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Sample records for genomes uncovering candidate

  1. Whole mitochondrial genome sequencing and transcriptional analysis to uncover an RT102-type cytoplasmic male sterility-associated candidate Gene Derived from Oryza rufipogon.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Masayuki; Kazama, Tomohiko; Murata, Hayato; Motomura, Keiji; Toriyama, Kinya

    2013-09-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait in which plants fail to produce functional pollen and is associated with the expression of a novel open reading frame (orf) gene encoded by the mitochondrial genome. An RT102A CMS line and an RT102C fertility restorer line were obtained by successive backcrossing between Oryza rufipogon W1125 and O. sativa Taichung 65. Using next-generation pyrosequencing, we determined whole-genome sequences of the mitochondria in RT102-CMS cytoplasm. To identify candidates for the CMS-associated gene in RT102 mitochondria, we screened the mitochondrial genome for the presence of specific orf genes that were chimeric or whose products carried predicted transmembrane domains. One of these orf genes, orf352, which showed different transcript sizes depending on whether the restorer of fertility (Rf) gene was present or not, was identified. The orf352 gene was co-transcribed with the ribosomal protein gene rpl5, and the 2.8 kb rpl5-orf352 transcripts were processed into 2.6 kb transcripts with a cleavage at the inside of the orf352 coding region in the presence of the Rf gene. The orf352 gene is an excellent candidate for the CMS-associated gene for RT102-CMS.

  2. UNCOVERING THE NUCLEUS CANDIDATE FOR NGC 253

    SciTech Connect

    Günthardt, G. I.; Camperi, J. A.; Agüero, M. P.; Díaz, R. J.; Gomez, P. L.; Schirmer, M.; Bosch, G. E-mail: camperi@oac.uncor.edu E-mail: rdiaz@gemini.edu E-mail: mschirmer@gemini.edu

    2015-11-15

    NGC 253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst that becomes the best candidate for studying the relationship between starburst and active galactic nucleus activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus to the point that there is no strong evidence that the galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole co-evolving with the starburst as was supposed earlier. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, especially NIR emission line analysis, could be advantageous in shedding light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis of the central structure and through the brightest infrared source. In this work, we present evidence showing that the brightest NIR and mid-infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a large stellar supercluster, in fact presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. Mentioning some distinctive aspects, it is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.″0 of the symmetry center of the galactic bar, as measured in the K-band emission. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H{sub 2} rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate, observed at 18.3 μm (Qa) and 12.8 μm ([Ne ii]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Brγ emission line profile shows a pronounced blueshift and this emission line also has the highest equivalent width at this

  3. Uncovering the Nucleus Candidate for NGC 253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günthardt, G. I.; Agüero, M. P.; Camperi, J. A.; Díaz, R. J.; Gomez, P. L.; Bosch, G.; Schirmer, M.

    2015-11-01

    NGC 253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst that becomes the best candidate for studying the relationship between starburst and active galactic nucleus activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus to the point that there is no strong evidence that the galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole co-evolving with the starburst as was supposed earlier. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, especially NIR emission line analysis, could be advantageous in shedding light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis of the central structure and through the brightest infrared source. In this work, we present evidence showing that the brightest NIR and mid-infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a large stellar supercluster, in fact presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. Mentioning some distinctive aspects, it is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.″0 of the symmetry center of the galactic bar, as measured in the K-band emission. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H2 rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate, observed at 18.3 μm (Qa) and 12.8 μm ([Ne ii]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Brγ emission line profile shows a pronounced blueshift and this emission line also has the highest equivalent width at this

  4. Comparative genomics of Beauveria bassiana: uncovering signatures of virulence against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A; Faino, Luigi; Spring In't Veld, Daphne; Smit, Sandra; Zwaan, Bas J; van Kan, Jan A L

    2016-12-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are promising biological agents for control of malaria mosquitoes. Indeed, infection with B. bassiana reduces the lifespan of mosquitoes in the laboratory and in the field. Natural isolates of B. bassiana show up to 10-fold differences in virulence between the most and the least virulent isolate. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of five isolates representing the extremes of low/high virulence and three RNA libraries, and applied a genome comparison approach to uncover genetic mechanisms underpinning virulence. A high-quality, near-complete genome assembly was achieved for the highly virulent isolate Bb8028, which was compared to the assemblies of the four other isolates. Whole genome analysis showed a high level of genetic diversity between the five isolates (2.85-16.8 SNPs/kb), which grouped into two distinct phylogenetic clusters. Mating type gene analysis revealed the presence of either the MAT1-1-1 or the MAT1-2-1 gene. Moreover, a putative new MAT gene (MAT1-2-8) was detected in the MAT1-2 locus. Comparative genome analysis revealed that Bb8028 contains 163 genes exclusive for this isolate. These unique genes have a tendency to cluster in the genome and to be often located near the telomeres. Among the genes unique to Bb8028 are a Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthetase (NRPS) secondary metabolite gene cluster, a polyketide synthase (PKS) gene, and five genes with homology to bacterial toxins. A survey of candidate virulence genes for B. bassiana is presented. Our results indicate several genes and molecular processes that may underpin virulence towards mosquitoes. Thus, the genome sequences of five isolates of B. bassiana provide a better understanding of the natural variation in virulence and will offer a major resource for future research on this important biological control agent.

  5. Multidimensional integrative analysis uncovers driver candidates and biomarkers in penile carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Fabio Albuquerque; Martins, David Correa; Barros-Filho, Mateus Camargo; Kuasne, Hellen; Busso Lopes, Ariane Fidelis; Brentani, Helena; Trindade Filho, Jose Carlos Souza; Guimarães, Gustavo Cardoso; Faria, Eliney F; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Lopes, Ademar; Rogatto, Silvia Regina

    2017-07-27

    Molecular data generation and their combination in penile carcinomas (PeCa), a significant public health problem in poor and underdeveloped countries, remain virtually unexplored. An integrativemethodology combin ing genome-wide copy number alteration, DNA methylation, miRNA and mRNA expression analysis was performed in a set of 20 usual PeCa. The well-ranked 16 driver candidates harboring genomic alterations and regulated by a set of miRNAs, including hsa-miR-31, hsa-miR-34a and hsa-miR-130b, were significantly associated with over-represented pathways in cancer, such as immune-inflammatory system, apoptosis and cell cycle. Modules of co-expressed genes generated from expression matrix were associated with driver candidates and classified according to the over-representation of passengers, thus suggesting an alteration of the pathway dynamics during the carcinogenesis. This association resulted in 10 top driver candidates (AR, BIRC5, DNMT3B, ERBB4, FGFR1, PML, PPARG, RB1, TNFSF10 and STAT1) selected and confirmed as altered in an independent set of 33 PeCa samples. In addition to the potential driver genes herein described, shorter overall survival was associated with BIRC5 and DNMT3B overexpression (log-rank test, P = 0.026 and P = 0.002, respectively) highlighting its potential as novel prognostic marker for penile cancer.

  6. Transcriptome and genome sequencing uncovers functional variation in humans.

    PubMed

    Lappalainen, Tuuli; Sammeth, Michael; Friedländer, Marc R; 't Hoen, Peter A C; Monlong, Jean; Rivas, Manuel A; Gonzàlez-Porta, Mar; Kurbatova, Natalja; Griebel, Thasso; Ferreira, Pedro G; Barann, Matthias; Wieland, Thomas; Greger, Liliana; van Iterson, Maarten; Almlöf, Jonas; Ribeca, Paolo; Pulyakhina, Irina; Esser, Daniela; Giger, Thomas; Tikhonov, Andrew; Sultan, Marc; Bertier, Gabrielle; MacArthur, Daniel G; Lek, Monkol; Lizano, Esther; Buermans, Henk P J; Padioleau, Ismael; Schwarzmayr, Thomas; Karlberg, Olof; Ongen, Halit; Kilpinen, Helena; Beltran, Sergi; Gut, Marta; Kahlem, Katja; Amstislavskiy, Vyacheslav; Stegle, Oliver; Pirinen, Matti; Montgomery, Stephen B; Donnelly, Peter; McCarthy, Mark I; Flicek, Paul; Strom, Tim M; Lehrach, Hans; Schreiber, Stefan; Sudbrak, Ralf; Carracedo, Angel; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Häsler, Robert; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; Brazma, Alvis; Meitinger, Thomas; Rosenstiel, Philip; Guigó, Roderic; Gut, Ivo G; Estivill, Xavier; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T

    2013-09-26

    Genome sequencing projects are discovering millions of genetic variants in humans, and interpretation of their functional effects is essential for understanding the genetic basis of variation in human traits. Here we report sequencing and deep analysis of messenger RNA and microRNA from lymphoblastoid cell lines of 462 individuals from the 1000 Genomes Project--the first uniformly processed high-throughput RNA-sequencing data from multiple human populations with high-quality genome sequences. We discover extremely widespread genetic variation affecting the regulation of most genes, with transcript structure and expression level variation being equally common but genetically largely independent. Our characterization of causal regulatory variation sheds light on the cellular mechanisms of regulatory and loss-of-function variation, and allows us to infer putative causal variants for dozens of disease-associated loci. Altogether, this study provides a deep understanding of the cellular mechanisms of transcriptome variation and of the landscape of functional variants in the human genome.

  7. BreakTrans: uncovering the genomic architecture of gene fusions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ken; Navin, Nicholas E; Wang, Yong; Schmidt, Heather K; Wallis, John W; Niu, Beifang; Fan, Xian; Zhao, Hao; McLellan, Michael D; Hoadley, Katherine A; Mardis, Elaine R; Ley, Timothy J; Perou, Charles M; Wilson, Richard K; Ding, Li

    2013-08-23

    Producing gene fusions through genomic structural rearrangements is a major mechanism for tumor evolution. Therefore, accurately detecting gene fusions and the originating rearrangements is of great importance for personalized cancer diagnosis and targeted therapy. We present a tool, BreakTrans, that systematically maps predicted gene fusions to structural rearrangements. Thus, BreakTrans not only validates both types of predictions, but also provides mechanistic interpretations. BreakTrans effectively validates known fusions and discovers novel events in a breast cancer cell line. Applying BreakTrans to 43 breast cancer samples in The Cancer Genome Atlas identifies 90 genomically validated gene fusions. BreakTrans is available at http://bioinformatics.mdanderson.org/main/BreakTrans.

  8. Phytophthora Genome Sequences Uncover Evolutionary Origins and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lamour, Kurt H; McDonald, W Hayes; Savidor, Alon

    2006-01-01

    Genome sequences of the soybean pathogen, Phytophthora sojae, and the sudden oak death pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, suggest a photosynthetic past and reveal recent massive expansion and diversification of potential pathogenicity gene families. Abstract: Draft genome sequences of the soybean pathogen, Phytophthora sojae, and the sudden oak death pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, have been determined. O mycetes such as these Phytophthora species share the kingdom Stramenopila with photosynthetic algae such as diatoms and the presence of many Phytophthora genes of probable phototroph origin support a photosynthetic ancestry for the stramenopiles. Comparison of the two species' genomes reveals a rapid expansion and diversification of many protein families associated with plant infection such as hydrolases, ABC transporters, protein toxins, proteinase inhibitors and, in particular, a superfamily of 700 proteins with similarity to known o mycete avirulence genes.

  9. Phytophthora Genome Sequences Uncover Evolutionary Origins and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, Brett M.; Tripathy, Sucheta; Zhang, Xuemin; Dehal, Paramvir; Jiang, Rays H. Y.; Aerts, Andrea; Arredondo, Felipe D.; Baxter, Laura; Bensasson, Douda; Beynon, JIm L.; Chapman, Jarrod; Damasceno, Cynthia M. B.; Dorrance, Anne E.; Dou, Daolong; Dickerman, Allan W.; Dubchak, Inna L.; Garbelotto, Matteo; Gijzen, Mark; Gordon, Stuart G.; Govers, Francine; Grunwald, NIklaus J.; Huang, Wayne; Ivors, Kelly L.; Jones, Richard W.; Kamoun, Sophien; Krampis, Konstantinos; Lamour, Kurt H.; Lee, Mi-Kyung; McDonald, W. Hayes; Medina, Monica; Meijer, Harold J. G.; Nordberg, Erik K.; Maclean, Donald J.; Ospina-Giraldo, Manuel D.; Morris, Paul F.; Phuntumart, Vipaporn; Putnam, Nicholas J.; Rash, Sam; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.; Sakihama, Yasuko; Salamov, Asaf A.; Savidor, Alon; Scheuring, Chantel F.; Smith, Brian M.; Sobral, Bruno W. S.; Terry, Astrid; Torto-Alalibo, Trudy A.; Win, Joe; Xu, Zhanyou; Zhang, Hongbin; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2006-04-17

    Draft genome sequences have been determined for the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae and the sudden oak death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum. Oömycetes such as these Phytophthora species share the kingdom Stramenopila with photosynthetic algae such as diatoms, and the presence of many Phytophthora genes of probable phototroph origin supports a photosynthetic ancestry for the stramenopiles. Comparison of the two species' genomes reveals a rapid expansion and diversification of many protein families associated with plant infection such as hydrolases, ABC transporters, protein toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and, in particular, a superfamily of 700 proteins with similarity to known oömycete avirulence genes.

  10. Unique small RNA signatures uncovered in the tammar wallaby genome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Small RNAs have proven to be essential regulatory molecules encoded within eukaryotic genomes. These short RNAs participate in a diverse array of cellular processes including gene regulation, chromatin dynamics and genome defense. The tammar wallaby, a marsupial mammal, is a powerful comparative model for studying the evolution of regulatory networks. As part of the genome sequencing initiative for the tammar, we have explored the evolution of each of the major classes of mammalian small RNAs in an Australian marsupial for the first time, including the first genome-scale analysis of the newest class of small RNAs, centromere repeat associated short interacting RNAs (crasiRNAs). Results Using next generation sequencing, we have characterized the major classes of small RNAs, micro (mi) RNAs, piwi interacting (pi) RNAs, and the centromere repeat associated short interacting (crasi) RNAs in the tammar. We examined each of these small RNA classes with respect to the newly assembled tammar wallaby genome for gene and repeat features, salient features that define their canonical sequences, and the constitution of both highly conserved and species-specific members. Using a combination of miRNA hairpin predictions and co-mapping with miRBase entries, we identified a highly conserved cluster of miRNA genes on the X chromosome in the tammar and a total of 94 other predicted miRNA producing genes. Mapping all miRNAs to the tammar genome and comparing target genes among tammar, mouse and human, we identified 163 conserved target genes. An additional nine genes were identified in tammar that do not have an orthologous miRNA target in human and likely represent novel miRNA-regulated genes in the tammar. A survey of the tammar gonadal piRNAs shows that these small RNAs are enriched in retroelements and carry members from both marsupial and tammar-specific repeat classes. Lastly, this study includes the first in-depth analyses of the newly discovered crasiRNAs. These

  11. Using Genome Query Language to uncover genetic variation

    PubMed Central

    Kozanitis, Christos; Heiberg, Andrew; Varghese, George; Bafna, Vineet

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: With high-throughput DNA sequencing costs dropping <$1000 for human genomes, data storage, retrieval and analysis are the major bottlenecks in biological studies. To address the large-data challenges, we advocate a clean separation between the evidence collection and the inference in variant calling. We define and implement a Genome Query Language (GQL) that allows for the rapid collection of evidence needed for calling variants. Results: We provide a number of cases to showcase the use of GQL for complex evidence collection, such as the evidence for large structural variations. Specifically, typical GQL queries can be written in 5–10 lines of high-level code and search large datasets (100 GB) in minutes. We also demonstrate its complementarity with other variant calling tools. Popular variant calling tools can achieve one order of magnitude speed-up by using GQL to retrieve evidence. Finally, we show how GQL can be used to query and compare multiple datasets. By separating the evidence and inference for variant calling, it frees all variant detection tools from the data intensive evidence collection and focuses on statistical inference. Availability: GQL can be downloaded from http://cseweb.ucsd.edu/~ckozanit/gql. Contact: ckozanit@ucsd.edu or vbafna@cs.ucsd.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23751181

  12. Using Genome Query Language to uncover genetic variation.

    PubMed

    Kozanitis, Christos; Heiberg, Andrew; Varghese, George; Bafna, Vineet

    2014-01-01

    With high-throughput DNA sequencing costs dropping <$1000 for human genomes, data storage, retrieval and analysis are the major bottlenecks in biological studies. To address the large-data challenges, we advocate a clean separation between the evidence collection and the inference in variant calling. We define and implement a Genome Query Language (GQL) that allows for the rapid collection of evidence needed for calling variants. We provide a number of cases to showcase the use of GQL for complex evidence collection, such as the evidence for large structural variations. Specifically, typical GQL queries can be written in 5-10 lines of high-level code and search large datasets (100 GB) in minutes. We also demonstrate its complementarity with other variant calling tools. Popular variant calling tools can achieve one order of magnitude speed-up by using GQL to retrieve evidence. Finally, we show how GQL can be used to query and compare multiple datasets. By separating the evidence and inference for variant calling, it frees all variant detection tools from the data intensive evidence collection and focuses on statistical inference. GQL can be downloaded from http://cseweb.ucsd.edu/~ckozanit/gql.

  13. Distilling a Visual Network of Retinitis Pigmentosa Gene-Protein Interactions to Uncover New Disease Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Boloc, Daniel; Castillo-Lara, Sergio; Marfany, Gemma; Gonzàlez-Duarte, Roser; Abril, Josep F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a highly heterogeneous genetic visual disorder with more than 70 known causative genes, some of them shared with other non-syndromic retinal dystrophies (e.g. Leber congenital amaurosis, LCA). The identification of RP genes has increased steadily during the last decade, and the 30% of the cases that still remain unassigned will soon decrease after the advent of exome/genome sequencing. A considerable amount of genetic and functional data on single RD genes and mutations has been gathered, but a comprehensive view of the RP genes and their interacting partners is still very fragmentary. This is the main gap that needs to be filled in order to understand how mutations relate to progressive blinding disorders and devise effective therapies. Methodology We have built an RP-specific network (RPGeNet) by merging data from different sources: high-throughput data from BioGRID and STRING databases, manually curated data for interactions retrieved from iHOP, as well as interactions filtered out by syntactical parsing from up-to-date abstracts and full-text papers related to the RP research field. The paths emerging when known RP genes were used as baits over the whole interactome have been analysed, and the minimal number of connections among the RP genes and their close neighbors were distilled in order to simplify the search space. Conclusions In contrast to the analysis of single isolated genes, finding the networks linking disease genes renders powerful etiopathological insights. We here provide an interactive interface, RPGeNet, for the molecular biologist to explore the network centered on the non-syndromic and syndromic RP and LCA causative genes. By integrating tissue-specific expression levels and phenotypic data on top of that network, a more comprehensive biological view will highlight key molecular players of retinal degeneration and unveil new RP disease candidates. PMID:26267445

  14. Transcriptome Profiling of Wild Arachis from Water-Limited Environments Uncovers Drought Tolerance Candidate Genes.

    PubMed

    Brasileiro, Ana C M; Morgante, Carolina V; Araujo, Ana C G; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C M; Silva, Amanda K; Martins, Andressa C Q; Vinson, Christina C; Santos, Candice M R; Bonfim, Orzenil; Togawa, Roberto C; Saraiva, Mario A P; Bertioli, David J; Guimaraes, Patricia M

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important legume cultivated mostly in drought-prone areas where its productivity can be limited by water scarcity. The development of more drought-tolerant varieties is, therefore, a priority for peanut breeding programs worldwide. In contrast to cultivated peanut, wild relatives have a broader genetic diversity and constitute a rich source of resistance/tolerance alleles to biotic and abiotic stresses. The present study takes advantage of this diversity to identify drought-responsive genes by analyzing the expression profile of two wild species, Arachis duranensis and Arachis magna (AA and BB genomes, respectively), in response to progressive water deficit in soil. Data analysis from leaves and roots of A. duranensis (454 sequencing) and A. magna (suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH)) stressed and control complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries revealed several differentially expressed genes in silico, and 44 of them were selected for further validation by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). This allowed the identification of drought-responsive candidate genes, such as Expansin, Nitrilase, NAC, and bZIP transcription factors, displaying significant levels of differential expression during stress imposition in both species. This is the first report on identification of differentially expressed genes under drought stress and recovery in wild Arachis species. The generated transcriptome data, besides being a valuable resource for gene discovery, will allow the characterization of new alleles and development of molecular markers associated with drought responses in peanut. These together constitute important tools for the peanut breeding program and also contribute to a better comprehension of gene modulation in response to water deficit and rehydration.

  15. The proteome and phosphoproteome of maize pollen uncovers fertility candidate proteins.

    PubMed

    Chao, Qing; Gao, Zhi-Fang; Wang, Yue-Feng; Li, Zhe; Huang, Xia-He; Wang, Ying-Chun; Mei, Ying-Chang; Zhao, Biligen-Gaowa; Li, Liang; Jiang, Yu-Bo; Wang, Bai-Chen

    2016-06-01

    Maize is unique since it is both monoecious and diclinous (separate male and female flowers on the same plant). We investigated the proteome and phosphoproteome of maize pollen containing modified proteins and here we provide a comprehensive pollen proteome and phosphoproteome which contain 100,990 peptides from 6750 proteins and 5292 phosphorylated sites corresponding to 2257 maize phosphoproteins, respectively. Interestingly, among the total 27 overrepresented phosphosite motifs we identified here, 11 were novel motifs, which suggested different modification mechanisms in plants compared to those of animals. Enrichment analysis of pollen phosphoproteins showed that pathways including DNA synthesis/chromatin structure, regulation of RNA transcription, protein modification, cell organization, signal transduction, cell cycle, vesicle transport, transport of ions and metabolisms, which were involved in pollen development, the following germination and pollen tube growth, were regulated by phosphorylation. In this study, we also found 430 kinases and 105 phosphatases in the maize pollen phosphoproteome, among which calcium dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), leucine rich repeat kinase, SNF1 related protein kinases and MAPK family proteins were heavily enriched and further analyzed. From our research, we also uncovered hundreds of male sterility-associated proteins and phosphoproteins that might influence maize productivity and serve as targets for hybrid maize seed production. At last, a putative complex signaling pathway involving CDPKs, MAPKs, ubiquitin ligases and multiple fertility proteins was constructed. Overall, our data provides new insight for further investigation of protein phosphorylation status in mature maize pollen and construction of maize male sterile mutants in the future.

  16. The cavefish genome reveals candidate genes for eye loss

    PubMed Central

    McGaugh, Suzanne E.; Gross, Joshua B.; Aken, Bronwen; Blin, Maryline; Borowsky, Richard; Chalopin, Domitille; Hinaux, Hélène; Jeffery, William R.; Keene, Alex; Ma, Li; Minx, Patrick; Murphy, Daniel; O’Quin, Kelly E.; Rétaux, Sylvie; Rohner, Nicolas; Searle, Steve M. J.; Stahl, Bethany A.; Tabin, Cliff; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Yoshizawa, Masato; Warren, Wesley C.

    2014-01-01

    Natural populations subjected to strong environmental selection pressures offer a window into the genetic underpinnings of evolutionary change. Cavefish populations, Astyanax mexicanus (Teleostei: Characiphysi), exhibit repeated, independent evolution for a variety of traits including eye degeneration, pigment loss, increased size and number of taste buds and mechanosensory organs, and shifts in many behavioural traits. Surface and cave forms are interfertile making this system amenable to genetic interrogation; however, lack of a reference genome has hampered efforts to identify genes responsible for changes in cave forms of A. mexicanus. Here we present the first de novo genome assembly for Astyanax mexicanus cavefish, contrast repeat elements to other teleost genomes, identify candidate genes underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL), and assay these candidate genes for potential functional and expression differences. We expect the cavefish genome to advance understanding of the evolutionary process, as well as, analogous human disease including retinal dysfunction. PMID:25329095

  17. Surface Proteins of Gram-Positive Pathogens: Using Crystallography to Uncover Novel Features in Drug and Vaccine Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Edward N.; Proft, Thomas; Kang, Haejoo

    Proteins displayed on the cell surfaces of pathogenic organisms are the front-line troops of bacterial attack, playing critical roles in colonization, infection and virulence. Although such proteins can often be recognized from genome sequence data, through characteristic sequence motifs, their functions are often unknown. One such group of surface proteins is attached to the cell surface of Gram-positive pathogens through the action of sortase enzymes. Some of these proteins are now known to form pili: long filamentous structures that mediate attachment to human cells. Crystallographic analyses of these and other cell surface proteins have uncovered novel features in their structure, assembly and stability, including the presence of inter- and intramolecular isopeptide crosslinks. This improved understanding of structures on the bacterial cell surface offers opportunities for the development of some new drug targets and for novel approaches to vaccine design.

  18. Genome-wide analysis uncovers novel recurrent alterations in primary central nervous system lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Braggio, Esteban; Van Wier, Scott; Ojha, Juhi; McPhail, Ellen; Asmann, Yan W.; Egan, Jan; da Silva, Jackline Ayres; Schiff, David; Lopes, M Beatriz; Decker, Paul A; Valdez, Riccardo; Tibes, Raoul; Eckloff, Bruce; Witzig, Thomas E.; Stewart, A Keith; Fonseca, Rafael; O’Neill, Brian Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma confined to the CNS. Whether there is a PCNSL-specific genomic signature and, if so, how it differs from systemic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is uncertain. Experimental design We performed a comprehensive genomic study of tumor samples from 19 immunocompetent PCNSL patients. Testing comprised array-comparative genomic hybridization and whole exome sequencing. Results Biallelic inactivation of TOX and PRKCD were recurrently found in PCNSL but not in systemic DLBCL, suggesting a specific role in PCNSL pathogenesis. Additionally, we found a high prevalence of MYD88 mutations (79%) and CDKN2A biallelic loss (60%). Several genes recurrently affected in PCNSL were common with systemic DLBCL, including loss of TNFAIP3, PRDM1, GNA13, TMEM30A, TBL1XR1, B2M, CD58, activating mutations of CD79B, CARD11 and translocations IgH-BCL6. Overall, BCR/TLR/NF-κB pathways were altered in >90% of PNCSL, highlighting its value for targeted therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, integrated analysis showed enrichment of pathways associated with immune response, proliferation, apoptosis, and lymphocyte differentiation. Conclusions In summary, genome-wide analysis uncovered novel recurrent alterations, including TOX and PRKCD, helping to differentiate PCNSL from systemic DLBCL and related lymphomas. PMID:25991819

  19. Uncovering genomic features and maternal origin of korean native chicken by whole genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Woori; Song, Ki-Duk; Oh, Jae-Don; Heo, Kang-Nyeong; Lee, Jun-Heon; Lee, Woon Kyu; Yoon, Sook Hee; Kim, Heebal; Cho, Seoae; Lee, Hak-Kyo

    2014-01-01

    The Korean Native Chicken (KNC) is an important endemic biological resource in Korea. While numerous studies have been conducted exploring this breed, none have used next-generation sequencing to identify its specific genomic features. We sequenced five strains of KNC and identified 10.9 million SNVs and 1.3 million InDels. Through the analysis, we found that the highly variable region common to all 5 strains had genes like PCHD15, CISD1, PIK3C2A, and NUCB2 that might be related to the phenotypic traits of the chicken such as auditory sense, growth rate and egg traits. In addition, we assembled unaligned reads that could not be mapped to the reference genome. By assembling the unaligned reads, we were able to present genomic sequences characteristic to the KNC. Based on this, we also identified genes related to the olfactory receptors and antigen that are common to all 5 strains. Finally, through the reconstructed mitochondrial genome sequences, we performed phylogenomic analysis and elucidated the maternal origin of the artificially restored KNC. Our results revealed that the KNC has multiple maternal origins which are in agreement with Korea's history of chicken breed imports. The results presented here provide a valuable basis for future research on genomic features of KNC and further understanding of KNC's origin.

  20. Uncovering the rules for protein–protein interactions from yeast genomic data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Li, Chunhe; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Xidi

    2009-01-01

    Identifying protein–protein interactions is crucial for understanding cellular functions. Genomic data provides opportunities and challenges in identifying these interactions. We uncover the rules for predicting protein–protein interactions using a frequent pattern tree (FPT) approach modified to generate a minimum set of rules (mFPT), with rule attributes constructed from the interaction features of the yeast genomic data. The mFPT prediction accuracy is benchmarked against other commonly used methods such as Bayesian networks and logistic regressions under various statistical measures. Our study indicates that mFPT outranks other methods in predicting the protein–protein interactions for the database used. We predict a new protein–protein interaction complex whose biological function is related to premRNA splicing and new protein–protein interactions within existing complexes based on the rules generated. Our method is general and can be used to discover the underlying rules for protein–protein interactions, genomic interactions, structure-function relationships, and other fields of research. PMID:19237561

  1. Their loss is our gain: regressive evolution in vertebrates provides genomic models for uncovering human disease loci.

    PubMed

    Emerling, Christopher A; Widjaja, Andrew D; Nguyen, Nancy N; Springer, Mark S

    2017-08-16

    Throughout Earth's history, evolution's numerous natural 'experiments' have resulted in a diverse range of phenotypes. Though de novo phenotypes receive widespread attention, degeneration of traits inherited from an ancestor is a very common, yet frequently neglected, evolutionary path. The latter phenomenon, known as regressive evolution, often results in vertebrates with phenotypes that mimic inherited disease states in humans. Regressive evolution of anatomical and/or physiological traits is typically accompanied by inactivating mutations underlying these traits, which frequently occur at loci identical to those implicated in human diseases. Here we discuss the potential utility of examining the genomes of vertebrates that have experienced regressive evolution to inform human medical genetics. This approach is low cost and high throughput, giving it the potential to rapidly improve knowledge of disease genetics. We discuss two well-described examples, rod monochromacy (congenital achromatopsia) and amelogenesis imperfecta, to demonstrate the utility of this approach, and then suggest methods to equip non-experts with the ability to corroborate candidate genes and uncover new disease loci. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Candidate phylum TM6 genome recovered from a hospital sink biofilm provides genomic insights into this uncultivated phylum

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Jeffrey S.; Lombardo, Mary-Jane; Badger, Jonathan H.; Edlund, Anna; Novotny, Mark; Yee-Greenbaum, Joyclyn; Vyahhi, Nikolay; Hall, Adam P.; Yang, Youngik; Dupont, Christopher L.; Ziegler, Michael G.; Chitsaz, Hamidreza; Allen, Andrew E.; Yooseph, Shibu; Tesler, Glenn; Pevzner, Pavel A.; Friedman, Robert M.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Venter, J. Craig; Lasken, Roger S.

    2013-01-01

    The “dark matter of life” describes microbes and even entire divisions of bacterial phyla that have evaded cultivation and have yet to be sequenced. We present a genome from the globally distributed but elusive candidate phylum TM6 and uncover its metabolic potential. TM6 was detected in a biofilm from a sink drain within a hospital restroom by analyzing cells using a highly automated single-cell genomics platform. We developed an approach for increasing throughput and effectively improving the likelihood of sampling rare events based on forming small random pools of single-flow–sorted cells, amplifying their DNA by multiple displacement amplification and sequencing all cells in the pool, creating a “mini-metagenome.” A recently developed single-cell assembler, SPAdes, in combination with contig binning methods, allowed the reconstruction of genomes from these mini-metagenomes. A total of 1.07 Mb was recovered in seven contigs for this member of TM6 (JCVI TM6SC1), estimated to represent 90% of its genome. High nucleotide identity between a total of three TM6 genome drafts generated from pools that were independently captured, amplified, and assembled provided strong confirmation of a correct genomic sequence. TM6 is likely a Gram-negative organism and possibly a symbiont of an unknown host (nonfree living) in part based on its small genome, low-GC content, and lack of biosynthesis pathways for most amino acids and vitamins. Phylogenomic analysis of conserved single-copy genes confirms that TM6SC1 is a deeply branching phylum. PMID:23754396

  3. Candidate phylum TM6 genome recovered from a hospital sink biofilm provides genomic insights into this uncultivated phylum.

    PubMed

    McLean, Jeffrey S; Lombardo, Mary-Jane; Badger, Jonathan H; Edlund, Anna; Novotny, Mark; Yee-Greenbaum, Joyclyn; Vyahhi, Nikolay; Hall, Adam P; Yang, Youngik; Dupont, Christopher L; Ziegler, Michael G; Chitsaz, Hamidreza; Allen, Andrew E; Yooseph, Shibu; Tesler, Glenn; Pevzner, Pavel A; Friedman, Robert M; Nealson, Kenneth H; Venter, J Craig; Lasken, Roger S

    2013-06-25

    The "dark matter of life" describes microbes and even entire divisions of bacterial phyla that have evaded cultivation and have yet to be sequenced. We present a genome from the globally distributed but elusive candidate phylum TM6 and uncover its metabolic potential. TM6 was detected in a biofilm from a sink drain within a hospital restroom by analyzing cells using a highly automated single-cell genomics platform. We developed an approach for increasing throughput and effectively improving the likelihood of sampling rare events based on forming small random pools of single-flow-sorted cells, amplifying their DNA by multiple displacement amplification and sequencing all cells in the pool, creating a "mini-metagenome." A recently developed single-cell assembler, SPAdes, in combination with contig binning methods, allowed the reconstruction of genomes from these mini-metagenomes. A total of 1.07 Mb was recovered in seven contigs for this member of TM6 (JCVI TM6SC1), estimated to represent 90% of its genome. High nucleotide identity between a total of three TM6 genome drafts generated from pools that were independently captured, amplified, and assembled provided strong confirmation of a correct genomic sequence. TM6 is likely a Gram-negative organism and possibly a symbiont of an unknown host (nonfree living) in part based on its small genome, low-GC content, and lack of biosynthesis pathways for most amino acids and vitamins. Phylogenomic analysis of conserved single-copy genes confirms that TM6SC1 is a deeply branching phylum.

  4. Digging for gold nuggets: uncovering novel candidate genes for variation in gastrointestinal nematode burden in a wild bird species.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, M A; Piertney, S B

    2015-04-01

    The extent to which genotypic variation at a priori identified candidate genes can explain variation in complex phenotypes is a major debate in evolutionary biology. Whereas some high-profile genes such as the MHC or MC1R clearly do account for variation in ecologically relevant characters, many complex phenotypes such as response to parasite infection may well be underpinned by a large number of genes, each of small and effectively undetectable effect. Here, we characterize a suite of novel candidate genes for variation in gastrointestinal nematode (Trichostrongylus tenuis) burden among red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scotica) individuals across a network of moors in north-east Scotland. We test for associations between parasite load and genotypic variation in twelve genes previously identified to be differentially expressed in experimentally infected red grouse or genetically differentiated among red grouse populations with overall different parasite loads. These genes are associated with a broad physiological response including immune system processes. Based on individual-level generalized linear models, genotypic variants in nine genes were significantly associated with parasite load, with effect sizes accounting for differences of 514-666 worms per bird. All but one of these variants were synonymous or untranslated, suggesting that these may be linked to protein-coding variants or affect regulatory processes. In contrast, population-level analyses revealed few and inconsistent associations with parasite load, and little evidence of signatures of natural selection. We discuss the broader significance of these contrasting results in the context of the utility of population genomics and landscape genomics approaches in detecting adaptive genomic signatures.

  5. Genome-wide identification of molecular mimicry candidates in parasites.

    PubMed

    Ludin, Philipp; Nilsson, Daniel; Mäser, Pascal

    2011-03-08

    Among the many strategies employed by parasites for immune evasion and host manipulation, one of the most fascinating is molecular mimicry. With genome sequences available for host and parasite, mimicry of linear amino acid epitopes can be investigated by comparative genomics. Here we developed an in silico pipeline for genome-wide identification of molecular mimicry candidate proteins or epitopes. The predicted proteome of a given parasite was broken down into overlapping fragments, each of which was screened for close hits in the human proteome. Control searches were carried out against unrelated, free-living eukaryotes to eliminate the generally conserved proteins, and with randomized versions of the parasite proteins to get an estimate of statistical significance. This simple but computation-intensive approach yielded interesting candidates from human-pathogenic parasites. From Plasmodium falciparum, it returned a 14 amino acid motif in several of the PfEMP1 variants identical to part of the heparin-binding domain in the immunosuppressive serum protein vitronectin. And in Brugia malayi, fragments were detected that matched to periphilin-1, a protein of cell-cell junctions involved in barrier formation. All the results are publicly available by means of mimicDB, a searchable online database for molecular mimicry candidates from pathogens. To our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide survey for molecular mimicry proteins in parasites. The strategy can be adopted to any pair of host and pathogen, once appropriate negative control organisms are chosen. MimicDB provides a host of new starting points to gain insights into the molecular nature of host-pathogen interactions.

  6. Genome-Wide Identification of Molecular Mimicry Candidates in Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Ludin, Philipp; Nilsson, Daniel; Mäser, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Among the many strategies employed by parasites for immune evasion and host manipulation, one of the most fascinating is molecular mimicry. With genome sequences available for host and parasite, mimicry of linear amino acid epitopes can be investigated by comparative genomics. Here we developed an in silico pipeline for genome-wide identification of molecular mimicry candidate proteins or epitopes. The predicted proteome of a given parasite was broken down into overlapping fragments, each of which was screened for close hits in the human proteome. Control searches were carried out against unrelated, free-living eukaryotes to eliminate the generally conserved proteins, and with randomized versions of the parasite proteins to get an estimate of statistical significance. This simple but computation-intensive approach yielded interesting candidates from human-pathogenic parasites. From Plasmodium falciparum, it returned a 14 amino acid motif in several of the PfEMP1 variants identical to part of the heparin-binding domain in the immunosuppressive serum protein vitronectin. And in Brugia malayi, fragments were detected that matched to periphilin-1, a protein of cell-cell junctions involved in barrier formation. All the results are publicly available by means of mimicDB, a searchable online database for molecular mimicry candidates from pathogens. To our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide survey for molecular mimicry proteins in parasites. The strategy can be adopted to any pair of host and pathogen, once appropriate negative control organisms are chosen. MimicDB provides a host of new starting points to gain insights into the molecular nature of host-pathogen interactions. PMID:21408160

  7. Genome-wide meta-analysis uncovers novel loci influencing circulating leptin levels.

    PubMed

    Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Carli, Jayne F Martin; Skowronski, Alicja A; Sun, Qi; Kriebel, Jennifer; Feitosa, Mary F; Hedman, Åsa K; Drong, Alexander W; Hayes, James E; Zhao, Jinghua; Pers, Tune H; Schick, Ursula; Grarup, Niels; Kutalik, Zoltán; Trompet, Stella; Mangino, Massimo; Kristiansson, Kati; Beekman, Marian; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Eriksson, Joel; Henneman, Peter; Lahti, Jari; Tanaka, Toshiko; Luan, Jian'an; Del Greco M, Fabiola; Pasko, Dorota; Renström, Frida; Willems, Sara M; Mahajan, Anubha; Rose, Lynda M; Guo, Xiuqing; Liu, Yongmei; Kleber, Marcus E; Pérusse, Louis; Gaunt, Tom; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Ju Sung, Yun; Ramos, Yolande F; Amin, Najaf; Amuzu, Antoinette; Barroso, Inês; Bellis, Claire; Blangero, John; Buckley, Brendan M; Böhringer, Stefan; I Chen, Yii-Der; de Craen, Anton J N; Crosslin, David R; Dale, Caroline E; Dastani, Zari; Day, Felix R; Deelen, Joris; Delgado, Graciela E; Demirkan, Ayse; Finucane, Francis M; Ford, Ian; Garcia, Melissa E; Gieger, Christian; Gustafsson, Stefan; Hallmans, Göran; Hankinson, Susan E; Havulinna, Aki S; Herder, Christian; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A; Hunter, David J; Illig, Thomas; Ingelsson, Erik; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea; Jansson, John-Olov; Jenny, Nancy S; Jørgensen, Marit E; Jørgensen, Torben; Karlsson, Magnus; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kraft, Peter; Kwekkeboom, Joanneke; Laatikainen, Tiina; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; LeDuc, Charles A; Lowe, Gordon; Lu, Yingchang; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meisinger, Christa; Menni, Cristina; Morris, Andrew P; Myers, Richard H; Männistö, Satu; Nalls, Mike A; Paternoster, Lavinia; Peters, Annette; Pradhan, Aruna D; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Rice, Treva K; Brent Richards, J; Ridker, Paul M; Sattar, Naveed; Savage, David B; Söderberg, Stefan; Timpson, Nicholas J; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Heemst, Diana; Uh, Hae-Won; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Walker, Mark; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Widén, Elisabeth; Wood, Andrew R; Yao, Jie; Zeller, Tanja; Zhang, Yiying; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Sarzynski, Mark A; Rao, D C; Jousilahti, Pekka; Vartiainen, Erkki; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G; Heliövaara, Markku; Knekt, Paul B; Koskinen, Seppo; Jula, Antti; Perola, Markus; Huupponen, Risto K; Viikari, Jorma S; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T; Mellström, Dan; Lorentzon, Mattias; Casas, Juan P; Bandinelli, Stefanie; März, Winfried; Isaacs, Aaron; van Dijk, Ko W; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Harris, Tamara B; Bouchard, Claude; Allison, Matthew A; Chasman, Daniel I; Ohlsson, Claes; Lind, Lars; Scott, Robert A; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ferrucci, Luigi; Frayling, Timothy M; Pramstaller, Peter P; Borecki, Ingrid B; Waterworth, Dawn M; Bergmann, Sven; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Vestergaard, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Hu, Frank B; Eline Slagboom, P; Grallert, Harald; Spector, Tim D; Jukema, J W; Klein, Robert J; Schadt, Erik E; Franks, Paul W; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Leibel, Rudolph L; Loos, Ruth J F

    2016-02-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone, the circulating levels of which correlate closely with overall adiposity. Although rare mutations in the leptin (LEP) gene are well known to cause leptin deficiency and severe obesity, no common loci regulating circulating leptin levels have been uncovered. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating leptin levels from 32,161 individuals and followed up loci reaching P<10(-6) in 19,979 additional individuals. We identify five loci robustly associated (P<5 × 10(-8)) with leptin levels in/near LEP, SLC32A1, GCKR, CCNL1 and FTO. Although the association of the FTO obesity locus with leptin levels is abolished by adjustment for BMI, associations of the four other loci are independent of adiposity. The GCKR locus was found associated with multiple metabolic traits in previous GWAS and the CCNL1 locus with birth weight. Knockdown experiments in mouse adipose tissue explants show convincing evidence for adipogenin, a regulator of adipocyte differentiation, as the novel causal gene in the SLC32A1 locus influencing leptin levels. Our findings provide novel insights into the regulation of leptin production by adipose tissue and open new avenues for examining the influence of variation in leptin levels on adiposity and metabolic health.

  8. Genome-wide meta-analysis uncovers novel loci influencing circulating leptin levels

    PubMed Central

    Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Carli, Jayne F. Martin; Skowronski, Alicja A.; Sun, Qi; Kriebel, Jennifer; Feitosa, Mary F; Hedman, Åsa K.; Drong, Alexander W.; Hayes, James E.; Zhao, Jinghua; Pers, Tune H.; Schick, Ursula; Grarup, Niels; Kutalik, Zoltán; Trompet, Stella; Mangino, Massimo; Kristiansson, Kati; Beekman, Marian; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Eriksson, Joel; Henneman, Peter; Lahti, Jari; Tanaka, Toshiko; Luan, Jian'an; Greco M, Fabiola Del; Pasko, Dorota; Renström, Frida; Willems, Sara M.; Mahajan, Anubha; Rose, Lynda M.; Guo, Xiuqing; Liu, Yongmei; Kleber, Marcus E.; Pérusse, Louis; Gaunt, Tom; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Ju Sung, Yun; Ramos, Yolande F.; Amin, Najaf; Amuzu, Antoinette; Barroso, Inês; Bellis, Claire; Blangero, John; Buckley, Brendan M.; Böhringer, Stefan; I Chen, Yii-Der; de Craen, Anton J. N.; Crosslin, David R.; Dale, Caroline E.; Dastani, Zari; Day, Felix R.; Deelen, Joris; Delgado, Graciela E.; Demirkan, Ayse; Finucane, Francis M.; Ford, Ian; Garcia, Melissa E.; Gieger, Christian; Gustafsson, Stefan; Hallmans, Göran; Hankinson, Susan E.; Havulinna, Aki S; Herder, Christian; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hunter, David J.; Illig, Thomas; Ingelsson, Erik; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea; Jansson, John-Olov; Jenny, Nancy S.; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Jørgensen, Torben; Karlsson, Magnus; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kraft, Peter; Kwekkeboom, Joanneke; Laatikainen, Tiina; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; LeDuc, Charles A.; Lowe, Gordon; Lu, Yingchang; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meisinger, Christa; Menni, Cristina; Morris, Andrew P.; Myers, Richard H.; Männistö, Satu; Nalls, Mike A.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Peters, Annette; Pradhan, Aruna D.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Rice, Treva K.; Brent Richards, J; Ridker, Paul M.; Sattar, Naveed; Savage, David B.; Söderberg, Stefan; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Heemst, Diana; Uh, Hae-Won; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Walker, Mark; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Widén, Elisabeth; Wood, Andrew R.; Yao, Jie; Zeller, Tanja; Zhang, Yiying; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Rao, D. C.; Jousilahti, Pekka; Vartiainen, Erkki; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G.; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G.; Heliövaara, Markku; Knekt, Paul B.; Koskinen, Seppo; Jula, Antti; Perola, Markus; Huupponen, Risto K.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T.; Mellström, Dan; Lorentzon, Mattias; Casas, Juan P.; Bandinelli, Stefanie; März, Winfried; Isaacs, Aaron; van Dijk, Ko W.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Harris, Tamara B.; Bouchard, Claude; Allison, Matthew A.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Ohlsson, Claes; Lind, Lars; Scott, Robert A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Frayling, Timothy M.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Bergmann, Sven; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Vestergaard, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Hu, Frank B.; Eline Slagboom, P; Grallert, Harald; Spector, Tim D.; Jukema, J.W.; Klein, Robert J.; Schadt, Erik E; Franks, Paul W.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Leibel, Rudolph L.; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone, the circulating levels of which correlate closely with overall adiposity. Although rare mutations in the leptin (LEP) gene are well known to cause leptin deficiency and severe obesity, no common loci regulating circulating leptin levels have been uncovered. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating leptin levels from 32,161 individuals and followed up loci reaching P<10−6 in 19,979 additional individuals. We identify five loci robustly associated (P<5 × 10−8) with leptin levels in/near LEP, SLC32A1, GCKR, CCNL1 and FTO. Although the association of the FTO obesity locus with leptin levels is abolished by adjustment for BMI, associations of the four other loci are independent of adiposity. The GCKR locus was found associated with multiple metabolic traits in previous GWAS and the CCNL1 locus with birth weight. Knockdown experiments in mouse adipose tissue explants show convincing evidence for adipogenin, a regulator of adipocyte differentiation, as the novel causal gene in the SLC32A1 locus influencing leptin levels. Our findings provide novel insights into the regulation of leptin production by adipose tissue and open new avenues for examining the influence of variation in leptin levels on adiposity and metabolic health. PMID:26833098

  9. Genomic loci and candidate genes underlying inflammatory nociception

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Harsha K.; Hain, Heather; Quock, Raymond M.; Philip, Vivek M.; Chesler, Elissa J.; Belknap, John K.; Lariviere, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Heritable genetic factors contribute significantly to inflammatory nociception. To determine candidate genes underlying inflammatory nociception, the current study used a mouse model of abdominal inflammatory pain. BXD recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains were administered the intraperitoneal (IP) acetic acid test and genome-wide quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was performed on the mean number of abdominal contraction and extension movements in three distinct groups of BXD RI mouse strains in two separate experiments. Combined mapping results detected two QTLs on chromosomes (Chr) 3 and 10 across experiments and groups of mice; an additional sex-specific QTL was detected on Chr 16. The results replicate previous findings of a significant QTL, Nociq2, on distal Chr 10 for formalin-induced inflammatory nociception and will aid in identification of the underlying candidate genes. Comparisons of sensitivity to IP acetic acid in BXD RI mouse strains with microarray mRNA transcript expression profiles in specific brain areas detected covarying expression of candidate genes that are also found in the detected QTL confidence intervals. The results indicate that common and distinct genetic mechanisms underlie heritable sensitivity to diverse inflammatory insults, and provide a discrete set of high priority candidate genes to investigate further in rodents and human association studies. PMID:21195549

  10. Whole-Genome Comparison Uncovers Genomic Mutations between Group B Streptococci Sampled from Infected Newborns and Their Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Alexandre; Villain, Adrien; Joubrel, Caroline; Touak, Gérald; Sauvage, Elisabeth; Rosinski-Chupin, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus or GBS), a commensal of the human gut and genitourinary tract, is a leading cause of neonatal infections, in which vertical transmission from mother to child remains the most frequent route of contamination. Here, we investigated whether the progression of GBS from carriage to disease is associated with genomic adaptation. Whole-genome comparison of 47 GBS samples from 19 mother-child pairs uncovered 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and seven insertions/deletions. Of the SNPs detected, 16 appear to have been fixed in the population sampled whereas five mutations were found to be polymorphic. In the infant strains, 14 mutations were detected, including two independently fixed variants affecting the covRS locus, which is known to encode a major regulatory system of virulence. A one-nucleotide insertion was also identified in the promoter region of the highly immunogenic surface protein Rib gene. Gene expression analysis after incubation in human blood showed that these mutations influenced the expression of virulence-associated genes. Additional identification of three mutated strains in the mothers' milk raised the possibility of the newborns also being a source of contamination for their mothers. Overall, our work showed that GBS strains in carriage and disease scenarios might undergo adaptive changes following colonization. The types and locations of the mutations found, together with the experimental results showing their phenotypic impact, suggest that those in a context of infection were positively selected during the transition of GBS from commensal to pathogen, contributing to an increased capacity to cause disease. IMPORTANCE Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major pathogen responsible for neonatal infections. Considering that its colonization of healthy adults is mostly asymptomatic, the mechanisms behind its switch from a commensal to an invasive state are largely unknown. In this work, we

  11. Whole genomic sequencing of RT98 mitochondria derived from Oryza rufipogon and northern blot analysis to uncover a cytoplasmic male sterility-associated gene.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Keisuke; Kazama, Tomohiko; Motomura, Keiji; Toriyama, Kinya

    2013-02-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait resulting in the failure to produce functional pollen and is often observed when an alien cytoplasm is transferred into a cultivated species. An RT98A CMS line and an RT98C fertility restorer line were obtained by successive backcrossing between Oryza rufipogon W1109 and Oryza sativa cultivar Taichung 65. To uncover the CMS-associated mitochondrial genes, we determined the complete sequence of the RT98-CMS mitochondrial genome using next-generation pyrosequencing, and searched new open reading frames (orfs) absent in a reported mitochondrial genome of O. sativa Nipponbare. Then, six candidates were selected for the CMS-associated genes based on the criteria in which they were chimeric in structure or encoded a peptide with transmembrane domains. One of the candidates, orf113, showed different transcript sizes between RT98A and RT98C on Northern blot analysis. The orf113 gene was shown to be co-transcribed with atp4 and cox3 encoding ATP synthase F0 subunit 4 and Cyt c oxidase subunit 3, respectively, and their transcripts were distinctly processed in the presence of a fertility restorer gene. Our results indicate that orf113 is a CMS-associated gene of RT98-CMS.

  12. An Integrated Metabolomic and Genomic Mining Workflow To Uncover the Biosynthetic Potential of Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Maansson, Maria; Vynne, Nikolaj G; Klitgaard, Andreas; Nybo, Jane L; Melchiorsen, Jette; Nguyen, Don D; Sanchez, Laura M; Ziemert, Nadine; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Andersen, Mikael R; Gram, Lone

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms are a rich source of bioactives; however, chemical identification is a major bottleneck. Strategies that can prioritize the most prolific microbial strains and novel compounds are of great interest. Here, we present an integrated approach to evaluate the biosynthetic richness in bacteria and mine the associated chemical diversity. Thirteen strains closely related to Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea isolated from all over the Earth were analyzed using an untargeted metabolomics strategy, and metabolomic profiles were correlated with whole-genome sequences of the strains. We found considerable diversity: only 2% of the chemical features and 7% of the biosynthetic genes were common to all strains, while 30% of all features and 24% of the genes were unique to single strains. The list of chemical features was reduced to 50 discriminating features using a genetic algorithm and support vector machines. Features were dereplicated by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) networking to identify molecular families of the same biosynthetic origin, and the associated pathways were probed using comparative genomics. Most of the discriminating features were related to antibacterial compounds, including the thiomarinols that were reported from P. luteoviolacea here for the first time. By comparative genomics, we identified the biosynthetic cluster responsible for the production of the antibiotic indolmycin, which could not be predicted with standard methods. In conclusion, we present an efficient, integrative strategy for elucidating the chemical richness of a given set of bacteria and link the chemistry to biosynthetic genes. IMPORTANCE We here combine chemical analysis and genomics to probe for new bioactive secondary metabolites based on their pattern of distribution within bacterial species. We demonstrate the usefulness of this combined approach in a group of marine Gram-negative bacteria closely related to Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea, which is a species known

  13. An Integrated Metabolomic and Genomic Mining Workflow To Uncover the Biosynthetic Potential of Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Maansson, Maria; Vynne, Nikolaj G.; Klitgaard, Andreas; Nybo, Jane L.; Melchiorsen, Jette; Nguyen, Don D.; Sanchez, Laura M.; Ziemert, Nadine; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microorganisms are a rich source of bioactives; however, chemical identification is a major bottleneck. Strategies that can prioritize the most prolific microbial strains and novel compounds are of great interest. Here, we present an integrated approach to evaluate the biosynthetic richness in bacteria and mine the associated chemical diversity. Thirteen strains closely related to Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea isolated from all over the Earth were analyzed using an untargeted metabolomics strategy, and metabolomic profiles were correlated with whole-genome sequences of the strains. We found considerable diversity: only 2% of the chemical features and 7% of the biosynthetic genes were common to all strains, while 30% of all features and 24% of the genes were unique to single strains. The list of chemical features was reduced to 50 discriminating features using a genetic algorithm and support vector machines. Features were dereplicated by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) networking to identify molecular families of the same biosynthetic origin, and the associated pathways were probed using comparative genomics. Most of the discriminating features were related to antibacterial compounds, including the thiomarinols that were reported from P. luteoviolacea here for the first time. By comparative genomics, we identified the biosynthetic cluster responsible for the production of the antibiotic indolmycin, which could not be predicted with standard methods. In conclusion, we present an efficient, integrative strategy for elucidating the chemical richness of a given set of bacteria and link the chemistry to biosynthetic genes. IMPORTANCE We here combine chemical analysis and genomics to probe for new bioactive secondary metabolites based on their pattern of distribution within bacterial species. We demonstrate the usefulness of this combined approach in a group of marine Gram-negative bacteria closely related to Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea, which is a

  14. Comparative genomics uncovers novel structural and functional features of the heterotrimeric GTPase signaling system

    PubMed Central

    Anantharaman, Vivek; Abhiman, Saraswathi; de Souza, Robson F.; Aravind, L.

    2012-01-01

    Though the heterotrimeric G-proteins signaling system is one of the best studied in eukaryotes, its provenance and its prevalence outside of model eukaryotes remains poorly understood. We utilized the wealth of sequence data from recently sequenced eukaryotic genomes to uncover robust G-protein signaling systems in several poorly studied eukaryotic lineages such as the parabasalids, heteroloboseans and stramenopiles. This indicated that the Gα subunit is likely to have separated from the ARF-like GTPases prior to the last eukaryotic common ancestor. We systematically identified the structure and sequence features associated with this divergence and found that most of the neomorphic positions in Gα form a ring of residues centered on the nucleotide binding site, several of which are likely to be critical for interactions with the RGS domain for its GAP function. We also present evidence that in some of the potentially early branching eukaryotic lineages, like Trichomonas, Gα is likely to function independently of the Gβγ subunits. We were able to identify previously unknown Gγ subunits in Naegleria, suggesting that the trimeric version was already present by the time of the divergence of the heteroloboseans from the remaining eukaryotes. Evolution of Gα subunits is dominated by several independent lineage-specific expansions (LSEs). In most of these cases there are concomitant, independent LSEs of RGS proteins along with an extraordinary diversification of their domain architectures. The diversity of RGS domains from Naegleria in particular, which has the largest complement of Gα and RGS proteins for any eukaryote, provides new insights into RGS function and evolution. We uncovered a new class of soluble ligand receptors of bacterial origin with RGS domains and an extraordinary diversity of membrane-linked, redox-associated, adhesion-dependent and small molecule-induced G-protein signaling networks that evolved in early-branching eukaryotes, independently of

  15. Genome-wide association study uncovers four QTL predisposing to supernumerary teats in cattle.

    PubMed

    Pausch, Hubert; Jung, Simone; Edel, Christian; Emmerling, Reiner; Krogmeier, Dieter; Götz, Kay-Uwe; Fries, Ruedi

    2012-12-01

    Supernumerary teats (hyperthelia, SNTs) are a common abnormality of the bovine udder with a medium to high heritability and a postulated oligogenic or polygenic inheritance pattern. SNTs not only negatively affect machine milking ability but also act as a reservoir for bacteria. A genome-wide association study was carried out to identify genes involved in the development of SNTs in the dual-purpose Fleckvieh breed. A total of 2467 progeny-tested bulls were genotyped at 43 698 single nucleotide polymorphisms, and daughter yield deviations (DYDs) for 'udder clearness' (UC) were used as high-heritability phenotypes. Massive structuring of the study population was accounted for by principal components analysis-based and mixed model-based approaches. Four loci on BTA5, BTA6, BTA11 and BTA17 were significantly associated with the UC DYD. Three associated regions contain genes of the highly conserved Wnt signalling pathway. The four QTL together account for 10.7% of the variance of the UC DYD, whereas the major fraction of the DYD variance is attributable to chromosomes with no identified QTL. Our results support both an oligogenic and a polygenic inheritance pattern of SNTs in cattle. The identified candidate genes permit insights into the genetic architecture of teat malformations in cattle and provide clues to unravel the molecular mechanisms of mammary gland alterations in cattle and other species.

  16. Mosaic Zebrafish Transgenesis for Functional Genomic Analysis of Candidate Cooperative Genes in Tumor Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ung, Choong Yong; Guo, Feng; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Zhihui; Zhu, Shizhen

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive genomic analysis has uncovered surprisingly large numbers of genetic alterations in various types of cancers. To robustly and efficiently identify oncogenic “drivers” among these tumors and define their complex relationships with concurrent genetic alterations during tumor pathogenesis remains a daunting task. Recently, zebrafish have emerged as an important animal model for studying human diseases, largely because of their ease of maintenance, high fecundity, obvious advantages for in vivo imaging, high conservation of oncogenes and their molecular pathways, susceptibility to tumorigenesis and, most importantly, the availability of transgenic techniques suitable for use in the fish. Transgenic zebrafish models of cancer have been widely used to dissect oncogenic pathways in diverse tumor types. However, developing a stable transgenic fish model is both tedious and time-consuming, and it is even more difficult and more time-consuming to dissect the cooperation of multiple genes in disease pathogenesis using this approach, which requires the generation of multiple transgenic lines with overexpression of the individual genes of interest followed by complicated breeding of these stable transgenic lines. Hence, use of a mosaic transient transgenic approach in zebrafish offers unique advantages for functional genomic analysis in vivo. Briefly, candidate transgenes can be coinjected into one-cell-stage wild-type or transgenic zebrafish embryos and allowed to integrate together into each somatic cell in a mosaic pattern that leads to mixed genotypes in the same primarily injected animal. This permits one to investigate in a faster and less expensive manner whether and how the candidate genes can collaborate with each other to drive tumorigenesis. By transient overexpression of activated ALK in the transgenic fish overexpressing MYCN, we demonstrate here the cooperation of these two oncogenes in the pathogenesis of a pediatric cancer, neuroblastoma that

  17. Clinical utility of array comparative genomic hybridization: uncovering tumor susceptibility in individuals with developmental delay.

    PubMed

    Adam, Margaret P; Justice, April N; Schelley, Susan; Kwan, Andrea; Hudgins, Louanne; Martin, Christa L

    2009-01-01

    Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization can determine genome-wide copy number alterations at the kilobase level. We highlight the clinical utility of microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization in determining tumor susceptibility in 3 patients with dysmorphic features and developmental delay, likely decreasing both morbidity and mortality in these patients.

  18. Exploiting Genomics Resources to Identify Candidate Genes Underlying Antioxidants Content in Tomato Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Calafiore, Roberta; Ruggieri, Valentino; Raiola, Assunta; Rigano, Maria M.; Sacco, Adriana; Hassan, Mohamed I.; Frusciante, Luigi; Barone, Amalia

    2016-01-01

    The tomato is a model species for fleshy fruit development and ripening, as well as for genomics studies of others Solanaceae. Many genetic and genomics resources, including databases for sequencing, transcriptomics and metabolomics data, have been developed and are today available. The purpose of the present work was to uncover new genes and/or alleles that determine ascorbic acid and carotenoids accumulation, by exploiting one Solanum pennellii introgression lines (IL7-3) harboring quantitative trait loci (QTL) that increase the content of these metabolites in the fruit. The higher ascorbic acid and carotenoids content in IL7-3 was confirmed at three fruit developmental stages. The tomato genome reference sequence and the recently released S. pennellii genome sequence were investigated to identify candidate genes (CGs) that might control ascorbic acid and carotenoids accumulation. First of all, a refinement of the wild region borders in the IL7-3 was achieved by analyzing CAPS markers designed in our laboratory. Afterward, six CGs associated to ascorbic acid and one with carotenoids metabolism were identified exploring the annotation and the Gene Ontology terms of genes included in the region. Variants between the sequence of the wild and the cultivated alleles of these genes were investigated for their functional relevance and their potential effects on the protein sequences were predicted. Transcriptional levels of CGs in the introgression region were extracted from RNA-Seq data available for the entire S. pennellii introgression lines collection and verified by Real-Time qPCR. Finally, seven IL7-3 sub-lines were genotyped using 28 species-specific markers and then were evaluated for metabolites content. These analyses evidenced a significant decrease in transcript abundance for one 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and one L-ascorbate oxidase homolog, whose role in the accumulation of carotenoids and ascorbic acid is discussed. Comprehensively, the reported

  19. Comparative genomics uncovers the prolific and distinctive metabolic potential of the cyanobacterial genus Moorea

    PubMed Central

    Leao, Tiago; Castelão, Guilherme; Monroe, Emily A.; Podell, Sheila; Glukhov, Evgenia; Allen, Eric E.; Gerwick, William H.; Gerwick, Lena

    2017-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are major sources of oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon in nature. In addition to the importance of their primary metabolism, some cyanobacteria are prolific producers of unique and bioactive secondary metabolites. Chemical investigations of the cyanobacterial genus Moorea have resulted in the isolation of over 190 compounds in the last two decades. However, preliminary genomic analysis has suggested that genome-guided approaches can enable the discovery of novel compounds from even well-studied Moorea strains, highlighting the importance of obtaining complete genomes. We report a complete genome of a filamentous tropical marine cyanobacterium, Moorea producens PAL, which reveals that about one-fifth of its genome is devoted to production of secondary metabolites, an impressive four times the cyanobacterial average. Moreover, possession of the complete PAL genome has allowed improvement to the assembly of three other Moorea draft genomes. Comparative genomics revealed that they are remarkably similar to one another, despite their differences in geography, morphology, and secondary metabolite profiles. Gene cluster networking highlights that this genus is distinctive among cyanobacteria, not only in the number of secondary metabolite pathways but also in the content of many pathways, which are potentially distinct from all other bacterial gene clusters to date. These findings portend that future genome-guided secondary metabolite discovery and isolation efforts should be highly productive. PMID:28265051

  20. Genome reorganization in F1 hybrids uncovers the role of retrotransposons in reproductive isolation

    PubMed Central

    Senerchia, Natacha; Felber, François; Parisod, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization leads to new interactions among divergent genomes, revealing the nature of genetic incompatibilities having accumulated during and after the origin of species. Conflicts associated with misregulation of transposable elements (TEs) in hybrids expectedly result in their activation and genome-wide changes that may be key to species boundaries. Repetitive genomes of wild wheats have diverged under differential dynamics of specific long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs), offering unparalleled opportunities to address the underpinnings of plant genome reorganization by selfish sequences. Using reciprocal F1 hybrids between three Aegilops species, restructuring and epigenetic repatterning was assessed at random and LTR-RT sequences with amplified fragment length polymorphism and sequence-specific amplified polymorphisms as well as their methylation-sensitive counterparts, respectively. Asymmetrical reorganization of LTR-RT families predicted to cause conflicting interactions matched differential survival of F1 hybrids. Consistent with the genome shock model, increasing divergence of merged LTR-RTs yielded higher levels of changes in corresponding genome fractions and lead to repeated reorganization of LTR-RT sequences in F1 hybrids. Such non-random reorganization of hybrid genomes is coherent with the necessary repression of incompatible TE loci in support of hybrid viability and indicates that TE-driven genomic conflicts may represent an overlooked factor supporting reproductive isolation. PMID:25716787

  1. Long-read sequencing uncovers the adaptive topography of a carnivorous plant genome

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Tianying; Renner, Tanya; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Farr, Kimberly M.; Chang, Tien-Hao; Cervantes-Pérez, Sergio Alan; Zheng, Chunfang; Sankoff, David; Tang, Haibao; Purbojati, Rikky W.; Putra, Alexander; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Schuster, Stephan C.; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Albert, Victor A.

    2017-01-01

    Utricularia gibba, the humped bladderwort, is a carnivorous plant that retains a tiny nuclear genome despite at least two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD) since common ancestry with grapevine and other species. We used a third-generation genome assembly with several complete chromosomes to reconstruct the two most recent lineage-specific ancestral genomes that led to the modern U. gibba genome structure. Patterns of subgenome dominance in the most recent WGD, both architectural and transcriptional, are suggestive of allopolyploidization, which may have generated genomic novelty and led to instantaneous speciation. Syntenic duplicates retained in polyploid blocks are enriched for transcription factor functions, whereas gene copies derived from ongoing tandem duplication events are enriched in metabolic functions potentially important for a carnivorous plant. Among these are tandem arrays of cysteine protease genes with trap-specific expression that evolved within a protein family known to be useful in the digestion of animal prey. Further enriched functions among tandem duplicates (also with trap-enhanced expression) include peptide transport (intercellular movement of broken-down prey proteins), ATPase activities (bladder-trap acidification and transmembrane nutrient transport), hydrolase and chitinase activities (breakdown of prey polysaccharides), and cell-wall dynamic components possibly associated with active bladder movements. Whereas independently polyploid Arabidopsis syntenic gene duplicates are similarly enriched for transcriptional regulatory activities, Arabidopsis tandems are distinct from those of U. gibba, while still metabolic and likely reflecting unique adaptations of that species. Taken together, these findings highlight the special importance of tandem duplications in the adaptive landscapes of a carnivorous plant genome. PMID:28507139

  2. Long-read sequencing uncovers the adaptive topography of a carnivorous plant genome.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tianying; Renner, Tanya; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Farr, Kimberly M; Chang, Tien-Hao; Cervantes-Pérez, Sergio Alan; Zheng, Chunfang; Sankoff, David; Tang, Haibao; Purbojati, Rikky W; Putra, Alexander; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; Schuster, Stephan C; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Albert, Victor A

    2017-05-30

    Utricularia gibba, the humped bladderwort, is a carnivorous plant that retains a tiny nuclear genome despite at least two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD) since common ancestry with grapevine and other species. We used a third-generation genome assembly with several complete chromosomes to reconstruct the two most recent lineage-specific ancestral genomes that led to the modern U. gibba genome structure. Patterns of subgenome dominance in the most recent WGD, both architectural and transcriptional, are suggestive of allopolyploidization, which may have generated genomic novelty and led to instantaneous speciation. Syntenic duplicates retained in polyploid blocks are enriched for transcription factor functions, whereas gene copies derived from ongoing tandem duplication events are enriched in metabolic functions potentially important for a carnivorous plant. Among these are tandem arrays of cysteine protease genes with trap-specific expression that evolved within a protein family known to be useful in the digestion of animal prey. Further enriched functions among tandem duplicates (also with trap-enhanced expression) include peptide transport (intercellular movement of broken-down prey proteins), ATPase activities (bladder-trap acidification and transmembrane nutrient transport), hydrolase and chitinase activities (breakdown of prey polysaccharides), and cell-wall dynamic components possibly associated with active bladder movements. Whereas independently polyploid Arabidopsis syntenic gene duplicates are similarly enriched for transcriptional regulatory activities, Arabidopsis tandems are distinct from those of U. gibba, while still metabolic and likely reflecting unique adaptations of that species. Taken together, these findings highlight the special importance of tandem duplications in the adaptive landscapes of a carnivorous plant genome.

  3. Périgord black truffle genome uncovers evolutionary origins and mechanisms of symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Francis; Kohler, Annegret; Murat, Claude; Balestrini, Raffaella; Coutinho, Pedro M; Jaillon, Olivier; Montanini, Barbara; Morin, Emmanuelle; Noel, Benjamin; Percudani, Riccardo; Porcel, Bettina; Rubini, Andrea; Amicucci, Antonella; Amselem, Joelle; Anthouard, Véronique; Arcioni, Sergio; Artiguenave, François; Aury, Jean-Marc; Ballario, Paola; Bolchi, Angelo; Brenna, Andrea; Brun, Annick; Buée, Marc; Cantarel, Brandi; Chevalier, Gérard; Couloux, Arnaud; Da Silva, Corinne; Denoeud, France; Duplessis, Sébastien; Ghignone, Stefano; Hilselberger, Benoît; Iotti, Mirco; Marçais, Benoît; Mello, Antonietta; Miranda, Michele; Pacioni, Giovanni; Quesneville, Hadi; Riccioni, Claudia; Ruotolo, Roberta; Splivallo, Richard; Stocchi, Vilberto; Tisserant, Emilie; Viscomi, Arturo Roberto; Zambonelli, Alessandra; Zampieri, Elisa; Henrissat, Bernard; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Paolocci, Francesco; Bonfante, Paola; Ottonello, Simone; Wincker, Patrick

    2010-04-15

    The Périgord black truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad.) and the Piedmont white truffle dominate today's truffle market. The hypogeous fruiting body of T. melanosporum is a gastronomic delicacy produced by an ectomycorrhizal symbiont endemic to calcareous soils in southern Europe. The worldwide demand for this truffle has fuelled intense efforts at cultivation. Identification of processes that condition and trigger fruit body and symbiosis formation, ultimately leading to efficient crop production, will be facilitated by a thorough analysis of truffle genomic traits. In the ectomycorrhizal Laccaria bicolor, the expansion of gene families may have acted as a 'symbiosis toolbox'. This feature may however reflect evolution of this particular taxon and not a general trait shared by all ectomycorrhizal species. To get a better understanding of the biology and evolution of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, we report here the sequence of the haploid genome of T. melanosporum, which at approximately 125 megabases is the largest and most complex fungal genome sequenced so far. This expansion results from a proliferation of transposable elements accounting for approximately 58% of the genome. In contrast, this genome only contains approximately 7,500 protein-coding genes with very rare multigene families. It lacks large sets of carbohydrate cleaving enzymes, but a few of them involved in degradation of plant cell walls are induced in symbiotic tissues. The latter feature and the upregulation of genes encoding for lipases and multicopper oxidases suggest that T. melanosporum degrades its host cell walls during colonization. Symbiosis induces an increased expression of carbohydrate and amino acid transporters in both L. bicolor and T. melanosporum, but the comparison of genomic traits in the two ectomycorrhizal fungi showed that genetic predispositions for symbiosis-'the symbiosis toolbox'-evolved along different ways in ascomycetes and basidiomycetes.

  4. Analysis of the Legionella longbeachae genome and transcriptome uncovers unique strategies to cause Legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed

    Cazalet, Christel; Gomez-Valero, Laura; Rusniok, Christophe; Lomma, Mariella; Dervins-Ravault, Delphine; Newton, Hayley J; Sansom, Fiona M; Jarraud, Sophie; Zidane, Nora; Ma, Laurence; Bouchier, Christiane; Etienne, Jerôme; Hartland, Elizabeth L; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2010-02-19

    Legionella pneumophila and L. longbeachae are two species of a large genus of bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. L. pneumophila is mainly found in natural and artificial water circuits while L. longbeachae is mainly present in soil. Under the appropriate conditions both species are human pathogens, capable of causing a severe form of pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of four L. longbeachae genomes, one complete genome sequence of L. longbeachae strain NSW150 serogroup (Sg) 1, and three draft genome sequences another belonging to Sg1 and two to Sg2. The genome organization and gene content of the four L. longbeachae genomes are highly conserved, indicating strong pressure for niche adaptation. Analysis and comparison of L. longbeachae strain NSW150 with L. pneumophila revealed common but also unexpected features specific to this pathogen. The interaction with host cells shows distinct features from L. pneumophila, as L. longbeachae possesses a unique repertoire of putative Dot/Icm type IV secretion system substrates, eukaryotic-like and eukaryotic domain proteins, and encodes additional secretion systems. However, analysis of the ability of a dotA mutant of L. longbeachae NSW150 to replicate in the Acanthamoeba castellanii and in a mouse lung infection model showed that the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system is also essential for the virulence of L. longbeachae. In contrast to L. pneumophila, L. longbeachae does not encode flagella, thereby providing a possible explanation for differences in mouse susceptibility to infection between the two pathogens. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis revealed that L. longbeachae has a less pronounced biphasic life cycle as compared to L. pneumophila, and genome analysis and electron microscopy suggested that L. longbeachae is encapsulated. These species-specific differences may account for the different environmental niches and disease epidemiology of these two Legionella

  5. Read clouds uncover variation in complex regions of the human genome.

    PubMed

    Bishara, Alex; Liu, Yuling; Weng, Ziming; Kashef-Haghighi, Dorna; Newburger, Daniel E; West, Robert; Sidow, Arend; Batzoglou, Serafim

    2015-10-01

    Although an increasing amount of human genetic variation is being identified and recorded, determining variants within repeated sequences of the human genome remains a challenge. Most population and genome-wide association studies have therefore been unable to consider variation in these regions. Core to the problem is the lack of a sequencing technology that produces reads with sufficient length and accuracy to enable unique mapping. Here, we present a novel methodology of using read clouds, obtained by accurate short-read sequencing of DNA derived from long fragment libraries, to confidently align short reads within repeat regions and enable accurate variant discovery. Our novel algorithm, Random Field Aligner (RFA), captures the relationships among the short reads governed by the long read process via a Markov Random Field. We utilized a modified version of the Illumina TruSeq synthetic long-read protocol, which yielded shallow-sequenced read clouds. We test RFA through extensive simulations and apply it to discover variants on the NA12878 human sample, for which shallow TruSeq read cloud sequencing data are available, and on an invasive breast carcinoma genome that we sequenced using the same method. We demonstrate that RFA facilitates accurate recovery of variation in 155 Mb of the human genome, including 94% of 67 Mb of segmental duplication sequence and 96% of 11 Mb of transcribed sequence, that are currently hidden from short-read technologies. © 2015 Bishara et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  6. Read clouds uncover variation in complex regions of the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Bishara, Alex; Liu, Yuling; Weng, Ziming; Kashef-Haghighi, Dorna; Newburger, Daniel E.; West, Robert; Sidow, Arend; Batzoglou, Serafim

    2015-01-01

    Although an increasing amount of human genetic variation is being identified and recorded, determining variants within repeated sequences of the human genome remains a challenge. Most population and genome-wide association studies have therefore been unable to consider variation in these regions. Core to the problem is the lack of a sequencing technology that produces reads with sufficient length and accuracy to enable unique mapping. Here, we present a novel methodology of using read clouds, obtained by accurate short-read sequencing of DNA derived from long fragment libraries, to confidently align short reads within repeat regions and enable accurate variant discovery. Our novel algorithm, Random Field Aligner (RFA), captures the relationships among the short reads governed by the long read process via a Markov Random Field. We utilized a modified version of the Illumina TruSeq synthetic long-read protocol, which yielded shallow-sequenced read clouds. We test RFA through extensive simulations and apply it to discover variants on the NA12878 human sample, for which shallow TruSeq read cloud sequencing data are available, and on an invasive breast carcinoma genome that we sequenced using the same method. We demonstrate that RFA facilitates accurate recovery of variation in 155 Mb of the human genome, including 94% of 67 Mb of segmental duplication sequence and 96% of 11 Mb of transcribed sequence, that are currently hidden from short-read technologies. PMID:26286554

  7. Genomic analysis of Meckel-Gruber syndrome in Arabs reveals marked genetic heterogeneity and novel candidate genes.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Ranad; Faqeih, Eissa; Alshammari, Muneera J; Swaid, Abdulrahman; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Mardawi, Elham; Ansari, Shinu; Sogaty, Sameera; Seidahmed, Mohammed Z; AlMotairi, Muhammed I; Farra, Chantal; Kurdi, Wesam; Al-Rasheed, Shatha; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2013-07-01

    Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MKS, OMIM #249000) is a multiple congenital malformation syndrome that represents the severe end of the ciliopathy phenotypic spectrum. Despite the relatively common occurrence of this syndrome among Arabs, little is known about its genetic architecture in this population. This is a series of 18 Arab families with MKS, who were evaluated clinically and studied using autozygome-guided mutation analysis and exome sequencing. We show that autozygome-guided candidate gene analysis identified the underlying mutation in the majority (n=12, 71%). Exome sequencing revealed a likely pathogenic mutation in three novel candidate MKS disease genes. These include C5orf42, Ellis-van-Creveld disease gene EVC2 and SEC8 (also known as EXOC4), which encodes an exocyst protein with an established role in ciliogenesis. This is the largest and most comprehensive genomic study on MKS in Arabs and the results, in addition to revealing genetic and allelic heterogeneity, suggest that previously reported disease genes and the novel candidates uncovered by this study account for the overwhelming majority of MKS patients in our population.

