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Sample records for genital tract-derived cell

  1. Intersex (ix) mutations of Drosophila melanogaster cause nonrandom cell death in genital disc and can induce tumours in genitals in response to decapentaplegic (dpp(disk)) mutations.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, R N; Chatterjee, P; Kuthe, S; Acharyya-Ari, M; Chatterjee, R

    2015-06-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the intersex (ix) is a terminally positioned gene in somatic sex determination hierarchy and function with the female specific product of double sex (DSX(F)) to implement female sexual differentiation. The null phenotype of ix is to transform diplo-X individuals into intersexes while leaving haplo-X animals unaffected. This study on the effect of different intersex mutations on genital disc development provides the following major results: (i) similar range of a characteristic array of morphological structures (from almost double sex terminalia to extreme reduction of terminal appendages) was displayed by the terminalia of XX ix(1)/ix(1) , XX ix(2)/ix(2) and XX ix(5)/ix(5) individuals; (ii) an increased number of apoptotic cells were found to occur in a localized manner in mature third instar larval genital discs of ix individuals; (iii) ix mutations can induce high frequency of neoplastic tumours in genitals in the presence of decapentaplegic (dpp(disk)) mutations; and (iv) heteroallelic combinations of dpp(disk) mutations can also induce tumours in intersex genitals with variable expressivity. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that: (i) loss of function of ix causes massive cell death in both male and female genital primordia of genital discs, resulting phenotype mimicking in male and female characteristics in genitals; and (ii) at the discs, the apoptotic cells persist as 'undead' cells that can induce oncogenic transformation in the neighbouring disc cells when dpp signalling is blocked or reduced by dpp(disk) mutations.

  2. Sublingual immunization with nonreplicating antigens induces antibody-forming cells and cytotoxic T cells in the female genital tract mucosa and protects against genital papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Cuburu, Nicolas; Kweon, Mi-Na; Hervouet, Catherine; Cha, Hye-Ran; Pang, Yuk-Ying S; Holmgren, Jan; Stadler, Konrad; Schiller, John T; Anjuère, Fabienne; Czerkinsky, Cecil

    2009-12-15

    We have recently reported that the sublingual (s.l.) mucosa is an efficient site for inducing systemic and mucosal immune responses. In this study, the potential of s.l. immunization to induce remote Ab responses and CD8(+) cytotoxic responses in the female genital tract was examined in mice by using a nonreplicating Ag, OVA, and cholera toxin (CT) as an adjuvant. Sublingual administration of OVA and CT induced Ag-specific IgA and IgG Abs in blood and in cervicovaginal secretions. These responses were associated with large numbers of IgA Ab-secreting cells (ASCs) in the genital mucosa. Genital ASC responses were similar in magnitude and isotype distribution after s.l., intranasal, or vaginal immunization and were superior to those seen after intragastric immunization. Genital, but not blood or spleen, IgA ASC responses were inhibited by treatment with anti-CCL28 Abs, suggesting that the chemokine CCL28 plays a major role in the migration of IgA ASC progenitors to the reproductive tract mucosa. Furthermore, s.l. immunization with OVA induced OVA-specific effector CD8(+) cytolytic T cells in the genital mucosa, and these responses required coadministration of the CT adjuvant. Furthermore, s.l. administration of human papillomavirus virus-like particles with or without the CT adjuvant conferred protection against genital challenge with human papillomavirus pseudovirions. Taken together, these findings underscore the potential of s.l. immunization as an efficient vaccination strategy for inducing genital immune responses and should impact on the development of vaccines against sexually transmitted diseases.

  3. BMP Signaling Controls Formation of a Primordial Germ Cell Niche within the Early Genital Ridges

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Brian; Palumbo, Caterina; Nalepka, Jennifer; Molyneaux, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells are necessary to maintain tissue homeostasis and the microenvironment (a.k.a. the niche) surrounding these cells controls their ability to self renew or differentiate. For many stem cell populations it remains unclear precisely what cells and signals comprise a niche. Here we identify a possible PGC niche in the mouse genital ridges. Conditional ablation of Bmpr1a was used to demonstrate that BMP signaling is required for PGC survival and migration as these cells colonize the genital ridges. Reduced BMP signaling within the genital ridges led to increased somatic cell death within the mesonephric mesenchyme. Loss of these supporting cells correlated with decreased levels of the mesonephric marker, Pax2, as well as a reduction in genes expressed in the coelomic epithelium including the putative PGC chemo-attractants Kitl and Sdf1a. We propose that BMP signaling promotes mesonephric cell survival within the genital ridges and that these cells support correct development of the coelomic epithelium, the target of PGC migration. Loss of BMP signaling leads to the loss of the PGC target resulting in reduced PGC numbers and disrupted PGC migration. PMID:20417197

  4. Genital Warts

    MedlinePlus

    Genital warts Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Genital warts are one of the most common types of sexually transmitted ... human papillomavirus (HPV), the virus that causes genital warts, at some point during their lives. Women are ...

  5. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... to another person's genitals. Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) . It can cause sores in the genital ... TOPIC Talking to Your Partner About Condoms About Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Talking to Your Partner About STDs 5 ...

  6. Genital Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... who have sex with women get genital warts? Yes. It is possible to get genital warts, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ... you have signs or symptoms of genital warts. Yes. It is possible to get genital warts, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ...

  7. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... who have sex with women get genital herpes? Yes. It is possible to get genital herpes, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ... sex and avoid sexual activity during an outbreak. Yes. It is possible to get genital herpes, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ...

  8. Sublingual immunization with an HIV subunit vaccine induces antibodies and cytotoxic T cells in the mouse female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Hervouet, Catherine; Luci, Carmelo; Cuburu, Nicolas; Cremel, Magali; Bekri, Selma; Vimeux, Lene; Marañon, Concepcion; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Hosmalin, Anne; Anjuère, Fabienne

    2010-08-02

    A vaccine against heterosexual transmission by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) should generate cytotoxic and antibody responses in the female genital tract and in extra-genital organs. We report that sublingual immunization with HIV-1 gp41 and a reverse transcriptase polypeptide coupled to the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) induced gp41-specific IgA antibodies and antibody-secreting cells, as well as reverse transcriptase-specific CD8 T cells in the genital mucosa, contrary to intradermal immunization. Conjugation of the reverse transcriptase peptide to CTB favored its cross-presentation by human dendritic cells to a T cell line from an HIV(+) patient. Sublingual vaccination could represent a promising vaccine strategy against heterosexual transmission of HIV-1.

  9. Independent levels of cell-free and cell-associated human immunodeficiency virus-1 in genital-tract secretions of clinically asymptomatic, treatment-naive African women.

    PubMed

    Andréoletti, Laurent; Chomont, Nicolas; Grésenguet, Gérard; Matta, Mathieu; de Dieu Longo, Jean; Carreno, Marie-Paule; Si-Mohamed, Ali; Legoff, Jérôme; Kazatchkine, Michel D; Bélec, Laurent

    2003-08-15

    Using ultrasensitive polymerase chain reaction-based techniques, we assessed levels of cell-free and cell-associated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 in paired blood and genital samples of 30 clinically asymptomatic, treatment-naive women. Levels of HIV-1 RNA in cervicovaginal-lavage samples were positively correlated with those in plasma samples (r=.50; P=.008), whereas levels of HIV-1 DNA in genital samples were loosely correlated with those in blood samples (r=.31; P=.041). In plasma of peripheral blood, levels of HIV-1 DNA were positively correlated with those of HIV-1 RNA (r=.64; P<.001), whereas no correlation between HIV-1 DNA and HIV-1 RNA was evident in genital secretions. Our results indicate that levels of HIV-1 RNA and HIV-1 DNA are unrelated in the genital tracts of treatment-naive women and suggest that the level of genital HIV-1 RNA is influenced by systemic viral replication-in contrast to genital HIV-1 provirus, which may be influenced as well by local cofactors triggering the migration of HIV-infected cells originating from the cervicovaginal submucosa. These features may be relevant for an understanding of HIV-1 transmission in heterosexual individuals.

  10. Loss of Dnd1 facilitates the cultivation of genital ridge-derived rat embryonic germ cells.

    PubMed

    Northrup, Emily; Eisenblätter, Regina; Glage, Silke; Rudolph, Cornelia; Dorsch, Martina; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Hedrich, Hans-Jürgen; Zschemisch, Nils-Holger

    2011-08-01

    Pluripotent cells referred to as embryonic germ cells (EGCs) can be derived from the embryonic precursors of the mature gametes: the primordial germ cells (PGCs). A homozygous mutation (ter) of the dead-end homolog 1 gene (Dnd1) in the rat causes gonadal teratocarcinogenesis and sterility due to neoplastic transformation and loss of germ cells. We mated heterozygous ter/+ WKY-Dnd1(ter)/Ztm rats and were able to cultivate the first genital ridge-derived EGCs of the rat embryo at day 14.5 post coitum (pc). Genotyping revealed that ten EGC lines were Dnd1 deficient, while only one wild type cell line had survived in culture. This suggests that the inactivation of the putative tumor suppressor gene Dnd1 facilitates the immortalization of late EGCs in vitro. Injection of the wild type EGCs into blastocysts resulted in the first germ-line competent chimeras. These new pluripotent rat EGCs offer an innovative approach for studies on germ cell tumor development as well as a new tool for genetic manipulations in rats.

  11. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Some persons who contract genital herpes have concerns about how it will impact their overall health, ... a patient’s relationships. 10 Clinicians can address these concerns by encouraging patients to recognize that while herpes ...

  12. Detection of invariant natural killer T cells in ejaculates from infertile patients with chronic inflammation of genital tract.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yong-Gang; Chen, Shujian; Haidl, Gerhard; Allam, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-03

    Chronic inflammation of genital tract is thought to play a major role in male fertility disorder. Natural killer (NK) T cells are a heterogeneous group of T cells that share properties of both T cells and NK cells which display immunoregulatory properties. However, little is known regarding the presence and function of NK T cells in ejaculates from patients with chronic inflammation of genital tract. Invariant NK T (iNK T) cells were detected by invariant (Vα24-JαQ) TCR chain in ejaculates from patients suffering from chronic inflammation of genital tract (CIGT) using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence of double staining (n=40). Inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17, and IFN-γ were detected in cell-free seminal plasma using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The correlation between the percentage of iNK T cells and spermatozoa count, motility, vitality, seminal IL-6, IL-17, and IFN-γ was investigated. Significant percentages of iNK T cells above 10% were detected in 50% (CIGT-NKT(+) group). A negative correlation was detected between the percentage of iNK T cells and spermatozoa count (r=-.5957, P=.0056), motility (r=-.6163, P=.0038), and vitality (r=-.8032, P=.0019) in CIGT-NKT(+) group (n=20). Interestingly, a significant correlation of iNK T cells to seminal IL-6 (r=.7083, P=.0005), IFN-γ (r=.9578, P<.0001) was detected whereas lack of correlation between iNK T cells and IL-17 (r=-.1557, P=.5122) in CIGT-NKT(+) group. The proliferative response of iNK T cells could accompany an inflammatory response to spermatozoa and consequently influence sperm quality through secretion of IFN-γ but not IL-17 under chronic inflammatory condition.

  13. Genital Warts

    PubMed Central

    Yanofsky, Valerie R.; Patel, Rita V.

    2012-01-01

    External genital warts, also known as condylomata acuminata, are extremely common, with between 500,000 to one million new cases diagnosed each year in the United States alone. To date, more than 120 distinct subtypes of human papillomavirus have been identified. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 rarely give rise to cervical cancers, but are responsible for 90 percent of the cases of genital warts. The current treatment options are largely centered upon removal of the warts rather than elimination of the underlying viral infection. A wide range of therapies are presently in use, which are highly variable and can differ dramatically with respect to cost, side-effect profiles, dosing schedules, duration of treatment, and overall effectiveness. As of yet, no definitive therapy has emerged as the ideal standard of care in the treatment of genital warts, and therapy selection generally occurs in a patient-specific manner. PMID:22768354

  14. Genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Garland, Suzanne M; Steben, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Genital herpes is a relatively common infection caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type one or two (HSV-1, HSV-2) respectively. It is acquired most commonly via sexual activity. More recently there has been an increase in infections due to HSV-1. Most new cases of genital HSV are not diagnosed due to HSV infections having short-lived signs and symptoms, or in many instances are asymptomatic. Hence many people infected with HSV are unaware that they have it. The risk of transmission to a partner is highest during outbreak periods, when there are visible lesions, although genital HSV can also be transmitted during asymptomatic periods. Use of condoms and antiviral medications assist in preventing transmission. Antiviral agents are effective in controlling clinical episodes, but do not eradicate infection, which remains latent for the life of a patient. Despite the surge in vaccine research, there is unfortunately no readily available preventative or therapeutic vaccine for HSV to date.

  15. [Systemic lymphoma cells with T precursor condition of extreme female genital tract. A case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Butrón Valdez, Karla; Ramírez Galves, Miguel; Germes Piña, Fernando; Ramos Martínez, Ernesto; Zamora Perea, Arturo

    2009-06-01

    Primary female genital tract non Hodgkin's lymphoma is a rare presentation for a common disease in the childhood, and its classification as primary extranodal lymphoma is still controversial. There are a few cases reported as a primary precursor B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma of the female genital tract, but there is not any case reported as primary precursor T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma of the ovary in childhood. Herein we describe a 16 years old young woman with bilateral ovarian tumors, paraaortic lymphoadenophaty and disseminate disease to the female genital tract including extension of the tumor to neighboring organs like the omentum and the appendix. Exploratory laparatomy were performed with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, hysterectomy, omentectomy, appendectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy, pelvic washings and with biopsy of vaginal vault. The chemotherapy regimen comprised of CHOP (Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin, Oncovin, Prednisone/Prednisolone) and methotrexate, 3 months later presents left facial hemiparesia follow by right facial hemiparesia, 7 months later presents more Central Nervous System (CNS) complications and apparently was complicated with acute lymphocitic leukemia and after 16 months from the diagnosis, following by a torpid evolution, the pacient finally died.

  16. Genital Herpes

    PubMed Central

    Scappatura, F. Philip

    1987-01-01

    The author reviews the prevalence of genital herpes, outlines the typical clinical courses of the disease in its primary and recurrent forms. He discusses the physical, psychological and social effects of this sexually transmitted disease and provides three protocols for the use of oral acyclovir in its treatment. PMID:21263803

  17. Warts (genital)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction External genital warts (EGWs) are sexually transmitted benign epidermal growths caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), on the anogenital areas of both females and males. About 50% to 60% of sexually active women aged 18 to 49 years have been exposed to HPV infection, but only 10% to 15% will have genital warts. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for external genital warts? What are the effects of interventions to prevent transmission of external genital warts? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to December 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 55 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: bi- and trichloroacetic acid; condoms; cryotherapy; electrosurgery; imiquimod; intralesional, topical, or systemic interferons; laser surgery; podophyllin; podophyllotoxin; surgical excision; and vaccines. PMID:21418685

  18. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... best way to prevent genital herpes is abstinence. Teens who do have sex must properly use a latex condom every time ... Date reviewed: February 2016 previous 1 • ... Boyfriend Has an STD Before We Have Sex? Telling Your Partner You Have an STD Contact ...

  19. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on your genital or rectal area, buttocks, and thighs. You can get it from having vaginal, anal, or ... of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

  20. Human genital epithelial cells capture cell-free human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and transmit the virus to CD4+ Cells: implications for mechanisms of sexual transmission.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiwei; Chen, Zhiwei; Phillips, David M

    2003-11-15

    Sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) accounts for the majority of new infections worldwide. However, the mechanism of viral transmission across the mucosal barrier is poorly understood. By use of an ectocervical epithelium-derived cell line, we found that the cells are capable of sequestering large amounts of HIV particles but are refractory to cell-free viral infection. The sequestered virus particles remained infectious for >/=6 days and resisted treatment with trypsin. Upon coculture with CD4(+)-susceptible cells, epithelial cells can effectively transmit the virus to these cells, which can result in robust infection of the target cells. Inhibitory studies have shown that heparan sulfate moiety of cell-surface proteoglycans is involved in the viral attachment to these CD4-negative epithelial cells. Genital epithelial cells may play active roles in sequestering, protecting, and transferring virus during sexual transmission of HIV.

  1. Genital human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Lowy, D R; Kirnbauer, R; Schiller, J T

    1994-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a common sexually transmitted disease that at the present time is not effectively controlled or treated. Many infections are inapparent and transient. However, some HPV infections result in persistent lesions that in some cases undergo carcinogenic progression. A subset of genital HPVs, designated high-risk types, are preferentially associated with high-grade dysplasias and carcinomas. About 90% of cervical cancers contain high-risk HPV DNA, most often HPV16. Development of a subunit vaccine against high-risk genital HPVs is a desirable and, it appears, an increasingly feasible long-term goal. The viral E6 and E7 oncoproteins are selectively maintained and expressed in progressed HPV tumors and could potentially be targets for therapeutic vaccines. The L1 major virion structural proteins have recently been shown to self-assemble into virus-like particles when expressed in insect cells. These particles might serve as the basis for a prophylactic vaccine to prevent genital HPV infection. Images PMID:8146136

  2. Genital Problems in Infants (Female)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Schedules Nutrient Shortfall Questionnaire Genital Problems in Infants (Female)Any deformity or change in the genitals is ... and Children Foot Problems Genital Problems in Infants (Female) Genital Problems in Infants (Male) Genital Problems in ...

  3. [Morphogenesis and differentiation of the female genital tract. Genetic determinism and epithelium-stromal interactions].

    PubMed

    Amălinei, Cornelia

    2007-01-01

    The epithelium-stromal interaction is important in the process of morphogenesis, differentiation, and hormone response, in female genital tract. This review is organized in four sections: i) female genital tract morphogenesis, based on genetic determinism; ii) hormonal control of endometrial proliferation; iii) TGF-beta key-role in epithelium-stromal communication; iv) endometrial apoptosis. Female genital tract derives from the Müllerian ducts, a number of genes being involved in its regulation, like Lim1, Lhx9, Emx, Pax-2, Hox-A9, Hox-A10, Hox-A11, Hox-A13, Wnt-4, Wnt-7, WT1, SF-1, and GATA-4. TGF-beta, whose expression is modulated by ovarian steroids, regulates cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammatory and immune responses, extracellular matrix deposition, adhesion molecules, proteases, and protease inhibitor expression. In the endometrium, TGF-beta regulates its own expression, and that of extracellular matrix, adhesion molecules and proteases implicated in trophoblast invasion, angiogenesis, and tumor metastasis during embryo implantation, endometriosis, irregular bleeding, and endometrial cancer. Cellular response elicited by TGF-beta, mediated through a serine/threonine kinase receptor, induces the recruitment of multiple intracellular signals, specifically Smads, whose activation and subsequent translocation into the nucleus results in gene expression. Ubiquitin is involved in the degradation of short lived, regulatory or misfolded proteins, by tagging them to be taken to the proteasome. In the endometrium, ubiquitin may allow cells of stromal origin to grow, survive and evade T-cell mediated disposal, showing a functional duality. A complete understanding of the complex regulatory endometrial epithelium-stromal mechanism, concertating genes, hormones, and cytokines, may provide new therapeutic targets in female reproductive tract pathology.

  4. Women with Cervicovaginal Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Have Lower Genital HIV-1 RNA Loads

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Pratip; Kim, Jenney; Sapiega, Vytautas; Landay, Alan L.; Bremer, James W.; Mestecky, Jiri; Reichelderfer, Patricia; Kovacs, Andrea; Cohn, Jonathan; Weiser, Barbara; Baum, Linda L.

    2011-01-01

    Antibodies that mediate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) are present in the cervical fluid of many HIV-positive women; however, the role that these antibodies play in host defense against HIV is not known. To understand the contribution of ADCC in cervical secretions as a protective mechanism against HIV, we evaluated ADCC titers in paired serum and cervical-lavage (CVL) samples from >300 HIV-1–positive women who participated in the multicenter Division of AIDS Treatment Research Initiative Study 009. The present study demonstrates that women with CVL ADCC activity had lower genital viral loads than did women with serum ADCC activity only. Women with CVL ADCC activity were likely to have HIV-1 gp120–specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G, but not IgA, in their cervical fluid. This finding suggests that specific IgG in cervical fluid can mediate ADCC activity that inversely correlates with genital viral load. PMID:15529262

  5. Release of HIV-1 sequestered in the vesicles of oral and genital mucosal epithelial cells by epithelial-lymphocyte interaction

    PubMed Central

    Yasen, Aizezi; Herrera, Rossana; Rosbe, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Oropharyngeal mucosal epithelia of fetuses/neonates/infants and the genital epithelia of adults play a critical role in HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission and sexual transmission of virus, respectively. To study the mechanisms of HIV-1 transmission through mucosal epithelium, we established polarized tonsil, cervical and foreskin epithelial cells. Analysis of HIV-1 transmission through epithelial cells showed that approximately 0.05% of initially inoculated virions transmigrated via epithelium. More than 90% of internalized virions were sequestered in the endosomes of epithelial cells, including multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and vacuoles. Intraepithelial HIV-1 remained infectious for 9 days without viral release. Release of sequestered intraepithelial HIV-1 was induced by the calcium ionophore ionomycin and by cytochalasin D, which increase intracellular calcium and disrupt the cortical actin of epithelial cells, respectively. Cocultivation of epithelial cells containing HIV-1 with activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and CD4+ T lymphocytes led to the disruption of epithelial cortical actin and spread of virus from epithelial cells to lymphocytes. Treatment of epithelial cells with proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon gamma also induced reorganization of cortical actin and release of virus. Inhibition of MVB formation by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of its critical protein hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) expression reduced viral sequestration in epithelial cells and its transmission from epithelial cells to lymphocytes by ~60–70%. Furthermore, inhibition of vacuole formation of epithelial cells by siRNA-inactivated rabankyrin-5 expression also significantly reduced HIV-1 sequestration in epithelial cells and spread of virus from epithelial cells to lymphocytes. Interaction of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 of epithelial cells with the function-associated antigen-1

  6. Modeling the transcriptome of genital tract epithelial cells and macrophages in healthy mucosa versus mucosa inflamed by Chlamydia muridarum infection

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Raymond M.; Kerr, Micah S.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital serovars are intracellular bacteria that parasitize human reproductive tract epithelium. As the principal cell type supporting bacterial replication, epithelial cells are central to Chlamydia immunobiology initially as sentries and innate defenders, and subsequently as collaborators in adaptive immunity-mediated bacterial clearance. In asymptomatic individuals who do not seek medical care a decisive struggle between C. trachomatis and host defenses occurs at the epithelial interface. For this study, we modeled the immunobiology of epithelial cells and macrophages lining healthy genital mucosa and inflamed/infected mucosa during the transition from innate to adaptive immunity. Upper reproductive tract epithelial cell line responses were compared to bone marrow-derived macrophages utilizing gene expression microarray technology. Those comparisons showed minor differences in the intrinsic innate defenses of macrophages and epithelial cells. Major lineage-specific differences in immunobiology relate to epithelial collaboration with adaptive immunity including an epithelial requirement for inflammatory cytokines to express MHC class II molecules, and a paucity and imbalance between costimulatory and coinhibitory ligands on epithelial cells that potentially limits sterilizing immunity (replication termination) to Chlamydia-specific T cells activated with limited or unconventional second signals. PMID:26519447

  7. Enrichment of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactive mucosal T cells in the human female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Posavad, C M; Zhao, L; Dong, L; Jin, L; Stevens, C E; Magaret, A S; Johnston, C; Wald, A; Zhu, J; Corey, L; Koelle, D M

    2017-01-04

    Local mucosal cellular immunity is critical in providing protection from HSV-2. To characterize and quantify HSV-2-reactive mucosal T cells, lymphocytes were isolated from endocervical cytobrush and biopsy specimens from 17 HSV-2-infected women and examined ex vivo for the expression of markers associated with maturation and tissue residency and for functional T-cell responses to HSV-2. Compared with their circulating counterparts, cervix-derived CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were predominantly effector memory T cells (CCR7-/CD45RA-) and the majority expressed CD69, a marker of tissue residency. Co-expression of CD103, another marker of tissue residency, was highest on cervix-derived CD8+ T cells. Functional HSV-2 reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were detected in cervical samples and a median of 17% co-expressed CD103. HSV-2-reactive CD4+ T cells co-expressed IL-2 and were significantly enriched in the cervix compared with blood. This first direct ex vivo documentation of local enrichment of HSV-2-reactive T cells in the human female genital mucosa is consistent with the presence of antigen-specific tissue-resident memory T cells. Ex vivo analysis of these T cells may uncover tissue-specific mechanisms of local control of HSV-2 to assist the development of vaccine strategies that target protective T cells to sites of HSV-2 infection.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 4 January 2017; doi:10.1038/mi.2016.118.

  8. Genital sores - male

    MedlinePlus

    ... or ulcer [called a chancre] on the genitals) Granuloma inguinale (small, beefy-red bumps appear on the ... nih.gov/pubmed/26042815 . Read More Chancroid Donovanosis (granuloma inguinale) Genital warts Itching Molluscum contagiosum Urination - painful ...

  9. Genital sores - female

    MedlinePlus

    ... painless sores. Less common infections such as chancroid , granuloma inguinale , molluscum contagiosum , and syphilis may also cause ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 16. Read More Chancroid Donovanosis (granuloma inguinale) Genital herpes Genital warts Melanoma Molluscum contagiosum ...

  10. CD4+ T cell expression of MyD88 is essential for normal resolution of Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection1

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, Lauren C.; Sullivan, Jeanne E.; Zurenski, Matthew A.; Mintus, Margaret; Tomasak, Tammy E.; Prantner, Daniel; Nagarajan, Uma M.; Darville, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Resolution of Chlamydia genital tract infection is delayed in the absence of MyD88. In these studies, we first used bone marrow chimeras to demonstrate a requirement for MyD88 expression by hematopoietic cells in the presence of a wild-type epithelium. Using mixed bone marrow chimeras we then determined that MyD88 expression was specifically required in the adaptive immune compartment. Furthermore, adoptive transfer experiments revealed that CD4+ T cell expression of MyD88 was necessary for normal resolution of genital tract infection. This requirement was associated with a reduced ability of MyD88−/− CD4+ T cells to accumulate in the draining lymph nodes and genital tract when exposed to the same inflammatory milieu as wild-type CD4+ T cells. We also demonstrated that the impaired infection control we observed in the absence of MyD88 could not be recapitulated by deficiencies in TLR or IL-1R signaling. In vitro, we detected an increased frequency of apoptotic MyD88−/− CD4+ T cells upon activation in the absence of exogenous ligands for receptors upstream of MyD88. These data reveal an intrinsic requirement for MyD88 in CD4+ T cells during Chlamydia infection and indicate that the importance of MyD88 extends beyond innate immune responses by directly influencing adaptive immunity. PMID:24038087

  11. CD4+ T cell expression of MyD88 is essential for normal resolution of Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Frazer, Lauren C; Sullivan, Jeanne E; Zurenski, Matthew A; Mintus, Margaret; Tomasak, Tammy E; Prantner, Daniel; Nagarajan, Uma M; Darville, Toni

    2013-10-15

    Resolution of Chlamydia genital tract infection is delayed in the absence of MyD88. In these studies, we first used bone marrow chimeras to demonstrate a requirement for MyD88 expression by hematopoietic cells in the presence of a wild-type epithelium. Using mixed bone marrow chimeras we then determined that MyD88 expression was specifically required in the adaptive immune compartment. Furthermore, adoptive transfer experiments revealed that CD4(+) T cell expression of MyD88 was necessary for normal resolution of genital tract infection. This requirement was associated with a reduced ability of MyD88(-/-)CD4(+) T cells to accumulate in the draining lymph nodes and genital tract when exposed to the same inflammatory milieu as wild-type CD4(+) T cells. We also demonstrated that the impaired infection control we observed in the absence of MyD88 could not be recapitulated by deficiencies in TLR or IL-1R signaling. In vitro, we detected an increased frequency of apoptotic MyD88(-/-)CD4(+) T cells upon activation in the absence of exogenous ligands for receptors upstream of MyD88. These data reveal an intrinsic requirement for MyD88 in CD4(+) T cells during Chlamydia infection and indicate that the importance of MyD88 extends beyond innate immune responses by directly influencing adaptive immunity.

  12. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Upper Genital Tract: Utility of p16INK4a Expression and HPV DNA Status in its Differential Diagnosis from Extended Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Su Hyun; Son, Eun-Mi; Sung, Chang Okh

    2013-01-01

    Background Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the upper genital tract, including the endometrium, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, is extremely rare. It must be distinguished from the mucosal extension of primary cervical SCC because determination of the primary tumor site is important for tumor staging. However, patients with SCC of the fallopian tubes or ovarian surface have often undergone prior hysterectomy with inadequate examination of the cervix, making it difficult to determine the primary site. Methods We compared histologic findings, p16INK4a expression, and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA status in four patients with primary SCC of the upper genital tract and five patients with primary cervical SCC extending to the mucosa of the upper genital tract. Results All five SCCs of cervical origin showed strong expression of p16INK4a, whereas all four SCCs of the upper genital tract were negative, although one showed weak focal staining. Three of the five cervical SCCs were positive for HPV16 DNA, whereas all four primary SCCs of the upper genital tract were negative for HPV DNA. Conclusions Although a thorough histological examination is important, immunonegativity for p16INK4a and negative for HPV DNA may be useful adjuncts in determining primary SCCs of the upper genital tract. PMID:24421848

  13. Isolation and characterisation of a novel antibacterial peptide from a native swine intestinal tract-derived bacterium.

    PubMed

    Xin, Haiyun; Ji, Shengyue; Peng, Jiayin; Han, Peng; An, Xiaopeng; Wang, Shan; Cao, Binyun

    2017-02-27

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are highly associated with antipathogenic activity, without generating drug resistance in targeted bacteria. In this study, the existence of AMPs in the Tibetan swine, a China-native, cold-resistant and seldom-sick breed of pig, was investigated. A peptide secreted by a Tibetan swine intestinal tract-derived Bacillus strain was isolated using reversed-phase chromatography (RPC), ultrafiltration and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The peptide was identified by mass spectrometry and was characterised for activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The 16-amino acid peptide (ASVVNKLTGGVAGLLK), named TP, had a molecular mass of 1568.919 Da and exhibited inhibitory activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 2.5-5 µM and 10-20 µM for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively] as well as human MKN-45 and NB4 tumour cell lines [50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 4.686 µM and 11.479 µM, respectively]. TP also exhibited weak haemolytic activity. Furthermore, TP enhanced cell membrane permeability and K(+) outflow, bound with E. coli genomic DNA in vitro and inhibited E. coli growth. Thus, TP represents a strong candidate as an antibacterial peptide.

  14. A genital tract peptide epitope vaccine targeting TLR-2 efficiently induces local and systemic CD8 + T cells and protects against herpes simplex virus type 2 challenge

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, G; Nesburn, AB; Wu, M; Zhu, X; Carpenter, D; Wechsler, SL; You, S; BenMohamed, L

    2015-01-01

    The next generation of needle-free mucosal vaccines is being rationally designed according to rules that govern the way in which the epitopes are recognized by and stimulate the genital mucosal immune system. We hypothesized that synthetic peptide epitopes extended with an agonist of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2), that are abundantly expressed by dendritic and epithelial cells of the vaginal mucosa, would lead to induction of protective immunity against genital herpes. To test this hypothesis, we intravaginally (IVAG) immunized wild-type B6, TLR-2 (TLR2 −/−) or myeloid differentiation factor 88 deficient (MyD88 −/−) mice with a herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) CD8 + T-cell peptide epitope extended by a palmitic acid moiety (a TLR-2 agonist). IVAG delivery of the lipopeptide generated HSV-2-specific memory CD8 + cytotoxic T cells both locally in the genital tract draining lymph nodes and systemically in the spleen. Moreover, lipopeptide-immunized TLR2 −/− and MyD88 −/− mice developed significantly less HSV-specific CD8 + T-cell response, earlier death, faster disease progression, and higher vaginal HSV-2 titers compared to lipopeptide-immunized wild-type B6 mice. IVAG immunization with self-adjuvanting lipid-tailed peptides appears to be a novel mucosal vaccine approach, which has attractive practical and immunological features. PMID:19129756

  15. Identification of homing receptors that mediate the recruitment of CD4 T cells to the genital tract following intravaginal infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, K A; Rank, R G

    1997-01-01

    Murine genital infection induced with the mouse pneumonitis biovar of Chlamydia trachomatis (MoPn) elicits a short-lived protective immunity mediated primarily by Th1 CD4 cells. To understand the development of local cell-mediated immunity against C. trachomatis infection, we investigated the mechanism(s) which mediates CD4 lymphocyte migration to the genital mucosa by identifying molecules that could support this process. We found that primarily CD4 cells were recruited to the genital tract (GT) during primary and challenge MoPn infection. Peak levels were found 21 days after primary inoculation (15.4% +/- 2.7%) and 7 days (31.3% +/- 8.5%) after challenge but diminished after resolution of infection. The CD4 cells appeared to be recruited to the GT in response to infection since these cells expressed the profile of activated, or memory, cells. We also observed up-regulation of homing receptors containing LFA-1 (CD11a) and alpha4 (CD49d) on GT CD4 cells over the course of infection. Furthermore, the mucosal homing receptor chain, beta7, but not the peripheral homing receptor chain beta1 (CD29), was detected on GT CD4 cells. MoPn-infected GT tissue expressed the endothelial cell ligands vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and mucosal vascular addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM-1), which correspond to the homing receptors on GT CD4 cells. Interestingly, VCAM-1 and MAdCAM-1 were not expressed in the GTs of uninfected mice but were temporarily induced following infection, indicating that expression of endothelial ligands in the GT are regulated by chlamydial infection. These data suggest that recruitment of CD4 cells to the GT is mediated through LFA-1:ICAM-1 and alpha4beta7:MAdCAM-1-VCAM-1 interactions. PMID:9393816

  16. MAIT cells reside in the female genital mucosa and are biased towards IL-17 and IL-22 production in response to bacterial stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Anna; Leeansyah, Edwin; Introini, Andrea; Paquin-Proulx, Dominic; Hasselrot, Klara; Andersson, Emilia; Broliden, Kristina; Sandberg, Johan K.; Tjernlund, Annelie

    2016-01-01

    The female genital tract (FGT) mucosa is a critically important site for immune defense against microbes. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are an innate-like T cell population that recognizes microbial riboflavin metabolite antigens in an MR1-dependent manner. The role of MAIT cells in the FGT mucosa is unknown. Here, we found that MAIT cells and MR1+ antigen-presenting cells were present in the upper and lower FGT, with distinct tissue localization of MAIT cells in endometrium versus cervix. MAIT cells from the FGT and blood displayed a distinct phenotype with expression of IL-18Rα, CD127, α4β7, PD-1, as well as the transcription factors PLZF, RORγt, Helios, Eomes and T-bet. Their expression levels of PLZF and Eomes were lower in the FGT compared to blood. When stimulated with Escherichia coli, MAIT cells from the FGT displayed a bias towards IL-17 and IL-22 expression, whereas blood MAIT cells produced primarily IFN-γ, TNF, and Granzyme B. Furthermore, both FGT- and blood-derived MAIT cells were polyfunctional and contributed to the T cell-mediated response to E. coli. Thus, MAIT cells in the genital mucosa have a distinct IL-17/IL-22 profile and may play an important role in immunological homeostasis and control of microbes at this site. PMID:27049062

  17. Male Genital Lichen Sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  18. Peripheral blood CD4 T-cell and plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) reactivity to herpes simplex virus 2 and pDC number do not correlate with the clinical or virologic severity of recurrent genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Moss, Nicholas J; Magaret, Amalia; Laing, Kerry J; Kask, Angela Shaulov; Wang, Minna; Mark, Karen E; Schiffer, Joshua T; Wald, Anna; Koelle, David M

    2012-09-01

    Leukocytes participate in the immune control of herpes simplex virus (HSV). Data from HIV coinfections, germ line mutations, and case reports suggest involvement of CD4 T cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC). We investigated the relationships between these cells and recurrent genital herpes disease severity in the general population. Circulating CD4 T-cell responses to HSV-2 were measured in specimens from 67 immunocompetent individuals with measured genital lesion and HSV shedding rates. Similarly, pDC number and functional responses to HSV-2 were analyzed in 40 persons. CD4 responses and pDC concentrations and responses ranged as much as 100-fold between persons while displaying moderate within-person consistency over time. No correlations were observed between these immune response parameters and genital HSV-2 severity. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) coinfection was not correlated with differences in HSV-2-specific CD4 T-cell responses. The CD4 T-cell response to HSV-2 was much more polyfunctional than was the response to CMV. These data suggest that other immune cell subsets with alternate phenotypes or anatomical locations may be responsible for genital herpes control in chronically infected individuals.

  19. Mouse strain-dependent chemokine regulation of the genital tract T helper cell type 1 immune response.

    PubMed

    Darville, T; Andrews, C W; Sikes, J D; Fraley, P L; Braswell, L; Rank, R G

    2001-12-01

    Vaginal infection with the mouse pneumonitis agent of Chlamydia trachomatis (MoPn) produces shorter courses of infection in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice than in C3H/HeN mice, while C57BL/6 mice are more resistant to oviduct pathology. A robust Th1 response is extremely important in host defense against chlamydia. In this study we examined gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), interleukin 10 (IL-10), and the T-cell-regulatory chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) to determine if differences in these responses were associated with the differential courses of infection seen in these three strains of mice. Increased and prolonged IFN-gamma responses and lower IL-10 responses were observed in the C57BL/6 strain compared to BALB/c and C3H. Examination of genital tract chemokines revealed a marked predominance of MIP-1alpha over MCP-1 only in the C57 strain. Thus, a pattern of high MIP-1alpha and low MCP-1 levels during the first week of infection is associated with an increased Th1 response and a shorter, more benign chlamydial infection. Inhibition of the MCP-1 response in C3H mice increased their later T-cell production of IFN-gamma but decreased their early IFN-gamma response and had no effect on the course or outcome of infection. Inhibition of MCP-1 is not beneficial in chlamydial infection because of its pleiotropic effects.

  20. [Investigation of Chlamydia trachomatis with Cell Culture, DFA and PCR Methods in the Genital Swab Samples of Symptomatic Patients].

    PubMed

    Ozüberk, Osman Özüberk; Gökahmetoğlu, Selma; Ozçelik, Bülent; Ekmekçioğlu, Oğuz

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is considered the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. C.trachomatis causes eye infections such as trachoma and newborn inclusion conjunctivitis, newborn pneumonia, genitourinary system infections and suppurative inguinal lymphadenitis namely lymphogranuloma venerum. The aim of this study was to investigate C.trachomatis by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cell culture methods in the clinical samples sent to the microbiology laboratory with the prediagnosis of genital infections. A total of 50 swab samples obtained from adult patients (49 female, 1 male) who were admitted to Erciyes University Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey between February-March 2010, were included in the study. C.trachomatis antigens were investigated by a commercial DFA (PathoDx, Remel, USA) method. McCoy cell cultures prepared in microplate wells were used for the isolation of C.trachomatis. The growth of C.trachomatis in cell cultures was confirmed by DFA and iodine staining methods. C.trachomatis DNA was investigated by commercially available PCR (Chlamydia trachomatis 330/740 IC; Sacace, Italy) method. In our study, 4 (8%) of the 50 swab samples were found positive with DFA, 1 (2%) was positive with cell culture, and 1 (2%) was positive with PCR. The only sample that gave positive results with all of the three methods was an urethral swab. Three cervical swab samples that were found positive only with DFA method was evaluated as false positivity. When cell culture was considered as the reference method, the sensitivity and specificity of DFA method were estimated as 100% and 94%, respectively, while those rates for PCR were 100% and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, although cell culture is still the gold standard in the diagnosis of C.trachomatis. infections, since it is time consuming and difficult to apply, more rapid and reliable PCR methods may be applied in diagnosis. DFA method which is

  1. Isolation and characterization of human papillomavirus type 6-specific T cells infiltrating genital warts.

    PubMed Central

    Hong, K; Greer, C E; Ketter, N; Van Nest, G; Paliard, X

    1997-01-01

    The potential role of T cells in the control of human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV-6) infections is an appealing premise, but their actual role has been sparsely investigated. Since HPV-6 infections are confined to the epithelium, such an investigation should focus on the T cells present at the site of infection (i.e., the warts). Therefore, we isolated wart-infiltrating lymphocytes (WIL) from patients with clinically diagnosed anogenital warts. These WIL were characterized by their phenotype and their specificity for E7 and L1 proteins of HPV-6. The phenotype of WIL varied drastically from patient to patient, as determined by their expression of CD4, CD8, T-cell receptor alpha/beta chain (TCR alpha beta), and TCR gamma delta. Despite this heterogeneity in phenotype, HPV-6 E7 and/or L1-specific WIL, as determined by lymphoproliferation, could be isolated from more than 75% of the patients studied. Among all L1 peptides recognized by WIL, peptides 311-330 and 411-430 were the most consistently detected, with seven of nine patients for whom L1 peptide reactivity was observed responding to at least one of them. Moreover, the HPV-6 epitopic peptides recognized by WIL differed to some extent from those recognized by peripheral T cells. PMID:9261360

  2. Highly-Exposed HIV-1 seronegative Female Commercial Sex Workers sustain in their genital mucosa increased frequencies of tolerogenic myeloid and regulatory T-cells

    PubMed Central

    Thibodeau, V.; Fourcade, L.; Labbé, A.-C.; Alary, M.; Guédou, F.; Poudrier, J.; Roger, M.

    2017-01-01

    We and others have shown that HIV-1 highly-exposed seronegative (HESN) female commercial sex workers (CSWs) maintain low genital inflammatory conditions to prevent HIV infection. HIV-1 interacts with toll-like receptors (TLR)-7/8 to induce interferon (IFN)-α, an important antiviral and immunomodulatory cytokine, which act together with interleukin (IL)-10, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G and immunoglobulin-like transcript (ILT)-4 to initiate a “tolerogenic/regulatory” anti-inflammatory loop. In view of further unravelling elements associated with natural immunity to HIV-1, we have characterised TLR-7, IFN-α, IL-10, HLA-G and ILT-4 expression profiles in the genital tract of female CSWs and HIV-1-uninfected non-CSWs from Benin. Endocervical myeloid HLA-DR+ cells from HESN CSWs expressed higher levels of IFN-α, TLR-7, IL-10 and HLA-G than those from both HIV-1-infected CSWs and HIV-1-uninfected non-CSWs. Further characterization of the endocervical myeloid HLA-DR+ cells in HESN CSWs revealed a population of “tolerogenic” CD103+ CD14+ CD11c+ myeloid cells expressing high levels of IFN-α and IL-10. Concomitantly, HESN CSWs had higher frequencies of endocervical regulatory CD4+ T-cells when compared to those from the two other groups of women. These novel findings provide strong evidence to support the implication of tolerogenic myeloid cells expressing high levels of antiviral molecules in shaping the genital mucosal immune response to prevent HIV infection. PMID:28262752

  3. Transforming growth factors beta 1 and 2 transcriptionally regulate human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 early gene expression in HPV-immortalized human genital epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Woodworth, C D; Notario, V; DiPaolo, J A

    1990-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) early proteins E6 and E7 have been implicated in maintenance of the malignant phenotype in cervical cancer. Transforming growth factors beta one and two (TGF betas 1 and 2), polypeptides that regulate cellular growth and differentiation, reversibly inhibited expression of the HPV16 E6 and E7 genes in several immortal genital epithelial cell lines. Loss of E6 and E7 protein expression followed a dramatic time- and dose-dependent decrease in E6 and E7 RNA levels and was accompanied by cessation of cell proliferation. TGF betas 1 and 2 inhibited HPV16 RNA expression at the transcriptional level; inhibition was dependent upon ongoing protein synthesis. TGF betas 1 and 2 also induced a six- to sevenfold increase in TGF beta 1 RNA. Cells became partially resistant to the inhibitory effects of TGF beta 1 on cell growth and HPV early gene expression after prolonged cultivation in vitro or after malignant transformation. Thus, TGF beta 1 may function as an autocrine regulator of HPV gene expression in infected genital epithelial cells. Images PMID:2168964

  4. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein H Interacts with Integrin αvβ3 To Facilitate Viral Entry and Calcium Signaling in Human Genital Tract Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheshenko, Natalia; Trepanier, Janie B.; González, Pablo A.; Eugenin, Eliseo A.; Jacobs, William R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry requires multiple interactions at the cell surface and activation of a complex calcium signaling cascade. Previous studies demonstrated that integrins participate in this process, but their precise role has not been determined. These studies were designed to test the hypothesis that integrin αvβ3 signaling promotes the release of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) stores and contributes to viral entry and cell-to-cell spread. Transfection of cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting integrin αvβ3, but not other integrin subunits, or treatment with cilengitide, an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) mimetic, impaired HSV-induced Ca2+ release, viral entry, plaque formation, and cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in human cervical and primary genital tract epithelial cells. Coimmunoprecipitation studies and proximity ligation assays indicated that integrin αvβ3 interacts with glycoprotein H (gH). An HSV-2 gH-null virus was engineered to further assess the role of gH in the virus-induced signaling cascade. The gH-2-null virus bound to cells and activated Akt to induce a small Ca2+ response at the plasma membrane, but it failed to trigger the release of cytoplasmic Ca2+ stores and was impaired for entry and cell-to-cell spread. Silencing of integrin αvβ3 and deletion of gH prevented phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the transport of viral capsids to the nuclear pore. Together, these findings demonstrate that integrin signaling is activated downstream of virus-induced Akt signaling and facilitates viral entry through interactions with gH by activating the release of intracellular Ca2+ and FAK phosphorylation. These findings suggest a new target for HSV treatment and suppression. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex viruses are the leading cause of genital disease worldwide, the most common infection associated with neonatal encephalitis, and a major cofactor for HIV acquisition and transmission. There is no effective vaccine

  5. Targeting the genital tract mucosa with a lipopeptide/recombinant adenovirus prime/boost vaccine induces potent and long-lasting CD8+ T cell immunity against herpes: importance of MyD88.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuli; Dervillez, Xavier; Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; Badakhshan, Tina; Bettahi, Ilham; Benmohamed, Lbachir

    2012-11-01

    Targeting of the mucosal immune system of the genital tract with subunit vaccines has failed to induce potent and durable local CD8(+) T cell immunity, which is crucial for protection against many sexually transmitted viral pathogens, including HSV type 2 (HSV-2), which causes genital herpes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential of a novel lipopeptide/adenovirus type 5 (Lipo/rAdv5) prime/boost mucosal vaccine for induction of CD8(+) T cell immunity to protect the female genital tract from herpes. The lipopeptide vaccine and the rAdv5 vaccine express the immunodominant HSV-2 CD8(+) T cell epitope (gB(498-505)), and both were delivered intravaginally in the progesterone-induced B6 mouse model of genital herpes. Compared with mice immunized with the homologous lipopeptide/lipopeptide (Lipo/Lipo) vaccine, the Lipo/rAdv5 prime/boost immunized mice 1) developed potent and sustained HSV-specific CD8(+) T cells, detected in both the genital tract draining nodes and in the vaginal mucosa; 2) had significantly lower virus titers; 3) had decreased overt signs of genital herpes disease; and 4) did not succumb to lethal infection (p < 0.005) after intravaginal HSV-2 challenge. Polyfunctional CD8(+) T cells, producing IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 and exhibiting cytotoxic activity, were associated with protection (p < 0.005). The protective CD8(+) T cell response was significantly compromised in the absence of the adapter MyD88 (p = 0.0001). Taken together, these findings indicate that targeting of the vaginal mucosa with a Lipo/rAdv5 prime/boost vaccine elicits a potent, MyD88-dependent, and long-lasting mucosal CD8(+) T cell protective immunity against sexually transmitted herpes infection and disease.

  6. Female Genital Mutilation

    MedlinePlus

    ... practice of FGM. In 2010, WHO published a "Global strategy to stop health care providers from performing female ... practices Health risks of female genital mutilation (FGM) Global strategy to stop health-care providers from performing female ...

  7. Genital herpes simplex.

    PubMed Central

    Tummon, I. S.; Dudley, D. K.; Walters, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and cancer of the cervix. No effective treatment is as yet available. Weekly monitoring for virus by cervical culture from 32 weeks' gestation is recommended for women with a history of genital herpes and for those whose sexual partner has such a history. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:7020907

  8. Primary human epithelial cell culture system for studying interactions between female upper genital tract and sexually transmitted viruses, HSV-2 and HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Kaushic, Charu; Nazli, Aisha; Ferreira, Victor H; Kafka, Jessica K

    2011-10-01

    Evidence from clinical and epidemiological studies indicates that women are disproportionately susceptible to sexually transmitted viral infections. To understand the underlying biological basis for this increased susceptibility, more studies are needed to examine the acute events in the female reproductive tract following exposure to viruses during sexual transmission. The epithelial lining of the female reproductive tract is the primary barrier that sexually transmitted viruses, such as HIV-1 and HSV-2 need to infect or traverse, in order to initiate and establish productive infection. We have established an ex-vivo primary culture system to grow genital epithelial cells from upper reproductive tract tissues of women. Using these cultures, we have extensively examined the interactions between epithelial cells of the female genital tract and HSV-2 and HIV-1. In this review, we describe in detail the experimental protocol to grow these cultures, monitor their differentiation and inoculate with HSV-2 and HIV-1. Prospective use of these cultures to re-create the microenvironment in the reproductive tract is discussed.

  9. [Herpes serology for genital herpes].

    PubMed

    Legoff, Jérôme; Aymard, Michèle; Braig, Suzanne; Ramel, Françoise; Dreno, Brigitte; Bélec, Laurent; Malkin, Jean-Elie

    2008-09-01

    The epidemiology of genital herpes is changing. The seroprevalence of HSV-2 infections is increasing, while HSV-1 is an increasingly common cause of herpetic ulcerations. The reference examination provides direct diagnosis after viral isolation in a cell culture or genome amplification. Herpes serology is indicated principally if direct examination is negative and in the absence of lesions. Non-type-specific serology detects antibodies common to HSV-1 and HSV-2. Its specificity and sensitivity are excellent, and it is approved as a reimbursable laboratory procedure. It cannot specify the viral type involved. Type-specific serology can distinguish between anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 antibodies. Currently available kits have a sensitivity and specificity, depending on the population studied, of 90 to 100%. It is not approved as a reimbursable laboratory procedure. HSV-1-specific serology cannot diagnose old HSV-1 genital infections, but seropositivity for HSV-2 generally suffices to diagnose HSV-2 genital herpes. The indication for type-specific serology must be discussed according to clinical context. The value of non-type-specific serology is limited.

  10. Pathogenesis of genital HPV infection.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, A

    1993-01-01

    Clinical, subclinical, and latent human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are distinguished from HPV-associated neoplasia. Besides HPV additional cofactors are necessary to transform HPV infected tissue to intraepithelial or invasive neoplasia. Risk factors for the presence of HPV are high number of sexual partners, early cohabitarche, young age at first delivery, suppression and alteration of immune status, young age and hormonal influences. While the fact of a high number of sexual partners exclusively increases the risk of HPV infection, it is not known whether the other factors lead to either an increased risk for HPV infection and/or to HPV-associated neoplasia. Subclinical and latent genital HPV infections are highly prevalent. The prevalence rate depends on the sensitivity of the HPV detection system used, on age and sexual activity of the population screened, and on the number of subsequent examinations performed for each subject. Sexual transmission is the main pathway for genital HPV's, however, vertical, peripartal, and oral transmission are also possible. Seroreactivity against genital HPV may be due to an active infection or the result of contact with HPV earlier in life. Antibodies against the HPV 16 E7 protein indicate an increased risk for cervical cancer. Compared with humoral response cellular immune response is probably more important for regression of genital HPV infection: impaired cellular response is characterized by depletion of T helper/inducer cells and/or Langerhans cells and impaired function of natural killer cells and/or the infected keratinocyte. In condylomata replication and transcription of viral nucleic acids and antigen production coincide with cellular differentiation. However, the interaction between HPV and the keratinocyte on a molecular level in subclinical and latent disease is not well understood. Regression or persistence of subclinical and latent genital HPV infections as observed in longitudinal investigations show a

  11. Do measures matter? Comparing surface-density-derived and census-tract-derived measures of racial residential segregation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Racial residential segregation is hypothesized to affect population health by systematically patterning health-relevant exposures and opportunities according to individuals' race or income. Growing interest into the association between residential segregation and health disparities demands more rigorous appraisal of commonly used measures of segregation. Most current studies rely on census tracts as approximations of the local residential environment when calculating segregation indices of either neighborhoods or metropolitan areas. Because census tracts are arbitrary in size and shape, reliance on this geographic scale limits understanding of place-health associations. More flexible, explicitly spatial derivations of traditional segregation indices have been proposed but have not been compared with tract-derived measures in the context of health disparities studies common to social epidemiology, health demography, or medical geography. We compared segregation measured with tract-derived as well as GIS surface-density-derived indices. Measures were compared by region and population size, and segregation measures were linked to birth record to estimate the difference in association between segregation and very preterm birth. Separate analyses focus on metropolitan segregation and on neighborhood segregation. Results Across 231 metropolitan areas, tract-derived and surface-density-derived segregation measures are highly correlated. However overall correlation obscures important differences by region and metropolitan size. In general the discrepancy between measure types is greatest for small metropolitan areas, declining with increasing population size. Discrepancies in measures are greatest in the South, and smallest in Western metropolitan areas. Choice of segregation index changed the magnitude of the measured association between segregation and very preterm birth. For example among black women, the risk ratio for very preterm birth in metropolitan

  12. Diminished CD103 (αEβ7) Expression on Resident T Cells from the Female Genital Tract of HIV-Positive Women

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, David C.; Goepfert, Paul A.; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Saag, Michael S.; Richter, Holly E.; Mestecky, Jiri; Sabbaj, Steffanie

    2017-01-01

    Background Tissue resident memory T cells (TrM) provide an enhanced response against infection at mucosal surfaces, yet their function has not been extensively studied in humans, including the female genital tract (FGT). Methods Using polychromatic flow cytometry, we studied TrM cells, defined as CD62L−CCR7−CD103+CD69+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in mucosa-derived T cells from healthy and HIV-positive women. Results We demonstrate that TrM are present in the FGT of healthy and HIV-positive women. The expression of the mucosal retention receptor, CD103, from HIV-positive women was reduced compared to healthy women and was lowest in women with CD4 counts < 500 cells/mm3. Furthermore, CD103 expression on mucosa-derived CD8+ T cells correlated with antigen-specific IFN-γ production by mucosal CD4+ T cells and was inversely correlated with T-bet from CD8+CD103+ mucosa-derived T cells. Conclusions These data suggest that CD4+ T cells, known to be impaired during HIV-1 infection and necessary for the expression of CD103 in murine models, may play a role in the expression of CD103 on resident T cells from the human FGT. PMID:28164171

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infections

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Catherine M.; Ferone, Morgan E.

    2016-01-01

    Etiology, transmission and protection: Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) globally. However, C. trachomatis also causes trachoma in endemic areas, mostly Africa and the Middle East, and is a leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: The World Health Organization estimates 131 million new cases of C. trachomatis genital infection occur annually. Globally, infection is most prevalent in young women and men (14-25 years), likely driven by asymptomatic infection, inadequate partner treatment and delayed development of protective immunity. Pathology/Symptomatology: C. trachomatis infects susceptible squamocolumnar or transitional epithelial cells, leading to cervicitis in women and urethritis in men. Symptoms are often mild or absent but ascending infection in some women may lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), resulting in reproductive sequelae such as ectopic pregnancy, infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Complications of infection in men include epididymitis and reactive arthritis. Molecular mechanisms of infection: Chlamydiae manipulate an array of host processes to support their obligate intracellular developmental cycle. This leads to activation of signaling pathways resulting in disproportionate influx of innate cells and the release of tissue damaging proteins and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Treatment and curability: Uncomplicated urogenital infection is treated with azithromycin (1 g, single dose) or doxycycline (100 mg twice daily x 7 days). However, antimicrobial treatment does not ameliorate established disease. Drug resistance is rare but treatment failures have been described. Development of an effective vaccine that protects against upper tract disease or that limits transmission remains an important goal. PMID:28357377

  14. Genital injuries in adults.

    PubMed

    White, Catherine

    2013-02-01

    The examination of the rape victim should focus on the therapeutic, forensic and psychological needs of the individual patient. One aspect will be an examination for ano-genital injuries. From a medical perspective, they tend to be minor and require little in the way of treatment. They must be considered when assessing the risk of blood-borne viruses and the need for prophylaxis. From a forensic perspective, an understanding of genital injury rates, type of injury, site and healing may assist the clinician to interpret the findings in the context of the allegations that have been made. There are many myths and misunderstandings about ano-genital injuries and rape. The clinician has a duty to dispel these.

  15. 5α-Dihydrotestosterone negatively regulates cell proliferation of the periurethral ventral mesenchyme during urethral tube formation in the murine male genital tubercle.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, H; Matsushita, S; Suzuki, K; Yamada, G

    2017-01-01

    Androgen is an essential factor involved in masculinization of external genitalia. Failure of the exposure to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) causes a hypoplastic penile size and urethral abnormality. The main pathology of hypospadias is defective urethral closure on the ventral side of the penis. Hormone-dependent genes are suggested as the causative factors. However, the detailed mechanisms of DHT functions on urethral tube formation remain unknown. Androgen is both a positive and negative regulator of cell proliferation. The roles of locally converted DHT in cell proliferation at the periurethral mesenchyme have not been elucidated. We revealed the expression pattern of 5α-reductase type 2 mRNA (Srd5a2) and local DHT distribution by direct measurement in this study. We also analyzed periurethral mesenchymal cell proliferation status using systematic three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction analyses. A prominent Srd5a2 expression and localized DHT distribution on the ventral side of the genital tubercle were detected. Cell proliferation was reduced in this mesenchymal region during urethral formation. The current results suggest the presence of the possible negative regulation of cell proliferation by DHT. Moreover, cell proliferation related to urethral tube formation was revealed to be DHT dose dependent. These data are expected to contribute to the understanding of the mode of regulation of cell proliferation related to urethral tube formation by DHT. These findings may also offer insight into the understanding of human hypospadias and related hormone-dependent factors.

  16. Progesterone Levels Associate with a Novel Population of CCR5+CD38+ CD4 T Cells Resident in the Genital Mucosa with Lymphoid Trafficking Potential.

    PubMed

    Swaims-Kohlmeier, Alison; Haaland, Richard E; Haddad, Lisa B; Sheth, Anandi N; Evans-Strickfaden, Tammy; Lupo, L Davis; Cordes, Sarah; Aguirre, Alfredo J; Lupoli, Kathryn A; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Ofotukun, Igho; Hart, Clyde E; Kohlmeier, Jacob E

    2016-07-01

    The female genital tract (FGT) provides a means of entry to pathogens, including HIV, yet immune cell populations at this barrier between host and environment are not well defined. We initiated a study of healthy women to characterize resident T cell populations in the lower FGT from lavage and patient-matched peripheral blood to investigate potential mechanisms of HIV sexual transmission. Surprisingly, we observed FGT CD4 T cell populations were primarily CCR7(hi), consistent with a central memory or recirculating memory T cell phenotype. In addition, roughly half of these CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells expressed CD69, consistent with resident memory T cells, whereas the remaining CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells lacked CD69 expression, consistent with recirculating memory CD4 T cells that traffic between peripheral tissues and lymphoid sites. HIV susceptibility markers CCR5 and CD38 were increased on FGT CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells compared with blood, yet migration to the lymphoid homing chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 was maintained. Infection with GFP-HIV showed that FGT CCR7(hi) memory CD4 T cells are susceptible HIV targets, and productive infection of CCR7(hi) memory T cells did not alter chemotaxis to CCL19 and CCL21. Variations of resident CCR7(hi) FGT CD4 T cell populations were detected during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and longitudinal analysis showed the frequency of this population positively correlated to progesterone levels. These data provide evidence women may acquire HIV through local infection of migratory CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells, and progesterone levels predict opportunities for HIV to access these novel target cells.

  17. Detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) -specific cell-mediated immune responses in guinea pigs during latent HSV-2 genital infection.

    PubMed

    Perry, Clarice L; Banasik, Brianne N; Gorder, Summer R; Xia, Jingya; Auclair, Sarah; Bourne, Nigel; Milligan, Gregg N

    2016-12-01

    Genital infections with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) are a source of considerable morbidity and are a health concern for newborns exposed to virus during vaginal delivery. Additionally, HSV-2 infection diminishes the integrity of the vaginal epithelium resulting in increased susceptibility of individuals to infection with other sexually transmitted pathogens. Understanding immune protection against HSV-2 primary infection and immune modulation of virus shedding events following reactivation of the virus from latency is important for the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. Although the murine model of HSV-2 infection is useful for understanding immunity following immunization, it is limited by the lack of spontaneous reactivation of HSV-2 from latency. Genital infection of guinea pigs with HSV-2 accurately models the disease of humans including the spontaneous reactivation of HSV-2 from latency and provides a unique opportunity to examine virus-host interactions during latency. Although the guinea pig represents an accurate model of many human infections, relatively few reagents are available to study the immunological response to infection. To analyze the cell-mediated immune response of guinea pigs at extended periods of time after establishment of HSV-2 latency, we have modified flow-cytometry based proliferation assays and IFN-γ ELISPOT assays to detect and quantify HSV-specific cell-mediated responses during latent infection of guinea pigs. Here we demonstrate that a combination of proliferation and ELISPOT assays can be used to quantify and characterize effecter function of virus-specific immune memory responses during HSV-latency.

  18. MyD88 deficiency leads to decreased NK cell gamma interferon production and T cell recruitment during Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection, but a predominant Th1 response and enhanced monocytic inflammation are associated with infection resolution.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Uma M; Sikes, James; Prantner, Daniel; Andrews, Charles W; Frazer, Lauren; Goodwin, Anna; Snowden, Jessica N; Darville, Toni

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that MyD88 knockout (KO) mice exhibit delayed clearance of Chlamydia muridarum genital infection compared to wild-type (WT) mice. A blunted Th1 response and ineffective suppression of the Th2 response were also observed in MyD88 KO mice. The goal of the present study was to investigate specific mechanisms whereby absence of MyD88 leads to these effects and address the compensatory mechanisms in the genital tract that ultimately clear infection in the absence of MyD88. It was observed that NK cells recruited to the genital tract in MyD88 KO mice failed to produce gamma interferon (IFN-γ) mRNA and protein. This defect was associated with decreased local production of interleukin-17 (IL-17), IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) but normal levels of IL-12p70. Additionally, recruitment of CD4 T cells to the genital tract was reduced in MyD88 KO mice compared to that in WT mice. Although chronic infection in MyD88 KO mice resulted in oviduct pathology comparable to that of WT mice, increased histiocytic inflammation was observed in the uterine horns. This was associated with increased CCL2 levels and recruitment of macrophages as a potential compensatory mechanism. Further deletion of TLR4-TRIF signaling in MyD88 KO mice, using TLR4/MyD88 double-KO mice, did not further compromise host defense against chlamydiae, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms are Toll-like receptor (TLR) independent. Despite some polarization toward a Th2 response, a Th1 response remained predominant in the absence of MyD88, and it provided equivalent protection against a secondary infection as observed in WT mice.

  19. Healing of Genital Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…

  20. Female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees.

  1. Computational Modeling and Simulation of Genital Tubercle ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hypospadias is a developmental defect of urethral tube closure that has a complex etiology. Here, we describe a multicellular agent-based model of genital tubercle development that simulates urethrogenesis from the urethral plate stage to urethral tube closure in differentiating male embryos. The model, constructed in CompuCell3D, implemented spatially dynamic signals from SHH, FGF10, and androgen signaling pathways. These signals modulated stochastic cell behaviors, such as differential adhesion, cell motility, proliferation, and apoptosis. Urethral tube closure was an emergent property of the model that was quantitatively dependent on SHH and FGF10 induced effects on mesenchymal proliferation and endodermal apoptosis, ultimately linked to androgen signaling. In the absence of androgenization, simulated genital tubercle development defaulted to the female condition. Intermediate phenotypes associated with partial androgen deficiency resulted in incomplete closure. Using this computer model, complex relationships between urethral tube closure defects and disruption of underlying signaling pathways could be probed theoretically in multiplex disturbance scenarios and modeled into probabilistic predictions for individual risk for hypospadias and potentially other developmental defects of the male genital tubercle. We identify the minimal molecular network that determines the outcome of male genital tubercle development in mice.

  2. Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aswath, Manju; Pandit, Lakshmi V.; Kashyap, Karthik; Ramnath, Raguram

    2016-01-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a phenomenon, in which afflicted women experience spontaneous genital arousal, unresolved by orgasms and triggered by sexual or nonsexual stimuli, eliciting stress. The current case is a 40-year-old female who experienced such orgasms for about a month. Physical examination, investigations, and psychological testing were noncontributory. Carbamazepine (600 mg) was discontinued due to a lack of response. She improved significantly with supportive therapy. Various neuropsychological conditions, pelvic pathology, medications, etc., have been associated with this disorder. Pharmacologic strategies have included the use of antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and analgesics. Validation, psycho-education, identifying triggers, distraction techniques, and pelvic massage have been tried. Living with PGAD is very demanding. There is a lack of understanding of the problem, shame, and hesitation to seek help. The syndrome has been recently described, and understanding is still evolving. PMID:27570347

  3. Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder.

    PubMed

    Aswath, Manju; Pandit, Lakshmi V; Kashyap, Karthik; Ramnath, Raguram

    2016-01-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a phenomenon, in which afflicted women experience spontaneous genital arousal, unresolved by orgasms and triggered by sexual or nonsexual stimuli, eliciting stress. The current case is a 40-year-old female who experienced such orgasms for about a month. Physical examination, investigations, and psychological testing were noncontributory. Carbamazepine (600 mg) was discontinued due to a lack of response. She improved significantly with supportive therapy. Various neuropsychological conditions, pelvic pathology, medications, etc., have been associated with this disorder. Pharmacologic strategies have included the use of antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and analgesics. Validation, psycho-education, identifying triggers, distraction techniques, and pelvic massage have been tried. Living with PGAD is very demanding. There is a lack of understanding of the problem, shame, and hesitation to seek help. The syndrome has been recently described, and understanding is still evolving.

  4. Genitals and ethnicity: the politics of genital modifications.

    PubMed

    Johnsdotter, Sara; Essén, Birgitta

    2010-05-01

    The discrepancy in societal attitudes toward female genital cosmetic surgery for European women and female genital cutting in primarily African girl children and women raises the following fundamental question. How can it be that extensive genital modifications, including reduction of labial and clitoral tissue, are considered acceptable and perfectly legal in many European countries, while those same societies have legislation making female genital cutting illegal, and the World Health Organization bans even the "pricking" of the female genitals? At present, tensions are obvious as regards the modification of female genitalia, and current legislation and medical practice show inconsistencies in relation to women of different ethnic backgrounds. As regards the right to health, it is questionable both whether genital cosmetic surgery is always free of complications and whether female genital cutting always leads to them. Activists, national policymakers and other stakeholders, including cosmetic genital surgeons, need to be aware of these inconsistencies and find ways to resolve them and adopt non-discriminatory policies. This is not necessarily an issue of either permitting or banning all forms of genital cutting, but about identifying a consistent and coherent stance in which key social values - including protection of children, bodily integrity, bodily autonomy, and equality before the law - are upheld.

