Science.gov

Sample records for genotype affects outcome

  1. Schistosomiasis Does Not Affect the Outcome of HCV Infection in Genotype 4-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Allam, Walaa R.; Barakat, Ahmed; Zakaria, Zainab; Galal, Gehan; Abdel-Ghafar, Tamer S.; El-Tabbakh, Mohamed; Mikhail, Nabiel; Waked, Imam; Abdelwahab, Sayed F.

    2014-01-01

    Although reports suggest that Schistosoma mansoni increases hepatitis C virus (HCV) morbidity and chronicity, its impact on HCV spontaneous resolution is not clear. HCV genotype, viral load, abdominal ultrasonographic findings, and HCV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) were examined among 141 healthcare workers infected with HCV (68 workers with and 73 workers without S. mansoni). HCV genotype 4 was dominate, and viral loads were 2.62 ± 0.69 × 106 and 4.24 ± 1.4 × 106 IU/mL among patients with and without coinfection, respectively (P = 0.309); 23.5% with and 32.9% without coinfection had spontaneously resolved HCV infection (P = 0.297). Interferon-γ spot-forming cells/106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells among responding viremic patients with and without coinfection were 716 ± 194 and 587 ± 162, whereas among aviremic patients, it was 794 ± 272 and 365 ± 36 (P > 0.05), respectively. In conclusion, there was no statistical difference in HCV spontaneous resolution, viral load, liver pathology, or CMI in patients with or without S. mansoni coinfection, suggesting that it did not impact the outcome of HCV infection. PMID:24615138

  2. Comprehensive CYP2D6 genotype and adherence affect outcome in breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Alastair M; Johnson, Andrea; Quinlan, Philip; Hillman, Grantland; Fontecha, Marcel; Bray, Susan E; Purdie, Colin A; Jordan, Lee B; Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Latif, Ayshe; Hadfield, Kirsten D; Clarke, Robert B; Ashcroft, Linda; Evans, D Gareth; Howell, Anthony; Nikoloff, Michele; Lawrence, Jeffrey; Newman, William G

    2011-01-01

    The association between CYP2D6 genotype and outcome in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen remains controversial. We assessed the influence of comprehensive versus limited CYP2D6 genotype in the context of tamoxifen adherence and co-medication in a large cohort of 618 patients. Genotyping of 33 CYP2D6 alleles used two archival cohorts from tamoxifen-treated women with invasive breast cancer (Dundee, n = 391; Manchester, n = 227). Estimates for recurrence-free survival (RFS) were calculated based on inferred CYP2D6 phenotypes using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for nodal status and tumour size. Patients with at least one reduced function CYP2D6 allele (60%) or no functional alleles (6%) had a non-significant trend for worse RFS: hazard ratio (HR) 1.52 (CI 0.98-2.36, P = 0.06). For post-menopausal women on tamoxifen monotherapy, the HR for recurrence in patients with reduced functional alleles was 1.96 (CI 1.05-3.66, P = 0.036). However, RFS analysis limited to four common CYP2D6 allelic variants was no longer significant (P = 0.39). The effect of CYP2D6 genotype was increased by adjusting for adherence to tamoxifen therapy, but not significantly changed when adjusted for co-administration of potent inhibitors of CYP2D6. Comprehensive genotyping of CYP2D6 and adherence to tamoxifen therapy may be useful to identify breast cancer patients most likely to benefit from adjuvant tamoxifen.

  3. Association of FMR1 Genotypes with In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Outcomes Based on Ethnicity/Race

    PubMed Central

    Gleicher, Norbert; Weghofer, Andrea; Lee, Irene H.; Barad, David H.

    2011-01-01

    The FMR1 gene, mapping to an area of the X chromosome closely associated with autoimmunity also affects ovarian reserve, with specific genotypes associated with distinct ovarian aging patterns. They, therefore, could also be associated with differences of in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes, reported between races/ethnicities. We analyzed 339 consecutive IVF patients, 232 Caucasian, 59 African and 48 Asian, for FMR1 genotypes, and tested by multiple logistic regressions for associations between race/ethnicity, FMR1 genotype, autoimmunity and pregnancy chances with IVF. FMR1 genotypes were predictive of pregnancy (P = 0.046), het-norm/low most significantly and with decreasing chance in comparison to norm genotypes (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.23–0.85; P = 0.014). Race/ethnicity was, overall, independently associated (P = 0.03), African demonstrating decreased odds in comparison to Caucasian (OR 0.33. 95%CI 0.13–0.79; P = 0.014). Autoimmunity did not differ but interaction of autoimmunity with FMR1 genotype almost reached significance (P = 0.07). Logistic regression with race/ethnicity and interaction between FMR1 genotype and autoimmunity in the model, demonstrated 2.5-times the odds of being associated with autoimmune positivity (OR 2.5, 1.34–4.55; P = 0.004). FMR1 genotypes offer a possible explanation for differences in IVF outcomes between races/ethnicities. PMID:21526209

  4. Optimizing drug outcomes through pharmacogenetics: A case for preemptive genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Schildcrout, Jonathan S.; Denny, Joshua C.; Bowton, Erica; Gregg, William; Pulley, Jill M.; Basford, Melissa A.; Cowan, James D.; Xu, Hua; Ramirez, Andrea H.; Crawford, Dana C.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Peterson, Josh F.; Masys, Daniel R.; Wilke, Russell A.; Roden, Dan M.

    2013-01-01

    Routine integration of genotype data into drug decision-making could improve patient safety, particularly if many relevant genetic variants can be assayed simultaneously before target drug prescribing. The frequency of pharmacogenetic prescribing opportunities and the potential adverse events (AE) mitigated are unknown. We examined the frequency with which 56 medications with known outcomes influenced by variant alleles were prescribed in a cohort of 52,942 medical home patients at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Within a five-year window, we estimated that 64.8% (95% CI: 64.4%-65.2%) of individuals were exposed to at least one medication with an established pharmacogenetic association. Using previously published results for six medications with well-characterized, severe genetically-linked AEs, we estimated that 398 events (95% CI, 225 - 583) could have been prevented with an effective preemptive genotyping program. Our results suggest that multiplexed, preemptive genotyping may represent an efficient alternative approach to current single use (“reactive”) methods and may improve safety. PMID:22739144

  5. Do School Facilities Affect Academic Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Mark

    This review explores which facility attributes affect academic outcomes the most and in what manner and degree. The research is examined in six categories: indoor air quality, ventilation, and thermal comfort; lighting; acoustics; building age and quality; school size; and class size. The review concludes that school facilities affect learning.…

  6. Influence of Acanthamoeba Genotype on Clinical Course and Outcomes for Patients with Acanthamoeba Keratitis in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Lumbreras-Fernández, Blanca; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M.; Valladares, Basilio; Lopez-Velez, Rogelio; Morcillo-Laiz, Rafael; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Genotype T4 is by far the most frequent genotype of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and therefore has been considered the most virulent. This study included 14 cases of AK of genotype T4 and three cases of non-T4 genotype. We found that cases of non-T4 genotype had a worse response to medical therapy, greater need for surgical intervention, greater risk of extracorneal involvement, and remarkably poorer final visual outcome than those of T4 genotype, suggesting an association between Acanthamoeba virulence and genotype that requires additional case investigation. PMID:24430449

  7. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P.; Diener, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. Methods To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as a predictor of relationship, adjustment, self worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilized multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Results Early adolescent positive affect predicted less relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers), healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. Conclusions The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. PMID:27075545

  8. HIV Infection Affects Streptococcus mutans Levels, but Not Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, G.; Saxena, D.; Chen, Z.; Norman, R.G.; Phelan, J.A.; Laverty, M.; Fisch, G.S.; Corby, P.M.; Abrams, W.; Malamud, D.; Li, Y.

    2012-01-01

    We report a clinical study that examines whether HIV infection affects Streptococcus mutans colonization in the oral cavity. Whole stimulated saliva samples were collected from 46 HIV-seropositive individuals and 69 HIV-seronegative control individuals. The level of S. mutans colonization was determined by conventional culture methods. The genotype of S. mutans was compared between 10 HIV-positive individuals before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and 10 non-HIV-infected control individuals. The results were analyzed against viral load, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts, salivary flow rate, and caries status. We observed that S. mutans levels were higher in HIV-infected individuals than in the non-HIV-infected control individuals (p = 0.013). No significant differences in S. mutans genotypes were found between the two groups over the six-month study period, even after HAART. There was a bivariate linear relationship between S. mutans levels and CD8+ counts (r = 0.412; p = 0.007), but not between S. mutans levels and either CD4+ counts or viral load. Furthermore, compared with non-HIV-infected control individuals, HIV-infected individuals experienced lower salivary secretion (p = 0.009) and a positive trend toward more decayed tooth surfaces (p = 0.027). These findings suggest that HIV infection can have a significant effect on the level of S. mutans, but not genotypes. PMID:22821240

  9. Hepatitis C Genotype Influences Post-Liver Transplant Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Varela, Isabel; Lai, Jennifer C.; Verna, Elizabeth C.; O'Leary, Jacqueline G.; Stravitz, R. Todd; Forman, Lisa M.; Trotter, James F.; Brown, Robert S.; Terrault, Norah A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In non-transplant patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), HCV genotype has been linked with a differential response to antiviral therapy, risk of steatosis and fibrosis, as well as all-cause mortality, but the role of HCV genotypes in post-transplant disease progression is less clear. Methods Using the multicenter CRUSH-C cohort, genotype-specific rates of advanced fibrosis, HCV-specific graft loss and, response of antiviral therapy were examined. Results Among 745 recipients [605 (81%) genotype 1, 53 (7%) genotype 2, and 87 (12%) genotype 3] followed for a median of 3.1 years (range 2.0-8.0) the unadjusted cumulative rate of advanced fibrosis at 3 years was 31%, 19% and 19% for genotypes 1, 2 and 3 (p=0.008). After multivariable adjustment, genotype remained a significant predictor, with genotype 2 having a 66% lower risk (p=0.02) and genotype 3 having a 41% lower risk (p=0.07) of advanced fibrosis compared to genotype 1 patients. The cumulative 5-year rates of HCV-specific graft survival were 84%, 90% and 94% for genotypes 1, 2 and 3, p=0.10. A total of 37% received antiviral therapy, with higher rates of sustained virologic response in patients with genotype 2 (HR=5.10; p=0.003) and genotype 3 (HR=3.27; p=0.006) compared to patients with genotype 1. Conclusion Risk of advanced fibrosis and response to therapy are strongly influenced by genotype. LT recipients with HCV genotype 1 have the highest risk of advanced fibrosis and lowest SVR rate. These findings highlight the need for genotype-specific management strategies. PMID:25211520

  10. Motivated behavioral outcomes affect ratings of attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Larry C; Hardy, David J

    2014-12-01

    A relatively new theory of motivation posits that purposeful human behavior may be partly explained by multidimensional individual differences "traits of action" (motives). Its 15 motives can be characterized according to their purpose: individual integrity, competitiveness, and cooperativeness. Existing evidence supports the model on which the motives are based and the reliability and validity of strategies to assess them. This experiment tested whether the hypothetical results of consistent, motivated cooperative and competitive behavior could affect ratings of attractiveness. Male and female participants (N = 98; M age = 18.8, SD = 1.4) were shown 24 opposite-sex facial photos ranging in attractiveness. The photos were paired with one of three conditions representing theoretical outcomes that would result from low, control, and high levels of cooperative and competitive motives. As predicted, outcome descriptions representing high motive strength of six motives statistically significantly affected ratings of attractiveness. This result was independent of sex of participant and consistent with the theory. PMID:25457092

  11. PEPA-1* genotype affects return rate for hatchery steelhead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisenbichler, R.R.; Hayes, M.C.; Rubin, S.P.; Wetzel, L.A.; Baker, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Allozymes continue to be useful as genetic markers in a variety of studies; however, their utility often hinges on the selective neutrality of the allelic variation. Our study tested for neutrality between the two most common alleles (*100 and *110) at the cytosol nonspecific dipeptidase locus (PEPA-1*) in steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery in Idaho. We tested for differential growth and survival among fish with the * 100/100, *100/ 110, and *110/110 genotypes rearing in a hatchery or a natural stream. We repeated the study for two year-classes, using heterozygous (*100/110) adults to make the experimental crosses. This design avoided differences in family contribution among genotypes because each cross produced all three genotypes. We divided the progeny from each family into two groups. One group was reared in a hatchery for 1 year and then released for migration to the sea and subsequent return to the hatchery as adults. The other group was released into a natural stream and monitored for 3 years. We found no significant differences in size or survival among PEPA-1* genotypes for either the naturally reared fish or the hatchery-reared fish immediately prior to release as smolts. For females, survival to returning adult also was similar among genotypes; however, hatchery-reared males with the *110/110 genotype returned at a higher rate than did males with the *100/ 100 genotype; heterozygous males were intermediate. These results indicate that selection occurs at the PEPA-1* locus or at one or more loci tightly linked to it. The finding of nearly equal frequencies for these two alleles in the source population suggests that selection differentials among genotypes reverse or vary from year to year; otherwise, steady directional selection would drive the *100 allele to low frequencies or extinction. Locus PEPA-1* seems inappropriate for genetic marks in studies of steelhead that span the full life cycle and probably should be avoided

  12. The relative importance of trait vs. genetic differentiation for the outcome of interactions among plant genotypes.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Jessica M; Stachowicz, John J

    2016-01-01

    Functional trait differences and genetic distance are increasingly used as metrics to predict the. outcome of species interactions and the maintenance of diversity. We apply these ideas to intraspecific diversity for the seagrass Zostera marina (eelgrass), by explicitly testing the influence of trait distance and genetic relatedness on the outcome of pairwise interactions among eelgrass genotypes. Increasing trait distance (but not relatedness) between eelgrass genotypes decreased the likelihood that both would persist over a year-long field experiment, contrary to our expectations based on niche partitioning. In plots in which one genotype excluded another, the biomass and growth of the remaining genotype increased with the trait distance and genetic relatedness of the initial pair, presumably due to a legacy of past interactions. Together these results suggest that sustained competition among functionally similar genotypes did not produce a clear winner, but rapid exclusion occurred among genotypes with distinct trait combinations. Borrowing from coexistence theory, we argue that fitness differences between genotypes with distinct traits overwhelmed any stabilizing effects of niche differentiation. Previously observed effects of eelgrass genetic diversity on performance may rely on nonadditive interactions among multiple genotypes or sufficient environmental heterogeneity to increase stabilizing forces and/or interactions. PMID:27008778

  13. The relative importance of trait vs. genetic differentiation for the outcome of interactions among plant genotypes.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Jessica M; Stachowicz, John J

    2016-01-01

    Functional trait differences and genetic distance are increasingly used as metrics to predict the. outcome of species interactions and the maintenance of diversity. We apply these ideas to intraspecific diversity for the seagrass Zostera marina (eelgrass), by explicitly testing the influence of trait distance and genetic relatedness on the outcome of pairwise interactions among eelgrass genotypes. Increasing trait distance (but not relatedness) between eelgrass genotypes decreased the likelihood that both would persist over a year-long field experiment, contrary to our expectations based on niche partitioning. In plots in which one genotype excluded another, the biomass and growth of the remaining genotype increased with the trait distance and genetic relatedness of the initial pair, presumably due to a legacy of past interactions. Together these results suggest that sustained competition among functionally similar genotypes did not produce a clear winner, but rapid exclusion occurred among genotypes with distinct trait combinations. Borrowing from coexistence theory, we argue that fitness differences between genotypes with distinct traits overwhelmed any stabilizing effects of niche differentiation. Previously observed effects of eelgrass genetic diversity on performance may rely on nonadditive interactions among multiple genotypes or sufficient environmental heterogeneity to increase stabilizing forces and/or interactions.

  14. Clinical Features and Outcomes of Patients With Genotype 3 Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Ra Ri; Lee, Sang Soo; Lee, Chang Min; Ji, Sung Bok; Jung, Hee Cheul; Cho, Hyun Chin; Kim, Jin Joo; Lee, Jae Min; Kim, Hong Jun; Ha, Chang Yoon; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae-Hyo; Jung, Woon Tae; Lee, Ok-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 3 infection is very rare in high-income Asia Pacific. The aim of our retrospective observational study was to evaluate the incidence, clinical features, and treatment outcomes of patients with a genotype 3 HCV infection in the Gyeongnam Province of Korea. Ninety-eight consecutive patients diagnosed with a genotype 3 HCV infection at Gyeongsang National University Hospital, between January 2005 and December 2014, were enrolled into the study. Relevant characteristics of the study group included: 80.6% men, mean age of 41.8 years, and including 69 patients with chronic hepatitis, 25 with liver cirrhosis, and 4 with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Risk factors for HCV infection, sustained virologic response rate, development of HCC, and mortality in patients with genotype 3 were retrospectively analyzed. Among all patients diagnosed with a HCV infection during the study period, the prevalence of genotype 3 was 7.3%. The incidence of genotype 3 was higher in young patients with a risk factor of IVDU (54.0%) and tattooing (62.3%). Among 45 treatment-naive genotype 3 patients, sustained virologic response was achieved with a combination of pegylated-interferon alpha and ribavirin in 75.6%. The cumulative 5-year incidence of HCC was 13.6%, and 8.9% for overall mortality. Liver cirrhosis at enrollment was an independent risk factor for HCC development. This is the first study to elucidate the clinical features and outcomes among the patients with HCV genotype 3 infection in Korea. Further prospective studies are needed to investigate transmission routes and outcomes for HCV genotype 3 infections. PMID:26871824

  15. Transformational management style positively affects financial outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zwingman-Bagley, C

    1999-01-01

    Two specific examples from the author's experience demonstrate the central theme that positive financial outcomes are a function of a transformational leadership style of management. The article focuses on participation competencies utilizing involvement, empowerment, and accountability. Developing staff and empowering them to make decisions about their work and outcomes are necessary to achieve a high-quality, cost-effective outcome, the key to financial success.

  16. Association between susceptible genotypes to periodontitis and clinical outcomes of periodontal regenerative therapy: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Koidou, Vasiliki-Petros

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this review is to systematically investigate the effect of a susceptible genotype to periodontitis with the clinical outcomes of periodontal regeneration. Material and Methods Based on a focused question, an electronic search identified 155 unique citations. Three journals (Journal of Periodontology, Journal of Clinical Periodontology and Journal of Periodontal Research), references of relevant studies and review articles were hand-searched. Two independent reviewers implementing eligibility inclusion criteria selected the studies. Results Of the 155, four studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All studies were published between 2000 and 2004 and the samples’ size was 40 to 86 patients. Polymorphisms of Interleukin-1 (IL-1) gene were included in all. Three out of four studies failed to identify an association between susceptible genotypes to periodontitis and clinical outcomes of periodontal regeneration, while one found an association. The heterogeneity and small number of studies included prevented the conduct of a meta-analysis. No studies were identified evaluating the effect of other genotypes and as a result only IL-1 genotype studies were included. Conclusions Within the limits of the present review, no direct conclusion for the effect of a susceptible IL-1 genotype status to the clinical outcome after periodontal regeneration could be drawn. The need of more qualitative studies to explore a possible association emerges. Key words:Periodontitis, genotype, periodontal therapy, regeneration, susceptibility, systematic review. PMID:26946210

  17. Cropping history affects nodulation and symbiotic efficiency of distinct hairy vetch genotypes with resident soil rhizobia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presence of compatible rhizobia strains is essential for nodulation and BNF of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, HV). We evaluated how past HV cultivation affects nodulation and nitrogen fixation across host genotypes. Five groups of HV genotypes were inoculated with soil dilutions from six paired fields,...