  8. Genomic analysis of Meckel–Gruber syndrome in Arabs reveals marked genetic heterogeneity and novel candidate genes

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, Ranad; Faqeih, Eissa; Alshammari, Muneera J; Swaid, Abdulrahman; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Mardawi, Elham; Ansari, Shinu; Sogaty, Sameera; Seidahmed, Mohammed Z; AlMotairi, Muhammed I; Farra, Chantal; Kurdi, Wesam; Al-Rasheed, Shatha; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2013-01-01

    Meckel–Gruber syndrome (MKS, OMIM #249000) is a multiple congenital malformation syndrome that represents the severe end of the ciliopathy phenotypic spectrum. Despite the relatively common occurrence of this syndrome among Arabs, little is known about its genetic architecture in this population. This is a series of 18 Arab families with MKS, who were evaluated clinically and studied using autozygome-guided mutation analysis and exome sequencing. We show that autozygome-guided candidate gene analysis identified the underlying mutation in the majority (n=12, 71%). Exome sequencing revealed a likely pathogenic mutation in three novel candidate MKS disease genes. These include C5orf42, Ellis–van-Creveld disease gene EVC2 and SEC8 (also known as EXOC4), which encodes an exocyst protein with an established role in ciliogenesis. This is the largest and most comprehensive genomic study on MKS in Arabs and the results, in addition to revealing genetic and allelic heterogeneity, suggest that previously reported disease genes and the novel candidates uncovered by this study account for the overwhelming majority of MKS patients in our population. PMID:23169490

  9. Whole-genome resequencing uncovers molecular signatures of natural and sexual selection in wild bighorn sheep.

    PubMed

    Kardos, Marty; Luikart, Gordon; Bunch, Rowan; Dewey, Sarah; Edwards, William; McWilliam, Sean; Stephenson, John; Allendorf, Fred W; Hogg, John T; Kijas, James

    2015-11-01

    The identification of genes influencing fitness is central to our understanding of the genetic basis of adaptation and how it shapes phenotypic variation in wild populations. Here, we used whole-genome resequencing of wild Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) to >50-fold coverage to identify 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genomic regions bearing signatures of directional selection (i.e. selective sweeps). A comparison of SNP diversity between the X chromosome and the autosomes indicated that bighorn males had a dramatically reduced long-term effective population size compared to females. This probably reflects a long history of intense sexual selection mediated by male-male competition for mates. Selective sweep scans based on heterozygosity and nucleotide diversity revealed evidence for a selective sweep shared across multiple populations at RXFP2, a gene that strongly affects horn size in domestic ungulates. The massive horns carried by bighorn rams appear to have evolved in part via strong positive selection at RXFP2. We identified evidence for selection within individual populations at genes affecting early body growth and cellular response to hypoxia; however, these must be interpreted more cautiously as genetic drift is strong within local populations and may have caused false positives. These results represent a rare example of strong genomic signatures of selection identified at genes with known function in wild populations of a nonmodel species. Our results also showcase the value of reference genome assemblies from agricultural or model species for studies of the genomic basis of adaptation in closely related wild taxa.

  10. Uncovering the novel characteristics of Asian honey bee, Apis cerana, by whole genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Park, Doori; Jung, Je Won; Choi, Beom-Soon; Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Lee, Jeongsoo; Lim, Jongsung; Yu, Yeisoo; Choi, Yong-Soo; Lee, Myeong-Lyeol; Park, Yoonseong; Choi, Ik-Young; Yang, Tae-Jin; Edwards, Owain R; Nah, Gyoungju; Kwon, Hyung Wook

    2015-01-02

    The honey bee is an important model system for increasing understanding of molecular and neural mechanisms underlying social behaviors relevant to the agricultural industry and basic science. The western honey bee, Apis mellifera, has served as a model species, and its genome sequence has been published. In contrast, the genome of the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana, has not yet been sequenced. A. cerana has been raised in Asian countries for thousands of years and has brought considerable economic benefits to the apicultural industry. A cerana has divergent biological traits compared to A. mellifera and it has played a key role in maintaining biodiversity in eastern and southern Asia. Here we report the first whole genome sequence of A. cerana. Using de novo assembly methods, we produced a 238 Mbp draft of the A. cerana genome and generated 10,651 genes. A.cerana-specific genes were analyzed to better understand the novel characteristics of this honey bee species. Seventy-two percent of the A. cerana-specific genes had more than one GO term, and 1,696 enzymes were categorized into 125 pathways. Genes involved in chemoreception and immunity were carefully identified and compared to those from other sequenced insect models. These included 10 gustatory receptors, 119 odorant receptors, 10 ionotropic receptors, and 160 immune-related genes. This first report of the whole genome sequence of A. cerana provides resources for comparative sociogenomics, especially in the field of social insect communication. These important tools will contribute to a better understanding of the complex behaviors and natural biology of the Asian honey bee and to anticipate its future evolutionary trajectory.

  11. Uncovering buffered pleiotropy: a genome-scale screen for mel-28 genetic interactors in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Anita G; Mis, Emily K; Lai, Allison; Mauro, Michael; Quental, Angela; Bock, Carly; Piano, Fabio

    2014-01-10

    mel-28 (maternal-effect-lethal-28) encodes a conserved protein required for nuclear envelope function and chromosome segregation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Because mel-28 is a strict maternal-effect lethal gene, its function is required in the early embryo but appears to be dispensable for larval development. We wanted to test the idea that mel-28 has postembryonic roles that are buffered by the contributions of other genes. To find genes that act coordinately with mel-28, we did an RNA interference-based genetic interaction screen using mel-28 and wild-type larvae. We screened 18,364 clones and identified 65 genes that cause sterility in mel-28 but not wild-type worms. Some of these genes encode components of the nuclear pore. In addition we identified genes involved in dynein and dynactin function, vesicle transport, and cell-matrix attachments. By screening mel-28 larvae we have bypassed the requirement for mel-28 in the embryo, uncovering pleiotropic functions for mel-28 later in development that are normally provided by other genes. This work contributes toward revealing the gene networks that underlie cellular processes and reveals roles for a maternal-effect lethal gene later in development.

  12. Uncovering Buffered Pleiotropy: A Genome-Scale Screen for mel-28 Genetic Interactors in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Anita G.; Mis, Emily K.; Lai, Allison; Mauro, Michael; Quental, Angela; Bock, Carly; Piano, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    mel-28 (maternal-effect-lethal-28) encodes a conserved protein required for nuclear envelope function and chromosome segregation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Because mel-28 is a strict maternal-effect lethal gene, its function is required in the early embryo but appears to be dispensable for larval development. We wanted to test the idea that mel-28 has postembryonic roles that are buffered by the contributions of other genes. To find genes that act coordinately with mel-28, we did an RNA interference−based genetic interaction screen using mel-28 and wild-type larvae. We screened 18,364 clones and identified 65 genes that cause sterility in mel-28 but not wild-type worms. Some of these genes encode components of the nuclear pore. In addition we identified genes involved in dynein and dynactin function, vesicle transport, and cell-matrix attachments. By screening mel-28 larvae we have bypassed the requirement for mel-28 in the embryo, uncovering pleiotropic functions for mel-28 later in development that are normally provided by other genes. This work contributes toward revealing the gene networks that underlie cellular processes and reveals roles for a maternal-effect lethal gene later in development. PMID:24281427

  13. QTL Mapping in Three Rice Populations Uncovers Major Genomic Regions Associated with African Rice Gall Midge Resistance.

    PubMed

    Yao, Nasser; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Semagn, Kassa; Sow, Mounirou; Nwilene, Francis; Kolade, Olufisayo; Bocco, Roland; Oyetunji, Olumoye; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Ndjiondjop, Marie-Noëlle

    2016-01-01

    African rice gall midge (AfRGM) is one of the most destructive pests of irrigated and lowland African ecologies. This study aimed to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with AfRGM pest incidence and resistance in three independent bi-parental rice populations (ITA306xBW348-1, ITA306xTOG7106 and ITA306xTOS14519), and to conduct meta QTL (mQTL) analysis to explore whether any genomic regions are conserved across different genetic backgrounds. Composite interval mapping (CIM) conducted on the three populations independently uncovered a total of 28 QTLs associated with pest incidence (12) and pest severity (16). The number of QTLs per population associated with AfRGM resistance varied from three in the ITA306xBW348-1 population to eight in the ITA306xTOG7106 population. Each QTL individually explained 1.3 to 34.1% of the phenotypic variance. The major genomic region for AfRGM resistance had a LOD score and R2 of 60.0 and 34.1% respectively, and mapped at 111 cM on chromosome 4 (qAfrGM4) in the ITA306xTOS14519 population. The meta-analysis reduced the number of QTLs from 28 to 17 mQTLs, each explaining 1.3 to 24.5% of phenotypic variance, and narrowed the confidence intervals by 2.2 cM. There was only one minor effect mQTL on chromosome 1 that was common in the TOS14519 and TOG7106 genetic backgrounds; all other mQTLs were background specific. We are currently fine-mapping and validating the major effect genomic region on chromosome 4 (qAfRGM4). This is the first report in mapping the genomic regions associated with the AfRGM resistance, and will be highly useful for rice breeders.

  14. Genome-Wide Survey of SNP Variation Uncovers the Genetic Structure of Cattle Breeds

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The imprints of domestication and breed development on the genomes of livestock likely differ from those of companion animals. A deep draft sequence assembly of shotgun reads from a single Hereford female and comparative sequences sampled from six additional breeds were used to develop probes to interrogate 37,470 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 497 cattle from 19 geographically and biologically diverse breeds. These data show that cattle have undergone a rapid recent decrease in effective population size from a very large ancestral population, possibly due to bottlenecks associated with domestication, selection, and breed formation. Domestication and artificial selection appear to have left detectable signatures of selection within the cattle genome, yet the current levels of diversity within breeds are at least as great as exists within humans. PMID:19390050

  15. HelitronScanner uncovers a large overlooked cache of Helitron transposons in many plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wenwei; He, Limei; Lai, Jinsheng; Dooner, Hugo K; Du, Chunguang

    2014-07-15

    Transposons make up the bulk of eukaryotic genomes, but are difficult to annotate because they evolve rapidly. Most of the unannotated portion of sequenced genomes is probably made up of various divergent transposons that have yet to be categorized. Helitrons are unusual rolling circle eukaryotic transposons that often capture gene sequences, making them of considerable evolutionary importance. Unlike other DNA transposons, Helitrons do not end in inverted repeats or create target site duplications, so they are particularly challenging to identify. Here we present HelitronScanner, a two-layered local combinational variable (LCV) tool for generalized Helitron identification that represents a major improvement over previous identification programs based on DNA sequence or structure. HelitronScanner identified 64,654 Helitrons from a wide range of plant genomes in a highly automated way. We tested HelitronScanner's predictive ability in maize, a species with highly heterogeneous Helitron elements. LCV scores for the 5' and 3' termini of the predicted Helitrons provide a primary confidence level and element copy number provides a secondary one. Newly identified Helitrons were validated by PCR assays or by in silico comparative analysis of insertion site polymorphism among multiple accessions. Many new Helitrons were identified in model species, such as maize, rice, and Arabidopsis, and in a variety of organisms where Helitrons had not been reported previously to our knowledge, leading to a major upward reassessment of their abundance in plant genomes. HelitronScanner promises to be a valuable tool in future comparative and evolutionary studies of this major transposon superfamily.

  16. Uncovering the defence responses of Eucalyptus to pests and pathogens in the genomics age.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Sanushka; Külheim, Carsten; Zwart, Lizahn; Mangwanda, Ronishree; Oates, Caryn N; Visser, Erik A; Wilken, Febé E; Mamni, Thandekile B; Myburg, Alexander A

    2014-09-01

    Long-lived tree species are subject to attack by various pests and pathogens during their lifetime. This problem is exacerbated by climate change, which may increase the host range for pathogens and extend the period of infestation by pests. Plant defences may involve preformed barriers or induced resistance mechanisms based on recognition of the invader, complex signalling cascades, hormone signalling, activation of transcription factors and production of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins with direct antimicrobial or anti-insect activity. Trees have evolved some unique defence mechanisms compared with well-studied model plants, which are mostly herbaceous annuals. The genome sequence of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden has recently become available and provides a resource to extend our understanding of defence in large woody perennials. This review synthesizes existing knowledge of defence mechanisms in model plants and tree species and features mechanisms that may be important for defence in Eucalyptus, such as anatomical variants and the role of chemicals and proteins. Based on the E. grandis genome sequence, we have identified putative PR proteins based on sequence identity to the previously described plant PR proteins. Putative orthologues for PR-1, PR-2, PR-4, PR-5, PR-6, PR-7, PR-8, PR-9, PR-10, PR-12, PR-14, PR-15 and PR-17 have been identified and compared with their orthologues in Populus trichocarpa Torr. & A. Gray ex Hook and Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. The survey of PR genes in Eucalyptus provides a first step in identifying defence gene targets that may be employed for protection of the species in future. Genomic resources available for Eucalyptus are discussed and approaches for improving resistance in these hardwood trees, earmarked as a bioenergy source in future, are considered. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Comparative Phylogenomics Uncovers the Impact of Symbiotic Associations on Host Genome Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Varala, Kranthi; Edger, Patrick P.; Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Pires, J. Chris; Ané, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    Mutualistic symbioses between eukaryotes and beneficial microorganisms of their microbiome play an essential role in nutrition, protection against disease, and development of the host. However, the impact of beneficial symbionts on the evolution of host genomes remains poorly characterized. Here we used the independent loss of the most widespread plant–microbe symbiosis, arbuscular mycorrhization (AM), as a model to address this question. Using a large phenotypic approach and phylogenetic analyses, we present evidence that loss of AM symbiosis correlates with the loss of many symbiotic genes in the Arabidopsis lineage (Brassicales). Then, by analyzing the genome and/or transcriptomes of nine other phylogenetically divergent non-host plants, we show that this correlation occurred in a convergent manner in four additional plant lineages, demonstrating the existence of an evolutionary pattern specific to symbiotic genes. Finally, we use a global comparative phylogenomic approach to track this evolutionary pattern among land plants. Based on this approach, we identify a set of 174 highly conserved genes and demonstrate enrichment in symbiosis-related genes. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that beneficial symbionts maintain purifying selection on host gene networks during the evolution of entire lineages. PMID:25032823

  18. Protein interaction network topology uncovers melanogenesis regulatory network components within functional genomics datasets

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background RNA-mediated interference (RNAi)-based functional genomics is a systems-level approach to identify novel genes that control biological phenotypes. Existing computational approaches can identify individual genes from RNAi datasets that regulate a given biological process. However, currently available methods cannot identify which RNAi screen "hits" are novel components of well-characterized biological pathways known to regulate the interrogated phenotype. In this study, we describe a method to identify genes from RNAi datasets that are novel components of known biological pathways. We experimentally validate our approach in the context of a recently completed RNAi screen to identify novel regulators of melanogenesis. Results In this study, we utilize a PPI network topology-based approach to identify targets within our RNAi dataset that may be components of known melanogenesis regulatory pathways. Our computational approach identifies a set of screen targets that cluster topologically in a human PPI network with the known pigment regulator Endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB). Validation studies reveal that these genes impact pigment production and EDNRB signaling in pigmented melanoma cells (MNT-1) and normal melanocytes. Conclusions We present an approach that identifies novel components of well-characterized biological pathways from functional genomics datasets that could not have been identified by existing statistical and computational approaches. PMID:20550706

  19. Whole-Genome Sequencing Uncovers the Genetic Basis of Chronic Mountain Sickness in Andean Highlanders

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dan; Udpa, Nitin; Ronen, Roy; Stobdan, Tsering; Liang, Junbin; Appenzeller, Otto; Zhao, Huiwen W.; Yin, Yi; Du, Yuanping; Guo, Lixia; Cao, Rui; Wang, Yu; Jin, Xin; Huang, Chen; Jia, Wenlong; Cao, Dandan; Guo, Guangwu; Gamboa, Jorge L.; Villafuerte, Francisco; Callacondo, David; Xue, Jin; Liu, Siqi; Frazer, Kelly A.; Li, Yingrui; Bafna, Vineet; Haddad, Gabriel G.

    2013-01-01

    The hypoxic conditions at high altitudes present a challenge for survival, causing pressure for adaptation. Interestingly, many high-altitude denizens (particularly in the Andes) are maladapted, with a condition known as chronic mountain sickness (CMS) or Monge disease. To decode the genetic basis of this disease, we sequenced and compared the whole genomes of 20 Andean subjects (10 with CMS and 10 without). We discovered 11 regions genome-wide with significant differences in haplotype frequencies consistent with selective sweeps. In these regions, two genes (an erythropoiesis regulator, SENP1, and an oncogene, ANP32D) had a higher transcriptional response to hypoxia in individuals with CMS relative to those without. We further found that downregulating the orthologs of these genes in flies dramatically enhanced survival rates under hypoxia, demonstrating that suppression of SENP1 and ANP32D plays an essential role in hypoxia tolerance. Our study provides an unbiased framework to identify and validate the genetic basis of adaptation to high altitudes and identifies potentially targetable mechanisms for CMS treatment. PMID:23954164

  20. Genome-wide DNA methylation measurements in prostate tissues uncovers novel prostate cancer diagnostic biomarkers and transcription factor binding patterns.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Marie K; Ramaker, Ryne C; Roberts, Brian S; Lasseigne, Brittany N; Gunther, David S; Burwell, Todd C; Davis, Nicholas S; Gulzar, Zulfiqar G; Absher, Devin M; Cooper, Sara J; Brooks, James D; Myers, Richard M

    2017-04-17

    Current diagnostic tools for prostate cancer lack specificity and sensitivity for detecting very early lesions. DNA methylation is a stable genomic modification that is detectable in peripheral patient fluids such as urine and blood plasma that could serve as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for prostate cancer. We measured genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in 73 clinically annotated fresh-frozen prostate cancers and 63 benign-adjacent prostate tissues using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. We overlaid the most significantly differentially methylated sites in the genome with transcription factor binding sites measured by the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements consortium. We used logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curves to assess the performance of candidate diagnostic models. We identified methylation patterns that have a high predictive power for distinguishing malignant prostate tissue from benign-adjacent prostate tissue, and these methylation signatures were validated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas Project. Furthermore, by overlaying ENCODE transcription factor binding data, we observed an enrichment of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 binding in gene regulatory regions with higher DNA methylation in malignant prostate tissues. DNA methylation patterns are greatly altered in prostate cancer tissue in comparison to benign-adjacent tissue. We have discovered patterns of DNA methylation marks that can distinguish prostate cancers with high specificity and sensitivity in multiple patient tissue cohorts, and we have identified transcription factors binding in these differentially methylated regions that may play important roles in prostate cancer development.

  1. Uncovering the role of genomic “dark matter” in human disease

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lance; Chang, Howard Y.

    2012-01-01

    The human genome encodes thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Although most remain functionally uncharacterized biological “dark matter,” lncRNAs have garnered considerable attention for their diverse roles in human biology, including developmental programs and tumor suppressor gene networks. As the number of lncRNAs associated with human disease grows, ongoing research efforts are focusing on their regulatory mechanisms. New technologies that enable enumeration of lncRNA interaction partners and determination of lncRNA structure are well positioned to drive deeper understanding of their functions and involvement in pathogenesis. In turn, lncRNAs may become targets for therapeutic intervention or new tools for biotechnology. PMID:22546862

  2. Genome Reduction Uncovers a Large Dispensable Genome and Adaptive Role for Copy Number Variation in Asexually Propagated Solanum tuberosum[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hardigan, Michael A.; Crisovan, Emily; Hamilton, John P.; Laimbeer, Parker; Leisner, Courtney P.; Manrique-Carpintero, Norma C.; Newton, Linsey; Pham, Gina M.; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Zeng, Zixian; Jiang, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Clonally reproducing plants have the potential to bear a significantly greater mutational load than sexually reproducing species. To investigate this possibility, we examined the breadth of genome-wide structural variation in a panel of monoploid/doubled monoploid clones generated from native populations of diploid potato (Solanum tuberosum), a highly heterozygous asexually propagated plant. As rare instances of purely homozygous clones, they provided an ideal set for determining the degree of structural variation tolerated by this species and deriving its minimal gene complement. Extensive copy number variation (CNV) was uncovered, impacting 219.8 Mb (30.2%) of the potato genome with nearly 30% of genes subject to at least partial duplication or deletion, revealing the highly heterogeneous nature of the potato genome. Dispensable genes (>7000) were associated with limited transcription and/or a recent evolutionary history, with lower deletion frequency observed in genes conserved across angiosperms. Association of CNV with plant adaptation was highlighted by enrichment in gene clusters encoding functions for environmental stress response, with gene duplication playing a part in species-specific expansions of stress-related gene families. This study revealed unique impacts of CNV in a species with asexual reproductive habits and how CNV may drive adaption through evolution of key stress pathways. PMID:26772996

  3. Uncovering regulatory pathways that affect hematopoietic stem cell function using 'genetical genomics'.

    PubMed

    Bystrykh, Leonid; Weersing, Ellen; Dontje, Bert; Sutton, Sue; Pletcher, Mathew T; Wiltshire, Tim; Su, Andrew I; Vellenga, Edo; Wang, Jintao; Manly, Kenneth F; Lu, Lu; Chesler, Elissa J; Alberts, Rudi; Jansen, Ritsert C; Williams, Robert W; Cooke, Michael P; de Haan, Gerald

    2005-03-01

    We combined large-scale mRNA expression analysis and gene mapping to identify genes and loci that control hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function. We measured mRNA expression levels in purified HSCs isolated from a panel of densely genotyped recombinant inbred mouse strains. We mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with variation in expression of thousands of transcripts. By comparing the physical transcript position with the location of the controlling QTL, we identified polymorphic cis-acting stem cell genes. We also identified multiple trans-acting control loci that modify expression of large numbers of genes. These groups of coregulated transcripts identify pathways that specify variation in stem cells. We illustrate this concept with the identification of candidate genes involved with HSC turnover. We compared expression QTLs in HSCs and brain from the same mice and identified both shared and tissue-specific QTLs. Our data are accessible through WebQTL, a web-based interface that allows custom genetic linkage analysis and identification of coregulated transcripts.

  4. Translational Genomics in Legumes Allowed Placing In Silico 5460 Unigenes on the Pea Functional Map and Identified Candidate Genes in Pisum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Bordat, Amandine; Savois, Vincent; Nicolas, Marie; Salse, Jérome; Chauveau, Aurélie; Bourgeois, Michael; Potier, Jean; Houtin, Hervé; Rond, Céline; Murat, Florent; Marget, Pascal; Aubert, Grégoire; Burstin, Judith

    2011-07-01

    To identify genes involved in phenotypic traits, translational genomics from highly characterized model plants to poorly characterized crop plants provides a valuable source of markers to saturate a zone of interest as well as functionally characterized candidate genes. In this paper, an integrated view of the pea genetic map was developed. A series of gene markers were mapped and their best reciprocal homologs were identified on M. truncatula, L. japonicus, soybean, and poplar pseudomolecules. Based on the syntenic relationships uncovered between pea and M. truncatula, 5460 pea Unigenes were tentatively placed on the consensus map. A new bioinformatics tool, http://www.thelegumeportal.net/pea_mtr_translational_toolkit, was developed that allows, for any gene sequence, to search its putative position on the pea consensus map and hence to search for candidate genes among neighboring Unigenes. As an example, a promising candidate gene for the hypernodulation mutation nod3 in pea was proposed based on the map position of the likely homolog of Pub1, a M. truncatula gene involved in nodulation regulation. A broader view of pea genome evolution was obtained by revealing syntenic relationships between pea and sequenced genomes. Blocks of synteny were identified which gave new insights into the evolution of chromosome structure in Papillionoids and Eudicots. The power of the translational genomics approach was underlined.

  5. QTL Mapping in Three Rice Populations Uncovers Major Genomic Regions Associated with African Rice Gall Midge Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Semagn, Kassa; Sow, Mounirou; Nwilene, Francis; Kolade, Olufisayo; Bocco, Roland; Oyetunji, Olumoye; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Ndjiondjop, Marie-Noëlle

    2016-01-01

    African rice gall midge (AfRGM) is one of the most destructive pests of irrigated and lowland African ecologies. This study aimed to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with AfRGM pest incidence and resistance in three independent bi-parental rice populations (ITA306xBW348-1, ITA306xTOG7106 and ITA306xTOS14519), and to conduct meta QTL (mQTL) analysis to explore whether any genomic regions are conserved across different genetic backgrounds. Composite interval mapping (CIM) conducted on the three populations independently uncovered a total of 28 QTLs associated with pest incidence (12) and pest severity (16). The number of QTLs per population associated with AfRGM resistance varied from three in the ITA306xBW348-1 population to eight in the ITA306xTOG7106 population. Each QTL individually explained 1.3 to 34.1% of the phenotypic variance. The major genomic region for AfRGM resistance had a LOD score and R2 of 60.0 and 34.1% respectively, and mapped at 111 cM on chromosome 4 (qAfrGM4) in the ITA306xTOS14519 population. The meta-analysis reduced the number of QTLs from 28 to 17 mQTLs, each explaining 1.3 to 24.5% of phenotypic variance, and narrowed the confidence intervals by 2.2 cM. There was only one minor effect mQTL on chromosome 1 that was common in the TOS14519 and TOG7106 genetic backgrounds; all other mQTLs were background specific. We are currently fine-mapping and validating the major effect genomic region on chromosome 4 (qAfRGM4). This is the first report in mapping the genomic regions associated with the AfRGM resistance, and will be highly useful for rice breeders. PMID:27508500

  6. Genome-wide identification of CCA1 targets uncovers an expanded clock network in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Dawn H; Doherty, Colleen J; Pruneda-Paz, Jose L; Schmitz, Robert J; Ecker, Joseph R; Kay, Steve A

    2015-08-25

    The circadian clock in Arabidopsis exerts a critical role in timing multiple biological processes and stress responses through the regulation of up to 80% of the transcriptome. As a key component of the clock, the Myb-like transcription factor CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) is able to initiate and set the phase of clock-controlled rhythms and has been shown to regulate gene expression by binding directly to the evening element (EE) motif found in target gene promoters. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying clock regulation of the rhythmic transcriptome, specifically how clock components connect to clock output pathways, is poorly understood. In this study, using ChIP followed by deep sequencing of CCA1 in constant light (LL) and diel (LD) conditions, more than 1,000 genomic regions occupied by CCA1 were identified. CCA1 targets are enriched for a myriad of biological processes and stress responses, providing direct links to clock-controlled pathways and suggesting that CCA1 plays an important role in regulating a large subset of the rhythmic transcriptome. Although many of these target genes are evening expressed and contain the EE motif, a significant subset is morning phased and enriched for previously unrecognized motifs associated with CCA1 function. Furthermore, this work revealed several CCA1 targets that do not cycle in either LL or LD conditions. Together, our results emphasize an expanded role for the clock in regulating a diverse category of genes and key pathways in Arabidopsis and provide a comprehensive resource for future functional studies.

  7. Genome-wide methylation and transcriptome analysis in penile carcinoma: uncovering new molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Kuasne, Hellen; Cólus, Ilce Mara de Syllos; Busso, Ariane Fidelis; Hernandez-Vargas, Hector; Barros-Filho, Mateus Camargo; Marchi, Fabio Albuquerque; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Faria, Eliney Ferreira; Lopes, Ademar; Guimarães, Gustavo Cardoso; Herceg, Zdenko; Rogatto, Silvia Regina

    2015-01-01

    Despite penile carcinoma (PeCa) being a relatively rare neoplasm, it remains an important public health issue for poor and developing countries. Contrary to most tumors, limited data are available for markers that are capable of assisting in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of PeCa. We aimed to identify molecular markers for PeCa by evaluating their epigenomic and transcriptome profiles and comparing them with surrounding non-malignant tissue (SNT) and normal glans (NG). Genome-wide methylation analysis revealed 171 hypermethylated probes in PeCa. Transcriptome profiling presented 2,883 underexpressed and 1,378 overexpressed genes. Integrative analysis revealed a panel of 54 genes with an inverse correlation between methylation and gene expression levels. Distinct methylome and transcriptome patterns were found for human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive (38.6%) and negative tumors. Interestingly, grade 3 tumors showed a distinct methylation profile when compared to grade 1. In addition, univariate analysis revealed that low BDNF methylation was associated with lymph node metastasis and shorter disease-free survival. CpG hypermethylation and gene underexpression were confirmed for a panel of genes, including TWIST1, RSOP2, SOX3, SOX17, PROM1, OTX2, HOXA3, and MEIS1. A unique methylome signature was found for PeCa compared to SNT, with aberrant DNA methylation appearing to modulate the expression of specific genes. This study describes new pathways with the potential to regulate penile carcinogenesis, including stem cell regulatory pathways and markers associated to a worse prognosis. These findings may be instrumental in the discovery and application of new genetic and epigenetic biomarkers in PeCa.

  8. Genome-wide association uncovers shared genetic effects among personality traits and mood states

    PubMed Central

    Luciano, Michelle; Huffman, Jennifer E; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Vinkhuyzen, Anna AE; Middeldorp, Christel M; Giegling, Ina; Payton, Antony; Davies, Gail; Zgaga, Lina; Janzing, Joost; Ke, Xiayi; Galesloot, Tessel; Hartmann, Annette M; Ollier, William; Tenesa, Albert; Hayward, Caroline; Verhagen, Maaike; Montgomery, Grant W; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Konte, Bettina; Starr, John M; Vitart, Veronique; Vos, Pieter E; Madden, Pamela AF; Willemsen, Gonneke; Konnerth, Heike; Horan, Michael A; Porteous, David J; Campbell, Harry; Vermeulen, Sita H; Heath, Andrew C; Wright, Alan; Polasek, Ozren; Kovacevic, Sanja B; Hastie, Nicholas D; Franke, Barbara; Boomsma, Dorret I; Martin, Nicholas G; Rujescu, Dan; Wilson, James F; Buitelaar, Jan; Pendleton, Neil; Rudan, Igor; Deary, Ian J

    2013-01-01

    Measures of personality and psychological distress are correlated and exhibit genetic covariance. We conducted univariate genome-wide SNP (~2.5 million) and gene-based association analyses of these traits and examined the overlap in results across traits, including a prediction analysis of mood states using genetic polygenic scores for personality. Measures of neuroticism, extraversion, and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and general psychological distress were collected in eight European cohorts (n ranged 546 to 1 338; maximum total n=6 268) whose mean age ranged from 55 to 79 years. Meta-analysis of the cohort results was performed, with follow-up associations of the top SNPs and genes investigated in independent cohorts (n=527 to 6 032). Suggestive association (P=8×10−8) of rs1079196 in the FHIT gene was observed with symptoms of anxiety. Other notable associations (P<6.09×10−6) included SNPs in five genes for neuroticism (LCE3C, POLR3A, LMAN1L, ULK3, SCAMP2), KIAA0802 for extraversion, and NOS1 for general psychological distress. An association between symptoms of depression and rs7582472 (near to MGAT5 and NCKAP5) was replicated in two independent samples, but other replication findings were less consistent. Gene-based tests identified a significant locus on chromosome 15 (spanning five genes) associated with neuroticism which replicated (P<0.05) in an independent cohort. Support for common genetic effects among personality and mood (particularly neuroticism and depressive symptoms) was found in terms of SNP association overlap and polygenic score prediction. The variance explained by individual SNPs was very small (up to 1%) confirming that there are no moderate/large effects of common SNPs on personality and related traits. PMID:22628180

  9. Whole genome bisulfite sequencing of cell-free DNA and its cellular contributors uncovers placenta hypomethylated domains.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Taylor J; Kim, Sung K; Zhu, Zhanyang; Chin, Christine; Gebhard, Claudia; Lu, Tim; Deciu, Cosmin; van den Boom, Dirk; Ehrich, Mathias

    2015-04-15

    Circulating cell-free fetal DNA has enabled non-invasive prenatal fetal aneuploidy testing without direct discrimination of the maternal and fetal DNA. Testing may be improved by specifically enriching the sample material for fetal DNA. DNA methylation may allow for such a separation of DNA; however, this depends on knowledge of the methylomes of circulating cell-free DNA and its cellular contributors. We perform whole genome bisulfite sequencing on a set of unmatched samples including circulating cell-free DNA from non-pregnant and pregnant female donors and genomic DNA from maternal buffy coat and placenta samples. We find CpG cytosines within longer fragments are more likely to be methylated. Comparison of the methylomes of placenta and non-pregnant circulating cell-free DNA reveal many of the 51,259 identified differentially methylated regions are located in domains exhibiting consistent placenta hypomethylation across millions of consecutive bases. We find these placenta hypomethylated domains are consistently located within regions exhibiting low CpG and gene density. Differentially methylated regions identified when comparing placenta to non-pregnant circulating cell-free DNA are recapitulated in pregnant circulating cell-free DNA, confirming the ability to detect differential methylation in circulating cell-free DNA mixtures. We generate methylome maps for four sample types at single-base resolution, identify a link between DNA methylation and fragment length in circulating cell-free DNA, identify differentially methylated regions between sample groups, and uncover the presence of megabase-size placenta hypomethylated domains.

  10. Genome engineering uncovers 54 evolutionarily conserved and testis-enriched genes that are not required for male fertility in mice.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Haruhiko; Castaneda, Julio M; Fujihara, Yoshitaka; Yu, Zhifeng; Archambeault, Denise R; Isotani, Ayako; Kiyozumi, Daiji; Kriseman, Maya L; Mashiko, Daisuke; Matsumura, Takafumi; Matzuk, Ryan M; Mori, Masashi; Noda, Taichi; Oji, Asami; Okabe, Masaru; Prunskaite-Hyyrylainen, Renata; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Satouh, Yuhkoh; Zhang, Qian; Ikawa, Masahito; Matzuk, Martin M

    2016-07-12

    Gene-expression analysis studies from Schultz et al. estimate that more than 2,300 genes in the mouse genome are expressed predominantly in the male germ line. As of their 2003 publication [Schultz N, Hamra FK, Garbers DL (2003) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(21):12201-12206], the functions of the majority of these testis-enriched genes during spermatogenesis and fertilization were largely unknown. Since the study by Schultz et al., functional analysis of hundreds of reproductive-tract-enriched genes have been performed, but there remain many testis-enriched genes for which their relevance to reproduction remain unexplored or unreported. Historically, a gene knockout is the "gold standard" to determine whether a gene's function is essential in vivo. Although knockout mice without apparent phenotypes are rarely published, these knockout mouse lines and their phenotypic information need to be shared to prevent redundant experiments. Herein, we used bioinformatic and experimental approaches to uncover mouse testis-enriched genes that are evolutionarily conserved in humans. We then used gene-disruption approaches, including Knockout Mouse Project resources (targeting vectors and mice) and CRISPR/Cas9, to mutate and quickly analyze the fertility of these mutant mice. We discovered that 54 mutant mouse lines were fertile. Thus, despite evolutionary conservation of these genes in vertebrates and in some cases in all eukaryotes, our results indicate that these genes are not individually essential for male mouse fertility. Our phenotypic data are highly relevant in this fiscally tight funding period and postgenomic age when large numbers of genomes are being analyzed for disease association, and will prevent unnecessary expenditures and duplications of effort by others.

  11. Genome-wide screen uncovers novel pathways for tRNA processing and nuclear–cytoplasmic dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jingyan; Bao, Alicia; Chatterjee, Kunal; Wan, Yao; Hopper, Anita K.

    2015-01-01

    Transfer ribonucleic acids (tRNAs) are essential for protein synthesis. However, key gene products involved in tRNA biogenesis and subcellular movement remain to be discovered. We conducted the first comprehensive unbiased analysis of the role of nearly an entire proteome in tRNA biology and describe 162 novel and 12 previously known Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene products that function in tRNA processing, turnover, and subcellular movement. tRNA nuclear export is of particular interest because it is essential, but the known tRNA exporters (Los1 [exportin-t] and Msn5 [exportin-5]) are unessential. We report that mutations of CRM1 (Exportin-1), MEX67/MTR2 (TAP/p15), and five nucleoporins cause accumulation of unspliced tRNA, a hallmark of defective tRNA nuclear export. CRM1 mutation genetically interacts with los1Δ and causes altered tRNA nuclear–cytoplasmic distribution. The data implicate roles for the protein and mRNA nuclear export machineries in tRNA nuclear export. Mutations of genes encoding actin cytoskeleton components and mitochondrial outer membrane proteins also cause accumulation of unspliced tRNA, likely due to defective splicing on mitochondria. Additional gene products, such as chromatin modification enzymes, have unanticipated effects on pre-tRNA end processing. Thus, this genome-wide screen uncovered putative novel pathways for tRNA nuclear export and extensive links between tRNA biology and other aspects of cell physiology. PMID:26680305

  12. Novel Genes Affecting the Interaction between the Cabbage Whitefly and Arabidopsis Uncovered by Genome-Wide Association Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Broekgaarden, Colette; Bucher, Johan; Bac-Molenaar, Johanna; Keurentjes, Joost J. B.; Kruijer, Willem; Voorrips, Roeland E.; Vosman, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of ways to defend themselves against biotic attackers. This has resulted in the presence of substantial variation in defense mechanisms among plants, even within a species. Genome-wide association (GWA) mapping is a useful tool to study the genetic architecture of traits, but has so far only had limited exploitation in studies of plant defense. Here, we study the genetic architecture of defense against the phloem-feeding insect cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella) in Arabidopsis thaliana. We determined whitefly performance, i.e. the survival and reproduction of whitefly females, on 360 worldwide selected natural accessions and subsequently performed GWA mapping using 214,051 SNPs. Substantial variation for whitefly adult survival and oviposition rate (number of eggs laid per female per day) was observed between the accessions. We identified 39 candidate SNPs for either whitefly adult survival or oviposition rate, all with relatively small effects, underpinning the complex architecture of defense traits. Among the corresponding candidate genes, i.e. genes in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with candidate SNPs, none have previously been identified as a gene playing a role in the interaction between plants and phloem-feeding insects. Whitefly performance on knock-out mutants of a number of candidate genes was significantly affected, validating the potential of GWA mapping for novel gene discovery in plant-insect interactions. Our results show that GWA analysis is a very useful tool to gain insight into the genetic architecture of plant defense against herbivorous insects, i.e. we identified and validated several genes affecting whitefly performance that have not previously been related to plant defense against herbivorous insects. PMID:26699853

  13. Novel Genes Affecting the Interaction between the Cabbage Whitefly and Arabidopsis Uncovered by Genome-Wide Association Mapping.

    PubMed

    Broekgaarden, Colette; Bucher, Johan; Bac-Molenaar, Johanna; Keurentjes, Joost J B; Kruijer, Willem; Voorrips, Roeland E; Vosman, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of ways to defend themselves against biotic attackers. This has resulted in the presence of substantial variation in defense mechanisms among plants, even within a species. Genome-wide association (GWA) mapping is a useful tool to study the genetic architecture of traits, but has so far only had limited exploitation in studies of plant defense. Here, we study the genetic architecture of defense against the phloem-feeding insect cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella) in Arabidopsis thaliana. We determined whitefly performance, i.e. the survival and reproduction of whitefly females, on 360 worldwide selected natural accessions and subsequently performed GWA mapping using 214,051 SNPs. Substantial variation for whitefly adult survival and oviposition rate (number of eggs laid per female per day) was observed between the accessions. We identified 39 candidate SNPs for either whitefly adult survival or oviposition rate, all with relatively small effects, underpinning the complex architecture of defense traits. Among the corresponding candidate genes, i.e. genes in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with candidate SNPs, none have previously been identified as a gene playing a role in the interaction between plants and phloem-feeding insects. Whitefly performance on knock-out mutants of a number of candidate genes was significantly affected, validating the potential of GWA mapping for novel gene discovery in plant-insect interactions. Our results show that GWA analysis is a very useful tool to gain insight into the genetic architecture of plant defense against herbivorous insects, i.e. we identified and validated several genes affecting whitefly performance that have not previously been related to plant defense against herbivorous insects.

  14. Identifying candidate driver genes by integrative ovarian cancer genomics data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xinguo; Lu, Jibo

    2017-08-01

    Integrative analysis of molecular mechanics underlying cancer can distinguish interactions that cannot be revealed based on one kind of data for the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of cancer patients. Tumor samples exhibit heterogeneity in omics data, such as somatic mutations, Copy Number Variations CNVs), gene expression profiles and so on. In this paper we combined gene co-expression modules and mutation modulators separately in tumor patients to obtain the candidate driver genes for resistant and sensitive tumor from the heterogeneous data. The final list of modulators identified are well known in biological processes associated with ovarian cancer, such as CCL17, CACTIN, CCL16, CCL22, APOB, KDF1, CCL11, HNF1B, LRG1, MED1 and so on, which can help to facilitate the discovery of biomarkers, molecular diagnostics, and drug discovery.

  15. Candidate fire blight resistance genes in Malus identified with the use of genomic tools and approaches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of this research is to utilize current advances in Rosaceae genomics to identify DNA markers for use in marker-assisted selection of durable resistance to fire blight. Candidate fire blight resistance genes were selected and ranked based upon differential expression after inoculation with ...

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Hypervirulent and Vaccine Candidate Streptococcus suis Strain SC19

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Lin; Dong, Xingxing; Zhou, Yang; Li, Zhiwei; Deng, Limei; Chen, Huanchun; Wang, Xiaohong

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcus suis, a zoonotic bacterium found primarily in pigs, has been recognized recently as an emerging pathogen of humans. Herein, we describe the genome of Streptococcus suis strain SC19, a hypervirulent and vaccine candidate strain isolated from a pig amid the 2005 outbreak in China. PMID:28104658

  17. Identification of candidate genes for drought tolerance by whole-genome resequencing in maize

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Drought stress is one of the major limiting factors for maize production. With the availability of maize B73 reference genome and whole-genome resequencing of 15 maize inbreds, common variants (CV) and clustering analyses were applied to identify non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) and corresponding candidate genes for drought tolerance. Results A total of 524 nsSNPs that were associated with 271 candidate genes involved in plant hormone regulation, carbohydrate and sugar metabolism, signaling molecules regulation, redox reaction and acclimation of photosynthesis to environment were detected by CV and cluster analyses. Most of the nsSNPs identified were clustered in bin 1.07 region that harbored six previously reported QTL with relatively high phenotypic variation explained for drought tolerance. Genes Ontology (GO) analysis of candidate genes revealed that there were 35 GO terms related to biotic stimulus and membrane-bounded organelle, showing significant differences between the candidate genes and the reference B73 background. Changes of expression level in these candidate genes for drought tolerance were detected using RNA sequencing for fertilized ovary, basal leaf meristem tissue and roots collected under drought stressed and well-watered conditions. The results indicated that 70% of candidate genes showed significantly expression changes under two water treatments and our strategies for mining candidate genes are feasible and relatively efficient. Conclusions Our results successfully revealed candidate nsSNPs and associated genes for drought tolerance by comparative sequence analysis of 16 maize inbred lines. Both methods we applied were proved to be efficient for identifying candidate genes for complex traits through the next-generation sequencing technologies (NGS). These selected genes will not only facilitate understanding of genetic basis of drought stress response, but also accelerate genetic improvement through marker-assisted selection in maize

  18. Small Genomes and Sparse Metabolisms of Sediment-Associated Bacteria from Four Candidate Phyla

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Rose S.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Handley, Kim M.; Sharon, Itai; Hug, Laura A.; Castelle, Cindy J.; Thomas, Brian C.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cultivation-independent surveys of microbial diversity have revealed many bacterial phyla that lack cultured representatives. These lineages, referred to as candidate phyla, have been detected across many environments. Here, we deeply sequenced microbial communities from acetate-stimulated aquifer sediment to recover the complete and essentially complete genomes of single representatives of the candidate phyla SR1, WWE3, TM7, and OD1. All four of these genomes are very small, 0.7 to 1.2 Mbp, and have large inventories of novel proteins. Additionally, all lack identifiable biosynthetic pathways for several key metabolites. The SR1 genome uses the UGA codon to encode glycine, and the same codon is very rare in the OD1 genome, suggesting that the OD1 organism could also transition to alternate coding. Interestingly, the relative abundance of the members of SR1 increased with the appearance of sulfide in groundwater, a pattern mirrored by a member of the phylum Tenericutes. All four genomes encode type IV pili, which may be involved in interorganism interaction. On the basis of these results and other recently published research, metabolic dependence on other organisms may be widely distributed across multiple bacterial candidate phyla. PMID:24149512

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of the Bacterium Aalborg_AAW-1, Representing a Novel Family within the Candidate Phylum SR1.

    PubMed

    Dueholm, Morten Simonsen; Albertsen, Mads; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; McIlroy, Simon J; Karst, Søren M; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-06-11

    Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the candidate phylum SR1 bacterium Aalborg_AAW-1. Its 16S rRNA gene is only 85.5% similar to that of the closest relative, RAAC1_SR1, and the genome of Aalborg_AAW-1 consequently represents the first of a novel family within the candidate phylum SR1.

  20. Hypothesis-Driven Candidate Genes for Schizophrenia Compared to Genome-Wide Association Results

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Ann L.; Kim, Yunjung; Sklar, Pamela; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Sullivan, Patrick F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Candidate gene studies have been a key approach to the genetics of schizophrenia. Results of these studies have been confusing and no genes have been unequivocally implicated. The hypothesis-driven candidate gene literature can be appraised via comparison with the results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Methods We described the characteristics of hypothesis-driven candidate gene studies from SZGene, and used pathway analysis to compare hypothesis-driven candidate genes with GWAS results from the International Schizophrenia Consortium (ISC). Results SZGene contained 732 autosomal genes evaluated in 1,374 studies. These genes had poor statistical power to detect genetic effects typical for human diseases, assessed only 3.7% of genes in the genome, and had low marker densities per gene. Most genes were assessed once or twice (76.9%), providing minimal ability to evaluate consensus across studies. The ISC had power of 89% to detect a genetic effect typical for common human diseases and assessed 79% of known autosomal common genetic variation. Pathway analyses did not reveal enrichment of smaller ISC p-values in hypothesis-driven candidate genes nor did a comprehensive evaluation of meta-hypotheses driving candidate gene selection (schizophrenia as a disease of the synapse or neurodevelopment). The most studied hypothesis-driven candidate genes had no notable ISC results (COMT, DRD3, DRD2, HTR2A, NRG1, BDNF, DTNBP1, and SLC6A4). Conclusions We did not find support for the idea that the hypothesis-driven candidate genes studied in the literature were enriched for common variation involved in the etiology of schizophrenia. Larger samples are required definitively to evaluate this conclusion. PMID:21854684

  1. Widespread selective sweeps throughout the genome of model plant pathogenic fungi and identification of effector candidates.

    PubMed

    Badouin, H; Gladieux, P; Gouzy, J; Siguenza, S; Aguileta, G; Snirc, A; Le Prieur, S; Jeziorski, C; Branca, A; Giraud, T

    2017-04-01

    Identifying the genes underlying adaptation, their distribution in genomes and the evolutionary forces shaping genomic diversity are key challenges in evolutionary biology. Very few studies have investigated the abundance and distribution of selective sweeps in species with high-quality reference genomes, outside a handful of model species. Pathogenic fungi are tractable eukaryote models for investigating the genomics of adaptation. By sequencing 53 genomes of two species of anther-smut fungi and mapping them against a high-quality reference genome, we showed that selective sweeps were abundant and scattered throughout the genome in one species, affecting near 17% of the genome, but much less numerous and in different genomic regions in its sister species, where they left footprints in only 1% of the genome. Polymorphism was negatively correlated with linkage disequilibrium levels in the genomes, consistent with recurrent positive and/or background selection. Differential expression in planta and in vitro, and functional annotation, suggested that many of the selective sweeps were probably involved in adaptation to the host plant. Examples include glycoside hydrolases, pectin lyases and an extracellular membrane protein with CFEM domain. This study thus provides candidate genes for being involved in plant-pathogen interaction (effectors), which have remained elusive for long in this otherwise well-studied system. Their identification will foster future functional and evolutionary studies, in the plant and in the anther-smut pathogens, being model species of natural plant-pathogen associations. In addition, our results suggest that positive selection can have a pervasive impact in shaping genomic variability in pathogens and selfing species, broadening our knowledge of the occurrence and frequency of selective events in natural populations.

  2. Comparative genomics reveals 104 candidate structured RNAs from bacteria, archaea, and their metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Structured noncoding RNAs perform many functions that are essential for protein synthesis, RNA processing, and gene regulation. Structured RNAs can be detected by comparative genomics, in which homologous sequences are identified and inspected for mutations that conserve RNA secondary structure. Results By applying a comparative genomics-based approach to genome and metagenome sequences from bacteria and archaea, we identified 104 candidate structured RNAs and inferred putative functions for many of these. Twelve candidate metabolite-binding RNAs were identified, three of which were validated, including one reported herein that binds the coenzyme S-adenosylmethionine. Newly identified cis-regulatory RNAs are implicated in photosynthesis or nitrogen regulation in cyanobacteria, purine and one-carbon metabolism, stomach infection by Helicobacter, and many other physiological processes. A candidate riboswitch termed crcB is represented in both bacteria and archaea. Another RNA motif may control gene expression from 3'-untranslated regions of mRNAs, which is unusual for bacteria. Many noncoding RNAs that likely act in trans are also revealed, and several of the noncoding RNA candidates are found mostly or exclusively in metagenome DNA sequences. Conclusions This work greatly expands the variety of highly structured noncoding RNAs known to exist in bacteria and archaea and provides a starting point for biochemical and genetic studies needed to validate their biologic functions. Given the sustained rate of RNA discovery over several similar projects, we expect that far more structured RNAs remain to be discovered from bacterial and archaeal organisms. PMID:20230605

  3. Predicting candidate genomic sequences that correspond to synthetic functional RNA motifs

    PubMed Central

    Laserson, Uri; Gan, Hin Hark; Schlick, Tamar

    2005-01-01

    Riboswitches and RNA interference are important emerging mechanisms found in many organisms to control gene expression. To enhance our understanding of such RNA roles, finding small regulatory motifs in genomes presents a challenge on a wide scale. Many simple functional RNA motifs have been found by in vitro selection experiments, which produce synthetic target-binding aptamers as well as catalytic RNAs, including the hammerhead ribozyme. Motivated by the prediction of Piganeau and Schroeder [(2003) Chem. Biol., 10, 103–104] that synthetic RNAs may have natural counterparts, we develop and apply an efficient computational protocol for identifying aptamer-like motifs in genomes. We define motifs from the sequence and structural information of synthetic aptamers, search for sequences in genomes that will produce motif matches, and then evaluate the structural stability and statistical significance of the potential hits. Our application to aptamers for streptomycin, chloramphenicol, neomycin B and ATP identifies 37 candidate sequences (in coding and non-coding regions) that fold to the target aptamer structures in bacterial and archaeal genomes. Further energetic screening reveals that several candidates exhibit energetic properties and sequence conservation patterns that are characteristic of functional motifs. Besides providing candidates for experimental testing, our computational protocol offers an avenue for expanding natural RNA's functional repertoire. PMID:16254081

  4. Inference of Candidate Germline Mutator Loci in Humans from Genome-Wide Haplotype Data

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The rate of germline mutation varies widely between species but little is known about the extent of variation in the germline mutation rate between individuals of the same species. Here we demonstrate that an allele that increases the rate of germline mutation can result in a distinctive signature in the genomic region linked to the affected locus, characterized by a number of haplotypes with a locally high proportion of derived alleles, against a background of haplotypes carrying a typical proportion of derived alleles. We searched for this signature in human haplotype data from phase 3 of the 1000 Genomes Project and report a number of candidate mutator loci, several of which are located close to or within genes involved in DNA repair or the DNA damage response. To investigate whether mutator alleles remained active at any of these loci, we used de novo mutation counts from human parent-offspring trios in the 1000 Genomes and Genome of the Netherlands cohorts, looking for an elevated number of de novo mutations in the offspring of parents carrying a candidate mutator haplotype at each of these loci. We found some support for two of the candidate loci, including one locus just upstream of the BRSK2 gene, which is expressed in the testis and has been reported to be involved in the response to DNA damage. PMID:28095480

  5. Search for sarcoidosis candidate genes by integration of data from genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic studies.

    PubMed

    Maver, Ales; Medica, Igor; Peterlin, Borut

    2009-12-01

    The search for gene candidates in multifactorial diseases such as sarcoidosis can be based on the integration of linkage association data, gene expression data, and protein profile data from genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic studies, respectively. In this study we performed a literature-based search for studies reporting such data, followed by integration of collected information. Different databases were examined--Medline, HugGE Navigator, ArrayExpress and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Candidate genes were defined as genes which were reported in at least 2 different types of omics studies. Genes previously investigated in sarcoidosis were excluded from further analyses. We identified 177 genes associated with sarcoidosis as potential new candidate genes. Subsequently, 9 gene candidates identified to overlap in 2 different types of studies (genomic, transcriptomic and/or proteomic) were consistently reported in at least 3 studies: SERPINB1, FABP4, S100A8, HBEGF, IL7R, LRIG1, PTPN23, DPM2 and NUP214. These genes are involved in regulation of immune response, cellular proliferation, apoptosis, inhibition of protease activity, lipid metabolism. Exact biological functions of HBEGF, LRIG1, PTPN23, DPM2 and NUP214 remain to be completely elucidated. We propose 9 candidate genes: SERPINB1, FABP4, S100A8, HBEGF, IL7R, LRIG1, PTPN23, DPM2 and NUP214, as genes with high potential for association with sarcoidosis.

  6. Comparative genomic analysis of Ralstonia solanacearum reveals candidate genes for host specificity.

    PubMed

    Ailloud, Florent; Lowe, Tiffany; Cellier, Gilles; Roche, David; Allen, Caitilyn; Prior, Philippe

    2015-04-08

    Ralstonia solanacearum is a vascular soil-borne plant pathogen with an unusually broad host range. This economically destructive and globally distributed bacterium has thousands of distinct lineages within a heterogeneous and taxonomically disputed species complex. Some lineages include highly host-adapted strains (ecotypes), such as the banana Moko disease-causing strains, the cold-tolerant potato brown rot strains (also known as R3bv2) and the recently emerged Not Pathogenic to Banana (NPB) strains. These distinct ecotypes offer a robust model to study host adaptation and the emergence of ecotypes because the polyphyletic Moko strains include lineages that are phylogenetically close to the monophyletic brown rot and NPB strains. Draft genomes of eight new strains belonging to these three model ecotypes were produced to complement the eleven publicly available R. solanacearum genomes. Using a suite of bioinformatics methods, we searched for genetic and evolutionary features that distinguish ecotypes and propose specific hypotheses concerning mechanisms of host adaptation in the R. solanacearum species complex. Genome-wide, few differences were identified, but gene loss events, non-synonymous polymorphisms, and horizontal gene transfer were identified among type III effectors and were associated with host range differences. This extensive comparative genomics analysis uncovered relatively few divergent features among closely related strains with contrasting biological characteristics; however, several virulence factors were associated with the emergence of Moko, NPB and brown rot and could explain host adaptation.

  7. Convergent functional genomics of genome-wide association data for bipolar disorder: comprehensive identification of candidate genes, pathways and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Le-Niculescu, H; Patel, S D; Bhat, M; Kuczenski, R; Faraone, S V; Tsuang, M T; McMahon, F J; Schork, N J; Nurnberger, J I; Niculescu, A B

    2009-03-05

    Given the mounting convergent evidence implicating many more genes in complex disorders such as bipolar disorder than the small number identified unambiguously by the first-generation Genome-Wide Association studies (GWAS) to date, there is a strong need for improvements in methodology. One strategy is to include in the next generation GWAS larger numbers of subjects, and/or to pool independent studies into meta-analyses. We propose and provide proof of principle for the use of a complementary approach, convergent functional genomics (CFG), as a way of mining the existing GWAS datasets for signals that are there already, but did not reach significance using a genetics-only approach. With the CFG approach, the integration of genetics with genomics, of human and animal model data, and of multiple independent lines of evidence converging on the same genes offers a way of extracting signal from noise and prioritizing candidates. In essence our analysis is the most comprehensive integration of genetics and functional genomics to date in the field of bipolar disorder, yielding a series of novel (such as Klf12, Aldh1a1, A2bp1, Ak3l1, Rorb, Rora) and previously known (such as Bdnf, Arntl, Gsk3b, Disc1, Nrg1, Htr2a) candidate genes, blood biomarkers, as well as a comprehensive identification of pathways and mechanisms. These become prime targets for hypothesis driven follow-up studies, new drug development and personalized medicine approaches.

  8. Genomics in cereals: from genome-wide conserved orthologous set (COS) sequences to candidate genes for trait dissection.

    PubMed

    Quraishi, Umar Masood; Abrouk, Michael; Bolot, Stéphanie; Pont, Caroline; Throude, Mickael; Guilhot, Nicolas; Confolent, Carole; Bortolini, Fernanda; Praud, Sébastien; Murigneux, Alain; Charmet, Gilles; Salse, Jerome

    2009-11-01

    Recent updates in comparative genomics among cereals have provided the opportunity to identify conserved orthologous set (COS) DNA sequences for cross-genome map-based cloning of candidate genes underpinning quantitative traits. New tools are described that are applicable to any cereal genome of interest, namely, alignment criterion for orthologous couples identification, as well as the Intron Spanning Marker software to automatically select intron-spanning primer pairs. In order to test the software, it was applied to the bread wheat genome, and 695 COS markers were assigned to 1,535 wheat loci (on average one marker/2.6 cM) based on 827 robust rice-wheat orthologs. Furthermore, 31 of the 695 COS markers were selected to fine map a pentosan viscosity quantitative trait loci (QTL) on wheat chromosome 7A. Among the 31 COS markers, 14 (45%) were polymorphic between the parental lines and 12 were mapped within the QTL confidence interval with one marker every 0.6 cM defining candidate genes among the rice orthologous region.

  9. Candidate Targets of Balancing Selection in the Genome of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jonathan C.; Godfrey, Paul A.; Feldgarden, Michael; Robinson, D. Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Signatures of balancing selection can highlight polymorphisms and functions that are important to the long-term fitness of a species. We performed a first genome-wide scan for balancing selection in a bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus, which is a common cause of serious antimicrobial-resistant infections of humans. Using a sliding window approach, the genomes of 16 strains of S. aureus, including 5 new genome sequences presented here, and 1 outgroup strain of S. epidermidis were scanned for signatures of balancing selection. A total of 195 short windows were investigated based on their extreme values of both Tajima's D (>2.03) and π/K ratios (>0.12) relative to the rest of the genome. To test the unusualness of these windows, an Approximate Bayesian Computation framework was used to select a null demographic model that better accounted for the observed data than did the standard neutral model. A total of 186 windows were demonstrated to be unusual under the null model and, thus, represented candidate loci under balancing selection. These 186 candidate windows were located within 99 candidate genes that were spread across 62 different loci. Nearly all the signal (97.2%) was located within coding sequences; balancing selection on gene regulation apparently occurs through the targeting of global regulators such as agr and gra/aps. The agr locus had some of the strongest signatures of balancing selection, which provides new insight into the causes of diversity at this locus. The list of candidate genes included multiple virulence-associated genes and was significantly enriched for functions in amino acid and inorganic ion transport and metabolism and in defense mechanisms against innate immunity and antimicrobials, highlighting these particular functions as important to the fitness of this pathogen. PMID:22114360

  10. Analysis of genome-wide association data highlights candidates for drug repositioning in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    So, Hon-Cheong; Chau, Carlos Kwan-Long; Chiu, Wan-To; Ho, Kin-Sang; Lo, Cho-Pong; Yim, Stephanie Ho-Yue; Sham, Pak-Chung

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge of psychiatric disease genetics has advanced rapidly during the past decade with the advent of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, less progress has been made in harnessing these data to reveal new therapies. Here we propose a framework for drug repositioning by comparing transcriptomes imputed from GWAS data with drug-induced gene expression profiles from the Connectivity Map database and apply this approach to seven psychiatric disorders. We found a number of repositioning candidates, many supported by preclinical or clinical evidence. Repositioning candidates for a number of disorders were also significantly enriched for known psychiatric medications or therapies considered in clinical trials. For example, candidates for schizophrenia were enriched for antipsychotics, while those for bipolar disorder were enriched for both antipsychotics and antidepressants. These findings provide support for the usefulness of GWAS data in guiding drug discovery.

  11. Prediction of vaccine candidates against Pseudomonas aeruginosa: An integrated genomics and proteomics approach.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Muhammad Ibrahim; Naz, Anam; Ali, Amjad; Andleeb, Saadia

    2017-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is among top critical nosocomial infectious agents due to its persistent infections and tendency for acquiring drug resistance mechanisms. To date, there is no vaccine available for this pathogen. We attempted to exploit the genomic and proteomic information of P. aeruginosa though reverse-vaccinology approaches to unveil the prospective vaccine candidates. P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 genome was subjected to sequential prioritization approach following genomic, proteomics and structural analyses. Among, the predicted vaccine candidates: surface components of antibiotic efflux pumps (Q9HY88, PA2837), chaperone-usher pathway components (CupC2, CupB3), penicillin binding protein of bacterial cell wall (PBP1a/mrcA), extracellular component of Type 3 secretory system (PscC) and three uncharacterized secretory proteins (PA0629, PA2822, PA0978) were identified as potential candidates qualifying all the set criteria. These proteins were then analyzed for potential immunogenic surface exposed epitopes. These predicted epitopes may provide a basis for development of a reliable subunit vaccine against P. aeruginosa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Novel Candidate Vaccine for Cytauxzoonosis Inferred from Comparative Apicomplexan Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Tarigo, Jaime L.; Scholl, Elizabeth H.; Bird, David McK.; Brown, Corrie C.; Cohn, Leah A.; Dean, Gregg A.; Levy, Michael G.; Doolan, Denise L.; Trieu, Angela; Nordone, Shila K.; Felgner, Philip L.; Vigil, Adam; Birkenheuer, Adam J.

    2013-01-01

    Cytauxzoonosis is an emerging infectious disease of domestic cats (Felis catus) caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasite Cytauxzoon felis. The growing epidemic, with its high morbidity and mortality points to the need for a protective vaccine against cytauxzoonosis. Unfortunately, the causative agent has yet to be cultured continuously in vitro, rendering traditional vaccine development approaches beyond reach. Here we report the use of comparative genomics to computationally and experimentally interpret the C. felis genome to identify a novel candidate vaccine antigen for cytauxzoonosis. As a starting point we sequenced, assembled, and annotated the C. felis genome and the proteins it encodes. Whole genome alignment revealed considerable conserved synteny with other apicomplexans. In particular, alignments with the bovine parasite Theileria parva revealed that a C. felis gene, cf76, is syntenic to p67 (the leading vaccine candidate for bovine theileriosis), despite a lack of significant sequence similarity. Recombinant subdomains of cf76 were challenged with survivor-cat antiserum and found to be highly seroreactive. Comparison of eleven geographically diverse samples from the south-central and southeastern USA demonstrated 91–100% amino acid sequence identity across cf76, including a high level of conservation in an immunogenic 226 amino acid (24 kDa) carboxyl terminal domain. Using in situ hybridization, transcription of cf76 was documented in the schizogenous stage of parasite replication, the life stage that is believed to be the most important for development of a protective immune response. Collectively, these data point to identification of the first potential vaccine candidate antigen for cytauxzoonosis. Further, our bioinformatic approach emphasizes the use of comparative genomics as an accelerated path to developing vaccines against experimentally intractable pathogens. PMID:23977000

  13. Identifying candidate drivers of drug response in heterogeneous cancer by mining high throughput genomics data.

    PubMed

    Nabavi, Sheida

    2016-08-15

    With advances in technologies, huge amounts of multiple types of high-throughput genomics data are available. These data have tremendous potential to identify new and clinically valuable biomarkers to guide the diagnosis, assessment of prognosis, and treatment of complex diseases, such as cancer. Integrating, analyzing, and interpreting big and noisy genomics data to obtain biologically meaningful results, however, remains highly challenging. Mining genomics datasets by utilizing advanced computational methods can help to address these issues. To facilitate the identification of a short list of biologically meaningful genes as candidate drivers of anti-cancer drug resistance from an enormous amount of heterogeneous data, we employed statistical machine-learning techniques and integrated genomics datasets. We developed a computational method that integrates gene expression, somatic mutation, and copy number aberration data of sensitive and resistant tumors. In this method, an integrative method based on module network analysis is applied to identify potential driver genes. This is followed by cross-validation and a comparison of the results of sensitive and resistance groups to obtain the final list of candidate biomarkers. We applied this method to the ovarian cancer data from the cancer genome atlas. The final result contains biologically relevant genes, such as COL11A1, which has been reported as a cis-platinum resistant biomarker for epithelial ovarian carcinoma in several recent studies. The described method yields a short list of aberrant genes that also control the expression of their co-regulated genes. The results suggest that the unbiased data driven computational method can identify biologically relevant candidate biomarkers. It can be utilized in a wide range of applications that compare two conditions with highly heterogeneous datasets.

  14. Identification of 22 candidate structured RNAs in bacteria using the CMfinder comparative genomics pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Zasha; Barrick, Jeffrey E.; Yao, Zizhen; Roth, Adam; Kim, Jane N.; Gore, Jeremy; Wang, Joy Xin; Lee, Elaine R.; Block, Kirsten F.; Sudarsan, Narasimhan; Neph, Shane; Tompa, Martin; Ruzzo, Walter L.

    2007-01-01

    We applied a computational pipeline based on comparative genomics to bacteria, and identified 22 novel candidate RNA motifs. We predicted six to be riboswitches, which are mRNA elements that regulate gene expression on binding a specific metabolite. In separate studies, we confirmed that two of these are novel riboswitches. Three other riboswitch candidates are upstream of either a putative transporter gene in the order Lactobacillales, citric acid cycle genes in Burkholderiales or molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis genes in several phyla. The remaining riboswitch candidate, the widespread Genes for the Environment, for Membranes and for Motility (GEMM) motif, is associated with genes important for natural competence in Vibrio cholerae and the use of metal ions as electron acceptors in Geobacter sulfurreducens. Among the other motifs, one has a genetic distribution similar to a previously published candidate riboswitch, ykkC/yxkD, but has a different structure. We identified possible non-coding RNAs in five phyla, and several additional cis-regulatory RNAs, including one in ε-proteobacteria (upstream of purD, involved in purine biosynthesis), and one in Cyanobacteria (within an ATP synthase operon). These candidate RNAs add to the growing list of RNA motifs involved in multiple cellular processes, and suggest that many additional RNAs remain to be discovered. PMID:17621584

  15. Contrasting evolutionary patterns of multiple loci uncover new aspects in the genome origin and evolutionary history of Leymus (Triticeae; Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Sha, Li-Na; Fan, Xing; Li, Jun; Liao, Jin-Qiu; Zeng, Jian; Wang, Yi; Kang, Hou-Yang; Zhang, Hai-Qin; Zheng, You-Liang; Zhou, Yong-Hong

    2017-09-01

    Leymus Hochst. (Triticeae: Poaceae), a group of allopolyploid species with the NsXm genomes, is a perennial genus with diversity in morphology, cytology, ecology, and distribution in the Triticeae. To investigate the genome origin and evolutionary history of Leymus, three unlinked low-copy nuclear genes (Acc1, Pgk1, and GBSSI) and three chloroplast regions (trnL-F, matK, and rbcL) of 32 Leymus species were analyzed with those of 36 diploid species representing 18 basic genomes in the Triticeae. The phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed using Bayesian inference, Maximum parsimony, and NeighborNet methods. A time-calibrated phylogeny was generated to estimate the evolutionary history of Leymus. The results suggest that reticulate evolution has occurred in Leymus species, with several distinct progenitors contributing to the Leymus. The molecular data in resolution of the Xm-genome lineage resulted in two apparently contradictory results, with one placing the Xm-genome lineage as closely related to the P/F genome and the other splitting the Xm-genome lineage as sister to the Ns-genome donor. Our results suggested that (1) the Ns genome of Leymus was donated by Psathyrostachys, and additional Ns-containing alleles may be introgressed into some Leymus polyploids by recurrent hybridization; (2) The phylogenetic incongruence regarding the resolution of the Xm-genome lineage suggested that the Xm genome of Leymus was closely related to the P genome of Agropyron; (3) Both Ns- and Xm-genome lineages served as the maternal donor during the speciation of Leymus species; (4) The Pseudoroegneria, Lophopyrum and Australopyrum genomes contributed to some Leymus species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genomic analysis identifies candidate pathogenic variants in 9 of 18 patients with unexplained West syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hino-Fukuyo, Naomi; Kikuchi, Atsuo; Arai-Ichinoi, Natsuko; Niihori, Tetsuya; Sato, Ryo; Suzuki, Tasuku; Kudo, Hiroki; Sato, Yuko; Nakayama, Tojo; Kakisaka, Yosuke; Kubota, Yuki; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Funayama, Ryo; Nakayama, Keiko; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Aoki, Yoko; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Kure, Shigeo

    2015-06-01

    West syndrome, which is narrowly defined as infantile spasms that occur in clusters and hypsarrhythmia on EEG, is the most common early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EOEE). Patients with West syndrome may have clear etiologies, including perinatal events, infections, gross chromosomal abnormalities, or cases followed by other EOEEs. However, the genetic etiology of most cases of West syndrome remains unexplained. DNA from 18 patients with unexplained West syndrome was subjected to microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH), followed by trio-based whole-exome sequencing in 14 unsolved families. We identified candidate pathogenic variants in 50% of the patients (n = 9/18). The array CGH revealed candidate pathogenic copy number variations in four cases (22%, 4/18), including an Xq28 duplication, a 16p11.2 deletion, a 16p13.1 deletion and a 19p13.2 deletion disrupting CACNA1A. Whole-exome sequencing identified candidate mutations in known epilepsy genes in five cases (36%, 5/14). Three candidate de novo mutations were identified in three cases, with two mutations occurring in two new candidate genes (NR2F1 and CACNA2D1) (21%, 3/14). Hemizygous candidate mutations in ALG13 and BRWD3 were identified in the other two cases (14%, 2/14). Evaluating a panel of 67 known EOEE genes failed to identify significant mutations. Despite the heterogeneity of unexplained West syndrome, the combination of array CGH and whole-exome sequencing is an effective means of evaluating the genetic background in unexplained West syndrome. We provide additional evidence for NR2F1 as a causative gene and for CACNA2D1 and BRWD3 as candidate genes for West syndrome.

  17. Comparative Genomics Analysis of Mycobacterium ulcerans for the Identification of Putative Essential Genes and Therapeutic Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, Shifa; Tong, Yigang

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, is the third most common mycobacterial disease after tuberculosis and leprosy. The present treatment options are limited and emergence of treatment resistant isolates represents a serious concern and a need for better therapeutics. Conventional drug discovery methods are time consuming and labor-intensive. Unfortunately, the slow growing nature of M. ulcerans in experimental conditions is also a barrier for drug discovery and development. In contrast, recent advancements in complete genome sequencing, in combination with cheminformatics and computational biology, represent an attractive alternative approach for the identification of therapeutic candidates worthy of experimental research. A computational, comparative genomics workflow was defined for the identification of novel therapeutic candidates against M. ulcerans, with the aim that a selected target should be essential to the pathogen, and have no homology in the human host. Initially, a total of 424 genes were predicted as essential from the M. ulcerans genome, via homology searching of essential genome content from 20 different bacteria. Metabolic pathway analysis showed that the most essential genes are associated with carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Among these, 236 proteins were identified as non-host and essential, and could serve as potential drug and vaccine candidates. Several drug target prioritization parameters including druggability were also calculated. Enzymes from several pathways are discussed as potential drug targets, including those from cell wall synthesis, thiamine biosynthesis, protein biosynthesis, and histidine biosynthesis. It is expected that our data will facilitate selection of M. ulcerans proteins for successful entry into drug design pipelines. PMID:22912793

  18. Direct Estimate of the Spontaneous Mutation Rate Uncovers the Effects of Drift and Recombination in the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Plastid Genome.

    PubMed

    Ness, Rob W; Kraemer, Susanne A; Colegrave, Nick; Keightley, Peter D

    2016-03-01

    Plastids perform crucial cellular functions, including photosynthesis, across a wide variety of eukaryotes. Since endosymbiosis, plastids have maintained independent genomes that now display a wide diversity of gene content, genome structure, gene regulation mechanisms, and transmission modes. The evolution of plastid genomes depends on an input of de novo mutation, but our knowledge of mutation in the plastid is limited to indirect inference from patterns of DNA divergence between species. Here, we use a mutation accumulation experiment, where selection acting on mutations is rendered ineffective, combined with whole-plastid genome sequencing to directly characterize de novo mutation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We show that the mutation rates of the plastid and nuclear genomes are similar, but that the base spectra of mutations differ significantly. We integrate our measure of the mutation rate with a population genomic data set of 20 individuals, and show that the plastid genome is subject to substantially stronger genetic drift than the nuclear genome. We also show that high levels of linkage disequilibrium in the plastid genome are not due to restricted recombination, but are instead a consequence of increased genetic drift. One likely explanation for increased drift in the plastid genome is that there are stronger effects of genetic hitchhiking. The presence of recombination in the plastid is consistent with laboratory studies in C. reinhardtii and demonstrates that although the plastid genome is thought to be uniparentally inherited, it recombines in nature at a rate similar to the nuclear genome. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. In vivo function and comparative genomic analyses of the Drosophila gut microbiota identify candidate symbiosis factors

    PubMed Central

    Newell, Peter D.; Chaston, John M.; Wang, Yiping; Winans, Nathan J.; Sannino, David R.; Wong, Adam C. N.; Dobson, Adam J.; Kagle, Jeanne; Douglas, Angela E.

    2014-01-01

    Symbiosis is often characterized by co-evolutionary changes in the genomes of the partners involved. An understanding of these changes can provide insight into the nature of the relationship, including the mechanisms that initiate and maintain an association between organisms. In this study we examined the genome sequences of bacteria isolated from the Drosophila melanogaster gut with the objective of identifying genes that are important for function in the host. We compared microbiota isolates with con-specific or closely related bacterial species isolated from non-fly environments. First the phenotype of germ-free Drosophila (axenic flies) was compared to that of flies colonized with specific bacteria (gnotobiotic flies) as a measure of symbiotic function. Non-fly isolates were functionally distinct from bacteria isolated from flies, conferring slower development and an altered nutrient profile in the host, traits known to be microbiota-dependent. Comparative genomic methods were next employed to identify putative symbiosis factors: genes found in bacteria that restore microbiota-dependent traits to gnotobiotic flies, but absent from those that do not. Factors identified include riboflavin synthesis and stress resistance. We also used a phylogenomic approach to identify protein coding genes for which fly-isolate sequences were more similar to each other than to other sequences, reasoning that these genes may have a shared function unique to the fly environment. This method identified genes in Acetobacter species that cluster in two distinct genomic loci: one predicted to be involved in oxidative stress detoxification and another encoding an efflux pump. In summary, we leveraged genomic and in vivo functional comparisons to identify candidate traits that distinguish symbiotic bacteria. These candidates can serve as the basis for further work investigating the genetic requirements of bacteria for function and persistence in the Drosophila gut. PMID:25408687

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of the Bacterium Aalborg_AAW-1, Representing a Novel Family within the Candidate Phylum SR1

    PubMed Central

    Dueholm, Morten Simonsen; Albertsen, Mads; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; McIlroy, Simon J.; Karst, Søren M.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the candidate phylum SR1 bacterium Aalborg_AAW-1. Its 16S rRNA gene is only 85.5% similar to that of the closest relative, RAAC1_SR1, and the genome of Aalborg_AAW-1 consequently represents the first of a novel family within the candidate phylum SR1. PMID:26067967

  1. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Neutrophilic Iron(II) Oxidizer Genomes for Candidate Genes in Extracellular Electron Transfer

    PubMed Central

    He, Shaomei; Barco, Roman A.; Emerson, David; Roden, Eric E.