  5. In Vitro Passage Selects for Chlamydia muridarum with Enhanced Infectivity in Cultured Cells but Attenuated Pathogenicity in Mouse Upper Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chaoqun; Zhou, Zhou; Conrad, Turner; Yang, Zhangsheng; Dai, Jin; Li, Zhongyu

    2015-01-01

    Although modern Chlamydia muridarum has been passaged for decades, there are no reports on the consequences of serial passage with strong selection pressure on its fitness. In order to explore the potential for Pasteurian selection to induce genomic and phenotypic perturbations to C. muridarum, a starter population was passaged in cultured cells for 28 generations without standard infection assistance. The resultant population, designated CMG28, displays markedly reduced in vitro dependence on centrifugation for infection and low incidence and severity of upper genital tract pathology following intravaginal inoculation into mice compared to the parental C. muridarum population, CMG0. Deep sequencing of CMG0 and CMG28 revealed novel protein variants in the hypothetical genes TC0237 (Q117E) and TC0668 (G322R). In vitro attachment assays of isogenic plaque clone pairs with mutations in either TC0237 and TC0668 or only TC0237 reveal that TC0237(Q117E) is solely responsible for enhanced adherence to host cells. Paradoxically, double mutants, but not TC0237(Q117E) single mutants, display severely attenuated in vivo pathogenicity. These findings implicate TC0237 and TC0668 as novel genetic factors involved in chlamydial attachment and pathogenicity, respectively, and show that serial passage under selection pressure remains an effective tool for studying Chlamydia pathogenicity. PMID:25712926

  6. A Dual-Modality Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Vaccine for Preventing Genital Herpes by Using Glycoprotein C and D Subunit Antigens To Induce Potent Antibody Responses and Adenovirus Vectors Containing Capsid and Tegument Proteins as T Cell Immunogens

    PubMed Central

    Mahairas, Gregory G.; Shaw, Carolyn E.; Huang, Meei-Li; Koelle, David M.; Posavad, Christine; Corey, Lawrence; Friedman, Harvey M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We evaluated a genital herpes prophylactic vaccine containing herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoproteins C (gC2) and D (gD2) to stimulate humoral immunity and UL19 (capsid protein VP5) and UL47 (tegument protein VP13/14) as T cell immunogens. The HSV-2 gC2 and gD2 proteins were expressed in baculovirus, while the UL19 and UL47 genes were expressed from replication-defective adenovirus vectors. Adenovirus vectors containing UL19 and UL47 stimulated human and murine CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. Guinea pigs were either (i) mock immunized; (ii) immunized with gC2/gD2, with CpG and alum as adjuvants; (iii) immunized with the UL19/UL47 adenovirus vectors; or (iv) immunized with the combination of gC2/gD2-CpG/alum and the UL19/UL47 adenovirus vectors. Immunization with gC2/gD2 produced potent neutralizing antibodies, while UL19 and UL47 also stimulated antibody responses. After intravaginal HSV-2 challenge, the mock and UL19/UL47 adenovirus groups developed severe acute disease, while 2/8 animals in the gC2/gD2-only group and none in the combined group developed acute disease. No animals in the gC2/gD2 or combined group developed recurrent disease; however, 5/8 animals in each group had subclinical shedding of HSV-2 DNA, on 15/168 days for the gC2/gD2 group and 13/168 days for the combined group. Lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia were positive for HSV-2 DNA and latency-associated transcripts for 5/8 animals in the gC2/gD2 group and 2/8 animals in the combined group. None of the differences comparing the gC2/gD2-only group and the combined group were statistically significant. Therefore, adding the T cell immunogens UL19 and UL47 to the gC2/gD2 vaccine did not significantly reduce genital disease and vaginal HSV-2 DNA shedding compared with the excellent protection provided by gC2/gD2 in the guinea pig model. IMPORTANCE HSV-2 infection is a common cause of genital ulcer disease and a significant public health concern. Genital herpes increases the risk of

  7. Genital rhabdomyoma of the urethra in an infant girl.

    PubMed

    Lu, David Y; Chang, Sue; Cook, Heather; Alizadeh, Yalda; Karam, Amer K; Moatamed, Neda A; Dry, Sarah M

    2012-04-01

    Extracardiac rhabdomyomas are rare benign entities that usually occur in the head and neck region. Although genital rhabdomyoma is known to occur in the lower genital tract of young and middle-aged women, involvement of the anatomically adjacent urethra by rhabdomyoma is exceedingly rare. We present a case of genital rhabdomyoma arising from the urethra of an infant girl. The tumor was characterized by the submucosal presence of mature-appearing rhabdomyoblastic cells containing conspicuous cross-striations, with the cells set in a collagenous stroma. Necrosis and mitoses were absent. Skeletal muscle differentiation of the tumor cells was supported by positive immunohistochemical staining for desmin and myogenin. To our knowledge, this is the first case of urethral genital-type rhabdomyoma in a child.

  8. Genital herpes - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Herpes - genital - self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... Call your health care provider if you have any of the following: Symptoms of an outbreak that worsen despite medicine and self-care ...

  9. [Genital lichen sclerosus].

    PubMed

    Héla, Zakraoui; Samy, Fenniche; Rym, Benmously; Hajlaoui, Khaoula; Hayet, Marrak; Mohamed, Ben Ayed; Inçaf, Mokhtar

    2005-03-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease which origin remains unknown. Its prevalence ranges from one in 300 to one in 1000 of all patients referred to a dermatology clinic in the seventeenth. Through the analysis of a hospital survey, we outline the epidemio-clinical aspects of this dermatosis. Over a 19-year period (1984-2002), we have conducted a retrospective and monocentric study of all patients with genital lichen sclerosus were examined at the dermatology department of Habib Thameur hospital. Thirty-four patients suffered from lichen sclerosus. There were 33 female and only one male (sex-ratio: 0.03). All patients underwent topical corticosteroid therapy (level I, II or IV). The recovery rate of lichen sclerosus was about 20% (7/34). An epidermoid carcinoma occurred in three patients. The frequency of lichen sclerosus in our study is estimated at 1,8 new cases per year. This frequency is probably under-estimated because of some patients' reluctance to seek help. A relatively low recovery rate of genital lichen sclerosus was found in our study. This may be related to an inadequate follow up added to an insufficient treatment adherence.

  10. Genital herpes: a review.

    PubMed

    Beauman, John G

    2005-10-15

    Genital herpes simplex virus infection is a recurrent, lifelong disease with no cure. The strongest predictor for infection is a person's number of lifetime sex partners. The natural history includes first-episode mucocutaneous infection, establishment of latency in the dorsal root ganglion, and subsequent reactivation. Most infections are transmitted via asymptomatic viral shedding. Classic outbreaks consist of a skin prodrome and possible constitutional symptoms such as headache, fever, and inguinal lymphadenopathy. As the infection progresses, papules, vesicles on an erythematous base, and erosions appear over hours to days. These lesions usually crust, re-epithelialize, and heal without scarring. First-episode infections are more extensive: primary lesions last two to six weeks versus approximately one week for lesions in recurrent disease. Atypical manifestations are common. Infected persons experience a median of four recurrences per year after their first episode, but rates vary greatly. Genital herpes simplex virus type 2 recurs six times more frequently than type 1. Viral culture is preferred over polymerase chain reaction testing for diagnosis. Serologic testing can be useful in persons with a questionable history. Effective oral antiviral medications are available for initial, episodic, and suppressive therapy but are not a cure. There is some evidence that alternative therapies such as L-lysine, zinc, and some herbal preparations may offer some benefit. Counseling patients about the risk of transmission is crucial and helps prevent the spread of disease and neonatal complications.

  11. Genital Herpes: A Review.

    PubMed

    Groves, Mary Jo

    2016-06-01

    Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease, affecting more than 400 million persons worldwide. It is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) and characterized by lifelong infection and periodic reactivation. A visible outbreak consists of single or clustered vesicles on the genitalia, perineum, buttocks, upper thighs, or perianal areas that ulcerate before resolving. Symptoms of primary infection may include malaise, fever, or localized adenopathy. Subsequent outbreaks, caused by reactivation of latent virus, are usually milder. Asymptomatic shedding of transmissible virus is common. Although HSV-1 and HSV-2 are indistinguishable visually, they exhibit differences in behavior that may affect management. Patients with HSV-2 have a higher risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Polymerase chain reaction assay is the preferred method of confirming HSV infection in patients with active lesions. Treatment of primary and subsequent outbreaks with nucleoside analogues is well tolerated and reduces duration, severity, and frequency of recurrences. In patients with HSV who are HIV-negative, treatment reduces transmission of HSV to uninfected partners. During pregnancy, antiviral prophylaxis with acyclovir is recommended from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in women with a history of genital herpes. Elective cesarean delivery should be performed in laboring patients with active lesions to reduce the risk of neonatal herpes.

  12. Acute genital ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers. PMID:24473429

  13. Senegal outlaws female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Ciment, J

    1999-02-06

    Senegal has joined Burkina Faso, the Central African Republic, Djibouti, Ghana, and Togo in outlawing female genital mutilation and assigning penalties of up to five years imprisonment to those who order or perform the procedure. Currently, 20% of Senegalese women have undergone female genital mutilation, and many girls are thought to have died as a result. UN agencies have made their opposition to female genital mutilation clear and have argued that women attempting to avoid the procedure should be granted asylum in other countries.

  14. Association between injectable progestin-only contraceptives and HIV acquisition and HIV target cell frequency in the female genital tract in South African women: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Elizabeth H; Anahtar, Melis N; Cohen, Kathleen E; Moodley, Amber; Padavattan, Nikita; Ismail, Nasreen; Bowman, Brittany A; Olson, Gregory S; Mabhula, Amanda; Leslie, Alasdair; Ndung’u, Thumbi; Walker, Bruce D; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Dong, Krista L; Kwon, Douglas S

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background The use of injectable progestin-only contraceptives has been associated with increased risk of HIV acquisition in observational studies, but the biological mechanisms of this risk remain poorly understood. We aimed to assess the effects of progestins on HIV acquisition risk and the immune environment in the female genital tract. Methods In this prospective cohort, we enrolled HIV-negative South African women aged 18–23 years who were not pregnant and were living in Umlazi, South Africa from the Females Rising through Education, Support, and Health (FRESH) study. We tested for HIV-1 twice per week to monitor incident infection. Every 3 months, we collected demographic and behavioural data in addition to blood and cervical samples. The study objective was to characterise host immune determinants of HIV acquisition risk, including those associated with injectable progestin-only contraceptive use. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards methods. Findings Between Nov 19, 2012, and May 31, 2015, we characterised 432 HIV-uninfected South African women from the FRESH study. In this cohort, 152 women used injectable progestin-only contraceptives, 43 used other forms of contraception, and 222 women used no method of long-term contraception. Women using injectable progestin-only contraceptives were at substantially higher risk of acquiring HIV (12·06 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 6·41–20·63) than women using no long-term contraception (3·71 per 100 person-years, 1·36–8·07; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2·93, 95% CI 1·09–7·868, p=0·0326). HIV-negative injectable progestin-only contraceptive users had 3·92 times the frequency of cervical HIV target cells (CCR5+ CD4 T cells) compared with women using no long-term contraceptive (p=0·0241). Women using no long-term contraceptive in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle also had a 3·25 times higher frequency of cervical target cells compared with those in the

  15. Genital and cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) types in relation to conjunctival squamous cell neoplasia: A case-control study in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    de Koning, Maurits NC; Waddell, Keith; Magyezi, Joseph; Purdie, Karin; Proby, Charlotte; Harwood, Catherine; Lucas, Sebastian; Downing, Robert; Quint, Wim GV; Newton, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Background We investigated the role of infection with genital and cutaneous human papillomavirus types (HPV) in the aetiology of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (which includes both conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and carcinoma) using data and biological material collected as part of a case-control study in Uganda. Results Among 81 cases, the prevalence of genital and cutaneous HPV types in tumour tissue did not differ significantly by histological grade of the lesion. The prevalence of genital HPV types did not differ significantly between cases and controls (both 38%; Odds ratio [OR] 1.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4–2.7, p = 1.0). The prevalence of cutaneous HPV types was 22% (18/81) among cases and 3% (1/29) among controls (OR 8.0, 95% CI 1.0–169, p = 0.04). Conclusion We find no evidence of an association between genital HPV types and ocular surface squamous neoplasia. The prevalence of cutaneous HPV was significantly higher among cases as compared to controls. Although consistent with results from two other case-control studies, the relatively low prevalence of cutaneous HPV types among cases (which does not differ by histological grade of tumour) indicates that there remains considerable uncertainty about a role for cutaneous HPV in the aetiology of this tumour. PMID:18783604

  16. Genital manifestations of tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    Richens, J

    2004-01-01

    Genital symptoms in tropical countries and among returned travellers can arise from a variety of bacterial, protozoal, and helminthic infections which are not usually sexually transmitted. The symptoms may mimic classic sexually transmitted infections (STIs) by producing ulceration (for example, amoebiasis, leishmaniasis), wart-like lesions (schistosomiasis), or lesions of the upper genital tract (epididymo-orchitis caused by tuberculosis, leprosy, and brucellosis; salpingitis as a result of tuberculosis, amoebiasis, and schistosomiasis). A variety of other genital symptoms less suggestive of STI are also seen in tropical countries. These include hydrocele (seen with filariasis), which can be no less stigmatising than STI, haemospermia (seen with schistosomiasis), and hypogonadism (which may occur in lepromatous leprosy). This article deals in turn with genital manifestations of filariasis, schistosomiasis, amoebiasis, leishmaniasis, tuberculosis and leprosy and gives clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:14755029

  17. Warts (non-genital)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Warts are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), of which there are over 100 types. HPV probably infects the skin via areas of minimal trauma. Risk factors include use of communal showers, occupational handling of meat, and immunosuppression. In immunocompetent people, warts are harmless and resolve as a result of natural immunity within months or years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for warts (non-genital)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 17 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic, review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: intralesional bleomycin; intralesional candida antigen; contact immunotherapy; cryotherapy; duct tape occlusion; photodynamic treatment; pulsed dye laser; surgical procedures; and topical salicylic acid. PMID:24921240

  18. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C.

  19. Male genital trauma in sports.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Stanley R; Lishnak, Timothy S; Powers, Andria M; Lisle, David K

    2013-04-01

    Male genital trauma is a rare but potentially serious sports injury. Although such an injury can occur by many different mechanisms, including falls, collisions, straddle injuries, kicks, and equipment malfunction, the clinical presentation is typically homogeneous, characterized by pain and swelling. Almost all sports-related male genital injury comes from blunt force trauma, with involvement of scrotal structures far more common than penile structures. Most injuries can be treated conservatively, but catastrophic testicular injury must first be ruled out. Despite being relatively uncommon compared with other sports injuries, more than half of all testicular injuries are sustained during sports.

  20. Simultaneous genital ulcer and meningitis: a case of EBV infection

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Jairo Tavares; Lopes, Leonardo da Costa; Prokopowitsch, Aleksander Snioka

    2016-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a broad spectrum of diseases, mainly because of its genomic characteristics, which result in different latency patterns in immune cells and infective mechanisms. The patient described in this report is a previously healthy young man who presented to the emergency department with clinical features consistent with meningitis and genital ulcers, which raised concern that the herpes simplex virus was the causative agent. However, the polymerase chain reaction of cerebral spinal fluid was positive for EBV. The authors highlight the importance of this infection among the differential diagnosis of central nervous system involvement and genital ulceration. PMID:27547743

  1. Female genital cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Heywood, Mark; Lemyre, Madeleine; Marcoux, Violaine; Menard, Chantal; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Singh, Sukhbir; Shapiro, Jodi; Akhtar, Saima; Camire, Bruno; Christilaw, Jan; Corey, Julie; Nelson, Erin; Pierce, Marianne; Robertson, Deborah; Simmonds, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Objectif : Fournir aux gynécologues canadiens des directives factuelles en matière de chirurgie esthétique génitale chez la femme, en réponse au nombre grandissant de demandes (et d’interventions) de chirurgie vaginale et vulvaire se situant bien au-delà des reconstructions traditionnellement indiquées sur le plan médical. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en 2011 et en 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (« female genital cosmetic surgery »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en mai 2012. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Recommandations 1. Un des rôles importants des obstétriciens-gynécologues devrait consister à aider les femmes à comprendre leur anatomie et à en respecter les variantes qui leur sont propres. (III-A) 2. Lorsqu’une femme demande la tenue d’interventions esthétiques vaginales, une anamnèse médicale, sexuelle et gynécologique exhaustive devrait être obtenue et l’absence de tout dysfonctionnement

  2. Female genital mutilations - a testimony.

    PubMed

    Youssouf, Samia

    2013-02-01

    In Djibouti, the prevalence of female genital mutilations (FGMs) amounts to 98% and the practice is still in use. When I left, in 1999, I knew I would involve myself in the fight against FGMs and I describe here the outcome of an obstacle course of more than ten years duration. This paper is written on behalf of innumerable women, who could give you a similar account.

  3. Female genital cutting.

    PubMed

    Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    Objectif : Renforcer le cadre national des soins offerts aux adolescentes et aux femmes affectées par l’excision génitale féminine (EGF) au Canada en fournissant aux professionnels de la santé : (1) des renseignements ayant pour but d’approfondir leur compréhension de cette pratique et leurs connaissances à ce sujet; (2) des consignes quant aux aspects légaux liés à cette pratique; (3) des directives cliniques pour la gestion des soins obstétricaux et gynécologiques, y compris la prise en charge des complications liées à l’EGF; et (4) des conseils quant à l’offre de soins compétents au plan culturel aux adolescentes et aux femmes ayant subi une EGF. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en septembre 2010 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « Circumcision », « Female ») et de mots clés (p. ex. « female genital mutilation », « clitoridectomy », « infibulation ») appropriés. Nous avons également mené des recherches dans Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database et ProQuest Dissertations and Theses en 2010 et en 2011. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en décembre 2011. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats a été évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins

  4. Genital contact allergy: A diagnosis missed

    PubMed Central

    Marfatia, Yogesh S.; Patel, Dimpal; Menon, Devi S.; Naswa, Smriti

    2016-01-01

    Genital allergy should be considered as a possible diagnosis in all patients with genital soreness or irritation for which no infection or dermatosis can be identified and in whom symptoms remain unchanged or worsen with treatment. It is an underreported and underdiagnosed condition as patients may not complain about symptoms in this area. Moreover, diagnosis and therapy may not often be conducted by a dermatologist or allergologist. Therefore, many cases of allergic diseases in the genital area remain undetected. PMID:27190404

  5. Can You Get Genital Herpes from a Cold Sore?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lucy* Yes — it is possible to get genital herpes from oral sex. Genital herpes is caused by the herpes ... Genital herpes is usually caused by HSV-2; oral herpes (cold sores) is usually caused by HSV-1. ...

  6. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and levonorgestrel increase genital mucosal permeability and enhance susceptibility to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.

    PubMed

    Quispe Calla, N E; Vicetti Miguel, R D; Boyaka, P N; Hall-Stoodley, L; Kaur, B; Trout, W; Pavelko, S D; Cherpes, T L

    2016-11-01

    Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a hormonal contraceptive especially popular in areas with high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Although observational studies identify DMPA as an important STI risk factor, mechanisms underlying this connection are undefined. Levonorgestrel (LNG) is another progestin used for hormonal contraception, but its effect on STI susceptibility is much less explored. Using a mouse model of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection, we herein found that DMPA and LNG similarly reduced genital expression of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1α (DSG1α), enhanced access of inflammatory cells to genital tissue by increasing mucosal epithelial permeability, and increased susceptibility to viral infection. Additional studies with uninfected mice revealed that DMPA-mediated increases in mucosal permeability promoted tissue inflammation by facilitating endogenous vaginal microbiota invasion. Conversely, concomitant treatment of mice with DMPA and intravaginal estrogen restored mucosal barrier function and prevented HSV-2 infection. Evaluating ectocervical biopsy tissue from women before and 1 month after initiating DMPA remarkably revealed that inflammation and barrier protection were altered by treatment identically to changes seen in progestin-treated mice. Together, our work reveals DMPA and LNG diminish the genital mucosal barrier; a first-line defense against all STI, but may offer foundation for new contraceptive strategies less compromising of barrier protection.

  7. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and levonorgestrel increase genital mucosal permeability and enhance susceptibility to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection

    PubMed Central

    Calla, Nirk E Quispe; Miguel, Rodolfo D Vicetti; Boyaka, Prosper N; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Kaur, Balveen; Trout, Wayne; Pavelko, Stephen D; Cherpes, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a hormonal contraceptive especially popular in areas with high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). While observational studies identify DMPA as an important STI risk factor, mechanisms underlying this connection are undefined. Levonorgestrel (LNG) is another progestin used for hormonal contraception, but its effect on STI susceptibility is much less explored. Using a mouse model of genital HSV-2 infection, we herein found DMPA and LNG similarly reduced genital expression of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1α (DSG1α), enhanced access of inflammatory cells to genital tissue by increasing mucosal epithelial permeability, and increased susceptibility to viral infection. Additional studies with uninfected mice revealed DMPA-mediated increases in mucosal permeability promoted tissue inflammation by facilitating endogenous vaginal microbiota invasion. Conversely, concomitant treatment of mice with DMPA and intravaginal estrogen restored mucosal barrier function and prevented HSV-2 infection. Evaluating ectocervical biopsy tissue from women before and 1 month after initiating DMPA remarkably revealed inflammation and barrier protection were altered by treatment identically to changes seen in progestin-treated mice. Together, our work reveals DMPA and LNG diminish the genital mucosal barrier; a first-line defense against all STI, but may offer foundation for new contraceptive strategies less compromising of barrier protection. PMID:27007679

  8. Modifications of the genital kidney proximal and distal tubules for sperm transport in Notophthalmus viridescens (Amphibia, Urodela, Salamandridae).

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Abbigail E; Siegel, Dustin S

    2014-08-01

    Male salamanders use nephrons from the genital kidney to transport sperm from the testicular lobules to the Wolffian duct. The microstructure of the epithelia of the genital kidney proximal tubule and distal tubule was studied over 1 year in a population of Notophthalmus viridescens from Crawford and Pike counties in central Missouri. Through ultrastructural analysis, we were able to support the hypothesis that the genital kidney nephrons are modified to aid in the transportation of sperm. A lack of folding of the basal plasma membrane, in both the genital kidney proximal and distal tubules when compared to the pelvic kidney proximal and distal tubules, reduces the surface area and thus likely decreases the efficiency of reabsorption in these nephron regions of the genital kidney. Ciliated epithelial cells are also present along the entire length of the genital kidney proximal tubule, but are lacking in the epithelium of the pelvic kidney proximal tubule. The exact function of these cilia remains unknown, but they may aid in mixing of seminal fluids or the transportation of immature sperm through the genital kidney nephrons. Ultrastructural analysis of proximal and distal tubules of the genital kidney revealed no seasonal variation in cellular activity and no mass production of seminal fluids throughout the reproductive cycle. Thus, we failed to support the hypothesis that the cellular activity of the epithelia lining the genital kidney nephrons is correlated to specific events in the reproductive cycle. The cytoplasmic contents and overall structure of the genital and pelvic kidney epithelial cells were similar to recent observations in Ambystoma maculatum, with the absence of abundant dense bodies apically in the epithelial cells lining the genital kidney distal tubule.

  9. [Genital surgery for transgender people].

    PubMed

    Kolehmainen, Maija; Suominen, Sinikka

    2015-01-01

    Genital surgery is performed at the final stage of the gender reassignment process and is in Finland by statutory regulation of 2003 concentrated to be carried out by the HUCH multiprofessional team. Statutory recommendations from the psychiatry units at both HUCH and Tays Central Hospital are required for this. Sex reassignment surgery will be undertaken on the basis of a steadfast wish of an adult patient on the condition that he/she understands the risks associated with surgery and is mentally and physically fit for the operation.

  10. Melanocytic lesions of the genital area with attention given to atypical genital nevi.

    PubMed

    Ribé, Adriana

    2008-11-01

    Melanocytic lesions of the genital area are rare. They arise mainly in the vulva, although they can also occur less frequently in the perineum, mons pubis and male genitalia and represent 10-12% of pigmented lesions of White women. These pigmented lesions include melanocytic nevi, lentigines, melanocytic nevi with architectural disorder and atypia of melanocytes (dysplastic nevi) and melanomas with microscopic features similar to those seen elsewhere on the body. There is a small subset of benign nevi named atypical melanocytic nevi of the genital type (AMNGT) that occur in young women, with distinctive histologic features in some cases overlapping morphologically with those of melanoma. Thus, it is important to distinguish AMNGT from melanomas in terms of prognosis and treatment. We retrieved 58 cases of genital pigmented lesions diagnosed at our hospital from 1986 to 2008 to evaluate their clinicopathologic features with especial consideration to those cases with atypical features. Thirty-two cases (55%) were common nevi, 10 (17%) lentigines, 6 (10%) melanomas, 3 (5%) dysplastic nevi and 1 blue nevus. Six cases (10%) corresponded to AMNGT and were taken from women with a median age of 21 years. All cases showed symmetry, and the melanocytic proliferation was well demarcated at the lateral margins. The junctional component was very prominent and formed by round or fusiform nests with common retraction artifact and/or cellular dyshesion or as a single cell proliferation with mild (33%) to moderate (67%) cytologic atypia, focal pagetoid spread (17%) and a benign-appearing dermal component (83%) with maturation and dense eosinophilic fibrosis in the superficial dermis. Neither nuclear atypia of melanocytes in the superficial dermis nor dermal mitoses were observed. AMNGT were excised, and no recurrences were recorded in the follow up (median 10.5 years). Therefore, it seems that there is no evidence that AMNGT are precursors of dysplastic nevi or melanomas.

  11. Experiential Interventions for Clients with Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Anne L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores potential benefits of incorporating concepts and interventions from experimental therapy to help clients with psychosocial difficulties in learning to live with genital herpes. Recommends experimental counseling of two-chair dialog, empty chair, and metaphor for helping clients with emotional sequelae of genital herpes. Presents case…

  12. The genital herpes problem in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Guerra, B; Puccetti, C; Cervi, F

    2012-10-01

    Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted infection. In reproductive age it involves the additional risk of vertical transmission to the neonate. Rates of transmission are affected by the viral type and whether the infection around delivery is primary or recurrent. Neonatal herpes is a rare but very severe complication of genital herpes infection and is caused by contact with infected genital secretions at the time of labor. Maternal acquisition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the third trimester of pregnancy carries the highest risk of neonatal transmission. Prevention of neonatal herpes depends on preventing acquisition of genital HSV infection during late pregnancy and avoiding exposure of the infant to herpetic lesions during delivery. Uninfected woman should be counselled about the need of avoiding sexual contact during the third trimester. Elective caesarean section before the onset of labor is the choice mode of delivery for women with genital lesions or with prodromal symptoms near the term, even if it offers only a partial protection against neonatal infection. Antiviral suppressive therapy is used from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in pregnant women with recurrences to prevent genital lesions at the time of labor so reducing the need of caesarean sections. Currently, routine maternal serologic screening is not yet recommended. Because most mothers of infants who acquire neonatal herpes lack histories of clinically evident genital herpes, researchers should focus on the recognition of asymptomatic primary genital HSV infections.

  13. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease. PMID:27358569

  14. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease.

  15. Prevention agenda for genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Handsfield, H H; Stone, K M; Wasserheit, J N

    1999-04-01

    Few meeting participants envisioned a prevention and control program on the scale or scope of CDC's programs to prevent HIV infection, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydial infection, but all agreed that the virtual absence of public health interventions to prevent genital herpes is no longer appropriate in light of evolving epidemiologic knowledge and other research advances. The ultimate scope of a national genital herpes prevention effort will depend in part on the results of the recommended research agenda, which probably will evolve over the better part of a decade. Numerous other STD prevention partners will also need to contribute to this effort and help to determine the makeup of future programs. Substantial new fiscal resources will be required both to implement the proposed research agenda and, depending on the results, to undertake the prevention efforts indicated by those studies. Competing STD prevention priorities and other national health needs will influence the availability of those resources. The consultants' meeting and the research and program activities summarized above are described in more detail in the full meeting report, which is posted on the Division's web site (www.cdc.gov/nchstp/dstd/dstdp.html) or may be requested directly from the Division. DSTDP is interested in receiving comments and suggestions about herpes prevention.

  16. Type I interferon signaling exacerbates Chlamydia muridarum genital infection in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Uma M; Prantner, Daniel; Sikes, James D; Andrews, Charles W; Goodwin, Anna M; Nagarajan, Shanmugam; Darville, Toni

    2008-10-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) induced during in vitro chlamydial infection exert bactericidal and immunomodulatory functions. To determine the precise role of type I IFNs during in vivo chlamydial genital infection, we examined the course and outcome of Chlamydia muridarum genital infection in mice genetically deficient in the receptor for type I IFNs (IFNAR(-/-) mice). A significant reduction in chlamydial shedding and duration of lower genital tract infection was observed in IFNAR(-/-) mice in comparison to the level of chlamydial shedding and duration of infection in wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, IFNAR(-/-) mice developed less chronic oviduct pathology in comparison to that in WT mice. Compared to the WT, IFNAR(-/-) mice had a greater number of chlamydial-specific T cells in their iliac lymph nodes 21 days postinfection. IFNAR(-/-) mice also exhibited earlier and enhanced CD4 T-cell recruitment to the cervical tissues, which was associated with increased expression of CXCL9 in the genital secretions of IFNAR(-/-) mice, but not with expression of CXCL10, which was reduced in the genital secretions of IFNAR(-/-) mice. These data suggest that type I IFNs exacerbate C. muridarum genital infection through an inhibition of the chlamydial-specific CD4 T-cell response.

  17. Generating protective immunity against genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Shin, Haina; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2013-10-01

    Genital herpes is an incurable, chronic disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Not only does genital herpes cause painful, recurrent symptoms, it is also a significant risk factor for the acquisition of other sexually transmitted infections such as HIV-1. Antiviral drugs are used to treat herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, but they cannot stop viral shedding and transmission. Thus, developing a vaccine that can prevent or clear infection will be crucial in limiting the spread of disease. In this review we outline recent studies that improve our understanding of host responses against HSV infection, discuss past clinical vaccine trials, and highlight new strategies for vaccine design against genital herpes.

  18. A case of HPV and acquired genital lymphangioma: over-lapping clinical features.

    PubMed

    Cestaro, Giovanni; De Rosa, Michele; Gentile, Maurizio; Massa, Salvatore

    2015-03-25

    Lymphatic malformation or lymphangioma is a benign proliferation of the lymphatics accounting for 4% of all vascular malformations and 26% of all benign vascular tumors. There are several reports about genital lymphangiomas mimicking venereal lesions, such as genital warts. Hereby we described a case of a 24 year old man affected by multiple vesicles and warts in genital area. All hematological and biochemical parameters, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Treponema Pallidum tests, C1-Inhibitor and C1-Q values were within limits. An accurate fulguration and wide excision of bigger lesions were performed. Histological examination showed numerous dilated lymphatic vessels in the superficial dermis with infiltration of inflammatory cells, that is a histopathological picture compatible with genital lymphangioma. Considering our clinical suspicion of condylomatosis, HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Genotyping, named INNOLiPA test, was performed, that revealed a genital infection by HPV - genotype 6. We think that our case can be considered an example of HPV infection and acquired genital lymphangioma overlap clinical syndrome. The patient presented any lesions one year after the procedure at follow-up examination.

  19. Male genital leiomyomas showing androgen receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Peñaranda, José Manuel; Vieites, Begoña; Evgenyeva, Elena; Vázquez-Veiga, Hugo; Forteza, Jeronimo

    2007-12-01

    Genital leiomyoma in men include those superficial leiomyomas arising in the scrotum and the areola. They are unusual neoplasms: few cases have been reported in the literature and they usually escape clinical diagnosis. Three cases of male genital leiomyomas are reported: two in the scrotum and one in the areola. They were all conservatively excised and the behaviour was completely benign in all cases. Histopathological examination showed the typical findings of superficial leiomyomas, with some minor differences between cases arising in the scrotum and those from the areola. Immunohistochemical findings not only confirmed the smooth muscle nature of all cases but also showed unequivocal immunostaining for androgen receptors in the leiomyomas from the scrotum. Immunostaining for androgen receptors in scrotal leiomyomas is, as far as we are aware, a previously unknown characteristic of male genital leiomyomas. This finding supports the role of steroid hormones in the growth of genital leiomyomas, similar to leiomyomas found in other locations.

  20. A Protective Vaccine against Chlamydia Genital Infection Using Vault Nanoparticles without an Added Adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Janina; Liu, Guangchao; Kickhoefer, Valerie A.; Rome, Leonard H.; Li, Lin-Xi; McSorley, Stephen J.; Kelly, Kathleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease, causing a significant burden to females due to reproductive dysfunction. Intensive screening and antibiotic treatment are unable to completely prevent female reproductive dysfunction, thus, efforts have become focused on developing a vaccine. A major impediment is identifying a safe and effective adjuvant which induces cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cells with attributes capable of halting genital infection and inflammation. Previously, we described a natural nanocapsule called the vault which was engineered to contain major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and was an effective vaccine which significantly reduced early infection and favored development of a cellular immune response in a mouse model. In the current study, we used another chlamydial antigen, a polymorphic membrane protein G-1 (PmpG) peptide, to track antigen-specific cells and evaluate, in depth, the vault vaccine for its protective capacity in the absence of an added adjuvant. We found PmpG-vault immunized mice significantly reduced the genital bacterial burden and histopathologic parameters of inflammation following a C. muridarum challenge. Immunization boosted antigen-specific CD4 cells with a multiple cytokine secretion pattern and reduced the number of inflammatory cells in the genital tract making the vault vaccine platform safe and effective for chlamydial genital infection. We conclude that vaccination with a Chlamydia-vault vaccine boosts antigen-specific immunities that are effective at eradicating infection and preventing reproductive tract inflammation. PMID:28106821

  1. Susceptibility of prostate epithelial cells to Chlamydia muridarum infection and their role in innate immunity by recruitment of intracellular Toll-like receptors 4 and 2 and MyD88 to the inclusion.

    PubMed

    Mackern-Oberti, Juan Pablo; Maccioni, Mariana; Cuffini, Cecilia; Gatti, Gerardo; Rivero, Virginia E

    2006-12-01

    Although Chlamydia infections are widespread throughout the world, data about immunopathogenesis of genitourinary tract infections in males are very limited. In the present work we present an in vitro model of male genital tract-derived epithelial cells, more precisely prostate epithelial cells (PEC), to analyze if they are susceptible and able to respond to Chlamydia muridarum infection. Our results demonstrate that rat PEC are susceptible to C. muridarum infection and respond to this pathogen by up-regulating different proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine genes that could participate in the recruitment and local activation of immune cells, therefore influencing innate and adaptive immune responses during Chlamydia infection. Moreover, we analyzed the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TLR2, and related molecules on PEC and the effect of C. muridarum infection on their expression. Our results demonstrate that PEC express significant levels of TLR4, CD14, TLR2, and the adaptor molecule MyD88 and up-regulate these proteins in response to C. muridarum infection. Indeed, TLR4, CD14, TLR2, and the adaptor MyD88 are specifically recruited to the vicinity of the bacterial inclusion, suggesting that these TLRs are actively engaged in signaling from this intracellular location in these cells. This is, to our knowledge, the first time that an in vitro model of infection with Chlamydia of male tract-derived epithelial cells has been achieved, and it provides the opportunity to determine how these cells respond and participate in modulating innate and adaptive immune response during Chlamydia infections.

  2. Controversial issues: female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Richards, D

    2000-01-01

    As immigrant women from African countries enter the U.S., Canada, Australia, and Western Europe, western health care providers are beginning to see patients affected by the cultural practice of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). Unfamiliar with the practice, either medically or culturally, these providers are turning to medical librarians for information. Complicating the issue are the strong negative feelings most western health care workers have about FGM, which appears to them to be both barbaric and cruel. These feelings may conflict strongly with those of their immigrant patients, who regard the practice as normal and desirable. Both medical and cultural information are needed for the professional to provide treatment of medical conditions, while also establishing a good relationship with the FGM affected patient. This article identifies and describes the most important refereed journal article databases, available now over the Internet, providing both medical and cultural information on FGM, and the most useful Web sites for health professionals, librarians, and interested laypersons who need information about this difficult multicultural issue.

  3. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: An update

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Meenakshi; Sood, Seema; Mukherjee, Anjan; Muralidhar, Sumathi; Bala, Manju

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with. PMID:24135174

  4. A study of pattern of nonvenereal genital dermatoses of male attending skin OPD at a tertiary care center

    PubMed Central

    Saraswat, P. K.; Garg, Anubhav; Mishra, Dinesh; Garg, Sushma

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nonvenereal dermatoses tend to create confusion from venereal dermatoses. This may be responsible for considerable concern to the patient as well as may cause diagnostic dilemma to the physicians. Nonvenereal dermatoses may not be restricted to genitalia alone; it may affect skin and mucous membrane also. Most of the patients with genital lesions had apprehension of suffering from some venereal disorders. Aim: The aim was to determine clinical and epidemiological pattern of nonvenereal dermatoses of male external genitalia. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study of 100 consecutive adult male patients with nonvenereal genital dermatoses attending skin and STD OPD at J A Group of Hospitals, Gwalior. Cases having any venereal dermatoses were excluded from this study. Results: The study included 100 male patients with nonvenereal genital lesions. A total of sixteen nonvenereal genital dermatoses were noted. The most common nonvenereal genital dermatoses were vitiligo (18%), pearly penile papule (16%), fixed drug eruptions (12%), scabies (10%), scrotal dermatitis (9%) and lichen planus (9%). Other dermatoses included sebaceous cyst, psoriasis, lichen sclerosus, plasma cell balanitis or Zoon's balanitis, granuloma annulare, lichen nitidus, lymphangioma circumscriptum, papulo-necrotic tuberculid, squamous cell carcinoma and tinea infections. The age ranged from 18 years to 65 years with majority in the age group of 21-30 years (40%). Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of diagnosing common nonvenereal genital dermatoses. It also helps in avoiding the general misconception that all genital lesions are sexually transmitted. PMID:26396448

  5. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2015-09-28

    Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

  6. Laser hair removal for genital gender affirming surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, William R; Garrett, Giorgia L; Arron, Sarah T; Garcia, Maurice M

    2016-06-01

    Genital gender affirming surgery (GAS) involves reconstruction of the genitals to match a patient's identified sex. The use of hair-bearing flaps in this procedure may result in postoperative intra-vaginal and intra-urethral hair growth and associated complications, including lower satisfaction with genital GAS. Despite the significant increase in genital GAS within the past 50 years, there is limited data regarding hair removal practices in preparation for genital GAS and notable variation in hair removal techniques among dermatologists and other practitioners. We present a literature review, recommendations from our experience, and a practical laser hair removal (LHR) approach to hair removal prior to genital GAS.

  7. Laser hair removal for genital gender affirming surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, William R.; Garrett, Giorgia L.; Arron, Sarah T.

    2016-01-01

    Genital gender affirming surgery (GAS) involves reconstruction of the genitals to match a patient’s identified sex. The use of hair-bearing flaps in this procedure may result in postoperative intra-vaginal and intra-urethral hair growth and associated complications, including lower satisfaction with genital GAS. Despite the significant increase in genital GAS within the past 50 years, there is limited data regarding hair removal practices in preparation for genital GAS and notable variation in hair removal techniques among dermatologists and other practitioners. We present a literature review, recommendations from our experience, and a practical laser hair removal (LHR) approach to hair removal prior to genital GAS. PMID:27298787

  8. Genital tract infections and infertility.

    PubMed

    Pellati, Donatella; Mylonakis, Ioannis; Bertoloni, Giulio; Fiore, Cristina; Andrisani, Alessandra; Ambrosini, Guido; Armanini, Decio

    2008-09-01

    Infectious agents can impair various important human functions, including reproduction. Bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites are able to interfere with the reproductive function in both sexes. Infections of male genito-urinary tract account for about 15% of the case of male infertility. Infections can affect different sites of the male reproductive tract, such as the testis, epididymis and male accessory sex glands. Spermatozoa themselves subsequently can be affected by urogenital infections at different levels of their development, maturation and transport. Among the most common microorganisms involved in sexually transmitted infections, interfering with male fertility, there are the Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Less frequently male infertility is due to non-sexually transmitted epididymo-orchitis, mostly caused by Escherichia coli. In female, the first two microorganisms are certainly involved in cervical, tubal, and peritoneal damage, while Herpes simplex cervicitis is less dangerous. The overall importance of cervical involvement is still under discussion. Tubo-peritoneal damage seems to be the foremost manner in which microorganisms interfere with human fertility. C. trachomatis is considered the most important cause of tubal lacerations and obstruction, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and adhesions. N. gonorrhoeae, even though its overall incidence seems to decline, is still to be considered in the same sense, while bacterial vaginosis should not be ignored, as causative agents can produce ascending infections of the female genital tract. The role of infections, particularly co-infections, as causes of the impairment of sperm quality, motility and function needs further investigation. Tropical diseases necessitate monitoring as for their diffusion or re-diffusion in the western world.

  9. Genital elephantiasis and sexually transmitted infections - revisited.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Somesh; Ajith, C; Kanwar, Amrinder J; Sehgal, Virendra N; Kumar, Bhushan; Mete, Uttam

    2006-03-01

    Genital elephantiasis is an important medical problem in the tropics. It usually affects young and productive age group, and is associated with physical disability and extreme mental anguish. The majority of cases are due to filariasis; however, a small but significant proportion of patients develop genital elephantiasis due to bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), mainly lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and donovanosis. STI-related genital elephantiasis should be differentiated from elephantiasis due to other causes, including filariasis, tuberculosis, haematological malignancies, iatrogenic, or dermatological diseases. Laboratory investigations like microscopy of tissue smear and nucleic acid amplification test for donovanosis, and serology and polymerase chain reaction for LGV may help in the diagnosis, but in endemic areas, in the absence of laboratory facilities, diagnosis largely depends on clinical characteristics. The causative agent of LGV, Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L1-L3, is a lymphotropic organism which leads to the development of thrombolymphangitis and perilymphangitis, and lymphadenitis. Long-standing oedema, fibrosis and lymphogranulomatous infiltration result in the final picture of elephantiasis. Elephantiasis in donovanosis is mainly due to constriction of the lymphatics which are trapped in the chronic granulomatous inflammatory response generated by the causative agent, Calymmatobacterium (Klebsiella) granulomatis. The LGV-associated genital elephantiasis should be treated with a prolonged course of doxycycline given orally, while donovanosis should be treated with azithromycin or trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole combination given for a minimum of three weeks. Genital elephantiasis is not completely reversible with medical therapy alone and often needs to be reduced surgically.

  10. Recent advances in management of genital herpes.

    PubMed Central

    Tétrault, I.; Boivin, G.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on new diagnostic tests and antiviral strategies for managing genital herpes. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Treatment guidelines are based on randomized clinical trials and recommendations from the Expert Working Group on Canadian Guidelines for Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Recommendations concerning other aspects of managing genital herpes (e.g., indications for using type-specific serologic tests) are mainly based on expert opinion. MAIN MESSAGE: Genital herpes is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, affecting about 20% of sexually active people; up to 80% of cases are undiagnosed. Because of frequent atypical presentation and the emotional burden associated with genital herpes, clinical diagnosis should be confirmed by viral culture. Type-specific serologic assays are now available, but their use is often restricted to special situations and requires adequate counseling. New antivirals (valacyclovir and famciclovir) with improved pharmacokinetic profiles have now been approved for episodic treatment of recurrences and suppressive therapy. CONCLUSION: Wise use of new diagnostic assays for herpes simplex coupled with more convenient treatment regimens should provide better management of patients with genital herpes. Images Figure 1 PMID:10955181

  11. Psychophysical properties of female genital sensation.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Melissa A; Maykut, Caroline A; Huberman, Jackie S; Huang, Lejian; Khalifé, Samir; Binik, Yitzchak M; Apkarian, A Vania; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2013-11-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is characterized by the presence of vulvar touch and pain hypersensitivity. Pain with vaginal distension, which motivates treatment seeking and perpetuates distress, is frequently reported with PVD. However, the concordance between the perception of vulvar and vaginal sensation (ie, somatic and visceral genital sensations, respectively) remains unstudied in healthy women, as well as in clinical populations such as PVD. To evaluate the static and dynamic (time-varying) properties of somatic and visceral genital sensation, women with PVD (n=14) and age- and contraceptive-matched healthy controls (n=10) rated varying degrees of nonpainful and painful genital stimulation. Somatic (vulvar) mechanical sensitivity to nonpainul and painful degrees of force were compared to visceral (vaginal) sensitivity to nonpainful and painful distension volumes. Results indicated that healthy women showed substantial individual variation in and high discrimination of vulvar and vaginal sensation. In contrast, PVD was associated with vulvar allodynia and hyperalgesia, as well as vaginal allodynia. Modeling of dynamic perception revealed novel properties of abnormal PVD genital sensation, including temporal delays in vulvar touch perception and reduced perceptual thresholds for vaginal distension. The temporal properties and magnitude of PVD distension pain were indistinguishable from vaginal fullness in healthy controls. These results constitute the first empirical comparison of somatic and visceral genital sensation in healthy women. Findings provide novel insights into the sensory abnormalities that characterize PVD, including an experimental demonstration of visceral allodynia. This investigation challenges the prevailing diagnostic assessment of PVD and reconceptualizes PVD as a chronic somatic and visceral pain condition.

  12. Detoxified Haemophilus ducreyi cytolethal distending toxin and induction of toxin specific antibodies in the genital tract.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, Annika; Fernandez-Rodrigues, Julia; Ahlman, Karin; Lagergård, Teresa

    2010-08-16

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes genital ulceration (chancroid), a sexually transmitted infection and still an important factor which contributes to the spread of HIV in developing countries. The bacterium produces a cytolethal distending toxin (HdCDT) causing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis/necrosis of human cells and contributes to the aggravation of ulcers. The aim of the study was to induce toxin-neutralizing antibodies in the genital tract of mice. Repeated subcutaneous (sc) immunisations with 5-10microg active HdCDT induced low levels of serum anti-HdCDT IgG without neutralizing capacity. High levels of specific IgG1 antibodies in serum and genital tract were generated after sc immunisations with 10microg formaldehyde detoxified HdCDT toxoid alone and the addition of aluminium salts or RIBI (based on the lipid A moiety) as adjuvant further increased the level of serum antibodies. A high correlation was found between elevated levels of anti-HdCDT IgG in sera, the level of neutralizing activity and the antibody level in genital tract (r=0.8). Thus, induction of high antibody levels specific to HdCDT in the genital tissue can be achieved by parenteral immunisation with the toxoid. The HdCDT toxoid can be considered as a candidate component in vaccine against chancroid.

  13. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Christine; Corey, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward.

  14. Products used on female genital mucosa.

    PubMed

    Farage, Miranda A; Lennon, Lisa; Ajayi, Funmi

    2011-01-01

    A wide variety of products are used by women in the genital area and, therefore, come into contact with the genital mucosa. The largest category of such products would be those used for cleanliness and odor control, such as soaps and body washes, douches, premoistened wipes and towelettes, dusting powder and deodorant sprays. A second large category of products are those intended to absorb fluids, such as products used for menstrual protection (tampons, pads and panty liners) and incontinence protection. Lubricants and moisturizers, and aesthetic products (hair removal products and dyes) are also fairly common. In addition, over the counter medications are now available for the treatment of fungal infections. This chapter briefly discusses the products women use on or around the genital area, the perceived or real benefits, and the potential health effects of these products.

  15. Genital Herpes Vaccine Shows Promise in Animal Trials

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163137.html Genital Herpes Vaccine Shows Promise in Animal Trials Two-pronged approach ... THURSDAY, Jan. 19, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A new vaccine for genital herpes could be nearing human clinical ...

  16. Valacyclovir for the treatment of genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Brantley, Julie S; Hicks, Lindsey; Sra, Karan; Tyring, Stephen K

    2006-06-01

    Genital herpes is the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection in the USA. While sometimes mild in severity, it can be a distressing and painful chronic condition. Likewise, herpes labialis and herpes zoster can be both physically and psychologically painful. While there is no cure for these conditions, treatment to alleviate symptoms, suppress recurrences and reduce transmission has been drastically improved over the past 20 years with the use of guanine nucleoside antivirals, such as valacyclovir hydrochloride (Valtrex), GlaxoSmithKline) the highly bioavailable prodrug of acyclovir (Zovirax((R)), GlaxoSmithKline), and famciclovir (Famvir, Novartis), a highly bioavailable prodrug of penciclovir (Denavir, Novartis). Clinical trials involving approximately 10,000 patients (including patients from nongenital herpes studies, such as herpes zoster) have assessed the safety and efficacy of valacyclovir in the treatment of initial genital herpes outbreaks, episodic treatment of recurrent episodes and daily suppressive therapy. It was shown that valacyclovir has similar efficacy to acyclovir in the episodic and suppressive treatment of genital herpes. Valacyclovir is the only antiviral drug approved for a once-daily dose of suppressive therapy for genital herpes, as well as the only antiviral drug US FDA approved for a 3-day regimen of episodic treatment of recurrent genital herpes. In addition, valacyclovir is also indicated in the reduction of the sexual transmission of herpes simplex virus infection and for the treatment of herpes labialis. In herpes zoster, valacyclovir is more effective than acyclovir or placebo (and as equally effective as famciclovir) in shortening the length and severity of herpes zoster-associated pain and postherpetic neuralgia. Valacyclovir has an acceptable safety profile in patients with herpes simplex and herpes zoster. The less frequent dosing regimen makes it an attractive option in the treatment of genital herpes and other viral

  17. Non-infectious inflammatory genital lesions.

    PubMed

    Andreassi, Lucio; Bilenchi, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    The genitalia may be the site of non-infectious inflammatory lesions that are generally manifested as balanoposthitis and vulvovaginitis. In men, these forms constitute 50% of all balanoposthitis forms, and in women, vulvovaginitis frequency is even higher. They consist of genital locations of general skin diseases, such as psoriasis, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus, and other clinical entities with their own physiognomy, such as Zoon's balanitis-vulvitis. Diagnosis of genital non-infectious inflammatory lesions is usually made on clinical criteria. A biopsy is only necessary for the identification of clinical conditions that may simulate inflammatory form but are actually premalignant processes.

  18. Genitive Case-Marked Subject in Modern Mongolian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayabaatar, Dalai; Dashdavaa, Vanchinsuren; Enkhjargal, Dagvasumberel; Onon, Tsulbaatar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents peculiarities of the genitive case marked subject in Modern Mongolian. First, we argue that subordinate clauses with the genitive case-marked subject in Modern Mongolian are CP. Second, we provide an explanation for certain conditions of the genitive subject construction in Modern Mongolian (MM). Third, we attempt to show the…

  19. Genital pyoderma gangrenosum: report of two cases and published work review of Japanese cases.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Masataka; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2013-10-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum is an ulcerative skin disorder showing characteristic non-infectious ulcers and affects the lower extremities in approximately 70% of cases. Pyoderma gangrenosum is commonly associated with systemic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis and hematological malignancies. Herein, we report two cases of Japanese patients diagnosed with genital pyoderma gangrenosum. Case 1 was a 74-year-old woman without associated systemic complications, whose skin lesion resembled a squamous cell carcinoma and was limited to the vulva. Case 2 is an 89-year-old man, who suffered from myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia, and presented with penile and leg ulcers mimicking pressure sores. Both cases responded well to systemic steroids. We review 13 genital pyoderma gangrenosum cases (76.9% male; aged 30-89 years) from 1996 to 2012 in Japan, including 11 previously reported cases and the present study's two cases. Four of the 13 genital pyoderma gangrenosum cases had associated systemic diseases and their skin lesions spread to the extragenital areas. Eight of the remaining nine genitalia-localized pyoderma gangrenosum cases had no associated systemic diseases. In conclusion, genital pyoderma gangrenosum is rare and may be misdiagnosed. It should therefore be considered in cases of refractory genital ulcers. In addition, genitalia-localized pyoderma gangrenosum tends to be without systemic complications.

  20. Genital HPV infection progression to external genital lesions: The HIM Study

    PubMed Central

    Sudenga, Staci L.; Ingles, Donna J.; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes two types of external genital lesions (EGLs) in men: genital warts (condyloma) and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). Objective The purpose of this study was to describe genital HPV progression to a histopathologically confirmed HPV-related EGL. Design, Setting and Participants A prospective analysis nested within the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study was conducted among 3033 men. At each visit, visually distinct EGLs were biopsied, subjected to pathological evaluation, and categorized by pathological diagnoses. Genital swabs and biopsies were used to identify HPV types using the Linear Array genotyping method for swabs and INNO-LiPA for biopsies. Outcome Measurements EGL incidence was determined among 1788 HPV-positive men, and cumulative incidence rates at 6, 12, and 24 months were estimated. The proportion of HPV infections that progressed to EGL was also calculated, along with median time to EGL development. Results and Limitations Among 1788 HPV-positive men, 92 developed an incident EGL during follow-up (9 PeIN and 86 condyloma). During the first 12 months of follow-up, 16% of men with a genital HPV6 infection developed a HPV6-positive condyloma, and 22% of genital HPV11 infections progressed to an HPV11-positive condyloma. During the first 12-months of follow-up, 0.5% of men with a genital HPV16 infection developed an HPV16-positive PeIN. Although we expected PeIN to be a rare event, the sample size for PeIN (n=10) limited the types of analyses that could be performed. Conclusions Most EGLs develop following infection with HPV 6, 11, or 16, all of which could be prevented with the 4-valent HPV vaccine. Patient Summary In this study, we looked at genital HPV infections that can cause lesions in men. The HPV that we detected within the lesions could be prevented through a vaccine. PMID:26051441

  1. Mothers' Perceptions of Female Genital Mutilation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahanonu, E. L.; Victor, O.

    2014-01-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is widespread in Nigeria. This study was conducted to assess the perceptions of FGM among mothers at a primary healthcare centre in Lagos, Nigeria. A convenience sample of 95 mothers completed the pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaires. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics…

  2. Genital evolution: why are females still understudied?

    PubMed

    Ah-King, Malin; Barron, Andrew B; Herberstein, Marie E

    2014-05-01

    The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias.

  3. Genital Ulcers: Their Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, Stephen L.

    1987-01-01

    This article offers some background information on diagnosis and treatment of three major causes of genital ulcers: syphilis, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and chancroid. The author also discusses differential diagnoses and suggests an approach to treatment. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:21263799

  4. Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, David J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes…

  5. Regulation of male sex determination: genital ridge formation and Sry activation in mice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Satomi S; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi

    2014-12-01

    Sex determination is essential for the sexual reproduction to generate the next generation by the formation of functional male or female gametes. In mammals, primary sex determination is commenced by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome, which controls the fate of the gonadal primordium. The somatic precursor of gonads, the genital ridge is formed at the mid-gestation stage and gives rise to one of two organs, a testis or an ovary. The fate of the genital ridge, which is governed by the differentiation of somatic cells into Sertoli cells in the testes or granulosa cells in the ovaries, further determines the sex of an individual and their germ cells. Mutation studies in human patients with disorders of sex development and mouse models have revealed factors that are involved in mammalian sex determination. In most of mammals, a single genetic trigger, the Y-linked gene Sry (sex determination region on Y chromosome), regulates testicular differentiation. Despite identification of Sry in 1990, precise mechanisms underlying the sex determination of bipotential genital ridges are still largely unknown. Here, we review the recent progress that has provided new insights into the mechanisms underlying genital ridge formation as well as the regulation of Sry expression and its functions in male sex determination of mice.

  6. Computational Modeling and Simulation of Genital Tubercle Development

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hypospadias is a developmental defect of urethral tube closure that has a complex etiology involving genetic and environmental factors, including anti-androgenic and estrogenic disrupting chemicals; however, little is known about the morphoregulatory consequences of androgen/estrogen balance during genital tubercle (GT) development. Computer models that predictively model sexual dimorphism of the GT may provide a useful resource to translate chemical-target bipartite networks and their developmental consequences across the human-relevant chemical universe. Here, we describe a multicellular agent-based model of genital tubercle (GT) development that simulates urethrogenesis from the sexually-indifferent urethral plate stage to urethral tube closure. The prototype model, constructed in CompuCell3D, recapitulates key aspects of GT morphogenesis controlled by SHH, FGF10, and androgen pathways through modulation of stochastic cell behaviors, including differential adhesion, motility, proliferation, and apoptosis. Proper urethral tube closure in the model was shown to depend quantitatively on SHH- and FGF10-induced effects on mesenchymal proliferation and epithelial apoptosis??both ultimately linked to androgen signaling. In the absence of androgen, GT development was feminized and with partial androgen deficiency, the model resolved with incomplete urethral tube closure, thereby providing an in silico platform for probabilistic prediction of hypospadias risk across c

  7. Condylomatous genital lesions in cynomolgus macaques from Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Harari, Ariana; Wood, Charles E; Van Doorslaer, Koenraad; Chen, Zigui; Domaingue, Marie Claire; Elmore, David; Koenig, Patricia; Wagner, Janice D; Jennings, Ryan N; Burk, Robert D

    2013-08-01

    Genital condyloma-like lesions were observed on male and female cynomolgus macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) originating from the island of Mauritius. Cytobrush and/or biopsy samples were obtained from lesions of 57 affected macaques. Primary histologic features included eosinophilic, neutrophilic, and lymphoplasmacytic penile and vulvar inflammation, epidermal hyperplasia with acanthosis, and increased collagenous stroma. Polymerase chain reaction-based assays to amplify viral DNA revealed the presence of macaque lymphocryptovirus (LCV) DNA but not papillomavirus or poxvirus DNA. Subsequent DNA analyses of 3 genomic regions of LCV identified isolates associated with lesions in 19/25 (76%) biopsies and 19/57 (33%) cytology samples. Variable immunolabeling for proteins related to the human LCV Epstein Barr Virus was observed within intralesional plasma cells, stromal cells, and epithelial cells. Further work is needed to characterize the epidemiologic features of these lesions and their association with LCV infection in Mauritian-origin macaques.

  8. Pathogenesis of genital tract disease due to Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Darville, Toni; Hiltke, Thomas J

    2010-06-15

    Although the pathologic consequences of C. trachomatis genital infection are well-established, the mechanism(s)that result in chlamydia-induced tissue damage are not fully understood. We reviewed in vitro, animal, and human data related to the pathogenesis of chlamydial disease to better understand how reproductive sequelae result from C. trachomatis infection. Abundant in vitro data suggest that the inflammatory response to chlamydiae is initiated and sustained by actively infected nonimmune host epithelial cells. The mouse model indicates a critical role for chlamydia activation of the innate immune receptor, Toll-like receptor 2, and subsequent inflammatory cell influx and activation, which contributes to the development of chronic genital tract tissue damage. Data from recent vaccine studies in the murine model and from human immunoepidemiologic studies support a role for chlamydia-specific CD4 Th1-interferon-g-producing cells in protection from infection and disease. However, limited evidence obtained using animal models of repeated infection indicates that, although the adaptive T cell response is a key mechanism involved in controlling or eliminating infection, it may have a double-edged nature and contribute to tissue damage. Important immunologic questions include whether anamnestic CD4 T cell responses drive disease rather than protect against disease and the role of specific immune cells and inflammatory mediators in the induction of tissue damage with primary and repeated infections. Continued study of the complex molecular and cellular interactions between chlamydiae and their host and large-scale prospective immunoepidemiologic and immunopathologic studies are needed to address gaps in our understanding of pathogenesis that thwart development of optimally effective control programs, including vaccine development.

  9. Variability of human immunodeficiency virus-1 in the female genital reservoir during genital reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    LeGoff, J; Roques, P; Jenabian, M-A; Charpentier, C; Brochier, C; Bouhlal, H; Gresenguet, G; Frost, E; Pepin, J; Mayaud, P; Belec, L

    2015-09-01

    Clinical and subclinical genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivations have been associated with increases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genital shedding. Whether HSV-2 shedding contributes to the selection of specific genital HIV-1 variants remains unknown. We evaluated the genetic diversity of genital and blood HIV-1 RNA and DNA in 14 HIV-1/HSV-2-co-infected women, including seven with HSV-2 genital reactivation, and seven without as controls. HIV-1 DNA and HIV-1 RNA env V1-V3 sequences in paired blood and genital samples were compared. The HSV-2 selection pressure on HIV was estimated according to the number of synonymous substitutions (dS), the number of non-synonymous substitutions (dN) and the dS/dN ratio within HIV quasi-species. HIV-1 RNA levels in cervicovaginal secretions were higher in women with HSV-2 replication than in controls (p0.02). Plasma HIV-1 RNA and genital HIV-1 RNA and DNA were genetically compartmentalized. No differences in dS, dN and the dS/dN ratio were observed between the study groups for either genital HIV-1 RNA or plasma HIV-1 RNA. In contrast, dS and dN in genital HIV-1 DNA were significantly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital reactivation (p <0.01 and p <0.05, respectively). The mean of the dS/dN ratio in genital HIV-1 DNA was slightly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital replication, indicating a trend for purifying selection (p 0.056). HSV-2 increased the genetic diversity of genital HIV-1 DNA. These observations confirm molecular interactions between HSV-2 and HIV-1 at the genital tract level.

  10. [Bone loss in women with malignant genital neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Magnowski, Piotr; Wolski, Hubert; Magnowska, Magdalena; Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, women with genital cancers live longer due to early diagnosis and better treatment schemes. Only few studies assessed bone mass in patients with genital cancer Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by progressive loss of bone mass, weakening of the spatial structure of the bone, and increased susceptibility to fractures. Osteopenia is a condition of reduced, but not yet reaching the pathological values, bone density in relation to norms for age and sex. Metastases are the primary cause of death in cancer patients. It is estimated that approximately half of people dying due to cancer have bone metastases. Osteoporosis in neoplastic disease may occur due to bone metastases or therapy-related adverse effects, i.e. reduced bone mineral density (BMD). Bone microenvironment provides a good medium for the growth of cancer cells. BMD of the femur and spine should be measured by DXA. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the techniques used to detect bone metastases. Lifestyle is the key to improving the quality of life and maximize any pharmacological treatment in cancer patients. It is proposed that treatment of cancer without bone metastases does not require therapy increasing bone mass. Further studies in women treated for gynecological malignancies undergoing oophorectomy and adjuvant treatment are needed to elucidate the mechanisms associated with bone loss.

  11. Significance of dermatoscopy in genital dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Paštar, Zrinjka; Lipozenčić, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    Dermatoscopy as a non-invasive technique has become an integrative part in the evaluation of pigmented and non-pigmented skin lesions, particularly for the early detections of melanoma. Although dermatoscopy improves diagnosis of pigmented and nonpigmented lesions of the skin, it is unknown if dermatoscopy improves the diagnostic accuracy of pigmented mucosal lesions. The "entodermatoscopy" is used for the dermatoscopy of skin infections and infestations and revised as entomodermatoscopy, as it connects the research fields of dermatology and entomology, with its roots being found in these two words. In genital dermatology along with the clinical examination, dermatoscopy is also used for the diagnosis and treatment follow-up of pediculosis pubis, genital warts, molluscum contagiosum, and scabies.

  12. The testicular sperm ducts and genital kidney of male Ambystoma maculatum (Amphibia, Urodela, Ambystomatidae).

    PubMed

    Siegel, Dustin S; Aldridge, Robert D; Rheubert, Justin L; Gribbins, Kevin M; Sever, David M; Trauth, Stanley E

    2013-03-01

    The ducts associated with sperm transport from the testicular lobules to the Wolffian ducts in Ambystoma maculatum were examined with transmission electron microscopy. Based on the ultrastructure and historical precedence, new terminology for this network of ducts is proposed that better represents primary hypotheses of homology. Furthermore, the terminology proposed better characterizes the distinct regions of the sperm transport ducts in salamanders based on anatomy and should, therefore, lead to more accurate comparisons in the future. While developing the above ontology, we also tested the hypothesis that nephrons from the genital kidney are modified from those of the pelvic kidney due to the fact that the former nephrons function in sperm transport. Our ultrastructural analysis of the genital kidney supports this hypothesis, as the basal plasma membrane of distinct functional regions of the nephron (proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, and collecting tubule) appear less folded (indicating decreased surface area and reduced reabsorption efficiency) and the proximal convoluted tubule possesses ciliated epithelial cells along its entire length. Furthermore, visible luminal filtrate is absent from the nephrons of the genital kidney throughout their entire length. Thus, it appears that the nephrons of the genital kidney have reduced reabsorptive capacity and ciliated cells of the proximal convoluted tubule may increase the movement of immature sperm through the sperm transport ducts or aid in the mixing of seminal fluids within the ducts.

  13. Consequences of nongenomic actions of estradiol on pathogenic genital tract response

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Estradiol is a steroid hormone that regulates the structure and function of the female reproductive system. In addition to its genomic effects, which are mediated by activated nuclear receptors, estradiol elicits a variety of rapid signaling events independently of transcriptional or genomic regulation. These nongenomic actions influence the milieu of the genital tract, which changes the ability of pathogens to infect the genital tract. This review discusses our current knowledge regarding the mechanisms and relevance of nongenomic estradiol signaling in the genital tract that could change the ability of pathogens to invade epithelial cells. PubMed was searched through January 1980 for papers related to estradiol actions in the ovary, fallopian tube, uterus and cervix. The mechanisms conveying these rapid effects consist of a multitude of signaling molecules and include cross-talk with slower transcriptional actions. The nongenomic actions of estradiol that influence the infectious abilities of pathogens occur either directly on the genital tract cells or indirectly by modulating the local and systemic immune systems. Additional in-depth characterization of the response is required before the normal and pathological reproductive functions of the nongenomic estradiol pathway can be targeted for pharmacological intervention. PMID:23351368

  14. Genital and sexual pain in women.

    PubMed

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania; Bertolasi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the all too common problem of sex-related pain in women. Pain is a complex perceptive experience, involving biologic as well as psychologic and relational meanings. They become increasingly important with the chronicity of pain. Neurologists are quite aware of the painful aspect of many neurologic disorders, but lifelong and acquired genital and sexual pain is still neglected in a consistent percentage of women. One reason is the view - still held by many - that psychologic factors play the most important role in sex-related pain complaints. The consequences of diagnostic delay can be dramatic. Persisting tissue inflammation induces pain to change from acute and "nociceptive," which indicates a "friendly signal," alerting one to ongoing tissue damage, to chronic and "neuropathic," a disease per se. Whilst the primary disease is progressing and neuroinflammation becomes a prominent feature, affected women have to bear years of pain and distress, huge quantifiable and non-quantifiable costs, and a progressive deterioration of personal and relational health and happiness. The scenario is even more dramatic when pain complicates an already disabling disease. The main aspects considered in this chapter include neuroinflammation as a key feature of pain; genital and sexual pain as part of neurologic diseases; and genital and sexual pain syndrome (dyspareunia and vaginismus) as primary problems, and their pelvic comorbidities (bladder pain syndrome, endometriosis, irritable bowel syndrome, provoked vestibulodynia/vulvodynia). Finally, we discuss iatrogenic pain, i.e., genital and sexual pain caused by ill-conceived medical, surgical, pharmacologic or radiologic therapeutic interventions.

  15. Persistent genital arousal disorder: a clinical challenge

    PubMed Central

    Gadit, Amin

    2013-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented to a community-based psychiatric clinic with unique problem of persistent genital arousal disorder. All relevant investigations were normal. Treatment with psychotropic medication and psychotherapy did not help. The patient though reported improvement in mood. The patient has been followed up since 2011 and visits the clinic every 3 months without much improvement in the disorder. Hence, this case has become a clinical challenge in terms of treatment. PMID:23697448

  16. Female genital mutilation in Kenya and Sudan.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Female genital mutilation is still practiced in 28 African countries despite international calls for its abolishment. A 1991 survey of 1365 14-year-old girls undertaken by a nongovernmental organization in Kenya revealed that 90% had suffered mutilation ranging from the least mutilating form, "sunna" to excision to infibulation. Most of the procedures had taken place when the girls were aged 10-14 years as part of a ritual where the same unsterile knife was used on several girls. Whereas 65% of respondents stated that they approved of female genital mutilation, a little more than a third would abolish the practice. In Sudan, a 1989-90 Demographic and Health Survey of 5860 ever married women aged 15-49 included a number of questions related to female genital mutilation. 89% of respondents were mutilated, and 82% of these had suffered infibulation. This prevalence rate showed a decrease from the 96% level recorded in 1977-78. Among younger women, the incidence of sunna is increasing. Most of these procedures were performed by medical workers such as trained midwives or traditional birth attendants. 79% of the respondents favored continuation of the procedure, but women with a secondary-level education and urban women showed strong opposition. Most women cite tradition as the reason for their approval, and almost half of the women who disapprove cite medical complications. This survey provided the necessary data to implement a policy of eradication of this harmful practice through increasing women's education and provoking open discussion about the procedure.