  18. Conception of Learning Outcomes in the Bloom's Taxonomy Affective Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickiene, Izabela

    2010-01-01

    The article raises a problematic issue regarding an insufficient base of the conception of learning outcomes in the Bloom's taxonomy affective domain. The search for solutions introduces the conception of teaching and learning in the affective domain as well as presents validity criteria of learning outcomes in the affective domain. The…

  19. GALNT14 Genotype Predicts Postoperative Outcome of Stage III Colorectal Cancer With Oxaliplatin as Adjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wey-Ran; Chiang, Jy-Ming; Liang, Kung-Hao; Lim, Siew-Na; Lai, Ming-Wei; Tsou, Yung-Kuan; Hsieh, Tzu-Yun; Hsu, Chih-Kai; Yeh, Chau-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy is widely used for stage III colorectal cancer (CRC) after curative surgery. CRC is a molecularly heterogeneous disease, and our current knowledge of therapeutic response-related genetic factors remains limited. N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 14 (GALNT14)-rs9679162 genotype is a prognostic predictor for chemotherapy response in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we investigated whether this genotype was related to the therapeutic outcome of stage III CRC. A cohort of 300 stage III CRC patients receiving curative resection followed by oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy was retrospectively recruited. GALNT14 genotypes and the clinicopathological factors were correlated with posttherapeutic prognosis. Of these patients, 18% patients had GALNT14-rs9679162 “TT” and 82% had the “GT” + “GG” genotypes. The analysis showed that the “TT” genotype was associated with unfavorable overall survival (OS, P = 0.009) but not with recurrence-free survival (RFS, P = 0.700). The subgroup analysis showed that the “TT” genotype was associated with unfavorable OS in the following subgroups: age ≤65 years, men, left side CRC, N2 stage, carcinoembryonic antigen >5 ng/mL, and mucinous histology (P = 0.012, 0.011, 0.009, 0.025, 0.013, and 0.007, respectively). Within the latter 2 subgroups, the “TT” genotype was the only independent predictor for OS. Finally, the “TT” genotype was associated with the T4 tumor stage (P = 0.017) and in patients with T4 tumors, the “TT” genotype was the only independent predictor for unfavorable RFS (P = 0.007). GALNT14 “TT” genotype was associated with unfavorable OS in stage III CRC patients receiving curative surgery and adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. PMID:27124048

  20. Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype predicts greater aggression through impulsive reactivity to negative affect.

    PubMed

    Chester, David S; DeWall, C Nathan; Derefinko, Karen J; Estus, Steven; Peters, Jessica R; Lynam, Donald R; Jiang, Yang

    2015-04-15

    Low functioning MAOA genotypes have been reliably linked to increased reactive aggression, yet the psychological mechanisms of this effect remain largely unknown. The low functioning MAOA genotype's established link to diminished inhibition and greater reactivity to conditions of negative affect suggest that negative urgency, the tendency to act impulsively in the context of negative affect, may fill this mediating role. Such MAOA carriers may have higher negative urgency, which may in turn predict greater aggressive responses to provocation. To test these hypotheses, 277 female and male participants were genotyped for an MAOA SNP yet to be linked to aggression (rs1465108), and then reported their negative urgency and past aggressive behavior. We replicated the effect of the low functioning MAOA genotype on heightened aggression, which was mediated by greater negative urgency. These results suggest that disrupted serotonergic systems predispose individuals towards aggressive behavior by increasing impulsive reactivity to negative affect. PMID:25637908

  1. Demotivation: Affective States and Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falout, Joseph; Elwood, James; Hood, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Demotivation can negatively influence the learner's attitudes and behaviors, degrade classroom group dynamics and teacher's motivation, and result in long-term and widespread negative learning outcomes. 900 university EFL learners were surveyed to investigate the demotivating factors in learning English as a foreign language (EFL) in Japan, and…

  2. Trait Affect and Job Search Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Stephane; Saks, Alan M.; Zikic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the role of trait affect in job search. One hundred and twenty-three university students completed measures of positive and negative affectivity, conscientiousness, job search self-efficacy, job search clarity, and job search intensity during their last year of school while on the job market. At the end of the school…

  3. AB128. Neonatal diabetes mellitus: genotype, phenotype and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Can, Ngoc Thi Bich; Vu, Dung Chi; Bui, Thao Phuong; Nguyen, Khanh Ngoc; Flanagan, Sarah; Ellard, Sian; Craig, Maria; Nguyen, Dat Phu; Nguyen, Hoan Thi

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a rare (1:300,000-400,000 newborns) but potentially devastating metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia combined with low levels of insulin. Two main groups have been recognized on clinical grounds, transient NDM (TNDM) and permanent NDM (PNDM). This article aims to describe clinical features and laboratory manifestations of patient with NDM and evaluate outcome of management. Methods and materials Clinical features, biochemical finding, mutation analysis and management outcome of 24 cases 24 unrelated families were study. All exon of KCNJ11, ABCC8 and INS genes were amplified from genomic DNA and directly sequenced. If the mutation of KCNJ11, ABCC8 and INS has failed to detect, methylation—specific PCR will be done to detect the loss of methylated region on chromosome 6q24. Results Twenty-four cases (11 girls and 13 boys) onset at 67.3±44 days of age with gestation age of 38.79±2.2 weeks and birth weight of 2,720.8±571.7 g. 9/24 cases admitted with the feature of polydipsia, polyuria and 17 cases with diabetes keton acidosis with pH of 7.13±0.18, blood glucose of 34.8±10.0 mmoL/L, HbA1C of 7.9%±2.9%. Mutation analysis showed six patients with heterozygous for a KCNJ11 missense mutation, seven patients with ABCC8 mutations, four patients with abnormal of chromosom 6, six patients with INS mutation, one patient with EIF2AK3 mutation. The patients have been followed up during 54.4±46.6 months (4 months to 14 years). Five patients with TNDM stop insulin at 8.25±5.8 months of diagnosis: four cases have abnormal of 6q24, one case has ABCC8 mutation. Now all cases have normoglycemic (blood glucose: 5.0 and 5.9 mmoL/L), one patient has mild development delay and four patients has normal development. Nineteen patients with PNDM: 13 cases successfully transferred onto sulfonylureas and did not need insulin injections, six cases require insulin. In there, two cases with DEND syndrome have

  4. Genotypic variation in tomatoes affecting processing and antioxidant attributes.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Mohammed Wasim; Ayala-Zavala, J F; Dhua, R S

    2015-01-01

    Tomatoes are widely consumed either raw or after processing and can provide a significant proportion of the total antioxidants in the diet associated with beneficial health properties. Over the last two or three decades an increasing interest for processing and antioxidant attributes in tomatoes has arisen. The screening of processing attributes of tomatoes is subject of a large number of articles; however, special interest has been addressed to the biochemical composition. The postharvest and industrial processing of tomato in tomato-based products includes several steps. Processing and antioxidant characteristics of the raw fruit are important considering the processing steps and final product. To respond to consumer and industrial complaints, breeders should know the range of genetic variability available in tomato resources, including local genotypes, for improving the mentioned attributes. Characterization and conservation of traditional and modern varieties is a major goal for their preservation and utilization. The bioactive contents have an impact on the processed destines so their stability must be contemplated while selecting the tomato fruits for processing. The endeavor of this review was to examine comprehensively the variation in processing and antioxidant attributes among tomatoes. Role of tomato peel in terms of bioactive contents and information on high pigment (hp) tomato mutants are also touched to some extent. Probably, patterns of variation identified/discussed in this paper would give impetus for planning breeding strategies to develop and improve the new processing cultivars with good antioxidant status.

  5. Implicit emotion regulation affects outcome evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiwei; Tang, Ping; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Wenbo; Luo, Yue-jia

    2015-06-01

    Efficient implicit emotion regulation processes, which run without awareness, are important for human well-being. In this study, to investigate the influence of implicit emotion regulation on psychological and electrophysiological responses to gains and losses, participants were required to select between two Chinese four-character idioms to match the meaning of the third one before they performed a monetary gambling task. According to whether their meanings were related to emotion regulation, the idioms fell into two categories. Event-related potentials and self-rating emotional experiences to outcome feedback were recorded during the task. Priming emotion regulation reduced subjective emotional experience to both gains and losses and the amplitudes of the feedback-related negativity, while the P3 component was not influenced. According to these results, we suggest that the application of implicit emotion regulation effectively modulated the subjective emotional experience and the motivational salience of current outcomes without the cost of cognitive resources. This study implicates the potential significance of implicit emotion regulation in decision-making processes. PMID:25332404

  6. Implicit emotion regulation affects outcome evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiwei; Tang, Ping; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Wenbo; Luo, Yue-jia

    2015-06-01

    Efficient implicit emotion regulation processes, which run without awareness, are important for human well-being. In this study, to investigate the influence of implicit emotion regulation on psychological and electrophysiological responses to gains and losses, participants were required to select between two Chinese four-character idioms to match the meaning of the third one before they performed a monetary gambling task. According to whether their meanings were related to emotion regulation, the idioms fell into two categories. Event-related potentials and self-rating emotional experiences to outcome feedback were recorded during the task. Priming emotion regulation reduced subjective emotional experience to both gains and losses and the amplitudes of the feedback-related negativity, while the P3 component was not influenced. According to these results, we suggest that the application of implicit emotion regulation effectively modulated the subjective emotional experience and the motivational salience of current outcomes without the cost of cognitive resources. This study implicates the potential significance of implicit emotion regulation in decision-making processes.

  7. Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA) Genotype Predicts Greater Aggression Through Impulsive Reactivity to Negative Affect

    PubMed Central

    Chester, David S.; DeWall, C. Nathan; Derefinko, Karen J.; Estus, Steven; Peters, Jessica R.; Lynam, Donald R.; Jiang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Low functioning MAOA genotypes have been reliably linked to increased reactive aggression, yet the psychological mechanisms of this effect remain largely unknown. The low functioning MAOA genotype’s established link to diminished inhibition and greater reactivity to conditions of negative affect suggest that negative urgency, the tendency to act impulsively in the context of negative affect, may fill this mediating role. Such MAOA carriers may have higher negative urgency, which may in turn predict greater aggressive responses to provocation. To test these hypotheses, 277 female and male participants were genotyped for an MAOA SNP yet to be linked to aggression (rs1465108), and then reported their negative urgency and past aggressive behavior. We replicated the effect of the low functioning MAOA genotype on heightened aggression, which was mediated by greater negative urgency. These results suggest that disrupted serotonergic systems predispose individuals towards aggressive behavior by increasing impulsive reactivity to negative affect. PMID:25637908

  8. The neural basis of risky choice with affective outcomes.

    PubMed

    Suter, Renata S; Pachur, Thorsten; Hertwig, Ralph; Endestad, Tor; Biele, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Both normative and many descriptive theories of decision making under risk are based on the notion that outcomes are weighted by their probability, with subsequent maximization of the (subjective) expected outcome. Numerous investigations from psychology, economics, and neuroscience have produced evidence consistent with this notion. However, this research has typically investigated choices involving relatively affect-poor, monetary outcomes. We compared choice in relatively affect-poor, monetary lottery problems with choice in relatively affect-rich medical decision problems. Computational modeling of behavioral data and model-based neuroimaging analyses provide converging evidence for substantial differences in the respective decision mechanisms. Relative to affect-poor choices, affect-rich choices yielded a more strongly curved probability weighting function of cumulative prospect theory, thus signaling that the psychological impact of probabilities is strongly diminished for affect-rich outcomes. Examining task-dependent brain activation, we identified a region-by-condition interaction indicating qualitative differences of activation between affect-rich and affect-poor choices. Moreover, brain activation in regions that were more active during affect-poor choices (e.g., the supramarginal gyrus) correlated with individual trial-by-trial decision weights, indicating that these regions reflect processing of probabilities. Formal reverse inference Neurosynth meta-analyses suggested that whereas affect-poor choices seem to be based on brain mechanisms for calculative processes, affect-rich choices are driven by the representation of outcomes' emotional value and autobiographical memories associated with them. These results provide evidence that the traditional notion of expectation maximization may not apply in the context of outcomes laden with affective responses, and that understanding the brain mechanisms of decision making requires the domain of the decision to

  9. Genotypic differences and prior defoliation affect re-growth and phytochemistry after coppicing in Populus tremuloides.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Michael T; Gusse, Adam C; Lindroth, Richard L

    2012-03-01

    Although considerable research has explored how tree growth and defense can be influenced by genotype, the biotic environment, and their interaction, little is known about how genotypic differences, prior defoliation, and their interactive effects persist in trees that re-grow after damage that severs their primary stem. To address these issues, we established a common garden consisting of twelve genotypes of potted aspen (Populus tremuloides) trees, and subjected half of the trees to defoliation in two successive years. At the beginning of the third year, all trees were severed at the soil surface (coppiced) and allowed to regenerate for five months. Afterwards, we counted the number of root and stump sprouts produced and measured the basal diameter (d) and height (h) of the tallest ramet in each pot. We collected leaves one and two years after the second defoliation and assessed levels of phenolic glycosides, condensed tannins, and nitrogen. In terms of re-growth, we found that the total number of sprouts produced varied by 3.6-fold among genotypes, and that prior defoliation decreased total sprout production by 24%. The size (d(2)h) of ramets, however, did not differ significantly among genotypes or defoliation classes. In terms of phytochemistry, we observed genotypic differences in concentrations of all phytochemicals assessed both one and two years after the second defoliation. Two years after defoliation, we observed effects of prior defoliation in a genotype-by-defoliation interaction for condensed tannins. Results from this study demonstrate that genotypic differences and impacts of prior defoliation persist to influence growth and defense traits in trees even after complete removal of above-ground stems, and thus likely influence productivity and plant-herbivore interactions in forests affected by natural disturbances or actively managed through coppicing.

  10. Sublineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype strains and unfavorable outcomes of anti-tuberculosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Hang, Nguyen T L; Maeda, Shinji; Keicho, Naoto; Thuong, Pham H; Endo, Hiroyoshi

    2015-05-01

    The influence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) lineages/sublineages on unfavorable tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes is poorly understood. We investigated the effects of Beijing genotype sublineages and other factors contributing to treatment outcome. Patients newly diagnosed with sputum smear-positive and culture-positive TB in Hanoi, Vietnam, participated in the study. After receiving anti-TB treatment, they were intensively followed up for the next 16 months. MTB isolates collected before treatment were subjected to drug susceptibility testing, and further analyzed to determine MTB (sub) lineages and their clonal similarities. Of 430 patients, 17 had treatment failure and 30 had TB recurrence. Rifampicin resistance was associated with treatment failure {adjusted odds ratio = 6.64 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.48-29.73]}. The modern Beijing genotype was significantly associated with recurrent TB within 16 months [adjusted hazard ratio = 3.29 (95% CI, 1.17-9.27)], particularly after adjustment for the relevant antibiotic resistance. Human immunodeficiency virus coinfection and severity on chest radiographs were not significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes. Our findings provide further understanding of the influence of MTB strains on unfavorable treatment outcomes. Multiple risk factors should be considered for the optimal management of TB. PMID:25732626

  11. Angiogenesis genotyping and clinical outcome during regorafenib treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Giampieri, Riccardo; Salvatore, Lisa; Del Prete, Michela; Prochilo, Tiziana; D’Anzeo, Marco; Loretelli, Cristian; Loupakis, Fotios; Aprile, Giuseppe; Maccaroni, Elena; Andrikou, Kalliopi; Bianconi, Maristella; Bittoni, Alessandro; Faloppi, Luca; Demurtas, Laura; Montironi, Rodolfo; Scarpelli, Marina; Falcone, Alfredo; Zaniboni, Alberto; Scartozzi, Mario; Cascinu, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Regorafenib monotherapy is a potential option for metastatic colorectal cancer patients. However, the lack of predictive factors and the severe toxicities related to treatment have made its use in clinical practice challenging. Polymorphisms of VEGF and its receptor (VEGFR) genes might regulate angiogenesis and thus potentially influence outcome during anti-angiogenesis treatment such as regorafenib. Aim of our study was to evaluate the role of VEGF and VEGFR genotyping in determining clinical outcome for colorectal cancer patients receiving regorafenib. We retrospectively collected clinical data and samples (tumour or blood) of 138 metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with regorafenib. We analysed the correlation of different VEGF-A, VEGF-C and VEGFR-1,2,3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with patients’ progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results from angiogenesis genotyping showed that only VEGF-A rs2010963 maintained an independent correlation with PFS and OS. Among clinical factors only ECOG PS was independently correlated with OS, whereas no correlation with PFS was evident. Grouping together those results allowed further patients stratification into 3 prognostic groups: favourable, intermediate and unfavourable. VEGF-A rs2010963 genotyping may represent an important tool for a more accurate selection of optimal candidates for regorafenib therapy. PMID:27117754

  12. Interaction between host genotype and environmental conditions affects bacterial density in Wolbachia symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Mouton, Laurence; Henri, Hélène; Charif, Delphine; Boulétreau, Michel; Vavre, Fabrice

    2007-04-22

    Regulation of microbial population density is a necessity in stable symbiotic interactions. In Wolbachia symbiosis, both bacterial and host genotypes are involved in density regulation, but environmental factors may also affect bacterial population density. Here, we studied the interaction between three strains of Wolbachia in two divergent homozygous lines of the wasp Leptopilina heterotoma at two different temperatures. Wolbachia density varied between the two host genotypes at only one temperature. Moreover, at this temperature, reciprocal-cross F1 insects displayed identical Wolbachia densities, which were intermediate between the densities in the two parental lines. While these findings confirm that the host genotype plays an important role in Wolbachia density, they also highlight its interaction with environmental conditions, making possible the evolution of local adaptations for the regulation of Wolbachia density. PMID:17251124

  13. Genotypic diversity of complement component C4 does not predict kidney transplant outcome.

    PubMed

    Wahrmann, Markus; Döhler, Bernd; Ruhenstroth, Andrea; Haslacher, Helmuth; Perkmann, Thomas; Exner, Markus; Rees, Andrew J; Böhmig, Georg A

    2011-02-01

    Gene copy number of complement component C4, which varies among individuals, may determine the intrinsic strength of the classical complement pathway. Presuming a major role of complement as an effector in transplant rejection, we hypothesized that C4 genetic diversity may partially explain the variation in allograft outcomes. This retrospective study included 1969 deceased-donor kidney transplants randomly selected from the Collaborative Transplant Study DNA bank. We determined recipient and donor gene copy number of total C4, C4 isotypes (C4A and C4B), and C4 gene length variants (C4L and C4S) by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Groups defined according to recipient C4 gene copy number (low, intermediate, and high) had similar 10-year allograft survival. Genotypic groups showed comparable rates of graft dysfunction, treatment for rejection, immunological graft loss, hospitalization for infection, malignant disease, and death. Similarly, separate analyses of C4A, C4B, C4L, and C4S; combined evaluation of donor and recipient C4 genotype; or analysis of recipients with higher risk for rejection did not reveal considerable outcome effects. In conclusion, we did not demonstrate that C4 gene copy number associates with transplant outcome, and we found no evidence that the resulting variation in the strength of classical complement activation influences susceptibility to rejection.