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular electron transfer (EET) is recognized as a key biochemical process in circumneutral pH Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB). In this study, we searched for candidate EET genes in 73 neutrophilic FeOB genomes, among which 43 genomes are complete or close-to-complete and the rest have estimated genome completeness ranging from 5 to 91%. These neutrophilic FeOB span members of the microaerophilic, anaerobic phototrophic, and anaerobic nitrate-reducing FeOB groups. We found that many microaerophilic and several anaerobic FeOB possess homologs of Cyc2, an outer membrane cytochrome c originally identified in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The “porin-cytochrome c complex” (PCC) gene clusters homologous to MtoAB/PioAB are present in eight FeOB, accounting for 19% of complete and close-to-complete genomes examined, whereas PCC genes homologous to OmbB-OmaB-OmcB in Geobacter sulfurreducens are absent. Further, we discovered gene clusters that may potentially encode two novel PCC types. First, a cluster (tentatively named “PCC3”) encodes a porin, an extracellular and a periplasmic cytochrome c with remarkably large numbers of heme-binding motifs. Second, a cluster (tentatively named “PCC4”) encodes a porin and three periplasmic multiheme cytochromes c. A conserved inner membrane protein (IMP) encoded in PCC3 and PCC4 gene clusters might be responsible for translocating electrons across the inner membrane. Other bacteria possessing PCC3 and PCC4 are mostly Proteobacteria isolated from environments with a potential niche for Fe(II) oxidation. In addition to cytochrome c, multicopper oxidase (MCO) genes potentially involved in Fe(II) oxidation were also identified. Notably, candidate EET genes were not found in some FeOB, especially the anaerobic ones, probably suggesting EET genes or Fe(II) oxidation mechanisms are different from the searched models. Overall, based on current EET models, the search extends our understanding of bacterial EET and provides

  2. Identification of candidate genes in rice for resistance to sheath blight disease by whole genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Silva, James; Scheffler, Brian; Sanabria, Yamid; De Guzman, Christian; Galam, Dominique; Farmer, Andrew; Woodward, Jimmy; May, Gregory; Oard, James

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in whole genome sequencing (WGS) have allowed identification of genes for disease susceptibility in humans. The objective of our research was to exploit whole genome sequences of 13 rice (Oryza sativa L.) inbred lines to identify non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) and candidate genes for resistance to sheath blight, a disease of worldwide significance. WGS by the Illumina GA IIx platform produced an average 5× coverage with ~700 K variants detected per line when compared to the Nipponbare reference genome. Two filtering strategies were developed to identify nsSNPs between two groups of known resistant and susceptible lines. A total of 333 nsSNPs detected in the resistant lines were absent in the susceptible group. Selected variants associated with resistance were found in 11 of 12 chromosomes. More than 200 genes with selected nsSNPs were assigned to 42 categories based on gene family/gene ontology. Several candidate genes belonged to families reported in previous studies, and three new regions with novel candidates were also identified. A subset of 24 nsSNPs detected in 23 genes was selected for further study. Individual alleles of the 24 nsSNPs were evaluated by PCR whose presence or absence corresponded to known resistant or susceptible phenotypes of nine additional lines. Sanger sequencing confirmed presence of 12 selected nsSNPs in two lines. "Resistant" nsSNP alleles were detected in two accessions of O. nivara that suggests sources for resistance occur in additional Oryza sp. Results from this study provide a foundation for future basic research and marker-assisted breeding of rice for sheath blight resistance.

  3. Genetic stability of genome-scale deoptimized RNA virus vaccine candidates under selective pressure

    PubMed Central

    Le Nouën, Cyril; McCarty, Thomas; Brown, Michael; Smith, Melissa Laird; Lleras, Roberto; Dolan, Michael A.; Mehedi, Masfique; Yang, Lijuan; Luongo, Cindy; Liang, Bo; Munir, Shirin; DiNapoli, Joshua M.; Mueller, Steffen; Wimmer, Eckard; Collins, Peter L.; Buchholz, Ursula J.

    2017-01-01

    Recoding viral genomes by numerous synonymous but suboptimal substitutions provides live attenuated vaccine candidates. These vaccine candidates should have a low risk of deattenuation because of the many changes involved. However, their genetic stability under selective pressure is largely unknown. We evaluated phenotypic reversion of deoptimized human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine candidates in the context of strong selective pressure. Codon pair deoptimized (CPD) versions of RSV were attenuated and temperature-sensitive. During serial passage at progressively increasing temperature, a CPD RSV containing 2,692 synonymous mutations in 9 of 11 ORFs did not lose temperature sensitivity, remained genetically stable, and was restricted at temperatures of 34 °C/35 °C and above. However, a CPD RSV containing 1,378 synonymous mutations solely in the polymerase L ORF quickly lost substantial attenuation. Comprehensive sequence analysis of virus populations identified many different potentially deattenuating mutations in the L ORF as well as, surprisingly, many appearing in other ORFs. Phenotypic analysis revealed that either of two competing mutations in the virus transcription antitermination factor M2-1, outside of the CPD area, substantially reversed defective transcription of the CPD L gene and substantially restored virus fitness in vitro and in case of one of these two mutations, also in vivo. Paradoxically, the introduction into Min L of one mutation each in the M2-1, N, P, and L proteins resulted in a virus with increased attenuation in vivo but increased immunogenicity. Thus, in addition to providing insights on the adaptability of genome-scale deoptimized RNA viruses, stability studies can yield improved synthetic RNA virus vaccine candidates. PMID:28049853

  4. Genome-Wide Scans for Delineation of Candidate Genes Regulating Seed-Protein Content in Chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Bajaj, Deepak; Narnoliya, Laxmi; Das, Shouvik; Kumar, Vinod; Gowda, C. L. L.; Sharma, Shivali; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

    2016-01-01

    Identification of potential genes/alleles governing complex seed-protein content (SPC) is essential in marker-assisted breeding for quality trait improvement of chickpea. Henceforth, the present study utilized an integrated genomics-assisted breeding strategy encompassing trait association analysis, selective genotyping in traditional bi-parental mapping population and differential expression profiling for the first-time to understand the complex genetic architecture of quantitative SPC trait in chickpea. For GWAS (genome-wide association study), high-throughput genotyping information of 16376 genome-based SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) discovered from a structured population of 336 sequenced desi and kabuli accessions [with 150–200 kb LD (linkage disequilibrium) decay] was utilized. This led to identification of seven most effective genomic loci (genes) associated [10–20% with 41% combined PVE (phenotypic variation explained)] with SPC trait in chickpea. Regardless of the diverse desi and kabuli genetic backgrounds, a comparable level of association potential of the identified seven genomic loci with SPC trait was observed. Five SPC-associated genes were validated successfully in parental accessions and homozygous individuals of an intra-specific desi RIL (recombinant inbred line) mapping population (ICC 12299 × ICC 4958) by selective genotyping. The seed-specific expression, including differential up-regulation (>four fold) of six SPC-associated genes particularly in accessions, parents and homozygous individuals of the aforementioned mapping population with a high level of contrasting SPC (21–22%) was evident. Collectively, the integrated genomic approach delineated diverse naturally occurring novel functional SNP allelic variants in six potential candidate genes regulating SPC trait in chickpea. Of these, a non-synonymous SNP allele-carrying zinc finger transcription factor gene exhibiting strong association with SPC trait was found to be the most

  5. Comparative and Transcriptome Analyses Uncover Key Aspects of Coding- and Long Noncoding RNAs in Flatworm Mitochondrial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Eric; Blair, David; Guerrero-Hernández, Carlos; Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Exploiting the conservation of various features of mitochondrial genomes has been instrumental in resolving phylogenetic relationships. Despite extensive sequence evidence, it has not previously been possible to conclusively resolve some key aspects of flatworm mitochondrial genomes, including generally conserved traits, such as start codons, noncoding regions, the full complement of tRNAs, and whether ATP8 is, or is not, encoded by this extranuclear genome. In an effort to address these difficulties, we sought to determine the mitochondrial transcriptomes and genomes of sexual and asexual taxa of freshwater triclads, a group previously poorly represented in flatworm mitogenomic studies. We have discovered evidence for an alternative start codon, an extended cox1 gene, a previously undescribed conserved open reading frame, long noncoding RNAs, and a highly conserved gene order across the large evolutionary distances represented within the triclads. Our findings contribute to the expansion and refinement of mitogenomics to address evolutionary issues in this diverse group of animals. PMID:26921295

  6. Genome-Wide SNP Markers Based on SLAF-Seq Uncover Breeding Traces in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qinghong; Zhou, Can; Zheng, Wei; Mason, Annaliese S.; Fan, Shuying; Wu, Caijun; Fu, Donghui; Huang, Yingjin

    2017-01-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most abundant and richest form of genomic polymorphism, and hence make highly favorable markers for genetic map construction and genome-wide association studies. In this study, a total of 300 rapeseed accessions (278 representative of Chinese germplasm, plus 22 outgroup accessions of different origins and ecotypes) were collected and sequenced using Specific-Locus Amplified Fragment Sequencing (SLAF-seq) technology, obtaining 660.25M reads with an average sequencing depth of 6.27 × and a mean Q30 of 85.96%. Based on the 238,711 polymorphic SLAF tags a total of 1,197,282 SNPs were discovered, and a subset of 201,817 SNPs with minor allele frequency >0.05 and integrity >0.8 were selected. Of these, 30,877 were designated SNP “hotspots,” and 41 SNP-rich genomic regions could be delineated, with 100 genes associated with plant resistance, vernalization response, and signal transduction detected in these regions. Subsequent analysis of genetic diversity, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and population structure in the 300 accessions was carried out based on the 201,817 SNPs. Nine subpopulations were observed based on the population structure analysis. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis divided the 300 varieties roughly in accordance with their ecotype origins. However, spring-type varieties were intermingled with semi-winter type varieties, indicating frequent hybridization between spring and semi-winter ecotypes in China. In addition, LD decay across the whole genome averaged 299 kb when r2 = 0.1, but the LD decay in the A genome (43 kb) was much shorter than in the C genome (1,455 kb), supporting the targeted introgression of the A genome from progenitor species B. rapa into Chinese rapeseed. This study also lays the foundation for genetic analysis of important agronomic traits using this rapeseed population. PMID:28503182

  7. Candidate genes for obesity-susceptibility show enriched association within a large genome-wide association study for BMI

    PubMed Central

    Vimaleswaran, Karani S.; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Zhao, Jing Hua; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Dudbridge, Frank; Loos, Ruth J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Before the advent of genome-wide association studies (GWASs), hundreds of candidate genes for obesity-susceptibility had been identified through a variety of approaches. We examined whether those obesity candidate genes are enriched for associations with body mass index (BMI) compared with non-candidate genes by using data from a large-scale GWAS. A thorough literature search identified 547 candidate genes for obesity-susceptibility based on evidence from animal studies, Mendelian syndromes, linkage studies, genetic association studies and expression studies. Genomic regions were defined to include the genes ±10 kb of flanking sequence around candidate and non-candidate genes. We used summary statistics publicly available from the discovery stage of the genome-wide meta-analysis for BMI performed by the genetic investigation of anthropometric traits consortium in 123 564 individuals. Hypergeometric, rank tail-strength and gene-set enrichment analysis tests were used to test for the enrichment of association in candidate compared with non-candidate genes. The hypergeometric test of enrichment was not significant at the 5% P-value quantile (P = 0.35), but was nominally significant at the 25% quantile (P = 0.015). The rank tail-strength and gene-set enrichment tests were nominally significant for the full set of genes and borderline significant for the subset without SNPs at P < 10−7. Taken together, the observed evidence for enrichment suggests that the candidate gene approach retains some value. However, the degree of enrichment is small despite the extensive number of candidate genes and the large sample size. Studies that focus on candidate genes have only slightly increased chances of detecting associations, and are likely to miss many true effects in non-candidate genes, at least for obesity-related traits. PMID:22791748

  8. Whole genome identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine candidates by comprehensive data mining and bioinformatic analyses

    PubMed Central

    Zvi, Anat; Ariel, Naomi; Fulkerson, John; Sadoff, Jerald C; Shafferman, Avigdor

    2008-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), infects ~8 million annually culminating in ~2 million deaths. Moreover, about one third of the population is latently infected, 10% of which develop disease during lifetime. Current approved prophylactic TB vaccines (BCG and derivatives thereof) are of variable efficiency in adult protection against pulmonary TB (0%–80%), and directed essentially against early phase infection. Methods A genome-scale dataset was constructed by analyzing published data of: (1) global gene expression studies under conditions which simulate intra-macrophage stress, dormancy, persistence and/or reactivation; (2) cellular and humoral immunity, and vaccine potential. This information was compiled along with revised annotation/bioinformatic characterization of selected gene products and in silico mapping of T-cell epitopes. Protocols for scoring, ranking and prioritization of the antigens were developed and applied. Results Cross-matching of literature and in silico-derived data, in conjunction with the prioritization scheme and biological rationale, allowed for selection of 189 putative vaccine candidates from the entire genome. Within the 189 set, the relative distribution of antigens in 3 functional categories differs significantly from their distribution in the whole genome, with reduction in the Conserved hypothetical category (due to improved annotation) and enrichment in Lipid and in Virulence categories. Other prominent representatives in the 189 set are the PE/PPE proteins; iron sequestration, nitroreductases and proteases, all within the Intermediary metabolism and respiration category; ESX secretion systems, resuscitation promoting factors and lipoproteins, all within the Cell wall category. Application of a ranking scheme based on qualitative and quantitative scores, resulted in a list of 45 best-scoring antigens, of which: 74% belong to the dormancy/reactivation/resuscitation classes; 30% belong

  9. Validating Genome-Wide Association Candidates Controlling Quantitative Variation in Nodulation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tiffin, Peter; Guhlin, Joseph; Atkins, Paul; Baltes, Nicholas J.; Denny, Roxanne

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies offer the opportunity to identify genes that contribute to naturally occurring variation in quantitative traits. However, GWA relies exclusively on statistical association, so functional validation is necessary to make strong claims about gene function. We used a combination of gene-disruption platforms (Tnt1 retrotransposons, hairpin RNA-interference constructs, and CRISPR/Cas9 nucleases) together with randomized, well-replicated experiments to evaluate the function of genes that an earlier GWA study in Medicago truncatula had identified as candidates contributing to variation in the symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia. We evaluated ten candidate genes found in six clusters of strongly associated single nucleotide polymorphisms, selected on the basis of their strength of statistical association, proximity to annotated gene models, and root or nodule expression. We found statistically significant effects on nodule production for three candidate genes, each validated in two independent mutants. Annotated functions of these three genes suggest their contributions to quantitative variation in nodule production occur through processes not previously connected to nodulation, including phosphorous supply and salicylic acid-related defense response. These results demonstrate the utility of GWA combined with reverse mutagenesis technologies to discover and validate genes contributing to naturally occurring variation in quantitative traits. The results highlight the potential for GWA to complement forward genetics in identifying the genetic basis of ecologically and economically important traits. PMID:28057894

  10. Genome-Wide Association Analyses Point to Candidate Genes for Electric Shock Avoidance in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Appel, Mirjam; Scholz, Claus-Jürgen; Müller, Tobias; Dittrich, Marcus; König, Christian; Bockstaller, Marie; Oguz, Tuba; Khalili, Afshin; Antwi-Adjei, Emmanuel; Schauer, Tamas; Margulies, Carla; Tanimoto, Hiromu; Yarali, Ayse

    2015-01-01

    Electric shock is a common stimulus for nociception-research and the most widely used reinforcement in aversive associative learning experiments. Yet, nothing is known about the mechanisms it recruits at the periphery. To help fill this gap, we undertook a genome-wide association analysis using 38 inbred Drosophila melanogaster strains, which avoided shock to varying extents. We identified 514 genes whose expression levels and/ or sequences co-varied with shock avoidance scores. We independently scrutinized 14 of these genes using mutants, validating the effect of 7 of them on shock avoidance. This emphasizes the value of our candidate gene list as a guide for follow-up research. In addition, by integrating our association results with external protein-protein interaction data we obtained a shock avoidance-associated network of 38 genes. Both this network and the original candidate list contained a substantial number of genes that affect mechanosensory bristles, which are hair-like organs distributed across the fly’s body. These results may point to a potential role for mechanosensory bristles in shock sensation. Thus, we not only provide a first list of candidate genes for shock avoidance, but also point to an interesting new hypothesis on nociceptive mechanisms. PMID:25992709

  11. Genome-Wide Association Implicates Candidate Genes Conferring Resistance to Maize Rough Dwarf Disease in Maize.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gengshen; Wang, Xiaoming; Hao, Junjie; Yan, Jianbing; Ding, Junqiang

    2015-01-01

    Maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD) is a destructive viral disease in China, which results in 20-30% of the maize yield losses in affected areas and even as high as 100% in severely infected fields. Understanding the genetic basis of resistance will provide important insights for maize breeding program. In this study, a diverse maize population comprising of 527 inbred lines was evaluated in four environments and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was undertaken with over 556000 SNP markers. Fifteen candidate genes associated with MRDD resistance were identified, including ten genes with annotated protein encoding functions. The homologous of nine candidate genes were predicted to relate to plant defense in different species based on published results. Significant correlation (R2 = 0.79) between the MRDD severity and the number of resistance alleles was observed. Consequently, we have broadened the resistant germplasm to MRDD and identified a number of resistance alleles by GWAS. The results in present study also imply the candidate genes in defense pathway play an important role in resistance to MRDD in maize.

  12. Identification of a strawberry flavor gene candidate using an integrated genetic-genomic-analytical chemistry approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is interest in improving the flavor of commercial strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) varieties. Fruit flavor is shaped by combinations of sugars, acids and volatile compounds. Many efforts seek to use genomics-based strategies to identify genes controlling flavor, and then designing durable molecular markers to follow these genes in breeding populations. In this report, fruit from two cultivars, varying for presence-absence of volatile compounds, along with segregating progeny, were analyzed using GC/MS and RNAseq. Expression data were bulked in silico according to presence/absence of a given volatile compound, in this case γ-decalactone, a compound conferring a peach flavor note to fruits. Results Computationally sorting reads in segregating progeny based on γ-decalactone presence eliminated transcripts not directly relevant to the volatile, revealing transcripts possibly imparting quantitative contributions. One candidate encodes an omega-6 fatty acid desaturase, an enzyme known to participate in lactone production in fungi, noted here as FaFAD1. This candidate was induced by ripening, was detected in certain harvests, and correlated with γ-decalactone presence. The FaFAD1 gene is present in every genotype where γ-decalactone has been detected, and it was invariably missing in non-producers. A functional, PCR-based molecular marker was developed that cosegregates with the phenotype in F1 and BC1 populations, as well as in many other cultivars and wild Fragaria accessions. Conclusions Genetic, genomic and analytical chemistry techniques were combined to identify FaFAD1, a gene likely controlling a key flavor volatile in strawberry. The same data may now be re-sorted based on presence/absence of any other volatile to identify other flavor-affecting candidates, leading to rapid generation of gene-specific markers. PMID:24742080

  13. Identification of a strawberry flavor gene candidate using an integrated genetic-genomic-analytical chemistry approach.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Alan H; Pillet, Jeremy; Plotto, Anne; Bai, Jinhe; Whitaker, Vance M; Folta, Kevin M

    2014-04-17

    There is interest in improving the flavor of commercial strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) varieties. Fruit flavor is shaped by combinations of sugars, acids and volatile compounds. Many efforts seek to use genomics-based strategies to identify genes controlling flavor, and then designing durable molecular markers to follow these genes in breeding populations. In this report, fruit from two cultivars, varying for presence-absence of volatile compounds, along with segregating progeny, were analyzed using GC/MS and RNAseq. Expression data were bulked in silico according to presence/absence of a given volatile compound, in this case γ-decalactone, a compound conferring a peach flavor note to fruits. Computationally sorting reads in segregating progeny based on γ-decalactone presence eliminated transcripts not directly relevant to the volatile, revealing transcripts possibly imparting quantitative contributions. One candidate encodes an omega-6 fatty acid desaturase, an enzyme known to participate in lactone production in fungi, noted here as FaFAD1. This candidate was induced by ripening, was detected in certain harvests, and correlated with γ-decalactone presence. The FaFAD1 gene is present in every genotype where γ-decalactone has been detected, and it was invariably missing in non-producers. A functional, PCR-based molecular marker was developed that cosegregates with the phenotype in F1 and BC1 populations, as well as in many other cultivars and wild Fragaria accessions. Genetic, genomic and analytical chemistry techniques were combined to identify FaFAD1, a gene likely controlling a key flavor volatile in strawberry. The same data may now be re-sorted based on presence/absence of any other volatile to identify other flavor-affecting candidates, leading to rapid generation of gene-specific markers.

  14. High-Resolution Comparative Genomic Hybridization of Inflammatory Breast Cancer and Identification of Candidate Genes

    PubMed Central

    Adelaïde, José; Ferrari, Anthony; Tarpin, Carole; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Charpin, Colette; Houvenaeghel, Gilles; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Bidaut, Ghislain; Birnbaum, Daniel; Viens, Patrice; Chaffanet, Max; Bertucci, François

    2011-01-01

    Background Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is an aggressive form of BC poorly defined at the molecular level. We compared the molecular portraits of 63 IBC and 134 non-IBC (nIBC) clinical samples. Methodology/Findings Genomic imbalances of 49 IBCs and 124 nIBCs were determined using high-resolution array-comparative genomic hybridization, and mRNA expression profiles of 197 samples using whole-genome microarrays. Genomic profiles of IBCs were as heterogeneous as those of nIBCs, and globally relatively close. However, IBCs showed more frequent “complex” patterns and a higher percentage of genes with CNAs per sample. The number of altered regions was similar in both types, although some regions were altered more frequently and/or with higher amplitude in IBCs. Many genes were similarly altered in both types; however, more genes displayed recurrent amplifications in IBCs. The percentage of genes whose mRNA expression correlated with CNAs was similar in both types for the gained genes, but ∼7-fold lower in IBCs for the lost genes. Integrated analysis identified 24 potential candidate IBC-specific genes. Their combined expression accurately distinguished IBCs and nIBCS in an independent validation set, and retained an independent prognostic value in a series of 1,781 nIBCs, reinforcing the hypothesis for a link with IBC aggressiveness. Consistent with the hyperproliferative and invasive phenotype of IBC these genes are notably involved in protein translation, cell cycle, RNA processing and transcription, metabolism, and cell migration. Conclusions Our results suggest a higher genomic instability of IBC. We established the first repertory of DNA copy number alterations in this tumor, and provided a list of genes that may contribute to its aggressiveness and represent novel therapeutic targets. PMID:21339811

  15. Candidate gene association mapping of Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) uncovers the importance of COI1 homologs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sclerotinia stalk rot is one of the most destructive diseases of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) worldwide. Markers based on the Sclerotinia disease resistance gene will enable efficient marker-assisted selection (MAS). We sequenced eight candidate genes homologus to Arabidopsis thaliana defense ge...

  16. Identification of Candidate Adherent-Invasive E. coli Signature Transcripts by Genomic/Transcriptomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanhao; Rowehl, Leahana; Krumsiek, Julia M; Orner, Erika P; Shaikh, Nurmohammad; Tarr, Phillip I; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M; Boedeker, Edgar C; Xiong, Xuejian; Parkinson, John; Frank, Daniel N; Li, Ellen; Gathungu, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) strains are detected more frequently within mucosal lesions of patients with Crohn's disease (CD). The AIEC phenotype consists of adherence and invasion of intestinal epithelial cells and survival within macrophages of these bacteria in vitro. Our aim was to identify candidate transcripts that distinguish AIEC from non-invasive E. coli (NIEC) strains and might be useful for rapid and accurate identification of AIEC by culture-independent technology. We performed comparative RNA-Sequence (RNASeq) analysis using AIEC strain LF82 and NIEC strain HS during exponential and stationary growth. Differential expression analysis of coding sequences (CDS) homologous to both strains demonstrated 224 and 241 genes with increased and decreased expression, respectively, in LF82 relative to HS. Transition metal transport and siderophore metabolism related pathway genes were up-regulated, while glycogen metabolic and oxidation-reduction related pathway genes were down-regulated, in LF82. Chemotaxis related transcripts were up-regulated in LF82 during the exponential phase, but flagellum-dependent motility pathway genes were down-regulated in LF82 during the stationary phase. CDS that mapped only to the LF82 genome accounted for 747 genes. We applied an in silico subtractive genomics approach to identify CDS specific to AIEC by incorporating the genomes of 10 other previously phenotyped NIEC. From this analysis, 166 CDS mapped to the LF82 genome and lacked homology to any of the 11 human NIEC strains. We compared these CDS across 13 AIEC, but none were homologous in each. Four LF82 gene loci belonging to clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats region (CRISPR)--CRISPR-associated (Cas) genes were identified in 4 to 6 AIEC and absent from all non-pathogenic bacteria. As previously reported, AIEC strains were enriched for pdu operon genes. One CDS, encoding an excisionase, was shared by 9 AIEC strains. Reverse transcription

  17. Identification of Candidate Adherent-Invasive E. coli Signature Transcripts by Genomic/Transcriptomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanhao; Rowehl, Leahana; Krumsiek, Julia M.; Orner, Erika P.; Shaikh, Nurmohammad; Tarr, Phillip I.; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M.; Boedeker, Edgar C.; Xiong, Xuejian; Parkinson, John; Frank, Daniel N.; Li, Ellen; Gathungu, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) strains are detected more frequently within mucosal lesions of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). The AIEC phenotype consists of adherence and invasion of intestinal epithelial cells and survival within macrophages of these bacteria in vitro. Our aim was to identify candidate transcripts that distinguish AIEC from non-invasive E. coli (NIEC) strains and might be useful for rapid and accurate identification of AIEC by culture-independent technology. We performed comparative RNA-Sequence (RNASeq) analysis using AIEC strain LF82 and NIEC strain HS during exponential and stationary growth. Differential expression analysis of coding sequences (CDS) homologous to both strains demonstrated 224 and 241 genes with increased and decreased expression, respectively, in LF82 relative to HS. Transition metal transport and siderophore metabolism related pathway genes were up-regulated, while glycogen metabolic and oxidation-reduction related pathway genes were down-regulated, in LF82. Chemotaxis related transcripts were up-regulated in LF82 during the exponential phase, but flagellum-dependent motility pathway genes were down-regulated in LF82 during the stationary phase. CDS that mapped only to the LF82 genome accounted for 747 genes. We applied an in silico subtractive genomics approach to identify CDS specific to AIEC by incorporating the genomes of 10 other previously phenotyped NIEC. From this analysis, 166 CDS mapped to the LF82 genome and lacked homology to any of the 11 human NIEC strains. We compared these CDS across 13 AIEC, but none were homologous in each. Four LF82 gene loci belonging to clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats region (CRISPR)—CRISPR-associated (Cas) genes were identified in 4 to 6 AIEC and absent from all non-pathogenic bacteria. As previously reported, AIEC strains were enriched for pdu operon genes. One CDS, encoding an excisionase, was shared by 9 AIEC strains. Reverse transcription

  18. Genome-wide comparative diversity uncovers multiple targets of selection for improvement in hexaploid wheat landrace and cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Domesticated crops have experienced strong human-driven selection aimed at the development of improved varieties adapted to local conditions. To detect regions of the wheat genome subject to selection during improvement, we developed a high-throughput array to interrogate 9,000 gene-associated DNA m...

  19. Genome-Wide Association in Tomato Reveals 44 Candidate Loci for Fruit Metabolic Traits1[W

    PubMed Central

    Sauvage, Christopher; Segura, Vincent; Bauchet, Guillaume; Stevens, Rebecca; Do, Phuc Thi; Nikoloski, Zoran; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Causse, Mathilde

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have been successful in identifying genes involved in polygenic traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a major crop and is highly appreciated worldwide for its health value. We used a core collection of 163 tomato accessions composed of S. lycopersicum, S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme, and Solanum pimpinellifolium to map loci controlling variation in fruit metabolites. Fruits were phenotyped for a broad range of metabolites, including amino acids, sugars, and ascorbate. In parallel, the accessions were genotyped with 5,995 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers spread over the whole genome. Genome-wide association analysis was conducted on a large set of metabolic traits that were stable over 2 years using a multilocus mixed model as a general method for mapping complex traits in structured populations and applied to tomato. We detected a total of 44 loci that were significantly associated with a total of 19 traits, including sucrose, ascorbate, malate, and citrate levels. These results not only provide a list of candidate loci to be functionally validated but also a powerful analytical approach for finding genetic variants that can be directly used for crop improvement and deciphering the genetic architecture of complex traits. PMID:24894148

  20. Convergent functional genomics in addiction research - a translational approach to study candidate genes and gene networks.

    PubMed

    Spanagel, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Convergent functional genomics (CFG) is a translational methodology that integrates in a Bayesian fashion multiple lines of evidence from studies in human and animal models to get a better understanding of the genetics of a disease or pathological behavior. Here the integration of data sets that derive from forward genetics in animals and genetic association studies including genome wide association studies (GWAS) in humans is described for addictive behavior. The aim of forward genetics in animals and association studies in humans is to identify mutations (e.g. SNPs) that produce a certain phenotype; i.e. "from phenotype to genotype". Most powerful in terms of forward genetics is combined quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and gene expression profiling in recombinant inbreed rodent lines or genetically selected animals for a specific phenotype, e.g. high vs. low drug consumption. By Bayesian scoring genomic information from forward genetics in animals is then combined with human GWAS data on a similar addiction-relevant phenotype. This integrative approach generates a robust candidate gene list that has to be functionally validated by means of reverse genetics in animals; i.e. "from genotype to phenotype". It is proposed that studying addiction relevant phenotypes and endophenotypes by this CFG approach will allow a better determination of the genetics of addictive behavior.

  1. First genomic insights into members of a candidate bacterial phylum responsible for wastewater bulking.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Yuji; Ohashi, Akiko; Parks, Donovan H; Yamauchi, Toshihiro; Tyson, Gene W; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous cells belonging to the candidate bacterial phylum KSB3 were previously identified as the causative agent of fatal filament overgrowth (bulking) in a high-rate industrial anaerobic wastewater treatment bioreactor. Here, we obtained near complete genomes from two KSB3 populations in the bioreactor, including the dominant bulking filament, using differential coverage binning of metagenomic data. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with 16S rRNA-targeted probes specific for the two populations confirmed that both are filamentous organisms. Genome-based metabolic reconstruction and microscopic observation of the KSB3 filaments in the presence of sugar gradients indicate that both filament types are Gram-negative, strictly anaerobic fermenters capable of non-flagellar based gliding motility, and have a strikingly large number of sensory and response regulator genes. We propose that the KSB3 filaments are highly sensitive to their surroundings and that cellular processes, including those causing bulking, are controlled by external stimuli. The obtained genomes lay the foundation for a more detailed understanding of environmental cues used by KSB3 filaments, which may lead to more robust treatment options to prevent bulking.

  2. Functional Selection of Vaccine Candidate Peptides from Staphylococcus aureus Whole-Genome Expression Libraries In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Weichhart, Thomas; Horky, Markus; Söllner, Johannes; Gangl, Susanne; Henics, Tamàs; Nagy, Eszter; Meinke, Andreas; von Gabain, Alexander; Fraser, Claire M.; Gill, Steve R.; Hafner, Martin; von Ahsen, Uwe

    2003-01-01

    An in vitro protein selection method, ribosome display, has been applied to comprehensively identify and map the immunologically relevant proteins of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. A library built up from genomic fragments of the virulent S. aureus COL strain (methicillin-resistant S. aureus) allowed us to screen all possible encoded peptides for immunoreactivity. As selective agents, human sera exhibiting a high antibody titer and opsonic activity against S. aureus were used, since these antibodies indicate the in vivo expression and immunoreactivity of the corresponding proteins. Identified clones cluster in distinct regions of 75 genes, most of them classifiable as secreted or surface-localized proteins, including previously identified virulence factors. In addition, 14 putative novel short open reading frames were identified and their immunoreactivity and in vivo mRNA expression were confirmed, underscoring the annotation-independent, true genomic nature of our approach. Evidence is provided that a large fraction of the identified peptides cannot be expressed in an in vivo-based surface display system. Thus, in vitro protein selection, not biased by the context of living entities, allows screening of genomic expression libraries with a large number of different ligands simultaneously. It is a powerful approach for fingerprinting the repertoire of immune reactive proteins serving as target candidates for active and passive vaccination against pathogens. PMID:12874343

  3. Discovery of Cancer Driver Long Noncoding RNAs across 1112 Tumour Genomes: New Candidates and Distinguishing Features

    PubMed Central

    Lanzós, Andrés; Carlevaro-Fita, Joana; Mularoni, Loris; Reverter, Ferran; Palumbo, Emilio; Guigó, Roderic; Johnson, Rory

    2017-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent a vast unexplored genetic space that may hold missing drivers of tumourigenesis, but few such “driver lncRNAs” are known. Until now, they have been discovered through changes in expression, leading to problems in distinguishing between causative roles and passenger effects. We here present a different approach for driver lncRNA discovery using mutational patterns in tumour DNA. Our pipeline, ExInAtor, identifies genes with excess load of somatic single nucleotide variants (SNVs) across panels of tumour genomes. Heterogeneity in mutational signatures between cancer types and individuals is accounted for using a simple local trinucleotide background model, which yields high precision and low computational demands. We use ExInAtor to predict drivers from the GENCODE annotation across 1112 entire genomes from 23 cancer types. Using a stratified approach, we identify 15 high-confidence candidates: 9 novel and 6 known cancer-related genes, including MALAT1, NEAT1 and SAMMSON. Both known and novel driver lncRNAs are distinguished by elevated gene length, evolutionary conservation and expression. We have presented a first catalogue of mutated lncRNA genes driving cancer, which will grow and improve with the application of ExInAtor to future tumour genome projects. PMID:28128360

  4. A functional genomics approach identifies candidate effectors from the aphid species Myzus persicae (green peach aphid).

    PubMed

    Bos, Jorunn I B; Prince, David; Pitino, Marco; Maffei, Massimo E; Win, Joe; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2010-11-18

    Aphids are amongst the most devastating sap-feeding insects of plants. Like most plant parasites, aphids require intimate associations with their host plants to gain access to nutrients. Aphid feeding induces responses such as clogging of phloem sieve elements and callose formation, which are suppressed by unknown molecules, probably proteins, in aphid saliva. Therefore, it is likely that aphids, like plant pathogens, deliver proteins (effectors) inside their hosts to modulate host cell processes, suppress plant defenses, and promote infestation. We exploited publicly available aphid salivary gland expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to apply a functional genomics approach for identification of candidate effectors from Myzus persicae (green peach aphid), based on common features of plant pathogen effectors. A total of 48 effector candidates were identified, cloned, and subjected to transient overexpression in Nicotiana benthamiana to assay for elicitation of a phenotype, suppression of the Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP)-mediated oxidative burst, and effects on aphid reproductive performance. We identified one candidate effector, Mp10, which specifically induced chlorosis and local cell death in N. benthamiana and conferred avirulence to recombinant Potato virus X (PVX) expressing Mp10, PVX-Mp10, in N. tabacum, indicating that this protein may trigger plant defenses. The ubiquitin-ligase associated protein SGT1 was required for the Mp10-mediated chlorosis response in N. benthamiana. Mp10 also suppressed the oxidative burst induced by flg22, but not by chitin. Aphid fecundity assays revealed that in planta overexpression of Mp10 and Mp42 reduced aphid fecundity, whereas another effector candidate, MpC002, enhanced aphid fecundity. Thus, these results suggest that, although Mp10 suppresses flg22-triggered immunity, it triggers a defense response, resulting in an overall decrease in aphid performance in the fecundity assays. Overall, we identified aphid

  5. Single-Cell-Genomics-Facilitated Read Binning of Candidate Phylum EM19 Genomes from Geothermal Spring Metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Becraft, Eric D; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Murugapiran, Senthil K; Ohlsson, J Ingemar; Briggs, Brandon R; Kanbar, Jad; De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Quake, Stephen R; Dong, Hailiang; Hedlund, Brian P; Swingley, Wesley D

    2015-12-04

    The vast majority of microbial life remains uncatalogued due to the inability to cultivate these organisms in the laboratory. This "microbial dark matter" represents a substantial portion of the tree of life and of the populations that contribute to chemical cycling in many ecosystems. In this work, we leveraged an existing single-cell genomic data set representing the candidate bacterial phylum "Calescamantes" (EM19) to calibrate machine learning algorithms and define metagenomic bins directly from pyrosequencing reads derived from Great Boiling Spring in the U.S. Great Basin. Compared to other assembly-based methods, taxonomic binning with a read-based machine learning approach yielded final assemblies with the highest predicted genome completeness of any method tested. Read-first binning subsequently was used to extract Calescamantes bins from all metagenomes with abundant Calescamantes populations, including metagenomes from Octopus Spring and Bison Pool in Yellowstone National Park and Gongxiaoshe Spring in Yunnan Province, China. Metabolic reconstruction suggests that Calescamantes are heterotrophic, facultative anaerobes, which can utilize oxidized nitrogen sources as terminal electron acceptors for respiration in the absence of oxygen and use proteins as their primary carbon source. Despite their phylogenetic divergence, the geographically separate Calescamantes populations were highly similar in their predicted metabolic capabilities and core gene content, respiring O2, or oxidized nitrogen species for energy conservation in distant but chemically similar hot springs.

  6. Single-Cell-Genomics-Facilitated Read Binning of Candidate Phylum EM19 Genomes from Geothermal Spring Metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Becraft, Eric D.; Dodsworth, Jeremy A.; Murugapiran, Senthil K.; Ohlsson, J. Ingemar; Briggs, Brandon R.; Kanbar, Jad; De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Quake, Stephen R.; Dong, Hailiang; Hedlund, Brian P.

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of microbial life remains uncatalogued due to the inability to cultivate these organisms in the laboratory. This “microbial dark matter” represents a substantial portion of the tree of life and of the populations that contribute to chemical cycling in many ecosystems. In this work, we leveraged an existing single-cell genomic data set representing the candidate bacterial phylum “Calescamantes” (EM19) to calibrate machine learning algorithms and define metagenomic bins directly from pyrosequencing reads derived from Great Boiling Spring in the U.S. Great Basin. Compared to other assembly-based methods, taxonomic binning with a read-based machine learning approach yielded final assemblies with the highest predicted genome completeness of any method tested. Read-first binning subsequently was used to extract Calescamantes bins from all metagenomes with abundant Calescamantes populations, including metagenomes from Octopus Spring and Bison Pool in Yellowstone National Park and Gongxiaoshe Spring in Yunnan Province, China. Metabolic reconstruction suggests that Calescamantes are heterotrophic, facultative anaerobes, which can utilize oxidized nitrogen sources as terminal electron acceptors for respiration in the absence of oxygen and use proteins as their primary carbon source. Despite their phylogenetic divergence, the geographically separate Calescamantes populations were highly similar in their predicted metabolic capabilities and core gene content, respiring O2, or oxidized nitrogen species for energy conservation in distant but chemically similar hot springs. PMID:26637598

  7. Poor replication of candidate genes for major depressive disorder using genome-wide association data.

    PubMed

    Bosker, F J; Hartman, C A; Nolte, I M; Prins, B P; Terpstra, P; Posthuma, D; van Veen, T; Willemsen, G; DeRijk, R H; de Geus, E J; Hoogendijk, W J; Sullivan, P F; Penninx, B W; Boomsma, D I; Snieder, H; Nolen, W A

    2011-05-01

    Data from the Genetic Association Information Network (GAIN) genome-wide association study (GWAS) in major depressive disorder (MDD) were used to explore previously reported candidate gene and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations in MDD. A systematic literature search of candidate genes associated with MDD in case-control studies was performed before the results of the GAIN MDD study became available. Measured and imputed candidate SNPs and genes were tested in the GAIN MDD study encompassing 1738 cases and 1802 controls. Imputation was used to increase the number of SNPs from the GWAS and to improve coverage of SNPs in the candidate genes selected. Tests were carried out for individual SNPs and the entire gene using different statistical approaches, with permutation analysis as the final arbiter. In all, 78 papers reporting on 57 genes were identified, from which 92 SNPs could be mapped. In the GAIN MDD study, two SNPs were associated with MDD: C5orf20 (rs12520799; P=0.038; odds ratio (OR) AT=1.10, 95% CI 0.95-1.29; OR TT=1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.47) and NPY (rs16139; P=0.034; OR C allele=0.73, 95% CI 0.55-0.97), constituting a direct replication of previously identified SNPs. At the gene level, TNF (rs76917; OR T=1.35, 95% CI 1.13-1.63; P=0.0034) was identified as the only gene for which the association with MDD remained significant after correction for multiple testing. For SLC6A2 (norepinephrine transporter (NET)) significantly more SNPs (19 out of 100; P=0.039) than expected were associated while accounting for the linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure. Thus, we found support for involvement in MDD for only four genes. However, given the number of candidate SNPs and genes that were tested, even these significant may well be false positives. The poor replication may point to publication bias and false-positive findings in previous candidate gene studies, and may also be related to heterogeneity of the MDD phenotype as well as

  8. Uncovering the Genome-Wide Transcriptional Responses of the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus niger to Lignocellulose Using RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Gaddipati, Sanyasi; Kokolski, Matthew; Malla, Sunir; Blythe, Martin J.; Ibbett, Roger; Campbell, Maria; Liddell, Susan; Aboobaker, Aziz; Tucker, Gregory A.; Archer, David B.

    2012-01-01

    A key challenge in the production of second generation biofuels is the conversion of lignocellulosic substrates into fermentable sugars. Enzymes, particularly those from fungi, are a central part of this process, and many have been isolated and characterised. However, relatively little is known of how fungi respond to lignocellulose and produce the enzymes necessary for dis-assembly of plant biomass. We studied the physiological response of the fungus Aspergillus niger when exposed to wheat straw as a model lignocellulosic substrate. Using RNA sequencing we showed that, 24 hours after exposure to straw, gene expression of known and presumptive plant cell wall–degrading enzymes represents a huge investment for the cells (about 20% of the total mRNA). Our results also uncovered new esterases and surface interacting proteins that might form part of the fungal arsenal of enzymes for the degradation of plant biomass. Using transcription factor deletion mutants (xlnR and creA) to study the response to both lignocellulosic substrates and low carbon source concentrations, we showed that a subset of genes coding for degradative enzymes is induced by starvation. Our data support a model whereby this subset of enzymes plays a scouting role under starvation conditions, testing for available complex polysaccharides and liberating inducing sugars, that triggers the subsequent induction of the majority of hydrolases. We also showed that antisense transcripts are abundant and that their expression can be regulated by growth conditions. PMID:22912594

  9. Comparative Chloroplast Genome Analyses of Streptophyte Green Algae Uncover Major Structural Alterations in the Klebsormidiophyceae, Coleochaetophyceae and Zygnematophyceae.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Claude; Otis, Christian; Turmel, Monique

    2016-01-01

    The Streptophyta comprises all land plants and six main lineages of freshwater green algae: Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae, Klebsormidiophyceae, Charophyceae, Coleochaetophyceae and Zygnematophyceae. Previous comparisons of the chloroplast genome from nine streptophyte algae (including four zygnematophyceans) revealed that, although land plant chloroplast DNAs (cpDNAs) inherited most of their highly conserved structural features from green algal ancestors, considerable cpDNA changes took place during the evolution of the Zygnematophyceae, the sister group of land plants. To gain deeper insights into the evolutionary dynamics of the chloroplast genome in streptophyte algae, we sequenced the cpDNAs of nine additional taxa: two klebsormidiophyceans (Entransia fimbriata and Klebsormidium sp. SAG 51.86), one coleocheatophycean (Coleochaete scutata) and six zygnematophyceans (Cylindrocystis brebissonii, Netrium digitus, Roya obtusa, Spirogyra maxima, Cosmarium botrytis and Closterium baillyanum). Our comparative analyses of these genomes with their streptophyte algal counterparts indicate that the large inverted repeat (IR) encoding the rDNA operon experienced loss or expansion/contraction in all three sampled classes and that genes were extensively shuffled in both the Klebsormidiophyceae and Zygnematophyceae. The klebsormidiophycean genomes boast greatly expanded IRs, with the Entransia 60,590-bp IR being the largest known among green algae. The 206,025-bp Entransia cpDNA, which is one of the largest genome among streptophytes, encodes 118 standard genes, i.e., four additional genes compared to its Klebsormidium flaccidum homolog. We inferred that seven of the 21 group II introns usually found in land plants were already present in the common ancestor of the Klebsormidiophyceae and its sister lineages. At 107,236 bp and with 117 standard genes, the Coleochaete IR-less genome is both the smallest and most compact among the streptophyte algal cpDNAs analyzed thus

  10. Comparative Chloroplast Genome Analyses of Streptophyte Green Algae Uncover Major Structural Alterations in the Klebsormidiophyceae, Coleochaetophyceae and Zygnematophyceae

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, Claude; Otis, Christian; Turmel, Monique

    2016-01-01

    The Streptophyta comprises all land plants and six main lineages of freshwater green algae: Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae, Klebsormidiophyceae, Charophyceae, Coleochaetophyceae and Zygnematophyceae. Previous comparisons of the chloroplast genome from nine streptophyte algae (including four zygnematophyceans) revealed that, although land plant chloroplast DNAs (cpDNAs) inherited most of their highly conserved structural features from green algal ancestors, considerable cpDNA changes took place during the evolution of the Zygnematophyceae, the sister group of land plants. To gain deeper insights into the evolutionary dynamics of the chloroplast genome in streptophyte algae, we sequenced the cpDNAs of nine additional taxa: two klebsormidiophyceans (Entransia fimbriata and Klebsormidium sp. SAG 51.86), one coleocheatophycean (Coleochaete scutata) and six zygnematophyceans (Cylindrocystis brebissonii, Netrium digitus, Roya obtusa, Spirogyra maxima, Cosmarium botrytis and Closterium baillyanum). Our comparative analyses of these genomes with their streptophyte algal counterparts indicate that the large inverted repeat (IR) encoding the rDNA operon experienced loss or expansion/contraction in all three sampled classes and that genes were extensively shuffled in both the Klebsormidiophyceae and Zygnematophyceae. The klebsormidiophycean genomes boast greatly expanded IRs, with the Entransia 60,590-bp IR being the largest known among green algae. The 206,025-bp Entransia cpDNA, which is one of the largest genome among streptophytes, encodes 118 standard genes, i.e., four additional genes compared to its Klebsormidium flaccidum homolog. We inferred that seven of the 21 group II introns usually found in land plants were already present in the common ancestor of the Klebsormidiophyceae and its sister lineages. At 107,236 bp and with 117 standard genes, the Coleochaete IR-less genome is both the smallest and most compact among the streptophyte algal cpDNAs analyzed thus

  11. Childhood adversity and DNA methylation of genes involved in the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis and immune system: Whole-genome and candidate-gene associations

    PubMed Central

    BICK, JOHANNA; NAUMOVA, OKSANA; HUNTER, SCOTT; BARBOT, BAPTISTE; LEE, MARIA; LUTHAR, SUNIYA S.; RAEFSKI, ADAM; GRIGORENKO, ELENA L.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, translational research involving humans and animals has uncovered biological and physiological pathways that explain associations between early adverse circumstances and long-term mental and physical health outcomes. In this article, we summarize the human and animal literature demonstrating that epigenetic alterations in key biological systems, the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis and immune system, may underlie such disparities. We review evidence suggesting that changes in DNA methylation profiles of the genome may be responsible for the alterations in hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis and immune system trajectories. Using some preliminary data, we demonstrate how explorations of genome-wide and candidate-gene DNA methylation profiles may inform hypotheses and guide future research efforts in these areas. We conclude our article by discussing the many important future directions, merging perspectives from developmental psychology, molecular genetics, neuroendocrinology, and immunology, that are essential for furthering our understanding of how early adverse circumstances may shape developmental trajectories, particularly in the areas of stress reactivity and physical or mental health. PMID:23062307

  12. Childhood adversity and DNA methylation of genes involved in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and immune system: whole-genome and candidate-gene associations.

    PubMed

    Bick, Johanna; Naumova, Oksana; Hunter, Scott; Barbot, Baptiste; Lee, Maria; Luthar, Suniya S; Raefski, Adam; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2012-11-01

    In recent years, translational research involving humans and animals has uncovered biological and physiological pathways that explain associations between early adverse circumstances and long-term mental and physical health outcomes. In this article, we summarize the human and animal literature demonstrating that epigenetic alterations in key biological systems, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and immune system, may underlie such disparities. We review evidence suggesting that changes in DNA methylation profiles of the genome may be responsible for the alterations in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and immune system trajectories. Using some preliminary data, we demonstrate how explorations of genome-wide and candidate-gene DNA methylation profiles may inform hypotheses and guide future research efforts in these areas. We conclude our article by discussing the many important future directions, merging perspectives from developmental psychology, molecular genetics, neuroendocrinology, and immunology, that are essential for furthering our understanding of how early adverse circumstances may shape developmental trajectories, particularly in the areas of stress reactivity and physical or mental health.

  13. Uncovering genomic causes of co-morbidity in epilepsy: gene-driven phenotypic characterization of rare microdeletions.

    PubMed

    Kasperavičiūtė, Dalia; Catarino, Claudia B; Chinthapalli, Krishna; Clayton, Lisa M S; Thom, Maria; Martinian, Lillian; Cohen, Hannah; Adalat, Shazia; Bockenhauer, Detlef; Pope, Simon A; Lench, Nicholas; Koltzenburg, Martin; Duncan, John S; Hammond, Peter; Hennekam, Raoul C M; Land, John M; Sisodiya, Sanjay M

    2011-01-01

    Patients with epilepsy often suffer from other important conditions. The existence of such co-morbidities is frequently not recognized and their relationship with epilepsy usually remains unexplained. We describe three patients with common, sporadic, non-syndromic epilepsies in whom large genomic microdeletions were found during a study of genetic susceptibility to epilepsy. We performed detailed gene-driven clinical investigations in each patient. Disruption of the function of genes in the deleted regions can explain co-morbidities in these patients. Co-morbidities in patients with epilepsy can be part of a genomic abnormality even in the absence of (known) congenital malformations or intellectual disabilities. Gene-driven phenotype examination can also reveal clinically significant unsuspected condition.

  14. Uncovering Genomic Causes of Co-Morbidity in Epilepsy: Gene-Driven Phenotypic Characterization of Rare Microdeletions

    PubMed Central

    Kasperavičiūtė, Dalia; Catarino, Claudia B.; Chinthapalli, Krishna; Clayton, Lisa M. S.; Thom, Maria; Martinian, Lillian; Cohen, Hannah; Adalat, Shazia; Bockenhauer, Detlef; Pope, Simon A.; Lench, Nicholas; Koltzenburg, Martin; Duncan, John S.; Hammond, Peter; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.; Land, John M.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with epilepsy often suffer from other important conditions. The existence of such co-morbidities is frequently not recognized and their relationship with epilepsy usually remains unexplained. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe three patients with common, sporadic, non-syndromic epilepsies in whom large genomic microdeletions were found during a study of genetic susceptibility to epilepsy. We performed detailed gene-driven clinical investigations in each patient. Disruption of the function of genes in the deleted regions can explain co-morbidities in these patients. Conclusions/Significance Co-morbidities in patients with epilepsy can be part of a genomic abnormality even in the absence of (known) congenital malformations or intellectual disabilities. Gene-driven phenotype examination can also reveal clinically significant unsuspected condition. PMID:21858020

  15. Low Frequency Variants, Collapsed Based on Biological Knowledge, Uncover Complexity of Population Stratification in 1000 Genomes Project Data

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Carrie B.; Wallace, John R.; Wolfe, Daniel J.; Frase, Alex T.; Pendergrass, Sarah A.; Weiss, Kenneth M.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.

    2013-01-01

    Analyses investigating low frequency variants have the potential for explaining additional genetic heritability of many complex human traits. However, the natural frequencies of rare variation between human populations strongly confound genetic analyses. We have applied a novel collapsing method to identify biological features with low frequency variant burden differences in thirteen populations sequenced by the 1000 Genomes Project. Our flexible collapsing tool utilizes expert biological knowledge from multiple publicly available database sources to direct feature selection. Variants were collapsed according to genetically driven features, such as evolutionary conserved regions, regulatory regions genes, and pathways. We have conducted an extensive comparison of low frequency variant burden differences (MAF<0.03) between populations from 1000 Genomes Project Phase I data. We found that on average 26.87% of gene bins, 35.47% of intergenic bins, 42.85% of pathway bins, 14.86% of ORegAnno regulatory bins, and 5.97% of evolutionary conserved regions show statistically significant differences in low frequency variant burden across populations from the 1000 Genomes Project. The proportion of bins with significant differences in low frequency burden depends on the ancestral similarity of the two populations compared and types of features tested. Even closely related populations had notable differences in low frequency burden, but fewer differences than populations from different continents. Furthermore, conserved or functionally relevant regions had fewer significant differences in low frequency burden than regions under less evolutionary constraint. This degree of low frequency variant differentiation across diverse populations and feature elements highlights the critical importance of considering population stratification in the new era of DNA sequencing and low frequency variant genomic analyses. PMID:24385916

  16. Low frequency variants, collapsed based on biological knowledge, uncover complexity of population stratification in 1000 genomes project data.

    PubMed

    Moore, Carrie B; Wallace, John R; Wolfe, Daniel J; Frase, Alex T; Pendergrass, Sarah A; Weiss, Kenneth M; Ritchie, Marylyn D

    2013-01-01

    Analyses investigating low frequency variants have the potential for explaining additional genetic heritability of many complex human traits. However, the natural frequencies of rare variation between human populations strongly confound genetic analyses. We have applied a novel collapsing method to identify biological features with low frequency variant burden differences in thirteen populations sequenced by the 1000 Genomes Project. Our flexible collapsing tool utilizes expert biological knowledge from multiple publicly available database sources to direct feature selection. Variants were collapsed according to genetically driven features, such as evolutionary conserved regions, regulatory regions genes, and pathways. We have conducted an extensive comparison of low frequency variant burden differences (MAF<0.03) between populations from 1000 Genomes Project Phase I data. We found that on average 26.87% of gene bins, 35.47% of intergenic bins, 42.85% of pathway bins, 14.86% of ORegAnno regulatory bins, and 5.97% of evolutionary conserved regions show statistically significant differences in low frequency variant burden across populations from the 1000 Genomes Project. The proportion of bins with significant differences in low frequency burden depends on the ancestral similarity of the two populations compared and types of features tested. Even closely related populations had notable differences in low frequency burden, but fewer differences than populations from different continents. Furthermore, conserved or functionally relevant regions had fewer significant differences in low frequency burden than regions under less evolutionary constraint. This degree of low frequency variant differentiation across diverse populations and feature elements highlights the critical importance of considering population stratification in the new era of DNA sequencing and low frequency variant genomic analyses.

  17. Genome-wide comparative diversity uncovers multiple targets of selection for improvement in hexaploid wheat landraces and cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, Colin R.; Chao, Shiaoman; Wang, Shichen; Huang, Bevan Emma; Stephen, Stuart; Kiani, Seifollah; Forrest, Kerrie; Saintenac, Cyrille; Brown-Guedira, Gina L.; Akhunova, Alina; See, Deven; Bai, Guihua; Pumphrey, Michael; Tomar, Luxmi; Wong, Debbie; Kong, Stephan; Reynolds, Matthew; da Silva, Marta Lopez; Bockelman, Harold; Talbert, Luther; Anderson, James A.; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Baenziger, Stephen; Carter, Arron; Korzun, Viktor; Morrell, Peter Laurent; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Morell, Matthew K.; Sorrells, Mark E.; Hayden, Matthew J.; Akhunov, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Domesticated crops experience strong human-mediated selection aimed at developing high-yielding varieties adapted to local conditions. To detect regions of the wheat genome subject to selection during improvement, we developed a high-throughput array to interrogate 9,000 gene-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in a worldwide sample of 2,994 accessions of hexaploid wheat including landraces and modern cultivars. Using a SNP-based diversity map we characterized the impact of crop improvement on genomic and geographic patterns of genetic diversity. We found evidence of a small population bottleneck and extensive use of ancestral variation often traceable to founders of cultivars from diverse geographic regions. Analyzing genetic differentiation among populations and the extent of haplotype sharing, we identified allelic variants subjected to selection during improvement. Selective sweeps were found around genes involved in the regulation of flowering time and phenology. An introgression of a wild relative-derived gene conferring resistance to a fungal pathogen was detected by haplotype-based analysis. Comparing selective sweeps identified in different populations, we show that selection likely acts on distinct targets or multiple functionally equivalent alleles in different portions of the geographic range of wheat. The majority of the selected alleles were present at low frequency in local populations, suggesting either weak selection pressure or temporal variation in the targets of directional selection during breeding probably associated with changing agricultural practices or environmental conditions. The developed SNP chip and map of genetic variation provide a resource for advancing wheat breeding and supporting future population genomic and genome-wide association studies in wheat. PMID:23630259

  18. Integrated analysis of phenome, genome, and transcriptome of hybrid rice uncovered multiple heterosis-related loci for yield increase

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dayong; Huang, Zhiyuan; Song, Shuhui; Xin, Yeyun; Mao, Donghai; Lv, Qiming; Zhou, Ming; Tian, Dongmei; Tang, Mingfeng; Wu, Qi; Liu, Xue; Chen, Tingting; Song, Xianwei; Fu, Xiqin; Zhao, Bingran; Liang, Chengzhi; Li, Aihong; Liu, Guozhen; Li, Shigui; Hu, Songnian; Cao, Xiaofeng; Yu, Jun; Yuan, Longping; Chen, Caiyan; Zhu, Lihuang

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid rice is the dominant form of rice planted in China, and its use has extended worldwide since the 1970s. It offers great yield advantages and has contributed greatly to the world’s food security. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying heterosis have remained a mystery. In this study we integrated genetics and omics analyses to determine the candidate genes for yield heterosis in a model two-line rice hybrid system, Liang-you-pei 9 (LYP9) and its parents. Phenomics study revealed that the better parent heterosis (BPH) of yield in hybrid is not ascribed to BPH of all the yield components but is specific to the BPH of spikelet number per panicle (SPP) and paternal parent heterosis (PPH) of effective panicle number (EPN). Genetic analyses then identified multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these two components. Moreover, a number of differentially expressed genes and alleles in the hybrid were mapped by transcriptome profiling to the QTL regions as possible candidate genes. In parallel, a major QTL for yield heterosis, rice heterosis 8 (RH8), was found to be the DTH8/Ghd8/LHD1 gene. Based on the shared allelic heterozygosity of RH8 in many hybrid rice cultivars, a common mechanism for yield heterosis in the present commercial hybrid rice is proposed. PMID:27663737

  19. Integrated analysis of phenome, genome, and transcriptome of hybrid rice uncovered multiple heterosis-related loci for yield increase.

    PubMed

    Li, Dayong; Huang, Zhiyuan; Song, Shuhui; Xin, Yeyun; Mao, Donghai; Lv, Qiming; Zhou, Ming; Tian, Dongmei; Tang, Mingfeng; Wu, Qi; Liu, Xue; Chen, Tingting; Song, Xianwei; Fu, Xiqin; Zhao, Bingran; Liang, Chengzhi; Li, Aihong; Liu, Guozhen; Li, Shigui; Hu, Songnian; Cao, Xiaofeng; Yu, Jun; Yuan, Longping; Chen, Caiyan; Zhu, Lihuang

    2016-10-11

    Hybrid rice is the dominant form of rice planted in China, and its use has extended worldwide since the 1970s. It offers great yield advantages and has contributed greatly to the world's food security. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying heterosis have remained a mystery. In this study we integrated genetics and omics analyses to determine the candidate genes for yield heterosis in a model two-line rice hybrid system, Liang-you-pei 9 (LYP9) and its parents. Phenomics study revealed that the better parent heterosis (BPH) of yield in hybrid is not ascribed to BPH of all the yield components but is specific to the BPH of spikelet number per panicle (SPP) and paternal parent heterosis (PPH) of effective panicle number (EPN). Genetic analyses then identified multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these two components. Moreover, a number of differentially expressed genes and alleles in the hybrid were mapped by transcriptome profiling to the QTL regions as possible candidate genes. In parallel, a major QTL for yield heterosis, rice heterosis 8 (RH8), was found to be the DTH8/Ghd8/LHD1 gene. Based on the shared allelic heterozygosity of RH8 in many hybrid rice cultivars, a common mechanism for yield heterosis in the present commercial hybrid rice is proposed.

  20. Comparative Genomics Reveals New Candidate Genes Involved in Selenium Metabolism in Prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jie; Peng, Ting; Jiang, Liang; Ni, Jia-Zuan; Liu, Qiong; Chen, Luonan; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an important micronutrient that mainly occurs in proteins in the form of selenocysteine and in tRNAs in the form of selenouridine. In the past 20 years, several genes involved in Se utilization have been characterized in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, Se homeostasis and the associated regulatory network are not fully understood. In this study, we conducted comparative genomics and phylogenetic analyses to examine the occurrence of all known Se utilization traits in prokaryotes. Our results revealed a highly mosaic pattern of species that use Se (in different forms) in spite that most organisms do not use this element. Further investigation of genomic context of known Se-related genes in different organisms suggested novel candidate genes that may participate in Se metabolism in bacteria and/or archaea. Among them, a membrane protein, YedE, which contains ten transmembrane domains and shows distant similarity to a sulfur transporter, is exclusively found in Se-utilizing organisms, suggesting that it may be involved in Se transport. A LysR-like transcription factor subfamily might be important for the regulation of Sec biosynthesis and/or other Se-related genes. In addition, a small protein family DUF3343 is widespread in Se-utilizing organisms, which probably serves as an important chaperone for Se trafficking within the cells. Finally, we proposed a simple model of Se homeostasis based on our findings. Our study reveals new candidate genes involved in Se metabolism in prokaryotes and should be useful for a further understanding of the complex metabolism and the roles of Se in biology. PMID:25638258

  1. Genetic and Proteomic Interrogation of Lower Confidence Candidate Genes Reveals Signaling Networks in beta-Catenin-Active Cancers | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Genome-scale expression studies and comprehensive loss-of-function genetic screens have focused almost exclusively on the highest confidence candidate genes. Here, we describe a strategy for characterizing the lower confidence candidates identified by such approaches.

  2. From genome to vaccines for leishmaniasis: screening 100 novel vaccine candidates against murine Leishmania major infection.

    PubMed

    Stober, Carmel B; Lange, Uta G; Roberts, Mark T M; Gilmartin, Brian; Francis, Richard; Almeida, Renata; Peacock, Christopher S; McCann, Sharon; Blackwell, Jenefer M

    2006-03-24

    The genomic sequence of Leishmania major provides a rich source of vaccine candidates. One hundred randomly selected amastigote-expressed genes were screened as DNA vaccines, and efficacy determined following high-dose L. major footpad challenge in BALB/c mice. Fourteen protective novel vaccine candidates were identified; seven vaccines exacerbated disease. There were no differences in the number of predicted MHC H-2d class I or II epitopes mapping to protective versus exacerbatory antigens. A proportion of both protective (7/14; 50%) and exacerbatory (4/7; 57%) proteins showed short (8- to 18-mer) 100% amino acid sequence identities to human, mouse or gut flora proteins. A high proportion of these (4/7 protective; 3/4 exacerbatory) showed full or partial overlap with RANKPEP-predicted H-2d classes I and II epitopes. Our data suggest, therefore, that there may be little difference between antigens/epitopes that drive regulatory versus effector CD4 T cell populations. The best novel protective antigen was an amastin-like gene that maps to a 17-gene tandem array on Leishmania chromosome 8 and is closely related to 37 other amastin-like genes. Two ribosomal proteins, a V-ATPase subunit, and a dynein light chain orthologue were the only other protective genes with putative functions.

  3. Meeting review. Uncovering the genetic basis of adaptive change: on the intersection of landscape genomics and theoretical population genetics.

    PubMed

    Joost, Stéphane; Vuilleumier, Séverine; Jensen, Jeffrey D; Schoville, Sean; Leempoel, Kevin; Stucki, Sylvie; Widmer, Ivo; Melodelima, Christelle; Rolland, Jonathan; Manel, Stéphanie

    2013-07-01

    A workshop recently held at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL, Switzerland) was dedicated to understanding the genetic basis of adaptive change, taking stock of the different approaches developed in theoretical population genetics and landscape genomics and bringing together knowledge accumulated in both research fields. Indeed, an important challenge in theoretical population genetics is to incorporate effects of demographic history and population structure. But important design problems (e.g. focus on populations as units, focus on hard selective sweeps, no hypothesis-based framework in the design of the statistical tests) reduce their capability of detecting adaptive genetic variation. In parallel, landscape genomics offers a solution to several of these problems and provides a number of advantages (e.g. fast computation, landscape heterogeneity integration). But the approach makes several implicit assumptions that should be carefully considered (e.g. selection has had enough time to create a functional relationship between the allele distribution and the environmental variable, or this functional relationship is assumed to be constant). To address the respective strengths and weaknesses mentioned above, the workshop brought together a panel of experts from both disciplines to present their work and discuss the relevance of combining these approaches, possibly resulting in a joint software solution in the future.

  4. Examination of the current top candidate genes for AD in a genome-wide association study.

    PubMed

    Feulner, T M; Laws, S M; Friedrich, P; Wagenpfeil, S; Wurst, S H R; Riehle, C; Kuhn, K A; Krawczak, M; Schreiber, S; Nikolaus, S; Förstl, H; Kurz, A; Riemenschneider, M

    2010-07-01

    With the advent of technologies that allow simultaneous genotyping of thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the genome, the genetic contributions to complex diseases can be explored at an unprecedented detail. This study is among the first to apply the genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach to Alzheimer disease (AD). We present our GWAS results from the German population for genes included in the 'Top Results' list on the AlzGene database website. In addition to the apolipoprotein E locus, we identified nominally significant association signals in six of the ten genes investigated, albeit predominantly for SNPs other than those already published as being disease associated. Further, all of the four AD genes previously identified through GWAS also showed nominally significant association signals in our data. The results of our comparative study reinforce the necessity for replication and validation, not only of GWAS but also of candidate gene case-control studies, in different populations. Furthermore, cross-platform comparison of genotyping results can also identify new association signals. Finally, our data confirm that GWAS, regardless of the platform, are valuable for the identification of genetic variants associated with AD.

  5. Global Genome and Transcriptome Analyses of Magnaporthe oryzae Epidemic Isolate 98-06 Uncover Novel Effectors and Pathogenicity-Related Genes, Revealing Gene Gain and Lose Dynamics in Genome Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yanhan; Li, Ying; Zhao, Miaomiao; Jing, Maofeng; Liu, Xinyu; Liu, Muxing; Guo, Xianxian; Zhang, Xing; Chen, Yue; Liu, Yongfeng; Liu, Yanhong; Ye, Wenwu; Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Yuanchao; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Zhengguang

    2015-01-01

    Genome dynamics of pathogenic organisms are driven by pathogen and host co-evolution, in which pathogen genomes are shaped to overcome stresses imposed by hosts with various genetic backgrounds through generation of a variety of isolates. This same principle applies to the rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae and the rice host; however, genetic variations among different isolates of M. oryzae remain largely unknown, particularly at genome and transcriptome levels. Here, we applied genomic and transcriptomic analytical tools to investigate M. oryzae isolate 98-06 that is the most aggressive in infection of susceptible rice cultivars. A unique 1.4 Mb of genomic sequences was found in isolate 98-06 in comparison to reference strain 70-15. Genome-wide expression profiling revealed the presence of two critical expression patterns of M. oryzae based on 64 known pathogenicity-related (PaR) genes. In addition, 134 candidate effectors with various segregation patterns were identified. Five tested proteins could suppress BAX-mediated programmed cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Characterization of isolate-specific effector candidates Iug6 and Iug9 and PaR candidate Iug18 revealed that they have a role in fungal propagation and pathogenicity. Moreover, Iug6 and Iug9 are located exclusively in the biotrophic interfacial complex (BIC) and their overexpression leads to suppression of defense-related gene expression in rice, suggesting that they might participate in biotrophy by inhibiting the SA and ET pathways within the host. Thus, our studies identify novel effector and PaR proteins involved in pathogenicity of the highly aggressive M. oryzae field isolate 98-06, and reveal molecular and genomic dynamics in the evolution of M. oryzae and rice host interactions. PMID:25837042

  6. Genomic Heterogeneity of Osteosarcoma - Shift from Single Candidates to Functional Modules

    PubMed Central

    Maugg, Doris; Eckstein, Gertrud; Baumhoer, Daniel; Nathrath, Michaela; Korsching, Eberhard

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS), a bone tumor, exhibit a complex karyotype. On the genomic level a highly variable degree of alterations in nearly all chromosomal regions and between individual tumors is observable. This hampers the identification of common drivers in OS biology. To identify the common molecular mechanisms involved in the maintenance of OS, we follow the hypothesis that all the copy number-associated differences between the patients are intercepted on the level of the functional modules. The implementation is based on a network approach utilizing copy number associated genes in OS, paired expression data and protein interaction data. The resulting functional modules of tightly connected genes were interpreted regarding their biological functions in OS and their potential prognostic significance. We identified an osteosarcoma network assembling well-known and lesser-known candidates. The derived network shows a significant connectivity and modularity suggesting that the genes affected by the heterogeneous genetic alterations share the same biological context. The network modules participate in several critical aspects of cancer biology like DNA damage response, cell growth, and cell motility which is in line with the hypothesis of specifically deregulated but functional modules in cancer. Further, we could deduce genes with possible prognostic significance in OS for further investigation (e.g. EZR, CDKN2A, MAP3K5). Several of those module genes were located on chromosome 6q. The given systems biological approach provides evidence that heterogeneity on the genomic and expression level is ordered by the biological system on the level of the functional modules. Different genomic aberrations are pointing to the same cellular network vicinity to form vital, but already neoplastically altered, functional modules maintaining OS. This observation, exemplarily now shown for OS, has been under discussion already for a longer time, but often in a hypothetical manner, and

  7. Comparative Genomics of Ralstonia solanacearum Identifies Candidate Genes Associated with Cool Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Bocsanczy, Ana M.; Huguet-Tapia, Jose C.; Norman, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Strains of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex in the phylotype IIB group are capable of causing Bacterial Wilt disease in potato and tomato at temperatures lower than 24°C. The capability of these strains to survive and to incite infection at temperatures colder than their normally tropical boundaries represents a threat to United States agriculture in temperate regions. In this work, we used a comparative genomics approach to identify orthologous genes linked to the lower temperature virulence phenotype. Six R. solanacearum cool virulent (CV) strains were compared to six strains non-pathogenic at low temperature (NPLT). CV strains can cause Bacterial Wilt symptoms at temperatures below 24°C, while NPLT cannot. Four R. solanacearum strains were sequenced for this work in order to complete the comparison. An orthologous genes comparison identified 44 genes present only in CV strains and 19 genes present only in NPLT strains. Gene annotation revealed a high percentage of genes compared with whole genomes in the transcriptional regulator and transport categories. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis identified 265 genes containing conserved non-synonymous SNPs in CV strains. Ten genes in the pathogenicity category were identified in this group. Comparisons of type 3 secretion system, type 6 secretion system (T6SS) clusters, and associated effectors did not indicate a correlation with the CV phenotype except for one T6SS VGR effector potentially associated with the CV phenotype. This is the first R. solanacearum genomic comparative analysis of multiple strains with different temperature related virulence. The candidate genes identified by this comparison are potential factors involved in virulence at low temperatures that need to be investigated. The high percentage of transcriptional regulators among the genes present only in CV strains supports the hypothesis that temperature dependent regulation of virulence genes explains the differential

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of Korean native horse from Jeju Island: uncovering the spatio-temporal dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sook Hee; Kim, Jaemin; Shin, Donghyun; Cho, Seoae; Kwak, Woori; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Park, Kyoung-Do; Kim, Heebal

    2017-04-01

    The Korean native horse (Jeju horse) is one of the most important animals in Korean historical, cultural, and economical viewpoints. In the early 1980s, the Jeju horse was close to extinction. The aim of this study is to explore the phylogenomics of Korean native horse focusing on spatio-temporal dynamics. We determined complete mitochondrial genome sequences for the first Korean native (n = 6) and additional Mongolian (n = 2) horses. Those sequences were analyzed together with 143 published ones using Bayesian coalescent approach as well as three different phylogenetic analysis methods, Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and neighbor-joining methods. The phylogenomic trees revealed that the Korean native horses had multiple origins and clustered together with some horses from four European and one Middle Eastern breeds. Our phylogenomic analyses also supported that there was no apparent association between breed or geographic location and the evolution of global horses. Time of the most recent common ancestor of the Korean native horse was approximately 13,200-63,200 years, which was much younger than 0.696 My of modern horses. Additionally, our results showed that all global horse lineages including Korean native horse existed prior to their domestication events occurred in about 6000-10,000 years ago. This is the first study on phylogenomics of the Korean native horse focusing on spatio-temporal dynamics. Our findings increase our understanding of the domestication history of the Korean native horses, and could provide useful information for horse conservation projects as well as for horse genomics, emergence, and the geographical distribution.

  9. Genomic analysis of host - Peste des petits ruminants vaccine viral transcriptome uncovers transcription factors modulating immune regulatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Manjunath, Siddappa; Kumar, Gandham Ravi; Mishra, Bishnu Prasad; Mishra, Bina; Sahoo, Aditya Prasad; Joshi, Chaitanya G; Tiwari, Ashok K; Rajak, Kaushal Kishore; Janga, Sarath Chandra

    2015-02-24

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), is an acute transboundary viral disease of economic importance, affecting goats and sheep. Mass vaccination programs around the world resulted in the decline of PPR outbreaks. Sungri 96 is a live attenuated vaccine, widely used in Northern India against PPR. This vaccine virus, isolated from goat works efficiently both in sheep and goat. Global gene expression changes under PPR vaccine virus infection are not yet well defined. Therefore, in this study we investigated the host-vaccine virus interactions by infecting the peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from goat with PPRV (Sungri 96 vaccine virus), to quantify the global changes in the transcriptomic signature by RNA-sequencing. Viral genome of Sungri 96 vaccine virus was assembled from the PPRV infected transcriptome confirming the infection and demonstrating the feasibility of building a complete non-host genome from the blood transcriptome. Comparison of infected transcriptome with control transcriptome revealed 985 differentially expressed genes. Functional analysis showed enrichment of immune regulatory pathways under PPRV infection. Key genes involved in immune system regulation, spliceosomal and apoptotic pathways were identified to be dysregulated. Network analysis revealed that the protein - protein interaction network among differentially expressed genes is significantly disrupted in infected state. Several genes encoding TFs that govern immune regulatory pathways were identified to co-regulate the differentially expressed genes. These data provide insights into the host - PPRV vaccine virus interactome for the first time. Our findings suggested dysregulation of immune regulatory pathways and genes encoding Transcription Factors (TFs) that govern these pathways in response to viral infection.

  10. Genome-wide high resolution parental-specific DNA and histone methylation maps uncover patterns of imprinting regulation in maize.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Xie, Shaojun; Dong, Xiaomei; Zhao, Xin; Zeng, Biao; Chen, Jian; Li, Hui; Yang, Weilong; Zhao, Hainan; Wang, Gaokui; Chen, Zongliang; Sun, Silong; Hauck, Andrew; Jin, Weiwei; Lai, Jinsheng

    2014-01-01

    Genetic imprinting is a specific epigenetic phenomenon in which a subset of genes is expressed depending on their parent-of-origin. Two types of chromatin modifications, DNA methylation and histone modification, are generally believed to be involved in the regulation of imprinting. However, the genome-wide correlation between allele-specific chromatin modifications and imprinted gene expression in maize remains elusive. Here we report genome-wide high resolution allele-specific maps of DNA methylation and histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) in maize endosperm. For DNA methylation, thousands of parent-of-origin dependent differentially methylated regions (pDMRs) were identified. All pDMRs were uniformly paternally hypermethylated and maternally hypomethylated. We also identified 1131 allele-specific H3K27me3 peaks that are preferentially present in the maternal alleles. Maternally expressed imprinted genes (MEGs) and paternally expressed imprinted genes (PEGs) had different patterns of allele-specific DNA methylation and H3K27me3. Allele-specific expression of MEGs was not directly related to allele-specific H3K27me3, and only a subset of MEGs was associated with maternal-specific DNA demethylation, which was primarily located in the upstream and 5' portion of gene body regions. In contrast, allele-specific expression of a majority of PEGs was related to maternal-specific H3K27me3, with a subgroup of PEGs also associated with maternal-specific DNA demethylation. Both pDMRs and maternal H3K27me3 peaks associated with PEGs are enriched in gene body regions. Our results indicate highly complex patterns of regulation on genetic imprinting in maize endosperm.

  11. Functional genomics uncovers three glucosyltransferases involved in the synthesis of the major sweet glucosides of Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Richman, Alex; Swanson, Andrew; Humphrey, Tania; Chapman, Ralph; McGarvey, Brian; Pocs, Robert; Brandle, Jim

    2005-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana leaves accumulate a mixture of at least eight different steviol glycosides. The pattern of glycosylation heavily influences the taste perception of these intensely sweet compounds. The majority of the glycosides are formed by four glucosylation reactions that start with steviol and end with rebaudioside A. The steps involve the addition of glucose to the C-13 hydroxyl of steviol, the transfer of glucose to the C-2' and C-3' of the 13-O-glucose and the addition of glucose to the hydroxyl of the C-4 carboxyl group. We used our collection of ESTs, an UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT)-specific electronic probe and key word searches to identify candidate genes resident in our collection. Fifty-four expressed sequence tags (ESTs) belonging to 17 clusters were found using this procedure. We isolated full length cDNAs for 12 of the UGTs, cloned them into an expression vector, and produced recombinant enzymes in Escherichia coli. An in vitro glucosyltransferase activity enzyme assay was conducted using quercetin, kaempferol, steviol, steviolmonoside, steviolbioside, and stevioside as sugar acceptors, and (14)C-UDP-glucose as the donor. Thin layer chromatography was used to separate the products and three of the recombinant enzymes produced labelled products that co-migrated with known standards. HPLC and LC-ES/MS were then used to further define those reaction products. We determined that steviol UGTs behave in a regioselective manner and propose a modified pathway for the synthesis of rebaudioside A from steviol.