  17. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women.

    PubMed

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania

    2015-01-01

    "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy.

  18. HIV-1 Genital Shedding is Suppressed in the Setting of High Genital Antiretroviral Drug Concentrations Throughout the Menstrual Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Anandi N.; Evans-Strickfaden, Tammy; Haaland, Richard; Martin, Amy; Gatcliffe, Chelsea; Adesoye, Adebola; Omondi, Michael W.; Lupo, L. Davis; Danavall, Damien; Easley, Kirk; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Pau, Chou-Pong; Hart, Clyde; Ofotokun, Igho

    2014-01-01

    Background. It is not known if fluctuations in genital tract antiretroviral drug concentrations correlate with genital virus shedding in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected women on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods. Among 20 HIV-infected women on ART (tenofovir [TFV], emtricitabine [FTC], and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir [ATV]) with suppressed plasma virus loads, blood and cervicovaginal samples collected twice weekly for 3 weeks were tested for antiretroviral concentrations, HIV-1 RNA, and proviral DNA. Results. Cervicovaginal:plasma antiretroviral concentration ratios were highest for FTC (11.9, 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.66–16.3), then TFV (3.52, 95% CI, 2.27–5.48), and ATV (2.39, 95% CI, 1.69–3.38). Within- and between-person variations in plasma and genital antiretroviral concentrations were observed. Low amounts of genital HIV-1 RNA (<50 copies/mL) were detected in 45% of women at 16% of visits. Genital HIV-1 DNA was detected in 70% of women at 35% of visits. Genital virus detection was associated with higher concentrations of mucosal leukocytes but not with genital antiretroviral concentrations, menstrual cycle phase, bacterial vaginosis, genital bleeding, or plasma virus detection. Conclusions. Standard doses of ART achieved higher genital than plasma concentrations across the menstrual cycle. Therapeutic ART suppresses genital virus shedding throughout the menstrual cycle, even in the presence of factors reported to increase virus shedding. PMID:24643223

  19. Genital elephantiasis due to donovanosis: forgotten but not gone yet ...

    PubMed

    Narang, T; Kanwar, A J

    2012-11-01

    Genital elephantiasis is a disease that is characterized by massive enlargement of the genitalia. Early aetiological diagnosis is of paramount importance so that development of genital elephantiasis can be prevented; otherwise it is not completely reversible with medical therapy and often requires surgical intervention. Chronic mental distress and disability can result as it interferes with daily/routine activities of the affected individual. Over time, the infectious causes of genital elephantiasis have evolved, from syphilis in the pre-penicillin era to donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum and recently filariasis, tuberculosis, leishmaniasis, HIV and chromoblastomycosis. With a declining prevalence globally, donovanosis is at risk of being forgotten as a cause of genital swelling; however, it is known to persist for years without treatment and can lead to complications such as lymphoedema and genital mutilation. We herein present a case of genital elephantiasis that was eventually diagnosed as being due to donovanosis.

  20. Gamma Interferon Is Required for Optimal Antibody-Mediated Immunity against Genital Chlamydia Infection

    PubMed Central

    Naglak, Elizabeth K.; Morrison, Sandra G.

    2016-01-01

    Defining the mechanisms of immunity conferred by the combination of antibody and CD4+ T cells is fundamental to designing an efficacious chlamydial vaccine. Using the Chlamydia muridarum genital infection model of mice, which replicates many features of human C. trachomatis infection and avoids the characteristic low virulence of C. trachomatis in the mouse, we previously demonstrated a significant role for antibody in immunity to chlamydial infection. We found that antibody alone was not protective. Instead, protection appeared to be conferred through an undefined antibody-cell interaction. Using gene knockout mice and in vivo cellular depletion methods, our data suggest that antibody-mediated protection is dependent on the activation of an effector cell population in genital tract tissues by CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, the CD4+ T cell-secreted cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-γ) was found to be a key component of the protective antibody response. The protective function of IFN-γ was not related to the immunoglobulin class or to the magnitude of the Chlamydia-specific antibody response or to recruitment of an effector cell population to genital tract tissue. Rather, IFN-γ appears to be necessary for activation of the effector cell population that functions in antibody-mediated chlamydial immunity. Our results confirm the central role of antibody in immunity to chlamydia reinfection and demonstrate a key function for IFN-γ in antibody-mediated protection. PMID:27600502

  1. Sexually Monomorphic Maps and Dimorphic Responses in Rat Genital Cortex.

    PubMed

    Lenschow, Constanze; Copley, Sean; Gardiner, Jayne M; Talbot, Zoe N; Vitenzon, Ariel; Brecht, Michael

    2016-01-11

    Mammalian external genitals show sexual dimorphism [1, 2] and can change size and shape upon sexual arousal. Genitals feature prominently in the oldest pieces of figural art [3] and phallic depictions of penises informed psychoanalytic thought about sexuality [4, 5]. Despite this longstanding interest, the neural representations of genitals are still poorly understood [6]. In somatosensory cortex specifically, many studies did not detect any cortical representation of genitals [7-9]. Studies in humans debate whether genitals are represented displaced below the foot of the cortical body map [10-12] or whether they are represented somatotopically [13-15]. We wondered what a high-resolution mapping of genital representations might tell us about the sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain. We identified genital responses in rat somatosensory cortex in a region previously assigned as arm/leg cortex. Genital responses were more common in males than in females. Despite such response dimorphism, we observed a stunning anatomical monomorphism of cortical penis and clitoris input maps revealed by cytochrome-oxidase-staining of cortical layer 4. Genital representations were somatotopic and bilaterally symmetric, and their relative size increased markedly during puberty. Size, shape, and erect posture give the cortical penis representation a phallic appearance pointing to a role in sexually aroused states. Cortical genital neurons showed unusual multi-body-part responses and sexually dimorphic receptive fields. Specifically, genital neurons were co-activated by distant body regions, which are touched during mounting in the respective sex. Genital maps indicate a deep homology of penis and clitoris representations in line with a fundamentally bi-sexual layout [16] of the vertebrate brain.

  2. Sexual and natural selection both influence male genital evolution.

    PubMed

    House, Clarissa M; Lewis, Zenobia; Hodgson, Dave J; Wedell, Nina; Sharma, Manmohan D; Hunt, John; Hosken, David J

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and divergent evolution of male genital morphology is a conspicuous and general pattern across internally fertilizing animals. Rapid genital evolution is thought to be the result of sexual selection, and the role of natural selection in genital evolution remains controversial. However, natural and sexual selection are believed to act antagonistically on male genital form. We conducted an experimental evolution study to investigate the combined effects of natural and sexual selection on the genital-arch lobes of male Drosophila simulans. Replicate populations were forced to evolve under lifetime monogamy (relaxed sexual selection) or lifetime polyandry (elevated sexual selection) and two temperature regimes, 25°C (relaxed natural selection) or 27°C (elevated natural selection) in a fully factorial design. We found that natural and sexual selection plus their interaction caused genital evolution. Natural selection caused some aspects of genital form to evolve away from their sexually selected shape, whereas natural and sexual selection operated in the same direction for other shape components. Additionally, sexual and natural selection tended to favour larger genitals. Thus we find that the underlying selection driving genital evolution is complex, does not only involve sexual selection, and that natural selection and sexual selection do not always act antagonistically.

  3. Sexual and Natural Selection Both Influence Male Genital Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Dave J.; Wedell, Nina; Sharma, Manmohan D.; Hunt, John; Hosken, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and divergent evolution of male genital morphology is a conspicuous and general pattern across internally fertilizing animals. Rapid genital evolution is thought to be the result of sexual selection, and the role of natural selection in genital evolution remains controversial. However, natural and sexual selection are believed to act antagonistically on male genital form. We conducted an experimental evolution study to investigate the combined effects of natural and sexual selection on the genital-arch lobes of male Drosophila simulans. Replicate populations were forced to evolve under lifetime monogamy (relaxed sexual selection) or lifetime polyandry (elevated sexual selection) and two temperature regimes, 25°C (relaxed natural selection) or 27°C (elevated natural selection) in a fully factorial design. We found that natural and sexual selection plus their interaction caused genital evolution. Natural selection caused some aspects of genital form to evolve away from their sexually selected shape, whereas natural and sexual selection operated in the same direction for other shape components. Additionally, sexual and natural selection tended to favour larger genitals. Thus we find that the underlying selection driving genital evolution is complex, does not only involve sexual selection, and that natural selection and sexual selection do not always act antagonistically. PMID:23717488

  4. Mimicking herpes simplex virus 1 and herpes simplex virus 2 mucosal behavior in a well-characterized human genital organ culture.

    PubMed

    Steukers, Lennert; Weyers, Steven; Yang, Xiaoyun; Vandekerckhove, Annelies P; Glorieux, Sarah; Cornelissen, Maria; Van den Broeck, Wim; Temmerman, Marleen; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2014-07-15

    We developed and morphologically characterized a human genital mucosa explant model (endocervix and ectocervix/vagina) to mimic genital herpes infections caused by herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). Subsequent analysis of HSV entry receptor expression throughout the menstrual cycle in genital tissues was performed, and the evolution of HSV-1/-2 mucosal spread over time was assessed. Nectin-1 and -2 were expressed in all tissues during the entire menstrual cycle. Herpesvirus entry mediator expression was limited mainly to some connective tissue cells. Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 exhibited a plaque-wise mucosal spread across the basement membrane and induced prominent epithelial syncytia.

  5. Urinary and genital tract obstruction as a complication of female genital mutilation: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Okwudili, Obi Anselm; Chukwudi, Onoh Robinson

    2012-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is the partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other deliberate injury to the female genital organs, either for cultural or non-therapeutic reasons. This barbaric act is accompanied by a variety of complications ranging from hemorrhage, fracture, infective complications, gynetresia, with its attendant sexual and obstetric difficulties, and death. A 23-year-old girl, with urinary and genital tract obstruction following female genital mutilation(infibulation) is presented. She was managed by elective defibulation, with a satisfactory outcome. Robust health education strategies are needed for the eradication of FGM.

  6. A mechanism for the induction of type 2 immune responses by a protease allergen in the genital tract

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ji Eun; Oh, Dong Sun; Jung, Hi Eun

    2017-01-01

    The genital mucosa is a barrier that is constantly exposed to a variety of pathogens, allergens, and external stimuli. Although both allergen exposure and parasite infections frequently occur in the genital area, the mechanism by which immune responses—particularly type 2 immunity—are induced has rarely been studied in the genital mucosa. Here, we demonstrate the induction of T helper type 2 (Th2) immunity in the genital mucosa in response to a model allergen, the protease papain. Intravaginal papain immunization induced type 2 immunity in a manner that was dependent on protease activity and the estrous phase of the mice. In addition, IL-33 was released from the vaginal epithelia after intravaginal papain immunization, leading to the activation of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). Moreover, the IL-33–MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88) signaling pathway was critical for the induction of type 2 immunity. We also found that Th2 differentiation in response to intravaginal papain treatment requires a specific dendritic cell (DC) subset that is controlled by interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4). These findings suggest that type 2 immunity is induced by a unique mechanism in the genital tract, which is an important, but often overlooked, barrier surface. PMID:28137851

  7. Concurrence of oral and genital human papillomavirus infection in healthy men: a population-based cross-sectional study in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fangfang; Hang, Dong; Deng, Qiuju; Liu, Mengfei; Xi, Longfu; He, Zhonghu; Zhang, Chaoting; Sun, Min; Liu, Ying; Li, Jingjing; Pan, Yaqi; Ning, Tao; Guo, Chuanhai; Liang, Yongmei; Xu, Ruiping; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, a primary cause of genital cancer, is also related to the increasing incidence of oropharyngeal cancer among young men. Relatively little is known about the concurrence of oral and genital infection among healthy individuals. Oral and genital swab exfoliated cells were collected simultaneously from 2566 men in rural China. Using general primer-mediated (SPF1/GP6+) PCR and sequencing, HPV testing results were obtained from 2228 men with both valid oral and genital specimens (β-globin-positive). The prevalence of HPV infection was 6.7% in the oral cavity and 16.9% for the external genitalia. Among 43 men (1.9%, 43/2228) with oral-genital coinfection, 60.5% (26/43) harbored an identical HPV type at both sites. The risk of oral HPV infection was higher among men with genital infection than among uninfected men (11.4% vs. 5.7%, Adjusted OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.6–3.4). In addition, having multiple lifetime sexual partners was a significant risk for oral-genital HPV coinfection (Adjusted OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.0–7.0; 2 partners vs. 1 partner). These findings provide a basis for further understanding the natural history and transmission dynamics of oral HPV infection. PMID:26503510

  8. Surgical reconstruction in female genital mutilation

    PubMed Central

    Gültekin, İsmail Burak; Altınboğa, Orhan; Dur, Rıza; Kara, Osman Fadıl; Küçüközkan, Tuncay

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an unusual condition for our country. However, an increase in FGM in future days can be predicted with the increasing numbers of exchange students coming from African countries, migration of refugees and socioeconomic relations with the African countries. We want to share our experience of two FGM victims admitted to our clinic with the request of reconstructive vulvar surgery before their marriage. Both women had WHO Type III FGM. Physical examination findings and surgical reconstruction techniques were presented. PMID:27274899

  9. Female genital mutilation: perspectives, risks, and complications.

    PubMed

    Morris, R I

    1999-03-01

    Female genital mutilation, traditionally known as female circumcision, is a surgically unnecessary modification of the female genitalia, practiced in nations in Africa, the Arab Peninsula, among some communities in Asia, and among immigrants and refugees from these areas who have settled in other areas. The practice is known across socio-economic classes and among many different ethnic and cultural groups, including Christians, Muslims, Jews, and followers of indigenous African religions. As people from these areas immigrate to North America, health care professionals need to understand the important aspects of this growing problem, including management of complications, cultural attitudes, and sensitivities.

  10. Murine MicroRNA-214 regulates intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM1) gene expression in genital Chlamydia muridarum infection

    PubMed Central

    Arkatkar, Tanvi; Gupta, Rishein; Li, Weidang; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Wali, Shradha; Neal Guentzel, M; Chambers, James P; Christenson, Lane K; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2015-01-01

    The hallmark of chlamydial infection is the development of upper genital pathology in the form of hydrosalpinx and oviduct and/or tubal dilatation. Although molecular events leading to genital tissue presentation and cellular architectural remodelling are unclear, early-stage host immune responses are believed to contribute to these long-term sequelae. Recently, we reported the contribution of selected infection-associated microRNAs (miRs) in the generation of host immunity at early-stage infection (day 6 after intravaginal Chlamydia muridarum challenge in C57BL/6 mice). In this report, we describe the contribution of an infection-associated microRNA, i.e. miR-214, to host immunity. Chlamydia muridarum infection in the C57BL/6 mouse genital tract significantly down-regulated miR-214 while up-regulating intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) gene expression. These in vivo observations were confirmed by establishing direct regulation of ICAM-1 by miR-214 in ex vivo genital cell cultures in the presence of miR-214 mimic and inhibitor. Because, ICAM-1 contributes to recruitment of neutrophils following infection, we also demonstrated that alteration of ICAM1 by miR-214 in interleukin-17A-deficient (IL-17A−/−) mice correlated with reduction of neutrophils infiltrating genital tissue at day 6 after challenge. Additionally, these early-stage events resulted in significantly decreased genital pathology in IL-17A−/− mice compared with C57BL/6 mice. This report provides evidence for early-stage regulation of ICAM1 by microRNAs, resulting in reduction of genital pathology associated with chlamydial infection. PMID:25865776

  11. Surfactant proteins A and D in the genital tract of mares.

    PubMed

    Kankavi, Orhan; Ata, Ayhan; Gungor, Orsan

    2007-04-01

    The presence of surface-active material in the lung alveolus has been known for several decades as being essential for normal lung function. Surfactant is essential for reducing the surface tension at the alveolar air-liquid interface. Pulmonary surfactant is composed of 90% lipids and 10% proteins. There are four non-serum proteins surfactant protein-A (SP-A), surfactant protein-B (SP-B), surfactant protein-C (SP-C) and surfactant protein-D (SP-D) named in chronologic order of discovery. Lung SP-A and SP-D belong to a family of collagen-containing C-type lectin family called collectins. The host defence and controlling inflammatory processes of the lung are the major functions of SP-A and SP-D. SP-A and SP-D were originally demonstrated in alveolar type II cells, but recent studies have shown extrapulmonary expression of SP-A and SP-D indicating systemic roles of these proteins. Present study describes the presence of SP-A and SP-D in the mare genital tract, vulva, vagina, ovarium, uterus and tuba uterina using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The aim of this study was to characterize surfactant proteins in terms of: (i) whether surfactant proteins were present in the various structures of the mare genital system, (ii) if so, identifying and locating the surfactant proteins and finally (iii) determining the differences from those previously characterized for the lung. Although beyond the scope of this report, it is recognized that there are also some potential implications for better defining the reproductive defence mechanisms in mare. Therefore, genital system organs and tissues from mares were examined. We were able to show that proteins reactive with surfactant-specific antibodies were present in the mare genital tract. Thus, surfactant proteins are present not in just lamellar bodies associated with lung, but also genital system of mare.

  12. The Effects of Chronic Binge Alcohol on the Genital Microenvironment of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Female Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Loganantharaj, Nisha; Nichols, Whitney A.; Bagby, Gregory J.; Volaufova, Julia; Dufour, Jason; Martin, David H.; Nelson, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol abuse is a widespread problem among those at risk for and living with HIV and can impact transmission and disease progression. In this study we sought to use the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-macaque model to evaluate the immunological and virological changes in the genital microenvironment of females exposed to chronic alcohol. Female rhesus macaques were treated with alcohol (n=6) or isocaloric sucrose (n=6) for 3 months and then inoculated with SIVmac251. To assess the effects of chronic alcohol on SIV disease and the genital microenvironment, we quantified plasma and genital SIV levels, measured inflammatory cells in genital fluids, and characterized microbial flora by gram stains over 10 weeks post-SIV infection. Following 3 months of alcohol/sucrose treatment, significant differences were observed in the vaginal microenvironment of alcohol-treated animals as compared to controls. Microbial flora of alcohol-treated animals had decreased levels of lactobacillus morphotypes and increased levels of gram-positive cocci relative to sucrose controls. Alcohol-treated animals were also more likely to have white blood cells in vaginal fluids prior to SIV inoculation, which persisted through viral set point. Similar levels of cell-free SIV were observed in plasma and vaginal fluids of both groups, but alcohol-treated animals had a higher incidence and levels of cell-associated SIV shed in vaginal secretions. Chronic alcohol treatment negatively impacts the genital microenvironment prior to and over the course of SIV infection and may increase the risk of genital virus shedding and transmission. PMID:24902876

  13. Learning a Morphological System without a Default: The Polish Genitive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabrowska, Ewa

    2001-01-01

    Contrasts the English past tense inflection with a more complex morphological subsystem, the Polish genitive. The genitive case has three different markers, each restricted to a different subset of nouns, in both the singular and the plural. Analysis of the spontaneous speech of three children between 1 and 5 years of age showed that they…

  14. Management and treatment of mucosal melanoma of the genital tract.

    PubMed

    Vaccari, Sabina; Barisani, Alessia; Dika, Emi; Fanti, Pier A; DE Iaco, Pierandrea; Gurioli, Carlotta; Tosti, Giulio

    2017-01-24

    Melanoma of the genital mucosa is a rare melanocytic neoplasm that affects both sexes. The diagnosis is often delayed; a useful diagnostic tool may be represented by videodermatoscopy, The treatment is complex and multidisciplinary. We report the main diagnostic features and therapeutic approaches for mucosal melanoma of the genital tract.

  15. The Emergence of the "s"-Genitive in Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perridon, Harry

    2013-01-01

    The -"s" genitives of English and Swedish play an important role in grammaticalization theory, as they are often used as counterexamples to the main tenet of that theory, viz. that grammatical change is unidirectional. In this paper I look at the emergence of the -"s" genitive in Danish, hoping that it may shed some new light on the evolution of…

  16. Refractory Genital HPV Infection and Adult-Onset Still Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xin; Zheng, Heyi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Adult-onset Still disease (AOSD) is a systemic autoimmune disease (AIID) that can develop after exposure to infectious agents. Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been reported to induce or exacerbate AIIDs, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). No guidelines are available for the management of genital warts in AOSD. Case report and literature review. We report a patient who was diagnosed AOSD in the setting of refractory and recurrent genital HPV infection, demonstrating a possible link between HPV infection and AOSD. In addition, we also discuss the management of genital warts in patients with AOSD. To the best of our knowledge, no previous cases of AOSD with genital HPV infection have been reported in literature. We then conclude that the patient AOSD may be triggered by primary HPV infection. Larger number of patient samples is needed to confirm whether HPV could trigger AOSD. PMID:27082556

  17. Status of prophylactic and therapeutic genital herpes vaccines.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Sita; Friedman, Harvey M

    2014-06-01

    A half billion people have genital herpes infections worldwide. Approximately one-fifth of American women between ages 14 and 49 are HSV-2 seropositive. The development of an effective genital herpes vaccine is a global health necessity based on the mental anguish genital herpes causes for some individuals, the fact that pregnant women with genital herpes risk transmitting infection to their newborn children, and the observation that HSV-2 infection is associated with a 3-fold to 4-fold increased probability of HIV acquisition. We review the strengths and limitations of preclinical animal models used to assess genital herpes vaccine candidates and the goals of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. We also discuss the current pipeline of vaccine candidates and lessons learned from past clinical trials that serve as a stimulus for new strategies, study designs and endpoint determinations.

  18. Genital Herpetic Infection: A Family Practice Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lawee, David

    1982-01-01

    Several major breakthroughs have occurred in our understanding of the epidemiology, immunology and biological behavior of the human herpes virus I and II. The family physician, however, is still confronted with four basic clinical situations: patients who present with a genital erosion or ulcer, affected patients in the reproductive age group, patients who ask if herpes causes cervical cancer, and patients who are very troubled by endless recurrences. As syphilitic chancre is becoming rare, the family physician has to recognize the increasing importance of herpes viruses in the etiology of the genital erosion-ulcer syndrome to acquire the clinical and laboratory skills to make that distinction. The prevention of neonatal disease is now possible in the majority of cases provided that pregnancies at risk are identified. Adequate virological surveillance should make it possible to virtually eliminate the disease. The evidence for the oncogenecity is circumstantial. Potential intra- and interpersonal effects of the disease are outlined. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3 PMID:21286567

  19. Protection from genital herpes disease, seroconversion and latent infection in a non-lethal murine genital infection model by immunization with an HSV-2 replication-defective mutant virus.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Fernando M; Knipe, David M

    2016-01-15

    Viral vaccines have traditionally protected against disease, but for viruses that establish latent infection, it is desirable for the vaccine to reduce infection to reduce latent infection and reactivation. While seroconversion has been used in clinical trials of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccines to measure protection from infection, this has not been modeled in animal infection systems. To measure the ability of a genital herpes vaccine candidate to protect against various aspects of infection, we established a non-lethal murine model of genital HSV-2 infection, an ELISA assay to measure antibodies specific for infected cell protein 8 (ICP8), and a very sensitive qPCR assay. Using these assays, we observed that immunization with HSV-2 dl5-29 virus reduced disease, viral shedding, seroconversion, and latent infection by the HSV-2 challenge virus. Therefore, it may be feasible to obtain protection against genital disease, seroconversion and latent infection by immunization, even if sterilizing immunity is not achieved.

  20. Female Genital Dialogues: Female Genital Self-Image, Sexual Dysfunction, and Quality of Life in Patients With Vitiligo With and Without Genital Affection.

    PubMed

    Sarhan, Deena; Mohammed, Ghada F A; Gomaa, Amal H A; Eyada, Moustafa M K

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo has a major effect on sexual health because of the disfiguring skin lesions affecting self-image and self-esteem. However, this topic has not explored. This article aimed to assess the effect of vitiligo on genital self-image, sexual function, and quality of life in female patients. This cross-sectional study included 50 sexually active women with vitiligo and 25 women without vitiligo. All participants subjected to full history taking and examination. Extent of vitiligo was assessed with the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score, sexual function with the Female Sexual Function Index, genital self-image with Female Genital Self-Image Score and quality of life with the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaires. The main outcome measures were correlation between Vitiligo Area Scoring Index, Female Genital Self-Image Score, Female Sexual Function Index, and Dermatology Life Quality Index domains was determined using t test and Pearson correlation. This study revealed a negative correlation between the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score and sexual satisfaction. Vitiligo Area Scoring Index and Dermatology Life Quality Index score was significantly correlated with Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score alone and with Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index alone and with both the Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score and the Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index (p <.05). Sexual and psychological assessment of patients with vitiligo is imperative to improve outcomes and increase patients' compliance with treatment.

  1. Preclinical evaluation of the immunomodulatory lymphocyte trafficking drug FTY720 for HIV prevention in the female genital mucosa of macaques.

    PubMed

    Morris, Monica; Aubert, Rachael D; Butler, Katherine; Henning, Tara; Mitchell, James; Jenkins, Leecresia; Garber, David; McNicholl, Janet; Kersh, Ellen N

    2014-10-01

    FTY720 has been shown to reduce inflammatory cytokines and immune cells in the genital mucosa of macaques. This pilot study examined the ability of FTY720 to inhibit HIV acquisition. Systemic treatment with FTY720 failed to prevent or delay vaginal SHIV transmission.

  2. Genital herpes and its treatment in relation to preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, De-Kun; Raebel, Marsha A; Cheetham, T Craig; Hansen, Craig; Avalos, Lyndsay; Chen, Hong; Davis, Robert

    2014-12-01

    To examine the risks of genital herpes and antiherpes treatment during pregnancy in relation to preterm delivery (PTD), we conducted a multicenter, member-based cohort study within 4 Kaiser Permanente regions: northern and southern California, Colorado, and Georgia. The study included 662,913 mother-newborn pairs from 1997 to 2010. Pregnant women were classified into 3 groups based on genital herpes diagnosis and treatment: genital herpes without treatment, genital herpes with antiherpes treatment, and no herpes diagnosis or treatment (unexposed controls). After controlling for potential confounders, we found that compared with being unexposed, having untreated genital herpes during first or second trimester was associated with more than double the risk of PTD (odds ratio (OR) = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.80, 2.76). The association was stronger for PTD due to premature rupture of membrane (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 2.53, 5.06) and for early PTD (≤35 weeks gestation) (OR = 2.87, 95% CI: 2.22, 3.71). In contrast, undergoing antiherpes treatment during pregnancy was associated with a lower risk of PTD compared with not being treated, and the PTD risk was similar to that observed in the unexposed controls (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.38). The present study revealed increased risk of PTD associated with genital herpes infection if left untreated and a potential benefit of antiherpes medications in mitigating the effect of genital herpes infection on the risk of PTD.

  3. Patterns of genital injury in female sexual assault victims.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, L; Brown, C R; Crowley, S; Peck, R

    1997-03-01

    New colposcopic protocols for US forensic examiners enable documentation of genital trauma in 87-92% of rape victims--a significant improvement over protocols based on gross visualization or toluidine blue dye enhancement. It remains unresearched, however, whether colposcopic genital findings in sexual assault victims differ substantially from those in women who have had consensual intercourse. Thus, the type, extent, and distribution of genital injuries observed through colposcopy in 311 rape victims seen by the San Luis Obispo (California) County's Suspected Abuse Response Team in 1985-93 were compared to genital changes in 75 healthy women who had engaged in consensual intercourse in the past 24 hours. 213 assault victims (68%) had evidence of anogenital trauma. Among the 178 women (57%) with nongenital trauma, 132 (74%) also had genital injury (tears, ecchymoses, abrasions, redness, and swelling). The most common trauma site was the posterior fourchette (70%). Examination findings were significantly greater at 24 hours after rape than at 72 hours or more, but almost half the women seen at 72 hours or more after assault had positive genital findings. The injury pattern was not affected by age. In the consensual sex group, trauma was noted in eight women (11%). The proportion with genital injury was significantly higher for women reporting nonconsensual sex than those reporting consensual sex.

  4. Female genital mutilation/cutting: an update.

    PubMed

    Rouzi, A A; Alturki, F

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a cultural practice involving several types of external female genitalia cutting. FGM/C is known to occur in all parts of the world but is most prevalent in 28 countries in Africa and the Middle East and among immigrant communities in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States. Studies of FGM/C suffer from many methodological problems including inadequate analysis and an unclear reporting of results. The evidence to link FGM/C to infertility is weak. The management of epidermal clitoral inclusion cysts includes expensive investigations like comprehensive endocrinology tests and MRI resulting in unnecessary anxiety due to delay in surgical treatment. Similarly, unnecessary cesarean sections or rupture of the infibulation scar continue to occur because of the inadequate use of intrapartum defibulation. A significant amount of efforts is required to improve and correct the inadequate care of FGM/C women and girls.

  5. The immune response against Chlamydia suis genital tract infection partially protects against re-infection.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Evelien; Devriendt, Bert; Yin, Lizi; Chiers, Koen; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2014-09-25

    The aim of the present study was to reveal the characteristic features of genital Chlamydia suis infection and re-infection in female pigs by studying the immune response, pathological changes, replication of chlamydial bacteria in the genital tract and excretion of viable bacteria. Pigs were intravaginally infected and re-infected with C. suis strain S45, the type strain of this species. We demonstrated that S45 is pathogenic for the female urogenital tract. Chlamydia replication occurred throughout the urogenital tract, causing inflammation and pathology. Furthermore, genital infection elicited both cellular and humoral immune responses. Compared to the primo-infection of pigs with C. suis, re-infection was characterized by less severe macroscopic lesions and less chlamydial elementary bodies and inclusions in the urogenital tract. This indicates the development of a certain level of protection following the initial infection. Protective immunity against re-infection coincided with higher Chlamydia-specific IgG and IgA antibody titers in sera and vaginal secretions, higher proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), higher percentages of blood B lymphocytes, monocytes and CD8⁺ T cells and upregulated production of IFN-γ and IL-10 by PBMC.

  6. Transformation of the genital epithelial tract occurs early in California sea lion development

    PubMed Central

    Barragán-Vargas, Cecilia; Montano-Frías, Jorge; Ávila Rosales, Germán; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R.; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2016-01-01

    An unusually high prevalence of metastatic urogenital carcinoma has been observed in free-ranging California sea lions stranded off the coast of California in the past two decades. No cases have been reported for sea lions in the relatively unpolluted Gulf of California. We investigated occurrence of genital epithelial transformation in 60 sea lions (n=57 pups and 3 adult females) from the Gulf of California and examined whether infection by a viral pathogen previously found to be associated with urogenital carcinoma accounted for such alterations. We also explored the contribution of MHC class II gene expression on transformation. Cellular alterations, such as squamous cell atypia (ASC), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were observed in 42% of the pups and in 67% of the adult females. Normal genital epithelium was more common in male than female pups. ASC was five times more likely to occur in older pups. Epithelial alterations were unrelated to infection by the potentially oncogenic otarine type I gammaherpesvirus (OtHV-1), but ASCUS was more common in pups with marked and severe inflammation. Expression of MHC class II DRB loci (Zaca DRB-D) by peripheral antigen-presenting leucocytes showed a slightly ‘protective’ effect for ASC. We propose that transformation of the California sea lion genital epithelium is relatively common in young animals, increases with age and is probably the result of infection by an unidentified pathogen. Expression of a specific MHC class II gene, suggestive of presentation of specific antigenic peptides to immune effectors, appears to lower the risk of transformation. Our study provides the first evidence that epithelial transformation of the California sea lion genital tract is relatively common, even from an early age, and raises questions regarding differences in sea lion cancer-detection and -repair success between geographical regions. PMID:27069641

  7. Transformation of the genital epithelial tract occurs early in California sea lion development.

    PubMed

    Barragán-Vargas, Cecilia; Montano-Frías, Jorge; Ávila Rosales, Germán; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2016-03-01

    An unusually high prevalence of metastatic urogenital carcinoma has been observed in free-ranging California sea lions stranded off the coast of California in the past two decades. No cases have been reported for sea lions in the relatively unpolluted Gulf of California. We investigated occurrence of genital epithelial transformation in 60 sea lions (n=57 pups and 3 adult females) from the Gulf of California and examined whether infection by a viral pathogen previously found to be associated with urogenital carcinoma accounted for such alterations. We also explored the contribution of MHC class II gene expression on transformation. Cellular alterations, such as squamous cell atypia (ASC), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were observed in 42% of the pups and in 67% of the adult females. Normal genital epithelium was more common in male than female pups. ASC was five times more likely to occur in older pups. Epithelial alterations were unrelated to infection by the potentially oncogenic otarine type I gammaherpesvirus (OtHV-1), but ASCUS was more common in pups with marked and severe inflammation. Expression of MHC class II DRB loci (Zaca DRB-D) by peripheral antigen-presenting leucocytes showed a slightly 'protective' effect for ASC. We propose that transformation of the California sea lion genital epithelium is relatively common in young animals, increases with age and is probably the result of infection by an unidentified pathogen. Expression of a specific MHC class II gene, suggestive of presentation of specific antigenic peptides to immune effectors, appears to lower the risk of transformation. Our study provides the first evidence that epithelial transformation of the California sea lion genital tract is relatively common, even from an early age, and raises questions regarding differences in sea lion cancer-detection and -repair success between geographical regions.

  8. A study on the use of imiquimod for the treatment of genital molluscum contagiosum and genital warts in female patients

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Neerja

    2009-01-01

    The clinical effect of imiquimod stems from cytokine-induced activation of the immune system. A randomized study was conducted to study the efficacy and safety of daily applications of 5% imiquimod cream in female patients with external genital warts and molluscum contagiosum (MC). The clearance rate of lesions was 75% in genital MC patients and 50% in patients with genital warts. Erythema was the commonest adverse reaction seen in 24% patients with the use of 5% imiquimod. Other side effects were excoriation seen in 16% patients, erosions in 10% patients, excoriation in 6% patients and pain was seen in 4% patients. PMID:21938126

  9. [Contraception and the risk of genital infections in women].

    PubMed

    Serfaty, D

    1989-03-25

    If the best way of preventing genital infections is probably to restrict the number of partners, physicians should not forget that local contraceptives provide a mechanical or chemical barrier, the protection of which is certainly not ineffective.

  10. Can You Get Genital Herpes from a Cold Sore?

    MedlinePlus

    ... during any type of sex (oral, vaginal, or anal). Girls should have their partners use a dental_ ... BC Date reviewed: January 2015 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Genital Herpes ...

  11. [Prevalence of genital anomalies in young football players].

    PubMed

    Mónaco, M; Verdugo, F; Bodell, M; Avendaño, E; Til, L; Drobnic, F

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of genital examination (GE) during the Pre-participation Physical Examination (PPE) is to identify the state of maturity, and rule out any genital pathology. To describe genital anomalies (GA) and estimate the awareness of GE in young football players. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 280 elite football players from the results of PPE over two seasons. There was a detection rate of 5.4% GA, with varicocele being 3.2%, and of which only 13% were aware of their condition. Although this study shows a low incidence of genital abnormality in the study population, only 13% were aware of the GE prior to assessment. These findings demonstrate a low incidence of GA in this population. While GE is recommended during PPE, it is not a routine practice performed by family doctors or sports medicine specialists. This article attempts to raise awareness of the importance of GE in PPE as a preventive health strategy.

  12. Association of cutis laxa and genital prolapse: a case report.

    PubMed

    Paladini, Dario; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Mandato, Vincenzo Dario; Guerra, Germano; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Mauriello, Silvana; Nappi, Carmine

    2007-11-01

    Cutis laxa (CL) is an extremely inherited or acquired connective tissue disorder characterised by a markedly reduced systemic elastin content. Genital abnormalities in patients with CL have been rarely reported. We report such a case in a 48-year-old CL patient affected by genital prolapse, focusing on immunohistological and molecular biology assessment of elastin and collagen type I, III, VI content in the main uterine ligaments. The woman was referred to our department for the onset of a rapidly progressing genital prolapse and urinary incontinence. The patient underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and sacrocolpopexy. Punch biopsies from both cardinal and uterosacral ligaments revealed a dramatic reduction in elastin and an increase in collagen type VI content. The present report seems to underline the central role exerted primarily by elastin in the supportive connective tissue and might contribute to the knowledge of extracellular matrix abnormalities at the basis of genital abnormalities in CL patients.

  13. Human Female Genital Tract Infection by the Obligate Intracellular Bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis Elicits Robust Type 2 Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Vicetti Miguel, Rodolfo D.; Harvey, Stephen A. K.; LaFramboise, William A.; Reighard, Seth D.; Matthews, Dean B.; Cherpes, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    While Chlamydia trachomatis infections are frequently asymptomatic, mechanisms that regulate host response to this intracellular Gram-negative bacterium remain undefined. This investigation thus used peripheral blood mononuclear cells and endometrial tissue from women with or without Chlamydia genital tract infection to better define this response. Initial genome-wide microarray analysis revealed highly elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 10 and other molecules characteristic of Type 2 immunity (e.g., fibrosis and wound repair) in Chlamydia-infected tissue. This result was corroborated in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry studies that showed extant upper genital tract Chlamydia infection was associated with increased co-expression of CD200 receptor and CD206 (markers of alternative macrophage activation) by endometrial macrophages as well as increased expression of GATA-3 (the transcription factor regulating TH2 differentiation) by endometrial CD4+ T cells. Also among women with genital tract Chlamydia infection, peripheral CD3+ CD4+ and CD3+ CD4- cells that proliferated in response to ex vivo stimulation with inactivated chlamydial antigen secreted significantly more interleukin (IL)-4 than tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ, or IL-17; findings that repeated in T cells isolated from these same women 1 and 4 months after infection had been eradicated. Our results thus newly reveal that genital infection by an obligate intracellular bacterium induces polarization towards Type 2 immunity, including Chlamydia-specific TH2 development. Based on these findings, we now speculate that Type 2 immunity was selected by evolution as the host response to C. trachomatis in the human female genital tract to control infection and minimize immunopathological damage to vital reproductive structures. PMID:23555586

  14. Factor H in Porcine Seminal Plasma Protects Sperm against Complement Attack in Genital Tracts*

    PubMed Central

    Sakaue, Tomohisa; Takeuchi, Keisuke; Maeda, Toshinaga; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Nishi, Katsuji; Ohkubo, Iwao

    2010-01-01

    We found that factor H (FH) exists in porcine seminal plasma. Purified FH strongly inhibited serum alternative pathway complement activation against lipopolysaccharide. The molecular weight, pI, and heparin-binding activity of the purified protein were different from those of purified FH from porcine serum. The complement regulatory activity of seminal plasma FH was ∼2-fold stronger than that of serum FH. Treatment of purified serum FH with sialidase and N-glycosidase F gave almost the same results as those of seminal plasma FH. The deletion of sialic acid from the carbohydrate chains of both FHs contributed to heparin-binding and complement regulatory activities. Results of reverse transcriptase-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry showed that seminal plasma FH is mainly secreted from epithelial cells of the seminal vesicle in male genital tracts. FH was also detected in the outer acrosomal region of ejaculated sperm by immunofluorescence staining, and found that the purified FH from the sperm membrane has the same complement regulatory activity as that of seminal plasma FH. The ejaculated sperm possessing FH in the outer acrosomal region considerably evaded complement attack. We also found that there is strong complement activity in fluids from female genital tract ducts. These findings indicate that FH bound to the outer acrosomal region and soluble FH play important roles in protecting sperm against complement attack in male and female genital tracts. PMID:19920146

  15. Chemoattractant-mediated leukocyte trafficking enables HIV dissemination from the genital mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Deruaz, Maud; Murooka, Thomas T.; Ji, Sophina; Gavin, Marc A.; Vrbanac, Vladimir D.; Lieberman, Judy; Tager, Andrew M.; Mempel, Thorsten R.; Luster, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    HIV vaginal transmission accounts for the majority of newly acquired heterosexual infections. However, the mechanism by which HIV spreads from the initial site of viral entry at the mucosal surface of the female genital tract to establish a systemic infection of lymphoid and peripheral tissues is not known. Once the virus exits the mucosa it rapidly spreads to all tissues, leading to CD4+ T cell depletion and the establishment of a viral reservoir that cannot be eliminated with current treatments. Understanding the molecular and cellular requirements for viral dissemination from the genital tract is therefore of great importance, as it could reveal new strategies to lengthen the window of opportunity to target the virus at its entry site in the mucosa where it is the most vulnerable and thus prevent systemic infection. Using HIV vaginal infection of humanized mice as a model of heterosexual transmission, we demonstrate that blocking the ability of leukocytes to respond to chemoattractants prevented HIV from leaving the female genital tract. Furthermore, blocking lymphocyte egress from lymph nodes prevented viremia and infection of the gut. Leukocyte trafficking therefore plays a major role in viral dissemination, and targeting the chemoattractant molecules involved can prevent the establishment of a systemic infection.

  16. Support growing for eradicating female genital cutting.

    PubMed

    1999-12-01

    Female genital cutting (FGC), a prevalent practice in most African countries not just seriously endangers a girl's lifetime health, but it is also considered a human rights violation. In June 1999, the Intra-Agency Working Group on FGC held a symposium with US Agency for International Development (USAID) staff to explore ways of incorporating into USAID program activities to eradicate the practice of FGC. One of the presentations at the symposium concerned "circumcision with words". This ceremony is an alternative rite of passage; it is conducted through a 5-day seclusion, culminating in a 1-day celebration including feasting and gift giving. The alternative rites include 1) self-esteem and coping with criticism; 2) responsibility for one¿s own decision; 3) dating and courtship; 4) coping with peer pressure; 5) personal hygiene; 6) marriage; 7) pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease and AIDS prevention; 8) contraception; 9) FGC, early marriage, and gender empowerment, including the rights of the girl child; 10) respect for community; and 11) respect for elders. Alternative rites of passage are gaining community acceptance and by Kenya Medical Association. None of the girls who participated in the ceremony were circumcised later.

  17. Mothers' perceptions of female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Ahanonu, E L; Victor, O

    2014-08-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is widespread in Nigeria. This study was conducted to assess the perceptions of FGM among mothers at a primary healthcare centre in Lagos, Nigeria. A convenience sample of 95 mothers completed the pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaires. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics and a chi-square test was used to test for association between variables. Findings showed that the mothers held ambivalent beliefs about the practice. Although over half of the respondents (56.8%) perceived the practice of FGM as not being beneficial, 44.2% thought that uncircumcised girls will become promiscuous. Nearly a third (30.5%) believed that FGM promotes a woman's faithfulness to her husband. About a quarter (26.3%) reported that women who have undergone FGM are not at any risk of gynaecological complications. There was a significant relationship between the educational background of the mothers and the perception that uncircumcised girls will be promiscuous. These perceptions about FGM show that government at all levels should continue with educational efforts aimed at eradicating this practice.

  18. Major traumatic and septic genital injuries.

    PubMed

    McAninch, J W; Kahn, R I; Jeffrey, R B; Laing, F C; Krieger, M J

    1984-04-01

    Major injuries to the testicles, penis, and genital skin from trauma and infection were seen in 62 patients over a 6-year period (1977 to 1983). Urethral injuries were excluded. In the past blunt testicle injuries were infrequently diagnosed and surgically ignored because of large surrounding hematomas. With the use of real-time ultrasound, 17 of 18 cases of testicle rupture were correctly diagnosed preoperatively. Surgical repair resulted in testicle salvage in 16 patients. Penetrating testicle injuries resulted in a high orchiectomy rate secondary to the infrequently described but recognized entity of self-emasculation in transsexuals. Penile rupture from blunt injuries (8) was successfully repaired and complete function was recovered. Penetrating penile injuries (4) were extensive and involved the urethra in two cases; full function returned after reconstruction. Major skin loss of the penis and/or scrotum (19) occurred from necrotizing fasciitis, burns, avulsion and penetrating injuries. Early debridement, bowel and urinary diversion followed by penile skin grafting, thigh pouches to protect testicles, and scrotal reconstruction resulted in acceptable cosmetic and functional results in all cases of major skin loss.

  19. Female genital alteration: a compromise solution.

    PubMed

    Arora, Kavita Shah; Jacobs, Allan J

    2016-03-01

    Despite 30 years of advocacy, the prevalence of non-therapeutic female genital alteration (FGA) in minors is stable in many countries. Educational efforts have minimally changed the prevalence of this procedure in regions where it has been widely practiced. In order to better protect female children from the serious and long-term harms of some types of non-therapeutic FGA, we must adopt a more nuanced position that acknowledges a wide spectrum of procedures that alter female genitalia. We offer a revised categorisation for non-therapeutic FGA that groups procedures by effect and not by process. Acceptance of de minimis procedures that generally do not carry long-term medical risks is culturally sensitive, does not discriminate on the basis of gender, and does not violate human rights. More morbid procedures should not be performed. However, accepting de minimis non-therapeutic f FGA procedures enhances the effort of compassionate practitioners searching for a compromise position that respects cultural differences but protects the health of their patients.

  20. Gene expression profiling in male genital lichen sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, Emma; Barton, Geraint; Buisson, Sandrine; Francis, Nick; Gotch, Frances; Game, Laurence; Haddad, Munther; Dinneen, Michael; Bunker, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) has a bimodal distribution in boys and men. It is associated with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The pathogenesis of MGLSc is unknown. HPV and autoimmune mechanisms have been mooted. Anti extracellular matrix protein (ECM)1 antibodies have been identified in women with GLSc. The gene expression pattern of LSc is unknown. Using DNA microarrays we studied differences in gene expression in healthy and diseased prepuces obtained at circumcision in adult males with MGLSc (n = 4), paediatric LSc (n = 2) and normal healthy paediatric foreskin (n = 4). In adult samples 51 genes with significantly increased expression and 87 genes with significantly reduced expression were identified; paediatric samples revealed 190 genes with significantly increased expression and 148 genes with significantly reduced expression. Concordance of expression profiles between adult and paediatric samples indicates the same disease process. Functional analysis revealed increased expression in the adult and child MGSLc samples in the immune response/cellular defence gene ontology (GO) category and reduced expression in other categories including genes related to squamous cancer. No specific HPV, autoimmune or squamous carcinogenesis-associated gene expression patterns were found. ECM1 and CABLES1 expression were significantly reduced in paediatric and adult samples respectively. PMID:21718371

  1. Transnodal Lymphangiography in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Genital Lymphedema

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, F. M. Martinez-Rodrigo, J.; Marti-Bonmati, L.; Santos, E.; Forner, I.; Lloret, M.; Perez-Enguix, D.; Garcia-Marcos, R.

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To report the success of groin nodal lymphography in the diagnosis and treatment of genital lymphedema. Methods and Materials: We present one female (8 years old [patient no. 1]) and two male (69 and [patient no. 2] 31 years old [patient no. 3], respectively) patients with genital lymphedema in whom conservative treatment failed. The girl also had lymphorrhagia. Genital lymphedema was caused by radical cystectomy (patient no. 2), lymphatic hyperplasia (patient no. 1), and idiopathic lymphangitis (patient no. 3). All of them underwent ultrasound-guided bilateral groin lymph node puncture. Afterward, 4-8 ml Lipiodol Ultra-Fluide (Guerbet) were injected at a rate of 0.2 ml/s. Lipiodol progression was assessed by fluoroscopy. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis was performed immediately after and again at 24 h after the procedure to confirm the leak. The follow-up period was 15, 13, and 9 months, respectively. Technical success was considered as bilateral pelvic and abdominal filling of lymphatic vessels. Therapeutic success was considered as improvement or disappearance of genital lymphedema and/or lymphorrhagia. Results: Lipiodol leak to the scrotum was observed in patients no. 2 and 3. Lymphaticopelvic fistula and genital lymphatic hyperplasia were seen in patient no. 1. Genital lymphedema diminished within 1 week and almost disappeared in two cases (patients no. 1 and 3) or significantly improved (patient no. 2). lymphorrhagia also resolved in patient no. 1. No recurrence or worsening was detected during follow-up. Conclusion: Therapeutic lymphangiography by lymph node injection seems to be effective to treat genital lymphedema. Lymph node puncture lymphangiography is feasible and less cumbersome than pedal lymphangiography.

  2. Localization of metallothionein in the genital organs of the male rat.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, H; Nishimura, N; Tohyama, C

    1990-07-01

    We studied the immunohistological localization of metallothionein (MT), a low molecular weight metal binding protein, in male rat genital organs (testis, epididymis, ejaculatory duct, seminal vesicle, coagulating gland, and prostate) by use of the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. MT concentrations in testis, seminal vesicle, and prostate ranged from 15-30 micrograms/g tissue. In testis, seminiferous tubules with mature spermatozoa exhibited weak MT staining, whereas the tubules containing differentiating spermatogenic cells but not containing spermatozoa showed strong MT staining. No MT immunostaining was observed in Leydig cells. In growing rat testes, the pattern of MT immunostaining was found to change with development: MT was found in supporting cells only on Day 7, spermatogonia adjacent to basement membrane on Day 14, and spermatocytes localized in the central part of the tubules on Day 21. Strong MT immunostaining in the basal cells was a common feature in other genital tissues, except the ductus efferentes. In prostate, the strongest MT staining was found in the lateral lobe, and MT was localized in apocrine secretions in the dorsal lobe. The present results suggest a close association of MT with cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as possible involvement of MT in supply or storage of zinc ions.

  3. Therapeutic options for external genital warts.

    PubMed

    Vender, Ronald; Bourcier, Marc; Bhatia, Neal; Lynde, Charles

    2013-12-01

    The primary goal of treatment for external genital warts (EGWs) is to eradicate visible lesions and address symptoms that may accompany them, but it does not address the underlying virus. Left untreated, warts may grow, remain the same, or spontaneously regress as a result of being cleared by the immune system. However, recurrence is common with or without treatment and may occur within 3 months of ending treatment in one-quarter to two-thirds of cases. Treatment options fall into two categories: provider or patient applied. Provider-based therapies include cryotherapy, trichloroacetic and bichloroacetic acid, electrocautery, surgical excision, and CO2 laser therapy. Patient-applied therapy choices include imiquimod and podophyllotoxin. Imiquimod 3.75% is a fairly new, patient-administered topical cream approved by Health Canada in 2011. Another recently approved patient-applied choice is sinecatechins, a green tea extract with immunomodulatory effects. Self-treatment options are attractive to patients because they offer privacy, convenience, and autonomy. In contrast, provider-administered therapies may boast increased precision (especially for areas that are hard to reach) and closer monitoring, which can be augmented by patient education and counseling. Available topical and surgical therapies vary widely in terms of cost, efficacy, adverse effects, dosage/frequency, and length of treatment. No one treatment is ideally suited to all patients or constitutes a gold standard. Treatment regimens must be tailored to each patient's needs and preferences. The health care provider's skills and experience will also factor into treatment decisions. In addition, the size, number, and location of lesions and whether the infection is new or recurrent will help guide the decision process toward the best treatment for a given patient.

  4. Changing cultural attitudes towards female genital cutting.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Sonja; Mohmmed Zaid, Nadia Ahmed; El Fadil Ahmed, Hilal; Fehr, Ernst; Efferson, Charles

    2016-10-27

    As globalization brings people with incompatible attitudes into contact, cultural conflicts inevitably arise. Little is known about how to mitigate conflict and about how the conflicts that occur can shape the cultural evolution of the groups involved. Female genital cutting is a prominent example. Governments and international agencies have promoted the abandonment of cutting for decades, but the practice remains widespread with associated health risks for millions of girls and women. In their efforts to end cutting, international agents have often adopted the view that cutting is locally pervasive and entrenched. This implies the need to introduce values and expectations from outside the local culture. Members of the target society may view such interventions as unwelcome intrusions, and campaigns promoting abandonment have sometimes led to backlash as they struggle to reconcile cultural tolerance with the conviction that cutting violates universal human rights. Cutting, however, is not necessarily locally pervasive and entrenched. We designed experiments on cultural change that exploited the existence of conflicting attitudes within cutting societies. We produced four entertaining movies that served as experimental treatments in two experiments in Sudan, and we developed an implicit association test to unobtrusively measure attitudes about cutting. The movies depart from the view that cutting is locally pervasive by dramatizing members of an extended family as they confront each other with divergent views about whether the family should continue cutting. The movies significantly improved attitudes towards girls who remain uncut, with one in particular having a relatively persistent effect. These results show that using entertainment to dramatize locally discordant views can provide a basis for applied cultural evolution without accentuating intercultural divisions.

  5. Chlamydial Variants Differ in Ability To Ascend the Genital Tract in the Guinea Pig Model of Chlamydial Genital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yeruva, Laxmi; Bowlin, Anne K.; Spencer, Nicole; Maurelli, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    An important question in the study of chlamydial genital tract disease is why some women develop severe upper tract disease while others have mild or even “silent” infections with or without pathology. Animal studies suggest that the pathological outcome of an infection is dependent upon both the composition of the infecting chlamydial population and the genotype of the host, along with host physiological effects, such as the cyclical production of reproductive hormones and even the size of the infecting inoculum or the number of repeated infections. In this study, we compared two variants of Chlamydia caviae, contrasting in virulence, with respect to their abilities to ascend the guinea pig genital tract. We then determined the effect of combining the two variants on the course of infection and on the bacterial loads of the two variants in the genital tract. Although the variants individually had similar infection kinetics in the cervix, SP6, the virulent variant, could be isolated from the oviducts more often and in greater numbers than the attenuated variant, AZ2. SP6 also elicited higher levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) in the lower genital tract and increased leukocyte infiltration in the cervix and uterus compared to AZ2. When the two variants were combined in a mixed infection, SP6 outcompeted AZ2 in the lower genital tract; however, AZ2 was able to ascend the genital tract as readily as SP6. These data suggest that the ability of SP6 to elicit an inflammatory response in the lower genital tract facilitates the spread of both variants to the oviducts. PMID:26015484

  6. Genital HSV Shedding among Kenyan Women Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Manguro, Griffins O.; Masese, Linnet N.; Deya, Ruth W.; Magaret, Amalia; Wald, Anna; McClelland, R. Scott; Graham, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Genital ulcer disease (GUD) prevalence increases in the first month of antiretroviral treatment (ART), followed by a return to baseline prevalence by month 3. Since most GUD is caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), we hypothesized that genital HSV detection would follow a similar pattern after treatment initiation. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 122 HSV-2 and HIV-1 co-infected women with advanced HIV disease who initiated ART and were followed closely with collection of genital swab specimens for the first three months of treatment. Results At baseline, the HSV detection rate was 32%, without significant increase in genital HSV detection noted during the first month or the third month of ART. HIV-1 shedding declined during this period; no association was also noted between HSV and HIV-1 shedding during this period. Conclusion Because other studies have reported increased HSV detection in women initiating ART and we have previously reported an increase in GUD during early ART, it may be prudent to counsel HIV-1 infected women initiating ART that HSV shedding in the genital tract may continue after ART initiation. PMID:27683204

  7. Increased Levels of Immune Activation in the Genital Tract of Healthy Young Women from sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    COHEN, Craig R; MOSCICKI, Anna-Barbara; SCOTT, Mark E; MA, Yifei; SHIBOSKI, Stephen; BUKUSI, Elizabeth; DAUD, Ibrahim; REBBAPRAGADA, Anu; BROWN, Joelle; KAUL, Rupert

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine if healthy, young women in sub-Saharan Africa have a more activated immune milieu in the genital tract (i.e. activated CD4+ T-cells) than a similar population in the US. Design Cross-sectional study nested in a phase 1 microbicide trial. Methods Cervical cytobrushes were collected from 18–24 year old women in San Francisco, CA (n=18) and Kisumu, Kenya (n=36) at enrollment into a phase 1 microbicide trial. All participants tested negative for HIV, HSV-2, gonorrhea, chlamydia and trichomonas, and had abstained from sex for at least seven days prior to enrollment. Cryopreserved T-cell populations were assayed by flow cytometry in a central laboratory. SLPI levels were assayed in cervicovaginal lavage samples. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare immune parameters between sites. Results The total number of endocervical CD4+ T-cells was slightly higher in San Francisco, but participants from Kisumu had a substantially higher number and proportion of CD4+ T-cells expressing the early activation marker CD69, with and without the HIV-coreceptor CCR5, and a greater proportion of activated CD8+ T-cells. Median [interquartile] genital levels of SLPI were lower in participants from Kisumu compared to those from San Francisco (190 pg/mL [96, 519] vs. 474 pg/mL [206, 817]; p<0.03). Conclusions Activated mucosal T-cells were increased in the genital tract of young, STI/HIV-free Kenyan women, independent of common genital co-infections, and SLPI levels were reduced. The cause of these mucosal immune differences is not known, but could partly explain the high HIV incidence in young women from sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:20588163

  8. Cutaneous human papillomavirus types detected on the surface of male external genital lesions: A case series within the HPV Infection in Men Study

    PubMed Central

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Jukic, Drazen M.; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik; Rollison, Dana E.; Sichero, Laura; Sirak, Bradley A.; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lu, Beibei; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) may be associated with cutaneous epithelial lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers. No study has systematically evaluated the presence of genus beta [β]-HPV in male genital skin or external genital lesions (EGLs). Objectives To examine cutaneous β-HPV types detected on the surface of EGLs in men and describe their presence prior to EGL development. Study design A retrospective case series was conducted among 69 men with pathologically confirmed EGLs (n=72) who participated in the HPV Infection in Men Study. Archived exfoliated cells collected from the surface of each EGL and normal genital skin specimens 6–12 months preceding EGL development were tested for β-HPV DNA using a type-specific multiplex genotyping assay. Results β-HPV DNA was detected on 61.1% of all EGLs, with types 38 (16.7%), 5 (15.3%), and 12 (12.5%) most commonly identified. HPV prevalence differed across pathological diagnoses, with the largest number of β-HPV types detected on condylomas. Most β-HPV types were detected on normal genital skin prior to EGL development, though the prevalence was lower on EGLs compared to preceding normal genital skin. Conclusions EGLs and the normal genital skin of men harbor a large number of β-HPV types; however, it appears that β-HPVs are unrelated to EGL development in men. Despite evidence to support a causal role in skin carcinogenesis at UVR-exposed sites, cutaneous HPV appears unlikely to cause disease at the UVR-unexposed genitals. PMID:24210970

  9. Genital Appearance Dissatisfaction: Implications for Women’s Genital Image Self-Consciousness, Sexual Esteem, Sexual Satisfaction, and Sexual Risk

    PubMed Central

    Schick, Vanessa R.; Calabrese, Sarah K.; Rima, Brandi N.; Zucker, Alyssa N.

    2010-01-01

    Findings regarding the link between body image and sexuality have been equivocal, possibly because of the insensitivity of many of body image measures to potential variability across sensory aspects of the body (e.g., appearance versus odor), individual body parts (e.g., genitalia versus thighs), and social settings (e.g., public versus intimate). The current study refined existing methods of evaluating women’s body image in the context of sexuality by focusing upon two highly specified dimensions: satisfaction with the visual appearance of the genitalia and self-consciousness about the genitalia during a sexual encounter. Genital appearance dissatisfaction, genital image self-consciousness, and multiple facets of sexuality were examined with a sample of 217 undergraduate women using an online survey. Path analysis revealed that greater dissatisfaction with genital appearance was associated with higher genital image self-consciousness during physical intimacy, which, in turn, was associated with lower sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction, and motivation to avoid risky sexual behavior. These findings underscore the detrimental impact of negative genital perceptions on young women’s sexual wellbeing, which is of particular concern given their vulnerability at this stage of sexual development as well as the high rates of sexually transmitted infections within this age group. Interventions that enhance satisfaction with the natural appearance of their genitalia could facilitate the development of a healthy sexual self-concept and provide long-term benefits in terms of sexual safety and satisfaction. PMID:20824180

  10. Xenobiotic Transporter Expression along the Male Genital Tract1

    PubMed Central

    Klein, David M.; Wright, Stephen H.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2015-01-01

    The male genital tract plays an important role in protecting sperm by forming a distinct compartment separate from the body which limits exposure to potentially toxic substrates. Transporters along this tract can influence the distribution of xenobiotics into the male genital tract through efflux back into the blood or facilitating the accumulation of toxicants. The aim of this study was to quantitatively determine the constitutive mRNA expression of 30 xenobiotic transporters in caput and cauda regions of the epididymis, vas deferens, prostate, and seminal vesicles from adult Sprague-Dawley rats. The epididymis was found to express at least moderate levels of 18 transporters, vas deferens 15, seminal vesicles 23, and prostate 18. Constitutive expression of these xenobiotic transporters in the male genital tract may provide insight into the xenobiotics that can potentially be transported into these tissues and may provide the molecular mechanism for site specific toxicity of select agents. PMID:24814985

  11. Significance of Genital Mycoplasmas in Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Innocent Bystander!

    PubMed Central

    Harmanli, Ozgur H.; Nyirjesy, Paul; Reece, E. Albert

    1996-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to determine the role of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Methods: The clinical and microbiologic variables in 114 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PID were compared prospectively according to the isolation of M. hominis and U. urealyticum from their endometrial cavities. Results: The groups were epidemiologically well matched. Clinical parameters such as temperature, leukocyte count, erythrocyte count, and C-reactive protein on admission and length of hospital stay were similar in the patients, regardless of their mycoplasma status. A significant percentage of the patients either continued or started to harbor genital mycoplasmas after the resolution of PID without any significant clinical sequelae. Conclusions: The presence of genital mycoplasmas does not change the clinical presentation and course of PID. Both M. hominis and U. urealyticum can persist or colonize the endometrium after complete recovery from PID. Therefore, the genital mycoplasmas do not seem to have a dominant pathogenic role in PID. PMID:18476105

  12. Xenobiotic transporter expression along the male genital tract.

    PubMed

    Klein, David M; Wright, Stephen H; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2014-08-01

    The male genital tract plays an important role in protecting sperm by forming a distinct compartment separate from the body which limits exposure to potentially toxic substrates. Transporters along this tract can influence the distribution of xenobiotics into the male genital tract through efflux back into the blood or facilitating the accumulation of toxicants. The aim of this study was to quantitatively determine the constitutive mRNA expression of 30 xenobiotic transporters in caput and cauda regions of the epididymis, vas deferens, prostate, and seminal vesicles from adult Sprague-Dawley rats. The epididymis was found to express at least moderate levels of 18 transporters, vas deferens 15, seminal vesicles 23, and prostate 18. Constitutive expression of these xenobiotic transporters in the male genital tract may provide insight into the xenobiotics that can potentially be transported into these tissues and may provide the molecular mechanism for site specific toxicity of select agents.

  13. Mucosal Immunity in the Female Genital Tract, HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Reis Machado, Juliana; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; Antônia dos Reis, Marlene; Monteiro, Maria Luiza Gonçalves dos Reis; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes; Rosa Miranda Corrêa, Rosana

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs. PMID:25313360

  14. Management of oral and genital herpes in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Mell, Howard K

    2008-05-01

    The epidemiology of oral and genital herpes has dramatically changed over the past decade. Herpes simplex virus-1, traditionally associated with oral herpes, is now implicated in an increasing percentage of genital herpes cases. The possibility of "autoinoculation" (or self-infection) of anatomic sites other than that of the primary infection has been recognized. New methods of suppression therapy are being examined. These changes have led to a revision in the recommendations by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This review discusses herpes infections of the oral and genital mucosa and the suggested approach to the infected patient who presents in the emergency department. Specific attention is given to the CDC's 2006 guidelines for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.

  15. Female genital mutilation. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association.

    PubMed

    1995-12-06

    Female genital mutilation is the medically unnecessary modification of female genitalia. Female genital mutilation typically occurs at about 7 years of age, but mutilated women suffer severe medical complications throughout their adult lives. Female genital mutilation most frequently occurs in Africa, the Middle East, and Muslim parts of Indonesia and Malaysia, and it is generally part of a ceremonial induction into adult society. Recent political and economic problems in these regions, however, have increased the numbers of students and refugees to the United States. Consequently, US physicians are treating an increasing number of mutilated patients. The Council on Scientific Affairs recommends that US physicians join the World Health Organization, the World Medical Association, and other major health care organizations in opposing all forms of medically unnecessary surgical modification of the female genitalia.

  16. A normal ano-genital exam: sexual abuse or not?

    PubMed

    Hornor, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) are at the forefront of providing care to children and families. The PNP is in a unique position to educate patients and families regarding sexual abuse and dispel common myths associated with sexual abuse. One such myth is that a normal ano-genital examination is synonymous with the absence of sexual abuse. This article will provide primary care providers, including PNPs, with a framework for understanding why a normal ano-genital examination does not negate the possibility of sexual abuse/assault. Normal ano-genital anatomy, changes that occur with puberty, and physical properties related to the genitalia and anus will be discussed. Photos will provide visualization of both normal variants of the pre-pubertal hymen and genitalia as well as changes that occur with puberty. Implications for practice for PNPs will be discussed.

  17. Genital herpes testing among persons living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Mark, Hayley D; Lucea, Marguerite; Nanda, Joy P; Farley, Jason E; Gilbert, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional survey explored the frequency of genital herpes testing among 110 people living with HIV (PLWH) and reported barriers and facilitators related to testing. Forty-four percent of the respondents had not been tested for genital herpes since receiving an HIV diagnosis, 34% had been tested, and 22% preferred not to say. Respondents' most frequently cited factors affecting a decision to not be tested were: (a) testing not being recommended by a provider, (b) not having herpes symptoms, and (c) not thinking they had herpes. Data from this study indicated that PLWH were not frequently tested for genital herpes; there was a limited understanding of the frequently subclinical nature of infection; and provider recommendations for testing, or lack thereof, affected testing decisions.

  18. Hysterosalpingography and ultrasonography findings of female genital tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Hardik Uresh; Sannananja, Bhagya; Baheti, Akshay Dwarka; Udare, Ashlesha Satish; Badhe, Padma Vikram

    2015-01-01

    Genital tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of female infertility in the world, especially in developing countries. Majority of infertility cases are due to involvement of the fallopian tubes (92%-100%), endometrial cavity (50%), and ovaries (10%-30%); cervical and vulvovaginal TB are uncommon. Genital TB has characteristic radiological appearances based on the stage of the disease process (acute inflammatory or chronic fibrotic) and the organ of involvement. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) and ultrasonography (US) remain the main imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of genital TB. HSG is the primary modality for evaluating uterine, fallopian tube, and peritubal involvement and also helps in evaluating tubal patency. US, on the other hand, allows simultaneous evaluation of ovarian and extrapelvic involvement.

  19. Genital Warts -- Initial Visits to Physicians' Offices, United States, 1966 - 2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Figure 46. Genital Warts — Initial Visits to Physicians’ Offices, United States, 1966 – ... page . NOTE : The relative standard errors for genital warts estimates of more than 100,000 range from ...

  20. Genital Herpes - Initial Visits to Physicians' Offices, United States, 1966-2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Figure 48. Genital Herpes — Initial Visits to Physicians’ Offices, United States, 1966 – ... page . NOTE : The relative standard errors for genital herpes estimates of more than 100,000 range from ...

