or children are extremely vulnerable and have poor access to perinatal care. In France, as well as in Africa, non-governmental and

  4. Genital Inflammation and the Risk of HIV Acquisition in Women

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Lindi; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Liebenberg, Lenine J.; Werner, Lise; Baxter, Cheryl; Arnold, Kelly B.; Williamson, Carolyn; Little, Francesca; Mansoor, Leila E.; Naranbhai, Vivek; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Ronacher, Katharina; Walzl, Gerhard; Garrett, Nigel J.; Williams, Brent L.; Couto-Rodriguez, Mara; Hornig, Mady; Lipkin, W. Ian; Grobler, Anneke; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Abdool Karim, Salim S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Women in Africa, especially young women, have very high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence rates that cannot be fully explained by behavioral risks. We investigated whether genital inflammation influenced HIV acquisition in this group. Methods. Twelve selected cytokines, including 9 inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (interleukin [IL]-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-8, interferon-γ inducible protein-10 [IP-10], monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein [MIP]-1α, MIP-1β), hematopoietic IL-7, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and regulatory IL-10 were measured prior to HIV infection in cervicovaginal lavages from 58 HIV seroconverters and 58 matched uninfected controls and in plasma from a subset of 107 of these women from the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa 004 tenofovir gel trial. Results. HIV seroconversion was associated with raised genital inflammatory cytokines (including chemokines MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and IP-10). The risk of HIV acquisition was significantly higher in women with evidence of genital inflammation, defined by at least 5 of 9 inflammatory cytokines being raised (odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.3–7.9; P = .014). Genital cytokine concentrations were persistently raised (for about 1 year before infection), with no readily identifiable cause despite extensive investigation of several potential factors, including sexually transmitted infections and systemic cytokines. Conclusions. Elevated genital concentrations of HIV target cell–recruiting chemokines and a genital inflammatory profile contributes to the high risk of HIV acquisition in these African women. PMID:25900168

  5. Sexually transmitted diseases and related genital pathologies in oligozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Merino, G; Murrieta, S; Rodriguez, L; Sandoval, C; Moran, C; Bailon, R

    1993-01-01

    Sexually transmitted pathogens are associated with a wide range of anomalies and diseases, including recurrent genital herpes, urethritis, syphilis, prostitis, genital ulcers, perihepatitis, unexplained infertility, infant prematurity, low birth weight, and neonatal death or malformations. Prompt diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is essential to ensure appropriate specific treatment and to reduce complications. Extensive studies on the etiology of male infertility include poorly treated infections such as STDs, epididymitis, complications associated with mumps, delayed treatment of undescended testes, repair of inguinal hernia, varicocele, endocrine disorders, anomalies of the reproductive tract and male accessory organs, trauma, surgery, heat-cold injury, and active-passive immunization.

  6. Lipschütz genital ulceration associated with mumps.

    PubMed

    Chanal, Johan; Carlotti, Agnès; Laude, Hélène; Wallet-Faber, Nadège; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Dupin, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Lipschütz ulcers are characterised by a first flare of non-sexually related acute genital ulcers (AGU) occurring in adolescent girls. Epstein-Barr primary infection is the most frequently reported aetiology but other infectious agents are probably implicated. We report the first case of mumps associated with an AGU in a 21-year-old girl. She presented a bilateral parotitis with genital ulcers, and serology confirmed she had mumps. As in our case, most Lipschütz ulcers heal spontaneously within a couple of weeks and the diagnosis should be reconsidered in case of recurrence.

  7. Transmission of Chlamydia and genital warts during sleepwalking.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Kailash

    2008-02-01

    A boy aged 15 years infected a girl of 13 years with Chlamydia and genital warts. The boy has been engaged in sexual activities for the last four years. There was no dispute that the boy had had sex with the girl. He was prosecuted but acquitted by the Court on the ground of 'defence of sleepwalking'. This is the first case where sexually transmitted infections like Chlamydia and genital warts have been transmitted sexually through sleepwalking. This case also raises the issues of underage sex and issues of confidentiality. PMID:18334071

  8. Genital ulcers associated with Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Jerdan, Kimberly; Aronson, Iris; Hernandez, Claudia; Fishman, Patricia M; Groth, John V

    2013-06-01

    Genital ulcerations are a rare clinical finding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. We present the case of a 16-year-old adolescent girl who reported the onset of diarrhea, headaches, dysuria, and vaginal discharge along with vulvar ulcerations with edema. Laboratory studies revealed a high-quantitative EBV IgG and early antigen as well as a positive IgM antibody for EBV. Although the association between EBV and genital ulcerations is rare, physicians should be aware of this clinical presentation to exclude other infectious entities, to be reassured to accept negative testing, and to quell patient distress or concerns of abuse.

  9. Female genital mutilation: cultural awareness and clinical considerations.

    PubMed

    Braddy, Cathleen M; Files, Julia A

    2007-01-01

    Clinicians in the United States are increasingly encountering girls and women who have undergone female genital mutilation. To foster a more trusting relationship with such patients, health care providers must have an accurate understanding of the cultural background surrounding this practice, a working knowledge of the different types of female genital mutilation procedures that may be encountered, and an awareness of both the acute and long-term complications. Some of these complications are potentially fatal, and the correct clinical diagnosis can be lifesaving.

  10. Transmission of Chlamydia and genital warts during sleepwalking.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Kailash

    2008-02-01

    A boy aged 15 years infected a girl of 13 years with Chlamydia and genital warts. The boy has been engaged in sexual activities for the last four years. There was no dispute that the boy had had sex with the girl. He was prosecuted but acquitted by the Court on the ground of 'defence of sleepwalking'. This is the first case where sexually transmitted infections like Chlamydia and genital warts have been transmitted sexually through sleepwalking. This case also raises the issues of underage sex and issues of confidentiality.

  11. Female genital mutilation/cutting type IV in Cambodia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Irion, Olivier; de Tejada, Begoña Martinez

    2015-12-01

    Nontherapeutic female genital modifications can cause short- and long-term consequences. Caregivers should promote women's self knowledge on genitals' anatomy and physiology, and psychophysical and sexual health. They should also inform on possible negative consequences of vulvar nontherapeutic alterations requested and avoid the medicalization of female genital mutilation.

  12. Children's Memories of a Physical Examination Involving Genital Touch: Implications for Reports of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saywitz, Karen J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Conducted medical checkups on five- and seven-year-old girls (n=72), one-half of whom also received genital examinations. Later solicited girls' memories. Most girls in genital condition revealed vaginal and anal contact only when asked directly about it. Children who had nongenital examination never falsely reported genital touch in free recall…

  13. Evaluation and management of acute genital ulcers in sexually active patients.

    PubMed

    Kraus, S J

    1984-02-01

    The causes of genital ulcers vary with the age of the patient. Although sexually related genital ulcers can be seen at any age, they are most common between the ages of 15 and 30. The differential diagnosis includes syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, fixed drug reactions, and traumatic ulcers.

  14. PAX8 and PAX2 immunostaining facilitates the diagnosis of primary epithelial neoplasms of the male genital tract.

    PubMed

    Tong, Guo-Xia; Memeo, Lorenzo; Colarossi, Cristina; Hamele-Bena, Diane; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Zhou, Ming; Lagana, Stephen M; Harik, Lara; Oliver-Krasinski, Jennifer M; Mansukhani, Mahesh; Falcone, Lorenzo; Hibshoosh, Hanina; O'Toole, Kathleen

    2011-10-01

    PAX8 and PAX2 are cell-lineage-specific transcription factors that are essential for the development of Wolffian and Müllerian ducts and have recently emerged as specific diagnostic markers for tumors of renal or Müllerian origin. Little is known about their expression in the Wolffian duct-derived human male genital tract. We report our findings of PAX8 and PAX2 expression in the epithelium of the normal male genital tract and in epithelial tumors derived therefrom using immunohistochemistry (IHC). We found that PAX8 and PAX2 were expressed in the epithelium of the male genital tract from the rete testis to the ejaculatory duct. Rare glands in the prostatic central zone, a tissue of purported Wolffian duct origin, were focally positive for PAX2, but no PAX8 was detected in this area, a finding that may warrant further study. We found diffuse expression of PAX8 and PAX2 in 1 case each of serous cystadenoma of the epididymis, carcinoma of the rete testis, Wolffian adnexal tumor of the seminal vesicle, and endometrioid carcinoma of the seminal vesicle. Neither PAX8 nor PAX2 was detected in the seminiferous tubules and interstitium of the normal testis, nor in Leydig cell tumors (n=6), Sertoli cell tumors (n=2), or 48 of 49 germ cell tumors. One pediatric yolk sac tumor showed focal and weak staining for PAX8. Tumors of mesothelial origin, that is, adenomatoid tumors (n=3) and peritoneal malignant mesotheliomas (n=37) in men, were negative for PAX2 and PAX8. Neither PAX2 nor PAX8 was present in other areas of the prostate. Expression of PAX8 and PAX2 in these primary epithelial neoplasms of the male genital tract is due to their histogenetic relationship with Wolffian or Müllerian ducts. PAX8 and PAX2 IHC may facilitate the diagnosis of these tumors and should be included in the differential diagnostic IHC panel.

  15. Lymphoid neoplasms of the urinary tract and male genital organs: a clinicopathological study of 40 cases.

    PubMed

    Schniederjan, Stephanie D; Osunkoya, Adeboye O

    2009-08-01

    Lymphoid neoplasms of the urinary tract and male genital organs are relatively rare, comprising less than 5% of all primary extranodal lymphomas; only a handful of small case series and isolated case reports have been published describing their predominant sites and subtypes. We identified 40 patients with lymphoid neoplasms of the urinary tract and male genital organs. Hematoxylin and eosin slides and immunohistochemical stains were reviewed, and follow-up data were also obtained. Twenty-six of 40 cases (65%) were primary genitourinary lymphomas. Mean age at diagnosis was 56 years (range 4-86 years). Among renal, bladder, and ureter lymphomas, a male predominance was noted (1.6:1). The subtypes of the lymphoid neoplasms observed were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (17 cases, 43%); Burkitt lymphoma, extranodal marginal zone lymphoma, SLL/CLL, and follicular lymphoma (4 cases, or 10% each); B-cell ALL (2 cases, 5%); B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, plasmacytoma, polymorphic post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, and peripheral T-cell lymphoma NOS (1 case, or 2.5% each). In most cases, the genitourinary tract was the site of initial presentation. Genitourinary tract lymphomas most commonly occurred in the kidney. B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas predominated, with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma being the most common subtype in the entire group. Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma was seen only in the kidney, rather than the bladder, where it is typically thought to be more common. Although this study confirms the predominance of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in extranodal sites, the findings also highlight the variety of lymphomas that may occur in the genitourinary tract. This diversity of subtypes affirms the importance of fully characterizing lymphomas by immunohistochemistry and other modalities, which are indispensable for accurate diagnosis.

  16. The expression and diagnostic utility of p63 in the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Oisin; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2009-09-01

    p63 plays a key role in epithelial development in various organs, being expressed in myoepithelial cells and in basal cells of stratified epithelia. In the female genital tract, p63 is expressed in the basal and parabasal cells of mature cervical, vaginal and vulval squamous epithelium, and also in cervical reserve cells at the transformation zone and in immature metaplastic and atrophic cervical squamous epithelium. In this review, the diagnostic utility of p63 immunohistochemical staining in various pathologic scenarios within the female genital tract is discussed. Cervical microglandular hyperplasia is p63 positive with a characteristic subcolumnar location due to expression in reserve cells. There is increased expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, in accordance with the degree of dysplasia. One of the most useful applications of p63 is in the evaluation of problematic cervical carcinomas; most squamous carcinomas exhibit diffuse nuclear immunoreactivity whereas most adenocarcinomas and neuroendocrine carcinomas are negative or focally positive. In conjunction with neuroendocrine markers, p63 is useful in distinguishing between a squamous carcinoma and a small cell or large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. In the normal endometrium, a population of p63-positive cells is present which may act as a stem cell population and which is increased in various forms of metaplasia. Placental site nodule and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (lesions derived from chorionic-type intermediate trophoblast) are usually p63 positive whereas placental site reaction and placental site trophoblastic tumor (lesions derived from implantation site intermediate trophoblast) are usually negative; thus, p63 may be useful in the diagnostic algorithm of trophoblastic lesions. p63 positivity in ovarian epithelial tumors is uncommon and largely restricted to squamous and transitional neoplasms, including benign and borderline Brenner tumor. p63 is also positive in cervical

  17. Topical application of polyethylenimine as a candidate for novel prophylactic therapeutics against genital herpes caused by herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kyoko; Onoue, Hiroki; Sasaki, Kohei; Lee, Jung-Bum; Kumar, Penmetcha K R; Gopinath, Subash C B; Maitani, Yoshie; Kai, Takashi; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2014-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) cause genital herpes, which can enhance the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus. The development of anti-HSV agents with novel mechanisms of action is urgently required in the topical therapy of genital herpes. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo anti-HSV effects of Epomin SP-012(®), a highly cationic polyethylenimine, were evaluated. When the in vitro antiviral effects of SP-012 were assessed, this compound showed potent activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2. It inhibited the attachment of HSV-2 to host cells and cell-to-cell spread of infection in a concentration-dependent manner and exerted a virucidal effect. No SP-012-resistant HSV-2 was found when the virus was successively passaged in the presence of SP-012. In a mouse genital herpes model, topically administered SP-012 inhibited the progression of the disease caused by HSV infection. These data illustrate that SP-012 may be a novel class of HSV inhibitor that would be acceptable for long-term topical application.

  18. Immunotherapy of HPV infection-caused genital warts using low dose cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Zeng, Wanjiang; Cao, Yuchun; Liang, Xiaoyu; Huang, Bo

    2014-06-01

    Condylomata acuminata (CA), caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), is a common sexually transmitted disease with half a million new cases diagnosed in the United States per year and an annual increase in incidence in China. Conventional treatments, including topical cytotoxic agents, surgical excision and physical therapies, are traumatic, cause local side-effects and are invalid for subclinical or latent infection. Exploring immune approaches to eradicate HPV in CA therapeutics are highly desirable. Recent evidence shows that FOXP3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells are accumulated in genital warts where they mediate immunosuppression. Intriguingly, a low dose of cyclophosphamide (CY), a conventional chemotherapy drug, can selectively target Treg cells, thereby enhancing the function of HPV-specific T cells and NK cells leading to efficient clearance of HPV infection. These findings have important clinical significance, and could potentially lead to a therapeutic breakthrough for the treatment of CA.

  19. Relationship Between Genital Drug Concentrations and Cervical Cellular Immune Activation and Reconstitution in HIV-1-Infected Women on a Raltegravir Versus a Boosted Atazanavir Regimen

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Claire; Predhomme, Julie; Searls, Kristina; Kerr, Becky; Seifert, Sharon; Caraway, Patricia; Gardner, Edward M.; MaWhinney, Samantha; Anderson, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Determinants of HIV-infected women's genital tract mucosal immune health are not well understood. Because raltegravir (RAL) achieves relatively higher genital tract concentrations than ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV), we examined whether an RAL-based regimen is associated with improved cervical immune reconstitution and less activation in HIV+ women compared to an ATV-based regimen. Peripheral blood, cervical brushings, cervical–vaginal lavage (CVL), and cervical biopsies were collected from HIV+ women on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) and either RAL (n=14) or ATV (n=19) with CD4+ T cells>300 cells/mm3 and HIV RNA<48 copies/ml. HLA-DR+CD38+ T cells were measured in blood and cervical cells using flow cytometry, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were quantified in cervical biopsies by immunofluorescent analysis, and HIV RNA (VL), ATV, and RAL concentrations were measured in CVL. In a linear regression model of log(CVL concentration) versus both log(plasma concentration) and treatment group, the RAL CVL level was 519% (95% CI: 133, 1,525%) higher than for ATV (p<0.001). Genital tract VL was undetectable in 90% of subjects and did not differ by regimen. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of cervical %HLA-DR+CD38+CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, CD4+ or CD8+ T cells/mm2, or CD4:CD8 ratio. After adjusting for treatment time and group, the CVL:plasma drug ratio was not associated with the cervical CD4:CD8 ratio or immune activation (p>0.6). Despite significantly higher genital tract penetration of RAL compared to ATV, there were no significant differences in cervical immune activation or reconstitution between women on these regimens, suggesting both drug regimens achieve adequate genital tract levels to suppress virus replication. PMID:26059647

  20. Relationship Between Genital Drug Concentrations and Cervical Cellular Immune Activation and Reconstitution in HIV-1-Infected Women on a Raltegravir Versus a Boosted Atazanavir Regimen.

    PubMed

    Meditz, Amie L; Palmer, Claire; Predhomme, Julie; Searls, Kristina; Kerr, Becky; Seifert, Sharon; Caraway, Patricia; Gardner, Edward M; MaWhinney, Samantha; Anderson, Peter L

    2015-10-01

    Determinants of HIV-infected women's genital tract mucosal immune health are not well understood. Because raltegravir (RAL) achieves relatively higher genital tract concentrations than ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV), we examined whether an RAL-based regimen is associated with improved cervical immune reconstitution and less activation in HIV(+) women compared to an ATV-based regimen. Peripheral blood, cervical brushings, cervical-vaginal lavage (CVL), and cervical biopsies were collected from HIV(+) women on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) and either RAL (n=14) or ATV (n=19) with CD4(+) T cells>300 cells/mm(3) and HIV RNA<48 copies/ml. HLA-DR(+)CD38(+) T cells were measured in blood and cervical cells using flow cytometry, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were quantified in cervical biopsies by immunofluorescent analysis, and HIV RNA (VL), ATV, and RAL concentrations were measured in CVL. In a linear regression model of log(CVL concentration) versus both log(plasma concentration) and treatment group, the RAL CVL level was 519% (95% CI: 133, 1,525%) higher than for ATV (p<0.001). Genital tract VL was undetectable in 90% of subjects and did not differ by regimen. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of cervical %HLA-DR(+)CD38(+)CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells, CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells/mm(2), or CD4:CD8 ratio. After adjusting for treatment time and group, the CVL:plasma drug ratio was not associated with the cervical CD4:CD8 ratio or immune activation (p>0.6). Despite significantly higher genital tract penetration of RAL compared to ATV, there were no significant differences in cervical immune activation or reconstitution between women on these regimens, suggesting both drug regimens achieve adequate genital tract levels to suppress virus replication.

  1. Relationship Between Genital Drug Concentrations and Cervical Cellular Immune Activation and Reconstitution in HIV-1-Infected Women on a Raltegravir Versus a Boosted Atazanavir Regimen.

    PubMed

    Meditz, Amie L; Palmer, Claire; Predhomme, Julie; Searls, Kristina; Kerr, Becky; Seifert, Sharon; Caraway, Patricia; Gardner, Edward M; MaWhinney, Samantha; Anderson, Peter L

    2015-10-01

    Determinants of HIV-infected women's genital tract mucosal immune health are not well understood. Because raltegravir (RAL) achieves relatively higher genital tract concentrations than ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV), we examined whether an RAL-based regimen is associated with improved cervical immune reconstitution and less activation in HIV(+) women compared to an ATV-based regimen. Peripheral blood, cervical brushings, cervical-vaginal lavage (CVL), and cervical biopsies were collected from HIV(+) women on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) and either RAL (n=14) or ATV (n=19) with CD4(+) T cells>300 cells/mm(3) and HIV RNA<48 copies/ml. HLA-DR(+)CD38(+) T cells were measured in blood and cervical cells using flow cytometry, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were quantified in cervical biopsies by immunofluorescent analysis, and HIV RNA (VL), ATV, and RAL concentrations were measured in CVL. In a linear regression model of log(CVL concentration) versus both log(plasma concentration) and treatment group, the RAL CVL level was 519% (95% CI: 133, 1,525%) higher than for ATV (p<0.001). Genital tract VL was undetectable in 90% of subjects and did not differ by regimen. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of cervical %HLA-DR(+)CD38(+)CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells, CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells/mm(2), or CD4:CD8 ratio. After adjusting for treatment time and group, the CVL:plasma drug ratio was not associated with the cervical CD4:CD8 ratio or immune activation (p>0.6). Despite significantly higher genital tract penetration of RAL compared to ATV, there were no significant differences in cervical immune activation or reconstitution between women on these regimens, suggesting both drug regimens achieve adequate genital tract levels to suppress virus replication. PMID:26059647

  2. Intravaginal Chlamydia trachomatis Challenge Infection Elicits TH1 and TH17 Immune Responses in Mice That Promote Pathogen Clearance and Genital Tract Damage

    PubMed Central

    Quispe Calla, Nirk E.; Pavelko, Stephen D.; Cherpes, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    While ascension of Chlamydia trachomatis into the upper genital tract of women can cause pelvic inflammatory disease and Fallopian tube damage, most infections elicit no symptoms or overt upper genital tract pathology. Consistent with this asymptomatic clinical presentation, genital C. trachomatis infection of women generates robust TH2 immunity. As an animal model that modeled this response would be invaluable for delineating bacterial pathogenesis and human host defenses, herein we explored if pathogen-specific TH2 immunity is similarly elicited by intravaginal (ivag) infection of mice with oculogenital C. trachomatis serovars. Analogous to clinical infection, ascension of primary C. trachomatis infection into the mouse upper genital tract produced no obvious tissue damage. Clearance of ivag challenge infection was mediated by interferon (IFN)-γ-producing CD4+ T cells, while IFN-γ signaling blockade concomitant with a single ivag challenge promoted tissue damage by enhancing Chlamydia-specific TH17 immunity. Likewise, IFN-γ and IL-17 signaling blockade or CD4+ T cell depletion eliminated the genital pathology produced in untreated controls by multiple ivag challenge infections. Conversely, we were unable to detect formation of pathogen-specific TH2 immunity in C. trachomatis-infected mice. Together, our work revealed C. trachomatis infection of mice generates TH1 and TH17 immune responses that promote pathogen clearance and immunopathological tissue damage. Absence of Chlamydia-specific TH2 immunity in these mice newly highlights the need to identify experimental models of C. trachomatis genital infection that more closely recapitulate the human host response. PMID:27606424

  3. Intravaginal Chlamydia trachomatis Challenge Infection Elicits TH1 and TH17 Immune Responses in Mice That Promote Pathogen Clearance and Genital Tract Damage.

    PubMed

    Vicetti Miguel, Rodolfo D; Quispe Calla, Nirk E; Pavelko, Stephen D; Cherpes, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    While ascension of Chlamydia trachomatis into the upper genital tract of women can cause pelvic inflammatory disease and Fallopian tube damage, most infections elicit no symptoms or overt upper genital tract pathology. Consistent with this asymptomatic clinical presentation, genital C. trachomatis infection of women generates robust TH2 immunity. As an animal model that modeled this response would be invaluable for delineating bacterial pathogenesis and human host defenses, herein we explored if pathogen-specific TH2 immunity is similarly elicited by intravaginal (ivag) infection of mice with oculogenital C. trachomatis serovars. Analogous to clinical infection, ascension of primary C. trachomatis infection into the mouse upper genital tract produced no obvious tissue damage. Clearance of ivag challenge infection was mediated by interferon (IFN)-γ-producing CD4+ T cells, while IFN-γ signaling blockade concomitant with a single ivag challenge promoted tissue damage by enhancing Chlamydia-specific TH17 immunity. Likewise, IFN-γ and IL-17 signaling blockade or CD4+ T cell depletion eliminated the genital pathology produced in untreated controls by multiple ivag challenge infections. Conversely, we were unable to detect formation of pathogen-specific TH2 immunity in C. trachomatis-infected mice. Together, our work revealed C. trachomatis infection of mice generates TH1 and TH17 immune responses that promote pathogen clearance and immunopathological tissue damage. Absence of Chlamydia-specific TH2 immunity in these mice newly highlights the need to identify experimental models of C. trachomatis genital infection that more closely recapitulate the human host response. PMID:27606424

  4. GATA3 Is a Sensitive and Specific Marker of Benign and Malignant Mesonephric Lesions in the Lower Female Genital Tract.

    PubMed

    Howitt, Brooke E; Emori, Megan M; Drapkin, Ronny; Gaspar, Cynthia; Barletta, Justine A; Nucci, Marisa R; McCluggage, W Glenn; Oliva, Esther; Hirsch, Michelle S

    2015-10-01

    GATA3 is a transcription factor critical for embryogenesis, development, and cell differentiation. Recent studies have suggested that GATA3 is a sensitive and relatively specific biomarker for urothelial and breast carcinomas, with most Müllerian carcinomas being negative. We investigated GATA3 expression in mesonephric/Wolffian remnants and tumors in the female genital tract. A western blot was performed to assess specificity for the GATA3 antibody. GATA3 immunohistochemistry was performed on 59 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded mesonephric samples, including 17 mesonephric remnants (MR; 11 cervical and 6 fallopian tube), 15 mesonephric hyperplasias, 21 mesonephric carcinomas, and 6 female adnexal tumors of probable Wolffian origin. Thirty conventional endocervical adenocarcinomas (ENDO-CA), 9 gastric-type cervical adenocarcinomas, and 165 endometrial adenocarcinomas (EM-CA) were also evaluated. GATA3 nuclear intensity and extent of staining was evaluated. The western blot revealed GATA3 expression in seminal vesicle and cell lines derived from breast and urothelial carcinomas, but not in other cell lines including ovarian, cervical, and endometrial cancers. All cervical MRs and mesonephric hyperplasias, 5/6 (83%) fallopian tube MRs, and 20/21 (95%) mesonephric carcinomas were GATA3 positive, although with great variability in both intensity (weak to strong) and extent (1+ to 3+) of staining. Only 1/6 (17%) female adnexal tumors of probable Wolffian origin showed weak multifocal staining. One of 30 (3%) usual-type ENDO-CAs and 3/165 EM-CAs exhibited weak-moderate GATA3 immunoreactivity; all gastric-type cervical adenocarcinomas were negative. GATA3 is a highly sensitive and specific marker for mesonephric lesions in the lower genital tract; however, its utility in the upper genital tract may be more limited. In addition, GATA3 can aid in distinguishing lower genital mesonephric lesions from usual-type and gastric-type ENDO-CAs and uterine EM-CAs.

  5. Hematopoietic tumors of the female genital system: imaging features with pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Salem, Usama; Menias, Christine O; Shaaban, Akram; Bhosale, Priya R; Youssef, Ayda; Elsayes, Khaled M

    2014-08-01

    Various hematopoietic neoplasms can involve the female genital system. The most common hematological malignancy that involves the female genital system is lymphoma and secondary involvement is more common than primary genital lymphoma. Rarely, leukemic infiltration and extramedullary plasmacytomas of the female genital tract may also occur. Being infrequent, these lesions are commonly misdiagnosed radiologically. Therefore, understanding these malignancies of the female genital system and recognizing their imaging features are of utmost clinical importance. Although definitive diagnosis can be made only by histological analysis, imaging of these tumors plays an important role in detecting lesion extensions, guiding biopsies, staging disease, planning therapy, and detecting recurrence.

  6. Immunologic uniqueness of the genital tract: challenge for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Mestecky, Jiri; Moldoveanu, Zina; Russell, Michael W

    2005-05-01

    Although the genital tract is considered to be a component of the mucosal immune system, it displays several distinct features not shared by other typical mucosal tissues and external secretions. Both male and female genital tract tissues lack inductive mucosal sites analogous to intestinal Peyer's patches. Consequently, local humoral and cellular immune responses stimulated by infections [with e.g. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, papilloma virus, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)] are weak or absent, and repeated local intravaginal immunizations result in minimal humoral responses. In contrast to typical external secretions such as intestinal fluid that contain secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) as the dominant isotype, semen and cervico-vaginal fluid contain more IgG than IgA. Furthermore, irrespective of the route of infection, humoral immune responses to HIV-1 are dominated by specific IgG and low or absent IgA antibodies in all external secretions. Because a significant proportion of IgG in genital tract secretions is derived from the circulation, systemic immunization may provide protective IgG antibody-mediated immunity in the genital tract. Furthermore, combined systemic and mucosal (oral, rectal, and especially intranasal) immunization may induce protective humoral responses in both the systemic and mucosal compartments of the immune system.

  7. Computational Modeling and Simulation of Genital Tubercle Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hypospadias is a developmental defect of urethral tube closure that has a complex etiology. Here, we describe a multicellular agent-based model of genital tubercle development that simulates urethrogenesis from the urethral plate stage to urethral tube closure in differentiating ...

  8. 21 CFR 884.5960 - Genital vibrator for therapeutic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Genital vibrator for therapeutic use. 884.5960 Section 884.5960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... of sexual dysfunction or as an adjunct to Kegel's exercise (tightening of the muscles of the...

  9. 21 CFR 884.5960 - Genital vibrator for therapeutic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Genital vibrator for therapeutic use. 884.5960 Section 884.5960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... of sexual dysfunction or as an adjunct to Kegel's exercise (tightening of the muscles of the...

  10. 21 CFR 884.5960 - Genital vibrator for therapeutic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Genital vibrator for therapeutic use. 884.5960 Section 884.5960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... of sexual dysfunction or as an adjunct to Kegel's exercise (tightening of the muscles of the...

  11. 21 CFR 884.5960 - Genital vibrator for therapeutic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Genital vibrator for therapeutic use. 884.5960 Section 884.5960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... of sexual dysfunction or as an adjunct to Kegel's exercise (tightening of the muscles of the...

  12. Transient genital abnormalities in striped hyenas (Hyaena hyaena).

    PubMed

    Wagner, Aaron P; Frank, Laurence G; Creel, Scott; Coscia, Elizabeth M

    2007-05-01

    The highly masculinized genitalia of female spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta is unique among mammals: Crocuta have no external vagina so urination, penile intromission and parturition take place through the clitoris, which mimics a fully erectile male penis. Among hyenids, virilization of external female genitalia has previously been observed only in Crocuta, so functional explanations of masculinization have focused on aspects of social ecology unique to the species. Here we first show that the striped hyena Hyaena hyaena exhibits both unusual similarity in male and female androgen concentrations and transient genital anomalies characterized by a convergence in genital appearance among young males and females. We then evaluate hypotheses regarding the evolution of genital masculinization in the Hyaenidae and other taxa. Hyaena are behaviorally solitary, so discovery of unusual genital development patterns in this species does not support any current evolutionary models for masculinization in Crocuta, which all rely on the trait originating within a highly social species. Some hypotheses can be modified so that masculinization in Crocuta represents an extreme elaboration of a preexisting trait, shared as a homology with Hyaena.

  13. The MAGIC syndrome (mouth and genital ulcers with inflamed cartilage).

    PubMed

    Orme, R L; Nordlund, J J; Barich, L; Brown, T

    1990-07-01

    We describe a 42-year-old man with features of both Behçet's disease and relapsing polychondritis. The term MAGIC syndrome (mouth and genital ulcers with inflamed cartilage) has previously been used to describe similarly affected patients. We discuss the diagnostic criteria and pathogenetic mechanisms.

  14. Neoplasms of the genital tract in a Vietnamese potbellied pig.

    PubMed

    Augustijn, Marieke; Kuller, Wikke; Kimpfler, Simon; van Nes, Arie

    2010-01-01

    A 9-year-old, female potbellied pig showed loss of appetite and abdominal distension. After clinical examination and ultrasonography, a tumour was suspected. At laparotomy a large mass was present in the genital tract. Because the mass could not be excised, the pig was euthanized. Pathological examination revealed leiomyoma of the cervix and uterus wall in addition to multifocal adenocarcinomas of the uterus.

  15. [Prevalence of genital anomalies in young football players].

    PubMed

    Mónaco, M; Verdugo, F; Bodell, M; Avendaño, E; Til, L; Drobnic, F

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of genital examination (GE) during the Pre-participation Physical Examination (PPE) is to identify the state of maturity, and rule out any genital pathology. To describe genital anomalies (GA) and estimate the awareness of GE in young football players. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 280 elite football players from the results of PPE over two seasons. There was a detection rate of 5.4% GA, with varicocele being 3.2%, and of which only 13% were aware of their condition. Although this study shows a low incidence of genital abnormality in the study population, only 13% were aware of the GE prior to assessment. These findings demonstrate a low incidence of GA in this population. While GE is recommended during PPE, it is not a routine practice performed by family doctors or sports medicine specialists. This article attempts to raise awareness of the importance of GE in PPE as a preventive health strategy. PMID:25434530

  16. [Balantidium coli infection of the female genitals (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Rutschow, H

    1976-04-01

    Two cases of therapy-resistant fluorine are reported in which Balantidium coli from the class of the cilia (Ciliophora, Ciliata, Infusoria) was identified. After a personal experiment, the Balantidia must be considered extremely pathogenic. In international literature, no further indication of a ciliata infection of the female genitals was found. PMID:773739

  17. Mothers' Perceptions of Female Genital Mutilation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahanonu, E. L.; Victor, O.

    2014-01-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is widespread in Nigeria. This study was conducted to assess the perceptions of FGM among mothers at a primary healthcare centre in Lagos, Nigeria. A convenience sample of 95 mothers completed the pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaires. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics…

  18. Male circumcision and prevalence of genital human papillomavirus infection in men: a multinational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Accumulated evidence from epidemiological studies and more recently from randomized controlled trials suggests that male circumcision (MC) may substantially protect against genital HPV infection in men. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between MC and genital HPV infection in men in a large multinational study. Methods A total of 4072 healthy men ages 18–70 years were enrolled in a study conducted in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Enrollment samples combining exfoliated cells from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum were analyzed for the presence and genotyping of HPV DNA by PCR and linear array methods. Prevalence ratios (PR) were used to estimate associations between MC and HPV detection adjusting for potential confounders. Results MC was not associated with overall prevalence of any HPV, oncogenic HPV types or unclassified HPV types. However, MC was negatively associated with non-oncogenic HPV infections (PR 0.85, 95% confident interval: 0.76-0.95), in particular for HPV types 11, 40, 61, 71, and 81. HPV 16, 51, 62, and 84 were the most frequently identified genotypes regardless of MC status. Conclusions This study shows no overall association between MC and genital HPV infections in men, except for certain non-oncogenic HPV types for which a weak association was found. However, the lack of association with MC might be due to the lack of anatomic site specific HPV data, for example the glans penis, the area expected to be most likely protected by MC. PMID:23327450

  19. Genital talc exposure and risk of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cramer, D W; Liberman, R F; Titus-Ernstoff, L; Welch, W R; Greenberg, E R; Baron, J A; Harlow, B L

    1999-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested an increased risk for ovarian cancer associated with the use of talcum powder in genital hygiene, but the biologic credibility of the association has been questioned. We conducted a population-based case-control study in eastern Massachusetts and New Hampshire involving 563 women with newly diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer and 523 control women selected either by random digit dialing or through lists of residents. Use of body powders was assessed through personal interview and the exposure odds ratio (OR) for the use of talc in genital hygiene was calculated. Cases were more likely than controls (45% vs. 36%) to have used talc as a body powder in some manner, and the excess was confined to patients who used talc on the perineum directly or as a dusting powder to underwear or sanitary napkins. Relative to women who never used body powder or used it only in non-genital areas, the OR (and 95% confidence interval) associated with genital exposure to talc was 1.60 (1.18 and 2. 15) after adjustment for age, study location, parity, oral contraceptive use, body mass index and family history of breast or ovarian cancer. Exposure prior to rather than after a first livebirth appeared to be more harmful, and the association was most apparent for women with invasive serous cancers and least apparent for those with mucinous tumors. We conclude that there is a significant association between the use of talc in genital hygiene and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer that, when viewed in perspective of published data on this association, warrants more formal public health warnings.

  20. A rapid and sensitive culture test for the laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes in women.

    PubMed Central

    Darougar, S; Walpita, P; Thaker, U; Goh, B T; Dunlop, E M

    1986-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive cell culture test has been developed to detect herpes simplex virus (HSV) in women with genital herpes. The virus is cultured by inoculation and centrifugation of cell monolayers, and the virus inclusions are detected using an indirect immunofluorescence test. The test takes only 48 hours to complete compared with the conventional cell culture test, which may take up to eight days. Of a total of 2100 cervical specimens collected from unselected women attending a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic and inoculated in parallel, HSV was isolated from 55 specimens by either or both tests. Of these 55 positive specimens, 54(98%) were positive by the rapid test but only 24(44%) by the conventional test (McNemars test; p less than 0.001). Images PMID:3013758

  1. Estradiol-Treated Female Mice as Surrogate Hosts for Neisseria gonorrhoeae Genital Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Jerse, Ann E; Wu, Hong; Packiam, Mathanraj; Vonck, Rachel A; Begum, Afrin A; Garvin, Lotisha E

    2011-01-01

    Historically, animal modeling of gonorrhea has been hampered by the exclusive adaptation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to humans. Genital tract infection can be established in female mice that are treated with 17β-estradiol, however, and many features of experimental murine infection mimic human infection. Here we review the colonization kinetics and host response to experimental murine gonococcal infection, including mouse strain differences and evidence that IL-17 responses, toll-like receptor 4, and T regulatory cells play a role in infection. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of the mouse system and the potential of transgenic mice to circumvent host restrictions. Additionally, we review studies with genetically defined mutants that demonstrated a role for sialyltransferase and the MtrC-MtrD-MtrE active efflux pump in evading innate defenses in vivo, but not for factors hypothesized to protect against the phagocytic respiratory burst and H(2)O(2)-producing lactobacilli. Studies using estradiol-treated mice have also revealed the existence of non-host-restricted iron sources in the female genital tract and the influence of hormonal factors on colonization kinetics and selection for opacity (Opa) protein expression. Recent work by others with estradiol-treated mice that are transgenic for human carcinoembryonic adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) supports a role for Opa proteins in enhancing cellular attachment and thus reduced shedding of N. gonorrhoeae. Finally we discuss the use of the mouse model in product testing and a recently developed gonorrhea chlamydia coinfection model.

  2. Effects of various doses of estradiol on chlamydial genital infection in ovariectomized guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Pasley, J N; Rank, R G; Hough, A J; Cohen, C; Barron, A L

    1985-01-01

    The effect of various doses of estradiol on genital tract infection by the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) was investigated in ovariectomized guinea pigs. Prolongation of infection, as determined by chlamydial inclusion counts of cells in Giemsa-stained smears of vaginal scrapings, was observed in animals receiving daily doses of 1.0, 10.0, 100.0, or 1000 micrograms of estradiol. In contrast to controls, ascending infection resulting in endometritis was found in animals receiving doses of greater than or equal to 1.0 microgram of estradiol per day. Response to estradiol treatment was reflected in an increase in cervical-uterine wet weight and uterine wall thickness. No differences were observed in time of appearance of antibody titers to GPIC in serum, but a delay in appearance of IgA antibody to GPIC in genital secretions was found in estradiol-treated animals receiving doses of greater than or equal to 1.0 microgram per day.

  3. Innate immunity is sufficient for the clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis from the female mouse genital tract

    PubMed Central

    Sturdevant, Gail L.; Caldwell, Harlan D.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia muridarum and C. trachomatis, mouse and human strains respectively, have been used to study immunity in a murine model of female genital tract infection. Despite evidence that unique genes of these otherwise genomically similar strains could play a role in innate immune evasion in their respective mouse and human hosts there have been no animal model findings to directly support this conclusion. Here, we infected C57BL/6 and adaptive immune deficient Rag1−/− female mice with these strains and evaluated their ability to spontaneously resolve genital infection. Predictably, C57BL/6 mice spontaneously cleared infection caused by both chlamydial strains. In contrast, Rag1−/− mice which lack mature T and B cell immunity but maintain functional innate immune effectors, were incapable of resolving C. muridarum infection but spontaneously cleared C. trachomatis infection. This distinct dichotomy in adaptive and innate immune-mediated clearance between mouse and human strains has important cautionary implications for the study of natural immunity and vaccine development in the mouse model. PMID:24585717

  4. Unraveling molecular signatures of immunostimulatory adjuvants in the female genital tract through systems biology.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Madelene; Nookaew, Intawat; Brinkenberg, Ingrid; Samuelson, Emma; Thörn, Karolina; Nielsen, Jens; Harandi, Ali M

    2011-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) unequivocally represent a major public health concern in both industrialized and developing countries. Previous efforts to develop vaccines for systemic immunization against a large number of STIs in humans have been unsuccessful. There is currently a drive to develop mucosal vaccines and adjuvants for delivery through the genital tract to confer protective immunity against STIs. Identification of molecular signatures that can be used as biomarkers for adjuvant potency can inform rational development of potent mucosal adjuvants. Here, we used systems biology to study global gene expression and signature molecules and pathways in the mouse vagina after treatment with two classes of experimental adjuvants. The Toll-like receptor 9 agonist CpG ODN and the invariant natural killer T cell agonist alpha-galactosylceramide, which we previously identified as equally potent vaginal adjuvants, were selected for this study. Our integrated analysis of genome-wide transcriptome data determined which signature pathways, processes and networks are shared by or otherwise exclusive to these 2 classes of experimental vaginal adjuvants in the mouse vagina. To our knowledge, this is the first integrated genome-wide transcriptome analysis of the effects of immunomodulatory adjuvants on the female genital tract of a mammal. These results could inform rational development of effective mucosal adjuvants for vaccination against STIs.