  12. A genome-wide screening uncovers the role of CCAR2 as an antagonist of DNA end resection.

    PubMed

    López-Saavedra, Ana; Gómez-Cabello, Daniel; Domínguez-Sánchez, María Salud; Mejías-Navarro, Fernando; Fernández-Ávila, María Jesús; Dinant, Christoffel; Martínez-Macías, María Isabel; Bartek, Jiri; Huertas, Pablo

    2016-08-09

    There are two major and alternative pathways to repair DNA double-strand breaks: non-homologous end-joining and homologous recombination. Here we identify and characterize novel factors involved in choosing between these pathways; in this study we took advantage of the SeeSaw Reporter, in which the repair of double-strand breaks by homology-independent or -dependent mechanisms is distinguished by the accumulation of green or red fluorescence, respectively. Using a genome-wide human esiRNA (endoribonuclease-prepared siRNA) library, we isolate genes that control the recombination/end-joining ratio. Here we report that two distinct sets of genes are involved in the control of the balance between NHEJ and HR: those that are required to facilitate recombination and those that favour NHEJ. This last category includes CCAR2/DBC1, which we show inhibits recombination by limiting the initiation and the extent of DNA end resection, thereby acting as an antagonist of CtIP.

  13. Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis uncovers the molecular basis underlying early flowering and apetalous characteristic in Brassica napus L

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kunjiang; Wang, Xiaodong; Chen, Feng; Chen, Song; Peng, Qi; Li, Hongge; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Maolong; Chu, Pu; Zhang, Jiefu; Guan, Rongzhan

    2016-01-01

    Floral transition and petal onset, as two main aspects of flower development, are crucial to rapeseed evolutionary success and yield formation. Currently, very little is known regarding the genetic architecture that regulates flowering time and petal morphogenesis in Brassica napus. In the present study, a genome-wide transcriptomic analysis was performed with an absolutely apetalous and early flowering line, APL01, and a normally petalled line, PL01, using high-throughput RNA sequencing. In total, 13,205 differential expressed genes were detected, of which 6111 genes were significantly down-regulated, while 7094 genes were significantly up-regulated in the young inflorescences of APL01 compared with PL01. The expression levels of a vast number of genes involved in protein biosynthesis were altered in response to the early flowering and apetalous character. Based on the putative rapeseed flowering genes, an early flowering network, mainly comprised of vernalization and photoperiod pathways, was built. Additionally, 36 putative upstream genes possibly governing the apetalous character of line APL01 were identified, and six genes potentially regulating petal origination were obtained by combining with three petal-related quantitative trait loci. These findings will facilitate understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying floral transition and petal initiation in B. napus. PMID:27460760

  14. Uncovering the Salt Response of Soybean by Unraveling Its Wild and Cultivated Functional Genomes Using Tag Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Zulfiqar; Zhang, Da Yong; Xu, Zhao Long; Xu, Ling; Yi, Jin Xin; He, Xiao Lan; Huang, Yi Hong; Liu, Xiao Qing; Khan, Asif Ali; Trethowan, Richard M.; Ma, Hong Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Soil salinity has very adverse effects on growth and yield of crop plants. Several salt tolerant wild accessions and cultivars are reported in soybean. Functional genomes of salt tolerant Glycine soja and a salt sensitive genotype of Glycine max were investigated to understand the mechanism of salt tolerance in soybean. For this purpose, four libraries were constructed for Tag sequencing on Illumina platform. We identify around 490 salt responsive genes which included a number of transcription factors, signaling proteins, translation factors and structural genes like transporters, multidrug resistance proteins, antiporters, chaperons, aquaporins etc. The gene expression levels and ratio of up/down-regulated genes was greater in tolerant plants. Translation related genes remained stable or showed slightly higher expression in tolerant plants under salinity stress. Further analyses of sequenced data and the annotations for gene ontology and pathways indicated that soybean adapts to salt stress through ABA biosynthesis and regulation of translation and signal transduction of structural genes. Manipulation of these pathways may mitigate the effect of salt stress thus enhancing salt tolerance. PMID:23209559

  15. Genetic diversity and breeding history of Winter Mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) in China uncovered by genomic SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao Bin; Feng, Bang; Li, Jing; Yan, Chen; Yang, Zhu L

    2016-10-10

    Flammulina velutipes is one of the most widely cultivated mushroom species in China. However, its genetic background remains poorly understood due to the limited sampling and poor molecular markers used. In this study, 124 F. velutipes strains were employed, including 110 cultivars and 14 wild strains, and 25 new SSR markers were developed based on the genome of F. velutipes. A total of 153 alleles were detected in 124 strains to investigate the improper cultivar naming, genetic diversity and breeding history of F. velutipes in China. Our fingerprinting analyses indicated that 65 strains can be differentiated from the total of 124 strains, and over 53% of the strains are labeled with improper commercial names. The genetic diversities of wild strains are higher than those of the cultivars, suggesting that wild strains may harbor a large "arsenal" gene pool in nature available for strain breeding. The white cultivars in China were originally introduced from Japan, while the yellow cultivars were directly domesticated from wild strains isolated from southeastern China or hybridized between the white cultivars and yellow strains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A genome-wide screening uncovers the role of CCAR2 as an antagonist of DNA end resection

    PubMed Central

    López-Saavedra, Ana; Gómez-Cabello, Daniel; Domínguez-Sánchez, María Salud; Mejías-Navarro, Fernando; Fernández-Ávila, María Jesús; Dinant, Christoffel; Martínez-Macías, María Isabel; Bartek, Jiri; Huertas, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    There are two major and alternative pathways to repair DNA double-strand breaks: non-homologous end-joining and homologous recombination. Here we identify and characterize novel factors involved in choosing between these pathways; in this study we took advantage of the SeeSaw Reporter, in which the repair of double-strand breaks by homology-independent or -dependent mechanisms is distinguished by the accumulation of green or red fluorescence, respectively. Using a genome-wide human esiRNA (endoribonuclease-prepared siRNA) library, we isolate genes that control the recombination/end-joining ratio. Here we report that two distinct sets of genes are involved in the control of the balance between NHEJ and HR: those that are required to facilitate recombination and those that favour NHEJ. This last category includes CCAR2/DBC1, which we show inhibits recombination by limiting the initiation and the extent of DNA end resection, thereby acting as an antagonist of CtIP. PMID:27503537

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecalis PC1.1, a Candidate Probiotic Strain Isolated from Human Feces

    PubMed Central

    Ó Cuív, Páraic; Klaassens, Eline S.; Smith, Wendy J.; Mondot, Stanislas; Durkin, A. Scott; Harkins, Derek M.; Foster, Les; McCorrison, Jamison; Torralba, Manolito; Nelson, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is commonly isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of healthy infants and adults, where it contributes to host health and well-being. We describe here the draft genome sequence of E. faecalis PC1.1, a candidate probiotic strain isolated from human feces. PMID:23469340

  18. PICARA, an analytical pipeline providing probabilistic inference about a priori candidates genes underlying genome-wide association QTL in plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    PICARA is an analytical pipeline designed to systematically summarize observed SNP/trait associations identified by genome wide association studies (GWAS) and to identify candidate genes involved in the regulation of complex trait variation. The pipeline provides probabilistic inference about a prio...

  19. Identification of novel candidate genes associated with cleft lip and palate using array comparative genomic hybridisation.

    PubMed

    Osoegawa, K; Vessere, G M; Utami, K H; Mansilla, M A; Johnson, M K; Riley, B M; L'Heureux, J; Pfundt, R; Staaf, J; van der Vliet, W A; Lidral, A C; Schoenmakers, E F P M; Borg, A; Schutte, B C; Lammer, E J; Murray, J C; de Jong, P J

    2008-02-01

    We analysed DNA samples isolated from individuals born with cleft lip and cleft palate to identify deletions and duplications of candidate gene loci using array comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH). Of 83 syndromic cases analysed we identified one subject with a previously unknown 2.7 Mb deletion at 22q11.21 coinciding with the DiGeorge syndrome region. Eighteen of the syndromic cases had clinical features of Van der Woude syndrome and deletions were identified in five of these, all of which encompassed the interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6) gene. In a series of 104 non-syndromic cases we found one subject with a 3.2 Mb deletion at chromosome 6q25.1-25.2 and another with a 2.2 Mb deletion at 10q26.11-26.13. Analyses of parental DNA demonstrated that the two deletion cases at 22q11.21 and 6q25.1-25.2 were de novo, while the deletion of 10q26.11-26.13 was inherited from the mother, who also has a cleft lip. These deletions appear likely to be causally associated with the phenotypes of the subjects. Estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) genes from the 6q25.1-25.2 and 10q26.11-26.13, respectively, were identified as likely causative genes using a gene prioritization software. We have shown that array-CGH analysis of DNA samples derived from cleft lip and palate subjects is an efficient and productive method for identifying candidate chromosomal loci and genes, complementing traditional genetic mapping strategies.

  20. LSAMP, a novel candidate tumor suppressor gene in human osteosarcomas, identified by array comparative genomic hybridization.

    PubMed

    Kresse, Stine H; Ohnstad, Hege O; Paulsen, Erik B; Bjerkehagen, Bodil; Szuhai, Karoly; Serra, Massimo; Schaefer, Karl-Ludwig; Myklebost, Ola; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A

    2009-08-01

    Osteosarcomas are the most common primary malignant tumor of bone, and almost all conventional osteosarcomas are high-grade tumors with complex karyotypes. We have examined DNA copy number changes in 36 osteosarcoma tumors and 20 cell lines using microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization. The most frequent minimal recurrent regions of gain identified in the tumor samples were in 1q21.2-q21.3 (78% of the samples), 1q21.3-q22 (78%), and 8q22.1 (72%). Minimal recurrent regions in 10q22.1-q22.2 (81%), 6q16.1 (67%), 13q14.2 (67%), and 13q21.1 (67%) were most frequently lost. A small region in 3q13.31 (2.1 Mb) containing the gene limbic system-associated membrane protein (LSAMP) was frequently deleted (56%). LSAMP has previously been reported to be a candidate tumor suppressor gene in other cancer types. The deletion was validated using fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the expression level and promoter methylation status of LSAMP were investigated using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR and methylation-specific PCR, respectively. LSAMP showed low expression compared to two normal bone samples in 6/15 tumors and 5/9 cell lines with deletion of 3q13.31, and also in 5/14 tumors and 3/11 cell lines with normal copy number or gain. Partial or full methylation of the investigated CpG island was identified in 3/30 tumors and 7/20 cell lines. Statistical analyses revealed that loss of 11p15.4-p15.3 and low expression of LSAMP (both P = 0.011) were significantly associated with poor survival. Our results show that LSAMP is a novel candidate tumor suppressor gene in osteosarcomas.

  1. Candidate genes, pathways and mechanisms for alcoholism: an expanded convergent functional genomics approach.

    PubMed

    Rodd, Z A; Bertsch, B A; Strother, W N; Le-Niculescu, H; Balaraman, Y; Hayden, E; Jerome, R E; Lumeng, L; Nurnberger, J I; Edenberg, H J; McBride, W J; Niculescu, A B

    2007-08-01

    We describe a comprehensive translational approach for identifying candidate genes for alcoholism. The approach relies on the cross-matching of animal model brain gene expression data with human genetic linkage data, as well as human tissue data and biological roles data, an approach termed convergent functional genomics. An analysis of three animal model paradigms, based on inbred alcohol-preferring (iP) and alcohol-non-preferring (iNP) rats, and their response to treatments with alcohol, was used. A comprehensive analysis of microarray gene expression data from five key brain regions (frontal cortex, amygdala, caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens and hippocampus) was carried out. The Bayesian-like integration of multiple independent lines of evidence, each by itself lacking sufficient discriminatory power, led to the identification of high probability candidate genes, pathways and mechanisms for alcoholism. These data reveal that alcohol has pleiotropic effects on multiple systems, which may explain the diverse neuropsychiatric and medical pathology in alcoholism. Some of the pathways identified suggest avenues for pharmacotherapy of alcoholism with existing agents, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Experiments we carried out in alcohol-preferring rats with an ACE inhibitor show a marked modulation of alcohol intake. Other pathways are new potential targets for drug development. The emergent overall picture is that physical and physiological robustness may permit alcohol-preferring individuals to withstand the aversive effects of alcohol. In conjunction with a higher reactivity to its rewarding effects, they may able to ingest enough of this nonspecific drug for a strong hedonic and addictive effect to occur.

  2. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Candidate Loci Underlying Agronomic Traits in a Middle American Diversity Panel of Common Bean.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Samira Mafi; Mamidi, Sujan; Osorno, Juan M; Lee, Rian; Brick, Mark; Kelly, James; Miklas, Phillip; Urrea, Carlos; Song, Qijian; Cregan, Perry; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; McClean, Phillip E

    2016-11-01

    Common bean ( L.) breeding programs aim to improve both agronomic and seed characteristics traits. However, the genetic architecture of the many traits that affect common bean production are not completely understood. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide an experimental approach to identify genomic regions where important candidate genes are located. A panel of 280 modern bean genotypes from race Mesoamerica, referred to as the Middle American Diversity Panel (MDP), were grown in four US locations, and a GWAS using >150,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (minor allele frequency [MAF] ≥ 5%) was conducted for six agronomic traits. The degree of inter- and intrachromosomal linkage disequilibrium (LD) was estimated after accounting for population structure and relatedness. The LD varied between chromosomes for the entire MDP and among race Mesoamerica and Durango-Jalisco genotypes within the panel. The LD patterns reflected the breeding history of common bean. Genome-wide association studies led to the discovery of new and known genomic regions affecting the agronomic traits at the entire population, race, and location levels. We observed strong colocalized signals in a narrow genomic interval for three interrelated traits: growth habit, lodging, and canopy height. Overall, this study detected ∼30 candidate genes based on a priori and candidate gene search strategies centered on the 100-kb region surrounding a significant SNP. These results provide a framework from which further research can begin to understand the actual genes controlling important agronomic production traits in common bean. Copyright © 2016 Crop Science Society of America.

  3. The CanOE Strategy: Integrating Genomic and Metabolic Contexts across Multiple Prokaryote Genomes to Find Candidate Genes for Orphan Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Adam Alexander Thil; Belda, Eugeni; Viari, Alain; Medigue, Claudine; Vallenet, David

    2012-01-01

    Of all biochemically characterized metabolic reactions formalized by the IUBMB, over one out of four have yet to be associated with a nucleic or protein sequence, i.e. are sequence-orphan enzymatic activities. Few bioinformatics annotation tools are able to propose candidate genes for such activities by exploiting context-dependent rather than sequence-dependent data, and none are readily accessible and propose result integration across multiple genomes. Here, we present CanOE (Candidate genes for Orphan Enzymes), a four-step bioinformatics strategy that proposes ranked candidate genes for sequence-orphan enzymatic activities (or orphan enzymes for short). The first step locates “genomic metabolons”, i.e. groups of co-localized genes coding proteins catalyzing reactions linked by shared metabolites, in one genome at a time. These metabolons can be particularly helpful for aiding bioanalysts to visualize relevant metabolic data. In the second step, they are used to generate candidate associations between un-annotated genes and gene-less reactions. The third step integrates these gene-reaction associations over several genomes using gene families, and summarizes the strength of family-reaction associations by several scores. In the final step, these scores are used to rank members of gene families which are proposed for metabolic reactions. These associations are of particular interest when the metabolic reaction is a sequence-orphan enzymatic activity. Our strategy found over 60,000 genomic metabolons in more than 1,000 prokaryote organisms from the MicroScope platform, generating candidate genes for many metabolic reactions, of which more than 70 distinct orphan reactions. A computational validation of the approach is discussed. Finally, we present a case study on the anaerobic allantoin degradation pathway in Escherichia coli K-12. PMID:22693442

  4. Whole genome sequencing resource identifies 18 new candidate genes for autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    C Yuen, Ryan K; Merico, Daniele; Bookman, Matt; L Howe, Jennifer; Thiruvahindrapuram, Bhooma; Patel, Rohan V; Whitney, Joe; Deflaux, Nicole; Bingham, Jonathan; Wang, Zhuozhi; Pellecchia, Giovanna; Buchanan, Janet A; Walker, Susan; Marshall, Christian R; Uddin, Mohammed; Zarrei, Mehdi; Deneault, Eric; D'Abate, Lia; Chan, Ada J S; Koyanagi, Stephanie; Paton, Tara; Pereira, Sergio L; Hoang, Ny; Engchuan, Worrawat; Higginbotham, Edward J; Ho, Karen; Lamoureux, Sylvia; Li, Weili; MacDonald, Jeffrey R; Nalpathamkalam, Thomas; Sung, Wilson W L; Tsoi, Fiona J; Wei, John; Xu, Lizhen; Tasse, Anne-Marie; Kirby, Emily; Van Etten, William; Twigger, Simon; Roberts, Wendy; Drmic, Irene; Jilderda, Sanne; Modi, Bonnie MacKinnon; Kellam, Barbara; Szego, Michael; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Weksberg, Rosanna; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Woodbury-Smith, Marc; Brian, Jessica; Senman, Lili; Iaboni, Alana; Doyle-Thomas, Krissy; Thompson, Ann; Chrysler, Christina; Leef, Jonathan; Savion-Lemieux, Tal; Smith, Isabel M; Liu, Xudong; Nicolson, Rob; Seifer, Vicki; Fedele, Angie; Cook, Edwin H; Dager, Stephen; Estes, Annette; Gallagher, Louise; Malow, Beth A; Parr, Jeremy R; Spence, Sarah J; Vorstman, Jacob; Frey, Brendan J; Robinson, James T; Strug, Lisa J; Fernandez, Bridget A; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Carter, Melissa T; Hallmayer, Joachim; Knoppers, Bartha M; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Szatmari, Peter; Ring, Robert H; Glazer, David; Pletcher, Mathew T; Scherer, Stephen W

    2017-04-01

    We are performing whole-genome sequencing of families with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to build a resource (MSSNG) for subcategorizing the phenotypes and underlying genetic factors involved. Here we report sequencing of 5,205 samples from families with ASD, accompanied by clinical information, creating a database accessible on a cloud platform and through a controlled-access internet portal. We found an average of 73.8 de novo single nucleotide variants and 12.6 de novo insertions and deletions or copy number variations per ASD subject. We identified 18 new candidate ASD-risk genes and found that participants bearing mutations in susceptibility genes had significantly lower adaptive ability (P = 6 × 10(-4)). In 294 of 2,620 (11.2%) of ASD cases, a molecular basis could be determined and 7.2% of these carried copy number variations and/or chromosomal abnormalities, emphasizing the importance of detecting all forms of genetic variation as diagnostic and therapeutic targets in ASD.

  5. A genome scan for candidate genes involved in the adaptation of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Vilas, Román; Vandamme, Sara G; Vera, Manuel; Bouza, Carmen; Maes, Gregory E; Volckaert, Filip A M; Martínez, Paulino

    2015-10-01

    Partitioning phenotypic variance in genotypic and environmental variance may benefit from the population genomic assignment of genes putatively involved in adaptation. We analyzed a total of 256 markers (120 microsatellites and 136 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms - SNPs), several of them associated to Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for growth and resistance to pathologies, with the aim to identify potential adaptive variation in turbot Scophthalmus maximus L. The study area in the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean, from Iberian Peninsula to the Baltic Sea, involves a gradual change in temperature and an abrupt change in salinity conditions. We detected 27 candidate loci putatively under selection. At least four of the five SNPs identified as outliers are located within genes coding for ribosomal proteins or directly related with the production of cellular proteins. One of the detected outliers, previously identified as part of a QTL for growth, is a microsatellite linked to a gene coding for a growth factor receptor. A similar set of outliers was detected when natural populations were compared with a sample subjected to strong artificial selection for growth along four generations. The observed association between FST outliers and growth-related QTL supports the hypothesis of changes in growth as an adaptation to differences in temperature and salinity conditions. However, further work is needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  6. Application of genomic and quantitative genetic tools to identify candidate resistance genes for brown rot resistance in peach.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Pedro J; Parfitt, Dan E; Bostock, Richard M; Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Vazquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Ogundiwin, Ebenezer A; Gradziel, Thomas M; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2013-01-01

    The availability of a complete peach genome assembly and three different peach genome sequences created by our group provide new opportunities for application of genomic data and can improve the power of the classical Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) approaches to identify candidate genes for peach disease resistance. Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp., is the most important fungal disease of stone fruits worldwide. Improved levels of peach fruit rot resistance have been identified in some cultivars and advanced selections developed in the UC Davis and USDA breeding programs. Whole genome sequencing of the Pop-DF parents lead to discovery of high-quality SNP markers for QTL genome scanning in this experimental population. Pop-DF created by crossing a brown rot moderately resistant cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a brown rot resistant introgression line, 'F8,1-42', derived from an initial almond × peach interspecific hybrid, was evaluated for brown rot resistance in fruit of harvest maturity over three seasons. Using the SNP linkage map of Pop-DF and phenotypic data collected with inoculated fruit, a genome scan for QTL identified several SNP markers associated with brown rot resistance. Two of these QTLs were placed on linkage group 1, covering a large (physical) region on chromosome 1. The genome scan for QTL and SNP effects predicted several candidate genes associated with disease resistance responses in other host-pathogen systems. Two potential candidate genes, ppa011763m and ppa026453m, may be the genes primarily responsible for M. fructicola recognition in peach, activating both PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) responses. Our results provide a foundation for further genetic dissection, marker assisted breeding for brown rot resistance, and development of peach cultivars resistant to brown rot.

  7. Genome-wide association links candidate genes to resistance to Plum Pox Virus in apricot (Prunus armeniaca).

    PubMed

    Mariette, Stéphanie; Wong Jun Tai, Fabienne; Roch, Guillaume; Barre, Aurélien; Chague, Aurélie; Decroocq, Stéphane; Groppi, Alexis; Laizet, Yec'han; Lambert, Patrick; Tricon, David; Nikolski, Macha; Audergon, Jean-Marc; Abbott, Albert G; Decroocq, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    In fruit tree species, many important traits have been characterized genetically by using single-family descent mapping in progenies segregating for the traits. However, most mapped loci have not been sufficiently resolved to the individual genes due to insufficient progeny sizes for high resolution mapping and the previous lack of whole-genome sequence resources of the study species. To address this problem for Plum Pox Virus (PPV) candidate resistance gene identification in Prunus species, we implemented a genome-wide association (GWA) approach in apricot. This study exploited the broad genetic diversity of the apricot (Prunus armeniaca) germplasm containing resistance to PPV, next-generation sequence-based genotyping, and the high-quality peach (Prunus persica) genome reference sequence for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification. The results of this GWA study validated previously reported PPV resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) intervals, highlighted other potential resistance loci, and resolved each to a limited set of candidate genes for further study. This work substantiates the association genetics approach for resolution of QTL to candidate genes in apricot and suggests that this approach could simplify identification of other candidate genes for other marked trait intervals in this germplasm. © 2015 INRA, UMR 1332 BFP New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. The genome of the protozoan parasite Cystoisospora suis and a reverse vaccinology approach to identify vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Nicola; Shrestha, Aruna; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Beck, Tomas; Vogl, Claus; Tomley, Fiona; Blake, Damer P; Joachim, Anja

    2017-02-02

    Vaccine development targeting protozoan parasites remains challenging, partly due to the complex interactions between these eukaryotes and the host immune system. Reverse vaccinology is a promising approach for direct screening of genome sequence assemblies for new vaccine candidate proteins. Here, we applied this paradigm to Cystoisospora suis, an apicomplexan parasite that causes enteritis and diarrhea in suckling piglets and economic losses in pig production worldwide. Using Next Generation Sequencing we produced an ∼84Mb sequence assembly for the C. suis genome, making it the first available reference for the genus Cystoisospora. Then, we derived a manually curated annotation of more than 11,000 protein-coding genes and applied the tool Vacceed to identify 1,168 vaccine candidates by screening the predicted C. suis proteome. To refine the set of candidates, we looked at proteins that are highly expressed in merozoites and specific to apicomplexans. The stringent set of candidates included 220 proteins, among which were 152 proteins with unknown function, 17 surface antigens of the SAG and SRS gene families, 12 proteins of the apicomplexan-specific secretory organelles including AMA1, MIC6, MIC13, ROP6, ROP12, ROP27, ROP32 and three proteins related to cell adhesion. Finally, we demonstrated in vitro the immunogenic potential of a C. suis-specific 42kDa transmembrane protein, which might constitute an attractive candidate for further testing.

  9. Genomic analysis reveals MATH gene(s) as candidate(s) for Plum pox virus (PPV) resistance in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    PubMed

    Zuriaga, Elena; Soriano, José Miguel; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana; Romero, Carlos; Dardick, Chris; Cañizares, Joaquín; Badenes, Maria Luisa

    2013-09-01

    Sharka disease, caused by Plum pox virus (PPV), is the most important viral disease affecting Prunus species. A major PPV resistance locus (PPVres) has been mapped to the upper part of apricot (Prunus armeniaca) linkage group 1. In this study, a physical map of the PPVres locus in the PPV-resistant cultivar 'Goldrich' was constructed. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones belonging to the resistant haplotype contig were sequenced using 454/GS-FLX Titanium technology. Concurrently, the whole genome of seven apricot varieties (three PPV-resistant and four PPV-susceptible) and two PPV-susceptible apricot relatives (P. sibirica var. davidiana and P. mume) were obtained using the Illumina-HiSeq2000 platform. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the mapped interval, recorded from alignments against the peach genome, allowed us to narrow down the PPVres locus to a region of ∼196 kb. Searches for polymorphisms linked in coupling with the resistance led to the identification of 68 variants within 23 predicted transcripts according to peach genome annotation. Candidate resistance genes were ranked combining data from variant calling and predicted functions inferred from sequence homology. Together, the results suggest that members of a cluster of meprin and TRAF-C homology domain (MATHd)-containing proteins are the most likely candidate genes for PPV resistance in apricot. Interestingly, MATHd proteins are hypothesized to control long-distance movement (LDM) of potyviruses in Arabidopsis, and restriction for LDM is also a major component of PPV resistance in apricot. Although the PPV resistance gene(s) remains to be unambiguously identified, these results pave the way to the determination of the underlying mechanism and to the development of more accurate breeding strategies. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  10. Genome-Wide Analyses of Nkx2-1 Binding to Transcriptional Target Genes Uncover Novel Regulatory Patterns Conserved in Lung Development and Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tagne, Jean-Bosco; Gupta, Sumeet; Gower, Adam C.; Shen, Steven S.; Varma, Saaket; Lakshminarayanan, Meenakshi; Cao, Yuxia; Spira, Avrum; Volkert, Thomas L.; Ramirez, Maria I.

    2012-01-01

    The homeodomain transcription factor Nkx2-1 is essential for normal lung development and homeostasis. In lung tumors, it is considered a lineage survival oncogene and prognostic factor depending on its expression levels. The target genes directly bound by Nkx2-1, that could be the primary effectors of its functions in the different cellular contexts where it is expressed, are mostly unknown. In embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5) mouse lung, epithelial cells expressing Nkx2-1 are predominantly expanding, and in E19.5 prenatal lungs, Nkx2-1-expressing cells are predominantly differentiating in preparation for birth. To evaluate Nkx2-1 regulated networks in these two cell contexts, we analyzed genome-wide binding of Nkx2-1 to DNA regulatory regions by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by tiling array analysis, and intersected these data to expression data sets. We further determined expression patterns of Nkx2-1 developmental target genes in human lung tumors and correlated their expression levels to that of endogenous NKX2-1. In these studies we uncovered differential Nkx2-1 regulated networks in early and late lung development, and a direct function of Nkx2-1 in regulation of the cell cycle by controlling the expression of proliferation-related genes. New targets, validated in Nkx2-1 shRNA transduced cell lines, include E2f3, Cyclin B1, Cyclin B2, and c-Met. Expression levels of Nkx2-1 direct target genes identified in mouse development significantly correlate or anti-correlate to the levels of endogenous NKX2-1 in a dosage-dependent manner in multiple human lung tumor expression data sets, supporting alternative roles for Nkx2-1 as a transcriptional activator or repressor, and direct regulator of cell cycle progression in development and tumors. PMID:22242187

  11. Genome-wide association study identifies PERLD1 as asthma candidate gene

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for asthma have been successful in identifying novel associations which have been well replicated. The aim of this study is to identify the genetic variants that influence predisposition towards asthma in an ethnic Chinese population in Singapore using a GWAS approach. Methods A two-stage GWAS was performed in case samples with allergic asthma, and in control samples without asthma and atopy. In the discovery stage, 490 case and 490 control samples were analysed by pooled genotyping. Significant associations from the first stage were evaluated in a replication cohort of 521 case and 524 control samples in the second stage. The same 980 samples used in the discovery phase were also individually genotyped for purposes of a combined analysis. An additional 1445 non-asthmatic atopic control samples were also genotyped. Results 19 promising SNPs which passed our genome-wide P value threshold of 5.52 × 10-8 were individually genotyped. In the combined analysis of 1011 case and 1014 control samples, SNP rs2941504 in PERLD1 on chromosome 17q12 was found to be significantly associated with asthma at the genotypic level (P = 1.48 × 10-6, ORAG = 0.526 (0.369-0.700), ORAA = 0.480 (0.361-0.639)) and at the allelic level (P = 9.56 × 10-6, OR = 0.745 (0.654-0.848)). These findings were found to be replicated in 3 other asthma GWAS studies, thus validating our own results. Analysis against the atopy control samples suggested that the SNP was associated with allergic asthma and not to either the asthma or allergy components. Genotyping of additional SNPs in 100 kb flanking rs2941504 further confirmed that the association was indeed to PERLD1. PERLD1 is involved in the modification of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors for cell surface markers such as CD48 and CD59 which are known to play multiple roles in T-cell activation and proliferation. Conclusions These findings reveal the association of a PERLD1 as a novel

  12. Candidate pathogenicity islands in the genome of ‘Candidatus Rickettsiella isopodorum’, an intracellular bacterium infecting terrestrial isopod crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, YaDong

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial genus Rickettsiellabelongs to the order Legionellales in the Gammaproteobacteria, and consists of several described species and pathotypes, most of which are considered to be intracellular pathogens infecting arthropods. Two members of this genus, R. grylliand R. isopodorum, are known to infect terrestrial isopod crustaceans. In this study, we assembled a draft genomic sequence for R. isopodorum, and performed a comparative genomic analysis with R. grylli. We found evidence for several candidate genomic island regions in R. isopodorum, none of which appear in the previously available R. grylli genome sequence.Furthermore, one of these genomic island candidates in R. isopodorum contained a gene that encodes a cytotoxin partially homologous to those found in Photorhabdus luminescensand Xenorhabdus nematophilus (Enterobacteriaceae), suggesting that horizontal gene transfer may have played a role in the evolution of pathogenicity in Rickettsiella. These results lay the groundwork for future studies on the mechanisms underlying pathogenesis in R. isopodorum, and this system may provide a good model for studying the evolution of host-microbe interactions in nature. PMID:28028472

  13. Genome-wide association study identifies candidate genes for Parkinson's disease in an Ashkenazi Jewish population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinmin; Cheng, Rong; Verbitsky, Miguel; Kisselev, Sergey; Browne, Andrew; Mejia-Sanatana, Helen; Louis, Elan D; Cote, Lucien J; Andrews, Howard; Waters, Cheryl; Ford, Blair; Frucht, Steven; Fahn, Stanley; Marder, Karen; Clark, Lorraine N; Lee, Joseph H

    2011-08-03

    To date, nine Parkinson disease (PD) genome-wide association studies in North American, European and Asian populations have been published. The majority of studies have confirmed the association of the previously identified genetic risk factors, SNCA and MAPT, and two studies have identified three new PD susceptibility loci/genes (PARK16, BST1 and HLA-DRB5). In a recent meta-analysis of datasets from five of the published PD GWAS an additional 6 novel candidate genes (SYT11, ACMSD, STK39, MCCC1/LAMP3, GAK and CCDC62/HIP1R) were identified. Collectively the associations identified in these GWAS account for only a small proportion of the estimated total heritability of PD suggesting that an 'unknown' component of the genetic architecture of PD remains to be identified. We applied a GWAS approach to a relatively homogeneous Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population from New York to search for both 'rare' and 'common' genetic variants that confer risk of PD by examining any SNPs with allele frequencies exceeding 2%. We have focused on a genetic isolate, the AJ population, as a discovery dataset since this cohort has a higher sharing of genetic background and historically experienced a significant bottleneck. We also conducted a replication study using two publicly available datasets from dbGaP. The joint analysis dataset had a combined sample size of 2,050 cases and 1,836 controls. We identified the top 57 SNPs showing the strongest evidence of association in the AJ dataset (p < 9.9 × 10(-5)). Six SNPs located within gene regions had positive signals in at least one other independent dbGaP dataset: LOC100505836 (Chr3p24), LOC153328/SLC25A48 (Chr5q31.1), UNC13B (9p13.3), SLCO3A1(15q26.1), WNT3(17q21.3) and NSF (17q21.3). We also replicated published associations for the gene regions SNCA (Chr4q21; rs3775442, p = 0.037), PARK16 (Chr1q32.1; rs823114 (NUCKS1), p = 6.12 × 10(-4)), BST1 (Chr4p15; rs12502586, p = 0.027), STK39 (Chr2q24.3; rs3754775, p = 0.005), and LAMP3 (Chr3; rs

  14. Genome-Wide association study identifies candidate genes for Parkinson's disease in an Ashkenazi Jewish population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To date, nine Parkinson disease (PD) genome-wide association studies in North American, European and Asian populations have been published. The majority of studies have confirmed the association of the previously identified genetic risk factors, SNCA and MAPT, and two studies have identified three new PD susceptibility loci/genes (PARK16, BST1 and HLA-DRB5). In a recent meta-analysis of datasets from five of the published PD GWAS an additional 6 novel candidate genes (SYT11, ACMSD, STK39, MCCC1/LAMP3, GAK and CCDC62/HIP1R) were identified. Collectively the associations identified in these GWAS account for only a small proportion of the estimated total heritability of PD suggesting that an 'unknown' component of the genetic architecture of PD remains to be identified. Methods We applied a GWAS approach to a relatively homogeneous Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population from New York to search for both 'rare' and 'common' genetic variants that confer risk of PD by examining any SNPs with allele frequencies exceeding 2%. We have focused on a genetic isolate, the AJ population, as a discovery dataset since this cohort has a higher sharing of genetic background and historically experienced a significant bottleneck. We also conducted a replication study using two publicly available datasets from dbGaP. The joint analysis dataset had a combined sample size of 2,050 cases and 1,836 controls. Results We identified the top 57 SNPs showing the strongest evidence of association in the AJ dataset (p < 9.9 × 10-5). Six SNPs located within gene regions had positive signals in at least one other independent dbGaP dataset: LOC100505836 (Chr3p24), LOC153328/SLC25A48 (Chr5q31.1), UNC13B (9p13.3), SLCO3A1(15q26.1), WNT3(17q21.3) and NSF (17q21.3). We also replicated published associations for the gene regions SNCA (Chr4q21; rs3775442, p = 0.037), PARK16 (Chr1q32.1; rs823114 (NUCKS1), p = 6.12 × 10-4), BST1 (Chr4p15; rs12502586, p = 0.027), STK39 (Chr2q24.3; rs3754775, p = 0

  15. Comparative Genomics of Candidate Phylum TM6 Suggests That Parasitism Is Widespread and Ancestral in This Lineage.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, Yun Kit; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Parks, Donovan H; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Candidate phylum TM6 is a major bacterial lineage recognized through culture-independent rRNA surveys to be low abundance members in a wide range of habitats; however, they are poorly characterized due to a lack of pure culture representatives. Two recent genomic studies of TM6 bacteria revealed small genomes and limited gene repertoire, consistent with known or inferred dependence on eukaryotic hosts for their metabolic needs. Here, we obtained additional near-complete genomes of TM6 populations from agricultural soil and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor metagenomes which, together with the two publicly available TM6 genomes, represent seven distinct family level lineages in the TM6 phylum. Genome-based phylogenetic analysis confirms that TM6 is an independent phylum level lineage in the bacterial domain, possibly affiliated with the Patescibacteria superphylum. All seven genomes are small (1.0-1.5 Mb) and lack complete biosynthetic pathways for various essential cellular building blocks including amino acids, lipids, and nucleotides. These and other features identified in the TM6 genomes such as a degenerated cell envelope, ATP/ADP translocases for parasitizing host ATP pools, and protein motifs to facilitate eukaryotic host interactions indicate that parasitism is widespread in this phylum. Phylogenetic analysis of ATP/ADP translocase genes suggests that the ancestral TM6 lineage was also parasitic. We propose the name Dependentiae (phyl. nov.) to reflect dependence of TM6 bacteria on host organisms.

  16. Comparative Genomics of Candidate Phylum TM6 Suggests That Parasitism Is Widespread and Ancestral in This Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Yun Kit; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Parks, Donovan H.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Candidate phylum TM6 is a major bacterial lineage recognized through culture-independent rRNA surveys to be low abundance members in a wide range of habitats; however, they are poorly characterized due to a lack of pure culture representatives. Two recent genomic studies of TM6 bacteria revealed small genomes and limited gene repertoire, consistent with known or inferred dependence on eukaryotic hosts for their metabolic needs. Here, we obtained additional near-complete genomes of TM6 populations from agricultural soil and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor metagenomes which, together with the two publicly available TM6 genomes, represent seven distinct family level lineages in the TM6 phylum. Genome-based phylogenetic analysis confirms that TM6 is an independent phylum level lineage in the bacterial domain, possibly affiliated with the Patescibacteria superphylum. All seven genomes are small (1.0–1.5 Mb) and lack complete biosynthetic pathways for various essential cellular building blocks including amino acids, lipids, and nucleotides. These and other features identified in the TM6 genomes such as a degenerated cell envelope, ATP/ADP translocases for parasitizing host ATP pools, and protein motifs to facilitate eukaryotic host interactions indicate that parasitism is widespread in this phylum. Phylogenetic analysis of ATP/ADP translocase genes suggests that the ancestral TM6 lineage was also parasitic. We propose the name Dependentiae (phyl. nov.) to reflect dependence of TM6 bacteria on host organisms. PMID:26615204

  17. Genome analysis of a clinical isolate of Shewanella sp. uncovered an active hybrid integrative and conjugative element carrying an integron platform inserted in a novel genomic locus.

    PubMed

    Parmeciano Di Noto, Gisela; Jara, Eugenio; Iriarte, Andrés; Centrón, Daniela; Quiroga, Cecilia

    2016-08-01

    Shewanella spp. are currently considered to be emerging pathogens that can code for a blaOXA carbapenemase in their chromosome. Complete genome analysis of the clinical isolate Shewanella sp. Sh95 revealed that this strain is a novel species, which shares a lineage with marine isolates. Characterization of its resistome showed that it codes for genes drfA15, qacH and blaOXA-48. We propose that Shewanella sp. Sh95 acts as reservoir of blaOXA-48. Moreover, analysis of mobilome showed that it contains a novel integrative and conjugative element (ICE), named ICESh95. Comparative analysis between the close relatives ICESpuPO1 from Shewanella sp. W3-18-1 and ICE SXTMO10 from Vibrio cholerae showed that ICESh95 encompassed two new regions, a type III restriction modification system and a multidrug resistance integron. The integron platform contained a novel arrangement formed by gene cassettes drfA15 and qacH, and a class C-attC group II intron. Furthermore, insertion of ICESh95 occurred at a unique target site, which correlated with the presence of a different xis/int module. Mobility of ICESh95 was assessed and demonstrated its ability to self-transfer with high efficiency to different species of bacteria. Our results show that ICESh95 is a self-transmissible, mobile element, which can contribute to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance; this is clearly a threat when natural bacteria from water ecosystems, such as Shewanella, act as vectors in its propagation.

  18. Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping and Candidate Gene Analysis for Plant Architecture Traits Using Whole Genome Re-Sequencing in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jung-Hyun; Yang, Hyun-Jung; Jung, Ki-Hong; Yoo, Soo-Cheul; Paek, Nam-Chon

    2014-01-01

    Plant breeders have focused on improving plant architecture as an effective means to increase crop yield. Here, we identify the main-effect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for plant shape-related traits in rice (Oryza sativa) and find candidate genes by applying whole genome re-sequencing of two parental cultivars using next-generation sequencing. To identify QTLs influencing plant shape, we analyzed six traits: plant height, tiller number, panicle diameter, panicle length, flag leaf length, and flag leaf width. We performed QTL analysis with 178 F7 recombinant in-bred lines (RILs) from a cross of japonica rice line ‘SNUSG1’ and indica rice line ‘Milyang23’. Using 131 molecular markers, including 28 insertion/deletion markers, we identified 11 main- and 16 minor-effect QTLs for the six traits with a threshold LOD value > 2.8. Our sequence analysis identified fifty-four candidate genes for the main-effect QTLs. By further comparison of coding sequences and meta-expression profiles between japonica and indica rice varieties, we finally chose 15 strong candidate genes for the 11 main-effect QTLs. Our study shows that the whole-genome sequence data substantially enhanced the efficiency of polymorphic marker development for QTL fine-mapping and the identification of possible candidate genes. This yields useful genetic resources for breeding high-yielding rice cultivars with improved plant architecture. PMID:24599000

  19. Leishmania genome analysis and high-throughput immunological screening identifies tuzin as a novel vaccine candidate against visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Bhavana Sethu; Wang, Ruobing; Madhubala, Rentala

    2014-06-24

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmania species. It is a major health concern affecting 88 countries and threatening 350 million people globally. Unfortunately, there are no vaccines and there are limitations associated with the current therapeutic regimens for leishmaniasis. The emerging cases of drug-resistance further aggravate the situation, demanding rapid drug and vaccine development. The genome sequence of Leishmania, provides access to novel genes that hold potential as chemotherapeutic targets or vaccine candidates. In this study, we selected 19 antigenic genes from about 8000 common Leishmania genes based on the Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum genome information available in the pathogen databases. Potential vaccine candidates thus identified were screened using an in vitro high throughput immunological platform developed in the laboratory. Four candidate genes coding for tuzin, flagellar glycoprotein-like protein (FGP), phospholipase A1-like protein (PLA1) and potassium voltage-gated channel protein (K VOLT) showed a predominant protective Th1 response over disease exacerbating Th2. We report the immunogenic properties and protective efficacy of one of the four antigens, tuzin, as a DNA vaccine against Leishmania donovani challenge. Our results show that administration of tuzin DNA protected BALB/c mice against L. donovani challenge and that protective immunity was associated with higher levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 production in comparison to IL-4 and IL-10. Our study presents a simple approach to rapidly identify potential vaccine candidates using the exhaustive information stored in the genome and an in vitro high-throughput immunological platform.

  20. A whole-genome RNAi screen uncovers a novel role for human potassium channels in cell killing by the parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Marie, Chelsea; Verkerke, Hans P; Theodorescu, Dan; Petri, William A

    2015-09-08

    The parasite Entamoeba histolytica kills human cells resulting in ulceration, inflammation and invasion of the colonic epithelium. We used the cytotoxic properties of ameba to select a genome-wide RNAi library to reveal novel host factors that control susceptibility to amebic killing. We identified 281 candidate susceptibility genes and bioinformatics analyses revealed that ion transporters were significantly enriched among susceptibility genes. Potassium (K(+)) channels were the most common transporter identified. Their importance was further supported by colon biopsy of humans with amebiasis that demonstrated suppressed K(+) channel expression. Inhibition of human K(+) channels by genetic silencing, pharmacologic inhibitors and with excess K(+) protected diverse cell types from E. histolytica-induced death. Contact with E. histolytica parasites triggered K(+) channel activation and K(+) efflux by intestinal epithelial cells, which preceded cell killing. Specific inhibition of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels was highly effective in preventing amebic cytotoxicity in intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages. Blockade of K(+) efflux also inhibited caspase-1 activation, IL-1β secretion and pyroptotic death in THP-1 macrophages. We concluded that K(+) channels are host mediators of amebic cytotoxicity in multiple cells types and of inflammasome activation in macrophages.

  1. A whole-genome RNAi screen uncovers a novel role for human potassium channels in cell killing by the parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Marie, Chelsea; Verkerke, Hans P.; Theodorescu, Dan; Petri, William A.

    2015-01-01

    The parasite Entamoeba histolytica kills human cells resulting in ulceration, inflammation and invasion of the colonic epithelium. We used the cytotoxic properties of ameba to select a genome-wide RNAi library to reveal novel host factors that control susceptibility to amebic killing. We identified 281 candidate susceptibility genes and bioinformatics analyses revealed that ion transporters were significantly enriched among susceptibility genes. Potassium (K+) channels were the most common transporter identified. Their importance was further supported by colon biopsy of humans with amebiasis that demonstrated suppressed K+ channel expression. Inhibition of human K+ channels by genetic silencing, pharmacologic inhibitors and with excess K+ protected diverse cell types from E. histolytica-induced death. Contact with E. histolytica parasites triggered K+ channel activation and K+ efflux by intestinal epithelial cells, which preceded cell killing. Specific inhibition of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels was highly effective in preventing amebic cytotoxicity in intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages. Blockade of K+ efflux also inhibited caspase-1 activation, IL-1β secretion and pyroptotic death in THP-1 macrophages. We concluded that K+ channels are host mediators of amebic cytotoxicity in multiple cells types and of inflammasome activation in macrophages. PMID:26346926

  2. Commentary: What is the case for candidate gene approaches in the era of high-throughput genomics? A response to Border and Keller (2017).

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah R

    2017-03-01

    Border and Keller argue that candidate gene approaches are outdated and out-of-touch with the current understanding of the genetic architecture of complex behavioral traits and should be abandoned in favor of unbiased, genome-wide approaches. Border and Keller further suggest that a candidate gene should not be selected for in-depth investigation unless identified by a well-powered genome-wide association study (GWAS). An alternative perspective is offered that candidate approaches can be sensible for developmental and deep-phenotyping studies aimed at elucidating particular biological pathways responsible for the emergence of psychological phenotypes, and that candidates should not necessarily be expected to be confirmed by, or solely selected based on, GWAS. Both candidate and whole genome strategies have limitations, and each approach is useful and valid in the quest to identify the elusive genetic architecture of complex behavioral phenotypes.

  3. Comparative Genomics of the Zoonotic Pathogen Ehrlichia chaffeensis Reveals Candidate Type IV Effectors and Putative Host Cell Targets

    PubMed Central

    Noroy, Christophe; Meyer, Damien F.

    2017-01-01

    During infection, some intracellular pathogenic bacteria use a dedicated multiprotein complex known as the type IV secretion system to deliver type IV effector (T4E) proteins inside the host cell. These T4Es allow the bacteria to evade host defenses and to subvert host cell processes to their own advantage. Ehrlichia chaffeensis is a tick-transmitted obligate intracellular pathogenic bacterium, which causes human monocytic ehrlichiosis. Using comparative whole genome analysis, we identified the relationship between eight available E. chaffeensis genomes isolated from humans and show that these genomes are highly conserved. We identified the candidate core type IV effectome of E. chaffeensis and some conserved intracellular adaptive strategies. We assigned the West Paces strain to genetic group II and predicted the repertoires of T4Es encoded by E. chaffeensis genomes, as well as some putative host cell targets. We demonstrated that predicted T4Es are preferentially distributed in gene sparse regions of the genome. In addition to the identification of the two known type IV effectors of Anaplasmataceae, we identified two novel candidates T4Es, ECHLIB_RS02720 and ECHLIB_RS04640, which are not present in all E. chaffeensis strains and could explain some variations in inter-strain virulence. We also identified another novel candidate T4E, ECHLIB_RS02720, a hypothetical protein exhibiting EPIYA, and NLS domains as well as a classical type IV secretion signal, suggesting an important role inside the host cell. Overall, our results agree with current knowledge of Ehrlichia molecular pathogenesis, and reveal novel candidate T4Es that require experimental validation. This work demonstrates that comparative effectomics enables identification of important host pathways targeted by the bacterial pathogen. Our study, which focuses on the type IV effector repertoires among several strains of E. chaffeensis species, is an original approach and provides rational putative targets

  4. An in silico strategy identified the target gene candidates regulated by dehydration responsive element binding proteins (DREBs) in Arabidopsis genome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shichen; Yang, Shuo; Yin, Yuejia; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Shan; Hao, Dongyun

    2009-01-01

    Identification of downstream target genes of stress-relating transcription factors (TFs) is desirable in understanding cellular responses to various environmental stimuli. However, this has long been a difficult work for both experimental and computational practices. In this research, we presented a novel computational strategy which combined the analysis of the transcription factor binding site (TFBS) contexts and machine learning approach. Using this strategy, we conducted a genome-wide investigation into novel direct target genes of dehydration responsive element binding proteins (DREBs), the members of AP2-EREBPs transcription factor super family which is reported to be responsive to various abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis. The genome-wide searching yielded in total 474 target gene candidates. With reference to the microarray data for abiotic stresses-inducible gene expression profile, 268 target gene candidates out of the total 474 genes predicted, were induced during the 24-h exposure to abiotic stresses. This takes about 57% of total predicted targets. Furthermore, GO annotations revealed that these target genes are likely involved in protein amino acid phosphorylation, protein binding and Endomembrane sorting system. The results suggested that the predicted target gene candidates were adequate to meet the essential biological principle of stress-resistance in plants.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus anginosus BVI, a New Vaginal Pathogen Candidate

    PubMed Central

    Tobar-Tosse, Fabian; Guillermo-Ortega, Jose; Wibberg, Daniel; Tauch, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus anginosus is a pathogen implicated in urogenital and gastroinstestinal tract infections. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of S. anginosus BVI, isolated from a bacterial vaginosis patient attending a prenatal care unit in Cali, Colombia. The genome sequence of BVI consists of 2,014,025 bp, encoding 2,008 predicted proteins. PMID:27979955

  6. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of an Orchid Model Plant Candidate: Erycina pusilla Apply in Tropical Oncidium Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Pan, I-Chun; Liao, Der-Chih; Wu, Fu-Huei; Daniell, Henry; Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Chang, Chen; Shih, Ming-Che; Chan, Ming-Tsair; Lin, Choun-Sea

    2012-01-01

    Oncidium is an important ornamental plant but the study of its functional genomics is difficult. Erycina pusilla is a fast-growing Oncidiinae species. Several characteristics including low chromosome number, small genome size, short growth period, and its ability to complete its life cycle in vitro make E. pusilla a good model candidate and parent for hybridization for orchids. Although genetic information remains limited, systematic molecular analysis of its chloroplast genome might provide useful genetic information. By combining bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones and next-generation sequencing (NGS), the chloroplast (cp) genome of E. pusilla was sequenced accurately, efficiently and economically. The cp genome of E. pusilla shares 89 and 84% similarity with Oncidium Gower Ramsey and Phalanopsis aphrodite, respectively. Comparing these 3 cp genomes, 5 regions have been identified as showing diversity. Using PCR analysis of 19 species belonging to the Epidendroideae subfamily, a conserved deletion was found in the rps15-trnN region of the Cymbidieae tribe. Because commercial Oncidium varieties in Taiwan are limited, identification of potential parents using molecular breeding method has become very important. To demonstrate the relationship between taxonomic position and hybrid compatibility of E. pusilla, 4 DNA regions of 36 tropically adapted Oncidiinae varieties have been analyzed. The results indicated that trnF-ndhJ and trnH-psbA were suitable for phylogenetic analysis. E. pusilla proved to be phylogenetically closer to Rodriguezia and Tolumnia than Oncidium, despite its similar floral appearance to Oncidium. These results indicate the hybrid compatibility of E. pusilla, its cp genome providing important information for Oncidium breeding. PMID:22496851

  7. Integrative Analysis of Metabolomic, Proteomic and Genomic Data to Reveal Functional Pathways and Candidate Genes for Drip Loss in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Welzenbach, Julia; Neuhoff, Christiane; Heidt, Hanna; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas; Looft, Christian; Schellander, Karl; Tholen, Ernst; Große-Brinkhaus, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to integrate multi omics data to characterize underlying functional pathways and candidate genes for drip loss in pigs. The consideration of different omics levels allows elucidating the black box of phenotype expression. Metabolite and protein profiling was applied in Musculus longissimus dorsi samples of 97 Duroc × Pietrain pigs. In total, 126 and 35 annotated metabolites and proteins were quantified, respectively. In addition, all animals were genotyped with the porcine 60 k Illumina beadchip. An enrichment analysis resulted in 10 pathways, amongst others, sphingolipid metabolism and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, with significant influence on drip loss. Drip loss and 22 metabolic components were analyzed as intermediate phenotypes within a genome-wide association study (GWAS). We detected significantly associated genetic markers and candidate genes for drip loss and for most of the metabolic components. On chromosome 18, a region with promising candidate genes was identified based on SNPs associated with drip loss, the protein “phosphoglycerate mutase 2” and the metabolite glycine. We hypothesize that association studies based on intermediate phenotypes are able to provide comprehensive insights in the genetic variation of genes directly involved in the metabolism of performance traits. In this way, the analyses contribute to identify reliable candidate genes. PMID:27589727

  8. Identification of candidate domestication regions in the radish genome based on high-depth resequencing analysis of 17 genotypes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namshin; Jeong, Young-Min; Jeong, Seongmun; Kim, Goon-Bo; Baek, Seunghoon; Kwon, Young-Eun; Cho, Ara; Choi, Sang-Bong; Kim, Jiwoong; Lim, Won-Jun; Kim, Kyoung Hyoun; Park, Won; Kim, Jae-Yoon; Kim, Jin-Hyun; Yim, Bomi; Lee, Young Joon; Chun, Byung-Moon; Lee, Young-Pyo; Park, Beom-Seok; Yu, Hee-Ju; Mun, Jeong-Hwan

    2016-09-01

    This study provides high-quality variation data of diverse radish genotypes. Genome-wide SNP comparison along with RNA-seq analysis identified candidate genes related to domestication that have potential as trait-related markers for genetics and breeding of radish. Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an annual root vegetable crop that also encompasses diverse wild species. Radish has a long history of domestication, but the origins and selective sweep of cultivated radishes remain controversial. Here, we present comprehensive whole-genome resequencing analysis of radish to explore genomic variation between the radish genotypes and to identify genetic bottlenecks due to domestication in Asian cultivars. High-depth resequencing and multi-sample genotyping analysis of ten cultivated and seven wild accessions obtained 4.0 million high-quality homozygous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)/insertions or deletions. Variation analysis revealed that Asian cultivated radish types are closely related to wild Asian accessions, but are distinct from European/American cultivated radishes, supporting the notion that Asian cultivars were domesticated from wild Asian genotypes. SNP comparison between Asian genotypes identified 153 candidate domestication regions (CDRs) containing 512 genes. Network analysis of the genes in CDRs functioning in plant signaling pathways and biochemical processes identified group of genes related to root architecture, cell wall, sugar metabolism, and glucosinolate biosynthesis. Expression profiling of the genes during root development suggested that domestication-related selective advantages included a main taproot with few branched lateral roots, reduced cell wall rigidity and favorable taste. Overall, this study provides evolutionary insights into domestication-related genetic selection in radish as well as identification of gene candidates with the potential to act as trait-related markers for background selection of elite lines in molecular

  9. Genome-wide differential expression reveals candidate genes involved in the pathogenesis of lupus and lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    AlFadhli, Suad; Ghanem, Aqeel A M; Nizam, Rasheeba

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) is an autoimmune disease characterized by multiorgan pathology, accelerated apoptosis and hyper-autoantibody production against self-components. The root cause of lupus remains unknown, although multiple susceptibility factors have been reported in different ethnic group. We aimed to explore the genome-wide differential expression spectrum of lupus and its severe form lupus nephritis (LN) in Arab females. A total of 98 subjects: 40 lupus, 18 LN and 40 age/gender/ethnically matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited. Carefully chosen subjects (n = 11) were employed for whole human-genome expression profiling using high-density Human Exon 1.0.ST arrays (Affymetrix) and statistical analysis was carried out using appropriate software. Validation cohorts (n = 98) were investigated to quantify the expression of the nine selected candidate genes relative to GAPDH as endogenous control. Genome-wide differential analysis revealed seven candidate genes in lupus and 36 in LN, when individually compared to HC (anova Welch t-test, P ≤ 0.005, Tukey's honestly post hoc analysis). Analysis of differentially expressed genes with a fold change of 2, revealed 16 Gene Ontology terms satisfying a P ≤ 0.05. We further detected five distinct inflammatory and metabolic pathways such as TWEAK, osteopontin, endochondral ossification, fluropyrimidine activity and urea cycle and metabolism of amino groups that significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of lupus (P < 0.05). Validation of selected candidate genes (IRF9, ABCA1, APOBEC3, CEACAM3, OSCAR, TNFA1P6, MMP9, SLC4A1) revealed significant differences in expression, indicating their promissory role in the pathogenesis of lupus. Our study provides central gene regulators of therapeutic potential, indicating the future prospects of the study. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. The genomic architecture and association genetics of adaptive characters using a candidate SNP approach in boreal black spruce.

    PubMed

    Prunier, Julien; Pelgas, Betty; Gagnon, France; Desponts, Mireille; Isabel, Nathalie; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean

    2013-06-01

    The genomic architecture of adaptive traits remains poorly understood in non-model plants. Various approaches can be used to bridge this gap, including the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in pedigrees, and genetic association studies in non-structured populations. Here we present results on the genomic architecture of adaptive traits in black spruce, which is a widely distributed conifer of the North American boreal forest. As an alternative to the usual candidate gene approach, a candidate SNP approach was developed for association testing. A genetic map containing 231 gene loci was used to identify QTL that were related to budset timing and to tree height assessed over multiple years and sites. Twenty-two unique genomic regions were identified, including 20 that were related to budset timing and 6 that were related to tree height. From results of outlier detection and bulk segregant analysis for adaptive traits using DNA pool sequencing of 434 genes, 52 candidate SNPs were identified and subsequently tested in genetic association studies for budset timing and tree height assessed over multiple years and sites. A total of 34 (65%) SNPs were significantly associated with budset timing, or tree height, or both. Although the percentages of explained variance (PVE) by individual SNPs were small, several significant SNPs were shared between sites and among years. The sharing of genomic regions and significant SNPs between budset timing and tree height indicates pleiotropic effects. Significant QTLs and SNPs differed quite greatly among years, suggesting that different sets of genes for the same characters are involved at different stages in the tree's life history. The functional diversity of genes carrying significant SNPs and low observed PVE further indicated that a large number of polymorphisms are involved in adaptive genetic variation. Accordingly, for undomesticated species such as black spruce with natural populations of large effective size and low

  11. The genomic architecture and association genetics of adaptive characters using a candidate SNP approach in boreal black spruce

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The genomic architecture of adaptive traits remains poorly understood in non-model plants. Various approaches can be used to bridge this gap, including the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in pedigrees, and genetic association studies in non-structured populations. Here we present results on the genomic architecture of adaptive traits in black spruce, which is a widely distributed conifer of the North American boreal forest. As an alternative to the usual candidate gene approach, a candidate SNP approach was developed for association testing. Results A genetic map containing 231 gene loci was used to identify QTL that were related to budset timing and to tree height assessed over multiple years and sites. Twenty-two unique genomic regions were identified, including 20 that were related to budset timing and 6 that were related to tree height. From results of outlier detection and bulk segregant analysis for adaptive traits using DNA pool sequencing of 434 genes, 52 candidate SNPs were identified and subsequently tested in genetic association studies for budset timing and tree height assessed over multiple years and sites. A total of 34 (65%) SNPs were significantly associated with budset timing, or tree height, or both. Although the percentages of explained variance (PVE) by individual SNPs were small, several significant SNPs were shared between sites and among years. Conclusions The sharing of genomic regions and significant SNPs between budset timing and tree height indicates pleiotropic effects. Significant QTLs and SNPs differed quite greatly among years, suggesting that different sets of genes for the same characters are involved at different stages in the tree’s life history. The functional diversity of genes carrying significant SNPs and low observed PVE further indicated that a large number of polymorphisms are involved in adaptive genetic variation. Accordingly, for undomesticated species such as black spruce with natural populations

  12. Self-Confirmation and Ascertainment of the Candidate Genomic Regions of Complex Trait Loci – A None-Experimental Solution

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lishi; Jiao, Yan; Wang, Yongjun; Zhang, Mengchen; Gu, Weikuan

    2016-01-01

    Over the past half century, thousands of quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified by using animal models and plant populations. However, the none-reliability and imprecision of the genomic regions of these loci have remained the major hurdle for the identification of the causal genes for the correspondent traits. We used a none-experimental strategy of strain number reduction for testing accuracy and ascertainment of the candidate region for QTL. We tested the strategy in over 400 analyses with data from 47 studies. These studies include: 1) studies with recombinant inbred (RI) strains of mice. We first tested two previously mapped QTL with well-defined genomic regions; We then tested additional four studies with known QTL regions; and finally we examined the reliability of QTL in 38 sets of data which are produced from relatively large numbers of RI strains, derived from C57BL/6J (B6) X DBA/2J (D2), known as BXD RI mouse strains; 2) studies with RI strains of rats and plants; and 3) studies using F2 populations in mice, rats and plants. In these cases, our method identified the reliability of mapped QTL and localized the candidate genes into the defined genomic regions. Our data also suggests that LRS score produced by permutation tests does not necessarily confirm the reliability of the QTL. Number of strains are not the reliable indicators for the accuracy of QTL either. Our strategy determines the reliability and accuracy of the genomic region of a QTL without any additional experimental study such as congenic breeding. PMID:27203862

  13. Phylogeny and physiology of candidate phylum ‘Atribacteria' (OP9/JS1) inferred from cultivation-independent genomics

    PubMed Central

    Nobu, Masaru K; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Murugapiran, Senthil K; Rinke, Christian; Gies, Esther A; Webster, Gordon; Schwientek, Patrick; Kille, Peter; Parkes, R John; Sass, Henrik; Jørgensen, Bo B; Weightman, Andrew J; Liu, Wen-Tso; Hallam, Steven J; Tsiamis, George; Woyke, Tanja; Hedlund, Brian P

    2016-01-01

    The ‘Atribacteria' is a candidate phylum in the Bacteria recently proposed to include members of the OP9 and JS1 lineages. OP9 and JS1 are globally distributed, and in some cases abundant, in anaerobic marine sediments, geothermal environments, anaerobic digesters and reactors and petroleum reservoirs. However, the monophyly of OP9 and JS1 has been questioned and their physiology and ecology remain largely enigmatic due to a lack of cultivated representatives. Here cultivation-independent genomic approaches were used to provide a first comprehensive view of the phylogeny, conserved genomic features and metabolic potential of members of this ubiquitous candidate phylum. Previously available and heretofore unpublished OP9 and JS1 single-cell genomic data sets were used as recruitment platforms for the reconstruction of atribacterial metagenome bins from a terephthalate-degrading reactor biofilm and from the monimolimnion of meromictic Sakinaw Lake. The single-cell genomes and metagenome bins together comprise six species- to genus-level groups that represent most major lineages within OP9 and JS1. Phylogenomic analyses of these combined data sets confirmed the monophyly of the ‘Atribacteria' inclusive of OP9 and JS1. Additional conserved features within the ‘Atribacteria' were identified, including a gene cluster encoding putative bacterial microcompartments that may be involved in aldehyde and sugar metabolism, energy conservation and carbon storage. Comparative analysis of the metabolic potential inferred from these data sets revealed that members of the ‘Atribacteria' are likely to be heterotrophic anaerobes that lack respiratory capacity, with some lineages predicted to specialize in either primary fermentation of carbohydrates or secondary fermentation of organic acids, such as propionate. PMID:26090992

  14. The genome sequence of the most widely cultivated cacao type and its use to identify candidate genes regulating pod color.

    PubMed

    Motamayor, Juan C; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Schmutz, Jeremy; Haiminen, Niina; Livingstone, Donald; Cornejo, Omar; Findley, Seth D; Zheng, Ping; Utro, Filippo; Royaert, Stefan; Saski, Christopher; Jenkins, Jerry; Podicheti, Ram; Zhao, Meixia; Scheffler, Brian E; Stack, Joseph C; Feltus, Frank A; Mustiga, Guiliana M; Amores, Freddy; Phillips, Wilbert; Marelli, Jean Philippe; May, Gregory D; Shapiro, Howard; Ma, Jianxin; Bustamante, Carlos D; Schnell, Raymond J; Main, Dorrie; Gilbert, Don; Parida, Laxmi; Kuhn, David N

    2013-06-03

    Theobroma cacao L. cultivar Matina 1-6 belongs to the most cultivated cacao type. The availability of its genome sequence and methods for identifying genes responsible for important cacao traits will aid cacao researchers and breeders. We describe the sequencing and assembly of the genome of Theobroma cacao L. cultivar Matina 1-6. The genome of the Matina 1-6 cultivar is 445 Mbp, which is significantly larger than a sequenced Criollo cultivar, and more typical of other cultivars. The chromosome-scale assembly, version 1.1, contains 711 scaffolds covering 346.0 Mbp, with a contig N50 of 84.4 kbp, a scaffold N50 of 34.4 Mbp, and an evidence-based gene set of 29,408 loci. Version 1.1 has 10x the scaffold N50 and 4x the contig N50 as Criollo, and includes 111 Mb more anchored sequence. The version 1.1 assembly has 4.4% gap sequence, while Criollo has 10.9%. Through a combination of haplotype, association mapping and gene expression analyses, we leverage this robust reference genome to identify a promising candidate gene responsible for pod color variation. We demonstrate that green/red pod color in cacao is likely regulated by the R2R3 MYB transcription factor TcMYB113, homologs of which determine pigmentation in Rosaceae, Solanaceae, and Brassicaceae. One SNP within the target site for a highly conserved trans-acting siRNA in dicots, found within TcMYB113, seems to affect transcript levels of this gene and therefore pod color variation. We report a high-quality sequence and annotation of Theobroma cacao L. and demonstrate its utility in identifying candidate genes regulating traits.

  15. Phylogeny and physiology of candidate phylum 'Atribacteria' (OP9/JS1) inferred from cultivation-independent genomics.

    PubMed

    Nobu, Masaru K; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Murugapiran, Senthil K; Rinke, Christian; Gies, Esther A; Webster, Gordon; Schwientek, Patrick; Kille, Peter; Parkes, R John; Sass, Henrik; Jørgensen, Bo B; Weightman, Andrew J; Liu, Wen-Tso; Hallam, Steven J; Tsiamis, George; Woyke, Tanja; Hedlund, Brian P

    2016-02-01

    The 'Atribacteria' is a candidate phylum in the Bacteria recently proposed to include members of the OP9 and JS1 lineages. OP9 and JS1 are globally distributed, and in some cases abundant, in anaerobic marine sediments, geothermal environments, anaerobic digesters and reactors and petroleum reservoirs. However, the monophyly of OP9 and JS1 has been questioned and their physiology and ecology remain largely enigmatic due to a lack of cultivated representatives. Here cultivation-independent genomic approaches were used to provide a first comprehensive view of the phylogeny, conserved genomic features and metabolic potential of members of this ubiquitous candidate phylum. Previously available and heretofore unpublished OP9 and JS1 single-cell genomic data sets were used as recruitment platforms for the reconstruction of atribacterial metagenome bins from a terephthalate-degrading reactor biofilm and from the monimolimnion of meromictic Sakinaw Lake. The single-cell genomes and metagenome bins together comprise six species- to genus-level groups that represent most major lineages within OP9 and JS1. Phylogenomic analyses of these combined data sets confirmed the monophyly of the 'Atribacteria' inclusive of OP9 and JS1. Additional conserved features within the 'Atribacteria' were identified, including a gene cluster encoding putative bacterial microcompartments that may be involved in aldehyde and sugar metabolism, energy conservation and carbon storage. Comparative analysis of the metabolic potential inferred from these data sets revealed that members of the 'Atribacteria' are likely to be heterotrophic anaerobes that lack respiratory capacity, with some lineages predicted to specialize in either primary fermentation of carbohydrates or secondary fermentation of organic acids, such as propionate.

  16. The genome sequence of the most widely cultivated cacao type and its use to identify candidate genes regulating pod color

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Theobroma cacao L. cultivar Matina 1-6 belongs to the most cultivated cacao type. The availability of its genome sequence and methods for identifying genes responsible for important cacao traits will aid cacao researchers and breeders. Results We describe the sequencing and assembly of the genome of Theobroma cacao L. cultivar Matina 1-6. The genome of the Matina 1-6 cultivar is 445 Mbp, which is significantly larger than a sequenced Criollo cultivar, and more typical of other cultivars. The chromosome-scale assembly, version 1.1, contains 711 scaffolds covering 346.0 Mbp, with a contig N50 of 84.4 kbp, a scaffold N50 of 34.4 Mbp, and an evidence-based gene set of 29,408 loci. Version 1.1 has 10x the scaffold N50 and 4x the contig N50 as Criollo, and includes 111 Mb more anchored sequence. The version 1.1 assembly has 4.4% gap sequence, while Criollo has 10.9%. Through a combination of haplotype, association mapping and gene expression analyses, we leverage this robust reference genome to identify a promising candidate gene responsible for pod color variation. We demonstrate that green/red pod color in cacao is likely regulated by the R2R3 MYB transcription factor TcMYB113, homologs of which determine pigmentation in Rosaceae, Solanaceae, and Brassicaceae. One SNP within the target site for a highly conserved trans-acting siRNA in dicots, found within TcMYB113, seems to affect transcript levels of this gene and therefore pod color variation. Conclusions We report a high-quality sequence and annotation of Theobroma cacao L. and demonstrate its utility in identifying candidate genes regulating traits. PMID:23731509

  17. Single-cell genomics reveals the lifestyle of Poribacteria, a candidate phylum symbiotically associated with marine sponges

    PubMed Central

    Siegl, Alexander; Kamke, Janine; Hochmuth, Thomas; Piel, Jörn; Richter, Michael; Liang, Chunguang; Dandekar, Thomas; Hentschel, Ute

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we present a single-cell genomics approach for the functional characterization of the candidate phylum Poribacteria, members of which are nearly exclusively found in marine sponges. The microbial consortia of the Mediterranean sponge Aplysina aerophoba were singularized by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and individual microbial cells were subjected to phi29 polymerase-mediated ‘whole-genome amplification'. Pyrosequencing of a single amplified genome (SAG) derived from a member of the Poribacteria resulted in nearly 1.6 Mb of genomic information distributed among 554 contigs analyzed in this study. Approximately two-third of the poribacterial genome was sequenced. Our findings shed light on the functional properties and lifestyle of a possibly ancient bacterial symbiont of marine sponges. The Poribacteria are mixotrophic bacteria with autotrophic CO2-fixation capacities through the Wood–Ljungdahl pathway. The cell wall is of Gram-negative origin. The Poribacteria produce at least two polyketide synthases (PKSs), one of which is the sponge-specific Sup-type PKS. Several putative symbiosis factors such as adhesins (bacterial Ig-like domains, lamininin G domain proteins), adhesin-related proteins (ankyrin, fibronectin type III) and tetratrico peptide repeat domain-encoding proteins were identified, which might be involved in mediating sponge–microbe interactions. The discovery of genes coding for 24-isopropyl steroids implies that certain fossil biomarkers used to date the origins of metazoan life on earth may possibly be of poribacterial origin. Single-cell genomic approaches, such as those shown herein, contribute to a better understanding of beneficial microbial consortia, of which most members are, because of the lack of cultivation, inaccessible by conventional techniques. PMID:20613790

  18. Assessment of Osteoarthritis Candidate Genes in a Meta-Analysis of Nine Genome-Wide Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Fontenla, Cristina; Calaza, Manuel; Evangelou, Evangelos; Valdes, Ana M; Arden, Nigel; Blanco, Francisco J; Carr, Andrew; Chapman, Kay; Deloukas, Panos; Doherty, Michael; Esko, Tõnu; Garcés Aletá, Carlos M; Gomez-Reino Carnota, Juan J; Helgadottir, Hafdis; Hofman, Albert; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Kerkhof, Hanneke J M; Kloppenburg, Margreet; McCaskie, Andrew; Ntzani, Evangelia E; Ollier, William E R; Oreiro, Natividad; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Ralston, Stuart H; Ramos, Yolande F; Riancho, Jose A; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Slagboom, P Eline; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tsezou, Aspasia; Uitterlinden, André G; Wallis, Gillian A; Wilkinson, J Mark; Zhai, Guangju; Zhu, Yanyan; Felson, David T; Ioannidis, John P A; Loughlin, John; Metspalu, Andres; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Stefansson, Kari; van Meurs, Joyce B; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Spector, Timothy D; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess candidate genes for association with osteoarthritis (OA) and identify promising genetic factors and, secondarily, to assess the candidate gene approach in OA. Methods A total of 199 candidate genes for association with OA were identified using Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator. All of their single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with an allele frequency of >5% were assessed by fixed-effects meta-analysis of 9 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that included 5,636 patients with knee OA and 16,972 control subjects and 4,349 patients with hip OA and 17,836 control subjects of European ancestry. An additional 5,921 individuals were genotyped for significantly associated SNPs in the meta-analysis. After correction for the number of independent tests, P values less than 1.58 × 10−5 were considered significant. Results SNPs at only 2 of the 199 candidate genes (COL11A1 and VEGF) were associated with OA in the meta-analysis. Two SNPs in COL11A1 showed association with hip OA in the combined analysis: rs4907986 (P = 1.29 × 10−5, odds ratio [OR] 1.12, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.06−1.17) and rs1241164 (P = 1.47 × 10−5, OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.74−0.89). The sex-stratified analysis also showed association of COL11A1 SNP rs4908291 in women (P = 1.29 × 10−5, OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.82−0.92); this SNP showed linkage disequilibrium with rs4907986. A single SNP of VEGF, rs833058, showed association with hip OA in men (P = 1.35 × 10−5, OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.79−0.91). After additional samples were genotyped, association at one of the COL11A1 signals was reinforced, whereas association at VEGF was slightly weakened. Conclusion Two candidate genes, COL11A1 and VEGF, were significantly associated with OA in this focused meta-analysis. The remaining candidate genes were not associated. PMID:24757145

  19. An In Silico Identification of Common Putative Vaccine Candidates against Treponema pallidum: A Reverse Vaccinology and Subtractive Genomics Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Jaiswal, Arun; Tiwari, Sandeep; Jamal, Syed Babar; Barh, Debmalya; Azevedo, Vasco; Soares, Siomar C.

    2017-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are caused by a wide variety of bacteria, viruses, and parasites that are transmitted from one person to another primarily by vaginal, anal, or oral sexual contact. Syphilis is a serious disease caused by a sexually transmitted infection. Syphilis is caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum) is a motile, gram-negative spirochete, which can be transmitted both sexually and from mother to child, and can invade virtually any organ or structure in the human body. The current worldwide prevalence of syphilis emphasizes the need for continued preventive measures and strategies. Unfortunately, effective measures are limited. In this study, we focus on the identification of vaccine targets and putative drugs against syphilis disease using reverse vaccinology and subtractive genomics. We compared 13 strains of T. pallidum using T. pallidum Nichols as the reference genome. Using an in silicoapproach, four pathogenic islands were detected in the genome of T. pallidum Nichols. We identified 15 putative antigenic proteins and sixdrug targets through reverse vaccinology and subtractive genomics, respectively, which can be used as candidate therapeutic targets in the future. PMID:28216574

  20. Genomic insights into members of the candidate phylum Hyd24-12 common in mesophilic anaerobic digesters

    PubMed Central

    Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Dueholm, Morten Simonsen; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Nierychlo, Marta; Karst, Søren Michael; Albertsen, Mads; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2016-01-01

    Members of the candidate phylum Hyd24-12 are globally distributed, but no genomic information or knowledge about their morphology, physiology or ecology is available. In this study, members of the Hyd24-12 lineage were shown to be present and abundant in full-scale mesophilic anaerobic digesters at Danish wastewater treatment facilities. In some samples, a member of the Hyd24-12 lineage was one of the most abundant genus-level bacterial taxa, accounting for up to 8% of the bacterial biomass. Three closely related and near-complete genomes were retrieved using metagenome sequencing of full-scale anaerobic digesters. Genome annotation and metabolic reconstruction showed that they are Gram-negative bacteria likely involved in acidogenesis, producing acetate and hydrogen from fermentation of sugars, and may play a role in the cycling of sulphur in the digesters. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed single rod-shaped cells dispersed within the flocs. The genomic information forms a foundation for a more detailed understanding of their role in anaerobic digestion and provides the first insight into a hitherto undescribed branch in the tree of life. PMID:27058503

  1. Genomic insights into members of the candidate phylum Hyd24-12 common in mesophilic anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Dueholm, Morten Simonsen; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Nierychlo, Marta; Karst, Søren Michael; Albertsen, Mads; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2016-10-01

    Members of the candidate phylum Hyd24-12 are globally distributed, but no genomic information or knowledge about their morphology, physiology or ecology is available. In this study, members of the Hyd24-12 lineage were shown to be present and abundant in full-scale mesophilic anaerobic digesters at Danish wastewater treatment facilities. In some samples, a member of the Hyd24-12 lineage was one of the most abundant genus-level bacterial taxa, accounting for up to 8% of the bacterial biomass. Three closely related and near-complete genomes were retrieved using metagenome sequencing of full-scale anaerobic digesters. Genome annotation and metabolic reconstruction showed that they are Gram-negative bacteria likely involved in acidogenesis, producing acetate and hydrogen from fermentation of sugars, and may play a role in the cycling of sulphur in the digesters. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed single rod-shaped cells dispersed within the flocs. The genomic information forms a foundation for a more detailed understanding of their role in anaerobic digestion and provides the first insight into a hitherto undescribed branch in the tree of life.