  14. Genotypic Diversity of Complement Component C4 Does Not Predict Kidney Transplant Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Wahrmann, Markus; Döhler, Bernd; Ruhenstroth, Andrea; Haslacher, Helmuth; Perkmann, Thomas; Exner, Markus; Rees, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Gene copy number of complement component C4, which varies among individuals, may determine the intrinsic strength of the classical complement pathway. Presuming a major role of complement as an effector in transplant rejection, we hypothesized that C4 genetic diversity may partially explain the variation in allograft outcomes. This retrospective study included 1969 deceased-donor kidney transplants randomly selected from the Collaborative Transplant Study DNA bank. We determined recipient and donor gene copy number of total C4, C4 isotypes (C4A and C4B), and C4 gene length variants (C4L and C4S) by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Groups defined according to recipient C4 gene copy number (low, intermediate, and high) had similar 10-year allograft survival. Genotypic groups showed comparable rates of graft dysfunction, treatment for rejection, immunological graft loss, hospitalization for infection, malignant disease, and death. Similarly, separate analyses of C4A, C4B, C4L, and C4S; combined evaluation of donor and recipient C4 genotype; or analysis of recipients with higher risk for rejection did not reveal considerable outcome effects. In conclusion, we did not demonstrate that C4 gene copy number associates with transplant outcome, and we found no evidence that the resulting variation in the strength of classical complement activation influences susceptibility to rejection. PMID:21164027

  15. Institutional Factors Affecting Biophysical Outcomes in Forest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Although there is considerable interest in the impact of diverse policies affecting the biophysical outcomes in forests, gaining a substantial sample over time of forests under different institutional arrangements has been difficult. This article analyzes data from 46 forests located in six countries over time. In forests where policies have been…

  16. Do learning style and learning environment affect learning outcome?

    PubMed

    DiBartola, L M; Miller, M K; Turley, C L

    2001-01-01

    This study compared learning outcomes of students with different learning styles, as identified by the Kolb Learning Style Inventory indicators, in a traditional in-class environment with those taking the same course via distance education. The above-average scores were evenly distributed, 47% of the in-class group and 43% of the distance group. For three of the four learning styles, there was no relationship to learning outcome or environment. The Diverger group did show a relationship with above-average scores in the distance group (83%). The findings support that the classroom or distance environment did not influence learning outcome. Learning style did not appear to affect learning outcome in either group, except that the Diverger learning style may have a positive relationship to learning in the distance environment.

  17. Interaction between parental environment and genotype affects plant and seed performance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    He, Hanzi; de Souza Vidigal, Deborah; Snoek, L. Basten; Schnabel, Sabine; Nijveen, Harm; Hilhorst, Henk; Bentsink, Leónie

    2014-01-01

    Seed performance after dispersal is highly dependent on parental environmental cues, especially during seed formation and maturation. Here we examine which environmental factors are the most dominant in this respect and whether their effects are dependent on the genotypes under investigation. We studied the influence of light intensity, photoperiod, temperature, nitrate, and phosphate during seed development on five plant attributes and thirteen seed attributes, using 12 Arabidopsis genotypes that have been reported to be affected in seed traits. As expected, the various environments during seed development resulted in changed plant and/or seed performances. Comparative analysis clearly indicated that, overall, temperature plays the most dominant role in both plant and seed performance, whereas light has a prominent impact on plant traits. In comparison to temperature and light, nitrate mildly affected some of the plant and seed traits while phosphate had even less influence on those traits. Moreover, clear genotype-by-environment interactions were identified. This was shown by the fact that individual genotypes responded differentially to the environmental conditions. Low temperature significantly increased seed dormancy and decreased seed longevity of NILDOG1 and cyp707a1-1, whereas low light intensity increased seed dormancy and decreased seed longevity of NILDOG3 and NILDOG6. This also indicates that different genetic and molecular pathways are involved in the plant and seed responses. By identifying environmental conditions that affect the dormancy vs longevity correlation in the same way as previously identified naturally occurring loci, we have identified selective forces that probably shaped evolution for these important seed traits. PMID:25240065

  18. Interaction between parental environment and genotype affects plant and seed performance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    He, Hanzi; de Souza Vidigal, Deborah; Snoek, L Basten; Schnabel, Sabine; Nijveen, Harm; Hilhorst, Henk; Bentsink, Leónie

    2014-12-01

    Seed performance after dispersal is highly dependent on parental environmental cues, especially during seed formation and maturation. Here we examine which environmental factors are the most dominant in this respect and whether their effects are dependent on the genotypes under investigation. We studied the influence of light intensity, photoperiod, temperature, nitrate, and phosphate during seed development on five plant attributes and thirteen seed attributes, using 12 Arabidopsis genotypes that have been reported to be affected in seed traits. As expected, the various environments during seed development resulted in changed plant and/or seed performances. Comparative analysis clearly indicated that, overall, temperature plays the most dominant role in both plant and seed performance, whereas light has a prominent impact on plant traits. In comparison to temperature and light, nitrate mildly affected some of the plant and seed traits while phosphate had even less influence on those traits. Moreover, clear genotype-by-environment interactions were identified. This was shown by the fact that individual genotypes responded differentially to the environmental conditions. Low temperature significantly increased seed dormancy and decreased seed longevity of NILDOG1 and cyp707a1-1, whereas low light intensity increased seed dormancy and decreased seed longevity of NILDOG3 and NILDOG6. This also indicates that different genetic and molecular pathways are involved in the plant and seed responses. By identifying environmental conditions that affect the dormancy vs longevity correlation in the same way as previously identified naturally occurring loci, we have identified selective forces that probably shaped evolution for these important seed traits.

  19. Parameters Influencing Baseline HIV-1 Genotypic Tropism Testing Related to Clinical Outcome in Patients on Maraviroc

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, Saleta; Dybowski, J. Nikolai; Pironti, Alejandro; Heider, Dominik; Güney, Lisa; Thielen, Alex; Reuter, Stefan; Esser, Stefan; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Lengauer, Thomas; Hoffmann, Daniel; Pfister, Herbert; Jensen, Björn; Kaiser, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We analysed the impact of different parameters on genotypic tropism testing related to clinical outcome prediction in 108 patients on maraviroc (MVC) treatment. Methods 87 RNA and 60 DNA samples were used. The viral tropism was predicted using the geno2pheno[coreceptor] and T-CUP tools with FPR cut-offs ranging from 1%-20%. Additionally, 27 RNA and 28 DNA samples were analysed in triplicate, 43 samples with the ESTA assay and 45 with next-generation sequencing. The influence of the genotypic susceptibility score (GSS) and 16 MVC-resistance mutations on clinical outcome was also studied. Results Concordance between single-amplification testing compared to ESTA and to NGS was in the order of 80%. Concordance with NGS was higher at lower FPR cut-offs. Detection of baseline R5 viruses in RNA and DNA samples by all methods significantly correlated with treatment success, even with FPR cut-offs of 3.75%-7.5%. Triple amplification did not improve the prediction value but reduced the number of patients eligible for MVC. No influence of the GSS or MVC-resistance mutations but adherence to treatment, on the clinical outcome was detected. Conclusions Proviral DNA is valid to select candidates for MVC treatment. FPR cut-offs of 5%-7.5% and single amplification from RNA or DNA would assure a safe administration of MVC without excluding many patients who could benefit from this drug. In addition, the new prediction system T-CUP produced reliable results. PMID:25970632

  20. Factors affecting intellectual outcome in pediatric brain tumor patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ellenberg, L.; McComb, J.G.; Siegel, S.E.; Stowe, S.

    1987-11-01

    A prospective study utilizing repeated intellectual testing was undertaken in 73 children with brain tumors consecutively admitted to Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles over a 3-year period to determine the effect of tumor location, extent of surgical resection, hydrocephalus, age of the child, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy on cognitive outcome. Forty-three patients were followed for at least two sequential intellectual assessments and provide the data for this study. Children with hemispheric tumors had the most general cognitive impairment. The degree of tumor resection, adequately treated hydrocephalus, and chemotherapy had no bearing on intellectual outcome. Age of the child affected outcome mainly as it related to radiation. Whole brain radiation therapy was associated with cognitive decline. This was especially true in children below 7 years of age, who experienced a very significant loss of function after whole brain radiation therapy.

  1. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    PubMed Central

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per; Vindbjerg, Erik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Elklit, Ask

    2016-01-01

    Background The effects of treatment in trials with trauma-affected refugees vary considerably not only between studies but also between patients within a single study. However, we know little about why some patients benefit more from treatment, as few studies have analysed predictors of treatment outcome. Objective The objective of the study was to examine possible psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees. Method The participants were 195 adult refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who were enrolled in a 6- to 7-month treatment programme at the Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry (CTP), Denmark. The CTP Predictor Index used in the study included 15 different possible outcome predictors concerning the patients’ past, chronicity of mental health problems, pain, treatment motivation, prerequisites for engaging in psychotherapy, and social situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms Checklist-90, Global Assessment of Functioning scales, and pain rated on visual analogue scales. The relations between treatment outcomes and the total score as well as subscores of the CTP Predictor Index were analysed. Results Overall, the total score of the CTP Predictor Index was significantly correlated to pre- to post treatment score changes on the majority of the ratings mentioned above. While employment status was the only single item significantly correlated to HTQ-score changes, a number of single items from the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with changes in depression and anxiety symptoms, but the size of the correlation coefficients were modest. Conclusions The total score of the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with outcomes on most

  2. Tamoxifen metabolite concentrations, CYP2D6 genotype, and breast cancer outcomes.

    PubMed

    Madlensky, L; Natarajan, L; Tchu, S; Pu, M; Mortimer, J; Flatt, S W; Nikoloff, D M; Hillman, G; Fontecha, M R; Lawrence, H J; Parker, B A; Wu, A H B; Pierce, J P

    2011-05-01

    We explored whether breast cancer outcomes are associated with endoxifen and other metabolites of tamoxifen and examined potential correlates of endoxifen concentration levels in serum including cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) metabolizer phenotype and body mass index (BMI). Concentration levels of tamoxifen, endoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4OH-tamoxifen), and N-desmethyltamoxifen (ND-tamoxifen) were measured from samples taken from 1,370 patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer who were participating in the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study. We tested these concentration levels for possible associations with breast cancer outcomes and found that breast cancer outcomes were not associated with the concentration levels of tamoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, and ND-tamoxifen. For endoxifen, a threshold was identified, with women in the upper four quintiles of endoxifen concentration appearing to have a 26% lower recurrence rate than women in the bottom quintile (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), (0.55-1.00)). The predictors of this higher-risk bottom quintile were poor/intermediate metabolizer genotype, higher BMI, and lower tamoxifen concentrations as compared with the mean for the cohort as a whole. This study suggests that there is a minimal concentration threshold above which endoxifen is effective against the recurrence of breast cancer and that ~80% of tamoxifen takers attain this threshold. PMID:21430657

  3. Tamoxifen Metabolite Concentrations, CYP2D6 Genotype and Breast Cancer Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Madlensky, Lisa; Natarajan, Loki; Tchu, Simone; Pu, Minya; Mortimer, Joanne; Flatt, Shirley W.; Nikoloff, D. Michele; Hillman, Grantland; Fontecha, Marcel R.; Lawrence, H. Jeffrey; Parker, Barbara A.; Wu, Alan H.B.; Pierce, John P.

    2011-01-01

    We explored whether breast cancer outcomes are associated with endoxifen and other metabolites of tamoxifen, and to examine potential correlates of endoxifen concentrations including CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotype and body mass index (BMI). Tamoxifen, endoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen and N-desmethyltamoxifen concentrations were measured from 1370 estrogen receptor positive breast cancer patients participating in the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study, and tested for associations with breast cancer outcomes. Breast cancer outcomes were not associated with tamoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen or N-desmethyltamoxifen concentrations. For endoxifen, a threshold was identified suggesting that women in the upper four quintiles of endoxifen had a 26% lower recurrence rate than women in the bottom quintile. (HR=0.74; 95% CI, [0.55, 1.00]). Predictors of membership in this higher risk bottom quintile were poor/intermediate metabolizer genotype, higher BMI, and low tamoxifen concentrations. This study suggests a minimal threshold at which endoxifen is effective against breast cancer recurrence, which 80% of tamoxifen-takers achieve. PMID:21430657

  4. The Scion/Rootstock Genotypes and Habitats Affect Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community in Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Song, Fang; Pan, Zhiyong; Bai, Fuxi; An, Jianyong; Liu, Jihong; Guo, Wenwu; Bisseling, Ton; Deng, Xiuxin; Xiao, Shunyuan

    2015-01-01

    Citrus roots have rare root hairs and thus heavily depend on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for mineral nutrient uptake. However, the AMF community structure of citrus is largely unknown. By using 454-pyrosequencing of 18S rRNA gene fragment, we investigated the genetic diversity of AMF colonizing citrus roots, and evaluated the impact of habitats and rootstock and scion genotypes on the AMF community structure. Over 7,40,000 effective sequences were obtained from 77 citrus root samples. These sequences were assigned to 75 AMF virtual taxa, of which 66 belong to Glomus, highlighting an absolute dominance of this AMF genus in symbiosis with citrus roots. The citrus AMF community structure is significantly affected by habitats and host genotypes. Interestingly, our data suggests that the genotype of the scion exerts a greater impact on the AMF community structure than that of the rootstock where the physical root-AMF association occurs. This study not only provides a comprehensive assessment for the community composition of the AMF in citrus roots under different conditions, but also sheds novel insights into how the AMF community might be indirectly influenced by the spatially separated yet metabolically connected partner—the scion—of the grafted citrus tree. PMID:26648932

  5. The Scion/Rootstock Genotypes and Habitats Affect Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community in Citrus.

    PubMed

    Song, Fang; Pan, Zhiyong; Bai, Fuxi; An, Jianyong; Liu, Jihong; Guo, Wenwu; Bisseling, Ton; Deng, Xiuxin; Xiao, Shunyuan

    2015-01-01

    Citrus roots have rare root hairs and thus heavily depend on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for mineral nutrient uptake. However, the AMF community structure of citrus is largely unknown. By using 454-pyrosequencing of 18S rRNA gene fragment, we investigated the genetic diversity of AMF colonizing citrus roots, and evaluated the impact of habitats and rootstock and scion genotypes on the AMF community structure. Over 7,40,000 effective sequences were obtained from 77 citrus root samples. These sequences were assigned to 75 AMF virtual taxa, of which 66 belong to Glomus, highlighting an absolute dominance of this AMF genus in symbiosis with citrus roots. The citrus AMF community structure is significantly affected by habitats and host genotypes. Interestingly, our data suggests that the genotype of the scion exerts a greater impact on the AMF community structure than that of the rootstock where the physical root-AMF association occurs. This study not only provides a comprehensive assessment for the community composition of the AMF in citrus roots under different conditions, but also sheds novel insights into how the AMF community might be indirectly influenced by the spatially separated yet metabolically connected partner-the scion-of the grafted citrus tree.

  6. Genotype-based changes in serum uric acid affect blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Afshin; Brown, Eric; Weir, Matthew R.; Fink, Jeffrey C.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; McArdle, Patrick F.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated serum levels of uric acid consistently correlate with hypertension, but the directionality of the association remains debated. To help define this relationship, we used a controlled setting within a homogeneous Amish community and the Mendelian randomization of a nonsynonymous coding single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs16890979 (Val253Ile), in the SLC2A9 gene. This gene expresses the GLUT9 transporter that also transports uric acid and is associated with lower serum uric acid levels. We studied the unconfounded association between genotype and blood pressure in 516 Amish adults, each placed for 6 days on standardized diets, first with high sodium, followed by low sodium, with an intervening washout period. Blood pressure, measured using 24-h ambulatory monitoring, during both diet periods was used as the primary outcome. All participants were free of diuretic or other antihypertensive medications and the relationships between GLUT9 genotype and both serum uric acid and blood pressure were assessed. Each copy of the GLUT9 minor Ile allele was found to confer a significant 0.44 mg/dl reduction in serum uric acid and was associated with a significant mean decrease in the systolic blood pressure of 2.2 and 1.5 mm Hg on the high- and low-sodium diet, respectively. Thus, a Mendelian randomization analysis using variants in the GLUT9 gene indicates that a decrease in serum uric acid has a causal effect of lowering blood pressure. PMID:22189840

  7. Correlation between pre-treatment quasispecies complexity and treatment outcome in chronic HCV genotype 3a

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Isabelle; Levis, John; Crosbie, Orla; Kenny-Walsh, Elizabeth; Fanning, Liam J

    2008-01-01

    Pre-treatment HCV quasispecies complexity and diversity may predict response to interferon based anti-viral therapy. The objective of this study was to retrospectively (1) examine temporal changes in quasispecies prior to the start of therapy and (2) investigate extensively quasispecies evolution in a group of 10 chronically infected patients with genotype 3a, treated with pegylated α2a-Interferon and ribavirin. The degree of sequence heterogeneity within the hypervariable region 1 was assessed by analyzing 20–30 individual clones in serial serum samples. Genetic parameters, including amino acid Shannon entropy, Hamming distance and genetic distance were calculated for each sample. Treatment outcome was divided into (1) sustained virological responders (SVR) and (2) treatment failure (TF). Our results indicate, (1) quasispecies complexity and diversity are lower in the SVR group, (2) quasispecies vary temporally and (3) genetic heterogeneity at baseline can be use to predict treatment outcome. We discuss the results from the perspective of replicative homeostasis. PMID:18613968

  8. Course and cognitive outcome in major affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-11-01

    Knowledge of the course and outcome of major affective illness has clinical as well as theoretical implications. In understanding the pathophysiology of the major affective disorders, an essential question in the interplay between biological, psychological and social factors is whether the individual is changed biologically by experiencing an affective episode or not. A biological change may be reflected in a changed risk of experiencing new episodes and changed chances of recovery from these episodes for the individual, and may possibly also be reflected in persisting altered cognitive function as an expression of brain function affected during a longer period. Previous studies of the course of affective episodes are flawed by a number of drawbacks such as various definitions of recovery and recurrence, various kinds of bias and confounders, low statistical power, and statistical analyses conducted without survival models and without paying attention to diagnostic instability or the individual heterogeneity of the course of episodes. Totally, these drawbacks and pitfalls affect the results of previous studies in unpredictable ways and make it hazardous to draw conclusions about the effect of prior affective episodes on the subsequent course of unipolar and bipolar disorder. The present thesis avoided most of these pitfalls or adjusted for them in analyses of hospital data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, collected nationwide from 1971 to 1993. Hospitalisation was used as an expression of an affective episode. On average, a progressive course with increasing risk of recurrence with every new episode was found for unipolar and bipolar affective disorders. Initially, the two types of disorders followed markedly different courses, but later in the course of the illness the risk of recurrence was the same for the two disorders. However, analyses with frailty models revealed that for unipolar men, this progressive course was due to a subgroup of patients

  9. Clinical outcomes and molecular genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk samples of dairy primiparous Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Guccione, J; Cosandey, A; Pesce, A; Di Loria, A; Pascale, M; Piantedosi, D; Steiner, A; Graber, H U; Ciaramella, P

    2014-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens causing mastitis in dairy cows and in Mediterranean buffaloes. Genotype B (GTB) is contagious in dairy cows and may occur in up to 87% of cows of a dairy herd. It was the aim of this study to evaluate genotypes present, clinical outcomes, and prevalence of Staph. aureus in milk samples of primiparous Mediterranean dairy buffaloes. Two hundred composite milk samples originating from 40 primiparous buffaloes were collected from May to June 2012, at d 10, 30, 60, 90, and 150 d in milk (DIM) to perform somatic cell counts and bacteriological cultures. Daily milk yields were recorded. Before parturition until 40 to 50 DIM, all primiparous animals were housed separated from the pluriparous animals. Milking was performed in the same milking parlor, but the primiparous animals were milked first. After 50 DIM, the primiparous were mixed with the pluriparous animals, including the milking procedure. Individual quarter samples were collected from each animal, and aliquots of 1 mL were mixed and used for molecular identification and genotyping of Staph. aureus. The identification of Staph. aureus was performed verifying the presence of nuc gene by nuc gene PCR. All the nuc-positive isolates were subjected to genotype analysis by means of PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and analyzed by a miniaturized electrophoresis system. Of all 200 composite samples, 41 (20.5%) were positive for Staph. aureus, and no genotype other than GTB was identified. The prevalence of samples positive for Staph. aureus was 0% at 10 DIM and increased to a maximum of 22/40 (55%) at 90 DIM. During the period of interest, 14 buffaloes tested positive for Staph. aureus once, 6 were positive twice, and 5 were positive 3 times, whereas 15 animals were negative at every sampling. At 90 and 150 DIM, 7 (17.5%) and 3 buffaloes (7.5%), respectively, showed clinical mastitis (CM), and only 1 (2.5%) showed CM at both

  10. Genotype, phenotype, and outcomes of nine patients with T-B+NK+ SCID.

    PubMed

    Yu, Grace P; Nadeau, Kari C; Berk, David R; de Saint Basile, Geneviève; Lambert, Nathalie; Knapnougel, Perrine; Roberts, Joseph; Kavanau, Kristina; Dunn, Elizabeth; Stiehm, E Richard; Lewis, David B; Umetsu, Dale T; Puck, Jennifer M; Cowan, Morton J

    2011-11-01

    There are few reports of clinical presentation, genotype, and HCT outcomes for patients with T-B+NK+ SCID. Between 1981 and 2007, eight of 84 patients with SCID who received and/or were followed after HCT at UCSF had the T-B+NK+ phenotype. One additional patient with T-B+NK+ SCID was identified as the sibling of a patient treated at UCSF. Chart reviews were performed. Molecular analyses of IL7R, IL2RG, JAK3, and the genes encoding the CD3 T-cell receptor components δ (CD3D), ε (CD3E), and ζ (CD3Z) were carried out. IL7R mutations were documented in four patients and CD3D mutations in two others. Three patients had no defects found. Only two of nine patients had an HLA-matched related HCT donor. Both survived, and neither developed GVHD. Five of seven recipients of haploidentical grafts survived. Although the majority of reported cases of T-B+NK+ SCID are caused by defects in IL7R, CD3 complex defects were also found in this series and should be considered when evaluating patients with T-B+NK+ SCID. Additional genes, mutations in which account for T-B+NK+ SCID, remain to be found. Better approaches to early diagnosis and HCT treatment are needed for patients lacking an HLA-matched related donor.