  5. WT1 immunoprofiling and comparison of malignant Mullerian mixed tumors of the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Franko, Angela; Magliocco, Anthony M; Duan, Quili; Duggan, Máire A

    2010-09-01

    A malignant Mullerian mixed tumor (MMMT) is a biphasic homologous or heterologous malignancy of the female genital tract. WT1 (Wilms tumor 1) is both a tumor suppressor gene and oncogene overexpressed in the nuclei of some gynecologic carcinomas. Expression in MMMT is incompletely described. Whole sections from 16 MMMTs were stained with WT1 (N terminus) using a standard immunoperoxidase technique. There were 7 heterologous and 9 homologous tumors and 10 were endometrial, 5 were ovarian, and 1 was of peritoneal origin. The tissue and cell staining pattern and score (intensity by amount) were evaluated and correlated with the tumor subtype and anatomic location. Among the 16 tumors, 81.3% showed mostly stromal and cytoplasmic staining and a score of 3 or 6. Staining was positive in 80% of the endometrial and ovarian tumors and the 1 peritoneal tumor and in all heterologous and 66.7% of the homologous tumors. The immunoprofile correlated with tumor subtype but not with anatomic location. Stromal and epithelial staining was more frequent (83.3%) in homologous tumors and differed significantly (P=0.009) from the heterologous types where stromal staining prevailed (85.7%). MMMT is another genital tract malignancy which can over express WT1 and the immunoprofile may assist in tumor subtyping.

  6. Unraveling Molecular Signatures of Immunostimulatory Adjuvants in the Female Genital Tract through Systems Biology

    PubMed Central

    Brinkenberg, Ingrid; Samuelson, Emma; Thörn, Karolina; Nielsen, Jens; Harandi, Ali M.

    2011-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) unequivocally represent a major public health concern in both industrialized and developing countries. Previous efforts to develop vaccines for systemic immunization against a large number of STIs in humans have been unsuccessful. There is currently a drive to develop mucosal vaccines and adjuvants for delivery through the genital tract to confer protective immunity against STIs. Identification of molecular signatures that can be used as biomarkers for adjuvant potency can inform rational development of potent mucosal adjuvants. Here, we used systems biology to study global gene expression and signature molecules and pathways in the mouse vagina after treatment with two classes of experimental adjuvants. The Toll-like receptor 9 agonist CpG ODN and the invariant natural killer T cell agonist alpha-galactosylceramide, which we previously identified as equally potent vaginal adjuvants, were selected for this study. Our integrated analysis of genome-wide transcriptome data determined which signature pathways, processes and networks are shared by or otherwise exclusive to these 2 classes of experimental vaginal adjuvants in the mouse vagina. To our knowledge, this is the first integrated genome-wide transcriptome analysis of the effects of immunomodulatory adjuvants on the female genital tract of a mammal. These results could inform rational development of effective mucosal adjuvants for vaccination against STIs. PMID:21666746

  7. Unraveling molecular signatures of immunostimulatory adjuvants in the female genital tract through systems biology.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Madelene; Nookaew, Intawat; Brinkenberg, Ingrid; Samuelson, Emma; Thörn, Karolina; Nielsen, Jens; Harandi, Ali M

    2011-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) unequivocally represent a major public health concern in both industrialized and developing countries. Previous efforts to develop vaccines for systemic immunization against a large number of STIs in humans have been unsuccessful. There is currently a drive to develop mucosal vaccines and adjuvants for delivery through the genital tract to confer protective immunity against STIs. Identification of molecular signatures that can be used as biomarkers for adjuvant potency can inform rational development of potent mucosal adjuvants. Here, we used systems biology to study global gene expression and signature molecules and pathways in the mouse vagina after treatment with two classes of experimental adjuvants. The Toll-like receptor 9 agonist CpG ODN and the invariant natural killer T cell agonist alpha-galactosylceramide, which we previously identified as equally potent vaginal adjuvants, were selected for this study. Our integrated analysis of genome-wide transcriptome data determined which signature pathways, processes and networks are shared by or otherwise exclusive to these 2 classes of experimental vaginal adjuvants in the mouse vagina. To our knowledge, this is the first integrated genome-wide transcriptome analysis of the effects of immunomodulatory adjuvants on the female genital tract of a mammal. These results could inform rational development of effective mucosal adjuvants for vaccination against STIs. PMID:21666746

  8. A-Class Genitive Subject Effect: A Pragmatic and Discourse Grammar Approach to A- and O-Class Genitive Subject Selection in Hawaiian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, C. M. Kaliko

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores genitive class selection of genitive case subjects in nominalizations and relative clauses in Hawaiian. The amount of research in the area of Hawaiian's "a"- and "o"-class is far from sufficient. Since Wilson (1976a), there has been minimal critical new inquiry to "a"- and…

  9. Vaccination with the Secreted Glycoprotein G of Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Induces Protective Immunity after Genital Infection.

    PubMed

    Önnheim, Karin; Ekblad, Maria; Görander, Staffan; Bergström, Tomas; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke

    2016-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infects the genital mucosa and establishes a life-long infection in sensory ganglia. After primary infection HSV-2 may reactivate causing recurrent genital ulcerations. HSV-2 infection is prevalent, and globally more than 400 million individuals are infected. As clinical trials have failed to show protection against HSV-2 infection, new vaccine candidates are warranted. The secreted glycoprotein G (sgG-2) of HSV-2 was evaluated as a prophylactic vaccine in mice using two different immunization and adjuvant protocols. The protocol with three intramuscular immunizations combining sgG-2 with cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) motifs and alum induced almost complete protection from genital and systemic disease after intra-vaginal challenge with HSV-2. Robust immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titers were detected with no neutralization activity. Purified splenic CD4+ T cells proliferated and produced interferon-γ (IFN-γ) when re-stimulated with the antigen in vitro. sgG-2 + adjuvant intra-muscularly immunized mice showed a significant reduction of infectious HSV-2 and increased IFN-γ levels in vaginal washes. The HSV-2 DNA copy numbers were significantly reduced in dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord, and in serum at day six or day 21 post challenge. We show that a sgG-2 based vaccine is highly effective and can be considered as a novel candidate in the development of a prophylactic vaccine against HSV-2 infection. PMID:27110813

  10. Effects of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein Vaccines and CLDC Adjuvant on Genital Herpes Infection in the Guinea Pig

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, David I; Earwood, Julie D.; Bravo, Fernando J.; Cohen, Gary H; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Clark, Jennifer R.; Fairman, Jeffrey; Cardin, Rhonda D.

    2011-01-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are common but results from vaccine trials with HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) have been disappointing. We therefore compared a similar HSV gD2 vaccine, to a further truncated gD2 vaccine, to a vaccine with gD2 plus gB2 and gH2/gL2 and to a vaccine with only gB2 and gH2/gL2 in a guinea pig model of genital herpes. All vaccines were administered with cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC) as an adjuvant. All vaccines significantly decreased the severity of acute genital disease and vaginal virus replication compared to the placebo group. The majority of animals in all groups developed at least one episode of recurrent disease but the frequency of recurrent disease was significantly reduced by each vaccine compared to placebo. No vaccine was significantly more protective than gD2 alone for any of the parameters described above. No vaccine decreased recurrent virus shedding. When protection against acute infection of dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord was evaluated all vaccines decreased the per cent of animal with detectable virus and the quantity of virus but again no vaccine was significantly more protective than another. Improvements in HSV-2 vaccines may require inclusion of more T cell targets, more potent adjuvants or live virus vaccines. PMID:21238569

  11. Vaccination with the Secreted Glycoprotein G of Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Induces Protective Immunity after Genital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Önnheim, Karin; Ekblad, Maria; Görander, Staffan; Bergström, Tomas; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infects the genital mucosa and establishes a life-long infection in sensory ganglia. After primary infection HSV-2 may reactivate causing recurrent genital ulcerations. HSV-2 infection is prevalent, and globally more than 400 million individuals are infected. As clinical trials have failed to show protection against HSV-2 infection, new vaccine candidates are warranted. The secreted glycoprotein G (sgG-2) of HSV-2 was evaluated as a prophylactic vaccine in mice using two different immunization and adjuvant protocols. The protocol with three intramuscular immunizations combining sgG-2 with cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) motifs and alum induced almost complete protection from genital and systemic disease after intra-vaginal challenge with HSV-2. Robust immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titers were detected with no neutralization activity. Purified splenic CD4+ T cells proliferated and produced interferon-γ (IFN-γ) when re-stimulated with the antigen in vitro. sgG-2 + adjuvant intra-muscularly immunized mice showed a significant reduction of infectious HSV-2 and increased IFN-γ levels in vaginal washes. The HSV-2 DNA copy numbers were significantly reduced in dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord, and in serum at day six or day 21 post challenge. We show that a sgG-2 based vaccine is highly effective and can be considered as a novel candidate in the development of a prophylactic vaccine against HSV-2 infection. PMID:27110813

  12. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: Understanding the Roles of Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Vaccine Research

    PubMed Central

    Vasilevsky, Sam; Greub, Gilbert; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide, and despite significant advances in chlamydial research, a prophylactic vaccine has yet to be developed. This Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium, which often causes asymptomatic infection, may cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancies, scarring of the fallopian tubes, miscarriage, and infertility when left untreated. In the genital tract, Chlamydia trachomatis infects primarily epithelial cells and requires Th1 immunity for optimal clearance. This review first focuses on the immune cells important in a chlamydial infection. Second, we summarize the research and challenges associated with developing a chlamydial vaccine that elicits a protective Th1-mediated immune response without inducing adverse immunopathologies. PMID:24696438

  13. Zearalenone Altered the Serum Hormones, Morphologic and Apoptotic Measurements of Genital Organs in Post-weaning Gilts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X. X.; Yang, C. W.; Huang, L. B.; Niu, Q. S.; Jiang, S. Z.; Chi, F.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the adverse effects of dietary zearalenone (ZEA) (1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg diet) on serum hormones, morphologic and apoptotic measurements of genital organs in post-weaning gilts. A total of twenty gilts (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc) weaned at 21 d with an average body weight of 10.36±1.21 kg were used in the study. Gilts were fed a basal diet with an addition of 0, 1.1, 2.0, or 3.2 mg/kg purified ZEA for 18 d ad libitum. Results showed that 3.2 mg/kg ZEA challenged gilts decreased (p<0.05) the serum levels of luteinizing hormone, however, serum levels of prolactin in gilts fed the diet containing 2.0 mg/kg ZEA or more were increased (p<0.05) compared to those in the control. Linear effects on all tested serum hormones except progesterone were observed as dietary ZEA levels increased (p<0.05). Gilts fed ZEA-contaminated diet showed increase (p<0.05) in genital organs size, hyperplasia of submucosal smooth muscles in the corpus uteri in a dose-dependent manner. However, the decreased numbers of follicles in the cortex and apoptotic cells in the ovarian were observed in gilts treated with ZEA in a dose-dependent manner. Degeneration and structural abnormalities of genital organs tissues were also observed in the gilts fed diet containing 1.1 mg/kg ZEA or more. Results suggested that dietary ZEA at 1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg can induce endocrine disturbance and damage genital organs in post-weaning gilts. PMID:25557812

  14. Anaerobic bacteria and herpes simplex virus in genital ulceration.

    PubMed Central

    Masfari, A N; Kinghorn, G R; Hafiz, S; Barton, I G; Duerden, B I

    1985-01-01

    Of 91 patients with genital ulceration, herpes simplex virus was isolated from 52 (57%) and Haemophilus ducreyi from 12 (13%); none had syphilis. The difference in incidence of other aerobes in patients and controls was not significant. Anaerobes, predominantly Bacteroides spp, were isolated from a large proportion (77%) of men and women patients with ulcers but from few control men. The most common anaerobic species were B asaccharolyticus and B ureolyticus, with fewer isolates of the melaninogenicus/oralis group. The bacterial flora of herpetic and non-herpetic ulcers were similar, but Candida albicans was isolated significantly more often from non-herpetic ulcers. Anaerobic bacteria may contribute to the pathogenesis of genital ulcers. PMID:2984108

  15. Interpretation of non-genital injuries in sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Crane, Jack

    2013-02-01

    The accurate description and interpretation of non-genital injuries may be crucial in cases of alleged sexual assault, and may be important in corroborating a victim's statement of events. In many cases of sexual assault, non-genital injuries may be either absent or trivial; nevertheless, even minor injuries may be of significance and need to be recorded. Injuries may be result from attempts to restrain the victim, whereas others (e.g. bite marks) may have a sexual motive or be part of a sado-masochistic ritual. A standard nomenclature for injuries (i.e. using the terms 'bruises', 'abrasions', 'lacerations', 'incisions and 'stab wounds') should avoid ambiguity between medical examiners.

  16. Female genital cosmetic surgery: a review of techniques and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Iglesia, Cheryl B; Yurteri-Kaplan, Ladin; Alinsod, Red

    2013-12-01

    The aesthetic and functional procedures that comprise female genital cosmetic surgery (FGCS) include traditional vaginal prolapse procedures as well as cosmetic vulvar and labial procedures. The line between cosmetic and medically indicated surgical procedures is blurred, and today many operations are performed for both purposes. The contributions of gynecologists and reconstructive pelvic surgeons are crucial in this debate. Aesthetic vaginal surgeons may unintentionally blur legitimate female pelvic floor disorders with other aesthetic conditions. In the absence of quality outcome data, the value of FGCS in improving sexual function remains uncertain. Women seeking FGCS need to be educated about the range and variation of labia widths and genital appearance, and should be evaluated for true pelvic support disorders such as pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence. Women seeking FGCS should also be screened for psychological conditions and should act autonomously without coercion from partners or surgeons with proprietary conflicts of interest.

  17. A rat uterine horn model of genital tract wound healing.

    PubMed

    Schlaff, W D; Cooley, B C; Shen, W; Gittlesohn, A M; Rock, J A

    1987-11-01

    A rat uterine horn model of genital tract wound healing is described. Healing was reflected by acquisition of strength and elasticity, measured by burst strength (BS) and extensibility (EX), respectively. A tensiometer (Instron Corp., Canton, MA) was used to assess these characteristics in castrated and estrogen-supplemented or nonsupplemented animals. While the horn weights (HW), BS, and EX of contralateral horns were not significantly different, the intra-animal variation of HW was 7.2%, BS was 17.7% and EX was 38.2%. In a second experiment, one uterine horn was divided and anastomosed, and the animal given estrogen supplementation or a placebo pellet. Estrogen administration was found to increase BS and EX of anastomosed horns prior to 14 days, but had no beneficial effect at 21 or 42 days. The data suggest that estrogen may be required for optimal early healing of genital tract wounds.

  18. The School Nurse's Role in Addressing Female Genital Mutilation.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is the practice in some immigrant populations of cutting or causing injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The incidence of FGM/C has increased by 314% in school-aged children according to a study published in 2016. The school nurse is in an optimal position to identify children at risk and build collaborative relationships to treat the students affected by the practice. FGM/C is child abuse and carries both federal and state legal consequences. It is important for the school nurse to understand the cultural context, legal guidance, and social consequences of this practice within the greater community. The school nurse should work to develop interagency guidelines to provide safe processes for the child and the family. The most effective programs use a combination of educational strategies for families and communities along with law enforcement to help abolish the practice. PMID:27194237

  19. Genital ulcers and transmission of HIV among couples in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Latif, A S; Katzenstein, D A; Bassett, M T; Houston, S; Emmanuel, J C; Marowa, E

    1989-08-01

    Seventy-five married men found to be positive for HIV-1 in Harare, Zimbabwe, were interviewed in order to define behaviours associated with acquisition of infection and to determine factors associated with transmission of infection to their wives. The majority of infected men reported sexual intercourse with multiple heterosexual partners and female prostitutes, and gave a history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). All subjects denied homosexual activity and parenteral drug abuse. Serological testing of the wives of seropositive men showed that 45 (60%) were HIV-antibody-positive. Wives of men with AIDS and AIDS-related complex (ARC) and wives of men who gave a history of genital ulcer disease were more likely to be seropositive. The study demonstrates that HIV-1 infection in Zimbabwe occurs through heterosexual intercourse and is associated with other STDs. In addition, the study shows that male to female transmission of HIV-1 is facilitated by the presence of genital ulcers in infected men.

  20. A microbiological study of genital ulcers in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Zainah, S; Cheong, Y M; Sinniah, M; Gan, A T; Akbal, K

    1991-09-01

    The microbial aetiology of genital ulcers was studied in 249 patients (241 men and 8 women) attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Herpes simplex virus type 2 was isolated in 48 (19.2%) patients, Haemophilus ducreyi from 22 (8.8%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae from seven (2.8%) and Chlamydia trachomatis from four (1.6%). Syphilis was diagnosed in 18 (7.2%) patients on the basis of dark field microscopy. Two (0.8%) patients were found to have both chancroid and syphilis and one (0.5%) had both gonorrhoea and syphilis. No organism was isolated in the remaining 151 (61.5%) patients. Overall, the accuracy of clinical diagnosis was 58% for single infection, 67% for herpes, 63% for syphilis, 47% for chancroid and 0% for lymphogranuloma venereum. Therefore, our study confirms the need for laboratory tests to diagnose accurately the aetiology of genital ulcer disease.

  1. The School Nurse's Role in Addressing Female Genital Mutilation.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is the practice in some immigrant populations of cutting or causing injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The incidence of FGM/C has increased by 314% in school-aged children according to a study published in 2016. The school nurse is in an optimal position to identify children at risk and build collaborative relationships to treat the students affected by the practice. FGM/C is child abuse and carries both federal and state legal consequences. It is important for the school nurse to understand the cultural context, legal guidance, and social consequences of this practice within the greater community. The school nurse should work to develop interagency guidelines to provide safe processes for the child and the family. The most effective programs use a combination of educational strategies for families and communities along with law enforcement to help abolish the practice.

  2. An unusual presentation of primary male genital tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Lakmichi, Mohamed Amine; Kamaoui, Imane; Eddafali, Brahim; Sellam, A Ibn; Dahami, Zakaria; Moudouni, Said Mohamed; Sarf, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Urogenital tuberculosis is a rare disease; however, it is the second most common location for tuberculosis after the lung. Currently, incidence of urogenital tuberculosis is increasing due to factors such as a higher prevalence of immunosuppression (especially that caused by human immunodeficiency virus infection) and drug abuse. Herein a new case of male genital primary tuberculosis is reported presenting as a scrotal tumor; the originality of this observation lies in its unusual pseudotumor form.

  3. An Unusual Presentation of Primary Male Genital Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lakmichi, Mohamed Amine; Kamaoui, Imane; Eddafali, Brahim; Sellam, A. Ibn; Dahami, Zakaria; Moudouni, Said Mohamed; Sarf, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Urogenital tuberculosis is a rare disease; however, it is the second most common location for tuberculosis after the lung. Currently, incidence of urogenital tuberculosis is increasing due to factors such as a higher prevalence of immunosuppression (especially that caused by human immunodeficiency virus infection) and drug abuse. Herein a new case of male genital primary tuberculosis is reported presenting as a scrotal tumor; the originality of this observation lies in its unusual pseudotumor form. PMID:22114548

  4. Doctoring the Genitals: Towards Broadening the Meaning of Social Medicine.

    PubMed

    Shweder, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Doctoring the genitals is compatible with a recognizable conception of social medicine. This commentary critically examines the distinction between medical and nonmedical procedures; presents an alternative account of Sohaila Bastami's personal reaction to the anonymous caller's request for referral information concerning hymen reconstruction surgery; and makes use of Yelp to simulate the caller's procedure for locating a helpful practitioner. Yelp is a very useful informational search engine that does not subject its users to a moral examination.

  5. Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Amichetti, M; Chiappe, E; Mussari, S; Busana, L; Caffo, O; Botto, F; Galligioni, E; Tomio, L

    1999-01-01

    Genital tract lymphoma is a rare disease; information on diagnosis, treatment and outcome are limited. We report on eight patients affected by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the genital tract, five from the cervix, two from the vagina and one from the vulva collected between 1987 and 1998. Age at presentation ranged from 36 to 82 (median 67) years. The commonest initial symptom was vaginal bleeding, post coital in 1 patient. Three patients complained of vescical symptoms. Ann Arbor classification was stage IAE for 6 patients. Histology, according to the IWF, was either intermediate grade (4 patients), or high grade (3 patients), not evaluable in one case. Seven patients were treated with chemotherapy (anthracycline based in four) followed by pelvic radiotherapy in five; one patient received irradiation alone. Five patients are currently alive and free of disease with follow-up ranging from 8 to 126 months. Based on our experience in this series, we support a management scheme of combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy for patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the genital tract.

  6. Non-healing genital herpes mimicking donovanosis in an immunocompetent man.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vishal; Khute, Prakash; Patel, Anjali; Gupta, Somesh

    2016-01-01

    Although atypical presentations of herpetic infection in immunocompetent individuals are common, they very rarely have the extensive, chronic and verrucous appearances seen in the immunocompromised host. We report a case of genital herpes manifesting as painless chronic non-healing genital ulcers with exuberant granulation tissue in an immunocompetent man. Owing to this morphology, the ulcers were initially mistaken for donovanosis. To the best of our knowledge, such a presentation of genital herpes in an immunocompetent individual has not been described previously.

  7. Immunotherapy advances in uro-genital malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ratta, Raffaele; Zappasodi, Roberta; Raggi, Daniele; Grassi, Paolo; Verzoni, Elena; Necchi, Andrea; Di Nicola, Massimo; Salvioni, Roberto; de Braud, Filippo; Procopio, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer has made significant progresses over the last 20 years. Multiple efforts have been attempted to restore immune-mediated tumor elimination, leading to the development of several targeted immunotherapies. Data from recent clinical trials suggest that these agents might improve the prognosis of patients with advanced genito-urinary (GU) malignancies. Nivolumab has been the first immune checkpoint-inhibitor approved for pre-treated patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Pembrolizumab and atezolizumab have shown promising results in both phase I and II trials in urothelial carcinoma. Brentuximab vedotin has demonstrated early signals of clinical activity and immunomodulatory effects in highly pre-treated patients with testicular germ cell tumors. In this review, we have summarized the major clinical achievements of immunotherapy in GU cancers, focusing on immune checkpoint blockade as well as the new immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) under clinical evaluation for these malignancies.

  8. Genital Mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis infections in patients with genital tract infections attending a tertiary care hospital of North India.

    PubMed

    Saigal, Karnika; Dhawan, Benu; Rawre, Jyoti; Khanna, Neena; Chaudhry, Rama

    2016-01-01

    Limited data are available on the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) among Indian patients with genital tract infections. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), and CT in patients with genital tract infections. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of UU and MH were also assessed. Endocervical swabs/urethral swabs and first void urine samples of patients (n = 164) were collected. UU and MH were detected by culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). MG and CT were identified by PCR. Ureaplasma isolates were further biotyped and serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by microbroth dilution method. UU, MH, MG, and CT were detected in 15.2%, 5.4%, 1.2%, and 6% patients, respectively. Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3/14 was the most prevalent. All isolates of UU and MH were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline and josamycin. Routine screening for these pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility testing is warranted to prevent sequel of infections and formulate treatment guidelines.

  9. Genital Mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis infections in patients with genital tract infections attending a tertiary care hospital of North India.

    PubMed

    Saigal, Karnika; Dhawan, Benu; Rawre, Jyoti; Khanna, Neena; Chaudhry, Rama

    2016-01-01

    Limited data are available on the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) among Indian patients with genital tract infections. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), and CT in patients with genital tract infections. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of UU and MH were also assessed. Endocervical swabs/urethral swabs and first void urine samples of patients (n = 164) were collected. UU and MH were detected by culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). MG and CT were identified by PCR. Ureaplasma isolates were further biotyped and serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by microbroth dilution method. UU, MH, MG, and CT were detected in 15.2%, 5.4%, 1.2%, and 6% patients, respectively. Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3/14 was the most prevalent. All isolates of UU and MH were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline and josamycin. Routine screening for these pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility testing is warranted to prevent sequel of infections and formulate treatment guidelines. PMID:27166039

  10. Positive Perceptions of Genital Appearance and Feeling Sexually Attractive: Is It a Matter of Sexual Esteem?

    PubMed

    Amos, Natalie; McCabe, Marita

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined the relationship between perceptions of genital appearance and self-perceived sexual attractiveness. The study sample included men and women (aged 18-45 years, M = 23.7, SD = 4.98) who identified as heterosexual (n = 1017), gay or lesbian (n = 1225), or bisexual (n = 651). Participants responded to an online survey assessing their self-perceived sexual attractiveness, genital self-image, genital self-consciousness during sexual activity, and sexual esteem. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized a positive link between genital self-perceptions and self-perceived sexual attractiveness, with sexual esteem acting as a mediator. We tested this hypothesis using structural equation modeling. Analyses revealed a significant association between both genital self-image and genital self-consciousness and self-perceived sexual attractiveness. However, these relationships were at least partially mediated by sexual esteem, across both gender and sexual orientation. The findings suggest that, regardless of gender or sexual orientation, individuals who maintain a positive genital self-image or lack genital self-consciousness, are more likely to experience greater sexual esteem, and in turn, feel more sexually attractive. The findings have implications for the importance of genital appearance perceptions and improving individuals' sexual esteem and self-perceived sexual attractiveness. PMID:26857376

  11. The development of the genital peritoneum in domestic mammals. An analysis of the literature and nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Martin, E

    1995-12-01

    This review presents and discusses the reasons for the currently employed anatomical terminology relating to the genital peritoneum of various domestic species, based upon its prenatal development. When reviewing the development of genital organs, attention must be paid to changes in the related peritoneum in order to define currently used terminology more clearly. The relevance of some terms such as Caudal genital ligament, Plica gubernaculi, Plica iguinalis and genital fold is considered. A system of serosal folds, the Plica gonadoinguinalis or genitoinguinalis, seems to be a useful term to be added to the Nomina Embryologica Veterinaria.

  12. Evaluating the post-copulatory sexual selection hypothesis for genital evolution reveals evidence for pleiotropic harm exerted by the male genital spines of Drosophila ananassae.

    PubMed

    Grieshop, K; Polak, M

    2014-12-01

    The contemporary explanation for the rapid evolutionary diversification of animal genitalia is that such traits evolve by post-copulatory sexual selection. Here, we test the hypothesis that the male genital spines of Drosophila ananassae play an adaptive role in post-copulatory sexual selection. Whereas previous work on two Drosophila species shows that these spines function in precopulatory sexual selection to initiate genital coupling and promote male competitive copulation success, further research is needed to evaluate the potential for Drosophila genital spines to have a post-copulatory function. Using a precision micron-scale laser surgery technique, we test the effect of spine length reduction on copulation duration, male competitive fertilization success, female fecundity and female remating behaviour. We find no evidence that male genital spines in this species have a post-copulatory adaptive function. Instead, females mated to males with surgically reduced/blunted genital spines exhibited comparatively greater short-term fecundity relative to those mated by control males, indicating that the natural (i.e. unaltered) form of the trait may be harmful to females. In the absence of an effect of genital spine reduction on measured components of post-copulatory fitness, the harm seems to be a pleiotropic side effect rather than adaptive. Results are discussed in the context of sexual conflict mediating the evolution of male genital spines in this species and likely other Drosophila.

  13. Reinvestigation of epithelial lining of the genital coelomic sinus in asteroids. An ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Kalachev, Alexander V

    2014-12-01

    Ultrastructural study of gonadal muscles in sea star, Asterina pectinifera, showed that myoepithelial cells were located only in the epithelial lining of the genital coelomic sinus. No myoepithelial cells were found in the visceral peritoneal epithelium or within connective tissue layer of the outer sac. Morphology of the myoepithelial cells in gonads of A. pectinifera varies during the reproductive cycle. During the gametogenic phase of the reproductive cycle, the myoepithelial cells get an elongated, spindle-like shape having a length of 20–30 m. In prespawning gonads, many of the myoepithelial cells form cytoplasmic extensions of 3–5 m in length, filled with myofilaments and penetrating into the underlying connective tissue of the outer sac or haemal sinus. Besides, myoepithelial cells, simultaneously anchored in the inner and outer sacs, were also observed. These changes result in development of more elaborated musculature and increase in contractility of the gonadal wall in prespawning gonads as compared to that during other stages of the reproductive cycle. PMID:25459377

  14. Reinvestigation of epithelial lining of the genital coelomic sinus in asteroids. An ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Kalachev, Alexander V

    2014-12-01

    Ultrastructural study of gonadal muscles in sea star, Asterina pectinifera, showed that myoepithelial cells were located only in the epithelial lining of the genital coelomic sinus. No myoepithelial cells were found in the visceral peritoneal epithelium or within connective tissue layer of the outer sac. Morphology of the myoepithelial cells in gonads of A. pectinifera varies during the reproductive cycle. During the gametogenic phase of the reproductive cycle, the myoepithelial cells get an elongated, spindle-like shape having a length of 20–30 m. In prespawning gonads, many of the myoepithelial cells form cytoplasmic extensions of 3–5 m in length, filled with myofilaments and penetrating into the underlying connective tissue of the outer sac or haemal sinus. Besides, myoepithelial cells, simultaneously anchored in the inner and outer sacs, were also observed. These changes result in development of more elaborated musculature and increase in contractility of the gonadal wall in prespawning gonads as compared to that during other stages of the reproductive cycle.

  15. A randomized trial of immunotherapy for persistent genital warts

    PubMed Central

    Jardine, David; Lu, Jieqiang; Pang, James; Palmer, Cheryn; Tu, Quanmei; Chuah, John; Frazer, Ian H.

    2012-01-01

    Aim To determine whether immunotherapy with HPV6 L1 virus like particles (VLPs) without adjuvant (VLP immunotherapy) reduces recurrence of genital warts following destructive therapy. Trial design A randomized placebo controlled blinded study of treatment of recurrent genital warts amenable to destructive therapy, conducted independently in Australia and China. Methods Patients received conventional destructive therapy of all evident warts together with intramuscular administration of 1, 5 or 25 µg of VLP immunotherapy, or of placebo immunotherapy (0.9% NaCl), as immunotherapy at week 0 and week 4. Primary outcome, assessed at week 8, was recurrence of visible warts. Results Of 33 protocol compliant Brisbane recipients of placebo immunotherapy, 11 were disease free at two months, and a further 9 demonstrated reduction of > 50% in total wart area. Wart area reduction following destructive treatment correlated with prior duration of disease. Among 102 protocol compliant Brisbane recipients of VLP immunotherapy, disease reduction was significantly greater than among the placebo immunotherapy (50% ± s.e.m. 7%) recipients for subjects receiving 5 µg or 25 µg of VLP immunotherapy/dose (71% ± s.e.m.7%) but not for those receiving 1 µg VLP immunotherapy/dose (42% ± 7%). Of 52 protocol compliant placebo immunotherapy recipients in Wenzhou, 37 were disease free at two months, and a further 8 had > 50% disease reduction. Prior disease duration was much shorter in Wenzhou subject (8.1 ± 1.1 mo) than in Brisbane subjects (53.7 ± 5.5 mo). No significant reduction in mean wart area was observed for the 168 Wenzhou protocol compliant subjects who also received VLP immunotherapy. Conclusions This study confirms the findings in a previous open label trial that administration of VLP immunotherapy may assist in clearance of recurrent genital warts in patients for whom destructive therapy is unsuccessful and that unsuccessful destructive therapy is more common with increasing

  16. Contact sensitization in the anal and genital area.

    PubMed

    Bauer, A; Oehme, S; Geier, J

    2011-01-01

    We analysed the patch test results in 1,374 patients suffering from dermatoses in the anogenital area (n = 561 genital dermatoses, n = 470 anal dermatoses, n = 343 anogenital dermatoses) patch tested in 44 dermatological departments of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology from 2004 to 2008. All other patients patch tested during this time period without anogenital dermatoses formed the control group (n = 49, 142). Of the total study group, 662 (48.2%) patients were male. 179 (13%) had a past or present atopic dermatitis. The vast majority of the patients was older than 40 years (n = 989, 72%). Suspected allergen sources were first of all topical medicaments, followed by cosmetics, cleansing agents, clothes, rubber products, systemic medicaments and disinfectants. Allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 409 (29.8%) of the tested patients. Patients with anogenital dermatoses were sensitized mainly to active agents of topical medicaments, in particular bufexamac (5.3%). Sensitization pattern and sensitization rates observed in patients with genital and anal involvement differed significantly. Patients with anal disease had significantly higher sensitization rates for bufexamac (9.4 vs. 1.1%), fragrance mix I (8.7 vs. 4.2%) and II (4.5 vs. 2.6%), propolis (5.4 vs. 1.9%) and methyldibromoglutaronitrile (6.3 vs. 4.1%). Patients with chronic anal dermatoses seem to have a higher risk to develop sensitizations to topically applied products and drugs than patients with genital dermatoses. Recommended patch test series (German Contact Dermatitis Research Group) are standard series, local anaesthetics series, topical antibiotics, antimycotics, steroids, ointment bases and preservative series as well as the patients' own products.

  17. Persistent genital hyperinnervation following progesterone administration to adolescent female rats.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhaohui; Smith, Peter G

    2014-12-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia, a female pelvic pain syndrome affecting substantial numbers of women, is characterized by genital hypersensitivity and sensory hyperinnervation. Previous studies have shown that the risk of developing provoked vestibulodynia is markedly elevated following adolescent use of oral contraceptives with high progesterone content. We hypothesized that progesterone, a steroid hormone with known neurotropic properties, may alter genital innervation through direct or indirect actions. Female Sprague Dawley rats received progesterone (20 mg/kg subcutaneously) from Days 20-27; tissue was removed for analysis in some rats on Day 28, while others were ovariectomized on Day 43 and infused for 7 days with vehicle or 17beta estradiol. Progesterone resulted in overall increases in vaginal innervation at both Day 28 and 50 due to proliferation of peptidergic sensory and sympathetic (but not parasympathetic) axons. Estradiol reduced innervation in progesterone-treated and untreated groups. To assess the mechanisms of sensory hyperinnervation, we cultured dissociated dorsal root ganglion neurons and found that progesterone increases neurite outgrowth by small unmyelinated (but not myelinated) sensory neurons, it was receptor mediated, and it was nonadditive with NGF. Pretreatment of ganglion with progesterone also increased neurite outgrowth in response to vaginal target explants. However, pretreatment of vaginal target with progesterone did not improve outgrowth. We conclude that adolescent progesterone exposure may contribute to provoked vestibulodynia by eliciting persistent genital hyperinnervation via a direct effect on unmyelinated sensory nociceptor neurons and that estradiol, a well-documented therapeutic, may alleviate symptoms in part by reducing progesterone-induced sensory hyperinnervation. PMID:25359899

  18. Voluntary Genital Ablations: Contrasting the Cutters and Their Clients

    PubMed Central

    Jackowich, Robyn A; Vale, Rachel; Vale, Kayla; Wassersug, Richard J; Johnson, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Some healthy males voluntarily seek castration without a recognized medical need. There are currently no standards of care for these individuals, which cause many of them to obtain surgery outside of a licensed medical setting. We seek to understand who performs these surgeries. Aim This study aims to characterize individuals who perform or assist in genital ablations outside of the healthcare system. Methods A cross-sectional Internet survey posted on eunuch.org received 2,871 responses. We identified individuals who had performed or assisted in human castrations (“cutters”; n = 98) and compared this group with all other survey respondents (n = 2,773), who had not assisted in castrations. Next we compared the cutters with the voluntary eunuchs. Lastly, because many of the cutters have themselves been castrated, we also divided the physically castrated population (n = 278) into cutters (n = 44) and noncutters (n = 234) and compared them. Main Outcome Measures Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect demographic information, gender identity and presentation, selected childhood experiences, and history of aggressive behaviors, self-harming behaviors, and hospitalization. Results Distinguishing characteristics of cutters included: (i) presenting themselves as very masculine, (ii) having had their longest sexual relationship with a man, (iii) growing up on a farm, (iv) witnessing animal castrations, (v) having a history of sexually inappropriate behavior, (vi) having been threatened with genital mutilation as a child, (vii) having a history of self-harm, (viii) being raised in a devoutly Christian household, (ix) having had an underground castration themselves, and (x) having body piercings and/or tattoos. Conclusions This study may help identify individuals who are at risk of performing illegal castrations. That information may help healthcare providers protect individuals with extreme castration ideations from injuring themselves or others

  19. Current Diagnosis and Management of Female Genital Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jai B

    2015-12-01

    Female genital tuberculosis (FGTB) is an important cause of significant morbidity, short- and long-term sequelae especially infertility whose incidence varies from 3 to 16 % cases in India. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the etiological agent for tuberculosis. The fallopian tubes are involved in 90-100 % cases, endometrium is involved in 50-80 % cases, ovaries are involved in 20-30 % cases, and cervix is involved in 5-15 % cases of genital TB. Tuberculosis of vagina and vulva is rare (1-2 %). The diagnosis is made by detection of acid-fast bacilli on microscopy or culture on endometrial biopsy or on histopathological detection of epithelioid granuloma on biopsy. Polymerase chain reaction may be false positive and alone is not sufficient to make the diagnosis. Laparoscopy and hysteroscopy can diagnose genital tuberculosis by various findings. Treatment is by giving daily therapy of rifampicin (R), isoniazid (H), pyrazinamide (Z) and ethambutol (E) for 2 months followed by daily 4 month therapy of rifampicin (R) and isoniazid (H). Alternatively 2 months intensive phase of RHZE can be daily followed by alternate day combination phase (RH) of 4 months. Three weekly dosing throughout therapy (RHZE thrice weekly for 2 months followed by RH thrice weekly for 4 months) can be given as directly observed treatment short-course. Surgery is rarely required only as drainage of abscesses. There is a role of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer in women whose fallopian tubes are damaged but endometrium is healthy. Surrogacy or adoption is needed for women whose endometrium is also damaged. PMID:26663993

  20. A Decolonizing Methodology for Health Research on Female Genital Cutting.

    PubMed

    Werunga, Jane; Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Ewashen, Carol

    2016-01-01

    In this article, critical perspectives including postcolonial feminism, African feminism, and intersectionality are presented as having decolonizing methodological potential whereby the Western narrative surrounding the practice of female genital cutting, particularly in the context of migration, is reexamined. In addition, multiple intersecting influences on affected women's realities are accounted for and a critical consciousness that serves to inform praxis, address social determinants of health, and promote health equity is encouraged. The inclusion of an African feminist perspective, a traditionally marginalized critical perspective, serves to further decolonize some long-held erroneous beliefs about the sexuality, subjectivity, and embodiment of the African woman. PMID:27149228

  1. Facts and controversies on female genital mutilation and Islam.

    PubMed

    Rouzi, Abdulrahim A

    2013-02-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a very ancient traditional and cultural ritual. Strategies and policies have been implemented to abandon this practice. However, despite commendable work, it is still prevalent, mainly in Muslim countries. FGM predates Islam. It is not mentioned in the Qur'an (the verbatim word of God in Islam). Muslim religious authorities agree that all types of mutilation, including FGM, are condemned. 'Sensitivity' to cultural traditions that erroneously associate FGM with Islam is misplaced. The principle of 'do no harm', endorsed by Islam, supersedes cultural practices, logically eliminating FGM from receiving any Islamic religious endorsement.

  2. For the sake of purity (and control). Female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, D

    1993-01-01

    In 1973 approximately 1 million girls will be victimized by female genital mutilation (FGM), widely practiced in more than 20 African nations from Mauritania to the Ivory Coast in the west, to Egypt and North Tanzania in the east, as well as in Oman, Bahrain, North and South Yemen, and the United Arab Emirates. FGM takes place among the Moslem populations of the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia and the Jewish Falashas in Ethiopia. FGM is practiced on babies just a few days old to girls right before marriage or young women pregnant with their first child. The most extreme mutilation is called infibulation. In Somalia, almost 100% of the women are infibulated, and so are more than 80% of the women in north and central Sudan. In Ethiopia/Eritrea, Mali, and Sierra Leone, 90% of the women have undergone some form of genital mutilation. The rate reaches 70% in Burkina Faso; 60% in Kenya, Gambia, and the Ivory Coast; and 50% in Senegal, Egypt, Guinea Bissau, and Nigeria. The mutilation often results in accumulation of menstrual blood and pelvic inflammatory disease often leading to infertility. Between 20% and 25% of infertility in Sudan has been attributed to female genital mutilation. The practice of FGM has existed for centuries, and some claim it originated in the Nile Valley during the Pharaonic era. On the other hand, Muslim countries like Iraq, Syria, and Tunisia do not practice FGM. The London Black Women's Health Action Project set up an educational network to prevent mutilations and to dispel the myth of religion about FGM. FORWARD convened the First Study Conference on Genital Mutilation of Girls in Europe in 1992 and deemed FGM a form of child abuse. Local campaigns in Africa, Asia, and the Arab world educate against FGM. The Inter-Africa Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children, based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, has offices in more than 20 African nations to sensitize the public about the harmful effects of FGM. In

  3. Ritual female genital surgery among Bedouin in Israel.

    PubMed

    Asali, A; Khamaysi, N; Aburabia, Y; Letzer, S; Halihal, B; Sadovsky, M; Maoz, B; Belmaker, R H

    1995-10-01

    Ritual female genital operations are common in many parts of the world, with varying degrees of mutilation from clitoridectomy and removal of the labia to removal of the clitoral prepuce. Interviews of 21 Bedouin women in southern Israel revealed the practice to be normative in several tribes. However, physical examination of 37 young women from those tribes at a gynecological clinic revealed only small scars on the labia in each woman. Bedouin in southern Israel may offer a model of evolution of female circumcision into a nonmutilative ritual incision.

  4. What nurses need to know about female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Momoh, Comfort; Olufade, Olamide; Redman-Pinard, Patrice

    Female genital mutilation, also known as female circumcision (FGM/C) is a deep-rooted practice in some countries that needs to be addressed if the health needs of women and girls are to be met. FGM/C has no medical or health benefits. This article will discuss the different types of FGM/C, the law and legal implications and urological complications. Urology nurses need to be aware of what their medical roles and legal responsibilities are so that they are able to sensitively and holistically care for girls and women living with or at risk of FGM/C.