  1. Epidemiology of genital Chlamydia trachomatis in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Simms, I; Catchpole, M; Brugha, R; Rogers, P; Mallinson, H; Nicoll, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the recent epidemiology of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in England and Wales. DESIGN: Retrospective study of routinely available surveillance datasets and ad hoc prevalence studies. METHODS: Numbers of new cases of genital C trachomatis infection, obtained from the Department of Health and Welsh Office, were combined with the estimated mid-year resident population of England and Wales. Rates were analysed for trend over time using a log linear age period model in GLIM4. Ad hoc prevalence and case finding studies carried out over the past 20 years were critically assessed in terms of study design and testing methodologies. RESULTS: Attendance rates at genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics were higher for women than men over the period 1989 to 1994 as were the number of laboratory reports. The highest rate of attendance (GUM clinic data) was for women aged 16 to 19 years. There was an overall significant linear decrease in the attendance rates over time for both men (p = 0.0172) and women (p = 0.0000) between 1989 and 1994. There was considerable variation in the prevalence of genital C trachomatis infection detected within different clinical settings, together with a substantial level of asymptomatic infection. CONCLUSIONS: Genital C trachomatis infection is broadly distributed throughout the sexually active population, with a substantial reservoir of asymptomatic infection among those generally perceived to be at low risk of a sexually transmitted infection. Young people, particularly women aged 16 to 19 years, are at highest risk of genital C trachomatis infection. This is of concern since younger women are more susceptible than older women to developing complications of chlamydial infection, such as pelvic inflammatory disease. The broad distribution of infection across all sexually active health service attenders and the high level of asymptomatic infection suggest that a new, screening based, approach to the control of genital C

  2. Female genital mutilation in Iraqi Kurdistan: description and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Rozhgar A; Othman, Nasih; Fattah, Fattah H; Hazim, Luma; Adnan, Berivan

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of female genital mutilation has been a concern in Iraqi Kurdistan. This study was undertaken to estimate its prevalence and describe factors associated with its occurrence. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken from March to April 2011 of females aged up to 20 years using interviews and clinical examination. The survey included 1,508 participants with mean age of 13.5 years (SD 5.6). Overall female genital mutilation prevalence was 23%, and the mean age at which it had been performed was 4.6 years (SD 2.4). Type I (partial or total removal of the clitoris) comprised 76% of those who had had female genital mutilation; in 79% of cases the decision to perform it was made by the mother; and in 54% of cases it was performed by traditional birth attendants/midwives. Women aged 16 years and over were more likely to have had female genital mutilation compared to children aged below 6 years (OR 11.9, p < .001). Children of uneducated mothers were eight times as likely to have had genital mutilation compared to children of mothers with over nine years of education (OR 8.0, p < .001). Among women aged 17 years and younger, 34% of those who were married had been circumcised versus 17% of those who were not married (p < .001). Participants residing in the northeast of Kurdistan region were more likely to have been circumcised. The study results show that female genital mutilation is a frequent practice in Iraqi Kurdistan. Attention and intervention is needed to address this aspect of the well-being of girls and women.

  3. Female genital mutilation in the world today: a global review.

    PubMed

    Hosken, F P

    1981-01-01

    Extensive research and field work have established that more than 74 million women and female children are mutilated by female genital operations in Africa alone. The operations are also practiced in many parts of the Middle East and, with Moslemization, were introduced into Indonesia and Malaysia where they are preformed at the present time in a less damaging form. This paper lists the countries where instances of excision and infibulation have been reported and includes case reports from Sudan, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Nigeria, Mali, Upper Volta, and Senegal. The ethical issues posed by genital mutilation are also discussed.

  4. Associations between individual and relationship characteristics and genital herpes disclosure.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jaime L; Buhi, Eric R; Marhefka, Stephanie; Daley, Ellen; Dedrick, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Disclosure is often a challenge for individuals living with genital herpes. This study explores determinants of genital herpes disclosure with one's most recent sexual partner using an online questionnaire (n = 93). The majority of participants reported (80.4%) disclosure. Among non-disclosers, fear of negative partner reactions was the primary reason for non-disclosure. Age, relationship commitment, time in relationship, and expectations of partner's reaction were statistically significant predictors at the bivariate level. Reaction expectations and relationship commitment remained significant in the multivariate logistic regression model. Findings indicate that future disclosure research should focus on relationship context and managing negative expectations to increase disclosure.

  5. Antiviral CD8+ T cells in the genital tract control viral replication and delay progression to AIDS after vaginal SIV challenge in rhesus macaques immunized with virulence attenuated SHIV 89.6.

    PubMed

    Genescà, M; McChesney, M B; Miller, C J

    2009-01-01

    The recently failed clinical efficacy trial of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) vaccine that elicits antiviral CD8(+) T-cell responses has emphasized the challenge of producing an effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/ rhesus monkey model of AIDS, live-attenuated lentivirus 'vaccines' provide the best protection from uncontrolled viral replication and clinical disease after pathogenic SIV challenge. This review summarizes a recent series of studies in which we show that after vaginal SIV challenge of rhesus macaques immunized with an attenuated lentivirus protection from uncontrolled viral replication is primarily mediated by CD8(+) T cells in the vaginal mucosa. Immunization with a chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) results in a systemic infection that induces a moderate population of SIV-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells with cytolytic potential in the vaginal mucosa. Depletion of CD8(+) T cells at the time of SIV challenge completely abrogates the protection mediated by prior infection with attenuated SHIV. Further after vaginal SIV challenge, the only significant expansion of SIV-specific T cells occurs in the vagina in these animals. No significant expansion of T-cell responses was observed in systemic lymphoid tissues. Thus, the presence of SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells in the vagina on the day of vaginal SIV challenge and a modest expansion of local effector T cells is sufficient to stop uncontrolled SIV replication. It seems that T-cell based vaccine strategies that can elicit mucosal effector CD8(+) T-cell populations and avoid inducing systemic T-cell proliferation upon exposure to HIV have the greatest potential for mimicking the success of live-attenuated lentiviral vaccines.

  6. Persistent genital arousal and restless genitalia: sexual dysfunction or subtype of vulvodynia?

    PubMed

    Markos, A R; Dinsmore, Wallace

    2013-11-01

    We conducted a literature review of patients' conditions described under persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome, vulvodynia and male genital skin pain of unknown aetiology (penoscrotodynia). Our aim is to improve the understanding of the condition, unify nomenclature and promote evidence-based practice. The most prominent symptom in persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome is a spontaneous, unwelcomed, intrusive and distressing vulval sensation. There are similarities between the clinical presentation of vulvodynia, penoscrotodynia, persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome patients. The aetiology of persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome, similar to vulvodynia, could be better explained in terms of neuro-vascular dysfunction, genital peripheral neuropathy and/or dysfunctional micro-vascular arterio-venous shunting. Erythromelalgia lends itself to explain some cases of restless genital syndrome, who have concurrent restless legs syndrome; and therefore draw parallels with the red scrotum syndrome. The published literature supports the concept of classifying restless genital syndrome as a sub-type of vulvodynia rather than sexual dysfunction.

  7. Topical application of polyethylenimine as a candidate for novel prophylactic therapeutics against genital herpes caused by herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kyoko; Onoue, Hiroki; Sasaki, Kohei; Lee, Jung-Bum; Kumar, Penmetcha K R; Gopinath, Subash C B; Maitani, Yoshie; Kai, Takashi; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2014-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) cause genital herpes, which can enhance the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus. The development of anti-HSV agents with novel mechanisms of action is urgently required in the topical therapy of genital herpes. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo anti-HSV effects of Epomin SP-012(®), a highly cationic polyethylenimine, were evaluated. When the in vitro antiviral effects of SP-012 were assessed, this compound showed potent activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2. It inhibited the attachment of HSV-2 to host cells and cell-to-cell spread of infection in a concentration-dependent manner and exerted a virucidal effect. No SP-012-resistant HSV-2 was found when the virus was successively passaged in the presence of SP-012. In a mouse genital herpes model, topically administered SP-012 inhibited the progression of the disease caused by HSV infection. These data illustrate that SP-012 may be a novel class of HSV inhibitor that would be acceptable for long-term topical application.

  8. First HSV-1 non primary genital herpes in two patients.

    PubMed

    Fouéré, Sébastien; Chaine, Bénédicte; Maylin, Sarah; Minier, Marine; Vallée, Pascale; Scieux, Catherine; Lassau, François; Legoff, Jérôme; Janier, Michel

    2016-05-01

    First HSV-1 genital episodes in HSV-2 infected patients however, had never been demonstrated until the 2 cases we observed. This scarcity could reflect the lower impact of HSV-2 on western populations but questions the existence of cross-protection between viral types.

  9. 21 CFR 884.5960 - Genital vibrator for therapeutic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Genital vibrator for therapeutic use. 884.5960 Section 884.5960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... of sexual dysfunction or as an adjunct to Kegel's exercise (tightening of the muscles of the...

  10. 21 CFR 884.5960 - Genital vibrator for therapeutic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Genital vibrator for therapeutic use. 884.5960 Section 884.5960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... of sexual dysfunction or as an adjunct to Kegel's exercise (tightening of the muscles of the...

  11. 21 CFR 884.5960 - Genital vibrator for therapeutic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Genital vibrator for therapeutic use. 884.5960 Section 884.5960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... of sexual dysfunction or as an adjunct to Kegel's exercise (tightening of the muscles of the...

  12. 21 CFR 884.5960 - Genital vibrator for therapeutic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Genital vibrator for therapeutic use. 884.5960 Section 884.5960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... of sexual dysfunction or as an adjunct to Kegel's exercise (tightening of the muscles of the...

  13. Genital ulcer as a new clinical clue to PFAPA syndrome.

    PubMed

    Scattoni, R; Verrotti, A; Rinaldi, V E; Paglino, A; Carelli, A; D'Alonzo, R

    2015-04-01

    Vaginal ulcers can be associated with a number of different diseases. We describe two girls who presented genital ulcers as a persistent symptom of PFAPA (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, cervical adenitis) syndrome. The possibility of considering this clinical manifestation as a clue for the diagnosis of PFAPA is discussed.

  14. Computational Modeling and Simulation of Genital Tubercle Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hypospadias is a developmental defect of urethral tube closure that has a complex etiology. Here, we describe a multicellular agent-based model of genital tubercle development that simulates urethrogenesis from the urethral plate stage to urethral tube closure in differentiating ...

  15. Genital melanoma: are we adequately screening our patients?

    PubMed

    Zikry, Joseph; Chapman, Lance W; Korta, Dorota Z; Smith, Janellen

    2017-03-15

    Full-body skin exams (FBSE) play an integral role inearly detection and treatment of skin cancer. Promptdetection of melanoma is especially importantas survival outcomes decrease significantly withpresentation of advanced disease. Given thatmelanoma may grow in areas of skin with little to nosun exposure, genital melanomas are a recognizedentity in cutaneous oncology.

  16. Transient genital abnormalities in striped hyenas (Hyaena hyaena).

    PubMed

    Wagner, Aaron P; Frank, Laurence G; Creel, Scott; Coscia, Elizabeth M

    2007-05-01

    The highly masculinized genitalia of female spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta is unique among mammals: Crocuta have no external vagina so urination, penile intromission and parturition take place through the clitoris, which mimics a fully erectile male penis. Among hyenids, virilization of external female genitalia has previously been observed only in Crocuta, so functional explanations of masculinization have focused on aspects of social ecology unique to the species. Here we first show that the striped hyena Hyaena hyaena exhibits both unusual similarity in male and female androgen concentrations and transient genital anomalies characterized by a convergence in genital appearance among young males and females. We then evaluate hypotheses regarding the evolution of genital masculinization in the Hyaenidae and other taxa. Hyaena are behaviorally solitary, so discovery of unusual genital development patterns in this species does not support any current evolutionary models for masculinization in Crocuta, which all rely on the trait originating within a highly social species. Some hypotheses can be modified so that masculinization in Crocuta represents an extreme elaboration of a preexisting trait, shared as a homology with Hyaena.

  17. Relationship Between Genital Drug Concentrations and Cervical Cellular Immune Activation and Reconstitution in HIV-1-Infected Women on a Raltegravir Versus a Boosted Atazanavir Regimen

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Claire; Predhomme, Julie; Searls, Kristina; Kerr, Becky; Seifert, Sharon; Caraway, Patricia; Gardner, Edward M.; MaWhinney, Samantha; Anderson, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Determinants of HIV-infected women's genital tract mucosal immune health are not well understood. Because raltegravir (RAL) achieves relatively higher genital tract concentrations than ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV), we examined whether an RAL-based regimen is associated with improved cervical immune reconstitution and less activation in HIV+ women compared to an ATV-based regimen. Peripheral blood, cervical brushings, cervical–vaginal lavage (CVL), and cervical biopsies were collected from HIV+ women on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) and either RAL (n=14) or ATV (n=19) with CD4+ T cells>300 cells/mm3 and HIV RNA<48 copies/ml. HLA-DR+CD38+ T cells were measured in blood and cervical cells using flow cytometry, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were quantified in cervical biopsies by immunofluorescent analysis, and HIV RNA (VL), ATV, and RAL concentrations were measured in CVL. In a linear regression model of log(CVL concentration) versus both log(plasma concentration) and treatment group, the RAL CVL level was 519% (95% CI: 133, 1,525%) higher than for ATV (p<0.001). Genital tract VL was undetectable in 90% of subjects and did not differ by regimen. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of cervical %HLA-DR+CD38+CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, CD4+ or CD8+ T cells/mm2, or CD4:CD8 ratio. After adjusting for treatment time and group, the CVL:plasma drug ratio was not associated with the cervical CD4:CD8 ratio or immune activation (p>0.6). Despite significantly higher genital tract penetration of RAL compared to ATV, there were no significant differences in cervical immune activation or reconstitution between women on these regimens, suggesting both drug regimens achieve adequate genital tract levels to suppress virus replication. PMID:26059647

  18. Intravaginal Chlamydia trachomatis Challenge Infection Elicits TH1 and TH17 Immune Responses in Mice That Promote Pathogen Clearance and Genital Tract Damage

    PubMed Central

    Quispe Calla, Nirk E.; Pavelko, Stephen D.; Cherpes, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    While ascension of Chlamydia trachomatis into the upper genital tract of women can cause pelvic inflammatory disease and Fallopian tube damage, most infections elicit no symptoms or overt upper genital tract pathology. Consistent with this asymptomatic clinical presentation, genital C. trachomatis infection of women generates robust TH2 immunity. As an animal model that modeled this response would be invaluable for delineating bacterial pathogenesis and human host defenses, herein we explored if pathogen-specific TH2 immunity is similarly elicited by intravaginal (ivag) infection of mice with oculogenital C. trachomatis serovars. Analogous to clinical infection, ascension of primary C. trachomatis infection into the mouse upper genital tract produced no obvious tissue damage. Clearance of ivag challenge infection was mediated by interferon (IFN)-γ-producing CD4+ T cells, while IFN-γ signaling blockade concomitant with a single ivag challenge promoted tissue damage by enhancing Chlamydia-specific TH17 immunity. Likewise, IFN-γ and IL-17 signaling blockade or CD4+ T cell depletion eliminated the genital pathology produced in untreated controls by multiple ivag challenge infections. Conversely, we were unable to detect formation of pathogen-specific TH2 immunity in C. trachomatis-infected mice. Together, our work revealed C. trachomatis infection of mice generates TH1 and TH17 immune responses that promote pathogen clearance and immunopathological tissue damage. Absence of Chlamydia-specific TH2 immunity in these mice newly highlights the need to identify experimental models of C. trachomatis genital infection that more closely recapitulate the human host response. PMID:27606424

  19. Effect of estradiol on chlamydial genital infection of female guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Rank, R G; White, H J; Hough, A J; Pasley, J N; Barron, A L

    1982-11-01

    Female guinea pigs were treated daily with 1 mg of beta-estradiol-3-benzoate intramuscularly beginning 14 days before intravaginal inoculation with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis and continuing during the course of the infection. Treatment with estradiol was found to markedly influence the course of genital infection with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis, producing infections of greater intensity and longer duration than those in control animals. Moreover, pathogenesis was altered in that ascending infection was observed, resulting in endometritis, cystic salpingitis, and cystitis. Infection in the controls was limited to the cervix and vagina. Estradiol treatment increased the apparent number of infected cells in the cervix and vagina as detected by histopathology and immunofluorescent staining. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis were comparable in estradiol-treated and untreated animals. These data indicate that hormonal manipulation may have profound effects on the course of chlamydial genital infections.

  20. Development of the genital ducts and external genitalia in the early human embryo.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Yasmin

    2010-10-01

    The course of development of the human genital tract is undifferentiated to the 9th week of development. At this time two symmetrical paired ducts known as the mesonephric (MD) and paramesonephric ducts (PMD) are present, which together with the urogenital sinus provide the tissue sources for internal and external genital development. Normal differentiation of the bipotential external genitalia and reproductive ducts are dependent upon the presence or absence of certain hormones. Masculinization of the internal and external genitalia during fetal development depends on the existence of two discrete testicular hormones. Testosterone secreted from Leydig cells induces the differentiation of the mesonephric ducts into the epididymis, vasa deferentia and seminal vesicles, whereas anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) produced by Sertoli cells induces the regression of the paramesonephric ducts. The absence of AMH action in early fetal life results in the formation of the fallopian tubes, uterus and upper third of the vagina. In some target tissues, testosterone is converted to dihydrotestosterone, which is responsible for the masculinization of the urogenital sinus and external genitalia.

  1. Copulation, genital damage and early death in Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Eady, Paul E; Hamilton, Leticia; Lyons, Ruth E

    2006-01-01

    Antagonistic sexual coevolution stems from the notion that male and female interests over reproduction are in conflict. Such conflicts appear to be particularly obvious when male genital armature inflicts damage to the female reproductive tract resulting in reduced female longevity. However, studies of mating frequency, genital damage and female longevity are difficult to interpret because females not only sustain more genital damage, but also receive more seminal fluid when they engage in multiple copulations. Here, we attempt to disentangle the effects of genital damage and seminal fluid transfer on female longevity in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Males copulating for the sixth time in succession inflicted greater levels of genital damage, but transferred smaller ejaculates in comparison with virgin males. The number of copulations performed by males was negatively related to female fecundity and positively related to female longevity, suggesting a trade-off between fecundity and longevity. However, inclusion of fecundity as a covariate revealed sperm and/or seminal fluid transfer to have a negative impact on female longevity above that caused by the fecundity–longevity trade-off. The consequences of multiple copulations on female longevity were examined. Females that mated twice laid more eggs and died sooner than those that mated once. However, incorporation of fecundity as a covariate into our statistical model removed the effect of female mating frequency on female longevity, indicating that double-mated females suffer greater mortality owing to the trade-off between fecundity and longevity. Males of this species are known to transfer very large ejaculates (up to 8% of their body weight), which may represent a significant nutritional benefit to females. However, the receipt of large ejaculates appears to carry costs. Thus, the interpretation of multiple mating experiments on female longevity and associated functional

  2. Genital swellings in silvered langurs: what do they indicate?

    PubMed

    Shelmidine, Nichole; Borries, Carola; Koenig, Andreas

    2007-05-01

    The occurrence of genital swellings was examined in adult female silvered langurs (Trachypithecus cristatus). In contrast to the exaggerated swellings found in cercopithecines and apes, genital swellings in silvered langurs are confined to the vulva and the surrounding perineum, but they may nevertheless convey information similar to that of exaggerated swellings (i.e., correlate with the receptive period and fertility). If so, genital swellings would be expected to occur most frequently in cycling females, and sexual behavior and male interest should most frequently involve females with swellings. Swellings during gestation, if they occur at all, should be most pronounced at the beginning. Swelling sizes (in three size categories) in nine adult females were examined throughout different reproductive states (cycling, pregnant, and lactating), and in relation to proceptivity, receptivity, and attractivity. Data were collected from November 2002 through March 2004 (on 500 of the 502 calendar days) at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Bronx Zoo. Female sexual behavior (proceptivity and receptivity) and male inspection (attractivity) were recorded each day for 6 hr by video camera (2,948 hr total) and analyzed as present or absent for each female day. Swellings were assessed directly (not from videotapes). In contrast to the predictions, swellings occurred significantly less frequently in cycling females (compared to pregnant females) and no regular, cyclic pattern could be detected. Some females conceived without a swelling. Female attractivity was independent of swellings but coincided with proceptive behavior. Swellings occurred most frequently in pregnant females, especially toward the end of the gestation period. Therefore, genital swellings in silvered langurs are not similar to exaggerated swellings or the smaller genital swellings that have been described for some other primates. It is currently not clear what they signal to conspecifics. Male behavior needs

  3. Copulation, genital damage and early death in Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Eady, Paul E; Hamilton, Leticia; Lyons, Ruth E

    2007-01-22

    Antagonistic sexual coevolution stems from the notion that male and female interests over reproduction are in conflict. Such conflicts appear to be particularly obvious when male genital armature inflicts damage to the female reproductive tract resulting in reduced female longevity. However, studies of mating frequency, genital damage and female longevity are difficult to interpret because females not only sustain more genital damage, but also receive more seminal fluid when they engage in multiple copulations. Here, we attempt to disentangle the effects of genital damage and seminal fluid transfer on female longevity in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Males copulating for the sixth time in succession inflicted greater levels of genital damage, but transferred smaller ejaculates in comparison with virgin males. The number of copulations performed by males was negatively related to female fecundity and positively related to female longevity, suggesting a trade-off between fecundity and longevity. However, inclusion of fecundity as a covariate revealed sperm and/or seminal fluid transfer to have a negative impact on female longevity above that caused by the fecundity-longevity trade-off. The consequences of multiple copulations on female longevity were examined. Females that mated twice laid more eggs and died sooner than those that mated once. However, incorporation of fecundity as a covariate into our statistical model removed the effect of female mating frequency on female longevity, indicating that double-mated females suffer greater mortality owing to the trade-off between fecundity and longevity. Males of this species are known to transfer very large ejaculates (up to 8% of their body weight), which may represent a significant nutritional benefit to females. However, the receipt of large ejaculates appears to carry costs. Thus, the interpretation of multiple mating experiments on female longevity and associated functional

  4. Immunization with a highly attenuated replication-competent herpes simplex virus type 1 mutant, HF10, protects mice from genital disease caused by herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chenhong; Goshima, Fumi; Kamakura, Maki; Mutoh, Yoshifumi; Iwata, Seiko; Kimura, Hiroshi; Nishiyama, Yukihiro

    2012-01-01

    Genital herpes is an intractable disease caused mainly by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 (HSV-2), and is a major concern in public health. A previous infection with HSV type 1 (HSV-1) enhances protection against primary HSV-2 infection to some extent. In this study, we evaluated the ability of HF10, a naturally occurring replication-competent HSV-1 mutant, to protect against genital infection in mice caused by HSV-2. Subcutaneous inoculation of HF10-immunized mice against lethal infection by HSV-2, and attenuated the development of genital ulcer diseases. Immunization with HF10 inhibited HSV-2 replication in the mouse vagina, reduced local inflammation, controlled emergence of neurological dysfunctions of HSV-2 infection, and increased survival. In HF10-immunized mice, we observed rapid and increased production of interferon-γ in the vagina in response to HSV-2 infection, and numerous CD4(+) and a few CD8(+) T cells localized to the infective focus. CD4(+) T cells invaded the mucosal subepithelial lamina propria. Thus, the protective effect of HF10 was related to induction of cellular immunity, mediated primarily by Th1 CD4(+) cells. These data indicate that the live attenuated HSV-1 mutant strain HF10 is a promising candidate antigen for a vaccine against genital herpes caused by HSV-2.

  5. Antigen specific immune response in Chlamydia muridarum genital infection is dependent on murine microRNAs-155 and -182

    PubMed Central

    Keck, Jonathon; Koundinya, Gopala Krishna Lanka; Castillo, Kevin; Hobel, Sabrina; Chambers, James P.; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Guentzel, M. Neal; Aigner, Achim; Christenson, Lane K.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-chlamydial immunity involves efficient presentation of antigens (Ag) to effector cells resulting in Ag-specific immune responses. There is limited information on inherent underlying mechanisms regulating these events. Previous studies from our laboratory have established that select microRNAs (miRs) function as molecular regulators of immunity in Chlamydia muridarum (Cm) genital infection. In this report, we investigated immune cell type-specific miRs, i.e. miR-155 and -182, and the role in Ag-specific immunity. We observed significant up-regulation of miR-155 in C57BL/6 bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC), and miR-182 in splenic Ag-specific CD4+ T-cells. Using mimics and inhibitors, we determined that miR-155 contributed to BMDC activation following Cm infection. Co-cultures of miR-155 over-expressed in BMDC and miR-182 over-expressed in Ag-specific CD4+ T-cells, or miR-155−/− BMDC with miR-182 inhibitor treated Ag-specific CD4+ T-cells, resulted in IFN-γ production comparable to Ag-specific CD4+ T-cells isolated from Cm infected mice. Additionally, miR-182 was significantly up-regulated in intranasally vaccinated mice protected against Cm infection. In vivo depletion of miR-182 resulted in reduction in Ag-specific IFN-γ and genital pathology in Cm infected mice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report an interaction of miR-155 (in Cm infected DC) and miR-182 (in CD4+ T-cell) resulting in Ag specific immune responses against genital Cm. PMID:27556515

  6. Human papillomavirus reactivation following treatment of genital graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Sri, T; Merideth, M A; Pulanic, T Klepac; Childs, R; Stratton, P

    2013-08-01

    Vaginal chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a common complication of stem cell transplantation. Human papillomavirus (HPV) disease can reactivate after transplantation, presumably because of immune factors affecting systemic immunity, such as waning antibody titers, impaired T- and B-lymphocyte responses, and the use of immunosuppressive therapies. However, a relationship between the use of local immunosuppressive agents and HPV reactivation and spread has not been previously described, to our knowledge. A 30-year-old woman, 2 years post transplant receiving systemic cyclosporine for cGVHD, was treated with vaginal dilators, topical corticosteroids, and estrogen for vaginal cGVHD. Colposcopy and biopsy for abnormal cytology revealed condylomatous cervicitis. Over the next 4 months, while continuing dilator therapy, linear verrucous lesions developed in the vagina and vulva, and were successfully treated with laser therapy. Use of local immunosuppression and dilators for genital GVHD can enhance spread of HPV infection. Integration of HPV screening and treatment into the care of women with genital cGVHD and development of strategies to manage both conditions simultaneously are warranted.

  7. Isolated necrotizing arteritis of the female genital tract: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Francke, M L; Mihaescu, A; Chaubert, P

    1998-07-01

    Isolated necrotizing arteritis (INA) of the polyarteritis-nodosa type localized to the female genital tract is rare. Approximately 30 case reports have been published to date. Eleven additional patients are described here, all with a favorable follow-up. INA is usually localized in the uterine cervix, but, when multifocal lesions are present, the latter is almost always involved. Patients most frequently report menorrhagia or postmenopausal bleeding. With immunohistochemical studies, immune-complex deposits (IgM, IgG, and C'3) in 7 of 11 patients with INA of the female genital tract were demonstrated for the first time. The inflammatory cells were composed mainly of T-lymphocytes with macrophages and scarce B-lymphocytes also present. These results suggest that INA is primarily an immune complex-mediated disease, implicating humoral and cellular mediator systems. Possible pathogenetic factors of INA are immune complex-mediated hypersensitivity reactions to drugs, foreign materials (after cone biopsy or curettage), and cancers, or an autoimmune reaction against constituents of the vessel walls caused by tissue injury after local surgical intervention through in situ immune-complex formation.

  8. Human papillomavirus reactivation following treatment of genital graft-versus-host-disease

    PubMed Central

    Sri, T.; Merideth, M.A.; Pulanic, T.K.; Childs, R.; Stratton, P.

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGVHD) is a common complication of stem cell transplantation. Human papillomavirus (HPV) disease can reactivate after transplantation, presumably because of immune factors affecting systemic immunity, such as waning antibody titers, impaired T- and B- lymphocyte responses, and the use of immunosuppressive therapies. However, a relationship between the use of local immunosuppressive agents and HPV reactivation and spread has not been previously described, to our knowledge. A 30-year-old woman, 2 years post transplant receiving systemic cyclosporine for cGVHD, was treated with vaginal dilators, topical corticosteroids, and estrogen for vaginal cGVHD. Colposcopy and biopsy for abnormal cytology revealed condylomatous cervicitis. Over the next 4 months. while continuing dilator therapy, linear verrucous lesions developed in the vagina and vulva, and were successfully treated with laser therapy. Use of local immunosuppression and dilators for genital GVHD can enhance spread of HPV infection. Integration of HPV screening and treatment into the care of women with genital cGVHD and development of strategies to manage both conditions simultaneously is warranted. PMID:23710698

  9. Effects of various doses of estradiol on chlamydial genital infection in ovariectomized guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Pasley, J N; Rank, R G; Hough, A J; Cohen, C; Barron, A L

    1985-01-01

    The effect of various doses of estradiol on genital tract infection by the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) was investigated in ovariectomized guinea pigs. Prolongation of infection, as determined by chlamydial inclusion counts of cells in Giemsa-stained smears of vaginal scrapings, was observed in animals receiving daily doses of 1.0, 10.0, 100.0, or 1000 micrograms of estradiol. In contrast to controls, ascending infection resulting in endometritis was found in animals receiving doses of greater than or equal to 1.0 microgram of estradiol per day. Response to estradiol treatment was reflected in an increase in cervical-uterine wet weight and uterine wall thickness. No differences were observed in time of appearance of antibody titers to GPIC in serum, but a delay in appearance of IgA antibody to GPIC in genital secretions was found in estradiol-treated animals receiving doses of greater than or equal to 1.0 microgram per day.

  10. A-Class Genitive Subject Effect: A Pragmatic and Discourse Grammar Approach to A- and O-Class Genitive Subject Selection in Hawaiian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, C. M. Kaliko

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores genitive class selection of genitive case subjects in nominalizations and relative clauses in Hawaiian. The amount of research in the area of Hawaiian's "a"- and "o"-class is far from sufficient. Since Wilson (1976a), there has been minimal critical new inquiry to "a"- and…

  11. High prevalence of genital HPV infection among long-term monogamous partners of women with cervical dysplasia or genital warts-Another reason for HPV vaccination of boys.

    PubMed

    Rob, Filip; Tachezy, Ruth; Pichlík, Tomáš; Rob, Lukáš; Kružicová, Zuzana; Hamšíková, Eva; Šmahelová, Jana; Hercogová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study on the occurrence of a specific type of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) among long-term monogamous male partners of women with cervical dysplasia and genital warts. The purpose of the study was to improve knowledge with regards to the management of these couples. The presence of genital HPV-DNA was detected by PCR with broad spectrum primers followed by hybridization. 82 males met the study criteria, 41 in each group. Genital HPV-DNA prevalence was 67.5% in the genital warts group and 72.2% in the cervical dysplasia group. The prevalence of high risk HPVs was higher in the cervical dysplasia group, while low risk HPVs were more prevalent in the genital warts group (p < .05). The prevalence of HPV in males was independent of the duration of the relationship (73.5% for 6-24 months and 66.7% for longer relationships). In conclusion, our results suggest that the prevalence of the genital HPV infection in both groups of male partners is comparable and very high, but the spectrum of HPV types varies significantly. The presence of the genital HPV infection in male sexual partners seems to be independent of the duration of the relationship. Applying the HPV vaccination to boys may prevent this phenomenon.

  12. The genetic basis of interspecific differences in genital morphology of closely related carabid beetles.

    PubMed

    Sasabe, M; Takami, Y; Sota, T

    2007-06-01

    Marked diversification of genital morphology is common in internally fertilizing animals. Although sexual selection may be the primary process controlling genital evolution, factors promoting genital evolution are controversial, and the genetic background of genital morphology is poorly understood. We analyzed the genetic basis of species-specific genital morphologies in carabid beetles of the subgenus Ohomopterus (genus Carabus, Carabidae) using two parapatric species with hybrid zones. Biometric analyses on experimental F(1) and backcross populations revealed that inheritance of genital morphology is polygenic. Applying Lande's modification of the Castle-Wright estimator to population means and variances to estimate the minimum number of genes involved, we found that a relatively small number of loci is responsible for species differences in genital morphology. In addition, joint-scaling tests indicated that the additive genetic effect accounts for most interspecific differences in genital traits, but dominance and epistatic genetic effects also play roles. Overall, the genetic basis of male and female genitalia is fairly simple, enabling these traits to respond quickly to selection pressures and to diverge rapidly. Our results provide insight into the diversification of genital morphology in carabid beetles, and will hopefully stimulate further studies on the genetic basis of genitalia, such as mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting species-specific genital morphology.

  13. Female genital mutilation - postcircumcision vulval complications in Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Adekunle, A O; Fakokunde, F A; Odukogbe, A A; Fawole, A O

    1999-11-01

    Female genital mutilation is a cultural practice that can adversely affect the health of women. Vulval complications of female circumcision in 39 patients managed at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria over a period of 10 years were reviewed. The complications were: labial adhesions of varying degrees (51.3%) and clitoral retention cysts (48.7%). However, both types of complications occurred concurrently in two (5.1%) patients. All patients were treated surgically with good outcome. The only immediate complication of treatment was secondary haemorrhage in one patient with clitoral cyst. Regrettably, one patient with labial adhesion required a repeat surgical procedure 2 months later. The histological examination of all the retention cysts revealed epidermal inclusion cysts. Emphasising the reproductive health implications of female genital mutilation may prove an effective strategy towards eradication of the practice.

  14. Female genital cosmetic surgery: a review of techniques and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Iglesia, Cheryl B; Yurteri-Kaplan, Ladin; Alinsod, Red

    2013-12-01

    The aesthetic and functional procedures that comprise female genital cosmetic surgery (FGCS) include traditional vaginal prolapse procedures as well as cosmetic vulvar and labial procedures. The line between cosmetic and medically indicated surgical procedures is blurred, and today many operations are performed for both purposes. The contributions of gynecologists and reconstructive pelvic surgeons are crucial in this debate. Aesthetic vaginal surgeons may unintentionally blur legitimate female pelvic floor disorders with other aesthetic conditions. In the absence of quality outcome data, the value of FGCS in improving sexual function remains uncertain. Women seeking FGCS need to be educated about the range and variation of labia widths and genital appearance, and should be evaluated for true pelvic support disorders such as pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence. Women seeking FGCS should also be screened for psychological conditions and should act autonomously without coercion from partners or surgeons with proprietary conflicts of interest.

  15. Epidemiological studies relating genital herpetic infection to cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nahmias, A J; Naib, Z M; Josey, W E

    1974-05-01

    Epidemiological studies relating genital herpetic infection to cervical carcinoma are reviewed. The high frequency of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) antibodies in young women (21 years or younger) with cervical carcinoma in situ and in women with dysplasia or carcinoma in situ, matched for various sexual attributes to control women, provide support for a causal relation. However, various laboratory, histopathological, and statistical problems associated with all epidemiological studies do not yet permit a firm conclusion as to the etiological role to the genital virus in cervical carcinogenesis. With the use of herpes-related cancer antigens or purified HSV-2 type-specific antigens, and with the possible development of protective HSV-2 vaccines, the application of epidemiological approaches may be necessary to provide the most finite evidence of causality.

  16. [Factual approach to the treatment of genital herpes].

    PubMed

    Nikkels, A F; Piérard, G E

    2000-05-01

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease. After the primary infection, the virus establishes a life-long latency in the sacral dorsal root ganglia. Recurrences may occur at an unpredictable rate. The clinical signs are not always easy to recognize and viral identification techniques may be helpful such as immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization on Tzanck smears and muco-cutaneous biopsies. The treatment of genital herpes can follow one of three strategies using antiviral drugs, non-specific immunomodulators, and vaccination. The new oral antiviral drugs decrease the severity of clinical manifestations without, however, providing a definitive cure. In this article recent knowledge about the clinical aspects, differential diagnosis, diagnostic methods, treatment options and management is reviewed.

  17. [Efficacy of polyprenyl phosphates in the experimental genital herpes model].

    PubMed

    Narovlyansky, A N; Ivanova, A M; Shevlyagina, N V; Didenko, L V; Borovaya, T G; Izmest'eva, A V; Sanin, A V; Pronin, A V; Ershov, F I

    2015-01-01

    An experimental model of the primary genital herpes (herpes simplex type 2, HSV-2) in the female guinea pigs was suggested to study the infectious process activity of polyprenyl phosphates (PPP) and PPP+acyclovir (AC) complex treatment. The morphofunctional features of the guinea pig ovaries were studied in the control and experimental groups (the latter were inoculated with PPP and/or AC as a primary infection treatment) at the stage of the recurrent genital herpes aggravation. It was shown that in the case of combined PPP +AC use significant changes in the disease symptoms were observed, as well as a decrease in the infectious process activity and duration, and positive remote effect on the ovarian morphophysiology.

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and female lower genital tract malignancy.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, L; Sun, X W; Wright, T C

    1999-02-01

    The risk of lower genital tract neoplasia is increased in women infected with HIV. This has been best demonstrated in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions, but has also been observed in vulvar and perianal intraepithelial lesions in some studies. Alterations in the prevalence and natural history of human papillomavirus infections of the lower genital tract appear to account for much of the increase. HIV-infected women are approximately four times more likely to be infected with human papillomavirus (including infection with high oncogenic risk human papillomavirus types) than are HIV-uninfected women, and these infections are more likely to be persistent. Human papilomavirus-associated lesions may be more difficult to treat in HIV-infected women. These data highlight the need to develop effective cervical cancer prevention programs for HIV-infected women.

  19. Microbiota of the upper and lower genital tract

    PubMed Central

    Rampersaud, Ryan; Randis, Tara M.; Ratner, Adam J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Our understanding of the bacterial species inhabiting the female genital tract has been limited primarily by our ability to detect them. Early investigations using microscopy and culture-based techniques identified lactobacilli as the predominant members of the vaginal microbiota and suggested that these organisms might serve a protective function at the mucosal surface. Improvements in cultivation techniques and the development of molecular-based detection strategies validated these early findings and enabled us to recognize that the microbiota of the female genital tract is much more complex than previously suspected. Disruption of the vaginal microbial community due to invasion of exogenous organisms or by overgrowth of one or more endogenous species has important health implications for both the mother and newborn. PMID:21920833

  20. Nasal Immunization Confers High Avidity Neutralizing Antibody Response and Immunity to Primary and Recurrent Genital Herpes in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Josefine; Zhang, Yuan; Olafsdottir, Thorunn A.; Thörn, Karolina; Cairns, Tina M.; Wegmann, Frank; Sattentau, Quentin J.; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H.; Harandi, Ali M.

    2016-01-01

    Genital herpes is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in both the developing and developed world. Following infection, individuals experience life-long latency associated with sporadic ulcerative outbreaks. Despite many efforts, no vaccine has yet been licensed for human use. Herein, we demonstrated that nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 gD envelope protein mounts significant protection to primary infection as well as the establishment of latency and recurrent genital herpes in guinea pigs. Nasal immunization was shown to elicit specific T cell proliferative and IFN-γ responses as well as systemic and vaginal gD-specific IgG antibody (Ab) responses. Furthermore, systemic IgG Abs displayed potent HSV-2 neutralizing properties and high avidity. By employing a competitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis combined with a battery of known gD-specific neutralizing monoclonal Abs (MAbs), we showed that nasal immunization generated IgG Abs directed to two major discontinuous neutralizing epitopes of gD. These results highlight the potential of nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 envelope protein for induction of protective immunity to primary and recurrent genital herpes. PMID:28082979

  1. Nasal Immunization Confers High Avidity Neutralizing Antibody Response and Immunity to Primary and Recurrent Genital Herpes in Guinea Pigs.

    PubMed

    Persson, Josefine; Zhang, Yuan; Olafsdottir, Thorunn A; Thörn, Karolina; Cairns, Tina M; Wegmann, Frank; Sattentau, Quentin J; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Cohen, Gary H; Harandi, Ali M

    2016-01-01

    Genital herpes is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in both the developing and developed world. Following infection, individuals experience life-long latency associated with sporadic ulcerative outbreaks. Despite many efforts, no vaccine has yet been licensed for human use. Herein, we demonstrated that nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 gD envelope protein mounts significant protection to primary infection as well as the establishment of latency and recurrent genital herpes in guinea pigs. Nasal immunization was shown to elicit specific T cell proliferative and IFN-γ responses as well as systemic and vaginal gD-specific IgG antibody (Ab) responses. Furthermore, systemic IgG Abs displayed potent HSV-2 neutralizing properties and high avidity. By employing a competitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis combined with a battery of known gD-specific neutralizing monoclonal Abs (MAbs), we showed that nasal immunization generated IgG Abs directed to two major discontinuous neutralizing epitopes of gD. These results highlight the potential of nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 envelope protein for induction of protective immunity to primary and recurrent genital herpes.

  2. Vaccination with the Secreted Glycoprotein G of Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Induces Protective Immunity after Genital Infection.

    PubMed

    Önnheim, Karin; Ekblad, Maria; Görander, Staffan; Bergström, Tomas; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke

    2016-04-22

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infects the genital mucosa and establishes a life-long infection in sensory ganglia. After primary infection HSV-2 may reactivate causing recurrent genital ulcerations. HSV-2 infection is prevalent, and globally more than 400 million individuals are infected. As clinical trials have failed to show protection against HSV-2 infection, new vaccine candidates are warranted. The secreted glycoprotein G (sgG-2) of HSV-2 was evaluated as a prophylactic vaccine in mice using two different immunization and adjuvant protocols. The protocol with three intramuscular immunizations combining sgG-2 with cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) motifs and alum induced almost complete protection from genital and systemic disease after intra-vaginal challenge with HSV-2. Robust immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titers were detected with no neutralization activity. Purified splenic CD4+ T cells proliferated and produced interferon-γ (IFN-γ) when re-stimulated with the antigen in vitro. sgG-2 + adjuvant intra-muscularly immunized mice showed a significant reduction of infectious HSV-2 and increased IFN-γ levels in vaginal washes. The HSV-2 DNA copy numbers were significantly reduced in dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord, and in serum at day six or day 21 post challenge. We show that a sgG-2 based vaccine is highly effective and can be considered as a novel candidate in the development of a prophylactic vaccine against HSV-2 infection.

  3. Doctoring the Genitals: Towards Broadening the Meaning of Social Medicine.

    PubMed

    Shweder, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Doctoring the genitals is compatible with a recognizable conception of social medicine. This commentary critically examines the distinction between medical and nonmedical procedures; presents an alternative account of Sohaila Bastami's personal reaction to the anonymous caller's request for referral information concerning hymen reconstruction surgery; and makes use of Yelp to simulate the caller's procedure for locating a helpful practitioner. Yelp is a very useful informational search engine that does not subject its users to a moral examination.

  4. Is incidence of multiple HPV genotypes rising in genital infections?

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, Amir; Hajia, Masoud; Jamali, Firouzeh; Kharazi, Faranak

    2017-02-16

    Frequency of cervical cancer related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) has increased remarkably in less-developed countries. Hence, applying capable diagnostic methods is urgently needed, as is having a therapeutic strategy as an effective step for cervical cancer prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of various multi-type HPV infection patterns and their possible rising incidence in women with genital infections. This descriptive study was conducted on women who attended referral clinical laboratories in Tehran for genital infections from January 2012 until December 2013. A total of 1387 archival cervical scraping and lesion specimens were collected from referred women. HPV genotyping was performed using approved HPV commercial diagnostic technologies with either INNO-LiPA HPV or Geno Array Test kits. HPV was positive in 563 cases (40.59%) with mean age of 32.35±9.96. Single, multiple HPV genotypes and untypable cases were detected in 398 (70.69%), 160 (28.42%) and 5 (0.89%) cases, respectively. Multiple HPV infections were detected in 92 (57.5%), 42 (26.2%), 17 (10.6%) and 9 (5.7%) cases as two, three, four and five or more genotypes, respectively. The prevalence of 32 HPV genotypes was determined one by one. Seventeen HPV genotypes were identified in 95.78% of all positive infections. Five dominant genotypes, HPV6, 16, 53, 11 and 31, were identified in a total of 52.35%of the HPV positive cases. In the present study, we were able to evaluate the rate of multiple HPV types in genital infections. Nevertheless, it is necessary to evaluate the role of the dominant HPV low-risk types and the new probably high-risk genotypes, such as HPV53, in the increasing incidences of genital infections.

  5. Zearalenone Altered the Serum Hormones, Morphologic and Apoptotic Measurements of Genital Organs in Post-weaning Gilts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X. X.; Yang, C. W.; Huang, L. B.; Niu, Q. S.; Jiang, S. Z.; Chi, F.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the adverse effects of dietary zearalenone (ZEA) (1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg diet) on serum hormones, morphologic and apoptotic measurements of genital organs in post-weaning gilts. A total of twenty gilts (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc) weaned at 21 d with an average body weight of 10.36±1.21 kg were used in the study. Gilts were fed a basal diet with an addition of 0, 1.1, 2.0, or 3.2 mg/kg purified ZEA for 18 d ad libitum. Results showed that 3.2 mg/kg ZEA challenged gilts decreased (p<0.05) the serum levels of luteinizing hormone, however, serum levels of prolactin in gilts fed the diet containing 2.0 mg/kg ZEA or more were increased (p<0.05) compared to those in the control. Linear effects on all tested serum hormones except progesterone were observed as dietary ZEA levels increased (p<0.05). Gilts fed ZEA-contaminated diet showed increase (p<0.05) in genital organs size, hyperplasia of submucosal smooth muscles in the corpus uteri in a dose-dependent manner. However, the decreased numbers of follicles in the cortex and apoptotic cells in the ovarian were observed in gilts treated with ZEA in a dose-dependent manner. Degeneration and structural abnormalities of genital organs tissues were also observed in the gilts fed diet containing 1.1 mg/kg ZEA or more. Results suggested that dietary ZEA at 1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg can induce endocrine disturbance and damage genital organs in post-weaning gilts. PMID:25557812

  6. Does inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha affect chlamydial genital tract infection in mice and guinea pigs?

    PubMed

    Darville, T; Andrews, C W; Rank, R G

    2000-09-01

    The role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in host defense against chlamydial infection remains unclear. In order to further evaluate the relevance of TNF-alpha to host resistance in chlamydial genital tract infection, we examined the effect of local inhibition of the TNF-alpha response in normal C57 mice and in interferon gamma gene-deficient C57 mice infected intravaginally with the mouse pneumonitis agent of Chlamydia trachomatis. Since the guinea pig model of female genital tract infection more closely approximates the human in terms of ascending infection and development of pathology, we also examined the effect of local inhibition of the TNF-alpha response in guinea pigs infected intravaginally with the guinea pig strain of Chlamydia psittaci. We successfully blocked the early TNF-alpha response in the respective animal models. This blockade had no effect on the numbers of organisms isolated from the genital tract during the time of TNF-alpha inhibition in mice or guinea pigs. Analysis of interleukin-1beta, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor in the mouse model revealed that blockade of the TNF-alpha response did not alter the release of these proinflammatory proteins. Yet, in TNF-alpha-depleted mice, increased numbers of neutrophils were detected in the genital tract, and, in TNF-alpha-depleted guinea pigs, increased numbers of neutrophils as well as infiltrating lymphocytes were seen in the endocervix. Blockade of TNF-alpha does not affect the level of infection in mice or guinea pigs, but it may decrease TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis of infiltrating inflammatory cells.

  7. An alternative way to stop female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Chelala, C

    1998-07-11

    In Kenya, a new ceremony known as "Ntanira Na Mugambo," or "circumcision through words," is being offered in some rural communities as an alternative to the harmful practice of female genital mutilation. This new ceremony includes a week-long program of counseling, training, and provision of information to young women ending with a "coming of age" celebration that involves music, dancing, presents, and feasting. Since its initiation in August 1996, about 300 young women have accepted this alternative rite. Kenya is among the countries where the practice of female genital mutilation is slowly diminishing, but the mutilation is still common in at least 26 African countries and among immigrants in some developed countries. The new Kenyan rite has the advantage of requiring the cooperation and support of the communities where it is practiced. It was developed as a cooperative effort of the Kenyan Maendeleo Ya Wanawake Organization and the Program for Appropriate Technology in Health after years of research. An important aspect of Ntanira Na Mugambo is the flexibility that arises from the ability to stress various components in response to community characteristics. Its success is also linked to the fact that it involves the entire family and community and has a male motivation component. It is hoped that this nonjudgmental rite will become a widely successful strategy to eliminate female genital mutilation and improve women's health throughout the world.

  8. Metastatic gastric cancer to the female genital tract

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kazushi; Wakatsuki, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Metastases to the female genital tract from gastric cancer are rare, but they significantly worsen the prognosis of such patients. The potential routes for metastasis to the female genital tract from gastric cancer include hematogenous spread, lymphatic spread and surface implantation. The rate of lymphatic metastasis to the ovary from gastric cancer has been reported to be higher compared with that from colorectal cancer. Uterine or Fallopian tube metastases are usually secondary to ovarian metastases, which are typically identified prior to the detection of gastric cancer in half of all synchronous cases, with complaints of abdominal distention, pain, palpable mass, or abnormal uterine bleeding. The prognosis of patients with female genital tract metastases from gastric cancer is extremely poor, and is worse compared with that of other primary sites, such as the breast and colorectum. In the past, surgical intervention in such patients consisted mainly of palliative resection to relieve the symptoms associated with a sizeable pelvic mass. However, recent retrospective studies based on a relatively small number of patients have reported that surgical tumor debulking plus chemotherapy may improve the prognosis of patients with metastatic ovarian cancer originating from gastric cancer. PMID:27882232

  9. Management of Retained Genital Piercings: A Case Report and Review

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of genital piercing among women is increasing. As the popularity increases, the number of complications from infection, injury, and retained jewelry is likely to rise. Techniques to remove embedded jewelry are not well described in the literature. The purpose of this report was to describe a case of a patient with a retained clitoral glans piercing, discuss a simple technique for outpatient removal, and review current evidence regarding associated risks of clitoral piercings. A 24-year-old female presented to the emergency department with an embedded clitoral glans piercing. Local anesthetic was injected into the periclitoral skin and a small superficial vertical incision was made to remove the ball of the retained barbell safely. In conclusion, among patients with retained genital piercing, outpatient removal of embedded jewelry is feasible. While the practice of female genital piercing is not regulated, piercing of the glans of the clitoris is associated with increased injury to the nerves and blood supply of the clitoris structures leading to future fibrosis and diminished function compared to piercing of the clitoral hood. PMID:28299217

  10. Interleukin-13 promotes susceptibility to chlamydial infection of the respiratory and genital tracts.

    PubMed

    Asquith, Kelly L; Horvat, Jay C; Kaiko, Gerard E; Carey, Alison J; Beagley, Kenneth W; Hansbro, Philip M; Foster, Paul S

    2011-05-01

    Chlamydiae are intracellular bacteria that commonly cause infections of the respiratory and genital tracts, which are major clinical problems. Infections are also linked to the aetiology of diseases such as asthma, emphysema and heart disease. The clinical management of infection is problematic and antibiotic resistance is emerging. Increased understanding of immune processes that are involved in both clearance and immunopathology of chlamydial infection is critical for the development of improved treatment strategies. Here, we show that IL-13 was produced in the lungs of mice rapidly after Chlamydia muridarum (Cmu) infection and promoted susceptibility to infection. Wild-type (WT) mice had increased disease severity, bacterial load and associated inflammation compared to IL-13 deficient (-/-) mice as early as 3 days post infection (p.i.). Intratracheal instillation of IL-13 enhanced bacterial load in IL-13-/- mice. There were no differences in early IFN-g and IL-10 expression between WT and IL-13-/- mice and depletion of CD4+ T cells did not affect infection in IL-13-/- mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate a lack of CD4+ T cell involvement and a novel role for IL-13 in innate responses to infection. We also showed that IL-13 deficiency increased macrophage uptake of Cmu in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the depletion of IL-13 during infection of lung epithelial cells in vitro decreased the percentage of infected cells and reduced bacterial growth. Our results suggest that enhanced IL-13 responses in the airways, such as that found in asthmatics, may promote susceptibility to chlamydial lung infection. Importantly the role of IL-13 in regulating infection was not limited to the lung as we showed that IL-13 also promoted susceptibility to Cmu genital tract infection. Collectively our findings demonstrate that innate IL-13 release promotes infection that results in enhanced inflammation and have broad implications for the treatment of chlamydial infections and IL

  11. Prepared for anything?: an investigation of female genital arousal in response to rape cues.

    PubMed

    Suschinsky, Kelly D; Lalumière, Martin L

    2011-02-01

    Men's genital arousal occurs in response to a limited number of sexual stimuli, whereas women's genital arousal occurs in response to a wide range of sexual stimuli, including those depicting nonpreferred cues. Researchers have hypothesized that women's nonspecific pattern of genital arousal prepares the body for sexual activity, thus functioning to protect the genital organs against injury. If this hypothesis is correct, women should show genital responses to any cues suggesting sexual activity, even unappealing cues that involve nonconsensual sex and extreme violence. Fifteen men and 15 women listened to fourteen 2-min audiotaped narratives that depicted an interaction between a man and a woman and that varied factorially according to the presence of consent, violence, and sexual activity. The results support the preparation hypothesis: Men showed the greatest genital arousal in response to narratives depicting consensual, nonviolent sex, whereas women showed similar responses to all the narratives involving sexual activities, including those describing a sexual assault.

  12. Ano-Genital Warts and HIV Status– A Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shimpa; Gulbake, Arvind

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Ano-Genital Warts (AGW) like other Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) is associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. This study of AGW was done in HIV positive and HIV negative patients. Aim To study the risk factors and clinical presentations of ano-genital warts in HIV positive and negative patients. Materials and Methods A comparative, cross-sectional, descriptive study of 25 HIV positive and 25 HIV negative (n=50) AGW patients between 15-60 years of both sex was conducted in Dr. D. Y. Patil Hospital and Research Centre from July 2014 to July 2016. Results Significant association of HIV positivity (p<0.05) was observed between age group of 15-30 years and HIV negative status (p<0.05) in age group of 31-45 years. HIV positive status significantly higher in patients with self-admitted multiple sexual partners (p<0.01), homosexuality (p<0.05) and presentation with anal warts (p<0.01). HIV negative status correlated significantly with single sexual partner admission (p<0.01) and hetero-sexuality (p<0.05). Gender did not show significant association with number of sexual partners or HIV positivity. Extra-genital or only genital warts had no association with HIV status. Co-STDs though more in number in ser-positive group, did not show any significant association with HIV positivity (p>0.05). No patient presented with changes of malignancy. Four were adolescents below 19 years. Two patients had atypical presentations of giant condylomata i.e., Buschke-Lowenstein Tumour (BLT). Conclusion HIV positivity was significantly associated with the risk factors of age below 30 years, homo sexuality and multiple sexual partners. Anal warts were significantly common in HIV positive patients. Four adolescents with AGW underline the need for high risk behaviour counselling. No patient had malignant ano-genital warts. Follow up of these patients with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) sub-typing is necessary. PMID:28274028

  13. Non-healing genital herpes mimicking donovanosis in an immunocompetent man.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vishal; Khute, Prakash; Patel, Anjali; Gupta, Somesh

    2016-01-01

    Although atypical presentations of herpetic infection in immunocompetent individuals are common, they very rarely have the extensive, chronic and verrucous appearances seen in the immunocompromised host. We report a case of genital herpes manifesting as painless chronic non-healing genital ulcers with exuberant granulation tissue in an immunocompetent man. Owing to this morphology, the ulcers were initially mistaken for donovanosis. To the best of our knowledge, such a presentation of genital herpes in an immunocompetent individual has not been described previously.

  14. The development of the genital peritoneum in domestic mammals. An analysis of the literature and nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Martin, E

    1995-12-01

    This review presents and discusses the reasons for the currently employed anatomical terminology relating to the genital peritoneum of various domestic species, based upon its prenatal development. When reviewing the development of genital organs, attention must be paid to changes in the related peritoneum in order to define currently used terminology more clearly. The relevance of some terms such as Caudal genital ligament, Plica gubernaculi, Plica iguinalis and genital fold is considered. A system of serosal folds, the Plica gonadoinguinalis or genitoinguinalis, seems to be a useful term to be added to the Nomina Embryologica Veterinaria.

  15. Effective multimodality treatment for advanced epidermoid carcinoma of the female genital tract

    SciTech Connect

    Kalra, J.; Cortes, E.; Chen, S.; Krumholz, B.; Rovinsky, J.J.; Molho, L.; Seltzer, V.; Papantoniou, P.; Lee, J.Y.

    1985-07-01

    Fifteen patients with advanced or recurrent squamous-cell carcinoma of the cervix, vulva, vagina, and urethra were treated with simultaneous combination chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil infusion and mitomycin C) and radiotherapy (3,000 rad for a period of three weeks). Three to four weeks after completion of radiotherapy, 13 of 15 patients achieved partial or complete tumor shrinkage. Nine of 15 patients are alive, eight of whom (at a median follow-up time of 24 months) have no evidence of disease. The longest survival time was 45 + months. There was minimal toxicity associated with this therapy. The results of this pilot study suggest that the simultaneous administration of radiation and chemotherapy is an effective method of treatment of advanced female genital tract carcinoma.

  16. A novel gammaherpesvirus associated with genital lesions in a Blainville's beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris).

    PubMed

    Saliki, Jeremiah T; Cooper, Emily J; Rotstein, David S; Caseltine, Shannon L; Pabst, D Ann; McLellan, William A; Govett, Pamela; Harms, Craig; Smolarek, Kara A; Romero, Carlos H

    2006-01-01

    An adult male Blainville's beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris) was found stranded on the Atlantic coast of the USA on 28 January 2004. Necropsy revealed a focal papilloma-like penile lesion, the cells from which revealed single 4-6 microm basophilic intranuclear inclusions. Total DNA extracted from lesion material was tested using a pan-herpes-virus PCR assay that targets the DNA polymerase gene and found to be positive. When the amplified DNA fragment was cloned, sequenced, and compared to GenBank-deposited herpesvirus DNA polymerase sequences, the detected virus was determined to be a distinct member of the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily of herpesviruses. This new virus, tentatively named Ziphiid herpesvirus type 1, was associated with but not determined to be the cause of genital disease in the Blainville's beaked whale.

  17. Rapid Detection of Herpes Simplex Virus DNA in Genital Ulcers by Real-Time PCR Using SYBR Green I Dye as the Detection Signal

    PubMed Central

    Aldea, Carmen; Alvarez, Carmen P.; Folgueira, Lola; Delgado, Rafael; Otero, Joaquín R.

    2002-01-01

    We have evaluated a real-time PCR procedure based on the LightCycler technology for rapid detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in genital lesions. Two sets of primers, corresponding to the thymidine kinase and DNA polymerase regions, were used for the amplification reactions in separate capillaries containing the SYBR Green I dye as detection signal. In 28 of 118 samples (24%), HSV was isolated by conventional cell culture. All cell culture-positive samples were also positive by real-time PCR. Six additional cell culture-negative samples were positive by PCR with both sets of primers. Total processing time was less than 3 h. Real-time PCR using SYBR Green I as detection signal is a sensitive procedure for the rapid diagnosis of HSV in genital lesions. PMID:11880439

  18. Genital Herpes: Insights into Sexually Transmitted Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Etiology, transmission and protection: Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections with recurring manifestations throughout the lifetime of infected hosts. Currently no effective vaccines or prophylactics exist that provide complete protection or immunity from the virus, which is endemic throughout the world. Pathology/Symptomatology: Primary and recurrent infections result in lesions and inflammation around the genital area and the latter accounts for majority of genital herpes instances. Immunocompromised patients including neonates are susceptible to additional systemic infections including debilitating consequences of nervous system inflammation. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: More than 500 million people are infected worldwide and most reported cases involve the age groups between 16-40 years, which coincides with an increase in sexual activity among this age group. While these numbers are an estimate, the actual numbers may be underestimated as many people are asymptomatic or do not report the symptoms. Treatment and curability: Currently prescribed medications, mostly nucleoside analogs, only reduce the symptoms caused by an active infection, but do not eliminate the virus or reduce latency. Therefore, no cure exists against genital herpes and infected patients suffer from periodic recurrences of disease symptoms for their entire lives. Molecular mechanisms of infection: The last few decades have generated many new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive HSV infection. The viral entry receptors such as nectin-1 and HVEM have been identified, cytoskeletal signaling and membrane structures such as filopodia have been directly implicated in viral entry, host motor proteins and their viral ligands have been shown to facilitate capsid transport and many host and HSV proteins have been identified that help with viral replication and pathogenesis. New understanding has emerged on the role of

  19. Reinvestigation of epithelial lining of the genital coelomic sinus in asteroids. An ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Kalachev, Alexander V

    2014-12-01

    Ultrastructural study of gonadal muscles in sea star, Asterina pectinifera, showed that myoepithelial cells were located only in the epithelial lining of the genital coelomic sinus. No myoepithelial cells were found in the visceral peritoneal epithelium or within connective tissue layer of the outer sac. Morphology of the myoepithelial cells in gonads of A. pectinifera varies during the reproductive cycle. During the gametogenic phase of the reproductive cycle, the myoepithelial cells get an elongated, spindle-like shape having a length of 20–30 m. In prespawning gonads, many of the myoepithelial cells form cytoplasmic extensions of 3–5 m in length, filled with myofilaments and penetrating into the underlying connective tissue of the outer sac or haemal sinus. Besides, myoepithelial cells, simultaneously anchored in the inner and outer sacs, were also observed. These changes result in development of more elaborated musculature and increase in contractility of the gonadal wall in prespawning gonads as compared to that during other stages of the reproductive cycle.

  20. Facts and controversies on female genital mutilation and Islam.

    PubMed

    Rouzi, Abdulrahim A

    2013-02-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a very ancient traditional and cultural ritual. Strategies and policies have been implemented to abandon this practice. However, despite commendable work, it is still prevalent, mainly in Muslim countries. FGM predates Islam. It is not mentioned in the Qur'an (the verbatim word of God in Islam). Muslim religious authorities agree that all types of mutilation, including FGM, are condemned. 'Sensitivity' to cultural traditions that erroneously associate FGM with Islam is misplaced. The principle of 'do no harm', endorsed by Islam, supersedes cultural practices, logically eliminating FGM from receiving any Islamic religious endorsement.

  1. For the sake of purity (and control). Female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, D

    1993-01-01

    In 1973 approximately 1 million girls will be victimized by female genital mutilation (FGM), widely practiced in more than 20 African nations from Mauritania to the Ivory Coast in the west, to Egypt and North Tanzania in the east, as well as in Oman, Bahrain, North and South Yemen, and the United Arab Emirates. FGM takes place among the Moslem populations of the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia and the Jewish Falashas in Ethiopia. FGM is practiced on babies just a few days old to girls right before marriage or young women pregnant with their first child. The most extreme mutilation is called infibulation. In Somalia, almost 100% of the women are infibulated, and so are more than 80% of the women in north and central Sudan. In Ethiopia/Eritrea, Mali, and Sierra Leone, 90% of the women have undergone some form of genital mutilation. The rate reaches 70% in Burkina Faso; 60% in Kenya, Gambia, and the Ivory Coast; and 50% in Senegal, Egypt, Guinea Bissau, and Nigeria. The mutilation often results in accumulation of menstrual blood and pelvic inflammatory disease often leading to infertility. Between 20% and 25% of infertility in Sudan has been attributed to female genital mutilation. The practice of FGM has existed for centuries, and some claim it originated in the Nile Valley during the Pharaonic era. On the other hand, Muslim countries like Iraq, Syria, and Tunisia do not practice FGM. The London Black Women's Health Action Project set up an educational network to prevent mutilations and to dispel the myth of religion about FGM. FORWARD convened the First Study Conference on Genital Mutilation of Girls in Europe in 1992 and deemed FGM a form of child abuse. Local campaigns in Africa, Asia, and the Arab world educate against FGM. The Inter-Africa Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children, based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, has offices in more than 20 African nations to sensitize the public about the harmful effects of FGM. In

  2. Typical and unusual cases of female genital tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kulchavenya, E; Dubrovina, S

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a disease with myriad presentations and manifestations; it can affect any organ or tissue, excluding only hair and nails. Doctors who are not familiar with extrapulmonary tuberculosis often overlook this disease. Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB) is the second most common form of TB in countries with severe epidemic situation and the third most common form in regions with low incidence of TB. The term "Urogenital tuberculosis" includes kidney tuberculosis; male and female tuberculosis and urinary tract tuberculosis as complication of kidney tuberculosis. We describe rarest case of tuberculosis of a placenta in young woman, suffered from genital tuberculosis, which was overlooked before delivery, as well as typical tubo-ovarian tuberculomas.

  3. Ultrastructure study of the excretory system and the genital primordium of the infective stage of Onchocerca volvulus (Nematoda:Filarioidea).

    PubMed

    Strote, G; Bonow, I

    1995-01-01

    The electron microscopic investigation of the anterior part of the infective third-stage juvenile of Onchocerca volvulus provides first insights into the structure of the excretory system of this developmental stage of the parasite. The most anterior part of this system consists of a cell process of the syncytial excretory cells. At this height the excretory cells enclose the cuticle-lined excretory channel. The channel is in the process of elongation in the anterior-posterior direction, indicated by cell division in this region. More posteriad an ampulla-like structure is forming in the cytoplasm of the excretory cells. The inner surface of this ampulla is lined with a small number of single microvilli. In this part of the system the cytoplasm of the excretory cells is rich in Golgi bodies and endocytic vesicles. The ampulla has direct access to the exterior by the excretory duct. The excretory duct is a cuticle-lined structure surrounded by supporting fibres of an additional cell. This duct cell connects the excretory duct to the body-wall cuticle at the excretory pore. Adjacent to the region of the excretory system a cell is found that resembles a gland cell. This cell is in close contact to the ventral nerve cord. The genital primordia of the third-stage juvenile consist of several dividing cells. The female genital primordium is seen at the junction of the muscular with the glandular oesophagus and the male primordium can be found at the junction of the glandular oesophagus with the gut.

  4. [Panuveitis with oral and genital ulcer misdiagnosed as Behcet's disease: two cases report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Yang, L; Zhang, Z L

    2016-10-18

    Here we reported two patients who presented with panuveitis and were transferred from ophthalmologists to rheumatologists, for both the patients had oral and genital ulcers. They were misdiagnosed with Behcet's disease at first glance. Two young males presented with acute uveitis with history of recurrent oral and genital ulcers. They initially presented with symptoms and signs resembling Behcet's disease and were treated with systemic steroids with suboptimal responses. Routine laboratory test revealed syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. After treatment of penicillin and anti HIV virus therapy, the panuveitis was relived. The other patient was lost in the follow up. Recently epidemiological data indicate that syphilis and HIV infection increase, which can mimic the manifestation of Behcet's disease. Diagnosis of sexual transmitted diseases, such as HIV or syphilis needs to be ruled out in all cases that mimic the clinical feature of Behcet's disease, especially for those who had a history of high risk behaviors. Every patient should have history analysis in detail. Screening of sexual transmitted diseases, such as HIV or syphilis is important especially in those rapid progressive panuveitis. Also, other virus infections, such as cytomegalovirus, epstein-barr virus or Herpes simplex virus can cause mucosa ulcers and uveitis. CD4 T cell count is a very important marker to indicate that the patient has immunodeficiency. Erythema nodosa and pseudofolliculitis are the third common clinical manifestation in Chinese Behcet's disease patients. Rheumatologist should watch out for patients without skin involvement when making the diagnosis of Behcet's disease. Syphilis-associated uveitis usually has a good prognosis. Treatment of antibiotics can get good response, 92% uveitis can be relieved, with 67% improved vision. Acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis (ASPPC) is a clinically and angiographically distinct manifestation of ocular

  5. Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in tissue culture fluid and in genital secretions by the spermicide benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed Central

    Wainberg, M A; Spira, B; Bleau, G; Thomas, R

    1990-01-01

    We have shown that the spermicidal agent benzalkonium chloride can exert a direct inhibitory effect on the viral reverse transcriptase activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) when utilized at concentrations of 0.05% and higher. Exposure of HIV-1 to this disinfectant at concentrations of more than 0.05% was able to completely destroy viral infectivity, as assessed on susceptible target cells. We have further shown that HIV-1, which is present in both seminal and genital secretions, can be inactivated in such fluids by direct exposure to benzalkonium chloride. PMID:1688873

  6. The prevalence and practice of female genital mutilation in Nnewi, Nigeria: the impact of female education.

    PubMed

    Igwegbe, A O; Egbuonu, I

    2000-09-01

    Three hundred and twenty-five consecutive live female deliveries at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi were followed up for 9 months for evidence of any genital mutilation. Their mothers were examined for genital mutilation and a questionnaire based on face-to-face interview of the mothers was also administered. There was no genital mutilation observed among the 200 female babies whose mothers completed the 9 months follow up, The prevalence of genital mutilation among the mothers was 48%. The prevalence of female genital mutilation among the mothers increased with age. The circumcision index C.I. was zero and 3.0 at 16-20 years and 31-35 years age groups, respectively. Also the prevalence decreased with increasing level of education. The circumcision index was 1.0 for mothers at primary level education and least 0.33 at tertiary level of education. There was no relationship with parity. None of the mothers was willing to allow genital mutilation to be performed on her baby but 36% applied local treatment to the clitoris especially powder (28%). Dystocia was the commonest complication in the mothers and the knowledge about female genital mutilation was acquired informally from fellow women. Female education is paramount in the campaign and advocacy against female genital mutilation.