  11. Genotypic and Phenotypic Diversity Does Not Affect Productivity and Drought Response in Competitive Stands of Trifolium repens.

    PubMed

    Huber, Heidrun; During, Heinjo J; Bruine de Bruin, Fabienne; Vermeulen, Peter J; Anten, Niels P R

    2016-01-01

    Clonal plants can form dense canopies in which plants of different genetic origin are competing for the uptake of essential resources. The competitive relationships among these clones are likely to be affected by extreme environmental conditions, such as prolonged drought spells, which are predicted to occur more frequently due to global climate change. This, in turn, may alter characteristics of the ecological system and its associated functioning. We hypothesized that the relative success of individual clones will depend on the size of the ramets as ramets with larger leaves and longer petioles (large ramets) were predicted to have a competitive advantage in terms of increased light interception over smaller-sized ramets. Under drier conditions the relative performances of genotypes were expected to change leading to a change in genotype ranking. We also hypothesized that increased genotypic and phenotypic diversity will increase stand performance and resistance to drought. These hypotheses and the mechanisms responsible for shifts in competitive relationships were investigated by subjecting genotypes of the important pasture legume Trifolium repens to competition with either genetically identical clones, genetically different but similarly sized clones, or genetically as well as morphologically different clones under well-watered and dry conditions. Competitive relationships were affected by ramet size with large genotypes outperforming small genotypes in diverse stands in terms of biomass production. However, large genotypes also produced relatively fewer ramets than small genotypes and could not benefit in terms of clonal reproduction from competing with smaller genotypes, indicating that evolutionary shifts in genotype composition will depend on whether ramet size or ramet number is under selection. In contrast to our hypotheses, diversity did not increase stand performance under different selection regimes and genotype ranking was hardly affected by soil

  12. Genotypic and Phenotypic Diversity Does Not Affect Productivity and Drought Response in Competitive Stands of Trifolium repens

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Heidrun; During, Heinjo J.; Bruine de Bruin, Fabienne; Vermeulen, Peter J.; Anten, Niels P. R.

    2016-01-01

    Clonal plants can form dense canopies in which plants of different genetic origin are competing for the uptake of essential resources. The competitive relationships among these clones are likely to be affected by extreme environmental conditions, such as prolonged drought spells, which are predicted to occur more frequently due to global climate change. This, in turn, may alter characteristics of the ecological system and its associated functioning. We hypothesized that the relative success of individual clones will depend on the size of the ramets as ramets with larger leaves and longer petioles (large ramets) were predicted to have a competitive advantage in terms of increased light interception over smaller-sized ramets. Under drier conditions the relative performances of genotypes were expected to change leading to a change in genotype ranking. We also hypothesized that increased genotypic and phenotypic diversity will increase stand performance and resistance to drought. These hypotheses and the mechanisms responsible for shifts in competitive relationships were investigated by subjecting genotypes of the important pasture legume Trifolium repens to competition with either genetically identical clones, genetically different but similarly sized clones, or genetically as well as morphologically different clones under well-watered and dry conditions. Competitive relationships were affected by ramet size with large genotypes outperforming small genotypes in diverse stands in terms of biomass production. However, large genotypes also produced relatively fewer ramets than small genotypes and could not benefit in terms of clonal reproduction from competing with smaller genotypes, indicating that evolutionary shifts in genotype composition will depend on whether ramet size or ramet number is under selection. In contrast to our hypotheses, diversity did not increase stand performance under different selection regimes and genotype ranking was hardly affected by soil

  13. Common factors affecting psychotherapy outcomes: some implications for teaching psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Robert; Heiman, Noa; Yager, Joel

    2015-05-01

    The number of psychotherapies classified as "empirically supported treatments" has increased significantly. As the number and scope of empirically supported treatments multiply, it has become impossible to train therapists in all of these specific modalities. Although the current Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requirements for psychiatric residents follow an approach based on specific schools of psychotherapy (emphasizing competency in cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy, and supportive treatments), evidence suggests that we are failing even in these efforts. In developing a specialized Psychotherapy Scholars Track in the residency program at the University of Colorado School of Medicine, we opted to focus initially on teaching the common factors in psychotherapy that positively affect psychotherapy outcomes. This article reviews 6 such broad common factors.

  14. Evaluation of Factors Affecting the Surgical Outcome in Tympanoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Naderpour, Masoud; Jabbari Moghadam, Yalda; Ghanbarpour, Ensieh; Shahidi, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tympanoplasty is a standard procedure to repair tympanic membrane perforation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of tympanoplasty (hearing improvement and tympanic membrane closure rate) in patients suffering from chronic perforation of the tympanic membrane by considering the prognostic factors. Materials and Methods: In a prospective study, based on the results of tympanoplasty with temporal graft fascia in 60 patients in the ENT department of the Medical Science University of Tabriz, we evaluated prognostic factors, such as age, sex, smoking, size, and site of perforation, for the outcome of this surgery. Results: The rate of surgical success- integration of the graft- was 93.3%. Improvement of hearing, as demonstrated through audiometry, occurred in 93% of cases. We did not find any factors to be statistically significant to affect surgical outcome. Conclusion: Even by considering the influence of different factors on the results of a tympanoplasty operation, according to the statistical results of this study, there is not a significant difference in the results of the operation, neither in the health of the tympanic membrane after surgery nor in hearing development. PMID:27280095

  15. Plant age and genotype affect the bacterial community composition in the tuber rhizosphere of field-grown sweet potato plants.

    PubMed

    Marques, Joana M; da Silva, Thais F; Vollu, Renata E; Blank, Arie F; Ding, Guo-Chun; Seldin, Lucy; Smalla, Kornelia

    2014-05-01

    The hypothesis that sweet potato genotypes containing different starch yields in their tuberous roots can affect the bacterial communities present in the rhizosphere (soil adhering to tubers) was tested in this study. Tuberous roots of field-grown sweet potato of genotypes IPB-149 (commercial genotype), IPB-052, and IPB-137 were sampled three and six months after planting and analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes PCR-amplified from total community DNA. The statistical analysis of the DGGE fingerprints showed that both plant age and genotypes influenced the bacterial community structure in the tuber rhizosphere. Pyrosequencing analysis showed that the IPB-149 and IPB-052 (both with high starch content) displayed similar bacterial composition in the tuber rhizosphere, while IPB-137 with the lowest starch content was distinct. In comparison with bulk soil, higher 16S rRNA gene copy numbers (qPCR) and numerous genera with significantly increased abundance in the tuber rhizosphere of IPB-137 (Sphingobium, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Chryseobacterium) indicated a stronger rhizosphere effect. The genus Bacillus was strongly enriched in the tuber rhizosphere samples of all sweet potato genotypes studied, while other genera showed a plant genotype-dependent abundance. This is the first report on the molecular identification of bacteria being associated with the tuber rhizosphere of different sweet potato genotypes.

  16. Type of Speech Material Affects Acceptable Noise Level Test Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Xaver; Dingemanse, Gertjan; Goedegebure, André; Janse, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test, in which individuals indicate what level of noise they are willing to put up with while following speech, has been used to guide hearing aid fitting decisions and has been found to relate to prospective hearing aid use. Unlike objective measures of speech perception ability, ANL outcome is not related to individual hearing loss or age, but rather reflects an individual’s inherent acceptance of competing noise while listening to speech. As such, the measure may predict aspects of hearing aid success. Crucially, however, recent studies have questioned its repeatability (test–retest reliability). The first question for this study was whether the inconsistent results regarding the repeatability of the ANL test may be due to differences in speech material types used in previous studies. Second, it is unclear whether meaningfulness and semantic coherence of the speech modify ANL outcome. To investigate these questions, we compared ANLs obtained with three types of materials: the International Speech Test Signal (ISTS), which is non-meaningful and semantically non-coherent by definition, passages consisting of concatenated meaningful standard audiology sentences, and longer fragments taken from conversational speech. We included conversational speech as this type of speech material is most representative of everyday listening. Additionally, we investigated whether ANL outcomes, obtained with these three different speech materials, were associated with self-reported limitations due to hearing problems and listening effort in everyday life, as assessed by a questionnaire. ANL data were collected for 57 relatively good-hearing adult participants with an age range representative for hearing aid users. Results showed that meaningfulness, but not semantic coherence of the speech material affected ANL. Less noise was accepted for the non-meaningful ISTS signal than for the meaningful speech materials. ANL repeatability was comparable

  17. Loss or retention of chloroplast DNA in maize seedlings is affected by both light and genotype.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Delene J; Rowan, Beth A; Zhao, Lei; Walcher, Cristina L; Schleh, Marc; Bendich, Arnold J

    2006-12-01

    We examined the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) from plastids obtained from wild type maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings grown under different light conditions and from photosynthetic mutants grown under white light. The cpDNA was evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR, quantitative DNA fluorescence, and blot-hybridization following pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The amount of DNA per plastid in light-grown seedlings declines greatly from stalk to leaf blade during proplastid-to-chloroplast development, and this decline is due to cpDNA degradation. In contrast, during proplastid-to-etioplast development in the dark, the cpDNA levels increase from the stalk to the blade. Our results suggest that DNA replication continues in the etioplasts of the upper regions of the stalk and in the leaves. The cpDNA level decreases rapidly, however, after dark-grown seedlings are transferred to light and the etioplasts develop into photosynthetically active chloroplasts. Light, therefore, triggers the degradation of DNA in maize chloroplasts. The cpDNA is retained in the leaf blade of seedlings grown under red, but not blue light. We suggest that light signaling pathways are involved in mediating cpDNA levels, and that red light promotes replication and inhibits degradation and blue light promotes degradation. For five of nine photosynthetic mutants, cpDNA levels in expanded leaves are higher than in wild type, indicating that nuclear genotype can affect the loss or retention of cpDNA.

  18. Genotypic variation in host response to infection affects parasite reproductive rate.

    PubMed

    Tavalire, Hannah F; Blouin, Michael S; Steinauer, Michelle L

    2016-02-01

    Parasite fitness is largely influenced by a variation in host response due to the host's genetic background. Here we investigated the impact of host genotype on pathogen success in the snail vector of its castrating parasite, Schistosoma mansoni. We infected five inbred lines of Biomphalaria glabrata with two infection doses and followed their growth, reproductive output and parasite production throughout the course of infection. There was no difference in resistance to infection among inbred lines, but lines varied in their responses to infection and the numbers of parasites produced. Snails did not compensate for castration by increasing their fecundity during the early phase of infection (fecundity compensation). However, some lines were able to delay parasite shedding for up to 30 weeks, thus prolonging reproduction before the onset of castration. Here we propose this strategy as a novel defense against castrating pathogens in snails. Gigantism, a predicted outcome of castration due to energy reallocation, occurred early in infection (<15 weeks) and was not universal among the snail lines. Lines that did not show gigantism were also characterised by a high parasite production rate and low survivorship, perhaps indicating energy reallocation into parasite production and costly immune defense. We observed no differences in total parasite production among lines throughout the entire course of infection, although lines differed in their parasite reproductive rate. The average rate of parasite production varied among lines from 1300 to 2450 cercariae within a single 2h shedding period, resulting in a total production of 6981-29,509 cercariae over the lifetime of a single snail. Regardless of genetic background, snail size was a strong predictor of parasite reproduction: each millimetre increase in snail size at the time of the first shed resulted in up to 3500 more cercariae over the lifetime of the snail. The results of this study provide a detailed picture of

  19. Genotypic variation in host response to infection affects parasite reproductive rate.

    PubMed

    Tavalire, Hannah F; Blouin, Michael S; Steinauer, Michelle L

    2016-02-01

    Parasite fitness is largely influenced by a variation in host response due to the host's genetic background. Here we investigated the impact of host genotype on pathogen success in the snail vector of its castrating parasite, Schistosoma mansoni. We infected five inbred lines of Biomphalaria glabrata with two infection doses and followed their growth, reproductive output and parasite production throughout the course of infection. There was no difference in resistance to infection among inbred lines, but lines varied in their responses to infection and the numbers of parasites produced. Snails did not compensate for castration by increasing their fecundity during the early phase of infection (fecundity compensation). However, some lines were able to delay parasite shedding for up to 30 weeks, thus prolonging reproduction before the onset of castration. Here we propose this strategy as a novel defense against castrating pathogens in snails. Gigantism, a predicted outcome of castration due to energy reallocation, occurred early in infection (<15 weeks) and was not universal among the snail lines. Lines that did not show gigantism were also characterised by a high parasite production rate and low survivorship, perhaps indicating energy reallocation into parasite production and costly immune defense. We observed no differences in total parasite production among lines throughout the entire course of infection, although lines differed in their parasite reproductive rate. The average rate of parasite production varied among lines from 1300 to 2450 cercariae within a single 2h shedding period, resulting in a total production of 6981-29,509 cercariae over the lifetime of a single snail. Regardless of genetic background, snail size was a strong predictor of parasite reproduction: each millimetre increase in snail size at the time of the first shed resulted in up to 3500 more cercariae over the lifetime of the snail. The results of this study provide a detailed picture of

  20. Learning Outcomes in Affective Domain within Contemporary Architectural Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savic, Marko; Kashef, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary architectural education has shifted from the traditional focus on providing students with specific knowledge and skill sets or "inputs" to outcome based, student-centred educational approach. Within the outcome based model, students' performance is assessed against measureable objectives that relate acquired knowledge…

  1. Vitamin D Levels Vary during Antiviral Treatment but Are Unable to Predict Treatment Outcome in HCV Genotype 1 Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grammatikos, Georgios; Lange, Christian; Susser, Simone; Schwendy, Susanne; Dikopoulos, Nektarios; Buggisch, Peter; Encke, Jens; Teuber, Gerlinde; Goeser, Tobias; Thimme, Robert; Klinker, Hartwig; Boecher, Wulf O.; Schulte-Frohlinde, Ewert; Penna-Martinez, Marissa; Badenhoop, Klaus; Zeuzem, Stefan; Berg, Thomas; Sarrazin, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Background Different parameters have been determined for prediction of treatment outcome in hepatitis c virus genotype 1 infected patients undergoing pegylated interferon, ribavirin combination therapy. Results on the importance of vitamin D levels are conflicting. In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of vitamin D levels before and during therapy together with single nucleotide polymorphisms involved in vitamin D metabolism in the context of other known treatment predictors has been performed. Methods In a well characterized prospective cohort of 398 genotype 1 infected patients treated with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin for 24–72 weeks (INDIV-2 study) 25-OH-vitamin D levels and different single nucleotide polymorphisms were analyzed together with known biochemical parameters for a correlation with virologic treatment outcome. Results Fluctuations of more than 5 (10) ng/ml in 25-OH-vitamin D-levels have been observed in 66 (39) % of patients during the course of antiviral therapy and neither pretreatment nor under treatment 25-OH-vitamin D-levels were associated with treatment outcome. The DHCR7-TT-polymorphism within the 7-dehydrocholesterol-reductase showed a significant association (P = 0.031) to sustained viral response in univariate analysis. Among numerous further parameters analyzed we found that age (OR = 1.028, CI = 1.002–1.056, P = 0.035), cholesterol (OR = 0.983, CI = 0.975–0.991, P<0.001), ferritin (OR = 1.002, CI = 1.000–1.004, P = 0.033), gGT (OR = 1.467, CI = 1.073–2.006, P = 0.016) and IL28B-genotype (OR = 2.442, CI = 1.271–4.695, P = 0.007) constituted the strongest predictors of treatment response. Conclusions While 25-OH-vitamin D-levels levels show considerable variations during the long-lasting course of antiviral therapy they do not show any significant association to treatment outcome in genotype 1 infected patients. PMID:24516573

  2. Genotype at the PMEL17 locus affects social and explorative behaviour in chickens.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, A-C; Kerje, S; Andersson, L; Jensen, P

    2010-04-01

    1. We studied behaviour and brain gene expression in homozygous PMEL17 genotypes, using chickens originating from an advanced White Leghorn x red junglefowl intercross. The behavioural studies consisted of three social and one explorative behaviour test. There were significant differences between the genotypes in both social and explorative behaviour. 2. Gene expression studies showed no PMEL17 expression in brain, so the genotype differences must depend on extra-neural gene expression or expression during embryonic development. However, linkage or spurious family effects (genetic drift) can not be excluded. 3. The study strongly suggests a correlated effect between plumage colour and behaviour, and we conclude that PMEL17 may have a pleiotropic effect on social and explorative behaviour in chickens. PMID:20461577

  3. Association between single nucleotide polymorphism-genotype and outcome of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a randomized chemotherapy trial

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Rachel; Di Bernardo, Maria Chiara; Richards, Sue; Rossi, Davide; Crowther-Swanepoel, Dalemari; Gaidano, Gianluca; Oscier, David G.; Catovsky, Daniel; Houlston, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Background There is variability in the outcome of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia with apparently the same stage of disease. Identifying genetic variants that influence patients’ outcome and response to treatment may provide important insights into the biology of the disease. Design and Methods We investigated the possibility that genetic variation influences outcome by conducting a genome-wide analysis of 346,831 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 356 patients entered into a phase III trial comparing the efficacy of fludarabine, chlorambucil, and fludarabine with cyclophosphamide as first-line treatment. Genotypes were linked to individual patients’ outcome data and response to chemotherapy. The association between genotype and progression-free survival was assessed by Cox regression analysis adjusting for treatment and clinicopathology. Results The strongest associations were shown for rs1949733 (ACOX3; P=8.22x10-7), rs1342899 (P=7.72x10−7) and rs11158493 (PPP2R5E; P=8.50×10−7). In addition, the 52 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated at P<10−4 included rs438034 (CENPF; P=4.86×10−6), previously correlated with cancer progression, and rs2255235 (B2M; P=3.10×10−5) and rs2064501 (IL22RA2; P=4.81×10−5) which map to B-cell genes. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that genetic variation is a determinant of progression-free survival of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Specific associations warrant further analyses. (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00004218) PMID:21659360

  4. Can a future choice affect a past measurement's outcome?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonov, Yakir; Cohen, Eliahu; Elitzur, Avshalom C.