  5. Green tea catechins for treatment of external genital warts.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Sara M; Monk, Bradley J; Tewari, Krishnansu S

    2009-03-01

    This review evaluates the antiviral, antioxidant, and immunostimulatory properties of green tea catechins. Two randomized trials evaluating the activity and efficacy of green tea catechins in the management of external genital warts are presented, and the reported side effects associated with this topical treatment modality are outlined. Finally, the mechanism of action, percent of wart clearance, time to clearance, and toxicity profile of green tea catechins are compared with those of podofilox and imiquimod, 2 other patient-administered topical agents approved for treatment of anogenital warts.

  6. The effect of phytoestrogens on the female genital tract

    PubMed Central

    Burton, J L; Wells, M

    2002-01-01

    Environmental oestrogens have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hormonally treated cancers (such as breast and prostate cancer), male infertility, and abnormalities of the male and female reproductive tracts. They may be derived from plants (phytoestrogens), pharmaceuticals, or other synthetic compounds not originally intended to have oestrogenic activity (including soy based infant formulas). This review will discuss the evidence from both animal studies and humans for an effect of these ubiquitous compounds on the development of the human female genital tract, in addition to prolonging the menstrual cycle, alleviating symptoms of the menopause, and protecting against the development of endometrial carcinoma. PMID:12037019

  7. In Their Own Words: A Qualitative Content Analysis of Women's and Men's Preferences for Women's Genitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullinax, Margo; Herbenick, Debby; Schick, Vanessa; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Reece, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Research increasingly shows that genital attitudes have an impact on sexual well-being and health-seeking behaviours. This study explored what women and men like and dislike about women's genitals. Data are from open-ended items, part of a cross-sectional internet-based survey anonymously completed by 496 women and 198 men. Overall, both women and…

  8. [NON-HODGKIN'S LYMPHOMA OF THE FEMALE GENITAL SYSTEM--A LITERATURE REVIEW].

    PubMed

    Ganovska, A; Kovachev, S

    2015-01-01

    Lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant lymph proliferative diseases and represent 3-4% of all neoplastic processes. They are subdivided into Hodgkin's (15%) and non-Hodgkin's (85%). Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL), depending on their primary location are subdivided into nodal and extranodal. Extranodal forms of NHL represent 25-40% of NHL where only 2% of them concern the female genital system. They develop in the female genital organs primary or secondary invade them. Extranodal NHL genital form is extremely rare and represents 0.5% of all malignant genital diseases. All genital organs may be affected where most lymphomas are localized in the cervix, uterine body and ovary. The clinical picture is nonspecific whichcomplicates the timely diagnosis. A multidisciplinary approach is used for staging of lymph proliferative disease. Treatment of genital form of NHL is determined by the age of the patient and her reproductive intentions, clinical stage, histological variant. Due to the low occurrence there are no widely accepted protocols of behavior and treatment of genital extranodal NHL. The first method of choice is the conservative approach by chemotherapy. The most widely used and most effective is the combination Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine and Prednisone (CHOP). According to data in the literature the 5-year survival rate for cervical extranodal NHL is 80%. Surgery should not come into consideration when there are certain indications. The aim of this review is to examine rare cases of non-Hodgkin's genital lymphomas in females and to present opportunities for their diagnosis and treatment.

  9. [FEATURES MICROECOLOGY GENITAL TRACT IN WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE WITH BENIGN CERVICAL PATHOLOGY].

    PubMed

    Koblosh, N D

    2015-01-01

    In the article we may see the results of microbiological investigation of secretion from genital tracts in women with the benign pathology of uterus cervix. The outcomes specify the disorders of microecology of genital tracts in these women following the proliferation of conditionally pathogenic flora, the increase of viral infection and the increase in the frequency of diagnostic of sexually transmitted infections. PMID:27491159

  10. Genital herpes in guinea pigs: pathogenesis of the primary infection and description of recurrent disease.

    PubMed

    Stanberry, L R; Kern, E R; Richards, J T; Abbott, T M; Overall, J C

    1982-09-01

    Guinea pigs inoculated intravaginally with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) developed a self-limiting infection characterized by vesiculo-ulcerative lesions on the external genital skin, urinary retention, and hindlimb paralysis. Infection rarely resulted in death. Virologic, histologic, and immunoperoxidase data suggested the following scheme for viral pathogenesis: initial replication in the introitus, vagina, and bladder; spread via sensory nerves to the lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord, and transmission via peripheral nerves to the external genital skin to produce the characteristic lesions. After recovery from primary infection, animals developed recurrent vesicular lesions, shed virus from genital sites in the absence of lesions, and harbored latent HSV-2 in dorsal root ganglia. Genital infection in the guinea pig shares many features with genital herpes in humans and provides a model to explore mechanisms of latency and reactivation and to evaluate several methods for control of recurrent disease.

  11. Exorcising excision: medico-legal issues arising from male and female genital surgery in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mason, C

    2001-08-01

    Genital surgery is one of the most controversial and contested practices, yet it is frequently described and referred to with little or no attention to cultural and social context. This article examines the practice, performed on both men and women, and the extent to which it clashes with issues of consent and capacity, as well as multicultural concepts of toleration for minority group practices. It then questions why female genital surgery, unlike male genital surgery, is legally prohibited in Australia. It argues that such legal gender bias stems from a liberal conception of "tolerance" and the limits of consent in Australia, placing female genital surgery in an "unacceptable" category and male genital surgery in an "acceptable" category.

  12. OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral protection against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection by enhancing type I interferon production

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ji Eun; Lee, Myeong Sup; Kim, Young-Joon; Lee, Heung Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) interferes with virus replication, promotes antiviral responses, and controls innate and adaptive immune responses to certain viruses. Recently, we reported that 2’–5’ oligoadenylate synthetase-like 1 (OASL1) negatively regulates type I IFN production by inhibiting the translation of the type I IFN-regulating master transcription factor, IRF7. Notably, while OASL1-deficient mice induce robust production of type I IFN and are resistant to systemic viral infection, the effects of OASL1 during localized viral infection has not been studied. To this end, we investigated the role of OASL1 during mucosal HSV-2 infection of the genital tract. Oasl1−/− mice exhibited better survival rates than wild type (WT) mice following intravaginal HSV-2 infection, and suppressed virus replication more efficiently despite comparable recruitment of effector immune cells. Moreover, Ly6Chigh monocytes, and not pDCs or other cell types, displayed enhanced production of type I IFNs in Oasl1−/− mice in response to HSV-2 infection. Furthermore, cytotoxic T cell responses including IFN-γ production were accelerated in Oasl1−/− mice after mucosal HSV-2 infection. Collectively, these results demonstrate that OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral immunity against local mucosal viral infection and suggest that OASL1 could be a therapeutic target for treatment of HSV-2 infection of the genital mucosa. PMID:26750802

  13. Does spontaneous genital tract trauma impact postpartum sexual function?

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Rebecca G.; Borders, Noelle; Leeman, Lawrence M.; Albers, Leah L.

    2009-01-01

    Changes in sexual function are common in postpartum women. In this comparative, descriptive study, a prospective cohort of midwifery patients consented to documentation of genital trauma at birth and assessment of sexual function three months postpartum. The impact of spontaneous genital trauma on postpartum sexual function was the focus of the study. Trauma was categorized into minor trauma (no trauma or 1st degree perineal or other trauma that was not sutured) or major trauma (2nd, 3rd, or 4th degree lacerations or any trauma that required suturing). Women who underwent episiotomy or operative delivery were excluded. Fifty eight percent (326/565) of enrolled women gave sexual function data; of those, 276 (85%) reported sexual activity since delivery. Seventy percent (193) of women sustained minor trauma and 30% (83) sustained major trauma. Sexually active women completed the Intimate Relationship Scale (IRS), a 12 item questionnaire validated as a measure of postpartum sexual function. Both trauma groups were equally likely to be sexually active. Total IRS scores did not differ between trauma groups nor did complaints of dyspareunia. However, for two items, significant differences were demonstrated: women with major trauma reported less desire to be held, touched, and stroked by their partner than women with minor trauma, and women who required perineal suturing reported lower IRS scores than women who did not require suturing. PMID:19249654

  14. Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst and Type 2 Radical Genital Mutilation

    PubMed Central

    Birge, Ozer; Ozbey, Ertugrul Gazi; Arslan, Deniz; Erkan, Mustafa Melih; Demir, Feyza; Akgor, Utku

    2015-01-01

    About 100 million women are estimated to be circumcised globally. Various rates of complications have been encountered, especially after circumcision, such as bleeding, infection, shock, menstrual irregularity, difficulty in urination or common urinary tract infections, inguinal pain, difficulty in sexual intercourse, and genital circumcision scar especially at the vulvar region, and cystic or solid character mass in short and long term. Furthermore, the maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality increase due to bleeding and fistula, which develop after prolonged labor, travail, and difficult labors. Our aim in this paper was to discuss a 42-year-old multiparous female case who had undergone type 2 radical genital mutilation (circumcision) when she was 7 years of age, along with the literature, which has been evaluated for the gradually growing mass at the left inguinal canal region in the last 10 years and diagnosed as epidermoid inclusion cyst developing secondary to postcircumcision surgical ground trauma, since there was no other case found in the literature search that had been circumcised at such an early age and developing after circumcision at such advanced age, and, therefore, this is suggested to be the first case on this subject. PMID:26682078

  15. Stop female genital mutilation: appeal to the international dermatologic community.

    PubMed

    Morrone, Aldo; Hercogova, Jana; Lotti, Torello

    2002-05-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a traditional cultural practice, but also a form of violence against girls, which affects their lives as adult women. FGM comprises a wide range of procedures: the excision of the prepuce; the partial or total excision of the clitoris (clitoridectomy) and labia; or the stitching and narrowing of the vaginal orifice (infibulation). The number of girls and women who have been subjected to FGM is estimated at around 137 million worldwide and 2 million girls per year are considered at risk. Most females who have undergone mutilation live in 28 African countries. Globalization and international migration have brought an increased presence of circumcised women in Europe and developed countries. Healthcare specialists need to be made aware and trained in the physical, psychosexual, and cultural aspects and effects of FGM and in the response to the needs of genitally mutilated women. Health education programs targeted at immigrant communities should include information on sexuality, FGM, and reproduction. Moreover, healthcare workers should both discourage women from performing FGM on their daughters and receive information on codes of conduct and existing laws. The aim is the total eradication of all forms of FGM. PMID:12100699

  16. Fitness consequences of artificial selection on relative male genital size

    PubMed Central

    Booksmythe, Isobel; Head, Megan L.; Keogh, J. Scott; Jennions, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Male genitalia often show remarkable differences among related species in size, shape and complexity. Across poeciliid fishes, the elongated fin (gonopodium) that males use to inseminate females ranges from 18 to 53% of body length. Relative genital size therefore varies greatly among species. In contrast, there is often tight within-species allometric scaling, which suggests strong selection against genital–body size combinations that deviate from a species' natural line of allometry. We tested this constraint by artificially selecting on the allometric intercept, creating lines of males with relatively longer or shorter gonopodia than occur naturally for a given body size in mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki. We show that relative genital length is heritable and diverged 7.6–8.9% between our up-selected and down-selected lines, with correlated changes in body shape. However, deviation from the natural line of allometry does not affect male success in assays of attractiveness, swimming performance and, crucially, reproductive success (paternity). PMID:27188478

  17. Mental health problems associated with female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Knipscheer, Jeroen; Vloeberghs, Erick; van der Kwaak, Anke; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Aims and method To study the mental health status of 66 genitally mutilated immigrant women originating from Africa (i.e. Somalia, Sudan, Eritrea and Sierra Leone). Scores on standardised questionnaires (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-30, Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, COPE-Easy, Lowlands Acculturation Scale) and demographic and psychosocial correlates were analysed. Results A third of the respondents reported scores above the cut-off for affective or anxiety disorders; scores indicative for post-traumatic stress disorder were presented by 17.5% of women. Type of circumcision (infibulation), recollection of the event (a vivid memory), coping style (avoidance, in particular substance misuse) and employment status (lack of income) were significantly associated with psychopathology. Clinical implications A considerable minority group, characterised by infibulated women who have a vivid memory of the circumcision and cope with their symptoms in an avoidant way, reports to experience severe consequences of genital circumcision. In terms of public healthcare, interventions should target these groups as a priority. PMID:26755984

  18. Prevalence of genital mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas and chlamydia in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Govender, S; Theron, G B; Odendaal, H J; Chalkley, L J

    2009-11-01

    The study was designed to determine the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas and Chlamydia on women attending their first prenatal visit, in conjunction with pre-term labour or HIV status. For pre-term labour (2003), 199 women were monitored for pre-term delivery (<37 weeks); for colonisation and HIV (2005), 219 women were screened. Microbial detection was performed on DNA extracted from endocervical swabs employing PCR techniques. Colonisation was seen to be highest in the 14-20 year age group from 2003. In women aged > or = 21 years, co-colonisation was 13%, although there was a shift from co-colonisation with Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in 2003, to other dual/triple combinations in 2005. Overall, major trends from both collection periods were that the prevalence of U. urealyticum tended to be higher in women > or = 26 years, while the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and M. hominis lower. No association was evident between colonisation with M. hominis, U. urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum and labour outcome. HIV status had no effect on the prevalence/co-colonisation of M. hominis, U. urealyticum or C. trachomatis. The importance of genital mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas and C. trachomatis in long-term aetiologies requires further investigations, certainly in relation to syndromic management regimens that fail to reduce colonisation rates. PMID:19821660

  19. Stop female genital mutilation: appeal to the international dermatologic community.

    PubMed

    Morrone, Aldo; Hercogova, Jana; Lotti, Torello

    2002-05-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a traditional cultural practice, but also a form of violence against girls, which affects their lives as adult women. FGM comprises a wide range of procedures: the excision of the prepuce; the partial or total excision of the clitoris (clitoridectomy) and labia; or the stitching and narrowing of the vaginal orifice (infibulation). The number of girls and women who have been subjected to FGM is estimated at around 137 million worldwide and 2 million girls per year are considered at risk. Most females who have undergone mutilation live in 28 African countries. Globalization and international migration have brought an increased presence of circumcised women in Europe and developed countries. Healthcare specialists need to be made aware and trained in the physical, psychosexual, and cultural aspects and effects of FGM and in the response to the needs of genitally mutilated women. Health education programs targeted at immigrant communities should include information on sexuality, FGM, and reproduction. Moreover, healthcare workers should both discourage women from performing FGM on their daughters and receive information on codes of conduct and existing laws. The aim is the total eradication of all forms of FGM.

  20. Clinical and microbiologic studies of genital ulcers in Kenyan women.

    PubMed

    Plummer, F A; D'Costa, L J; Nsanze, H; Karasira, P; MacLean, I W; Piot, P; Ronald, A R

    1985-01-01

    The etiology of genital ulcers in women in tropical regions is poorly understood. Eighty-nine women, presenting to a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Nairobi (Kenya) with a primary complaint of genital ulcers, were evaluated prospectively in a clinical and laboratory study. A final etiologic diagnosis was possible for 60 (67%) of the women. Culture for Haemophilus ducreyi was positive for 43 women, eight had secondary syphilis with ulcerated condyloma latum, three had primary syphilis, one had both chancroid and syphilis, two had moniliasis, two had herpetic ulceration, and one had a traumatic ulcer. The clinical characteristics that best distinguished chancroid from secondary syphilis were ulcer excavation and a rough ulcer base. No etiologic diagnosis was established for 29 patients. However, the clinical and epidemiologic features of these patients suggested that they were similar if not identical to the patients with H. ducreyi culture-positive chancroid. Further studies are necessary to determine the etiology of ulcers in females in whom no pathogen was identified.

  1. Mental health problems associated with female genital mutilation

    PubMed Central

    Knipscheer, Jeroen; Vloeberghs, Erick; van der Kwaak, Anke; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Aims and method To study the mental health status of 66 genitally mutilated immigrant women originating from Africa (i.e. Somalia, Sudan, Eritrea and Sierra Leone). Scores on standardised questionnaires (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-30, Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, COPE-Easy, Lowlands Acculturation Scale) and demographic and psychosocial correlates were analysed. Results A third of the respondents reported scores above the cut-off for affective or anxiety disorders; scores indicative for post-traumatic stress disorder were presented by 17.5% of women. Type of circumcision (infibulation), recollection of the event (a vivid memory), coping style (avoidance, in particular substance misuse) and employment status (lack of income) were significantly associated with psychopathology. Clinical implications A considerable minority group, characterised by infibulated women who have a vivid memory of the circumcision and cope with their symptoms in an avoidant way, reports to experience severe consequences of genital circumcision. In terms of public healthcare, interventions should target these groups as a priority. PMID:26755984

  2. Long term health consequences of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM).

    PubMed

    Reisel, Dan; Creighton, Sarah M

    2015-01-01

    Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) comprises various procedures which remove or damage the external female genital organs for no medical reason. FGM has no health benefits and is recognised to cause severe short and long term damage to both physical and psychological health. Although FGM is primarily performed in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, migration of FGM practising communities means that the health complications of FGM will have a global impact. It is important that health professionals world wide are aware of the damage FGM causes to long term health. In some cases it may be possible to offer interventions that will alleviate or improve symptoms. However whilst there is some high quality research on FGM and pregnancy outcomes, little is known about the effects on gynaecological, psychological and sexual function. Research is hampered by the problems of data collection on such a sensitive topic as well as the practical difficulties of analysis of studies based mainly on retrospect recall. Well planned hospital based studies of the impact of FGM on physical and psychological health are urgently need but are currently absent from the medical literature. Such studies could generate robust evidence to allow clinicians to benchmark clinical effectiveness and high quality medical care for survivors of FGM.

  3. Epidemiology, pathology and clinical features of genital mycoses--1981 status.

    PubMed

    Senft, H H; Korte, W

    1982-01-01

    The clinical picture of candidal vaginitis was described for the first time in 1792. The connection with yeasts was already discovered in the 19th century. Not until the last 35 years, however, have the epidemiologic aspects of genital mycoses and the diagnostic and therapeutic principles been systematically developed. The rise in the incidence of the disease is due to several factors: the administration of corticosteroids, cystostatic agents, and oral contraceptives as well as socioeconomic circumstances. Two serious complications of vaginal yeast infection in pregnant women should be noted: the amniotic infection syndrome and neonatal contamination at the time of delivery. Vulvovaginitis is one of the most common genital diseases in childhood and adolescence. Mycoses can be diagnosed in daily gynecological practice by simple, reliable methods, but only culture on prepared media or by incubation of standardized plates can be depended upon to establish or rule out a mycosis. Effective antimycotics with a broad spectrum of activity have been developed in the last 15 years. We have been primarily concerned with clotrimazole because of our own investigations and impartial comparisons with other fungicidal drugs. Studies of patient compliance have shown that the diseased women accept short-term therapy most readily. However, appropriate control examinations are needed to document the results of treatment. PMID:6761085

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection of antibody-deficient gene knockout mice.

    PubMed Central

    Su, H; Feilzer, K; Caldwell, H D; Morrison, R P

    1997-01-01

    The importance of antibody-mediated immunity in primary and secondary Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infections was examined by using a definitive model of B-cell deficiency, the microMT/microMT gene knockout mouse. Vaginally infected B-cell-deficient microMT/microMT mice developed a self-limiting primary infection that was indistinguishable from infection of control C57BL/6 mice. Sera and vaginal secretions from infected mice were analyzed for anti-Chlamydia antibodies. C57BL/6 mice produced high-titered serum anti-Chlamydia immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a), IgG2b, and IgA antibodies, and vaginal washes contained predominately anti-Chlamydia IgA. Serum and vaginal washes from infected B-cell-deficient mice were negative for anti-Chlamydia antibody. T-cell proliferation and delayed-type hypersensitivity assays were used as measures of Chlamydia-specific cell-mediated immunity and were found to be comparable for C57BL/6 and B-cell-deficient mice. Seventy days following primary infection, mice were rechallenged to assess acquired immunity. B-cell-deficient mice which lack anti-Chlamydia antibodies were more susceptible to reinfection than immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice. However, acquired immune resistance was evident in both strains of mice and characterized by decreased shedding of chlamydiae and an infection of shorter duration. Thus, this study demonstrates that cell-mediated immune responses alone were capable of resolving chlamydial infection; however, in the absence of specific antibody, mice were more susceptible to reinfection. Therefore, these data suggest that both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were important mediators of immune protection in this model, though cell-mediated immune responses appear to play a more dominant role. PMID:9169723

  5. Resolution of murine chlamydial genital infection by the adoptive transfer of a biovar-specific, Th1 lymphocyte clone.

    PubMed

    Igietseme, J U; Ramsey, K H; Magee, D M; Williams, D M; Kincy, T J; Rank, R G

    1993-01-01

    MoPn-specific T-cell clones were isolated from a T-cell line that was capable of curing chlamydial genital infection by the Chlamydia trachomatis agent of mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) after adoptive transfer. Two clones (designated as 2.14-0 and 2.14-3) were characterized by flow cytometry techniques to be homogenous for L3T4, CD3, and alpha/beta T cell receptor (TcR) T-helper cell markers. The two clones were biovar specific, because they reacted to MoPn but not the Chlamydia psittaci agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) or C. trachomatis, serovar type E. Cytokine profile analysis, by a combination of bioassays, ELISA, and slot/Northern blotting for specific cytokine messenger RNAs, further revealed that cultures of antigen-stimulated clone 2.14-0 contained interleukin-2 (IL-2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and gamma interferon (a T helper 1 cell [Th1] profile). Clone 2.14-3 was also positive for gamma interferon, a level much lower than that of clone 2.14-0, and negative for IL-4 secretion, suggesting a Th1 profile as well. The ability of these clones to bring about the resolution of the chronic genital chlamydial infection of nude mice was tested by the adoptive transfer of 10(7) cells of each clone into the mice. By 4 weeks after cell transfer of clone 2.14-0, 81% of recipient nude mice (30 of 37) resolved the disease. In contrast, clone 2.14-3 or a control T-cell clone specific for a heterologous antigen were unable to resolve the infection in 20 recipients in each case, even after 100 days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Immunobiology of genital tract trauma: Endocrine Regulation of HIV Acquisition in Women Following Sexual Assault or Genital Tract Mutilation

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Mimi; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Wira, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    Studies on HIV acquisition and transmission in women exposed to sexual trauma throughout their life cycle are lacking but some findings suggest that rates of HIV acquisition through coercive sex are significantly higher than that seen in consensual sex. Sexual trauma can also occur as a result of female genital mutilation, which makes sex extremely painful and can cause increased abrasions, lacerations and inflammation, which enhances the risk of HIV acquisition. This review presents an overview of the immune system in the human female reproductive tract from adolescence, through puberty to pregnancy and menopause. What is clear is that the foundation of information on immune protection in the female reproductive tract throughout the life cycle of women is extremely limited and at some stages such as adolescence and menopause are grossly lacking. Against this back backdrop, forced or coercive sexual intercourse as well as genital mutilation further complicates our understanding of the biological risk factors that can result in transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. PMID:23034063

  7. Immunobiology of genital tract trauma: endocrine regulation of HIV acquisition in women following sexual assault or genital tract mutilation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Mimi; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Wira, Charles R

    2013-02-01

    Studies on HIV acquisition and transmission in women exposed to sexual trauma throughout their life cycle are lacking, but some findings suggest that rates of HIV acquisition through coercive sex are significantly higher than that seen in consensual sex. Sexual trauma can also occur as a result of female genital mutilation, which makes sex extremely painful and can cause increased abrasions, lacerations, and inflammation, which enhances the risk of HIV acquisition. This review presents an overview of the immune system in the human female reproductive tract (FRT) from adolescence, through puberty to pregnancy and menopause. What is clear is that the foundation of information on immune protection in the FRT throughout the life cycle of women is extremely limited and at some stages such as adolescence and menopause are grossly lacking. Against this backdrop, forced or coercive sexual intercourse as well as genital mutilation further complicates our understanding of the biological risk factors that can result in transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. PMID:23034063

  8. Longitudinal assessment of pigtailed macaque lower genital tract microbiota by pyrosequencing reveals dissimilarity to the genital microbiota of healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Spear, Gregory T; Kersh, Ellen; Guenthner, Patricia; Vishwanathan, Sundaram Ajay; Gilbert, Douglas; Zariffard, M Reza; Mirmonsef, Paria; Landay, Alan; Zheng, Luyang; Gillevet, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    Vaginal bacterial communities play an important role in human health and have been shown to influence HIV infection. Pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) are used as an animal model of HIV vaginal infection of women. Since the bacterial microbiota could influence retrovirus infection of pigtailed macaques, the genital microbiota in 10 cycling macaques was determined by pyrosequencing. The microbiota of all macaques was polymicrobial with a median of 13 distinct genera. Strikingly, the genera Sneathia and Fusobacterium, both in the phylum Fusobacteria, accounted for 18.9% and 13.3% of sequences while the next most frequent were Prevotella (5.6%), Porphyromonas (4.1%), Atopobium (3.6%), and Parvimonas (2.6%). Sequences corresponding to Lactobacillus comprised only 2.2% of sequences on average and were essentially all L. amylovorus. Longitudinal sampling of the 10 macaques over an 8-week period, which spanned at least one full ovulatory cycle, showed a generally stable presence of the major types of bacteria with some exceptions. These studies show that the microbiota of the pigtailed macaques is substantially dissimilar to that found in most healthy humans, where the genital microbiota is usually dominated by Lactobacillus sp. The polymicrobial makeup of the macaque bacterial populations, the paucity of lactobacilli, and the specific types of bacteria present suggest that the pigtailed macaque microbiota could influence vaginal retrovirus infection. PMID:22264029

  9. Changes in HIV-1 Subtypes B and C Genital Tract RNA in Women and Men After Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fiscus, Susan A.; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Eshete, Abel Tilahun; Hughes, Michael D.; Bao, Yajing; Hosseinipour, Mina; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Badal-Faesen, Sharlaa; Dragavon, Joan; Coombs, Robert W.; Braun, Ken; Moran, Laura; Hakim, James; Flanigan, Timothy; Kumarasamy, N.; Campbell, Thomas B.; Klingman, Karin L.; Nair, Apsara; Walawander, Ann; Smeaton, Laura M.; De Gruttola, Victor; Martinez, Ana I.; Swann, Edith; Barnett, Ronald L.; Brizz, Barbara; Delph, Yvette; Gettinger, Nikki; Mitsuyasu, Ronald T.; Eshleman, Susan; Safren, Steven; Andrade, Adriana; Haas, David W.; Amod, Farida; Berthaud, Vladimir; Bollinger, Robert C.; Bryson, Yvonne; Celentano, David; Chilongozi, David; Cohen, Myron; Collier, Ann C.; Currier, Judith Silverstein; Eron, Joseph; Firnhaber, Cynthia; Flexner, Charles; Gallant, Joel E.; Gulick, Roy M.; Hammer, Scott M.; Hoffman, Irving; Kazembe, Peter; Kumwenda, Johnstone; Kumwenda, Newton; Lama, Javier R.; Lawrence, Jody; Maponga, Chiedza; Martinson, Francis; Mayer, Kenneth; Nielsen, Karin; Pendame, Richard B.; Ramratnam, Bharat; Rooney, James F.; Sanchez, Jorge; Sanne, Ian; Schooley, Robert T.; Snowden, Wendy; Solomon, Suniti; Tabet, Steve; Taha, Taha; Uy, Jonathan; van der Horst, Charles; Wanke, Christine; Gormley, Joan; Marcus, Cheryl J.; Putnam, Beverly; Ntshele, Smanga; Loeliger, Edde; Pappa, Keith A.; Webb, Nancy; Shugarts, David L.; Winters, Mark A.; Descallar, Renard S.; Sharma, Jabin; Poongulali, S.; Cardoso, Sandra Wagner; Faria, Deise Lucia; Berendes, Sima; Burke, Kelly; Kanyama, Cecelia; Kayoyo, Virginia; Samaneka, Wadzanai P.; Chisada, Anthony; Santos, Breno; La Rosa, Alberto; Infante, Rosa; Balfour, Henry H.; Mullan, Beth; Kim, Ge-Youl; Klebert, Michael K.; Mildvan, Donna; Revuelta, Manuel; Jan Geiseler, P.; Santos, Bartolo; Daar, Eric S.; Lopez, Ruben; Frarey, Laurie; Currin, David; Haas, David H.; Bailey, Vicki L.; Tebas, Pablo; Zifchak, Larisa; Sha, Beverly E.; Fritsche, Janice M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces genital tract human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) load and reduces the risk of sexual transmission, but little is known about the efficacy of cART for decreasing genital tract viral load (GTVL) and differences in sex or HIV-1 subtype. Methods. HIV-1 RNA from blood plasma, seminal plasma, or cervical wicks was quantified at baseline and at weeks 48 and 96 after entry in a randomized clinical trial of 3 cART regimens. Results. One hundred fifty-eight men and 170 women from 7 countries were studied (men: 55% subtype B and 45% subtype C; women: 24% subtype B and 76% subtype C). Despite similar baseline CD4+ cell counts and blood plasma viral loads, women with subtype C had the highest GTVL (median, 5.1 log10 copies/mL) compared to women with subtype B and men with subtype C or B (4.0, 4.0, and 3.8 log10 copies/mL, respectively; P < .001). The proportion of participants with a GTVL below the lower limit of quantification (LLQ) at week 48 (90%) and week 96 (90%) was increased compared to baseline (16%; P < .001 at both times). Women were significantly less likely to have GTVL below the LLQ compared to men (84% vs 94% at week 48, P = .006; 84% vs 97% at week 96, P = .002), despite a more sensitive assay for seminal plasma than for cervical wicks. No difference in GTVL response across the 3 cART regimens was detected. Conclusions. The female genital tract may serve as a reservoir of persistent HIV-1 replication during cART and affect the use of cART to prevent sexual and perinatal transmission of HIV-1. PMID:23532477

  10. Effect of ASP2151, a herpesvirus helicase-primase inhibitor, in a guinea pig model of genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Kiyomitsu; Chono, Koji; Sudo, Kenji; Shimizu, Yasuaki; Kontani, Toru; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2011-08-25

    ASP2151 is a herpesvirus helicase-primase inhibitor with antiviral activity against varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). Here, we examined the potency and efficacy of ASP2151 against HSV in vitro and in vivo. We found that ASP2151 was more potent in inhibiting the replication of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in Vero cells in the plaque reduction assay and had greater anti-HSV activity in a guinea pig model of genital herpes than did acyclovir and valacyclovir (VACV), respectively. Oral ASP2151 given from the day of infection reduced peak and overall disease scores in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in complete prevention of symptoms at the dose of 30 mg/kg. The 50% effective dose (ED(50)) values for ASP2151 and VACV were 0.37 and 68 mg/kg, respectively, indicating that ASP2151 was 184-fold more potent than VACV. When ASP2151 was administered after the onset of symptoms, the disease course of genital herpes was suppressed more effectively than by VACV, with a significant reduction in disease score observed one day after starting ASP2151 at 30 mg/kg, whereas the therapeutic effect of VACV was only evident three days after treatment at the highest dose tested (300 mg/kg). This indicated that ASP2151 possesses a faster onset of action and wider therapeutic time window than VACV. Further, virus shedding from the genital mucosa was significantly reduced with ASP2151 at 10 and 30 mg/kg but not with VACV, even at 300 mg/kg. Taken together, our present findings demonstrated the superior potency and efficacy of ASP2151 against HSV.

  11. Mucosal and systemic immune responses to plasmid protein pgp3 in patients with genital and ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    PubMed Central

    GHAEM-MAGHAMI, S; RATTI, G; GHAEM-MAGHAMI, M; COMANDUCCI, M; HAY, P E; BAILEY, R L; MABEY, D C W; WHITTLE, H C; WARD, M E; LEWIS, D J M

    2003-01-01

    The circulating and cervical B cell responses to Chlamydia trachomatis plasmid protein pgp3 were characterized in children and adults with ocular or genital chlamydial infection using the enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) and ELISA. No pgp3-specific ASCs were detected in healthy controls, but predominantly IgA ASCs were detected in UK adults with uncomplicated cervicitis or urethritis (P = 0·03, 0·019). In patients with extragenital complications or pelvic inflammatory disease a mixed response with more IgG and IgM ASCs was evident, suggesting a breach of mucosal immune compartmentalization with more extensive infection. In women with chlamydial cervicitis, ASCs secreting predominantly IgA, but also IgG, to pgp3 were present in cervix at presentation, with a frequency 30–50 times higher than blood. Cervical ASC numbers, especially IgG, fell markedly six weeks after antibiotic treatment. We detected principally IgA pgp3-specific antibody secreting cells (ASCs) in children resident in a Gambian endemic area, with a trend towards suppression of IgA responses during intense trachomatous inflammation (P = 0·06), as previously reported for other chlamydial antigens, and in keeping with the findings in genital disease. These data provide a rationale for further studies of immune responses to pgp3 in humans and animal models of chlamydia-induced disease, and its potential use in diagnostic assays and protective immunization strategies. PMID:12780690

  12. Mechanisms and Evidence of Genital Coevolution: The Roles of Natural Selection, Mate Choice, and Sexual Conflict.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Patricia L R; Prum, Richard O

    2015-07-01

    Genital coevolution between the sexes is expected to be common because of the direct interaction between male and female genitalia during copulation. Here we review the diverse mechanisms of genital coevolution that include natural selection, female mate choice, male-male competition, and how their interactions generate sexual conflict that can lead to sexually antagonistic coevolution. Natural selection on genital morphology will result in size coevolution to allow for copulation to be mechanically possible, even as other features of genitalia may reflect the action of other mechanisms of selection. Genital coevolution is explicitly predicted by at least three mechanisms of genital evolution: lock and key to prevent hybridization, female choice, and sexual conflict. Although some good examples exist in support of each of these mechanisms, more data on quantitative female genital variation and studies of functional morphology during copulation are needed to understand more general patterns. A combination of different approaches is required to continue to advance our understanding of genital coevolution. Knowledge of the ecology and behavior of the studied species combined with functional morphology, quantitative morphological tools, experimental manipulation, and experimental evolution have been provided in the best-studied species, all of which are invertebrates. Therefore, attention to vertebrates in any of these areas is badly needed.

  13. Intraspecific evidence from guppies for correlated patterns of male and female genital trait diversification.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P; Gasparini, Clelia; Holwell, Gregory I; Ramnarine, Indar W; Pitcher, Trevor E; Pilastro, Andrea

    2011-09-01

    The role of sexual selection in fuelling genital evolution is becoming increasingly apparent from comparative studies revealing interspecific divergence in male genitalia and evolutionary associations between male and female genital traits. Despite this, we know little about intraspecific variance in male genital morphology, or how male and female reproductive traits covary among divergent populations. Here we address both topics using natural populations of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing fish that exhibits divergent patterns of male sexual behaviour among populations. Initially, we performed a series of mating trials on a single population to examine the relationship between the morphology of the male's copulatory organ (the gonopodium) and the success of forced matings. Using a combination of linear measurements and geometric morphometrics, we found that variation in the length and shape of the gonopodium predicted the success of forced matings in terms of the rate of genital contacts and insemination success, respectively. We then looked for geographical divergence in these traits, since the relative frequency of forced matings tends to be greater in high-predation populations. We found consistent patterns of variation in male genital size and shape in relation to the level of predation, and corresponding patterns of (co)variation in female genital morphology. Together, these data enable us to draw tentative conclusions about the underlying selective pressures causing correlated patterns of divergence in male and female genital traits, which point to a role for sexually antagonistic selection.

  14. Female genital cutting in Hargeisa, Somaliland: is there a move towards less severe forms?

    PubMed

    Lunde, Ingvild Bergom; Sagbakken, Mette

    2014-05-01

    According to several sources, little progress is being made in eliminating the cutting of female genitalia. This paper, based on qualitative interviews and observations, explores perceptions of female genital cutting and elimination of the phenomenon in Hargeisa, Somaliland. Two main groups of participants were interviewed: (1) 22 representatives of organisations whose work directly relates to female genital cutting; and (2) 16 individuals representing different groups of society. It was found that there is an increasing use of medical staff and equipment when a girl undergoes the procedure of female genital cutting; the use of terminology is crucial in understanding current perceptions of female genital cutting; religion is both an important barrier and facilitator of elimination; and finally, traditional gender structures are currently being challenged in Hargeisa. The findings of this study suggest that it is important to consider current perceptions on practices of female genital cutting and on abandonment of female genital cutting, in order to gain useful knowledge on the issue of elimination. The study concludes that elimination of female genital cutting is a multifaceted process which is constantly negotiated in a diversity of social settings.

  15. Female genital cutting in Hargeisa, Somaliland: is there a move towards less severe forms?

    PubMed

    Lunde, Ingvild Bergom; Sagbakken, Mette

    2014-05-01

    According to several sources, little progress is being made in eliminating the cutting of female genitalia. This paper, based on qualitative interviews and observations, explores perceptions of female genital cutting and elimination of the phenomenon in Hargeisa, Somaliland. Two main groups of participants were interviewed: (1) 22 representatives of organisations whose work directly relates to female genital cutting; and (2) 16 individuals representing different groups of society. It was found that there is an increasing use of medical staff and equipment when a girl undergoes the procedure of female genital cutting; the use of terminology is crucial in understanding current perceptions of female genital cutting; religion is both an important barrier and facilitator of elimination; and finally, traditional gender structures are currently being challenged in Hargeisa. The findings of this study suggest that it is important to consider current perceptions on practices of female genital cutting and on abandonment of female genital cutting, in order to gain useful knowledge on the issue of elimination. The study concludes that elimination of female genital cutting is a multifaceted process which is constantly negotiated in a diversity of social settings. PMID:24908468

  16. Identification and characterization of novel recombinant vaccine antigens for immunization against genital Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Coler, Rhea N.; Bhatia, Ajay; Maisonneuve, Jean-Francois; Probst, Peter; Barth, Brenda; Ovendale, Pamela; Fang, Hang; Alderson, Mark; Lobet, Yves; Cohen, Joe; Mettens, Pascal; Reed, Steven G.

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection worldwide with over 91 million cases estimated annually. An effective subunit vaccine against Chlamydia may require a multivalent subunit cocktail of antigens in a single formulation for broad coverage of a heterogeneous MHC population. Herein we describe the identification by CD4+ and CD8+ T cell expression cloning, serological expression cloning, and an in silico analysis of the C. trachomatis genome, of novel C. trachomatis antigens. These antigens elicited human CD4+ T cell responses, and a subset proved to be immunogenic and protective when administered as immunoprophylactic vaccines against C. trachomatis challenge. Candidate vaccines consisting of the prioritized C. trachomatis antigens adjuvanted in GSK proprietary AS01B adjuvant were prioritized based on induction of solid protection against challenge in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice with C. trachomatis. Some of the vaccines prevented bacterial shedding and colonization of the upper genital tract to varying degrees by mechanisms that may include CD4+ T cells. PMID:19281568

  17. Stable marital relationship protects men from oral and genital HPV infections.

    PubMed

    Kero, K M; Rautava, J; Syrjänen, K; Kortekangas-Savolainen, O; Grenman, S; Syrjänen, S

    2014-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with sexual behavior. Changes in the sexual habits of couples and their impact on male genital and oral HPV infections were determined during 7 years of follow-up (FU). At baseline and 7 years FU, urethral, semen/penile, and oral samples were collected from 46 men and cervical and oral samples of their spouses for HPV DNA detection. Demographic data and risk factors of spouses were recorded by questionnaire at both time points and analyzed for concordance. HPV genotyping was done with the Multimetrix® kit. At baseline, 29.5 % of the male genital and 11 % of their oral samples tested positive. Incident genital HPV infection was found in 23 % and oral infection in 10.9 % of men. Genotype-specific persistence was detected in one man (HPV53) in genital samples. Moderate to almost perfect concordance of changes in sexual habits during FU among spouses were found. Changing partners [p = 0.028; odds ratio (OR) = 15; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.355-166.054] and marital status (p = 0.001; 95 % CI 0.000-0.002) increased the risk of incident genital HPV infections. The overall outcome of genital HPV disease in men was linked to the frequency of sexual intercourse (p = 0.023; 95 % CI 0.019-0.026) and changes in marital status (p = 0.022; 95 % CI 0.019-0.026), while oral HPV infections were associated with the number of sexual partners (p = 0.047; 95 % CI 0.041-0.052). Taken together, asymptomatic genital HPV infections among the men were common. The risk of incident genital HPV infections increased among men reporting a change of sexual partner during FU, implicating that a stable marital relationship protects against oral and genital HPV infection.