  2. Integrative Transcriptome, Genome and Quantitative Trait Loci Resources Identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Candidate Genes for Growth Traits in Turbot.

    PubMed

    Robledo, Diego; Fernández, Carlos; Hermida, Miguel; Sciara, Andrés; Álvarez-Dios, José Antonio; Cabaleiro, Santiago; Caamaño, Rubén; Martínez, Paulino; Bouza, Carmen

    2016-02-17

    Growth traits represent a main goal in aquaculture breeding programs and may be related to adaptive variation in wild fisheries. Integrating quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and next generation sequencing can greatly help to identify variation in candidate genes, which can result in marker-assisted selection and better genetic structure information. Turbot is a commercially important flatfish in Europe and China, with available genomic information on QTLs and genome mapping. Muscle and liver RNA-seq from 18 individuals was carried out to obtain gene sequences and markers functionally related to growth, resulting in a total of 20,447 genes and 85,344 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Many growth-related genes and SNPs were identified and placed in the turbot genome and genetic map to explore their co-localization with growth-QTL markers. Forty-five SNPs on growth-related genes were selected based on QTL co-localization and relevant function for growth traits. Forty-three SNPs were technically feasible and validated in a wild Atlantic population, where 91% were polymorphic. The integration of functional and structural genomic resources in turbot provides a practical approach for QTL mining in this species. Validated SNPs represent a useful set of growth-related gene markers for future association, functional and population studies in this flatfish species.

  3. Integrative Transcriptome, Genome and Quantitative Trait Loci Resources Identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Candidate Genes for Growth Traits in Turbot

    PubMed Central

    Robledo, Diego; Fernández, Carlos; Hermida, Miguel; Sciara, Andrés; Álvarez-Dios, José Antonio; Cabaleiro, Santiago; Caamaño, Rubén; Martínez, Paulino; Bouza, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Growth traits represent a main goal in aquaculture breeding programs and may be related to adaptive variation in wild fisheries. Integrating quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and next generation sequencing can greatly help to identify variation in candidate genes, which can result in marker-assisted selection and better genetic structure information. Turbot is a commercially important flatfish in Europe and China, with available genomic information on QTLs and genome mapping. Muscle and liver RNA-seq from 18 individuals was carried out to obtain gene sequences and markers functionally related to growth, resulting in a total of 20,447 genes and 85,344 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Many growth-related genes and SNPs were identified and placed in the turbot genome and genetic map to explore their co-localization with growth-QTL markers. Forty-five SNPs on growth-related genes were selected based on QTL co-localization and relevant function for growth traits. Forty-three SNPs were technically feasible and validated in a wild Atlantic population, where 91% were polymorphic. The integration of functional and structural genomic resources in turbot provides a practical approach for QTL mining in this species. Validated SNPs represent a useful set of growth-related gene markers for future association, functional and population studies in this flatfish species. PMID:26901189

  4. Genome Analysis Identified Novel Candidate Genes for Ascochyta Blight Resistance in Chickpea Using Whole Genome Re-sequencing Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongle; Ruperao, Pradeep; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David; Davidson, Jenny; Hobson, Kristy; Sutton, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Ascochyta blight (AB) is a fungal disease that can significantly reduce chickpea production in Australia and other regions of the world. In this study, 69 chickpea genotypes were sequenced using whole genome re-sequencing (WGRS) methods. They included 48 Australian varieties differing in their resistance ranking to AB, 16 advanced breeding lines from the Australian chickpea breeding program, four landraces, and one accession representing the wild chickpea species Cicer reticulatum. More than 800,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. Population structure analysis revealed relatively narrow genetic diversity amongst recently released Australian varieties and two groups of varieties separated by the level of AB resistance. Several regions of the chickpea genome were under positive selection based on Tajima’s D test. Both Fst genome- scan and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified a 100 kb region (AB4.1) on chromosome 4 that was significantly associated with AB resistance. The AB4.1 region co-located to a large QTL interval of 7 Mb∼30 Mb identified previously in three different mapping populations which were genotyped at relatively low density with SSR or SNP markers. The AB4.1 region was validated by GWAS in an additional collection of 132 advanced breeding lines from the Australian chickpea breeding program, genotyped with approximately 144,000 SNPs. The reduced level of nucleotide diversity and long extent of linkage disequilibrium also suggested the AB4.1 region may have gone through selective sweeps probably caused by selection of the AB resistance trait in breeding. In total, 12 predicted genes were located in the AB4.1 QTL region, including those annotated as: NBS-LRR receptor-like kinase, wall-associated kinase, zinc finger protein, and serine/threonine protein kinases. One significant SNP located in the conserved catalytic domain of a NBS-LRR receptor-like kinase led to amino acid substitution. Transcriptional analysis

  5. Identification of candidate transcription factor binding sites in the cattle genome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A resource that provides candidate transcription factor binding sites does not currently exist for cattle. Such data is necessary, as predicted sites may serve as excellent starting locations for future 'omics studies to develop transcriptional regulation hypotheses. In order to generate this resour...

  6. Identification of candidate genes in Populus cell wall biosynthesis using text-mining, co-expression network and comparative genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaohan; Ye, Chuyu; Bisaria, Anjali; Tuskan, Gerald A; Kalluri, Udaya C

    2011-01-01

    Populus is an important bioenergy crop for bioethanol production. A greater understanding of cell wall biosynthesis processes is critical in reducing biomass recalcitrance, a major hindrance in efficient generation of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we report the identification of candidate cell wall biosynthesis genes through the development and application of a novel bioinformatics pipeline. As a first step, via text-mining of PubMed publications, we obtained 121 Arabidopsis genes that had the experimental evidences supporting their involvement in cell wall biosynthesis or remodeling. The 121 genes were then used as bait genes to query an Arabidopsis co-expression database and additional genes were identified as neighbors of the bait genes in the network, increasing the number of genes to 548. The 548 Arabidopsis genes were then used to re-query the Arabidopsis co-expression database and re-construct a network that captured additional network neighbors, expanding to a total of 694 genes. The 694 Arabidopsis genes were computationally divided into 22 clusters. Queries of the Populus genome using the Arabidopsis genes revealed 817 Populus orthologs. Functional analysis of gene ontology and tissue-specific gene expression indicated that these Arabidopsis and Populus genes are high likelihood candidates for functional genomics in relation to cell wall biosynthesis.

  7. Genome-wide association study and annotating candidate gene networks affecting age at first calving in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Mota, R R; Guimarães, S E F; Fortes, M R S; Hayes, B; Silva, F F; Verardo, L L; Kelly, M J; de Campos, C F; Guimarães, J D; Wenceslau, R R; Penitente-Filho, J M; Garcia, J F; Moore, S

    2017-10-09

    We performed a genome-wide mapping for the age at first calving (AFC) with the goal of annotating candidate genes that regulate fertility in Nellore cattle. Phenotypic data from 762 cows and 777k SNP genotypes from 2,992 bulls and cows were used. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects based on the single-step GBLUP methodology were blocked into adjacent windows of 1 Megabase (Mb) to explain the genetic variance. SNP windows explaining more than 0.40% of the AFC genetic variance were identified on chromosomes 2, 8, 9, 14, 16 and 17. From these windows, we identified 123 coding protein genes that were used to build gene networks. From the association study and derived gene networks, putative candidate genes (e.g., PAPPA, PREP, FER1L6, TPR, NMNAT1, ACAD10, PCMTD1, CRH, OPKR1, NPBWR1 and NCOA2) and transcription factors (TF) (STAT1, STAT3, RELA, E2F1 and EGR1) were strongly associated with female fertility (e.g., negative regulation of luteinizing hormone secretion, folliculogenesis and establishment of uterine receptivity). Evidence suggests that AFC inheritance is complex and controlled by multiple loci across the genome. As several windows explaining higher proportion of the genetic variance were identified on chromosome 14, further studies investigating the interaction across haplotypes to better understand the molecular architecture behind AFC in Nellore cattle should be undertaken. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Genome-wide association mapping for wood characteristics in Populus identifies an array of candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Porth, Ilga; Klapšte, Jaroslav; Skyba, Oleksandr; Hannemann, Jan; McKown, Athena D; Guy, Robert D; DiFazio, Stephen P; Muchero, Wellington; Ranjan, Priya; Tuskan, Gerald A; Friedmann, Michael C; Ehlting, Juergen; Cronk, Quentin C B; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Douglas, Carl J; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2013-11-01

    Establishing links between phenotypes and molecular variants is of central importance to accelerate genetic improvement of economically important plant species. Our work represents the first genome-wide association study to the inherently complex and currently poorly understood genetic architecture of industrially relevant wood traits. Here, we employed an Illumina Infinium 34K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array that generated 29,233 high-quality SNPs in c. 3500 broad-based candidate genes within a population of 334 unrelated Populus trichocarpa individuals to establish genome-wide associations. The analysis revealed 141 significant SNPs (α ≤ 0.05) associated with 16 wood chemistry/ultrastructure traits, individually explaining 3-7% of the phenotypic variance. A large set of associations (41% of all hits) occurred in candidate genes preselected for their suggested a priori involvement with secondary growth. For example, an allelic variant in the FRA8 ortholog explained 21% of the total genetic variance in fiber length, when the trait's heritability estimate was considered. The remaining associations identified SNPs in genes not previously implicated in wood or secondary wall formation. Our findings provide unique insights into wood trait architecture and support efforts for population improvement based on desirable allelic variants.

  9. Comparative analysis of two complete Corynebacterium ulcerans genomes and detection of candidate virulence factors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Corynebacterium ulcerans has been detected as a commensal in domestic and wild animals that may serve as reservoirs for zoonotic infections. During the last decade, the frequency and severity of human infections associated with C. ulcerans appear to be increasing in various countries. As the knowledge of genes contributing to the virulence of this bacterium was very limited, the complete genome sequences of two C. ulcerans strains detected in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro were determined and characterized by comparative genomics: C. ulcerans 809 was initially isolated from an elderly woman with fatal pulmonary infection and C. ulcerans BR-AD22 was recovered from a nasal sample of an asymptomatic dog. Results The circular chromosome of C. ulcerans 809 has a total size of 2,502,095 bp and encodes 2,182 predicted proteins, whereas the genome of C. ulcerans BR-AD22 is 104,279 bp larger and comprises 2,338 protein-coding regions. The minor difference in size of the two genomes is mainly caused by additional prophage-like elements in the C. ulcerans BR-AD22 chromosome. Both genomes show a highly similar order of orthologous coding regions; and both strains share a common set of 2,076 genes, demonstrating their very close relationship. A screening for prominent virulence factors revealed the presence of phospholipase D (Pld), neuraminidase H (NanH), endoglycosidase E (EndoE), and subunits of adhesive pili of the SpaDEF type that are encoded in both C. ulcerans genomes. The rbp gene coding for a putative ribosome-binding protein with striking structural similarity to Shiga-like toxins was additionally detected in the genome of the human isolate C. ulcerans 809. Conclusions The molecular data deduced from the complete genome sequences provides considerable knowledge of virulence factors in C. ulcerans that is increasingly recognized as an emerging pathogen. This bacterium is apparently equipped with a broad and varying set of virulence factors

  10. Haplotype Analysis Improved Evidence for Candidate Genes for Intramuscular Fat Percentage from a Genome Wide Association Study of Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Barendse, William

    2011-01-01

    In genome wide association studies (GWAS), haplotype analyses of SNP data are neglected in favour of single point analysis of associations. In a recent GWAS, we found that none of the known candidate genes for intramuscular fat (IMF) had been identified. In this study, data from the GWAS for these candidate genes were re-analysed as haplotypes. First, we confirmed that the methodology would find evidence for association between haplotypes in candidate genes of the calpain-calpastatin complex and musculus longissimus lumborum peak force (LLPF), because these genes had been confirmed through single point analysis in the GWAS. Then, for intramuscular fat percent (IMF), we found significant partial haplotype substitution effects for the genes ADIPOQ and CXCR4, as well as suggestive associations to the genes CEBPA, FASN, and CAPN1. Haplotypes for these genes explained 80% more of the phenotypic variance compared to the best single SNP. For some genes the analyses suggested that there was more than one causative mutation in some genes, or confirmed that some causative mutations are limited to particular subgroups of a species. Fitting the SNPs and their interactions simultaneously explained a similar amount of the phenotypic variance compared to haplotype analyses. Haplotype analysis is a neglected part of the suite of tools used to analyse GWAS data, would be a useful method to extract more information from these data sets, and may contribute to reducing the missing heritability problem. PMID:22216329

  11. Network-based Analysis of Genome Wide Association Data Provides Novel Candidate Genes for Lipid and Lipoprotein Traits*

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amitabh; Gulbahce, Natali; Pevzner, Samuel J.; Menche, Jörg; Ladenvall, Claes; Folkersen, Lasse; Eriksson, Per; Orho-Melander, Marju; Barabási, Albert-László

    2013-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) identify susceptibility loci for complex traits, but do not identify particular genes of interest. Integration of functional and network information may help in overcoming this limitation and identifying new susceptibility loci. Using GWAS and comorbidity data, we present a network-based approach to predict candidate genes for lipid and lipoprotein traits. We apply a prediction pipeline incorporating interactome, co-expression, and comorbidity data to Global Lipids Genetics Consortium (GLGC) GWAS for four traits of interest, identifying phenotypically coherent modules. These modules provide insights regarding gene involvement in complex phenotypes with multiple susceptibility alleles and low effect sizes. To experimentally test our predictions, we selected four candidate genes and genotyped representative SNPs in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cardiovascular Cohort. We found significant associations with LDL-C and total-cholesterol levels for a synonymous SNP (rs234706) in the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) gene (p = 1 × 10−5 and adjusted-p = 0.013, respectively). Further, liver samples taken from 206 patients revealed that patients with the minor allele of rs234706 had significant dysregulation of CBS (p = 0.04). Despite the known biological role of CBS in lipid metabolism, SNPs within the locus have not yet been identified in GWAS of lipoprotein traits. Thus, the GWAS-based Comorbidity Module (GCM) approach identifies candidate genes missed by GWAS studies, serving as a broadly applicable tool for the investigation of other complex disease phenotypes. PMID:23882023

  12. Identification of a strawberry flavor gene candidate using an integrated genetic-genomic-analytical chemistry approach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: There is interest in improving the flavor of commercial strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) varieties. Fruit flavor is shaped by combinations of sugars, acids and volatile compounds. Many efforts seek to use genomics-based strategies to identify genes controlling flavor, and then designing ...

  13. Whole genome analysis using Bayesian models to identify candidate genes for immune response to vaccination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study identified genome regions associated with variation in immune response to vaccination against bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV 2) in American Angus calves. Calves were born in the spring or fall of 2006-2008 (n = 620). Two doses of modified live vaccine were administered three wee...

  14. Candidate Luminal B Breast Cancer Genes Identified by Genome, Gene Expression and DNA Methylation Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Addou-Klouche, Lynda; Finetti, Pascal; Saade, Marie-Rose; Manai, Marwa; Carbuccia, Nadine; Bekhouche, Ismahane; Letessier, Anne; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Spicuglia, Salvatore; de The, Hugues; Viens, Patrice; Bertucci, François; Birnbaum, Daniel; Chaffanet, Max

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancers (BCs) of the luminal B subtype are estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), highly proliferative, resistant to standard therapies and have a poor prognosis. To better understand this subtype we compared DNA copy number aberrations (CNAs), DNA promoter methylation, gene expression profiles, and somatic mutations in nine selected genes, in 32 luminal B tumors with those observed in 156 BCs of the other molecular subtypes. Frequent CNAs included 8p11-p12 and 11q13.1-q13.2 amplifications, 7q11.22-q34, 8q21.12-q24.23, 12p12.3-p13.1, 12q13.11-q24.11, 14q21.1-q23.1, 17q11.1-q25.1, 20q11.23-q13.33 gains and 6q14.1-q24.2, 9p21.3-p24,3, 9q21.2, 18p11.31-p11.32 losses. A total of 237 and 101 luminal B-specific candidate oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) presented a deregulated expression in relation with their CNAs, including 11 genes previously reported associated with endocrine resistance. Interestingly, 88% of the potential TSGs are located within chromosome arm 6q, and seven candidate oncogenes are potential therapeutic targets. A total of 100 candidate oncogenes were validated in a public series of 5,765 BCs and the overexpression of 67 of these was associated with poor survival in luminal tumors. Twenty-four genes presented a deregulated expression in relation with a high DNA methylation level. FOXO3, PIK3CA and TP53 were the most frequent mutated genes among the nine tested. In a meta-analysis of next-generation sequencing data in 875 BCs, KCNB2 mutations were associated with luminal B cases while candidate TSGs MDN1 (6q15) and UTRN (6q24), were mutated in this subtype. In conclusion, we have reported luminal B candidate genes that may play a role in the development and/or hormone resistance of this aggressive subtype. PMID:24416132

  15. Candidate luminal B breast cancer genes identified by genome, gene expression and DNA methylation profiling.

    PubMed

    Cornen, Stéphanie; Guille, Arnaud; Adélaïde, José; Addou-Klouche, Lynda; Finetti, Pascal; Saade, Marie-Rose; Manai, Marwa; Carbuccia, Nadine; Bekhouche, Ismahane; Letessier, Anne; Raynaud, Stéphane; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Spicuglia, Salvatore; de The, Hugues; Viens, Patrice; Bertucci, François; Birnbaum, Daniel; Chaffanet, Max

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancers (BCs) of the luminal B subtype are estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), highly proliferative, resistant to standard therapies and have a poor prognosis. To better understand this subtype we compared DNA copy number aberrations (CNAs), DNA promoter methylation, gene expression profiles, and somatic mutations in nine selected genes, in 32 luminal B tumors with those observed in 156 BCs of the other molecular subtypes. Frequent CNAs included 8p11-p12 and 11q13.1-q13.2 amplifications, 7q11.22-q34, 8q21.12-q24.23, 12p12.3-p13.1, 12q13.11-q24.11, 14q21.1-q23.1, 17q11.1-q25.1, 20q11.23-q13.33 gains and 6q14.1-q24.2, 9p21.3-p24,3, 9q21.2, 18p11.31-p11.32 losses. A total of 237 and 101 luminal B-specific candidate oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) presented a deregulated expression in relation with their CNAs, including 11 genes previously reported associated with endocrine resistance. Interestingly, 88% of the potential TSGs are located within chromosome arm 6q, and seven candidate oncogenes are potential therapeutic targets. A total of 100 candidate oncogenes were validated in a public series of 5,765 BCs and the overexpression of 67 of these was associated with poor survival in luminal tumors. Twenty-four genes presented a deregulated expression in relation with a high DNA methylation level. FOXO3, PIK3CA and TP53 were the most frequent mutated genes among the nine tested. In a meta-analysis of next-generation sequencing data in 875 BCs, KCNB2 mutations were associated with luminal B cases while candidate TSGs MDN1 (6q15) and UTRN (6q24), were mutated in this subtype. In conclusion, we have reported luminal B candidate genes that may play a role in the development and/or hormone resistance of this aggressive subtype.

  16. Genome sequence comparison reveals a candidate gene involved in male-hermaphrodite differentiation in papaya (Carica papaya) trees.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Hiroki; Urasaki, Naoya; Natsume, Satoshi; Yoshida, Kentaro; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Terauchi, Ryohei; Matsumura, Hideo

    2015-04-01

    The sex type of papaya (Carica papaya) is determined by the pair of sex chromosomes (XX, female; XY, male; and XY(h), hermaphrodite), in which there is a non-recombining genomic region in the Y and Y(h) chromosomes. This region is presumed to be involved in determination of males and hermaphrodites; it is designated as the male-specific region in the Y chromosome (MSY) and the hermaphrodite-specific region in the Y(h) chromosome (HSY). Here, we identified the genes determining male and hermaphrodite sex types by comparing MSY and HSY genomic sequences. In the MSY and HSY genomic regions, we identified 14,528 nucleotide substitutions and 965 short indels with a large gap and two highly diverged regions. In the predicted genes expressed in flower buds, we found no nucleotide differences leading to amino acid changes between the MSY and HSY. However, we found an HSY-specific transposon insertion in a gene (SVP like) showing a similarity to the Short Vegetative Phase (SVP) gene. Study of SVP-like transcripts revealed that the MSY allele encoded an intact protein, while the HSY allele encoded a truncated protein. Our findings demonstrated that the SVP-like gene is a candidate gene for male-hermaphrodite determination in papaya.

  17. EXONSAMPLER: a computer program for genome-wide and candidate gene exon sampling for targeted next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Cosart, Ted; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Luikart, Gordon

    2014-11-01

    The computer program EXONSAMPLER automates the sampling of thousands of exon sequences from publicly available reference genome sequences and gene annotation databases. It was designed to provide exon sequences for the efficient, next-generation gene sequencing method called exon capture. The exon sequences can be sampled by a list of gene name abbreviations (e.g. IFNG, TLR1), or by sampling exons from genes spaced evenly across chromosomes. It provides a list of genomic coordinates (a bed file), as well as a set of sequences in fasta format. User-adjustable parameters for collecting exon sequences include a minimum and maximum acceptable exon length, maximum number of exonic base pairs (bp) to sample per gene, and maximum total bp for the entire collection. It allows for partial sampling of very large exons. It can preferentially sample upstream (5 prime) exons, downstream (3 prime) exons, both external exons, or all internal exons. It is written in the Python programming language using its free libraries. We describe the use of EXONSAMPLER to collect exon sequences from the domestic cow (Bos taurus) genome for the design of an exon-capture microarray to sequence exons from related species, including the zebu cow and wild bison. We collected ~10% of the exome (~3 million bp), including 155 candidate genes, and ~16,000 exons evenly spaced genomewide. We prioritized the collection of 5 prime exons to facilitate discovery and genotyping of SNPs near upstream gene regulatory DNA sequences, which control gene expression and are often under natural selection.

  18. Genetic variations related to maternal whole blood mitochondrial DNA copy number: a genome-wide and candidate gene study.

    PubMed

    Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Hevner, Karin; Gelaye, Bizu; Sanchez, Sixto E; Williams, Michelle A

    2017-10-01

    We conducted genome-wide (GWAS) and candidate gene association studies of maternal mitochondrial DNA copy number. Maternal peripheral blood was collected during labor and delivery admission from 471 participants of a placental abruption case-control study conducted in Lima, Peru. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping was performed using the Illumina Cardio-Metabo Chip. Whole blood mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number was measured using qRT-PCR techniques. We evaluated 119,629 SNPs in the GWAS and 161 SNPs (in 29 mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation genes) in the candidate association study. Top hits from GWAS and the candidate gene study were selected to compute weighted genetic risk scores (wGRS). Linear regression models were used to calculate effect size estimates and related nominal p values. The top hit in our GWAS was chr19:51063065 in FOXA3 (empirical p values = 2.20e - 6). A total of 134 SNPs had p values < 0.001 including rs17111633 in CNNM1 (p values = 6.32e - 6) and chr19:51083059 in MYPOP (p values = 3.23e - 5). In the candidate association study, several SNPs in PPARG, PRKCA, SP1 and THRB were associated with mtDNA copy number (p values < 0.05). mtDNA copy number was significantly associated with wGRS based on top GWAS hits (β = 0.49, 95% CI:0.38-0.60, p < 0.001). Variations in nuclear DNA are potentially associated with maternal mtDNA copy number.

  19. A whole genome SNP genotyping by DNA microarray and candidate gene association study for kidney stone disease.

    PubMed

    Rungroj, Nanyawan; Nettuwakul, Choochai; Sudtachat, Nirinya; Praditsap, Oranud; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Sritippayawan, Suchai; Chuawattana, Duangporn; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-Thai

    2014-05-02

    Kidney stone disease (KSD) is a complex disorder with unknown etiology in majority of the patients. Genetic and environmental factors may cause the disease. In the present study, we used DNA microarray to genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and performed candidate gene association analysis to determine genetic variations associated with the disease. A whole genome SNP genotyping by DNA microarray was initially conducted in 101 patients and 105 control subjects. A set of 104 candidate genes reported to be involved in KSD, gathered from public databases and candidate gene association study databases, were evaluated for their variations associated with KSD. Altogether 82 SNPs distributed within 22 candidate gene regions showed significant differences in SNP allele frequencies between the patient and control groups (P < 0.05). Of these, 4 genes including BGLAP, AHSG, CD44, and HAO1, encoding osteocalcin, fetuin-A, CD44-molecule and glycolate oxidase 1, respectively, were further assessed for their associations with the disease because they carried high proportion of SNPs with statistical differences of allele frequencies between the patient and control groups within the gene. The total of 26 SNPs showed significant differences of allele frequencies between the patient and control groups and haplotypes associated with disease risk were identified. The SNP rs759330 located 144 bp downstream of BGLAP where it is a predicted microRNA binding site at 3'UTR of PAQR6 - a gene encoding progestin and adipoQ receptor family member VI, was genotyped in 216 patients and 216 control subjects and found to have significant differences in its genotype and allele frequencies (P = 0.0007, OR 2.02 and P = 0.0001, OR 2.02, respectively). Our results suggest that these candidate genes are associated with KSD and PAQR6 comes into our view as the most potent candidate since associated SNP rs759330 is located in the miRNA binding site and may affect mRNA expression

  20. Genome-wide association study identifies candidate markers for bull fertility in Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Peñagaricano, F; Weigel, K A; Khatib, H

    2012-07-01

    The decline in the reproductive efficiency of dairy cattle has become a challenging problem worldwide. Female fertility is now taken into account in breeding goals while generally less attention is given to male fertility. The objective of this study was to perform a genome-wide association study in Holstein bulls to identify genetic variants significantly related to sire conception rate (SCR), a new phenotypic evaluation of bull fertility. The analysis included 1755 sires with SCR data and 38,650 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the entire bovine genome. Associations between SNPs and SCR were analyzed using a mixed linear model that included a random polygenic effect and SNP genotype either as a linear covariate or as a categorical variable. A multiple testing correction approach was used to account for the correlation between SNPs because of linkage disequilibrium. After genome-wide correction, eight SNPs showed significant association with SCR. Some of these SNPs are located close to or in the middle of genes with functions related to male fertility, such as the sperm acrosome reaction, chromatin remodeling during the spermatogenesis, and the meiotic process during male germ cell maturation. Some SNPs showed marked dominance effects, which provide more evidence for the relevance of non-additive effects in traits closely related to fitness such as fertility. The results could contribute to the identification of genes and pathways associated with male fertility in dairy cattle.

  1. Genome-Wide Scans for Candidate Genes Involved in the Aquatic Adaptation of Dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Liu, He-Qun; Irwin, David M.; Shen, Yong-Yi; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Since their divergence from the terrestrial artiodactyls, cetaceans have fully adapted to an aquatic lifestyle, which represents one of the most dramatic transformations in mammalian evolutionary history. Numerous morphological and physiological characters of cetaceans have been acquired in response to this drastic habitat transition, such as thickened blubber, echolocation, and ability to hold their breath for a long period of time. However, knowledge about the molecular basis underlying these adaptations is still limited. The sequence of the genome of Tursiops truncates provides an opportunity for a comparative genomic analyses to examine the molecular adaptation of this species. Here, we constructed 11,838 high-quality orthologous gene alignments culled from the dolphin and four other terrestrial mammalian genomes and screened for positive selection occurring in the dolphin lineage. In total, 368 (3.1%) of the genes were identified as having undergone positive selection by the branch-site model. Functional characterization of these genes showed that they are significantly enriched in the categories of lipid transport and localization, ATPase activity, sense perception of sound, and muscle contraction, areas that are potentially related to cetacean adaptations. In contrast, we did not find a similar pattern in the cow, a closely related species. We resequenced some of the positively selected sites (PSSs), within the positively selected genes, and showed that most of our identified PSSs (50/52) could be replicated. The results from this study should have important implications for our understanding of cetacean evolution and their adaptations to the aquatic environment. PMID:23246795

  2. Genome-wide scans for candidate genes involved in the aquatic adaptation of dolphins.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan-Bo; Zhou, Wei-Ping; Liu, He-Qun; Irwin, David M; Shen, Yong-Yi; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Since their divergence from the terrestrial artiodactyls, cetaceans have fully adapted to an aquatic lifestyle, which represents one of the most dramatic transformations in mammalian evolutionary history. Numerous morphological and physiological characters of cetaceans have been acquired in response to this drastic habitat transition, such as thickened blubber, echolocation, and ability to hold their breath for a long period of time. However, knowledge about the molecular basis underlying these adaptations is still limited. The sequence of the genome of Tursiops truncates provides an opportunity for a comparative genomic analyses to examine the molecular adaptation of this species. Here, we constructed 11,838 high-quality orthologous gene alignments culled from the dolphin and four other terrestrial mammalian genomes and screened for positive selection occurring in the dolphin lineage. In total, 368 (3.1%) of the genes were identified as having undergone positive selection by the branch-site model. Functional characterization of these genes showed that they are significantly enriched in the categories of lipid transport and localization, ATPase activity, sense perception of sound, and muscle contraction, areas that are potentially related to cetacean adaptations. In contrast, we did not find a similar pattern in the cow, a closely related species. We resequenced some of the positively selected sites (PSSs), within the positively selected genes, and showed that most of our identified PSSs (50/52) could be replicated. The results from this study should have important implications for our understanding of cetacean evolution and their adaptations to the aquatic environment.

  3. Genome-wide association and linkage study in the Amish detects a novel candidate late-onset Alzheimer disease gene.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Anna C; Jiang, Lan; Velez Edwards, Digna R; McCauley, Jacob L; Laux, Renee; McFarland, Lynne L; Fuzzell, Denise; Knebusch, Clare; Caywood, Laura; Reinhart-Mercer, Lori; Nations, Laura; Gilbert, John R; Konidari, Ioanna; Tramontana, Michael; Cuccaro, Michael L; Scott, William K; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Haines, Jonathan L

    2012-09-01

    To identify novel late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) risk genes, we have analysed Amish populations of Ohio and Indiana. We performed genome-wide SNP linkage and association studies on 798 individuals (109 with LOAD). We tested association using the Modified Quasi-Likelihood Score test and also performed two-point and multipoint linkage analyses. We found that LOAD was significantly associated with APOE (P= 9.0 × 10-6) in all our ascertainment regions except for the Adams County, Indiana, community (P= 0.55). Genome-wide, the most strongly associated SNP was rs12361953 (P= 7.92 × 10-7). A very strong, genome-wide significant multipoint peak [recessive heterogeneity multipoint LOD (HLOD) = 6.14, dominant HLOD = 6.05] was detected on 2p12. Three additional loci with multipoint HLOD scores >3 were detected on 3q26, 9q31 and 18p11. Converging linkage and association results, the most significantly associated SNP under the 2p12 peak was at rs2974151 (P= 1.29 × 10-4). This SNP is located in CTNNA2, which encodes catenin alpha 2, a neuronal-specific catenin known to have function in the developing brain. These results identify CTNNA2 as a novel candidate LOAD gene, and implicate three other regions of the genome as novel LOAD loci. These results underscore the utility of using family-based linkage and association analyses in isolated populations to identify novel loci for traits with complex genetic architecture. © 2012 The Authors Annals of Human Genetics © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/University College London.

  4. Genome-wide association and linkage study in the Amish detects a novel candidate late-onset Alzheimer disease gene

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Anna C.; Jiang, Lan; Velez Edwards, Digna R.; McCauley, Jacob L.; Laux, Renee; McFarland, Lynne L.; Fuzzell, Denise; Knebusch, Clare; Caywood, Laura; Reinhart-Mercer, Lori; Nations, Laura; Gilbert, John R.; Konidari, Ioanna; Tramontana, Michael; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Scott, William K.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Haines, Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    Summary To identify novel late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) risk genes, we have analyzed Amish populations of Ohio and Indiana. We performed genome-wide SNP linkage and association studies on 798 individuals (109 with LOAD). We tested association using the Modified Quasi-Likelihood Score (MQLS) test and also performed two-point and multipoint linkage analyses. We found that LOAD was significantly associated with APOE (P=9.0×10-6) in all our ascertainment regions except for the Adams County, Indiana, community (P=0.55). Genome-wide, the most strongly associated SNP was rs12361953 (P=7.92×10-7). A very strong, genome-wide significant multipoint peak (recessive HLOD=6.14, dominant HLOD=6.05) was detected on 2p12. Three additional loci with multipoint HLOD scores >3 were detected on 3q26, 9q31, and 18p11. Converging linkage and association results, the most significantly associated SNP under the 2p12 peak was at rs2974151 (P=1.29×10-4). This SNP is located in CTNNA2, which encodes catenin alpha 2, a neuronal-specific catenin known to have function in the developing brain. These results identify CTNNA2 as a novel candidate LOAD gene, and implicate three other regions of the genome as novel LOAD loci. These results underscore the utility of using family-based linkage and association analysis in isolated populations to identify novel loci for traits with complex genetic architecture. PMID:22881374

  5. Comparative Genome Analysis of Trichophyton rubrum and Related Dermatophytes Reveals Candidate Genes Involved in Infection

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Diego A.; Oliver, Brian G.; Gräser, Yvonne; Goldberg, Jonathan M.; Li, Wenjun; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce M.; Monod, Michel; Shelest, Ekaterina; Barton, Richard C.; Birch, Elizabeth; Brakhage, Axel A.; Chen, Zehua; Gurr, Sarah J.; Heiman, David; Heitman, Joseph; Kosti, Idit; Rossi, Antonio; Saif, Sakina; Samalova, Marketa; Saunders, Charles W.; Shea, Terrance; Summerbell, Richard C.; Xu, Jun; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Birren, Bruce W.; Cuomo, Christina A.; White, Theodore C.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The major cause of athlete’s foot is Trichophyton rubrum, a dermatophyte or fungal pathogen of human skin. To facilitate molecular analyses of the dermatophytes, we sequenced T. rubrum and four related species, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton equinum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum. These species differ in host range, mating, and disease progression. The dermatophyte genomes are highly colinear yet contain gene family expansions not found in other human-associated fungi. Dermatophyte genomes are enriched for gene families containing the LysM domain, which binds chitin and potentially related carbohydrates. These LysM domains differ in sequence from those in other species in regions of the peptide that could affect substrate binding. The dermatophytes also encode novel sets of fungus-specific kinases with unknown specificity, including nonfunctional pseudokinases, which may inhibit phosphorylation by competing for kinase sites within substrates, acting as allosteric effectors, or acting as scaffolds for signaling. The dermatophytes are also enriched for a large number of enzymes that synthesize secondary metabolites, including dermatophyte-specific genes that could synthesize novel compounds. Finally, dermatophytes are enriched in several classes of proteases that are necessary for fungal growth and nutrient acquisition on keratinized tissues. Despite differences in mating ability, genes involved in mating and meiosis are conserved across species, suggesting the possibility of cryptic mating in species where it has not been previously detected. These genome analyses identify gene families that are important to our understanding of how dermatophytes cause chronic infections, how they interact with epithelial cells, and how they respond to the host immune response. PMID:22951933

  6. Analysis of Sequenced Genomes of Xanthomonas perforans Identifies Candidate Targets for Resistance Breeding in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Timilsina, Sujan; Abrahamian, Peter; Potnis, Neha; Minsavage, Gerald V; White, Frank F; Staskawicz, Brian J; Jones, Jeffrey B; Vallad, Gary E; Goss, Erica M

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial disease management is a challenge for modern agriculture due to rapid changes in pathogen populations. Genome sequences for hosts and pathogens provide detailed information that facilitates effector-based breeding strategies. Tomato genotypes have gene-for-gene resistance to the bacterial spot pathogen Xanthomonas perforans. The bacterial spot populations in Florida shifted from tomato race 3 to 4, such that the corresponding tomato resistance gene no longer recognizes the effector protein AvrXv3. Genome sequencing showed variation in effector profiles among race 4 strains collected in 2006 and 2012 and compared with a race 3 strain collected in 1991. We examined variation in putative targets of resistance among Florida strains of X. perforans collected from 1991 to 2006. Consistent with race change, avrXv3 was present in race 3 strains but nonfunctional in race 4 strains due to multiple independent mutations. Effectors xopJ4 and avrBs2 were unchanged in all strains. The effector avrBsT was absent in race 3 strains collected in the 1990s but present in race 3 strains collected in 2006 and nearly all race 4 strains. These changes in effector profiles suggest that xopJ4 and avrBsT are currently the best targets for resistance breeding against bacterial spot in tomato.

  7. Landscape genomic analysis of candidate genes for climate adaptation in a California endemic oak, Quercus lobata.

    PubMed

    Sork, Victoria L; Squire, Kevin; Gugger, Paul F; Steele, Stephanie E; Levy, Eric D; Eckert, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    The ability of California tree populations to survive anthropogenic climate change will be shaped by the geographic structure of adaptive genetic variation. Our goal is to test whether climate-associated candidate genes show evidence of spatially divergent selection in natural populations of valley oak, Quercus lobata, as preliminary indication of local adaptation. Using DNA from 45 individuals from 13 localities across the species' range, we sequenced portions of 40 candidate genes related to budburst/flowering, growth, osmotic stress, and temperature stress. Using 195 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we estimated genetic differentiation across populations and correlated allele frequencies with climate gradients using single-locus and multivariate models. The top 5% of FST estimates ranged from 0.25 to 0.68, yielding loci potentially under spatially divergent selection. Environmental analyses of SNP frequencies with climate gradients revealed three significantly correlated SNPs within budburst/flowering genes and two SNPs within temperature stress genes with mean annual precipitation, after controlling for multiple testing. A redundancy model showed a significant association between SNPs and climate variables and revealed a similar set of SNPs with high loadings on the first axis. In the RDA, climate accounted for 67% of the explained variation, when holding climate constant, in contrast to a putatively neutral SSR data set where climate accounted for only 33%. Population differentiation and geographic gradients of allele frequencies in climate-associated functional genes in Q. lobata provide initial evidence of adaptive genetic variation and background for predicting population response to climate change. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  8. Genetic‐Genomic Replication to Identify Candidate Mouse Atherosclerosis Modifier Genes

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jeffrey; Smith, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Genetics plays a large role in atherosclerosis susceptibility in humans and mice. We attempted to confirm previously determined mouse atherosclerosis‐associated loci and use bioinformatics and transcriptomics to create a catalog of candidate atherosclerosis modifier genes at these loci. Methods and Results A strain intercross was performed between AKR and DBA/2 mice on the apoE−/− background generating 166 F2 progeny. Using the phenotype log10 of the aortic root lesion area, we identified 3 suggestive atherosclerosis quantitative trait loci (Ath QTLs). When combined with our prior strain intercross, we confirmed 3 significant Ath QTLs on chromosomes 2, 15, and 17, with combined logarithm of odds scores of 5.9, 5.3, and 5.6, respectively, which each met the genome‐wide 5% false discovery rate threshold. We identified all of the protein coding differences between these 2 mouse strains within the Ath QTL intervals. Microarray gene expression profiling was performed on macrophages and endothelial cells from this intercross to identify expression QTLs (eQTLs), the loci that are associated with variation in the expression levels of specific transcripts. Cross tissue eQTLs and macrophage eQTLs that replicated from a prior strain intercross were identified. These bioinformatic and eQTL analyses produced a comprehensive list of candidate genes that may be responsible for the Ath QTLs. Conclusions Replication studies for clinical traits as well as gene expression traits are worthwhile in identifying true versus false genetic associations. We have replicated 3 loci on mouse chromosomes 2, 15, and 17 that are associated with atherosclerosis. We have also identified protein coding differences and multiple replicated eQTLs, which may be useful in the identification of atherosclerosis modifier genes. PMID:23525445

  9. Evidence of Carbon Fixation Pathway in a Bacterium from Candidate Phylum SBR1093 Revealed with Genomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiping; Guo, Feng; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Autotrophic CO2 fixation is the most important biotransformation process in the biosphere. Research focusing on the diversity and distribution of relevant autotrophs is significant to our comprehension of the biosphere. In this study, a draft genome of a bacterium from candidate phylum SBR1093 was reconstructed with the metagenome of an industrial activated sludge. Based on comparative genomics, this autotrophy may occur via a newly discovered carbon fixation path, the hydroxypropionate-hydroxybutyrate (HPHB) cycle, which was demonstrated in a previous work to be uniquely possessed by some genera from Archaea. This bacterium possesses all of the thirteen enzymes required for the HPHB cycle; these enzymes share 30∼50% identity with those in the autotrophic species of Archaea that undergo the HPHB cycle and 30∼80% identity with the corresponding enzymes of the mixotrophic species within Bradyrhizobiaceae. Thus, this bacterium might have an autotrophic growth mode in certain conditions. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene reveals that the phylotypes within candidate phylum SBR1093 are primarily clustered into 5 clades with a shallow branching pattern. This bacterium is clustered with phylotypes from organically contaminated environments, implying a demand for organics in heterotrophic metabolism. Considering the types of regulators, such as FnR, Fur, and ArsR, this bacterium might be a facultative aerobic mixotroph with potential multi-antibiotic and heavy metal resistances. This is the first report on Bacteria that may perform potential carbon fixation via the HPHB cycle, thus may expand our knowledge of the distribution and importance of the HPHB cycle in the biosphere. PMID:25310003

  10. Evidence of carbon fixation pathway in a bacterium from candidate phylum SBR1093 revealed with genomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiping; Guo, Feng; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Autotrophic CO2 fixation is the most important biotransformation process in the biosphere. Research focusing on the diversity and distribution of relevant autotrophs is significant to our comprehension of the biosphere. In this study, a draft genome of a bacterium from candidate phylum SBR1093 was reconstructed with the metagenome of an industrial activated sludge. Based on comparative genomics, this autotrophy may occur via a newly discovered carbon fixation path, the hydroxypropionate-hydroxybutyrate (HPHB) cycle, which was demonstrated in a previous work to be uniquely possessed by some genera from Archaea. This bacterium possesses all of the thirteen enzymes required for the HPHB cycle; these enzymes share 30∼50% identity with those in the autotrophic species of Archaea that undergo the HPHB cycle and 30∼80% identity with the corresponding enzymes of the mixotrophic species within Bradyrhizobiaceae. Thus, this bacterium might have an autotrophic growth mode in certain conditions. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene reveals that the phylotypes within candidate phylum SBR1093 are primarily clustered into 5 clades with a shallow branching pattern. This bacterium is clustered with phylotypes from organically contaminated environments, implying a demand for organics in heterotrophic metabolism. Considering the types of regulators, such as FnR, Fur, and ArsR, this bacterium might be a facultative aerobic mixotroph with potential multi-antibiotic and heavy metal resistances. This is the first report on Bacteria that may perform potential carbon fixation via the HPHB cycle, thus may expand our knowledge of the distribution and importance of the HPHB cycle in the biosphere.

  11. Phylogeography, Salinity Adaptations and Metabolic Potential of the Candidate Division KB1 Bacteria Based on a Partial Single Cell Genome

    PubMed Central

    Nigro, Lisa M.; Hyde, Andrew S.; MacGregor, Barbara J.; Teske, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basins and other hypersaline environments contain abundant and diverse microbial life that has adapted to these extreme conditions. The bacterial Candidate Division KB1 represents one of several uncultured groups that have been consistently observed in hypersaline microbial diversity studies. Here we report the phylogeography of KB1, its phylogenetic relationships to Candidate Division OP1 Bacteria, and its potential metabolic and osmotic stress adaptations based on a partial single cell amplified genome of KB1 from Orca Basin, the largest hypersaline seafloor brine basin in the Gulf of Mexico. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis – previously developed based on 14C incorporation experiments with mixed-species enrichments from Mediterranean seafloor brines – that KB1 has adapted its proteins to elevated intracellular salinity, but at the same time KB1 apparently imports glycine betaine; this compatible solute is potentially not limited to osmoregulation but could also serve as a carbon and energy source. PMID:27597842

  12. Epigenetic genome-wide analysis identifies BEX1 as a candidate tumour suppressor gene in paediatric intracranial ependymoma.

    PubMed

    Karakoula, Katherine; Jacques, Thomas S; Phipps, Kim P; Harkness, William; Thompson, Dominic; Harding, Brian N; Darling, John L; Warr, Tracy J

    2014-04-28

    Promoter hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing is a common epigenetic mechanism of gene inactivation in cancer. To identify targets of epigenetic silencing in paediatric intracranial ependymoma, we used a pharmacological unmasking approach through treatment of 3 ependymoma short-term cell cultures with the demethylating agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine followed by global expression microarray analysis. We identified 55 candidate epigenetically silenced genes, which are involved in the regulation of apoptosis, Wnt signalling, p53 and cell differentiation. The methylation status of 26 of these genes was further determined by combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) and genomic sequencing in a cohort of 40 ependymoma samples. The most frequently methylated genes were BEX1 (27/40 cases), BAI2 (20/40), CCND2 (18/40), and CDKN2A (14/40). A high correlation between promoter hypermethylation and decreased gene expression levels was established by real-time quantitative PCR, suggesting the involvement of these genes in ependymoma tumourigenesis. Furthermore, ectopic expression of brain-expressed X-linked 1 (BEX1) in paediatric ependymoma short-term cell cultures significantly suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation. These data suggest that promoter hypermethylation contributes to silencing of target genes in paediatric intracranial ependymoma. Epigenetic inactivation of BEX1 supports its role as a candidate tumour suppressor gene in intracranial ependymoma, and a potential target for novel therapies for ependymoma in children.

  13. Revisiting genome wide association studies (GWAS) in coeliac disease: replication study in Spanish population and expression analysis of candidate genes.

    PubMed

    Plaza-Izurieta, Leticia; Castellanos-Rubio, Ainara; Irastorza, Iñaki; Fernández-Jimenez, Nora; Gutierrez, Galder; Bilbao, Jose Ramon

    2011-07-01

    Recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) on coeliac disease (CD) have identified risk loci harbouring genes that fit the accepted pathogenic model and are considered aetiological candidates. Using Taqman single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and expression assays, the study genotyped 11 SNPs tagging eight GWAS regions (1q31, 2q11-2q12, 3p21, 3q25-3q26, 3q28, 4q27, 6q25 and 12q24) in a Spanish cohort of 1094 CD patients and 540 controls, and performed expression analyses of candidate genes (RGS1, IL18R1/IL18RAP, CCR3, IL12A/SCHIP1, LPP, IL2/IL21-KIAA1109, TAGAP, and SH2B3) in intestinal mucosa from 29 CD children and eight controls. Polymorphisms in 1q31, 2q11-2q12, and 3q25 showed association in our cohort, and also 3q28 and 4q27 when combined with a previous study. Expression levels of IL12A, IL18RAP, IL21, KIAA1109, LPP, SCHIP1, and SH2B3 were affected by disease status, but the correlation between genotype and mRNA levels was observed only in IL12A, LPP, SCHIP1, and SH2B3. Expression differences between treated CD patients and controls along with SNP expression associations suggest a possible primary role for these four genes and their variants in pathogenesis. The lack of SNP effect in the remaining genes is probably a consequence of arbitrary candidate gene selection within association signals that are not based on functional studies.

  14. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis identifies MEGF10 as a novel epigenetically repressed candidate tumor suppressor gene in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Charlet, Jessica; Tomari, Ayumi; Dallosso, Anthony R; Szemes, Marianna; Kaselova, Martina; Curry, Thomas J; Almutairi, Bader; Etchevers, Heather C; McConville, Carmel; Malik, Karim T A; Brown, Keith W

    2017-04-01

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer in which many children still have poor outcomes, emphasising the need to better understand its pathogenesis. Despite recent genome-wide mutation analyses, many primary neuroblastomas do not contain recognizable driver mutations, implicating alternate molecular pathologies such as epigenetic alterations. To discover genes that become epigenetically deregulated during neuroblastoma tumorigenesis, we took the novel approach of comparing neuroblastomas to neural crest precursor cells, using genome-wide DNA methylation analysis. We identified 93 genes that were significantly differentially methylated of which 26 (28%) were hypermethylated and 67 (72%) were hypomethylated. Concentrating on hypermethylated genes to identify candidate tumor suppressor loci, we found the cell engulfment and adhesion factor gene MEGF10 to be epigenetically repressed by DNA hypermethylation or by H3K27/K9 methylation in neuroblastoma cell lines. MEGF10 showed significantly down-regulated expression in neuroblastoma tumor samples; furthermore patients with the lowest-expressing tumors had reduced relapse-free survival. Our functional studies showed that knock-down of MEGF10 expression in neuroblastoma cell lines promoted cell growth, consistent with MEGF10 acting as a clinically relevant, epigenetically deregulated neuroblastoma tumor suppressor gene. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Carcinogenesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Comparative mapping in intraspecific populations uncovers a high degree of macrosynteny between A- and B-genome diploid species of peanut

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cultivated peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important oilseed crop with an allotetraploid genome (AABB, 2n = 4x = 40). Both the low level of genetic variation within the cultivated gene pool and its polyploid nature limit the utilization of molecular markers to explore genome structure and facilitate genetic improvement. Nevertheless, a wealth of genetic diversity exists in diploid Arachis species (2n = 2x = 20), which represent a valuable gene pool for cultivated peanut improvement. Interspecific populations have been used widely for genetic mapping in diploid species of Arachis. However, an intraspecific mapping strategy was essential to detect chromosomal rearrangements among species that could be obscured by mapping in interspecific populations. To develop intraspecific reference linkage maps and gain insights into karyotypic evolution within the genus, we comparatively mapped the A- and B-genome diploid species using intraspecific F2 populations. Exploring genome organization among diploid peanut species by comparative mapping will enhance our understanding of the cultivated tetraploid peanut genome. Moreover, new sources of molecular markers that are highly transferable between species and developed from expressed genes will be required to construct saturated genetic maps for peanut. Results A total of 2,138 EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat) markers were developed by mining a tetraploid peanut EST assembly including 101,132 unigenes (37,916 contigs and 63,216 singletons) derived from 70,771 long-read (Sanger) and 270,957 short-read (454) sequences. A set of 97 SSR markers were also developed by mining 9,517 genomic survey sequences of Arachis. An SSR-based intraspecific linkage map was constructed using an F2 population derived from a cross between K 9484 (PI 298639) and GKBSPSc 30081 (PI 468327) in the B-genome species A. batizocoi. A high degree of macrosynteny was observed when comparing the

  16. Comparative mapping in intraspecific populations uncovers a high degree of macrosynteny between A- and B-genome diploid species of peanut.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yufang; Khanal, Sameer; Tang, Shunxue; Bowers, John E; Heesacker, Adam F; Khalilian, Nelly; Nagy, Ervin D; Zhang, Dong; Taylor, Christopher A; Stalker, H Thomas; Ozias-Akins, Peggy; Knapp, Steven J

    2012-11-10

    Cultivated peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important oilseed crop with an allotetraploid genome (AABB, 2n = 4x = 40). Both the low level of genetic variation within the cultivated gene pool and its polyploid nature limit the utilization of molecular markers to explore genome structure and facilitate genetic improvement. Nevertheless, a wealth of genetic diversity exists in diploid Arachis species (2n = 2x = 20), which represent a valuable gene pool for cultivated peanut improvement. Interspecific populations have been used widely for genetic mapping in diploid species of Arachis. However, an intraspecific mapping strategy was essential to detect chromosomal rearrangements among species that could be obscured by mapping in interspecific populations. To develop intraspecific reference linkage maps and gain insights into karyotypic evolution within the genus, we comparatively mapped the A- and B-genome diploid species using intraspecific F2 populations. Exploring genome organization among diploid peanut species by comparative mapping will enhance our understanding of the cultivated tetraploid peanut genome. Moreover, new sources of molecular markers that are highly transferable between species and developed from expressed genes will be required to construct saturated genetic maps for peanut. A total of 2,138 EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat) markers were developed by mining a tetraploid peanut EST assembly including 101,132 unigenes (37,916 contigs and 63,216 singletons) derived from 70,771 long-read (Sanger) and 270,957 short-read (454) sequences. A set of 97 SSR markers were also developed by mining 9,517 genomic survey sequences of Arachis. An SSR-based intraspecific linkage map was constructed using an F2 population derived from a cross between K 9484 (PI 298639) and GKBSPSc 30081 (PI 468327) in the B-genome species A. batizocoi. A high degree of macrosynteny was observed when comparing the homoeologous linkage groups between

  17. Identification of candidate genes associated with porcine meat color traits by genome-wide transcriptome analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bojiang; Dong, Chao; Li, Pinghua; Ren, Zhuqing; Wang, Han; Yu, Fengxiang; Ning, Caibo; Liu, Kaiqing; Wei, Wei; Huang, Ruihua; Chen, Jie; Wu, Wangjun; Liu, Honglin

    2016-01-01

    Meat color is considered to be the most important indicator of meat quality, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying traits related to meat color remain mostly unknown. In this study, to elucidate the molecular basis of meat color, we constructed six cDNA libraries from biceps femoris (Bf) and soleus (Sol), which exhibit obvious differences in meat color, and analyzed the whole-transcriptome differences between Bf (white muscle) and Sol (red muscle) using high-throughput sequencing technology. Using DEseq2 method, we identified 138 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between Bf and Sol. Using DEGseq method, we identified 770, 810, and 476 DEGs in comparisons between Bf and Sol in three separate animals. Of these DEGs, 52 were overlapping DEGs. Using these data, we determined the enriched GO terms, metabolic pathways and candidate genes associated with meat color traits. Additionally, we mapped 114 non-redundant DEGs to the meat color QTLs via a comparative analysis with the porcine quantitative trait loci (QTL) database. Overall, our data serve as a valuable resource for identifying genes whose functions are critical for meat color traits and can accelerate studies of the molecular mechanisms of meat color formation. PMID:27748458

  18. Genome-wide expression analysis of peripheral blood identifies candidate biomarkers for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kuzman, Martina Rojnic; Medved, Vesna; Terzic, Janos; Krainc, Dimitri

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze gene expression in blood of patients with newly-diagnosed schizophrenia during their first psychotic episode and subsequent remission. Whole blood samples were obtained from 32 untreated patients presenting with their first psychotic episode suggestive of schizophrenia and 32 age- and gender-matched controls. Using Affymetrix micoarrays, we identified significantly altered expression of 180 gene probes in psychotic patients compared to controls. A subset of four significantly changed genes was further confirmed with QRT-PCR. The following genes were significantly altered in patients: glucose transporter, SLC2A3 (p<0.001) and actin assembly factor DAAM2 (p<0.001) were increased, whereas translation, zinc metallopeptidase, neurolysin 1 and myosin C were significantly decreased (p<0.05). Expression of these candidate markers was also analyzed in a longitudinal study (12-24 months) in 12 patients who achieved full remission. Interestingly, expression of DAAM2 returned to control levels in patients who were in remission after their first psychotic episode, suggesting that its expression correlates with diseases progression and/or response to treatment. In summary, we identified changes of gene expression from peripheral blood which might help discriminate patients with schizophrenia from controls. While these results are promising, especially for DAAM2 whose polymorphic variants have been found significantly associated with schizophrenia, it will be important to analyze larger cohorts of patients in order to firmly establish changes in gene expression as blood markers of schizophrenia.

  19. Natural bone fragmentation in the blind cave-dwelling fish, Astyanax mexicanus: candidate gene identification through integrative comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Gross, Joshua B; Stahl, Bethany A; Powers, Amanda K; Carlson, Brian M

    2016-01-01

    Animals that colonize dark and nutrient-poor subterranean environments evolve numerous extreme phenotypes. These include dramatic changes to the craniofacial complex, many of which are under genetic control. These phenotypes can demonstrate asymmetric genetic signals wherein a QTL is detected on one side of the face but not the other. The causative gene(s) underlying QTL are difficult to identify with limited genomic resources. We approached this task by searching for candidate genes mediating fragmentation of the third suborbital bone (SO3) directly inferior to the orbit of the eye. We integrated positional genomic information using emerging Astyanax resources, and linked these intervals to homologous (syntenic) regions of the Danio rerio genome. We identified a discrete, approximately 6 Mb, conserved region wherein the gene causing SO3 fragmentation likely resides. We interrogated this interval for genes demonstrating significant differential expression using mRNA-seq analysis of cave and surface morphs across life history. We then assessed genes with known roles in craniofacial evolution and development based on GO term annotation. Finally, we screened coding sequence alterations in this region, identifying two key genes: transforming growth factor β3 (tgfb3) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (bmp4). Of these candidates, tgfb3 is most promising as it demonstrates significant differential expression across multiple stages of development, maps close (<1 Mb) to the fragmentation critical locus, and is implicated in a variety of other animal systems (including humans) in non-syndromic clefting and malformations of the cranial sutures. Both abnormalities are analogous to the failure-to-fuse phenotype that we observe in SO3 fragmentation. This integrative approach will enable discovery of the causative genetic lesions leading to complex craniofacial features analogous to human craniofacial disorders. This work underscores the value of cave-dwelling fish as a

  20. TMA Uncovers Medicare Mistakes.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2015-07-01

    The Texas Medical Association recently uncovered some major Medicare mistakes that show just why some physicians talk about leaving the federal program. Investigations and advocacy by TMA staff put Medicare on the path to a fix.

  1. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Individuals from a Founder Population Identifies Candidate Genes for Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Catarina D.; Mohajeri, Kiana; Malig, Maika; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Nelson, Benjamin; Du, Gaixin; Patterson, Kristen M.; Eng, Celeste; Torgerson, Dara G.; Hu, Donglei; Herman, Catherine; Chong, Jessica X.; Ko, Arthur; O'Roak, Brian J.; Krumm, Niklas; Vives, Laura; Lee, Choli; Roth, Lindsey A.; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Davis, Adam; Meade, Kelley; LeNoir, Michael A.; Thyne, Shannon; Jackson, Daniel J.; Gern, James E.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Shendure, Jay; Abney, Mark; Burchard, Esteban G.; Ober, Carole; Eichler, Evan E.

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a complex genetic disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. We sought to test classes of genetic variants largely missed by genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including copy number variants (CNVs) and low-frequency variants, by performing whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on 16 individuals from asthma-enriched and asthma-depleted families. The samples were obtained from an extended 13-generation Hutterite pedigree with reduced genetic heterogeneity due to a small founding gene pool and reduced environmental heterogeneity as a result of a communal lifestyle. We sequenced each individual to an average depth of 13-fold, generated a comprehensive catalog of genetic variants, and tested the most severe mutations for association with asthma. We identified and validated 1960 CNVs, 19 nonsense or splice-site single nucleotide variants (SNVs), and 18 insertions or deletions that were out of frame. As follow-up, we performed targeted sequencing of 16 genes in 837 cases and 540 controls of Puerto Rican ancestry and found that controls carry a significantly higher burden of mutations in IL27RA (2.0% of controls; 0.23% of cases; nominal p = 0.004; Bonferroni p = 0.21). We also genotyped 593 CNVs in 1199 Hutterite individuals. We identified a nominally significant association (p = 0.03; Odds ratio (OR) = 3.13) between a 6 kbp deletion in an intron of NEDD4L and increased risk of asthma. We genotyped this deletion in an additional 4787 non-Hutterite individuals (nominal p = 0.056; OR = 1.69). NEDD4L is expressed in bronchial epithelial cells, and conditional knockout of this gene in the lung in mice leads to severe inflammation and mucus accumulation. Our study represents one of the early instances of applying WGS to complex disease with a large environmental component and demonstrates how WGS can identify risk variants, including CNVs and low-frequency variants, largely untested in GWAS. PMID:25116239

  2. Whole-genome sequencing of individuals from a founder population identifies candidate genes for asthma.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catarina D; Mohajeri, Kiana; Malig, Maika; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Nelson, Benjamin; Du, Gaixin; Patterson, Kristen M; Eng, Celeste; Torgerson, Dara G; Hu, Donglei; Herman, Catherine; Chong, Jessica X; Ko, Arthur; O'Roak, Brian J; Krumm, Niklas; Vives, Laura; Lee, Choli; Roth, Lindsey A; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Davis, Adam; Meade, Kelley; LeNoir, Michael A; Thyne, Shannon; Jackson, Daniel J; Gern, James E; Lemanske, Robert F; Shendure, Jay; Abney, Mark; Burchard, Esteban G; Ober, Carole; Eichler, Evan E

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a complex genetic disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. We sought to test classes of genetic variants largely missed by genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including copy number variants (CNVs) and low-frequency variants, by performing whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on 16 individuals from asthma-enriched and asthma-depleted families. The samples were obtained from an extended 13-generation Hutterite pedigree with reduced genetic heterogeneity due to a small founding gene pool and reduced environmental heterogeneity as a result of a communal lifestyle. We sequenced each individual to an average depth of 13-fold, generated a comprehensive catalog of genetic variants, and tested the most severe mutations for association with asthma. We identified and validated 1960 CNVs, 19 nonsense or splice-site single nucleotide variants (SNVs), and 18 insertions or deletions that were out of frame. As follow-up, we performed targeted sequencing of 16 genes in 837 cases and 540 controls of Puerto Rican ancestry and found that controls carry a significantly higher burden of mutations in IL27RA (2.0% of controls; 0.23% of cases; nominal p = 0.004; Bonferroni p = 0.21). We also genotyped 593 CNVs in 1199 Hutterite individuals. We identified a nominally significant association (p = 0.03; Odds ratio (OR) = 3.13) between a 6 kbp deletion in an intron of NEDD4L and increased risk of asthma. We genotyped this deletion in an additional 4787 non-Hutterite individuals (nominal p = 0.056; OR = 1.69). NEDD4L is expressed in bronchial epithelial cells, and conditional knockout of this gene in the lung in mice leads to severe inflammation and mucus accumulation. Our study represents one of the early instances of applying WGS to complex disease with a large environmental component and demonstrates how WGS can identify risk variants, including CNVs and low-frequency variants, largely untested in GWAS.

  3. Genome-wide scan in Hispanics highlights candidate loci for brain white matter hyperintensities.

    PubMed

    Beecham, Ashley; Dong, Chuanhui; Wright, Clinton B; Dueker, Nicole; Brickman, Adam M; Wang, Liyong; DeCarli, Charles; Blanton, Susan H; Rundek, Tatjana; Mayeux, Richard; Sacco, Ralph L

    2017-10-01

    To investigate genetic variants influencing white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) in the understudied Hispanic population. Using 6.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify SNPs associated with WMH volume (WMHV) in 922 Hispanics who underwent brain MRI as a cross-section of 2 community-based cohorts in the Northern Manhattan Study and the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project. Multiple linear modeling with PLINK was performed to examine the additive genetic effects on ln(WMHV) after controlling for age, sex, total intracranial volume, and principal components of ancestry. Gene-based tests of association were performed using VEGAS. Replication was performed in independent samples of Europeans, African Americans, and Asians. From the SNP analysis, a total of 17 independent SNPs in 7 genes had suggestive evidence of association with WMHV in Hispanics (p < 1 × 10(-5)) and 5 genes from the gene-based analysis with p < 1 × 10(-3). One SNP (rs9957475 in GATA6) and 1 gene (UBE2C) demonstrated evidence of association (p < 0.05) in the African American sample. Four SNPs with p < 1 × 10(-5) were shown to affect binding of SPI1 using RegulomeDB. This GWAS of 2 community-based Hispanic cohorts revealed several novel WMH-associated genetic variants. Further replication is needed in independent Hispanic samples to validate these suggestive associations, and fine mapping is needed to pinpoint causal variants.

  4. Identification of mesoderm development (mesd) candidate genes by comparative mapping and genome sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Wines, M E; Lee, L; Katari, M S; Zhang, L; DeRossi, C; Shi, Y; Perkins, S; Feldman, M; McCombie, W R; Holdener, B C

    2001-02-15

    The proximal albino deletions identify several functional regions on mouse Chromosome 7 critical for differentiation of mesoderm (mesd), development of the hypothalamus neuroendocrine lineage (nelg), and function of the liver (hsdr1). Using comparative mapping and genomic sequence analysis, we have identified four novel genes and Il16 in the mesd deletion interval. Two of the novel genes, mesdc1 and mesdc2, are located within the mesd critical region defined by BAC transgenic rescue. We have investigated the fetal role of genes located outside the mesd critical region using BAC transgenic complementation of the mesd early embryonic lethality. Using human radiation hybrid mapping and BAC contig construction, we have identified a conserved region of human chromosome 15 homologous to the mesd, nelg, and hsdr1 functional regions. Three human diseases cosegregate with microsatellite markers used in construction of the human BAC/YAC physical map, including autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ENFL2; also known as ADNFLE), a syndrome of mental retardation, spasticity, and tapetoretinal degeneration (MRST); and a pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne syndrome (PAPA).

  5. Comparative genomics reveals candidate carotenoid pathway regulators of ripening watermelon fruit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many fruits, including watermelon, are proficient in carotenoid accumulation during ripening. While most genes encoding steps in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been cloned, few transcriptional regulators of these genes have been defined to date. Here we describe the identification of a set of putative carotenoid-related transcription factors resulting from fresh watermelon carotenoid and transcriptome analysis during fruit development and ripening. Our goal is to both clarify the expression profiles of carotenoid pathway genes and to identify candidate regulators and molecular targets for crop improvement. Results Total carotenoids progressively increased during fruit ripening up to ~55 μg g-1 fw in red-ripe fruits. Trans-lycopene was the carotenoid that contributed most to this increase. Many of the genes related to carotenoid metabolism displayed changing expression levels during fruit ripening generating a metabolic flux toward carotenoid synthesis. Constitutive low expression of lycopene cyclase genes resulted in lycopene accumulation. RNA-seq expression profiling of watermelon fruit development yielded a set of transcription factors whose expression was correlated with ripening and carotenoid accumulation. Nineteen putative transcription factor genes from watermelon and homologous to tomato carotenoid-associated genes were identified. Among these, six were differentially expressed in the flesh of both species during fruit development and ripening. Conclusions Taken together the data suggest that, while the regulation of a common set of metabolic genes likely influences carotenoid synthesis and accumulation in watermelon and tomato fruits during development and ripening, specific and limiting regulators may differ between climacteric and non-climacteric fruits, possibly related to their differential susceptibility to and use of ethylene during ripening. PMID:24219562

  6. Identification of candidate anti-cancer molecular mechanisms of Compound Kushen Injection using functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Zhipeng; Aung, Thazin Nwe; Feng, Qianjin; Raison, Joy M.; Kortschak, Robert Daniel; Adelson, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Compound Kushen Injection (CKI) has been clinically used in China for over 15 years to treat various types of solid tumours. However, because such Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) preparations are complex mixtures of plant secondary metabolites, it is essential to explore their underlying molecular mechanisms in a systematic fashion. We have used the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line as an initial in vitro model to identify CKI induced changes in gene expression. Cells were treated with CKI for 24 and 48 hours at two concentrations (1 and 2 mg/mL total alkaloids), and the effect of CKI on cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured using XTT and Annexin V/Propidium Iodide staining assays respectively. Transcriptome data of cells treated with CKI or 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) for 24 and 48 hours were subsequently acquired using high-throughput Illumina RNA-seq technology. In this report we show that CKI inhibited MCF-7 cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent fashion. We integrated and applied a series of transcriptome analysis methods, including gene differential expression analysis, pathway over-representation analysis, de novo identification of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) as well as co-expression network reconstruction, to identify candidate anti-cancer molecular mechanisms of CKI. Multiple pathways were perturbed and the cell cycle was identified as the potential primary target pathway of CKI in MCF-7 cells. CKI may also induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells via a p53 independent mechanism. In addition, we identified novel lncRNAs and showed that many of them might be expressed as a response to CKI treatment. PMID:27602759

  7. Comparative genomics reveals candidate carotenoid pathway regulators of ripening watermelon fruit.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Stefania; Piro, Gabriella; Lee, Je Min; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Dalessandro, Giuseppe; Giovannoni, James J; Lenucci, Marcello S

    2013-11-12

    Many fruits, including watermelon, are proficient in carotenoid accumulation during ripening. While most genes encoding steps in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been cloned, few transcriptional regulators of these genes have been defined to date. Here we describe the identification of a set of putative carotenoid-related transcription factors resulting from fresh watermelon carotenoid and transcriptome analysis during fruit development and ripening. Our goal is to both clarify the expression profiles of carotenoid pathway genes and to identify candidate regulators and molecular targets for crop improvement. Total carotenoids progressively increased during fruit ripening up to ~55 μg g(-1) fw in red-ripe fruits. Trans-lycopene was the carotenoid that contributed most to this increase. Many of the genes related to carotenoid metabolism displayed changing expression levels during fruit ripening generating a metabolic flux toward carotenoid synthesis. Constitutive low expression of lycopene cyclase genes resulted in lycopene accumulation. RNA-seq expression profiling of watermelon fruit development yielded a set of transcription factors whose expression was correlated with ripening and carotenoid accumulation. Nineteen putative transcription factor genes from watermelon and homologous to tomato carotenoid-associated genes were identified. Among these, six were differentially expressed in the flesh of both species during fruit development and ripening. Taken together the data suggest that, while the regulation of a common set of metabolic genes likely influences carotenoid synthesis and accumulation in watermelon and tomato fruits during development and ripening, specific and limiting regulators may differ between climacteric and non-climacteric fruits, possibly related to their differential susceptibility to and use of ethylene during ripening.

  8. Genome-wide association studies of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis suggest candidate susceptibility genes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Swarkar; Gao, Xiaochong; Londono, Douglas; Devroy, Shonn E; Mauldin, Kristen N; Frankel, Jessica T; Brandon, January M; Zhang, Dongping; Li, Quan-Zhen; Dobbs, Matthew B; Gurnett, Christina A; Grant, Struan F A; Hakonarson, Hakon; Dormans, John P; Herring, John A; Gordon, Derek; Wise, Carol A

    2011-04-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is an unexplained and common spinal deformity seen in otherwise healthy children. Its pathophysiology is poorly understood despite intensive investigation. Although genetic underpinnings are clear, replicated susceptibility loci that could provide insight into etiology have not been forthcoming. To address these issues, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of ∼327 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 419 AIS families. We found strongest evidence of association with chromosome 3p26.3 SNPs in the proximity of the CHL1 gene (P < 8 × 10(-8) for rs1400180). We genotyped additional chromosome 3p26.3 SNPs and tested replication in two follow-up case-control cohorts, obtaining strongest results when all three cohorts were combined (rs10510181 odds ratio = 1.49, 95% confidence interval = 1.29-1.73, P = 2.58 × 10(-8)), but these were not confirmed in a separate GWAS. CHL1 is of interest, as it encodes an axon guidance protein related to Robo3. Mutations in the Robo3 protein cause horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS), a rare disease marked by severe scoliosis. Other top associations in our GWAS were with SNPs in the DSCAM gene encoding an axon guidance protein in the same structural class with Chl1 and Robo3. We additionally found AIS associations with loci in CNTNAP2, supporting a previous study linking this gene with AIS. Cntnap2 is also of functional interest, as it interacts directly with L1 and Robo class proteins and participates in axon pathfinding. Our results suggest the relevance of axon guidance pathways in AIS susceptibility, although these findings require further study, particularly given the apparent genetic heterogeneity in this disease.

  9. The mitochondrial genome of the plant-pathogenic fungus Stemphylium lycopersici uncovers a dynamic structure due to repetitive and mobile elements.

    PubMed

    Franco, Mario Emilio Ernesto; López, Silvina Marianela Yanil; Medina, Rocio; Lucentini, César Gustavo; Troncozo, Maria Inés; Pastorino, Graciela Noemí; Saparrat, Mario Carlos Nazareno; Balatti, Pedro Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Stemphylium lycopersici (Pleosporales) is a plant-pathogenic fungus that has been associated with a broad range of plant-hosts worldwide. It is one of the causative agents of gray leaf spot disease in tomato and pepper. The aim of this work was to characterize the mitochondrial genome of S. lycopersici CIDEFI-216, to use it to trace taxonomic relationships with other fungal taxa and to get insights into the evolutionary history of this phytopathogen. The complete mitochondrial genome was assembled into a circular double-stranded DNA molecule of 75,911 bp that harbors a set of 37 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes (rns and rnl) and 28 tRNA genes, which are transcribed from both sense and antisense strands. Remarkably, its gene repertoire lacks both atp8 and atp9, contains a free-standing gene for the ribosomal protein S3 (rps3) and includes 13 genes with homing endonuclease domains that are mostly located within its 15 group I introns. Strikingly, subunits 1 and 2 of cytochrome oxidase are encoded by a single continuous open reading frame (ORF). A comparative mitogenomic analysis revealed the large extent of structural rearrangements among representatives of Pleosporales, showing the plasticity of their mitochondrial genomes. Finally, an exhaustive phylogenetic analysis of the subphylum Pezizomycotina based on mitochondrial data reconstructed their relationships in concordance with several studies based on nuclear data. This is the first report of a mitochondrial genome belonging to a representative of the family Pleosporaceae.

  10. Bacillus thuringiensis toxin resistance mechanisms among Lepidoptera: progress on genomic approaches to uncover causal mutations in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transgenic plants that expressed Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline (Cry) protein toxins can suffer feeding damage from a small number of lepidopteran insect species under field conditions, which has heightened concerns about the durability of pest control tactics. Genomics research has provid...

  11. Genome-wide scan for visceral leishmaniasis in mixed-breed dogs identifies candidate genes involved in T helper cells and macrophage signaling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We conducted a genome-wide scan for visceral leishmaniasis in mixed-breed dogs from a highly endemic area in Brazil using 149,648 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers genotyped in 20 cases and 28 controls. Using a mixed model approach, we found two candidate loci on canine autosomes 1 and 2....

  12. Analysis of Repair Mechanisms following an Induced Double-Strand Break Uncovers Recessive Deleterious Alleles in the Candida albicans Diploid Genome.

    PubMed

    Feri, Adeline; Loll-Krippleber, Raphaël; Commere, Pierre-Henri; Maufrais, Corinne; Sertour, Natacha; Schwartz, Katja; Sherlock, Gavin; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; d'Enfert, Christophe; Legrand, Mélanie

    2016-10-11

    The diploid genome of the yeast Candida albicans is highly plastic, exhibiting frequent loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) events. To provide a deeper understanding of the mechanisms leading to LOH, we investigated the repair of a unique DNA double-strand break (DSB) in the laboratory C. albicans SC5314 strain using the I-SceI meganuclease. Upon I-SceI induction, we detected a strong increase in the frequency of LOH events at an I-SceI target locus positioned on chromosome 4 (Chr4), including events spreading from this locus to the proximal telomere. Characterization of the repair events by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing and whole-genome sequencing revealed a predominance of gene conversions, but we also observed mitotic crossover or break-induced replication events, as well as combinations of independent events. Importantly, progeny that had undergone homozygosis of part or all of Chr4 haplotype B (Chr4B) were inviable. Mining of genome sequencing data for 155 C. albicans isolates allowed the identification of a recessive lethal allele in the GPI16 gene on Chr4B unique to C. albicans strain SC5314 which is responsible for this inviability. Additional recessive lethal or deleterious alleles were identified in the genomes of strain SC5314 and two clinical isolates. Our results demonstrate that recessive lethal alleles in the genomes of C. albicans isolates prevent the occurrence of specific extended LOH events. While these and other recessive lethal and deleterious alleles are likely to accumulate in C. albicans due to clonal reproduction, their occurrence may in turn promote the maintenance of corresponding nondeleterious alleles and, consequently, heterozygosity in the C. albicans species.