    2015-04-01

    An EPR experiment is studied where each particle within the entangled pair undergoes a few weak measurements (WMs) along some pre-set spin orientations, with the outcomes individually recorded. Then the particle undergoes one strong measurement along an orientation chosen at the last moment. Bell-inequality violation is expected between the two final measurements within each EPR pair. At the same time, statistical agreement is expected between these strong measurements and the earlier weak ones performed on that pair. A contradiction seemingly ensues: (i) Bell's theorem forbids spin values to exist prior to the choice of the orientation measured; (ii) A weak measurement is not supposed to determine the outcome of a successive strong one; and indeed (iii) Almost no disentanglement is inflicted by the WMs; and yet (iv) The outcomes of weak measurements statistically agree with those of the strong ones, suggesting the existence of pre-determined values, in contradiction with (i). Although the conflict can be solved by mere mitigation of the above restrictions, the most reasonable resolution seems to be that of the Two-State-Vector Formalism (TSVF), namely, that the choice of the experimenter has been encrypted within the weak measurement's outcomes, even before the experimenters themselves know what their choice will be.

  5. Genotype, B-vitamin status, and androgens affect spaceflight-induced ophthalmic changes.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Sara R; Gregory, Jesse F; Zeisel, Steven H; Gibson, Charles R; Mader, Thomas H; Kinchen, Jason M; Ueland, Per M; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Heer, Martina A; Smith, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    Ophthalmic changes have occurred in a subset of astronauts on International Space Station missions. Visual deterioration is considered the greatest human health risk of spaceflight. Affected astronauts exhibit higher concentrations of 1-carbon metabolites (e.g., homocysteine) before flight. We hypothesized that genetic variations in 1-carbon metabolism genes contribute to susceptibility to ophthalmic changes in astronauts. We investigated 5 polymorphisms in the methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) genes and their association with ophthalmic changes after flight in 49 astronauts. The number of G alleles of MTRR 66 and C alleles of SHMT1 1420 both contributed to the odds of visual disturbances. Preflight dehydroepiandrosterone was positively associated with cotton wool spots, and serum testosterone response during flight was associated with refractive change. Block regression showed that B-vitamin status and genetics were significant predictors of many of the ophthalmic outcomes that we observed. In one example, genetics trended toward improving (P = 0.10) and B-vitamin status significantly improved (P < 0.001) the predictive model for refractive change after flight. We document an association between MTRR 66 and SHMT1 1420 polymorphisms and spaceflight-induced vision changes. This line of research could lead to therapeutic options for both space travelers and terrestrial patients. PMID:26316272

  6. Interleukin-1 alpha genotype and outcome of unrelated donor haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Parinda A.; Eapen, Mary; Klein, John P.; Gandham, Sharavi; Elliott, James; Zamzow, Tiffany; Combs, Michelle; Aplenc, Richard; MacMillan, Margaret L.; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Petersdorf, Effie; Davies, Stella M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is implicated in the initiation/maintenance of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and the immune response to infection. A cytosine (C) to thymine (T) transition at position −889 is believed to influence gene transcription. A previous single institution study showed that the presence of at least one IL1A T allele in the donor was associated with improved survival after unrelated donor haematopoietic stem cell transplant and lower transplant-related mortality if the donor and recipient each possessed the IL1A T allele. The present study sought to confirm these results in a larger homogeneous population. Thus the study population included 426 patients older than 18 years with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), transplanted in first chronic phase and receiving a total body irradiation and cyclophosphamide preparative regimen. Donor recipient pairs were categorised into four groups according to the presence or absence of an IL1A T allele in the donor and recipient. There were no significant differences in patient, donor and transplant characteristics between the groups. We did not observe an association with IL-1α genotype in donor and/or recipient and transplant-outcome. These data suggest that the outcome of unrelated donor transplant for CML is not influenced by IL-1α genotype. PMID:17391495

  7. Physiological traits and meat quality of pigs as affected by genotype and housing system.

    PubMed

    Lebret, B; Prunier, A; Bonhomme, N; Foury, A; Mormède, P; Dourmad, J Y

    2011-05-01

    The influence of pig housing system: alternative (bedding with outdoor area, BO) vs. conventional (slatted floor, SF) on growth performance, reactivity to pre-slaughter handling and meat quality was evaluated in two genotypes differing in the sire line, Duroc (CD) or synthetic (CS) with 40 pigs/genotype. Animal response to housing did not differ between genotypes. BO pigs had higher growth rate and feed intake, but similar carcass composition to SF pigs. Levels of stress related hormones and plasma metabolites at slaughter were not different between BO and SF pigs, suggesting that housing did not influence pig reactivity to pre-slaughter handling. Similar (Longissimus lumborum and Biceps femoris) or slightly reduced (Semimembranosus) pH values, higher drip, lipid content and juiciness were observed in BO compared with SF pork. CD pigs had more tender meat than CS. In conclusion, the BO system resulted in higher feed intake, faster growth rate, increased intramuscular fat, and improved eating quality in both genotypes. PMID:21185130

  8. Arsenate exposure affects amino acids, mineral nutrient status and antioxidants in rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, S; Tripathi, R D; Tripathi, P; Kumar, A; Dave, R; Mishra, S; Singh, R; Sharma, D; Rai, U N; Chakrabarty, D; Trivedi, P K; Adhikari, B; Bag, M K; Dhankher, O P; Tuli, R

    2010-12-15

    Simulated pot experiments were conducted on four rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes (Triguna, IR-36, PNR-519, and IET-4786) to examine the effects of As(V) on amino acids and mineral nutrient status in grain along with antioxidant response to arsenic exposure. Rice genotypes responded differentially to As(V) exposure in terms of amino acids and antioxidant profiles. Total amino acid content in grains of all rice genotypes was positively correlated with arsenic accumulation. While, most of the essential amino acids increased in all cultivars except IR-36, glutamic acid and glycine increased in IET-4786 and PNR-519. The level of nonprotein thiols (NPTs) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11) increased in all rice cultivars except IET-4786. A significant genotypic variation was also observed in specific arsenic uptake (SAU; mg kg(-1)dw), which was in the order of Triguna (134) > IR-36 (71) > PNR-519 (53) > IET-4786 (29). Further, application of As(V) at lower doses (4 and 8 mg L(-1) As) enhanced the accumulation of selenium (Se) and other nutrients (Fe, P, Zn, and S), however, higher dose (12 mg L(-1) As) limits the nutrient uptake in rice. In conclusion, low As accumulating genotype, IET-4786, which also had significantly induced level of essential amino acids, seems suitable for cultivation in moderately As contaminated soil and would be safe for human consumption. PMID:21077666

  9. How Different Genetically Manipulated Brassica Genotypes Affect Life Table Parameters of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Nikooei, Mehrnoosh; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Jalali Javaran, Mokhtar; Soufbaf, Mahmoud

    2015-04-01

    The fitness of Plutella xylostella L. on different genetically manipulated Brassica plants, including canola's progenitor (Brassica rapa L.), two cultivated canola cultivars (Opera and RGS003), one hybrid (Hyula401), one gamma-ray mutant-RGS003, and one transgenic (PF) genotype was compared using two-sex and female-based life table parameters. All experiments were conducted in a growth chamber at 25±1°C, 65±5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. There were significant differences in duration of different life stages of P. xylostella on different plant genotypes. The shortest (13.92 d) and longest (24.61 d) total developmental time were on Opera and PF, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase of P. xylostella ranged between 0.236 (Opera) and 0.071 day(-1) (PF). The highest (60.79 offspring) and lowest (7.88 offspring) net reproductive rates were observed on Opera and PF, respectively. Comparison of intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rates, finite rate of increase, mean generation time, fecundity, and survivorship of P. xylostella on the plant genotypes suggested that this pest performed well on cultivars (RGS003 and Opera) and performed poorly on the other manipulated genotypes especially on mutant-RGS003 and PF. Glucosinolate levels were significantly higher in damaged plants than undamaged ones and the lowest and highest concentrations of glucosinolates were found in transgenic genotype and canola's progenitor, respectively. Interestingly, our results showed that performance and fitness of this pest was better on canola's progenitor and cultivated plants, which had high levels of glucosinolate.

  10. How Different Genetically Manipulated Brassica Genotypes Affect Life Table Parameters of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Nikooei, Mehrnoosh; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Jalali Javaran, Mokhtar; Soufbaf, Mahmoud

    2015-04-01

    The fitness of Plutella xylostella L. on different genetically manipulated Brassica plants, including canola's progenitor (Brassica rapa L.), two cultivated canola cultivars (Opera and RGS003), one hybrid (Hyula401), one gamma-ray mutant-RGS003, and one transgenic (PF) genotype was compared using two-sex and female-based life table parameters. All experiments were conducted in a growth chamber at 25±1°C, 65±5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. There were significant differences in duration of different life stages of P. xylostella on different plant genotypes. The shortest (13.92 d) and longest (24.61 d) total developmental time were on Opera and PF, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase of P. xylostella ranged between 0.236 (Opera) and 0.071 day(-1) (PF). The highest (60.79 offspring) and lowest (7.88 offspring) net reproductive rates were observed on Opera and PF, respectively. Comparison of intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rates, finite rate of increase, mean generation time, fecundity, and survivorship of P. xylostella on the plant genotypes suggested that this pest performed well on cultivars (RGS003 and Opera) and performed poorly on the other manipulated genotypes especially on mutant-RGS003 and PF. Glucosinolate levels were significantly higher in damaged plants than undamaged ones and the lowest and highest concentrations of glucosinolates were found in transgenic genotype and canola's progenitor, respectively. Interestingly, our results showed that performance and fitness of this pest was better on canola's progenitor and cultivated plants, which had high levels of glucosinolate. PMID:26470162

  11. Factors affecting patient outcome in primary cutaneous aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Tatara, Alexander M.; Mikos, Antonios G.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Primary cutaneous aspergillosis (PCA) is an uncommon infection of the skin. There is a paucity of organized literature regarding this entity in regard to patient characteristics, associated Aspergillus species, and treatment modalities on outcome (disease recurrence, disease dissemination, and mortality). We reviewed all published reports of PCA from 1967 to 2015. Cases were deemed eligible if they included the following: patient baseline characteristics (age, sex, underlying condition), evidence of proven or probable PCA, primary treatment strategy, and outcome. We identified 130 eligible cases reported from 1967 to 2015. The patients were predominantly male (63.8%) with a mean age of 30.4 ± 22.1 years. Rates of PCA recurrence, dissemination, and mortality were 10.8%, 18.5%, and 31.5%, respectively. In half of the cases, there was an association with a foreign body. Seven different Aspergillus species were reported to cause PCA. Systemic antifungal therapy without surgery was the most common form of therapy (60% of cases). Disease dissemination was more common in patients with underlying systemic conditions and occurred on average 41.4 days after PCA diagnosis (range of 3–120 days). In a multivariate linear regression model of mortality including only patients with immunosuppressive conditions, dissemination and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome were statistically significantly associated with increased mortality. Nearly one-third of patients with PCA die with the disease. Dissemination and host status are critical in patient outcome. PMID:27367980

  12. Genetic Variations in the Sonic Hedgehog Pathway Affect Clinical Outcomes in Non-muscle–invasive Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Clague, Jessica; Kamat, Ashish M.; Picornell, Antoni; Chang, Joshua; Zhang, Xiaofan; Izzo, Julie; Yang, Hushan; Lin, Jie; Gu, Jian; Chanock, Stephen; Kogevinas, Manolis; Rothman, Nathaniel; Silverman, Debra T.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Grossman, H. Barton; Dinney, Colin P.; Malats, Núria; Wu, Xifeng

    2010-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway genetic variations may affect bladder cancer risk and clinical outcomes; therefore, we genotyped 177 SNPs in 11 Shh pathway genes in a study including 803 bladder cancer cases and 803 controls. We assessed SNP associations with cancer risk and clinical outcomes in 419 cases of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and 318 cases of muscle invasive and metastatic bladder cancer (MiMBC). Only 3 SNPs (GLI3 rs3823720, rs3735361, rs10951671) reached nominal significance in association with risk (P≤0.05), which became non-significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Nine SNPs reached a nominally significant individual association with recurrence of NMIBC in patients who received transurethral resection (TUR) only (P≤0.05), of which 2 (SHH rs1233560 and GLI2 rs11685068) were replicated independently in 356 TUR-only NMIBC patients with P-values of 1.0×10−3 (SHH rs1233560) and 1.3×10−3 (GLI2 rs11685068). Nine SNPs also reached a nominally significant individual association with clinical outcome of NMIBC patients who received Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG; P≤0.05), of which 2, the independent GLI3 variants rs6463089 and rs3801192, remained significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons (P=2×10−4 and 9×10−4, respectively). The wild-type genotype of either of these SNPs was associated with a lower recurrence rate and longer recurrence-free survival (versus the variants). Although 3 SNPs (GLI2 rs735557, GLI2 rs4848632, and SHH rs208684) showed nominal significance in association with overall survival in MiMBC patients (P≤0.05), none remained significant after multiple-comparison adjustments. Germline genetic variations in the Shh pathway predicted clinical outcomes of TUR and BCG for NMIBC patients. PMID:20858759

  13. Dietary protein intake affects expression of genes for lipid metabolism in porcine skeletal muscle in a genotype-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingying; Li, Fengna; He, Lingyun; Tan, Bie; Deng, Jinping; Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Yinghui; Geng, Meimei; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-04-14

    Skeletal muscle is a major site for the oxidation of fatty acids (FA) in mammals, including humans. Using a swine model, we tested the hypothesis that dietary protein intake regulates the expression of key genes for lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. A total of ninety-six barrows (forty-eight pure-bred Bama mini-pigs (fatty genotype) and forty-eight Landrace pigs (lean genotype)) were fed from 5 weeks of age to market weight. Pigs of fatty or lean genotype were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments (low- or adequate-protein diet), with twenty-four individually fed pigs per treatment. Our data showed that dietary protein levels affected the expression of genes involved in the anabolism and catabolism of lipids in the longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles in a genotype-dependent manner. Specifically, Bama mini-pigs had more intramuscular fat, SFA and MUFA, as well as elevated mRNA expression levels of lipogenic genes, compared with Landrace pigs. In contrast, Bama mini-pigs had lower mRNA expression levels of lipolytic genes than Landrace pigs fed an adequate-protein diet in the growing phase. These data are consistent with higher white-fat deposition in Bama mini-pigs than in Landrace pigs. In conclusion, adequate provision of dietary protein (amino acids) plays an important role in regulating the expression of key lipogenic genes, and the growth of white adipose tissue, in a genotype- and tissue-specific manner. These findings have important implications for developing novel dietary strategies in pig production.

  14. Race Affects Outcome among Infants with Intestinal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Robert H; Balint, Jane; Horslen, Simon; Wales, Paul W.; Soden, Jason; Duggan, Christopher; Li, Ruosha; Belle, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    Objective Intestinal failure is a rare, devastating condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We sought to determine if ethnic and racial differences were associated with patient survival and likelihood of receiving an intestinal transplant in a contemporary cohort of children with intestinal failure. Methods This was an analysis of a multicenter cohort study with data collected from chart review conducted by the Pediatric Intestinal Consortium (PIFCon). Entry criteria included infants < 12 mo receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) for > 60 continuous days and followed for at least 2 years. Outcomes included death and intestinal transplant (ITx). Race and ethnicity were recorded as they were in the medical record. For purposes of statistical comparisons and regression modeling, categories of race were consolidated into “white” and “non-white” children. Results Of 272 subjects enrolled, 204 white and 46 non-white children were available for analysis. The 48 month cumulative incidence probability (CIP) of death without ITx was 0.40 for non-white and 0.16 for white children (p<0.001); the CIP of ITx was 0.07 for non-white vs 0.31 for white children (p=0.003). The associations between race and outcomes remained after accounting for low-birth weight, diagnosis, and being seen at a transplant center. Conclusion Race is associated with death and receiving an ITx in a large cohort of children with intestinal failure. This study highlights the need to investigate reasons for this apparent racial disparity in outcome among children with intestinal failure. PMID:24918984

  15. Genotype: A Crucial but Not Unique Factor Affecting the Clinical Phenotypes in Fabry Disease.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoxia; Ouyang, Yan; Wang, Zhaohui; Ren, Hong; Shen, Pingyan; Wang, Weiming; Xu, Yaowen; Ni, Liyan; Yu, Xialian; Chen, Xiaonong; Zhang, Wen; Yang, Li; Li, Xiao; Xu, Jing; Chen, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Numerous α-galactosidase A (α-gal A) gene (GLA) mutations have been identified in Fabry disease (FD), but studies on genotype-phenotype correlation are limited. This study evaluated the features of GLA gene mutations and genotype-phenotype relationship in Chinese FD patients. Gene sequencing results, demographic information, clinical history, and laboratory findings were collected from 73 Chinese FD patients. Totally 47 mutations were identified, including 23 novel mutations which might be pathogenic. For male patients, those with frameshift and nonsense mutations presented the classical FD, whereas those with missense mutations presented both of classical and atypical phenotypes. Interestingly, two male patients with missense mutation p.R356G from two unrelated families, and two with p.R301Q from one family presented different phenotypes. A statistically significant association was found between the levels of α-gal A enzyme activity and ocular changes in males, though no significant association was found between residual enzyme activity level and genotype or clinical phenotypes. For female patients, six out of seven with frameshift mutations and one out of nine with missense mutation presented the classical FD, and α-gal A activity in those patients was found to be significantly lower than that of patients with atypical phenotypes (13.73 vs. 46.32 nmol/ml/h/mg). Our findings suggest that the α-gal A activity might be associated with the clinical severity in female patients with FD. But no obvious associations between activity level of α-gal A and genotype or clinical phenotypes were found for male patients. PMID:27560961

  16. Genotype: A Crucial but Not Unique Factor Affecting the Clinical Phenotypes in Fabry Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaohui; Ren, Hong; Shen, Pingyan; Wang, Weiming; Xu, Yaowen; Ni, Liyan; Yu, Xialian; Chen, Xiaonong; Zhang, Wen; Yang, Li; Li, Xiao; Xu, Jing; Chen, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Numerous α-galactosidase A (α-gal A) gene (GLA) mutations have been identified in Fabry disease (FD), but studies on genotype-phenotype correlation are limited. This study evaluated the features of GLA gene mutations and genotype-phenotype relationship in Chinese FD patients. Gene sequencing results, demographic information, clinical history, and laboratory findings were collected from 73 Chinese FD patients. Totally 47 mutations were identified, including 23 novel mutations which might be pathogenic. For male patients, those with frameshift and nonsense mutations presented the classical FD, whereas those with missense mutations presented both of classical and atypical phenotypes. Interestingly, two male patients with missense mutation p.R356G from two unrelated families, and two with p.R301Q from one family presented different phenotypes. A statistically significant association was found between the levels of α-gal A enzyme activity and ocular changes in males, though no significant association was found between residual enzyme activity level and genotype or clinical phenotypes. For female patients, six out of seven with frameshift mutations and one out of nine with missense mutation presented the classical FD, and α-gal A activity in those patients was found to be significantly lower than that of patients with atypical phenotypes (13.73 vs. 46.32 nmol/ml/h/mg). Our findings suggest that the α-gal A activity might be associated with the clinical severity in female patients with FD. But no obvious associations between activity level of α-gal A and genotype or clinical phenotypes were found for male patients. PMID:27560961

  17. Secondary science classroom dissections: Informing policy by evaluating cognitive outcomes and exploring affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allspaw, Kathleen M.