  18. The quality of life of patients with genital warts: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genital warts, which are caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), are one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in Europe. Although genital warts are commonly perceived as a non-serious condition, treatment is often long, of varying effectiveness and the recurrence rate is high. Very few studies have been performed on the personal consequences of genital warts. The aim of this qualitative study, set in Denmark, was to examine the ways in which genital warts may affect patients' quality of life. Methods To obtain an in-depth understanding of patients' perceptions of genital warts, we used qualitative focus-group interviews with five men and five women aged between 18 and 30 years who had genital warts. The interview guide was based on a literature review that identified important issues and questions. The data were analysed using a medical anthropological approach. Results Patients' experiences were related to cultural conceptions of venereal diseases and the respective identities and sexuality of the sexes. The disease had negative psychological and social effects both for men and for women and it affected their sex and love lives, in particular. The psychological burden of the disease was increased by the uncertain timeline and the varying effectiveness of treatment. We identified a need for more patient information about the disease and its psycho-sexual aspects. Conclusions The men and women participating in this study considered their quality of life to be significantly lowered because of genital warts. The experiences described by the participants give insights that may be valuable in treatment and counselling. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine that has now been added to the childhood vaccination programme for girls in Denmark for the prevention of cervical cancer can also prevent 90% of cases of genital warts. Our results suggest that HPV vaccination could considerably reduce the largely unacknowledged psychological and social

  19. Prophylactic HPV vaccines: prospects for eliminating ano-genital cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, M

    2007-01-01

    Virtually all cases of cervical cancer and its precursor intra-epithelial lesions are a result of infection with one or other of a subset of genital human papillomaviruses (HPVs), suggesting that prevention of HPV infection by prophylactic vaccination would be a highly effective anticancer strategy. Two HPV L1 virus-like particle vaccines have been developed, a quadrivalent HPV16/18/6/11 product and a bivalent HPV16/18 product; both have been shown to be highly immunogenic with a good safety profile and 100% efficacy against HPV16/18-related high-grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3), implying that they will be effective at preventing HPV16/18-related cervical cancer. PMID:17375045

  20. Repair of congenital 'disconnected uterus': a new female genital anomaly?

    PubMed

    Kisu, Iori; Tanaka, Kyoko; Banno, Kouji; Okuda, Shigeo; Aoki, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Congenital uterine anomaly is a female genital disorder caused by developmental anomaly of the Müllerian ducts. In this report, we present a case of repair of congenital 'disconnected uterus' between the cervix and the body of the uterus. The case did not correspond to the consensus classifications that have been proposed for congenital uterine anomaly. The patient was a young woman whose chief complaints were not having first menstruation and experiencing monthly severe lower abdominal pain. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the uterine body was separated from the uterine cervix. Uteroplasty was conducted to anastomose the separated uterus. Periodic menstruation started 1 month after surgery and abdominal pain was improved. Performance of uteroplasty in this case was extremely significant and greatly improved the quality of life of the patient.

  1. Female genital mutilation: what do we know so far?

    PubMed

    Siddig, Israa

    2016-09-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a practice that is now familiar to UK health professionals. It continues to be a problem in high-risk populations and affects girls and women throughout their lives. Complications related to FGM are poorly reported and documented. Health professionals, therefore, must be aware of the adverse effects and how they affect obstetric, gynaecological and sexual function and general quality of life. They must also be sensitive towards the psychological and emotional issues relating to FGM. Sociocultural barriers make research and data-collection difficult in a cohort of women who prefer not to discuss or disclose such intimate issues. New guidelines on the management of health consequences in FGM have been published, but evidence is of poor quality. PMID:27615527

  2. Oral contraceptive use and female genital arousal: methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Seal, Brooke N; Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2005-08-01

    This study explored effects of oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use on physiological sexual arousal as measured by a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Sixteen women aged 18-29 viewed audiovisual neutral and erotic stimuli before and an average of 6 weeks following the onset of OCP use. Although subjective measures of sexual arousal, including perceptions of genital arousal, significantly increased in response to erotic stimuli both before and after OCP onset, physiological sexual arousal only increased before OCP use. A comparison of individual responses before and after OCP onset reveals a much higher degree of intrasubject variability after OCP onset. We discuss these findings as they relate to OCP use as a confounding methodological variable to consider in future investigations employing vaginal photoplethysmography. PMID:19817038

  3. Exploring female genital cutting among west African immigrants.

    PubMed

    Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka M

    2014-06-01

    Although many African women immigrate to the United States from countries with high prevalence rates for female genital cutting (FGC), there has been limited research exploring the incidence and impact of FGC among this growing immigrant population. This pilot study sought to examine the experiences of FGC among West African immigrant women in the US. Of the 23 participants, 7 reported a history of FGC, with Muslim participants reporting significantly higher rates of FGC than Christians (Fisher's Exact = .045). Most of the women who had experienced FGC were from Sierra Leone (Fisher's Exact = .027). Limitations of the study are discussed along with suggestions for future research aimed at understanding the impact of FGC, reducing the prevalence and demand for FGC among African immigrant women and improving the health and quality of life of women who have undergone the procedure.

  4. Characterisation of an unusual bacterium isolated from genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Ursi, J P; van Dyck, E; Ballard, R C; Jacob, W; Piot, P; Meheus, A Z

    1982-02-01

    The preliminary characterisation of an unusual gram-negative bacillus isolated from genital ulcers in Swaziland is reported. Like Haemophilus ducreyi, it is an oxidase positive, nitrate-reductase-positive gram-negative rod that forms streptobacillary chains in some circumstances; it was therefore called the "ducreyi-like bacterium" (DLB). Distinguishing features of DLB are production of alpha-haemolysis on horse-blood agar, stimulation of growth by a microaerophilic atmosphere and by a factor produced by Staphylococcus aureus, a strongly positive porphyrin test, and a remarkable ability to undergo autolysis. DLB had a guanine + cytosine value of c. 50 mole% but it cannot be classified, even at the genus level, until more taxonomic data are obtained.

  5. [Microbiological study of male genital ulcers. Apropos of 75 cases].

    PubMed

    Casin, I; Bianchi, A; Ramel, F; Lajoie, C; Chastang, C; Scieux, C; Ferchal, F; Janier, M; Morel, P; Perol, Y

    1990-09-01

    Between November 1986 and June 1987, the microbial aetiology of genital ulcers was assessed in 75 male patients attending the Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) clinic in Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris. Evidence of Haemophilus ducreyi was found in 18 patients (24%), Herpes simplex virus in 19 (25.3%). Syphilis was diagnosed on the basis of dark field microscopy and/or positive serology test in 19 patients (25.3%). Lymphogranuloma venereum was not diagnosed in any patient. Primary pathogens were not identified from the remaining 19 (25.3%) men. Neisseria gonorrhoea was isolated in five patients, from the ulcer in three cases, from the urethra in two. Asymptomatic urethral carriage of Chlamydia trachomatis was culture proven in seven cases. The presence of IgM antibodies to C. trachomatis at a titre greater than 40 found in 17 patients was a indication of a current chlamydial infection. Three patients (4%) were discovered to be HIV-1 positive.

  6. DNA probes for the detection of mycoplasmas in genital specimens.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M C; Hooton, M; Stamm, W; Holmes, K K; Kenny, G E

    1987-06-01

    The utility of whole-genomic DNA probes for the detection of infections by genital mycoplasmas was investigated in 220 men attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic. In 144 patients, probe results were compared with quantitative culture results. The prevalence of Mycoplasma hominis was 11% by culture, whereas the prevalence of ureaplasmas was 38%. The M. hominis DNA probe detected 9 of 16 M. hominis culture-positive specimens and 2 of 128 culture-negative specimens. The Ureaplasma urealyticum DNA probe detected 36 of 57 U. urealyticum culture-positive specimens and 18 of 87 culture-negative specimens. Most of the probe-negative culture-positive specimens had colony counts of less than 10(3) organisms/ml of specimen. The DNA probe does not require viable organisms, and the probe-positive, culture-negative specimens suggest that false-negative cultures occurred, perhaps due to specimen handling or insensitivity of culture methods for some strains of mycoplasmas.

  7. Female genital mutilation: what do we know so far?

    PubMed

    Siddig, Israa

    2016-09-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a practice that is now familiar to UK health professionals. It continues to be a problem in high-risk populations and affects girls and women throughout their lives. Complications related to FGM are poorly reported and documented. Health professionals, therefore, must be aware of the adverse effects and how they affect obstetric, gynaecological and sexual function and general quality of life. They must also be sensitive towards the psychological and emotional issues relating to FGM. Sociocultural barriers make research and data-collection difficult in a cohort of women who prefer not to discuss or disclose such intimate issues. New guidelines on the management of health consequences in FGM have been published, but evidence is of poor quality.

  8. A survey on knowledge of female genital mutilation guidelines.

    PubMed

    Purchase, Thomas C D; Lamoudi, Maya; Colman, Sarah; Allen, Siobhan; Latthe, Pallavi; Jolly, Kate

    2013-07-01

    The increase in immigration from countries with a high prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM) has highlighted the need for knowledge and sensitivity in this area of healthcare in high-resource countries. We have surveyed with an online questionnaire 607 members, fellows and trainees of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) on knowledge about the RCOG guidelines for FGM. Completed training and more practical experience with women affected by FGM significantly increased knowledge. Many respondents were not aware of specialist services locally (22.9%) or how to access them (52.3%). Some areas of insufficient knowledge were identified, in particular in relation to psychiatric morbidity, HIV, hepatitis B and pelvic infection. More specialized training efforts might improve this aspect.

  9. Female genital mutilation: what every paediatrician should know.

    PubMed

    Creighton, Sarah M; Hodes, Deborah

    2016-03-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is almost always performed on children and consequently paediatricians should have a central role in the detection and prevention of FGM. FGM has no health benefits and can cause lifelong damage to physical and psychological health. Extensive migration of FGM practising communities means that FGM is now a global problem. Paediatricians worldwide need to be familiar with the identification and classification of FGM and its impact upon health as well as current trends in practice. However information about FGM is hampered by the secrecy surrounding the procedure and a lack of rigorous evidence based research. This review summarises what is currently known about the health aspects of FGM and how paediatricians should manage children with FGM in their clinical practice.

  10. [Phantoms for the collection of genital secretions in stallions].

    PubMed

    Klug, E; Brinkhoff, D; Flüge, A; Scherbarth, R; Essich, G; Kienzler, M

    1977-10-01

    Practical experiences of the phantom method for collection of genital secretions from stallions are reported. Taking a phantom used in the Richard-Götze-Haus Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover as a prototype two further models slightly modified have been constructed, baring a flat hollow in the right side of the caudal phantom body for manual inserting of the Artificial Vagina. These three models fulfill four important conditions for routine use: (1) sufficient sexual attractivity for the stallions; 80-85% successful collections of presecretions out of a total of 1050 using the dummy and 70% successful semen collections from more than 240 in total; (2) solid and resistant construction; (3) easy cleaning and desinfection of the surface of the phantom to get representative samples; (4) firm installation on a hygienic floor.

  11. Epstein-Barr virus-associated genital ulcers: an under-recognized disorder.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Cheryl J; Alió, Alessandra B; Cunningham, Bari B; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon

    2007-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is the best-known syndrome associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. Although a variety of cutaneous and mucosal manifestations are recognized in infectious mononucleosis, genital ulcers have only rarely been described. We describe an otherwise healthy 14-year-old girl in whom painful genital ulcers developed during an episode of serologically-confirmed primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. Clinical, serologic, and histopathologic evaluation failed to disclose evidence of any other etiologic explanation for her lesions. The patient remains well, without recurrence. To date, only 13 instances of genital ulceration in females attributable to Epstein-Barr virus infection have been reported.

  12. [Genital ulcers in French Guyana. Apropos of 231 cases screened in 2 years].

    PubMed

    Crenn, Y; Zeller, H; Pradinaud, R; Sainte-Marie, D

    1988-01-01

    In fight against Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD), 231 cases of genital ulcers were observed, in 1985 and 1986, in Cayenne (French Guiana) according to a clinical and laboratory study protocol described by the authors. The diagnosis shown, in 146 cases, one STD agent, with a high frequency of chancroid, herpes genitalis and primary syphilis. In addition, 18 cases of mixed genital infections are described: emphasis is laid on the great diversity of these associated diseases. 67 genital ulcers had not been caused by a STD agent, however in each case a complete laboratory investigation was done, and each patient received a treatment according to the diagnosis.

  13. Papillomaviruses and herpesviruses: who is who in genital tumor development of free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)?

    PubMed

    Rehtanz, Manuela; Bossart, Gregory D; Fair, Patricia A; Reif, John S; Ghim, Shin-je; Jenson, Alfred B

    2012-12-01

    The number of studies addressing neoplasia in marine mammals has recently increased, giving rise to concern whether such lesions could be reflective of an emerging infectious disease. Eight species-specific viruses, seven papillomaviruses (PVs) and two herpesviruses (HVs) have separately been shown to be associated with genital tumors in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus, Tt): TtPV1-6, as well as HVs provisionally assigned the names DeHV4 and -5 (Delphinid HVs). A definite causal role of these viruses in cell transformation remains to be demonstrated. Concurrent PV- and HV-infection has never been reported in marine mammals. DNA extractions from biopsies of genital tumors derived from 15 free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins were selected for molecular examination. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses revealed the presence of DeHV4, while a serological screening using an antibody-based TtPV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) demonstrated previous and/or current infection of the HV-positive dolphins with at least one TtPV type. Therefore, care must be taken when drawing conclusions about viral causalities in tumor development, since the "hit and run" and other mechanisms have been described for types of both viral families. This study presents the first evidence of marine mammals having a history of PV- as well as HV-infection and discusses the disputed effects of viral co-infection.

  14. The female genital system of Ooperipatellus decoratus (Onychophora, Peripatopsidae): an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, C; Mummert, R; Ruhberg, H; Storch, V

    2001-08-01

    The female genital system of the oviparous peripatopsid Ooperipatellus decoratus consists of an ovary, oviducts equipped with receptacula seminis and additional pouches, uteri, and a vagina. It is examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The ovary is made up of paired ovarian tubes united anteriorly and posteriorly and differentiated into a sterile dorsal part and a fertile ventral part with exogenous oocytes. Fertilization presumably occurs in the oviducts once the oocytes pass the receptaculum seminis. Although the receptacula seminis have been reported to occur in juvenile O. decoratus females only, the present study reveals that they are present in adult females as well. Their wall consists of a cuboidal epithelium covered with a thin collagen-muscle layer. The additional pouches are projections of the oviducts facing the receptacula seminis. They are distally closed to the haemocoel by a flattened epithelium and lack external muscle cells. A thin collagen layer is only found proximally. The uteri are characterized by a columnar epithelium with folded cell membranes allowing extension of the uteri, thus facilitating the passage of the large uterine eggs towards the vagina. Another dominating feature of the uteri is a distally increasing secretory production, which probably contributes to chorion development. Cilia occurring along the entire length of the uteri are considered to assist in the transport of eggs towards the vagina.

  15. Accumulation of RNA homologous to human papillomavirus type 16 open reading frames in genital precancers

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, C.P.; Nuovo, G.; Friedman, D.; Silverstein, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    The accumulation of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16)-specific RNAs in tissue sections from biopsies of patients with genital precancers was studied by in situ hybridization with single-stranded /sup 35/S-labeled RNA. These analyses revealed that the most abundant early-region RNAs were derived from the E4 and E5 open reading frames (ORFs). RNAs homologous to the E6/E7 ORFs were also detected, whereas RNAs homologous to the intervening E1 ORF were not. This suggest that the E4 and E5 mRNAs are derived by splicing to the upstream E6/E7 ORFs, consistent with studies of HPV-11 in condylomata. Abundant RNAs homologous to the 5' portion of L1 were also detected. These RNAs were localized to the apical strata of the epithelium. HPV-16 RNAs accumulated in discrete regions of these lesions, and when present were most abundant in the upper cell layers of the precancerous epithelium. RNAs homologous to early ORFs were also detected in some germinal cells within the basal layer of the epithelium.

  16. Lipschütz genital ulceration: a rare manifestation of paratyphoid fever.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Fabien; Aubin, François; Puzenat, Eve; Deprez, Philippe; Blanc, Dominique; Estavoyer, Jean-Marie; Humbert, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    In 1913, a distinctive clinical entity of acute genital ulcer occurring in an adolescent girl with a non-venereal infectious aetiology was described by Lipschütz. Since the initial description, several aetiologies have been discussed, and among them, paratyphoid fever is very uncommon. After her return from a trip, a 25-year-old girl developed high fever and diarrhoea. Examination of the vulva revealed a genital ulcer. The rest of the general examination was normal. Blood cultures identified Salmonella paratyphi A, and a diagnosis of Lipschütz's ulcer associated with paratyphoid fever was made. Bacteriaemia was then treated with antibiotics and the vulvar ulceration rapidly disappeared. Lipschütz described a distinctive clinical entity of acute genital ulcers occurring in adolescents. To our knowledge, we report herein the second case associated with proved paratyphoid fever. The authors thus recommend that typhoid or paratyphoid fever should be included in the differential diagnosis of genital ulcerations.

  17. Towards a clean slit: how medicine and notions of normality are shaping female genital aesthetics.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Lindy Joan

    2013-01-01

    In the West, a specific ideal has emerged for female genitalia. The ideal is one of absence, a clean slit that can be attained through the removal of pubic hair and, increasingly, through female genital cosmetic surgery. This ideal is largely created in the media, which generates contradictory messages for women. The popular press, backed by medical opinion, explicitly acknowledges that a wide range of variation is normal--female genitals vary in appearance 'about as much as snowflakes'--but by showing only altered minimalist clean slits, it carries an implicit message that women should be worried if their genitals do not match up to this exacting ideal. Consequently, some women feel their genitals are not satisfactory and choose surgery. Using biomedicine to fix normal body parts in order to fashion desirable femininity, releases medicine from its rigid scientific underpinnings exposing it as an increasingly cultural and commercial pursuit.

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis and Genital Mycoplasmas: Pathogens with an Impact on Human Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica; Meštrović, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    The most prevalent, curable sexually important diseases are those caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) and genital mycoplasmas. An important characteristic of these infections is their ability to cause long-term sequels in upper genital tract, thus potentially affecting the reproductive health in both sexes. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility (TFI), and ectopic pregnancy (EP) are well documented complications of C. trachomatis infection in women. The role of genital mycoplasmas in development of PID, TFI, and EP requires further evaluation, but growing evidence supports a significant role for these in the pathogenesis of chorioamnionitis, premature membrane rupture, and preterm labor in pregnant woman. Both C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas can affect the quality of sperm and possibly influence the fertility of men. For the purpose of this paper, basic, epidemiologic, clinical, therapeutic, and public health issue of these infections were reviewed and discussed, focusing on their impact on human reproductive health. PMID:25614838

  19. Organising activities of engrailed, hedgehog, wingless and decapentaplegic in the genital discs of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Emerald, B S; Roy, J K

    1998-11-01

    The genes engrailed (en), hedgehog (hh), wingless (wg) and decapentaplegic (dpp) have been shown to play vital organising roles in the development and differentiation of thoracic imaginal discs. We have analysed the roles of these genes in organising the development and differentiation of the genital discs, which are bilaterally symmetrical and possess different primordia, namely, the male and female genital primordia and an anal primordium. Our results suggest that the organising activity of en in genital discs programs the normal development and differentiation of the genital disc by regulating the expression of hh. Hh in turn induces wg and dpp, the genes whose products act as secondary signalling molecules. Moreover, the complementary patterns of wg and dpp expression are essential for the bilateral symmetry and are maintained by mutual repression.

  20. Genital ulcers, stigma, HIV, and STI control in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    O'Farrell, N

    2002-04-01

    HIV associated stigma is still prevalent throughout Africa despite the spread of the epidemic. Stigma is also attached to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Despite the importance of STIs, particularly genital ulceration in facilitating heterosexual HIV transmission, policymakers continue to focus mainly on other priorities. It would appear that this lack of public health initiative in tackling genital ulcers is itself an example of stigmatisation. Possible explanations for this include geographical variation in the data and a perception that genital ulcers are not a topic that can be discussed freely and openly. HIV policymakers in countries worst affected by HIV in Africa should examine their own opinions for bias when determining public health priorities for HIV prevention. The importance of genital ulcers should be reassessed and publicised.

  1. Condom use prevents genital ulcers in women working as prostitutes. Influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Cameron, D W; Ngugi, E N; Ronald, A R; Simonsen, J N; Braddick, M; Bosire, M; Kimata, J; Kamala, J; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Waiyaki, P G

    1991-01-01

    Control of genital ulcer disease (GUD) is a proposed intervention to slow the dissemination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Programs for the control of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) should focus on groups of high-frequency transmitters, such as prostitutes and their clientele. This study illustrates the interaction between the prevalence of chancroid, use of barrier prophylaxis against STDs, and HIV infection in a population of female prostitutes in Nairobi. Four hundred and twenty three women were evaluated. Despite the increased use of condoms, the prevalence of genital ulcers remained constant between 1986-87 and 1987-88. Genital ulcer disease was simultaneously associated with HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio: 3.7, P less than .01) whereas it was independently and inversely associated with more consistent condom use (P less than .01). The authors conclude that genital ulcer disease can be controlled in these populations but concurrent HIV infection increases the difficulty of this intervention.

  2. Excessive bleeding from genital ulcers of Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Bostankolu, A; Aksungur, V L; Aksungur, E H; Ozpoyraz, M; Yücel, A; Memisoglu, H R

    1997-09-01

    Although genital ulcers are a common manifestation of Behçet's disease, bleeding from these lesions is unusual. In this report, a patient with excessive bleeding from genital ulcers is presented. A 22-year-old man with recurrent oral and genital ulcers, erythema nodosum, folliculitis, positive pathergic reaction, uveitis, superior vena cava syndrome, and generalized lymphadenopathy fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of Behçet's disease. Three years after presenting he was admitted to our clinic with excessive bleeding from large ulcers on the scrotum and upper thighs and with a leg ulcer. Bleeding was controlled with compresses. Examination of a biopsy specimen obtained from the leg ulcer showed findings consistent with Kaposi-like acroangiodermatitis. Results of various radiologic investigations showed thrombosis of the inferior vena cava, peritesticular varicosities, and venous insufficiency of the lower extremities. We suggest that the bleeding was secondary to the extension of genital ulcers to the varicose veins.

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconversion in women with genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Plourde, P J; Pepin, J; Agoki, E; Ronald, A R; Ombette, J; Tyndall, M; Cheang, M; Ndinya-Achola, J O; D'Costa, L J; Plummer, F A

    1994-08-01

    Genital ulcers are implicated as a risk factor enhancing susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. A prospective study to determine the incidence of and risk factors associated with acquisition of HIV-1 in women with genital ulcers was done. HIV-1-seronegative women with genital ulcers attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Nairobi were followed to HIV-1 seroconversion over a 6-month period. Of 81 women, 10 seroconverted to HIV-1. The crude 6-month incidence of HIV-1 infection was 12%. Risk factors associated with seroconversion included cervical ectopy (rate ratio [RR], 4.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-15.6) and pelvic inflammatory disease (RR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.9-20.4). Thus, cervical ectopy and pelvic inflammatory disease may increase susceptibility to HIV-1 in women with genital ulcers.

  4. Chlamydia muridarum Infection Associated Host MicroRNAs in the Murine Genital Tract and Contribution to Generation of Host Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rishein; Arkatkar, Tanvi; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Wali, Shradha; Haskins, William E.; Chambers, James P.; Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Bakar, Sazaly Abu; Guentzel, M. Neal; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

    2014-01-01

    Problem Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the leading sexually transmitted bacterial infection in humans and is associated with reproductive tract damage. However, little is known about the involvement and regulation of microRNAs (miRs) in genital CT. Methods We analyzed miRs in the genital tract (GT) following C. muridarum (murine strain of CT) challenge of wild type (WT), and CD4+ T cell deficient (CD4−/−) C57BL/6 mice at days 6 and 12 post challenge. Results At day 6, miRs significantly downregulated in the lower GT were miR-125b-5p, −16, −214, −23b, −135a, −182, −183, −30c, and −30e while −146 and −451 were significantly upregulated, profiles not exhibited at day 12 post bacterial challenge. Significant differences in miR-125b-5p (+5.06 fold change), −135a (+4.9), −183 (+7.9), and −182 (+3.2) were observed in C. muridarum infected CD4−/− compared to WT mice. In silico prediction and mass spectrometry revealed regulation of miR-135a and −182 and associated proteins i.e, Heat Shock Protein B1 and Alpha-2HS-Glycoprotein. Conclusion This study provides evidence on regulation of miRs following genital chlamydial infection suggesting a role in pathogenesis and host immunity. PMID:24976530

  5. Protection provided by a herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein C and D subunit antigen vaccine against genital HSV-2 infection in HSV-1-seropositive guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Sita; Balliet, John W; Flynn, Jessica A; Lubinski, John M; Shaw, Carolyn E; DiStefano, Daniel J; Cai, Michael; Brown, Martha; Smith, Judith F; Kowalski, Rose; Swoyer, Ryan; Galli, Jennifer; Copeland, Victoria; Rios, Sandra; Davidson, Robert C; Salnikova, Maya; Kingsley, Susan; Bryan, Janine; Casimiro, Danilo R; Friedman, Harvey M

    2014-02-01

    A prophylactic vaccine for genital herpes disease remains an elusive goal. We report the results of two studies performed collaboratively in different laboratories that assessed immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy in herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)-seropositive guinea pigs immunized and subsequently challenged intravaginally with HSV-2. In study 1, HSV-2 glycoproteins C (gC2) and D (gD2) were produced in baculovirus and administered intramuscularly as monovalent or bivalent vaccines with CpG and alum. In study 2, gD2 was produced in CHO cells and given intramuscularly with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and alum, or gC2 and gD2 were produced in glycoengineered Pichia pastoris and administered intramuscularly as a bivalent vaccine with Iscomatrix and alum to HSV-1-naive or -seropositive guinea pigs. In both studies, immunization boosted neutralizing antibody responses to HSV-1 and HSV-2. In study 1, immunization with gC2, gD2, or both immunogens significantly reduced the frequency of genital lesions, with the bivalent vaccine showing the greatest protection. In study 2, both vaccines were highly protective against genital disease in naive and HSV-1-seropositive animals. Comparisons between gD2 and gC2/gD2 in study 2 must be interpreted cautiously, because different adjuvants, gD2 doses, and antigen production methods were used; however, significant differences invariably favored the bivalent vaccine. Immunization of naive animals with gC2/gD2 significantly reduced the number of days of vaginal shedding of HSV-2 DNA compared with that for mock-immunized animals. Surprisingly, in both studies, immunization of HSV-1-seropositive animals had little effect on recurrent vaginal shedding of HSV-2 DNA, despite significantly reducing genital disease. PMID:24284325

  6. A six-year experience with anal cytology in women with HPV in the lower genital tract: utility, limitations, and clinical correlation.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, L H; Carballo, P; Lorenzo, M C Cabral; García, A; Suzuki, V; Tatti, S; Vighi, S; Díaz, L B

    2014-05-01

    This study assessed the utility and limitations of anal cytology as a screening method for women infected with human papilloma virus (HPV) in the lower genital tract. Furthermore, this study aimed to establish risk factors for pathological anal cytology/biopsy findings, the prevalence of anatomopathological lesions associated with positive anal brushings, and the frequency of concomitant lesions of the lower genital tract. A cross-sectional, retrospective, descriptive study in 207 women with HPV-associated lesions of the lower genital tract and 25 women with immunosuppression was carried out. Anal cytology, high resolution anoscopy, and biopsy of suspicious lesions were performed. In total, 232 anal brushings were performed: 184 (79.3%) were negative, 24 (10.34%) showed atypical squamous cells of undeterminated significance, 18 (7.7%) showed low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 6 (2.6%) showed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Cytohistological correlation was obtained for 70 cases. The sensitivity of anal cytology in detecting intraepithelial lesions was 70%, whereas the specificity was 93%. The sensitivity of the method for detecting high-grade lesions (84%) was higher, than that for detecting low-grade lesions (66%). The most frequently associated pathology was vulvar lesion. It is important to perform anal brushings in women who have had lower genital tract biopsies for HPV-associated lesions due to the high prevalence of anal lesions in such patients. Anal cytology is useful for detecting high-grade lesions but the sensitivity for detecting low-grade lesions is low. It is of the utmost importance to perform high-resolution anoscopy and biopsy in women with suspicious lesions in order to confirm the pathology.

  7. Condition dependence of male and female genital structures in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Cayetano, L; Bonduriansky, R

    2015-07-01

    Theory predicts that costly secondary sexual traits will evolve heightened condition dependence, and many studies have reported strong condition dependence of signal and weapon traits in a variety of species. However, although genital structures often play key roles in intersexual interactions and appear to be subject to sexual or sexually antagonistic selection, few studies have examined the condition dependence of genital structures, especially in both sexes simultaneously. We investigated the responses of male and female genital structures to manipulation of larval diet quality (new versus once-used mung beans) in the bruchid seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We quantified effects on mean relative size and static allometry of the male aedeagus, aedeagal spines, flap and paramere and the female reproductive tract and bursal spines. None of the male traits showed a significant effect of diet quality. In females, we found that longer bursal spines (relative to body size) were expressed on low-quality diet. Although the function of bursal spines is poorly understood, we suggest that greater bursal spine length in low-condition females may represent a sexually antagonistic adaptation. Overall, we found no evidence that genital traits in C. maculatus are expressed to a greater extent when nutrients are more abundant. This suggests that, even though some genital traits appear to function as secondary sexual traits, genital traits do not exhibit heightened condition dependence in this species. We discuss possible reasons for this finding.

  8. Applications and Therapeutic Actions of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Women with Genital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chenfang; Zhang, Yuehui; Yu, Yang; Han, Fengjuan

    2014-01-01

    Genital infection is a common worldwide disease among females with clinical features such as bilateral lower abdominal tenderness, abnormal vaginal or cervical discharge, fever, abnormal vaginal bleeding, dyspareunia, vaginal itching, and adnexal tenderness, which can significantly impair women's health and quality of life. Genital infection is commonly treated with antibiotics, leading to an imbalance in gut flora due to prolonged use of antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to discover safe and efficacious alternative treatment strategies for patients with genital infection. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming increasingly prevalent among women with genital infection. CAM has interested the western mainstream medical community because of its less invasive, safe, effective, economical, and convenient therapies. CAM focuses on the prevention and treatment of disease and has become an important force in treating chronic disease. During the last few decades, the popularity of CAM has gradually increased. To further understand the efficacy of CAM in treating genital infection, our paper will review the current progress of treating genital infection including vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) with CAM therapies. Several CAM strategies including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), acupuncture, Psychology interference, and physical therapy are introduced in this review. PMID:24648850

  9. Vaginal calculus following severe form of female genital mutilation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Lukman; Negash, Sheferaw

    2008-04-01

    We present a case of vaginal calculus formation following an initial insult of female genital mutilation (FGM) and crocodile bite to the external genital. A literature review made with regards to acute and late complication of female genital mutilation. Female genital cutting existed as early as the 5th century B.C. This ritualistic practice has affected the physical, mental, and social well being of women and undermined the basic reproductive and sexual health rights of the female population. Worldwide, 85-114 million girls and young women are subjected to this dreadful practice. It is mostly practiced in Africa and Middle East. Various authors classify female genital cutting differently. The World Health Organization classifies FGM in to FOUR types. Female genital mutilation is associated with immediate, intermediate and long-term complications (1-4). The complications are strongly related to the variant of the mutilation, especially of the third and the fourth types where introcision or vaginal scraping is performed. Vaginal calculus formation is a rare phenomenon. Our patient had a total obliteration of the introitus, vaginal calculus formation and urethra-vaginal fistula, which were surgically managed and corrected PMID:21309209

  10. Male genital morphology and its influence on female mating preferences and paternity success in guppies.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Clelia; Pilastro, Andrea; Evans, Jonathan P

    2011-01-01

    In internally fertilizing species male genitalia often show a higher degree of elaboration than required for simply transferring sperm to females. Among the hypotheses proposed to explain such diversity, sexual selection has received the most empirical support, with studies revealing that genital morphology can be targeted by both pre-and postcopulatory sexual selection. Until now, most studies have focused on these two episodes of selection independently. Here, we take an alternative approach by considering both components simultaneously in the livebearing fish, Poecilia reticulata. We allowed females to mate successively (and cooperatively) with two males and determined whether male genital length influenced the female's propensity to mate with a male (precopulatory selection, via female choice) and whether male genital size and shape predicted the relative paternity share of subsequent broods (postcopulatory selection, via sperm competition/cryptic female choice). We found no evidence that either episode of sexual selection targets male genital size or shape. These findings, in conjunction with our recent work exposing a role of genital morphology in mediating unsolicited (forced) matings in guppies, further supports our prior speculation that sexual conflict may be an important broker of genital evolution in this species.

  11. Mutational screening of the Wilms's tumour gene, WT1, in males with genital abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, P A; Davies, H R; Williams, D M; Chaudhary, R; Hughes, I A; Patterson, M N

    1993-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the Wilms's tumour susceptibility gene, WT1, has an important role in genital as well as kidney development. WT1 is expressed in developing kidney and genital tissues. Furthermore, mutations in WT1 have been detected in patients with the Denys-Drash syndrome (DDS), which is characterised by nephropathy, genital abnormalities, and Wilms's tumour. It is possible that WT1 mutations may cause genital abnormalities in the absence of kidney dysfunction. We tested this hypothesis by screening the WT1 gene for mutation in 12 46,XY patients with various forms of genital abnormality. Using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) we did not detect any WT1 mutations in these patients. However, in addition to the 12 patients, three DDS patients were also analysed using SSCP, and in all three cases heterozygous WT1 mutations were found which would be predicted to disrupt the DNA binding activity of WT1 protein. These results support the notion that DDS results from a dominant WT1 mutation. However, WT1 mutations are unlikely to be a common cause of male genital abnormalities when these are not associated with kidney abnormalities. Images PMID:8411073

  12. Targeted interventions required against genital ulcers in African countries worst affected by HIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    O'Farrell, N.

    2001-01-01

    It remains unclear why there is such marked variation in the severity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic between African countries. The prevalence of HIV infection has reached high levels in many parts of southern Africa but in most countries of West Africa the levels are much lower. Although there is good evidence that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital ulcers in particular facilitate heterosexual transmission of HIV, there is little comparative STI data from the African countries worst affected by HIV infection. A MEDLINE search covering the period 1966 to August 2000 using the keywords "sexually transmitted diseases", "genital ulcers" and "Africa" was performed to identify factors that might be relevant to the spread of HIV infection in countries with the highest prevalences of the virus. In the countries worst affected by HIV infection, the proportions of men and women with STI who had genital ulcers lay in the ranges 45-68% and 13-68%, respectively. The proportions were much lower in countries of West Africa than in those of southern Africa. The African countries worst affected by HIV infection should adopt a more specialized approach to STI control than hitherto and specifically target the high incidence of genital ulceration. Locally, technical STI committees should draw up country-specific guidelines taking into account the prevalence of the various causes of genital ulceration. In these countries, national AIDS control programmes and donor agencies should develop a specific focus for decreasing the incidence of genital ulcer disease. PMID:11436480

  13. Gata4 Is Required for Formation of the Genital Ridge in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yueh-Chiang; Okumura, Leah M.; Page, David C.

    2013-01-01

    In mammals, both testis and ovary arise from a sexually undifferentiated precursor, the genital ridge, which first appears during mid-gestation as a thickening of the coelomic epithelium on the ventromedial surface of the mesonephros. At least four genes (Lhx9, Sf1, Wt1, and Emx2) have been demonstrated to be required for subsequent growth and maintenance of the genital ridge. However, no gene has been shown to be required for the initial thickening of the coelomic epithelium during genital ridge formation. We report that the transcription factor GATA4 is expressed in the coelomic epithelium of the genital ridge, progressing in an anterior-to-posterior (A-P) direction, immediately preceding an A-P wave of epithelial thickening. Mouse embryos conditionally deficient in Gata4 show no signs of gonadal initiation, as their coelomic epithelium remains a morphologically undifferentiated monolayer. The failure of genital ridge formation in Gata4-deficient embryos is corroborated by the absence of the early gonadal markers LHX9 and SF1. Our data indicate that GATA4 is required to initiate formation of the genital ridge in both XX and XY fetuses, prior to its previously reported role in testicular differentiation of the XY gonad. PMID:23874227

  14. Targeted interventions required against genital ulcers in African countries worst affected by HIV infection.

    PubMed

    O'Farrell, N

    2001-01-01

    It remains unclear why there is such marked variation in the severity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic between African countries. The prevalence of HIV infection has reached high levels in many parts of southern Africa but in most countries of West Africa the levels are much lower. Although there is good evidence that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital ulcers in particular facilitate heterosexual transmission of HIV, there is little comparative STI data from the African countries worst affected by HIV infection. A MEDLINE search covering the period 1966 to August 2000 using the keywords "sexually transmitted diseases", "genital ulcers" and "Africa" was performed to identify factors that might be relevant to the spread of HIV infection in countries with the highest prevalences of the virus. In the countries worst affected by HIV infection, the proportions of men and women with STI who had genital ulcers lay in the ranges 45-68% and 13-68%, respectively. The proportions were much lower in countries of West Africa than in those of southern Africa. The African countries worst affected by HIV infection should adopt a more specialized approach to STI control than hitherto and specifically target the high incidence of genital ulceration. Locally, technical STI committees should draw up country-specific guidelines taking into account the prevalence of the various causes of genital ulceration. In these countries, national AIDS control programmes and donor agencies should develop a specific focus for decreasing the incidence of genital ulcer disease.

  15. Natural selection and genital variation: a role for the environment, parasites and sperm ageing?

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Male genitalia are more variable between species (and populations) than other organs, and are more morphologically complex in polygamous compared to monogamous species. Therefore, sexual selection has been put forward as the major explanation of genital variation and complexity, in particular cryptic female choice for male copulatory courtship. As cryptic female choice is based on differences between males it is somewhat paradoxical that there is such low within-species variation in male genitalia that they are a prime morphological identification character for animal species. Processes other than sexual selection may also lead to genitalia variation but they have recently become neglected. Here I focus on pleiotropy and natural selection and provide examples how they link genitalia morphology with genital environments. Pleiotropy appears to be important because most studies that specifically tested for pleiotropic effects on genital morphology found them. Natural selection likely favours certain genital morphology over others in various environments, as well as by reducing re-infection with sexually transmitted diseases or reducing the likelihood of fertilisation with aged sperm. Both pleiotropy and natural selection differ locally and between species so may contribute to local variation in genitalia and sometimes variation between monogamous and polygamous species. Furthermore, the multitude of genital environments will lead to a multitude of genital functions via natural selection and pleiotropy, and may also contribute to explaining the complexity of genitalia.

  16. Applications and therapeutic actions of complementary and alternative medicine for women with genital infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenfang; Zhang, Yuehui; Kong, Sai; Tsui, Ilene; Yu, Yang; Han, Fengjuan

    2014-01-01

    Genital infection is a common worldwide disease among females with clinical features such as bilateral lower abdominal tenderness, abnormal vaginal or cervical discharge, fever, abnormal vaginal bleeding, dyspareunia, vaginal itching, and adnexal tenderness, which can significantly impair women's health and quality of life. Genital infection is commonly treated with antibiotics, leading to an imbalance in gut flora due to prolonged use of antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to discover safe and efficacious alternative treatment strategies for patients with genital infection. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming increasingly prevalent among women with genital infection. CAM has interested the western mainstream medical community because of its less invasive, safe, effective, economical, and convenient therapies. CAM focuses on the prevention and treatment of disease and has become an important force in treating chronic disease. During the last few decades, the popularity of CAM has gradually increased. To further understand the efficacy of CAM in treating genital infection, our paper will review the current progress of treating genital infection including vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) with CAM therapies. Several CAM strategies including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), acupuncture, Psychology interference, and physical therapy are introduced in this review.

  17. Female genital mutilation: knowledge, attitude and practice among nurses.

    PubMed Central

    Onuh, Sunday O.; Igberase, Gabriel O.; Umeora, Joaness O. U.; Okogbenin, Sylvanus A.; Otoide, Valentine O.; Gharoro, Etedafe P.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation (FGM) and cutting is a subject of global interest, with many countries of the world still practicing it despite efforts by the WHO and other agencies to discourage the practice. The highest known prevalence is in Africa. OBJECTIVES: To determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of FGM among nurses in the ancient metropolis of Benin in a Nigerian state where FGM is illegal. RESULTS: One-hundred-ninety-three nurses in the study hospital were recruited in the study out of which 182 (94.3%) appropriately filled and returned the questionnaires. The average age of respondents was 37 years, and the average duration of postgraduation experience was 14.5 years. Most respondents are of Bini (36.8%) and Esan (34.1%) ethnic origin. All respondents identified at least one form of FGM, but only 12 respondents (6.6%) could correctly identify the four types of FGM. The harmful effects of FGM identified by the majority of respondents include hemorrhage, difficult labor/childbirth, genital tears, infections and scar/keloid formation. Forty-four (24.2%) of respondents were of the opinion that some forms of FGM are harmless. Eighty nurses admitted to having undergone FGM, for a prevalence of 44%. Five respondents (2.8%) view FGM as a good practice and will encourage the practice. Twelve respondents (6.6%) routinely perform FGM out of which seven (58.3%) viewed FGM as a bad practice. Nurses performing FGM routinely were those who had spent >20 years (59%) and 11-20 years (41%) in the profession. Another 26 (14.3%) had performed FGM before, though not on a routine basis. Of this latter group, 15 will perform FGM in the future when faced with certain circumstances. Reasons for FGM practice were mainly cultural. Eight of the respondents would have their daughters circumcised. CONCLUSION: Nurses perceive FGM in Benin as cultural. Almost half have had FGM themselves, and a small percentage recommend it to their daughters. Discouraging FGM practice

  18. Lower Female Genital Tract Tumors With Adenoid Cystic Differentiation: P16 Expression and High-risk HPV Detection.

    PubMed

    Xing, Deyin; Schoolmeester, J Kenneth; Ren, Zhiyong; Isacson, Christina; Ronnett, Brigitte M

    2016-04-01

    Lower female genital tract tumors with adenoid cystic differentiation are rare, and data on their relationship with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) are limited. Here we report the clinicopathologic features from a case series. Tumors with adenoid cystic differentiation, either pure or as part of a carcinoma with mixed differentiation, arising in the lower female genital tract were evaluated by means of immunohistochemical analysis for p16 expression and in situ hybridization using 1 or more probes for high-risk HPV (a high-risk probe covering multiple types, a wide-spectrum probe, and separate type-specific probes for HPV16 and HPV18) and when possible by polymerase chain reaction for high-risk HPV. Six cervical carcinomas with adenoid cystic differentiation admixed with various combinations of at least 1 other pattern of differentiation, including adenoid basal tumor (epithelioma and/or carcinoma), squamous cell carcinoma (basaloid or keratinizing), and small cell carcinoma were identified in patients ranging in age from 50 to 86 years (mean, 73 y; median, 76 y). All of these tumors were characterized by diffuse p16 expression. High-risk HPV was detected in 5 of 6 tested cases: 4 cases by in situ hybridization (all positive for HPV-wide-spectrum and HPV16) and 1 by polymerase chain reaction (HPV45). Seven pure adenoid cystic carcinomas (6 vulvar and 1 cervical) were identified in patients ranging in age from 27 to 74 years (mean, 48 y; median, 48 y). All of these tumors were characterized by variable p16 expression ranging from very limited to more extensive but never diffuse. No high-risk HPV was detected in any of these pure tumors. Lower female genital tract carcinomas with adenoid cystic differentiation appear to comprise 2 pathogenetically distinct groups. Cervical carcinomas with mixed differentiation, including adenoid cystic, adenoid basal, squamous, and small cell components, are etiologically related to high-risk HPV and can be identified by diffuse

  19. Genital panics: constructing the vagina in women's qualitative narratives about pubic hair, menstrual sex, and vaginal self-image.