  13. Analysis of Repair Mechanisms following an Induced Double-Strand Break Uncovers Recessive Deleterious Alleles in the Candida albicans Diploid Genome

    PubMed Central

    Feri, Adeline; Loll-Krippleber, Raphaël; Commere, Pierre-Henri; Maufrais, Corinne; Sertour, Natacha; Schwartz, Katja; Sherlock, Gavin; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The diploid genome of the yeast Candida albicans is highly plastic, exhibiting frequent loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) events. To provide a deeper understanding of the mechanisms leading to LOH, we investigated the repair of a unique DNA double-strand break (DSB) in the laboratory C. albicans SC5314 strain using the I-SceI meganuclease. Upon I-SceI induction, we detected a strong increase in the frequency of LOH events at an I-SceI target locus positioned on chromosome 4 (Chr4), including events spreading from this locus to the proximal telomere. Characterization of the repair events by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing and whole-genome sequencing revealed a predominance of gene conversions, but we also observed mitotic crossover or break-induced replication events, as well as combinations of independent events. Importantly, progeny that had undergone homozygosis of part or all of Chr4 haplotype B (Chr4B) were inviable. Mining of genome sequencing data for 155 C. albicans isolates allowed the identification of a recessive lethal allele in the GPI16 gene on Chr4B unique to C. albicans strain SC5314 which is responsible for this inviability. Additional recessive lethal or deleterious alleles were identified in the genomes of strain SC5314 and two clinical isolates. Our results demonstrate that recessive lethal alleles in the genomes of C. albicans isolates prevent the occurrence of specific extended LOH events. While these and other recessive lethal and deleterious alleles are likely to accumulate in C. albicans due to clonal reproduction, their occurrence may in turn promote the maintenance of corresponding nondeleterious alleles and, consequently, heterozygosity in the C. albicans species. PMID:27729506

  14. Genetic Predictors of Susceptibility to Cutaneous Fungal Infections: a pilot Genome Wide Association Study to Refine a Candidate Gene Search

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Rahman, Susan M.; Preuett, Barry L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Trichophyton tonsurans is the foremost fungal pathogen of minority children in the U.S. Despite overwhelming infection rates, it does not appear that this fungus infects children in a non-specific manner. Objective This study was designed to identify genes that may predispose or protect a child from T. tonsurans infection. Methods Children participating in an earlier longitudinal study wherein infection rates could be reliably determined were eligible for inclusion. DNA from a subset (n=40) of these children at the population extremes underwent whole genome genotyping (WGG). Allele frequencies between cases and controls were examined and significant SNPs were used to develop a candidate gene list for which the remainder of the cohort (n=115) were genotyped. Cumulative infection rate was examined by genotype and the ability of selected genotypes to predict the likelihood of infection explored by multivariable analysis. Results 23 genes with a putative mechanistic role in cutaneous infection were selected for evaluation. Of these, 21 demonstrated significant differences in infection rate between genotypes. A risk index assigned to genotypes in the 21 genes accounted for over 60% of the variability observed in infection rate (adjusted r2=0.665, p<0.001). Among these, 8 appeared to account for the majority of variability that was observed (r2=0.603, p<0.001). These included genes involved in: leukocyte activation and migration, extracellular matrix integrity and remodeling, epidermal maintenance and wound repair, and cutaneous permeability. Conclusions Applying WGG to individuals at the extremes of phenotype can help to guide the selection of candidate genes in populations of small cohorts where disease etiology is likely polygenic in nature. PMID:22704677

  15. Integration of multiethnic fine-mapping and genomic annotation to prioritize candidate functional SNPs at prostate cancer susceptibility regions

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ying; Hazelett, Dennis J.; Wiklund, Fredrik; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Stram, Daniel O.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Wang, Zhaoming; Rand, Kristin A.; Hoover, Robert N.; Machiela, Mitchell J.; Yeager, Merideth; Burdette, Laurie; Chung, Charles C.; Hutchinson, Amy; Yu, Kai; Xu, Jianfeng; Travis, Ruth C.; Key, Timothy J.; Siddiq, Afshan; Canzian, Federico; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Stanford, Janet L.; Kolb, Suzanne; Gapstur, Susan M.; Diver, W. Ryan; Stevens, Victoria L.; Strom, Sara S.; Pettaway, Curtis A.; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Yeboah, Edward D.; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B.; Adjei, Andrew A.; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P.; Isaacs, William B.; Chen, Constance; Lindstrom, Sara; Le Marchand, Loic; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Pomerantz, Mark; Long, Henry; Li, Fugen; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir; John, Esther M.; Ingles, Sue A.; Kittles, Rick A.; Murphy, Adam B.; Blot, William J.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Nemesure, Barbara; Carpten, John; Leske, M. Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anselm J. M.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W.; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Klein, Eric A.; Zheng, S. Lilly; Witte, John S.; Casey, Graham; Riboli, Elio; Li, Qiyuan; Freedman, Matthew L.; Hunter, David J.; Gronberg, Henrik; Cook, Michael B.; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Kraft, Peter; Chanock, Stephen J.; Easton, Douglas F.; Henderson, Brian E.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Conti, David V.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of biological mechanisms underlying genetic risk associations for prostate cancer is complicated by the relatively large number of risk variants (n = 100) and the thousands of surrogate SNPs in linkage disequilibrium. Here, we combined three distinct approaches: multiethnic fine-mapping, putative functional annotation (based upon epigenetic data and genome-encoded features), and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analyses, in an attempt to reduce this complexity. We examined 67 risk regions using genotyping and imputation-based fine-mapping in populations of European (cases/controls: 8600/6946), African (cases/controls: 5327/5136), Japanese (cases/controls: 2563/4391) and Latino (cases/controls: 1034/1046) ancestry. Markers at 55 regions passed a region-specific significance threshold (P-value cutoff range: 3.9 × 10−4–5.6 × 10−3) and in 30 regions we identified markers that were more significantly associated with risk than the previously reported variants in the multiethnic sample. Novel secondary signals (P < 5.0 × 10−6) were also detected in two regions (rs13062436/3q21 and rs17181170/3p12). Among 666 variants in the 55 regions with P-values within one order of magnitude of the most-associated marker, 193 variants (29%) in 48 regions overlapped with epigenetic or other putative functional marks. In 11 of the 55 regions, cis-eQTLs were detected with nearby genes. For 12 of the 55 regions (22%), the most significant region-specific, prostate-cancer associated variant represented the strongest candidate functional variant based on our annotations; the number of regions increased to 20 (36%) and 27 (49%) when examining the 2 and 3 most significantly associated variants in each region, respectively. These results have prioritized subsets of candidate variants for downstream functional evaluation. PMID:26162851

  16. Genome Wide Screening of Candidate Genes for Improving Piglet Birth Weight Using High and Low Estimated Breeding Value Populations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lifan; Zhou, Xiang; Michal, Jennifer J.; Ding, Bo; Li, Rui; Jiang, Zhihua

    2014-01-01

    Birth weight is an economically important trait in pig production because it directly impacts piglet growth and survival rate. In the present study, we performed a genome wide survey of candidate genes and pathways associated with individual birth weight (IBW) using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip on 24 high (HEBV) and 24 low estimated breeding value (LEBV) animals. These animals were selected from a reference population of 522 individuals produced by three sires and six dam lines, which were crossbreds with multiple breeds. After quality-control, 43,257 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms), including 42,243 autosomal SNPs and 1,014 SNPs on chromosome X, were used in the data analysis. A total of 27 differentially selected regions (DSRs), including 1 on Sus scrofa chromosome 1 (SSC1), 1 on SSC4, 2 on SSC5, 4 on SSC6, 2 on SSC7, 5 on SSC8, 3 on SSC9, 1 on SSC14, 3 on SSC18, and 5 on SSCX, were identified to show the genome wide separations between the HEBV and LEBV groups for IBW in piglets. A DSR with the most number of significant SNPs (including 7 top 0.1% and 31 top 5% SNPs) was located on SSC6, while another DSR with the largest genetic differences in FST was found on SSC18. These regions harbor known functionally important genes involved in growth and development, such as TNFRSF9 (tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9), CA6 (carbonic anhydrase VI) and MDFIC (MyoD family inhibitor domain containing). A DSR rich in imprinting genes appeared on SSC9, which included PEG10 (paternally expressed 10), SGCE (sarcoglycan, epsilon), PPP1R9A (protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 9A) and ASB4 (ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing 4). More importantly, our present study provided evidence to support six quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions for pig birth weight, six QTL regions for average birth weight (ABW) and three QTL regions for litter birth weight (LBW) reported previously by other groups. Furthermore, gene ontology analysis with 183 genes

  17. Genome wide screening of candidate genes for improving piglet birth weight using high and low estimated breeding value populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifan; Zhou, Xiang; Michal, Jennifer J; Ding, Bo; Li, Rui; Jiang, Zhihua

    2014-01-01

    Birth weight is an economically important trait in pig production because it directly impacts piglet growth and survival rate. In the present study, we performed a genome wide survey of candidate genes and pathways associated with individual birth weight (IBW) using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip on 24 high (HEBV) and 24 low estimated breeding value (LEBV) animals. These animals were selected from a reference population of 522 individuals produced by three sires and six dam lines, which were crossbreds with multiple breeds. After quality-control, 43,257 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms), including 42,243 autosomal SNPs and 1,014 SNPs on chromosome X, were used in the data analysis. A total of 27 differentially selected regions (DSRs), including 1 on Sus scrofa chromosome 1 (SSC1), 1 on SSC4, 2 on SSC5, 4 on SSC6, 2 on SSC7, 5 on SSC8, 3 on SSC9, 1 on SSC14, 3 on SSC18, and 5 on SSCX, were identified to show the genome wide separations between the HEBV and LEBV groups for IBW in piglets. A DSR with the most number of significant SNPs (including 7 top 0.1% and 31 top 5% SNPs) was located on SSC6, while another DSR with the largest genetic differences in F ST was found on SSC18. These regions harbor known functionally important genes involved in growth and development, such as TNFRSF9 (tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9), CA6 (carbonic anhydrase VI) and MDFIC (MyoD family inhibitor domain containing). A DSR rich in imprinting genes appeared on SSC9, which included PEG10 (paternally expressed 10), SGCE (sarcoglycan, epsilon), PPP1R9A (protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 9A) and ASB4 (ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing 4). More importantly, our present study provided evidence to support six quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions for pig birth weight, six QTL regions for average birth weight (ABW) and three QTL regions for litter birth weight (LBW) reported previously by other groups. Furthermore, gene ontology analysis with 183 genes

  18. Population genomic analysis uncovers African and European admixture in Drosophila melanogaster populations from the south-eastern United States and Caribbean Islands.

    PubMed

    Kao, Joyce Y; Zubair, Asif; Salomon, Matthew P; Nuzhdin, Sergey V; Campo, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is postulated to have colonized North America in the past several 100 years in two waves. Flies from Europe colonized the east coast United States while flies from Africa inhabited the Caribbean, which if true, make the south-east US and Caribbean Islands a secondary contact zone for African and European D. melanogaster. This scenario has been proposed based on phenotypes and limited genetic data. In our study, we have sequenced individual whole genomes of flies from populations in the south-east US and Caribbean Islands and examined these populations in conjunction with population sequences from the west coast US, Africa, and Europe. We find that west coast US populations are closely related to the European population, likely reflecting a rapid westward expansion upon first settlements into North America. We also find genomic evidence of African and European admixture in south-east US and Caribbean populations, with a clinal pattern of decreasing proportions of African ancestry with higher latitude. Our genomic analysis of D. melanogaster populations from the south-east US and Caribbean Islands provides more evidence for the Caribbean Islands as the source of previously reported novel African alleles found in other east coast US populations. We also find the border between the south-east US and the Caribbean island to be the admixture hot zone where distinctly African-like Caribbean flies become genomically more similar to European-like south-east US flies. Our findings have important implications for previous studies examining the generation of east coast US clines via selection.

  19. Methane-Fueled Syntrophy through Extracellular Electron Transfer: Uncovering the Genomic Traits Conserved within Diverse Bacterial Partners of Anaerobic Methanotrophic Archaea.

    PubMed

    Skennerton, Connor T; Chourey, Karuna; Iyer, Ramsunder; Hettich, Robert L; Tyson, Gene W; Orphan, Victoria J

    2017-08-01

    The anaerobic oxidation of methane by anaerobic methanotrophic (ANME) archaea in syntrophic partnership with deltaproteobacterial sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is the primary mechanism for methane removal in ocean sediments. The mechanism of their syntrophy has been the subject of much research as traditional intermediate compounds, such as hydrogen and formate, failed to decouple the partners. Recent findings have indicated the potential for extracellular electron transfer from ANME archaea to SRB, though it is unclear how extracellular electrons are integrated into the metabolism of the SRB partner. We used metagenomics to reconstruct eight genomes from the globally distributed SEEP-SRB1 clade of ANME partner bacteria to determine what genomic features are required for syntrophy. The SEEP-SRB1 genomes contain large multiheme cytochromes that were not found in previously described free-living SRB and also lack periplasmic hydrogenases that may prevent an independent lifestyle without an extracellular source of electrons from ANME archaea. Metaproteomics revealed the expression of these cytochromes at in situ methane seep sediments from three sites along the Pacific coast of the United States. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these cytochromes appear to have been horizontally transferred from metal-respiring members of the Deltaproteobacteria such as Geobacter and may allow these syntrophic SRB to accept extracellular electrons in place of other chemical/organic electron donors.IMPORTANCE Some archaea, known as anaerobic methanotrophs, are capable of converting methane into carbon dioxide when they are growing syntopically with sulfate-reducing bacteria. This partnership is the primary mechanism for methane removal in ocean sediments; however, there is still much to learn about how this syntrophy works. Previous studies have failed to identify the metabolic intermediate, such as hydrogen or formate, that is passed between partners. However, recent analysis of

  20. An Integrated Genomic Approach for Rapid Delineation of Candidate Genes Regulating Agro-Morphological Traits in Chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Maneesha S.; Bajaj, Deepak; Das, Shouvik; Kujur, Alice; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Mohar; Bansal, Kailash C.; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

    2014-01-01

    The identification and fine mapping of robust quantitative trait loci (QTLs)/genes governing important agro-morphological traits in chickpea still lacks systematic efforts at a genome-wide scale involving wild Cicer accessions. In this context, an 834 simple sequence repeat and single-nucleotide polymorphism marker-based high-density genetic linkage map between cultivated and wild parental accessions (Cicer arietinum desi cv. ICC 4958 and Cicer reticulatum wild cv. ICC 17160) was constructed. This inter-specific genetic map comprising eight linkage groups spanned a map length of 949.4 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 1.14 cM. Eleven novel major genomic regions harbouring 15 robust QTLs (15.6–39.8% R2 at 4.2–15.7 logarithm of odds) associated with four agro-morphological traits (100-seed weight, pod and branch number/plant and plant hairiness) were identified and mapped on chickpea chromosomes. Most of these QTLs showed positive additive gene effects with effective allelic contribution from ICC 4958, particularly for increasing seed weight (SW) and pod and branch number. One robust SW-influencing major QTL region (qSW4.2) has been narrowed down by combining QTL mapping with high-resolution QTL region-specific association analysis, differential expression profiling and gene haplotype-based association/LD mapping. This enabled to delineate a strong SW-regulating ABI3VP1 transcription factor (TF) gene at trait-specific QTL interval and consequently identified favourable natural allelic variants and superior high seed weight-specific haplotypes in the upstream regulatory region of this gene showing increased transcript expression during seed development. The genes (TFs) harbouring diverse trait-regulating QTLs, once validated and fine-mapped by our developed rapid integrated genomic approach and through gene/QTL map-based cloning, can be utilized as potential candidates for marker-assisted genetic enhancement of chickpea. PMID:25335477

  1. Genome-Wide Association and Transcriptome Analyses Reveal Candidate Genes Underlying Yield-determining Traits in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kun; Peng, Liu; Zhang, Chao; Lu, Junhua; Yang, Bo; Xiao, Zhongchun; Liang, Ying; Xu, Xingfu; Qu, Cunmin; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Liezhao; Zhu, Qinlong; Fu, Minglian; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Li, Jiana

    2017-01-01

    Yield is one of the most important yet complex crop traits. To improve our understanding of the genetic basis of yield establishment, and to identify candidate genes responsible for yield improvement in Brassica napus, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for seven yield-determining traits [main inflorescence pod number (MIPN), branch pod number (BPN), pod number per plant (PNP), seed number per pod (SPP), thousand seed weight, main inflorescence yield (MIY), and branch yield], using data from 520 diverse B. napus accessions from two different yield environments. In total, we detected 128 significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 93 of which were revealed as novel by integrative analysis. A combination of GWAS and transcriptome sequencing on 21 haplotype blocks from samples pooled by four extremely high-yielding or low-yielding accessions revealed the differential expression of 14 crucial candiate genes (such as Bna.MYB83, Bna.SPL5, and Bna.ROP3) associated with multiple traits or containing multiple SNPs associated with the same trait. Functional annotation and expression pattern analyses further demonstrated that these 14 candiate genes might be important in developmental processes and biomass accumulation, thus affecting the yield establishment of B. napus. These results provide valuable information for understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying the establishment of high yield in B. napus, and lay the foundation for developing high-yielding B. napus varieties. PMID:28261256

  2. Candidate States of Helicobacter pylori's Genome-Scale Metabolic Network upon Application of “Loop Law” Thermodynamic Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Price, Nathan D.; Thiele, Ines; Palsson, Bernhard Ø.

    2006-01-01

    Constraint-based modeling has proven to be a useful tool in the analysis of biochemical networks. To date, most studies in this field have focused on the use of linear constraints, resulting from mass balance and capacity constraints, which lead to the definition of convex solution spaces. One additional constraint arising out of thermodynamics is known as the “loop law” for reaction fluxes, which states that the net flux around a closed biochemical loop must be zero because no net thermodynamic driving force exists. The imposition of the loop-law can lead to nonconvex solution spaces making the analysis of the consequences of its imposition challenging. A four-step approach is developed here to apply the loop-law to study metabolic network properties: 1), determine linear equality constraints that are necessary (but not necessarily sufficient) for thermodynamic feasibility; 2), tighten Vmax and Vmin constraints to enclose the remaining nonconvex space; 3), uniformly sample the convex space that encloses the nonconvex space using standard Monte Carlo techniques; and 4), eliminate from the resulting set all solutions that violate the loop-law, leaving a subset of steady-state solutions. This subset of solutions represents a uniform random sample of the space that is defined by the additional imposition of the loop-law. This approach is used to evaluate the effect of imposing the loop-law on predicted candidate states of the genome-scale metabolic network of Helicobacter pylori. PMID:16533855

  3. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles reveal novel candidate genes associated with meat quality at different age stages in hens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Yan, Feng-Bin; Li, Fang; Jiang, Ke-Ren; Li, Dong-Hua; Han, Rui-Li; Li, Zhuan-Jan; Jiang, Rui-Rui; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Kang, Xiang-Tao; Sun, Gui-Rong

    2017-01-01

    Poultry meat quality is associated with breed, age, tissue and other factors. Many previous studies have focused on distinct breeds; however, little is known regarding the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in different age stages, such as DNA methylation. Here, we compared the global DNA methylation profiles between juvenile (20 weeks old) and later laying-period (55 weeks old) hens and identified candidate genes related to the development and meat quality of breast muscle using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. The results showed that the later laying-period hens, which had a higher intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition capacity and water holding capacity (WHC) and less tenderness, exhibited higher global DNA methylation levels than the juvenile hens. A total of 2,714 differentially methylated regions were identified in the present study, which corresponded to 378 differentially methylated genes, mainly affecting muscle development, lipid metabolism, and the ageing process. Hypermethylation of the promoters of the genes ABCA1, COL6A1 and GSTT1L and the resulting transcriptional down-regulation in the later laying-period hens may be the reason for the significant difference in the meat quality between the juvenile and later laying-period hens. These findings contribute to a better understanding of epigenetic regulation in the skeletal muscle development and meat quality of chicken. PMID:28378745

  4. Genome-wide patterns of genetic distances reveal candidate Loci contributing to human population-specific traits.

    PubMed

    de Magalhães, João Pedro; Matsuda, Alex

    2012-03-01

    Modern humans originated in Africa before migrating across the world with founder effects and adaptations to new environments contributing to their present phenotypic diversity. Determining the genetic basis of differences between populations may provide clues about our evolutionary history and may have clinical implications. Herein, we develop a method to detect genes and biological processes in which populations most differ by calculating the genetic distance between modern populations and a hypothetical ancestral population. We apply our method to large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from human populations of African, European and Asian origin. As expected, ancestral alleles were more conserved in the African populations and we found evidence of high divergence in genes previously suggested as targets of selection related to skin pigmentation, immune response, senses and dietary adaptations. Our genome-wide scan also reveals novel candidates for contributing to population-specific traits. These include genes related to neuronal development and behavior that may have been influenced by cultural processes. Moreover, in the African populations, we found a high divergence in genes related to UV protection and to the male reproductive system. Taken together, these results confirm and expand previous findings, providing new clues about the evolution and genetics of human phenotypic diversity.

  5. The genome-wide associated candidate gene ZNF804A and psychosis-proneness: Evidence of sex-modulated association.

    PubMed

    de Castro-Catala, Marta; Mora-Solano, Aurea; Kwapil, Thomas R; Cristóbal-Narváez, Paula; Sheinbaum, Tamara; Racioppi, Anna; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Rosa, Araceli

    2017-01-01

    The Zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A) is a promising candidate gene for schizophrenia and the broader psychosis phenotype that emerged from genome-wide association studies. It is related to neurodevelopment and associated to severe symptoms of schizophrenia and alterations in brain structure, as well as positive schizotypal personality traits in non-clinical samples. Moreover, a female-specific association has been observed between ZNF804A and schizophrenia. The present study examined the association of two ZNF804A polymorphisms (rs1344706 and rs7597593) with the positive dimension of schizotypy and psychotic-like experiences in a sample of 808 non-clinical subjects. Additionally, we wanted to explore whether the sexual differences reported in schizophrenia are also present in psychosis-proneness. Our results showed an association between rs7597593 and both schizotypy and psychotic-like experiences. These associations were driven by females, such those carrying the C allele had higher scores in the positive dimension of both variables compared to TT allele homozygotes. The findings of the present study support the inclusion of ZNF804 variability in studies of the vulnerability for the development of psychopathology in non-clinical samples and consideration of sex as a moderator of this association.

  6. Candidate states of Helicobacter pylori's genome-scale metabolic network upon application of "loop law" thermodynamic constraints.

    PubMed

    Price, Nathan D; Thiele, Ines; Palsson, Bernhard Ø

    2006-06-01

    Constraint-based modeling has proven to be a useful tool in the analysis of biochemical networks. To date, most studies in this field have focused on the use of linear constraints, resulting from mass balance and capacity constraints, which lead to the definition of convex solution spaces. One additional constraint arising out of thermodynamics is known as the "loop law" for reaction fluxes, which states that the net flux around a closed biochemical loop must be zero because no net thermodynamic driving force exists. The imposition of the loop-law can lead to nonconvex solution spaces making the analysis of the consequences of its imposition challenging. A four-step approach is developed here to apply the loop-law to study metabolic network properties: 1), determine linear equality constraints that are necessary (but not necessarily sufficient) for thermodynamic feasibility; 2), tighten V(max) and V(min) constraints to enclose the remaining nonconvex space; 3), uniformly sample the convex space that encloses the nonconvex space using standard Monte Carlo techniques; and 4), eliminate from the resulting set all solutions that violate the loop-law, leaving a subset of steady-state solutions. This subset of solutions represents a uniform random sample of the space that is defined by the additional imposition of the loop-law. This approach is used to evaluate the effect of imposing the loop-law on predicted candidate states of the genome-scale metabolic network of Helicobacter pylori.

  7. A genome-wide study of panic disorder suggests the amiloride-sensitive cation channel 1 as a candidate gene.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Noomi; Dahl, Hans A; Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Nyegaard, Mette; Hedemand, Anne; Als, Thomas D; Wang, August G; Joensen, Sofus; Woldbye, David Pd; Koefoed, Pernille; Kristensen, Ann S; Kruse, Torben A; Børglum, Anders D; Mors, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Panic disorder (PD) is a mental disorder with recurrent panic attacks that occur spontaneously and are not associated to any particular object or situation. There is no consensus on what causes PD. However, it is recognized that PD is influenced by environmental factors, as well as genetic factors. Despite a significant hereditary component, genetic studies have only been modestly successful in identifying genes of importance for the development of PD. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide scan using microsatellite markers and PD patients and control individuals from the isolated population of the Faroe Islands. Subsequently, we conducted a fine mapping, which revealed the amiloride-sensitive cation channel 1 (ACCN1) located on chromosome 17q11.2-q12 as a potential candidate gene for PD. The further analyses of the ACCN1 gene using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealed significant association with PD in an extended Faroese case-control sample. However, analyses of a larger independent Danish case-control sample yielded no substantial significant association. This suggests that the possible risk alleles associated in the isolated population are not those involved in the development of PD in a larger outbred population.

  8. Identification of Candidate Genes for Reactivity in Guzerat (Bos indicus) Cattle: A Genome-Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Pablo Augusto de Souza; Pires, Maria de Fátima Ávila; Ventura, Ricardo Vieira; Rosse, Izinara da Cruz.; Bruneli, Frank Angelo Tomita; Machado, Marco Antonio; Carvalho, Maria Raquel Santos

    2017-01-01

    Temperament is fundamental to animal production due to its direct influence on the animal-herdsman relationship. When compared to calm animals, the aggressive, anxious or fearful ones exhibit less weight gain, lower reproductive efficiency, decreased milk production and higher herd maintenance costs, all of which contribute to reduced profits. However, temperament is a trait that is complex and difficult to assess. Recently, a new quantitative system, REATEST®, for assessing reactivity, a phenotype of temperament, was developed. Herein, we describe the results of a Genome-wide association study for reactivity, assessed using REATEST® with a sample of 754 females from five dual-purpose (milk and meat production) Guzerat (Bos indicus) herds. Genotyping was performed using a 50k SNP chip and a two-step mixed model approach (Grammar-Gamma) with a one-by-one marker regression was used to identify QTLs. QTLs for reactivity were identified on chromosomes BTA1, BTA5, BTA14, and BTA25. Five intronic and two intergenic markers were significantly associated with reactivity. POU1F1, DRD3, VWA3A, ZBTB20, EPHA6, SNRPF and NTN4 were identified as candidate genes. Previous QTL reports for temperament traits, covering areas surrounding the SNPs/genes identified here, further corroborate these associations. The seven genes identified in the present study explain 20.5% of reactivity variance and give a better understanding of temperament biology. PMID:28125592

  9. A genome-wide association study reveals candidate genes for the supernumerary nipple phenotype in sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Peng, W-F; Xu, S-S; Ren, X; Lv, F-H; Xie, X-L; Zhao, Y-X; Zhang, M; Shen, Z-Q; Ren, Y-L; Gao, L; Shen, M; Kantanen, J; Li, M-H

    2017-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been widely applied in livestock to identify genes associated with traits of economic interest. Here, we conducted the first GWAS of the supernumerary nipple phenotype in Wadi sheep, a native Chinese sheep breed, based on Ovine Infinium HD SNP BeadChip genotypes in a total of 144 ewes (75 cases with four teats, including two normal and two supernumerary teats, and 69 control cases with two teats). We detected 63 significant SNPs at the chromosome-wise threshold. Additionally, one candidate region (chr1: 170.723-170.734 Mb) was identified by haplotype-based association tests, with one SNP (rs413490006) surrounding functional genes BBX and CD47 on chromosome 1 being commonly identified as significant by the two mentioned analyses. Moreover, Gene Ontology enrichment for the significant SNPs identified by the GWAS analysis was functionally clustered into the categories of receptor activity and synaptic membrane. In addition, pathway mapping revealed four promising pathways (Wnt, oxytocin, MAPK and axon guidance) involved in the development of the supernumerary nipple phenotype. Our results provide novel and important insights into the genetic mechanisms underlying the phenotype of supernumerary nipples in mammals, including humans. These findings may be useful for future breeding and genetics in sheep and other livestock. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  10. Whole-genome sequencing of a quarter-century melioidosis outbreak in temperate Australia uncovers a region of low-prevalence endemicity

    PubMed Central

    Chapple, Stephanie N. J.; Sarovich, Derek S.; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Peacock, Sharon J.; Buller, Nicky; Golledge, Clayton; Mayo, Mark; Currie, Bart J.

    2016-01-01

    Melioidosis, caused by the highly recombinogenic bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a disease with high mortality. Tracing the origin of melioidosis outbreaks and understanding how the bacterium spreads and persists in the environment are essential to protecting public and veterinary health and reducing mortality associated with outbreaks. We used whole-genome sequencing to compare isolates from a historical quarter-century outbreak that occurred between 1966 and 1991 in the Avon Valley, Western Australia, a region far outside the known range of B. pseudomallei endemicity. All Avon Valley outbreak isolates shared the same multilocus sequence type (ST-284), which has not been identified outside this region. We found substantial genetic diversity among isolates based on a comparison of genome-wide variants, with no clear correlation between genotypes and temporal, geographical or source data. We observed little evidence of recombination in the outbreak strains, indicating that genetic diversity among these isolates has primarily accrued by mutation. Phylogenomic analysis demonstrated that the isolates confidently grouped within the Australian B. pseudomallei clade, thereby ruling out introduction from a melioidosis-endemic region outside Australia. Collectively, our results point to B. pseudomallei ST-284 being present in the Avon Valley for longer than previously recognized, with its persistence and genomic diversity suggesting long-term, low-prevalence endemicity in this temperate region. Our findings provide a concerning demonstration of the potential for environmental persistence of B. pseudomallei far outside the conventional endemic regions. An expected increase in extreme weather events may reactivate latent B. pseudomallei populations in this region. PMID:28348862

  11. Integrating genome annotation and QTL position to identify candidate genes for productivity, architecture and water-use efficiency in Populus spp

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hybrid poplars species are candidates for biomass production but breeding efforts are needed to combine productivity and water use efficiency in improved cultivars. The understanding of the genetic architecture of growth in poplar by a Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) approach can help us to elucidate the molecular basis of such integrative traits but identifying candidate genes underlying these QTLs remains difficult. Nevertheless, the increase of genomic information together with the accessibility to a reference genome sequence (Populus trichocarpa Nisqually-1) allow to bridge QTL information on genetic maps and physical location of candidate genes on the genome. The objective of the study is to identify QTLs controlling productivity, architecture and leaf traits in a P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa F1 progeny and to identify candidate genes underlying QTLs based on the anchoring of genetic maps on the genome and the gene ontology information linked to genome annotation. The strategy to explore genome annotation was to use Gene Ontology enrichment tools to test if some functional categories are statistically over-represented in QTL regions. Results Four leaf traits and 7 growth traits were measured on 330 F1 P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa progeny. A total of 77 QTLs controlling 11 traits were identified explaining from 1.8 to 17.2% of the variation of traits. For 58 QTLs, confidence intervals could be projected on the genome. An extended functional annotation was built based on data retrieved from the plant genome database Phytozome and from an inference of function using homology between Populus and the model plant Arabidopsis. Genes located within QTL confidence intervals were retrieved and enrichments in gene ontology (GO) terms were determined using different methods. Significant enrichments were found for all traits. Particularly relevant biological processes GO terms were identified for QTLs controlling number of sylleptic branches: intervals were

  12. Integrating genome annotation and QTL position to identify candidate genes for productivity, architecture and water-use efficiency in Populus spp.

    PubMed

    Monclus, Romain; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Bastien, Catherine; Bert, Pierre-François; Villar, Marc; Marron, Nicolas; Brignolas, Franck; Jorge, Véronique

    2012-09-26

    Hybrid poplars species are candidates for biomass production but breeding efforts are needed to combine productivity and water use efficiency in improved cultivars. The understanding of the genetic architecture of growth in poplar by a Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) approach can help us to elucidate the molecular basis of such integrative traits but identifying candidate genes underlying these QTLs remains difficult. Nevertheless, the increase of genomic information together with the accessibility to a reference genome sequence (Populus trichocarpa Nisqually-1) allow to bridge QTL information on genetic maps and physical location of candidate genes on the genome. The objective of the study is to identify QTLs controlling productivity, architecture and leaf traits in a P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa F1 progeny and to identify candidate genes underlying QTLs based on the anchoring of genetic maps on the genome and the gene ontology information linked to genome annotation. The strategy to explore genome annotation was to use Gene Ontology enrichment tools to test if some functional categories are statistically over-represented in QTL regions. Four leaf traits and 7 growth traits were measured on 330 F1 P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa progeny. A total of 77 QTLs controlling 11 traits were identified explaining from 1.8 to 17.2% of the variation of traits. For 58 QTLs, confidence intervals could be projected on the genome. An extended functional annotation was built based on data retrieved from the plant genome database Phytozome and from an inference of function using homology between Populus and the model plant Arabidopsis. Genes located within QTL confidence intervals were retrieved and enrichments in gene ontology (GO) terms were determined using different methods. Significant enrichments were found for all traits. Particularly relevant biological processes GO terms were identified for QTLs controlling number of sylleptic branches: intervals were enriched in GO terms of

  13. Comparative Genomics Uncovers Unique Gene Turnover and Evolutionary Rates in a Gene Family Involved in the Detection of Insect Cuticular Pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Oliva, Montserrat; Almeida, Francisca C.; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Rozas, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Chemoreception is an essential process for the survival and reproduction of animals. Many of the proteins responsible for recognizing and transmitting chemical stimuli in insects are encoded by genes that are members of moderately sized multigene families. The members of the CheB family are specialized in gustatory-mediated detection of long-chain hydrocarbon pheromones in Drosophila melanogaster and play a central role in triggering and modulating mating behavior in this species. Here, we present a comprehensive comparative genomic analysis of the CheB family across 12 species of the Drosophila genus. We have identified a total of 102 new CheB genes in the genomes of these species, including a functionally divergent member previously uncharacterized in D. melanogaster. We found that, despite its relatively small repertory size, the CheB family has undergone multiple gain and loss events and various episodes of diversifying selection during the divergence of the surveyed species. Present estimates of gene turnover and coding sequence substitution rates show that this family is evolving faster than any known Drosophila chemosensory family. To date, only other insect gustatory-related genes among these families had shown evolutionary dynamics close to those observed in CheBs. Our findings reveal the high adaptive potential of molecular components of the gustatory system in insects and anticipate a key role of genes involved in this sensory modality in species adaptation and diversification.

  14. Multistability: Uncovering hidden attractors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapitaniak, T.; Leonov, G. A.

    2015-07-01

    This topical issue collects contributions exemplifying the recent scientific progress in understanding the dynamics of multistable systems. The individual papers focus on different questions of present day interest in theory and applications of systems with multiple attractors. The particular attention is paid to uncovering and characterizing hidden attractors. Both theoretical and experimental studies are presented.

  15. Uncovering the Math Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Teachers often express to Marulyn Burns their worry about the need to "cover the curriculum." In response, she draws on one of her favorite quotes: "You don't want to cover a subject; you want to uncover it." This quote is from "The Having of Wonderful Ideas and Other Essays on Teaching and Learning" by Eleanor…

  16. Uncovering the Math Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Teachers often express to Marulyn Burns their worry about the need to "cover the curriculum." In response, she draws on one of her favorite quotes: "You don't want to cover a subject; you want to uncover it." This quote is from "The Having of Wonderful Ideas and Other Essays on Teaching and Learning" by Eleanor…

  17. Comparative genomic analysis of Brucella abortus vaccine strain 104M reveals a set of candidate genes associated with its virulence attenuation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dong; Hui, Yiming; Zai, Xiaodong; Xu, Junjie; Liang, Long; Wang, Bingxiang; Yue, Junjie; Li, Shanhu

    2015-01-01

    The Brucella abortus strain 104M, a spontaneously attenuated strain, has been used as a vaccine strain in humans against brucellosis for 6 decades in China. Despite many studies, the molecular mechanisms that cause the attenuation are still unclear. Here, we determined the whole-genome sequence of 104M and conducted a comprehensive comparative analysis against the whole genome sequences of the virulent strain, A13334, and other reference strains. This analysis revealed a highly similar genome structure between 104M and A13334. The further comparative genomic analysis between 104M and A13334 revealed a set of genes missing in 104M. Some of these genes were identified to be directly or indirectly associated with virulence. Similarly, a set of mutations in the virulence-related genes was also identified, which may be related to virulence alteration. This study provides a set of candidate genes associated with virulence attenuation in B.abortus vaccine strain 104M.

  18. Integration of multiethnic fine-mapping and genomic annotation to prioritize candidate functional SNPs at prostate cancer susceptibility regions.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Hazelett, Dennis J; Wiklund, Fredrik; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Stram, Daniel O; Berndt, Sonja I; Wang, Zhaoming; Rand, Kristin A; Hoover, Robert N; Machiela, Mitchell J; Yeager, Merideth; Burdette, Laurie; Chung, Charles C; Hutchinson, Amy; Yu, Kai; Xu, Jianfeng; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J; Siddiq, Afshan; Canzian, Federico; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Stanford, Janet L; Kolb, Suzanne; Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; Stevens, Victoria L; Strom, Sara S; Pettaway, Curtis A; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Eeles, Rosalind A; Yeboah, Edward D; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B; Adjei, Andrew A; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P; Isaacs, William B; Chen, Constance; Lindstrom, Sara; Le Marchand, Loic; Giovannucci, Edward L; Pomerantz, Mark; Long, Henry; Li, Fugen; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue A; Kittles, Rick A; Murphy, Adam B; Blot, William J; Signorello, Lisa B; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Nemesure, Barbara; Carpten, John; Leske, M Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anselm J M; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J; Klein, Eric A; Zheng, S Lilly; Witte, John S; Casey, Graham; Riboli, Elio; Li, Qiyuan; Freedman, Matthew L; Hunter, David J; Gronberg, Henrik; Cook, Michael B; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Kraft, Peter; Chanock, Stephen J; Easton, Douglas F; Henderson, Brian E; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Conti, David V; Haiman, Christopher A

    2015-10-01

    Interpretation of biological mechanisms underlying genetic risk associations for prostate cancer is complicated by the relatively large number of risk variants (n = 100) and the thousands of surrogate SNPs in linkage disequilibrium. Here, we combined three distinct approaches: multiethnic fine-mapping, putative functional annotation (based upon epigenetic data and genome-encoded features), and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analyses, in an attempt to reduce this complexity. We examined 67 risk regions using genotyping and imputation-based fine-mapping in populations of European (cases/controls: 8600/6946), African (cases/controls: 5327/5136), Japanese (cases/controls: 2563/4391) and Latino (cases/controls: 1034/1046) ancestry. Markers at 55 regions passed a region-specific significance threshold (P-value cutoff range: 3.9 × 10(-4)-5.6 × 10(-3)) and in 30 regions we identified markers that were more significantly associated with risk than the previously reported variants in the multiethnic sample. Novel secondary signals (P < 5.0 × 10(-6)) were also detected in two regions (rs13062436/3q21 and rs17181170/3p12). Among 666 variants in the 55 regions with P-values within one order of magnitude of the most-associated marker, 193 variants (29%) in 48 regions overlapped with epigenetic or other putative functional marks. In 11 of the 55 regions, cis-eQTLs were detected with nearby genes. For 12 of the 55 regions (22%), the most significant region-specific, prostate-cancer associated variant represented the strongest candidate functional variant based on our annotations; the number of regions increased to 20 (36%) and 27 (49%) when examining the 2 and 3 most significantly associated variants in each region, respectively. These results have prioritized subsets of candidate variants for downstream functional evaluation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Evolution of ancient functions in the vertebrate insulin-like growth factor system uncovered by study of duplicated salmonid fish genomes.

    PubMed

    Macqueen, Daniel J; Garcia de la Serrana, Daniel; Johnston, Ian A

    2013-05-01

    Whole-genome duplication (WGD) was experienced twice by the vertebrate ancestor (2 rounds; 2R), again by the teleost fish ancestor (3R) and most recently in certain teleost lineages (4R). Consequently, vertebrate gene families are often expanded in 3R and 4R genomes. Arguably, many types of "functional divergence" present across 2R gene families will exceed that between 3R/4R paralogs of genes comprising 2R families. Accordingly, 4R offers a form of replication of 2R. Examining whether this concept has implications for molecular evolutionary research, we studied insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding proteins (IGFBPs), whose six 2R family members carry IGF hormones and regulate interactions between IGFs and IGF1-receptors (IGF1Rs). Using phylogenomic approaches, we resolved the complete IGFBP repertoire of 4R-derived salmonid fishes (19 genes; 13 more than human) and established evolutionary relationships/nomenclature with respect to WGDs. Traits central to IGFBP action were determined for all genes, including atomic interactions in IGFBP-IGF1/IGF2 complexes regulating IGF-IGF1R binding. Using statistical methods, we demonstrate that attributes of these protein interfaces are overwhelming a product of 2R IGFBP family membership, explain 49-68% of variation in IGFBP mRNA concentration in several different tissues, and strongly predict the strength and direction of IGFBP transcriptional regulation under differing nutritional states. The results support a model where vertebrate IGFBP family members evolved divergent structural attributes to provide distinct competition for IGFs with IGF1Rs, predisposing different functions in the regulation of IGF signaling. Evolution of gene expression then acted to ensure the appropriate physiological production of IGFBPs according to their structural specializations, leading to optimal IGF-signaling according to nutritional-status and the endocrine/local mode of action. This study demonstrates that relatively recent gene family

  20. Evolution of Ancient Functions in the Vertebrate Insulin-Like Growth Factor System Uncovered by Study of Duplicated Salmonid Fish Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Macqueen, Daniel J.; Garcia de la serrana, Daniel; Johnston, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    Whole-genome duplication (WGD) was experienced twice by the vertebrate ancestor (2 rounds; 2R), again by the teleost fish ancestor (3R) and most recently in certain teleost lineages (4R). Consequently, vertebrate gene families are often expanded in 3R and 4R genomes. Arguably, many types of “functional divergence” present across 2R gene families will exceed that between 3R/4R paralogs of genes comprising 2R families. Accordingly, 4R offers a form of replication of 2R. Examining whether this concept has implications for molecular evolutionary research, we studied insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding proteins (IGFBPs), whose six 2R family members carry IGF hormones and regulate interactions between IGFs and IGF1-receptors (IGF1Rs). Using phylogenomic approaches, we resolved the complete IGFBP repertoire of 4R-derived salmonid fishes (19 genes; 13 more than human) and established evolutionary relationships/nomenclature with respect to WGDs. Traits central to IGFBP action were determined for all genes, including atomic interactions in IGFBP–IGF1/IGF2 complexes regulating IGF–IGF1R binding. Using statistical methods, we demonstrate that attributes of these protein interfaces are overwhelming a product of 2R IGFBP family membership, explain 49–68% of variation in IGFBP mRNA concentration in several different tissues, and strongly predict the strength and direction of IGFBP transcriptional regulation under differing nutritional states. The results support a model where vertebrate IGFBP family members evolved divergent structural attributes to provide distinct competition for IGFs with IGF1Rs, predisposing different functions in the regulation of IGF signaling. Evolution of gene expression then acted to ensure the appropriate physiological production of IGFBPs according to their structural specializations, leading to optimal IGF-signaling according to nutritional-status and the endocrine/local mode of action. This study demonstrates that relatively recent

  1. Partial Genome Assembly for a Candidate Division OP11 Single Cell from an Anoxic Spring (Zodletone Spring, Oklahoma)▿†

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Noha H.; Blainey, Paul C.; Quake, Stephen R.; Elshahed, Mostafa S.

    2011-01-01

    Members of candidate division OP11 are widely distributed in terrestrial and marine ecosystems, yet little information regarding their metabolic capabilities and ecological role within such habitats is currently available. Here, we report on the microfluidic isolation, multiple-displacement-amplification, pyrosequencing, and genomic analysis of a single cell (ZG1) belonging to candidate division OP11. Genome analysis of the ∼270-kb partial genome assembly obtained showed that it had no particular similarity to a specific phylum. Four hundred twenty-three open reading frames were identified, 46% of which had no function prediction. In-depth analysis revealed a heterotrophic lifestyle, with genes encoding endoglucanase, amylopullulanase, and laccase enzymes, suggesting a capacity for utilization of cellulose, starch, and, potentially, lignin, respectively. Genes encoding several glycolysis enzymes as well as formate utilization were identified, but no evidence for an electron transport chain was found. The presence of genes encoding various components of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis indicates a Gram-negative bacterial cell wall. The partial genome also provides evidence for antibiotic resistance (β-lactamase, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase), as well as antibiotic production (bacteriocin) and extracellular bactericidal peptidases. Multiple mechanisms for stress response were identified, as were elements of type I and type IV secretion systems. Finally, housekeeping genes identified within the partial genome were used to demonstrate the OP11 affiliation of multiple hitherto unclassified genomic fragments from multiple database-deposited metagenomic data sets. These results provide the first glimpse into the lifestyle of a member of a ubiquitous, yet poorly understood bacterial candidate division. PMID:21908640

  2. Characterization of a Genomic Region under Selection in Cultivated Carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) Reveals a Candidate Domestication Gene

    PubMed Central

    Macko-Podgórni, Alicja; Machaj, Gabriela; Stelmach, Katarzyna; Senalik, Douglas; Grzebelus, Ewa; Iorizzo, Massimo; Simon, Philipp W.; Grzebelus, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Carrot is one of the most important vegetables worldwide, owing to its capability to develop fleshy, highly nutritious storage roots. It was domesticated ca. 1,100 years ago in Central Asia. No systematic knowledge about the molecular mechanisms involved in the domestication syndrome in carrot are available, however, the ability to form a storage root is undoubtedly the essential transition from the wild Daucus carota to the cultivated carrot. Here, we expand on the results of a previous study which identified a polymorphism showing a significant signature for selection upon domestication. We mapped the region under selection to the distal portion of the long arm of carrot chromosome 2, confirmed that it had been selected, as reflected in both the lower nucleotide diversity in the cultivated gene pool, as compared to the wild (πw/πc = 7.4 vs. 1.06 for the whole genome), and the high FST (0.52 vs. 0.12 for the whole genome). We delimited the region to ca. 37 kb in length and identified a candidate domestication syndrome gene carrying three non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms and one indel systematically differentiating the wild and the cultivated accessions. This gene, DcAHLc1, belongs to the AT-hook motif nuclear localized (AHL) family of plant regulatory genes which are involved in the regulation of organ development, including root tissue patterning. AHL genes work through direct interactions with other AHL family proteins and a range of other proteins that require intercellular protein movement. Based on QTL data on root thickening we speculate that DcAHLc1 might be involved in the development of the carrot storage root, as the localization of the gene overlapped with one of the QTLs. According to haplotype information we propose that the ‘cultivated’ variant of DcAHLc1 has been selected from wild Central Asian carrot populations upon domestication and it is highly predominant in the western cultivated carrot gene pool. However, some primitive

  3. Genomic analysis of human lung fibroblasts exposed to vanadium pentoxide to identify candidate genes for occupational bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Jennifer L; Antao-Menezes, Aurita; Turpin, Elizabeth A; Wallace, Duncan G; Mangum, James B; Pluta, Linda J; Thomas, Russell S; Bonner, James C

    2007-01-01

    Background Exposure to vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is a cause of occupational bronchitis. We evaluated gene expression profiles in cultured human lung fibroblasts exposed to V2O5 in vitro in order to identify candidate genes that could play a role in inflammation, fibrosis, and repair during the pathogenesis of V2O5-induced bronchitis. Methods Normal human lung fibroblasts were exposed to V2O5 in a time course experiment. Gene expression was measured at various time points over a 24 hr period using the Affymetrix Human Genome U133A 2.0 Array. Selected genes that were significantly changed in the microarray experiment were validated by RT-PCR. Results V2O5 altered more than 1,400 genes, of which ~300 were induced while >1,100 genes were suppressed. Gene ontology categories (GO) categories unique to induced genes included inflammatory response and immune response, while GO catogories unique to suppressed genes included ubiquitin cycle and cell cycle. A dozen genes were validated by RT-PCR, including growth factors (HBEGF, VEGF, CTGF), chemokines (IL8, CXCL9, CXCL10), oxidative stress response genes (SOD2, PIPOX, OXR1), and DNA-binding proteins (GAS1, STAT1). Conclusion Our study identified a variety of genes that could play pivotal roles in inflammation, fibrosis and repair during V2O5-induced bronchitis. The induction of genes that mediate inflammation and immune responses, as well as suppression of genes involved in growth arrest appear to be important to the lung fibrotic reaction to V2O5. PMID:17459161

  4. A Genetic Predictive Model for Canine Hip Dysplasia: Integration of Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) and Candidate Gene Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Bartolomé, Nerea; Segarra, Sergi; Artieda, Marta; Francino, Olga; Sánchez, Elisenda; Szczypiorska, Magdalena; Casellas, Joaquim; Tejedor, Diego; Cerdeira, Joaquín; Martínez, Antonio; Velasco, Alfonso; Sánchez, Armand

    2015-01-01

    Canine hip dysplasia is one of the most prevalent developmental orthopedic diseases in dogs worldwide. Unfortunately, the success of eradication programs against this disease based on radiographic diagnosis is low. Adding the use of diagnostic genetic tools to the current phenotype-based approach might be beneficial. The aim of this study was to develop a genetic prognostic test for early diagnosis of hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers. To develop our DNA test, 775 Labrador Retrievers were recruited. For each dog, a blood sample and a ventrodorsal hip radiograph were taken. Dogs were divided into two groups according to their FCI hip score: control (A/B) and case (D/E). C dogs were not included in the sample. Genetic characterization combining a GWAS and a candidate gene strategy using SNPs allowed a case-control population association study. A mathematical model which included 7 SNPs was developed using logistic regression. The model showed a good accuracy (Area under the ROC curve = 0.85) and was validated in an independent population of 114 dogs. This prognostic genetic test represents a useful tool for choosing the most appropriate therapeutic approach once genetic predisposition to hip dysplasia is known. Therefore, it allows a more individualized management of the disease. It is also applicable during genetic selection processes, since breeders can benefit from the information given by this test as soon as a blood sample can be collected, and act accordingly. In the authors’ opinion, a shift towards genomic screening might importantly contribute to reducing canine hip dysplasia in the future. In conclusion, based on genetic and radiographic information from Labrador Retrievers with hip dysplasia, we developed an accurate predictive genetic test for early diagnosis of hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers. However, further research is warranted in order to evaluate the validity of this genetic test in other dog breeds. PMID:25874693

  5. A genetic predictive model for canine hip dysplasia: integration of Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) and candidate gene approaches.

    PubMed

    Bartolomé, Nerea; Segarra, Sergi; Artieda, Marta; Francino, Olga; Sánchez, Elisenda; Szczypiorska, Magdalena; Casellas, Joaquim; Tejedor, Diego; Cerdeira, Joaquín; Martínez, Antonio; Velasco, Alfonso; Sánchez, Armand

    2015-01-01

    Canine hip dysplasia is one of the most prevalent developmental orthopedic diseases in dogs worldwide. Unfortunately, the success of eradication programs against this disease based on radiographic diagnosis is low. Adding the use of diagnostic genetic tools to the current phenotype-based approach might be beneficial. The aim of this study was to develop a genetic prognostic test for early diagnosis of hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers. To develop our DNA test, 775 Labrador Retrievers were recruited. For each dog, a blood sample and a ventrodorsal hip radiograph were taken. Dogs were divided into two groups according to their FCI hip score: control (A/B) and case (D/E). C dogs were not included in the sample. Genetic characterization combining a GWAS and a candidate gene strategy using SNPs allowed a case-control population association study. A mathematical model which included 7 SNPs was developed using logistic regression. The model showed a good accuracy (Area under the ROC curve = 0.85) and was validated in an independent population of 114 dogs. This prognostic genetic test represents a useful tool for choosing the most appropriate therapeutic approach once genetic predisposition to hip dysplasia is known. Therefore, it allows a more individualized management of the disease. It is also applicable during genetic selection processes, since breeders can benefit from the information given by this test as soon as a blood sample can be collected, and act accordingly. In the authors' opinion, a shift towards genomic screening might importantly contribute to reducing canine hip dysplasia in the future. In conclusion, based on genetic and radiographic information from Labrador Retrievers with hip dysplasia, we developed an accurate predictive genetic test for early diagnosis of hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers. However, further research is warranted in order to evaluate the validity of this genetic test in other dog breeds.

  6. Evolutionary history and functional divergence of the cytochrome P450 gene superfamily between Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica species uncover effects of whole genome and tandem duplications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jingyin; Tehrim, Sadia; Wang, Linhai; Dossa, Komivi; Zhang, Xiurong; Ke, Tao; Liao, Boshou

    2017-09-18

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) superfamily is involved in the biosynthesis of various primary and secondary metabolites. However, little is known about the effects of whole genome duplication (WGD) and tandem duplication (TD) events on the evolutionary history and functional divergence of P450s in Brassica after splitting from a common ancestor with Arabidopsis thaliana. Using Hidden Markov Model search and manual curation, we detected that Brassica species have nearly 1.4-fold as many P450 members as A. thaliana. Most P450s in A. thaliana and Brassica species were located on pseudo-chromosomes. The inferred phylogeny indicated that all P450s were clustered into two different subgroups. Analysis of WGD event revealed that different P450 gene families had appeared after evolutionary events of species. For the TD event analyses, the P450s from TD events in Brassica species can be divided into ancient and recent parts. Our comparison of influence of WGD and TD events on the P450 gene superfamily between A. thaliana and Brassica species indicated that the family-specific evolution in the Brassica lineage can be attributed to both WGD and TD, whereas WGD was recognized as the major mechanism for the recent evolution of the P450 super gene family. Expression analysis of P450s from A. thaliana and Brassica species indicated that WGD-type P450s showed the same expression pattern but completely different expression with TD-type P450s across different tissues in Brassica species. Selection force analysis suggested that P450 orthologous gene pairs between A. thaliana and Brassica species underwent negative selection, but no significant differences were found between P450 orthologous gene pairs in A. thaliana-B. rapa and A. thaliana-B. oleracea lineages, as well as in different subgenomes in B. rapa or B. oleracea compared with A. thaliana. This study is the first to investigate the effects of WGD and TD on the evolutionary history and functional divergence of P450

  7. Genome-wide association study for carcass traits, fatty acid composition, chemical composition, sugar, and the effects of related candidate genes in Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Sasago, Nanae; Abe, Tsuyoshi; Sakuma, Hironori; Kojima, Takatoshi; Uemoto, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and candidate gene analysis to: (i) evaluate the effectiveness of the GWAS in our small population by performing GWAS for carcass weight (CW) and fatty acid composition; (ii) detect novel candidate regions affecting non-CW carcass traits, chemical composition and sugar; and (iii) evaluate the association of the candidate genes previously detected in CW and fatty acid composition with other economically important traits. A total of 574 Japanese Black cattle and 40 657 Single nucleotide polymorphisms were used. In addition, candidate gene analyses were performed to evaluate the association of three CW-related genes and two fatty acid-related genes with carcass traits, fatty acid composition, chemical composition and sugar. The significant regions with the candidate genes were detected for CW and fatty acid composition, and these results showed that a significant region would be detectable despite the small sample size. The novel candidate regions were detected on BTA23 for crude protein and on BTA19 for fructose. CW-related genes associated with the rib-eye area and fatty acid composition were identified, and fatty acid-related genes had no relationship with other traits. Moreover, the favorable allele of CW-related genes had an unfavorable effect on fatty acid composition.

  8. Genome-Resolved Metagenomic Analysis Reveals Roles for Candidate Phyla and Other Microbial Community Members in Biogeochemical Transformations in Oil Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ping; Tom, Lauren; Singh, Andrea; Thomas, Brian C.; Baker, Brett J.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Andersen, Gary L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oil reservoirs are major sites of methane production and carbon turnover, processes with significant impacts on energy resources and global biogeochemical cycles. We applied a cultivation-independent genomic approach to define microbial community membership and predict roles for specific organisms in biogeochemical transformations in Alaska North Slope oil fields. Produced water samples were collected from six locations between 1,128 m (24 to 27°C) and 2,743 m (80 to 83°C) below the surface. Microbial community complexity decreased with increasing temperature, and the potential to degrade hydrocarbon compounds was most prevalent in the lower-temperature reservoirs. Sulfate availability, rather than sulfate reduction potential, seems to be the limiting factor for sulfide production in some of the reservoirs under investigation. Most microorganisms in the intermediate- and higher-temperature samples were related to previously studied methanogenic and nonmethanogenic archaea and thermophilic bacteria, but one candidate phylum bacterium, a member of the Acetothermia (OP1), was present in Kuparuk sample K3. The greatest numbers of candidate phyla were recovered from the mesothermic reservoir samples SB1 and SB2. We reconstructed a nearly complete genome for an organism from the candidate phylum Parcubacteria (OD1) that was abundant in sample SB1. Consistent with prior findings for members of this lineage, the OD1 genome is small, and metabolic predictions support an obligately anaerobic, fermentation-based lifestyle. At moderate abundance in samples SB1 and SB2 were members of bacteria from other candidate phyla, including Microgenomates (OP11), Atribacteria (OP9), candidate phyla TA06 and WS6, and Marinimicrobia (SAR406). The results presented here elucidate potential roles of organisms in oil reservoir biological processes. PMID:26787827

  9. Genome-wide Mechanosensitive MicroRNA (MechanomiR) Screen Uncovers Dysregulation of Their Regulatory Networks in the mdm Mouse Model of Muscular Dystrophy*

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Junaith S.; Hajira, Ameena; Lopez, Michael A.; Boriek, Aladin M.

    2015-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies (MDs) are a heterogeneous group of genetic and neuromuscular disorders, which result in severe loss of motor ability and skeletal muscle mass and function. Aberrant mechanotransduction and dysregulated-microRNA pathways are often associated with the progression of MD. Here, we hypothesized that dysregulation of mechanosensitive microRNAs (mechanomiRs) in dystrophic skeletal muscle plays a major role in the progression of MD. To test our hypothesis, we performed a genome-wide expression profile of anisotropically regulated mechanomiRs and bioinformatically analyzed their target gene networks. We assessed their functional roles in the advancement of MD using diaphragm muscles from mdm (MD with myositis) mice, an animal model of human tibial MD (titinopathy), and their wild-type littermates. We were able to show that ex vivo anisotropic mechanical stretch significantly alters the miRNA expression profile in diaphragm muscles from WT and mdm mice; as a result, some of the genes associated with MDs are dysregulated in mdm mice due to differential regulation of a distinct set of mechanomiRs. Interestingly, we found a contrasting expression pattern of the highly expressed let-7 family mechanomiRs, let-7e-5p and miR-98–5p, and their target genes associated with the extracellular matrix and TGF-β pathways, respectively, between WT and mdm mice. Gain- and loss-of-function analysis of let-7e-5p in myocytes isolated from the diaphragms of WT and mdm mice confirmed Col1a1, Col1a2, Col3a1, Col24a1, Col27a1, Itga1, Itga4, Scd1, and Thbs1 as target genes of let-7e-5p. Furthermore, we found that miR-98 negatively regulates myoblast differentiation. Our study therefore introduces additional biological players in the regulation of skeletal muscle structure and myogenesis that may contribute to unexplained disorders of MD. PMID:26272747

  10. Evolutionary dynamics of an expressed MHC class IIβ locus in the Ranidae (Anura) uncovered by genome walking and high-throughput amplicon sequencing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulder, Kevin P.; Cortazar-Chinarro, Maria; Harris, D. James; Crottini, Angelica; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Fleischer, Robert C.; Savage, Anna E.

    2017-01-01

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a genomic region encoding immune loci that are important and frequently used markers in studies of adaptive genetic variation and disease resistance. Given the primary role of infectious diseases in contributing to global amphibian declines, we characterized the hypervariable exon 2 and flanking introns of the MHC Class IIβ chain for 17 species of frogs in the Ranidae, a speciose and cosmopolitan family facing widespread pathogen infections and declines. We find high levels of genetic variation concentrated in the Peptide Binding Region (PBR) of the exon. Ten codons are under positive selection, nine of which are located in the mammal-defined PBR. We hypothesize that the tenth codon (residue 21) is an amphibian-specific PBR site that may be important in disease resistance. Trans-species and trans-generic polymorphisms are evident from exon-based genealogies, and co-phylogenetic analyses between intron, exon and mitochondrial based reconstructions reveal incongruent topologies, likely due to different locus histories. We developed two sets of barcoded adapters that reliably amplify a single and likely functional locus in all screened species using both 454 and Illumina based sequencing methods. These primers provide a resource for multiplexing and directly sequencing hundreds of samples in a single sequencing run, avoiding the labour and chimeric sequences associated with cloning, and enabling MHC population genetic analyses. Although the primers are currently limited to the 17 species we tested, these sequences and protocols provide a useful genetic resource and can serve as a starting point for future disease, adaptation and conservation studies across a range of anuran taxa.

  11. New Candidate Genes Affecting Rice Grain Appearance and Milling Quality Detected by Genome-Wide and Gene-Based Association Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoqian; Pang, Yunlong; Wang, Chunchao; Chen, Kai; Zhu, Yajun; Shen, Congcong; Ali, Jauhar; Xu, Jianlong; Li, Zhikang

    2017-01-01

    Appearance and milling quality are two crucial properties of rice grains affecting its market acceptability. Understanding the genetic base of rice grain quality could considerably improve the high quality breeding. Here, we carried out an association analysis to identify QTL affecting nine rice grain appearance and milling quality traits using a diverse panel of 258 accessions selected from 3K Rice Genome Project and evaluated in two environments Sanya and Shenzhen. Genome-wide association analyses using 22,488 high quality SNPs identified 72 QTL affecting the nine traits. Combined gene-based association and haplotype analyses plus functional annotation allowed us to shortlist 19 candidate genes for seven important QTL regions affecting the grain quality traits, including two cloned genes (GS3 and TUD), two fine mapped QTL (qGRL7.1 and qPGWC7) and three newly identified QTL (qGL3.4, qGW1.1, and qGW10.2). The most likely candidate gene(s) for each important QTL were also discussed. This research demonstrated the superior power to shortlist candidate genes affecting complex phenotypes by the strategy of combined GWAS, gene-based association and haplotype analyses. The identified candidate genes provided valuable sources for future functional characterization and genetic improvement of rice appearance and milling quality. PMID:28101096

  12. New Candidate Genes Affecting Rice Grain Appearance and Milling Quality Detected by Genome-Wide and Gene-Based Association Analyses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoqian; Pang, Yunlong; Wang, Chunchao; Chen, Kai; Zhu, Yajun; Shen, Congcong; Ali, Jauhar; Xu, Jianlong; Li, Zhikang

    2016-01-01

    Appearance and milling quality are two crucial properties of rice grains affecting its market acceptability. Understanding the genetic base of rice grain quality could considerably improve the high quality breeding. Here, we carried out an association analysis to identify QTL affecting nine rice grain appearance and milling quality traits using a diverse panel of 258 accessions selected from 3K Rice Genome Project and evaluated in two environments Sanya and Shenzhen. Genome-wide association analyses using 22,488 high quality SNPs identified 72 QTL affecting the nine traits. Combined gene-based association and haplotype analyses plus functional annotation allowed us to shortlist 19 candidate genes for seven important QTL regions affecting the grain quality traits, including two cloned genes (GS3 and TUD), two fine mapped QTL (qGRL7.1 and qPGWC7) and three newly identified QTL (qGL3.4, qGW1.1, and qGW10.2). The most likely candidate gene(s) for each important QTL were also discussed. This research demonstrated the superior power to shortlist candidate genes affecting complex phenotypes by the strategy of combined GWAS, gene-based association and haplotype analyses. The identified candidate genes provided valuable sources for future functional characterization and genetic improvement of rice appearance and milling quality.

  13. Blood-based gene expression signatures of medication-free outpatients with major depressive disorder: integrative genome-wide and candidate gene analyses

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Hiroaki; Sasayama, Daimei; Teraishi, Toshiya; Yamamoto, Noriko; Nakamura, Seiji; Ota, Miho; Hattori, Kotaro; Kim, Yoshiharu; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Several microarray-based studies have investigated gene expression profiles in major depressive disorder (MDD), yet with highly variable findings. We examined blood-based genome-wide expression signatures of MDD, focusing on molecular pathways and networks underlying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and behaviours of hypothesis-driven, evidence-based candidate genes for depression. Agilent human whole-genome arrays were used to measure gene expression in 14 medication-free outpatients with MDD who were at least moderately ill and 14 healthy controls matched pairwise for age and sex. After filtering, we compared expression of entire probes between patients and controls and identified DEGs. The DEGs were evaluated by pathway and network analyses. For the candidate gene analysis, we utilized 169 previously prioritized genes and examined their case-control separation efficiency and correlational co-expression network in patients relative to controls. The 317 screened DEGs mapped to a significantly over-represented pathway, the “synaptic transmission” pathway. The protein-protein interaction network was also significantly enriched, in which a number of key molecules for depression were included. The co-expression network of candidate genes was markedly disrupted in patients. This study provided evidence for an altered molecular network along with several key molecules in MDD and confirmed that the candidate genes are worthwhile targets for depression research. PMID:26728011

  14. Systematic re-evaluation of genes from candidate gene association studies in migraine using a large genome-wide association data set.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Boukje; Anttila, Verneri; Freilinger, Tobias; Wessman, Maija; Kaunisto, Mari A; Kallela, Mikko; Artto, Ville; Vijfhuizen, Lisanne S; Göbel, Hartmut; Dichgans, Martin; Kubisch, Christian; Ferrari, Michel D; Palotie, Aarno; Terwindt, Gisela M; van den Maagdenberg, Arn Mjm

    2016-06-01

    Before the genome-wide association (GWA) era, many hypothesis-driven candidate gene association studies were performed that tested whether DNA variants in genes that had been selected based on prior knowledge about migraine pathophysiology were associated with migraine. Most studies involved small sample sets without robust replication, thereby making the risk of false-positive findings high. Genome-wide marker data of thousands of migraine patients and controls from the International Headache Genetics Consortium provide a unique opportunity to re-evaluate key findings from candidate gene association studies (and other non-GWA genetic studies) in a much larger data set. We selected 21 genes from published candidate gene association studies and six additional genes from other non-GWA genetic studies in migraine. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes, as well as in the regions 500 kb up- and downstream, were inspected in IHGC GWAS data from 5175 clinic-based migraine patients with and without aura and 13,972 controls. None of the SNPs in or near the 27 genes, including the SNPs that were previously found to be associated with migraine, reached the Bonferroni-corrected significance threshold; neither when analyzing all migraine patients together, nor when analyzing the migraine with and without aura patients or males and females separately. The available migraine GWAS data provide no clear evidence for involvement of the previously reported most promising candidate genes in migraine. © International Headache Society 2015.

  15. Blood-based gene expression signatures of medication-free outpatients with major depressive disorder: integrative genome-wide and candidate gene analyses.

    PubMed

    Hori, Hiroaki; Sasayama, Daimei; Teraishi, Toshiya; Yamamoto, Noriko; Nakamura, Seiji; Ota, Miho; Hattori, Kotaro; Kim, Yoshiharu; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-05

    Several microarray-based studies have investigated gene expression profiles in major depressive disorder (MDD), yet with highly variable findings. We examined blood-based genome-wide expression signatures of MDD, focusing on molecular pathways and networks underlying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and behaviours of hypothesis-driven, evidence-based candidate genes for depression. Agilent human whole-genome arrays were used to measure gene expression in 14 medication-free outpatients with MDD who were at least moderately ill and 14 healthy controls matched pairwise for age and sex. After filtering, we compared expression of entire probes between patients and controls and identified DEGs. The DEGs were evaluated by pathway and network analyses. For the candidate gene analysis, we utilized 169 previously prioritized genes and examined their case-control separation efficiency and correlational co-expression network in patients relative to controls. The 317 screened DEGs mapped to a significantly over-represented pathway, the "synaptic transmission" pathway. The protein-protein interaction network was also significantly enriched, in which a number of key molecules for depression were included. The co-expression network of candidate genes was markedly disrupted in patients. This study provided evidence for an altered molecular network along with several key molecules in MDD and confirmed that the candidate genes are worthwhile targets for depression research.

  16. An integrated genomic analysis of papillary renal cell carcinoma type 1 uncovers the role of focal adhesion and extracellular matrix pathways.

    PubMed

    Wala, Samantha Jane; Karamchandani, Jason Raj; Saleeb, Rola; Evans, Andrew; Ding, Qiang; Ibrahim, Rania; Jewett, Michael; Pasic, Maria; Finelli, Antonio; Pace, Kenneth; Lianidou, Evi; Yousef, George Makram

    2015-10-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) is the second most common RCC subtype and can be further classified as type 1 (pRCC1) or 2 (pRCC2). There is currently minimal understanding of pRCC1 pathogenesis, and treatment decisions are mostly empirical. The aim of this study was to identify biological pathways that are involved in pRCC1 pathogenesis using an integrated genomic approach. By microarray analysis, we identified a number of significantly dysregulated genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) that were unique to pRCC1. Integrated bioinformatics analyses showed enrichment of the focal adhesion and extracellular matrix (ECM) pathways. We experimentally validated that many members of these pathways are dysregulated in pRCC1. We identified and experimentally validated the downregulation of miR-199a-3p in pRCC1. Using cell line models, we showed that miR-199a-3p plays an important role in pRCC1 pathogenesis. Gain of function experiments showed that miR-199a-3p overexpression significantly decreased cell proliferation (p = 0.013). We also provide evidence that miR-199a-3p regulates the expression of genes linked to the focal adhesion and ECM pathways, such as caveolin 2 (CAV2), integrin beta 8 (ITGB8), MET proto-oncogene and mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR). Using a luciferase reporter assay, we further provide evidence that miR-199a-3p overexpression decreases the expression of MET and MTOR. Using an integrated gene/miRNA approach, we provide evidence linking miRNAs to the focal adhesion and ECM pathways in pRCC1 pathogenesis. This novel information can contribute to the development of effective targeted therapies for pRCC1, for which there is none currently available in the clinic. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Genome-wide Mechanosensitive MicroRNA (MechanomiR) Screen Uncovers Dysregulation of Their Regulatory Networks in the mdm Mouse Model of Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Junaith S; Hajira, Ameena; Lopez, Michael A; Boriek, Aladin M

    2015-10-09

    Muscular dystrophies (MDs) are a heterogeneous group of genetic and neuromuscular disorders, which result in severe loss of motor ability and skeletal muscle mass and function. Aberrant mechanotransduction and dysregulated-microRNA pathways are often associated with the progression of MD. Here, we hypothesized that dysregulation of mechanosensitive microRNAs (mechanomiRs) in dystrophic skeletal muscle plays a major role in the progression of MD. To test our hypothesis, we performed a genome-wide expression profile of anisotropically regulated mechanomiRs and bioinformatically analyzed their target gene networks. We assessed their functional roles in the advancement of MD using diaphragm muscles from mdm (MD with myositis) mice, an animal model of human tibial MD (titinopathy), and their wild-type littermates. We were able to show that ex vivo anisotropic mechanical stretch significantly alters the miRNA expression profile in diaphragm muscles from WT and mdm mice; as a result, some of the genes associated with MDs are dysregulated in mdm mice due to differential regulation of a distinct set of mechanomiRs. Interestingly, we found a contrasting expression pattern of the highly expressed let-7 family mechanomiRs, let-7e-5p and miR-98-5p, and their target genes associated with the extracellular matrix and TGF-β pathways, respectively, between WT and mdm mice. Gain- and loss-of-function analysis of let-7e-5p in myocytes isolated from the diaphragms of WT and mdm mice confirmed Col1a1, Col1a2, Col3a1, Col24a1, Col27a1, Itga1, Itga4, Scd1, and Thbs1 as target genes of let-7e-5p. Furthermore, we found that miR-98 negatively regulates myoblast differentiation. Our study therefore introduces additional biological players in the regulation of skeletal muscle structure and myogenesis that may contribute to unexplained disorders of MD. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Genome-Wide Screening Uncovers the Significance of N-sulfation of Heparan Sulfate as a Host Cell Factor for Chikungunya Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Tumkosit, Uranan; Nakamura, Shota; Motooka, Daisuke; Kishishita, Natsuko; Priengprom, Thongkoon; Sa-Ngasang, Areerat; Kinoshita, Taroh; Takeda, Naokazu; Maeda, Yusuke

    2017-04-12

    The molecular mechanisms underlying chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection are poorly characterized. In this study, we analyzed the host factors involved in CHIKV infection using genome-wide screening. Human haploid HAP1 cells, into which an exon-trapping vector was introduced, were challenged with a vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotype bearing the CHIKV E3-E1 envelope proteins. Analysis of genes enriched in the cells resistant to the pseudotyped virus infection unveiled a critical role of N-sulfation of heparan sulfate (HS) for the infectivity of a clinically isolated CHIKV Thai #16856 strain to HAP1 cells. Knockout of NDST1 that catalyzes N-sulfation of HS greatly decreased the binding and infectivity of CHIKV Thai#16856 strain but not infectivity of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and yellow fever virus (YFV). Whereas glycosaminoglycans were commonly required for efficient infectivity of CHIKV, JEV and YFV as shown by using B3GAT3 knockout cells, the tropism for N-sulfate was specific to CHIKV. Expression of chondroitin sulfate (CS) in NDST1-knockout HAP1 cells did not restore the binding of CHIKV Thai#16856 strain and the infectivity of its pseudotype but restored the infectivity of authentic CHIKV Thai#16856, suggesting that CS functions at the later steps after the CHIKV binding. Among the genes enriched in this screening, we found that TM9SF2 is critical for N-sulfation of HS and therefore for CHIKV infection, because it is involved in proper localization and stability of NDST1. Determination of the significance of and the relevant proteins to N-sulfation of HS may contribute to understanding mechanisms of CHIKV propagation, cell tropism and pathogenesis.IMPORTANCE Recent outbreaks of chikungunya fever have increased its clinical importance. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) utilizes host glycosaminoglycans to bind efficiently to its target cells. However, the substructure in glycosaminoglycans required for CHIKV infection have not been characterized. Here, we

  19. Genome-Resolved Metagenomic Analysis Reveals Roles for Candidate Phyla and Other Microbial Community Members in Biogeochemical Transformations in Oil Reservoirs

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Ping; Tom, Lauren; Singh, Andrea; ...

    2016-01-19

    Oil reservoirs are major sites of methane production and carbon turnover, processes with significant impacts on energy resources and global biogeochemical cycles. We applied a cultivation-independent genomic approach to define microbial community membership and predict roles for specific organisms in biogeochemical transformations in Alaska North Slope oil fields. Produced water samples were collected from six locations between 1,128 m (24 to 27°C) and 2,743 m (80 to 83°C) below the surface. Microbial community complexity decreased with increasing temperature, and the potential to degrade hydrocarbon compounds was most prevalent in the lower-temperature reservoirs. Sulfate availability, rather than sulfate reduction potential, seems to bemore » the limiting factor for sulfide production in some of the reservoirs under investigation. Most microorganisms in the intermediate- and higher-temperature samples were related to previously studied methanogenic and nonmethanogenic archaea and thermophilic bacteria, but one candidate phylum bacterium, a member of theAcetothermia(OP1), was present in Kuparuk sample K3. The greatest numbers of candidate phyla were recovered from the mesothermic reservoir samples SB1 and SB2. We reconstructed a nearly complete genome for an organism from the candidate phylumParcubacteria(OD1) that was abundant in sample SB1. Consistent with prior findings for members of this lineage, the OD1 genome is small, and metabolic predictions support an obligately anaerobic, fermentation-based lifestyle. At moderate abundance in samples SB1 and SB2 were members of bacteria from other candidate phyla, includingMicrogenomates(OP11),Atribacteria(OP9), candidate phyla TA06 and WS6, andMarinimicrobia(SAR406). The results presented here elucidate potential roles of organisms in oil reservoir biological processes. The activities of microorganisms in oil reservoirs impact petroleum resource quality and the global carbon cycle. In conclusion, we show that

  20. Genome-Resolved Metagenomic Analysis Reveals Roles for Candidate Phyla and Other Microbial Community Members in Biogeochemical Transformations in Oil Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Ping; Tom, Lauren; Singh, Andrea; Thomas, Brian C.; Baker, Brett J.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Andersen, Gary L.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2016-01-19

    ABSTRACT

    Oil reservoirs are major sites of methane production and carbon turnover, processes with significant impacts on energy resources and global biogeochemical cycles. We applied a cultivation-independent genomic approach to define microbial community membership and predict roles for specific organisms in biogeochemical transformations in Alaska North Slope oil fields. Produced water samples were collected from six locations between 1,128 m (24 to 27°C) and 2,743 m (80 to 83°C) below the surface. Microbial community complexity decreased with increasing temperature, and the potential to degrade hydrocarbon compounds was most prevalent in the lower-temperature reservoirs. Sulfate availability, rather than sulfate reduction potential, seems to be the limiting factor for sulfide production in some of the reservoirs under investigation. Most microorganisms in the intermediate- and higher-temperature samples were related to previously studied methanogenic and nonmethanogenic archaea and thermophilic bacteria, but one candidate phylum bacterium, a member of theAcetothermia(OP1), was present in Kuparuk sample K3. The greatest numbers of candidate phyla were recovered from the mesothermic reservoir samples SB1 and SB2. We reconstructed a nearly complete genome for an organism from the candidate phylumParcubacteria(OD1) that was abundant in sample SB1. Consistent with prior findings for members of this lineage, the OD1 genome is small, and metabolic predictions support an obligately anaerobic, fermentation-based lifestyle. At moderate abundance in samples SB1 and SB2 were members of bacteria from other candidate phyla, includingMicrogenomates(OP11),Atribacteria(OP9), candidate phyla TA06 and WS6, andMarinimicrobia(SAR406). The results presented here elucidate potential roles of organisms in oil reservoir biological processes.

  1. Genome-Resolved Metagenomic Analysis Reveals Roles for Candidate Phyla and Other Microbial Community Members in Biogeochemical Transformations in Oil Reservoirs

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Ping; Tom, Lauren; Singh, Andrea; ...