  7. Impact of genital warts on emotional and sexual well-being differs by gender.

    PubMed

    Vriend, Henrike J; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T; van der Sande, Marianne A B

    2014-11-01

    To assess gender-specific impact of genital warts on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and to explore to what extent sexual characteristics and clinical symptoms influenced the impact on emotional and sexual well-being of both sexes. We conducted a survey of sexual and clinical characteristics from persons diagnosed with genital warts at STI clinics. HRQoL was measured using two measurement tools: 1) the generic EQ-5D; and 2) the genital warts-specific CECA-10 including an emotional well-being and a sexual activity dimension. The EQ-5D scores were compared with scores of the general population. Descriptive analyses were used to explore characteristics associated with HRQoL scores stratified for gender. The HRQoL-measurement tools showed that genital warts have especially an emotional impact. The impact of genital warts on HRQoL was greater for women than for men. In addition, the CECA-10 showed that in women the impact of genital warts on sexual activity was influenced by age, relationship status and number of warts. No related factors were seen in men. Genital warts have a greater impact on women than on men. In women, sexual and clinical factors influenced the impact of genital warts on well-being, whereas in men no such factors were found.

  8. Pediatric Genital Injury: An Analysis of the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Jessica T.; Bjurlin, Marc A.; Cheng, Earl Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the characteristics of pediatric genital injuries presenting to United States emergency departments (EDs). Methods A retrospective cohort study utilizing the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) from 1991-2010 to evaluate pediatric genital injuries was performed. Results Pediatric genital injuries represented 0.6% of all pediatric injuries with the incidence of injuries rising through the period studied, 1991-2010. The mean age at injury was 7.1 years old and was distributed 56.6% girls and 43.4% boys. A total of 43.3% had lacerations and 42.2% had contusions/abrasions. The majority of injuries occurred at home (65.9%), and the majority of patients (94.7%) were treated and released from the hospital. The most common consumer products associated with pediatric genital trauma were: bicycles (14.7% of all pediatric genital injuries), bathtubs (5.8%), daywear (5.6%), monkey bars (5.4%), and toilets (4.0%). Conclusion Although pediatric genital injuries represent a small proportion of overall injuries presenting to the ED, genital injuries continue to rise despite public health measures targeted to decrease childhood injury. Our results can be used to guide further prevention strategies for pediatric genital injury. PMID:23953603

  9. Case report: symptomatic oral herpes simplex virus type 2 and asymptomatic genital shedding.

    PubMed

    Olin, Laura; Wald, Anna

    2006-05-01

    A 42-year-old bisexual man with a history of recurrent oral herpes and no history of genital herpes was noted to have antibody to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) only. During a symptomatic oral recurrence, HSV-2 was found in a perioral lesion as well as in the genital area.

  10. In Their Own Words: A Qualitative Content Analysis of Women's and Men's Preferences for Women's Genitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullinax, Margo; Herbenick, Debby; Schick, Vanessa; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Reece, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Research increasingly shows that genital attitudes have an impact on sexual well-being and health-seeking behaviours. This study explored what women and men like and dislike about women's genitals. Data are from open-ended items, part of a cross-sectional internet-based survey anonymously completed by 496 women and 198 men. Overall, both women and…

  11. Routine Testing for Genital Herpes of Little Benefit: U.S. Experts

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162650.html Routine Testing for Genital Herpes of Little Benefit: U.S. Experts Early diagnosis won' ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Routine blood test screening for genital herpes is not recommended for teens and adults -- including ...

  12. A New Measure for Distress during Child Sexual Abuse Examinations: The Genital Examination Distress Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gully, Kevin J.; Britton, Helen; Hansen, Karen; Goodwill, Kristopher; Nope, Joni L.

    1999-01-01

    A study (n=242) investigated the effectiveness of a simple seven-item scale designed to quantify indices of emotional distress during the rectal-genital phase of a child sexual-abuse examination. The Genital Examination Distress Scale found increased distress was associated with positive physical findings. (CR)

  13. Ultrastructural age-related changes in the sensory corpuscles of the human genital skin.

    PubMed

    Tammaro, A; Parisella, F R; Cavallotti, C; Persechino, S; Cavallotti, C

    2013-01-01

    In human genital skin the majority of superficial sensory corpuscles is represented by glomerular corpuscles. These corpuscles show an own morphology. Our aim is to compare the ultra-structure of superficial sensory corpuscles in the penis skin of younger and older subjects. In this report the ultra-structure of the sensitive corpuscle in the penis skin of the younger and older subjects was compared, showing that the genital skin of the older humans contains more simple complexes than the younger ones. Our findings support the view that the age-related changes that can be observed in human glomerular genital corpuscles are consistent with an increase of the simple complexes and a strong decrease of the poly-lamellar one in the older people. These findings demonstrate that human genital corpuscles underwent age-related changes. Moreover our morphological findings can be correlated in relation to the clinical evolution of the sensitivity in the genital skin.

  14. Exorcising excision: medico-legal issues arising from male and female genital surgery in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mason, C

    2001-08-01

    Genital surgery is one of the most controversial and contested practices, yet it is frequently described and referred to with little or no attention to cultural and social context. This article examines the practice, performed on both men and women, and the extent to which it clashes with issues of consent and capacity, as well as multicultural concepts of toleration for minority group practices. It then questions why female genital surgery, unlike male genital surgery, is legally prohibited in Australia. It argues that such legal gender bias stems from a liberal conception of "tolerance" and the limits of consent in Australia, placing female genital surgery in an "unacceptable" category and male genital surgery in an "acceptable" category.

  15. Development of Loxosceles intermedia Mello-Leitão (1934) (Araneae, Sicariidae) genital tract.

    PubMed

    Margraf, A; Costa-Ayub, C L S; Okada, M A; Gomes, J R; Ortolani-Machado, C F; Soares, M A M

    2011-08-01

    We examined the post-embryonic development of the male and female genital apparatus of the brown spider, Loxosceles intermedia. The development of the genital apparatus for both sexes begins with the appearance of inner structures. In the male genital apparatus, formation of the testes occurs first, followed by differentiation of the duct, ampulla and vas deferens, and finally the formation of the genital opening and differentiation of the copulatory organ (secondary sexual characteristic). Similarly, the development of the female genital apparatus begins with the formation of the ovaries, followed by the appearance of oocytes in vitellogenesis, then the development of oviducts and uterus internus and, finally, the spermatheca. These data may be very important in further comparative studies on the development of the reproductive system of spiders.

  16. Disability in female immigrants with ritually inflicted genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot-klein, H

    1993-01-01

    The ritual genital mutilation of females is widely practiced across the greater part of the African continent affecting an estimated 100 million women in more than 25 countries. The practice also exists to a lesser extent along the Arab peninsula and in parts of Asia. Approximately 200,000 immigrants have come to the US over the past decade from such countries. Many of the women among this immigrant population are severely disabled by social constraints, chronic pain, and impaired mobility. They only rarely present, however, at conventional medical facilities because they are prevented by men and/or they do not expect their specialized medical problems to be understood or handled compassionately. The author spent 32 months between 1979 and 1984 in Sudan, Kenya, and Egypt researching female genital mutilation. She describes the immediate and long-term medical consequences of the process and condition, especially with regard to menstruation and childbirth. The significance of the procedure as a social phenomenon is explained in historical terms and in terms of the values of the societies in which it is established, with consideration given to how a working relationship may be established with the immigrant women.

  17. Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst and Type 2 Radical Genital Mutilation

    PubMed Central

    Birge, Ozer; Ozbey, Ertugrul Gazi; Arslan, Deniz; Erkan, Mustafa Melih; Demir, Feyza; Akgor, Utku

    2015-01-01

    About 100 million women are estimated to be circumcised globally. Various rates of complications have been encountered, especially after circumcision, such as bleeding, infection, shock, menstrual irregularity, difficulty in urination or common urinary tract infections, inguinal pain, difficulty in sexual intercourse, and genital circumcision scar especially at the vulvar region, and cystic or solid character mass in short and long term. Furthermore, the maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality increase due to bleeding and fistula, which develop after prolonged labor, travail, and difficult labors. Our aim in this paper was to discuss a 42-year-old multiparous female case who had undergone type 2 radical genital mutilation (circumcision) when she was 7 years of age, along with the literature, which has been evaluated for the gradually growing mass at the left inguinal canal region in the last 10 years and diagnosed as epidermoid inclusion cyst developing secondary to postcircumcision surgical ground trauma, since there was no other case found in the literature search that had been circumcised at such an early age and developing after circumcision at such advanced age, and, therefore, this is suggested to be the first case on this subject. PMID:26682078

  18. Fitness consequences of artificial selection on relative male genital size

    PubMed Central

    Booksmythe, Isobel; Head, Megan L.; Keogh, J. Scott; Jennions, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Male genitalia often show remarkable differences among related species in size, shape and complexity. Across poeciliid fishes, the elongated fin (gonopodium) that males use to inseminate females ranges from 18 to 53% of body length. Relative genital size therefore varies greatly among species. In contrast, there is often tight within-species allometric scaling, which suggests strong selection against genital–body size combinations that deviate from a species' natural line of allometry. We tested this constraint by artificially selecting on the allometric intercept, creating lines of males with relatively longer or shorter gonopodia than occur naturally for a given body size in mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki. We show that relative genital length is heritable and diverged 7.6–8.9% between our up-selected and down-selected lines, with correlated changes in body shape. However, deviation from the natural line of allometry does not affect male success in assays of attractiveness, swimming performance and, crucially, reproductive success (paternity). PMID:27188478

  19. Mental health problems associated with female genital mutilation

    PubMed Central

    Knipscheer, Jeroen; Vloeberghs, Erick; van der Kwaak, Anke; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Aims and method To study the mental health status of 66 genitally mutilated immigrant women originating from Africa (i.e. Somalia, Sudan, Eritrea and Sierra Leone). Scores on standardised questionnaires (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-30, Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, COPE-Easy, Lowlands Acculturation Scale) and demographic and psychosocial correlates were analysed. Results A third of the respondents reported scores above the cut-off for affective or anxiety disorders; scores indicative for post-traumatic stress disorder were presented by 17.5% of women. Type of circumcision (infibulation), recollection of the event (a vivid memory), coping style (avoidance, in particular substance misuse) and employment status (lack of income) were significantly associated with psychopathology. Clinical implications A considerable minority group, characterised by infibulated women who have a vivid memory of the circumcision and cope with their symptoms in an avoidant way, reports to experience severe consequences of genital circumcision. In terms of public healthcare, interventions should target these groups as a priority. PMID:26755984

  20. Campaigning against female genital mutilation in Ethiopia using popular education.

    PubMed

    Spadacini, B; Nichols, P

    1998-07-01

    In Ethiopia, the Italian Association for Women in Development (AIDOS) has been working with Ethiopia's National Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children for 5 years. AIDOS began working on female genital mutilation in the early 1980s and rejects charges of cultural imperialism that are applied to Northern organizations attempting to help African organizations address this violation of universal human rights. In Ethiopia, 85% of women are mutilated, with most undergoing Sunna, or removal of the prepuce of the clitoris. The joint project seeks to increase awareness about the health consequences of female genital mutilation in the target group. The primary technique used is provision of training of trainers courses and presentation of four modular units and audiovisual materials specifically designed for use with socially influential women, male and female secondary school students, community leaders, and health workers. In addition, an information/education campaign uses videos and sound and slide shows with accompanying story books. A second category of communication tools was developed for a mass information campaign, including radio spots, posters, information leaflets, and a newsletter. When the project was ready for expansion into the southern region of the country, it became clear that a new participatory communication strategy was required to stimulate discussion, such as the use of role playing and theater. Working together, the two organizations have successfully confronted project constraints such as the difficulty in assessing project impact, scheduling problems, and gender-biased assess to information.

  1. Valacyclovir. New indication: for genital herpes, simpler administration.

    PubMed Central

    1999-01-01

    Valacyclovir, the metabolic precursor of acyclovir, is now approved for treatment and prevention of genital infection with herpes simplex viruses. The clinical file is bulky and methodologically sound. For treatment of a first episode of genital herpes, a large comparative trial has shown that valacyclovir (1 g twice a day) is as effective as acyclovir (200 mg five times a day) when given for 10 days. For treating recurrences, two trials show that valacyclovir is as effective as acyclovir (200 mg five times a day) with a treatment period of 5 days. A daily dose of 1 g of valacyclovir is as effective as 2 g daily. Valacyclovir can be administered once a day. For prevention among patients with frequent recurrences, the efficacy of valacyclovir (500 mg/d in a single dose) has been proven in a placebo-controlled trial lasting 4 months. In these trials, valacyclovir and acyclovir were both well tolerated, with no major differences between the two drugs. PMID:10424269

  2. Stop female genital mutilation: appeal to the international dermatologic community.

    PubMed

    Morrone, Aldo; Hercogova, Jana; Lotti, Torello

    2002-05-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a traditional cultural practice, but also a form of violence against girls, which affects their lives as adult women. FGM comprises a wide range of procedures: the excision of the prepuce; the partial or total excision of the clitoris (clitoridectomy) and labia; or the stitching and narrowing of the vaginal orifice (infibulation). The number of girls and women who have been subjected to FGM is estimated at around 137 million worldwide and 2 million girls per year are considered at risk. Most females who have undergone mutilation live in 28 African countries. Globalization and international migration have brought an increased presence of circumcised women in Europe and developed countries. Healthcare specialists need to be made aware and trained in the physical, psychosexual, and cultural aspects and effects of FGM and in the response to the needs of genitally mutilated women. Health education programs targeted at immigrant communities should include information on sexuality, FGM, and reproduction. Moreover, healthcare workers should both discourage women from performing FGM on their daughters and receive information on codes of conduct and existing laws. The aim is the total eradication of all forms of FGM.

  3. Determinants of disclosure of genital herpes to partners

    PubMed Central

    Green, J; Ferrier, S; Kocsis, A; Shadrick, J; Ukoumunne, O; Murphy, S; Hetherton, J

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors which determine whether and when patients will disclose infection with genital herpes to sexual partners. Methods: The sample was 26 women and 24 men attending a herpes clinic in a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Semistructured interviews yielded quantitative data and also qualitative data which were subjected to content analysis. Results: Characteristics of partners were very important in determining whether disclosure occurred. Respondents were less likely to tell partners regarded as casual. Perception of the likely reaction of partners was important in deciding whether to tell. Many respondents assumed that they were not infectious if they were not currently having an attack or if they were taking antiviral medication. The decision whether to tell tended to be based on considerations of likely discovery and of honesty towards the partner rather than control of transmission. Of patient characteristics only self rated depressed mood was related to disclosure to the most recent partner. Conclusions: Perception of the partner and anticipated partner response is crucially important in determining whether and when disclosure of genital herpes infection occurs. PMID:12576613

  4. Effect of experimental genital mycoplasmosis on gene expression in the fetal brain.

    PubMed

    Burton, Aiyanna; Kizhner, Oskar; Brown, Mary B; Peltier, Morgan R

    2012-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders may have their origins during intrauterine development. We used a well-defined animal model to test whether hematogenous infection with genital mycoplasma would alter the expression of genes associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In a preliminary experiment, rats were exposed at 14 days gestation (GD14) to Mycoplasma pulmonis or sterile broth and sacrificed at GD18. Infection and inflammation status of the pups was ascertained by culture and cytokine ELISA. Intra-cardiac injection of 10(6)CFU M. pulmonis resulted in amniotic infection of 100% of the pups and was accompanied by higher levels of IL-1β in amniotic fluids. In a second experiment, animals were infected in a similar manner but dams and their litters were sacrificed at GD18, GD21 or postpartum day 3 (PPD3). Expression of proinflammatory cytokines and neurodevelopmental genes in the fetal brains was evaluated. M. pulmonis infection significantly increased the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and COX-2 in fetal and neonatal brains. Expression of GFAP and CD11b, markers for activation on astrocytes and microglial cells, respectively, was also increased for infected animals. M. pulmonis significantly increased SHANK-3 gene expression at GD21 and PPD3 and PCP-2 expression at GD21. No effect of M. pulmonis infection on Reelin, PTEN, BDNF or HGF was detected. These data suggest that M. pulmonis infection at GD14 increases the expression of proinflammatory genes in the perinatal brain. Further studies with earlier time-points of infection and ones that use behavioral outcomes are needed to better understand the potential role of genital mycoplasmosis on pychopathology.

  5. Dermoscopic and Clinical Features of Pigmented Skin Lesions of the Genital Area*

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Emiroglu, Nazan; Wellenhof, Rainer Hofmann

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The dermoscopic features of vulvar melanosis lesions are well known. To our knowledge, there are only a few case reports about dermoscopic features of pigmented genital lesions in male patients. OBJECTIVE To evaluate dermoscopic and clinical characteristics of benign lesions of the genital area in both males and females, and to assess the distinguishing dermoscopic criteria of vulvar melanosis and atypical melanocytic nevi of the genital type. METHODS 68 patients with pigmented genital lesions were included in this observational study (28 male and 40 female). A punch biopsy was taken from all pigmented lesions and histopathological examination was performed on all specimens. RESULTS We histopathologically diagnosed: genital melanosis in 40 lesions, atypical melanocytic nevi of the genital type in 15 lesions, melanocytic nevi in 9 lesions, seborrheic keratosis in 4 lesions. The most frequent locations were the glans penis (19 patients, 67.9%) in males and the labia minora (19 patients, 47.5%) in females. The mean age of patients with atypical nevi (28,6 ± 11,36) was significantly lower than the mean age of patients with genital melanosis (47,07 ± 15,33). CONCLUSIONS Parallel pattern is prominent in genital melanosis, ring-like pattern is only observed in genital melanosis. Most pigmented lesions on the genital area are solitary. Blue-white veil and irregular dots are only observed in AMNGT. According to these results, we propose that histopathological examination is performed, especially if blue-white veil and irregular dots are found by dermoscopy. PMID:25830986

  6. The Recall Response Induced by Genital Challenge with Chlamydia muridarum Protects the Oviduct from Pathology but Not from Reinfection

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Melissa M.; Zurenski, Matthew A.; Frazer, Lauren C.; O'Connell, Catherine M.; Andrews, Charles W.; Mintus, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The significant morbidities of ectopic pregnancy and infertility observed in women after Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection result from ascension of the bacteria from the endocervix to the oviduct, where an overly aggressive inflammatory response leads to chronic scarring and Fallopian tube obstruction. A vaccine to prevent chlamydia-induced disease is urgently needed. An important question for vaccine development is whether sterilizing immunity at the level of the oviduct is essential for protection because of the possibility that a chlamydial component drives a deleterious anamnestic T cell response upon oviduct reinfection. We show that mice inoculated with attenuated plasmid-cured strains of Chlamydia muridarum are protected from oviduct pathology upon challenge with wild-type C. muridarum Nigg despite induction of a response that did not prevent reinfection of the oviduct. Interestingly, repeated abbreviated infections with Nigg also elicited recall responses that protected the oviduct from pathology despite low-level reinfection of this vulnerable tissue site. Challenged mice displayed significant decreases in tissue infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes with marked reductions in frequencies of neutrophils but significant increases in frequencies of CD4 Th1 and CD8 T cells. An anamnestic antibody response was also detected. These data indicate that exposure to a live attenuated chlamydial vaccine or repeated abbreviated genital infection with virulent chlamydiae promotes anamnestic antibody and T cell responses that protect the oviduct from pathology despite a lack of sterilizing immunity at the site. PMID:22431649

  7. The recall response induced by genital challenge with Chlamydia muridarum protects the oviduct from pathology but not from reinfection.

    PubMed

    Riley, Melissa M; Zurenski, Matthew A; Frazer, Lauren C; O'Connell, Catherine M; Andrews, Charles W; Mintus, Margaret; Darville, Toni

    2012-06-01

    The significant morbidities of ectopic pregnancy and infertility observed in women after Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection result from ascension of the bacteria from the endocervix to the oviduct, where an overly aggressive inflammatory response leads to chronic scarring and Fallopian tube obstruction. A vaccine to prevent chlamydia-induced disease is urgently needed. An important question for vaccine development is whether sterilizing immunity at the level of the oviduct is essential for protection because of the possibility that a chlamydial component drives a deleterious anamnestic T cell response upon oviduct reinfection. We show that mice inoculated with attenuated plasmid-cured strains of Chlamydia muridarum are protected from oviduct pathology upon challenge with wild-type C. muridarum Nigg despite induction of a response that did not prevent reinfection of the oviduct. Interestingly, repeated abbreviated infections with Nigg also elicited recall responses that protected the oviduct from pathology despite low-level reinfection of this vulnerable tissue site. Challenged mice displayed significant decreases in tissue infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes with marked reductions in frequencies of neutrophils but significant increases in frequencies of CD4 Th1 and CD8 T cells. An anamnestic antibody response was also detected. These data indicate that exposure to a live attenuated chlamydial vaccine or repeated abbreviated genital infection with virulent chlamydiae promotes anamnestic antibody and T cell responses that protect the oviduct from pathology despite a lack of sterilizing immunity at the site.

  8. OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral protection against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection by enhancing type I interferon production.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Eun; Lee, Myeong Sup; Kim, Young-Joon; Lee, Heung Kyu

    2016-01-11

    Type I interferon (IFN) interferes with virus replication, promotes antiviral responses, and controls innate and adaptive immune responses to certain viruses. Recently, we reported that 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase-like 1 (OASL1) negatively regulates type I IFN production by inhibiting the translation of the type I IFN-regulating master transcription factor, IRF7. Notably, while OASL1-deficient mice induce robust production of type I IFN and are resistant to systemic viral infection, the effects of OASL1 during localized viral infection has not been studied. To this end, we investigated the role of OASL1 during mucosal HSV-2 infection of the genital tract. Oasl1(-/-) mice exhibited better survival rates than wild type (WT) mice following intravaginal HSV-2 infection, and suppressed virus replication more efficiently despite comparable recruitment of effector immune cells. Moreover, Ly6C(high) monocytes, and not pDCs or other cell types, displayed enhanced production of type I IFNs in Oasl1(-/-) mice in response to HSV-2 infection. Furthermore, cytotoxic T cell responses including IFN-γ production were accelerated in Oasl1(-/-) mice after mucosal HSV-2 infection. Collectively, these results demonstrate that OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral immunity against local mucosal viral infection and suggest that OASL1 could be a therapeutic target for treatment of HSV-2 infection of the genital mucosa.

  9. Immunobiology of genital tract trauma: Endocrine Regulation of HIV Acquisition in Women Following Sexual Assault or Genital Tract Mutilation

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Mimi; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Wira, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    Studies on HIV acquisition and transmission in women exposed to sexual trauma throughout their life cycle are lacking but some findings suggest that rates of HIV acquisition through coercive sex are significantly higher than that seen in consensual sex. Sexual trauma can also occur as a result of female genital mutilation, which makes sex extremely painful and can cause increased abrasions, lacerations and inflammation, which enhances the risk of HIV acquisition. This review presents an overview of the immune system in the human female reproductive tract from adolescence, through puberty to pregnancy and menopause. What is clear is that the foundation of information on immune protection in the female reproductive tract throughout the life cycle of women is extremely limited and at some stages such as adolescence and menopause are grossly lacking. Against this back backdrop, forced or coercive sexual intercourse as well as genital mutilation further complicates our understanding of the biological risk factors that can result in transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. PMID:23034063

  10. Longitudinal assessment of pigtailed macaque lower genital tract microbiota by pyrosequencing reveals dissimilarity to the genital microbiota of healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Spear, Gregory T; Kersh, Ellen; Guenthner, Patricia; Vishwanathan, Sundaram Ajay; Gilbert, Douglas; Zariffard, M Reza; Mirmonsef, Paria; Landay, Alan; Zheng, Luyang; Gillevet, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    Vaginal bacterial communities play an important role in human health and have been shown to influence HIV infection. Pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) are used as an animal model of HIV vaginal infection of women. Since the bacterial microbiota could influence retrovirus infection of pigtailed macaques, the genital microbiota in 10 cycling macaques was determined by pyrosequencing. The microbiota of all macaques was polymicrobial with a median of 13 distinct genera. Strikingly, the genera Sneathia and Fusobacterium, both in the phylum Fusobacteria, accounted for 18.9% and 13.3% of sequences while the next most frequent were Prevotella (5.6%), Porphyromonas (4.1%), Atopobium (3.6%), and Parvimonas (2.6%). Sequences corresponding to Lactobacillus comprised only 2.2% of sequences on average and were essentially all L. amylovorus. Longitudinal sampling of the 10 macaques over an 8-week period, which spanned at least one full ovulatory cycle, showed a generally stable presence of the major types of bacteria with some exceptions. These studies show that the microbiota of the pigtailed macaques is substantially dissimilar to that found in most healthy humans, where the genital microbiota is usually dominated by Lactobacillus sp. The polymicrobial makeup of the macaque bacterial populations, the paucity of lactobacilli, and the specific types of bacteria present suggest that the pigtailed macaque microbiota could influence vaginal retrovirus infection.

  11. Longitudinal Assessment of Pigtailed Macaque Lower Genital Tract Microbiota by Pyrosequencing Reveals Dissimilarity to the Genital Microbiota of Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kersh, Ellen; Guenthner, Patricia; Vishwanathan, Sundaram Ajay; Gilbert, Douglas; Zariffard, M. Reza; Mirmonsef, Paria; Landay, Alan; Zheng, Luyang; Gillevet, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vaginal bacterial communities play an important role in human health and have been shown to influence HIV infection. Pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) are used as an animal model of HIV vaginal infection of women. Since the bacterial microbiota could influence retrovirus infection of pigtailed macaques, the genital microbiota in 10 cycling macaques was determined by pyrosequencing. The microbiota of all macaques was polymicrobial with a median of 13 distinct genera. Strikingly, the genera Sneathia and Fusobacterium, both in the phylum Fusobacteria, accounted for 18.9% and 13.3% of sequences while the next most frequent were Prevotella (5.6%), Porphyromonas (4.1%), Atopobium (3.6%), and Parvimonas (2.6%). Sequences corresponding to Lactobacillus comprised only 2.2% of sequences on average and were essentially all L. amylovorus. Longitudinal sampling of the 10 macaques over an 8-week period, which spanned at least one full ovulatory cycle, showed a generally stable presence of the major types of bacteria with some exceptions. These studies show that the microbiota of the pigtailed macaques is substantially dissimilar to that found in most healthy humans, where the genital microbiota is usually dominated by Lactobacillus sp. The polymicrobial makeup of the macaque bacterial populations, the paucity of lactobacilli, and the specific types of bacteria present suggest that the pigtailed macaque microbiota could influence vaginal retrovirus infection. PMID:22264029

  12. Changes in HIV-1 Subtypes B and C Genital Tract RNA in Women and Men After Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fiscus, Susan A.; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Eshete, Abel Tilahun; Hughes, Michael D.; Bao, Yajing; Hosseinipour, Mina; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Badal-Faesen, Sharlaa; Dragavon, Joan; Coombs, Robert W.; Braun, Ken; Moran, Laura; Hakim, James; Flanigan, Timothy; Kumarasamy, N.; Campbell, Thomas B.; Klingman, Karin L.; Nair, Apsara; Walawander, Ann; Smeaton, Laura M.; De Gruttola, Victor; Martinez, Ana I.; Swann, Edith; Barnett, Ronald L.; Brizz, Barbara; Delph, Yvette; Gettinger, Nikki; Mitsuyasu, Ronald T.; Eshleman, Susan; Safren, Steven; Andrade, Adriana; Haas, David W.; Amod, Farida; Berthaud, Vladimir; Bollinger, Robert C.; Bryson, Yvonne; Celentano, David; Chilongozi, David; Cohen, Myron; Collier, Ann C.; Currier, Judith Silverstein; Eron, Joseph; Firnhaber, Cynthia; Flexner, Charles; Gallant, Joel E.; Gulick, Roy M.; Hammer, Scott M.; Hoffman, Irving; Kazembe, Peter; Kumwenda, Johnstone; Kumwenda, Newton; Lama, Javier R.; Lawrence, Jody; Maponga, Chiedza; Martinson, Francis; Mayer, Kenneth; Nielsen, Karin; Pendame, Richard B.; Ramratnam, Bharat; Rooney, James F.; Sanchez, Jorge; Sanne, Ian; Schooley, Robert T.; Snowden, Wendy; Solomon, Suniti; Tabet, Steve; Taha, Taha; Uy, Jonathan; van der Horst, Charles; Wanke, Christine; Gormley, Joan; Marcus, Cheryl J.; Putnam, Beverly; Ntshele, Smanga; Loeliger, Edde; Pappa, Keith A.; Webb, Nancy; Shugarts, David L.; Winters, Mark A.; Descallar, Renard S.; Sharma, Jabin; Poongulali, S.; Cardoso, Sandra Wagner; Faria, Deise Lucia; Berendes, Sima; Burke, Kelly; Kanyama, Cecelia; Kayoyo, Virginia; Samaneka, Wadzanai P.; Chisada, Anthony; Santos, Breno; La Rosa, Alberto; Infante, Rosa; Balfour, Henry H.; Mullan, Beth; Kim, Ge-Youl; Klebert, Michael K.; Mildvan, Donna; Revuelta, Manuel; Jan Geiseler, P.; Santos, Bartolo; Daar, Eric S.; Lopez, Ruben; Frarey, Laurie; Currin, David; Haas, David H.; Bailey, Vicki L.; Tebas, Pablo; Zifchak, Larisa; Sha, Beverly E.; Fritsche, Janice M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces genital tract human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) load and reduces the risk of sexual transmission, but little is known about the efficacy of cART for decreasing genital tract viral load (GTVL) and differences in sex or HIV-1 subtype. Methods. HIV-1 RNA from blood plasma, seminal plasma, or cervical wicks was quantified at baseline and at weeks 48 and 96 after entry in a randomized clinical trial of 3 cART regimens. Results. One hundred fifty-eight men and 170 women from 7 countries were studied (men: 55% subtype B and 45% subtype C; women: 24% subtype B and 76% subtype C). Despite similar baseline CD4+ cell counts and blood plasma viral loads, women with subtype C had the highest GTVL (median, 5.1 log10 copies/mL) compared to women with subtype B and men with subtype C or B (4.0, 4.0, and 3.8 log10 copies/mL, respectively; P < .001). The proportion of participants with a GTVL below the lower limit of quantification (LLQ) at week 48 (90%) and week 96 (90%) was increased compared to baseline (16%; P < .001 at both times). Women were significantly less likely to have GTVL below the LLQ compared to men (84% vs 94% at week 48, P = .006; 84% vs 97% at week 96, P = .002), despite a more sensitive assay for seminal plasma than for cervical wicks. No difference in GTVL response across the 3 cART regimens was detected. Conclusions. The female genital tract may serve as a reservoir of persistent HIV-1 replication during cART and affect the use of cART to prevent sexual and perinatal transmission of HIV-1. PMID:23532477

  13. Female genital cutting in Hargeisa, Somaliland: is there a move towards less severe forms?

    PubMed

    Lunde, Ingvild Bergom; Sagbakken, Mette

    2014-05-01

    According to several sources, little progress is being made in eliminating the cutting of female genitalia. This paper, based on qualitative interviews and observations, explores perceptions of female genital cutting and elimination of the phenomenon in Hargeisa, Somaliland. Two main groups of participants were interviewed: (1) 22 representatives of organisations whose work directly relates to female genital cutting; and (2) 16 individuals representing different groups of society. It was found that there is an increasing use of medical staff and equipment when a girl undergoes the procedure of female genital cutting; the use of terminology is crucial in understanding current perceptions of female genital cutting; religion is both an important barrier and facilitator of elimination; and finally, traditional gender structures are currently being challenged in Hargeisa. The findings of this study suggest that it is important to consider current perceptions on practices of female genital cutting and on abandonment of female genital cutting, in order to gain useful knowledge on the issue of elimination. The study concludes that elimination of female genital cutting is a multifaceted process which is constantly negotiated in a diversity of social settings.

  14. Genital and subjective sexual arousal in postmenopausal women: influence of laboratory-induced hyperventilation.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2002-01-01

    The current study was aimed at comparing genital and subjective sexual arousal in pre- and postmenopausal women and exploring the effects of heightened sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity on these parameters. Seventy-one women (25 young and premenopausal, 25 postmenopausal, and 21 age-matched premenopausal women) participated in two counterbalanced sessions consisting of genital arousal assessment with vaginal photoplethysmography and subjective arousal assessment with self-report questionnaires. SNS activity was enhanced using laboratory-induced hyperventilation. Results demonstrated no significant differences between pre- and postmenopausal women on genital and subjective measures of arousal in response to neutral and erotic films. SNS manipulation increased genital excitement only in young, premenopausal women. These data suggest that prior SNS enhancement can differentiate pre- from postmenopausal genital arousal. Data also revealed significant correlations between genital and subjective sexual arousal in older pre- and postmenopausal women, but not in young premenopausal women. These data are the first to directly compare genital-subjective correlations between pre- and postmenopausal women.

  15. Laboratory diagnosis and epidemiology of herpes simplex 1 and 2 genital infections.

    PubMed

    Glinšek Biškup, Urška; Uršič, Tina; Petrovec, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 are the main cause of genital ulcers worldwide. Although herpes simplex virus type 2 is the major cause of genital lesions, herpes simplex virus type 1 accounts for half of new cases in developed countries. Herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence rises with sexual activity from adolescence through adulthood. Slovenian data in a high-risk population shows 16% seroprevalence of HSV-2. HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNA in genital swabs was detected in 19% and 20.7%, respectively. In most cases, genital herpes is asymptomatic. Primary genital infection with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 can be manifested by a severe clinical picture, involving the vesicular skin and mucosal changes and ulcerative lesions of the vulva, vagina, and cervix in women and in the genital region in men. Direct methods of viral genome detection are recommended in the acute stage of primary and recurrent infections when manifest ulcers or lesions are evident. Serological testing is recommended as an aid in diagnosing genital herpes in patients with reinfection in atypical or already healed lesions. When herpes lesions are present, all sexual activities should be avoided to prevent transmission of infection. Antiviral drugs can reduce viral shedding and thus reduce the risk of sexual transmission of the virus.

  16. Spatial distribution of female genital mutilation in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Nwakeze, Ngozi; Kandala, Shadrack Ngianga I I

    2009-11-01

    The harmful effects of female genital mutilation (FGM) on women are recognized worldwide. Although it is practiced by persons of all socioeconomic backgrounds, there are differences within countries and between communities. The aim of this study was to use the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data to determine the spatial distribution of the prevalence of FGM and associated risk factors. Data were available for 7,620 women; 1,673 (22.0%) interviewed had had FGM and 2,168 women had living children, of whom 485 (22.4%) daughters had undergone FGM. Unmarried women were more likely to report a lower prevalence of FGM. Modernization (education and high socioeconomic status) had minimal impact on the likelihood of FGM, but education plays an important role in the mother's decision not to circumcise her daughter. It follows from these findings that community factors have a large effect on FGM, with individual factors having little effect on the distribution of FGM.

  17. [Melatonin effects on the female genital system: a brief review].

    PubMed

    Maganhin, Carla C; Carbonel, Adriana Aparecida Ferraz; Hatty, Juliana Halley; Fuchs, Luiz Fernando Portugal; Oliveira-Júnior, Itamar Souza de; Simões, Manuel de Jesus; Simões, Ricardo S; Baracat, Edmund C; Soares-Jr, José Maria

    2008-01-01

    Melatonin is secreted by the pineal gland and this is linked to the day/night cycle. It is an antioxidant and plays a fundamental role in the regulation of the jet-lag stage, in several physiological reactions and in control of the biologic rhythm. Human melatonin has an important influence on the female genital system. In fact, melatonin may influence production and action of steroids, modifying cellular signalization on the target tissue. There are many evidences that the melatonin therapy may be interfering with neoplasia development, mainly of the estrogen-dependent tumor. This paper aims to analyze the actions of melatonin on the neuroendocrine, immunological and cardiovascular systems, as well as on the reproductive function.

  18. First-episode genital herpes: interventions for men and women.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Lisa

    2017-01-25

    The mission of the Cochrane Nursing Care Field (CNCF) is to improve health outcomes through increasing the use of the Cochrane Library and supporting Cochrane's role by providing an evidence base for nurses and healthcare professionals who deliver, lead or research nursing care. The CNCF produces Cochrane Corner columns, summaries of recent nursing-care-relevant Cochrane Reviews that are regularly published in collaborating nursing-related journals. Information on the processes CNCF has developed can be accessed at: cncf.cochrane.org/evidence-transfer-program-review-summaries. This is a Cochrane review summary of: Heslop R, Roberts H, Flower D et al ( 2016 ) Interventions for men and women with their first episode of genital herpes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 8. CD010684. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010684.pub2.

  19. The lived experience of genital warts: the Swedish example.

    PubMed

    Hammarlund, Kina; Nystrom, Maria

    2004-05-01

    Our aim in this study was to analyze and describe young Swedish women's experiences of living with genital warts. Interviews with 10 young women, aged 16-21 years, were interpreted within a lifeworld hermeneutic tradition. The women experience themselves as victims of a disgusting disease. Furthermore, they appear to disregard the fact that their own lifestyles could be a risk factor for contracting venereal infections. On the other hand they get to know their bodies better after the gynecological examinations where the treatment begins. Their loss of innocence is considerable; thus it seems fair to compare this experience with earlier epochs' ideas about loss of virginity due to the first intercourse. Consequently the young women also start looking at themselves as adults, and they take responsibility for the consequences of their sexuality.

  20. Repair of congenital 'disconnected uterus': a new female genital anomaly?

    PubMed

    Kisu, Iori; Tanaka, Kyoko; Banno, Kouji; Okuda, Shigeo; Aoki, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Congenital uterine anomaly is a female genital disorder caused by developmental anomaly of the Müllerian ducts. In this report, we present a case of repair of congenital 'disconnected uterus' between the cervix and the body of the uterus. The case did not correspond to the consensus classifications that have been proposed for congenital uterine anomaly. The patient was a young woman whose chief complaints were not having first menstruation and experiencing monthly severe lower abdominal pain. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the uterine body was separated from the uterine cervix. Uteroplasty was conducted to anastomose the separated uterus. Periodic menstruation started 1 month after surgery and abdominal pain was improved. Performance of uteroplasty in this case was extremely significant and greatly improved the quality of life of the patient.

  1. Proteomes of the Female Genital Tract During the Oestrous Cycle*

    PubMed Central

    Soleilhavoup, Clement; Riou, Cindy; Tsikis, Guillaume; Labas, Valerie; Harichaux, Gregoire; Kohnke, Philippa; Reynaud, Karine; de Graaf, Simon P.; Gerard, Nadine; Druart, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The female genital tract includes several anatomical regions whose luminal fluids successively interact with gametes and embryos and are involved in the fertilisation and development processes. The luminal fluids from the inner cervix, the uterus and the oviduct were collected along the oestrous cycle at oestrus (Day 0 of the cycle) and during the luteal phase (Day 10) from adult cyclic ewes. The proteomes were assessed by GeLC-MS/MS and quantified by spectral counting. A set of 940 proteins were identified including 291 proteins differentially present along the cycle in one or several regions. The global analysis of the fluid proteomes revealed a general pattern of endocrine regulation of the tract, with the cervix and the oviduct showing an increased differential proteins abundance mainly at oestrus while the uterus showed an increased abundance mainly during the luteal phase. The proteins more abundant at oestrus included several families such as the heat shock proteins (HSP), the mucins, the complement cascade proteins and several redox enzymes. Other proteins known for their interaction with gametes such as oviductin (OVGP), osteopontin, HSPA8, and the spermadhesin AWN were also overexpressed at oestrus. The proteins more abundant during the luteal phase were associated with the immune system such as ceruloplasmin, lactoferrin, DMBT1, or PIGR, and also with tissue remodeling such as galectin 3 binding protein, alkaline phosphatase, CD9, or fibulin. Several proteins differentially abundant between estrus and the luteal phase, such as myosin 9 and fibronectin, were also validated by immunohistochemistry. The potential roles in sperm transit and uterine receptivity of the proteins differentially regulated along the cycle in the female genital tract are discussed. PMID:26518761

  2. How the length of genital parts affects copulation performance in a carabid beetle: implications for correlated genital evolution between the sexes.

    PubMed

    Okuzaki, Y; Sota, T

    2014-03-01

    To identify factors leading to the correlated evolution of exaggerated male and female genitalia, we studied the effects of the variable dimensions of corresponding functional genital parts (male copulatory piece and female vaginal appendix) on copulatory performance in the polygamous carabid beetle Carabus (Ohomopterus) maiyasanus. We used mating pairs of individuals from two populations to increase the variances in genital dimensions and determined the copulation performance (insemination and spermatophore replacement, and copulation time) in single- and double-mating situations. In single mating, insemination success was not affected by genital dimensions, although the copulation time was significantly shorter when the male aedeagus was longer. In the double-mating experiment, insemination and replacement of spermatophores by the second male succeeded more frequently when the copulatory piece was shorter and the vaginal appendix was longer, and when the difference between the length of the copulatory piece and the vaginal appendix was smaller. Thus, a matching of the corresponding genital parts between the sexes increases the male's reproductive success in sperm competition, but elongation of the copulatory piece cannot be explained simply by the improvement in male reproductive success. We discuss possible factors for the elongation of genital parts in terms of sexual conflict and reproductive interference through interspecific copulation.

  3. External genital warts: report of the American Medical Association Consensus Conference. AMA Expert Panel on External Genital Warts.

    PubMed

    Beutner, K R; Reitano, M V; Richwald, G A; Wiley, D J

    1998-10-01

    A consensus process was undertaken to describe and evaluate current information and practice regarding the diagnosis, treatment, and evaluation of patients with external genital warts (EGWs) and their sex partners. This process developed a number of key statements that were based on strong evidence in the literature or reasonable suppositions and opinions of experts. Key statements included the following. In most cases, EGWs can be diagnosed clinically by visual inspection. No one treatment is ideal for all patients or all warts. Women with EGWs and female sex partners of men with EGWs are at increased risk for human papillomavirus-related cervical disease and, like all women, should be screened for cervical cancer. The diagnosis of EGWs in children requires a sexual abuse evaluation. Clinicians who treat EGWs have a responsibility to counsel patients and to provide information about the infectivity, diagnosis, treatment, and natural history of EGWs and general information about sexual health and other sexually transmitted diseases.

  4. The female genital system of Ooperipatellus decoratus (Onychophora, Peripatopsidae): an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, C; Mummert, R; Ruhberg, H; Storch, V

    2001-08-01

    The female genital system of the oviparous peripatopsid Ooperipatellus decoratus consists of an ovary, oviducts equipped with receptacula seminis and additional pouches, uteri, and a vagina. It is examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The ovary is made up of paired ovarian tubes united anteriorly and posteriorly and differentiated into a sterile dorsal part and a fertile ventral part with exogenous oocytes. Fertilization presumably occurs in the oviducts once the oocytes pass the receptaculum seminis. Although the receptacula seminis have been reported to occur in juvenile O. decoratus females only, the present study reveals that they are present in adult females as well. Their wall consists of a cuboidal epithelium covered with a thin collagen-muscle layer. The additional pouches are projections of the oviducts facing the receptacula seminis. They are distally closed to the haemocoel by a flattened epithelium and lack external muscle cells. A thin collagen layer is only found proximally. The uteri are characterized by a columnar epithelium with folded cell membranes allowing extension of the uteri, thus facilitating the passage of the large uterine eggs towards the vagina. Another dominating feature of the uteri is a distally increasing secretory production, which probably contributes to chorion development. Cilia occurring along the entire length of the uteri are considered to assist in the transport of eggs towards the vagina.

  5. Accumulation of RNA homologous to human papillomavirus type 16 open reading frames in genital precancers

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, C.P.; Nuovo, G.; Friedman, D.; Silverstein, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    The accumulation of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16)-specific RNAs in tissue sections from biopsies of patients with genital precancers was studied by in situ hybridization with single-stranded /sup 35/S-labeled RNA. These analyses revealed that the most abundant early-region RNAs were derived from the E4 and E5 open reading frames (ORFs). RNAs homologous to the E6/E7 ORFs were also detected, whereas RNAs homologous to the intervening E1 ORF were not. This suggest that the E4 and E5 mRNAs are derived by splicing to the upstream E6/E7 ORFs, consistent with studies of HPV-11 in condylomata. Abundant RNAs homologous to the 5' portion of L1 were also detected. These RNAs were localized to the apical strata of the epithelium. HPV-16 RNAs accumulated in discrete regions of these lesions, and when present were most abundant in the upper cell layers of the precancerous epithelium. RNAs homologous to early ORFs were also detected in some germinal cells within the basal layer of the epithelium.

  6. [Implication of laparoscopy in diagnostics of genital tb among women through cytohistological testing of bioptic specimen].

    PubMed

    Lortkipanidze, G G; Vashakidze, L M; Mamaladze, T T; Gudzhabidze, N B

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostics of genital TB among women is a serious challenge because of the absence of specific clinical manifestation and difficulty to obtain material for bacteriological verification of the pathogen. All the cases with ascites and masses in pelvic cavity must undergo thorough testing to exclude tuberculosis. The present article describes 14 suspect cases of genital TB, where along with the mandatory clinical diagnostic studies (including PCR of ascites and bacteriological testing for TB, also on carcinoma of CA-125 ovary) they have conducted laparoscopy, with further cytological and bacteriological testing of bioptic sample. This method allowed us to diagnose genital and abdominal tuberculosis among women in 85,7% of cases through cytologic and histologic testing and to exclude ovarian carcinoma. Effectiveness of laparoscopy has been confirmed in diagnostics of genital and abdominal TB.

  7. Malawi study signals need for more research on female genital schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    1996-06-01

    51 women with urinary schistosomiasis underwent gynecological examinations, including colposcopy and photographic documentation of lesions, in a study conducted in 1994 at Mangochi Hospital near Lake Malawi. Microscopy of genital biopsies determined that 33 women had S. haematobium eggs in their cervix, vagina, and/or vulva. A significant correlation was identified between the size of genital lesion and the number of ova counted. Women with genital pathology had significantly more tumors in the vulva than women with schistosomiasis of the urinary tract only. Most of the observed pathology could be seen with the unaided eye. Even though the sample was very small, significantly more cases of genital schistosomiasis were found in women who had fewer children than desired and whose husbands had children with other women. Reasons for that observation were not investigated. The findings of this pilot study indicate that more research is needed to provide a better understanding of the implications of the disease upon marital and sexual lives.

  8. Towards a clean slit: how medicine and notions of normality are shaping female genital aesthetics.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Lindy Joan

    2013-01-01

    In the West, a specific ideal has emerged for female genitalia. The ideal is one of absence, a clean slit that can be attained through the removal of pubic hair and, increasingly, through female genital cosmetic surgery. This ideal is largely created in the media, which generates contradictory messages for women. The popular press, backed by medical opinion, explicitly acknowledges that a wide range of variation is normal--female genitals vary in appearance 'about as much as snowflakes'--but by showing only altered minimalist clean slits, it carries an implicit message that women should be worried if their genitals do not match up to this exacting ideal. Consequently, some women feel their genitals are not satisfactory and choose surgery. Using biomedicine to fix normal body parts in order to fashion desirable femininity, releases medicine from its rigid scientific underpinnings exposing it as an increasingly cultural and commercial pursuit.

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis and Genital Mycoplasmas: Pathogens with an Impact on Human Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica; Meštrović, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    The most prevalent, curable sexually important diseases are those caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) and genital mycoplasmas. An important characteristic of these infections is their ability to cause long-term sequels in upper genital tract, thus potentially affecting the reproductive health in both sexes. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility (TFI), and ectopic pregnancy (EP) are well documented complications of C. trachomatis infection in women. The role of genital mycoplasmas in development of PID, TFI, and EP requires further evaluation, but growing evidence supports a significant role for these in the pathogenesis of chorioamnionitis, premature membrane rupture, and preterm labor in pregnant woman. Both C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas can affect the quality of sperm and possibly influence the fertility of men. For the purpose of this paper, basic, epidemiologic, clinical, therapeutic, and public health issue of these infections were reviewed and discussed, focusing on their impact on human reproductive health. PMID:25614838

  10. Intravenous Foscarnet With Topical Cidofovir for Chronic Refractory Genital Herpes in a Patient With AIDS.

    PubMed

    Usoro, Agnes; Batts, Alfreda; Sarria, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Few case reports have documented the use of topical cidofovir for refractory genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. This drug formulation lacks a standardized concentration or even a procedural outline as to how it should be compounded. We aim to discuss the utilization of topical cidofovir in addition to presenting a procedural means of compounding it for treatment of refractory genital HSV ulcers. Our patient completed 21 days of intravenous foscarnet and 13 days of topical cidofovir with clinical improvement in the penile and scrotal ulcers. Genital herpes is a concern in patients with HIV because it generally manifests as a persistent infection. Physicians should be aware that when patients fail to respond to the conventional treatment regimens for genital HSV in a timely manner, other options are available, such as topical cidofovir as an adjuvant to systemic antivirals.

  11. The female genital dress-rehearsal: a prospective process at the oedipal threshold.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, S M

    1993-04-01

    Rather than focus on the girl's phallic identification as a compensatory reaction to her femininity, I offer a conceptual framework through which to examine how the girl symbolically masters and elaborates her biologically unfolding sexuality. Presumably, because her genital inner space can be defined and filled only through the playful retention and expulsion of an external object, the girl's phallic identification paradoxically affords her the first experience of her genital femininity. Borne out of her genital stimulation at the oedipal threshold, the genital dress-rehearsal turns on outside gestures becoming registered as sensations inside her body. As a result of her dual experience, the girl is both phallic and vaginal, giver and receiver, father and mother. Through the magic of play, the girl renegotiates her oath of fidelity to her internal, pre-oedipal mother, while laying claim to the kind of sexual vibrancy that her external, oedipal mother shares with her oedipal father.

  12. Herpes simplex virus 2 ICP0 mutant viruses are avirulent and immunogenic: implications for a genital herpes vaccine.

    PubMed

    Halford, William P; Püschel, Ringo; Rakowski, Brandon

    2010-08-17

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP0(-) mutants are interferon-sensitive, avirulent, and elicit protective immunity against HSV-1 (Virol J, 2006, 3:44). If an ICP0(-) mutant of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) exhibited similar properties, such a virus might be used to vaccinate against genital herpes. The current study was initiated to explore this possibility. Several HSV-2 ICP0(-) mutant viruses were constructed and evaluated in terms of three parameters: i. interferon-sensitivity; ii. virulence in mice; and iii. capacity to elicit protective immunity against HSV-2. One ICP0(-) mutant virus in particular, HSV-2 0DeltaNLS, achieved an optimal balance between avirulence and immunogenicity. HSV-2 0DeltaNLS was interferon-sensitive in cultured cells. HSV-2 0DeltaNLS replicated to low levels in the eyes of inoculated mice, but was rapidly repressed by an innate, Stat 1-dependent host immune response. HSV-2 0DeltaNLS failed to spread from sites of inoculation, and hence produced only inapparent infections. Mice inoculated with HSV-2 0DeltaNLS consistently mounted an HSV-specific IgG antibody response, and were consistently protected against lethal challenge with wild-type HSV-2. Based on their avirulence and immunogenicity, we propose that HSV-2 ICP0(-) mutant viruses merit consideration for their potential to prevent the spread of HSV-2 and genital herpes.

  13. Herpes Simplex Virus 2 ICP0− Mutant Viruses Are Avirulent and Immunogenic: Implications for a Genital Herpes Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Halford, William P.; Püschel, Ringo; Rakowski, Brandon

    2010-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP0− mutants are interferon-sensitive, avirulent, and elicit protective immunity against HSV-1 (Virol J, 2006, 3:44). If an ICP0− mutant of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) exhibited similar properties, such a virus might be used to vaccinate against genital herpes. The current study was initiated to explore this possibility. Several HSV-2 ICP0− mutant viruses were constructed and evaluated in terms of three parameters: i. interferon-sensitivity; ii. virulence in mice; and iii. capacity to elicit protective immunity against HSV-2. One ICP0− mutant virus in particular, HSV-2 0ΔNLS, achieved an optimal balance between avirulence and immunogenicity. HSV-2 0ΔNLS was interferon-sensitive in cultured cells. HSV-2 0ΔNLS replicated to low levels in the eyes of inoculated mice, but was rapidly repressed by an innate, Stat 1-dependent host immune response. HSV-2 0ΔNLS failed to spread from sites of inoculation, and hence produced only inapparent infections. Mice inoculated with HSV-2 0ΔNLS consistently mounted an HSV-specific IgG antibody response, and were consistently protected against lethal challenge with wild-type HSV-2. Based on their avirulence and immunogenicity, we propose that HSV-2 ICP0− mutant viruses merit consideration for their potential to prevent the spread of HSV-2 and genital herpes. PMID:20808928

  14. Women’s perspectives of female genital cutting: Q-methodology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding women’s perspectives of female genital cutting is particularly critical for understanding the roots of the problem and enhancing effectiveness of any prevention program. Very limited research has examined how people in Iraqi Kurdistan Region think about this practice. This study aimed to explore the perspectives of women of female genital cutting with the aim of uncovering discrepancies and commonalities between women of different socio-educational groups. Methods An explorative study using Q-methodology was conducted with 29 women from different educational and socio-economic statuses in Erbil, the main city of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region. Participants were asked to rank-order a set of 39 statements about different aspects of female genital cutting into a distribution on a scale of nine from “disagree most” to “agree most”. By-person factor analysis was performed with factors or latent viewpoints extracted through centroid method and varimax rotation. Results A four-factor solution and one consensus perspective provided the best conceptual fit for the women’s perspectives about female genital cutting. Factor 1, entitled “positive cultural tradition”, centers on recognizing female genital cutting as a positive cultural aspect and an essential part of the Kurdish culture. Factor 2, “active opponents”, positions around actively opposing the practice of female genital cutting and considering the practice a violation of human rights. Factor 3, “role of law”, stresses the importance of developing and enforcing law for combating female genital cutting. Factor 4, “health concerns and passive opposition”, represents the perspectives of recognizing the importance of health concerns resulting from female genital cutting and opposition of the practice but not in an active manner. A consensus perspective, “marital role”, centers primarily on lack of effect of female genital cutting on women’s marital role. Conclusions

  15. Female genital mutilation among Iraqi Kurdish women: a cross-sectional study from Erbil city

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Iraqi Kurdistan region is one of the areas where female genital mutilation is reportedly widely practiced but inadequately studied. The aim of this study was to determine (i) the prevalence of female genital mutilation among Muslim Kurdish women in Erbil city, (ii) the patterns and types of female genital mutilation, (iii) the factors associated with this practice and (iv) women’s knowledge and attitudes towards this practice. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the primary health care centers and the Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil city, involving 1987 women aged 15–49 years. Data were obtained about female genital mutilation status and knowledge and perception towards this practice. The participants were clinically examined to verify the self-reported female genital mutilation status. Results The self-reported prevalence of female genital mutilation was 70.3%, while it was 58.6% according to clinical examination of the women’s genitalia. The most common type of female genital mutilation was type I (99.6%) and the most common age at which mutilation was performed was 4–7 years (60.2%). This practice was mostly performed by traditional birth attendants (72.5%). Only 6.4% of mutilated women reported having complications after mutilation, most commonly bleeding (3.6%). The practice was more reported among housewives (OR = 3.3), those women whose mothers were mutilated (OR = 15.1) or with unknown mutilation status (OR = 7.3) and those women whose fathers were illiterate (OR = 1.4) or could only read and write (OR = 1.6). The common reasons for practicing female genital mutilation were cultural tradition (46.7%) and dictate of religion (38.9%). Only 30% of the participants were aware about the health consequences of female genital mutilation. More than one third (36.6%) of the women support the practice and 34.5% have intention to mutilate their daughters. Conclusions Prevalence of female genital mutilation

  16. Practice and perceptions of female genital mutilation among Nigerian Igbo women.

    PubMed

    Adinma, J I; Agbai, A O

    1999-01-01

    Genital mutilation occurred in 296 (48.5%) of 610 pregnant Nigerian Igbo women attending antenatal clinics. The incidence was especially high in association with high maternal age, high parity and low social class. Female genital mutilation (FGM) class 1 occurred in 75 (25.3%) cases while FGM class 2 occurred in 221 (74.7%). There was no cases of FGM class 3 (infibulation). The majority, 322 (52.8%) of the women were positively aware of their true genital mutilation status, but 288 (47.2%) showed negative response being either unaware of their true genital mutilation status or had become confused. Female genital mutilation was no longer practised in the locality of 337 (55.3%) of the women, was occasionally practised in that of 55 (9.0%) and was still fully practised in that of 88 (14.4%) of the respondents. Most of the women, 324 (53.1%) had no knowledge of any advantages of female genital mutilation. However, 157 (25.7%) believed that it discourages infidelity while 56 (9.2%) believed that it facilitated delivery. Similarly, 336 (55.1%) of the women were not aware of any risks of female genital mutilation, although 164 (26.9%) believed that it would cause difficult labour. Eighty (13.1%) of the respondents would advocate FGM for their daughters, out of which 34 (42.5%) cited cultural reasons. Four hundred and sixty-six women (76.4%) would not wish their daughters to be circumcised. The eradication of female genital mutilation must involve the identification of issues sustaining the practice in different localities and subsequent action supported either by logical persuasion following aggressive health education and by legislation.

  17. Applications and Therapeutic Actions of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Women with Genital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chenfang; Zhang, Yuehui; Yu, Yang; Han, Fengjuan

    2014-01-01

    Genital infection is a common worldwide disease among females with clinical features such as bilateral lower abdominal tenderness, abnormal vaginal or cervical discharge, fever, abnormal vaginal bleeding, dyspareunia, vaginal itching, and adnexal tenderness, which can significantly impair women's health and quality of life. Genital infection is commonly treated with antibiotics, leading to an imbalance in gut flora due to prolonged use of antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to discover safe and efficacious alternative treatment strategies for patients with genital infection. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming increasingly prevalent among women with genital infection. CAM has interested the western mainstream medical community because of its less invasive, safe, effective, economical, and convenient therapies. CAM focuses on the prevention and treatment of disease and has become an important force in treating chronic disease. During the last few decades, the popularity of CAM has gradually increased. To further understand the efficacy of CAM in treating genital infection, our paper will review the current progress of treating genital infection including vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) with CAM therapies. Several CAM strategies including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), acupuncture, Psychology interference, and physical therapy are introduced in this review. PMID:24648850

  18. Frequency of Genital Involvement in Women with Oral Lichen Planus in Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Davarmanesh, M.; Samsami Dehaghani, A.; Deilami, Z.; Monabbati, A.; Dastgheib, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Lichen Planus is a chronic mucocutaneous disease of immunological basis and unknown etiology. women with oral lichen planus may have concomitant manifestations in vulvovaginal areas. Objective. To determine the frequency and risk factors of genital involvement in a group of Iranian women affected by oral lichen planus. Methods. Thirty-six women with clinical and histopathological diagnosis of oral lichen planus were evaluated for demographic, historical, and clinical parameters of the oral disease. All the patients were referred for careful vulvovaginal examination, as well as histopathological assessment upon clinical indication. Results. Nineteen patients complained from genital symptoms but the number of women with the final diagnosis of genital lichen planus (n = 2) was too small to show any correlation with the parameters evaluated. Conclusion. In spite of low genital involvement possibly due to inadequate patient population, lack of follow-up visits, and contribution of genetic or ethnic factors, for conservative patient care, women with the oral lichen planus in particular those having some relevant genital symptoms, should preferably be referred for careful vulvovaginal examination. Multicenter cohort studies on women of different geographical regions or ethnicities who have genital lichen planus alone or in combination with other common sites are encouraged. PMID:22675343

  19. No evidence for external genital morphology affecting cryptic female choice and reproductive isolation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    LeVasseur-Viens, Hélène; Polak, Michal; Moehring, Amanda J

    2015-07-01

    Genitalia are one of the most rapidly diverging morphological features in animals. The evolution of genital morphology is proposed to be driven by sexual selection via cryptic female choice, whereby a female selectively uptakes and uses a particular male's sperm on the basis of male genital morphology. The resulting shifts in genital morphology within a species can lead to divergence in genitalia between species, and consequently to reproductive isolation and speciation. Although this conceptual framework is supported by correlative data, there is little direct empirical evidence. Here, we used a microdissection laser to alter the morphology of the external male genitalia in Drosophila, a widely used genetic model for both genital shape and cryptic female choice. We evaluate the effect of precision alterations to lobe morphology on both interspecific and intraspecific mating, and demonstrate experimentally that the male genital lobes do not affect copulation duration or cryptic female choice, contrary to long-standing assumptions regarding the role of the lobes in this model system. Rather, we demonstrate that the lobes are essential for copulation to occur. Moreover, slight alterations to the lobes significantly reduced copulatory success only in competitive environments, identifying precopulatory sexual selection as a potential contributing force behind genital diversification.

  20. Targeted interventions required against genital ulcers in African countries worst affected by HIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    O'Farrell, N.

    2001-01-01

    It remains unclear why there is such marked variation in the severity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic between African countries. The prevalence of HIV infection has reached high levels in many parts of southern Africa but in most countries of West Africa the levels are much lower. Although there is good evidence that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital ulcers in particular facilitate heterosexual transmission of HIV, there is little comparative STI data from the African countries worst affected by HIV infection. A MEDLINE search covering the period 1966 to August 2000 using the keywords "sexually transmitted diseases", "genital ulcers" and "Africa" was performed to identify factors that might be relevant to the spread of HIV infection in countries with the highest prevalences of the virus. In the countries worst affected by HIV infection, the proportions of men and women with STI who had genital ulcers lay in the ranges 45-68% and 13-68%, respectively. The proportions were much lower in countries of West Africa than in those of southern Africa. The African countries worst affected by HIV infection should adopt a more specialized approach to STI control than hitherto and specifically target the high incidence of genital ulceration. Locally, technical STI committees should draw up country-specific guidelines taking into account the prevalence of the various causes of genital ulceration. In these countries, national AIDS control programmes and donor agencies should develop a specific focus for decreasing the incidence of genital ulcer disease. PMID:11436480

  1. Condition dependence of male and female genital structures in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Cayetano, L; Bonduriansky, R

    2015-07-01

    Theory predicts that costly secondary sexual traits will evolve heightened condition dependence, and many studies have reported strong condition dependence of signal and weapon traits in a variety of species. However, although genital structures often play key roles in intersexual interactions and appear to be subject to sexual or sexually antagonistic selection, few studies have examined the condition dependence of genital structures, especially in both sexes simultaneously. We investigated the responses of male and female genital structures to manipulation of larval diet quality (new versus once-used mung beans) in the bruchid seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We quantified effects on mean relative size and static allometry of the male aedeagus, aedeagal spines, flap and paramere and the female reproductive tract and bursal spines. None of the male traits showed a significant effect of diet quality. In females, we found that longer bursal spines (relative to body size) were expressed on low-quality diet. Although the function of bursal spines is poorly understood, we suggest that greater bursal spine length in low-condition females may represent a sexually antagonistic adaptation. Overall, we found no evidence that genital traits in C. maculatus are expressed to a greater extent when nutrients are more abundant. This suggests that, even though some genital traits appear to function as secondary sexual traits, genital traits do not exhibit heightened condition dependence in this species. We discuss possible reasons for this finding.