    PubMed

    Fahs, Breanne

    2014-06-01

    An emerging body of research targets women's relationship to their genitals, particularly as pubic hair removal and the promotion of female genital surgeries increase in popularity and visibility. This study asked women to discuss their subjective feelings about three related but distinct genital attitudes: pubic hair grooming, sex during menstruation, and genital/vaginal self-image. Specifically, this study applied thematic analysis to qualitative interviews with a community sample of 20 women (mean age=34, SD=13.35) from diverse ages, races, and sexual identity backgrounds to illuminate seven themes in women's narratives about their vaginas: (1) "dirty" or "gross"; (2) needing maintenance; (3) unknown or frustrating; (4) unnatural; (5) comparative; (6) ambivalent; (7) affirmative. Overwhelmingly, women used strong emotional language when discussing their genitals, often evoking descriptions of anxiety, excess, and need for control. Fusions between sexuality and body image, and connections between "genital panics" and internalized racism, sexism, and homophobia, also appeared.

  20. Development of an in vitro dual-chamber model of the female genital tract as a screening tool for epithelial toxicity.

    PubMed

    Gali, Youssef; Ariën, Kevin K; Praet, Marleen; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Temmerman, Marleen; Delezay, Olivier; Vanham, Guido

    2010-05-01

    Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is the predominant mode of infection worldwide. However, the early steps of transepithelial infection still need to be clarified. Using epithelial cells, originating from the female genital tract, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells as subepithelial target cells, an in vitro dual-chamber model of the female genital tract was developed. Remarkably, an intact layer of some cell types (HEC-1A, CaSki and Ect1) served as a protective barrier against cell-free but not against cell-associated HIV-1 that crossed the epithelial barrier through transmigration. Furthermore, dysfunctions of the epithelial layers were assessed by monitoring transepithelial electric resistance and transepithelial passage of FluoSpheres and HIV-1 after treatment with nonoxynol-9 (N-9). Most of the functional assays showed dysfunction of the epithelial barrier at lower concentrations compared to a widely used colorimetric toxicity assay (WST-1). Finally, N-9 treatment caused a significant increase in the production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha (MIP-3alpha) and a decrease of Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI) and Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (MCP-1) in this model. In conclusion, this model is a useful tool to (1) study HIV-1 transmission mechanisms and (2) evaluate epithelial toxicity of candidate microbicides. PMID:20138087

  1. Multifunctional RNA Processing Protein SRm160 Induces Apoptosis and Regulates Eye and Genital Development in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yu-Jie; Gittis, Aryn H.; Juge, François; Qiu, Chen; Xu, Yong-Zhen; Rabinow, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    SRm160 is an SR-like protein implicated in multiple steps of RNA processing and nucleocytoplasmic export. Although its biochemical functions have been extensively described, its genetic interactions and potential participation in signaling pathways remain largely unknown, despite the fact that it is highly phosphorylated in both mammalian cells and Drosophila. To begin elucidating the functions of the protein in signaling and its potential role in developmental processes, we characterized mutant and overexpression SRm160 phenotypes in Drosophila and their interactions with the locus encoding the LAMMER protein kinase, Doa. SRm160 mutations are recessive lethal, while its overexpression generates phenotypes including roughened eyes and highly disorganized internal eye structure, which are due at least in part to aberrantly high levels of apoptosis. SRm160 is required for normal somatic sex determination, since its alleles strongly enhance a subtle sex transformation phenotype induced by Doa kinase alleles. Moreover, modification of SRm160 by DOA kinase appears to be necessary for its activity, since Doa alleles suppress phenotypes induced by SRm160 overexpression in the eye and enhance those in genital discs. Modification of SRm160 may occur through direct interaction because DOA kinase phosphorylates it in vitro. Remarkably, SRm160 protein was concentrated in the nuclei of precellular embryos but was very rapidly excluded from nuclei or degraded coincident with cellularization. Also of interest, transcripts are restricted almost exclusively to the developing nervous system in mature embryos. PMID:24907259

  2. Genital infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analyses.

    PubMed

    Asano, Hiroshi; Kaneuchi, Masanori; Furuta, Itsuko; Yamaya, Yukie; Hatanaka, Kanako C; Takeda, Mahito; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Sakuragi, Noriaki

    2014-05-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is estimated to infect approximately 1% of the global population. In Japan, the prevalence of amebic dysentery has been increasing, with more than 800 patients newly diagnosed annually. However, genital infection with E. histolytica is uncommon even in endemic areas. We present a case of vaginitis caused by E. histolytica. A 50-year-old Japanese woman without history of overseas travel presented to a nearby clinic with increased vaginal discharge. She had hemorrhagic erosion at the uterine cervix with yellowish vaginal discharge, and was referred to our hospital for exclusion of malignancy. Cervical cytology revealed periodic acid-Schiff-positive protozoa not aggregating around squamous cells, and thus amebic vaginitis was suspected. We performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses and identified E. histolytica. The vaginitis was treated with metronidazole, and the disappearance of amebic protozoa was confirmed by cytology and PCR. Therefore, it may be important to obtain early diagnosis by cervical cytology and PCR.

  3. Absence of progesterone effects on chlamydial genital infection in female guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Pasley, J N; Rank, R G; Hough, A J; Cohen, C; Barron, A L

    1985-01-01

    The effect of progesterone alone and in combination with estradiol was investigated in ovariectomized and gonadally intact female guinea pigs infected with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). The course of the infection, as determined by the percentage of cells with GPIC (chlamydia) inclusions in Giemsa-stained vaginal scrapings, was not affected in animals receiving 5.0 mg of progesterone daily. Progesterone had no influence on the enhancement of infection by estradiol. In comparison with sesame oil-treated controls, infection was prolonged by four to six days (P less than .05) in animals receiving a combination of 5.0 mg of progesterone plus 1.0 microgram of estradiol or 1.0 microgram of estradiol alone each day. In ovariectomized animals, estradiol delayed the appearance of IgA antibody in genital secretions, whereas progesterone alone had no effect. Guinea pigs treated with estradiol or progesterone plus estradiol manifested an acute endometritis not observed in animals treated with progesterone alone or in controls receiving sesame oil. Although cervical ectopy, analogous to that seen in women with high levels of progesterone, was identified by histopathology in animals treated with progesterone, no enhancement of the chlamydial infection was observed.

  4. Multifunctional RNA processing protein SRm160 induces apoptosis and regulates eye and genital development in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yu-Jie; Gittis, Aryn H; Juge, François; Qiu, Chen; Xu, Yong-Zhen; Rabinow, Leonard

    2014-08-01

    SRm160 is an SR-like protein implicated in multiple steps of RNA processing and nucleocytoplasmic export. Although its biochemical functions have been extensively described, its genetic interactions and potential participation in signaling pathways remain largely unknown, despite the fact that it is highly phosphorylated in both mammalian cells and Drosophila. To begin elucidating the functions of the protein in signaling and its potential role in developmental processes, we characterized mutant and overexpression SRm160 phenotypes in Drosophila and their interactions with the locus encoding the LAMMER protein kinase, Doa. SRm160 mutations are recessive lethal, while its overexpression generates phenotypes including roughened eyes and highly disorganized internal eye structure, which are due at least in part to aberrantly high levels of apoptosis. SRm160 is required for normal somatic sex determination, since its alleles strongly enhance a subtle sex transformation phenotype induced by Doa kinase alleles. Moreover, modification of SRm160 by DOA kinase appears to be necessary for its activity, since Doa alleles suppress phenotypes induced by SRm160 overexpression in the eye and enhance those in genital discs. Modification of SRm160 may occur through direct interaction because DOA kinase phosphorylates it in vitro. Remarkably, SRm160 protein was concentrated in the nuclei of precellular embryos but was very rapidly excluded from nuclei or degraded coincident with cellularization. Also of interest, transcripts are restricted almost exclusively to the developing nervous system in mature embryos. PMID:24907259

  5. Detection of human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid in the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Czeglédy, J; Gergely, L; Hernádi, Z; Póka, R

    1989-01-01

    A total of 336 biopsies, scrapes and exfoliated cells from the cervix and from the lower genital tract were screened for human papilloma (HP) viral sequences of types 6, 11, 16 and 18 by Southern blot, dot blot and filter in situ (FISH) hybridizations with cloned 32P-radiolabeled HPV DNA probes. The specimens included cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN I-III), carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma of the cervix and vagina, adenocarcinomas, vulvar and vaginal condylomata acuminata and healthy epithelial samples. The oncogenic HPV 16 was found in 46% of the cervical carcinomas. Most of the type 16 occurrences (75%) represented the third stage of inoperable cases. Similarly, HPV 18 was also most frequently present in this stage as well as in carcinoma in situ and in CIN III (25%, 18%). At the same time, in condylomata acuminata, types 6 and 11 were detectable in 88.7% of cares. In all, 13.5% of the normal samples harboured HPV DNA. PMID:2559306

  6. Comparison of a DNA probe with culture for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis directly from genital specimens.

    PubMed

    Gratton, C A; Lim-Fong, R; Prasad, E; Kibsey, P C

    1990-02-01

    A study was conducted to compare results between culture methods and the Gen-Probe (Gen-Probe Inc. San Diego, California) chemiluminescent technique of nucleic acid hybridization to identify Chlamydia trachomatis from genital specimens from 117 females and 70 males. Specimens collected from sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and infertility clinics were randomized as to whether probe or culture swabs were collected first. The Gen-Probe demonstrated a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 75% in the female population and a sensitivity of 68% and a specificity of 75% in the male population when compared to the reference culture method using cycloheximide-treated McCoy cells. Gen-Probe had an overall sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 75% when the two groups were combined. Chlamydiazyme (Abbott Labs) results were obtained on 135 specimens; 90 of which correlated with probe and culture. The remaining 45 specimens had varying combinations of probe, culture and Chlamydiazyme results. MicroTrak (Syva) was done on 49 specimens; 35 of which correlated with probe and culture. The remaining 14 specimens had varying combinations of probe, culture and MicroTrak results. The apparent lack of sensitivity of the DNA probe is a major drawback of this system. PMID:2179711

  7. Spermiophagic activity in the female genital system of some species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Halophilosciidae).

    PubMed

    Mazzei, Veronica; Longo, Guglielmo; Brundo, Maria Violetta

    2014-08-01

    The females of some species of the family Halophilosciidae receive in the course of mating a quantity of sperm considerably redundant with respect to the number of eggs that can be fertilized; this is possible thanks to the peculiar morpho-functional organization that characterizes their genital system and that allows them to store the sperm not only in the great seminal receptacle but also within the ovary. While most of the sperm stay free in the lumen of the seminal receptacle, a part of those present in the ovary undergoes a process of capture by the follicular cells with consequent internalization within endocellular cavities. This process concerns exclusively the immotile tail, that characterizes the peculiar spermatozoon of the isopods and which is essentially of proteic nature. After their capture the sperm tails undergo a gradual process of digestion, which seems to be apparently realized without the intervention of lysosomes. The possible role of this spermiophagic activity might be to represent a significant trophic paternal investment aimed at improving the fitness of the female and of the offsprings.

  8. Promiscuous primates engage in same-sex genital interactions.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, Geoff R; Vasey, Paul L

    2016-05-01

    Same-sex genital interactions (SSGIs) occur across the order primates, yet explaining their maintenance in evolutionary terms appears problematic; as such interactions seem to counteract reproductive goals. We hypothesised that in more promiscuous species, where sexual motivation, mating effort, and non-conceptive heterosexual behaviour are greater, SSGIs may also occur at greater frequencies without necessarily impeding reproduction. We found that the expression of both male and female SSGIs were greater in multimale systems than in unimale ones. Both male and female SSGIs were positively correlated with the degree of promiscuity (relative testes mass). As mating system confers biases in the sex ratio that may influence the expression of SSGIs, we controlled for availability of members of the same-sex. When employing this control, results were largely congruent. For males, SSGIs were expressed more frequently in multimale systems. For both sexes, SSGIs were expressed more frequently with greater relative testes mass. We suggest SSGIs in primates may be a neutral by-product of selection for increases in promiscuous sexual activity, and that in certain instances these interactions may be co-opted to facilitate adaptive social functions.

  9. [Genital tuberculosis and pregnancy to term. Case report].

    PubMed

    García-López, Silvia Juliana; Pérez-Martínez, Andrés; Chávez-Martínez, Sareni; Sereno-Coló, José Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Tuberculosis continues to be a worldwide public health issue, known as "the great pretender" resembling many diseases. Overall 1% of women infected with Mycobacterium species develop genital tuberculosis (GT) which is widespread more commonly during their fertility age, 20-40 years old. GT is the second most common cause of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. One of the clinical manifestations in these patients is Infertility; with a poor prognosis of a successful pregnancy even with a correct diagnosis, medical and/or surgical treatment. Most pregnancies result in ectopic pregnancies or abortions. In low income countries GT may account for 5-20% of infertility cases. It was widely believed that pregnancy represented a period of risk to women infected with tuberculosis; and actually abortion is suggested. We report a case of a 21 year old female patient who came to the General Hospital Dr. Miguel Silva in the city of Morelia, Michoacán with the diagnosis of late puerperium postpartum complicated with retained placental tissue to perform a uterine curettage. The patient had fever and anemia for which we had to perform a laparotomy exploration of the doubt of uterin perforation; the surgical findings were pathognomonic of GT for which we continue to realize Hysterectomy. The macro and microscopically pathologic findings consists in GT, confirming the diagnosis with Ziehl-Neelsen acid stain. GT findings must always be differentiated from ovarian cancer.

  10. Photo diagnosis of early pre cancer (LSIL) in genital tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Andersen-Engels, S.; Auksorius, E.; Bendsoe, N.; Gavriushin, V.; Gustafsson, U.; Oyama, J.; Palsson, S.; Soto Thompson, M.; Stenram, U.; Svanberg, K.; Viliunas, V.; De Weert, M. J.

    2005-11-01

    Permanent infections recognized as oncogenic factor. STD is common concomitant diseases in early precancerous genital tract lesions. Simple optical detection of early regressive pre cancer in cervix is the aim of this study. Hereditary immunosupression most likely is risk factor for cervical cancer development. Light induced fluorescence point monitoring fitted to live cervical tissue diagnostics in 42 patients. Human papilloma virus DNR in cervix tested by means of Hybrid Capture II method. Ultraviolet (337 nm) laser excited fluorescence spectra in the live cervical tissue analyzed by Principal Component (PrC) regression method and spectra decomposition method. PCr method best discriminated pathology group "CIN I and inflammation"(AUC=75%) related to fluorescence emission in short wave region. Spectra decomposition method suggested a few possible fluorophores in a long wave region. Ultraviolet (398 nm) light excitation of live cervix proved sharp selective spectra intensity enhancement in region above 600nm for High-grade cervical lesion. Conclusion: PC analysis of UV (337 nm) light excitation fluorescence spectra gives opportunity to obtain local immunity and Low-grade cervical lesion related information. Addition of shorter and longer wavelengths is promising for multi wave LIF point monitoring method progress in cervical pre-cancer diagnostics and utility for cancer prevention especially in developing countries.

  11. Legislating Change? Responses to Criminalizing Female Genital Cutting in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Shell-Duncan, Bettina; Hernlund, Ylva; Wander, Katherine; Moreau, Amadou

    2014-01-01

    Although the international community has recently promoted legislation as an important reform strategy for ending female genital cutting (FGC), there exist divergent views on its potential effects. Supporters argue that legal prohibition of FGC has a general deterrent effect, while others argue legislation can be perceived as coercive, and derail local efforts to end the practice. This study examines the range of responses observed in rural Senegal, where a 1999 anti-FGC law was imposed on communities in which the practice was being actively contested and targeted for elimination. Drawing on data from a mixed-methods study, we analyze responses in relation to two leading theories on social regulation, the law and economics and law and society paradigms, which make divergent predictions on the interplay between social norms and legal norms. Among supporters of FGC, legal norms ran counter to social norms, and did little to deter the practice, and in some instances incited reactance or drove the practice underground. Conversely, where FGC was being contested, legislation served to strengthen the stance of those contemplating or favoring abandonment. We conclude that legislation can complement other reform strategies by creating an “enabling environment” that supports those who have or wish to abandon FGC. PMID:24771947

  12. Female genital mutilation: new laws, programs try to end practice.

    PubMed

    Chalkley, K

    1997-10-01

    A new US law criminalizes female genital mutilation (FGM) and requires notification of this fact to immigrants from Africa and the Middle East. In addition, US representative to international financial institutions are directed to oppose issuance of foreign aid to countries that lack established educational programs to eradicate FGM. FGM involves a range of procedures characterized by the amount of tissue removed and may be carried out in infants, adolescents, or new mothers. Complications include death, debilitating illness, and increased risk during child birth. FGM is firmly entrenched in countries in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of the Arab peninsula and extends to a few groups in Asia and immigrant populations in developed countries. Most women in an Egyptian study had undergone FGM and justified the practice as a way of reducing sexual desire and, thus, preserving premarital virginity. Many women also consider FGM a religious requirement, but this claim is unsubstantiated. Successful eradication campaigns in Kenya have preserved the social and coming-of-age ritual aspects of the practice while rejecting the physical mutilation, and efforts in Nigeria have focuses on health education. A New York-based group working to eradicate FGM has criticized the new US law because it requires education of affected communities without allocating the necessary funding. The group charges that the new law needs revision to remove criminal liability from family members who may object to a proposed FGM procedure but fail to report or stop it.

  13. Coevolution of Male and Female Genital Morphology in Waterfowl

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Patricia L.R.; Prum, Richard O.; McCracken, Kevin G.; Sorenson, Michael D.; Wilson, Robert E.; Birkhead, Tim R.

    2007-01-01

    Most birds have simple genitalia; males lack external genitalia and females have simple vaginas. However, male waterfowl have a phallus whose length (1.5–>40 cm) and morphological elaborations vary among species and are positively correlated with the frequency of forced extra-pair copulations among waterfowl species. Here we report morphological complexity in female genital morphology in waterfowl and describe variation vaginal morphology that is unprecedented in birds. This variation comprises two anatomical novelties: (i) dead end sacs, and (ii) clockwise coils. These vaginal structures appear to function to exclude the intromission of the counter-clockwise spiralling male phallus without female cooperation. A phylogenetically controlled comparative analysis of 16 waterfowl species shows that the degree of vaginal elaboration is positively correlated with phallus length, demonstrating that female morphological complexity has co-evolved with male phallus length. Intersexual selection is most likely responsible for the observed coevolution, although identifying the specific mechanism is difficult. Our results suggest that females have evolved a cryptic anatomical mechanism of choice in response to forced extra-pair copulations. PMID:17476339

  14. The ongoing violence against women: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting.

    PubMed

    Muteshi, Jacinta K; Miller, Suellen; Belizán, José M

    2016-01-01

    Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) comprises different practices involving cutting, pricking, removing and sometimes sewing up external female genitalia for non-medical reasons. The practice of FGM/C is highly concentrated in a band of African countries from the Atlantic coast to the Horn of Africa, in areas of the Middle East such as Iraq and Yemen, and in some countries in Asia like Indonesia. Girls exposed to FGM/C are at risk of immediate physical consequences such as severe pain, bleeding, and shock, difficulty in passing urine and faeces, and sepsis. Long-term consequences can include chronic pain and infections. FGM/C is a deeply entrenched social norm, perpetrated by families for a variety of reasons, but the results are harmful. FGM/C is a human rights issue that affects girls and women worldwide. The practice is decreasing, due to intensive advocacy activities of international, national, and grassroots agencies. An adolescent girl today is about a third less likely to be cut than 30 years ago. However, the rates of abandonment are not high enough, and change is not happening as rapidly as necessary. Multiple interventions have been implemented, but the evidence base on what works is lacking. We in reproductive health must work harder to find strategies to help communities and families abandon these harmful practices. PMID:27091122

  15. Genital injuries resulting from sexual abuse: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    McCann, J; Voris, J; Simon, M

    1992-02-01

    Three children who incurred genital injuries as a result of sexual assaults were followed up on a longitudinal basis to document the anatomical changes which ensued. The subjects, who were 4 months, 4 years 5 months, and 9 years of age, were followed up for periods ranging from 14 months to 3 years. A multi-method examination approach and a 35-mm camera mounted on a colposcope were used to examine and record their injuries. Signs of the acute damage disappeared rapidly, and the wounds healed without complications. Following the resolution of the acute injuries, the changes created by the trauma remained relatively stable throughout the prepubertal years. The most persistent findings were irregular hymenal edges and narrow rims at the point of the injury. Over time the jagged, angular margins smoothed off. Disruption of the hymen exposed underlying longitudinal intravaginal ridges whose hymenal attachments created mounds or projections. There was little apparent scar formation. Even the injuries to the posterior fourchettes healed with minimal scar tissue and left only the slightest evidence of the trauma. With the onset of puberty, the hymenal changes in the oldest subject were obscured by the hypertrophy of this membrane. An examination technique which used a Q-tip to separate the redundant tissues demonstrated that the signs of trauma had survived. PMID:1734401

  16. An overview of female genital mutilation in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Tc; Anyaehie, Usb; Ezenyeaku, Cck

    2012-01-01

    Nigeria, due to its large population, has the highest absolute number of female genital mutilation (FGM) worldwide, accounting for about one-quarter of the estimated 115-130 million circumcised women in the world. The objective of this review is to ascertain the current status of FGM in Nigeria. Pertinent literature on FGM retrieved from internet services [Google search on FGM in Nigeria, www.online Nigeria, PubMed of the national library of medicine www.medconsumer. Info/tropics/fgm.htm, Biomedcentral and African Journal Online (AJOL) (FGM)] and textbooks, journals, and selected references for proper understanding of the topic was included in this review. The national prevalence rate of FGM is 41% among adult women. Evidence abound that the prevalence of FGM is declining. The ongoing drive to eradicate FGM is tackled by World Health Organization, United Nations International Children Emergency Fund, Federation of International Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO), African Union, The economic commission for Africa, and many women organizations. However, there is no federal law banning FGM in Nigeria. There is need to eradicate FGM in Nigeria. Education of the general public at all levels with emphasis on the dangers and undesirability of FGM is paramount. PMID:23209995

  17. Economic and humanistic burden of external genital warts.

    PubMed

    Raymakers, Adam J N; Sadatsafavi, Mohsen; Marra, Fawziah; Marra, Carlo A

    2012-01-01

    External genital warts (EGW) are a sexually transmitted infection caused by various strains of human papillomavirus (HPV). Several studies have described the direct and indirect costs of EGW, while others have reported on the burden of EGW in terms of the impact on the quality of life (QOL) of patients. The arrival of a quadrivalent HPV vaccine that protects against both cervical cancer and EGW requires a proper understanding of the impact of vaccines on costs and QOL. Using pre-defined search terms and inclusion/exclusion criteria, we performed a systematic review of the economic and humanistic burden of EGW. The focus of our review was on literature describing the direct and indirect costs of EGW per episode of care (EoC) or per year, as well as the impact of EGW on disease-specific, generic, or preference-based QOL measures. We also reviewed the literature on the national economic burden of EGW from the perspectives of different countries. Other aspects of EGW management that can inform economic modelling studies, such as length of EoC, number of physician visits and indirect costs, were also explored. Our review sheds light on the high economic and humanistic burden of EGW and important differences in the costs between men and women, as well as the differences in health resource utilization and costs across countries. Our study also highlights the dearth of information on the impact of EGW on the QOL and productivity of patients.

  18. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Is Associated With Genital Tract Mucosal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Mhatre, Mohak; McAndrew, Thomas; Carpenter, Colleen; Burk, Robert D.; Einstein, Mark H.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical studies demonstrate increased prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated disease in HIV-infected individuals and an increased risk of HIV acquisition in HPV-infected individuals. The mechanisms underlying this synergy are not defined. We hypothesize that women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) will exhibit changes in soluble mucosal immunity that may promote HPV persistence and facilitate HIV infection. Methods The concentrations of immune mediators and endogenous anti-Escherichia coli activity in genital tract secretions collected by cervicovaginal lavage were compared in HIV-negative women with high-risk HPV-positive (HRHPV+) CIN-3 (n = 37), HRHPV+ CIN-1 (n = 12), or PAP-negative control subjects (n = 57). Results Compared with control subjects, women with CIN-3 or CIN-1 displayed significantly higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, and IL-8 (P < 0.002) and significantly lower levels of anti-inflammatory mediators and antimicrobial peptides, including IL-1 receptor antagonist, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (P < 0.01), and human β defensins 2 and 3 (P < 0.02). There was no significant difference in endogenous anti-E. coli activity after controlling for age and sample storage time. Conclusion HRHPV+ CIN is characterized by changes in soluble mucosal immunity that could contribute to HPV persistence. The observed mucosal inflammation suggests a mechanism that may also contribute to the epidemiologic link between persistent HPV and HIV. PMID:22801340

  19. [Melanomas of the female genital tract: state of the art].

    PubMed

    Trone, Jane-Chloé; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Mery, Benoite; Langrand Escure, Julien; Lahmar, Rima; Moncharmont, Coralie; Rivoirard, Romain; Semay, Tiphaine; Chauleur, Céline; Collard, Olivier; Vignot, Stéphane; Magné, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma of the female genital tract is a rare location (less than 2% of melanomas all sites combined). These cancers have a very poor prognosis, due to the delay in diagnosis. Vulvar location is about 1% of melanomas then the vaginal location, uterine and ovarian. There is no consensus to date regarding their care, due to the rarity of the lesions. Their treatment must however be based on the current data concerning gynaecological cancers as well as standard management of cutaneous melanoma. The treatment is often based on conservative surgery, because radical resection does not improve survival. For the vulva and vagina, reconstructive surgery is possible. Treatment is sometimes supplemented by chemotherapy or radiotherapy, which could improve local control. The interest in the use of targeted therapy in these locations is not well known because of their rarity, but the study of genes c-Kit and BRAF provides new prospects for treatment. The objective of this review is to describe and report the current state of knowledge about gynaecologic melanomas.

  20. Traumatic Vulvar Epithelial Inclusion Cysts Following Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)

    PubMed Central

    Mack-Detlefsen, B.; Banaschak, S.; Boemers, T. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM) occurs mainly in Africa, parts of the Arabian Peninsula and parts of Asia. It is commonly associated with acute complications as well as diverse late/delayed complications. One of the most common of these late complications is progressively enlarging painless cysts of the vulva. Case Report: An 8-year-old girl from Eritrea presented to our paediatric emergency department with a progressively enlarging mass of the vulva. She had undergone a clitoridectomy and partial removal of the labia minora as an infant in Eritrea. We performed surgical excision of the cyst and reconstruction of the labia. Histology showed a traumatic squamous epithelial inclusion cyst of the vulva. Conclusion: Epithelial or dermoid cysts of the vulva following FGM are extremely rare. Symptoms often require surgical intervention. Through increasing migration, more girls and female youths with FGM are likely to present to practices and hospitals in Germany. Thus increased knowledge and awareness of the medical complications of FGM and their treatment will be necessary in years to come. PMID:26500372

  1. The ongoing violence against women: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting.

    PubMed

    Muteshi, Jacinta K; Miller, Suellen; Belizán, José M

    2016-01-01

    Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) comprises different practices involving cutting, pricking, removing and sometimes sewing up external female genitalia for non-medical reasons. The practice of FGM/C is highly concentrated in a band of African countries from the Atlantic coast to the Horn of Africa, in areas of the Middle East such as Iraq and Yemen, and in some countries in Asia like Indonesia. Girls exposed to FGM/C are at risk of immediate physical consequences such as severe pain, bleeding, and shock, difficulty in passing urine and faeces, and sepsis. Long-term consequences can include chronic pain and infections. FGM/C is a deeply entrenched social norm, perpetrated by families for a variety of reasons, but the results are harmful. FGM/C is a human rights issue that affects girls and women worldwide. The practice is decreasing, due to intensive advocacy activities of international, national, and grassroots agencies. An adolescent girl today is about a third less likely to be cut than 30 years ago. However, the rates of abandonment are not high enough, and change is not happening as rapidly as necessary. Multiple interventions have been implemented, but the evidence base on what works is lacking. We in reproductive health must work harder to find strategies to help communities and families abandon these harmful practices.

  2. Acute Genital Edema during Peritoneal Dialysis: A Review for Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Juaquito; Haggerty, Stephen P

    2015-11-01

    Acute genital edema (AGE) is an infrequent but disruptive complication in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. It is a common manifestation of dialysate leakage caused by inguinal, umbilical, femoral, or incisional hernias; peritoneal tears; leaks around the dialysis catheter; trauma; fluid overload; and malignancy. The evaluation of AGE begins with a history and physical exam. However, the physical exam in these patients is often indeterminate. Several diagnostic measures exist to evaluate and guide management of AGE occurring during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis but little agreement exists on an optimum method. We have conducted a review of the literature on the evaluation and management of AGE and present a summary of the data. CT peritoneography and peritoneal scintigraphy have been used extensively to evaluate AGE although no comparative studies exist. MRI peritoneography has also been described. CT peritoneography offers more anatomical detail but may not be as sensitive as peritoneal scintigraphy in detecting a peritoneal fluid leak as the cause for AGE. CT is also more costly and subjects the patient to more radiation. MRI is a noncontrast study without radiation risk, but has not been studied to the same degree. If testing is equivocal or bilateral hernias are suspected, diagnostic laparoscopy is helpful and can be combined with hernia repair. Whether the etiology is a leak or tear, low-volume peritoneal dialysis (PD) or cessation of PD for two to four weeks will allow closure. However, hernias almost always require operative repair with mesh usually without disrupting PD.

  3. A mouse model for Chlamydia suis genital infection.

    PubMed

    Donati, Manuela; Di Paolo, Maria; Favaroni, Alison; Aldini, Rita; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Ostanello, Fabio; Biondi, Roberta; Cremonini, Eleonora; Ginocchietti, Laura; Cevenini, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    A mouse model for Chlamydia suis genital infection was developed. Ninety-nine mice were randomly divided into three groups and intravaginally inoculated with chlamydia: 45 mice (group 1) received C. suis purified elementary bodies (EBs), 27 (group 2) were inoculated with C. trachomatis genotype E EBs and 27 mice (group 3) with C. trachomatis genotype F EBs. Additionally, 10 mice were used as a negative control. At seven days post-infection (dpi) secretory anti-C. suis IgA were recovered from vaginal swabs of all C. suis inoculated mice. Chlamydia suis was isolated from 93, 84, 71 and 33% vaginal swabs at 3, 5, 7 and 12 dpi. Chlamydia trachomatis genotype E and F were isolated from 100% vaginal swabs up to 7 dpi and from 61 and 72%, respectively, at 12 dpi. Viable C. suis and C. trachomatis organisms were isolated from uterus and tubes up to 16 and 28 dpi, respectively. The results of the present study show the susceptibility of mice to intravaginal inoculation with C. suis. A more rapid course and resolution of C. suis infection, in comparison to C. trachomatis, was highlighted. The mouse model could be useful for comparative investigations involving C. suis and C. trachomatis species.

  4. The Role of the Immune Response in Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of the Male Genital Tract: A Double-Edged Sword

    PubMed Central

    Redgrove, Kate A.; McLaughlin, Eileen A.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the world, with more than 100 million cases reported annually. While there have been extensive studies into the adverse effects that CT infection has on the female genital tract, and on the subsequent ability of these women to conceive, studies into the consequences on male fertility have been limited and controversial. This is in part due to the asymptomatic nature of the infection, where it is estimated that 50% of men with Chlamydia fail to show any symptoms. It is accepted, however, that acute and/or persistent CT infection is the causative agent for conditions such as urethritis, epididymitis, epididymo-orchitis, and potentially prostatitis. As with most infections, the immune system plays a fundamental role in the body’s attempts to eradicate the infection. The first and most important immune response to Chlamydia infection is a local one, whereby immune cells such as leukocytes are recruited to the site of infections, and subsequently secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as interferon gamma. Immune cells also work to initiate and potentiate chronic inflammation through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the release of molecules with degradative properties including defensins, elastase, collagenase, cathespins, and lysozyme. This long-term inflammation can lead to cell proliferation (a possible precursor to cancer), tissue remodeling, and scarring, as well as being linked to the onset of autoimmune responses in genetically disposed individuals. This review will focus on the ability of the immune system to recognize and clear acute and persistent chlamydial infections in the male genital tract, and on the paradoxical damage that chronic inflammation resulting from the infection can cause on the reproductive health of the individual. PMID:25386180

  5. Interleukin-17 contributes to generation of Th1 immunity and neutrophil recruitment during Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection but is not required for macrophage influx or normal resolution of infection.

    PubMed

    Scurlock, Amy M; Frazer, Lauren C; Andrews, Charles W; O'Connell, Catherine M; Foote, Isaac P; Bailey, Sarabeth L; Chandra-Kuntal, Kumar; Kolls, Jay K; Darville, Toni

    2011-03-01

    Interleukin 17 (IL-17) contributes to development of Th1 immunity and neutrophil influx during Chlamydia muridarum pulmonary infection, but its role during C. muridarum genital tract infection has not been described. We detected similar numbers of Chlamydia-specific Th17 and Th1 cells in iliac nodes of wild-type mice early during genital C. muridarum infection, while Th1 cells predominated later. il17ra(-/-) mice exhibited a reduced chlamydia-specific Th1 response in draining iliac nodes and decreased local IFN-γ production. Neutrophil influx into the genital tract was also decreased. However, il17ra(-/-) mice resolved infection normally, and no difference in pathology was observed compared to the wild type. Macrophage influx and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production were increased in il17ra(-/-) mice, providing a compensatory mechanism to effectively control chlamydial genital tract infection despite a reduced Th1 response. In ifnγ(-/-) mice, a marked increase in cellular infiltrates and chronic pathology was associated with an increased Th17 response. Although neutralization of IL-17 in ifnγ(-/-) mice decreased neutrophil influx, macrophage infiltration remained intact and the bacterial burden was not increased. Collectively, these results indicate that IL-17 contributes to the generation of Th1 immunity and neutrophil recruitment but is not required for macrophage influx or normal resolution of C. muridarum genital infection. These data highlight the redundant immune mechanisms operative at this mucosal site and the importance of examining site-specific responses to mucosal pathogens. PMID:21149587

  6. Interleukin-17 Contributes to Generation of Th1 Immunity and Neutrophil Recruitment during Chlamydia muridarum Genital Tract Infection but Is Not Required for Macrophage Influx or Normal Resolution of Infection ▿

    PubMed Central

    Scurlock, Amy M.; Frazer, Lauren C.; Andrews, Charles W.; O'Connell, Catherine M.; Foote, Isaac P.; Bailey, Sarabeth L.; Chandra-Kuntal, Kumar; Kolls, Jay K.; Darville, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin 17 (IL-17) contributes to development of Th1 immunity and neutrophil influx during Chlamydia muridarum pulmonary infection, but its role during C. muridarum genital tract infection has not been described. We detected similar numbers of Chlamydia-specific Th17 and Th1 cells in iliac nodes of wild-type mice early during genital C. muridarum infection, while Th1 cells predominated later. il17ra−/− mice exhibited a reduced chlamydia-specific Th1 response in draining iliac nodes and decreased local IFN-γ production. Neutrophil influx into the genital tract was also decreased. However, il17ra−/− mice resolved infection normally, and no difference in pathology was observed compared to the wild type. Macrophage influx and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production were increased in il17ra−/− mice, providing a compensatory mechanism to effectively control chlamydial genital tract infection despite a reduced Th1 response. In ifnγ−/− mice, a marked increase in cellular infiltrates and chronic pathology was associated with an increased Th17 response. Although neutralization of IL-17 in ifnγ−/− mice decreased neutrophil influx, macrophage infiltration remained intact and the bacterial burden was not increased. Collectively, these results indicate that IL-17 contributes to the generation of Th1 immunity and neutrophil recruitment but is not required for macrophage influx or normal resolution of C. muridarum genital infection. These data highlight the redundant immune mechanisms operative at this mucosal site and the importance of examining site-specific responses to mucosal pathogens. PMID:21149587

  7. Acute genital ulcers in nonsexually active young girls: case series, review of the literature, and evaluation and management recommendations.

    PubMed

    Rosman, Ilana S; Berk, David R; Bayliss, Susan J; White, Andrew J; Merritt, Diane F

    2012-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers rarely occur in nonsexually active young girls. When present, they can cause significant physical and emotional distress for the patient and her parents, and prompt an evaluation for sexual abuse and sexually transmitted diseases. With this review, we aim to further characterize acute genital ulcers in nonsexually active young girls by reviewing the medical records of patients with this disorder and to offer an approach to the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of acute genital ulcers based on our understanding and knowledge of this condition. We retrospectively review our understanding and knowledge of acute genital ulcers in nonsexually active girls at a pediatric hospital. A review of the recent literature on acute genital ulcers and a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of acute genital ulcers are also presented. Twelve patients presented with acute genital ulcers, 11 of which were hospitalized for evaluation and pain management. Extensive work-up failed to reveal a specific infectious or autoimmune etiology in all but one patient, who was diagnosed with acute mycoplasma pneumonia. Acute genital ulcers in nonsexually active young girls likely represent a form of idiopathic vulvar aphthosis. Evaluation of a first episode of acute genital ulcers with mild prodromal symptoms should be limited. Treatment consists primarily of supportive care and symptom relief.