    2016-01-19

    Oil reservoirs are major sites of methane production and carbon turnover, processes with significant impacts on energy resources and global biogeochemical cycles. We applied a cultivation-independent genomic approach to define microbial community membership and predict roles for specific organisms in biogeochemical transformations in Alaska North Slope oil fields. Produced water samples were collected from six locations between 1,128 m (24 to 27°C) and 2,743 m (80 to 83°C) below the surface. Microbial community complexity decreased with increasing temperature, and the potential to degrade hydrocarbon compounds was most prevalent in the lower-temperature reservoirs. Sulfate availability, rather than sulfate reduction potential, seems tomore » be the limiting factor for sulfide production in some of the reservoirs under investigation. Most microorganisms in the intermediate- and higher-temperature samples were related to previously studied methanogenic and nonmethanogenic archaea and thermophilic bacteria, but one candidate phylum bacterium, a member of theAcetothermia(OP1), was present in Kuparuk sample K3. The greatest numbers of candidate phyla were recovered from the mesothermic reservoir samples SB1 and SB2. We reconstructed a nearly complete genome for an organism from the candidate phylumParcubacteria(OD1) that was abundant in sample SB1. Consistent with prior findings for members of this lineage, the OD1 genome is small, and metabolic predictions support an obligately anaerobic, fermentation-based lifestyle. At moderate abundance in samples SB1 and SB2 were members of bacteria from other candidate phyla, includingMicrogenomates(OP11),Atribacteria(OP9), candidate phyla TA06 and WS6, andMarinimicrobia(SAR406). The results presented here elucidate potential roles of organisms in oil reservoir biological processes. IMPORTANCEThe activities of microorganisms in oil reservoirs impact petroleum resource quality and the global carbon cycle. We show that

  2. Genome-Resolved Metagenomic Analysis Reveals Roles for Candidate Phyla and Other Microbial Community Members in Biogeochemical Transformations in Oil Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Ping; Tom, Lauren; Singh, Andrea; Thomas, Brian C.; Baker, Brett J.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Andersen, Gary L.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2016-01-19

    Oil reservoirs are major sites of methane production and carbon turnover, processes with significant impacts on energy resources and global biogeochemical cycles. We applied a cultivation-independent genomic approach to define microbial community membership and predict roles for specific organisms in biogeochemical transformations in Alaska North Slope oil fields. Produced water samples were collected from six locations between 1,128 m (24 to 27°C) and 2,743 m (80 to 83°C) below the surface. Microbial community complexity decreased with increasing temperature, and the potential to degrade hydrocarbon compounds was most prevalent in the lower-temperature reservoirs. Sulfate availability, rather than sulfate reduction potential, seems to be the limiting factor for sulfide production in some of the reservoirs under investigation. Most microorganisms in the intermediate- and higher-temperature samples were related to previously studied methanogenic and nonmethanogenic archaea and thermophilic bacteria, but one candidate phylum bacterium, a member of theAcetothermia(OP1), was present in Kuparuk sample K3. The greatest numbers of candidate phyla were recovered from the mesothermic reservoir samples SB1 and SB2. We reconstructed a nearly complete genome for an organism from the candidate phylumParcubacteria(OD1) that was abundant in sample SB1. Consistent with prior findings for members of this lineage, the OD1 genome is small, and metabolic predictions support an obligately anaerobic, fermentation-based lifestyle. At moderate abundance in samples SB1 and SB2 were members of bacteria from other candidate phyla, includingMicrogenomates(OP11),Atribacteria(OP9), candidate phyla TA06 and WS6, andMarinimicrobia(SAR406). The results presented here elucidate potential roles of organisms in oil reservoir biological processes. The activities of microorganisms in oil reservoirs impact petroleum

  3. Within-breed and multi-breed GWAS on imputed whole-genome sequence variants reveal candidate mutations affecting milk protein composition in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Marie-Pierre; Govignon-Gion, Armelle; Croiseau, Pascal; Fritz, Sébastien; Hozé, Chris; Miranda, Guy; Martin, Patrice; Barbat-Leterrier, Anne; Letaïef, Rabia; Rocha, Dominique; Brochard, Mickaël; Boussaha, Mekki; Boichard, Didier

    2017-09-18

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were performed at the sequence level to identify candidate mutations that affect the expression of six major milk proteins in Montbéliarde (MON), Normande (NOR), and Holstein (HOL) dairy cattle. Whey protein (α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin) and casein (αs1, αs2, β, and κ) contents were estimated by mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry, with medium to high accuracy (0.59 ≤ R(2) ≤ 0.92), for 848,068 test-day milk samples from 156,660 cows in the first three lactations. Milk composition was evaluated as average test-day measurements adjusted for environmental effects. Next, we genotyped a subset of 8080 cows (2967 MON, 2737 NOR, and 2306 HOL) with the BovineSNP50 Beadchip. For each breed, genotypes were first imputed to high-density (HD) using HD single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotypes of 522 MON, 546 NOR, and 776 HOL bulls. The resulting HD SNP genotypes were subsequently imputed to the sequence level using 27 million high-quality sequence variants selected from Run4 of the 1000 Bull Genomes consortium (1147 bulls). Within-breed, multi-breed, and conditional GWAS were performed. Thirty-four distinct genomic regions were identified. Three regions on chromosomes 6, 11, and 20 had very significant effects on milk composition and were shared across the three breeds. Other significant effects, which partially overlapped across breeds, were found on almost all the autosomes. Multi-breed analyses provided a larger number of significant genomic regions with smaller confidence intervals than within-breed analyses. Combinations of within-breed, multi-breed, and conditional analyses led to the identification of putative causative variants in several candidate genes that presented significant protein-protein interactions enrichment, including those with previously described effects on milk composition (SLC37A1, MGST1, ABCG2, CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2, CSN3, PAEP, DGAT1, AGPAT6) and those with effects reported for the first

  4. Genome-wide association mapping and identification of candidate genes for the rumpless and ear-tufted traits of the Araucana chicken.

    PubMed

    Noorai, Rooksana E; Freese, Nowlan H; Wright, Lindsay M; Chapman, Susan C; Clark, Leigh Anne

    2012-01-01

    Araucana chickens are known for their rounded, tailless rumps and tufted ears. Inheritance studies have shown that the rumpless (Rp) and ear-tufted (Et) loci each act in an autosomal dominant fashion, segregate independently, and are associated with an increased rate of embryonic mortality. To find genomic regions associated with Rp and Et, we generated genome-wide SNP profiles for a diverse population of 60 Araucana chickens using the 60 K chicken SNP BeadChip. Genome-wide association studies using 40 rumpless and 11 tailed birds showed a strong association with rumpless on Gga 2 (P(raw) = 2.45×10(-10), P(genome) = 0.00575), and analysis of genotypes revealed a 2.14 Mb haplotype shared by all rumpless birds. Within this haplotype, a 0.74 Mb critical interval containing two Iroquois homeobox genes, Irx1 and Irx2, was unique to rumpless Araucana chickens. Irx1 and Irx2 are central for developmental prepatterning, but neither gene is known to have a role in mechanisms leading to caudal development. A second genome-wide association analysis using 30 ear-tufted and 28 non-tufted birds revealed an association with tufted on Gga 15 (P(raw) = 6.61×10(-7), P(genome) = 0.0981). We identified a 0.58 Mb haplotype common to tufted birds and harboring 7 genes. Because homozygosity for Et is nearly 100% lethal, we employed a heterozygosity mapping approach to prioritize candidate gene selection. A 60 kb region heterozygous in all Araucana chickens contains the complete coding sequence for TBX1 and partial sequence for GNB1L. TBX1 is an important transcriptional regulator of embryonic development and a key genetic determinant of human DiGeorge syndrome. Herein, we describe localization of Rp and Et and identification of positional candidate genes.

  5. Physiology and phylogeny of the candidate phylum "Atribacteria" (formerly OP9/JS1) inferred from single-cell genomics and metagenomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodsworth, J. A.; Murugapiran, S.; Blainey, P. C.; Nobu, M.; Rinke, C.; Schwientek, P.; Gies, E.; Webster, G.; Kille, P.; Weightman, A.; Liu, W. T.; Hallam, S.; Tsiamis, G.; Swingley, W.; Ross, C.; Tringe, S. G.; Chain, P. S.; Scholz, M. B.; Lo, C. C.; Raymond, J.; Quake, S. R.; Woyke, T.; Hedlund, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Single-cell sequencing and metagenomics have extended the genomics revolution to yet-uncultivated microorganisms and provided insights into the coding potential of this so-called "microbial dark matter", including microbes belonging candidate phyla with no cultivated representatives. As more datasets emerge, comparison of individual genomes from different lineages and habitats can provide insight into the phylogeny, conserved features, and potential metabolic diversity of candidate phyla. The candidate bacterial phylum OP9 was originally found in Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park, and it has since been detected in geothermal springs, petroleum reservoirs, and engineered thermal environments worldwide. JS1, another uncultivated bacterial lineage affiliated with OP9, is often abundant in marine sediments associated with methane hydrates, hydrocarbon seeps, and on continental margins and shelves, and is found in other non-thermal marine and subsurface environments. The phylogenetic relationship between OP9, JS1, and other Bacteria has not been fully resolved, and to date no axenic cultures from these lineages have been reported. Recently, 31 single amplified genomes (SAGs) from six distinct OP9 and JS1 lineages have been obtained using flow cytometric and microfluidic techniques. These SAGs were used to inform metagenome binning techniques that identified OP9/JS1 sequences in several metagenomes, extending genomic coverage in three of the OP9 and JS1 lineages. Phylogenomic analyses of these SAG and metagenome bin datasets suggest that OP9 and JS1 constitute a single, deeply branching phylum, for which the name "Atribacteria" has recently been proposed. Overall, members of the "Atribacteria" are predicted to be heterotrophic anaerobes without the capacity for respiration, with some lineages potentially specializing in secondary fermentation of organic acids. A set of signature "Atribacteria" genes was tentatively identified, including components of a bacterial

  6. Whole-genome sequence analyses of Western Central African Pygmy hunter-gatherers reveal a complex demographic history and identify candidate genes under positive natural selection

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, PingHsun; Veeramah, Krishna R.; Lachance, Joseph; Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Wall, Jeffrey D.; Hammer, Michael F.; Gutenkunst, Ryan N.

    2016-01-01

    African Pygmies practicing a mobile hunter-gatherer lifestyle are phenotypically and genetically diverged from other anatomically modern humans, and they likely experienced strong selective pressures due to their unique lifestyle in the Central African rainforest. To identify genomic targets of adaptation, we sequenced the genomes of four Biaka Pygmies from the Central African Republic and jointly analyzed these data with the genome sequences of three Baka Pygmies from Cameroon and nine Yoruba famers. To account for the complex demographic history of these populations that includes both isolation and gene flow, we fit models using the joint allele frequency spectrum and validated them using independent approaches. Our two best-fit models both suggest ancient divergence between the ancestors of the farmers and Pygmies, 90,000 or 150,000 yr ago. We also find that bidirectional asymmetric gene flow is statistically better supported than a single pulse of unidirectional gene flow from farmers to Pygmies, as previously suggested. We then applied complementary statistics to scan the genome for evidence of selective sweeps and polygenic selection. We found that conventional statistical outlier approaches were biased toward identifying candidates in regions of high mutation or low recombination rate. To avoid this bias, we assigned P-values for candidates using whole-genome simulations incorporating demography and variation in both recombination and mutation rates. We found that genes and gene sets involved in muscle development, bone synthesis, immunity, reproduction, cell signaling and development, and energy metabolism are likely to be targets of positive natural selection in Western African Pygmies or their recent ancestors. PMID:26888263

  7. Huvariome: a web server resource of whole genome next-generation sequencing allelic frequencies to aid in pathological candidate gene selection.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Andrew; McClellan, Elizabeth A; Horsman, Sebastiaan; Hiltemann, Saskia D; Palli, Ivo; Nouwens, Stephan; Koning, Anton Hj; Hoogland, Frits; Reumers, Joke; Heijsman, Daphne; Swagemakers, Sigrid; Kremer, Andreas; Meijerink, Jules; Lambrechts, Diether; van der Spek, Peter J

    2012-11-19

    Next generation sequencing provides clinical research scientists with direct read out of innumerable variants, including personal, pathological and common benign variants. The aim of resequencing studies is to determine the candidate pathogenic variants from individual genomes, or from family-based or tumor/normal genome comparisons. Whilst the use of appropriate controls within the experimental design will minimize the number of false positive variations selected, this number can be reduced further with the use of high quality whole genome reference data to minimize false positives variants prior to candidate gene selection. In addition the use of platform related sequencing error models can help in the recovery of ambiguous genotypes from lower coverage data. We have developed a whole genome database of human genetic variations, Huvariome, determined by whole genome deep sequencing data with high coverage and low error rates. The database was designed to be sequencing technology independent but is currently populated with 165 individual whole genomes consisting of small pedigrees and matched tumor/normal samples sequenced with the Complete Genomics sequencing platform. Common variants have been determined for a Benelux population cohort and represented as genotypes alongside the results of two sets of control data (73 of the 165 genomes), Huvariome Core which comprises 31 healthy individuals from the Benelux region, and Diversity Panel consisting of 46 healthy individuals representing 10 different populations and 21 samples in three Pedigrees. Users can query the database by gene or position via a web interface and the results are displayed as the frequency of the variations as detected in the datasets. We demonstrate that Huvariome can provide accurate reference allele frequencies to disambiguate sequencing inconsistencies produced in resequencing experiments. Huvariome has been used to support the selection of candidate cardiomyopathy related genes which have a

  8. Deciphering the streamlined genome of Streptomyces xiamenensis 318 as the producer of the anti-fibrotic drug candidate xiamenmycin

    PubMed Central

    XU, Min-Juan; WANG, Jia-Hua; BU, Xu-Liang; YU, He-Lin; LI, Peng; OU, Hong-Yu; HE, Ying; XU, Fang-Di; HU, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, Xiao-Mei; AO, Ping; Xu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Streptomyces xiamenensis 318, a moderate halophile isolated from a mangrove sediment, produces the anti-fibrotic compound xiamenmycin. The whole genome sequence of strain 318 was obtained through long-read single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing, high-throughput Illumina HiSeq and 454 pyrosequencing technologies. The assembled genome comprises a linear chromosome as a single contig of 5,961,401-bp, which is considerably smaller than other reported complete genomes of the genus Streptomyces. Based on the antiSMASH pipeline, a total of 21 gene clusters were predicted to be involved in secondary metabolism. The gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of xiamenmycin resides in a strain-specific 61,387-bp genomic island belonging to the left-arm region. A core metabolic network consisting of 104 reactions that supports xiamenmycin biosynthesis was constructed to illustrate the necessary precursors derived from the central metabolic pathway. In accordance with the finding of a putative ikarugamycin gene cluster in the genome, the targeted chemical profiling of polycyclic tetramate macrolactams (PTMs) resulted in the identification of ikarugamycin. A successful genome mining for bioactive molecules with different skeletons suggests that the naturally minimized genome of S. xiamenensis 318 could be used as a blueprint for constructing a chassis cell with versatile biosynthetic capabilities for the production of secondary metabolites. PMID:26744183

  9. Report from the Maryland epidemiology schizophrenia linkage study: No evidence for linkage between schizophrenia and a number of candidate and other genomic regions using a complex dominant model

    SciTech Connect

    Karayiorgou, M.; Hwang, J.; Elango, R.

    1994-12-15

    Our collaborative group has undertaken a linkage study of schizophrenia, using a systematic sample of patients admitted to Maryland hospitals. An initial sample of 39 families, each having two or more affecteds, was available for genotyping candidate genes, candidate regions, and highly polymorphic markers randomly distributed throughout the genome. We used a single complex dominant model (with a disease gene frequency of 0.005 and age-dependent penetrance for affected phenotype: for under 35, penetrance = .45; for 35 and older, penetrance = .85). We report here 130 markers which met the exclusion criteria of LOD score < -2.00 at theta > 0.01 in at least 10 informative families, and no evidence for heterogeneity. We also report here markers that were tested as candidates for linkage to the schizophrenic phenotype. They were selected based on the following criteria: (a) proximity to reported chromosomal rearrangements (both 5q and 11q), (b) suggestions of linkage from other families (5q), or (c) presence of a candidate gene (5q, 11q, 3q: dopamine receptors 1, 2, and 3, respectively). We also tested for mutations of codon 717 in exon 17 of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene and were unable to detect the C to T substitution in our schizophrenic group. 48 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Comparative genomics and prediction of conditionally dispensable sequences in legume-infecting Fusarium oxysporum formae speciales facilitates identification of candidate effectors.

    PubMed

    Williams, Angela H; Sharma, Mamta; Thatcher, Louise F; Azam, Sarwar; Hane, James K; Sperschneider, Jana; Kidd, Brendan N; Anderson, Jonathan P; Ghosh, Raju; Garg, Gagan; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Kistler, H Corby; Shea, Terrance; Young, Sarah; Buck, Sally-Anne G; Kamphuis, Lars G; Saxena, Rachit; Pande, Suresh; Ma, Li-Jun; Varshney, Rajeev K; Singh, Karam B

    2016-03-05

    Soil-borne fungi of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex cause devastating wilt disease on many crops including legumes that supply human dietary protein needs across many parts of the globe. We present and compare draft genome assemblies for three legume-infecting formae speciales (ff. spp.): F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc-38-1) and f. sp. pisi (Fop-37622), significant pathogens of chickpea and pea respectively, the world's second and third most important grain legumes, and lastly f. sp. medicaginis (Fom-5190a) for which we developed a model legume pathosystem utilising Medicago truncatula. Focusing on the identification of pathogenicity gene content, we leveraged the reference genomes of Fusarium pathogens F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (tomato-infecting) and F. solani (pea-infecting) and their well-characterised core and dispensable chromosomes to predict genomic organisation in the newly sequenced legume-infecting isolates. Dispensable chromosomes are not essential for growth and in Fusarium species are known to be enriched in host-specificity and pathogenicity-associated genes. Comparative genomics of the publicly available Fusarium species revealed differential patterns of sequence conservation across F. oxysporum formae speciales, with legume-pathogenic formae speciales not exhibiting greater sequence conservation between them relative to non-legume-infecting formae speciales, possibly indicating the lack of a common ancestral source for legume pathogenicity. Combining predicted dispensable gene content with in planta expression in the model legume-infecting isolate, we identified small conserved regions and candidate effectors, four of which shared greatest similarity to proteins from another legume-infecting ff. spp. We demonstrate that distinction of core and potential dispensable genomic regions of novel F. oxysporum genomes is an effective tool to facilitate effector discovery and the identification of gene content possibly linked to host

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study of Cardiac Structure and Systolic Function in African Americans: The Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) Study

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Ervin R.; Musani, Solomon K.; Barbalic, Maja; Lin, Honghuang; Yu, Bing; Ogunyankin, Kofo O.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Kutlar, Abdullah; Glazer, Nicole L.; Post, Wendy S.; Paltoo, Dina N.; Dries, Daniel L.; Farlow, Deborah N.; Duarte, Christine W.; Kardia, Sharon L.; Meyers, Kristin J.; Sun, Yan V.; Arnett, Donna K.; Patki, Amit A.; Sha, Jin; Cui, Xiangqui; Samdarshi, Tandaw E.; Penman, Alan D.; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Bůžková, Petra; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Bluemke, David A.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Heiss, Gerardo; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Tracy, Russell P.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Taylor, Herman A.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Cappola, Thomas P.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Using data from four community-based cohorts of African Americans (AA), we tested the association between genome-wide markers (SNPs) and cardiac phenotypes in the Candidate-gene Association REsource (CARe) study. Methods and Results Among 6,765 AA, we related age, sex, height and weight-adjusted residuals for nine cardiac phenotypes (assessed by echocardiogram or MRI) to 2.5 million SNPs genotyped using Genome-Wide Affymetrix Human SNP Array 6.0 (Affy6.0) and the remainder imputed. Within cohort genome-wide association analysis was conducted followed by meta-analysis across cohorts using inverse variance weights (genome-wide significance threshold=4.0 ×10−07). Supplementary pathway analysis was performed. We attempted replication in 3 smaller cohorts of African ancestry and tested look-ups in one consortium of European ancestry (EchoGEN). Across the 9 phenotypes, variants in 4 genetic loci reached genome-wide significance: rs4552931 in UBE2V2 (p=1.43 × 10−07) for left ventricular mass (LVM); rs7213314 in WIPI1 (p=1.68 × 10−07) for LV internal diastolic diameter (LVIDD); rs1571099 in PPAPDC1A (p= 2.57 × 10−08) for interventricular septal wall thickness (IVST); and rs9530176 in KLF5 (p=4.02 × 10−07) for ejection fraction (EF). Associated variants were enriched in three signaling pathways involved in cardiac remodeling. None of the 4 loci replicated in cohorts of African ancestry were confirmed in look-ups in EchoGEN. Conclusions In the largest GWAS of cardiac structure and function to date in AA, we identified 4 genetic loci related to LVM, IVST, LVIDD and EF that reached genome-wide significance. Replication results suggest that these loci may represent unique to individuals of African ancestry. Additional large-scale studies are warranted for these complex phenotypes. PMID:23275298

  12. Genome-wide association mapping and Identification of candidate genes for fatty acid composition in Brassica napus L. using SNP markers.

    PubMed

    Qu, Cunmin; Jia, Ledong; Fu, Fuyou; Zhao, Huiyan; Lu, Kun; Wei, Lijuan; Xu, Xinfu; Liang, Ying; Li, Shimeng; Wang, Rui; Li, Jiana

    2017-03-14

    B. napus (oilseed) is an important source of edible vegetable oil, and its nutritional and economic value is determined by its fatty acid composition and content. Using the Brassica 60 K SNP array, we performed a genome-wide association study of fatty acid composition in a population of 520 genetically diverse oilseed accessions. Using the PCA + K model in TASSEL 5.2.1, we identified 62 genomic regions that were significantly associated with the composition of seven fatty acids, and five consensus regions that mapped to the A2, A8, A9, C1, and C3 chromosomes, respectively, of the Brassica napus Darmor-bzh genome. We then identified 24 orthologs of the functional candidate genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, excluding BnaA.FAE1 and BnaC.FAE1 on the A8 and C3 homologous genome blocks, which are known to have critical roles in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, and potential orthologs of these genes (e.g., LACS9, KCR1, FAB1, LPAT4, KCS17, CER4, TT16, and ACBP5). Our results demonstrate the power of association mapping in identifying genes of interest in B. napus and provide insight into the genetic basis of fatty acid biosynthesis in B. napus. Furthermore, our findings may facilitate marker-based breeding efforts aimed at improving fatty acid composition and quality in B. napus.

  13. Analysis of genome content evolution in pvc bacterial super-phylum: assessment of candidate genes associated with cellular organization and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Kamneva, Olga K; Knight, Stormy J; Liberles, David A; Ward, Naomi L

    2012-01-01

    The Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae (PVC) super-phylum contains bacteria with either complex cellular organization or simple cell structure; it also includes organisms of different lifestyles (pathogens, mutualists, commensal, and free-living). Genome content evolution of this group has not been studied in a systematic fashion, which would reveal genes underlying the emergence of PVC-specific phenotypes. Here, we analyzed the evolutionary dynamics of 26 PVC genomes and several outgroup species. We inferred HGT, duplications, and losses by reconciliation of 27,123 gene trees with the species phylogeny. We showed that genome expansion and contraction have driven evolution within Planctomycetes and Chlamydiae, respectively, and balanced each other in Verrucomicrobia and Lentisphaerae. We also found that for a large number of genes in PVC genomes the most similar sequences are present in Acidobacteria, suggesting past and/or current ecological interaction between organisms from these groups. We also found evidence of shared ancestry between carbohydrate degradation genes in the mucin-degrading human intestinal commensal Akkermansia muciniphila and sequences from Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes, suggesting that glycoside hydrolases are transferred laterally between gut microbes and that the process of carbohydrate degradation is crucial for microbial survival within the human digestive system. Further, we identified a highly conserved genetic module preferentially present in compartmentalized PVC species and possibly associated with the complex cell plan in these organisms. This conserved machinery is likely to be membrane targeted and involved in electron transport, although its exact function is unknown. These genes represent good candidates for future functional studies.

  14. Genome and metabolic network of “Candidatus Phaeomarinobacter ectocarpi” Ec32, a new candidate genus of Alphaproteobacteria frequently associated with brown algae

    PubMed Central

    Dittami, Simon M.; Barbeyron, Tristan; Boyen, Catherine; Cambefort, Jeanne; Collet, Guillaume; Delage, Ludovic; Gobet, Angélique; Groisillier, Agnès; Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Scornet, Delphine; Siegel, Anne; Tapia, Javier E.; Tonon, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Rhizobiales and related orders of Alphaproteobacteria comprise several genera of nodule-inducing symbiotic bacteria associated with plant roots. Here we describe the genome and the metabolic network of “Candidatus Phaeomarinobacter ectocarpi” Ec32, a member of a new candidate genus closely related to Rhizobiales and found in association with cultures of the filamentous brown algal model Ectocarpus. The “Ca. P. ectocarpi” genome encodes numerous metabolic pathways that may be relevant for this bacterium to interact with algae. Notably, it possesses a large set of glycoside hydrolases and transporters, which may serve to process and assimilate algal metabolites. It also harbors several proteins likely to be involved in the synthesis of algal hormones such as auxins and cytokinins, as well as the vitamins pyridoxine, biotin, and thiamine. As of today, “Ca. P. ectocarpi” has not been successfully cultured, and identical 16S rDNA sequences have been found exclusively associated with Ectocarpus. However, related sequences (≥97% identity) have also been detected free-living and in a Fucus vesiculosus microbiome barcoding project, indicating that the candidate genus “Phaeomarinobacter” may comprise several species, which may colonize different niches. PMID:25120558

  15. The combination of a genome-wide association study of lymphocyte count and analysis of gene expression data reveals novel asthma candidate genes.

    PubMed

    Cusanovich, Darren A; Billstrand, Christine; Zhou, Xiang; Chavarria, Claudia; De Leon, Sherryl; Michelini, Katelyn; Pai, Athma A; Ober, Carole; Gilad, Yoav

    2012-05-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a number of novel genetic associations with complex human diseases. In spite of these successes, results from GWAS generally explain only a small proportion of disease heritability, an observation termed the 'missing heritability problem'. Several sources for the missing heritability have been proposed, including the contribution of many common variants with small individual effect sizes, which cannot be reliably found using the standard GWAS approach. The goal of our study was to explore a complimentary approach, which combines GWAS results with functional data in order to identify novel genetic associations with small effect sizes. To do so, we conducted a GWAS for lymphocyte count, a physiologic quantitative trait associated with asthma, in 462 Hutterites. In parallel, we performed a genome-wide gene expression study in lymphoblastoid cell lines from 96 Hutterites. We found significant support for genetic associations using the GWAS data when we considered variants near the 193 genes whose expression levels across individuals were most correlated with lymphocyte counts. Interestingly, these variants are also enriched with signatures of an association with asthma susceptibility, an observation we were able to replicate. The associated loci include genes previously implicated in asthma susceptibility as well as novel candidate genes enriched for functions related to T cell receptor signaling and adenosine triphosphate synthesis. Our results, therefore, establish a new set of asthma susceptibility candidate genes. More generally, our observations support the notion that many loci of small effects influence variation in lymphocyte count and asthma susceptibility.

  16. The metabolic potential of the single cell genomes obtained from the Challenger Deep, Mariana Trench within the candidate superphylum Parcubacteria (OD1).

    PubMed

    León-Zayas, Rosa; Peoples, Logan; Biddle, Jennifer F; Podell, Sheila; Novotny, Mark; Cameron, James; Lasken, Roger S; Bartlett, Douglas H

    2017-07-01

    Candidate phyla (CP) are broad phylogenetic clusters of organisms that lack cultured representatives. Included in this fraction is the candidate Parcubacteria superphylum. Specific characteristics that have been ascribed to the Parcubacteria include reduced genome size, limited metabolic potential and exclusive reliance on fermentation for energy acquisition. The study of new environmental niches, such as the marine versus terrestrial subsurface, often expands the understanding of the genetic potential of taxonomic groups. For this reason, we analyzed 12 Parcubacteria single amplified genomes (SAGs) from sediment samples collected within the Challenger Deep of the Mariana Trench, obtained during the Deepsea Challenge (DSC) Expedition. Many of these SAGs are closely related to environmental sequences obtained from deep-sea environments based on 16S rRNA gene similarity and BLAST matches to predicted proteins. DSC SAGs encode features not previously identified in Parcubacteria obtained from other habitats. These include adaptation to oxidative stress, polysaccharide modification and genes associated with respiratory nitrate reduction. The DSC SAGs are also distinguished by relative greater abundance of genes for nucleotide and amino acid biosynthesis, repair of alkylated DNA and the synthesis of mechanosensitive ion channels. These results present an expanded view of the Parcubacteria, among members residing in an ultra-deep hadal environment. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Genome analyses of the wheat yellow (stripe) rust pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici reveal polymorphic and haustorial expressed secreted proteins as candidate effectors.

    PubMed

    Cantu, Dario; Segovia, Vanesa; MacLean, Daniel; Bayles, Rosemary; Chen, Xianming; Kamoun, Sophien; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Saunders, Diane G O; Uauy, Cristobal

    2013-04-22

    Wheat yellow (stripe) rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (PST) is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat worldwide. To design effective breeding strategies that maximize the potential for durable disease resistance it is important to understand the molecular basis of PST pathogenicity. In particular, the characterisation of the structure, function and evolutionary dynamics of secreted effector proteins that are detected by host immune receptors can help guide and prioritize breeding efforts. However, to date, our knowledge of the effector repertoire of cereal rust pathogens is limited. We re-sequenced genomes of four PST isolates from the US and UK to identify effector candidates and relate them to their distinct virulence profiles. First, we assessed SNP frequencies between all isolates, with heterokaryotic SNPs being over tenfold more frequent (5.29 ± 2.23 SNPs/kb) than homokaryotic SNPs (0.41 ± 0.28 SNPs/kb). Next, we implemented a bioinformatics pipeline to integrate genomics, transcriptomics, and effector-focused annotations to identify and classify effector candidates in PST. RNAseq analysis highlighted transcripts encoding secreted proteins that were significantly enriched in haustoria compared to infected tissue. The expression of 22 candidate effector genes was characterised using qRT-PCR, revealing distinct temporal expression patterns during infection in wheat. Lastly, we identified proteins that displayed non-synonymous substitutions specifically between the two UK isolates PST-87/7 and PST-08/21, which differ in virulence to two wheat varieties. By focusing on polymorphic variants enriched in haustoria, we identified five polymorphic effector candidates between PST-87/7 and PST-08/21 among 2,999 secreted proteins. These allelic variants are now a priority for functional validation as virulence/avirulence effectors in the corresponding wheat varieties. Integration of genomics, transcriptomics, and effector-directed annotation of

  18. Genome analyses of the wheat yellow (stripe) rust pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici reveal polymorphic and haustorial expressed secreted proteins as candidate effectors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wheat yellow (stripe) rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (PST) is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat worldwide. To design effective breeding strategies that maximize the potential for durable disease resistance it is important to understand the molecular basis of PST pathogenicity. In particular, the characterisation of the structure, function and evolutionary dynamics of secreted effector proteins that are detected by host immune receptors can help guide and prioritize breeding efforts. However, to date, our knowledge of the effector repertoire of cereal rust pathogens is limited. Results We re-sequenced genomes of four PST isolates from the US and UK to identify effector candidates and relate them to their distinct virulence profiles. First, we assessed SNP frequencies between all isolates, with heterokaryotic SNPs being over tenfold more frequent (5.29 ± 2.23 SNPs/kb) than homokaryotic SNPs (0.41 ± 0.28 SNPs/kb). Next, we implemented a bioinformatics pipeline to integrate genomics, transcriptomics, and effector-focused annotations to identify and classify effector candidates in PST. RNAseq analysis highlighted transcripts encoding secreted proteins that were significantly enriched in haustoria compared to infected tissue. The expression of 22 candidate effector genes was characterised using qRT-PCR, revealing distinct temporal expression patterns during infection in wheat. Lastly, we identified proteins that displayed non-synonymous substitutions specifically between the two UK isolates PST-87/7 and PST-08/21, which differ in virulence to two wheat varieties. By focusing on polymorphic variants enriched in haustoria, we identified five polymorphic effector candidates between PST-87/7 and PST-08/21 among 2,999 secreted proteins. These allelic variants are now a priority for functional validation as virulence/avirulence effectors in the corresponding wheat varieties. Conclusions Integration of genomics, transcriptomics, and

  19. An integrated approach of comparative genomics and heritability analysis of pig and human on obesity trait: evidence for candidate genes on human chromosome 2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Taeheon; Kim, Tae-Hun; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Kim, Heebal

    2012-12-19

    Traditional candidate gene approach has been widely used for the study of complex diseases including obesity. However, this approach is largely limited by its dependence on existing knowledge of presumed biology of the phenotype under investigation. Our combined strategy of comparative genomics and chromosomal heritability estimate analysis of obesity traits, subscapular skinfold thickness and back-fat thickness in Korean cohorts and pig (Sus scrofa), may overcome the limitations of candidate gene analysis and allow us to better understand genetic predisposition to human obesity. We found common genes including FTO, the fat mass and obesity associated gene, identified from significant SNPs by association studies of each trait. These common genes were related to blood pressure and arterial stiffness (P = 1.65E-05) and type 2 diabetes (P = 0.00578). Through the estimation of variance of genetic component (heritability) for each chromosome by SNPs, we observed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.479) between genetic contributions of human and pig to obesity traits. Furthermore, we noted that human chromosome 2 (syntenic to pig chromosomes 3 and 15) was most important in explaining the phenotypic variance for obesity. Obesity genetics still awaits further discovery. Navigating syntenic regions suggests obesity candidate genes on chromosome 2 that are previously known to be associated with obesity-related diseases: MRPL33, PARD3B, ERBB4, STK39, and ZNF385B.

  20. Genome-Based Bioinformatic Selection of Chromosomal Bacillus anthracis Putative Vaccine Candidates Coupled with Proteomic Identification of Surface-Associated Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Ariel, N.; Zvi, A.; Makarova, K. S.; Chitlaru, T.; Elhanany, E.; Velan, B.; Cohen, S.; Friedlander, A. M.; Shafferman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis (Ames strain) chromosome-derived open reading frames (ORFs), predicted to code for surface exposed or virulence related proteins, were selected as B. anthracis-specific vaccine candidates by a multistep computational screen of the entire draft chromosome sequence (February 2001 version, 460 contigs, The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Md.). The selection procedure combined preliminary annotation (sequence similarity searches and domain assignments), prediction of cellular localization, taxonomical and functional screen and additional filtering criteria (size, number of paralogs). The reductive strategy, combined with manual curation, resulted in selection of 240 candidate ORFs encoding proteins with putative known function, as well as 280 proteins of unknown function. Proteomic analysis of two-dimensional gels of a B. anthracis membrane fraction, verified the expression of some gene products. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses allowed identification of 38 spots cross-reacting with sera from B. anthracis immunized animals. These spots were found to represent eight in vivo immunogens, comprising of EA1, Sap, and 6 proteins whose expression and immunogenicity was not reported before. Five of these 8 immunogens were preselected by the bioinformatic analysis (EA1, Sap, 2 novel SLH proteins and peroxiredoxin/AhpC), as vaccine candidates. This study demonstrates that a combination of the bioinformatic and proteomic strategies may be useful in promoting the development of next generation anthrax vaccine. PMID:12874336

  1. Genome-wide association study and gene set analysis for understanding candidate genes involved in salt tolerance at the rice seedling stage.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jie; Zao, Weiguo; He, Qiang; Kim, Tae-Sung; Park, Yong-Jin

    2017-08-18

    Salt is the major factor limiting crop productivity in saline soils and is controlled by various genes. The development of salt-tolerant rice through molecular breeding methods is important to meet the needs of rice breeding. We used 295 accessions to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of salt tolerance-related phenotypes in rice at the seedling stage and obtained 93 candidate genes with high association peaks across six phenotypes. We constructed a protein interaction network using the candidate genes identified here, and 33 genes were associated. Based on the expression patterns, we found that most of these genes showed a different expression level under control and salt stress conditions. In addition, haplotype network and sequence analysis of one 'key' gene, a transcription factor (Os12g0176700) encoding a SWIRM domain-containing protein, in the interaction network was investigated to explore its possible role in the network. Our study revealed candidate salt tolerance-related genes in rice at the seedling stage, and demonstrated the feasibility of using GWAS to identify genetic architecture underlying salt tolerance. The data generated here may provide resources for molecular breeding and functional analysis of salt tolerance in rice seedlings.

  2. A combination of genome-wide association and transcriptome analysis reveals candidate genes controlling harvest index-related traits in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kun; Xiao, Zhongchun; Jian, Hongju; Peng, Liu; Qu, Cunmin; Fu, Minglian; He, Bin; Tie, Linmei; Liang, Ying; Xu, Xingfu; Li, Jiana

    2016-01-01

    Harvest index (HI), the ratio of seed mass to total biomass of the aboveground plant parts, is an important trait for harvestable yield of crops. Unfortunately, HI of Brassica napus is lower than that of other economically important crops. To identify candidate genes associated with high HI, a genome-wide association study of HI and four HI-related traits was conducted with 520 B. napus accessions cultivated in both Yunnan and Chongqing. We detected 294 single nucleotide polymorphisms significantly associated with the abovementioned traits, including 79 SNPs that affected two or more traits. Differentially expressed genes between extremely high- and low-HI accessions were identified in 8 tissues at two cultivated regions. Combination of linkage disequilibrium and transcriptome analyses revealed 33 functional candidate genes located within the confidence intervals of significant SNPs associated with more than one trait, such as SHOOT GRAVITROPISM 5 (Bna.SGR5), ATP-CITRATE LYASE A-3 (Bna.ACLA-3) and CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE 1 (Bna.CCD1), their orthologs in the Arabidopsis thaliana have been shown to play key roles in photosynthesis, inflorescence, and silique development. Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying establishment of high-HI B. napus and lay a foundation for characterization of candidate genes aimed at developing high-HI B. napus varieties. PMID:27811979

  3. Genome-wide SNPs resolve a key conflict between sequence and allozyme data to confirm another threatened candidate species of river blackfishes (Teleostei: Percichthyidae: Gadopsis).

    PubMed

    Unmack, Peter J; Sandoval-Castillo, Jonathan; Hammer, Michael P; Adams, Mark; Raadik, Tarmo A; Beheregaray, Luciano B

    2017-04-01

    Conflicting results from different molecular datasets have long confounded our ability to characterise species boundaries. Here we use genome-wide SNP data and an expanded allozyme dataset to resolve conflicting systematic hypotheses on an enigmatic group of fishes (Gadopsis, river blackfishes, Percichthyidae) restricted to southeastern Australia. Previous work based on three sets of molecular markers: mtDNA, nuclear intron DNA and 51 allozyme loci was unable to clearly resolve the status of a putative fifth candidate species (SWV) within Gadopsis marmoratus. Resolving the taxonomic status of candidate species SWV is particularly critical as based on IUCN criteria this taxon would be considered Critically Endangered. After all filtering steps we retained a subset of 10,862 putatively unlinked SNP loci for population genetic and phylogenomic analyses. Analyses of SNP loci based on maximum likelihood, fastSTRUCTURE and DAPC were all consistent with the previous and updated allozyme results supporting the validity of the candidate Gadopsis species SWV. Immediate conservation actions should focus on preventing take by anglers, protection of water resources to sustain perennial reaches and drought refuge pools, and aquatic and riparian habitat protection and improvement. In addition, a formal morphological taxonomic review of the genus Gadopsis is urgently required.

  4. Comparative mapping combined with homology-based cloning of the rice genome reveals candidate genes for grain zinc and iron concentration in maize.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tiantian; Chen, Jingtang; Zhu, Liying; Zhao, Yongfeng; Guo, Jinjie; Huang, Yaqun

    2015-02-14

    Grain zinc and iron concentration is a complex trait that is controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL) and is important for maintaining body health. Despite the substantial effort that has been put into identifying QTL for grain zinc and iron concentration, the integration of independent QTL is useful for understanding the genetic foundation of traits. The number of QTL for grain zinc and iron concentration is relatively low in a single species. Therefore, combined analysis of different genomes may help overcome this challenge. As a continuation of our work on maize, meta-analysis of QTL for grain zinc and iron concentration in rice was performed to identify meta-QTL (MQTL). Based on MQTL in rice and maize, comparative mapping combined with homology-based cloning was performed to identify candidate genes for grain zinc and iron concentration in maize. In total, 22 MQTL in rice, 4 syntenic MQTL-related regions, and 3 MQTL-containing candidate genes in maize (ortho-mMQTL) were detected. Two maize orthologs of rice, GRMZM2G366919 and GRMZM2G178190, were characterized as natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP) genes and considered to be candidate genes. Phylogenetic analysis of NRAMP genes among maize, rice, and Arabidopsis thaliana further demonstrated that they are likely responsible for the natural variation of maize grain zinc and iron concentration. Syntenic MQTL-related regions and ortho-mMQTL are prime areas for future investigation as well as for marker-assisted selection breeding programs. Furthermore, the combined method using the rice genome that was used in this study can shed light on other species and help direct future quantitative trait research. In conclusion, these results help elucidate the molecular mechanism that underlies grain zinc and iron concentration in maize.

  5. Genome-Wide Analysis of Small Secreted Cysteine-Rich Proteins Identifies Candidate Effector Proteins Potentially Involved in Fusarium graminearum-Wheat Interactions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shunwen; Edwards, Michael C

    2016-02-01

    Pathogen-derived, small secreted cysteine-rich proteins (SSCPs) are known to be a common source of fungal effectors that trigger resistance or susceptibility in specific host plants. This group of proteins has not been well studied in Fusarium graminearum, the primary cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease of wheat. We report here a comprehensive analysis of SSCPs encoded in the genome of this fungus and selection of candidate effector proteins through proteomics and sequence/transcriptional analyses. A total of 190 SSCPs were identified in the genome of F. graminearum (isolate PH-1) based on the presence of N-terminal signal peptide sequences, size (≤200 amino acids), and cysteine content (≥2%) of the mature proteins. Twenty-five (approximately 13%) SSCPs were confirmed to be true extracellular proteins by nanoscale liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS) analysis of a minimal medium-based in vitro secretome. Sequence analysis suggested that 17 SSCPs harbor conserved functional domains, including two homologous to Ecp2, a known effector produced by the tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum. Transcriptional analysis revealed that at least 34 SSCPs (including 23 detected in the in vitro secretome) are expressed in infected wheat heads; about half are up-regulated with expression patterns correlating with the development of FHB. This work provides a solid candidate list for SSCP-derived effectors that may play roles in mediating F. graminearum-wheat interactions. The in vitro secretome-based method presented here also may be applicable for identifying candidate effectors in other ascomycete pathogens of crop plants.

  6. The genome sequence of the most widely cultivated cacao type and its use to identify candidate genes regulating pod color

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Theobroma cacao L. cultivar Matina 1-6 belongs to the most cultivated cacao type. The availability of its genome sequence and methods for identifying genes responsible for important cacao traits will aid cacao researchers and breeders. Results: We describe the sequencing and assembly of...

  7. Chromosomal Mapping and Candidate Gene Discovery of Chicken Developmental Mutants and Genome-wide Variation Analysis of MHC-congenics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The chicken has been widely used in experimental research given its importance to agriculture and its utility as a model for vertebrate biology and biomedical pursuits for over 100 years. Herein we used recently developed advanced technologies to investigate the genomic characteristics of specialize...

  8. Genome-wide analysis and functional characterization of candidate effector proteins potentially involved in Fusarium graminearum-wheat interactions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fungal pathogens often produce certain small secreted cysteine-rich proteins (SSCPs) during pathogenesis that may function in triggering resistance or susceptibility in specific host plants. We have identified a total of 190 SSCPs encoded in the genome of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum a...

  9. Commonality of functional annotation: a method for prioritization of candidate genes from genome-wide linkage studies†

    PubMed Central

    Shriner, Daniel; Baye, Tesfaye M.; Padilla, Miguel A.; Zhang, Shiju; Vaughan, Laura K.; Loraine, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    Linkage studies of complex traits frequently yield multiple linkage regions covering hundreds of genes. Testing each candidate gene from every region is prohibitively expensive and computational methods that simplify this process would benefit genetic research. We present a new method based on commonality of functional annotation (CFA) that aids dissection of complex traits for which multiple causal genes act in a single pathway or process. CFA works by testing individual Gene Ontology (GO) terms for enrichment among candidate gene pools, performs multiple hypothesis testing adjustment using an estimate of independent tests based on correlation of GO terms, and then scores and ranks genes annotated with significantly-enriched terms based on the number of quantitative trait loci regions in which genes bearing those annotations appear. We evaluate CFA using simulated linkage data and show that CFA has good power despite being conservative. We apply CFA to published linkage studies investigating age-of-onset of Alzheimer's disease and body mass index and obtain previously known and new candidate genes. CFA provides a new tool for studies in which causal genes are expected to participate in a common pathway or process and can easily be extended to utilize annotation schemes in addition to the GO. PMID:18263617

  10. Comparative Genomics Integrated with Association Analysis Identifies Candidate Effector Genes Corresponding to Lr20 in Phenotype-Paired Puccinia triticina Isolates from Australia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing Qin; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Dong, Chongmei; Zhang, Peng; Cuomo, Christina A; Park, Robert F

    2017-01-01

    Leaf rust is one of the most common and damaging diseases of wheat, and is caused by an obligate biotrophic basidiomycete, Puccinia triticina (Pt). In the present study, 20 Pt isolates from Australia, comprising 10 phenotype-matched pairs with contrasting pathogenicity for Lr20, were analyzed using whole genome sequencing. Compared to the reference genome of the American Pt isolate 1-1 BBBD Race 1, an average of 404,690 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) per isolate was found and the proportion of heterozygous SNPs was above 87% in the majority of the isolates, demonstrating a high level of polymorphism and a high rate of heterozygosity. From the genome-wide SNPs, a phylogenetic tree was inferred, which consisted of a large clade of 15 isolates representing diverse presumed clonal lineages including 14 closely related isolates and the more diverged isolate 670028, and a small clade of five isolates characterized by lower heterozygosity level. Principle component analysis detected three distinct clusters, corresponding exactly to the two major subsets of the small clade and the large clade comprising all 15 isolates without further separation of isolate 670028. While genome-wide association analysis identified 302 genes harboring at least one SNP associated with Lr20 virulence (p < 0.05), a Wilcoxon rank sum test revealed that 36 and 68 genes had significant (p < 0.05) and marginally significant (p < 0.1) differences in the counts of non-synonymous mutations between Lr20 avirulent and virulent groups, respectively. Twenty of these genes were predicted to have a signal peptide without a transmembrane segment, and hence identified as candidate effector genes corresponding to Lr20. SNP analysis also implicated the potential involvement of epigenetics and small RNA in Pt pathogenicity. Future studies are thus warranted to investigate the biological functions of the candidate effectors as well as the gene regulation mechanisms at epigenetic and post

  11. Comparative Genomics Integrated with Association Analysis Identifies Candidate Effector Genes Corresponding to Lr20 in Phenotype-Paired Puccinia triticina Isolates from Australia

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing Qin; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Dong, Chongmei; Zhang, Peng; Cuomo, Christina A.; Park, Robert F.

    2017-01-01

    Leaf rust is one of the most common and damaging diseases of wheat, and is caused by an obligate biotrophic basidiomycete, Puccinia triticina (Pt). In the present study, 20 Pt isolates from Australia, comprising 10 phenotype-matched pairs with contrasting pathogenicity for Lr20, were analyzed using whole genome sequencing. Compared to the reference genome of the American Pt isolate 1-1 BBBD Race 1, an average of 404,690 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) per isolate was found and the proportion of heterozygous SNPs was above 87% in the majority of the isolates, demonstrating a high level of polymorphism and a high rate of heterozygosity. From the genome-wide SNPs, a phylogenetic tree was inferred, which consisted of a large clade of 15 isolates representing diverse presumed clonal lineages including 14 closely related isolates and the more diverged isolate 670028, and a small clade of five isolates characterized by lower heterozygosity level. Principle component analysis detected three distinct clusters, corresponding exactly to the two major subsets of the small clade and the large clade comprising all 15 isolates without further separation of isolate 670028. While genome-wide association analysis identified 302 genes harboring at least one SNP associated with Lr20 virulence (p < 0.05), a Wilcoxon rank sum test revealed that 36 and 68 genes had significant (p < 0.05) and marginally significant (p < 0.1) differences in the counts of non-synonymous mutations between Lr20 avirulent and virulent groups, respectively. Twenty of these genes were predicted to have a signal peptide without a transmembrane segment, and hence identified as candidate effector genes corresponding to Lr20. SNP analysis also implicated the potential involvement of epigenetics and small RNA in Pt pathogenicity. Future studies are thus warranted to investigate the biological functions of the candidate effectors as well as the gene regulation mechanisms at epigenetic and post

  12. Genome-wide association studies and epistasis analyses of candidate genes related to age at menarche and age at natural menopause in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Pyun, Jung-A; Kim, Sunshin; Cho, Nam H; Koh, InSong; Lee, Jong-Young; Shin, Chol; Kwack, KyuBum

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms and gene-gene interactions that are significantly associated with age at menarche and age at menopause in a Korean population. A total of 3,452 and 1,827 women participated in studies of age at menarche and age at natural menopause, respectively. Linear regression analyses adjusted for residence area were used to perform genome-wide association studies (GWAS), candidate gene association studies, and interactions between the candidate genes for age at menarche and age at natural menopause. In GWAS, four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs7528241, rs1324329, rs11597068, and rs6495785) were strongly associated with age at natural menopause (lowest P = 9.66 × 10). However, GWAS of age at menarche did not reveal any strong associations. In candidate gene association studies, SNPs with P < 0.01 were selected to test their synergistic interactions. For age at natural menopause, there was a significant interaction between intronic SNPs on ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type I motif 9 (ADAMTS9) and SMAD family member 3 (SMAD3) genes (P = 9.52 × 10). For age at menarche, there were three significant interactions between three intronic SNPs on follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene and one SNP located at the 3' flanking region of insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) gene (lowest P = 1.95 × 10). Novel SNPs and synergistic interactions between candidate genes are significantly associated with age at menarche and age at natural menopause in a Korean population.

  13. Computational discovery of pathway-level genetic vulnerabilities in non-small-cell lung cancer | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Novel approaches are needed for discovery of targeted therapies for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that are specific to certain patients. Whole genome RNAi screening of lung cancer cell lines provides an ideal source for determining candidate drug targets. Unsupervised learning algorithms uncovered patterns of differential vulnerability across lung cancer cell lines to loss of functionally related genes. Such genetic vulnerabilities represent candidate targets for therapy and are found to be involved in splicing, translation and protein folding.

  14. A spatial analysis method (SAM) to detect candidate loci for selection: towards a landscape genomics approach to adaptation.

    PubMed

    Joost, S; Bonin, A; Bruford, M W; Després, L; Conord, C; Erhardt, G; Taberlet, P

    2007-09-01

    The detection of adaptive loci in the genome is essential as it gives the possibility of understanding what proportion of a genome or which genes are being shaped by natural selection. Several statistical methods have been developed which make use of molecular data to reveal genomic regions under selection. In this paper, we propose an approach to address this issue from the environmental angle, in order to complement results obtained by population genetics. We introduce a new method to detect signatures of natural selection based on the application of spatial analysis, with the contribution of geographical information systems (GIS), environmental variables and molecular data. Multiple univariate logistic regressions were carried out to test for association between allelic frequencies at marker loci and environmental variables. This spatial analysis method (SAM) is similar to current population genomics approaches since it is designed to scan hundreds of markers to assess a putative association with hundreds of environmental variables. Here, by application to studies of pine weevils and breeds of sheep we demonstrate a strong correspondence between SAM results and those obtained using population genetics approaches. Statistical signals were found that associate loci with environmental parameters, and these loci behave atypically in comparison with the theoretical distribution for neutral loci. The contribution of this new tool is not only to permit the identification of loci under selection but also to establish hypotheses about ecological factors that could exert the selection pressure responsible. In the future, such an approach may accelerate the process of hunting for functional genes at the population level.

  15. Identifying candidate genes for 2p15p16.1 microdeletion syndrome using clinical, genomic, and functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Hani; Badduke, Chansonette; Qiao, Ying; Colnaghi, Rita; Abramowicz, Iga; Alcantara, Diana; Dunham, Christopher; Wen, Jiadi; Wildin, Robert S; Nowaczyk, Malgorzata J M; Eichmeyer, Jennifer; Lehman, Anna; Maranda, Bruno; Martell, Sally; Shan, Xianghong; Lewis, Suzanne M E; O'Driscoll, Mark; Gregory-Evans, Cheryl Y; Rajcan-Separovic, Evica

    2016-03-17

    The 2p15p16.1 microdeletion syndrome has a core phenotype consisting of intellectual disability, microcephaly, hypotonia, delayed growth, common craniofacial features, and digital anomalies. So far, more than 20 cases of 2p15p16.1 microdeletion syndrome have been reported in the literature; however, the size of the deletions and their breakpoints vary, making it difficult to identify the candidate genes. Recent reports pointed to 4 genes (XPO1, USP34, BCL11A, and REL) that were included, alone or in combination, in the smallest deletions causing the syndrome. Here, we describe 8 new patients with the 2p15p16.1 deletion and review all published cases to date. We demonstrate functional deficits for the above 4 candidate genes using patients' lymphoblast cell lines (LCLs) and knockdown of their orthologs in zebrafish. All genes were dosage sensitive on the basis of reduced protein expression in LCLs. In addition, deletion of XPO1, a nuclear exporter, cosegregated with nuclear accumulation of one of its cargo molecules (rpS5) in patients' LCLs. Other pathways associated with these genes (e.g., NF-κB and Wnt signaling as well as the DNA damage response) were not impaired in patients' LCLs. Knockdown of xpo1a, rel, bcl11aa, and bcl11ab resulted in abnormal zebrafish embryonic development including microcephaly, dysmorphic body, hindered growth, and small fins as well as structural brain abnormalities. Our multifaceted analysis strongly implicates XPO1, REL, and BCL11A as candidate genes for 2p15p16.1 microdeletion syndrome.

  16. Uncovering Earth's virome.

    PubMed

    Paez-Espino, David; Eloe-Fadrosh, Emiley A; Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; Thomas, Alex D; Huntemann, Marcel; Mikhailova, Natalia; Rubin, Edward; Ivanova, Natalia N; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2016-08-25

    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on Earth, but challenges in detecting, isolating, and classifying unknown viruses have prevented exhaustive surveys of the global virome. Here we analysed over 5 Tb of metagenomic sequence data from 3,042 geographically diverse samples to assess the global distribution, phylogenetic diversity, and host specificity of viruses. We discovered over 125,000 partial DNA viral genomes, including the largest phage yet identified, and increased the number of known viral genes by 16-fold. Half of the predicted partial viral genomes were clustered into genetically distinct groups, most of which included genes unrelated to those in known viruses. Using CRISPR spacers and transfer RNA matches to link viral groups to microbial host(s), we doubled the number of microbial phyla known to be infected by viruses, and identified viruses that can infect organisms from different phyla. Analysis of viral distribution across diverse ecosystems revealed strong habitat-type specificity for the vast majority of viruses, but also identified some cosmopolitan groups. Our results highlight an extensive global viral diversity and provide detailed insight into viral habitat distribution and host–virus interactions.

  17. Genome-wide transcriptome study in wheat identified candidate genes related to processing quality, majority of them showing interaction (quality x development) and having temporal and spatial distributions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anuradha; Mantri, Shrikant; Sharma, Monica; Chaudhury, Ashok; Tuli, Rakesh; Roy, Joy

    2014-01-16

    The cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses unique flour quality, which can be processed into many end-use food products such as bread, pasta, chapatti (unleavened flat bread), biscuit, etc. The present wheat varieties require improvement in processing quality to meet the increasing demand of better quality food products. However, processing quality is very complex and controlled by many genes, which have not been completely explored. To identify the candidate genes whose expressions changed due to variation in processing quality and interaction (quality x development), genome-wide transcriptome studies were performed in two sets of diverse Indian wheat varieties differing for chapatti quality. It is also important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions for designing tissue and growth specific functional genomics experiments. Gene-specific two-way ANOVA analysis of expression of about 55 K transcripts in two diverse sets of Indian wheat varieties for chapatti quality at three seed developmental stages identified 236 differentially expressed probe sets (10-fold). Out of 236, 110 probe sets were identified for chapatti quality. Many processing quality related key genes such as glutenin and gliadins, puroindolines, grain softness protein, alpha and beta amylases, proteases, were identified, and many other candidate genes related to cellular and molecular functions were also identified. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the expression of 56 of 110 probe sets was involved in interaction (quality x development). Majority of the probe sets showed differential expression at early stage of seed development i.e. temporal expression. Meta-analysis revealed that the majority of the genes expressed in one or a few growth stages indicating spatial distribution of their expressions. The differential expressions of a few candidate genes such as pre-alpha/beta-gliadin and gamma gliadin were validated by RT-PCR. Therefore, this study

  18. Genome-wide transcriptome study in wheat identified candidate genes related to processing quality, majority of them showing interaction (quality x development) and having temporal and spatial distributions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses unique flour quality, which can be processed into many end-use food products such as bread, pasta, chapatti (unleavened flat bread), biscuit, etc. The present wheat varieties require improvement in processing quality to meet the increasing demand of better quality food products. However, processing quality is very complex and controlled by many genes, which have not been completely explored. To identify the candidate genes whose expressions changed due to variation in processing quality and interaction (quality x development), genome-wide transcriptome studies were performed in two sets of diverse Indian wheat varieties differing for chapatti quality. It is also important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions for designing tissue and growth specific functional genomics experiments. Results Gene-specific two-way ANOVA analysis of expression of about 55 K transcripts in two diverse sets of Indian wheat varieties for chapatti quality at three seed developmental stages identified 236 differentially expressed probe sets (10-fold). Out of 236, 110 probe sets were identified for chapatti quality. Many processing quality related key genes such as glutenin and gliadins, puroindolines, grain softness protein, alpha and beta amylases, proteases, were identified, and many other candidate genes related to cellular and molecular functions were also identified. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the expression of 56 of 110 probe sets was involved in interaction (quality x development). Majority of the probe sets showed differential expression at early stage of seed development i.e. temporal expression. Meta-analysis revealed that the majority of the genes expressed in one or a few growth stages indicating spatial distribution of their expressions. The differential expressions of a few candidate genes such as pre-alpha/beta-gliadin and gamma gliadin were validated by RT

  19. Genome-wide QTL and bulked transcriptomic analysis reveals new candidate genes for the control of tuber carotenoid content in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Campbell, Raymond; Pont, Simon D A; Morris, Jenny A; McKenzie, Gaynor; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Hedley, Pete E; Ramsay, Gavin; Bryan, Glenn J; Taylor, Mark A

    2014-09-01

    Genome-wide QTL analysis of potato tuber carotenoid content was investigated in populations of Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja that segregate for flesh colour, revealing a novel major QTL on chromosome 9. The carotenoid content of edible plant storage organs is a key nutritional and quality trait. Although the structural genes that encode the biosynthetic enzymes are well characterised, much less is known about the factors that determine overall storage organ content. In this study, genome-wide QTL mapping, in concert with an efficient 'genetical genomics' analysis using bulked samples, has been employed to investigate the genetic architecture of potato tuber carotenoid content. Two diploid populations of Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja were genotyped (AFLP, SSR and DArT markers) and analysed for their tuber carotenoid content over two growing seasons. Common to both populations were QTL that explained relatively small proportions of the variation in constituent carotenoids and a major QTL on chromosome 3 explaining up to 71 % of the variation in carotenoid content. In one of the populations (01H15), a second major carotenoid QTL was identified on chromosome 9, explaining up to 20 % of the phenotypic variation. Whereas the major chromosome 3 QTL was likely to be due to an allele of a gene encoding β-carotene hydroxylase, no known carotenoid biosynthetic genes are located in the vicinity of the chromosome 9 QTL. A unique expression profiling strategy using phenotypically distinct bulks comprised individuals with similar carotenoid content provided further support for the QTL mapping to chromosome 9. This study shows the potential of using the potato genome sequence to link genetic maps to data arising from eQTL approaches to enhance the discovery of candidate genes underlying QTLs.

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Candidate Genes That Affect Plant Height in Chinese Elite Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbred Lines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianjun; Liu, Changlin; Li, Mingshun; Zhang, Degui; Bai, Li; Zhang, Shihuang; Li, Xinhai

    2011-01-01

    Background The harvest index for many crops can be improved through introduction of dwarf stature to increase lodging resistance, combined with early maturity. The inbred line Shen5003 has been widely used in maize breeding in China as a key donor line for the dwarf trait. Also, one major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling plant height has been identified in bin 5.05–5.06, across several maize bi-parental populations. With the progress of publicly available maize genome sequence, the objective of this work was to identify the candidate genes that affect plant height among Chinese maize inbred lines with genome wide association studies (GWAS). Methods and Findings A total of 284 maize inbred lines were genotyped using over 55,000 evenly spaced SNPs, from which a set of 41,101 SNPs were filtered with stringent quality control for further data analysis. With the population structure controlled in a mixed linear model (MLM) implemented with the software TASSEL, we carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for plant height. A total of 204 SNPs (P≤0.0001) and 105 genomic loci harboring coding regions were identified. Four loci containing genes associated with gibberellin (GA), auxin, and epigenetic pathways may be involved in natural variation that led to a dwarf phenotype in elite maize inbred lines. Among them, a favorable allele for dwarfing on chromosome 5 (SNP PZE-105115518) was also identified in six Shen5003 derivatives. Conclusions The fact that a large number of previously identified dwarf genes are missing from our study highlights the discovery of the consistently significant association of the gene harboring the SNP PZE-105115518 with plant height (P = 8.91e-10) and its confirmation in the Shen5003 introgression lines. Results from this study suggest that, in the maize breeding schema in China, specific alleles were selected, that have played important roles in maize production. PMID:22216221

  1. Candidate genes, pathways and mechanisms for bipolar (manic-depressive) and related disorders: an expanded convergent functional genomics approach.

    PubMed

    Ogden, C A; Rich, M E; Schork, N J; Paulus, M P; Geyer, M A; Lohr, J B; Kuczenski, R; Niculescu, A B

    2004-11-01

    Identifying genes for bipolar mood disorders through classic genetics has proven difficult. Here, we present a comprehensive convergent approach that translationally integrates brain gene expression data from a relevant pharmacogenomic mouse model (involving treatments with a stimulant--methamphetamine, and a mood stabilizer--valproate), with human data (linkage loci from human genetic studies, changes in postmortem brains from patients), as a bayesian strategy of crossvalidating findings. Topping the list of candidate genes, we have DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa) located at 17q12, PENK (preproenkephalin) located at 8q12.1, and TAC1 (tachykinin 1, substance P) located at 7q21.3. These data suggest that more primitive molecular mechanisms involved in pleasure and pain may have been recruited by evolution to play a role in higher mental functions such as mood. The analysis also revealed other high-probability candidates genes (neurogenesis, neurotrophic, neurotransmitter, signal transduction, circadian, synaptic, and myelin related), pathways and mechanisms of likely importance in pathophysiology.

  2. Combined meta-genomics analyses unravel candidate genes for the grain dietary fiber content in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Quraishi, Umar Masood; Murat, Florent; Abrouk, Mickael; Pont, Caroline; Confolent, Carole; Oury, François Xavier; Ward, Jane; Boros, Danuta; Gebruers, Kurt; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M; Bedo, Zoltan; Saulnier, Luc; Guillon, Fabienne; Balzergue, Sandrine; Shewry, Peter R; Feuillet, Catherine; Charmet, Gilles; Salse, Jerome

    2011-03-01

    Grain dietary fiber content in wheat not only affects its end use and technological properties including milling, baking and animal feed but is also of great importance for health benefits. In this study, integration of association genetics (seven detected loci on chromosomes 1B, 3A, 3D, 5B, 6B, 7A, 7B) and meta-QTL (three consensus QTL on chromosomes 1B, 3D and 6B) analyses allowed the identification of seven chromosomal regions underlying grain dietary fiber content in bread wheat. Based either on a diversity panel or on bi-parental populations, we clearly demonstrate that this trait is mainly driven by a major locus located on chromosome 1B associated with a log of p value >13 and a LOD score >8, respectively. In parallel, we identified 73 genes differentially expressed during the grain development and between genotypes with contrasting grain fiber contents. Integration of quantitative genetics and transcriptomic data allowed us to propose a short list of candidate genes that are conserved in the rice, sorghum and Brachypodium chromosome regions orthologous to the seven wheat grain fiber content QTL and that can be considered as major candidate genes for future improvement of the grain dietary fiber content in bread wheat breeding programs.

  3. Segment-Wise Genome-Wide Association Analysis Identifies a Candidate Region Associated with Schizophrenia in Three Independent Samples

    PubMed Central

    Rietschel, Marcella; Mattheisen, Manuel; Breuer, René; Schulze, Thomas G.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Levinson, Douglas; Shi, Jianxin; Gejman, Pablo V.; Cichon, Sven; Ophoff, Roel A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that variation in complex disorders (e.g., schizophrenia) is explained by a large number of genetic variants with small effect size (Odds Ratio∼1.05–1.1). The statistical power to detect these genetic variants in Genome Wide Association (GWA) studies with large numbers of cases and controls (∼15,000) is still low. As it will be difficult to further increase sample size, we decided to explore an alternative method for analyzing GWA data in a study of schizophrenia, dramatically reducing the number of statistical tests. The underlying hypothesis was that at least some of the genetic variants related to a common outcome are collocated in segments of chromosomes at a wider scale than single genes. Our approach was therefore to study the association between relatively large segments of DNA and disease status. An association test was performed for each SNP and the number of nominally significant tests in a segment was counted. We then performed a permutation-based binomial test to determine whether this region contained significantly more nominally significant SNPs than expected under the null hypothesis of no association, taking linkage into account. Genome Wide Association data of three independent schizophrenia case/control cohorts with European ancestry (Dutch, German, and US) using segments of DNA with variable length (2 to 32 Mbp) was analyzed. Using this approach we identified a region at chromosome 5q23.3-q31.3 (128–160 Mbp) that was significantly enriched with nominally associated SNPs in three independent case-control samples. We conclude that considering relatively wide segments of chromosomes may reveal reliable relationships between the genome and schizophrenia, suggesting novel methodological possibilities as well as raising theoretical questions. PMID:22723893

  4. Uncovering the Human Methyltransferasome*

    PubMed Central

    Petrossian, Tanya C.; Clarke, Steven G.

    2011-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the human methyltransferasome. Primary sequences, predicted secondary structures, and solved crystal structures of known methyltransferases were analyzed by hidden Markov models, Fisher-based statistical matrices, and fold recognition prediction-based threading algorithms to create a model, or profile, of each methyltransferase superfamily. These profiles were used to scan the human proteome database and detect novel methyltransferases. 208 proteins in the human genome are now identified as known or putative methyltransferases, including 38 proteins that were not annotated previously. To date, 30% of these proteins have been linked to disease states. Possible substrates of methylation for all of the SET domain and SPOUT methyltransferases as well as 100 of the 131 seven-β-strand methyltransferases were surmised from sequence similarity clusters based on alignments of the substrate-specific domains. PMID:20930037

  5. Utilizing the Dog Genome in the Search for Novel Candidate Genes Involved in Glioma Development—Genome Wide Association Mapping followed by Targeted Massive Parallel Sequencing Identifies a Strongly Associated Locus

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Peter; Xiong, Anqi; York, Daniel; Jayashankar, Kartika; Pielberg, Gerli; Koltookian, Michele; Murén, Eva; Fuxelius, Hans-Henrik; Weishaupt, Holger; Andersson, Göran; Hedhammar, Åke; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Forsberg-Nilsson, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common form of malignant primary brain tumors in humans and second most common in dogs, occurring with similar frequencies in both species. Dogs are valuable spontaneous models of human complex diseases including cancers and may provide insight into disease susceptibility and oncogenesis. Several brachycephalic breeds such as Boxer, Bulldog and Boston Terrier have an elevated risk of developing glioma, but others, including Pug and Pekingese, are not at higher risk. To identify glioma-associated genetic susceptibility factors, an across-breed genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on 39 dog glioma cases and 141 controls from 25 dog breeds, identifying a genome-wide significant locus on canine chromosome (CFA) 26 (p = 2.8 x 10−8). Targeted re-sequencing of the 3.4 Mb candidate region was performed, followed by genotyping of the 56 SNVs that best fit the association pattern between the re-sequenced cases and controls. We identified three candidate genes that were highly associated with glioma susceptibility: CAMKK2, P2RX7 and DENR. CAMKK2 showed reduced expression in both canine and human brain tumors, and a non-synonymous variant in P2RX7, previously demonstrated to have a 50% decrease in receptor function, was also associated with disease. Thus, one or more of these genes appear to affect glioma susceptibility. PMID:27171399

  6. Utilizing the Dog Genome in the Search for Novel Candidate Genes Involved in Glioma Development-Genome Wide Association Mapping followed by Targeted Massive Parallel Sequencing Identifies a Strongly Associated Locus.

    PubMed

    Truvé, Katarina; Dickinson, Peter; Xiong, Anqi; York, Daniel; Jayashankar, Kartika; Pielberg, Gerli; Koltookian, Michele; Murén, Eva; Fuxelius, Hans-Henrik; Weishaupt, Holger; Swartling, Fredrik J; Andersson, Göran; Hedhammar, Åke; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Forsberg-Nilsson, Karin; Bannasch, Danika; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2016-05-01

    Gliomas are the most common form of malignant primary brain tumors in humans and second most common in dogs, occurring with similar frequencies in both species. Dogs are valuable spontaneous models of human complex diseases including cancers and may provide insight into disease susceptibility and oncogenesis. Several brachycephalic breeds such as Boxer, Bulldog and Boston Terrier have an elevated risk of developing glioma, but others, including Pug and Pekingese, are not at higher risk. To identify glioma-associated genetic susceptibility factors, an across-breed genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on 39 dog glioma cases and 141 controls from 25 dog breeds, identifying a genome-wide significant locus on canine chromosome (CFA) 26 (p = 2.8 x 10-8). Targeted re-sequencing of the 3.4 Mb candidate region was performed, followed by genotyping of the 56 SNVs that best fit the association pattern between the re-sequenced cases and controls. We identified three candidate genes that were highly associated with glioma susceptibility: CAMKK2, P2RX7 and DENR. CAMKK2 showed reduced expression in both canine and human brain tumors, and a non-synonymous variant in P2RX7, previously demonstrated to have a 50% decrease in receptor function, was also associated with disease. Thus, one or more of these genes appear to affect glioma susceptibility.

  7. The nucleotide sequence and genomic organization of Citrus leaf blotch virus: candidate type species for a new virus genus.

    PubMed

    Vives, M C; Galipienso, L; Navarro, L; Moreno, P; Guerri, J

    2001-08-15

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV) was determined. CLBV genomic RNA (gRNA) has 8747 nt, excluding the 3'-terminal poly(A) tail, and contains three open reading frames (ORFs) and untranslated regions (UTR) of 73 and 541 nucleotides at the 5' and 3' termini, respectively. ORF1 potentially encodes a 227.4-kDa polypeptide, which has methyltransferase, papain-like protease, helicase, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase motifs. ORF2 encodes a 40.2-kDa polypeptide containing a motif characteristic of cell-to-cell movement proteins. The 40.7-kDa polypeptide encoded by ORF3 was identified as the coat protein. The genome organization of CLBV resembles that of viruses in the genus Trichovirus, but they differ in various aspects: (i) in trichoviruses ORF2 overlaps ORFs 1 and 3, whereas in CLBV, ORFs 2 and 3 are separated and ORFs 1 and 2 overlap in one nucleotide; (ii) CLBV gRNA and CP are larger than those of trichoviruses; and (iii) the CLBV 3' UTR is larger than that of trichoviruses. Phylogenetic comparisons based on CP amino acid signatures clearly separates CLBV from trichoviruses. Also contrasting with trichoviruses, CLBV could not be transmitted to Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Considering these singularities, we propose that CLBV should be included in a new virus genus. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  8. Integration of transcriptomic and genomic data suggests candidate mechanisms for APOE4-mediated pathogenic action in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Caberlotto, Laura; Marchetti, Luca; Lauria, Mario; Scotti, Marco; Parolo, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Among the genetic factors known to increase the risk of late onset Alzheimer’s diseases (AD), the presence of the apolipoproteine e4 (APOE4) allele has been recognized as the one with the strongest effect. However, despite decades of research, the pathogenic role of APOE4 in Alzheimer’s disease has not been clearly elucidated yet. In order to investigate the pathogenic action of APOE4, we applied a systems biology approach to the analysis of transcriptomic and genomic data of APOE44 vs. APOE33 allele carriers affected by Alzheimer’s disease. Network analysis combined with a novel technique for biomarker computation allowed the identification of an alteration in aging-associated processes such as inflammation, oxidative stress and metabolic pathways, indicating that APOE4 possibly accelerates pathological processes physiologically induced by aging. Subsequent integration with genomic data indicates that the Notch pathway could be the nodal molecular mechanism altered in APOE44 allele carriers with Alzheimer’s disease. Interestingly, PSEN1 and APP, genes whose mutation are known to be linked to early onset Alzheimer’s disease, are closely linked to this pathway. In conclusion, APOE4 role on inflammation and oxidation through the Notch signaling pathway could be crucial in elucidating the risk factors of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:27585646

  9. Evaluation of Candidate Nephropathy Susceptibility Genes in a Genome-Wide Association Study of African American Diabetic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Nicholette D.; Ng, Maggie C. Y.; Hicks, Pamela J.; Mudgal, Poorva; Langefeld, Carl D.; Freedman, Barry I.; Bowden, Donald W.

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D)-associated end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is a complex disorder resulting from the combined influence of genetic and environmental factors. This study contains a comprehensive genetic analysis of putative nephropathy loci in 965 African American (AA) cases with T2D-ESKD and 1029 AA population-based controls extending prior findings. Analysis was based on 4,341 directly genotyped and imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 22 nephropathy candidate genes. After admixture adjustment and correction for multiple comparisons, 37 SNPs across eight loci were significantly associated (1.6E-05candidate loci (FRMD3 and TRPC6) trended toward association with T2D-ESKD (Pemp<0.05). These results suggest that risk contributed by putative nephropathy genes is shared across populations of African and European ancestry. PMID:24551085

  10. Genome-Wide microRNA Binding Site Variation between Extinct Wild Aurochs and Modern Cattle Identifies Candidate microRNA-Regulated Domestication Genes

    PubMed Central

    Braud, Martin; Magee, David A.; Park, Stephen D. E.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Waters, Sinead M.; MacHugh, David E.; Spillane, Charles

    2017-01-01

    The domestication of cattle from the now-extinct wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) involved selection for physiological and behavioral traits, with underlying genetic factors that remain largely unknown. Non-coding microRNAs have emerged as key regulators of the spatio-temporal expression of target genes controlling mammalian growth and development, including in livestock species. During the domestication process, selection of mutational changes in miRNAs and/or miRNA binding sites could have provided a mechanism to generate some of the traits that differentiate domesticated cattle from wild aurochs. To investigate this, we analyzed the open reading frame DNA sequence of 19,994 orthologous protein-coding gene pairs from extant Bos taurus genomes and a single extinct B. primigenius genome. We identified miRNA binding site polymorphisms in the 3′ UTRs of 1,620 of these orthologous genes. These 1,620 genes with altered miRNA binding sites between the B. taurus and B. primigenius lineages represent candidate domestication genes. Using a novel Score Site ratio metric we have ranked these miRNA-regulated genes according to the extent of divergence between miRNA binding site presence, frequency and copy number between the orthologous genes from B. taurus and B. primigenius. This provides an unbiased approach to identify cattle genes that have undergone the most changes in miRNA binding (i.e., regulation) between the wild aurochs and modern-day cattle breeds. In addition, we demonstrate that these 1,620 candidate domestication genes are enriched for roles in pigmentation, fertility, neurobiology, metabolism, immunity and production traits (including milk quality and feed efficiency). Our findings suggest that directional selection of miRNA regulatory variants was important in the domestication and subsequent artificial selection that gave rise to modern taurine cattle. PMID:28197171

  11. Preclinical evaluation of a clinical candidate AAV8 vector for ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency reveals functional enzyme from each persisting vector genome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Morizono, Hiroki; Lin, Jianping; Bell, Peter; Jones, David; McMenamin, Deirdre; Yu, Hongwei; Batshaw, Mark L; Wilson, James M

    2012-02-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), the most common and severe urea cycle disorder, is an excellent model for developing liver-directed gene therapy. No curative therapy exists except for liver transplantation which is limited by available donors and carries significant risk of mortality and morbidity. Adeno-associated virus 8 (AAV8) has been shown to be the most efficient vector for liver-directed gene transfer and is currently being evaluated in a clinical trial for treating hemophilia B. In this study, we generated a clinical candidate vector for a proposed OTC gene therapy trial in humans based on a self-complementary AAV8 vector expressing codon-optimized human OTC (hOTCco) under the control of a liver-specific promoter. Codon-optimization dramatically improved the efficacy of OTC gene therapy. Supraphysiological expression levels and activity of hOTC were achieved in adult spf(ash) mice following a single intravenous injection of hOTCco vector. Vector doses as low as 1×10(10) genome copies (GC) achieved robust and sustained correction of the OTCD biomarker orotic aciduria and clinical protection against an ammonia challenge. Functional expression of hOTC in 40% of liver areas was found in mice treated with a low vector dose of 1×10(9) GC. We suggest that the clinical candidate vector we have developed has the potential to achieve therapeutic effects in OTCD patients.