    Animal protection organizations claim that dissection is pedagogically unsound and that it will cause students to lose respect for non-human animals. Science teacher organizations support curricula that teach respect for animal life and include dissection. Prior research compared dissection to dissection alternatives. Four of the six studies revealed no difference between groups on tests of cognitive outcomes. One study revealed that dissection was superior, and one revealed that the alternative was superior. No differences in attitudes toward science, dissection or school were found. Attitudes toward non-human animals were not measured. This study focused on the dissections of earthworms and frogs in middle and high school classrooms. Pre and post-tests of conceptual understanding revealed failing scores and no significant pre/post differences. Because these tests required critical thinking skills, and the dissection activities did not, it is difficult to determine if the poor performance on these tests indicates the inability of the students to think critically, and/or if it indicates the ineffectiveness of dissection. Further studies of dissections that focus on critical thinking would be necessary to make this distinction. Classroom observations, student written narratives, and student and adult interviews revealed mixed attitudes toward non-human animals. Student behaviors during dissection were similar to those behaviors exhibited during non-dissection activities. Most students and adults readily supported worm dissections while they expressed some trepidation about frog dissections. Students and adults universally expressed affection for their pets and opposed the use of their own pets for dissection/research. There was slight support for the use of dogs and cats for dissection/research, but only those students who expressed hate for cats said that they could dissect cats. None of the students or adults expressed a willingness to dissect dogs. Some students

  18. Beta2-adrenoceptor genotype and function affect hemodynamic profile heterogeneity in postural tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Giris; Garland, Emily M; Costa, Fernando; Stein, C Michael; Xie, Hong-Guang; Robertson, Rose Marie; Biaggioni, Italo; Robertson, David

    2006-03-01

    Previous studies suggest that the beta2-adrenoceptor functions abnormally in patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and may contribute to their altered hemodynamic profile. To test the hypothesis that the beta2-adrenoceptor response is decreased in POTS, we studied: (1) the arterial vasodilation response to the beta agonist, isoproterenol, and (2) the distribution of common polymorphisms (codons 16 and 27) of the gene coding the receptor (beta2-AR) in a large population with POTS. We measured plasma catecholamines and monitored hemodynamics and changes in forearm and leg blood flow to incremental doses of intraarterial isoproterenol in 9 patients with POTS compared with 8 healthy subjects. For polymorphism assessment we collected DNA from 57 patients with POTS and compared with 67 age-sex matched healthy subjects. Circulating catecholamines were significantly higher in POTS subjects compared with controls. Intrabrachial and intrafemoral isoproterenol infusion elicited a dose-dependent increase in blood flow. In healthy subjects, blood flow increased (mean+/-SEM) 400+/-70% in the forearm and 170+/-40% in the leg, but only 280+/-60% in forearms and 120+/-20% in legs of patients with POTS (ANOVA for both P<0.001). The genotype and allele distributions for codons 16 and 27 beta2-AR variants were not different in the 2 groups. However, the blood pressure and plasma norepinephrine levels diverged in patients according to their genotype. Patients with Gly16Gly and patients with Glu27Glu had lower plasma catecholamines and higher supine and upright blood pressure, compared with other genotypes. Therefore, both decreased beta2-adrenoceptor-related vasodilation and beta2-AR polymorphisms may contribute to the hemodynamic diversity of patients with POTS.

  19. Does Apolipoprotein E genotype affect cardiovascular risk in subjects with acromegaly?

    PubMed

    Bozok Cetintas, Vildan; Zengi, Ayhan; Tetik, Asli; Karadeniz, Muammer; Ergonen, Faruk; Kucukaslan, Ali Sahin; Tamsel, Sadik; Kosova, Buket; Sahin, Serap Baydur; Saygılı, Fusun; Eroglu, Zuhal

    2012-06-01

    Acromegaly is a syndrome that results when the pituitary gland produces excess growth hormone after epiphyseal closure at puberty. Usually, subjects with acromegaly exhibit a 2- to 3-fold higher mortality rate from diseases that are associated with cardiovascular complications when compared to the normal population. In this study, we therefore aimed to evaluate whether a well-established cardiovascular risk factor, the Apolipoprotein E (Apo E) genotype, contributes to increased risk of cardiovascular complications in subjects with acromegaly. A total of 102 unrelated acromegaly subjects were prospectively included into this case-control association study and constituted our study group. The study group was comparable by age and gender with 200 unrelated healthy subjects constituting our control group. Genomic DNA was isolated from the peripheral blood leukocytes of all subjects and Apo E genotype (codon 112/158) was assessed by melting temperature analyses after using a real-time PCR protocol. The Apolipoprotein E4 allele was found at a significantly higher frequency in the study group when compared with the control group (P = 0.032). Subjects with the E2 allele, on the other hand, had significantly increased values in body mass index (P = 0.004), waist circumference (P = 0.001), C-reactive protein (CRP) (P < 0.001), and left-side carotid intima media thickness (P = 0.025). The Apolipoprotein E2 genotype might contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular complications in subjects with acromegaly since it is concurrently present with other cardiovascular risk factors such as the left-side carotid intima media thickness and CRP.

  20. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Affect Disease Outcomes via Macrophage Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guoping; Ge, Menghua; Qiu, Guanguan; Shu, Qiang; Xu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent and self-renewable cells that reside in almost all postnatal tissues. In recent years, many studies have reported the effect of MSCs on the innate and adaptive immune systems. MSCs regulate the proliferation, activation, and effector function of T lymphocytes, professional antigen presenting cells (dendritic cells, macrophages, and B lymphocytes), and NK cells via direct cell-to-cell contact or production of soluble factors including indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α stimulated gene/protein 6, nitric oxide, and IL-10. MSCs are also able to reprogram macrophages from a proinflammatory M1 phenotype toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype capable of regulating immune response. Because of their capacity for differentiation and immunomodulation, MSCs have been used in many preclinical and clinical studies as possible new therapeutic agents for the treatment of autoimmune, degenerative, and inflammatory diseases. In this review, we discuss the central role of MSCs in macrophage polarization and outcomes of diseases such as wound healing, brain/spinal cord injuries, and diseases of heart, lung, and kidney in animal models. PMID:26257791

  1. Health literacy affects peritoneal dialysis performance and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kleinpeter, Myra A

    2003-01-01

    Health literacy (HL) is the ability to perform the basic reading, writing, and numerical skills required to function in a health care setting. Patients with adequate HL are able to read, interpret, and respond to health care information provided by health care providers and health plans. Several means of assessing HL are available for English- and Spanish-speaking patients. A review of the English-language literature on HL indicated that no prior studies included a subset of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. I administered the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) assessment tool to PD patients. I also asked patients for information about their highest education level completed. Following completion of the REALM, patients were classified as having adequate, marginal, or inadequate HL. As other studies have shown, patients with lower levels of education have inadequate HL. Patients with some college education or higher have adequate HL. However, at the average education level of patients, most patients have marginal HL. Relative lack of HL affects a patient's ability to make decisions regarding care as part of a home self-management program for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and other chronic illnesses. Consequently, relative HL level affects the method of instruction and the time required for instruction during training of PD patients.

  2. Does Family History Of Prostate Cancer Affect Outcomes Following Radiotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    Bagshaw, Hilary; Ruth, Karen; Horwitz, Eric M.; Chen, David Y.T.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine family history (FH) as a prognostic factor following radiotherapy (RT). Materials and Methods Between 1989 and 2007, 1,711 men with clinically localized prostate cancer and complete family history who had received RT (median RT dose = 74 Gy) without androgen deprivation therapy were analyzed. FH was defined as any prostate cancer in a first degree relative. For the biochemical failure (BF) outcome, this sample size has 85% power to detect a hazard ratio of 1.56 for positive versus negative FH. Results With a median follow-up of 71 months, there was no significant difference in the distribution of Gleason score (GS) or prostate specific antigen (PSA) based on FH. A positive FH was not an independent predictor of BF, distant metastasis (DM), prostate cancer specific mortality (PCSM), or overall mortality (OM) in Cox proportional multivariable analysis. On further analysis in a Cox proportional multivariable analysis, men with two or more first degree relatives with prostate cancer had a significantly higher likelihood of BF and DM than those with no FH, although there was no difference in PCSM or OM. Men with a positive FH (23%) were more likely to be younger, have a lower PSA, and non-palpable disease. There was no interaction between a positive FH and neither race nor treatment era (pre-PSA vs. PSA era). Conclusions A positive FH is not a prognostic factor following RT and should not alter standard treatment recommendations. Patients with two or more first degree relatives with prostate cancer had a higher likelihood of BF and DM, but there was no effect on survival. There was no interaction between a positive FH and African American race or treatment era. A positive FH was however, associated with more favorable PSA values and T-stage that may be the result of earlier screening. PMID:24560758

  3. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Genotype Affects Skeletal Muscle Strength In Elite Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Aldo Matos; Silva, António José; Garrido, Nuno; Louro, Hugo; Marinho, Daniel Almeida; Cardoso Marques, Mário; Breitenfeld, Luiza

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have associated angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) D allele with variability in the skeletal muscle baseline strength, though conclusions have been inconsistent across investigations. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible association between ACE genotype and skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite male and female athletes involved in different event expertise. A group of 58 elite athletes, designated as Olympic candidates, were studied: 35 swimmers (19 males and 16 females, 18.8 ± 3.2 years) and 23 triathletes (15 males and 8 females, 18.7 ± 3.0 years). The athletes were classified as: short (≤ 200m) and middle (400m to 1500m) distance athletes, respectively. For each subject the grip strength in both hands was measure using an adjustable mechanical hand dynamometer. The maximum height in both squat jump (SJ) and counter movement jump (CMJ) were also assessed, using a trigonometric carpet (Ergojump Digitime 1000; Digitest, Jyvaskyla, Finland). DNA extraction was obtained with Chelex 100® and genotype determination by PCR-RFLP methods. Both males and females showed significantly higher right grip strength in D allele carriers compared to II homozygote’s. We found that allelic frequency differs significantly by event distance specialization in both genders (p < 0.05). In fact, sprinter D allele carriers showed the superior scores in nearly all strength measurements (p < 0.05), in both genders. Among endurance athletes, the results also demonstrated that female D allele carriers exhibited the higher performance right grip and CMJ scores (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the ACE D allele seems associated with skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite athletes, being easily identified in females. Key points DD homozygote’s and D allele carriers from both genders shows significantly higher right grip strength. Right grip strength remains significantly higher in the D allele carrier’s female endurance group. Female’s D allele

  4. Outcomes in cochlear implantation: variables affecting performance in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Cosetti, Maura K; Waltzman, Susan B

    2012-02-01

    This article highlights variables that affect cochlear implant performance, emerging factors warranting consideration, and variables shown not to affect performance. Research on the outcomes following cochlear implantation has identified a wide spectrum of variables known to affect pos0timplantation performance. These variables relate to the device itself as well as individual patient characteristics. Factors believed to affect spiral ganglion cell survival and function have been shown to influence postoperative performance. Binaural hearing affects performance. Social and educational factors also affect postoperative performance. Novel variables capable of affecting performance continue to emerge with increased understanding of auditory pathway development and neural plasticity. PMID:22115688

  5. Affect-modulated startle: interactive influence of catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met genotype and childhood trauma.

    PubMed

    Klauke, Benedikt; Winter, Bernward; Gajewska, Agnes; Zwanzger, Peter; Reif, Andreas; Herrmann, Martin J; Dlugos, Andrea; Warrings, Bodo; Jacob, Christian; Mühlberger, Andreas; Arolt, Volker; Pauli, Paul; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    The etiology of emotion-related disorders such as anxiety or affective disorders is considered to be complex with an interaction of biological and environmental factors. Particular evidence has accumulated for alterations in the dopaminergic and noradrenergic system--partly conferred by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene variation--for the adenosinergic system as well as for early life trauma to constitute risk factors for those conditions. Applying a multi-level approach, in a sample of 95 healthy adults, we investigated effects of the functional COMT Val158Met polymorphism, caffeine as an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist (300 mg in a placebo-controlled intervention design) and childhood maltreatment (CTQ) as well as their interaction on the affect-modulated startle response as a neurobiologically founded defensive reflex potentially related to fear- and distress-related disorders. COMT val/val genotype significantly increased startle magnitude in response to unpleasant stimuli, while met/met homozygotes showed a blunted startle response to aversive pictures. Furthermore, significant gene-environment interaction of COMT Val158Met genotype with CTQ was discerned with more maltreatment being associated with higher startle potentiation in val/val subjects but not in met carriers. No main effect of or interaction effects with caffeine were observed. Results indicate a main as well as a GxE effect of the COMT Val158Met variant and childhood maltreatment on the affect-modulated startle reflex, supporting a complex pathogenetic model of the affect-modulated startle reflex as a basic neurobiological defensive reflex potentially related to anxiety and affective disorders.

  6. Affect-Modulated Startle: Interactive Influence of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Val158Met Genotype and Childhood Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Klauke, Benedikt; Winter, Bernward; Gajewska, Agnes; Zwanzger, Peter; Reif, Andreas; Herrmann, Martin J.; Dlugos, Andrea; Warrings, Bodo; Jacob, Christian; Mühlberger, Andreas; Arolt, Volker; Pauli, Paul; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    The etiology of emotion-related disorders such as anxiety or affective disorders is considered to be complex with an interaction of biological and environmental factors. Particular evidence has accumulated for alterations in the dopaminergic and noradrenergic system – partly conferred by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene variation – for the adenosinergic system as well as for early life trauma to constitute risk factors for those conditions. Applying a multi-level approach, in a sample of 95 healthy adults, we investigated effects of the functional COMT Val158Met polymorphism, caffeine as an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist (300 mg in a placebo-controlled intervention design) and childhood maltreatment (CTQ) as well as their interaction on the affect-modulated startle response as a neurobiologically founded defensive reflex potentially related to fear- and distress-related disorders. COMT val/val genotype significantly increased startle magnitude in response to unpleasant stimuli, while met/met homozygotes showed a blunted startle response to aversive pictures. Furthermore, significant gene-environment interaction of COMT Val158Met genotype with CTQ was discerned with more maltreatment being associated with higher startle potentiation in val/val subjects but not in met carriers. No main effect of or interaction effects with caffeine were observed. Results indicate a main as well as a GxE effect of the COMT Val158Met variant and childhood maltreatment on the affect-modulated startle reflex, supporting a complex pathogenetic model of the affect-modulated startle reflex as a basic neurobiological defensive reflex potentially related to anxiety and affective disorders. PMID:22745815

  7. Midterm Outcome of Femoral Artery Stenting and Factors Affecting Patency

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jae Seoung; Park, Keun-Myoung; Jeon, Yong Sun; Cho, Soon Gu; Hong, Kee Chun; Shin, Woo Young; Choe, Yun-Mee; Shin, Seok-Hwan; Kim, Kyung Rae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early and midterm results of superficial femoral artery (SFA) stenting with self-expanding nitinol stents and to identify the factors affecting patency. Materials and Methods: SFA stenting was performed in 165 limbs of 117 patients from January 2009 to December 2013. Patients were followed-up for the first occurrence of occlusion or stenosis based on computed tomography and duplex scan results and a decrease in ankle brachial index of >15%. Results: During the follow-up period (mean, 15.3±3.2 months), no early thrombotic reocclusions occurred within 30 days, but in-stent restenosis developed in 78 limbs. The primary patency rates at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months were 78%, 66%, 42%, and 22%, respectively, and the secondary patency rates were 85%, 72%, 58%, and 58%, respectively. TASC II C or D lesions, stent length >8 cm, number of patent tibial arteries and diabetes were significantly associated with reintervention. Conclusion: The midterm results of stenting for SFA occlusive disease were disappointing because the primary and secondary patency rates at two years were 22% and 58%, respectively. Reintervention after SFA stenting remains a major problem, particularly in patients with diabetes mellitus or long TASC II C or D lesions. PMID:26719837

  8. Food stoichiometry affects the outcome of Daphnia–parasite interaction

    PubMed Central

    Aalto, Sanni L; Pulkkinen, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for growth in consumers. P-limitation and parasite infection comprise one of the most common stressor pairs consumers confront in nature. We conducted a life-table study using a Daphnia–microsporidian parasite model, feeding uninfected or infected Daphnia with either P-sufficient or P-limited algae, and assessed the impact of the two stressors on life-history traits of the host. Both infection and P-limitation negatively affected some life-history traits tested. However, under P-limitation, infected animals had higher juvenile growth rate as compared with uninfected animals. All P-limited individuals died before maturation, regardless of infection. The numbers of spore clusters of the microsporidian parasite did not differ in P-limited or P-sufficient hosts. P-limitation, but not infection, decreased body phosphorus content and ingestion rates of Daphnia tested in separate experiments. As parasite spore production did not suffer even under extreme P-limitation, our results suggest that parasite was less limited by P than the host. We discuss possible interpretations concerning the stoichiometrical demands of parasite and suggest that our results are explained by parasite-driven changes in carbon (C) allocation of the hosts. We conclude that the impact of nutrient starvation and parasite infection on consumers depends not only on the stoichiometric demands of host but also those of the parasite. PMID:23762513

  9. Factors Affecting Phenotype Variability in a Family with CMT2B: Gender and LRSAM1 Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Peddareddygari, Leema Reddy; Oberoi, Kinsi; Vellore, Jaasrini Reddy; Grewal, Raji P.