  8. Expression and Localization of P-Glycoprotein, Multidrug Resistance Protein 4, and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein in the Female Lower Genital Tract of Human and Pigtailed Macaque

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tian; Hu, Minlu; Pearlman, Andrew; Patton, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Antiretroviral drug absorption and disposition in cervicovaginal tissue is important for the effectiveness of vaginally or orally administered drug products in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV-1 sexual transmission to women. Therefore, it is imperative to understand critical determinants of cervicovaginal tissue pharmacokinetics. This study aimed to examine the mRNA expression and protein localization of three efflux transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), in the lower genital tract of premenopausal women and pigtailed macaques. Along the human lower genital tract, the three transporters were moderately to highly expressed compared to colorectal tissue and liver, as revealed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In a given genital tract segment, the transporter with the highest expression level was either BCRP or P-gp, while MRP4 was always expressed at the lowest level among the three transporters tested. The immunohistochemical staining showed that P-gp and MRP4 were localized in multiple cell types including epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells. BCRP was predominantly localized in the vascular endothelial cells. Differences in transporter mRNA level and localization were observed among endocervix, ectocervix, and vagina. Compared to human tissues, the macaque cervicovaginal tissues displayed comparable expression and localization patterns of the three transporters, although subtle differences were observed between the two species. The role of these cervicovaginal transporters in drug absorption and disposition warrants further studies. The resemblance between human and pigtailed macaque in transporter expression and localization suggests the utility of the macaque model in the studies of human cervicovaginal transporters. PMID:24803409

  9. The anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin protects the genital mucosal epithelial barrier from disruption and blocks replication of HIV-1 and HSV-2.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Victor H; Nazli, Aisha; Dizzell, Sara E; Mueller, Kristen; Kaushic, Charu

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a known mechanism that facilitates HIV acquisition and the spread of infection. In this study, we evaluated whether curcumin, a potent and safe anti-inflammatory compound, could be used to abrogate inflammatory processes that facilitate HIV-1 acquisition in the female genital tract (FGT) and contribute to HIV amplification. Primary, human genital epithelial cells (GECs) were pretreated with curcumin and exposed to HIV-1 or HIV glycoprotein 120 (gp120), both of which have been shown to disrupt epithelial tight junction proteins, including ZO-1 and occludin. Pre-treatment with curcumin prevented disruption of the mucosal barrier by maintaining ZO-1 and occludin expression and maintained trans-epithelial electric resistance across the genital epithelium. Curcumin pre-treatment also abrogated the gp120-mediated upregulation of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-6, which mediate barrier disruption, as well as the chemokines IL-8, RANTES and interferon gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10), which are capable of recruiting HIV target cells to the FGT. GECs treated with curcumin and exposed to the sexually transmitted co-infecting microbes HSV-1, HSV-2 and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were unable to elicit innate inflammatory responses that indirectly induced activation of the HIV promoter and curcumin blocked Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated induction of HIV replication in chronically infected T-cells. Finally, curcumin treatment resulted in significantly decreased HIV-1 and HSV-2 replication in chronically infected T-cells and primary GECs, respectively. All together, our results suggest that the use of anti-inflammatory compounds such as curcumin may offer a viable alternative for the prevention and/or control of HIV replication in the FGT. PMID:25856395

  10. The Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Curcumin Protects the Genital Mucosal Epithelial Barrier from Disruption and Blocks Replication of HIV-1 and HSV-2

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Victor H.; Mueller, Kristen; Kaushic, Charu

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a known mechanism that facilitates HIV acquisition and the spread of infection. In this study, we evaluated whether curcumin, a potent and safe anti-inflammatory compound, could be used to abrogate inflammatory processes that facilitate HIV-1 acquisition in the female genital tract (FGT) and contribute to HIV amplification. Primary, human genital epithelial cells (GECs) were pretreated with curcumin and exposed to HIV-1 or HIV glycoprotein 120 (gp120), both of which have been shown to disrupt epithelial tight junction proteins, including ZO-1 and occludin. Pre-treatment with curcumin prevented disruption of the mucosal barrier by maintaining ZO-1 and occludin expression and maintained trans-epithelial electric resistance across the genital epithelium. Curcumin pre-treatment also abrogated the gp120-mediated upregulation of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-6, which mediate barrier disruption, as well as the chemokines IL-8, RANTES and interferon gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10), which are capable of recruiting HIV target cells to the FGT. GECs treated with curcumin and exposed to the sexually transmitted co-infecting microbes HSV-1, HSV-2 and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were unable to elicit innate inflammatory responses that indirectly induced activation of the HIV promoter and curcumin blocked Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated induction of HIV replication in chronically infected T-cells. Finally, curcumin treatment resulted in significantly decreased HIV-1 and HSV-2 replication in chronically infected T-cells and primary GECs, respectively. All together, our results suggest that the use of anti-inflammatory compounds such as curcumin may offer a viable alternative for the prevention and/or control of HIV replication in the FGT. PMID:25856395

  11. Predation-associated divergence of male genital morphology in a livebearing fish.

    PubMed

    Heinen-Kay, J L; Langerhans, R B

    2013-10-01

    Male genital morphology is remarkably diverse across internally fertilizing animals, a phenomenon largely attributed to sexual selection. Ecological differences across environments can alter the context of sexual selection, yet little research has addressed how this may influence the rapid, divergent evolution of male genitalia. Using the model system of Bahamas mosquitofish (Gambusia hubbsi) undergoing ecological speciation across blue holes, we used geometric morphometric methods to test (i) whether male genital shape (the small, approximately 1 mm long, distal tip of the sperm-transfer organ, the gonopodium) has diverged between populations with and without predatory fish and (ii) whether any observed divergence has a genetic basis. We additionally examined the effects of genetic relatedness and employed model selection to investigate other environmental factors (i.e. interspecific competition, adult sex ratio and resource availability) that could potentially influence genital shape via changes in sexual selection. Predation regime comprised the most important factor associated with male genital divergence in this system, although sex ratio and some aspects of resource availability had suggestive effects. We found consistent, heritable differences in male genital morphology between predation regimes: Bahamas mosquitofish coexisting with predatory fish possessed more elongate genital tips with reduced soft tissue compared with counterparts inhabiting blue holes without predatory fish. We suggest this may reflect selection for greater efficiency of sperm transfer and fertilization during rapid and often forced copulations in high-predation populations or differences in sexual conflict between predation regimes. Our study highlights the potential importance of ecological variation, particularly predation risk, in indirectly generating genital diversity.

  12. Uncovering category specificity of genital sexual arousal in women: The critical role of analytic technique.

    PubMed

    Pulverman, Carey S; Hixon, J Gregory; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-10-01

    Based on analytic techniques that collapse data into a single average value, it has been reported that women lack category specificity and show genital sexual arousal to a large range of sexual stimuli including those that both match and do not match their self-reported sexual interests. These findings may be a methodological artifact of the way in which data are analyzed. This study examined whether using an analytic technique that models data over time would yield different results. Across two studies, heterosexual (N = 19) and lesbian (N = 14) women viewed erotic films featuring heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male couples, respectively, as their physiological sexual arousal was assessed with vaginal photoplethysmography. Data analysis with traditional methods comparing average genital arousal between films failed to detect specificity of genital arousal for either group. When data were analyzed with smoothing regression splines and a within-subjects approach, both heterosexual and lesbian women demonstrated different patterns of genital sexual arousal to the different types of erotic films, suggesting that sophisticated statistical techniques may be necessary to more fully understand women's genital sexual arousal response. Heterosexual women showed category-specific genital sexual arousal. Lesbian women showed higher arousal to the heterosexual film than the other films. However, within subjects, lesbian women showed significantly different arousal responses suggesting that lesbian women's genital arousal discriminates between different categories of stimuli at the individual level. Implications for the future use of vaginal photoplethysmography as a diagnostic tool of sexual preferences in clinical and forensic settings are discussed. PMID:26118962

  13. Ano-genital distance as a factor in determining puberty acceleration in mice.

    PubMed

    Cowley, J J; Pewtress, R K

    1986-11-01

    The daily exposure of newly born female mice to the urine of lactating mice with a small ano-genital distance accelerated the onset of first oestrus while the urine from donors with a large ano-genital distance was without effect in advancing puberty. The rate of growth of the mice exposed to the urine of lactating mothers was greater than that of a control sample but it was only those mice exposed to the urine of lactating females with a small ano-genital distance which continued to grow, after the cessation of treatment at 21 days of age, at a faster rate. There was no difference in the mass of the uterus when the mice were killed when adult but there were significant age-dependent differences in the mass of the ovaries and adrenal glands. The mice exposed to the urine from lactating mothers (with both large and small ano-genital indices) had smaller ovaries than the control mice while the adrenal glands of mice exposed to the urine of lactating mothers with a large ano-genital index were of greater mass than those of the control mice and mice exposed to mothers with a small ano-genital distance. Exposure to the urine of lactating mothers had no effect on the subsequent activity of the mice when tested in an automated activity recorder. The results confirm that urine from lactating mothers accelerates the onset of puberty and suggests that the effects are restricted to the urine from mothers with a small ano-genital index.

  14. Dysregulated expression of IFN-γ and IL-10 and impaired IFN-γ-mediated responses at different disease stages in patients with genital herpes simplex virus-2 infection

    PubMed Central

    SINGH, R; KUMAR, A; CREERY, W D; RUBEN, M; GIULIVI, A; DIAZ-MITOMA, F

    2003-01-01

    Cell-mediated T-helper type-1 (Th1) responses play a vital role in the immunopathogenesis of genital infections caused by herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). We investigated the role of Th responses in HSV-2 infection at different disease stages by analysing the production of Th cytokines in HSV-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). IFN-γ production decreased over time following a recurrence, whereas levels of IL-10, and to a lesser extent IL-2, remained elevated during this period. In addition, PBMCs from asymptomatic seropositive individuals produced high levels of IFN-γ and low levels of IL-10, in contrast to individuals with a history of genital ulcers. Following a recurrence, virus copy number in the genital lesions decreased progressively over time, in a manner similar to IFN-γ production by HSV-2-stimulated PBMCs. Enhanced production of IFN-γ may modulate HSV replication and B7 expression on monocytic cells of HSV-infected individuals. In contrast to seronegative controls, IFN-γ failed to enhance B7 expression on monocytic cells of HSV-infected individuals. In addition, monocytic cells from HSV-2-infected individuals with recurrent disease supported greater HSV replication than did those of HSV-infected asymptomatic individuals or seronegative controls. Furthermore, addition of IFN-γ resulted in enhanced HSV replication in monocytic cells of HSV-infected individuals with recurrent disease, in contrast to the inhibition observed in HSV-seropositive asymptomatic individuals and seronegative controls. Taken together, our results suggest that dysregulated production of IFN-γ at different disease stages and the impaired ability of monocytic cells to respond to IFN-γ may play a role in the pathogenesis of recurrent genital herpes disease. PMID:12823283

  15. Bacterial Vaginosis and Subclinical Markers of Genital Tract Inflammation and Mucosal Immunity.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Andrea Ries; Kimble, Thomas; Herold, Betsy; Mesquita, Pedro M M; Fichorova, Raina N; Dawood, Hassan Y; Fashemi, Titilayo; Chandra, Neelima; Rabe, Lorna; Cunningham, Tina D; Anderson, Sharon; Schwartz, Jill; Doncel, Gustavo

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been linked to an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition and transmission in observational studies, but the underlying biological mechanisms are unknown. We measured biomarkers of subclinical vaginal inflammation, endogenous antimicrobial activity, and vaginal flora in women with BV and repeated sampling 1 week and 1 month after completion of metronidazole therapy. We also compared this cohort of women with BV to a healthy control cohort without BV. A longitudinal, open label study of 33 women with a Nugent score of 4 or higher was conducted. All women had genital swabs, cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) fluid, and cervicovaginal biopsies obtained at enrollment and received 7 days of metronidazole treatment. Repeat sampling was performed approximately 1 week and 1 month after completion of therapy. Participant's baseline samples were compared to a healthy, racially matched control group (n=13) without BV. The CVL from women with resolved BV (Nugent 0-3) had significantly higher anti-HIV activity, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and growth-related oncogene alpha (GRO-α) levels and their ectocervical tissues had significantly more CD8 cells in the epithelium. Women with persistent BV after treatment had significantly higher levels of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in the CVL. At study entry, participants had significantly greater numbers of CCR5(+) immune cells and a higher CD4/CD8 ratio in ectocervical tissues prior to metronidazole treatment, compared to a racially matched cohort of women with a Nugent score of 0-3. These data indicate that BV is associated with changes in select soluble immune mediators, an increase in HIV target cells, and a reduction in endogenous antimicrobial activity, which may contribute to the increased risk of HIV acquisition. PMID:26204200

  16. Use of enteric vaccines in protection against chlamydial infections of the genital tract and the eye of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Nichols, R L; Murray, E S; Nisson, P E

    1978-12-01

    Guinea pigs in a test group were fed living guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) organisms classified as Chlamydia psittaci in 60% yolk-sac suspensions as enteric vaccines, while animals in a control group received uninfected yolk sac. Seven test animals and 14 control animals were challenged 11 or 22 days later with 1,000 50% infectious doses of GPIC organisms in either the conjunctiva or the vagina. Evidence of protection from mucosal infection in both sites was noted in test animals. Clinically, the disease was less severe, and microbiologically, lower percentages of mucosal cells were infected. The results suggest that enteric vaccination against mucosal infections of the eye and the genital tract with chlamydial agents is possible.

  17. Genital ulcers during treatment with ALL-trans retinoic acid for acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Fukuno, Kenji; Tsurumi, Hisashi; Goto, Hideko; Oyama, Masami; Tanabashi, Shinobu; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2003-11-01

    Scrotal ulcer is a unique adverse effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The pathogenesis of scrotal ulceration remains unknown. We describe genital ulcers that developed in four patients with APL who were undergoing ATRA therapy (45 mg/m2 per day p.o.). Two of the patients were female, in whom this condition is quite rare. Genital ulcers with concomitant fever appeared between 17 and 32 days of therapy in all four patients. Genital ulcers healed in three of the patients while another patient developed Fournier's gangrene and underwent left testectomy. Ulcer healing was brought by either local or intravenous corticosteroids. Intravenous dexamethasone actually enabled continued ATRA administration in one patient, while ATRA was discontinued in other two patients. If corticosteroids cannot control progression of genital ulcers nor concomitant fever, ATRA administration should be discontinued so as not to induce Fournier's gangrene nor retionic acid syndrome. Our experience indicates the importance of recognizing genital ulcers associated with ATRA in order that appropriate countermeasures can be taken.

  18. Isolation of human immunodeficiency virus from genital ulcers in Nairobi prostitutes.

    PubMed

    Kreiss, J K; Coombs, R; Plummer, F; Holmes, K K; Nikora, B; Cameron, W; Ngugi, E; Ndinya Achola, J O; Corey, L

    1989-09-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have implicated genital/anorectal ulcer disease as an important cofactor for acquisition and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during sexual intercourse. To better understand the mechanism for the association between genital ulcers and HIV, exudates from 62 genital ulcers of 56 HIV-seropositive prostitutes in Nairobi (Kenya) were cultured for HIV. Twenty-six ulcer cultures could not be evaluated for the presence of HIV because of bacterial or fungal contamination. HIV was isolated from 4 (11%) of the 36 remaining uncontaminated ulcer cultures (2 introital, 1 vaginal, and 1 cervical) from 4 separate women. HIV was isolated from the cervical os from only 2 of the 4 women. HIV p24 antigen was detected in exudate from 1 of the 4 culture-positive ulcers and 0 of 32 culture-negative ulcers. Genital ulcers in seropositive patients should be regarded as potential sources of HIV, which could be important in transmission of HIV during intercourse. Public health measures aimed at controlling sexually transmitted genital ulcer diseases should be an integral part of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention programs.

  19. Genital abnormalities in early childhood in sexual homicide perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Rettenberger, Martin; Hill, Andreas; Dekker, Arne; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer

    2013-04-01

    INTRODUCTION.: The present study investigates the relevance of genital abnormalities (GA) like cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and phimosis usually diagnosed in early childhood for the development of psychosexual problems and deficits in a sample of N = 163 convicted sexual homicide perpetrators. AIMS.: The first aim was to investigate the prevalence of early childhood GA in a sample of sexual homicide perpetrators. The second was to explore differences in the psychosexual development of participants with GA in early childhood compared with those without GA. It was expected that offenders with GA show specific problems in their psychosexual development compared with offenders without GA. METHODS.: The data for the present study were obtained by reanalyzing an existing database derived from a large-scale research project about sexual homicide. Using a predominantly exploratory design we, therefore, divided the total sample into two subgroups (with vs. without indicators of GA). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES.: Main outcome measures were the number of sexual homicide perpetrators showing GA in early childhood and the differences of subjects with and without GA with regard to their psychosexual development (i.e., according to sexual deviant interests or sexual dysfunctions). RESULTS.: The prevalence of GA is substantially higher in this sample than epidemiological studies indicated in the normal population. This result provided first support for the importance of GA in the population of sexual homicide perpetrators. Further analyses indicate significant differences between both subgroups: Offenders with GA in early childhood showed indicators for more sexual dysfunctions (e.g., erectile dysfunction) in adulthood and a distinct tendency of more masochistic sexual interests. CONCLUSION.: Even if the exploratory design of the present investigation allows no causal conclusions between GA and sexual homicide offenses, the result provided support for the relevance of early

  20. The Relationship between Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection and Spontaneous Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Amjad; Khodabandehloo, Mazaher; Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Farhadifar, Fariba; Roshani, Daem; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Farhangi, Niloofar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiology of most of sexually transmitted diseases. Colonization of C. trachomatis in the genital tract during early gestation has been associated with preterm birth, and preterm premature rupture of the membranes. The role of C. trachomatis on spontaneous abortion has not yet been proved completely. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of C. trachomatis infection among pregnant women and its association with spontaneous abortion. Methods: This case-control study was conducted from August 2012 until January 2013. Totally, 218 women were included; 109 women with spontaneous abortion with gestation age between 10–20 weeks (cases), and 109 women with normal pregnancy with gestation age between 20–30 weeks (controls) in Sanandaj, Iran. DNA was extracted from endocervical swabs and a PCR test was conducted for detection of C. trachomatis infection in women using specific primers. Independent T-test and Chi-square were used for comparison of quantitative and qualitative variables, respectively, and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The total prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 38(17.43%) in endocervical swabs of women. However, the number of cases with C. trachomatis infections was 25 out of 109(22.9%) in the case group and 13 out of 109(11.9%) in control group, respectively. Association between chlamydia infection and spontaneous abortion was statistically significant (OR=2.198, CI 95%: 1.058–4.56). Conclusion: Our study showed that C. trachomatis infection was associated with spontaneous abortion. Thus, screening and treatment of pregnant women may prevent this adverse pregnancy outcome. PMID:27141466

  1. Genital abnormalities in early childhood in sexual homicide perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Rettenberger, Martin; Hill, Andreas; Dekker, Arne; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer

    2013-04-01

    INTRODUCTION.: The present study investigates the relevance of genital abnormalities (GA) like cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and phimosis usually diagnosed in early childhood for the development of psychosexual problems and deficits in a sample of N = 163 convicted sexual homicide perpetrators. AIMS.: The first aim was to investigate the prevalence of early childhood GA in a sample of sexual homicide perpetrators. The second was to explore differences in the psychosexual development of participants with GA in early childhood compared with those without GA. It was expected that offenders with GA show specific problems in their psychosexual development compared with offenders without GA. METHODS.: The data for the present study were obtained by reanalyzing an existing database derived from a large-scale research project about sexual homicide. Using a predominantly exploratory design we, therefore, divided the total sample into two subgroups (with vs. without indicators of GA). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES.: Main outcome measures were the number of sexual homicide perpetrators showing GA in early childhood and the differences of subjects with and without GA with regard to their psychosexual development (i.e., according to sexual deviant interests or sexual dysfunctions). RESULTS.: The prevalence of GA is substantially higher in this sample than epidemiological studies indicated in the normal population. This result provided first support for the importance of GA in the population of sexual homicide perpetrators. Further analyses indicate significant differences between both subgroups: Offenders with GA in early childhood showed indicators for more sexual dysfunctions (e.g., erectile dysfunction) in adulthood and a distinct tendency of more masochistic sexual interests. CONCLUSION.: Even if the exploratory design of the present investigation allows no causal conclusions between GA and sexual homicide offenses, the result provided support for the relevance of early

  2. Female genital mutilation: Survey of paediatricians' knowledge, attitudes and practice.

    PubMed

    Sureshkumar, Premala; Zurynski, Yvonne; Moloney, Susan; Raman, Shanti; Varol, Nesrin; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2016-05-01

    The study objective was to determine paediatricians' experience with female genital mutilation (FGM) in Australian children and adolescents. A cross-sectional, pilot-tested national survey of paediatricians practising in Australia and contributing to the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit was conducted. Clinicians' knowledge, attitudes and clinical experience with FGM, awareness of clinical guidelines and education/training needs were recorded. Of 1311 paediatricians surveyed, 497 (38%) responded. Fifty-seven percent were aged 50 years or more, and 51.3% were males. Over half believed that FGM was performed in children in Australia and most were aware of its complications, but few asked about or examined for FGM. Fifty (10.3%) had seen at least one case of FGM in girls aged <18 years during their clinical career, including 16 (3.3%) in the past 5 years. Most were aware that FGM is illegal in Australia (93.9%), agreed all types of FGM were harmful (97.4%) and agreed that FGM violated human rights (98.2%). Most (87.6%) perceived FGM as a traditional cultural practice, although 11.6% thought it was required by religion. The majority (81.8%) knew notification of FGM to child protection authorities was mandatory. Over half (62.0%) were aware of the WHO Statement on FGM, but only 22.0% knew the WHO classification of FGM. These novel data indicate a minority of paediatricians in Australia have clinical experience with or education about FGM. Educational programs, best-practice clinical guidelines and policies are required to address knowledge gaps and help paediatricians identify, manage and prevent FGM in children.

  3. Health complications of female genital mutilation in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Bjälkander, Owolabi; Bangura, Laurel; Leigh, Bailah; Berggren, Vanja; Bergström, Staffan; Almroth, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Sierra Leone has one of the highest rates of female genital mutilation (FGM) in the world, and yet little is known about the health consequences of the practice. Purpose To explore whether and what kind of FGM-related health complications girls and women in Sierra Leone experience, and to elucidate their health care-seeking behaviors. Patients and methods A feasibility study was conducted to test and refine questionnaires and methods used for this study. Thereafter, a cross-section of girls and women (n = 258) attending antenatal care and Well Women Clinics in Bo Town, Bo District, in the southern region and in Makeni Town, Bombali District, in the northern region of Sierra Leone were randomly selected. Participants answered interview-administrated pretested structured questionnaires with open- ended-questions, administrated by trained female personnel. Results All respondents had undergone FGM, most between 10 and 14 years of age. Complications were reported by 218 respondents (84.5%), the most common ones being excessive bleeding, delay in or incomplete healing, and tenderness. Fever was significantly more often reported by girls who had undergone FGM before 10 years of age compared with those who had undergone the procedure later. Out of those who reported complications, 187 (85.8%) sought treatment, with 89 of them visiting a traditional healer, 75 a Sowei (traditional circumciser), and 16 a health professional. Conclusion The high prevalence rate of FGM and the proportion of medical complications show that FGM is a matter for public health concern in Sierra Leone. Girls who undergo FGM before 10 years of age seem to be more vulnerable to serious complications than those who are older at the time of FGM. It is important that health care personnel are aware of, and look for possible complications from FGM, and encourage girls and women to seek medical care for their problems. PMID:22870046

  4. Does HIV Exploit the Inflammatory Milieu of the Male Genital Tract for Successful Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Esra, Rachel T.; Olivier, Abraham J.; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Jaspan, Heather B.; Harryparsad, Rushil; Gray, Clive M.

    2016-01-01

    In many parts of the World, medical male circumcision (MMC) is used as standard prevention of care against HIV infection. This is based on seminal reports made over 10 years ago that removal of the foreskin provides up to 60% protection against HIV infection in males and seems currently the best antiretroviral-free prevention strategy yet against the global epidemic. We explore the potential mechanisms by which MMC protects against HIV-1 acquisition and that one of the oldest, albeit re-invented, rituals of removing a foreskin underscores the exploitative nature of HIV on the anatomy and tissue of the uncircumcised penis. Furthermore, foreskin removal also reveals how males acquire HIV, and in reality, the underlying mechanisms of MMC are not known. We argue that the normal sequelae of inflammation in the male genital tract (MGT) for protection from sexually transmitted infections (STI)-induced pathology represents a perfect immune and microbial ecosystem for HIV acquisition. The accumulation of HIV-1 target cells in foreskin tissue and within the urethra in response to STIs, both during and after resolution of infection, suggests that acquisition of HIV-1, through sexual contact, makes use of the natural immune milieu of the MGT. Understanding immunity in the MGT, the movement of HIV-1 target cells to the urethra and foreskin tissue upon encounter with microbial signals would provide more insight into viral acquisition and lay the foundation for further prevention strategies in males that would be critical to curb the epidemic in all sexual partners at risk of infection. The global female-centric focus of HIV-1 transmission and acquisition research has tended to leave gaps in our knowledge of what determines HIV-1 acquisition in men and such understanding would provide a more balanced and complete view of viral acquisition. PMID:27446076

  5. Lipschutz ulcers: evaluation and management of acute genital ulcers in women.

    PubMed

    Huppert, Jill S

    2010-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers are painful and distressing to women and perplexing to the providers who care for them. The differential diagnosis includes sexually and nonsexually transmitted infections, autoimmune conditions, drug reactions, and local manifestations of systemic illness. However, in many cases, no causative agent is identified, and lesions are classified as idiopathic aphthosis. In the setting of fever and acute onset of genital ulcers in girls and women, the term Lipschutz ulcers has been used to describe ulcers associated with an immunologic reaction to a distant source of infection or inflammation. The aims of this article are to review the differential diagnosis and pathogenesis of acute genital ulcers, to offer an evaluation and classification scheme, and to discuss treatment options for the dermatologist who cares for women and girls with vulvar ulcers.

  6. Lipschütz ulcer (ulcus vulvae acutum): a rare cause of genital lesion.

    PubMed

    Brinca, Ana; Canelas, Maria Miguel; Carvalho, Maria João; Vieira, Ricardo; Figueiredo, Américo

    2012-01-01

    Lipschütz Ulcer, or ulcus vulvae acutum, is a rare and probably underdiagnosed entity that usually presents as an acute painful vulvar ulcer in young women. The etiology is unknown, although recent reports have associated it with the Epstein-Barr virus. The diagnosis is made by exclusion after ruling out sexually transmitted diseases, autoimmune causes, trauma, and other etiologies of genital ulcerations. We report a case of a young woman who developed flu-like symptoms and painful vulvar ulcers. Complementary examinations ruled out sexually transmitted diseases and the other usual causes of genital ulcers; lesions healed with no sequelae or recurrences. This case represents a rare important differential diagnosis of genital ulceration.

  7. Association of Genital Infections Other Than Human Papillomavirus with Pre-Invasive and Invasive Cervical Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Ishita; Mandal, Ranajit; Kundu, Pratip; Biswas, Jaydip

    2016-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-established causative agent of malignancy of the female genital tract and a common Sexually Transmitted Infection. The probable co-factors that prevent spontaneous clearance of HPV and progression to neoplasia are genital tract infections from organisms like Chlamydia, Trichomonas vaginalis etc, smoking, nutritional deficiencies and multiparity. Inflammatory conditions can lead to pre-neoplastic manifestations in the cervical epithelium; however their specific role in cervical carcinogenesis is not yet established. Therefore it is imperative to study the likely association between HPV and co-infection with various common pathogens in the genital tract of women having cervical precancer or cancer. A "Pubmed" search was made for articles in Literature on this topic using the words: Cervical neoplasia, HPV, co-infections, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN), Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida, Chlamydia and the relevant information obtained was used to draft the review. PMID:27042571

  8. Mycophenolate mofetil in erosive genital lichen planus: a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Deen, Kristyn; McMeniman, Erin

    2015-03-01

    Erosive genital lichen planus is a disabling, inflammatory mucocutaneous condition that can cause significant patient morbidity and loss of function. Treatment initially involves topical corticosteroids but some patients can have severe treatment-resistant courses requiring systemic immunosuppression. With potentially unfavorable adverse effect profiles and subsequent intolerance of these agents by patients, erosive lichen planus can ultimately be a challenging condition to treat effectively. We present a case of a 66-year-old woman with treatment-resistant erosive genital lichen planus who was successfully managed with mycophenolate mofetil. Although there is only weak evidence for this agent in this condition, its role in dermatology is growing due to its efficacy and advantageous adverse effect profile and should therefore be considered in patients with treatment-resistant erosive genital lichen planus. PMID:25583369

  9. Association of Genital Infections Other Than Human Papillomavirus with Pre-Invasive and Invasive Cervical Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Ranajit; Kundu, Pratip; Biswas, Jaydip

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-established causative agent of malignancy of the female genital tract and a common Sexually Transmitted Infection. The probable co-factors that prevent spontaneous clearance of HPV and progression to neoplasia are genital tract infections from organisms like Chlamydia, Trichomonas vaginalis etc, smoking, nutritional deficiencies and multiparity. Inflammatory conditions can lead to pre-neoplastic manifestations in the cervical epithelium; however their specific role in cervical carcinogenesis is not yet established. Therefore it is imperative to study the likely association between HPV and co-infection with various common pathogens in the genital tract of women having cervical precancer or cancer. A “Pubmed” search was made for articles in Literature on this topic using the words: Cervical neoplasia, HPV, co-infections, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN), Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida, Chlamydia and the relevant information obtained was used to draft the review. PMID:27042571

  10. Morphology of accessory genital glands of spotted paca (Agouti paca Linnaeus, 1766).

    PubMed

    Borges, Edson Moreira; Branco, Érika; de Lima, Ana Rita; Leal, Leonardo Martins; Martins, Leandro Luiz; Reis, Ana Carolina Gonçalves; Cruz, Claudinei; Machado, Márcia Rita Fernandes; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2014-02-01

    The spotted paca is the second largest rodent in Brazil, where it is of great economic interest in impoverished regions in view of its prominence as a low-cost source of protein. Little is known about the morphology of the accessory genital glands of this species. Thus, we studied the position and morphology of the genitals in ten adult male spotted pacas. The animals were divided into two groups, five animals were used for fixing of samples in 10% aqueous formaldehyde for macroscopic studies and the other five animals were designated for microscopic analysis. These were arranged in pairs and had the vesicular, prostate, coagulating and bulbourethral glands identified, being structured as mucous glands, which lead into the pelvic urethra. It was concluded that the accessory genital glands found in the paca are the same as those found in most rodents, showing similar histological aspects.

  11. Religious Differences in Female Genital Cutting: A Case Study from Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Hayford, Sarah R.; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between religious obligations and female genital cutting is explored using data from Burkina Faso, a religiously and ethnically diverse country where approximately three-quarters of adult women are circumcised. Data from the 2003 Burkina Faso Demographic and Health Survey are used to estimate multilevel models of religious variation in the intergenerational transmission of female genital cutting. Differences between Christians, Muslims, and adherents of traditional religions are reported along with an assessment of the extent to which individual and community characteristics account for religious differences. Religious variation in the intergenerational transmission of female genital cutting is largely explained by specific religious beliefs and by contextual rather than individual characteristics. Although Muslim women are more likely to have their daughter circumcised, the findings suggest the importance of a collective rather than individual Muslim identity for the continuation of the practice. PMID:21969936

  12. Are reported stress and coping style associated with frequent recurrence of genital herpes?

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, L; Meadows, J; Catalán, J; Barton, S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper reports on the cross sectional data from the longitudinal study examining the impact of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection on quality of life. In particular the report sought to study the relation between recurrence of genital HSV and coping style, mood, personality, and quality of life, among other factors. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: 116 patients with a known history of genital herpes simplex infection attending the Department of Genitourinary Medicine at Chelsea and Westminster Hospital. METHODS: Psychosocial factors (stress, anxiety, depression, health locus of control, personality, social support, coping skills, and quality of life) and the reported frequency of genital herpes episodes were measured using self administered questionnaires designed to examine the relation between psychosocial status and the frequency of genital HSV episodes. RESULTS: The number of recurrences reported by patients was significantly related to the style of coping skills used. Higher recurrences were less likely to use problem focused coping skills of planning and active coping, and the emotion focused coping skills of positive reinterpretation and growth. There was a significant difference in the number of patients who believed that psychological stress was related to the number of recurrences they experienced. This belief was related to neuroticism on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire scale, and not to any of the other measures investigated. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that it is the way individuals cope, and their personality characteristics rather than actual levels of psychological stress, that influence their belief in a link between recurrent genital HSV and stress. HSV may become the focus of existing concerns and be viewed as the physical manifestation of stress. PMID:9389946

  13. Surgical Treatment of Genital Manifestations of Lymphatic Filariasis: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kah Heng Alexander; Speare, Rick; Thomas, Gail; Graves, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Genital manifestations of lymphatic filariasis (genital LF) are a significant cause of disfigurement and disability in the developing world. Surgery is the standard treatment; however, definitive publications are lacking and best practice remains unclear. An exhaustive search strategy using keyword and subject headings was applied to Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Scopus. Additionally citation lists, Google and Google Scholar, archives of relevant journals and websites were searched systematically. Studies with data on one or more human patient(s) who underwent surgery for genital LF were included. Articles were screened and data extracted by the first author with data verification by the second author. Fifty-seven studies were included: 18 series of ablative surgery, four series of non-ablative surgery and 35 case reports. Poor study quality, heterogeneous case definitions, lack of severity grading and limited follow-up precluded meta-analysis. Two series of simple hydrocelectomies performed in resource-limited settings reported early complication rates of 3.0-3.5 % using eversion and 5-7 % using excision, with recurrence of 7 % and 3-5 %, respectively. Complications were minimal for single-surgeon series and greater (12-18 %) when scrotal reconstruction was performed. There is little useful evidence for lymphatic bypass procedures in genital LF. Under-recognition of atypical manifestation of genital LF leads to potentially unnecessary surgeries. Surgery for genital LF is safe in resource-limited settings; however, more well-designed studies with better follow-up are needed. Research priorities include validation of case definitions and severity grading systems, and solutions to improve post-operative follow-up in resource-limited settings.

  14. Estimation of the incidence of genital warts and the cost of illness in Germany: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hillemanns, Peter; Breugelmans, J Gabrielle; Gieseking, Friederike; Bénard, Stève; Lamure, Emilie; Littlewood, Kavi J; Petry, Karl U

    2008-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. HPV is also responsible for benign condylomata acuminata, also known as genital warts. We assessed the incidence of genital warts in Germany and collected information on their management to estimate the annual cost of disease. Methods This was a multi-centre observational (cross-sectional) study of genital warts in Germany. Data were collected from gynecologists, dermatologists, and urologists seeing patients with genital warts between February and April 2005. The number of patients with new and recurrent genital warts was used to estimate the incidence in Germany. We assessed resource use for patients with genital warts seen during a two-month period as well as retrospective resource use twelve months prior to the inclusion visit through a chart review. The mean costs of treatment of patients with genital warts from third-party payer and societal perspectives were estimated, and the total annual cost of genital warts was then calculated. Results For the incidence calculation 217 specialists provided information on 848 patients and 214 specialists provided resource use data for 617 patients to assess resource consumption. The incidence of new and recurrent cases of genital warts was 113.7 and 34.7 per 100 000, respectively, for women aged 14–65 years consulting gynecologists. The highest incidence was observed in women aged 14–25 years (171.0 per 100 000) for new cases and in women aged 26–45 years (53.1 per 100 000) for recurrent cases. The sample size for males was too small to allow a meaningful estimate of the incidence. The mean direct cost per patient with new genital warts was estimated at 378 euros (95% CI: 310.8–444.9); for recurrent genital warts at 603 euros (95% CI: 436.5–814.5), and for resistant genital warts at 1,142 euros (95% CI: 639.6–1752.3). The overall cost to third-party payers was estimated at 49.0 million euros, and the total societal cost at 54

  15. Animal Models for Studying Female Genital Tract Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Kalmar, Isabelle; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen. It is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world, with more than 100 million new cases of genital tract infections with C. trachomatis occurring each year. Animal models are indispensable for the study of C. trachomatis infections and the development and evaluation of candidate vaccines. In this paper, the most commonly used animal models to study female genital tract infections with C. trachomatis will be reviewed, namely, the mouse, guinea pig, and nonhuman primate models. Additionally, we will focus on the more recently developed pig model. PMID:23836817

  16. Research gaps in the care of women with female genital mutilation: an analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdulcadir, J; Rodriguez, M I; Say, L

    2015-02-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) includes procedures involving the partial or total removal of the external female genitals for non-therapeutic reasons. They can have negative psychosexual and health consequences that need specific care. In this paper, we review some key knowledge gaps in the clinical care of women with FGM, focusing on obstetric outcomes, surgical interventions (defibulation and clitoral reconstruction), and the skills and training of healthcare professionals involved in the prevention and management of FGM. We identify research priorities to improve the evidence necessary to establish guidelines for the best multidisciplinary care, communication, and prevention, and to improve health-promotion measures for women with FGM.

  17. Research gaps in the care of women with female genital mutilation: an analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdulcadir, J; Rodriguez, M I; Say, L

    2015-02-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) includes procedures involving the partial or total removal of the external female genitals for non-therapeutic reasons. They can have negative psychosexual and health consequences that need specific care. In this paper, we review some key knowledge gaps in the clinical care of women with FGM, focusing on obstetric outcomes, surgical interventions (defibulation and clitoral reconstruction), and the skills and training of healthcare professionals involved in the prevention and management of FGM. We identify research priorities to improve the evidence necessary to establish guidelines for the best multidisciplinary care, communication, and prevention, and to improve health-promotion measures for women with FGM. PMID:25514892

  18. The modulatory role of M2 muscarinic receptor on apomorphine-induced yawning and genital grooming.

    PubMed

    Gamberini, Maria Thereza; Bolognesi, Maria Laura; Nasello, Antonia Gladys

    2012-12-01

    The interaction between dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways in the induction of behavioral responses has been previously established. In the brain, M2 receptors are found predominantly in presynaptic cholinergic neurons as autoreceptors, and in dopaminergic neurons as heteroceptors, suggesting a control role of acetylcholine and dopamine release, respectively. Our aim was to investigate the role of M2 receptors on the yawning and genital grooming of rats induced by apomorphine, a dopaminergic receptor agonist, focusing on the interaction between cholinergic and dopaminergic pathways. Initially, the effect of atropine, a non-selective muscarinic antagonist, on yawning and genital grooming induced by apomorphine (100 μg/kg s.c.) was analyzed. Atropine doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before induction of the behavioral responses by apomorphine. Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were quantified over a 60 min period. Apomorphine-induced yawning was increased by low dose (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) but not by high doses (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) of atropine. Genital grooming was antagonized by 2 mg/kg i.p. of atropine and showed no changes at the other doses tested. Tripitramine, a selective M2 cholinergic antagonist, was used as a tool for distinguishing between M2 and all other muscarinic receptor subtypes in yawning and genital grooming. Tripitramine doses of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 μmol/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before apomorphine (100 μg/kg s.c.). Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were also quantified over a 60 min period. Tripitramine 0.01 μmol/kg increased all parameters. Higher doses, which possibly block all subtypes of muscarinic receptor, did not modify the response of apomorphine, suggesting a non-selective effect of tripitramine at these doses. Given that low doses of tripitramine increased the behavioral responses induced by apomorphine and that the main distribution of the M2

  19. Genital examination and exposure experienced as nosocomial sexual abuse in childhood.

    PubMed

    Money, J; Lamacz, M

    1987-12-01

    Three pediatric cases of girls, one with idiopathic precocious puberty and two with a birth defect of the sex organs, exemplify the proposition that genital exposure and the physical examination of the genitals may be experienced subjectively as nosocomial sexual abuse. Negative sequelae persisted into adulthood. The dogma of the new victimology industry is that children never lie about sexual abuse. Consequently providers of pediatric and ephebiatric (pubertal and adolescent) sexual health care already are progressively at risk of being falsely accused of nosocomial (from the Greek nosokomeion, from nosos, disease, + komeion, to take care of: pertaining to or originating in a hospital, as nosocomial disease) sexual abuse.

  20. The role of imiquimod 3.75% cream in the treatment of external genital warts.

    PubMed

    Berman, Brian; Wolf, Joel

    2012-04-01

    Imiquimod 3.75% cream has recently been approved by both the U.S. Federal Drug Administration and Health Canada for the treatment of external genital warts. Herein, we provide an overview of external genital warts, review the phase 3 clinical trials leading to the approval of imiquimod 3.75% cream, and compare its efficacy and clinical use with imiquimod 5% cream. Moreover, therapeutic options have further expanded with the relatively recent introduction of sinecatechins 15% ointment, an extract of green tea leaves.

  1. Deslorelin implants in pre-pubertal female dogs: short- and long-term effects on the genital tract.

    PubMed

    Marino, G; Rizzo, S; Quartuccio, M; Macrì, F; Pagano, G; Taormina, A; Cristarella, S; Zanghì, A

    2014-04-01

    Deslorelin acetate is a GnRH agonist used for contraception in dogs. This study aimed to evaluate the treatment of pre-pubertal female dogs with deslorelin acetate implants, to better investigate the primary stimulatory effect of the drug and the long-term effects on the genital tract, throughout repeated treatments. Sicilian hound female dogs (24) were randomly assigned to treated group, control group 1 and control group 2. First group bitches were implanted at 4.5, 9.0 and 13.5 months and monitored clinically, ultrasonographically and endocrinologically, throughout the study period (13.5 months). Control group 1 bitches were not implanted and clinically monitored for the same period. At 18 months, the animals underwent ovariohysterectomy, thus allowing evaluation of the internal genitalia. Control group 2 bitches were ovariohysterectomized at the age of 4.5 months. The suppression of oestrus was obtained in the treated group despite the fact that the first implant caused a modest increase in plasmatic levels of 17-beta estradiol and an evident cornification of the vaginal mucosa cells (50-80%). Estradiol and progesterone were at baseline levels for the remaining study period, in which no other oestrous manifestations were observed. The external genitalia maintained a juvenile appearance. The ovaries, ultrasonographically, showed no follicular structures and stayed the same size. At 18 months, the genital tract was still juvenile with inactive small ovaries and a thin filiform uterus. Deslorelin suppressed ovarian activity in pre-pubertal bitches, and oestrous induction was not observed despite the presence of the primary stimulatory effect of the drug. Juvenile genitalia were an expected side effect of the treatment. PMID:24467617

  2. Spatial modelling and mapping of female genital mutilation in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is still prevalent in several communities in Kenya and other areas in Africa, as well as being practiced by some migrants from African countries living in other parts of the world. This study aimed at detecting clustering of FGM/C in Kenya, and identifying those areas within the country where women still intend to continue the practice. A broader goal of the study was to identify geographical areas where the practice continues unabated and where broad intervention strategies need to be introduced. Methods The prevalence of FGM/C was investigated using the 2008 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) data. The 2008 KDHS used a multistage stratified random sampling plan to select women of reproductive age (15–49 years) and asked questions concerning their FGM/C status and their support for the continuation of FGM/C. A spatial scan statistical analysis was carried out using SaTScan™ to test for statistically significant clustering of the practice of FGM/C in the country. The risk of FGM/C was also modelled and mapped using a hierarchical spatial model under the Integrated Nested Laplace approximation approach using the INLA library in R. Results The prevalence of FGM/C stood at 28.2% and an estimated 10.3% of the women interviewed indicated that they supported the continuation of FGM. On the basis of the Deviance Information Criterion (DIC), hierarchical spatial models with spatially structured random effects were found to best fit the data for both response variables considered. Age, region, rural–urban classification, education, marital status, religion, socioeconomic status and media exposure were found to be significantly associated with FGM/C. The current FGM/C status of a woman was also a significant predictor of support for the continuation of FGM/C. Spatial scan statistics confirm FGM clusters in the North-Eastern and South-Western regions of Kenya (p < 0.001). Conclusion This suggests that the

  3. Etiology of genital ulcers and prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus coinfection in 10 US cities. The Genital Ulcer Disease Surveillance Group.