  2. The Chlamydia-Secreted Protease CPAF Promotes Chlamydial Survival in the Mouse Lower Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhangsheng; Tang, Lingli; Shao, Lili; Zhang, Yuyang; Zhang, Tianyuan; Schenken, Robert; Valdivia, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Despite the extensive in vitro characterization of CPAF (chlamydial protease/proteasome-like activity factor), its role in chlamydial infection and pathogenesis remains unclear. We now report that a Chlamydia trachomatis strain deficient in expression of CPAF (L2-17) is no longer able to establish a successful infection in the mouse lower genital tract following an intravaginal inoculation. The L2-17 organisms were cleared from the mouse lower genital tract within a few days, while a CPAF-sufficient C. trachomatis strain (L2-5) survived in the lower genital tract for more than 3 weeks. However, both the L2-17 and L2-5 organisms maintained robust infection courses that lasted up to 4 weeks when they were directly delivered into the mouse upper genital tract. The CPAF-dependent chlamydial survival in the lower genital tract was confirmed in multiple strains of mice. Thus, we have demonstrated a critical role of CPAF in promoting C. trachomatis survival in the mouse lower genital tracts. It will be interesting to further investigate the mechanisms of the CPAF-dependent chlamydial pathogenicity. PMID:27382018

  3. Systematic review of the incidence and prevalence of genital warts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anogenital warts (AGWs) are a common, highly infectious disease caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), whose high recurrence rates contribute to direct medical costs, productivity loss and increased psychosocial impact. Because of the lack of a systematic review of the epidemiology of AGWs in the literature, this study reviewed the published medical literature on the incidence and prevalence of AGWs. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed on the worldwide incidence and prevalence of AGWs between 2001 and 2012 using the PubMed and EMBASE databases. An additional screening of abstracts from relevant sexual health and infectious disease conferences from 2009 to 2011 was also conducted. Only original studies with general adult populations (i.e., at least including ages 20 through 40 years) were included. Results The overall (females and males combined) reported annual incidence of any AGWs (including new and recurrent) ranged from 160 to 289 per 100,000, with a median of 194.5 per 100,000. New AGW incidence rates among males ranged from 103 to 168 per 100,000, with a median of 137 per 100,000 and among females from 76 to 191 per 100,000, with a median of 120.5 per 100,000 per annum. The reported incidence of recurrent AGWs was as high as 110 per 100,000 among females and 163 per 100,000 among males. Incidence peaked before 24 years of age in females and between 25 and 29 years of age among males. The overall prevalence of AGWs based on retrospective administrative databases or medical chart reviews or prospectively collected physician reports ranged from 0.13% to 0.56%, whereas it ranged from 0.2% to 5.1% based on genital examinations. Conclusions The literature suggests that AGWs are widespread and the prevalence depends on study methodology as suggested by higher rates reported from routine genital examinations versus those from treatment records. However, there remains a need for more population-based studies from certain regions

  4. A Comparison of Lower Genital Tract Glycogen and Lactic Acid Levels in Women and Macaques: Implications for HIV and SIV Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Mirmonsef, Paria; Gilbert, Douglas; Veazey, Ronald S.; Wang, Jing; Kendrick, Sabrina R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Understanding factors that affect heterosexual transmission of HIV in women is of great importance. Lactobacilli in the lower genital tract of women utilize glycogen in vaginal epithelial cells as an energy source and produce lactic acid. The resultant vaginal acidity is believed to provide protection against HIV infection. Conversely, bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by less lactic acid and a higher pH, and is associated with increased susceptibility to HIV infection. Because vaginal infection of macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) is used as a model to study HIV sexual transmission, and because previous studies have shown a paucity of lactobacilli in rhesus macaques' lower genital tract, we compared lactic acid and glycogen levels in the genital fluid of rhesus and pigtail macaques with levels found in humans. The levels of lactic acid were lower in both rhesus (median=1.2 mol lactate/mg protein) and pigtail macaques (median=0.7 mol/mg) compared to women with healthy genital microbiota (median=4.2 mol/mg). Glycogen levels were significantly lower in both rhesus (median=0.004 μg glycogen/μg protein) and pigtail macaques (median=0 μg/μg) than in women (median=0.2 μg/μg). No significant differences in glycogen or lactate levels were observed comparing longitudinally collected samples from cycling pigtail macaques. These data show that the previously reported scarcity of lactobacilli in macaques correlates with low glycogen and lactic acid levels. These findings have important implications for studies of vaginal infection of macaques with SIV or SHIV and further our understanding of how the bacterial microbiota influences HIV infection. PMID:21595610

  5. A comparison of lower genital tract glycogen and lactic acid levels in women and macaques: implications for HIV and SIV susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Mirmonsef, Paria; Gilbert, Douglas; Veazey, Ronald S; Wang, Jing; Kendrick, Sabrina R; Spear, Gregory T

    2012-01-01

    Understanding factors that affect heterosexual transmission of HIV in women is of great importance. Lactobacilli in the lower genital tract of women utilize glycogen in vaginal epithelial cells as an energy source and produce lactic acid. The resultant vaginal acidity is believed to provide protection against HIV infection. Conversely, bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by less lactic acid and a higher pH, and is associated with increased susceptibility to HIV infection. Because vaginal infection of macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) is used as a model to study HIV sexual transmission, and because previous studies have shown a paucity of lactobacilli in rhesus macaques' lower genital tract, we compared lactic acid and glycogen levels in the genital fluid of rhesus and pigtail macaques with levels found in humans. The levels of lactic acid were lower in both rhesus (median=1.2 mol lactate/mg protein) and pigtail macaques (median=0.7 mol/mg) compared to women with healthy genital microbiota (median=4.2 mol/mg). Glycogen levels were significantly lower in both rhesus (median=0.004 μg glycogen/μg protein) and pigtail macaques (median=0 μg/μg) than in women (median=0.2 μg/μg). No significant differences in glycogen or lactate levels were observed comparing longitudinally collected samples from cycling pigtail macaques. These data show that the previously reported scarcity of lactobacilli in macaques correlates with low glycogen and lactic acid levels. These findings have important implications for studies of vaginal infection of macaques with SIV or SHIV and further our understanding of how the bacterial microbiota influences HIV infection.

  6. Protection provided by a herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein C and D subunit antigen vaccine against genital HSV-2 infection in HSV-1-seropositive guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Sita; Balliet, John W; Flynn, Jessica A; Lubinski, John M; Shaw, Carolyn E; DiStefano, Daniel J; Cai, Michael; Brown, Martha; Smith, Judith F; Kowalski, Rose; Swoyer, Ryan; Galli, Jennifer; Copeland, Victoria; Rios, Sandra; Davidson, Robert C; Salnikova, Maya; Kingsley, Susan; Bryan, Janine; Casimiro, Danilo R; Friedman, Harvey M

    2014-02-01

    A prophylactic vaccine for genital herpes disease remains an elusive goal. We report the results of two studies performed collaboratively in different laboratories that assessed immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy in herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)-seropositive guinea pigs immunized and subsequently challenged intravaginally with HSV-2. In study 1, HSV-2 glycoproteins C (gC2) and D (gD2) were produced in baculovirus and administered intramuscularly as monovalent or bivalent vaccines with CpG and alum. In study 2, gD2 was produced in CHO cells and given intramuscularly with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and alum, or gC2 and gD2 were produced in glycoengineered Pichia pastoris and administered intramuscularly as a bivalent vaccine with Iscomatrix and alum to HSV-1-naive or -seropositive guinea pigs. In both studies, immunization boosted neutralizing antibody responses to HSV-1 and HSV-2. In study 1, immunization with gC2, gD2, or both immunogens significantly reduced the frequency of genital lesions, with the bivalent vaccine showing the greatest protection. In study 2, both vaccines were highly protective against genital disease in naive and HSV-1-seropositive animals. Comparisons between gD2 and gC2/gD2 in study 2 must be interpreted cautiously, because different adjuvants, gD2 doses, and antigen production methods were used; however, significant differences invariably favored the bivalent vaccine. Immunization of naive animals with gC2/gD2 significantly reduced the number of days of vaginal shedding of HSV-2 DNA compared with that for mock-immunized animals. Surprisingly, in both studies, immunization of HSV-1-seropositive animals had little effect on recurrent vaginal shedding of HSV-2 DNA, despite significantly reducing genital disease.

  7. Update of HPV-associated female genital cancers in the United States, 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    Watson, Meg; Saraiya, Mona; Wu, Xiaocheng

    2009-11-01

    In 2008, CDC published a supplement to the journal Cancer describing incidence patterns of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers prior to availability of an HPV vaccine. This report updates the information on HPV-associated female genital cancer incidence with more recent data, adds information on trends, and includes American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations. We used combined data from two federal cancer surveillance programs, CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, covering 92% of the U.S. population from 1999 to 2004, to examine recent trends and incidence of invasive cervical carcinoma and vaginal and vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Incidence of in situ vaginal and vulvar SCC are also presented. The average annual age-adjusted rate of cervical cancer among women of all races/ethnicities was 8.5/100,000. Annual cervical cancer incidence rates were highest but declined more rapidly among Hispanic and black women compared with non-Hispanic and white women. The rate of vulvar cancer among all women was 1.7/100,000 and was higher among white women than other racial groups. Vulvar cancer rates rose among black women (+2.9% per year) and were relatively stable among all other racial and ethnic groups over the 6-year period. Vaginal cancer was rare (rate 0.5/100,000); the rate was higher among black women than other racial groups and higher among Hispanic women than among non-Hispanic women. A significant decline of vaginal cancer was observed only among black women (-6.2% per year). This article confirms previous findings on racial disparities in HPV-associated female genital cancers. Any post-HPV vaccine declines in these cancers should be interpreted in light of current declines. Enhancing current cancer surveillance systems, combined with special studies to collect data on in situ or precancerous lesions of these cancers, will provide important information in

  8. Legislating Change? Responses to Criminalizing Female Genital Cutting in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Shell-Duncan, Bettina; Hernlund, Ylva; Wander, Katherine; Moreau, Amadou

    2014-01-01

    Although the international community has recently promoted legislation as an important reform strategy for ending female genital cutting (FGC), there exist divergent views on its potential effects. Supporters argue that legal prohibition of FGC has a general deterrent effect, while others argue legislation can be perceived as coercive, and derail local efforts to end the practice. This study examines the range of responses observed in rural Senegal, where a 1999 anti-FGC law was imposed on communities in which the practice was being actively contested and targeted for elimination. Drawing on data from a mixed-methods study, we analyze responses in relation to two leading theories on social regulation, the law and economics and law and society paradigms, which make divergent predictions on the interplay between social norms and legal norms. Among supporters of FGC, legal norms ran counter to social norms, and did little to deter the practice, and in some instances incited reactance or drove the practice underground. Conversely, where FGC was being contested, legislation served to strengthen the stance of those contemplating or favoring abandonment. We conclude that legislation can complement other reform strategies by creating an “enabling environment” that supports those who have or wish to abandon FGC. PMID:24771947

  9. Female genital mutilation: new laws, programs try to end practice.

    PubMed

    Chalkley, K

    1997-10-01

    A new US law criminalizes female genital mutilation (FGM) and requires notification of this fact to immigrants from Africa and the Middle East. In addition, US representative to international financial institutions are directed to oppose issuance of foreign aid to countries that lack established educational programs to eradicate FGM. FGM involves a range of procedures characterized by the amount of tissue removed and may be carried out in infants, adolescents, or new mothers. Complications include death, debilitating illness, and increased risk during child birth. FGM is firmly entrenched in countries in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of the Arab peninsula and extends to a few groups in Asia and immigrant populations in developed countries. Most women in an Egyptian study had undergone FGM and justified the practice as a way of reducing sexual desire and, thus, preserving premarital virginity. Many women also consider FGM a religious requirement, but this claim is unsubstantiated. Successful eradication campaigns in Kenya have preserved the social and coming-of-age ritual aspects of the practice while rejecting the physical mutilation, and efforts in Nigeria have focuses on health education. A New York-based group working to eradicate FGM has criticized the new US law because it requires education of affected communities without allocating the necessary funding. The group charges that the new law needs revision to remove criminal liability from family members who may object to a proposed FGM procedure but fail to report or stop it.

  10. The ongoing violence against women: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting.

    PubMed

    Muteshi, Jacinta K; Miller, Suellen; Belizán, José M

    2016-04-18

    Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) comprises different practices involving cutting, pricking, removing and sometimes sewing up external female genitalia for non-medical reasons. The practice of FGM/C is highly concentrated in a band of African countries from the Atlantic coast to the Horn of Africa, in areas of the Middle East such as Iraq and Yemen, and in some countries in Asia like Indonesia. Girls exposed to FGM/C are at risk of immediate physical consequences such as severe pain, bleeding, and shock, difficulty in passing urine and faeces, and sepsis. Long-term consequences can include chronic pain and infections. FGM/C is a deeply entrenched social norm, perpetrated by families for a variety of reasons, but the results are harmful. FGM/C is a human rights issue that affects girls and women worldwide. The practice is decreasing, due to intensive advocacy activities of international, national, and grassroots agencies. An adolescent girl today is about a third less likely to be cut than 30 years ago. However, the rates of abandonment are not high enough, and change is not happening as rapidly as necessary. Multiple interventions have been implemented, but the evidence base on what works is lacking. We in reproductive health must work harder to find strategies to help communities and families abandon these harmful practices.

  11. A mouse model for Chlamydia suis genital infection.

    PubMed

    Donati, Manuela; Di Paolo, Maria; Favaroni, Alison; Aldini, Rita; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Ostanello, Fabio; Biondi, Roberta; Cremonini, Eleonora; Ginocchietti, Laura; Cevenini, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    A mouse model for Chlamydia suis genital infection was developed. Ninety-nine mice were randomly divided into three groups and intravaginally inoculated with chlamydia: 45 mice (group 1) received C. suis purified elementary bodies (EBs), 27 (group 2) were inoculated with C. trachomatis genotype E EBs and 27 mice (group 3) with C. trachomatis genotype F EBs. Additionally, 10 mice were used as a negative control. At seven days post-infection (dpi) secretory anti-C. suis IgA were recovered from vaginal swabs of all C. suis inoculated mice. Chlamydia suis was isolated from 93, 84, 71 and 33% vaginal swabs at 3, 5, 7 and 12 dpi. Chlamydia trachomatis genotype E and F were isolated from 100% vaginal swabs up to 7 dpi and from 61 and 72%, respectively, at 12 dpi. Viable C. suis and C. trachomatis organisms were isolated from uterus and tubes up to 16 and 28 dpi, respectively. The results of the present study show the susceptibility of mice to intravaginal inoculation with C. suis. A more rapid course and resolution of C. suis infection, in comparison to C. trachomatis, was highlighted. The mouse model could be useful for comparative investigations involving C. suis and C. trachomatis species.

  12. An overview of female genital mutilation in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Tc; Anyaehie, Usb; Ezenyeaku, Cck

    2012-01-01

    Nigeria, due to its large population, has the highest absolute number of female genital mutilation (FGM) worldwide, accounting for about one-quarter of the estimated 115-130 million circumcised women in the world. The objective of this review is to ascertain the current status of FGM in Nigeria. Pertinent literature on FGM retrieved from internet services [Google search on FGM in Nigeria, www.online Nigeria, PubMed of the national library of medicine www.medconsumer. Info/tropics/fgm.htm, Biomedcentral and African Journal Online (AJOL) (FGM)] and textbooks, journals, and selected references for proper understanding of the topic was included in this review. The national prevalence rate of FGM is 41% among adult women. Evidence abound that the prevalence of FGM is declining. The ongoing drive to eradicate FGM is tackled by World Health Organization, United Nations International Children Emergency Fund, Federation of International Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO), African Union, The economic commission for Africa, and many women organizations. However, there is no federal law banning FGM in Nigeria. There is need to eradicate FGM in Nigeria. Education of the general public at all levels with emphasis on the dangers and undesirability of FGM is paramount.

  13. Promiscuous primates engage in same-sex genital interactions.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, Geoff R; Vasey, Paul L

    2016-05-01

    Same-sex genital interactions (SSGIs) occur across the order primates, yet explaining their maintenance in evolutionary terms appears problematic; as such interactions seem to counteract reproductive goals. We hypothesised that in more promiscuous species, where sexual motivation, mating effort, and non-conceptive heterosexual behaviour are greater, SSGIs may also occur at greater frequencies without necessarily impeding reproduction. We found that the expression of both male and female SSGIs were greater in multimale systems than in unimale ones. Both male and female SSGIs were positively correlated with the degree of promiscuity (relative testes mass). As mating system confers biases in the sex ratio that may influence the expression of SSGIs, we controlled for availability of members of the same-sex. When employing this control, results were largely congruent. For males, SSGIs were expressed more frequently in multimale systems. For both sexes, SSGIs were expressed more frequently with greater relative testes mass. We suggest SSGIs in primates may be a neutral by-product of selection for increases in promiscuous sexual activity, and that in certain instances these interactions may be co-opted to facilitate adaptive social functions.

  14. Traumatic Vulvar Epithelial Inclusion Cysts Following Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)

    PubMed Central

    Mack-Detlefsen, B.; Banaschak, S.; Boemers, T. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM) occurs mainly in Africa, parts of the Arabian Peninsula and parts of Asia. It is commonly associated with acute complications as well as diverse late/delayed complications. One of the most common of these late complications is progressively enlarging painless cysts of the vulva. Case Report: An 8-year-old girl from Eritrea presented to our paediatric emergency department with a progressively enlarging mass of the vulva. She had undergone a clitoridectomy and partial removal of the labia minora as an infant in Eritrea. We performed surgical excision of the cyst and reconstruction of the labia. Histology showed a traumatic squamous epithelial inclusion cyst of the vulva. Conclusion: Epithelial or dermoid cysts of the vulva following FGM are extremely rare. Symptoms often require surgical intervention. Through increasing migration, more girls and female youths with FGM are likely to present to practices and hospitals in Germany. Thus increased knowledge and awareness of the medical complications of FGM and their treatment will be necessary in years to come. PMID:26500372

  15. Role for the Wilms tumor gene in genital development?

    PubMed Central

    van Heyningen, V; Bickmore, W A; Seawright, A; Fletcher, J M; Maule, J; Fekete, G; Gessler, M; Bruns, G A; Huerre-Jeanpierre, C; Junien, C

    1990-01-01

    Detailed molecular definition of the WAGR region at chromosome 11p13 has been achieved by chromosome breakpoint analysis and long-range restriction mapping. Here we describe the molecular detection of a cytogenetically invisible 1-megabase deletion in an individual with aniridia, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias but no Wilms tumor (WT). The region of overlap between this deletion and one associated with WT and similar genital anomalies but no aniridia covers a region of 350-400 kilobases, which is coincident with the extent of homozygous deletion detected in tumor tissue from a sporadic WT. A candidate WT gene located within this region has recently been isolated, suggesting nonpenetrance for tumor expression in the first individual. The inclusion within the overlap region of a gene for WT predisposition and a gene for the best-documented WT-associated genitourinary malformations leads us to suggest that both of these anomalies result from a loss-of-function mutation at the same locus. This in turn implies that the WT gene exerts pleiotropic effect on both kidney and genitourinary development, a possibility supported by the observed expression pattern of the WT candidate gene in developing kidney and gonads. Images PMID:1973540

  16. [Current diagnosis and treatment of male genital lichen sclerosus].

    PubMed

    Lü, Jun; Huang, Xiao-Dong

    2014-07-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronically relapsing disease characterized by a long course, gradual aggravation, and a tendency towards malignancy. Once called balanitis xerotica obliterans, MGLSc has a distinct predilection for the prepuce and glans, involving the urethra when aggravating, forming scarring tissues, and causing urethral stricture, which may seriously affect the patients'quality of life with such symptoms as urinary stream narrowing, dysuria, and painful penile erection. The etiology and pathogenesis of MGLSc have not yet been adequately explained though it is generally thought to be associated with autoimmune mechanism, genetic factors, infections, local trauma, and chronic urinary irritation. MGLSc can be fairly easily diagnosed according to its clinical manifestations and histopathological results, but can be hardly cured. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are the most important approaches, which may relieve its symptoms, check its progression, and prevent its long-term sequelae. Ultrapotent topical corticosteroids are the choice for the treatment of MGLSc. For those who fail to respond to expectant medication or have dysuria due to urethral stricture and painful erection, rational surgery may be resorted to, with importance attached to long-term follow-up. This article presents an update of the diagnosis and treatment of MGLSc and MGLSc-induced urethral stricture.

  17. Managing external genital warts: practical aspects of treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Bourcier, Marc; Bhatia, Neal; Lynde, Charles; Vender, Ronald

    2013-12-01

    Rising rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in recent decades, including external genital warts (EGWs), underscore the need for effective management of this common sexually transmitted disease. Although treatment is a vital aspect that aims primarily to resolve physical symptoms, health care providers must also address the psychosocial burden that typically accompanies diagnosis, treatment, remission, and recurrence. Education and counseling are integral components of care to address the cascade of negative emotional reactions that follow diagnosis, which often include anger, shame, stigma, frustration, and fear. Health care providers should offer patient information that is clear and simple, both verbally and in written form. Research to date has shown that information is most helpful when it is conveyed in a supportive tone and avoids stigmatization. Treatment decisions should consider the patient's preferences and the clinician's ability to offer certain therapies. A locally relevant algorithm and an individualized treatment approach are recommended by various treatment guidelines to improve the chances of compliance and treatment success. Given that success rates are variable, monitoring treatment is also necessary to gauge the patient's response to treatment, local reactions, and the potential need to switch treatments. Patients diagnosed with EGWs should also be screened for other sexually transmitted diseases because coinfection is common. Vaccination is becoming an increasingly important aspect of prevention strategies for HPV infections and should be considered for eligible patients.

  18. Role for the Wilms tumor gene in genital development

    SciTech Connect

    van Heyningen, V.; Bickmore, W.A.; Seawright, A.; Fletcher, J.M.; Maule, J.; Hastie, N.D. ); Fekete, G. ); Gessler, M.; Bruns, G.A.P. ); Huerre-Jeanpierre, C.; Junien, C. ); Williams, B.R.G. )

    1990-07-01

    Detailed molecular definition of the WAGR region at chromosome 11p13 has been achieved by chromosome breakpoint analysis and long-range restriction mapping. Here the authors describe the molecular detection of a cytogenetically invisible 1-megabase deletion in an individual with aniridia, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias but no Wilms tumor (WT). The region of overlap between this deletion and one associated with WT and similar genital anomalies but no aniridia covers a region of 350-400 kilobases, which is coincident with the extent of homozygous deletion detected in tumor tissue from a sporadic WT. A candidate WT gene located within this region has recently been isolated, suggesting nonpenetrance for tumor expression in the first individual. The inclusion within the overlap region of a gene for WT predisposition and a gene for the best-documented WT-associated genitourinary malformations leads to suggest that both of these anomalies result from a loss-of-function mutation at the same locus. This in turn implies that the WT gene exerts pleiotropic effect on both kidney and genitourinary development, a possibility supported by the observed expression pattern of the WT candidate gene in developing kidney and gonads.

  19. [Genital tuberculosis and pregnancy to term. Case report].

    PubMed

    García-López, Silvia Juliana; Pérez-Martínez, Andrés; Chávez-Martínez, Sareni; Sereno-Coló, José Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Tuberculosis continues to be a worldwide public health issue, known as "the great pretender" resembling many diseases. Overall 1% of women infected with Mycobacterium species develop genital tuberculosis (GT) which is widespread more commonly during their fertility age, 20-40 years old. GT is the second most common cause of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. One of the clinical manifestations in these patients is Infertility; with a poor prognosis of a successful pregnancy even with a correct diagnosis, medical and/or surgical treatment. Most pregnancies result in ectopic pregnancies or abortions. In low income countries GT may account for 5-20% of infertility cases. It was widely believed that pregnancy represented a period of risk to women infected with tuberculosis; and actually abortion is suggested. We report a case of a 21 year old female patient who came to the General Hospital Dr. Miguel Silva in the city of Morelia, Michoacán with the diagnosis of late puerperium postpartum complicated with retained placental tissue to perform a uterine curettage. The patient had fever and anemia for which we had to perform a laparotomy exploration of the doubt of uterin perforation; the surgical findings were pathognomonic of GT for which we continue to realize Hysterectomy. The macro and microscopically pathologic findings consists in GT, confirming the diagnosis with Ziehl-Neelsen acid stain. GT findings must always be differentiated from ovarian cancer.

  20. Genital panics: constructing the vagina in women's qualitative narratives about pubic hair, menstrual sex, and vaginal self-image.

    PubMed

    Fahs, Breanne

    2014-06-01

    An emerging body of research targets women's relationship to their genitals, particularly as pubic hair removal and the promotion of female genital surgeries increase in popularity and visibility. This study asked women to discuss their subjective feelings about three related but distinct genital attitudes: pubic hair grooming, sex during menstruation, and genital/vaginal self-image. Specifically, this study applied thematic analysis to qualitative interviews with a community sample of 20 women (mean age=34, SD=13.35) from diverse ages, races, and sexual identity backgrounds to illuminate seven themes in women's narratives about their vaginas: (1) "dirty" or "gross"; (2) needing maintenance; (3) unknown or frustrating; (4) unnatural; (5) comparative; (6) ambivalent; (7) affirmative. Overwhelmingly, women used strong emotional language when discussing their genitals, often evoking descriptions of anxiety, excess, and need for control. Fusions between sexuality and body image, and connections between "genital panics" and internalized racism, sexism, and homophobia, also appeared.

  1. Genital shedding of herpes simplex virus type 2 in childbearing-aged and pregnant women living in Gabon.

    PubMed

    Ozouaki, Francis; Ndjoyi-Mbiguino, Angélique; Legoff, Jérôme; Onas, Isabelle Ndombi; Kendjo, Eric; Si-Mohamed, Ali; Mbopi-Kéou, François-Xavier; Malkin, Jean-Elie; Bélec, Laurent

    2006-02-01

    The prevalence of genital shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 and related risk factors was evaluated in a prospective population of 355 women attending the Maternity Joséphine Bongo, in Libreville, Gabon. We found a high prevalence (66%) of HSV-2 seropositivity, with a high proportion, 14%, of women harbouring HSV-2 DNA shedding in their genital secretions. HSV-2 genital shedding was positively associated with previous episodes of genital blisters, current genital ulcer, current genital blister, HIV seropositivity and HSV-2 seropositivity. The high prevalence of HSV-2 in childbearing-aged population indicates that young women living in Gabon are at high risk for HIV acquisition in HIV-seronegative women sexually exposed to HIV, for HIV transmission in HIV-infected women co-infected by HSV-2 and finally for HSV-2 vertical transmission during pregnancy.

  2. Mucosal Herpes Immunity and Immunopathology to Ocular and Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are amongst the most common human infectious viral pathogens capable of causing serious clinical diseases at every stage of life, from fatal disseminated disease in newborns to cold sores genital ulcerations and blinding eye disease. Primary mucocutaneous infection with HSV-1 & HSV-2 is followed by a lifelong viral latency in the sensory ganglia. In the majority of cases, herpes infections are clinically asymptomatic. However, in symptomatic individuals, the latent HSV can spontaneously and frequently reactivate, reinfecting the muco-cutaneous surfaces and causing painful recurrent diseases. The innate and adaptive mucosal immunities to herpes infections and disease remain to be fully characterized. The understanding of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms operating at muco-cutaneous surfaces is fundamental to the design of next-generation herpes vaccines. In this paper, the phenotypic and functional properties of innate and adaptive mucosal immune cells, their role in antiherpes immunity, and immunopathology are reviewed. The progress and limitations in developing a safe and efficient mucosal herpes vaccine are discussed. PMID:23320014

  3. Multifunctional RNA Processing Protein SRm160 Induces Apoptosis and Regulates Eye and Genital Development in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yu-Jie; Gittis, Aryn H.; Juge, François; Qiu, Chen; Xu, Yong-Zhen; Rabinow, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    SRm160 is an SR-like protein implicated in multiple steps of RNA processing and nucleocytoplasmic export. Although its biochemical functions have been extensively described, its genetic interactions and potential participation in signaling pathways remain largely unknown, despite the fact that it is highly phosphorylated in both mammalian cells and Drosophila. To begin elucidating the functions of the protein in signaling and its potential role in developmental processes, we characterized mutant and overexpression SRm160 phenotypes in Drosophila and their interactions with the locus encoding the LAMMER protein kinase, Doa. SRm160 mutations are recessive lethal, while its overexpression generates phenotypes including roughened eyes and highly disorganized internal eye structure, which are due at least in part to aberrantly high levels of apoptosis. SRm160 is required for normal somatic sex determination, since its alleles strongly enhance a subtle sex transformation phenotype induced by Doa kinase alleles. Moreover, modification of SRm160 by DOA kinase appears to be necessary for its activity, since Doa alleles suppress phenotypes induced by SRm160 overexpression in the eye and enhance those in genital discs. Modification of SRm160 may occur through direct interaction because DOA kinase phosphorylates it in vitro. Remarkably, SRm160 protein was concentrated in the nuclei of precellular embryos but was very rapidly excluded from nuclei or degraded coincident with cellularization. Also of interest, transcripts are restricted almost exclusively to the developing nervous system in mature embryos. PMID:24907259

  4. Absence of progesterone effects on chlamydial genital infection in female guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Pasley, J N; Rank, R G; Hough, A J; Cohen, C; Barron, A L

    1985-01-01

    The effect of progesterone alone and in combination with estradiol was investigated in ovariectomized and gonadally intact female guinea pigs infected with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). The course of the infection, as determined by the percentage of cells with GPIC (chlamydia) inclusions in Giemsa-stained vaginal scrapings, was not affected in animals receiving 5.0 mg of progesterone daily. Progesterone had no influence on the enhancement of infection by estradiol. In comparison with sesame oil-treated controls, infection was prolonged by four to six days (P less than .05) in animals receiving a combination of 5.0 mg of progesterone plus 1.0 microgram of estradiol or 1.0 microgram of estradiol alone each day. In ovariectomized animals, estradiol delayed the appearance of IgA antibody in genital secretions, whereas progesterone alone had no effect. Guinea pigs treated with estradiol or progesterone plus estradiol manifested an acute endometritis not observed in animals treated with progesterone alone or in controls receiving sesame oil. Although cervical ectopy, analogous to that seen in women with high levels of progesterone, was identified by histopathology in animals treated with progesterone, no enhancement of the chlamydial infection was observed.

  5. Leflunomide in the Treatment of a Pseudotumoral Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in an HIV Patient.

    PubMed

    Roger, Marie R; Anstead, Gregory M

    2017-01-01

    The patient is a 52-year-old African American man with a past medical history of HIV infection (on antiretroviral therapy, CD4 count 399 cells/µL, and undetectable HIV viral load) and recurrent genital herpes. While on valacyclovir, the patient presented with four tumorous lesions on the perineum and scrotum. A biopsy specimen stained positively with HSV-1 and HSV-2 immunostains and displayed a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. The patient received foscarnet and imiquimod for two weeks with minimal improvement. Based on the previous activity of leflunomide, which has both antiviral and immunomodulatory properties, in cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex infections, leflunomide 20 mg orally twice daily was started. The patient received 23 days of foscarnet, 14 days of topical imiquimod, and 11 days of leflunomide with approximately 80% reduction in the size of the perineal lesion. After nine months on leflunomide there was complete regression of the large perineal lesion and only two small ulcerations remained on the scrotum. Pseudotumoral herpes lesions in HIV patients represent an immune reconstitution event and are poorly responsive to the usual anti-herpes agents. This report demonstrates the successful use of leflunomide in the treatment of an HIV patient with pseudotumoral herpes. Thalidomide has also been used with some success.

  6. Leflunomide in the Treatment of a Pseudotumoral Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in an HIV Patient

    PubMed Central

    Roger, Marie R.

    2017-01-01

    The patient is a 52-year-old African American man with a past medical history of HIV infection (on antiretroviral therapy, CD4 count 399 cells/µL, and undetectable HIV viral load) and recurrent genital herpes. While on valacyclovir, the patient presented with four tumorous lesions on the perineum and scrotum. A biopsy specimen stained positively with HSV-1 and HSV-2 immunostains and displayed a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. The patient received foscarnet and imiquimod for two weeks with minimal improvement. Based on the previous activity of leflunomide, which has both antiviral and immunomodulatory properties, in cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex infections, leflunomide 20 mg orally twice daily was started. The patient received 23 days of foscarnet, 14 days of topical imiquimod, and 11 days of leflunomide with approximately 80% reduction in the size of the perineal lesion. After nine months on leflunomide there was complete regression of the large perineal lesion and only two small ulcerations remained on the scrotum. Pseudotumoral herpes lesions in HIV patients represent an immune reconstitution event and are poorly responsive to the usual anti-herpes agents. This report demonstrates the successful use of leflunomide in the treatment of an HIV patient with pseudotumoral herpes. Thalidomide has also been used with some success. PMID:28373917

  7. Predation-associated divergence of male genital morphology in a livebearing fish.

    PubMed

    Heinen-Kay, J L; Langerhans, R B

    2013-10-01

    Male genital morphology is remarkably diverse across internally fertilizing animals, a phenomenon largely attributed to sexual selection. Ecological differences across environments can alter the context of sexual selection, yet little research has addressed how this may influence the rapid, divergent evolution of male genitalia. Using the model system of Bahamas mosquitofish (Gambusia hubbsi) undergoing ecological speciation across blue holes, we used geometric morphometric methods to test (i) whether male genital shape (the small, approximately 1 mm long, distal tip of the sperm-transfer organ, the gonopodium) has diverged between populations with and without predatory fish and (ii) whether any observed divergence has a genetic basis. We additionally examined the effects of genetic relatedness and employed model selection to investigate other environmental factors (i.e. interspecific competition, adult sex ratio and resource availability) that could potentially influence genital shape via changes in sexual selection. Predation regime comprised the most important factor associated with male genital divergence in this system, although sex ratio and some aspects of resource availability had suggestive effects. We found consistent, heritable differences in male genital morphology between predation regimes: Bahamas mosquitofish coexisting with predatory fish possessed more elongate genital tips with reduced soft tissue compared with counterparts inhabiting blue holes without predatory fish. We suggest this may reflect selection for greater efficiency of sperm transfer and fertilization during rapid and often forced copulations in high-predation populations or differences in sexual conflict between predation regimes. Our study highlights the potential importance of ecological variation, particularly predation risk, in indirectly generating genital diversity.

  8. Genital mycoplasmas in women attending the Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Njunda, Anna L.; Nsagha, Dickson S.; Assob, Jules C.N.; Palle, John N.; Kamga, Henri L.; Nde, Peter F.; Ntube, Mengang N.C.; Weledji, Patrick E.

    2011-01-01

    Genital mycoplasmas are implicated in pelvic inflammatory diseases, puerperal infection, septic abortions, low birth weight, nongonococcal urethritis and prostatitis as well as spontaneous abortion and infertility in women. There is paucity of data on colonisation of genital mycoplasma in women and their drug sensitivity patterns. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas (Ureaplasma urealiticum and Mycoplasma hominis) infection and their drug sensitivity patterns in women. A mycofast kit was used for biochemical determination of mycoplasma infection in 100 randomly selected female patients aged 19–57 years, attending the University of Yaoundé Teaching Hospital (UYTH) from March to June 2010. Informed consent was sought and gained before samples were collected. Genital mycoplasmas were found in 65 patients (65%) [95% CI=55.7–74.3%] and distributed as 41 (41%) [95% CI=31.4–50.6%] for U. urealiticum and 4 (4%) [95% CI=0.20– 7.8%] for M. hominis while there was co-infection in 20 women (20%) [95% CI=12.16–27.84%]. In our study, 57 (57%) [95% CI=47.3–67%] had other organisms, which included C. albicans (19 [19%]), G. vaginalis (35 [35%]) and T. vaginalis (3 [3%]). Among the 65 women with genital mycoplasma, the highest co-infection was with G. vaginalis (33.8%). Pristinamycine was the most effective antibiotic (92%) and sulfamethoxazole the most resistant (8%) antibiotic to genital mycoplasmas. We conclude that genital mycoplasma is a problem in Cameroon and infected women should be treated together with their partners. PMID:28299057

  9. Uncovering category specificity of genital sexual arousal in women: The critical role of analytic technique.

    PubMed

    Pulverman, Carey S; Hixon, J Gregory; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-10-01

    Based on analytic techniques that collapse data into a single average value, it has been reported that women lack category specificity and show genital sexual arousal to a large range of sexual stimuli including those that both match and do not match their self-reported sexual interests. These findings may be a methodological artifact of the way in which data are analyzed. This study examined whether using an analytic technique that models data over time would yield different results. Across two studies, heterosexual (N = 19) and lesbian (N = 14) women viewed erotic films featuring heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male couples, respectively, as their physiological sexual arousal was assessed with vaginal photoplethysmography. Data analysis with traditional methods comparing average genital arousal between films failed to detect specificity of genital arousal for either group. When data were analyzed with smoothing regression splines and a within-subjects approach, both heterosexual and lesbian women demonstrated different patterns of genital sexual arousal to the different types of erotic films, suggesting that sophisticated statistical techniques may be necessary to more fully understand women's genital sexual arousal response. Heterosexual women showed category-specific genital sexual arousal. Lesbian women showed higher arousal to the heterosexual film than the other films. However, within subjects, lesbian women showed significantly different arousal responses suggesting that lesbian women's genital arousal discriminates between different categories of stimuli at the individual level. Implications for the future use of vaginal photoplethysmography as a diagnostic tool of sexual preferences in clinical and forensic settings are discussed.

  10. The risk of transmission of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is less than that of genital Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection.

    PubMed

    Lycke, E; Löwhagen, G B; Hallhagen, G; Johannisson, G; Ramstedt, K

    1980-01-01

    A total of 211 men with 237 female sexual partners and a total of 155 women with 156 male consorts were examined for genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The index patients had either single chlamydial or gonococcal infections or dual infections with both microorganisms. Analysis of recovery rates for groups of sexual consorts indicated that gonorrhea was contracted more frequently than chlamydial infection. Thus, when index patients had dual infections, 45% and 28% of their female and male consorts, respectively, had chlamydial infection, but 64% and 77%, respectively, had gonorrhea. When index patients had single infections with C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae, chlamydial infections were observed in consorts of 45% (women) and 28% (men), but gonococcal infections were observed in 80% (women) and 81% (men). Moreover, a significantly larger proportion of consorts of patients with chlamydial infection eluded infection than did partners of patients with gonorrhea. Women who used an intrauterine contraceptive device had chlamydial and gonococcal infections more often than those who used other forms of contraception, or no contraceptive.

  11. Bacterial Vaginosis and Subclinical Markers of Genital Tract Inflammation and Mucosal Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Kimble, Thomas; Herold, Betsy; Mesquita, Pedro M.M.; Fichorova, Raina N.; Dawood, Hassan Y.; Fashemi, Titilayo; Chandra, Neelima; Rabe, Lorna; Cunningham, Tina D.; Anderson, Sharon; Schwartz, Jill; Doncel, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been linked to an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition and transmission in observational studies, but the underlying biological mechanisms are unknown. We measured biomarkers of subclinical vaginal inflammation, endogenous antimicrobial activity, and vaginal flora in women with BV and repeated sampling 1 week and 1 month after completion of metronidazole therapy. We also compared this cohort of women with BV to a healthy control cohort without BV. A longitudinal, open label study of 33 women with a Nugent score of 4 or higher was conducted. All women had genital swabs, cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) fluid, and cervicovaginal biopsies obtained at enrollment and received 7 days of metronidazole treatment. Repeat sampling was performed approximately 1 week and 1 month after completion of therapy. Participant's baseline samples were compared to a healthy, racially matched control group (n=13) without BV. The CVL from women with resolved BV (Nugent 0–3) had significantly higher anti-HIV activity, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and growth-related oncogene alpha (GRO-α) levels and their ectocervical tissues had significantly more CD8 cells in the epithelium. Women with persistent BV after treatment had significantly higher levels of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in the CVL. At study entry, participants had significantly greater numbers of CCR5+ immune cells and a higher CD4/CD8 ratio in ectocervical tissues prior to metronidazole treatment, compared to a racially matched cohort of women with a Nugent score of 0–3. These data indicate that BV is associated with changes in select soluble immune mediators, an increase in HIV target cells, and a reduction in endogenous antimicrobial activity, which may contribute to the increased risk of HIV acquisition. PMID:26204200

  12. Interleukin-17 contributes to generation of Th1 immunity and neutrophil recruitment during Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection but is not required for macrophage influx or normal resolution of infection.

    PubMed

    Scurlock, Amy M; Frazer, Lauren C; Andrews, Charles W; O'Connell, Catherine M; Foote, Isaac P; Bailey, Sarabeth L; Chandra-Kuntal, Kumar; Kolls, Jay K; Darville, Toni

    2011-03-01

    Interleukin 17 (IL-17) contributes to development of Th1 immunity and neutrophil influx during Chlamydia muridarum pulmonary infection, but its role during C. muridarum genital tract infection has not been described. We detected similar numbers of Chlamydia-specific Th17 and Th1 cells in iliac nodes of wild-type mice early during genital C. muridarum infection, while Th1 cells predominated later. il17ra(-/-) mice exhibited a reduced chlamydia-specific Th1 response in draining iliac nodes and decreased local IFN-γ production. Neutrophil influx into the genital tract was also decreased. However, il17ra(-/-) mice resolved infection normally, and no difference in pathology was observed compared to the wild type. Macrophage influx and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production were increased in il17ra(-/-) mice, providing a compensatory mechanism to effectively control chlamydial genital tract infection despite a reduced Th1 response. In ifnγ(-/-) mice, a marked increase in cellular infiltrates and chronic pathology was associated with an increased Th17 response. Although neutralization of IL-17 in ifnγ(-/-) mice decreased neutrophil influx, macrophage infiltration remained intact and the bacterial burden was not increased. Collectively, these results indicate that IL-17 contributes to the generation of Th1 immunity and neutrophil recruitment but is not required for macrophage influx or normal resolution of C. muridarum genital infection. These data highlight the redundant immune mechanisms operative at this mucosal site and the importance of examining site-specific responses to mucosal pathogens.

  13. Expression and localization of p-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance protein 4, and breast cancer resistance protein in the female lower genital tract of human and pigtailed macaque.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tian; Hu, Minlu; Pearlman, Andrew; Patton, Dorothy; Rohan, Lisa

    2014-11-01

    Antiretroviral drug absorption and disposition in cervicovaginal tissue is important for the effectiveness of vaginally or orally administered drug products in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV-1 sexual transmission to women. Therefore, it is imperative to understand critical determinants of cervicovaginal tissue pharmacokinetics. This study aimed to examine the mRNA expression and protein localization of three efflux transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), in the lower genital tract of premenopausal women and pigtailed macaques. Along the human lower genital tract, the three transporters were moderately to highly expressed compared to colorectal tissue and liver, as revealed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In a given genital tract segment, the transporter with the highest expression level was either BCRP or P-gp, while MRP4 was always expressed at the lowest level among the three transporters tested. The immunohistochemical staining showed that P-gp and MRP4 were localized in multiple cell types including epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells. BCRP was predominantly localized in the vascular endothelial cells. Differences in transporter mRNA level and localization were observed among endocervix, ectocervix, and vagina. Compared to human tissues, the macaque cervicovaginal tissues displayed comparable expression and localization patterns of the three transporters, although subtle differences were observed between the two species. The role of these cervicovaginal transporters in drug absorption and disposition warrants further studies. The resemblance between human and pigtailed macaque in transporter expression and localization suggests the utility of the macaque model in the studies of human cervicovaginal transporters.

  14. Dysregulated expression of IFN-γ and IL-10 and impaired IFN-γ-mediated responses at different disease stages in patients with genital herpes simplex virus-2 infection

    PubMed Central

    SINGH, R; KUMAR, A; CREERY, W D; RUBEN, M; GIULIVI, A; DIAZ-MITOMA, F

    2003-01-01

    Cell-mediated T-helper type-1 (Th1) responses play a vital role in the immunopathogenesis of genital infections caused by herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). We investigated the role of Th responses in HSV-2 infection at different disease stages by analysing the production of Th cytokines in HSV-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). IFN-γ production decreased over time following a recurrence, whereas levels of IL-10, and to a lesser extent IL-2, remained elevated during this period. In addition, PBMCs from asymptomatic seropositive individuals produced high levels of IFN-γ and low levels of IL-10, in contrast to individuals with a history of genital ulcers. Following a recurrence, virus copy number in the genital lesions decreased progressively over time, in a manner similar to IFN-γ production by HSV-2-stimulated PBMCs. Enhanced production of IFN-γ may modulate HSV replication and B7 expression on monocytic cells of HSV-infected individuals. In contrast to seronegative controls, IFN-γ failed to enhance B7 expression on monocytic cells of HSV-infected individuals. In addition, monocytic cells from HSV-2-infected individuals with recurrent disease supported greater HSV replication than did those of HSV-infected asymptomatic individuals or seronegative controls. Furthermore, addition of IFN-γ resulted in enhanced HSV replication in monocytic cells of HSV-infected individuals with recurrent disease, in contrast to the inhibition observed in HSV-seropositive asymptomatic individuals and seronegative controls. Taken together, our results suggest that dysregulated production of IFN-γ at different disease stages and the impaired ability of monocytic cells to respond to IFN-γ may play a role in the pathogenesis of recurrent genital herpes disease. PMID:12823283

  15. Genital abnormalities in early childhood in sexual homicide perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Rettenberger, Martin; Hill, Andreas; Dekker, Arne; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer

    2013-04-01

    INTRODUCTION.: The present study investigates the relevance of genital abnormalities (GA) like cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and phimosis usually diagnosed in early childhood for the development of psychosexual problems and deficits in a sample of N = 163 convicted sexual homicide perpetrators. AIMS.: The first aim was to investigate the prevalence of early childhood GA in a sample of sexual homicide perpetrators. The second was to explore differences in the psychosexual development of participants with GA in early childhood compared with those without GA. It was expected that offenders with GA show specific problems in their psychosexual development compared with offenders without GA. METHODS.: The data for the present study were obtained by reanalyzing an existing database derived from a large-scale research project about sexual homicide. Using a predominantly exploratory design we, therefore, divided the total sample into two subgroups (with vs. without indicators of GA). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES.: Main outcome measures were the number of sexual homicide perpetrators showing GA in early childhood and the differences of subjects with and without GA with regard to their psychosexual development (i.e., according to sexual deviant interests or sexual dysfunctions). RESULTS.: The prevalence of GA is substantially higher in this sample than epidemiological studies indicated in the normal population. This result provided first support for the importance of GA in the population of sexual homicide perpetrators. Further analyses indicate significant differences between both subgroups: Offenders with GA in early childhood showed indicators for more sexual dysfunctions (e.g., erectile dysfunction) in adulthood and a distinct tendency of more masochistic sexual interests. CONCLUSION.: Even if the exploratory design of the present investigation allows no causal conclusions between GA and sexual homicide offenses, the result provided support for the relevance of early

  16. The Relationship between Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection and Spontaneous Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Amjad; Khodabandehloo, Mazaher; Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Farhadifar, Fariba; Roshani, Daem; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Farhangi, Niloofar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiology of most of sexually transmitted diseases. Colonization of C. trachomatis in the genital tract during early gestation has been associated with preterm birth, and preterm premature rupture of the membranes. The role of C. trachomatis on spontaneous abortion has not yet been proved completely. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of C. trachomatis infection among pregnant women and its association with spontaneous abortion. Methods: This case-control study was conducted from August 2012 until January 2013. Totally, 218 women were included; 109 women with spontaneous abortion with gestation age between 10–20 weeks (cases), and 109 women with normal pregnancy with gestation age between 20–30 weeks (controls) in Sanandaj, Iran. DNA was extracted from endocervical swabs and a PCR test was conducted for detection of C. trachomatis infection in women using specific primers. Independent T-test and Chi-square were used for comparison of quantitative and qualitative variables, respectively, and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The total prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 38(17.43%) in endocervical swabs of women. However, the number of cases with C. trachomatis infections was 25 out of 109(22.9%) in the case group and 13 out of 109(11.9%) in control group, respectively. Association between chlamydia infection and spontaneous abortion was statistically significant (OR=2.198, CI 95%: 1.058–4.56). Conclusion: Our study showed that C. trachomatis infection was associated with spontaneous abortion. Thus, screening and treatment of pregnant women may prevent this adverse pregnancy outcome. PMID:27141466

  17. Body image and genital self-image in pre-menopausal women with dyspareunia.

    PubMed

    Pazmany, Els; Bergeron, Sophie; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Verhaeghe, Johan; Enzlin, Paul

    2013-08-01

    With a prevalence of 15-21%, dyspareunia is one of the most commonly reported sexual dysfunctions in pre-menopausal women under the age of 40. Studies to date have focused primarily on clinical samples, showing that women with dyspareunia report overall sexual impairment, anxiety, and feelings of sexual inadequacy. However, little is known about their body image and genital self-image and few studies have sampled women exclusively from the general population. The aim of the present, controlled study was to investigate body image and genital self-image in a community sample of pre-menopausal women with self-reported dyspareunia. In total, 330 women completed an online survey, of which 192 (58%) had dyspareunia and 138 (42%) were pain-free control women. In comparison to pain-free control women, women with dyspareunia reported significantly more distress about their body image and a more negative genital self-image. Moreover, findings from a logistic regression, in which trait anxiety was controlled for, showed that a more negative genital self-image was strongly and independently associated with an increased likelihood of reporting dyspareunia. These results suggest that, in women with dyspareunia, body image and genital self-image are significantly poorer and would benefit from more attention from both clinicians and researchers.

  18. Searching for "voices": feminism, anthropology, and the global debate over female genital operations.

    PubMed

    Walley, C J

    1997-08-01

    This article lays the groundwork for a feminist and anthropological political response to female genital "operations" that transcends the current debate over the phenomenon, which is couched in terms of cultural relativism or of politically-informed outrage. After an introduction, the study considers the politics involved in assigning a name to the procedure and explains the author's reason for choosing female genital "operation" over the more commonly used "circumcision," "mutilation," or "torture." In the next section, clitoridectomy is contextualized through a recounting of the circumstances under which the procedure was performed in the western Kenyan village of Kikhome in 1988. This discussion focuses on the ceremonies surrounding the circumcisions of young men and women, the author's attempts to discover how the young women involved really felt about the tradition, and a review of the anthropological literature on the significance and impact of these practices. The analysis then examines the international controversy surrounding female genital mutilation and provides an overview of the colonial discourse on female genital mutilation in Africa to expose 1) the origins of justifications for colonial dominance in the dominance of non-Western women by non-Western men and 2) the fact that use of cultural arguments that fuse women and tradition can support culturally-defined power relationships. The article concludes with a consideration of who is qualified to speak out against female genital mutilation given the fact that all women and all debates are the products of longstanding, tenacious power relationships.

  19. Case-control study of vulvar vestibulitis risk associated with genital infections.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Elaine M; Ritchie, Justine M; Galask, Rudolph; Pugh, Erica E; Jia, Jian; Ricks-McGillan, Joan

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS) associated with genital infections in a case-control study. METHODS: Diagnosed cases with VVS (n = 69) and age-frequency-matched healthy controls (n = 65) were enrolled from gynecology clinics in a university medical hospital during 1999. They were compared for potential risk factors and symptoms of disease. RESULTS: VVS cases had a significantly higher risk of physician-reported bacterial vaginosis (BV) (odds ratio, OR = 9.4), Candida albicans (OR = 5.7), pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) (OR = 11.2), trichomoniasis (OR = 20.6), and vulvar dysplasia (OR = l5.7) but no risk associated with human papillomavirus (HPV), ASCUS, cervical dysplasia, genital warts, chlamydia, genital herpes or gonorrhea. Genital symptoms reported significantly more often with VVS included vulvar burning (91 vs. 12%), dyspareunia (81 vs. 15%), vulvar itching (68 vs. 23%) and dysuria (54 vs. 19%) (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: A history of genital infections is associated with an increased risk of VVS. Long-term follow-up case-control studies are needed to elucidate etiologic mechanisms, methods for prevention and effective treatment. PMID:12648313

  20. Isolation and identification of yeast flora from genital tract in healthy female camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Shokri, Hojjatollah; Khosravi, Alireza; Sharifzadeh, Aghil; Tootian, Zahra

    2010-07-29

    Yeasts are commensal organisms found in the skin, genital and gastrointestinal tracts, and other mucosal sites in mammalians. The purposes of this study were to identify yeast flora and to determine the number of colony forming units (CFUs) in genital tract of healthy female dromedary camels, establishing their connection in both mated and unmated conditions. The samples were taken from different parts of genital tract including vestibule, vagina, cervix, uterine body, and uterine horns of 50 camels using sterilized cotton swabs. They were cultured onto Sabouraud glucose agar containing chloramphenicol and incubated at 30 degrees C for 7-10 days. A total of 454 yeast colonies were obtained from genital tract. Yeast isolates belonged to 8 genera: Candida (73.1%), Trichosporon (10.1%), Geotrichum (7.5%), Kluyveromyces (3.5%), Rhodotorula (2.4%), Aureobasidium (1.4%), Cryptococcus (1.1%) and Prototheca (0.8%). Among different Candida species, C. zeylanoides was the most common isolated species, representing significant difference with other Candida species (P<0.05). The mean number of yeasts found in the vestibule (46%) was significantly higher than the results obtained from other parts (P<0.05). In addition, the mean value of CFUs from unmated females (71.1%) was significantly higher than mated females (P<0.05). The results showed that C. zeylanoides was a common component of healthy camel females' genital mycoflora and the number of yeasts varied between mated and unmated females.

  1. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Genital and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Married Women of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadnia, Elahe; Kharaghani, Roghieh; Maleki, Azam; Avazeh, Azar; Mazloomzadeh, Saeideh; Sedaghatpisheh, Tahereh; Jalilvand, Ahmad; Molae, Behnaz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of genital and sexually transmitted infections and its related factors in married women in Iran. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4 274 married women living in urban and rural areas of the Zanjan province from 2012 to 2013. We used stratified cluster sampling to select the participants. Data collection included demographic characteristics, reproductive status, and cervical cytology results. Results The prevalence of lower genital infections and sexually transmitted infections were 20.1% and 7.4%, respectively. The most common vaginal infection was bacterial vaginosis with a prevalence of 8.5%, and the most common sexually transmitted infection was Trichomonas vaginalis (1.4%). The use of the intrauterine device (IUD) as a contraceptive, living in an urban area, and experiencing vaginal discharge were significantly related to genital tract and sexually transmitted infections. Conclusions There was a high prevalence of genital infection among women living in Zanjab. Screening and treatment of genital infection are necessary to prevent adverse consequences in women who use an IUD or live in urban areas. PMID:27974960

  2. Recurrent genital herpes treatments and their impact on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Brentjens, Mathijs H; Yeung-Yue, Kimberly A; Lee, Patricia C; Tyring, Stephen K

    2003-01-01

    Herpes genitalis is one of the most common viral sexually transmitted diseases in the world, with an estimated seroprevalence in the US of greater than 20%. Two viruses of the same family cause herpes genitalis: herpes simplex virus 1 and 2. After the resolution of primary infection, the virus persists in the nerve roots of the sacral plexus, often causing recurrent (though generally less severe) outbreaks. These outbreaks, as well as the infectious potential to the patient's sexual partners, results in significant psychological stress on the patient, and has a tremendous negative impact on QOL. Current treatment modalities may result in a reduction in the number of outbreaks and viral shedding, but no cure exists. Although studies have clearly demonstrated the negative impact of recurrent genital herpes on QOL, an assessment scale specific to herpes was not developed until recently. Earlier studies indicated that patients did not perceive a significant benefit from episodic treatment with antivirals, but studies using the Recurrent Genital Herpes Quality of Life Questionnaire (RGHQoL) have now demonstrated that suppressive antiviral therapy improves quality of life in patients with frequent recurrences of genital herpes. However, not all patients with recurrent genital herpes need suppressive therapy, and proposed factors to consider include frequency of recurrence, physical and psychological distress caused by recurrences, and the potential for transmission to the patient's sexual partner. Newer therapeutic modalities, including the topical immune response modifier resiquimod and herpes vaccines, may eventually be shown to further decrease the psychological morbidity of recurrent genital herpes.

  3. Guidance on management of asymptomatic neonates born to women with active genital herpes lesions.

    PubMed

    Kimberlin, David W; Baley, Jill

    2013-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting HSV to an infant during delivery is determined in part by the mother's previous immunity to HSV. Women with primary genital HSV infections who are shedding HSV at delivery are 10 to 30 times more likely to transmit the virus to their newborn infants than are women with recurrent HSV infection who are shedding virus at delivery. With the availability of commercial serological tests that reliably can distinguish type-specific HSV antibodies, it is now possible to determine the type of maternal infection and, thus, further refine management of infants delivered to women who have active genital HSV lesions. The management algorithm presented herein uses both serological and virological studies to determine the risk of HSV transmission to the neonate who is delivered to a mother with active herpetic genital lesions and tailors management accordingly. The algorithm does not address the approach to asymptomatic neonates delivered to women with a history of genital herpes but no active lesions at delivery.

  4. In vivo evaluation of antiviral efficacy against genital herpes using mouse and guinea pig models.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Frances; Veselenak, Ronald L; Bourne, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Both the guinea pig and mouse are important animal models for the study of genital herpes. The murine model has been used extensively to evaluate vaccines and antiviral agents by measuring the incidence of infection and the magnitude of viral replication; however, this model is limited with regard to distinguishing between candidate vaccines or treatments. In contrast, the guinea pig closely mimics human infection and provides an excellent model of both primary and recurrent genital herpes disease. This animal model is especially important in the study of viral transmission through the evaluation of latent viral reactivation and virus shedding into the genital tract. Here, we describe methodologies to determine viral infection, severity of primary disease, and quantification of primary viral replication in the genital tract for both the guinea pig and murine models of genital herpes. Additionally, we detail the evaluation of the onset of primary disease and progression to the day of death in the mouse model. Further, we summarize methods to assess the frequency of recurrences, frequency and magnitude of virus shedding, and latent viral load in the sensory nerve ganglia of the guinea pig.

  5. Increase male genital diseases morbidity linked to informal electronic waste recycling in Guiyu, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yuling; Yekeen, Taofeek Akangbe; Li, Yan; Zhuang, Bingrong; Huo, Xia

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, occupational and environmental exposure to toxic pollutants has increasingly contributed to declining sperm quality and increasing morbidity of human male genital diseases. This study explored the effects of electronic waste (e-waste) environmental pollutions on male genital health in Guiyu, one of the largest e-waste recycling centers in the world. We collected outpatient case information from 2001 to 2009 in Guiyu and a control hospital and performed statistical analysis on male genital diseases morbidity (MGDM). The MGDM in Guiyu and the control hospital per thousand from 2004 to 2009 were 1.410/0.403 (2004), 0.539/0.385 (2005), 0.248/0.284 (2006), 0.485/0.195 (2007), 1.107/0.272 (2008), and 0.741/0.586 (2009) while the average total MGDM from 2004 to 2009 were 0.753 and 0.355 per thousand, respectively. Percentage of occurrence of epididymitis, impotence and prospermia, redundant prepuce, gonorrhea, urethritis, sexual function dysfunction, azoospermia, asthenospermia, and unknown etiology male sterility were higher in Guiyu (P < 0.05), whereas the frequency of prostatitis, condyloma accuminatum, and genital herpes were higher in the control (P < 0.05). Morbidity of male genital diseases was higher in Guiyu than in the control area. Male reproductive health may be threatened by e-waste environmental pollution in Guiyu, especially for diseases that could be influenced by environmental factors, and it may influence local population diathesis.

  6. Prolonged expression of an anti-HIV-1 gp120 minibody to the female rhesus macaque lower genital tract by AAV gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Motal, U M; Harbison, C; Han, T; Pudney, J; Anderson, D J; Zhu, Q; Westmoreland, S; Marasco, W A

    2014-09-01

    Topical microbicides are a leading strategy for prevention of HIV mucosal infection to women; however, numerous pharmacokinetic limitations associated with coitally related dosing strategy have contributed to their limited success. Here we test the hypothesis that adeno-associated virus (AAV) mediated delivery of the b12 human anti-HIV-1 gp120 minibody gene to the lower genital tract of female rhesus macaques (Rh) can provide prolonged expression of b12 minibodies in the cervical-vaginal secretions. Gene transfer studies demonstrated that, of various green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing AAV serotypes, AAV-6 most efficiently transduced freshly immortalized and primary genital epithelial cells (PGECs) of female Rh in vitro. In addition, AAV-6-b12 minibody transduction of Rh PGECs led to inhibition of SHIV162p4 transmigration and virus infectivity in vitro. AAV-6-GFP could also successfully transduce vaginal epithelial cells of Rh when applied intravaginally, including p63+ epithelial stem cells. Moreover, intravaginal application of AAV-6-b12 to female Rh resulted in prolonged minibody detection in their vaginal secretions throughout the 79-day study period. These data provide proof of principle that AAV-6-mediated delivery of anti-HIV broadly neutralizing antibody (BnAb) genes to the lower genital tract of female Rh results in persistent minibody detection for several months. This strategy offers promise that an anti-HIV-1 genetic microbicide strategy may be possible in which topical application of AAV vector, with periodic reapplication as needed, may provide sustained local BnAb expression and protection.

  7. Twelve-Month Antiretroviral Therapy Suppresses Plasma and Genital Viral Loads but Fails to Alter Genital Levels of Cytokines, in a Cohort of HIV-Infected Rwandan Women

    PubMed Central

    Ondoa, Pascale; Gautam, Raju; Rusine, John; Lutter, Rene; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Kootstra, Neeltje; Karita, Etienne; van de Wijgert, Janneke

    2015-01-01

    Background Genital viral load (GVL) is the main determinant of sexual transmission of human immune-deficiency virus (HIV). The effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on local cervico-vaginal immunological factors associated with GVL is poorly described. We aimed to identify the risk factors of detectable GVL, and the impact of ART on HIV genital shedding and its correlates in a cohort of HIV-infected women, attending HIV care in Kigali, Rwanda. Materials and Methods All participants were evaluated for GVL, plasma viral load (PVL), CD4 count, various sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) at baseline and at month 12. Genital concentration of 19 cytokines and mRNA expression of APOBEC3G and BST2, two host HIV restriction factors, were evaluated at baseline in all participants. Cytokine levels were re-assessed at month 12 only in participants eligible for ART at baseline. Risk factors of GVL ≥40copies/mL at baseline and month 12 were assessed using logistic regression. Effect of 12-month ART on various local and systemic immunological parameters was examined using a paired t-test and McNemar as appropriate. Results 96 of the 247 women enrolled in the study were eligible for ART. After 12 months of ART, PVL and GVL decreased to undetectable level in respectively 74 and 88% of treated participants. ART did not affect cytokine levels. HIV genital shedding occurred only when PVL was detectable. At baseline, GVL was independently associated with IL-1β after controlling for PVL, age and N. gonorrhea infection (95% CI 1.32-2.15) and at month 12 with MIP-1β (95% CI 0.96-21.32) after controlling for baseline GVL, PVL and month 12 IL-8. Conclusion Suppressive ART does not necessarily reduce genital level of immune activation. Minimizing all conditions favoring genital inflammation, including active detection and treatment of STIs, might reduce the risk of HIV transmission as supplement to the provision of potent ART. PMID:26010956

  8. Association of Genital Infections Other Than Human Papillomavirus with Pre-Invasive and Invasive Cervical Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Ranajit; Kundu, Pratip; Biswas, Jaydip

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-established causative agent of malignancy of the female genital tract and a common Sexually Transmitted Infection. The probable co-factors that prevent spontaneous clearance of HPV and progression to neoplasia are genital tract infections from organisms like Chlamydia, Trichomonas vaginalis etc, smoking, nutritional deficiencies and multiparity. Inflammatory conditions can lead to pre-neoplastic manifestations in the cervical epithelium; however their specific role in cervical carcinogenesis is not yet established. Therefore it is imperative to study the likely association between HPV and co-infection with various common pathogens in the genital tract of women having cervical precancer or cancer. A “Pubmed” search was made for articles in Literature on this topic using the words: Cervical neoplasia, HPV, co-infections, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN), Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida, Chlamydia and the relevant information obtained was used to draft the review. PMID:27042571

  9. Female genital mutilation: an analysis of 522 cases in South-Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dare, F O; Oboro, V O; Fadiora, S O; Orji, E O; Sule-Odu, A O; Olabode, T O

    2004-04-01

    This study was conducted at three teaching hospitals in South-Western Nigeria. Paturients were examined to find out if they had had female genital mutilation. Those who did were given a self-administered questionnaire. Results show that all the patients had either Type I (69%) or Type II (31%) mutilation (using WHO classification). The average age at which the procedure was performed was 6.9+/-2.9 years, with 4% of women having the procedure performed in pregnancy. The majority of the procedures were performed by medically untrained personnel (89%). Up to 67% of the women reported complications following the procedure. Severe pain and bleeding were the most common (69%) of the complications reported. The most common reason given for the procedure is cultural/traditional (63%). About a fifth of the women want their female child to undergo female genital mutilation. This study highlights the need for further interventions aimed at discouraging the practice of female genital mutilation.

  10. Holmium laser treatment of genital warts: an observational study of 1500 cases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun-Jun; Liu, Sheng-Xiu; Liu, Jiang-Bo; Wang, Zhong-Ying; Luo, Di-Feng; Zhang, Guo-Long; Zhang, Xue-Jun; Yang, Sen

    2008-01-01

    The treatment and relapse rate of genital warts are significant problems. The aim of this observational study was to assess the efficacy of holmium laser treatment of genital warts. A total of 1500 outpatients with genital human papillomavirus-induced lesions presenting from August 2002 to June 2005 were treated with holmium laser. The effects and side-effects of treatment were observed and analysed. Of this large cohort, lesions were excised at the first visit in 1488 cases. Twelve cases were treated a second or third time in the event that the lesions were too large to be removed at the first visit. The incidence of side-effects and complications after treatment with holmium laser was found to be low. Almost all warts can be excised at first treatment by holmium laser therapy with little bleeding during the treatment.

  11. Religious differences in female genital cutting: a case study from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Hayford, Sarah R; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between religious obligations and female genital cutting is explored using data from Burkina Faso, a religiously and ethnically diverse country where approximately three-quarters of adult women are circumcised. Data from the 2003 Burkina Faso Demographic and Health Survey are used to estimate multilevel models of religious variation in the intergenerational transmission of female genital cutting. Differences between Christians, Muslims, and adherents of traditional religions are reported, along with an assessment of the extent to which individual and community characteristics account for religious differences. Religious variation in the intergenerational transmission of female genital cutting is largely explained by specific religious beliefs and by contextual rather than individual characteristics. Although Muslim women are more likely to have their daughters circumcised, the findings suggest the importance of a collective rather than individual Muslim identity for the continuation of the practice.

  12. In their own words: a qualitative content analysis of women's and men's preferences for women's genitals.

    PubMed

    Mullinax, Margo; Herbenick, Debby; Schick, Vanessa; Sanders, Stephanie A; Reece, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Research increasingly shows genital attitudes have an impact on sexual well-being and health seeking behaviours. This study explored what women and men like and dislike about women's genitals. Data are from open-ended items, part of a cross-sectional Internet-based survey anonymously completed by 496 women and 198 men. Overall, both women and men had positive attitudes towards women's genitals, although there was overlap between likes and dislikes. Some of the most common likes for women related to aesthetics and for men related to tactile and sexual aspects. Men listed more likes than dislikes. The emphasis on both positive and negative messages provides a more complete image of the complex ways people interact with their own and other's bodies and can help tailor clinical and educational messages.

  13. Morphology of accessory genital glands of spotted paca (Agouti paca Linnaeus, 1766).

    PubMed

    Borges, Edson Moreira; Branco, Érika; de Lima, Ana Rita; Leal, Leonardo Martins; Martins, Leandro Luiz; Reis, Ana Carolina Gonçalves; Cruz, Claudinei; Machado, Márcia Rita Fernandes; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2014-02-01

    The spotted paca is the second largest rodent in Brazil, where it is of great economic interest in impoverished regions in view of its prominence as a low-cost source of protein. Little is known about the morphology of the accessory genital glands of this species. Thus, we studied the position and morphology of the genitals in ten adult male spotted pacas. The animals were divided into two groups, five animals were used for fixing of samples in 10% aqueous formaldehyde for macroscopic studies and the other five animals were designated for microscopic analysis. These were arranged in pairs and had the vesicular, prostate, coagulating and bulbourethral glands identified, being structured as mucous glands, which lead into the pelvic urethra. It was concluded that the accessory genital glands found in the paca are the same as those found in most rodents, showing similar histological aspects.

  14. Female genital schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma haematobium. Clinical and parasitological findings in women in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kjetland, E F; Poggensee, G; Helling-Giese, G; Richter, J; Sjaastad, A; Chitsulo, L; Kumwenda, N; Gundersen, S G; Krantz, I; Feldmeier, H

    1996-12-30

    A total of 51 women with urinary schistosomiasis haematobium were examined in order to identify diagnostic indicators for female genital schistosomiasis (FGS). Patients were selected at random from the outpatient department of the Mangochi District Hospital, Malawi. The medical histories were recorded according to a pre-designed questionnaire and the women were subjected to a thorough gynaecological examination including colposcopy and photographic documentation of lesions. Microscopy of genital biopsies revealed that 33 of the 51 women had S. haematobium ova in cervix, vagina and/or vulva in addition to the presence of ova in urine. The most sensitive diagnostic procedure was beside microscopic examination of a wet cervix biopsy crushed between two glass slides, which revealed 25 of the 33 genital infections. There was a significant correlation between the size of genital lesions and the number of ova counted per mm2 of crushed tissue. Women with FGS had significantly more tumours in the vulva than women with schistosomiasis limited to the urinary tract. Most of the observed genital pathology could easily be identified by the naked eye, but colposcopic examination yielded valuable additional information like the demonstration of neovascularisation around cervical sandy patches. Few of the symptoms previously regarded as indicators for FGS could be linked to the presence of schistosome ova in genital tissue. Husbands of infertile women with FGS had children with other women significantly more often than husbands of women who only had urinary schistosomiasis. This, together with the finding that the majority of the divorced women had FGS, indicates that the manifestation of this disease may have implications for the marital and sexual life of the affected women.