    2016-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2) is an autosomal dominant axonal neuropathy caused by mutations in various genes. The subtype CMT2B results from missense mutations in RAB7A, member RAS oncogene family gene, whereas missense mutations in the Leucine-rich repeat and sterile alpha motif-containing protein 1 (LRSAM1) gene cause CMT2P. We describe the genotype/phenotype analysis of a family in which a previously described mutation in the RAB7A gene and a novel mutation in the LRSAM1 gene were identified. In this family, none of the individuals had ulceromutilating features, and there was a marked variability in the age of onset. We discuss the possible etiology of the observed phenotypic variability including the role of gender and possible RAB7A/LRSAM1 gene interactions. PMID:27462242

  10. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in meningo-encephalitis affected striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Guardo, Giovanni; Di Cesare, Angela; Otranto, Domenico; Casalone, Cristina; Iulini, Barbara; Mignone, Walter; Tittarelli, Cristiana; Meloni, Silvana; Castagna, Giuseppe; Forster, Fiona; Kennedy, Seamus; Traversa, Donato

    2011-12-29

    This study reports the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii in the brain of three striped dolphins (Stenella ceoruleoalba) found stranded on the Ligurian Sea coast of Italy between 2007 and 2008. These animals showed a severe, subacute to chronic, non-purulent, multifocal meningo-encephalitis, with the cerebral parenchyma of two dolphins harbouring protozoan cysts and zoites immunohistochemically linked to T. gondii. Molecular, phylogenetic and mutation scanning analyses showed the occurrence of Type II and of an atypical Type II T. gondii isolates in one and two dolphins, respectively. In spite of the different molecular patterns characterizing the above T. gondii genotypes, the brain lesions observed in the three animals showed common microscopic features, with no remarkable differences among them. The role of T. gondii in causing the meningo-encephalitis is herein discussed. PMID:21802209

  11. Factors Affecting Phenotype Variability in a Family with CMT2B: Gender and LRSAM1 Genotype.

    PubMed

    Peddareddygari, Leema Reddy; Oberoi, Kinsi; Vellore, Jaasrini Reddy; Grewal, Raji P

    2016-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2) is an autosomal dominant axonal neuropathy caused by mutations in various genes. The subtype CMT2B results from missense mutations in RAB7A, member RAS oncogene family gene, whereas missense mutations in the Leucine-rich repeat and sterile alpha motif-containing protein 1 (LRSAM1) gene cause CMT2P. We describe the genotype/phenotype analysis of a family in which a previously described mutation in the RAB7A gene and a novel mutation in the LRSAM1 gene were identified. In this family, none of the individuals had ulceromutilating features, and there was a marked variability in the age of onset. We discuss the possible etiology of the observed phenotypic variability including the role of gender and possible RAB7A/LRSAM1 gene interactions. PMID:27462242

  12. Gender Affects Early Postoperative Outcomes of Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hee-Uk; Jung, Jae-Won; Lee, Young-Kuk

    2015-01-01

    Background The literature does not provide consistent information on the impact of patients' gender on recovery after rotator cuff repair. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gender affects pain and functional recovery in the early postoperative period after rotator cuff repair. Methods Eighty patients (40 men and 40 women) were prospectively enrolled. Pain intensity and functional recovery were evaluated, using visual analog scale (VAS) pain score and range of motion on each of the first 5 postoperative days, at 2 and 6 weeks and at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Perioperative medication-related adverse effects and postoperative complications were also assessed. Results The mean VAS pain score was significantly higher for women than men at 2 weeks after surgery (p = 0.035). For all other periods, there was no significant difference between men and women in VAS pain scores, although women had higher scores than men. Mean forward flexion in women was significantly lower than men at 6 weeks after surgery (p = 0.033) and the mean degree of external rotation in women was significantly lower than men at 6 weeks (p = 0.007) and at 3 months (p = 0.017) after surgery. There was no significant difference in medication-related adverse effects or postoperative complications. Conclusions Women had more pain and slower recovery of shoulder motion than men during the first 3 months after rotator cuff repair. These findings can serve as guidelines for pain management and rehabilitation after surgery and can help explain postoperative recovery patterns to patients with scheduled rotator cuff repair. PMID:26217471

  13. Mouse arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase genotype affects metabolism and tissue dosimetry of arsenicals after arsenite administration in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baowei; Arnold, Lora L; Cohen, Samuel M; Thomas, David J; Le, X Chris

    2011-12-01

    Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) producing a number of methylated arsenic metabolites. Although methylation has been commonly considered a pathway for detoxification of arsenic, some highly reactive methylated arsenicals may contribute to toxicity associated with exposure to inorganic arsenic. Here, adult female wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice and female As3mt knockout (KO) mice received drinking water that contained 1, 10, or 25 ppm (mg/l) of arsenite for 33 days and blood, liver, kidney, and lung were taken for arsenic speciation. Genotype markedly affected concentrations of arsenicals in tissues. Summed concentrations of arsenicals in plasma were higher in WT than in KO mice; in red blood cells, summed concentrations of arsenicals were higher in KO than in WT mice. In liver, kidney, and lung, summed concentrations of arsenicals were greater in KO than in WT mice. Although capacity for arsenic methylation is much reduced in KO mice, some mono-, di-, and tri-methylated arsenicals were found in tissues of KO mice, likely reflecting the activity of other tissue methyltransferases or preabsorptive metabolism by the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract. These results show that the genotype for arsenic methylation determines the phenotypes of arsenic retention and distribution and affects the dose- and organ-dependent toxicity associated with exposure to inorganic arsenic.

  14. Interleukin-1 genotype and outcome of unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Margaret L; Radloff, Gretchen A; DeFor, Todd E; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Davies, Stella M

    2003-05-01

    The interleukin 1 (IL-1) gene family includes three members (IL-1-alpha, IL-1-beta and IL-1Ra) that mediate immune and inflammatory responses through two specific cell surface receptors. Cytosine to thymine transitions at codons -889 and -511 in the IL-1-alpha and IL-1-beta genes, respectively, and an 86-base pair repeat in the IL-1Ra are believed to influence gene transcription. We have genotyped these three polymorphisms in 90 donor/recipient pairs undergoing unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation (BMT) at the University of Minnesota. We found no association between the occurrence of acute GVHD and donor and/or recipient polymorphisms of any of the three IL-1 genes. The presence of at least one IL-1alpha- 889 T allele in the donor was associated with significantly improved survival in univariate analysis (survival at 1 year 40% C/C donor, 68% T/C donor, 75% T/T donor, P < 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that if the donor and recipient each possessed the IL-1alpha T allele there was significantly improved survival [relative risk (RR) 0.2, P < 0.01] and decreased treatment-related mortality (TRM; RR 0.2, P = 0.01). The presence of the IL-1beta T allele in donor and recipient was also associated with improved survival (RR 0.2, P < 0.01) and decreased TRM (RR 0.1, P < 0.01). These data suggest that donor polymorphism in IL-1alpha and IL-1beta might influence survival after unrelated donor BMT, but does not alter risk of GVHD.

  15. APOE Genotype Predicts Extent of Bleeding and Outcome in Lobar Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Biffi, Alessandro; Anderson, Christopher D.; Jagiella, Jeremiasz M.; Schmidt, Helena; Kissela, Brett; Hansen, Björn M.; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Pires, Caroline R.; Ayres, Alison M.; Schwab, Kristin; Cortellini, Lynelle; Pera, Joanna; Urbanik, Andrzej; Romero, Javier M.; Rost, Natalia S.; Goldstein, Joshua N.; Viswanathan, Anand; Pichler, Alexander; Enzinger, Christian; Rabionet, Raquel; Norrving, Bo; Tirschwell, David L.; Selim, Magdy; Brown, Devin L.; Silliman, Scott L.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Meschia, James F.; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Broderick, Joseph P.; Greenberg, Steven M.; Roquer, Jaume; Lindgren, Arne; Slowik, Agnieszka; Schmidt, Reinhold; Woo, Daniel; Rosand, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Background APOE alleles ε2/ε4 increase risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the lobar regions, presumably through their influence on risk of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. We investigated whether these variants also associate with ICH severity, specifically larger ICH volume at presentation. Methods We initially investigated the association of ε2/ε4 with ICH volume and outcome in a Discovery sample of 865 individuals of European ancestry. Replication was completed in two samples, comprising 946 Europeans (Replication I) and 214 African-Americans (Replication II) respectively. Admission ICH volume was quantified on CT scan. Poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale: 3 – 6) and mortality were assessed at 90 days. Findings Among patients with lobar ICH, APOE ε2 was associated with larger ICH volume: each allele copy increased hematoma size by 5·3 cc (95% CI 4·1 – 6·2 cc, p = 0.004), with replication in Europeans (p = 0·008) and African Americans (p = 0·016). Consistent with this, ε2 was associated with both mortality (OR = 1·50, 1·23 – 1·82, p = 2·45 × 10−5) and poor functional outcome (OR = 1·52, 1·25 – 1·85, p = 1·74 × 10−5). We were not able to replicate published associations between ε4 and overall ICH mortality in a meta-analysis of all available data (n = 2202 ICH cases, OR = 1·08, 95% CI: 0·86 – 1·36, p = 0·52). Interpretation In lobar ICH, APOE ε2 is associated with larger ICH volume at presentation, and hence increased mortality and disability. These findings suggest a role for the vasculopathic changes associated with the ε2 allele in influencing the severity and clinical course of lobar ICH. Funding This study was funded by NIH-NINDS, the American Heart Association, government agencies in Spain, Poland and Austria, academic institutions in Sweden and Austria, and philanthropic organizations. PMID:21741316

  16. Impact of KIR and HLA Genotypes on Outcomes after Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sobecks, Ronald M; Wang, Tao; Askar, Medhat; Gallagher, Meighan M; Haagenson, Michael; Spellman, Stephen; Fernandez-Vina, Marcelo; Malmberg, Karl-Johan; Müller, Carlheinz; Battiwalla, Minoo; Gajewski, James; Verneris, Michael R; Ringdén, Olle; Marino, Susana; Davies, Stella; Dehn, Jason; Bornhäuser, Martin; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Woolfrey, Ann; Shaw, Peter; Pollack, Marilyn; Weisdorf, Daniel; Milller, Jeffrey; Hurley, Carolyn; Lee, Stephanie J; Hsu, Katharine

    2015-09-01

    Natural killer cells are regulated by killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) interactions with HLA class I ligands. Several models of natural killer cell reactivity have been associated with improved outcomes after myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but this issue has not been rigorously addressed in reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) unrelated donor (URD) HCT. We studied 909 patients undergoing RIC-URD HCT. Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, n = 612) lacking ≥ 1 KIR ligands experienced higher grade III to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.28; P = .005) compared to those with all ligands present. Absence of HLA-C2 for donor KIR2DL1 was associated with higher grade II to IV (HR, 1.4; P = .002) and III to IV acute GVHD (HR, 1.5; P = .01) compared with HLA-C2(+) patients. AML patients with KIR2DS1(+), HLA-C2 homozygous donors had greater treatment-related mortality compared with others (HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4 to 4.2; P = .002) but did not experience lower relapse. There were no significant associations with outcomes for AML when assessing donor-activating KIRs or centromeric KIR content or for any donor-recipient KIR-HLA assessments in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 297). KIR-HLA combinations in RIC-URD HCT recapitulate some but not all KIR-HLA effects observed in myeloablative HCT. PMID:25960307

  17. Impact of KIR and HLA Genotypes on Outcomes after Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sobecks Ronald, M; Tao, Wang; Medhat, Askar; Gallagher Meighan, M; Michael, Haagenson; Stephen, Spellman; Marcelo, Fernandez-Vina; Karl-Johan, Malmberg; Carlheinz, Muller; Minoo, Battiwalla; James, Gajewski; Verneris Michael, R; Olle, Ringden; Marino Susana, R; Stella, Davies; Jason, Dehn; Martin, Bornhäuser; Yoshihiro, Inamoto; Ann, Woolfrey; Peter, Shaw; Marilyn, Pollack; Daniel, Weisdorf; Jeffrey, Miller; Hurley Carolyn, K; Lee Stephanie, J; Hsu Katharine, C

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are regulated killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) interactions with HLA class I ligands. Several models of NK reactivity have been associated with improved outcomes following myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but this issue has not been rigorously addressed in reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) unrelated donor (URD) HCT. We studied 909 patients undergoing RIC-URD HCT. Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, n=612) lacking ≥1 KIR ligands experienced higher grade III–IV acute graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD) (HR 1.6, 95%CI 1.16–2.28, p=0.005) compared to those with all ligands present. Absence of HLA-C2 for donor KIR2DL1 was associated with higher grade II–IV (HR 1.4, p=0.002) and III–IV acute GvHD (HR 1.5, p=0.01) compared to HLA-C2+patients. AML patients with KIR2DS1+, HLA-C2 homozygous donors had greater treatment-related mortality compared to others (HR 2.4, 95%CI 1.4–4.2, p=0.002), but did not experience lower relapse. There were no significant associations with outcomes for AML when assessing donor activating KIRs or centromeric KIR content, nor for any donor-recipient KIR-HLA assessments in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (n=297). KIR-HLA combinations in RIC-URD HCT recapitulate some but not all KIR-HLA effects observed in myeloablative HCT. PMID:25960307

  18. Genomic variation by whole-genome SNP mapping arrays predicts time-to-event outcome in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a comparison of CLL and HapMap genotypes.

    PubMed

    Schweighofer, Carmen D; Coombes, Kevin R; Majewski, Tadeusz; Barron, Lynn L; Lerner, Susan; Sargent, Rachel L; O'Brien, Susan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Wierda, William G; Czerniak, Bogdan A; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Keating, Michael J; Abruzzo, Lynne V

    2013-03-01

    Genomic abnormalities, such as deletions in 11q22 or 17p13, are associated with poorer prognosis in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We hypothesized that unknown regions of copy number variation (CNV) affect clinical outcome and can be detected by array-based single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. We compared SNP genotypes from 168 untreated patients with CLL with genotypes from 73 white HapMap controls. We identified 322 regions of recurrent CNV, 82 of which occurred significantly more often in CLL than in HapMap (CLL-specific CNV), including regions typically aberrant in CLL: deletions in 6q21, 11q22, 13q14, and 17p13 and trisomy 12. In univariate analyses, 35 of total and 11 of CLL-specific CNVs were associated with unfavorable time-to-event outcomes, including gains or losses in chromosomes 2p, 4p, 4q, 6p, 6q, 7q, 11p, 11q, and 17p. In multivariate analyses, six CNVs (ie, CLL-specific variations in 11p15.1-15.4 or 6q27) predicted time-to-treatment or overall survival independently of established markers of prognosis. Moreover, genotypic complexity (ie, the number of independent CNVs per patient) significantly predicted prognosis, with a median time-to-treatment of 64 months versus 23 months in patients with zero to one versus two or more CNVs, respectively (P = 3.3 × 10(-8)). In summary, a comparison of SNP genotypes from patients with CLL with HapMap controls allowed us to identify known and unknown recurrent CNVs and to determine regions and rates of CNV that predict poorer prognosis in patients with CLL.

  19. Soa genotype selectively affects mouse gustatory neural responses to sucrose octaacetate

    PubMed Central

    INOUE, MASASHI; LI, XIA; McCAUGHEY, STUART A.; BEAUCHAMP, GARY K.; BACHMANOV, ALEXANDER A.

    2013-01-01

    In mice, behavioral acceptance of the bitter compound sucrose octaacetate (SOA) depends on allelic variation of a single gene, Soa. The SW.B6-Soab congenic mouse strain has the genetic background of an “SOA taster” SWR/J strain and an Soa-containing donor chromosome fragment from an “SOA nontaster” C57BL/6J strain. Using microsatellite markers polymorphic between the two parental strains, we determined that the donor fragment spans 5–10 cM of distal chromosome 6. The SWR/J mice avoided SOA in two-bottle tests with water and had strong responses to SOA in two gustatory nerves, the chorda tympani (CT) and glossopharyngeal (GL). In contrast, the SW.B6-Soab mice were indifferent to SOA in two-bottle tests and had very weak responses to SOA in both of these nerves. The SWR/J and SW.B6-Soab mice did not differ in responses of either nerve to sucrose, NaCl, HCl, or the bitter-tasting stimuli quinine, denatonium, strychnine, 6-n-propylthiouracil, phenylthiocarbamide, and MgSO4. Thus the effect of the Soa genotype on SOA avoidance is mediated by peripheral taste responsiveness to SOA, involving taste receptor cells innervated by both the CT and GL nerves. PMID:11328963

  20. Genotype-environment interactions at quantitative trait loci affecting inflorescence development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Ungerer, Mark C; Halldorsdottir, Solveig S; Purugganan, Michael D; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2003-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity and genotype-environment interactions (GEI) play a prominent role in plant morphological diversity and in the potential functional capacities of plant life-history traits. The genetic basis of plasticity and GEI, however, is poorly understood in most organisms. In this report, inflorescence development patterns in Arabidopsis thaliana were examined under different, ecologically relevant photoperiod environments for two recombinant inbred mapping populations (Ler x Col and Cvi x Ler) using a combination of quantitative genetics and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Plasticity and GEI were regularly observed for the majority of 13 inflorescence traits. These observations can be attributable (at least partly) to variable effects of specific QTL. Pooled across traits, 12/44 (27.3%) and 32/62 (51.6%) of QTL exhibited significant QTL x environment interactions in the Ler x Col and Cvi x Ler lines, respectively. These interactions were attributable to changes in magnitude of effect of QTL more often than to changes in rank order (sign) of effect. Multiple QTL x environment interactions (in Cvi x Ler) clustered in two genomic regions on chromosomes 1 and 5, indicating a disproportionate contribution of these regions to the phenotypic patterns observed. High-resolution mapping will be necessary to distinguish between the alternative explanations of pleiotropy and tight linkage among multiple genes. PMID:14504242

  1. Factors affecting treatment outcomes in drug-resistant tuberculosis cases in the Northern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Elliott, E; Draper, H R; Baitsiwe, P; Claassens, M M

    2014-09-21

    The Northern Cape Province has low cure rates (21%) for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). We audited the programme to identify factors affecting treatment outcomes. Cases admitted to two drug-resistant TB units from 2007 to 2009 had data extracted from clinical folders. Unfavourable treatment outcomes were found in 58% of the 272 cases. A multivariable regression analysis found that male sex was associated with unfavourable outcome (P = 0.009). Weight at diagnosis (P < 0.001) and oral drug adherence (P < 0.001) were also associated with an unfavourable outcome; however, injectable drug adherence was not (P = 0.395). Positive baseline smear and human immunodeficiency virus positive status were not associated with unfavourable outcome. Shorter, more patient-friendly regimens may go a long way to improving adherence and outcomes.