    PubMed

    Mertz, K J; Trees, D; Levine, W C; Lewis, J S; Litchfield, B; Pettus, K S; Morse, S A; St Louis, M E; Weiss, J B; Schwebke, J; Dickes, J; Kee, R; Reynolds, J; Hutcheson, D; Green, D; Dyer, I; Richwald, G A; Novotny, J; Weisfuse, I; Goldberg, M; O'Donnell, J A; Knaup, R

    1998-12-01

    To determine the etiology of genital ulcers and to assess the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in ulcer patients in 10 US cities, ulcer and serum specimens were collected from approximately 50 ulcer patients at a sexually transmitted disease clinic in each city. Ulcer specimens were tested using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay to detect Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus (HSV); sera were tested for antibody to HIV. H. ducreyi was detected in ulcer specimens from patients in Memphis (20% of specimens) and Chicago (12%). T. pallidum was detected in ulcer specimens from every city except Los Angeles (median, 9% of specimens; range, 0%-46%). HSV was detected in >/=50% of specimens from all cities except Memphis (42%). HIV seroprevalence in ulcer patients was 6% (range by city, 0%-18%). These data suggest that chancroid is prevalent in some US cities and that persons with genital ulcers should be a focus of HIV prevention activities.

  4. Nonoxynol-9 use, genital ulcers, and HIV infection in a cohort of sex workers.

    PubMed

    Weir, S S; Roddy, R E; Zekeng, L; Feldblum, P J

    1995-04-01

    To determine whether nonoxynol-9 produces disruption of the genital epithelium and, in turn, places users of this spermicide at increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 273 seronegative female commercial sex workers in Cameroon were enrolled in a 12-month cohort study. Subjects were instructed to use condoms and 100 mg nonoxynol-9 suppositories at each act of intercourse and to maintain coital logs. The presence or absence of vaginal and cervical ulcers was recorded at monthly gynecologic examinations; HIV testing was performed every three months. Included in the final analysis were the 191 women with no cervical ulcers at baseline. Of these, 77 (40%) were classified as frequent (15 times/month) nonoxynol-9 users, 84 (44%) as intermediate (11-15 times/month) users, and 30 (16%) as infrequent (10 or fewer times/month) users. 40 women had evidence of cervical ulceration during the observation period and 18 developed vaginal ulcerations. Unexpectedly, nonoxynol-9 use was not associated with an increased risk of ulceration. The incidence rates for cervical and vaginal ulcers, respectively, were 2.7% and 0.6% among frequent users, 2.2% and 0.8% among intermediate users, and 9.0% and 3.0% among infrequent users. Of the 17 women who became infected with HIV during the study, 29% had experienced ulceration compared to a rate of 28% for matched controls (odds ratio, 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.5). It is speculated that nonoxynol-9 provides sufficient lubrication during intercourse to prevent epithelial trauma. It is further plausible that any ulcers caused by nonoxynol-9--as opposed to those of infectious etiology--lack the immunologic cell responses required to increase susceptibility to HIV.

  5. Anatomicohistological characteristics of the tubular genital organs of the female collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) from North-eastern Amazon.

    PubMed

    Mayor, P; Jori, F; López-Béjar, M

    2004-04-01

    The present study examines anatomical and histological characteristics of tubular genital organs and its relationships with the reproductive state of 24 wild adult collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) females. The tunica mucosa of the uterine tube presents a pseudostratified, intermittently ciliated columnar epithelium. The epithelial secretory cells of pregnant females and females in the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle became taller than the ciliated cells and showed abundant apical secretory blebs, whereas secretory cells of females in the follicular phase showed abundant mucous secretory activity (periodic acid-Schiff positive cells). The uterus is composed of two narrow and convoluted uterine horns, separated by the velum uteri, a small uterine body and a long and muscular cervix. The endometrial lining of both uterine horns and body is a monostratified, columnar ciliated epithelium. Pregnant females and females in luteal phase showed a more developed hyperplasia of the endometrial simple tubular glands than females in the follicular phase. The cervix presents interdigitated rows of mucosal prominences that project into the lumen, structures similar to pulvini cervicali, occluding the cervical canal. In pregnant females, the endocervical canal was filled by a viscous cervical secretion. Females in follicular phase presented a thicker vaginal epithelium than pregnant females and females in luteal phase. The present study suggests that the collared peccary female showed different histological features of the uterine tubes, uterus and vagina in accordance with the reproductive state of the females.

  6. Genital tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis fails to induce protective immunity in gamma interferon receptor-deficient mice despite a strong local immunoglobulin A response.

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, M; Schön, K; Ward, M; Lycke, N

    1997-01-01

    CD4+ T cells have been found to play a critical role in immune protection against Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Since both humoral and cell-mediated antichlamydial immunity have been implicated in host protection, the crucial effector functions provided by the CD4+ T cells may rely on Th1 or Th2 functions or both. In the present study, we evaluated the development of natural immunity following vaginal infection with C. trachomatis serovar D in female gamma interferon receptor-deficient (IFN-gammaR-/-) mice with a disrupted Th1 effector system. We found that in comparison with wild-type mice, the IFN-gammaR-/- mice exhibited a severe ascending primary infection of prolonged duration which stimulated almost 10-fold-stronger specific local immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG responses in the genital tract. Following resolution of the primary infection and despite the augmented antibody responses to chlamydiae, the IFN-gammaR-/- mice were completely unprotected against reinfection, suggesting that local antibodies play a subordinate role in host protection against chlamydial infection. Immunohistochemical analysis of frozen sections of the genital tract revealed many CD4+ T cells in the IFN-gammaR-/- mice, with a dominance of interleukin 4-containing cells in mice following resolution of the secondary infection. However, in contrast to the findings with wild-type mice, the typical clusters of CD4+ T cells were not found in the IFN-gammaR-/- mice. Few and similarly distributed CD8+ T cells were observed in IFN-gammaR-/- and wild-type mice. Whereas chlamydia-infected macrophages from wild-type mice had no inclusion bodies (IB) and produced significant amounts of nitric oxide (NO) in the presence of IFN-gamma, macrophages from IFN-gammaR-/- mice contained many IB but no NO. These results indicate that CD4+ Th1 cells and IFN-gamma, rather than local antibodies, are critical elements in host immune protection stimulated by a natural ascending C. trachomatis infection in the

  7. HPV strain distribution in patients with genital warts in a female population sample

    PubMed Central

    Boda, Daniel; Neagu, Monica; Constantin, Carolina; Voinescu, Razvan Nicolae; Caruntu, Constantin; Zurac, Sabina; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Drakoulis, Nikolaos; Tsoukalas, Dimitrios; Tsatsakis, Aristides M.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the human cancer domain is still a subject of intensive study. In this study, we examined cervical swab samples from 713 females with genital warts, and tested the samples for high- and low-risk genital HPV. HPV genotyping was assessed using a Genotyping test that detects HPV by the amplification of target DNA using polymerase chain reaction and nucleic acid hybridization. In total, we detected 37 anogenital HPV DNA genotypes [6, 11, 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 40, 42, 45, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 58, 59, 61, 62, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73 (MM9), 81, 82 (MM4), 83 (MM7), 84 (MM8), IS39 and CP6108] and investigated the incidence of these genotypes in the patients with genital warts. We found differences in the distribution of high-/low-risk strains and the incidence of high-risk strains was found to occur mainly in females under 35 years of age. The data from our study suggest that a detailed oral, rectal and genital identification of high-risk strains should be performed to visualize the entire pattern of possible triggers of carcinogenesis.

  8. Male Genital Mutilation in the High-Mountain Goblin Spider, Unicorn catleyi

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, Matías A.; Rubio, Gonzalo D.

    2011-01-01

    Male genital mutilation is a common mechanism by which males reduce sperm competition by plugging female insemination ducts with different parts of its own genital system. This behavior is frequent in many spider families but is uncommon in Haplogynae. The reproductive biology of Dysderoidea is not well studied and the data is fragmentary; male genital mutilation has been reported only for one species of Oonopidae. This study provides evidence of male genital mutilation in Unicorn catleyi Platnick and Brescovit (Araneae: Oonopidae). Pieces of the embolus were found in the female posterior receptaculum. This behavior is a strategy used by the males in order to guarantee their paternity and not for escape from female attacks as has been reported for other species of Araneae, since cannibalism is unlikely in this species. The presence of embolus in the posterior receptaculum suggests this is the first place where sperm is received. The similarity of the female genitalia of U. catleyi to those of Orsolobidae, along with sclerotization of the seminal duct in the male copulatory bulb that is also present in Orchestina, Xiombarg, and Orsolobidae, provide strong evidence of the basal position of this genus in the family Oonopidae. PMID:22225476

  9. An autosomal recessive syndrome of cleft palate, cardiac defect, genital anomalies, and ectrodactyly (CCGE).

    PubMed Central

    Giannotti, A; Digilio, M C; Mingarelli, R; Dallapiccola, B

    1995-01-01

    We report a brother and sister affected by a constellation of malformations, including cleft palate, cardiac defect, genital anomalies, and ectrodactyly (CCGE). A similar association has been reported previously by Richieri-Costa and Orquizas in a male patient born to consanguineous parents. An autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance is proposed for this syndrome. Images PMID:7897634

  10. Demographic correlates of sexual size dimorphism and male genital size in the lice Philopterus coarctatus.

    PubMed

    Tryjanowski, Piotr; Adamski, Zbigniew; Dylewska, Magdalena; Bulkai, Lajos; Rózsa, Lajos

    2009-10-01

    Sexual selection is an influential agent of evolution, often shaping the sex ratio, sexual size dimorphism (SSD), and genital size in animals. To explore its effects in ectoparasites, we quantified SSD and male genital size in relation to intensity and sex ratio across subpopulations of Philopterus coarctatus, a philopterid louse of the great grey shrike. SSD was calculated separately for the width and length of the head and abdomen. Presuming that sexual selection affects the evolution of avian lice, we would expect that infestation intensities should covary with sex ratio, relative male size, and relative male genital size, either positively or negatively depending upon presumptions. Contrary to former studies, there was a weak negative relationship between infestation intensity and sex ratio. The relative width of male abdomens exhibited a highly significant negative interaction with the intensity of infestations. In contrast, sex ratio did not predict any of the dimorphism measures. Similarly, male genital size did not covary with the intensity of infestations or sex ratios. These findings may indicate that intensity covaries positively with levels of inbreeding in this species, suggesting that more-inbred subpopulations, wasting less energy for sexual rivalry, can multiply more intensively. Thus, small subpopulations have more frequent males which also possess larger abdomens. Alternatively, however, the same pattern may also arise due to male-biased starvation in overcrowded habitats; thus, males are rarer and have smaller abdomens in larger infrapopulations.

  11. Male genital mutilation in the high-mountain goblin spider, Unicorn catleyi.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Matías A; Rubio, Gonzalo D

    2011-01-01

    Male genital mutilation is a common mechanism by which males reduce sperm competition by plugging female insemination ducts with different parts of its own genital system. This behavior is frequent in many spider families but is uncommon in Haplogynae. The reproductive biology of Dysderoidea is not well studied and the data is fragmentary; male genital mutilation has been reported only for one species of Oonopidae. This study provides evidence of male genital mutilation in Unicorn catleyi Platnick and Brescovit (Araneae: Oonopidae). Pieces of the embolus were found in the female posterior receptaculum. This behavior is a strategy used by the males in order to guarantee their paternity and not for escape from female attacks as has been reported for other species of Araneae, since cannibalism is unlikely in this species. The presence of embolus in the posterior receptaculum suggests this is the first place where sperm is received. The similarity of the female genitalia of U. catleyi to those of Orsolobidae, along with sclerotization of the seminal duct in the male copulatory bulb that is also present in Orchestina, Xiombarg, and Orsolobidae, provide strong evidence of the basal position of this genus in the family Oonopidae. PMID:22225476

  12. It is as it does: genital form and function in sex reassignment surgery.

    PubMed

    Plemons, Eric D

    2014-03-01

    Surgeons who perform sex reassignment surgeries (SRS) define their goals and evaluate their outcomes in terms of two kinds of results: aesthetic and functional. Since the neogenitals fashioned through sex reassignment surgeries do not enable reproductive function, surgeons must determine what the function of the genitals is or ought to be. A review of surgical literature demonstrates that questions of what constitute genital form and function, while putatively answered in the operating room, are not answerable in the discourses of clinical evaluation used to define them. When the genitals--the word itself derived from the Latin genitas meaning to beget--are not reproductive, the question of their function shifts away from the biological and into other registers: pleasure, intimacy, sociality. As condensed sites of meaning and meaning-making around which selves, affects, resources, anxieties and futures are organized, the genitals signify in excess of the categories of "aesthetic" and "function" that surgeons use to assess them. Not reducible to either aesthetics or function, but constitutive of them both, this excess appears in surgical texts in the form of imagined futures of social and sexual engagement and demonstrates a powerful means by which properly sexed bodies are created.

  13. Gross anatomy of the male genital organs of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Pérez, William; Vazquez, Noelia; Ungerfeld, Rodolfo

    2013-06-01

    To describe the macroscopic anatomy of the genital organs of the male pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), organs from ten animals found dead in a captive breeding station were dissected. The unpigmented scrotum was located in the inguinal region near the body, and was covered by the thighs. In the investments of the testicles the dartos tunic was greatly developed. The cremaster muscle was located dorsocaudal to the testicle, and was divided caudally into three bundles of fibers. The right testicle was significantly heavier than the left, and there was a positive relationship between body weight and the weight of both testicles. The tail of the epididymis, ventrally located, had a caudal portion attached to the caudal extremity of the testicles by the proper ligament of the testicles, and a portion elongated free caudally located. The deferent duct was located caudomedially to the corresponding testicle. The accessory genital glands were the ampullary glands, vesicular glands, and a small pars disseminata of the prostate. The penis was fibroelastic, without sigmoid flexure, with a thick albuginea. The retractor penis muscle was very long, and ended in the distal part of the penis near the rudimentary glans. The general disposition of the male genital organs of the pampas deer were similar to that of other ruminants, with some differences, such as size and location of the testicles, the absence of the sigmoid flexure of the penis, and fewer accessory genital glands.

  14. Characteristics Associated with Genital Herpes Testing among Young Adults: Assessing Factors from Two National Data Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lisa K.; Levandowski, Brooke A.; Roberts, Craig M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives and Participants: In the United States, genital herpes (GH) prevalence is 10.6% among 20- to 29-year-olds and about 90% of seropositive persons do not know their status. This study investigated individual characteristics associated with GH screening and diagnosis in sexually active young adults aged 18 to 24. Methods: Two data sets were…

  15. HPV strain distribution in patients with genital warts in a female population sample

    PubMed Central

    Boda, Daniel; Neagu, Monica; Constantin, Carolina; Voinescu, Razvan Nicolae; Caruntu, Constantin; Zurac, Sabina; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Drakoulis, Nikolaos; Tsoukalas, Dimitrios; Tsatsakis, Aristides M.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the human cancer domain is still a subject of intensive study. In this study, we examined cervical swab samples from 713 females with genital warts, and tested the samples for high- and low-risk genital HPV. HPV genotyping was assessed using a Genotyping test that detects HPV by the amplification of target DNA using polymerase chain reaction and nucleic acid hybridization. In total, we detected 37 anogenital HPV DNA genotypes [6, 11, 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 40, 42, 45, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 58, 59, 61, 62, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73 (MM9), 81, 82 (MM4), 83 (MM7), 84 (MM8), IS39 and CP6108] and investigated the incidence of these genotypes in the patients with genital warts. We found differences in the distribution of high-/low-risk strains and the incidence of high-risk strains was found to occur mainly in females under 35 years of age. The data from our study suggest that a detailed oral, rectal and genital identification of high-risk strains should be performed to visualize the entire pattern of possible triggers of carcinogenesis. PMID:27602111

  16. Normal versus Abnormal Genital Findings in Children: How Well Do Examiners Agree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Joyce A.; Wells, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Preselected colposcopic photographs of the anogenital area of 16 patients were shown to 170 medical examiners, who rated their level of suggestion or indication of penetrating injury. Agreement between the participants and experts was higher on the abnormal cases than on the normal cases, and higher on genital findings than on anal findings.…

  17. Proceedings From the First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Faro, Edited by Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    The First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting was held in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, in July 2005. The conference covered regional issues relating to infection with the human papillomavirus—epidemiology, virology, and immunology, testing, screening, and prevention strategies—as well as cervical cancer screening and its management.

  18. Female Genital Mutilation: Proposals for Change. Minority Rights Group International Report. [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorkenoo, Efua; Elworthy, Scilla

    In Africa today, women's voices are being raised against female genital mutilation. Inspired by the United Nations Decade for Women, this report seeks to present information in a logical, coherent manner to stimulate support for eradication of the practice. It describes steps African governments, Western states, and international agencies can take…

  19. Divergence in genital morphology may contribute to mechanical reproductive isolation in a millipede

    PubMed Central

    Wojcieszek, Janine M; Simmons, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Genitalia appear to evolve rapidly and divergently in taxa with internal fertilization. The current consensus is that intense directional sexual selection drives the rapid evolution of genitalia. Recent research on the millipede Antichiropus variabilis suggests that the male genitalia are currently experiencing stabilizing selection – a pattern of selection expected for lock-and-key structures that enforce mate recognition and reproductive isolation. Here, we investigate how divergence in genital morphology affects reproductive compatibility among isolated populations of A. variabilis. Females from a focal population were mated first to a male from their own population and, second, to a male from one of two populations with divergent genital morphology. We observed variation in mating behavior that might indicate the emergence of precopulatory reproductive barriers: males from one divergent population took significantly longer to recognize females and exhibited mechanical difficulty in genital insertion. Moreover, we observed very low paternity success for extra-population males who were successful in copulating. Our data suggest that divergence in genital shape may be contributing to reproductive isolation, and incipient speciation among isolated populations of A. variabilis. PMID:23467632

  20. Improving immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines for genital herpes containing herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Sita; Shaw, Carolyn; Friedman, Harvey

    2014-12-01

    No vaccines are approved for prevention or treatment of genital herpes. The focus of genital herpes vaccine trials has been on prevention using herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) alone or combined with glycoprotein B. These prevention trials did not achieve their primary end points. However, subset analyses reported some positive outcomes in each study. The most recent trial was the Herpevac Trial for Women that used gD2 with monophosphoryl lipid A and alum as adjuvants in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 seronegative women. Unexpectedly, the vaccine prevented genital disease by HSV-1 but not HSV-2. Currently, HSV-1 causes more first episodes of genital herpes than HSV-2, highlighting the importance of protecting against HSV-1. The scientific community is conflicted between abandoning vaccine efforts that include gD2 and building upon the partial successes of previous trials. We favor building upon success and present approaches to improve outcomes of gD2-based subunit antigen vaccines.

  1. Female Genital Cutting and Children's Rights: Implications for Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dustin, Donna; Davies, Liz

    2007-01-01

    Female genital cutting (FGC) is an ancient practice that affects girls and young women around the world, defining the identity of women in cultures where it is practiced. FGC is carried out for a range of social and cultural reasons. The United Kingdom as a point of inward migration receives families from countries and cultures where FGC is the…

  2. Differential Regulation of CD4 Lymphocyte Recruitment between the Upper and Lower Regions of the Genital Tract during Chlamydia trachomatis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kathleen A.; Walker, Jennifer C.; Jameel, Shimul H.; Gray, Heather L.; Rank, Roger G.

    2000-01-01

    Genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis results in both the local recruitment of protective immune responses and an inflammatory infiltrate that may also participate in tubal pathology. As a beginning to understanding the etiology of immune system-mediated tubal pathology, we evaluated the regional recruitment of lymphocyte subsets to different areas of the female genital tract (GT) over the course of a murine infection with the mouse pneumonitis agent of Chlamydia trachomatis (MoPn). Using flow cytometric techniques we found that the CD4 lymphocyte subset was preferentially recruited to the upper GT (oviduct and uterine horn) over the lower GT (cervical-vaginal region) throughout the course of MoPn infection. The influx of CD4 cells also correlated with the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules (ECAMs) and in vitro lymphocyte adherence in the upper GT. Interestingly, the expression of ECAMs in the lower GT was not maintained longer than 7 days after infection, even in the presence of viable chlamydiae. Taken together, these data suggest that regulatory mechanisms of lymphocyte recruitment differ between the upper and lower regions of the GT and may influence the clearance of chlamydiae and the development of tubal pathology. PMID:10678969

  3. The eunuch phenomenon: adaptive evolution of genital emasculation in sexually dimorphic spiders.

    PubMed

    Kuntner, Matjaž; Agnarsson, Ingi; Li, Daiqin

    2015-02-01

    Under natural and sexual selection traits often evolve that secure paternity or maternity through self-sacrifice to predators, rivals, offspring, or partners. Emasculation-males removing their genitals-is an unusual example of such behaviours. Known only in insects and spiders, the phenomenon's adaptiveness is difficult to explain, yet its repeated origins and association with sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual cannibalism suggest an adaptive significance. In spiders, emasculation of paired male sperm-transferring organs - secondary genitals - (hereafter, palps), results in 'eunuchs'. This behaviour has been hypothesized to be adaptive because (i) males plug female genitals with their severed palps (plugging hypothesis), (ii) males remove their palps to become better fighters in male-male contests (better-fighter hypothesis), perhaps reaching higher agility due to reduced total body mass (gloves-off hypothesis), and (iii) males achieve prolonged sperm transfer through severed genitals (remote-copulation hypothesis). Prior research has provided evidence in support of these hypotheses in some orb-weaving spiders but these explanations are far from general. Seeking broad macroevolutionary patterns of spider emasculation, we review the known occurrences, weigh the evidence in support of the hypotheses in each known case, and redefine more precisely the particular cases of emasculation depending on its timing in relation to maturation and mating: 'pre-maturation', 'mating', and 'post-mating'. We use a genus-level spider phylogeny to explore emasculation evolution and to investigate potential evolutionary linkage between emasculation, SSD, lesser genital damage (embolic breakage), and sexual cannibalism (females consuming their mates). We find a complex pattern of spider emasculation evolution, all cases confined to Araneoidea: emasculation evolved at least five and up to 11 times, was lost at least four times, and became further modified at least once. We also find

  4. The eunuch phenomenon: adaptive evolution of genital emasculation in sexually dimorphic spiders.

    PubMed

    Kuntner, Matjaž; Agnarsson, Ingi; Li, Daiqin

    2015-02-01

    Under natural and sexual selection traits often evolve that secure paternity or maternity through self-sacrifice to predators, rivals, offspring, or partners. Emasculation-males removing their genitals-is an unusual example of such behaviours. Known only in insects and spiders, the phenomenon's adaptiveness is difficult to explain, yet its repeated origins and association with sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual cannibalism suggest an adaptive significance. In spiders, emasculation of paired male sperm-transferring organs - secondary genitals - (hereafter, palps), results in 'eunuchs'. This behaviour has been hypothesized to be adaptive because (i) males plug female genitals with their severed palps (plugging hypothesis), (ii) males remove their palps to become better fighters in male-male contests (better-fighter hypothesis), perhaps reaching higher agility due to reduced total body mass (gloves-off hypothesis), and (iii) males achieve prolonged sperm transfer through severed genitals (remote-copulation hypothesis). Prior research has provided evidence in support of these hypotheses in some orb-weaving spiders but these explanations are far from general. Seeking broad macroevolutionary patterns of spider emasculation, we review the known occurrences, weigh the evidence in support of the hypotheses in each known case, and redefine more precisely the particular cases of emasculation depending on its timing in relation to maturation and mating: 'pre-maturation', 'mating', and 'post-mating'. We use a genus-level spider phylogeny to explore emasculation evolution and to investigate potential evolutionary linkage between emasculation, SSD, lesser genital damage (embolic breakage), and sexual cannibalism (females consuming their mates). We find a complex pattern of spider emasculation evolution, all cases confined to Araneoidea: emasculation evolved at least five and up to 11 times, was lost at least four times, and became further modified at least once. We also find

  5. Genital morphology and fertilization success in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus: an example of sexually selected male genitalia.

    PubMed

    House, Clarissa M; Simmons, Leigh W

    2003-03-01

    In animals with internal fertilization and promiscuous mating, male genitalia show rapid and divergent evolution. Three hypotheses have been suggested to explain the evolutionary processes responsible for genital evolution: the lock-and-key hypothesis, the pleiotropy hypothesis and the sexual-selection hypothesis. Here, we determine whether variation in male genital morphology influences fertilization success in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus, as predicted by the sexual-selection hypothesis. Variation in four out of five genital sclerites of the endophallus influenced a male's fertilization success, supporting the general hypothesis that male genitalia can evolve under sexual selection. Furthermore, different genital sclerites were found to enhance first versus second male paternity, indicating that different sclerites serve offensive and defensive roles. Genital-trait variability was comparable to that in other species but was less variable than a non-genital sexually selected trait (head horns). We suggest that directional selection for genital elaboration may be countered by natural selection, which should favour genitalia of a size and shape necessary for efficient coupling and sperm transfer.

  6. Novel genital alphapapillomaviruses in baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) with cervical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Bergin, I L; Bell, J D; Chen, Z; Zochowski, M K; Chai, D; Schmidt, K; Culmer, D L; Aronoff, D M; Patton, D L; Mwenda, J M; Wood, C E; Burk, R D

    2013-01-01

    Genital Alphapapillomavirus (αPV) infections are one of the most common sexually transmitted human infections worldwide. Women infected with the highly oncogenic genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are at high risk for development of cervical cancer. Related oncogenic αPVs exist in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques. Here the authors identified 3 novel genital αPV types (PhPV1, PhPV2, PhPV3) by PCR in cervical samples from 6 of 15 (40%) wild-caught female Kenyan olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis). Eleven baboons had koilocytes in the cervix and vagina. Three baboons had dysplastic proliferative changes consistent with cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). In 2 baboons with PCR-confirmed PhPV1, 1 had moderate (CIN2, n = 1) and 1 had low-grade (CIN1, n = 1) dysplasia. In 2 baboons with PCR-confirmed PhPV2, 1 had low-grade (CIN1, n = 1) dysplasia and the other had only koilocytes. Two baboons with PCR-confirmed PhPV3 had koilocytes only. PhPV1 and PhPV2 were closely related to oncogenic macaque and human αPVs. These findings suggest that αPV-infected baboons may be useful animal models for the pathogenesis, treatment, and prophylaxis of genital αPV neoplasia. Additionally, this discovery suggests that genital αPVs with oncogenic potential may infect a wider spectrum of non-human primate species than previously thought.

  7. 170 Years of “Lock-and-Key”: Genital Morphology and Reproductive Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Masly, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The divergent genital morphology observed among closely related animal species has long been posited as a mechanism of reproductive isolation. Despite the intuitive appeal that rapidly evolving genitalia might cause speciation, evidence for its importance—or even its potential—in reproductive isolation is mixed. Most tests of genital structural isolation between species often fail to find convincing evidence that differences in morphology prevent copulation or insemination between species. However, recent work suggests that differences in genital morphology might contribute to reproductive isolation in less obvious ways through interactions with sensory mechanisms that result in lowered reproductive fitness in heterospecific matings. In this paper, I present a brief history of the “lock-and-key” hypothesis, summarize the evidence for the involvement of genital morphology in different mechanisms of reproductive isolation, discuss progress in identifying the molecular and genetic bases of species differences in genital morphology, and discuss prospects for future work on the role of genitalia in speciation. L'armure copulatrice est un organe ou mieux un instrument ingénieusement compliqué, destiné à s'adapter aux parties sexuelles externes de la femelle pour l'accomplissement de l'acte copulatif; elle est la garantie de la conservation des types, la sauvegarde de la légitimité de l'espèce. [The copulation armor is an organ or better an instrument ingeniously complicated, destined to adapt to sexual parts external to the female for the completion of copulation; it is the guarantee of the preservation of the standards, the safeguard of the legitimacy of the species.] L. Dufour, 1844 PMID:22263116

  8. Genome-Wide Association Study on Male Genital Shape and Size in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Takahara, Baku; Takahashi, Kazuo H.

    2015-01-01

    Male genital morphology of animals with internal fertilization and promiscuous mating systems have been one of the most diverse and rapidly evolving morphological traits. The male genital morphology in general is known to have low phenotypic and genetic variations, but the genetic basis of the male genital variation remains unclear. Drosophila melanogaster and its closely related species are morphologically very similar, but the shapes of the posterior lobe, a cuticular projection on the male genital arch are distinct from each other, representing a model system for studying the genetic basis of male genital morphology. In this study, we used highly inbred whole genome sequenced strains of D. melanogaster to perform genome wide association analysis on posterior lobe morphology. We quantified the outline shape of posterior lobes with Fourier coefficients obtained from elliptic Fourier analysis and performed principal component analysis, and posterior lobe size. The first and second principal components (PC1 and PC2) explained approximately 88% of the total variation of the posterior lobe shape. We then examined the association between the principal component scores and posterior lobe size and 1902142 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). As a result, we obtained 15, 14 and 15 SNPs for PC1, PC2 and posterior lobe size with P-values smaller than 10-5. Based on the location of the SNPs, 13, 13 and six protein coding genes were identified as potential candidates for PC1, PC2 and posterior lobe size, respectively. In addition to the previous findings showing that the intraspecific posterior shape variation are regulated by multiple QTL with strong effects, the present study suggests that the intraspecific variation may be under polygenic regulation with a number of loci with small effects. Further studies are required for investigating whether these candidate genes are responsible for the intraspecific posterior lobe shape variation. PMID:26182199

  9. Genital carriage of the genus Haemophilus in pregnancy: species distribution and antibiotic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Cardines, Rita; Daprai, Laura; Giufrè, Maria; Torresani, Erminio; Garlaschi, Maria Laura; Cerquetti, Marina

    2015-07-01

    Recent reports have hypothesized that colonization of the maternal genital tract with non-capsulated Haemophilus influenzae could result in neonatal invasive disease. In this study, genital carriage of the genus Haemophilus was investigated in 510 pregnant women attending an Italian hospital for routine controls. Overall, vaginal carriage of the genus Haemophilus was 9.0 % (46/510). A high colonization rate with Haemophilus parainfluenzae (37/510, 7.3 %) was found; other species, such as Haemophilus pittmaniae (7/510, 1.4 %) and Haemophilus haemolyticus (2/510, 0.4 %), were detected for the first time in the genital flora by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Notably, no H. influenzae was identified, in agreement with previous investigations indicating that this species is rarely isolated from the genito-urinary tract of pregnant women. No antibiotic resistance was detected in H. pittmaniae and H. haemolyticus, but quite a high degree of ampicillin (10/37, 27 %) and ciprofloxacin (3/37, 8.1 %) resistance was observed in H. parainfluenzae. Five ampicillin-resistant isolates were β-lactamase producers, whereas five isolates exhibited a β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) phenotype. Sequencing of penicillin-binding protein 3 revealed that Val511Ala, Asn526Ser, Ala530Ser and Thr574Ala changes were associated with BLNAR phenotypes. Two ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates carried substitutions in both GyrA (Ser84Phe and Asp88Tyr) and ParC (Ser84Tyr and Met198Leu); the other ciprofloxacin-resistant isolate had substitutions in ParC, only (Ser138Thr and Met198Leu). In conclusion, ∼10 % of pregnant women carried a species of Haemophilus in their genital tract. The emergence of non-β-lactamase-mediated resistance in genital H. parainfluenzae is a matter of concern because of the risk of mother-to-baby transmission. PMID:25976004

  10. Pre and Post-copulatory Selection Favor Similar Genital Phenotypes in the Male Broad Horned Beetle.

    PubMed

    House, Clarissa M; Sharma, M D; Okada, Kensuke; Hosken, David J

    2016-10-01

    Sexual selection can operate before and after copulation and the same or different trait(s) can be targeted during these episodes of selection. The direction and form of sexual selection imposed on characters prior to mating has been relatively well described, but the same is not true after copulation. In general, when male-male competition and female choice favor the same traits then there is the expectation of reinforcing selection on male sexual traits that improve competitiveness before and after copulation. However, when male-male competition overrides pre-copulatory choice then the opposite could be true. With respect to studies of selection on genitalia there is good evidence that male genital morphology influences mating and fertilization success. However, whether genital morphology affects reproductive success in more than one context (i.e., mating versus fertilization success) is largely unknown. Here we use multivariate analysis to estimate linear and nonlinear selection on male body size and genital morphology in the flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus, simulated in a non-competitive (i.e., monogamous) setting. This analysis estimates the form of selection on multiple traits and typically, linear (directional) selection is easiest to detect, while nonlinear selection is more complex and can be stabilizing, disruptive, or correlational. We find that mating generates stabilizing selection on male body size and genitalia, and fertilization causes a blend of directional and stabilizing selection. Differences in the form of selection across these bouts of selection result from a significant alteration of nonlinear selection on body size and a marginally significant difference in nonlinear selection on a component of genital shape. This suggests that both bouts of selection favor similar genital phenotypes, whereas the strong stabilizing selection imposed on male body size during mate acquisition is weak during fertilization. PMID:27371390

  11. Pre and Post-copulatory Selection Favor Similar Genital Phenotypes in the Male Broad Horned Beetle

    PubMed Central

    House, Clarissa M.; Sharma, M. D.; Okada, Kensuke; Hosken, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual selection can operate before and after copulation and the same or different trait(s) can be targeted during these episodes of selection. The direction and form of sexual selection imposed on characters prior to mating has been relatively well described, but the same is not true after copulation. In general, when male–male competition and female choice favor the same traits then there is the expectation of reinforcing selection on male sexual traits that improve competitiveness before and after copulation. However, when male–male competition overrides pre-copulatory choice then the opposite could be true. With respect to studies of selection on genitalia there is good evidence that male genital morphology influences mating and fertilization success. However, whether genital morphology affects reproductive success in more than one context (i.e., mating versus fertilization success) is largely unknown. Here we use multivariate analysis to estimate linear and nonlinear selection on male body size and genital morphology in the flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus, simulated in a non-competitive (i.e., monogamous) setting. This analysis estimates the form of selection on multiple traits and typically, linear (directional) selection is easiest to detect, while nonlinear selection is more complex and can be stabilizing, disruptive, or correlational. We find that mating generates stabilizing selection on male body size and genitalia, and fertilization causes a blend of directional and stabilizing selection. Differences in the form of selection across these bouts of selection result from a significant alteration of nonlinear selection on body size and a marginally significant difference in nonlinear selection on a component of genital shape. This suggests that both bouts of selection favor similar genital phenotypes, whereas the strong stabilizing selection imposed on male body size during mate acquisition is weak during fertilization. PMID:27371390

  12. Mathematical Modeling Predicts that Increased HSV-2 Shedding in HIV-1 Infected Persons Is Due to Poor Immunologic Control in Ganglia and Genital Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Joshua T; Swan, David A; Magaret, Amalia; Schacker, Timothy W; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    A signature feature of HIV infection is poor control of herpes virus infections, which reactivate from latency and cause opportunistic infections. While the general mechanism underlying this observation is deficient CD4+T-cell function, it is unknown whether increased severity of herpes virus infections is due primarily to poor immune control in latent or lytic sites of infection, or whether CD4+ immunodeficiency leads to more critical downstream deficits in humoral or cell-mediated immunologic responses. Here we compare genital shedding patterns of herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) in 98 HIV infected and 98 HIV uninfected men matched on length of infection, HSV-1 serostatus and nationality. We demonstrate that high copy HSV-2 shedding is more frequent in HIV positive men, particularly in participants with CD4+ T-cell count <200/μL. Genital shedding is more frequent due to higher rate of shedding episodes, as well as a higher proportion of prolonged shedding episodes. Peak episode viral load was not found to differ between HIV infected and uninfected participants regardless of CD4+ T-cell count. We simulate a mathematical model which recapitulates these findings and identifies that rate of HSV-2 release from neural tissue increases, duration of mucosal cytolytic immune protection decreases, and cell-free viral lifespan increases in HIV infected participants. These results suggest that increased HSV-2 shedding in HIV infected persons may be caused by impaired immune function in both latent and lytic tissue compartments, with deficits in clearance of HSV-2 infected cells and extracellular virus.

  13. Mathematical Modeling Predicts that Increased HSV-2 Shedding in HIV-1 Infected Persons Is Due to Poor Immunologic Control in Ganglia and Genital Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Schiffer, Joshua T.; Swan, David A.; Magaret, Amalia; Schacker, Timothy W.; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    A signature feature of HIV infection is poor control of herpes virus infections, which reactivate from latency and cause opportunistic infections. While the general mechanism underlying this observation is deficient CD4+T-cell function, it is unknown whether increased severity of herpes virus infections is due primarily to poor immune control in latent or lytic sites of infection, or whether CD4+ immunodeficiency leads to more critical downstream deficits in humoral or cell-mediated immunologic responses. Here we compare genital shedding patterns of herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) in 98 HIV infected and 98 HIV uninfected men matched on length of infection, HSV-1 serostatus and nationality. We demonstrate that high copy HSV-2 shedding is more frequent in HIV positive men, particularly in participants with CD4+ T-cell count <200/μL. Genital shedding is more frequent due to higher rate of shedding episodes, as well as a higher proportion of prolonged shedding episodes. Peak episode viral load was not found to differ between HIV infected and uninfected participants regardless of CD4+ T-cell count. We simulate a mathematical model which recapitulates these findings and identifies that rate of HSV-2 release from neural tissue increases, duration of mucosal cytolytic immune protection decreases, and cell-free viral lifespan increases in HIV infected participants. These results suggest that increased HSV-2 shedding in HIV infected persons may be caused by impaired immune function in both latent and lytic tissue compartments, with deficits in clearance of HSV-2 infected cells and extracellular virus. PMID:27285483

  14. Mathematical Modeling Predicts that Increased HSV-2 Shedding in HIV-1 Infected Persons Is Due to Poor Immunologic Control in Ganglia and Genital Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Joshua T; Swan, David A; Magaret, Amalia; Schacker, Timothy W; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    A signature feature of HIV infection is poor control of herpes virus infections, which reactivate from latency and cause opportunistic infections. While the general mechanism underlying this observation is deficient CD4+T-cell function, it is unknown whether increased severity of herpes virus infections is due primarily to poor immune control in latent or lytic sites of infection, or whether CD4+ immunodeficiency leads to more critical downstream deficits in humoral or cell-mediated immunologic responses. Here we compare genital shedding patterns of herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) in 98 HIV infected and 98 HIV uninfected men matched on length of infection, HSV-1 serostatus and nationality. We demonstrate that high copy HSV-2 shedding is more frequent in HIV positive men, particularly in participants with CD4+ T-cell count <200/μL. Genital shedding is more frequent due to higher rate of shedding episodes, as well as a higher proportion of prolonged shedding episodes. Peak episode viral load was not found to differ between HIV infected and uninfected participants regardless of CD4+ T-cell count. We simulate a mathematical model which recapitulates these findings and identifies that rate of HSV-2 release from neural tissue increases, duration of mucosal cytolytic immune protection decreases, and cell-free viral lifespan increases in HIV infected participants. These results suggest that increased HSV-2 shedding in HIV infected persons may be caused by impaired immune function in both latent and lytic tissue compartments, with deficits in clearance of HSV-2 infected cells and extracellular virus. PMID:27285483

  15. Vaginal superficial myofibroblastoma: a rare mesenchymal tumor of the lower female genital tract and a study of its association with viral infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Lan; Su, Tzu-Cheng; Shen, Ko-Hung; Lin, Shu-Hui; Wang, Hsin-Kai; Hsu, Jui-Chang; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2012-06-01

    Superficial myofibroblastoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor in the lower female genital tract. The exact etiology of superficial myofibroblastoma remains unclear. The association of viral infection and mesenchymal tumors has been well established in some particular types of soft tissue tumors. In the lower female genital tract, the intimate correlation of viral infection and tumor pathogenesis has been also proposed. We present a 59-year-old woman with postcoital bleeding for 1 month. The pelvic examination revealed a 2-cm polypoid mass mimicking leiomyoma at the vaginal fornix. Local excision was performed, and the pathological examination revealed a superficial myofibroblastoma. No tumor recurrence was noted during the 12-month follow-up. Pathological differential diagnosis of this tumor from other mesenchymal tumors is essential because of its distinct clinicopathological features. Furthermore, fluorescence in situ hybridization of human papilloma virus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), as well as immunohistochemical staining of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), was negative in tumor cells. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first group to study the possible relationship of viral infection and the occurrence of this mesenchymal tumor. Our results suggested no association of vaginal superficial myofibroblastoma and infection with HPV, EBV, or HHV8.