  15. Origins of female genital diversity: Predation risk and lock-and-key explain rapid divergence during an adaptive radiation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christopher M; Langerhans, R Brian

    2015-09-01

    The study of male genital diversity has long overshadowed evolutionary inquiry of female genitalia, despite its nontrivial diversity. Here, we identify four nonmutually exclusive mechanisms that could lead to genital divergence in females, and potentially generate patterns of correlated male-female genital evolution: (1) ecological variation alters the context of sexual selection ("ecology hypothesis"), (2) sexually antagonistic selection ("sexual-conflict hypothesis"), (3) female preferences for male genitalia mediated by female genital traits ("female-choice hypothesis"), and (4) selection against inter-population mating ("lock-and-key hypothesis"). We performed an empirical investigation of all four hypotheses using the model system of Bahamas mosquitofish inhabiting blue holes that vary in predation risk. We found unequivocal support for the ecology hypothesis, with females exhibiting a smaller genital opening in blue holes containing piscivorous fish. This is consistent with stronger postmating female choice/conflict when predators are present, but greater premating female choice in their absence. Our results additionally supported the lock-and-key hypothesis, uncovering a pattern of reproductive character displacement for genital shape. We found no support for the sexual conflict or female choice hypotheses. Our results demonstrate a strong role for ecology in generating female genital diversity, and suggest that lock-and-key may provide a viable cause of female genital diversification.

  16. Spatial modelling and mapping of female genital mutilation in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is still prevalent in several communities in Kenya and other areas in Africa, as well as being practiced by some migrants from African countries living in other parts of the world. This study aimed at detecting clustering of FGM/C in Kenya, and identifying those areas within the country where women still intend to continue the practice. A broader goal of the study was to identify geographical areas where the practice continues unabated and where broad intervention strategies need to be introduced. Methods The prevalence of FGM/C was investigated using the 2008 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) data. The 2008 KDHS used a multistage stratified random sampling plan to select women of reproductive age (15–49 years) and asked questions concerning their FGM/C status and their support for the continuation of FGM/C. A spatial scan statistical analysis was carried out using SaTScan™ to test for statistically significant clustering of the practice of FGM/C in the country. The risk of FGM/C was also modelled and mapped using a hierarchical spatial model under the Integrated Nested Laplace approximation approach using the INLA library in R. Results The prevalence of FGM/C stood at 28.2% and an estimated 10.3% of the women interviewed indicated that they supported the continuation of FGM. On the basis of the Deviance Information Criterion (DIC), hierarchical spatial models with spatially structured random effects were found to best fit the data for both response variables considered. Age, region, rural–urban classification, education, marital status, religion, socioeconomic status and media exposure were found to be significantly associated with FGM/C. The current FGM/C status of a woman was also a significant predictor of support for the continuation of FGM/C. Spatial scan statistics confirm FGM clusters in the North-Eastern and South-Western regions of Kenya (p < 0.001). Conclusion This suggests that the

  17. Incidence of upper genital tract occlusion following microwave endometrial ablation (MEA).

    PubMed

    Tawfeek, S; Sholapurkar, S; Sharp, N

    2006-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of occlusion of the upper genital tract following microwave endometrial ablation (MEA) in women treated for therapy-resistant menorrhagia. A total of 35 women were recruited between January 1997 and January 2005, Royal United Hospital Bath, to have interval hysterosalpingogram (HSG) post-MEA. After a successful MEA, either with general or local anaesthesia, 35 HSGs were performed 3 or more months later. Complete occlusion of the upper genital tract was found in 30 women (85.7%) and incomplete occlusion with tubal patency persisted in 5 (14.3%).

  18. The modulatory role of M2 muscarinic receptor on apomorphine-induced yawning and genital grooming.

    PubMed

    Gamberini, Maria Thereza; Bolognesi, Maria Laura; Nasello, Antonia Gladys

    2012-12-07

    The interaction between dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways in the induction of behavioral responses has been previously established. In the brain, M2 receptors are found predominantly in presynaptic cholinergic neurons as autoreceptors, and in dopaminergic neurons as heteroceptors, suggesting a control role of acetylcholine and dopamine release, respectively. Our aim was to investigate the role of M2 receptors on the yawning and genital grooming of rats induced by apomorphine, a dopaminergic receptor agonist, focusing on the interaction between cholinergic and dopaminergic pathways. Initially, the effect of atropine, a non-selective muscarinic antagonist, on yawning and genital grooming induced by apomorphine (100 μg/kg s.c.) was analyzed. Atropine doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before induction of the behavioral responses by apomorphine. Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were quantified over a 60 min period. Apomorphine-induced yawning was increased by low dose (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) but not by high doses (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) of atropine. Genital grooming was antagonized by 2 mg/kg i.p. of atropine and showed no changes at the other doses tested. Tripitramine, a selective M2 cholinergic antagonist, was used as a tool for distinguishing between M2 and all other muscarinic receptor subtypes in yawning and genital grooming. Tripitramine doses of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 μmol/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before apomorphine (100 μg/kg s.c.). Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were also quantified over a 60 min period. Tripitramine 0.01 μmol/kg increased all parameters. Higher doses, which possibly block all subtypes of muscarinic receptor, did not modify the response of apomorphine, suggesting a non-selective effect of tripitramine at these doses. Given that low doses of tripitramine increased the behavioral responses induced by apomorphine and that the main distribution of the M2

  19. Surgical Management of Giant Genital Condyloma Acuminata by Using Double Keystone Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Mochtar, Chaidir A.; Hamid, Agus Rizal A. H.; Sukasah, Chaula L.

    2016-01-01

    Condyloma acuminata in the external genitalia (genital warts) is a sexually transmitted disease that is often caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). We report a case of giant genital condyloma acuminata in a 35-year-old male patient with HIV comorbidity treated by wide surgical excision. Excision defect was covered with split thickness skin graft (STSG) and double keystone flaps. There was no complication after surgery. Ten months following surgery, there was no new condyloma lesion and the patient had normal voiding and erectile functions. PMID:27974988

  20. Animal Models for Studying Female Genital Tract Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Kalmar, Isabelle; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen. It is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world, with more than 100 million new cases of genital tract infections with C. trachomatis occurring each year. Animal models are indispensable for the study of C. trachomatis infections and the development and evaluation of candidate vaccines. In this paper, the most commonly used animal models to study female genital tract infections with C. trachomatis will be reviewed, namely, the mouse, guinea pig, and nonhuman primate models. Additionally, we will focus on the more recently developed pig model. PMID:23836817

  1. [Clinical features of female genital tuberculosis in the period of 1980 to 2005].

    PubMed

    Kochorova, M N; Kosnikov, A G

    2007-01-01

    Comparative analysis of two groups of patients with female genital tuberculosis treated at the Saint Petersburg Research Institute of Phthiosiopulmonology in 1980 to 2005 has shown that patients of younger age have recently fallen ill with this disease. The genital tuberculous process is commonly preceded or attended by other forms of tuberculosis of various organs and systems, such as the lung, lymph nodes, and kidney. The pain syndrome and impaired menstrual cycle are observed in half the patients; infertility is present in 60%; profound anatomic changes are less frequently seen in the fallopian tubes. Improvement of bacteriological methods promoted the timely diagnosis of the disease.

  2. Clearance of HSV-2 from recurrent genital lesions correlates with infiltration of HSV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Koelle, D M; Posavad, C M; Barnum, G R; Johnson, M L; Frank, J M; Corey, L

    1998-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in host clearance of symptomatic mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection are unclear. We studied the functional properties of bulk cultures of skin-infiltrating lymphocytes from normal skin and serial biopsies of recurrent genital HSV-2 lesions, and compared HSV-specific and NK responses with viral clearance. HSV-specific CD4+ or CD8+ T cells were rarely detected in lymphocytes cultured from normal skin. The total lymphocyte count and HSV-specific and NK-like effector cell activities were markedly higher in cultures derived from lesional skin. HSV-specific CD4+ proliferative responses and NK-like cytotoxic responses were present at all stages of herpetic lesions, including biopsies early in the disease course. In contrast, cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity was generally low among cells derived from early culture-positive lesions, and increased during lesion evolution. Viral clearance from the lesion site was associated with a high level of local cytolytic activity towards HSV-infected cells. The phenotypes of cells with HSV-specific cytotoxic responses varied between patients, having CD4+ and CD8+ components. Immunotherapeutic approaches to HSV should be directed at improving in vivo cytolytic activity to HSV. PMID:9525993

  3. Prevalence of the genital tract bacterial infections after vaginal reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Maghsoudi, Reza; Danesh, Azar; Kabiri, Najmeh; Setorki, Mahbubeh; Doudi, Monir

    2014-09-01

    Due to frequent childbirth, heavy lifting and the structure of the lives of rural women in Shahrekord region, Iran, cystocele and rectocele are of the main medical problems of the women in this area and for its correction, vaginal reconstructive surgery is needed which causes infection. The purpose of this study was to identify the bacteria causing infection after vaginal reconstructive surgery and performing antibiogram to help these patients for faster recovery. Patients enrolled this study were 92 who had undergone previous vaginal reconstructive surgery and now had infection. After examination, the group of patients taking antibiotics (n = 26) were excluded and the remaining 66 completed the study questionnaire. A gynecologist performed sampling; related tests (aerobic and anaerobic culture using an anaerobic culture gas pack jar and type A which provides absolute anaerobic conditions) were performed; antimicrobial susceptibility testing using Disk Diffusion Method was carried out; and the results were recorded. All the positive samples were polymicrobial. Gardnerella vaginalis in 20 cases (31%), peptostreptococci and anaerobic cocci in 9 cases (13.6%), staphylococcus aureus in 8 cases (9.1%), bacteroides and fusobacterium in 7 cases (10.6%), streptococcus group B in 4 cases (6%), yeast cells in 11 cases (16.6%) and Trichomonas vaginalis in wet mount of 4 (6%) existed. Anaerobic bacteria showed 85% sensitivity to clindamycin, 82% to chloramphenicol, 85% sensitivity to ceftizoxime and 45% to penicillin. Facultative anaerobic bacteria showed a sensitivity rate of 90% to ceftizoxime, chloramphenicol and cephalothin. According to our findings, the rate of vaginal bacterial infection in women with vaginal reconstructive surgery has increased; from which, infections with anaerobic bacteria origins have increased dramatically. We recommend antibiotic prophylaxis prior to genital reconstructive surgeries.

  4. Inhibition of androgen receptor binding by natural and synthetic steroids in cultured human genital skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Breiner, M; Romalo, G; Schweikert, H U

    1986-08-15

    The ability of various natural and synthetic steroids (some of which are widely used in clinical practice) to compete with dihydrotestosterone receptor binding in human genital skin fibroblasts was studied. Binding was assessed in fibroblast monolayers after incubation for 1 h at 37 degrees C with 2 nM 3H-dihydrotestosterone in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of the steroid to be tested. Inhibition constants (Ki) were determined as the concentration of competitor-required for 50% inhibition of 3H-dihydrotestosterone binding. In addition, relative binding activity (RBA) of each test compound was calculated. Each competitor was tested in at least two different cell strains. The concentrations of unlabeled methyltrienolone (a synthetic nonmetabolizable androgen) and dihydrotestosterone for 50% inhibition of 3H-dihydrotestosterone binding were in the same order of magnitude, namely, 2 nM (2.2 respectively, 2.4 nM), whereas the affinity of testosterone was approximately one-fifth that of dihydrotestosterone. Other potent competitors for dihydrotestosterone binding were three progestins (norgestrel, gestoden, and medroxyprogesterone acetate) which have Ki values similar to testosterone. An order of magnitude lower Ki values (around 10(-7) M) were found for the androgen 17 alpha-propylmesterolone, the antiandrogen cyproterone acetate, and the progestin norethisterone acetate. Binding affinities of all other steroids to the androgen receptor were markedly lower and showed the following order of potency: estrogens (estradiol, ethinyl estradiol, diethylstilbestrol) greater than glucocorticoids as well as aromatase inhibitors and potassium canrenoate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates from the intestinal and female genital tracts.

    PubMed

    Sutter, V L

    1983-01-01

    In the selection of empiric therapy for infections of the female genital tract and intraabdominal infections in humans, the requisite information includes (1) the frequency of isolation of bacterial species dominant in the normal gastrointestinal and female genital tracts and in intraabdominal and female genital tract infections and (2) the in vitro susceptibilities of the dominant species to drugs that may be used against them (e.g., penicillin G, cefoperazone, cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and metronidazole). The predominant bacteria in fecal contents are not necessarily those most frequently found in infections. Intraabdominal and perirectal infections are usually polymicrobial, resulting from mixtures of facultative species (coliforms and streptococci) and anaerobes. The predominant bacteria of the normal vagina and cervix are lactobacilli, facultative streptococci, Peptococcus species, and Peptostreptococcus species. Most infections of the female genital tract are due to mixtures of facultative enteric bacilli, streptococci, and anaerobes (Peptococcus and Peptostreptococcus species, Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides disiens, Bacteroides melaninogenicus, Bacteroides bivius, and Bacteroides asaccharolyticus). Of the antibiotics tested, clindamycin appears the most active against many of the groups of bacteria isolated.

  6. Female Genital Cutting and Children's Rights: Implications for Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dustin, Donna; Davies, Liz

    2007-01-01

    Female genital cutting (FGC) is an ancient practice that affects girls and young women around the world, defining the identity of women in cultures where it is practiced. FGC is carried out for a range of social and cultural reasons. The United Kingdom as a point of inward migration receives families from countries and cultures where FGC is the…

  7. Proceedings From the First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Faro, Edited by Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    The First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting was held in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, in July 2005. The conference covered regional issues relating to infection with the human papillomavirus—epidemiology, virology, and immunology, testing, screening, and prevention strategies—as well as cervical cancer screening and its management.

  8. Divergence in genital morphology may contribute to mechanical reproductive isolation in a millipede

    PubMed Central

    Wojcieszek, Janine M; Simmons, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Genitalia appear to evolve rapidly and divergently in taxa with internal fertilization. The current consensus is that intense directional sexual selection drives the rapid evolution of genitalia. Recent research on the millipede Antichiropus variabilis suggests that the male genitalia are currently experiencing stabilizing selection – a pattern of selection expected for lock-and-key structures that enforce mate recognition and reproductive isolation. Here, we investigate how divergence in genital morphology affects reproductive compatibility among isolated populations of A. variabilis. Females from a focal population were mated first to a male from their own population and, second, to a male from one of two populations with divergent genital morphology. We observed variation in mating behavior that might indicate the emergence of precopulatory reproductive barriers: males from one divergent population took significantly longer to recognize females and exhibited mechanical difficulty in genital insertion. Moreover, we observed very low paternity success for extra-population males who were successful in copulating. Our data suggest that divergence in genital shape may be contributing to reproductive isolation, and incipient speciation among isolated populations of A. variabilis. PMID:23467632

  9. The role of oral acyclovir in the management of genital herpes simplex.

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, S L

    1987-01-01

    Oral acyclovir is an antiviral nucleoside analogue that has recently been released in Canada for use in selected patients with genital infections by the herpes simplex virus. First episodes of genital herpes should be treated with oral acyclovir as soon as the diagnosis is considered. Most people with recurrent genital herpes do not require systemic drug therapy. Selected patients with severe or long-lasting recurrences, recurrences associated with long prodromal periods (greater than 12 to 24 hours) or systemic complications such as erythema multiforme and eczema herpeticum may receive measurable benefit from treatment at the onset of symptoms. In most patients frequently recurrent disease can be suppressed with long-term therapy. Since long-term safety beyond 1 year has not been established, suppressive therapy should be stopped at least once per year to reassess the recurrence pattern. Acyclovir has not been adequately tested for safety in pregnancy and should not be prescribed for pregnant women unless the potential benefits outweigh the risks. Careful attention to disease severity, accurate diagnosis and exclusion of other causes of genital lesions will ensure that the drug is used only when beneficial. PMID:3548933

  10. Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in the kidneys and genital tracts of naturally infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Cerri, D; Nuvoloni, R; Ebani, V; Pedrini, A; Mani, P; Andreani, E; Farina, R

    1996-04-01

    A bacteriological study was carried out to identify possible renal and/or genital carriers of Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo. L. hardjo was found at slaughter in the kidneys of three seropositive ewes, but not in uterus or salpinges of these animals.

  11. Male Genital Mutilation in the High-Mountain Goblin Spider, Unicorn catleyi

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, Matías A.; Rubio, Gonzalo D.

    2011-01-01

    Male genital mutilation is a common mechanism by which males reduce sperm competition by plugging female insemination ducts with different parts of its own genital system. This behavior is frequent in many spider families but is uncommon in Haplogynae. The reproductive biology of Dysderoidea is not well studied and the data is fragmentary; male genital mutilation has been reported only for one species of Oonopidae. This study provides evidence of male genital mutilation in Unicorn catleyi Platnick and Brescovit (Araneae: Oonopidae). Pieces of the embolus were found in the female posterior receptaculum. This behavior is a strategy used by the males in order to guarantee their paternity and not for escape from female attacks as has been reported for other species of Araneae, since cannibalism is unlikely in this species. The presence of embolus in the posterior receptaculum suggests this is the first place where sperm is received. The similarity of the female genitalia of U. catleyi to those of Orsolobidae, along with sclerotization of the seminal duct in the male copulatory bulb that is also present in Orchestina, Xiombarg, and Orsolobidae, provide strong evidence of the basal position of this genus in the family Oonopidae. PMID:22225476

  12. Isolation of Neisseria lactamica from the female genital tract. A case report.

    PubMed

    Telfer Brunton, W A; Young, H; Fraser, D R

    1980-10-01

    Neisseria lactamica was isolated from the genital tract of a young patient with a persistent vaginal discharge. Although infection with N lactamica occurs very rarely, the importance of complete biochemical identification of neisseriae is emphasised in view of the serious social and medicolegal consequences which could result from a misdiagnosis of gonorrhoea.

  13. Characteristics Associated with Genital Herpes Testing among Young Adults: Assessing Factors from Two National Data Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lisa K.; Levandowski, Brooke A.; Roberts, Craig M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives and Participants: In the United States, genital herpes (GH) prevalence is 10.6% among 20- to 29-year-olds and about 90% of seropositive persons do not know their status. This study investigated individual characteristics associated with GH screening and diagnosis in sexually active young adults aged 18 to 24. Methods: Two data sets were…

  14. Improving immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines for genital herpes containing herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Sita; Shaw, Carolyn; Friedman, Harvey

    2014-12-01

    No vaccines are approved for prevention or treatment of genital herpes. The focus of genital herpes vaccine trials has been on prevention using herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) alone or combined with glycoprotein B. These prevention trials did not achieve their primary end points. However, subset analyses reported some positive outcomes in each study. The most recent trial was the Herpevac Trial for Women that used gD2 with monophosphoryl lipid A and alum as adjuvants in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 seronegative women. Unexpectedly, the vaccine prevented genital disease by HSV-1 but not HSV-2. Currently, HSV-1 causes more first episodes of genital herpes than HSV-2, highlighting the importance of protecting against HSV-1. The scientific community is conflicted between abandoning vaccine efforts that include gD2 and building upon the partial successes of previous trials. We favor building upon success and present approaches to improve outcomes of gD2-based subunit antigen vaccines.

  15. Application and tolerability of Herpotherm(®) in the treatment of genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Schlippe, Gerrit; Voss, Werner; Brenn, Lars Christian

    2013-01-01

    Genital herpes is the manifestation of a herpes simplex virus 2 infection. Standard treatment uses both local and systemic approaches. Here, we report on the results of a local therapy approach with 31 female patients at a gynecological practice. In the here-described approach, established genital herpes infection was treated with the medical device Herpotherm(®), with or without virostatic drugs. Herpotherm(®) is a certified medical device operating on the basis of local heat application. Parameters evaluated during the approach were (i) subjective patient assessments and (ii) objective assessment of the physician. In the described therapy approach a positive effect in terms of nature and severity in the course of the disease using Herpotherm(®) could be demonstrated. It could be shown that Herpotherm(®) can also be used for genital herpes and that it is well tolerated. In relation to other therapies using topical treatment for genital herpes, an extremely rapid reduction of pain and herpetic symptoms could be observed. Intolerances or discontinued use as a result of complications were not observed.

  16. Molecular diagnostics and newborns at risk for genital herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Chua, Caroline; Arnolds, Marin; Niklas, Victoria

    2015-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in the newborn carries a high mortality rate and can result in lifelong neurologic impairment. The severity of HSV infection in the newborn has always dictated conservative management when prodromal symptoms or active genital lesions (or those suggestive of genital herpes) are present during labor and delivery. The risk of intrapartum infection, however, is related to the presence or absence of maternal immunity (neutralizing antibody) to HSV. The most significant risk of transmission is in first-episode primary infections with active lesions at delivery. Recent recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics Committees on Infectious Diseases and the Fetus and Newborn use rapid serologic and virologic screening in the management of asymptomatic infants born to mothers with active genital herpes. The revised guidelines highlight infants at greatest risk for HSV disease but do not apply to asymptomatic infants born to mothers with a history of HSV but no genital lesions at delivery. The current guidelines also stipulate that maternal serologic screening and molecular assays for HSV in newborn blood and cerebrospinal fluid must be available and reported in a timely fashion.

  17. Genotype-specific concordance of oral and genital human papillomavirus infections among marital couples is low.

    PubMed

    Kero, K; Rautava, J; Louvanto, K; Syrjänen, K; Grenman, S; Syrjänen, S

    2016-04-01

    Data on genotype-specific concordance of oral-oral and genital-oral HPV infections among marital couples are key to understand HPV transmission between spouses. Genotype-specific concordance of HPV infections (oral/genital) and their co-variates among 131 marital couples were determined during 6-year follow-up (FU). Seven oral scrapings were taken from both spouses, accompanied by six genital samplings from the women and one (at baseline) from the male partners. HPV-genotyping was performed by nested PCR and a Luminex®-based Multimetrix Assay. Demographic data were collected with questionnaires at baseline and study conclusion. Prevalence of oral HPV varied from 10.3 to 27.0 % and 15.8 to 31.3 % in women and men, respectively. At baseline, 37.6 % of the male genital samples were HPV-positive while in female genital samples, HPV prevalence varied from 13.3 to 59.4 %. Only 15 couples had HPV genotype-specific concordance (oral-oral n = 7; male oral-female genital n = 9; female oral-male genital n = 2). In the nested case-control setting, higher number of deliveries (OR 0.145, 95%CI 0.030-0.706, p = 0.017) and higher number of intercourse (OR 0.488, 95%CI 0.243-0.978, p = 0.043) decreased the likelihood of concordant HPV infections while practicing oral sex increased the risk (OR 0.299, 95%CI 0.120-0.748, p = 0.010). In multivariate analysis, the likelihood of concordance was decreased by higher number of pregnancies of the female partner (p = 0.020) and by higher frequency of intercourse reported by the male spouse (p = 0.027). To conclude, asymptomatic HPV infections were common in both spouses while genotype-specific concordance was low. This supports the view that HPV profile of the spouses has been established before the current marital relationship.

  18. The eunuch phenomenon: adaptive evolution of genital emasculation in sexually dimorphic spiders.

    PubMed

    Kuntner, Matjaž; Agnarsson, Ingi; Li, Daiqin

    2015-02-01

    Under natural and sexual selection traits often evolve that secure paternity or maternity through self-sacrifice to predators, rivals, offspring, or partners. Emasculation-males removing their genitals-is an unusual example of such behaviours. Known only in insects and spiders, the phenomenon's adaptiveness is difficult to explain, yet its repeated origins and association with sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual cannibalism suggest an adaptive significance. In spiders, emasculation of paired male sperm-transferring organs - secondary genitals - (hereafter, palps), results in 'eunuchs'. This behaviour has been hypothesized to be adaptive because (i) males plug female genitals with their severed palps (plugging hypothesis), (ii) males remove their palps to become better fighters in male-male contests (better-fighter hypothesis), perhaps reaching higher agility due to reduced total body mass (gloves-off hypothesis), and (iii) males achieve prolonged sperm transfer through severed genitals (remote-copulation hypothesis). Prior research has provided evidence in support of these hypotheses in some orb-weaving spiders but these explanations are far from general. Seeking broad macroevolutionary patterns of spider emasculation, we review the known occurrences, weigh the evidence in support of the hypotheses in each known case, and redefine more precisely the particular cases of emasculation depending on its timing in relation to maturation and mating: 'pre-maturation', 'mating', and 'post-mating'. We use a genus-level spider phylogeny to explore emasculation evolution and to investigate potential evolutionary linkage between emasculation, SSD, lesser genital damage (embolic breakage), and sexual cannibalism (females consuming their mates). We find a complex pattern of spider emasculation evolution, all cases confined to Araneoidea: emasculation evolved at least five and up to 11 times, was lost at least four times, and became further modified at least once. We also find

  19. Toll-like receptor-2, but not Toll-like receptor-4, is essential for development of oviduct pathology in chlamydial genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Darville, Toni; O'Neill, Joshua M; Andrews, Charles W; Nagarajan, Uma M; Stahl, Lynn; Ojcius, David M

    2003-12-01

    The roles of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 in the host inflammatory response to infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis have not been elucidated. We examined production of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in wild-type TLR2 knockout (KO), and TLR4 KO murine peritoneal macrophages infected with the mouse pneumonitis strain of C. trachomatis. Furthermore, we compared the outcomes of genital tract infection in control, TLR2 KO, and TLR4 KO mice. Macrophages lacking TLR2 produced significantly less TNF-alpha and IL6 in response to active infection. In contrast, macrophages from TLR4 KO mice consistently produced higher TNF-alpha and IL-6 responses than those from normal mice on in vitro infection. Infected TLR2-deficient fibroblasts had less mRNA for IL-1, IL-6, and macrophage-inflammatory protein-2, but TLR4-deficient cells had increased mRNA levels for these cytokines compared with controls, suggesting that ligation of TLR4 by whole chlamydiae may down-modulate signaling by other TLRs. In TLR2 KO mice, although the course of genital tract infection was not different from that of controls, significantly lower levels of TNF-alpha and macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 were detected in genital tract secretions during the first week of infection, and there was a significant reduction in oviduct and mesosalpinx pathology at late time points. TLR4 KO mice responded to in vivo infection similarly to wild-type controls and developed similar pathology. TLR2 is an important mediator in the innate immune response to C. trachomatis infection and appears to play a role in both early production of inflammatory mediators and development of chronic inflammatory pathology.

  20. The costs of managing genital warts in the UK by devolved nation: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Coles, V A H; Chapman, R; Lanitis, T; Carroll, S M

    2016-01-01

    Genital warts, 90% of which are caused by human papillomavirus types 6 and 11, are a significant problem in the UK. The cost of managing genital warts was previously estimated at £52.4 million for 2010. The objective of this study was to estimate the cost of genital warts management up to 2012 in the UK and by jurisdiction. Population statistics and the number of reported genital warts cases in genito-urinary medicine clinics were obtained and extrapolated to 2012. Cases of genital warts treated in primary care were estimated from The Health Improvement Network database. The number of visits and therapy required were estimated by genito-urinary medicine experts. Costs were obtained from the appropriate national tariffs. The model estimated there were 220,875 genital warts cases in the UK in 2012, costing £58.44 million (£265/patient). It estimated 157,793 cases in England costing £41.74 million; 7468 cases in Scotland costing £1.90 million; 7095 cases in Wales costing £1.87 million; and 3621 cases in Northern Ireland costing £948,000. The full National Health Service costs for the management of genital warts have never previously been estimated separately for each jurisdiction. Findings reveal a significant economic burden, which is important to quantify when understanding the value of quadrivalent human papilloma virus vaccination.

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Polymerase Chain Reaction and Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test for Diagnosis of Genital Herpes

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Vrushali; Bhalla, Preena; Rawat, Deepti; Garg, Vijay Kumar; Sardana, Kabir; Sethi, Sumit

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare laboratory tests that can simultaneously detect and type herpes simplex virus (HSV) directly from the genital ulcer specimens in clinically suspected cases of genital herpes. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted over 10 months and 44 adult male and female patients clinically suspected with genital herpes were recruited. Genital ulcer swab specimens were subjected to glycoprotein-G gene-based conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and commercially available direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test and the results were compared. Results: PCR for HSV was positive in 82% (36/44) cases. DFA was positive in 68.2% (30/44) cases. There was 100% agreement between HSV types detected by DFA and PCR. The strength of agreement between the results was better in primary genital herpes than recurrent cases. Conclusion: PCR was found to be better in the detection of HSV in recurrent genital herpes patients. It is a better modality, especially when genital herpes clinically presents with ulcerative or crusted lesions, and is also a cheaper alternative as compared to DFA. PMID:28042218

  2. Novel genital alphapapillomaviruses in baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) with cervical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Bergin, I L; Bell, J D; Chen, Z; Zochowski, M K; Chai, D; Schmidt, K; Culmer, D L; Aronoff, D M; Patton, D L; Mwenda, J M; Wood, C E; Burk, R D

    2013-01-01

    Genital Alphapapillomavirus (αPV) infections are one of the most common sexually transmitted human infections worldwide. Women infected with the highly oncogenic genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are at high risk for development of cervical cancer. Related oncogenic αPVs exist in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques. Here the authors identified 3 novel genital αPV types (PhPV1, PhPV2, PhPV3) by PCR in cervical samples from 6 of 15 (40%) wild-caught female Kenyan olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis). Eleven baboons had koilocytes in the cervix and vagina. Three baboons had dysplastic proliferative changes consistent with cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). In 2 baboons with PCR-confirmed PhPV1, 1 had moderate (CIN2, n = 1) and 1 had low-grade (CIN1, n = 1) dysplasia. In 2 baboons with PCR-confirmed PhPV2, 1 had low-grade (CIN1, n = 1) dysplasia and the other had only koilocytes. Two baboons with PCR-confirmed PhPV3 had koilocytes only. PhPV1 and PhPV2 were closely related to oncogenic macaque and human αPVs. These findings suggest that αPV-infected baboons may be useful animal models for the pathogenesis, treatment, and prophylaxis of genital αPV neoplasia. Additionally, this discovery suggests that genital αPVs with oncogenic potential may infect a wider spectrum of non-human primate species than previously thought.

  3. Activation of sensory cortex by imagined genital stimulation: an fMRI analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Nan J.; Frangos, Eleni; Komisaruk, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    Background During the course of a previous study, our laboratory made a serendipitous finding that just thinking about genital stimulation resulted in brain activations that overlapped with, and differed from, those generated by physical genital stimulation. Objective This study extends our previous findings by further characterizing how the brain differentially processes physical ‘touch’ stimulation and ‘imagined’ stimulation. Design Eleven healthy women (age range 29–74) participated in an fMRI study of the brain response to imagined or actual tactile stimulation of the nipple and clitoris. Two additional conditions – imagined dildo self-stimulation and imagined speculum stimulation – were included to characterize the effects of erotic versus non-erotic imagery. Results Imagined and tactile self-stimulation of the nipple and clitoris each activated the paracentral lobule (the genital region of the primary sensory cortex) and the secondary somatosensory cortex. Imagined self-stimulation of the clitoris and nipple resulted in greater activation of the frontal pole and orbital frontal cortex compared to tactile self-stimulation of these two bodily regions. Tactile self-stimulation of the clitoris and nipple activated the cerebellum, primary somatosensory cortex (hand region), and premotor cortex more than the imagined stimulation of these body regions. Imagining dildo stimulation generated extensive brain activation in the genital sensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, insula, nucleus accumbens, and medial prefrontal cortex, whereas imagining speculum stimulation generated only minimal activation. Conclusion The present findings provide evidence of the potency of imagined stimulation of the genitals and that the following brain regions may participate in erogenous experience: primary and secondary sensory cortices, sensory-motor integration areas, limbic structures, and components of the ‘reward system’. In addition

  4. Pre and Post-copulatory Selection Favor Similar Genital Phenotypes in the Male Broad Horned Beetle

    PubMed Central

    House, Clarissa M.; Sharma, M. D.; Okada, Kensuke; Hosken, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual selection can operate before and after copulation and the same or different trait(s) can be targeted during these episodes of selection. The direction and form of sexual selection imposed on characters prior to mating has been relatively well described, but the same is not true after copulation. In general, when male–male competition and female choice favor the same traits then there is the expectation of reinforcing selection on male sexual traits that improve competitiveness before and after copulation. However, when male–male competition overrides pre-copulatory choice then the opposite could be true. With respect to studies of selection on genitalia there is good evidence that male genital morphology influences mating and fertilization success. However, whether genital morphology affects reproductive success in more than one context (i.e., mating versus fertilization success) is largely unknown. Here we use multivariate analysis to estimate linear and nonlinear selection on male body size and genital morphology in the flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus, simulated in a non-competitive (i.e., monogamous) setting. This analysis estimates the form of selection on multiple traits and typically, linear (directional) selection is easiest to detect, while nonlinear selection is more complex and can be stabilizing, disruptive, or correlational. We find that mating generates stabilizing selection on male body size and genitalia, and fertilization causes a blend of directional and stabilizing selection. Differences in the form of selection across these bouts of selection result from a significant alteration of nonlinear selection on body size and a marginally significant difference in nonlinear selection on a component of genital shape. This suggests that both bouts of selection favor similar genital phenotypes, whereas the strong stabilizing selection imposed on male body size during mate acquisition is weak during fertilization. PMID:27371390

  5. Management of genital herpes by genitourinary physicians: does experience or doctor's gender influence clinical management?

    PubMed Central

    Russell, J M; Cracknell, M; Barton, S E; Catalan, J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the variation in management of genital herpes by genitourinary physicians, and whether their duration of experience or gender influence their clinical management. METHODS--A postal questionnaire was sent to UK consultant genitourinary physicians with detailed questions about management of primary and recurrent herpes. The gender and duration of genitourinary medicine experience of the physicians were also recorded. RESULTS--One hundred and eighty two questionnaires were sent, 112 (62%) returned. Eighty-one (72%) physicians treat all patients with primary genital herpes, but physicians with more than 20 years experience were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely to treat only "severe" primary attacks. Most experienced physicians were also most likely (p < 0.05) to prescribe topical acyclovir. Prescription of suppressive acyclovir was also influenced by the experience of the physician, the least experienced physicians being more likely to prescribe to patients who were HIV antibody positive or to those entering new relationships, whereas the more experienced prescribed to those patients who were particularly anxious (p < 0.05 for each of these). Male physicians were significantly more likely to agree with the proposition that men cope better with genital herpes (54%) than female physicians (24%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION--The response to the questionnaire illustrates that management of genital herpes is influenced by the duration of the physicians clinical experience. Gender of the physician may have an indirect role to play as we have shown that physicians differ in their perception of how the sexes cope with genital herpes. PMID:8509090

  6. Genital prolapse: A 5-year review at Federal Medical Centre Umuahia, Southeastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oraekwe, Obinna Izuchukwu; Udensi, Maduabuchi Amagh; Nwachukwu, Kelechi Chiemela; Okali, Uka Kalu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Genital prolapse is an important cause of morbidity among postmenopausal and multiparous women especially in our environment where a high premium is placed on large family size. This study was done to determine the prevalence, risk factors, clinical presentation, and management options of genital prolapse. Patients and Methods: Data of those diagnosed with genital prolapse were retrieved from records in the clinic, wards, theater, and from patients' folders in the medical records department. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20 with P < 0.05. Results: Genital prolapse accounted for 0.8% of gynecological clinic attendances and 5.2% of major gynecological operations. The mean age of patients was 56.7 ± 15.5 years. Farmers constituted 60.7% of the patients while 72.1% and 70.5% were postmenopausal and grandmultiparous women, respectively. The sensation of something coming down the vagina was the most common symptom noted in 98.4% of the patients. Most (23.0%) of the patients had unsupervised delivery at home. Uterovaginal prolapse was the most common (70.5%) type of genital prolapse, and third-degree uterovaginal prolapse was its most frequent presentation. Majority of the patients (44.4%) were managed expectantly while the most common surgery performed was vaginal hysterectomy with pelvic floor repair (33.3%). Conclusion: Widespread availability of antenatal services especially in the rural communities and limitation on family size can significantly reduce the burden of this disease. PMID:27833248

  7. HPV-related external genital lesions among men residing in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Roberto J C; Sudenga, Staci L; Sichero, Laura; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Galan, Lenice; Cintra, Ricardo; Torres, B Nelson; Stoler, Mark; Giuliano, Anna R; Villa, Luisa L

    2017-04-08

    The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of external genital lesions (EGLs), specifically histologically confirmed condyloma (genital warts) and Penile Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PeIN), and genital HPV infection progression to EGLs among healthy men aged 18-73 residing in Brazil. Subjects included 1118 men enrolled in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study between July 2005 and June 2009. At each visit, EGLs were biopsied and subjected to pathological evaluation. HPV status in genital swabs and biopsies was determined by Linear Array and INNO-LiPA, respectively. Age-specific EGLs incidence and the proportion and median time to EGL development were estimated. Kaplan-Meier cumulative incidence rates at 6, 12, and 24 months were determined. During follow-up, 73 men developed an incident EGL. Men could develop multiple EGLs and there were 36 men with condyloma, 27 men with lesions suggestive of condyloma, six men with PeIN, and 20 men with non-HPV lesions. HPV-positive men who developed EGLs were younger (p=0.002) than men that did not develop lesions. Among the 815 men with HPV infection, 4% progressed to EGL with the same HPV detected in the swab. During follow up, 15.7% of genital HPV-6 and HPV-11 infections progressed to condyloma (median progression time of nine months for HPV-6 versus 6.8 months for HPV-11). Approximately 1% of HPV-16 infections progressed to PeIN with a median progression time of 25 months. HPV types covered by the 4-valent HPV vaccine were detected in 82.3% and 83.3% of condyloma and PeIN, respectively. The high burden of HPV and high frequency of progression to disease underscores the need to offer HPV prophylactic vaccination to men to reduce the overall burden of infection and diseases caused by HPV.

  8. Intra-specific variation in the morphology and the benefit of large genital sclerites of males in the adzuki bean beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis).

    PubMed

    Sakurai, G; Himuro, C; Kasuya, E

    2012-07-01

    Rapid evolution has led to a large diversity in the sizes and morphology of male genitals across taxa, but the mechanisms driving this evolution remain controversial. In this study, we investigated the function of male genital sclerites in the adzuki bean beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis) and compared the length and morphology of genital sclerites between two populations that vary in their degree of polyandry. We found that the length of male genital sclerites was negatively correlated with copulation duration but positively correlated with the speed of matings with multiple females. Additionally, we found that the average length and number of genital sclerite spines of males from the more polyandrous population were larger than those from the less polyandrous population. We suggest that the genital sclerite of male adzuki bean beetles evolved by sexual selection, and a larger genital sclerite has a selective advantage because it allows for rapid copulations with multiple females.

  9. Sociodemography of genital Chlamydia trachomatis in Coventry, UK, 1992–6

    PubMed Central

    Winter, A; Sriskandabalan, P; Wade, A; Cummins, C; Barker, P

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To describe the sociodemographic and geographic risk factors for incident Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection. Design: Cross sectional retrospective study of cases diagnosed in local genitourinary clinics. Setting: Coventry, West Midlands, from 1992 to 1996. Subjects: 582 female and 620 male Coventry residents aged 15–64 years diagnosed with one or more episodes of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection by enzyme immunoassay. Subjects were assigned a Townsend deprivation score based on residence. The denominator population aged 15–64 years was derived from 1991 census data. Results: The mean annual incidence of genital chlamydia was 151 episodes (95% CI 140–163) per 100 000 population in men and 138 episodes (95% CI 128–149) per 100 000 population in women. Highest subgroup incidence was observed in 15–19 year old black women (2367 (95% CI 1370–4560) per 100 000), and 20–24 year old black men (1951 (95% CI 1158–3220) per 100 000). In univariate analyses, the most important risk factor for chlamydia infection in males was being black (incidence 1377 (95% CI 1137–1652) per 100 000 for black v 133 (95% CI 122–145) per 100 000 for white; RR 10.4, p<0.0001) and for women was young age (incidence 475 (95% CI 415–540) per 100 000 for age group 15–19 years v 52 (95% CI 45–60) per 100 000 for age group 25–64 years; RR 9.1, p<0.0001). In Poisson regression models of first episodes of genital chlamydia, for both males and females the effect of ethnic group could not be fully explained by socioeconomic confounding. There were significant interactions between age and ethnic group for both sexes and between age and level of deprivation for men. Geographical analysis revealed a high incidence of genital chlamydia in estates on the edge of the city as well as the urban core. Conclusions: There is a complex interaction between geographical location, age, ethnic group, and social deprivation on the risk of acquiring genital Chlamydia

  10. Cockroaches of genus Muzoa: morphology of the male genital sclerites and description of one new species (Dictyoptera, Blattodea, Ectobiidae, Nyctiborinae).

    PubMed

    Vélez-Bravo, Andrés H

    2013-01-01

    The male genital sclerites of cockroaches of genus Muzoa Hebard 1921 are described for first time and the new species Muzoa curtalata sp. n. is described and ilustrated. A dichotomous key to identify the species of genus Muzoa is given.

  11. "The first cut is the deepest": a psychological, sexological and gynecological perspective on female genital cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Barbara, Giussy; Facchin, Federica; Meschia, Michele; Vercellini, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    In recent years increased numbers of healthy women and girls have been seeking female genital cosmetic surgery for esthetic reasons and/or to enhance sexual functioning. This phenomenon is associated with the development of a new vulvovaginal standard due to Internet pornography and the increased exposure of female genitalia. This strict standard may negatively affect women's psychological health and cause increased insecurity, which may drive even teenagers to seek female genital cosmetic surgery. Psychological counseling is recommended to inform women that surgery is not a definitive solution to treat psychologically based pain or dysfunction. Moreover, there is no robust evidence supporting the effectiveness of female genital cosmetic surgery, especially regarding sexual enhancement, as underlined by major scientific societies. The importance of a definite regulation of female genital cosmetic surgery should be emphasized and be based on an ethically oriented, multidisciplinary model aimed at providing exhaustive information on all gynecological, sexological, and psychological concerns raised by this type of surgery.

  12. Atypical presentations of genital herpes simplex virus in HIV-1 and HIV-2 effectively treated by imiquimod.

    PubMed

    McKendry, Anna; Narayana, Srinivasulu; Browne, Rita

    2015-05-01

    Atypical presentations of genital herpes simplex virus have been described in HIV. We report two cases with hypertrophic presentations which were effectively treated with imiquimod, one of which is the first reported case occurring in a patient with HIV-2.

  13. IL-23 induces IL-22 and IL-17 production in response to Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection, but the absence of these cytokines does not influence disease pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, Lauren C.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Zurenski, Matthew A.; Riley, Melissa M.; Mintus, Margaret; Pociask, Derek A.; Sullivan, Jeanne E.; Andrews, Charles W.; Darville, Toni

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Chlamydia trachomatis Infections are a significant cause of reproductive tract pathology. Protective and pathologic immune mediators must be differentiated in order to design a safe and effective vaccine. METHODS Wild-type mice and mice deficient in IL-22 and IL-23 were infected intravaginally with Chlamydia muridarum and their course of infection and oviduct pathology were compared. Local genital tract and draining lymph node immune responses were also examined in IL-23 deficient mice. RESULTS IL-22 and IL-23 deficient mice exhibited normal susceptibility to infection and oviduct pathology. IL-23 was required for development of a Chlamydia-specific Th17 response in the lymph nodes and for production of IL-22 and IL-17 in the genital tract. However, influx of Th1 and innate immune cells was not compromised in the absence of IL-23. CONCLUSIONS IL-22 and IL-23 play either redundant or minimal roles in the pathogenesis of Chlamydia infection in the mouse model. Induction of Th17-associated cytokines by a Chlamydia vaccine should be avoided since these responses are not central to resolution of infection and have pathologic potential. PMID:24238108

  14. Intranasal immunization in mice with non-ionic surfactants vesicles containing HSV immunogens: a preliminary study as possible vaccine against genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Cortesi, Rita; Ravani, Laura; Rinaldi, Francesca; Marconi, Peggy; Drechsler, Markus; Manservigi, Marco; Argnani, Rafaela; Menegatti, Enea; Esposito, Elisabetta; Manservigi, Roberto

    2013-01-20

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of intranasal immunization with non-ionic surfactant vesicles (NISV) containing either the secretory recombinant form of glycoprotein B (gBs) of herpes simplex virus type 1 or a related polylysine reach peptides (DTK) for induction of protective immunity against genital herpes infection in mice. NISV were prepared by lipid film hydration method. The mean diameter of vesicles was around 390 nm for DTK-containing NISV (DTK-NISV) and 320 nm for gB1s-containing NISV (gB1s-NISV). The encapsulation efficiency of the molecules was comprised between 57% and 70%. After 7-14 day NISV maintained stable dimensions and a drug encapsulation higher than 48%. We showed that intranasal immunization with gB1s-NISV induces gB-specific IgG antibody and lymphoproliferative responses, whereas vaccination with DTK-NISV was not able to generate a gB-specific immune response. Our results indicate that vaccination of BALB/c mice with gB1s-NISV induced Th1 responses, as characterized by increased titre of IG2a in plasma and IFN-production in CD4+ splenic cells. Intranasal immunization with gB1s-NISV could elicit 90% (almost complete) protection against a heterologous lethal vaginal challenge with herpes simplex virus type 2. These data may have implications for the development of a mucosal vaccine against genital herpes.

  15. Protective immunity against Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection induced by a vaccine based on the major outer membrane multi-epitope human papillomavirus major capsid protein L1.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen; Liu, Jianxiao; Gong, Wenci; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Shanli; Zhang, Lifang

    2011-03-24

    The administration of an efficacious vaccine is the most effective long-term measure to control the genital tract infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) in humans. The current challenge for Ct vaccine development is to develop an effective delivery vehicle for induction of a high level of mucosal T and complementary B cell responses. We evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a candidate vaccine comprising the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) multiepitope of Ct delivered with the human papillomavirus (HPV) major capsid protein L1 as a vehicle with adjuvant properties, in a murine model of chlamydial genital infection. A recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1(+) containing mammalian codon-optimization HPV6b L1 gene and Ct MOMP multiepitope was constructed. The Ct MOMP multiepitope containing T- and B-cell epitope-rich peptides was inserted into C-terminal of HPV6b L1-coding sequence. The constructed plasmid after verified by enzyme restriction assay and DNA sequencing was transfected into COS-7 cells. Expression of the chimeric gene in COS-7 cells was confirmed by RT-PCR, Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence assay. Results revealed successful expression of the chimeric HPV6b L1/Ct MOMP multiepitope gene both at the mRNA and protein levels in transfected COS-7 cells. Intramuscular (IM) administration in mice was able to elicit not only antibodies against Ct MOMP, but also Th1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity against the Ct MOMP epitopes. In addition, recipients of IM immunization of HPV6b L1/Ct MOMP multiepitope were highly resistant to infection. Altogether, the results suggested that IM delivery of HPV6b L1-MOMP multiepitope may be a suitable vaccine regimen potentially capable of inducing protective mucosal immunity against Ct infection.

  16. Simultaneous plasma and genital pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of atazanavir and efavirenz in HIV-infected women starting therapy

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Michael; Louie, Stan; Xu, Jiaao; Anthony, Patricia; Thuvamontolrat, Kasalyn; Mordwinkin, Nicholas; Kovacs, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Few studies characterize longitudinal female plasma and genital antiretroviral pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Among 20 regimen-naïve HIV-infected adult women initiating atazanavir- (n=9) or efavirenz-based therapy (n=11), we measured blood CD4+ T-lymphocytes, and paired plasma and genital HIV RNA and atazanavir or efavirenz 2 days before starting therapy, and 2, 4, 7, 10, 21, 28, 60, 120, and 180 days after. The mean (range) log10 baseline plasma viral load was 4.89 (2.64 – 6.09) copies/mL and genital was 3.30 (1.60 – 5.00). In the atazanavir and efavirenz groups, mean (SD) days to 50% decrease in plasma viral load was 8.2 (4.9) vs. 9.3 (7.4), P=0.7, and in the genital tract was 7.3 (3.5) vs. 9.3 (7.7), P=0.5. The median (interquartile range) plasma:genital concentration ratio for atazanavir was 0.11 (0.001 to 0.46), vs. 0.34 (0.05 to 1.30) for efavirenz, P=0.5. Average plasma efavirenz or atazanavir concentrations over time did not affect virologic response. Blood CD4+ percentages increased by +2.3 (P=0.06) and +3.0 (P=0.003) for every 1 mg/L increase in average plasma and genital drug concentration, respectively. Plasma and genital viral pharmacodynamics were similar between the groups and independent of average concentrations, but blood CD4+ response was related in particular to genital extravascular drug concentrations. PMID:25683232

  17. A proposed biologic cure for recurrent genital herpes simplex through injection of neurolytic agents into cutaneous sensory nerves.

    PubMed

    Bierman, S M

    1983-01-01

    It may be possible to eliminate Herpes simplex virus (HSV) from the skin of patients with chronic recurrent genital infections through destruction of the cutaneous sensory nerves of the genitals by injecting absolute alcohol into the affected areas. In so doing the latency of the virus in the sensory ganglia may be influenced, the immediate source of reinfection suppressed, and reactivation of HSV inhibited in the skin.

  18. Genital Prolapse Causing Urinary Obstruction and Hydronephrosis in a Neonate: A Case and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Gina; Durkee, Charles; Groth, Travis

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal genital prolapse is a rare condition seen early in life, often in conjunction with spinal cord anomalies. We present a case of a 38-week gestational age female in whom urinary obstruction and bilateral hydronephrosis resulted from genital prolapse. We suggest that although a serious urologic outcome can potentially result from this condition, cure for both can be achieved swiftly and without major complications. PMID:26023398

  19. The uterine peristaltic pump. Normal and impeded sperm transport within the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Kunz, G; Beil, D; Deiniger, H; Einspanier, A; Mall, G; Leyendecker, G

    1997-01-01

    double the frequency of contractions during the early and mid- as well as midluteal phase in comparison to the fertile and healthy controls. During midcycle these women display a considerable uterine dysperistalsis in that the normally long and regular cervico-fundal contractions during this phase of the cycle have become more or less undirected and convulsive in character. Hyperperistalsis results in the transport of inert particles from the cervix into the tubes within minutes already during the early follicular phase, and may therefore constitute the mechanical cause for the development of endometriosis in that it transports detached endometrial cells and tissue fragments via the tubes into the peritoneal cavity. Moreover, dysperistalsis may contribute to the infertility in these patients since it results in a break down of sperm transport within the female genital tract.

  20. Female genital mutilation and monandry in an orb-web spider.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Kensuke

    2016-02-01

    Monandry, in which a female has only one mating partner during the reproductive period, is established when a female spontaneously refrains from re-mating, or when a partner male interferes with the attempts of a female to mate again. In the latter case, however, females often have countermeasures against males, which may explain why polyandry is ubiquitous. Here, I demonstrate that the genital appendage, or scape, of the female orb-web spider (Cyclosa argenteoalba) is injured after her first mating, possibly by her first male partner. This female genital mutilation (FGM) permanently precludes copulation, and females appear to have no countermeasures. FGM is considered to confer a strong advantage to males in sexual conflicts over the number of female matings, and it may widely occur in spiders.

  1. Importance of defining the best treatment of a genital gunshot wound: A case report.

    PubMed

    García-Perdomo, Herney Andrés

    2014-10-16

    Twenty percent of genital traumas are caused by penetrating injuries; accordingly gunshot and stab wounds have increased in the last couple of years around the globe, even in Colombia. A 67-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room because he received multiple gunshot wounds. On physical examination, multiple wounds on his penis with loss of tissue in the foreskin, glans, anterior urethra (distal third) and cavernous corpora were found. The urologist performed a partial penectomy with a penis reconstruction, he debrided the cutaneous flap of the dorsal foreskin and its glans, sutured the distal cavernous corpora and dissected the urethra. Penetrating genital injuries are extremely important due to their impact on the functional, psychological and the aesthetic consequences. It is necessary to define the best possible treatment to minimize the damage.

  2. The risk of misinterpreting genital signs of sexual abuse in cadavers: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ambrosetti, F; Palazzo, E; Gibelli, D; Andreola, S; Di Giancamillo, A; Domeneghini, C; Spagnoli, L; Cattaneo, C

    2013-09-01

    The significance of genital findings in a case of suspected child sexual abuse has been widely debated in the past decades, as shown by the different classifications available in literature. In the case of postmortem examination, the search for signs of sexual abuse is considerably more difficult because of the superimposition of postmortem modifications, which may determine tissue modifications that can be mistaken for traumatic lesions. This study aims at reporting a case where presumed findings of the first autopsy were denied by histological analysis; in detail, what looked like a possible bruise of the hymen was correctly recognized as hypostasis (livor) of the hymenal tissue by histological analysis. This case report suggests caution in the analysis and discussion of genital lesions found during postmortem examination since the superimposition of cadaveric modifications may radically modify the morphology of soft tissues.

  3. Localized neurofibromatosis of the female genital system: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Laencina, Ana M; Martínez Díaz, Francisco; Izquierdo Sanjuanes, Blanca; Vicente Sánchez, Elena M; Fernandez Salmerón, Rosario; Meseguer Peña, Francisco

    2012-06-01

    Neurofibromatosis within the female genital tract is uncommon. The vulva is the most frequent genital location, but it has rarely been reported in the context of the vagina, uterine cervix or ovaries. In spite of its rarity, neurofibroma is a neoplasm that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pelvic masses, especially in patients with neurofibromatosis. In this paper we describe the case of a 71-year-old patient with pelvic pain and a uterine mass who underwent a hysterectomy after having been diagnosed with an 11-cm neurofibroma occupying the myometrium of the entire uterine corpus. There were no neurofibromas in the endometrium, serosa, fallopian tubes or ovaries. The patient had an unknown von Recklinghausen's disease.

  4. A case study of female genital self-mutilation in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Krasucki, C; Kemp, R; David, A

    1995-06-01

    A case of deliberate genital self-mutilation in a woman with familial schizophrenia is presented. Such behaviour, though well recognized in females with severe personality disorders, is extremely rare in female psychotics. The genital mutilation may be partially understood as a consequence of delusionally motivated action against a background of low self-esteem, premorbid body-image preoccupation, forced early sexual activity and hence profound ambivalence towards adult sexuality. Dealing with this constructively was hampered by a cognitive style characterized by impaired reasoning and reality testing. Tests of reasoning, judgement and reality testing showed deficits, and computed tomography revealed dilatation of the left frontal ventricular system. Both neuropsychological and psychodynamic factors appeared to be of relevance in this case.

  5. Prevalence of genital, oral, and anal HPV infection among STI patients in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ciccarese, Giulia; Herzum, Astrid; Rebora, Alfredo; Drago, Francesco

    2016-12-09

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a carcinogenic agent responsible for tumor development in many sexually involved tissues. We present a survey on the prevalence of HPV infection in a risk population for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The studied population was formed by 125 STI clinic attendees, who took part in a screening program on STIs. To be included in the study, the patients had to show no overt clinical signs of HPV infection. Genital (cervical in women, urethral in men), anal, and oral samples were collected with ThinPrep liquid based cytology preparation system. Overall, of the screened population, 56% proved positive for genital HPV, 37% for oral HPV, and 42% for anal HPV infection. Our data indicate that in STI patients, HPV infection is more prevalent, than previously estimated. Further studies are needed to better understand the epidemiological burden of HPV in sexually involved tissues, especially in the oral mucosa.

  6. Characterization of the Genital Microenvironment of Female Rhesus Macaques Prior to and After SIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Whitney A.; Birke, Leslie; Dufour, Jason; Loganantharaj, Nisha; Bagby, Gregory J.; Nelson, Steve; Molina, Patricia E.; Amedee, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    Problem HIV infection among women is frequently modeled in female rhesus macaques. Longitudinal studies on genital compartment and hormonal factors that can influence susceptibility to SIV infection are lacking in this animal model. Methods of Study Genital specimens and menstruation of indoor-housed female rhesus macaques were analyzed prior to and after SIV-infection. Results Median menstrual cycle length averaged 27 days, although highly variable cycle lengths and frequent periods of amenorrhea were observed during summer months. The vaginal microbiota, characterized by adapted Nugent scoring, showed predominance of small gram-variable rods and gram-positive cocci. Highly variable vaginal cytokine levels were observed pre- and post-SIV infection. Vaginal viral loads correlated with plasma viral loads, but were not associated with progesterone levels. Conclusion These results provide an integrated characterization of important factors in the vaginal microenvironment that are relevant to the experimental design of HIV prevention and transmission studies in female rhesus macaques. PMID:26290147

  7. Immunization against Genital Herpes with a Vaccine Virus That has Defects in Productive and Latent Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Xavier J.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Knipe, David M.

    1999-06-01

    An effective vaccine for genital herpes has been difficult to achieve because of the limited efficacy of subunit vaccines and the safety concerns about live viruses. As an alternative approach, mutant herpes simplex virus strains that are replication-defective can induce protective immunity. To increase the level of safety and to prove that replication was not needed for immunization, we constructed a mutant herpes simplex virus 2 strain containing two deletion mutations, each of which eliminated viral replication. The double-mutant virus induces protective immunity that can reduce acute viral shedding and latent infection in a mouse genital model, but importantly, the double-mutant virus shows a phenotypic defect in latent infection. This herpes vaccine strain, which is immunogenic but has defects in both productive and latent infection, provides a paradigm for the design of vaccines and vaccine vectors for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as AIDS.

  8. Selection on an antagonistic behavioral trait can drive rapid genital coevolution in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, Paul E.; Head, Megan L.; Jordan, Eleanor J.; Carter, Mauricio J.; Davey, Emma; Moore, Allen J.; Royle, Nick J.

    2016-01-01

    Male and female genital morphology varies widely across many taxa, and even among populations. Disentangling potential sources of selection on genital morphology is problematic because each sex is predicted to respond to adaptations in the other due to reproductive conflicts of interest. To test how variation in this sexual conflict trait relates to variation in genital morphology we used our previously developed artificial selection lines for high and low repeated mating rates. We selected for high and low repeated mating rates using monogamous pairings to eliminate contemporaneous female choice and male–male competition. Male and female genital shape responded rapidly to selection on repeated mating rate. High and low mating rate lines diverged from control lines after only 10 generations of selection. We also detected significant patterns of male and female genital shape coevolution among selection regimes. We argue that because our selection lines differ in sexual conflict, these results support the hypothesis that sexually antagonistic coevolution can drive the rapid divergence of genital morphology. The greatest divergence in morphology corresponded with lines in which the resolution of sexual conflict over mating rate was biased in favor of male interests. PMID:27144373

  9. Chronic urticaria associated with recurrent genital herpes simplex infection and success of antiviral therapy--a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Zawar, Vijay; Godse, Kiran; Sankalecha, Sudhir

    2010-06-01

    The role of infectious agents as a cause of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is uncertain. The objective of this study was to investigate whether genital herpes simplex infection is causally related to CIU. We identified two patients with recurrent genital herpes simplex infections associated with CIU. Episodes of genital herpes were especially associated with acute exacerbation of urticaria. Anti-herpes simplex 2 antibodies and Tzanck smears were done in both patients, along with other relevant investigations for CIU. Acyclovir was added to antihistamine therapy. Both patients were apparently in good health and appeared clinically immunologically stable, though one of them was found to be diabetic. Clinical and laboratory investigations for genital lesions supported a diagnosis of herpes simplex. Anti-herpes simplex 2 antibodies were markedly raised in both patients. The Tzanck smear was positive in one case and negative in the other, despite a definitive clinical diagnosis of herpes progenitalis. CIU, which was inadequately controlled with antihistamines alone, responded dramatically to the addition of acyclovir therapy. Our results may not be applicable to other patients with CIU, especially when there is inadequate evidence of an association with genital herpes. CIU may be associated with recurrent genital herpes simplex infection. In such situations, the addition of acyclovir to therapy may be beneficial.

  10. Genital Responses to Rape Vignettes Among Young Men: The Influence of Mood and Directed Attention.

    PubMed

    Lalumière, Martin L; Fairweather, Annabree; Harris, Grant T; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Seto, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    Although it is clear that men with a history of sexual assaults against women produce higher relative genital responses to rape vignettes in the laboratory than do men without such a history, it remains unclear what aspects of the vignettes are eliciting these responses, and whether the genital responses are affected by situational factors. The antisocial tendencies hypothesis states that many men are inhibited by cues of violence, suffering, and coercion in rape vignettes, but other men, particularly antisocial and sexually aggressive men, are not so inhibited. In this study, we investigated whether the hypothesized inhibition to rape vignettes among nonoffenders could be affected by manipulation of mood and directed attention. A total of 48 young men were exposed to audio-recorded vignettes describing mutually consenting and nonviolent sexual interactions, mutually consenting and violent sexual interactions, nonconsenting and violent sexual interactions, and nonsexual and nonviolent social interactions (within-subjects). Participants were randomly assigned to a mood manipulation designed to induce a happy, neutral, or sad mood (between-subjects). All were asked to pay attention to either sex words or violent words while listening to the vignettes (within-subjects). As is typically observed, genital responses were lower (inhibited) when vignettes included cues of violence or nonconsent. Both happy and sad mood inductions reduced this inhibition, so that men induced into a happy or sad mood showed greater relative responding to cues of violence or nonconsent compared with men in a neutral mood. The attention manipulation had no significant effect. Results suggest that genital responses to rape cues can be situationally influenced, but not necessarily as predicted by the antisocial tendencies hypothesis.

  11. The Role of Bacterial Vaginosis and Trichomonas in HIV Transmission Across The Female Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Mirmonsef, Paria; Krass, Laurie; Landay, Alan; Spear, Gregory T.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection are both very common and are associated with increased risk of sexual transmission of HIV. There are several mechanisms by which BV and TV could affect susceptibility including inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and disrupting mucosal barrier function. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of how these genital conditions lead to an increased risk of HIV infection in women. PMID:22384839

  12. Influence of orbital flight conditions on formation of genitals in Muscari racemosum and Anethum graveolens.

    PubMed

    Kordyum, E L; Popova, A F; Mashinsky, A L

    1979-01-01

    It was shown that under space flight conditions development of male genitals in Muscari racemosum is accelerated compared to that of laboratory and natural field controls. Conditions of space flight produced an inhibitory effect on germination and germinative energy of Anethum graveolens seeds. The first stages of the plant development, right up to the flowering stage, also suffered from the inhibitory influence of space flight conditions. A cytoembryological study of the experiment and control plants found no essential differences between them.

  13. Evaluation and Treatment of Genital Injuries in Combat Warriors (Artiss Symposium 2012)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-02

    before. We usually think of PTSD as a memory problem. Maybe it is not a mem- ory problem. A cartoon illustrates: Walking beside Zambesi, Congo felt...very happy. "I have a super memory ," he said to himself. "And I will always re- member what to forget." Perhaps PTSD is really a forgetting problem... memory , breast discomfort or enlargement, loss of male body hair, muscle wasting and increased body fat. At WRNMMC patients with genital injury

  14. Genital Self-mutilation in a Case of First Episode Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Anuj; Chauhan, Khushboo; De Sousa, Avinash; Sonavane, Sushma; Pawar, Alka

    2016-01-01

    Genital self-mutilation (GSM) is a much rare finding and more commonly associated with psychosis when it comes to comparison with self-mutilation as a whole. There have been anecdotal case reports of GSM in psychotic disorders with most of them being in long standing psychoses. We describe herein a case of GSM during the first episode of psychosis where multiple phenomenological variables were seen responsible for the act. PMID:27570352

  15. Sensationalising the female pudenda: an examination of public communication of aesthetic genital surgery.

    PubMed

    Ashong, Ashong C; Batta, Herbert E

    2012-12-26

    We live in a society where beauty and sensations are important. Advances in medical technologies have brought on waves of new notions of beauty where commercial interests both in the media and the health industry spurred by fashion, advertising and celebrity promotion have tended to popularise body modifications and enhancements. In recent times, through offerings on cable television channels and glossy consumer magazines, medical procedures hitherto only in the precincts of medical schools, gyneacological clinics and medical journals have now pervaded the population. More seriously, on the Internet particularly, medical experts now offer services and graphic details of labiaplasty, clitoral hood reduction or enhancement, vaginal rejuvenation, etc. Here, we examine the public communication of the phenomenon of aesthetic genital surgery and interrogate thus; is it decent, honest, balanced and ethical? Relying on textual analysis, personal observation and literature review for data gathering, we observe that besides tending to commercialise and medicalise the female genitalia, a coalescence of medical, advertising and fashion interests as played out in the media sensationalises the benign science of plastic surgery and robs it of its truthfulness, genuineness, and purposefulness. The conclusion is that in Africa, where the effect of the development crises is telling, the hype surrounding cosmetic or aesthetic genital surgery is a damaging distraction particularly when the continent is waging a battle against female genital mutilation. The recommendations are that media and medical regulatory bodies should impress it upon media and medical industry operators that glaring commercial promotions of cosmetic genital surgery in the public media be checked, and that such communication should bear equal weight of facts related to risks, short comings, complications, and threats; in physical, social, and psychological terms.

  16. Detection and Quantitation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in the Female Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Penny; Bremer, James; Wasserman, Steven S.; Nowicki, Marek; Driscoll, Barbara; Polsky, Bruce; Kovacs, Andrea; Reichelderfer, Patricia S.

    2000-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was detected in the genital tracts of 59% of 225 women by RNA PCR and in 7% of the women by culture. In a comparison of two sampling methods, endocervical swabs were more sensitive than cervicovaginal lavage for HIV-1 RNA detection by PCR but not by culture and their sensitivity was independent of the concentration of HIV-1 RNA. PMID:11015409

  17. Sensationalising the Female Pudenda: An Examination of Public Communication of Aesthetic Genital Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ashong, Ashong C.; Batta, Herbert E.

    2013-01-01

    We live in a society where beauty and sensations are important. Advances in medical technologies have brought on waves of new notions of beauty where commercial interests both in the media and the health industry spurred by fashion, advertising and celebrity promotion have tended to popularise body modifications and enhancements. In recent times, through offerings on cable television channels and glossy consumer magazines, medical procedures hitherto only in the precincts of medical schools, gyneacological clinics and medical journals have now pervaded the population. More seriously, on the Internet particularly, medical experts now offer services and graphic details of labiaplasty, clitoral hood reduction or enhancement, vaginal rejuvenation, etc. Here, we examine the public communication of the phenomenon of aesthetic genital surgery and interrogate thus; is it decent, honest, balanced and ethical? Relying on textual analysis, personal observation and literature review for data gathering, we observe that besides tending to commercialise and medicalise the female genitalia, a coalescence of medical, advertising and fashion interests as played out in the media sensationalises the benign science of plastic surgery and robs it of its truthfulness, genuineness, and purposefulness. The conclusion is that in Africa, where the effect of the development crises is telling, the hype surrounding cosmetic or aesthetic genital surgery is a damaging distraction particularly when the continent is waging a battle against female genital mutilation. The recommendations are that media and medical regulatory bodies should impress it upon media and medical industry operators that glaring commercial promotions of cosmetic genital surgery in the public media be checked, and that such communication should bear equal weight of facts related to risks, short comings, complications, and threats; in physical, social, and psychological terms. PMID:23445703

  18. [Genital actinomycosis as a complication of an intrauterine contraceptive device and curettage of the uterine cavity].

    PubMed

    Bieda, W; Wojtyś, A; Skapska, M; Rytlewski, K; Sykut, L

    1982-12-01

    By 1979, only 300 cases of actinomycosis of the genital tract had been observed worldwide. It occurs normally as the saprophyte Actinomyces Israeli, order Actinomycetales, in dental carries, in the tonsil arches, in the larynx, and in the large intestine. Usual disease processes involve the neck and face, and infrequently the lungs and peristenum or ileocaecal, sigmoid, and rectal areas. 2 cases of genital actinomycosis were observed in women, at the Z III Gynecological Clinic in the Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics within the Academy of Medicine in Cracow, and in the Clinic of Infectious Diseases in that Academy's Institute of Internal Medicine. 1 of the women had had an IUD inserted immediately after artificial interruption of pregnancy. The difficulty in clinical determinations of this complication may necessitate diagnosis based solely on the clinical picture. A number of common clinical symptoms and characteristics were observed. These included repeated episodes of pain; presence of an IUD inserted immediately after interruption of pregnancy or after treament of the uterine cavity; severe pain in the lower abdominal area; the presence of very hard infiltrates throughout the genital tract; apyretic course of the disease; and high leucocytes. Success was attained after long term penicillin therapy. Ultrasonography was applied as an auxiliary means. Therapeutic management of these cases is described.