  12. Preclinical Evaluation of a Clinical Candidate AAV8 Vector for Ornithine Transcarbamylase (OTC) Deficiency Reveals Functional Enzyme from Each Persisting Vector Genome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Morizono, Hiroki; Lin, Jianping; Bell, Peter; Jones, David; McMenamin, Deirdre; Yu, Hongwei; Batshaw, Mark L.; Wilson, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), the most common and severe urea cycle disorder, is an excellent model for developing liver-directed gene therapy. No curative therapy exists except for liver transplantation which is limited by available donors and carries significant risk of mortality and morbidity. Adeno-associated virus 8 (AAV8) has been shown to be the most efficient vector for liver-directed gene transfer and is currently being evaluated in a clinical trial for treating hemophilia B. In this study, we generated a clinical candidate vector for a proposed OTC gene therapy trial in humans based on a self-complementary AAV8 vector expressing codon-optimized human OTC (hOTCco) under the control of a liver-specific promoter. Codon-optimization dramatically improved the efficacy of OTC gene therapy. Supraphysiological expression levels and activity of hOTC were achieved in adult spfash mice following a single intravenous injection of hOTCco vector. Vector doses as low as 1×1010 genome copies (GC) achieved robust and sustained correction of the OTCD biomarker orotic aciduria and clinical protection against an ammonia challenge. Functional expression of hOTC in 40% of liver areas was found in mice treated with a low vector dose of 1×109 GC. We suggest that the clinical candidate vector we have developed has the potential to achieve therapeutic effects in OTCD patients. PMID:22133298

  13. Identification of candidate genes in Arabidopsis and Populus cell wall biosynthesis using text-mining, co-expression network analysis and comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohan; Ye, Chu-Yu; Bisaria, Anjali; Tuskan, Gerald A; Kalluri, Udaya C

    2011-12-01

    Populus is an important bioenergy crop for bioethanol production. A greater understanding of cell wall biosynthesis processes is critical in reducing biomass recalcitrance, a major hindrance in efficient generation of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we report the identification of candidate cell wall biosynthesis genes through the development and application of a novel bioinformatics pipeline. As a first step, via text-mining of PubMed publications, we obtained 121 Arabidopsis genes that had the experimental evidence supporting their involvement in cell wall biosynthesis or remodeling. The 121 genes were then used as bait genes to query an Arabidopsis co-expression database, and additional genes were identified as neighbors of the bait genes in the network, increasing the number of genes to 548. The 548 Arabidopsis genes were then used to re-query the Arabidopsis co-expression database and re-construct a network that captured additional network neighbors, expanding to a total of 694 genes. The 694 Arabidopsis genes were computationally divided into 22 clusters. Queries of the Populus genome using the Arabidopsis genes revealed 817 Populus orthologs. Functional analysis of gene ontology and tissue-specific gene expression indicated that these Arabidopsis and Populus genes are high likelihood candidates for functional characterization in relation to cell wall biosynthesis.

  14. Identification of candidate network hubs involved in metabolic adjustments of rice under drought stress by integrating transcriptome data and genome-scale metabolic network.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Bijayalaxmi; Kitazumi, Ai; Cheung, C Y Maurice; Lakshmanan, Meiyappan; de los Reyes, Benildo G; Jang, In-Cheol; Lee, Dong-Yup

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have integrated a rice genome-scale metabolic network and the transcriptome of a drought-tolerant rice line, DK151, to identify the major transcriptional regulators involved in metabolic adjustments necessary for adaptation to drought. This was achieved by examining the differential expressions of transcription factors and metabolic genes in leaf, root and young panicle of rice plants subjected to drought stress during tillering, booting and panicle elongation stages. Critical transcription factors such as AP2/ERF, bZIP, MYB and NAC that control the important nodes in the gene regulatory pathway were identified through correlative analysis of the patterns of spatio-temporal expression and cis-element enrichment. We showed that many of the candidate transcription factors involved in metabolic adjustments were previously linked to phenotypic variation for drought tolerance. This approach represents the first attempt to integrate models of transcriptional regulation and metabolic pathways for the identification of candidate regulatory genes for targeted selection in rice breeding.

  15. Genome-wide copy number analysis reveals candidate gene loci that confer susceptibility to high-grade prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Poniah, Prevathe; Mohd Zain, Shamsul; Abdul Razack, Azad Hassan; Kuppusamy, Shanggar; Karuppayah, Shankar; Sian Eng, Hooi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2017-09-01

    Two key issues in prostate cancer (PCa) that demand attention currently are the need for a more precise and minimally invasive screening test owing to the inaccuracy of prostate-specific antigen and differential diagnosis to distinguish advanced vs. indolent cancers. This continues to pose a tremendous challenge in diagnosis and prognosis of PCa and could potentially lead to overdiagnosis and overtreatment complications. Copy number variations (CNVs) in the human genome have been linked to various carcinomas including PCa. Detection of these variants may improve clinical treatment as well as an understanding of the pathobiology underlying this complex disease. To this end, we undertook a pilot genome-wide CNV analysis approach in 36 subjects (18 patients with high-grade PCa and 18 controls that were matched by age and ethnicity) in search of more accurate biomarkers that could potentially explain susceptibility toward high-grade PCa. We conducted this study using the array comparative genomic hybridization technique. Array results were validated in 92 independent samples (46 high-grade PCa, 23 benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 23 healthy controls) using polymerase chain reaction-based copy number counting method. A total of 314 CNV regions were found to be unique to PCa subjects in this cohort (P<0.05). A log2 ratio-based copy number analysis revealed 5 putative rare or novel CNV loci or both associated with susceptibility to PCa. The CNV gain regions were 1q21.3, 15q15, 7p12.1, and a novel CNV in PCa 12q23.1, harboring ARNT, THBS1, SLC5A8, and DDC genes that are crucial in the p53 and cancer pathways. A CNV loss and deletion event was observed at 8p11.21, which contains the SFRP1 gene from the Wnt signaling pathway. Cross-comparison analysis with genes associated to PCa revealed significant CNVs involved in biological processes that elicit cancer pathogenesis via cytokine production and endothelial cell proliferation. In conclusion, we postulated that the CNVs

  16. Genome-wide DNA promoter methylation and transcriptome analysis in human adipose tissue unravels novel candidate genes for obesity.

    PubMed

    Keller, Maria; Hopp, Lydia; Liu, Xuanshi; Wohland, Tobias; Rohde, Kerstin; Cancello, Raffaella; Klös, Matthias; Bacos, Karl; Kern, Matthias; Eichelmann, Fabian; Dietrich, Arne; Schön, Michael R; Gärtner, Daniel; Lohmann, Tobias; Dreßler, Miriam; Stumvoll, Michael; Kovacs, Peter; DiBlasio, Anna-Maria; Ling, Charlotte; Binder, Hans; Blüher, Matthias; Böttcher, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in obesity and related metabolic complications. We examined genome-wide DNA promoter methylation along with mRNA profiles in paired samples of human subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and omental visceral adipose tissue (OVAT) from non-obese vs. obese individuals. We identified negatively correlated methylation and expression of several obesity-associated genes in our discovery dataset and in silico replicated ETV6 in two independent cohorts. Further, we identified six adipose tissue depot-specific genes (HAND2, HOXC6, PPARG, SORBS2, CD36, and CLDN1). The effects were further supported in additional independent cohorts. Our top hits might play a role in adipogenesis and differentiation, obesity, lipid metabolism, and adipose tissue expandability. Finally, we show that in vitro methylation of SORBS2 directly represses gene expression. Taken together, our data show distinct tissue specific epigenetic alterations which associate with obesity.

  17. Identification and Properties of 1,119 Candidate LincRNA Loci in the Drosophila melanogaster Genome

    PubMed Central

    Young, Robert S.; Marques, Ana C.; Tibbit, Charlotte; Haerty, Wilfried; Bassett, Andrew R.; Liu, Ji-Long; Ponting, Chris P.

    2012-01-01

    The functional repertoire of long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) molecules has begun to be elucidated in mammals. Determining the biological relevance and potential gene regulatory mechanisms of these enigmatic molecules would be expedited in a more tractable model organism, such as Drosophila melanogaster. To this end, we defined a set of 1,119 putative lincRNA genes in D. melanogaster using modENCODE whole transcriptome (RNA-seq) data. A large majority (1.1 of 1.3 Mb; 85%) of these bases were not previously reported by modENCODE as being transcribed. Significant selective constraint on the sequences of these loci predicts that virtually all have sustained functionality across the Drosophila clade. We observe biases in lincRNA genomic locations and expression profiles that are consistent with some of these lincRNAs being involved in the regulation of neighboring protein-coding genes with developmental functions. We identify lincRNAs that may be important in the developing nervous system and in male-specific organs, such as the testes. LincRNA loci were also identified whose positions, relative to nearby protein-coding loci, are equivalent between D. melanogaster and mouse. This study predicts that the genomes of not only vertebrates, such as mammals, but also an invertebrate (fruit fly) harbor large numbers of lincRNA loci. Our findings now permit exploitation of Drosophila genetics for the investigation of lincRNA mechanisms, including lincRNAs with potential functional analogues in mammals. PMID:22403033

  18. Large-scale evaluation of candidate genes identifies associations between DNA repair and genomic maintenance and development of benzene hematotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Qing; Zhang, Luoping; Shen, Min; Jo, William J.; Vermeulen, Roel; Li, Guilan; Vulpe, Christopher; Lim, Sophia; Ren, Xuefeng; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Yeager, Meredith; Yuenger, Jeff; Hayes, Richard B.; Linet, Martha; Yin, Songnian; Chanock, Stephen; Smith, Martyn T.; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    Benzene is an established human hematotoxicant and leukemogen but its mechanism of action is unclear. To investigate the role of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on benzene-induced hematotoxicity, we analyzed 1395 SNPs in 411 genes using an Illumina GoldenGate assay in 250 benzene-exposed workers and 140 unexposed controls. Highly significant findings clustered in five genes (BLM, TP53, RAD51, WDR79 and WRN) that play a critical role in DNA repair and genomic maintenance, and these regions were then further investigated with tagSNPs. One or more SNPs in each gene were associated with highly significant 10–20% reductions (P values ranged from 0.0011 to 0.0002) in the white blood cell (WBC) count among benzene-exposed workers but not controls, with evidence for gene–environment interactions for SNPs in BLM, WRN and RAD51. Further, among workers exposed to benzene, the genotype-associated risk of having a WBC count <4000 cells/μl increased when using individuals with progressively higher WBC counts as the comparison group, with some odds ratios >8-fold. In vitro functional studies revealed that deletion of SGS1 in yeast, equivalent to lacking BLM and WRN function in humans, caused reduced cellular growth in the presence of the toxic benzene metabolite hydroquinone, and knockdown of WRN using specific short hairpin RNA increased susceptibility of human TK6 cells to hydroquinone toxicity. Our findings suggest that SNPs involved in DNA repair and genomic maintenance, with particular clustering in the homologous DNA recombination pathway, play an important role in benzene-induced hematotoxicity. PMID:18978339

  19. A pooling-based genome-wide analysis identifies new potential candidate genes for atopy in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS).

    PubMed

    Castro-Giner, Francesc; Bustamante, Mariona; Ramon González, Juan; Kogevinas, Manolis; Jarvis, Deborah; Heinrich, Joachim; Antó, Josep-Maria; Wjst, Matthias; Estivill, Xavier; de Cid, Rafael

    2009-12-06

    Asthma and atopy are complex phenotypes with shared genetic component. In this study we attempt to identify genes related to these traits performing a two-stage DNA pooling genome-wide analysis in order to reduce costs. First, we assessed all markers in a subset of subjects using DNA pooling, and in a second stage we evaluated the most promising markers at an individual level. For the genome-wide analysis, we constructed DNA pools from 75 subjects with atopy and asthma, 75 subjects with atopy and without asthma and 75 control subjects without atopy or asthma. In a second stage, the most promising regions surrounding significant markers after correction for false discovery rate were replicated with individual genotyping of samples included in the pools and an additional set of 429 atopic subjects and 222 controls from the same study centres. Homo sapiens protein kinase-like protein SgK493 (SGK493) was found to be associated with atopy. To lesser extent mitogen-activated protein kinase 5 (MAP3K5), collagen type XVIII alpha 1 (COL18A1) and collagen type XXIX alpha 1 (COL29A1) were also found to be associated with atopy. Functional evidences points out a role for MAP3K5, COL18A1 and COL29A1 but the function of SGK493 is unknown. In this analysis we have identified new candidate regions related to atopy and suggest SGK493 as an atopy locus, although these results need further replication.

  20. High density genome wide genotyping-by-sequencing and association identifies common and low frequency SNPs, and novel candidate genes influencing cow milk traits

    PubMed Central

    Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M.; Peters, Sunday O.; Akwanji, Kingsley A.; Imumorin, Ikhide G.; Zhao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing technologies have increased the ability to detect sequence variations for complex trait improvement. A high throughput genome wide genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) method was used to generate 515,787 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), from which 76,355 SNPs with call rates >85% and minor allele frequency ≥1.5% were used in genome wide association study (GWAS) of 44 milk traits in 1,246 Canadian Holstein cows. GWAS was accomplished with a mixed linear model procedure implementing the additive and dominant models. A strong signal within the centromeric region of bovine chromosome 14 was associated with test day fat percentage. Several SNPs were associated with eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, CLA:9c11t and gamma linolenic acid. Most of the significant SNPs for 44 traits studied are novel and located in intergenic regions or introns of genes. Novel potential candidate genes for milk traits or mammary gland functions include ERCC6, TONSL, NPAS2, ACER3, ITGB4, GGT6, ACOX3, MECR, ADAM12, ACHE, LRRC14, FUK, NPRL3, EVL, SLCO3A1, PSMA4, FTO, ADCK5, PP1R16A and TEP1. Our study further demonstrates the utility of the GBS approach for identifying population-specific SNPs for use in improvement of complex dairy traits. PMID:27506634

  1. Identification of candidate genes for the seed coat colour change in a Brachypodium distachyon mutant induced by gamma radiation using whole-genome re-sequencing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Man Bo; Kim, Dae Yeon; Seo, Yong Weon

    2017-07-01

    Brachypodium distachyon has been proposed as a model plant for agriculturally important cereal crops such as wheat and barley. Seed coat colour change from brown-red to yellow was observed in a mutant line (142-3) of B. distachyon, which was induced by chronic gamma radiation. In addition, dwarf phenotypes were observed in each of the lines 142-3, 421-2, and 1376-1. To identify causal mutations for the seed coat colour change, the three mutant lines and the wild type were subjected to whole-genome re-sequencing. After removing natural variations, 906, 1057, and 978 DNA polymorphisms were detected in 142-3, 421-2, and 1376-1, respectively. A total of 13 high-risk DNA polymorphisms were identified in mutant 142-3. Based on a comparison with DNA polymorphisms in 421-2 and 1376-1, candidate causal mutations for the seed coat colour change in 142-3 were selected. In the two independent Arabidopsis thaliana lines carrying T-DNA insertions in the AtCHI, seed colour change was observed. We propose a frameshift mutation in BdCHI1 as a causal mutation responsible for seed colour change in 142-3. The DNA polymorphism information for these mutant lines can be utilized for functional genomics in B. distachyon and cereal crops.

  2. CNVs analysis in a cohort of isolated and syndromic DD/ID reveals novel genomic disorders, position effects and candidate disease genes.

    PubMed

    Di Gregorio, Eleonora; Riberi, Evelise; Belligni, Elga Fabia; Biamino, Elisa; Spielmann, Malte; Ala, Ugo; Calcia, Alessandro; Bagnasco, Irene; Carli, Diana; Gai, Giorgia; Giordano, Mara; Guala, Andrea; Keller, Roberto; Mandrile, Giorgia; Arduino, Carlo; Maffè, Antonella; Naretto, Valeria Giorgia; Sirchia, Fabio; Sorasio, Lorena; Ungari, Silvana; Zonta, Andrea; Zacchetti, Giulia; Talarico, Flavia; Pappi, Patrizia; Cavalieri, Simona; Giorgio, Elisa; Mancini, Cecilia; Ferrero, Marta; Brussino, Alessandro; Savin, Elisa; Gandione, Marina; Pelle, Alessandra; Giachino, Daniela Francesca; De Marchi, Mario; Restagno, Gabriella; Provero, Paolo; Silengo, Margherita Cirillo; Grosso, Enrico; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Pasini, Barbara; De Rubeis, Silvia; Brusco, Alfredo; Ferrero, Giovanni Battista

    2017-03-14

    Array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) is a widely used technique to detect Copy Number Variants (CNVs) associated with developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID). We performed a comprehensive array-CGH investigation of 1,015 consecutive cases with DD/ID and combined literature mining, genetic evidence, evolutionary constraint scores, and functional information in order to assess the pathogenicity of the CNVs. We identified non-benign CNVs in 29% of patients. Amongst the pathogenic variants (11%), detected with a yield consistent with the literature, we found rare genomic disorders and CNVs spanning known disease genes. We further identified and discussed 51 cases with likely pathogenic CNVs spanning novel candidate genes, including genes encoding synaptic components and/or proteins involved in corticogenesis. Additionally, we identified two deletions spanning potential Topological Associated Domain (TAD) boundaries likely affecting the regulatory landscape. In conclusion, we show how phenotypic and genetic analyses of array-CGH data allow unraveling complex cases, identifying rare disease genes, and revealing unexpected position effects.

  3. Genome-wide association and genetic functional studies identify autism susceptibility candidate 2 gene (AUTS2) in the regulation of alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Schumann, Gunter; Coin, Lachlan J.; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Charoen, Pimphen; Berger, Karen H.; Stacey, David; Desrivières, Sylvane; Aliev, Fazil A.; Khan, Anokhi A.; Amin, Najaf; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Bakalkin, Georgy; Bakker, Stephan J.; Balkau, Beverley; Beulens, Joline W.; Bilbao, Ainhoa; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Beury, Delphine; Bots, Michiel L.; Breetvelt, Elemi J.; Cauchi, Stéphane; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine; Chambers, John C.; Clarke, Toni-Kim; Dahmen, Norbert; de Geus, Eco J.; Dick, Danielle; Ducci, Francesca; Easton, Alanna; Edenberg, Howard J.; Esko, Tõnu; Fernández-Medarde, Alberto; Foroud, Tatiana; Freimer, Nelson B.; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Guarrera, Simonetta; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Heath, Andrew C.; Hesselbrock, Victor; Hofman, Albert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Isohanni, Matti K.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kuehnel, Brigitte; Laitinen, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Luan, Jian'an; Mangino, Massimo; Maroteaux, Matthieu; Matullo, Giuseppe; McCarthy, Mark I.; Mueller, Christian; Navis, Gerjan; Numans, Mattijs E.; Núñez, Alejandro; Nyholt, Dale R.; Onland-Moret, Charlotte N.; Oostra, Ben A.; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Palkovits, Miklos; Penninx, Brenda W.; Polidoro, Silvia; Pouta, Anneli; Prokopenko, Inga; Ricceri, Fulvio; Santos, Eugenio; Smit, Johannes H.; Soranzo, Nicole; Song, Kijoung; Sovio, Ulla; Stumvoll, Michael; Surakk, Ida; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Troakes, Claire; Tyrfingsson, Thorarinn; Tönjes, Anke; Uiterwaal, Cuno S.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van der Harst, Pim; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Staehlin, Oliver; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Whitfield, John B.; Wichmann, Erich H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Yuan, Xin; Zhai, Guangju; Zhao, Jing H.; Zhang, Weihua; Martin, Nicholas G.; Metspalu, Andres; Doering, Angela; Scott, James; Spector, Tim D.; Loos, Ruth J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Mooser, Vincent; Peltonen, Leena; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vineis, Paolo; Sommer, Wolfgang H.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Spanagel, Rainer; Heberlein, Ulrike A.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Elliott, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a moderately heritable trait, but the genetic basis in humans is largely unknown, despite its clinical and societal importance. We report a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of ∼2.5 million directly genotyped or imputed SNPs with alcohol consumption (gram per day per kilogram body weight) among 12 population-based samples of European ancestry, comprising 26,316 individuals, with replication genotyping in an additional 21,185 individuals. SNP rs6943555 in autism susceptibility candidate 2 gene (AUTS2) was associated with alcohol consumption at genome-wide significance (P = 4 × 10−8 to P = 4 × 10−9). We found a genotype-specific expression of AUTS2 in 96 human prefrontal cortex samples (P = 0.026) and significant (P < 0.017) differences in expression of AUTS2 in whole-brain extracts of mice selected for differences in voluntary alcohol consumption. Down-regulation of an AUTS2 homolog caused reduced alcohol sensitivity in Drosophila (P < 0.001). Our finding of a regulator of alcohol consumption adds knowledge to our understanding of genetic mechanisms influencing alcohol drinking behavior. PMID:21471458

  4. Identification of a candidate single-nucleotide polymorphism related to chemotherapeutic response through a combination of knowledge-based algorithm and hypothesis-free genomic data.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiro; Kaniwa, Nahoko; Saito, Yoshiro; Sai, Kimie; Hamaguchi, Tetsuya; Shirao, Kuniaki; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Yoshino, Takayuki; Takahashi, Anna; Odaka, Yoko; Okuyama, Misuzu; Sawada, Jun-ichi; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Yoshida, Teruhiko

    2013-12-01

    Inter-individual variations in drug responses among patients are known to cause serious problems in medicine. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) is powerful for examining single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their relationships with drug response variations. However, no significant SNP has been identified using GWAS due to multiple testing problems. Therefore, we propose a combination method consisting of knowledge-based algorithm, two stages of screening, and permutation test for identifying SNPs in the present study. We applied this method to a genome-wide pharmacogenomics study for which 109,365 SNPs had been genotyped using Illumina Human-1 BeadChip for 119 gastric cancer patients treated with fluoropyrimidine. We identified rs2293347 in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is as a candidate SNP related to chemotherapeutic response. The p value for the rs2293347 was 2.19 × 10(-5) for Fisher's exact test, and the p value was 0.00360 for the permutation test (multiple testing problems are corrected). Additionally, rs2293347 was clearly superior to clinical parameters and showed a sensitivity value of 55.0% and specificity value of 94.4% in the evaluation by using multiple regression models. Recent studies have shown that combination chemotherapy of fluoropyrimidine and EGFR-targeting agents is effective for gastric cancer patients highly expressing EGFR. These results suggest that rs2293347 is a potential predictive factor for selecting chemotherapies, such as fluoropyrimidine alone or combination chemotherapies.

  5. Genome-wide analysis of the CCCH zinc finger family identifies tissue specific and stress responsive candidates in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Seema; Kant, Chandra; Verma, Subodh; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2017-01-01

    The CCCH zinc finger is a group of proteins characterised by a typical motif consisting of three cysteine residues and one histidine residue. These proteins have been reported to play important roles in regulation of plant growth, developmental processes and environmental responses. In the present study, genome wide analysis of the CCCH zinc finger gene family was carried out in the available chickpea genome. Various bioinformatics tools were employed to predict 58 CCCH zinc finger genes in chickpea (designated CarC3H1-58), which were analysed for their physio-chemical properties. Phylogenetic analysis classified the proteins into 12 groups in which members of a particular group had similar structural organization. Further, the numbers as well as the types of CCCH motifs present in the CarC3H proteins were compared with those from Arabidopsis and Medicago truncatula. Synteny analysis revealed valuable information regarding the evolution of this gene family. Tandem and segmental duplication events were identified and their Ka/Ks values revealed that the CarC3H gene family in chickpea had undergone purifying selection. Digital, as well as real time qRT-PCR expression analysis was performed which helped in identification of several CarC3H members that expressed preferentially in specific chickpea tissues as well as during abiotic stresses (desiccation, cold, salinity). Moreover, molecular characterization of an important member CarC3H45 was carried out. This study provides comprehensive genomic information about the important CCCH zinc finger gene family in chickpea. The identified tissue specific and abiotic stress specific CCCH genes could be potential candidates for further characterization to delineate their functional roles in development and stress.

  6. A combinatorial approach of comprehensive QTL-based comparative genome mapping and transcript profiling identified a seed weight-regulating candidate gene in chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Deepak; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Khan, Yusuf; Das, Shouvik; Badoni, Saurabh; Shree, Tanima; Kumar, Vinod; Tripathi, Shailesh; Gowda, C. L. L.; Singh, Sube; Sharma, Shivali; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Chattopdhyay, Debasis; Parida, Swarup K.

    2015-01-01

    High experimental validation/genotyping success rate (94–96%) and intra-specific polymorphic potential (82–96%) of 1536 SNP and 472 SSR markers showing in silico polymorphism between desi ICC 4958 and kabuli ICC 12968 chickpea was obtained in a 190 mapping population (ICC 4958 × ICC 12968) and 92 diverse desi and kabuli genotypes. A high-density 2001 marker-based intra-specific genetic linkage map comprising of eight LGs constructed is comparatively much saturated (mean map-density: 0.94 cM) in contrast to existing intra-specific genetic maps in chickpea. Fifteen robust QTLs (PVE: 8.8–25.8% with LOD: 7.0–13.8) associated with pod and seed number/plant (PN and SN) and 100 seed weight (SW) were identified and mapped on 10 major genomic regions of eight LGs. One of 126.8 kb major genomic region harbouring a strong SW-associated robust QTL (Caq'SW1.1: 169.1–171.3 cM) has been delineated by integrating high-resolution QTL mapping with comprehensive marker-based comparative genome mapping and differential expression profiling. This identified one potential regulatory SNP (G/A) in the cis-acting element of candidate ERF (ethylene responsive factor) TF (transcription factor) gene governing seed weight in chickpea. The functionally relevant molecular tags identified have potential to be utilized for marker-assisted genetic improvement of chickpea. PMID:25786576

  7. Whole genome sequencing of Guzerá cattle reveals genetic variants in candidate genes for production, disease resistance, and heat tolerance.

    PubMed

    Rosse, Izinara C; Assis, Juliana G; Oliveira, Francislon S; Leite, Laura R; Araujo, Flávio; Zerlotini, Adhemar; Volpini, Angela; Dominitini, Anderson J; Lopes, Beatriz C; Arbex, Wagner A; Machado, Marco A; Peixoto, Maria G C D; Verneque, Rui S; Martins, Marta F; Coimbra, Roney S; Silva, Marcos V G B; Oliveira, Guilherme; Carvalho, Maria Raquel S

    2017-02-01

    In bovines, artificial selection has produced a large number of breeds which differ in production, environmental adaptation, and health characteristics. To investigate the genetic basis of these phenotypical differences, several bovine breeds have been sequenced. Millions of new SNVs were described at every new breed sequenced, suggesting that every breed should be sequenced. Guzerat or Guzerá is an indicine breed resistant to drought and parasites that has been the base for some important breeds such as Brahman. Here, we describe the sequence of the Guzerá genome and the in silico functional analyses of intragenic breed-specific variations. Mate-paired libraries were generated using the ABI SOLiD system. Sequences were mapped to the Bos taurus reference genome (UMD 3.1) and 87% of the reference genome was covered at a 26X. Among the variants identified, 2,676,067 SNVs and 463,158 INDELs were homozygous, not found in any database searched, and may represent true differences between Guzerá and B. taurus. Functional analyses investigated with the NGS-SNP package focused on 1069 new, non-synonymous SNVs, splice-site variants (including acceptor and donor sites, and the conserved regions at both intron borders, referred to here as splice regions) and coding INDELs (NS/SS/I). These NS/SS/I map to 935 genes belonging to cell communication, environmental adaptation, signal transduction, sensory, and immune systems pathways. These pathways have been involved in phenotypes related to health, adaptation to the environment and behavior, and particularly, disease resistance and heat tolerance. Indeed, 105 of these genes are known QTLs for milk, meat and carcass, production, reproduction, and health traits. Therefore, in addition to describing new genetic variants, our approach provided groundwork for unraveling key candidate genes and mutations.

  8. Genome-wide scan reveals LEMD3 and WIF1 on SSC5 as the candidates for porcine ear size.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Longchao; Liang, Jing; Luo, Weizhen; Liu, Xin; Yan, Hua; Zhao, Kebin; Shi, Huibi; Zhang, Yuebo; Wang, Ligang; Wang, Lixian

    2014-01-01

    The quantitative trait loci (QTL) for porcine ear size was previously reported to mainly focus on SSC5 and SSC7. Recently, a missense mutation, G32E, in PPARD in the QTL interval on SSC7 was identified as the causative mutation for ear size. However, on account of the large interval of QTL, the responsible gene on SSC5 has not been identified. In this study, an intercross population was constructed from the large-eared Minzhu, an indigenous Chinese pig breed, and the Western commercial Large White pig to examine the genetic basis of ear size diversity. A GWAS was performed to detect SNPs significantly associated with ear size. Thirty-five significant SNPs defined a 10.78-Mb (30.14-40.92 Mb) region on SSC5. Further, combining linkage disequilibrium and haplotype sharing analysis, a reduced region of 3.07-Mb was obtained. Finally, by using a selective sweep analysis, a critical region of about 450-kb interval containing two annotated genes LEMD3 and WIF1 was refined in this work. Functional analysis indicated that both represent biological candidates for porcine ear size, with potential application in breeding programs. The two genes could also be used as novel references for further study of the mechanism underlying human microtia.

  9. [Electrophoretic karyotypes and genomic DNA restriction fragment analysis: their usefulness as tools in the epidemiological study of Candid parapsilosis].

    PubMed

    Perrotta, D; Rodero, L; Demkura, H; Canteros, C; Davel, G

    2002-01-01

    During the past decades, several studies have reported an increase in the incidence of nosocomial candidosis. In a prospective study, performed at the Departamento de Micología, INEI, ANLIS Dr. C. G. Malbrán and the Servicio de Neonatología and Microbiología, Hospital de Niños Sor María Ludovica, from October 1995 to December 1996, 167 patients with candidosis were detected. Candida species isolated were C. albicans (53.1%), C. parapsilosis (26.5%) and C. tropicalis (14.8%). The aim of this work was to characterize the clinical C. parapsilosis isolates from pediatric patients hospitalized in two neonatal intensive care units from the same hospital and to evaluate the usefulness of electrophoretic karyotype (EK) and restriction endonuclease analysis of genomic DNA (REAG) using a low frequency digestion enzyme. EK of all isolates disclosed 12 banding patterns and REAG with endonuclease Sfi I showed only 5 groups. However, isolates from the control group could not be separated from the clinical isolates. The isolates within each dendogram group for EK or REAG were apparently unrelated. Our results show that EK yields better results than REAG, but that it falls short of the desired discrimination, which suggests that these techniques do not seem to be useful for studying nosocomial C. parapsilosis outbreaks.

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF NOVEL CANDIDATE GENES INVOLVED IN MINERALIZATION OF DENTAL ENAMEL BY GENOME-WIDE TRANSCRIPT PROFILING

    PubMed Central

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Smith, Charles E.; Bringas, Pablo; Chen, Yi-Bu; Smith, Susan M.; Snead, Malcolm L.; Kurtz, Ira; Hacia, Joseph G.; Hubbard, Michael J.; Paine, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    The gene repertoire regulating vertebrate biomineralization is poorly understood. Dental enamel, the most highly mineralized tissue in mammals, differs from other calcifying systems in that the formative cells (ameloblasts) lack remodeling activity and largely degrade and resorb the initial extracellular matrix. Enamel mineralization requires that ameloblasts undergo a profound functional switch from matrix-secreting to maturational (calcium transport, protein resorption) roles as mineralization progresses. During the maturation stage, extracellular pH decreases markedly, placing high demands on ameloblasts to regulate acidic environments present around the growing hydroxyapatite crystals. To identify the genetic events driving enamel mineralization, we conducted genome-wide transcript profiling of the developing enamel organ from rat incisors and highlight over 300 genes differentially expressed during maturation. Using multiple bioinformatics analyses, we identified groups of maturation-associated genes whose functions are linked to key mineralization processes including pH regulation, calcium handling and matrix turnover. Subsequent qPCR and Western blot analyses revealed that a number of solute carrier (SLC) gene family members were up-regulated during maturation, including the novel protein Slc24a4 involved in calcium handling as well as other proteins of similar function (Stim1). By providing the first global overview of the cellular machinery required for enamel maturation, this study provide a strong foundation for improving basic understanding of biomineralization and its practical applications in healthcare. PMID:21809343

  11. Identification of novel candidate genes involved in mineralization of dental enamel by genome-wide transcript profiling.

    PubMed

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Smith, Charles E; Bringas, Pablo; Chen, Yi-Bu; Smith, Susan M; Snead, Malcolm L; Kurtz, Ira; Hacia, Joseph G; Hubbard, Michael J; Paine, Michael L

    2012-05-01

    The gene repertoire regulating vertebrate biomineralization is poorly understood. Dental enamel, the most highly mineralized tissue in mammals, differs from other calcifying systems in that the formative cells (ameloblasts) lack remodeling activity and largely degrade and resorb the initial extracellular matrix. Enamel mineralization requires that ameloblasts undergo a profound functional switch from matrix-secreting to maturational (calcium transport, protein resorption) roles as mineralization progresses. During the maturation stage, extracellular pH decreases markedly, placing high demands on ameloblasts to regulate acidic environments present around the growing hydroxyapatite crystals. To identify the genetic events driving enamel mineralization, we conducted genome-wide transcript profiling of the developing enamel organ from rat incisors and highlight over 300 genes differentially expressed during maturation. Using multiple bioinformatics analyses, we identified groups of maturation-associated genes whose functions are linked to key mineralization processes including pH regulation, calcium handling, and matrix turnover. Subsequent qPCR and Western blot analyses revealed that a number of solute carrier (SLC) gene family members were up-regulated during maturation, including the novel protein Slc24a4 involved in calcium handling as well as other proteins of similar function (Stim1). By providing the first global overview of the cellular machinery required for enamel maturation, this study provide a strong foundation for improving basic understanding of biomineralization and its practical applications in healthcare. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Evolution of heterogeneous genome differentiation across multiple contact zones in a crow species complex

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Nagarjun; Bossu, Christen M.; Poelstra, Jelmer W.; Weissensteiner, Matthias H.; Suh, Alexander; Kryukov, Alexey P.; Wolf, Jochen B. W.

    2016-01-01

    Uncovering the genetic basis of species diversification is a central goal in evolutionary biology. Yet, the link between the accumulation of genomic changes during population divergence and the evolutionary forces promoting reproductive isolation is poorly understood. Here, we analysed 124 genomes of crow populations with various degrees of genome-wide differentiation, with parallelism of a sexually selected plumage phenotype, and ongoing hybridization. Overall, heterogeneity in genetic differentiation along the genome was best explained by linked selection exposed on a shared genome architecture. Superimposed on this common background, we identified genomic regions with signatures of selection specific to independent phenotypic contact zones. Candidate pigmentation genes with evidence for divergent selection were only partly shared, suggesting context-dependent selection on a multigenic trait architecture and parallelism by pathway rather than by repeated single-gene effects. This study provides insight into how various forms of selection shape genome-wide patterns of genomic differentiation as populations diverge. PMID:27796282

  13. Genomic Deletions Correlate with Underexpression of Novel Candidate Genes at Six Loci in Pediatric Pilocytic Astrocytoma1

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Nicola; Karakoula, Aikaterini; Phipps, Kim P; Harkness, William; Hayward, Richard; Thompson, Dominic N P; Jacques, Thomas S; Harding, Brian; Thomas, David G T; Palmer, Rodger W; Rees, Jeremy; Darling, John; Warr, Tracy J

    2008-01-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of pediatric pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is not well defined. Previous cytogenetic and molecular studies have not identified nonrandom genetic aberrations. To correlate differential gene expression and genomic copy number aberrations (CNAs) in PA, we have used Affymetrix GeneChip HG_U133A to generate gene expression profiles of 19 pediatric patients and the SpectralChip 2600 to investigate CNAs in 11 of these tumors. Hierarchical clustering according to expression profile similarity grouped tumors and controls separately. We identified 1844 genes that showed significant differential expression between tumor and normal controls, with a large number clearly influencing phosphatidylinositol and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in PA. Most CNAs identified in this study were single-clone alterations. However, a small region of loss involving up to seven adjacent clones at 7q11.23 was observed in seven tumors and correlated with the underexpression of BCL7B. Loss of four individual clones was also associated with reduced gene expression including SH3GL2 at 9p21.2-p23, BCL7A (which shares 90% sequence homology with BCL7B) at 12q24.33, DRD1IP at 10q26.3, and TUBG2 and CNTNAP1 at 17q21.31. Moreover, the down-regulation of FOXG1B at 14q12 correlated with loss within the gene promoter region in most tumors. This is the first study to correlate differential gene expression with CNAs in PA. PMID:18670637

  14. Finding the Alloy Genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Gus L. W.; Nelson, Lance J.; Zhou, Fei; Ozolins, Vidvuds

    2012-10-01

    First-principles codes can nowadays provide hundreds of high-fidelity enthalpies on thousands of alloy systems with a modest investment of a few tens of millions of CPU hours. But a mere database of enthalpies provides only the starting point for uncovering the ``alloy genome.'' What one needs to fundamentally change alloy discovery and design are complete searches over candidate structures (not just hundreds of known experimental phases) and models that can be used to simulate both kinetics and thermodynamics. Despite more than a decade of effort by many groups, developing robust models for these simulations is still a human-time-intensive endeavor. Compressive sensing solves this problem in dramatic fashion by automatically extracting the ``sparse model'' of an alloy in only minutes. This new paradigm to model building has enabled a new framework that will uncover, automatically and in a general way across the periodic table, the important components of such models and reveal the underlying ``genome'' of alloy physics.

  15. Candidate Genes for Inherited Autism Susceptibility in the Lebanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Kourtian, Silva; Soueid, Jihane; Makhoul, Nadine J.; Guisso, Dikran Richard; Chahrour, Maria; Boustany, Rose-Mary N.

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by ritualistic-repetitive behaviors and impaired verbal/non-verbal communication. Many ASD susceptibility genes implicated in neuronal pathways/brain development have been identified. The Lebanese population is ideal for uncovering recessive genes because of shared ancestry and a high rate of consanguineous marriages. Aims here are to analyze for published ASD genes and uncover novel inherited ASD susceptibility genes specific to the Lebanese. We recruited 36 ASD families (ASD: 37, unaffected parents: 36, unaffected siblings: 33) and 100 unaffected Lebanese controls. Cytogenetics 2.7 M Microarrays/CytoScan™ HD arrays allowed mapping of homozygous regions of the genome. The CNTNAP2 gene was screened by Sanger sequencing. Homozygosity mapping uncovered DPP4, TRHR, and MLF1 as novel candidate susceptibility genes for ASD in the Lebanese. Sequencing of hot spot exons in CNTNAP2 led to discovery of a 5 bp insertion in 23/37 ASD patients. This mutation was present in unaffected family members and unaffected Lebanese controls. Although a slight increase in number was observed in ASD patients and family members compared to controls, there were no significant differences in allele frequencies between affecteds and controls (C/TTCTG: γ2 value = 0.014; p = 0.904). The CNTNAP2 polymorphism identified in this population, hence, is not linked to the ASD phenotype. PMID:28358038

  16. Genome-wide association and pathway analysis of feed efficiency in pigs reveal candidate genes and pathways for residual feed intake

    PubMed Central

    Do, Duy N.; Strathe, Anders B.; Ostersen, Tage; Pant, Sameer D.; Kadarmideen, Haja N.

    2014-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a complex trait that is economically important for livestock production; however, the genetic and biological mechanisms regulating RFI are largely unknown in pigs. Therefore, the study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), candidate genes and biological pathways involved in regulating RFI using Genome-wide association (GWA) and pathway analyses. A total of 596 Yorkshire boars with phenotypes for two different measures of RFI (RFI1 and 2) and 60k genotypic data was used. GWA analysis was performed using a univariate mixed model and 12 and 7 SNPs were found to be significantly associated with RFI1 and RFI2, respectively. Several genes such as xin actin-binding repeat-containing protein 2 (XIRP2),tetratricopeptide repeat domain 29 (TTC29),suppressor of glucose, autophagy associated 1 (SOGA1),MAS1,G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase 5 (GRK5),prospero-homeobox protein 1 (PROX1),GPCR 155 (GPR155), and FYVE domain containing the 26 (ZFYVE26) were identified as putative candidates for RFI based on their genomic location in the vicinity of these SNPs. Genes located within 50 kbp of SNPs significantly associated with RFI and RFI2 (q-value ≤ 0.2) were subsequently used for pathway analyses. These analyses were performed by assigning genes to biological pathways and then testing the association of individual pathways with RFI using a Fisher’s exact test. Metabolic pathway was significantly associated with both RFIs. Other biological pathways regulating phagosome, tight junctions, olfactory transduction, and insulin secretion were significantly associated with both RFI traits when relaxed threshold for cut-off p-value was used (p ≤ 0.05). These results implied porcine RFI is regulated by multiple biological mechanisms, although the metabolic processes might be the most important. Olfactory transduction pathway controlling the perception of feed via smell, insulin pathway controlling food intake might be important

  17. Genome-wide association and pathway analysis of feed efficiency in pigs reveal candidate genes and pathways for residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Do, Duy N; Strathe, Anders B; Ostersen, Tage; Pant, Sameer D; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2014-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a complex trait that is economically important for livestock production; however, the genetic and biological mechanisms regulating RFI are largely unknown in pigs. Therefore, the study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), candidate genes and biological pathways involved in regulating RFI using Genome-wide association (GWA) and pathway analyses. A total of 596 Yorkshire boars with phenotypes for two different measures of RFI (RFI1 and 2) and 60k genotypic data was used. GWA analysis was performed using a univariate mixed model and 12 and 7 SNPs were found to be significantly associated with RFI1 and RFI2, respectively. Several genes such as xin actin-binding repeat-containing protein 2 (XIRP2),tetratricopeptide repeat domain 29 (TTC29),suppressor of glucose, autophagy associated 1 (SOGA1),MAS1,G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase 5 (GRK5),prospero-homeobox protein 1 (PROX1),GPCR 155 (GPR155), and FYVE domain containing the 26 (ZFYVE26) were identified as putative candidates for RFI based on their genomic location in the vicinity of these SNPs. Genes located within 50 kbp of SNPs significantly associated with RFI and RFI2 (q-value ≤ 0.2) were subsequently used for pathway analyses. These analyses were performed by assigning genes to biological pathways and then testing the association of individual pathways with RFI using a Fisher's exact test. Metabolic pathway was significantly associated with both RFIs. Other biological pathways regulating phagosome, tight junctions, olfactory transduction, and insulin secretion were significantly associated with both RFI traits when relaxed threshold for cut-off p-value was used (p ≤ 0.05). These results implied porcine RFI is regulated by multiple biological mechanisms, although the metabolic processes might be the most important. Olfactory transduction pathway controlling the perception of feed via smell, insulin pathway controlling food intake might be important

  18. A Genome-Wide Association Study for Culm Cellulose Content in Barley Reveals Candidate Genes Co-Expressed with Members of the CELLULOSE SYNTHASE A Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Kelly; Burton, Rachel A.; Sznajder, Beata; Rafalski, Antoni J.; Dhugga, Kanwarpal S.; Mather, Diane E.; Taylor, Jillian; Steffenson, Brian J.; Waugh, Robbie; Fincher, Geoffrey B.

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose is a fundamentally important component of cell walls of higher plants. It provides a scaffold that allows the development and growth of the plant to occur in an ordered fashion. Cellulose also provides mechanical strength, which is crucial for both normal development and to enable the plant to withstand both abiotic and biotic stresses. We quantified the cellulose concentration in the culm of 288 two – rowed and 288 six – rowed spring type barley accessions that were part of the USDA funded barley Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP) program in the USA. When the population structure of these accessions was analysed we identified six distinct populations, four of which we considered to be comprised of a sufficient number of accessions to be suitable for genome-wide association studies (GWAS). These lines had been genotyped with 3072 SNPs so we combined the trait and genetic data to carry out GWAS. The analysis allowed us to identify regions of the genome containing significant associations between molecular markers and cellulose concentration data, including one region cross-validated in multiple populations. To identify candidate genes we assembled the gene content of these regions and used these to query a comprehensive RNA-seq based gene expression atlas. This provided us with gene annotations and associated expression data across multiple tissues, which allowed us to formulate a supported list of candidate genes that regulate cellulose biosynthesis. Several regions identified by our analysis contain genes that are co-expressed with CELLULOSE SYNTHASE A (HvCesA) across a range of tissues and developmental stages. These genes are involved in both primary and secondary cell wall development. In addition, genes that have been previously linked with cellulose synthesis by biochemical methods, such as HvCOBRA, a gene of unknown function, were also associated with cellulose levels in the association panel. Our analyses provide new insights into the

  19. Uncovering Black Womanhood in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Sheree L.; Espino, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing research that outlines the experiences of Blacks and women undergraduates in engineering, little is known about Black women in this field. The purpose of this qualitative study was to uncover how eight Black undergraduate women in engineering understood their race and gender identities in a culture that can be oppressive to…

  20. Uncovering Black Womanhood in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Sheree L.; Espino, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing research that outlines the experiences of Blacks and women undergraduates in engineering, little is known about Black women in this field. The purpose of this qualitative study was to uncover how eight Black undergraduate women in engineering understood their race and gender identities in a culture that can be oppressive to…

  1. A pooling-based genome-wide analysis identifies new potential candidate genes for atopy in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Asthma and atopy are complex phenotypes with shared genetic component. In this study we attempt to identify genes related to these traits performing a two-stage DNA pooling genome-wide analysis in order to reduce costs. First, we assessed all markers in a subset of subjects using DNA pooling, and in a second stage we evaluated the most promising markers at an individual level. Methods For the genome-wide analysis, we constructed DNA pools from 75 subjects with atopy and asthma, 75 subjects with atopy and without asthma and 75 control subjects without atopy or asthma. In a second stage, the most promising regions surrounding significant markers after correction for false discovery rate were replicated with individual genotyping of samples included in the pools and an additional set of 429 atopic subjects and 222 controls from the same study centres. Results Homo sapiens protein kinase-like protein SgK493 (SGK493) was found to be associated with atopy. To lesser extent mitogen-activated protein kinase 5 (MAP3K5), collagen type XVIII alpha 1 (COL18A1) and collagen type XXIX alpha 1 (COL29A1) were also found to be associated with atopy. Functional evidences points out a role for MAP3K5, COL18A1 and COL29A1 but the function of SGK493 is unknown. Conclusion In this analysis we have identified new candidate regions related to atopy and suggest SGK493 as an atopy locus, although these results need further replication. PMID:19961619

  2. Stratified whole genome linkage analysis of Chiari type I malformation implicates known Klippel-Feil syndrome genes as putative disease candidates.

    PubMed

    Markunas, Christina A; Soldano, Karen; Dunlap, Kaitlyn; Cope, Heidi; Asiimwe, Edgar; Stajich, Jeffrey; Enterline, David; Grant, Gerald; Fuchs, Herbert; Gregory, Simon G; Ashley-Koch, Allison E

    2013-01-01

    Chiari Type I Malformation (CMI) is characterized by displacement of the cerebellar tonsils below the base of the skull, resulting in significant neurologic morbidity. Although multiple lines of evidence support a genetic contribution to disease, no genes have been identified. We therefore conducted the largest whole genome linkage screen to date using 367 individuals from 66 families with at least two individuals presenting with nonsyndromic CMI with or without syringomyelia. Initial findings across all 66 families showed minimal evidence for linkage due to suspected genetic heterogeneity. In order to improve power to localize susceptibility genes, stratified linkage analyses were performed using clinical criteria to differentiate families based on etiologic factors. Families were stratified on the presence or absence of clinical features associated with connective tissue disorders (CTDs) since CMI and CTDs frequently co-occur and it has been proposed that CMI patients with CTDs represent a distinct class of patients with a different underlying disease mechanism. Stratified linkage analyses resulted in a marked increase in evidence of linkage to multiple genomic regions consistent with reduced genetic heterogeneity. Of particular interest were two regions (Chr8, Max LOD = 3.04; Chr12, Max LOD = 2.09) identified within the subset of "CTD-negative" families, both of which harbor growth differentiation factors (GDF6, GDF3) implicated in the development of Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS). Interestingly, roughly 3-5% of CMI patients are diagnosed with KFS. In order to investigate the possibility that CMI and KFS are allelic, GDF3 and GDF6 were sequenced leading to the identification of a previously known KFS missense mutation and potential regulatory variants in GDF6. This study has demonstrated the value of reducing genetic heterogeneity by clinical stratification implicating several convincing biological candidates and further supporting the hypothesis that

  3. Whole genome association analysis shows that ACE is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and fails to replicate most candidates from Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Jennifer; Reiman, Eric M; Zismann, Victoria L; Joshipura, Keta D; Pearson, John v; Hu-Lince, Diane; Huentelman, Matthew J; Craig, David W; Coon, Keith D; Beach, Thomas; Rohrer, Kristen C; Zhao, Alice S; Leung, Doris; Bryden, Leslie; Marlowe, Lauren; Kaleem, Mona; Mastroeni, Diego; Grover, Andrew; Rogers, Joseph; Heun, Reinhard; Jessen, Frank; Kölsch, Heike; Heward, Christopher B; Ravid, Rivka; Hutton, Michael L; Melquist, Stacey; Petersen, Ron C; Caselli, Richard J; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Stephan, Dietrich A; Hardy, John; Myers, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    For late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), the only confirmed, genetic association is with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) locus on chromosome 19. Meta-analysis is often employed to sort the true associations from the false positives. LOAD research has the advantage of a continuously updated meta-analysis of candidate gene association studies in the web-based AlzGene database. The top 30 AlzGene loci on May 1st, 2007 were investigated in our whole genome association data set consisting of 1411 LOAD cases and neuropathoiogicaiiy verified controls genotyped at 312,316 SNPs using the Affymetrix 500K Mapping Platform. Of the 30 “top AlzGenes", 32 SNPs in 24 genes had odds ratios (OR) whose 95% confidence intervals that did not include 1. Of these 32 SNPs, six were part of the Affymetrix 500K Mapping panel and another ten had proxies on the Affymetrix array that had >80% power to detect an association with α=0.001. Two of these 16 SNPs showed significant association with LOAD in our sample series. One was rs4420638 at the APOE locus (uncorrected p-value=4.58E-37) and the other was rs4293, located in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) locus (uncorrected p-value=0.014). Since this result was nominally significant, but did not survive multiple testing correction for 16 independent tests, this association at rs4293 was verified in a geographically distinct German cohort (p-value=0.03). We present the results of our ACE replication aiongwith a discussion of the statistical limitations of multiple test corrections in whole genome studies. PMID:21537449

  4. Stratified Whole Genome Linkage Analysis of Chiari Type I Malformation Implicates Known Klippel-Feil Syndrome Genes as Putative Disease Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Markunas, Christina A.; Soldano, Karen; Dunlap, Kaitlyn; Cope, Heidi; Asiimwe, Edgar; Stajich, Jeffrey; Enterline, David; Grant, Gerald; Fuchs, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Chiari Type I Malformation (CMI) is characterized by displacement of the cerebellar tonsils below the base of the skull, resulting in significant neurologic morbidity. Although multiple lines of evidence support a genetic contribution to disease, no genes have been identified. We therefore conducted the largest whole genome linkage screen to date using 367 individuals from 66 families with at least two individuals presenting with nonsyndromic CMI with or without syringomyelia. Initial findings across all 66 families showed minimal evidence for linkage due to suspected genetic heterogeneity. In order to improve power to localize susceptibility genes, stratified linkage analyses were performed using clinical criteria to differentiate families based on etiologic factors. Families were stratified on the presence or absence of clinical features associated with connective tissue disorders (CTDs) since CMI and CTDs frequently co-occur and it has been proposed that CMI patients with CTDs represent a distinct class of patients with a different underlying disease mechanism. Stratified linkage analyses resulted in a marked increase in evidence of linkage to multiple genomic regions consistent with reduced genetic heterogeneity. Of particular interest were two regions (Chr8, Max LOD = 3.04; Chr12, Max LOD = 2.09) identified within the subset of “CTD-negative” families, both of which harbor growth differentiation factors (GDF6, GDF3) implicated in the development of Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS). Interestingly, roughly 3–5% of CMI patients are diagnosed with KFS. In order to investigate the possibility that CMI and KFS are allelic, GDF3 and GDF6 were sequenced leading to the identification of a previously known KFS missense mutation and potential regulatory variants in GDF6. This study has demonstrated the value of reducing genetic heterogeneity by clinical stratification implicating several convincing biological candidates and further supporting the hypothesis that

  5. Genome analysis of poplar LRR-RLP gene clusters reveals RISP, a defense-related gene coding a candidate endogenous peptide elicitor

    PubMed Central

    Petre, Benjamin; Hacquard, Stéphane; Duplessis, Sébastien; Rouhier, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In plants, cell-surface receptors control immunity and development through the recognition of extracellular ligands. Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like proteins (LRR-RLPs) constitute a large multigene family of cell-surface receptors. Although this family has been intensively studied, a limited number of ligands has been identified so far, mostly because methods used for their identification and characterization are complex and fastidious. In this study, we combined genome and transcriptome analyses to describe the LRR-RLP gene family in the model tree poplar (Populus trichocarpa). In total, 82 LRR-RLP genes have been identified in P. trichocarpa genome, among which 66 are organized in clusters of up to seven members. In these clusters, LRR-RLP genes are interspersed by orphan, poplar-specific genes encoding small proteins of unknown function (SPUFs). In particular, the nine largest clusters of LRR-RLP genes (47 LRR-RLPs) include 71 SPUF genes that account for 59% of the non-LRR-RLP gene content within these clusters. Forty-four LRR-RLP and 55 SPUF genes are expressed in poplar leaves, mostly at low levels, except for members of some clusters that show higher and sometimes coordinated expression levels. Notably, wounding of poplar leaves strongly induced the expression of a defense SPUF gene named Rust-Induced Secreted protein (RISP) that has been previously reported as a marker of poplar defense responses. Interestingly, we show that the RISP-associated LRR-RLP gene is highly expressed in poplar leaves and slightly induced by wounding. Both gene promoters share a highly conserved region of ~300 nucleotides. This led us to hypothesize that the corresponding pair of proteins could be involved in poplar immunity, possibly as a ligand/receptor couple. In conclusion, we speculate that some poplar SPUFs, such as RISP, represent candidate endogenous peptide ligands of the associated LRR-RLPs and we discuss how to investigate further this hypothesis. PMID:24734035

  6. Recent advances in candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to the discovery of anthelmintic resistance markers and the description of drug/receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Kotze, Andrew C; Hunt, Peter W; Skuce, Philip; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Martin, Richard J; Sager, Heinz; Krücken, Jürgen; Hodgkinson, Jane; Lespine, Anne; Jex, Aaron R; Gilleard, John S; Beech, Robin N; Wolstenholme, Adrian J; Demeler, Janina; Robertson, Alan P; Charvet, Claude L; Neveu, Cedric; Kaminsky, Ronald; Rufener, Lucien; Alberich, Melanie; Menez, Cecile; Prichard, Roger K

    2014-12-01

    Anthelmintic resistance has a great impact on livestock production systems worldwide, is an emerging concern in companion animal medicine, and represents a threat to our ongoing ability to control human soil-transmitted helminths. The Consortium for Anthelmintic Resistance and Susceptibility (CARS) provides a forum for scientists to meet and discuss the latest developments in the search for molecular markers of anthelmintic resistance. Such markers are important for detecting drug resistant worm populations, and indicating the likely impact of the resistance on drug efficacy. The molecular basis of resistance is also important for understanding how anthelmintics work, and how drug resistant populations arise. Changes to target receptors, drug efflux and other biological processes can be involved. This paper reports on the CARS group meeting held in August 2013 in Perth, Australia. The latest knowledge on the development of molecular markers for resistance to each of the principal classes of anthelmintics is reviewed. The molecular basis of resistance is best understood for the benzimidazole group of compounds, and we examine recent work to translate this knowledge into useful diagnostics for field use. We examine recent candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to understanding anthelmintic resistance and identify markers. We also look at drug transporters in terms of providing both useful markers for resistance, as well as opportunities to overcome resistance through the targeting of the transporters themselves with inhibitors. Finally, we describe the tools available for the application of the newest high-throughput sequencing technologies to the study of anthelmintic resistance.

  7. Recent advances in candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to the discovery of anthelmintic resistance markers and the description of drug/receptor interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kotze, Andrew C.; Hunt, Peter W.; Skuce, Philip; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Martin, Richard J.; Sager, Heinz; Krücken, Jürgen; Hodgkinson, Jane; Lespine, Anne; Jex, Aaron R.; Gilleard, John S.; Beech, Robin N.; Wolstenholme, Adrian J.; Demeler, Janina; Robertson, Alan P.; Charvet, Claude L.; Neveu, Cedric; Kaminsky, Ronald; Rufener, Lucien; Alberich, Melanie; Menez, Cecile; Prichard, Roger K.

    2014-01-01

    Anthelmintic resistance has a great impact on livestock production systems worldwide, is an emerging concern in companion animal medicine, and represents a threat to our ongoing ability to control human soil-transmitted helminths. The Consortium for Anthelmintic Resistance and Susceptibility (CARS) provides a forum for scientists to meet and discuss the latest developments in the search for molecular markers of anthelmintic resistance. Such markers are important for detecting drug resistant worm populations, and indicating the likely impact of the resistance on drug efficacy. The molecular basis of resistance is also important for understanding how anthelmintics work, and how drug resistant populations arise. Changes to target receptors, drug efflux and other biological processes can be involved. This paper reports on the CARS group meeting held in August 2013 in Perth, Australia. The latest knowledge on the development of molecular markers for resistance to each of the principal classes of anthelmintics is reviewed. The molecular basis of resistance is best understood for the benzimidazole group of compounds, and we examine recent work to translate this knowledge into useful diagnostics for field use. We examine recent candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to understanding anthelmintic resistance and identify markers. We also look at drug transporters in terms of providing both useful markers for resistance, as well as opportunities to overcome resistance through the targeting of the transporters themselves with inhibitors. Finally, we describe the tools available for the application of the newest high-throughput sequencing technologies to the study of anthelmintic resistance. PMID:25516826

  8. Whole-Genome Resequencing of a Cucumber Chromosome Segment Substitution Line and Its Recurrent Parent to Identify Candidate Genes Governing Powdery Mildew Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ting; Xu, Xuewen; Yan, Yali; Qi, Xiaohua; Chen, Xuehao

    2016-01-01

    Cucumber is an economically important vegetable crop worldwide. Powdery mildew (PM) is one of the most severe diseases that can affect cucumber crops. There have been several research efforts to isolate PM resistance genes for breeding PM-resistant cucumber. In the present study, we used a chromosome segment substitution line, SSL508-28, which carried PM resistance genes from the donor parent, JIN5-508, through twelve generations of backcrossing with a PM-susceptible inbred line, D8. We performed whole-genome resequencing of SSL508-28 and D8 to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and insertions and deletions (indels). When compared against the reference genome of the inbred cucumber line 9930, a total of 468,616 SNPs and 67,259 indels were identified in SSL508-28, and 537,352 SNPs and 91,698 indels were identified in D8. Of these, 3,014 non-synonymous SNPs and 226 frameshift indels in SSL508-28, and 3,104 non-synonymous SNPs and 251 frameshift indels in D8, were identified. Bioinformatics analysis of these variations revealed a total of 15,682 SNPs and 6,262 indels between SSL508-28 and D8, among which 120 non-synonymous SNPs and 30 frameshift indels in 94 genes were detected between SSL508-28 and D8. Finally, out of these 94 genes, five resistance genes with nucleotide-binding sites and leucine-rich repeat domains were selected for qRT-PCR analysis. This revealed an upregulation of two transcripts, Csa2M435460.1 and Csa5M579560.1, in SSL508-28. Furthermore, the results of qRT-PCR analysis of these two genes in ten PM resistant and ten PM susceptible cucumber lines showed that when exposed to PM, Csa2M435460.1 and Csa5M579560.1 exhibited a higher expression level of resistant lines than susceptible lines. This indicates that Csa2M435460.1 and Csa5M579560.1 are candidate genes for PM resistance in cucumber. In addition, the non-synonymous SNPs in Csa2M435460.1 and Csa5M579560.1, identified in SSL508-28 and D8, might be the key to high PM-resistance in

  9. Genome-Wide Transcriptome Analysis of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Identifies Candidate Gene Signatures in Response to Aflatoxin Producing Fungus Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Bedre, Renesh; Rajasekaran, Kanniah; Mangu, Venkata Ramanarao; Sanchez Timm, Luis Eduardo; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Baisakh, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic and potent carcinogenic metabolites produced from the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxins can contaminate cottonseed under conducive preharvest and postharvest conditions. United States federal regulations restrict the use of aflatoxin contaminated cottonseed at >20 ppb for animal feed. Several strategies have been proposed for controlling aflatoxin contamination, and much success has been achieved by the application of an atoxigenic strain of A. flavus in cotton, peanut and maize fields. Development of cultivars resistant to aflatoxin through overexpression of resistance associated genes and/or knocking down aflatoxin biosynthesis of A. flavus will be an effective strategy for controlling aflatoxin contamination in cotton. In this study, genome-wide transcriptome profiling was performed to identify differentially expressed genes in response to infection with both toxigenic and atoxigenic strains of A. flavus on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) pericarp and seed. The genes involved in antifungal response, oxidative burst, transcription factors, defense signaling pathways and stress response were highly differentially expressed in pericarp and seed tissues in response to A. flavus infection. The cell-wall modifying genes and genes involved in the production of antimicrobial substances were more active in pericarp as compared to seed. The genes involved in auxin and cytokinin signaling were also induced. Most of the genes involved in defense response in cotton were highly induced in pericarp than in seed. The global gene expression analysis in response to fungal invasion in cotton will serve as a source for identifying biomarkers for breeding, potential candidate genes for transgenic manipulation, and will help in understanding complex plant-fungal interaction for future downstream research.

  10. Integration of genome-wide association and extant brain expression QTL identifies candidate genes influencing prepulse inhibition in inbred F1 mice

    PubMed Central

    Sittig, L. J.; Carbonetto, P.; Engel, K. A.; Krauss, K. S.; Palmer, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic association mapping in structured populations of model organisms can offer a fruitful complement to human genetic studies by generating new biological hypotheses about complex traits. Here we investigated prepulse inhibition (PPI), a measure of sensorimotor gating that is disrupted in a number of psychiatric disorders. To identify genes that influence PPI, we constructed a panel of half-sibs by crossing 30 females from common inbred mouse strains with inbred C57BL/6J males to create male and female F1 offspring. We used publicly available single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data from these inbred strains to perform a genome-wide association scan using a dense panel of over 150 000 SNPs in a combined sample of 604 mice representing 30 distinct F1 genotypes. We identified two independent PPI-associated loci on Chromosomes 2 and 7, each of which explained 12 – 14% of the variance in PPI. Searches of available databases did not identify any plausible causative coding polymorphisms within these loci. However, previously collected expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) data from hippocampus and striatum indicated that the SNPs on Chromosomes 2 and 7 that showed the strongest association with PPI were also strongly associated with expression of several transcripts, some of which have been implicated in human psychiatric disorders. This integrative approach successfully identified a focused set of genes which can be prioritized for follow-up studies. More broadly, our results show that F1 crosses among common inbred strains can be used in combination with other informatics and expression datasets to identify candidate genes for complex behavioral traits. PMID:26482417

  11. Genome-wide association analysis on normal hearing function identifies PCDH20 and SLC28A3 as candidates for hearing function and loss.

    PubMed

    Vuckovic, Dragana; Dawson, Sally; Scheffer, Deborah I; Rantanen, Taina; Morgan, Anna; Di Stazio, Mariateresa; Vozzi, Diego; Nutile, Teresa; Concas, Maria P; Biino, Ginevra; Nolan, Lisa; Bahl, Aileen; Loukola, Anu; Viljanen, Anne; Davis, Adrian; Ciullo, Marina; Corey, David P; Pirastu, Mario; Gasparini, Paolo; Girotto, Giorgia

    2015-10-01

    Hearing loss and individual differences in normal hearing both have a substantial genetic basis. Although many new genes contributing to deafness have been identified, very little is known about genes/variants modulating the normal range of hearing ability. To fill this gap, we performed a two-stage meta-analysis on hearing thresholds (tested at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 kHz) and on pure-tone averages (low-, medium- and high-frequency thresholds grouped) in several isolated populations from Italy and Central Asia (total N = 2636). Here, we detected two genome-wide significant loci close to PCDH20 and SLC28A3 (top hits: rs78043697, P = 4.71E-10 and rs7032430, P = 2.39E-09, respectively). For both loci, we sought replication in two independent cohorts: B58C from the UK (N = 5892) and FITSA from Finland (N = 270). Both loci were successfully replicated at a nominal level of significance (P < 0.05). In order to confirm our quantitative findings, we carried out RT-PCR and reported RNA-Seq data, which showed that both genes are expressed in mouse inner ear, especially in hair cells, further suggesting them as good candidates for modulatory genes in the auditory system. Sequencing data revealed no functional variants in the coding region of PCDH20 or SLC28A3, suggesting that variation in regulatory sequences may affect expression. Overall, these results contribute to a better understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying human hearing function.

  12. Sequencing of a QTL-rich region of the Theobroma cacao genome using pooled BACs and the identification of trait specific candidate genes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: BAC-based physical maps provide for sequencing across an entire genome or selected sub-genome regions of biological interest. Using the minimum tiling path as a guide, it is possible to select specific BAC clones from prioritized genome sections such as a genetically defined QTL interv...

  13. Contrasting patterns of evolution of 45S and 5S rDNA families uncover new aspects in the genome constitution of the agronomically important grass Thinopyrum intermedium (Triticeae).

    PubMed

    Mahelka, Václav; Kopecky, David; Baum, Bernard R

    2013-09-01

    We employed sequencing of clones and in situ hybridization (genomic and fluorescent in situ hybridization [GISH and rDNA-FISH]) to characterize both the sequence variation and genomic organization of 45S (herein ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region) and 5S (5S gene + nontranscribed spacer) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) families in the allohexaploid grass Thinopyrum intermedium. Both rDNA families are organized within several rDNA loci within all three subgenomes of the allohexaploid species. Both families have undergone different patterns of evolution. The 45S rDNA family has evolved in a concerted manner: internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences residing within the arrays of two subgenomes out of three got homogenized toward one major ribotype, whereas the third subgenome contained a minor proportion of distinct unhomogenized copies. Homogenization mechanisms such as unequal crossover and/or gene conversion were coupled with the loss of certain 45S rDNA loci. Unlike in the 45S family, the data suggest that neither interlocus homogenization among homeologous chromosomes nor locus loss occurred in 5S rDNA. Consistently with other Triticeae, the 5S rDNA family in intermediate wheatgrass comprised two distinct array types-the long- and short-spacer unit classes. Within the long and short units, we distinguished five and three different types, respectively, likely representing homeologous unit classes donated by putative parental species. Although the major ITS ribotype corresponds in our phylogenetic analysis to the E-genome species, the minor ribotype corresponds to Dasypyrum. 5S sequences suggested the contributions from Pseudoroegneria, Dasypyrum, and Aegilops. The contribution from Aegilops to the intermediate wheatgrass' genome is a new finding with implications in wheat improvement. We discuss rDNA evolution and potential origin of intermediate wheatgrass.

  14. Genome-wide linkage and positional candidate gene study of blood pressure response to dietary potassium intervention: the genetic epidemiology network of salt sensitivity study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Tanika N; Hixson, James E; Rao, Dabeeru C; Mei, Hao; Rice, Treva K; Jaquish, Cashell E; Shimmin, Lawrence C; Schwander, Karen; Chen, Chung-Shuian; Liu, Depei; Chen, Jichun; Bormans, Concetta; Shukla, Pramila; Farhana, Naveed; Stuart, Colin; Whelton, Paul K; He, Jiang; Gu, Dongfeng

    2010-12-01

    Genetic determinants of blood pressure (BP) response to potassium, or potassium sensitivity, are largely unknown. We conducted a genome-wide linkage scan and positional candidate gene analysis to identify genetic determinants of potassium sensitivity. A total of 1906 Han Chinese participants took part in a 7-day high-sodium diet followed by a 7-day high-sodium plus potassium dietary intervention. BP measurements were obtained at baseline and after each intervention using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. Significant linkage signals (logarithm of odds [LOD] score, >3) for BP responses to potassium were detected at chromosomal regions 3q24-q26.1, 3q28, and 11q22.3-q24.3. Maximum multipoint LOD scores of 3.09 at 3q25.2 and 3.41 at 11q23.3 were observed for absolute diastolic BP (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses, respectively. Linkage peaks of 3.56 at 3q25.1 and 3.01 at 11q23.3 for percent DBP response and 3.22 at 3q25.2, 3.01 at 3q28, and 4.48 at 11q23.3 for percent MAP response also were identified. Angiotensin II receptor, type 1 (AGTR1), single-nucleotide polymorphism rs16860760 in the 3q24-q26.1 region was significantly associated with absolute and percent systolic BP responses to potassium (P=0.0008 and P=0.0006, respectively). Absolute (95% CI) systolic BP responses for genotypes C/C, C/T, and T/T were -3.71 (-4.02 to -3.40), -2.62 (-3.38 to -1.85), and 1.03 (-3.73 to 5.79) mm Hg, respectively, and percent responses (95% CI) were -3.07 (-3.33 to -2.80), -2.07 (-2.74 to -1.41), and 0.90 (-3.20 to 4.99), respectively. Similar trends were observed for DBP and MAP responses. Genetic regions on chromosomes 3 and 11 may harbor important susceptibility loci for potassium sensitivity. Furthermore, the AGTR1 gene was a significant predictor of BP responses to potassium intake.

  15. Genome-wide Linkage and Positional Candidate Gene Study of Blood Pressure Response to Dietary Potassium Intervention: The GenSalt Study

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Tanika N.; Hixson, James E.; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Mei, Hao; Rice, Treva K.; Jaquish, Cashell E.; Shimmin, Lawrence C.; Schwander, Karen; Chen, Chung-Shuian; Liu, Depei; Chen, Jichun; Bormans, Concetta; Shukla, Pramila; Farhana, Naveed; Stuart, Colin; Whelton, Paul K.; He, Jiang; Gu, Dongfeng

    2011-01-01

    Background Genetic determinants of BP response to potassium, or potassium sensitivity, are largely unknown. We conducted a genome-wide linkage scan and positional candidate gene analysis to identify genetic determinants of potassium sensitivity. Methods and Results 1,906 Han Chinese participants took part in a 7-day high-sodium followed by a 7-day high-sodium plus potassium dietary intervention. BP measurements were obtained at baseline and following each intervention using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. Significant linkage signals (LOD>3) for BP responses to potassium were detected at chromosomal regions 3q24-q26.1, 3q28, and 11q22.3-q24.3. Maximum multipoint LOD scores of 3.09 at 3q25.2 and 3.41 at 11q23.3 were observed for absolute DBP and MAP responses, respectively. Linkage peaks of 3.56 at 3q25.1 and 3.01 at 11q23.3 for percent DBP response and 3.22 at 3q25.2, 3.01 at 3q28, and 4.48 at 11q23.3 for percent MAP response were also identified. AGTR1 SNP rs16860760 in the 3q24-q26.1 region was significantly associated with absolute and percent systolic (SBP) responses to potassium (p-values=0.0008 and 0.0006, respectively). Absolute SBP responses (95% CI) for genotypes C/C, C/T, and T/T were: −3.71 (−4.02, −3.40), −2.62 (−3.38, −1.85), and 1.03 (−3.73, 5.79) mmHg, respectively; and percent responses (95% CI) were: −3.07 (−3.33, −2.80), −2.07 (−2.74, −1.41), and 0.90 (−3.20, 4.99), respectively. Similar trends were observed for DBP and MAP responses. Conclusions Genetic regions on chromosomes 3 and 11 may harbor important susceptibility loci for potassium sensitivity. Furthermore, the AGTR1 gene was a significant predictor of BP responses to potassium intake. Clinical Trial Registration Information http://clinicaltrials.gov; Identifier: NCT00721721 PMID:20861505

  16. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Analysis of Human Pancreatic Islets from Type 2 Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Donors Identifies Candidate Genes That Influence Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Dayeh, Tasnim; Volkov, Petr; Salö, Sofia; Hall, Elin; Nilsson, Emma; Olsson, Anders H.; Kirkpatrick, Clare L.; Wollheim, Claes B.; Eliasson, Lena; Rönn, Tina; Bacos, Karl; Ling, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Impaired insulin secretion is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Epigenetics may affect disease susceptibility. To describe the human methylome in pancreatic islets and determine the epigenetic basis of T2D, we analyzed DNA methylation of 479,927 CpG sites and the transcriptome in pancreatic islets from T2D and non-diabetic donors. We provide a detailed map of the global DNA methylation pattern in human islets, β- and α-cells. Genomic regions close to the transcription start site showed low degrees of methylation and regions further away from the transcription start site such as the gene body, 3′UTR and intergenic regions showed a higher degree of methylation. While CpG islands were hypomethylated, the surrounding 2 kb shores showed an intermediate degree of methylation, whereas regions further away (shelves and open sea) were hypermethylated in human islets, β- and α-cells. We identified 1,649 CpG sites and 853 genes, including TCF7L2, FTO and KCNQ1, with differential DNA methylation in T2D islets after correction for multiple testing. The majority of the differentially methylated CpG sites had an intermediate degree of methylation and were underrepresented in CpG islands (∼7%) and overrepresented in the open sea (∼60%). 102 of the differentially methylated genes, including CDKN1A, PDE7B, SEPT9 and EXOC3L2, were differentially expressed in T2D islets. Methylation of CDKN1A and PDE7B promoters in vitro suppressed their transcriptional activity. Functional analyses demonstrated that identified candidate genes affect pancreatic β- and α-cells as Exoc3l silencing reduced exocytosis and overexpression of Cdkn1a, Pde7b and Sept9 perturbed insulin and glucagon secretion in clonal β- and α-cells, respectively. Together, our data can serve as a reference methylome in human islets. We provide new target genes with altered DNA methylation and expression in human T2D islets that contribute to perturbed insulin and glucagon secretion. These results highlight

  17. A Genome-Wide Association Study on the Seedless Phenotype in Banana (Musa spp.) Reveals the Potential of a Selected Panel to Detect Candidate Genes in a Vegetatively Propagated Crop

    PubMed Central

    Sardos, Julie; Rouard, Mathieu; Hueber, Yann; Cenci, Alberto; Hyma, Katie E.; van den Houwe, Ines; Hribova, Eva; Courtois, Brigitte; Roux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Banana (Musa sp.) is a vegetatively propagated, low fertility, potentially hybrid and polyploid crop. These qualities make the breeding and targeted genetic improvement of this crop a difficult and long process. The Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) approach is becoming widely used in crop plants and has proven efficient to detecting candidate genes for traits of interest, especially in cereals. GWAS has not been applied yet to a vegetatively propagated crop. However, successful GWAS in banana would considerably help unravel the genomic basis of traits of interest and therefore speed up this crop improvement. We present here a dedicated panel of 105 accessions of banana, freely available upon request, and their corresponding GBS data. A set of 5,544 highly reliable markers revealed high levels of admixture in most accessions, except for a subset of 33 individuals from Papua. A GWAS on the seedless phenotype was then successfully applied to the panel. By applying the Mixed Linear Model corrected for both kinship and structure as implemented in TASSEL, we detected 13 candidate genomic regions in which we found a number of genes potentially linked with the seedless phenotype (i.e. parthenocarpy combined with female sterility). An additional GWAS performed on the unstructured Papuan subset composed of 33 accessions confirmed six of these regions as candidate. Out of both sets of analyses, one strong candidate gene for female sterility, a putative orthologous gene to Histidine Kinase CKI1, was identified. The results presented here confirmed the feasibility and potential of GWAS when applied to small sets of banana accessions, at least for traits underpinned by a few loci. As phenotyping in banana is extremely space and time-consuming, this latest finding is of particular importance in the context of banana improvement. PMID:27144345

  18. A Genome-Wide Association Study on the Seedless Phenotype in Banana (Musa spp.) Reveals the Potential of a Selected Panel to Detect Candidate Genes in a Vegetatively Propagated Crop.

    PubMed

    Sardos, Julie; Rouard, Mathieu; Hueber, Yann; Cenci, Alberto; Hyma, Katie E; van den Houwe, Ines; Hribova, Eva; Courtois, Brigitte; Roux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Banana (Musa sp.) is a vegetatively propagated, low fertility, potentially hybrid and polyploid crop. These qualities make the breeding and targeted genetic improvement of this crop a difficult and long process. The Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) approach is becoming widely used in crop plants and has proven efficient to detecting candidate genes for traits of interest, especially in cereals. GWAS has not been applied yet to a vegetatively propagated crop. However, successful GWAS in banana would considerably help unravel the genomic basis of traits of interest and therefore speed up this crop improvement. We present here a dedicated panel of 105 accessions of banana, freely available upon request, and their corresponding GBS data. A set of 5,544 highly reliable markers revealed high levels of admixture in most accessions, except for a subset of 33 individuals from Papua. A GWAS on the seedless phenotype was then successfully applied to the panel. By applying the Mixed Linear Model corrected for both kinship and structure as implemented in TASSEL, we detected 13 candidate genomic regions in which we found a number of genes potentially linked with the seedless phenotype (i.e. parthenocarpy combined with female sterility). An additional GWAS performed on the unstructured Papuan subset composed of 33 accessions confirmed six of these regions as candidate. Out of both sets of analyses, one strong candidate gene for female sterility, a putative orthologous gene to Histidine Kinase CKI1, was identified. The results presented here confirmed the feasibility and potential of GWAS when applied to small sets of banana accessions, at least for traits underpinned by a few loci. As phenotyping in banana is extremely space and time-consuming, this latest finding is of particular importance in the context of banana improvement.

  19. Uncovering hidden variation in polyploid wheat

    PubMed Central

    Krasileva, Ksenia V.; Vasquez-Gross, Hans A.; Howell, Tyson; Bailey, Paul; Paraiso, Francine; Clissold, Leah; Simmonds, James; Ramirez-Gonzalez, Ricardo H.; Wang, Xiaodong; Borrill, Philippa; Fosker, Christine; Ayling, Sarah; Phillips, Andrew L.; Uauy, Cristobal

    2017-01-01

    Comprehensive reverse genetic resources, which have been key to understanding gene function in diploid model organisms, are missing in many polyploid crops. Young polyploid species such as wheat, which was domesticated less than 10,000 y ago, have high levels of sequence identity among subgenomes that mask the effects of recessive alleles. Such redundancy reduces the probability of selection of favorable mutations during natural or human selection, but