  16. IL-23 induces IL-22 and IL-17 production in response to Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection, but the absence of these cytokines does not influence disease pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, Lauren C.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Zurenski, Matthew A.; Riley, Melissa M.; Mintus, Margaret; Pociask, Derek A.; Sullivan, Jeanne E.; Andrews, Charles W.; Darville, Toni

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Chlamydia trachomatis Infections are a significant cause of reproductive tract pathology. Protective and pathologic immune mediators must be differentiated in order to design a safe and effective vaccine. METHODS Wild-type mice and mice deficient in IL-22 and IL-23 were infected intravaginally with Chlamydia muridarum and their course of infection and oviduct pathology were compared. Local genital tract and draining lymph node immune responses were also examined in IL-23 deficient mice. RESULTS IL-22 and IL-23 deficient mice exhibited normal susceptibility to infection and oviduct pathology. IL-23 was required for development of a Chlamydia-specific Th17 response in the lymph nodes and for production of IL-22 and IL-17 in the genital tract. However, influx of Th1 and innate immune cells was not compromised in the absence of IL-23. CONCLUSIONS IL-22 and IL-23 play either redundant or minimal roles in the pathogenesis of Chlamydia infection in the mouse model. Induction of Th17-associated cytokines by a Chlamydia vaccine should be avoided since these responses are not central to resolution of infection and have pathologic potential. PMID:24238108

  17. Distribution of genital wart human papillomavirus genotypes in China: a multi-center study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lihong; Ci, Puwa; Shi, Jufang; Zhai, Kan; Feng, Xiaoli; Colombara, Danny; Wang, Wei; Qiao, Youlin; Chen, Wen; Wu, Yuping

    2013-10-01

    Although it is understood that low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes are associated with genital warts, there have been very few published studies reporting the genotype-specific prevalence of HPV among Chinese population. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of HPV genotypes in genital warts across China, and thus to evaluate the potential benefit of a quadrivalent HPV vaccine in this population. The tissue samples of a total of 1,005 genital warts cases were collected from seven geographical regions of China. HPV genotypes were analyzed using the general primer PCR and sequence-based typing method. Prevalence differences between sexes, geographical regions and age groups were assessed. The overall prevalence of HPV DNA in genital warts patients was 88.7% (891/1,005). Low-risk genotypes predominated, with a prevalence of 78.1% (785/1,005). The most prevalent genotypes were HPV-6 (41.3%), HPV-11 (37.6%) and HPV-16 (10.4%). Among HPV positive patients, single infections were more frequent (866/891, 97.2%) than co-infections (25/891, 2.8%). Both the overall prevalence of HPV DNA and that of HPV-6/-11/-16 (positive for any of the three types) decreased with age (P-trend = 0.010 and P-trend = 0.025, respectively). The prevalence of HPV-6/-11 (positive for either HPV type) and HPV-16 varied by geographic region (P = 0.003 and P ≤ 0.001, respectively). The prevalence of HPV-16 in female patients between urban and rural areas showed a marginally significant difference (P = 0.05). In sum, the results provide strong evidence that, in China, the most prevalent HPV genotypes in genital warts are HPV-6, HPV-11 and HPV-16. This indicates that a quadrivalent HPV vaccine may decrease the incidence of genital warts in the future.

  18. "The first cut is the deepest": a psychological, sexological and gynecological perspective on female genital cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Barbara, Giussy; Facchin, Federica; Meschia, Michele; Vercellini, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    In recent years increased numbers of healthy women and girls have been seeking female genital cosmetic surgery for esthetic reasons and/or to enhance sexual functioning. This phenomenon is associated with the development of a new vulvovaginal standard due to Internet pornography and the increased exposure of female genitalia. This strict standard may negatively affect women's psychological health and cause increased insecurity, which may drive even teenagers to seek female genital cosmetic surgery. Psychological counseling is recommended to inform women that surgery is not a definitive solution to treat psychologically based pain or dysfunction. Moreover, there is no robust evidence supporting the effectiveness of female genital cosmetic surgery, especially regarding sexual enhancement, as underlined by major scientific societies. The importance of a definite regulation of female genital cosmetic surgery should be emphasized and be based on an ethically oriented, multidisciplinary model aimed at providing exhaustive information on all gynecological, sexological, and psychological concerns raised by this type of surgery.

  19. Pathogenic microbial flora of genital ulcers in Sheffield with particular reference to herpes simplex virus and Haemophilus ducreyi.

    PubMed

    Kinghorn, G R; Hafiz, S; McEntegart, M G

    1982-12-01

    The pathogenic microbial flora of genital ulcers in 161 (80 men and 81 women) unselected patients was studied prospectively. In only one case was Treponema pallidum responsible whereas herpes simplex virus was considered to be the cause of 130 (80.8%) genital ulcers. H ducreyi was isolated from 46 (28.6%) patients, most commonly as a secondary pathogen in herpetic lesions. Two or more pathogens were isolated from the ulcers in 67 (41.6%) patients, and in 21 (13%) patients no pathogens were isolated. Our results indicate an urgent need for antiviral treatment to reduce the local reservoir of genital herpes, challenge traditional concepts about the prevalence of H ducreyi in Britain, and call for a reappraisal of its role in the causation of genital ulcers.

  20. Genital ulcers after treatment with all-trans-retinoic acid in a child with acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Unal, Selma; Gümrük, Fatma; Cetin, Mualla; Hiçsönmez, Gönül

    2005-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) has been shown to improve the outcome of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, various adverse effects of ATRA treatment have been noted, such as scrotal and genital ulcers in adult patients. The authors report genital ulcers that developed in a child with APL after ATRA treatment. An 8-year-old girl with APL was treated with ATRA for 21 days and after discontinuation of ATRA treatment she developed genital ulcers. Systemic and local antibiotic pomades were applied and the lesions improved within 15 days. In conclusion, genital ulcers may develop in children with APL as a complication of ATRA treatment and physicians should be alert to this possibility.

  1. Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS): from case reports to a call for concerted action against this neglected gynaecological disease.

    PubMed

    Christinet, Vanessa; Lazdins-Helds, Janis K; Stothard, J Russell; Reinhard-Rupp, Jutta

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, control of neglected tropical diseases has been increasingly gaining momentum and interventions against schistosomiasis are being progressively scaled-up through expansion of donated praziquantel and preventive chemotherapy campaigns. However, the public health importance of female genital schistosomiasis is not fully recognised nor its control is adequately addressed. Taking a clinical and anatomopathological perspective, we evaluated the available literature to highlight the importance of female genital schistosomiasis and its connections with two sexually transmitted infections of global importance, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Human Papilloma Virus. Outside the long list of clinical descriptive reports beginning in 1899, there is presently a shocking gap in epidemiological assessment and a significant underestimation of the burden of FGS remains. The scarcity of integrated approaches to address female genital schistosomiasis calls for more concerted action in its detection, treatment and prevention alongside other concomitant women's health issues, otherwise female genital schistosomiasis will remain a neglected gynaecological disease. PMID:27063073

  2. Atypical presentations of genital herpes simplex virus in HIV-1 and HIV-2 effectively treated by imiquimod.

    PubMed

    McKendry, Anna; Narayana, Srinivasulu; Browne, Rita

    2015-05-01

    Atypical presentations of genital herpes simplex virus have been described in HIV. We report two cases with hypertrophic presentations which were effectively treated with imiquimod, one of which is the first reported case occurring in a patient with HIV-2.

  3. Gender Permanence and the Genital Basis of Gender: Stages in the Development of Constancy of Gender Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConaghy, Maureen J.

    1979-01-01

    Examines children's understanding of gender permanence and the genital basis of gender as distinct stages in the development of a gender identity. Subjects were 237 Swedish children aged 3 to 10 years. (CM)

  4. Successful treatment of genital Bowen's disease with imiquimod 5% cream.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Chikako; Shimizu, Akira; Kato, Madoka; Amano, Hiroo; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2015-09-01

    A 64-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed as having Bowen's disease on the vulva. The histopathological findings revealed papillomatosis, koilocytosis and clumping cells with atypical nuclei. Human papillomavirus DNA was not detected on polymerase chain reaction using consensus primers. The lesion was successfully treated with topical imiquimod 5% cream after two months. Histopathologically, no atypical cells were observed after treatment. Imiquimod can be a potential treatment modality for lesions that are difficult to treat with surgical excision. PMID:25258393

  5. Selection on an antagonistic behavioral trait can drive rapid genital coevolution in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Paul E; Head, Megan L; Jordan, Eleanor J; Carter, Mauricio J; Davey, Emma; Moore, Allen J; Royle, Nick J

    2016-06-01

    Male and female genital morphology varies widely across many taxa, and even among populations. Disentangling potential sources of selection on genital morphology is problematic because each sex is predicted to respond to adaptations in the other due to reproductive conflicts of interest. To test how variation in this sexual conflict trait relates to variation in genital morphology we used our previously developed artificial selection lines for high and low repeated mating rates. We selected for high and low repeated mating rates using monogamous pairings to eliminate contemporaneous female choice and male-male competition. Male and female genital shape responded rapidly to selection on repeated mating rate. High and low mating rate lines diverged from control lines after only 10 generations of selection. We also detected significant patterns of male and female genital shape coevolution among selection regimes. We argue that because our selection lines differ in sexual conflict, these results support the hypothesis that sexually antagonistic coevolution can drive the rapid divergence of genital morphology. The greatest divergence in morphology corresponded with lines in which the resolution of sexual conflict over mating rate was biased in favor of male interests.

  6. Selection on an antagonistic behavioral trait can drive rapid genital coevolution in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Paul E; Head, Megan L; Jordan, Eleanor J; Carter, Mauricio J; Davey, Emma; Moore, Allen J; Royle, Nick J

    2016-06-01

    Male and female genital morphology varies widely across many taxa, and even among populations. Disentangling potential sources of selection on genital morphology is problematic because each sex is predicted to respond to adaptations in the other due to reproductive conflicts of interest. To test how variation in this sexual conflict trait relates to variation in genital morphology we used our previously developed artificial selection lines for high and low repeated mating rates. We selected for high and low repeated mating rates using monogamous pairings to eliminate contemporaneous female choice and male-male competition. Male and female genital shape responded rapidly to selection on repeated mating rate. High and low mating rate lines diverged from control lines after only 10 generations of selection. We also detected significant patterns of male and female genital shape coevolution among selection regimes. We argue that because our selection lines differ in sexual conflict, these results support the hypothesis that sexually antagonistic coevolution can drive the rapid divergence of genital morphology. The greatest divergence in morphology corresponded with lines in which the resolution of sexual conflict over mating rate was biased in favor of male interests. PMID:27144373

  7. The effects of reduction operation with genital lymphedema on the frequency of erysipelas and the quality of life.

    PubMed

    Zvonik, M; Földi, E; Felmerer, G

    2011-09-01

    Genital lymphedema represents a severe disability for patients particularly when complicated by erysipelas, the most frequent complication. The objectives of this study were: to investigate the frequency of erysipelas in patients with genital lymphedema and genital lymphatic cysts who underwent evaluation for surgical treatment, to observe the influence of resection operations on the frequency of erysipelas, and to measure changes in the quality of life due to the resection. A total of 93 patients with genital lymphedema were studied. All patients underwent integrated care treatment in the Földi Clinic, Hinterzarten and the Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery of the University Hospital Freiburg during the period between 1997 and 2007. 44 of these patients underwent surgical treatment of genital lymphedema. The results indicate that lymphatic cysts were the most important risk-aggravating factor for recurrent erysipelas with lymphorrhea in the genital region (p < 0.001). Following the resection operation, however, the number of erysipelas incidents significantly decreased (p < 0.001). In addition, the antibiotic dose could be reduced after surgery (p = 0.039) and an improved quality of life was achieved (p < 0.001).

  8. Human α-amylase present in lower-genital-tract mucosal fluid processes glycogen to support vaginal colonization by Lactobacillus.

    PubMed

    Spear, Gregory T; French, Audrey L; Gilbert, Douglas; Zariffard, M Reza; Mirmonsef, Paria; Sullivan, Thomas H; Spear, William W; Landay, Alan; Micci, Sandra; Lee, Byung-Hoo; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2014-10-01

    Lactobacillus colonization of the lower female genital tract provides protection from the acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and from adverse pregnancy outcomes. While glycogen in vaginal epithelium is thought to support Lactobacillus colonization in vivo, many Lactobacillus isolates cannot utilize glycogen in vitro. This study investigated how glycogen could be utilized by vaginal lactobacilli in the genital tract. Several Lactobacillus isolates were confirmed to not grow in glycogen, but did grow in glycogen-breakdown products, including maltose, maltotriose, maltopentaose, maltodextrins, and glycogen treated with salivary α-amylase. A temperature-dependent glycogen-degrading activity was detected in genital fluids that correlated with levels of α-amylase. Treatment of glycogen with genital fluids resulted in production of maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose, the major products of α-amylase digestion. These studies show that human α-amylase is present in the female lower genital tract and elucidates how epithelial glycogen can support Lactobacillus colonization in the genital tract.

  9. The Distribution of Mycoplasmas and Ureaplasmas in the Genital Tract of Normal Artificial Insemination Bulls

    PubMed Central

    Fish, Norman A.; Rosendal, Søren; Miller, Richard B.

    1985-01-01

    Bull semen is commonly contaminated with mycoplasmas. To determine the source of contamination, semen and the genital tracts of 45 artificial insemination bulls were cultured for these organisms. The results indicate that mycoplasmas colonize the prepuce and the distal part of the urethra. Only rarely were they found in the ampullae or seminal vesicles. In 92% of the bulls with contaminated semen the same Mycoplasma species or Ureaplasma diversum was isolated from the prepuce and urethral orifice as was found in the semen. This suggests that the prepuce and distal urethra is the source of contamination. Colonization of the genital tracts with Mycoplasmas or U. diversum was not associated with histological changes. PMID:17422489

  10. Comparison of risk factors, severity, and treatment of women with genital HPV.

    PubMed

    Kenney, J W

    1994-08-01

    The incidence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) has increased 10-fold in the past 5 years, and HPV has recently been linked with cervical carcinoma. This retrospective study compared risk behaviors and cofactors of HPV between two groups of women diagnosed with HPV. Women attending a Student Health Center were younger and more likely to have more sex partners, chlamydia, and other sexually transmitted disease infections than women attending private gynecologists. These women were older, and more likely to be former smokers and to have had gardnerella infections than the women students. Age at first sexual intercourse and duration of oral contraceptive use did not differ between the groups. Diagnostic reports of HPV were compared, and women attending gynecologists had significantly higher colposcopy impressions and cervical biopsies than the student group. Women attending private gynecologists were more likely to receive laser treatment on several genital sites, whereas students were more likely to receive trichloracetic acid or cryotherapy on their cervix only.

  11. Experimental genital tract infection with Chlamydia psittaci (GPIC agent) in male rats.

    PubMed

    Jantos, C A; Augustin, J; Durchfeld-Meyer, B; Baumgärtner, W; Schiefer, H G

    1998-01-01

    The course of experimental chlamydial infection of the male genital tract was studied. Inoculation of the Chlamydia psittaci agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC agent) into the vas deferens of rats resulted in chlamydial infection of the epididymis, testis and the prostate gland. The inflammatory response was most prominent at 14 days after infection. Chlamydiae were recovered from the epididymides and the prostate glands for up to 90 and 60 days post inoculation, respectively. Histopathological changes associated with chlamydial infection of the epididymis or prostate gland were characterized by intratubular and interstitial purulent inflammation. Chlamydia-specific IgM- and IgG-antibodies were found in sera of nearly all infected animals. Results of this study indicate that this animal model may be useful to study the pathogenesis, immune responses and sequelae of chlamydial infections of the male genital tract.

  12. Genital anomalies in three male siblings with Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Christopher B; Probert, Richard C; Vance, Gail H

    2009-11-01

    Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome is an X-linked recessive overgrowth disorder characterized by prenatal onset of overgrowth, characteristic facies, and frequently mild to severe mental retardation. In addition, a number of other characteristics including supernumerary nipples, a grooved tongue or chin, chest wall malformations, and mild genital anomalies are frequently seen as well. Here we present three brothers with Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome, all of which had cryptorchidism with one also having chordee of the penis, hypospadius, and penoscrotal transposition. While severe genital anomalies have been reported rarely in patients with Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome, no individuals with such anomalies prior to this report had survived beyond the neonatal period.

  13. FGMReview: design of a knowledge management tool on female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Martínez Pérez, Guillermo; Turetsky, Risa

    2015-11-01

    Web-based literature search engines may not be user-friendly for some readers searching for information on female genital mutilation. This is a traditional practice that has no health benefits, and about 140 million girls and women worldwide have undergone it. In 2012, the website FGMReview was created with the aim to offer a user-friendly, accessible, scalable, and innovative knowledge management tool specialized in female genital mutilation. The design of this website was guided by a conceptual model based on the use of benchmarking techniques and requirements engineering, an area of knowledge from the computer informatics field, influenced by the Transcultural Nursing model. The purpose of this article is to describe this conceptual model. Nurses and other health care providers can use this conceptual model to guide their methodological approach to design and launch other eHealth projects. PMID:24837999

  14. Severe manifestations of hand-foot-genital syndrome associated with a novel HOXA13 mutation.

    PubMed

    Imagawa, Eri; Kayserili, Hülya; Nishimura, Gen; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Ikegawa, Shiro; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Miyake, Noriko

    2014-09-01

    We report on a girl with absent nails, short/absent distal phalanges of the second to fifth fingers and toes, short thumbs, absent halluces, and carpo-tarsal coalition who also had genitourinary malformations. Trio-based whole exome sequencing identified a novel de novo mutation (c.1102A>T, p.Ile368Phe) in the HOXA13 gene. Heterozygous HOXA13 mutations have been previously reported in hand-foot-genital syndrome and Guttmacher syndrome, which are variably associated with small nails, short distal and middle phalanges, short thumbs and halluces, but not absent nails. Considering the molecular data, the phenotype in the present patient was defined as the severe end of hand-foot-genital and Guttmacher syndrome spectrum. Our observation expands the clinical spectrum caused by heterozygous HOXA13 mutations and reinforces the difficulty of differential diagnosis on clinical grounds for the disorders with short distal phalanges, short thumbs, and short halluces. PMID:24934387

  15. HIV-1 DNA shedding in genital ulcers and its associated risk factors in Pune, India.

    PubMed

    Gadkari, D A; Quinn, T C; Gangakhedkar, R R; Mehendale, S M; Divekar, A D; Risbud, A R; Chan-Tack, K; Shepherd, M; Gaydos, C; Bollinger, R C

    1998-07-01

    HIV infection status was determined in 302 consecutive patients with genital ulcer disease (GUD) presenting to two sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Pune, India. Of the 71 (24%) individuals with HIV infection, 67 (94%) were HIV antibody-positive, and 4 (6%) were HIV antibody-negative but p24 antigen-positive at the time of presentation. HIV-1 DNA was detected in 24 (34%) specimens. The genital ulcers of all four acutely infected p24-antigenemic subjects were HIV-1 DNA-positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, compared with 20 of 67 (30%) seropositive patients (p = .01). Presence of chancroid, GUD symptoms for > 10 days, and concurrent diagnosis of cervicitis or urethritis were significantly associated risk factors for HIV-1 DNA shedding in ulcers. Early GUD diagnosis and aggressive treatment of HIV-infected patients may significantly reduce secondary transmission of HIV to other sex partners.

  16. Genital ulcers associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection (ulcus vulvae acutum).

    PubMed

    Sárdy, Miklós; Wollenberg, Andreas; Niedermeier, Andrea; Flaig, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection may rarely be associated with genital ulcers (ulcus vulvae acutum), a very painful manifestation. The aetiopathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood. We describe here a case of an adolescent virgin with multiple, deep genital ulcers associated with acute infectious mononucleosis. The diagnosis was supported by the clinical symptoms, atypical lymphocytosis, elevated circulating levels of liver enzymes, positive EBV serology, and the detection of EBV in a swab sample and a biopsy specimen by PCR. The virus could not be detected by immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridization. After a short course of methylprednisolone as a supportive treatment, the ulcers healed within one month. No relapse occurred during the 2-year follow-up. Available data relating to the aetiopathogenesis of this condition are reviewed, and we speculate that it may have been caused by percutaneous autoinoculation through cervicovaginal fluid.

  17. Female genital mutilation and monandry in an orb-web spider.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Kensuke

    2016-02-01

    Monandry, in which a female has only one mating partner during the reproductive period, is established when a female spontaneously refrains from re-mating, or when a partner male interferes with the attempts of a female to mate again. In the latter case, however, females often have countermeasures against males, which may explain why polyandry is ubiquitous. Here, I demonstrate that the genital appendage, or scape, of the female orb-web spider (Cyclosa argenteoalba) is injured after her first mating, possibly by her first male partner. This female genital mutilation (FGM) permanently precludes copulation, and females appear to have no countermeasures. FGM is considered to confer a strong advantage to males in sexual conflicts over the number of female matings, and it may widely occur in spiders.

  18. FGMReview: design of a knowledge management tool on female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Martínez Pérez, Guillermo; Turetsky, Risa

    2015-11-01

    Web-based literature search engines may not be user-friendly for some readers searching for information on female genital mutilation. This is a traditional practice that has no health benefits, and about 140 million girls and women worldwide have undergone it. In 2012, the website FGMReview was created with the aim to offer a user-friendly, accessible, scalable, and innovative knowledge management tool specialized in female genital mutilation. The design of this website was guided by a conceptual model based on the use of benchmarking techniques and requirements engineering, an area of knowledge from the computer informatics field, influenced by the Transcultural Nursing model. The purpose of this article is to describe this conceptual model. Nurses and other health care providers can use this conceptual model to guide their methodological approach to design and launch other eHealth projects.

  19. Tampons: a novel patient-administered method for the assessment of genital human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Fairley, C K; Chen, S; Tabrizi, S N; Quinn, M A; McNeil, J J; Garland, S M

    1992-06-01

    Assessment of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection usually requires a speculum examination to collect genital specimens. A technique using tampons as a patient-administered method for the collection of specimens was studied by dot blot hybridization (HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, and 33) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Tampons and cervical scrapes were collected from 48 consecutive women attending a dysplasia clinic. Tampons provided a significantly larger pellet volume (P less than .002) and more DNA (P less than .01) than scrapes. There was a close correlation when samples were analyzed for the presence of HPV DNA. Using dot blot hybridization, 8 cervical scrapes (17%) and 9 tampons (19%) were positive for HPV DNA (90% correlation). By PCR, 35 cervical scrapes (73%) and 33 tampons (69%) were positive for HPV DNA (88% correlation). Thus, tampon specimens are an easy method for assessment of genital HPV infection.

  20. The risk of misinterpreting genital signs of sexual abuse in cadavers: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ambrosetti, F; Palazzo, E; Gibelli, D; Andreola, S; Di Giancamillo, A; Domeneghini, C; Spagnoli, L; Cattaneo, C

    2013-09-01

    The significance of genital findings in a case of suspected child sexual abuse has been widely debated in the past decades, as shown by the different classifications available in literature. In the case of postmortem examination, the search for signs of sexual abuse is considerably more difficult because of the superimposition of postmortem modifications, which may determine tissue modifications that can be mistaken for traumatic lesions. This study aims at reporting a case where presumed findings of the first autopsy were denied by histological analysis; in detail, what looked like a possible bruise of the hymen was correctly recognized as hypostasis (livor) of the hymenal tissue by histological analysis. This case report suggests caution in the analysis and discussion of genital lesions found during postmortem examination since the superimposition of cadaveric modifications may radically modify the morphology of soft tissues.

  1. Immunization against Genital Herpes with a Vaccine Virus That has Defects in Productive and Latent Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Xavier J.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Knipe, David M.

    1999-06-01

    An effective vaccine for genital herpes has been difficult to achieve because of the limited efficacy of subunit vaccines and the safety concerns about live viruses. As an alternative approach, mutant herpes simplex virus strains that are replication-defective can induce protective immunity. To increase the level of safety and to prove that replication was not needed for immunization, we constructed a mutant herpes simplex virus 2 strain containing two deletion mutations, each of which eliminated viral replication. The double-mutant virus induces protective immunity that can reduce acute viral shedding and latent infection in a mouse genital model, but importantly, the double-mutant virus shows a phenotypic defect in latent infection. This herpes vaccine strain, which is immunogenic but has defects in both productive and latent infection, provides a paradigm for the design of vaccines and vaccine vectors for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as AIDS.

  2. [European Association of Urology guidelines on urinary and male genital tract infections].

    PubMed

    Schneede, P; Hofstetter, A G; Naber, K G; Vahlensieck, W; Ludwig, M; Bach, D; Bauer, H W; Beyaert, G; Blenk, H; Bootz, Th; Friesen, A; Geiges, G; Himstedt, H-W; Hochreiter, W; Keller, H-J; Knopf, H-J; Lenk, S; Liedl, B; Michaelis, R; Neubauer, L; Piechota, H; Rassler, J; Riedasch, G; Rothenberger, K-H; Rüdiger, K; Schmitz, H-J; Stadie, G; Thiel, U; Truss, M C; Wagenlehner, F M E; Weidner, W; Westenfelder, M; Göckel-Beining, B; Heidenreich, A; Rübben, H; Schalkhäuser, K; Thon, W; Thüroff, J W; Weidner, W

    2003-01-01

    Today, the classical bacteria that cause venereal diseases, e.g. gonorrhea, syphilis, chancroid and inguinal granuloma, only account for a small proportion of all known sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Other bacteria and viruses as well as yeasts, protozoa and epizoa must also be regarded as causative organisms of STD. Taken together, all sexually transmitted infections comprise more than 30 relevant STD pathogens. However, not all pathogens that can be sexually transmitted manifest diseases in the genitals and not all infections of the genitals are exclusively sexually transmitted. Concise information and tables summarising the diagnostic and therapeutic management of STDs in the field of urology allow a synoptic overview, and are in agreement with the recent international guidelines of other specialist areas. Special considerations (i.e. HIV infection, pregnancy, infants, allergy) and recommended regimens are presented.

  3. Genital Self-mutilation in a Case of First Episode Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Anuj; Chauhan, Khushboo; De Sousa, Avinash; Sonavane, Sushma; Pawar, Alka

    2016-01-01

    Genital self-mutilation (GSM) is a much rare finding and more commonly associated with psychosis when it comes to comparison with self-mutilation as a whole. There have been anecdotal case reports of GSM in psychotic disorders with most of them being in long standing psychoses. We describe herein a case of GSM during the first episode of psychosis where multiple phenomenological variables were seen responsible for the act. PMID:27570352

  4. The Role of Bacterial Vaginosis and Trichomonas in HIV Transmission Across The Female Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Mirmonsef, Paria; Krass, Laurie; Landay, Alan; Spear, Gregory T.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection are both very common and are associated with increased risk of sexual transmission of HIV. There are several mechanisms by which BV and TV could affect susceptibility including inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and disrupting mucosal barrier function. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of how these genital conditions lead to an increased risk of HIV infection in women. PMID:22384839

  5. Female genital mutilation: when a cultural practice generates clinical and ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Gibeau, A M

    1998-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is of growing concern to health care providers in the United States and Canada as more women from countries where the procedure is practiced emigrate to North America. An introduction to the demographics of FGM, including prevalence rates, is a necessary antecedent for understanding the cultural rationales for this widespread practice. Considering the health consequences of this practice promotes questions about legal and ethical aspects of care as North Americans approach FGM from their own individual cultural frameworks.

  6. Genital Self-mutilation in a Case of First Episode Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Anuj; Chauhan, Khushboo; De Sousa, Avinash; Sonavane, Sushma; Pawar, Alka

    2016-01-01

    Genital self-mutilation (GSM) is a much rare finding and more commonly associated with psychosis when it comes to comparison with self-mutilation as a whole. There have been anecdotal case reports of GSM in psychotic disorders with most of them being in long standing psychoses. We describe herein a case of GSM during the first episode of psychosis where multiple phenomenological variables were seen responsible for the act. PMID:27570352

  7. Sharma's Python Sign: A New Tubal Sign in Female Genital Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jai Bhagwan

    2016-01-01

    Female genital tuberculosis (FGTB) is an important cause of infertility in developing countries. Various type of TB salpingitis can be endosalpingitis, exosalpingitis, interstitial TB salpingitis, and salpingitis isthmica nodosa. The fallopian tubes are thickened enlarged and tortuous. Unilateral or bilateral hydrosalpinx or pyosalpinx may be formed. A new sign python sign is presented in which fallopian tube looks like a blue python on dye testing in FGTB. PMID:27365923

  8. Sensationalising the Female Pudenda: An Examination of Public Communication of Aesthetic Genital Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ashong, Ashong C.; Batta, Herbert E.

    2013-01-01

    We live in a society where beauty and sensations are important. Advances in medical technologies have brought on waves of new notions of beauty where commercial interests both in the media and the health industry spurred by fashion, advertising and celebrity promotion have tended to popularise body modifications and enhancements. In recent times, through offerings on cable television channels and glossy consumer magazines, medical procedures hitherto only in the precincts of medical schools, gyneacological clinics and medical journals have now pervaded the population. More seriously, on the Internet particularly, medical experts now offer services and graphic details of labiaplasty, clitoral hood reduction or enhancement, vaginal rejuvenation, etc. Here, we examine the public communication of the phenomenon of aesthetic genital surgery and interrogate thus; is it decent, honest, balanced and ethical? Relying on textual analysis, personal observation and literature review for data gathering, we observe that besides tending to commercialise and medicalise the female genitalia, a coalescence of medical, advertising and fashion interests as played out in the media sensationalises the benign science of plastic surgery and robs it of its truthfulness, genuineness, and purposefulness. The conclusion is that in Africa, where the effect of the development crises is telling, the hype surrounding cosmetic or aesthetic genital surgery is a damaging distraction particularly when the continent is waging a battle against female genital mutilation. The recommendations are that media and medical regulatory bodies should impress it upon media and medical industry operators that glaring commercial promotions of cosmetic genital surgery in the public media be checked, and that such communication should bear equal weight of facts related to risks, short comings, complications, and threats; in physical, social, and psychological terms. PMID:23445703

  9. Clinical management of female genital mutilation must be handled with understanding, compassion.

    PubMed Central

    Lalonde, A

    1995-01-01

    Canadian obstetricians, gynecologists and family practitioners are not allowed to perform female genital mutilation (FGM), but because of immigration patterns it is still a reality for them. Dr. André Lalonde, an Ottawa obstetrician-gynecologist who serves as executive vice-president of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, offers some practical suggestions from his own experience for physicians unaccustomed to seeing patients who have experienced FGM. PMID:7697588

  10. Analysis of the humoral immune response to chlamydial genital infection in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Batteiger, B E; Rank, R G

    1987-08-01

    Studies using the guinea pig model of chlamydial genital infection with the Chlamydia psittaci agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) have shown that serum and local antibodies play a role both in the resolution of infection and in protection against reinfection. Thus, this model is suited for further exploration of immune mechanisms and for vaccine studies with chlamydial macromolecules. We have further characterized the model by assessing the antigen-specific antibody response to experimental genital infection by using immunoblotting to assay both genital secretions and serum. The GPIC agent was characterized by analysis of outer membrane proteins, which indicated that the GPIC agent possessed a major outer membrane protein (MOMP), with a molecular mass of 39 kilodaltons (kDa), and a 61-kDa protein, analogous to cysteine-rich 60-kDa proteins or doublets of Chlamydia trachomatis strains. As indicated by immunoblotting, most infected animals produced serum immunoglobulin G antibodies to MOMP, the 61-kDa proteins, an 84-kDa outer membrane protein, and lipopolysaccharide. Such serum antibodies persisted for at least 813 days after primary genital infection. Immunoglobulin A antibodies against the 61-kDa proteins, lipopolysaccharide, and MOMP, but not the 84-kDa protein, were detected in secretions. Animals challenged with GPIC 825 days after primary infection became infected again despite the presence of serum antibodies, but the period of chlamydial shedding was significantly shorter and less intense than in primary infections. Although the specific mechanism is not known, these data suggest that a long-lasting immune effect is capable of altering the course of infection late after primary infection. Correlation of the antigen-specific antibody response and other immune parameters with the duration and degree of protective immunity induced by infection or vaccination may be helpful in further understanding the nature of such protective immunity.

  11. Sharma's Python Sign: A New Tubal Sign in Female Genital Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Jai Bhagwan

    2016-01-01

    Female genital tuberculosis (FGTB) is an important cause of infertility in developing countries. Various type of TB salpingitis can be endosalpingitis, exosalpingitis, interstitial TB salpingitis, and salpingitis isthmica nodosa. The fallopian tubes are thickened enlarged and tortuous. Unilateral or bilateral hydrosalpinx or pyosalpinx may be formed. A new sign python sign is presented in which fallopian tube looks like a blue python on dye testing in FGTB. PMID:27365923

  12. The female-specific doublesex isoform regulates pleiotropic transcription factors to pattern genital development in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sujash S; Uppendahl, Locke D; Chowdhury, Moinuddin A; Ip, Pui-Leng; Siegal, Mark L

    2011-03-01

    Regulatory networks driving morphogenesis of animal genitalia must integrate sexual identity and positional information. Although the genetic hierarchy that controls somatic sexual identity in the fly Drosophila melanogaster is well understood, there are very few cases in which the mechanism by which it controls tissue-specific gene activity is known. In flies, the sex-determination hierarchy terminates in the doublesex (dsx) gene, which produces sex-specific transcription factors via alternative splicing of its transcripts. To identify sex-specifically expressed genes downstream of dsx that drive the sexually dimorphic development of the genitalia, we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling of dissected genital imaginal discs of each sex at three time points during early morphogenesis. Using a stringent statistical threshold, we identified 23 genes that have sex-differential transcript levels at all three time points, of which 13 encode transcription factors, a significant enrichment. We focus here on three sex-specifically expressed transcription factors encoded by lozenge (lz), Drop (Dr) and AP-2. We show that, in female genital discs, Dsx activates lz and represses Dr and AP-2. We further show that the regulation of Dr by Dsx mediates the previously identified expression of the fibroblast growth factor Branchless in male genital discs. The phenotypes we observe upon loss of lz or Dr function in genital discs explain the presence or absence of particular structures in dsx mutant flies and thereby clarify previously puzzling observations. Our time course of expression data also lays the foundation for elucidating the regulatory networks downstream of the sex-specifically deployed transcription factors. PMID:21343364

  13. Overactive bladder after female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) type III.

    PubMed

    Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Dällenbach, Patrick

    2013-10-04

    A 27-year-old Somali woman with type III a-b female genital mutilation/cutting, consulted because of slow micturition, voiding efforts, urgency and urge incontinence (overactive bladder). She also referred primary dysmenorrhoea and superficial dyspareunia making complete sexual intercourses impossible. We treated her by defibulation and biofeedback re-educative therapy. We also offered a multidisciplinary counselling. At 5 months follow-up, urgency and urge incontinence had resolved and she became pregnant.

  14. [HPV detection in the mouth and cervix of patients with histological diagnosis suggestive of genital infection].

    PubMed

    De Guglielmo, Z; Avila, M; Veitía, D; Fernández, A; Venegas, C; Correnti de Plata, M

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluated HPV infection in the oral cavity (using oroscopy and exfoliative oral cytology) and its relation to genital infection in women with cytological diagnosis suggestive of HPV infection. The sample consisted of 60 patients who underwent oroscopy, cytology and viral determination in mouth and cervix by PCR using generic primers MY09/MY11 and MPCR. HPV DNA was detected in oral and genital mucosa in 48.33% and 73.3% of patients, respectively, yielding a concordance of 44.2% (k=0.44, moderate agreement). The most common viral types were low risk, especially type 6, found in 86.2% of oral samples and 65.9% of cervical specimens, alone or in combination with other types of low (11) or high oncogenic risk (16, 18, 33), with a concordance of 10.45% (k = 0.1, insignificant agreement). However, in relation to type 6, there was a concordance of 75.86% (k=0.7, high agreement). The cytology of the oral cavity had a sensitivity of 3.5% and a specificity of 93.6%. For oroscopy, sensitivity was 27.6% and specificity was 74.2%. The results indicate that HPV infection in the oral cavity of patients with genital infection could be frequent. The low concordance between HPV types suggests that HPV infection in the mouth and cervix has a different biological behavior.

  15. Forced genital cutting in North America: feminist theory and nursing considerations.

    PubMed

    Antinuk, Kira

    2013-09-01

    This article will examine forced nontherapeutic genital cutting (FNGC) through the lens of feminist theory and in relation to the concept of social justice in nursing. I will address the underlying assumptions of feminism and how they apply to the two currently legal forms of FNGC in North America: male infant circumcision and intersex infant/child genital cutting. Through a literature review and critical analysis of these practices, I will illustrate the challenges they present when considering the role of nurses in promoting social justice. If feminism asserts that bodily integrity, autonomy, and fundamental human rights are essential components of gender equality, it follows that these must be afforded to all genders without discrimination. Historically, there have been few feminists who have made this connection, yet a growing and diverse movement of people is challenging the frameworks in which we consider genital cutting in our society. Nurses are positioned well to be at the forefront of this cause and have a clear ethical duty to advocate for the elimination of all forms of FNGC.

  16. Prevalence of reproductive tract infections, genital prolapse, and obesity in a rural community in Lebanon.

    PubMed Central

    Deeb, Mary E.; Awwad, Johnny; Yeretzian, Joumana S.; Kaspar, Hanna G.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of reproduction-related illnesses in a rural community in Lebanon. METHODS: Data were collected through interviews with women in their homes, physical examinations and history taking by physicians in a clinic in the community, and laboratory tests. A total of 557 ever-married women aged 15-60 years were selected randomly. FINDINGS: Just over half of the sample (268, 50.6%) had five or more children, and (320, 78.9%) of women aged < 45 years were using contraception. The prevalence of reproductive tract infections was very low: six (1.2%) women had sexually transmitted diseases and 47 (9.3%) had endogenous reproductive tract infections. None had chlamydial infection or a positive serological finding of syphilis. None had invasive cervical cancer, and only one had cervical dysplasia. In contrast, genital prolapse and gynaecological morbidity were elevated. Half of the women studied (251, 49.6%) had genital prolapse, and 153 (30.2%) were obese. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of reproductive tract infections in this conservative rural community in east Lebanon was low. Possible explanations include the conservative nature of the community, the high rate of utilization of health care services, and the liberal use of antibiotics without a prescription. More importantly, the study showed an unexpectedly high prevalence of genital prolapse and obesity--a finding that has clear implications for primary health care priorities in such rural communities. PMID:14710505

  17. Risk factors for and prevention of human papillomaviruses (HPV), genital warts and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Chelimo, Carol; Wouldes, Trecia A; Cameron, Linda D; Elwood, J Mark

    2013-03-01

    Genital HPV infection is associated with development of cervical cancer, cervical neoplasia, anogenital warts, and other anogenital cancers. A number of reviews have primarily addressed the role of HPV infection in cervical carcinogenesis, and differences in human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes found in cervical cancer cases by histology and geographical region. This review provides an informative summary of the broad body of literature on the burden of HPV, the risk factors for HPV infection, genital warts and cervical cancer, and preventive measures against these conditions in females. Studies have identified the main risk factors for genital HPV infection in females as follows: acquisition of new male partners; an increasing number of lifetime sexual partners both in females and their male partners; and having non-monogamous male partners. Cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination are the primary measures currently recommended to prevent cervical cancer. There is also an ongoing debate and conflicting findings on whether male circumcision and condom use protect against HPV infection and subsequent development of HPV-related illnesses in females.

  18. Genital ulcers disease among sexually transmitted disease clinic attendees in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fawole, O I; Okesola, A O; Fawole, A O

    2000-03-01

    Genital ulcer disease (GUD) is a risk factor in the transmission of human immuno deficiency virus (HIV). The goal of this study is to estimate proportion, identify risk factors, and improve prevention and control of GUD. This is a retrospective study of 211 cases of GUD seen between 1993 and 1997 in an urban public sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Genital ulcers form 7.6% of all STDs seen. Overall, genital herpes was commonest (89 or 42.25%). It was the predominant infection (84 or 44.7%) in the males, while lymphogranuloma venereum (52 or 24.7%) was in females. The peak incidence in both sexes occurred in the 20-29 age group. Males out numbered females by a ratio of 8:1. Most of the patients were single 114 (68.3%) and most 70 or 33.3% were students. Risk markers identified were: casual sex (103 or 53.5%) and multiple sexual partners (77 or 36.5%). Both were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in single patients. Self-treatment, use of multiple drugs and incomplete course of antibiotics were also common. The need to intensify STDS education programmes to all occupational groups and to students in particular is highlighted. Commercial sex workers require periodic education, screening and treatment.

  19. Forced genital cutting in North America: feminist theory and nursing considerations.

    PubMed

    Antinuk, Kira

    2013-09-01

    This article will examine forced nontherapeutic genital cutting (FNGC) through the lens of feminist theory and in relation to the concept of social justice in nursing. I will address the underlying assumptions of feminism and how they apply to the two currently legal forms of FNGC in North America: male infant circumcision and intersex infant/child genital cutting. Through a literature review and critical analysis of these practices, I will illustrate the challenges they present when considering the role of nurses in promoting social justice. If feminism asserts that bodily integrity, autonomy, and fundamental human rights are essential components of gender equality, it follows that these must be afforded to all genders without discrimination. Historically, there have been few feminists who have made this connection, yet a growing and diverse movement of people is challenging the frameworks in which we consider genital cutting in our society. Nurses are positioned well to be at the forefront of this cause and have a clear ethical duty to advocate for the elimination of all forms of FNGC. PMID:24030105

  20. Patterned genital injury in cases of rape--a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Ravn, Pernille; Thomsen, Jørgen Lange; Lauritsen, Jens

    2013-07-01

    A pattern of genital injury that separates trauma seen in sexual assault cases from trauma seen following consensual sexual intercourse has been a matter of debate. This study aimed at clarifying the question by eliminating as many confounders as possible in a prospective, case-control setup. A total of 98 controls and 39 cases were examined using the naked eye, the colposcope and toluidine blue dye followed by colposcopy. The overall frequency of having at least one lesion was strikingly similar in the two groups, but cases had significantly more abrasions, a trend towards more haematomas and a higher frequency of multiple lesions. Cases had a higher frequency of lesions in locations other than the 6 o'clock position. Our data suggests that cases have larger, more complex lesions. In conclusion, this study has confirmed the existence of different patterns of genital lesions. Background data for detection of genital lesions using the three most commonly used techniques is provided. These results will aid in the interpretation of findings seen when examining sexual assault victims.