  19. Genital Ulcer Disease: How Worrisome Is It Today? A Status Report from New Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Muralidhar, Sumathi; Talwar, Richa; Anil Kumar, Deepa; Kumar, Joginder; Bala, Manju; Khan, Nilofar; Ramesh, V.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Genital ulcer diseases represent a diagnostic dilemma, especially in India, where few STI clinics have access to reliable laboratory facility. The changing STI trends require that a correct diagnosis be made in order to institute appropriate treatment and formulate control policies. The objective of this study was to determine recent trends in aetiology of genital ulcers, by using accurate diagnostic tools. Methods. Specimens from 90 ulcer patients were processed for dark field microscopy, stained smears, culture for H. ducreyi, and real-time PCR. Blood samples were collected for serological tests. Results. Prevalence of GUD was 7.45 with mean age at initial sexual experience as 19.2 years. Use of condom with regular and nonregular partners was 19.5% and 42.1%, respectively. Sexual orientation was heterosexual (92.2%) or homosexual (2.2%). There were 8 cases positive for HIV (8.9%). Herpes simplex virus ulcers were the commonest, followed by syphilis and chancroid. There were no cases of donovanosis and LGV. Conclusions. A valuable contribution of this study was in validating clinical and syndromic diagnoses of genital ulcers with an accurate aetiological diagnosis. Such reliable data will aid treatment and better define control measures of common agents and help eliminate diseases amenable to elimination, like donovanosis. PMID:26316954

  20. Female genital mutilation and the unborn female child in southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunlola, I O; Orji, E O; Owolabi, A T

    2003-03-01

    Female genital mutilation, despite efforts to abolish it, is still widely practised in Nigeria. The risk of female genital mutilation to a female child in southwest Nigeria was investigated by interviewing 430 consecutive pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Wesley Guild Hospital Ilesa, Nigeria between July 2001 to October 2001. The results show that 60% of the pregnant women studied had a type of genital mutilation. The decision to mutilate a female child is taken before she is born. Seventy-four (17.2%) of the women and 146 (34%) of their husbands would circumcise their female child. The decision to circumcise a female child is made between the husband and wife but the final decision comes mainly from the husband. Because the majority of the women (58.4%) were yet to decide whether or not to circumcise their female children, they could sway the decision either way before the husband makes up his mind. Therefore, every effort should be taken to involve men in the struggle to eradicate this unwholesome practice.

  1. Female genital cosmetic surgery: a critical review of current knowledge and contemporary debates.

    PubMed

    Braun, Virginia

    2010-07-01

    Female genital cosmetic surgery procedures have gained popularity in the West in recent years. Marketing by surgeons promotes the surgeries, but professional organizations have started to question the promotion and practice of these procedures. Despite some surgeon claims of drastic transformations of psychological, emotional, and sexual life associated with the surgery, little reliable evidence of such effects exists. This article achieves two objectives. First, reviewing the published academic work on the topic, it identifies the current state of knowledge around female genital cosmetic procedures, as well as limitations in our knowledge. Second, examining a body of critical scholarship that raises sociological and psychological concerns not typically addressed in medical literature, it summarizes broader issues and debates. Overall, the article demonstrates a paucity of scientific knowledge and highlights a pressing need to consider the broader ramifications of surgical practices. "Today we have a whole society held in thrall to the drastic plastic of labial rejuvenation."( 1 ) "At the present time, the field of female cosmetic genital surgery is like the old Wild, Wild West: wide open and unregulated"( 2 ).

  2. Diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus infection in the clinical laboratory

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since the type of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection affects prognosis and subsequent counseling, type-specific testing to distinguish HSV-1 from HSV-2 is always recommended. Although PCR has been the diagnostic standard method for HSV infections of the central nervous system, until now viral culture has been the test of choice for HSV genital infection. However, HSV PCR, with its consistently and substantially higher rate of HSV detection, could replace viral culture as the gold standard for the diagnosis of genital herpes in people with active mucocutaneous lesions, regardless of anatomic location or viral type. Alternatively, antigen detection—an immunofluorescence test or enzyme immunoassay from samples from symptomatic patients--could be employed, but HSV type determination is of importance. Type-specific serology based on glycoprotein G should be used for detecting asymptomatic individuals but widespread screening for HSV antibodies is not recommended. In conclusion, rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of HSV is now become a necessity, given the difficulty in making the clinical diagnosis of HSV, the growing worldwide prevalence of genital herpes and the availability of effective antiviral therapy. PMID:24885431

  3. Diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus infection in the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    LeGoff, Jérôme; Péré, Hélène; Bélec, Laurent

    2014-05-12

    Since the type of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection affects prognosis and subsequent counseling, type-specific testing to distinguish HSV-1 from HSV-2 is always recommended. Although PCR has been the diagnostic standard method for HSV infections of the central nervous system, until now viral culture has been the test of choice for HSV genital infection. However, HSV PCR, with its consistently and substantially higher rate of HSV detection, could replace viral culture as the gold standard for the diagnosis of genital herpes in people with active mucocutaneous lesions, regardless of anatomic location or viral type. Alternatively, antigen detection-an immunofluorescence test or enzyme immunoassay from samples from symptomatic patients--could be employed, but HSV type determination is of importance. Type-specific serology based on glycoprotein G should be used for detecting asymptomatic individuals but widespread screening for HSV antibodies is not recommended. In conclusion, rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of HSV is now become a necessity, given the difficulty in making the clinical diagnosis of HSV, the growing worldwide prevalence of genital herpes and the availability of effective antiviral therapy.

  4. Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Contraindication or Ethical Justification for Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Merle; Gillam, Lynn

    2016-11-01

    Is Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery for an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder ever ethically justified? Cosmetic genital surgery (specifically labioplasty) for adolescent girls is one of the most ethically controversial forms of cosmetic surgery and Body Dysmorphic Disorder is typically seen as a contraindication for cosmetic surgery. Two key ethical concerns are (1) that Body Dysmorphic Disorder undermines whatever capacity for autonomy the adolescent has; and (2) even if there is valid parental consent, the presence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder means that cosmetic surgery will fail in its aims. In this article, we challenge, in an evidence-based way, the standard view that Body Dysmorphic Disorder is a contraindication for genital cosmetic surgery in adolescents. Our argument gathers together and unifies a substantial amount of disparate research in the context of an ethical argument. We focus on empirical questions about benefit and harm, because these are ethically significant. Answers to these questions affect the answer to the ethical question. We question the claim that there would be no benefit from surgery in this situation, and we consider possible harms that might be done if treatment is refused. For an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder, the most important thing may be to avoid harm. We find ourselves arguing for the ethical justifiability of cosmetic labioplasty for an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder, even though we recognize that it is a counter intuitive position. We explain how we reached our conclusion.

  5. Frequent use of menfegol spermicidal vaginal foaming tablets associated with a high incidence of genital lesions.

    PubMed

    Goeman, J; Ndoye, I; Sakho, L M; Mboup, S; Piot, P; Karam, M; Belsey, E; Lange, J M; Laga, M; Perriëns, J H

    1995-06-01

    Menfegol is a spermicide with in vitro activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A randomized placebo-controlled safety study covered the use of menfegol foaming tablets for 14 days at increasing frequencies of insertion by 125 prostitutes in Dakar, Senegal. The frequencies of colposcopically diagnosed genital lesions were 5.0%, 11.8%, 27.8%, 49.7%, and 29.4% among menfegol recipients when tablets were used once every other day or 1, 2, 4, or 8 times a day, respectively (P < .05). Among placebo recipients, frequencies were 11.1% and 23.5% when tablets were used < 8 times daily and 8 times daily, respectively. There was no association between subjective genital symptoms and the incidence of colposcopically detected lesions. The high incidence of genital lesions when menfegol foaming tablets were used more than once daily suggests that their frequent use should not be recommended to prevent HIV transmission. In use at low frequency, the tablets' toxicity might be balanced by anti-HIV properties. Safety studies on vaginal microbicides should use objective methods, such as colposcopy, to assess the incidence of lesions.

  6. Management of pediatric perineal and genital burns: twenty-year review.

    PubMed

    Alghanem, A A; McCauley, R L; Robson, M C; Rutan, R L; Herndon, D N

    1990-01-01

    Between 1966 and 1986, fifty-seven pediatric patients with partial and/or full-thickness perineal and genital burns with a minimum of 1-year follow-up were identified. Fifty percent of the patients with genital burns and 20% of the patients with perineal and/or buttock burns required skin grafting in the acute stage. No patient required suprapubic cystostomies, diverting colostomies, or local flap coverage of exposed testicles. Burn scar contractures were the most frequent complications. Thirty-two patients (56%) required contracture release of the perineum and coverage with either skin grafts or local skin flaps. In three patients (6%) contracture required release of the penis and scrotum. One patient lost a testicle. Three patients developed rectal prolapse and were treated without surgery. Four patients developed rectal stenosis with fecal incontinence because of burn scar contracture and were treated by anal dilatation, local transposition flaps, and/or excision of the scar and primary closure. Acute management of pediatric patients with such injuries can be conservative. Delayed complications of contractures of the perineum and genitals can be easily corrected with scar excisions, skin grafts, or the use of local skin flaps.

  7. Prevalence of reproductive tract infections, genital prolapse, and obesity in a rural community in Lebanon.

    PubMed Central

    Deeb, Mary E.; Awwad, Johnny; Yeretzian, Joumana S.; Kaspar, Hanna G.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of reproduction-related illnesses in a rural community in Lebanon. METHODS: Data were collected through interviews with women in their homes, physical examinations and history taking by physicians in a clinic in the community, and laboratory tests. A total of 557 ever-married women aged 15-60 years were selected randomly. FINDINGS: Just over half of the sample (268, 50.6%) had five or more children, and (320, 78.9%) of women aged < 45 years were using contraception. The prevalence of reproductive tract infections was very low: six (1.2%) women had sexually transmitted diseases and 47 (9.3%) had endogenous reproductive tract infections. None had chlamydial infection or a positive serological finding of syphilis. None had invasive cervical cancer, and only one had cervical dysplasia. In contrast, genital prolapse and gynaecological morbidity were elevated. Half of the women studied (251, 49.6%) had genital prolapse, and 153 (30.2%) were obese. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of reproductive tract infections in this conservative rural community in east Lebanon was low. Possible explanations include the conservative nature of the community, the high rate of utilization of health care services, and the liberal use of antibiotics without a prescription. More importantly, the study showed an unexpectedly high prevalence of genital prolapse and obesity--a finding that has clear implications for primary health care priorities in such rural communities. PMID:14710505

  8. Forced genital cutting in North America: feminist theory and nursing considerations.

    PubMed

    Antinuk, Kira

    2013-09-01

    This article will examine forced nontherapeutic genital cutting (FNGC) through the lens of feminist theory and in relation to the concept of social justice in nursing. I will address the underlying assumptions of feminism and how they apply to the two currently legal forms of FNGC in North America: male infant circumcision and intersex infant/child genital cutting. Through a literature review and critical analysis of these practices, I will illustrate the challenges they present when considering the role of nurses in promoting social justice. If feminism asserts that bodily integrity, autonomy, and fundamental human rights are essential components of gender equality, it follows that these must be afforded to all genders without discrimination. Historically, there have been few feminists who have made this connection, yet a growing and diverse movement of people is challenging the frameworks in which we consider genital cutting in our society. Nurses are positioned well to be at the forefront of this cause and have a clear ethical duty to advocate for the elimination of all forms of FNGC.

  9. Evaluation of image quality of digital photo documentation of female genital injuries following sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E J; Speck, Patricia M; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2011-12-01

    With the patient's consent, physical injuries sustained in a sexual assault are evaluated and treated by the sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) and documented on preprinted traumagrams and with photographs. Digital imaging is now available to the SANE for documentation of sexual assault injuries, but studies of the image quality of forensic digital imaging of female genital injuries after sexual assault were not found in the literature. The Photo Documentation Image Quality Scoring System (PDIQSS) was developed to rate the image quality of digital photo documentation of female genital injuries after sexual assault. Three expert observers performed evaluations on 30 separate images at two points in time. An image quality score, the sum of eight integral technical and anatomical attributes on the PDIQSS, was obtained for each image. Individual image quality ratings, defined by rating image quality for each of the data, were also determined. The results demonstrated a high level of image quality and agreement when measured in all dimensions. For the SANE in clinical practice, the results of this study indicate that a high degree of agreement exists between expert observers when using the PDIQSS to rate image quality of individual digital photographs of female genital injuries after sexual assault.

  10. Adverse Psychosexual Impact Related to the Treatment of Genital Warts and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Campaner, Adriana Bittencourt; Vespa Junior, Nelson; Giraldo, Paulo César; Leal Passos, Mauro Romero

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To compare the psychosexual impact related to the treatment of genital warts and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in women. Methods. 75 patients presenting with HPV-induced genital lesions, belonging to one of two patient groups, were included in the study: 29 individuals with genital warts (GWs) and 46 individuals with CIN grades 2 or 3 (CIN 2/3). Initially, medical charts of each woman were examined for extraction of data on the type of HPV-induced infection and treatment administered. Subjects were interviewed to collect sociodemographic data as well as personal, gynecologic, obstetric, and sexual history. After this initial anamnesis, the Sexual Quotient-Female Version (SQ-F) questionnaire was applied to assess sexual function. After application of the questionnaire, patients answered specific questions produced by the researchers, aimed at assessing the impact of the disease and its treatment on their sexual lives. Results. It is noteworthy that patients with CIN 2/3 had statistically similar classification of sexual quotient to patients with GWs (P = 0.115). However, patients with GWs more frequently gave positive answers to the specific questions compared to patients with CIN 2/3. Conclusion. Based on these findings, it is clear that GWs have a greater impact on sexual behavior compared to CIN 2/3. PMID:26316956

  11. Increased Risk of Endometriosis in Patients With Lower Genital Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wu-Chou; Chang, Cherry Yin-Yi; Hsu, Yu-An; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Wan, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Endometriosis results from the ectopic invasion of endometrial glands and stroma in the peritoneal cavity. The exact etiology of endometriosis is still unknown. It has, however, been shown that there are higher numbers of Escherichia coli in menstrual blood, and higher endotoxin levels in menstrual fluid, as well as, in the peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis. In this study, we aimed to determine whether lower genital tract infections could increase the risk of endometriosis. We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance database to conduct a population-based cohort study. We included patients diagnosed with inflammatory diseases of the cervix, vagina, and vulva, and a control group comprising patients matched by age, sex, and comorbidities but without inflammatory diseases of the cervix, vagina, or vulva. A total of 79,512 patients were included in the inflammatory disease group and an equal number of control individuals were selected. The incidence of endometriosis (hazard ratio, 2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.91–2.12; P < 0.001) was higher among patients than controls. Cox proportional hazards models showed that irrespective of comorbidities, lower genital tract infection was an independent risk factor for endometriosis. Patients with lower genital tract infections exhibit a substantially higher risk for developing endometriosis. PMID:26962775

  12. Value of acetic acid screening for flat genital condylomata in men.

    PubMed

    Schultz, R E; Skelton, H G

    1988-04-01

    Application of acetic acid solution to the genital skin followed by magnified examination permits the detection of grossly inapparent flat condylomata acuminata. To evaluate the accuracy of this screening method, the male sexual partners of 36 women with genital condylomata were examined by this method and biopsies were obtained when results were positive. Of 47 biopsies of acetowhite (the whitish change that occurs when an epithelial surface is stained with acetic acid) lesions there were 26 cases of histologically confirmed condylomata, 9 of koilocytotic atypia and 12 with false positive results. There were 25 men whose sexual partners had cervical condylomata and cervical dysplasia. In this subgroup, considered to be at higher risk for flat condylomata, the screening method revealed 15 cases of condylomata, 6 of koilocytotic atypia and 4 in which no changes by acetic acid could be found. The extensive involvement of genital skin with flat condylomata in this subgroup raises doubts as to the practicality of treatment. Nevertheless, before treatment is rendered a punch biopsy for confirmation of the screening test is advised.

  13. Genital heat stress in men of barren couples: a prospective evaluation by means of a questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Jung, A; Schill, W-B; Schuppe, H-C

    2002-12-01

    Exposure to genital heat stress among men of barren couples was evaluated in a prospective study. Five hundred and forty-two consecutive patients referred for andrological examination were asked to complete a specific questionnaire at their first visit. For 449 patients who answered all questions, the individual score values could be calculated by scoring each answer with points. Patients with 'idiopathic' oligoasthenoteratozoospermia had significantly higher score values when compared with men showing normozoospermia (P < 0.01), 'symptomatic' oligoasthenoteratozoospermia as a result of defined andrological disorders (P < 0.01), cryptozoospermia (P < 0.01) or other pathological semen profiles (P < 0.05). These data support the hypothesis that patients with 'idiopathic' oligoasthenoteratozoospermia are more exposed to genital heat stress than normozoospermic men. Moreover, in patients with a varicocele impairment semen quality was associated with significantly higher score values compared with the subgroup of men with normal semen profiles (P < 0.05). In contrast, the score values did not significantly differ between equivalent subgroups of men with a history of a retractile testis. Our observations indicate that the questionnaire used in the present study allows an integrative assessment of genital heat stress, which is superior to single factor analysis. Notably, the group of men with 'idiopathic' oligoasthenoteratozoospermia showed the highest mean score values for 10 of the 18 questions compared with the other groups. Prolonged sitting in a vehicle represented the only single factor with significantly different score values in patients with 'idiopathic' oligoasthenoteratozoospermia and those with normozoospermia (P < 0.05).

  14. Cervical cytology as a diagnostic tool for female genital schistosomiasis: Correlation to cervical atypia and Schistosoma polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Pavitra; van Lieshout, Lisette; Taylor, Myra; Sebitloane, Motshedisi; Zulu, Siphosenkosi Gift; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Roald, Borghild; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke

    2016-01-01

    Background: Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is a tissue reaction to lodged ova of Schistosoma haematobium in the genital mucosa. Lesions can make the mucosa friable and prone to bleeding and discharge. Women with FGS may have an increased risk of HIV acquisition, and FGS may act as a cofactor in the development of cervical cancer. Objectives: To explore cytology as a method for diagnosing FGS and to discuss the diagnostic challenges in low-resource rural areas. The correlation between FGS and squamous cell atypia (SCA) is also explored and discussed. Cytology results are compared to Schistosoma polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in vaginal lavage and urine and in urine microscopy. Materials and Methods: In a clinical study, 394 women aged between 16 and 23 years from rural high schools in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, underwent structured interviews and the following laboratory tests: Cytology Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for S. haematobium ova and cervical SCA, real-time PCR for Schistosoma-specific DNA in vaginal lavage and urine samples, and urine microscopy for the presence of S. haematobium ova. Results: In Pap smears, S. haematobium ova were detected in 8/394 (2.0%). SCA was found in 107/394 (27.1%), seven of these had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). Schistosoma specific DNA was detected in 38/394 (9.6%) of vaginal lavages and in 91/394 (23.0%) of urines. Ova were found microscopically in 78/394 (19.7%) of urines. Conclusion: Schistosoma PCR on lavage was a better way to diagnose FGS compared to cytology. There was a significant association between S. haematobium ova in Pap smears and the other diagnostic methods. In low-resource Schistosoma-endemic areas, it is important that cytology screeners are aware of diagnostic challenges in the identification of schistosomiasis in addition to the cytological diagnosis of SCA. Importantly, in this study, three of eight urines were negative but showed Schistosoma ova in their Pap smear, and one of them

  15. Immunological responses to semen in the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Schuberth, H J; Taylor, U; Zerbe, H; Waberski, D; Hunter, R; Rath, D

    2008-11-01

    When spermatozoa, seminal plasma and semen extender reach the uterus and interact with local leukocytes and endometrial cells, several immune mechanisms are initiated which have immediate, mid-term and long-term effects on ovulation, sperm cell selection, fertilization and pregnancy success by assuring the acceptance of fetal tissues. This report gives an overview on relevant key immune mechanisms following roughly the time axis after insemination. Detailed knowledge regarding these mechanisms will aid maximizing reproductive efficiency in livestock production. In the future, the many species involved will require a more comparative approach, since evidence is growing that endometrial physiology and the response to varying amounts and compositions of seminal plasma, various semen extenders, and variable numbers of spermatozoa also provoke different immune responses.

  16. Interferon Lambda 4 Genotype Is Not Associated with Recurrence of Oral or Genital Herpes

    PubMed Central

    Lang Kuhs, Krystle A.; Kuniholm, Mark H.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Chen, Sabrina; Desai, Seema; Edlin, Brian R.; Peters, Marion G.; Plankey, Michael; Sharp, Gerald B.; Strickler, Howard D.; Villacres, Maria C.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Gange, Stephen J.; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; O’Brien, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    IFNL4-ΔG/TT (rs368234815) genotype is associated with hepatitis C virus clearance and may play a role in other infections. IFN-λ4 protein is generated only in individuals who carry the IFNL4-ΔG allele. The IFNL4 rs12979860-T allele, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with IFNL4-ΔG, was recently reported to be associated with more frequent and severe oral herpes episodes. We investigated the association of IFNL4-ΔG/TT with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-related outcomes among 2,192 African American and European American participants in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). WIHS is a prospective cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected and at-risk women that began in 1994. This report includes follow-up through 2013. Available data included: HSV–1 and HSV–2 antibodies at study entry; bi-annually ascertained episodes of (self-reported) oral herpes, (self-reported) genital sores and (clinician-observed) genital ulcers; HSV–2 DNA in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) specimens. IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotyping was determined by TaqMan. We compared women with IFNL4-ΔG/ΔG or IFNL4-TT/ΔG genotypes (i.e., IFNL4-ΔG carriers) to those with the IFNL4-TT/TT genotype, adjusting for age, race and HIV status. For outcomes with repeated measurements, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 95% confidence interval [CI] and p-value were determined using a generalized estimating equations approach. Median participant age at enrollment was 36 years; 81% were African American, 74% were HIV-infected. Among 1,431 participants tested for antibodies, 72.8% were positive for HSV–1 and 79.0% were positive for HSV–2. We observed no association between IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotype and any outcome: HSV–1 or HSV–2 antibody prevalence (p>0.1, all comparisons); oral herpes (aOR, 1.2; p = 0.35); genital sores (aOR, 1.0; p = 0.71); genital ulcers (aOR, 1.1; p = 0.53); detectable HSV–2 DNA in CVL (N = 322; aOR, 0.71; p = 0.49); HSV–2 DNA level (p = 0.68). In this large

  17. Interferon Lambda 4 Genotype Is Not Associated with Recurrence of Oral or Genital Herpes.

    PubMed

    Lang Kuhs, Krystle A; Kuniholm, Mark H; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Chen, Sabrina; Desai, Seema; Edlin, Brian R; Peters, Marion G; Plankey, Michael; Sharp, Gerald B; Strickler, Howard D; Villacres, Maria C; Quinn, Thomas C; Gange, Stephen J; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Greenblatt, Ruth M; O'Brien, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    IFNL4-ΔG/TT (rs368234815) genotype is associated with hepatitis C virus clearance and may play a role in other infections. IFN-λ4 protein is generated only in individuals who carry the IFNL4-ΔG allele. The IFNL4 rs12979860-T allele, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with IFNL4-ΔG, was recently reported to be associated with more frequent and severe oral herpes episodes. We investigated the association of IFNL4-ΔG/TT with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-related outcomes among 2,192 African American and European American participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). WIHS is a prospective cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and at-risk women that began in 1994. This report includes follow-up through 2013. Available data included: HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies at study entry; bi-annually ascertained episodes of (self-reported) oral herpes, (self-reported) genital sores and (clinician-observed) genital ulcers; HSV-2 DNA in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) specimens. IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotyping was determined by TaqMan. We compared women with IFNL4-ΔG/ΔG or IFNL4-TT/ΔG genotypes (i.e., IFNL4-ΔG carriers) to those with the IFNL4-TT/TT genotype, adjusting for age, race and HIV status. For outcomes with repeated measurements, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 95% confidence interval [CI] and p-value were determined using a generalized estimating equations approach. Median participant age at enrollment was 36 years; 81% were African American, 74% were HIV-infected. Among 1,431 participants tested for antibodies, 72.8% were positive for HSV-1 and 79.0% were positive for HSV-2. We observed no association between IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotype and any outcome: HSV-1 or HSV-2 antibody prevalence (p>0.1, all comparisons); oral herpes (aOR, 1.2; p = 0.35); genital sores (aOR, 1.0; p = 0.71); genital ulcers (aOR, 1.1; p = 0.53); detectable HSV-2 DNA in CVL (N = 322; aOR, 0.71; p = 0.49); HSV-2 DNA level (p = 0.68). In this large prospective study, IFNL4-

  18. Critical role for interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) during Chlamydia muridarum genital infection and bacterial replication-independent secretion of IL-1beta in mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Prantner, Daniel; Darville, Toni; Sikes, James D; Andrews, Charles W; Brade, Helmut; Rank, Roger G; Nagarajan, Uma M

    2009-12-01

    Recent findings have implicated interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) as an important mediator of the inflammatory response in the female genital tract during chlamydial infection. But how IL-1beta is produced and its specific role in infection and pathology are unclear. Therefore, our goal was to determine the functional consequences and cellular sources of IL-1beta expression during a chlamydial genital infection. In the present study, IL-1beta(-/-) mice exhibited delayed chlamydial clearance and decreased frequency of hydrosalpinx compared to wild-type (WT) mice, implying an important role for IL-1beta both in the clearance of infection and in the mediation of oviduct pathology. At the peak of IL-1beta secretion in WT mice, the major producers of IL-1beta in vivo are F4/80(+) macrophages and GR-1(+) neutrophils, but not CD45(-) epithelial cells. Although elicited mouse macrophages infected with Chlamydia muridarum in vitro secrete minimal IL-1beta, in vitro prestimulation of macrophages by Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) purified from Escherichia coli or C. trachomatis L2 prior to infection greatly enhanced secretion of IL-1beta from these cells. By using LPS-primed macrophages as a model system, it was determined that IL-1beta secretion was dependent on caspase-1, potassium efflux, and the activity of serine proteases. Significantly, chlamydia-induced IL-1beta secretion in macrophages required bacterial viability but not growth. Our findings demonstrate that IL-1beta secreted by macrophages and neutrophils has important effects in vivo during chlamydial infection. Additionally, prestimulation of macrophages by chlamydial TLR ligands may account for the elevated levels of pro-IL-1beta mRNA observed in vivo in this cell type.

  19. A prospective, open, comparative study of 5% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts in men*

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Caio Lamunier de Abreu; Belda, Walter; Fagundes, Luiz Jorge; Romiti, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection and represent one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections are transient but the virus may recur, persist, or become latent. To date, there is no effective antiviral treatment to eliminate HPV infection and most therapies are aimed at the destruction of visible lesions. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali that has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of genital warts and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is considered one of the most established treatments for genital warts. No comparative trials have been reported to date on the use of potassium hydroxide for genital warts. OBJECTIVE A prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare topical potassium hydroxide versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts affecting immunocompetent, sexually active men. METHODS Over a period of 10 months, 48 patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups and selected on an alternative basis for either potassium hydroxide therapy or cryotherapy. While response to therapy did not differ substantially between both treatment modalities, side effects such as local pain and post-treatment hypopigmentation were considerably more prevalent in the groups treated using cryotherapy. RESULT In our study, potassium hydroxide therapy proved to be at least as effective as cryotherapy and offered the benefit of a better safety profile. CONCLUSION Topical 5% potassium hydroxide presents an effective, safe, and low-cost treatment modality for genital warts in men and should be included in the spectrum of therapies for genital warts. PMID:24770498

  20. A case control study of active genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients with tubal infertility in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Tukur, J; Shittu, S O; Abdul, A M

    2006-01-01

    A case-controlled study of the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in 120 patients with tubal infertility (study group) and 120 clients of the family planning clinic (control group) attending the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria in northern Nigeria is reported. The prevalence was 38.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI) (29.6-47.6%) in the study group and 13.3%, 95% CI (7.8-20.7%) in the control group. There was a fourfold risk of having genital Chlamydial infection among the cases compared to the controls (odds ratio [OR] = 4.04, 95% CI (2.04 < OR < 8.09). Tubal infertility was found to be significantly associated with genital C. trachomatis infection (P < 0.001). Out of the 58 cases of primary infertility, 22(37.9%) tested positive for genital C. trachomatis compared with 24 of the 62 (38.7%) that had secondary infertility. The infection was not found to be significantly associated with a particular type of infertility (primary or secondary), number of sexual partners or previous sexually transmitted disease (P < 0.05). There is need for provision of facilities to enable screening for genital C. trachomatis infection in view of its high prevalence in the study population.

  1. Simple algorithms for the management of genital ulcers: evaluation in a primary health care centre in Kigali, Rwanda.

    PubMed Central

    Bogaerts, J.; Vuylsteke, B.; Martinez Tello, W.; Mukantabana, V.; Akingeneye, J.; Laga, M.; Piot, P.

    1995-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted among 395 patients presenting with genital ulcers at a primary health care centre in Kigali, Rwanda. Using clinical data and the results of a rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, we simulated the diagnostic outcome of two simple WHO flowcharts for the management of genital ulcers. These outcomes and a clinical diagnosis were then compared with the laboratory diagnosis based on culture for genital herpes and Haemophilus ducreyi and serology for syphilis. The prevalence of HIV infection was high (73%) but there was no difference between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in the clinical presentation and etiology of genital ulcer disease. The proportion of correctly managed chancroid and/or syphilis cases was 99% using a syndromic approach, 82.1% using a hierarchical algorithm including an RPR test, and 38.3% with a clinical diagnosis. In situations where no laboratory support is available, a simple syndromic approach is preferable to the clinical approach for the management of genital ulcer. If an RPR test can be included in the diagnostic strategy, patients with a reactive RPR test should be treated for both syphilis and chancroid infection. PMID:8907769

  2. Epidemiological characteristics of genital herpes and condyloma acuminata in patients presenting to urologic and gynecologic clinics in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choong Bum; Choe, Hyun-Sop; Hwang, Seong-Jin; Lee, Seung-Ju; Cho, Yong-Hyun

    2011-06-01

    As viral sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are hard to cure completely and because they recur frequently, the management of patients and the prevention of the spread of viral STIs are important, rather than focusing on their treatment, unlike the focus for bacterial STIs. Thus, their prevalence and epidemiological characteristics should be investigated first. This study examined the prevalence of genital herpes and condyloma acuminata in patients visiting urologic and gynecologic clinics and evaluated the epidemiological characteristics of these diseases through questionnaire surveys. Out of 167,767 patients, 1,585 were reported to have genital herpes and condyloma acuminata, and the prevalences of the two diseases were 0.58 and 0.37%, respectively. The percentage of patients with viral STIs as a proportion of the total number of patients with STIs including bacterial STIs, was 35.6%. While the prevalence of genital herpes was relatively higher in middle-aged patients, that of condyloma acuminata was observed to be higher in relatively young patients. Among the patients participating in the questionnaire survey, 39.5 and 21.0% responded that they had experienced recurrence of genital herpes and condyloma acuminata, respectively. In conclusion, because the prevalences of genital herpes and condyloma acuminata as viral STIs were not trivial compared to that of bacterial STIs, and because of their frequent recurrence, policies adjusted to the characteristics of these viral STIs and more studies on the management of recurrence are necessary.

  3. Mucosal delivery of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides expands functional dendritic cells and macrophages in the vagina

    PubMed Central

    Sajic, Dusan; Patrick, Amy J; Rosenthal, Kenneth L

    2005-01-01

    Antigen-presenting cells (APC) are specialized sentinel cells that sense pathogens within tissues and then activate appropriate immune effector cells in lymphoid organs. Recent evidence, however, suggests that APC can also induce effector cells in non-lymphoid organs. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of intravaginal (IVAG) delivery of CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) on expansion of resident genital APC. Our results show that delivery of CpG-ODN to the murine genital tract induced a rapid and significant, but transient expansion of genital APC in situ. As early as 12 hr post CpG-ODN delivery, we observed an enhanced level of F4/80+ major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-negative macrophages in the genital tissue. This was followed by increased levels of F4/80/MHC class II double-positive cells, as well as MHC class II, CD11c and CD86 triple-positive dendritic cells (DC) at 48 hr. Expanded APC levels at 48 hr post CpG-ODN resulted in increased ability of genital cells to induce an allogenic mixed leucocyte reaction. By 72 hr after CpG-ODN treatment, APC levels were not distinguishable from naïve levels. Therefore, these results clearly show that administration of CpG-ODN to the genital tract induced a marked but transient enhancement of APC within the genital tissue, and that these APC appear to possess functional capacity. Furthermore, these results indicate that IVAG–CpG-ODN may be an important factor for the enhancement of local antigen presentation in the genital tract through increased DC numbers. PMID:15667566

  4. Self-collected genital swabs compared with cervicovaginal lavage for measuring HIV-1 and HSV-2 and the effect of acyclovir on viral shedding.

    PubMed

    McNicholl, Janet M; Leelawiwat, Wanna; Whitehead, Sara; Hanson, Debra L; Evans-Strickfaden, Tammy; Cheng, Chen Y; Chonwattana, Wannee; Mueanpai, Famui; Kittinunvorakoon, Chonticha; Markowitz, Lauri; Dunne, Eileen F

    2017-03-01

    HIV-1 and HSV-2 are frequent genital co-infections in women. To determine how self-collected genital swabs compare to provider-collected cervicovaginal lavage, paired self-collected genital swabs and cervicovaginal lavage from women co-infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2 were evaluated. Women were in an acyclovir clinical trial and their samples were tested for HIV-1 RNA (361 samples) and HSV-2 DNA (378 samples). Virus shedding, quantity and acyclovir effect were compared. HIV-1 and HSV-2 were more frequently detected in self-collected genital swabs: 74.5% of self-collected genital swabs and 63.6% of cervicovaginal lavage had detectable HIV-1 (p ≤ 0.001, Fisher's exact test) and 29.7% of self-collected genital swabs and 19.3% of cervicovaginal lavage had detectable HSV-2 (p ≤ 0.001) in the placebo month. Cervicovaginal lavage and self-collected genital swabs virus levels were correlated (Spearman's rho, 0.68 for HIV; 0.61 for HSV-2) and self-collected genital swabs levels were generally higher. In multivariate modeling, self-collected genital swabs and cervicovaginal lavage could equally detect the virus-suppressive effect of acyclovir: for HIV-1, proportional odds ratios were 0.42 and 0.47 and for HSV-2, they were 0.10 and 0.03 for self-collected genital swabs and cervicovaginal lavage, respectively. Self-collected genital swabs should be considered for detection and measurement of HIV-1 and HSV-2 in clinical trials and other studies as they are a sensitive method to detect virus and can be collected in the home with frequent sampling.

  5. Self-collected genital swabs compared with cervicovaginal lavage for measuring HIV-1 and HSV-2 and the effect of acyclovir on viral shedding

    PubMed Central

    Leelawiwat, Wanna; Whitehead, Sara; Hanson, Debra L; Evans-Strickfaden, Tammy; Cheng, Chen Y; Chonwattana, Wannee; Mueanpai, Famui; Kittinunvorakoon, Chonticha; Markowitz, Lauri; Dunne, Eileen F

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 and HSV-2 are frequent genital co-infections in women. To determine how self-collected genital swabs compare to provider-collected cervicovaginal lavage, paired self-collected genital swabs and cervicovaginal lavage from women co-infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2 were evaluated. Women were in an acyclovir clinical trial and their samples were tested for HIV-1 RNA (361 samples) and HSV-2 DNA (378 samples). Virus shedding, quantity and acyclovir effect were compared. HIV-1 and HSV-2 were more frequently detected in self-collected genital swabs: 74.5% of self-collected genital swabs and 63.6% of cervicovaginal lavage had detectable HIV-1 (p ≤ 0.001, Fisher’s exact test) and 29.7% of self-collected genital swabs and 19.3% of cervicovaginal lavage had detectable HSV-2 (p ≤ 0.001) in the placebo month. Cervicovaginal lavage and self-collected genital swabs virus levels were correlated (Spearman’s rho, 0.68 for HIV; 0.61 for HSV-2) and self-collected genital swabs levels were generally higher. In multivariate modeling, self-collected genital swabs and cervicovaginal lavage could equally detect the virus-suppressive effect of acyclovir: for HIV-1, proportional odds ratios were 0.42 and 0.47 and for HSV-2, they were 0.10 and 0.03 for self-collected genital swabs and cervicovaginal lavage, respectively. Self-collected genital swabs should be considered for detection and measurement of HIV-1 and HSV-2 in clinical trials and other studies as they are a sensitive method to detect virus and can be collected in the home with frequent sampling. PMID:27179350

  6. Comparison of PCR, culturing and Pap smear microscopy for accurate diagnosis of genital Actinomyces.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Dilek; Demirezen, Şayeste; Hasçelik, Gülşen; Gülmez Kivanç, Dolunay; Beksaç, Mehmet Sinan

    2013-05-01

    Members of the genus Actinomyces, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria, are normal inhabitants of the mucosal surfaces of the oral, gastrointestinal and genital tracts. Identification of these bacteria using conventional methods is generally difficult because of their complex transport and growth requirements and their fastidious and slow-growing nature. However, in recent years, the advancement of molecular techniques has provided much improved identification and differentiation of closely related Actinomyces species. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the PCR technique in the diagnosis of genital Actinomyces in comparison with culturing and Papanicolaou (Pap) smear microscopy. Multiple sampling was conducted from 200 women using smear microscopy, culturing and PCR. Cyto-brushes were smeared on glass slides and stained using the routine Pap technique. Culturing was performed from a sterile swab, and Actinomyces were determined using the BBL Crystal ANR ID kit. PCR was performed from a second swab, and the Actinomyces type was determined using type-specific primers designed in our laboratory. Only one vaginal fluid sample (0.5%) revealed Actinomyces-like organisms on Pap smear examination. Actinomyces were detected in nine samples (4.5%) using the BBL Crystal ANR ID kit. Using PCR, eight samples (4%) were found positive for Actinomyces. No specimens that gave positive results by Pap smear microscopy and culturing could be confirmed by PCR. Pap smear microscopy and culturing were both found to have zero sensitivity for Actinomyces. PCR appears to be a sensitive and reliable diagnostic method for the detection of Actinomyces, which are difficult to cultivate from genital samples. PCR can be used for diagnostic confirmation in cases diagnosed by conventional methods, to prevent false-positive results.

  7. Genital Cytomegalovirus Replication Predicts Syphilis Acquisition among HIV-1 Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Gianella, Sara; Smith, Davey M.; Daar, Eric S.; Dube, Michael P.; Lisco, Andrea; Vanpouille, Christophe; Margolis, Leonid; Haubrich, Richard H.; Morris, Sheldon R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are common among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). While behavioral factors are important in STI acquisition, other biological factors such as immune modulation due to chronic viral infection may further predispose to STI acquisition. Design Post Hoc analysis including data collected over 12 months of follow-up from 131 HIV-infected MSM receiving antiretroviral therapy and screened for incident bacterial STI every 3 months. Methods Genital secretions collected at baseline were used to measure herpesvirus replication and inflammatory cytokines. Baseline predictors of STI were determined using survival analysis of time to incident STI. Results All participants were seropositive for cytomegalovirus (CMV), and 52% had detectable genital CMV at baseline. Thirty-five individuals acquired STI during follow-up, sometimes with multiple pathogen (17 syphilis, 21 gonorrhea, 14 chlamydia). Syphilis acquisition was associated with genital CMV replication at baseline (19.1% CMV-shedders versus 4.8% non-shedders, p=0.03) and younger age (p=0.02). Lower seminal MCP-1 was associated with higher seminal CMV levels and with syphilis acquisition (p<0.01). For syphilis acquisition, in multivariable Cox-Proportional Hazard model adjusted hazard rates were 3.56 (95%CI:1.00–12.73) for baseline CMV replication and 2.50 (0.92–6.77) for younger age. Conclusions This post hoc analysis suggest that CMV-associated decrease in seminal MCP-1 levels might predispose HIV-infected MSM to syphilis acquisition, but not other STI. Future studies should determine underlying mechanisms and if a causal association exists. PMID:26061824

  8. Usefulness of an educational leaflet to modify sexual risk behaviour in women with external genital warts.

    PubMed

    Cortes-Bordoy, Javier; Vidart, José A; Coll-Capdevila, Carme; Colombo, José A; Ramírez, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to assess the effectiveness of an educational leaflet to modify sexual risk behaviour in women with external genital warts. Women with genital warts who attended in daily gynecological practice participated in a 12-month prospective randomised observational study. Randomisation was carried out by centres. At the initial visit, patients underwent complete gynecological examination, including an acetic acid test. Those assigned to the intervention group received an educational leaflet to improve patient's knowledge about warts (counselled group). Only patients with complete clearance after 6 months of initial therapy continued the study. The counselled group included 114 women and the non-counselled group 97. A significant increase in the use of condoms at visit 3 as compared with baseline (83.2% vs 66.1%, P < 0.05) was observed in the counselled group. The mean number of sexual partners was also significantly lower in the counselled group at each follow-up visit. Recurrences were documented in 9 of the 145 patients who completed the study (recurrence rate 6.2%). Recurrences occurred in 7 patients in the counselled group and in 2 in the non-counselled group (8.6% vs 3.1%, P = 0.299), and in all cases occurred at 9 months after initiation of treatment. In conclusion, the educational leaflet, which is simple and easy to implement in routine daily practice, proved to be effective in modifying sexual risk behaviour in women with external genital warts. This educational strategy did not seem to affect recurrence if an acetic acid test is routinely performed during the initial work-up studies.

  9. Persistent Genital Hyperinnervation Following Progesterone Administration to Adolescent Female Rats1

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Zhaohui; Smith, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Provoked vestibulodynia, a female pelvic pain syndrome affecting substantial numbers of women, is characterized by genital hypersensitivity and sensory hyperinnervation. Previous studies have shown that the risk of developing provoked vestibulodynia is markedly elevated following adolescent use of oral contraceptives with high progesterone content. We hypothesized that progesterone, a steroid hormone with known neurotropic properties, may alter genital innervation through direct or indirect actions. Female Sprague Dawley rats received progesterone (20 mg/kg subcutaneously) from Days 20–27; tissue was removed for analysis in some rats on Day 28, while others were ovariectomized on Day 43 and infused for 7 days with vehicle or 17beta estradiol. Progesterone resulted in overall increases in vaginal innervation at both Day 28 and 50 due to proliferation of peptidergic sensory and sympathetic (but not parasympathetic) axons. Estradiol reduced innervation in progesterone-treated and untreated groups. To assess the mechanisms of sensory hyperinnervation, we cultured dissociated dorsal root ganglion neurons and found that progesterone increases neurite outgrowth by small unmyelinated (but not myelinated) sensory neurons, it was receptor mediated, and it was nonadditive with NGF. Pretreatment of ganglion with progesterone also increased neurite outgrowth in response to vaginal target explants. However, pretreatment of vaginal target with progesterone did not improve outgrowth. We conclude that adolescent progesterone exposure may contribute to provoked vestibulodynia by eliciting persistent genital hyperinnervation via a direct effect on unmyelinated sensory nociceptor neurons and that estradiol, a well-documented therapeutic, may alleviate symptoms in part by reducing progesterone-induced sensory hyperinnervation. PMID:25359899

  10. [A primary clinical trial of genital warts treated with domestic highly purified podophyllotoxin].

    PubMed

    Wang, B; Wang, B; Shao, Y

    1994-04-01

    Genital warts (condyloma accunimata) are a kind of sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). In this article, we report 75 cases of genital warts treated with highly purified podophyllotoxin. All volunteers were selected in our clinic and diagnosed according to typical skin lesions and positive 0.5% acetic acid test. Of the 74 cases 48 were male and 26 were female, with a mean age of 28.4 years (21-54). The average duration of disease was 4.4 months (2 weeks-3 years). All lesions were treated with 0.5% podophyllotoxin-ethanal solution topically 2 times per day for 3 successive days. The treatment was repeated if any warts persisted, but not more than 3 therapies in total were applied. The results showed that 41/48 (85.4%) of male and 23/26 (88.5%) of female patients were cured, the overall cure rate was 86.5% and the effectiveness rate (more than 50% lesions disappeared) was 96.15%. During another 3 months of follow-up, 9 male and 4 female patients (17.6% in total) experienced relapsed warts; these were cured with another treatment. Side effects including slight local irritation and erythema or superficial erosions were common, but 3 male and 2 female patients complained of sever pain and local swelling. All side effects were tolerable. It is concluded that our domestically produced highly purified podophyllotoxin is an effective, comparatively safe drug for the treatment of genital warts. It is also very simple to apply, and can be used for self-treatment.

  11. Genital chlamydial infection: association between clinical features, organism genotype and load.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Hamid; Verlander, Neville Q; Kumar, Navin; Bentley, Neil; Carne, Christopher; Sonnex, Christopher

    2011-07-01

    The association between the clinical features of genital chlamydial infection and organism genotype and load was evaluated. Chlamydial DNA was detected and quantified in genital swabs from 233 (7 %) of 3384 consecutive patients attending a genitourinary medicine clinic. The chlamydia-positive subcohort comprised 132 (57 %) females and 101 (43 %) males. Clinical features were present in 33 % women and 72 % men. The chlamydial load was found to be higher in women (median load: 5.6 log) than men (median load: 3.5 log). Single variable analysis failed to show a significant association between chlamydial load and clinical features (P value = 0.3). Owing to the limited amount of clinical material, information on chlamydial genotypes was available for 70 % (n = 162) of chlamydia-positive patients. However, multivariable analysis of these samples did show a significant association between chlamydial load and clinical features (P value = 0.02). This discrepancy is most probably due to the difference in the amount of data analysed by single variable (data from 233 patients) and multivariable (data from 162 patients) analysis. The distribution of chlamydia genotypes was as follows: type E (46 %), F (22 %), D (8 %), K (8 %), G (7 %), J (4 %), I (1 %) and H (0.6 %). No statistically significant association was observed between chlamydial genotype and clinical features in either single variable (P value = 0.6) or multivariable (P value = 0.4) analysis. These findings suggest that chlamydial load and diversity in the ompA gene plays little, if any, role in the pathogenesis of genital chlamydial infection.

  12. Congenital malformations of the female genital tract: the need for a new classification system.

    PubMed

    Grimbizis, Grigoris F; Campo, Rudi

    2010-07-01

    Current proposals for classifying female genital anomalies seem to be associated with limitations in effective categorization, creating the need for a new classification system that is as simple as possible, clear and accurate in its definitions, comprehensive, and correlated with patients' clinical presentation, prognosis, and treatment on an evidence-based foundation. Although creating a new classification system is not an easy task, it is feasible when taking into account the experience gained from applying the existing classification systems, mainly that of the American Fertility Society.

  13. Recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infection in a woman: test and treat the partner!

    PubMed

    Verkaeren, Emilienne; Epelboin, Loïc; Epelboin, Sylvie; Boddaert, Nathalie; Brossier, Florence; Caumes, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a well-known cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubescent girls, but it is rarely described in adult women. We describe the case of a 64-year-old woman who presented with endometritis revealed by GAS bacteraemia, followed by recurrent vulvovaginitis due to a wild-type strain of GAS. She relapsed twice despite amoxicillin treatment. Her husband was found to be an asymptomatic carrier after GAS was identified in nasal and rectal swabs. She was cured after eradication of carriage in both herself and her husband with amoxicillin and rifampin. When recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infections occur, test and treat the partner.

  14. Congenital and acquired pathology of ovary and tubular genital organs in ewes: a review.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, C; Schiavi, E; Della Salda, L

    2011-02-01

    Advances in our understanding of ovarian cyclicity, pathogenesis of subfertility and/or infertility and reproductive pathology in food animals have frequently entailed examination of abattoir material. Despite the fact that most lesions in ewes are likely to be of relatively minor significance to fertility, results of previous studies suggest that lesions of the female reproductive system may represent a significant source of loss to sheep husbandry. The objective of this paper is to review the pathophysiology, the effects on reproductive efficiency and the key gross and histological diagnostic features of congenital and acquired pathology of ovary and tubular genital organs in ewes.

  15. Vulvar Epidermal Inclusion Cyst as a Long-term Complication of Female Genital Mutilation

    PubMed Central

    Victoria-Martínez, Ana Mercedes; Cubells-Sánchez, Laura; Martínez-Leborans, Lorena; Sánchez-Carazo, José Luis; de Miquel, Víctor Alegre

    2016-01-01

    We present a case report of a patient with epidermal inclusion cyst as a late complication of female genital mutilation (FGM). We describe the management of the patient, and a review of the literature. We report the clinical and pathological findings in a 37-year-old female patient from Nigeria, with a clitoral mass of 1 year duration. She declared to have an FGM since she was 5 years. The lesion was excised successfully with good cosmetic results. Histological examination revealed epidermal cyst with the presence of granular layer. An epidermal inclusion cyst can develop as a long-term consequence of FGM. PMID:26955127

  16. Vulvar Epidermal Inclusion Cyst as a Long-term Complication of Female Genital Mutilation.

    PubMed

    Victoria-Martínez, Ana Mercedes; Cubells-Sánchez, Laura; Martínez-Leborans, Lorena; Sánchez-Carazo, José Luis; de Miquel, Víctor Alegre

    2016-01-01

    We present a case report of a patient with epidermal inclusion cyst as a late complication of female genital mutilation (FGM). We describe the management of the patient, and a review of the literature. We report the clinical and pathological findings in a 37-year-old female patient from Nigeria, with a clitoral mass of 1 year duration. She declared to have an FGM since she was 5 years. The lesion was excised successfully with good cosmetic results. Histological examination revealed epidermal cyst with the presence of granular layer. An epidermal inclusion cyst can develop as a long-term consequence of FGM.

  17. Characterisation of mycoplasmas isolated from genital tract infections of sheep in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chima, J C; Ojo, M O; Molokwu, J U; Okewole, P A

    1995-09-01

    Four mycoplasma-like organisms isolated from ewes with mucopurulent vaginal discharge and swollen vulva were characterised. Biochemical tests showed three of the isolates to be negative for glucose fermentation and arginine hydrolysis, while the remaining isolate was negative for glucose fermentation but hydrolysed arginine. Serological identification using the growth inhibition, growth precipitation and indirect immunofluorescence tests indicated the three similar isolates as Mycoplasma bovigenitalium and the other isolate as Mycoplasma arginini. There are apparently no previous reports of the isolation of these organisms from the genital tract of sheep in Nigeria.

  18. Insight into the diagnosis and management of subclinical genital tuberculosis in women with infertility

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Nalini; Naidu, Padmaja; Kaur, Simran Deep

    2016-01-01

    Genital tuberculosis (GTB) is an important cause of infertility in India. Lack of an accurate diagnostic test has led to an indiscriminate use of antitubercular treatment in infertile women. Apart from concerns of drug toxicity, this may be a contributing factor in the increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant TB reported in India. We conducted a study to analyze whether a combination of tests could help improve diagnostic accuracy. An algorithm for the management of GTB in infertile women based on the use of multiple tests is presented. PMID:27803580

  19. Herbal remedies of street vendors for some urino-genital diseases.

    PubMed

    Sinha, R K

    1992-01-01

    The herbal vendors are the mobile tribal medicinement seen on the busy streets of many Indian cities selling crude medicinal plants and their products. They prescribe herbal treatment for several diseases, a skill they inherited from their forefathers through several generations of experience. They claim to have specific herbal remedies for the complete cure of some urino - genital disorders such as dysuria, hematuria, syphilis and gonorrhea. Cocculus villosus, pedalium murex, Tribulus terrestris, Tinospora cordifolia, Withania Somnifera, Asparagus racemosus and Curculigo orchoides are the herbal drugs of choice used in the treatment.

  20. A prospective study of the psychological impact on patients with a first episode of genital herpes.

    PubMed Central

    Carney, O; Ross, E; Bunker, C; Ikkos, G; Mindel, A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess the psychological impact of first episode of genital herpes, and to determine whether this changes over time. SETTING AND SUBJECTS--The Departments of Genitourinary Medicine (GUM), and Dermatology, Middlesex Hospital London. The study group consisted of patients attending the department of GUM with a clinically proven first episode of genital herpes. Two control groups were recruited; firstly patients without herpes attending the GUM Department and secondly patients attending the Dermatology Department out patients with chronic dermatoses. METHODS--Patients and controls completed an 87 item, self-administered psychological questionnaire at 3 monthly intervals for a year. The questionnaire consisted of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ); the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Questionnaire (HADQ); Illness Attitude Scales and Illness Concern. Patients were also asked questions about their sexual behaviour. RESULTS--Ninety one patients (68 women, 23 men) with genital herpes, 61 GUM controls (42 women, 19 men) and 56 dermatology controls (36 women, 20 men) participated. There were no statistically significant demographic differences between patients and controls. At first visit the proportion of patients classified as "cases" by the GHQ (GHQ cases) were similar for primary herpes patients 62% (56/91) and Dermatology controls 52% (29/56) while a significantly smaller proportion of GUM controls 34% (21/61) were classified as GHQ cases. The primary herpes group were significantly more concerned about their illness than either the GUM controls or the Dermatology controls (p < 0.002). The proportion of primary herpes patients classified as "cases" by the GHQ reduced significantly over the initial three month period with 67% of patients classified as "cases" at their first visit becoming "noncases" after three months (p < 0.0001). Also 50% of those classified as "cases" at first visit by the HADQ become "noncases" after the initial three months (p = 0

  1. The (in)significance of genital injury in rape and sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Walker, Graeme

    2015-08-01

    The forensic significance of genital injury following rape and sexual assault has been the subject of considerable academic and research interest, in terms of the contribution it may provide to the body of evidence in criminal proceedings. This essay takes a critical look at such research, in the context of modern understandings of what actually constitutes rape and sexual assault. Written from the author's perspective as a forensic physician practising in Scotland, it illustrates the fascinating interface between medical evidence and the legal system.

  2. [Scrotal reconstruction after necrotizing cellulitis of the perineum and external genital organs. Apropos of 21 cases].

    PubMed

    Boukind, H; Ezzoubi, M; Chafiki, N; Alibou, F; Chlihi, A; Bahechar, N; Zerouali, O N

    1995-01-01

    The author report twenty one cases of tissue reconstruction defects secondary to necrotizing cellulitis of perineum and external genital organs, treated at the burns and plastic surgery unit of CHU Ibn Rochd of Casablanca, between 1992 and 1994. Depending on the extent of the defect, the techniques used were gracilis musculocutaneous flap in 8 cases, thigh fasciocutaneous flap in 7 cases, groin flap in 4 cases, simple skin sutures and skin grafts in one case, respectively. The morphological results were satisfactory. The mean hospital stay after reconstruction was 15 days.

  3. Boycunts and bonus holes: trans men's bodies, neoliberalism, and the sexual productivity of genitals.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Elijah Adiv; Zimman, Lal

    2014-01-01

    Recent theorizations of trans embodiment have brought attention to the ways neoliberalism limits the productivity of nonnormatively gendered bodies. This article deals with the discursive framing of embodiment and sexual desirability among trans men and other transmasculine persons negotiating Internet-mediated homoerotic spaces. Micro-level analysis of discourse structure and macro-level analysis of socio-political context together show how trans men navigate homonormative sexual economies by linguistically recuperating their bodies' sexually productivity. Instead of undermining claims of embodied masculinity and homoerotic value, potential sites of exclusion-i.e., trans genitals-become sites of flexible accumulation that enhance rather than detract from their bearers' desirability.

  4. Early local cytokine profiles in strains of mice with different outcomes from chlamydial genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Darville, T; Andrews, C W; Sikes, J D; Fraley, P L; Rank, R G

    2001-06-01

    In this study, we expand on the examination of genetically determined differences in host responses that correlate with clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis from the genital tract. We infected C57BL/6, BALB/c, and C3H/HeN mice with the mouse pneumonitis agent of C. trachomatis (MoPn). C57BL/6 mice had the shortest course of infection (22 days) and the lowest incidence of severe hydrosalpinx. BALB/c mice also had a short course of infection (25 days), but all developed hydrosalpinx. C3H/HeN mice had the longest course of infection (38 days), and all developed severe hydrosalpinx. Determination of local cytokine responses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of genital tract secretions revealed that the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) were significantly increased in the C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains compared to those in the C3H/HeN strain whereas the level of IL-6 was not different. The level of the neutrophil chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) was increased during the first week of infection in all three strains but was significantly higher in the BALB/c strain, the strain with the most rapid influx of neutrophils into the genital tract. Prolonged detection of MIP-2 in C3H/HeN mice was associated with a protracted presence of neutrophils in the genital tract. Early increases in the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1beta are associated with earlier eradication of infection in the C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains than in the C3H/HeN strain. Increased levels of MIP-2 and neutrophils in BALB/c and C3H/HeN mice relative to C57BL/6 mice suggest that these responses may contribute to pathology.

  5. Persistent genital arousal disorder: confluent patient history of agitated depression, paroxetine cessation, and a tarlov cyst.

    PubMed

    Eibye, Simone; Jensen, Hans Mørch

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a woman suffering from persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) after paroxetine cessation. She was admitted to a psychiatric department and diagnosed with agitated depression. Physical investigation showed no gynaecological or neurological explanation; however, a pelvic MRI scan revealed a Tarlov cyst. Size and placement of the cyst could not explain the patient's symptoms; thus neurosurgical approach would not be helpful. Her depression was treated with antidepressant with little effect. Electroconvulsive therapy improved the patient's symptoms though they did not fully resolve. More awareness of PGAD and thorough interdisciplinary conferences are necessary to insure an unequivocal treatment strategy.

  6. Is there a need for rescreening of patients treated for genital chlamydial infections?

    PubMed

    Mårdh, Per-Anders; Persson, Kenneth

    2002-06-01

    The present communication reviews reasons to perform rescreening of chlamydia-infected persons. It brings up difficulties to differentiate between relapse and reinfection. Studies on follow-up of chlamydia-positive cases after therapy are reviewed. It also highlights reasons for therapeutic failure, like compliance, pharmacological factors, including poor bioavailability, wrong dose regimens, lack of adherence to drug intake, neglect of partner notification and concomitant therapy in consorts, possible development of resistance to drugs generally prescribed, false negative or false positive diagnostic tests and reinfection from extra-genital not 'cured' sites. The review points to the need to establish programmes for routine rescreening of chlamydia-infected persons.

  7. Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder: Confluent Patient History of Agitated Depression, Paroxetine Cessation, and a Tarlov Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Hans Mørch

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a woman suffering from persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) after paroxetine cessation. She was admitted to a psychiatric department and diagnosed with agitated depression. Physical investigation showed no gynaecological or neurological explanation; however, a pelvic MRI scan revealed a Tarlov cyst. Size and placement of the cyst could not explain the patient's symptoms; thus neurosurgical approach would not be helpful. Her depression was treated with antidepressant with little effect. Electroconvulsive therapy improved the patient's symptoms though they did not fully resolve. More awareness of PGAD and thorough interdisciplinary conferences are necessary to insure an unequivocal treatment strategy. PMID:25525548

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Genital Infections Among Newly Diagnosed Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Adults Entering Human Immunodeficiency Virus Care in Windhoek, Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Djomand, Gaston; Schlefer, Madeleine; Gutreuter, Steve; Tobias, Sarah; Patel, Roopal; DeLuca, Nickolas; Hood, Julia; Sawadogo, Souleymane; Chen, Cheng; Muadinohamba, Alexinah; Lowrance, David W.; Bock, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying and treating genital infections, including sexually transmitted infections (STI), among newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals may benefit both public and individual health. We assessed prevalence of genital infections and their correlates among newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals enrolling in HIV care services in Namibia. Methods Newly diagnosed HIV-infected adults entering HIV care at 2 health facilities in Windhoek, Namibia, were recruited from December 2012 to March 2014. Participants provided behavioral and clinical data including CD4+ T lymphocyte counts. Genital and blood specimens were tested for gonorrhea, Chlamydia, trichomoniasis, Mycoplasma genitalium, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, and vulvovaginal candidiasis. Results Among 599 adults, 56% were women and 15% reported consistent use of condoms in the past 6 months. The most common infections were bacterial vaginosis (37.2%), trichomoniasis (34.6%) and Chlamydia (14.6%) in women and M. genitalium (11.4%) in men. Correlates for trichomoniasis included being female (adjusted relative risk, [aRR], 7.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.07–12.65), higher education (aRR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38–0.89), and lower CD4 cell count (aRR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.08–2.40). Being female (aRR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.27–4.50), nonmarried (aRR, 2.30; (95% CI, 1.28–4.14), and having condomless sex (aRR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.06–7.00) were independently associated with chlamydial infection. Across all infections, female (aRR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.79–2.98), nonmarried participants (aRR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.06–1.59), had higher risk to present with any STI, whereas pregnant women (aRR, 1.16, 95% CI 1.03–1.31) were at increased risk of any STI or reproductive tract infection. PMID:27893600

  9. Female genital mutilation among Edo people: the complications and pattern of presentation at a pediatric surgery unit, Benin City.

    PubMed

    Osifo, David Osarumwese; Evbuomwan, Iyekoretin

    2009-03-01

    This prospective study on female genital mutilation among Edo people was based on female children and parents who presented on account of it at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria, between January 2002 and December 2007. During the period, 51 female children aged 10 days and 18 years presented with complications following genital mutilation. Twenty-nine were brought by their parents for mutilation while 67 parents interviewed believed strongly on female genital mutilation with 47 mothers mutilated. Religio-cultural and superstitious beliefs were the main indications and the type of mutilation ranged from excision of clitoridal tip in 10 (19.6%) children to complete excision of the clitoris, labia minora and inner layer of majora in 7 (13.7%). Complications ranged from clitoridal cyst formation in 21 (41.2%) to life threatening infections with one mortality due to tetanus infection.

  10. Recurrent Oral and Genital Ulcers in an Infant: Neonatal Presentation of Pediatric Behçet Disease.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Emma F; Hawkins, Danielle M; Gifford, Laura K; Smidt, Aimee C

    2015-01-01

    Behçet disease is a complex, multisystem disease characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcerations. It rarely occurs in infants or children. Neonatal Behçet disease has been reported in infants whose ulcers resolve at or before 9 weeks of age. Few cases of neonatal Behçet disease persisting into childhood have previously been reported. We report the case of a 1-month-old infant who presented with severe recurrent genital ulcerations and at 6 months developed recurrent oral ulcerations. Her orogenital ulcerations continue to recur. Human leukocyte antigen testing revealed HLA-B51 and B44 positivity. This is a case of pediatric Behçet disease in the neonatal period. Behçet disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of recurrent genital and oral ulcerations in infants and children.

  11. Clinical Characteristics of Patients Who Underwent Surgery for Genital Tract Malformations at Peking Union Medical College Hospital across 31 Years

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guang-Han; Zhu, Lan; Liu, Ai-Ming; Xu, Tao; Lang, Jing-He

    2016-01-01

    Background: Female genital malformations represent miscellaneous deviations from normal anatomy. This study aimed to explore the clinical characteristics of patients who underwent surgery for genital tract malformations at Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) during a 31-year period. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed surgical cases of congenital malformation of the female genital tract at PUMCH for a 31-year period, analyzed the clinical characteristics of 1634 hospitalized patients, and investigated their general condition, diagnosis, and treatment process. Results: The average patient age was 27.6 ± 9.9 years. The average ages of patients who underwent surgery for uterine malformation and vaginal malformation were 31.9 ± 8.8 years and 24.7 ± 9.0 years, respectively; these ages differed significantly (P < 0.01). Among patients with genital tract malformation, the percentages of vaginal malformation, uterine malformation, vulva malformation, cervical malformation, and other malformations were 43.9%, 43.5%, 7.4%, 2.3%, and 2.8%, respectively. Among patients with uterine malformation, 34.5% underwent surgery for the genital tract malformation, whereas in patients with vaginal malformation, the proportion is 70.6%; the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The percentage of complications of the urinary system in patients with vaginal malformations was 10.2%, which was statistically significantly higher than that (5.3%) in patients with uterine malformations (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Compared to patients with uterine malformations, patients with vaginal malformations displayed more severe clinical symptoms, a younger surgical age, and a greater need for attention, early diagnosis, and treatment. Patients with genital tract malformations, particularly vaginal malformations, tend to have more complications of the urinary system and other malformations than patients with uterine malformations. PMID:27748336

  12. The diagnosis of genital herpes – beyond culture: An evidence-based guide for the utilization of polymerase chain reaction and herpes simplex virus type-specific serology

    PubMed Central

    Ratnam, S; Severini, A; Zahariadis, G; Petric, M; Romanowski, B

    2007-01-01

    Accurate identification of persons with genital herpes is necessary for optimal patient management and prevention of transmission. Because of inherent inaccuracies, clinical diagnosis of genital herpes should be confirmed by laboratory testing for the causative agents herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV type 2 (HSV-2). Further identification of the HSV type is valuable for counselling on the natural history of infection and risk of transmission. Laboratory methods include antigen detection, culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and conventional and type-specific serology (TSS). PCR has, by far, the greater sensitivity and should be the test of choice for symptomatic cases. HSV-2 TSS is indicated for patients with genital lesions in whom antigen detection, culture or PCR fail to detect HSV, and for patients who are asymptomatic but have a history suggestive of genital herpes. HSV-2 TSS is further indicated for patients infected with HIV. HSV-2 TSS along with HSV-1 TSS may be considered, as appropriate, in evaluating infection and/or immune status in couples discordant for genital herpes, women who develop their first clinical episode of genital herpes during pregnancy, asymptomatic pregnant women whose partners have a history of genital herpes or HIV infection, and women contemplating pregnancy or considering sexual partnership with those with a history of genital herpes. The above should be performed in conjunction with counselling of infected persons and their sex partners. PMID:18923735

  13. Transfer of IgG in the female genital tract by MHC class I-related neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) confers protective immunity to vaginal infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IgG is a major immunoglobulin subclass in mucosal secretions of human female genital tract, where it predominates over the IgA isotype. Despite the abundance of IgG, surprisingly little is known about whether and how IgG enters the lumen of the genital tract and the exact role of local IgG may play ...

  14. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and genital and urinary tract infections in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Arakaki, Richard F

    2016-05-01

    Coincident with the high and increasing worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), a growing armamentarium of antidiabetes medications has been introduced to target different organ systems that play a role in the pathophysiology of T2D. Among these, the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors were introduced in the United States in 2013 as a new treatment option to address the hyperglycemia associated with T2D. SGLT-2 inhibitors decrease renal glucose reabsorption, resulting in glucosuria, alleviation of hyperglycemia, and modest weight loss and are associated with a low risk of hypoglycemia. The SGLT-2 inhibitors have been linked to an increased incidence of genital mycotic infections and, to a lesser extent, urinary tract infections, which may limit their utility in some patients. This review examines the prevalence, recurrence rates, treatment options, and responses to treatment of genital and urinary tract infections in patients with T2D receiving SGLT-2 inhibitors, with the aim of guiding clinicians in the most effective use of these agents for the treatment of hyperglycemia.

  15. Female genital mutilation: A global bug that should not cross the millennium bridge.

    PubMed

    Eke, N; Nkanginieme, K E

    1999-10-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) has been practiced worldwide, clothed under the tradocultural term "circumcision." Indications for its practice include ensuring virginity, securing fe