  2. A Study of the Technological, Instructional, and Motivational Factors Affecting PHR Certification Exam Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Although previous studies have considered the factors affecting other certification exam outcomes, they have not examined those that are related to performance on the Professional in Human Resources (PHR) exam. In response to that need, this study specifically investigates technology and training factors that affect self-efficacy and self-set…

  3. Water temperature affects pathogenicity of different betanodavirus genotypes in experimentally challenged Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Toffan, Anna; Panzarin, Valentina; Toson, Marica; Cecchettin, Krizia; Pascoli, Francesco

    2016-05-26

    Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of a highly infectious disease of fish known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN). To date, 4 different nervous necrosis virus (NNV) genotypes have been described, but natural reassortant viruses have also been detected, which further increase viral variability. Water temperature plays an important role in determining the appearance and the severity of VNN disease. We assessed the effect of temperature (20°, 25° and 30°C) on mortality and virus load in the brain of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax experimentally infected with 4 genetically different betanodaviruses, namely red-spotted grouper NNV (RGNNV), striped jack NNV (SJNNV) and the reassortant strains RGNNV/SJNNV and SJNNV/RGNNV. The RGNNV/SJNNV virus possesses the polymerase gene of RGNNV and the coat protein gene of SJNNV, and vice versa for the SJNNV/RGNNV virus. The obtained results showed that the RGNNV strain is the most pathogenic for juvenile sea bass, but clinical disease and mortality appeared only at higher temperatures. The SJNNV strain is weakly pathogenic for D. labrax regardless of the temperature used, while virus replication was detected in the brain of survivors only at 20°C. Finally, reassortant strains caused low mortality, independent of the temperature used, but the viral load in the brain was strongly influenced by water temperature and the genetic type of the polymerase gene. Taken together, these data show that nodavirus replication in vivo is a composite process regulated by both the genetic features of the viral strain and water temperatures. PMID:27225206

  4. Water temperature affects pathogenicity of different betanodavirus genotypes in experimentally challenged Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Toffan, Anna; Panzarin, Valentina; Toson, Marica; Cecchettin, Krizia; Pascoli, Francesco

    2016-05-26

    Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of a highly infectious disease of fish known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN). To date, 4 different nervous necrosis virus (NNV) genotypes have been described, but natural reassortant viruses have also been detected, which further increase viral variability. Water temperature plays an important role in determining the appearance and the severity of VNN disease. We assessed the effect of temperature (20°, 25° and 30°C) on mortality and virus load in the brain of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax experimentally infected with 4 genetically different betanodaviruses, namely red-spotted grouper NNV (RGNNV), striped jack NNV (SJNNV) and the reassortant strains RGNNV/SJNNV and SJNNV/RGNNV. The RGNNV/SJNNV virus possesses the polymerase gene of RGNNV and the coat protein gene of SJNNV, and vice versa for the SJNNV/RGNNV virus. The obtained results showed that the RGNNV strain is the most pathogenic for juvenile sea bass, but clinical disease and mortality appeared only at higher temperatures. The SJNNV strain is weakly pathogenic for D. labrax regardless of the temperature used, while virus replication was detected in the brain of survivors only at 20°C. Finally, reassortant strains caused low mortality, independent of the temperature used, but the viral load in the brain was strongly influenced by water temperature and the genetic type of the polymerase gene. Taken together, these data show that nodavirus replication in vivo is a composite process regulated by both the genetic features of the viral strain and water temperatures.

  5. Pneumocystis jiroveci in Portuguese immunocompromised patients: association of specific ITS genotypes with treatment failure, bad clinical outcome and childhood.

    PubMed

    Matos, Olga; Lee, Chao-Hung; Jin, Shaoling; Li, Baozheng; Costa, Marina C; Gonçalves, Luzia; Antunes, Francisco

    2003-11-01

    We analyzed the genetic variation among isolates of Pneumocystis jiroveci from Portuguese immunocompromised patients with PCP at the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear rRNA operon and at the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene. Pulmonary secretions from 42 patients with PCP corresponding to 43 episodes were studied. Demographic, immunological, and clinical data were obtained from all patients. By combining the two regions ITS1 and ITS2, we found 17 different ITS types of P. jiroveci, two of them were new types (Pb and Pe). The four most prevalent ITS types were Eg (23.3%), Eb and Ne (11.6% each), and Bi (9.3%). A single type was detected in 95.3% of the samples and 4.7% had mixed infections with three different ITS types. DHPS mutants were present in 17 (46%), and the wildtype was present in 20 (54%) of 37 isolates. No association was found between ITS and DHPS types and between DHPS types and therapy or response to anti-PCP treatment. Type Ne presented an association with negative response to anti-PCP treatment (P<0.001) and with death before 120 days after PCP diagnosis (P=0.025). Type Eb was significantly more common in children than in adults (P=0.001). Our data suggest an association of specific ITS genotypes with treatment failure, bad clinical outcome and childhood.

  6. Association of susceptible genotypes to periodontal disease with the clinical outcome and tooth survival after non-surgical periodontal therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Doufexi, Aikaterini-Ellisavet; Kalogirou, Fotini

    2016-01-01

    Background The real clinical utility of genetic testing is the prognostic value of genetic factors in the clinical outcome of periodontal treatment and the tooth survival. A meta-analysis was undertaken to estimate the effect of a susceptible genotype to periodontitis on the clinical outcomes of non-surgical periodontal therapy and the tooth survival. Material and Methods A systematic search of MEDLINE-Pubmed, Cochrane Library and Scopus was performed. Additionally, a hand search was done in three journals. No specific language restriction was applied. Two reviewers screened independently titles and abstracts or full text copies. Quality assessment of all the included studies was held. Results Initial screening of electronic databases resulted in 283 articles. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria, nine of them examined the clinical outcome, while the other one investigated the tooth survival in susceptible individuals after non-surgical periodontal therapy. Eight of included studies were selected for the meta-analysis. IL-1 positive genotypes increase the risk of tooth loss, while no association found between the bleeding on probing (BOP), clinical attachment loss (CAL) and plaque index (PI) with the genotype status. Probing pocket depth (PPD) reduction in the first three months and in long-term results found to have a significant association with the genotype. Conclusions There is no difference in the clinical measurements after non-surgical periodontal treatment, apart from PPD. More publications are needed to identify a cause-effect relationship. Key words:Periodontal disease, periodontitis, periodontal therapy, clinical outcome, tooth loss, susceptibility, polymorphism, genotype, meta-analysis, systematic review. PMID:26595831

  7. The effects of different sources of occupational stress on affective, motivational, and psychosomatic outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Ovalle, N.K. II.

    1991-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of role conflict, role ambiguity, and five additional potential sources of occupational stress on an affective outcome (job satisfaction), a motivational outcome (intent to quit), and two psychosomatic outcomes (mental and physical anxiety). In addition to role conflict and role ambiguity, the five additional sources of occupational stress centered on job characteristics, work pressures, rewards and opportunities, interaction of the job and home life, and lack of job challenge. Data were collected from 85 technicians and managers in a service organization. The results of correlation and multiple regression analyses indicated that each of the sources of stress have significant yet different effects on the outcomes. Moreover, role conflict and ambiguity did not have as much of an effect across all outcomes as the other five sources of stress. These findings could be used to improve the measurement, understanding, and treatment of occupational stress. Other implications are discussed. 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Training of affect recognition (TAR) in schizophrenia--impact on functional outcome.

    PubMed

    Sachs, G; Winklbaur, B; Jagsch, R; Lasser, I; Kryspin-Exner, I; Frommann, N; Wölwer, W

    2012-07-01

    Deficits in facial affect recognition as one aspect of social cognitive deficits are treatment targets to improve functional outcome in schizophrenia. According to preliminary results antipsychotics alone show little effects on affect recognition. A few randomized intervention studies have evaluated special psychosocial treatment programs on social cognition. In this study, the effects of a computer-based training of affect recognition were investigated as well as its impact on facial affect recognition and functional outcome, particularly on patients' quality of life. Forty clinically stabilized schizophrenic patients were randomized to a six-week training on affect recognition (TAR) or treatment as usual including occupational therapy (TAU) and completed pre- and post-treatment assessments of emotion recognition, cognition, quality of life and clinical symptoms. Between pre- and post treatment, the TAR group achieved significant improvements in facial affect recognition, in particular in recognizing sad faces and, in addition, in the quality of life domain social relationship. These changes were not found in the TAU group. Furthermore, the TAR training contributes to enhancing some aspects of cognitive functioning and negative symptoms. These improvements in facial affect recognition and quality of life were independent of changes in clinical symptoms and general cognitive functions. The findings support the efficacy of an affect recognition training for patients with schizophrenia and the generalization to social relationship. Further development is needed in the impact of a psychosocial intervention in other aspects of social cognition and functional outcome.

  9. The presence or severity of pulmonary hypertension does not affect outcomes for single-lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Julliard, Walker A; Meyer, Keith C; De Oliveira, Nilto C; Osaki, Satoru; Cornwell, Richard C; Sonetti, David A; Maloney, James D

    2016-01-01

    Advanced lung disease (ALD) that requires lung transplantation (LTX) is frequently associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Whether the presence of PH significantly affects the outcomes following single-lung transplantation (SLT) remains controversial. Therefore, we retrospectively examined the outcomes of 279 consecutive SLT recipients transplanted at our centre, and the patients were split into four groups based on their mean pulmonary artery pressure values. Outcomes, including long-term survival and primary graft dysfunction, did not differ significantly for patients with versus without PH, even when PH was severe. We suggest that SLT can be performed safely in patients with ALD-associated PH. PMID:26621135

  10. How measurement artifacts affect cerebral autoregulation outcomes: A technical note on transfer function analysis.

    PubMed

    Meel-van den Abeelen, Aisha S S; de Jong, Daan L K; Lagro, Joep; Panerai, Ronney B; Claassen, Jurgen A H R

    2016-05-01

    Cerebral autoregulation (CA) is the mechanism that aims to maintain adequate cerebral perfusion during changes in blood pressure (BP). Transfer function analysis (TFA), the most reported method in literature to quantify CA, shows large between-study variability in outcomes. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of measurement artifacts in this variation. Specifically, the role of distortion in the BP and/or CBFV measurementon TFA outcomes was investigated. The influence of three types of artifacts on TFA outcomes was studied: loss of signal, motion artifacts, and baseline drifts. TFA metrics of signals without the simulated artifacts were compared with those of signals with artifacts. TFA outcomes scattered highly when more than 10% of BP signal or over 8% of the CBFV signal was lost, or when measurements contained one or more artifacts resulting from head movement. Furthermore, baseline drift affected interpretation of TFA outcomes when the power in the BP signal was 5 times the power in the LF band. In conclusion, loss of signal in BP and loss in CBFV, affects interpretation of TFA outcomes. Therefore, it is vital to validate signal quality to the defined standards before interpreting TFA outcomes. PMID:26935320

  11. Endovascular mechanical thrombectomy in basilar artery occlusion: variables affecting recanalization and outcome.

    PubMed

    Gilberti, Nicola; Gamba, Massimo; Premi, Enrico; Costa, Angelo; Vergani, Veronica; Delrio, Ilenia; Spezi, Raffaella; Mardighian, Dikran; Frigerio, Michele; Gasparotti, Roberto; Padovani, Alessandro; Magoni, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    Ischemic stroke due to basilar artery occlusion (BAO) is frequently associated with a poor prognosis. To date the most effective therapeutic approach has not been established and little is known about the predictors of clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to describe safety and efficacy of intra-arterial mechanical thrombectomy (IAMT) through latest generation devices in patients with BAO, focusing on those variables that may affect recanalization and clinical outcome. We analyzed retrospectively a series of 32 patients with BAO who underwent IAMT. We assessed the association of some clinical and neuroradiological features with recanalization rate and clinical outcome. Successful recanalization was achieved in 28 out of 32 patients (87.5 %). Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) was observed in 2/32 patients (6.3 %) and mortality in the first 3 months was 25.0 %. At 3-month follow up evaluation, 13/32 patients (40.6 %) showed a good functional outcome (mRS score ≤2). There were no statistical differences in term of age, gender, risk factors, cause of stroke, recanalization rate, pre-treatment pc-ASPECTS score and SICH frequencies between patients with favorable and unfavorable outcome. Increased length of thrombi was associated with unfavorable clinical outcome at 3 months. Recanalization rate was not affected by any of the variables considered. In BAO, IAMT through newest generation devices has high recanalization rates and low complication frequencies. Length of BAO is an important predictor of clinical outcome.

  12. Domestication-related variation in social preferences in chickens is affected by genotype on a growth QTL.

    PubMed

    Wirén, A; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2013-04-01

    A growth-related QTL on chicken chromosome 1 has previously been shown to influence domestication behaviour in chickens. In this study, we used Red Junglefowl (RJF) and White Leghorn (WL) as well as the intercross between them to investigate whether stress affects the way birds allocate their time between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics in a social preference test ('social support seeking'), and how this is related to genotype at specific loci within the growth QTL. Red Junglefowl males spent more time with unfamiliar chickens before the stressful event compared to the other birds, whereas all birds except WL males tended to spend less time with unfamiliar ones after stress. A significant QTL locus was found to influence both social preference under undisturbed circumstances and social support seeking. The WL allele at this QTL was associated not only with a preference for unfamiliar individuals but also with a shift towards familiar ones in response to stress (social support seeking). A second, suggestive QTL also affected social support seeking, but in the opposite direction; the WL allele was associated with increased time spent with unfamiliar individuals. The region contains several possible candidate genes, and gene expression analysis of a number of them showed differential expression between RJF and WL of AVPR2 (receptor for vasotocin), and possibly AVPR1a (another vasotocin receptor) and NRCAM (involved in neural development) in the lower frontal lobes of the brains of RJF and WL animals. These three genes continue to be interesting candidates for the observed behavioural effects. PMID:23331324

  13. Teacher Interpersonal Behaviour and Secondary Students' Cognitive, Affective and Moral Outcomes in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivan, Atara; Chan, Dennis W. K.

    2013-01-01

    This study validated the Chinese version of the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) in the Hong Kong context as well as examined the relationship between students' perceptions of interpersonal teacher behaviour and their cognitive, affective and moral learning outcomes. Data were collected with the QTI and four other measures of student…

  14. Adolescents' Cognitive "Habitus", Learning Environments, Affective Outcomes of Schooling, and Young Adults' Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marjoribanks, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    A moderation-mediation model was constructed to examine relationships among adolescents' cognitive "habitus" (their cognitive dispositions), learning environments, affective outcomes of schooling, and young adults' educational attainment. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal survey of Australian youth (4,171 females, 3,718 males). The…

  15. Technology Integration before Student Outcomes: Factors Affecting Teacher Adoption of Technology in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Alankar

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1920s, ICTs have been endorsed as solutions to challenges of access and quality in education. Proponents have also supported technology use in education on grounds that it could potentially impact cognitive, affective, and pedagogical outcomes. Based on these perceived benefits, many developed and developing countries have been…

  16. Coping with Challenge and Hindrance Stressors in Teams: Behavioral, Cognitive, and Affective Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Matthew J.; Ellis, Aleksander P. J.; Stein, Jordan H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize the challenge-hindrance framework to examine the discrete and combined effects of different environmental stressors on behavioral, cognitive, and affective outcomes at the team level. Results from 83 teams working on a command and control simulation indicated that the introduction of a challenge stressor…

  17. Affective Learning Outcomes in Workplace Training: A Test of Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland-Innes, Martha; Ally, Mohamed

    2004-01-01

    Research employing an experimental design pilot-tested two delivery platforms, WebCT™ and vClass™, for the generation of affective learning outcomes in the workplace. Using a sample of volunteer participants in the help-desk industry, participants were randomly assigned to one of the two types of delivery software. Thirty-eight subjects…

  18. Elevated depressive affect is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes among African Americans with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Michael J.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Greene, Tom; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Wang, Xuelei; Brooks, Deborah H.; Charleston, Jeanne; Dowie, Donna; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Cooper, Lisa A.; Bruce, Marino A.; Kusek, John W.; Norris, Keith C.; Lash, James P.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the impact of elevated depressive affect on health outcomes among participants with hypertensive chronic kidney disease in the African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Cohort Study. Elevated depressive affect was defined by Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) thresholds of 11 or more, above 14, and by 5-Unit increments in the score. Cox regression analyses were used to relate cardiovascular death/hospitalization, doubling of serum creatinine/end-stage renal disease, overall hospitalization, and all-cause death to depressive affect evaluated at baseline, the most recent annual visit (time-varying), or average from baseline to the most recent visit (cumulative). Among 628 participants at baseline, 42% had BDI-II scores of 11 or more and 26% had a score above 14. During a 5-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of cardiovascular death/hospitalization was significantly greater for participants with baseline BDI-II scores of 11 or more compared with those with scores <11. The baseline, time-varying, and cumulative elevated depressive affect were each associated with a significant higher risk of cardiovascular death/hospitalization, especially with a time-varying BDI-II score over 14 (adjusted HR 1.63) but not with the other outcomes. Thus, elevated depressive affect is associated with unfavorable cardiovascular outcomes in African Americans with hypertensive chronic kidney disease. PMID:21633409

  19. Clinical outcomes associated with proton pump inhibitor use among clopidogrel-treated patients within CYP2C19 genotype groups following acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Depta, Jeremiah P.; Lenzini, Petra A.; Lanfear, David E.; Wang, Tracy Y.; Spertus, John A.; Bach, Richard G.; Cresci, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    We examined clinical outcomes with proton pump inhibitors (PPI) use within CYP2C19 genotype groups during clopidogrel treatment following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). 2062 patients were genotyped for CYP2C19*2 and *17 variants in TRIUMPH. 12 month clinical outcomes were analyzed among patients discharged on clopidogrel within CYP2C19*2 carrier, CYP2C19*17 carrier, and CYP2C19*1 homozygote genotype groups. PPI use was not associated with a difference in mortality. Among clopidogrel-treated Caucasians following AMI, PPI use was associated with a significantly higher rate of cardiac rehospitalization (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.19-2.19; p = 0.002) compared with no PPI use. PPI users who were carriers of the CYP2C19*17 variant experienced significantly higher rates of cardiac rehospitalization (HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.26-3.33; p = 0.003), carriers of the CYP2C19*2 variant had a trend toward increased 1-year cardiac rehospitalization (HR 1.69, 95% CI 0.95-2.99; P=0.07) while no significant differences were observed among CYP2C19*1 homozygotes. These results indicate that the risks associated with PPI use among clopidogrel-treated Caucasian post-MI patients are impacted by CYP2C19 genotype, and suggest knowledge of genotype may be useful for personalizing PPI use among patients following AMI to reduce rehospitalization. PMID:25001880

  20. Nonsuppurative Encephalomyelitis in a Calf in Japan and Isolation of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Genotype 1 from the Affected Calf

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Takashi; Saito, Sachie; Horiuchi, Sanae; Maruta, Tetsuya; Kato, Tomoko; Yanase, Tohru; Yamakawa, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was isolated from the cerebrum of a calf which showed severe neurological symptoms in late September 2009, and the JEV isolate was revealed to be of genotype 1. This is the first report describing the isolation of genotype 1 JEV from cattle. PMID:23885004

  1. Genotype-environment interactions affecting preflowering physiological and morphological traits of Brassica rapa grown in two watering regimes.

    PubMed

    El-Soda, Mohamed; Boer, Martin P; Bagheri, Hedayat; Hanhart, Corrie J; Koornneef, Maarten; Aarts, Mark G M

    2014-02-01

    Plant growth and productivity are greatly affected by drought, which is likely to become more threatening with the predicted global temperature increase. Understanding the genetic architecture of complex quantitative traits and their interaction with water availability may lead to improved crop adaptation to a wide range of environments. Here, the genetic basis of 20 physiological and morphological traits is explored by describing plant performance and growth in a Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line (RIL) population grown on a sandy substrate supplemented with nutrient solution, under control and drought conditions. Altogether, 54 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified, of which many colocated in 11 QTL clusters. Seventeen QTL showed significant QTL-environment interaction (Q×E), indicating genetic variation for phenotypic plasticity. Of the measured traits, only hypocotyl length did not show significant genotype-environment interaction (G×E) in both environments in all experiments. Correlation analysis showed that, in the control environment, stomatal conductance was positively correlated with total leaf dry weight (DW) and aboveground DW, whereas in the drought environment, stomatal conductance showed a significant negative correlation with total leaf DW and aboveground DW. This correlation was explained by antagonistic fitness effects in the drought environment, controlled by a QTL cluster on chromosome A7. These results demonstrate that Q×E is an important component of the genetic variance and can play a great role in improving drought tolerance in future breeding programmes.

  2. Affective and neuroendocrine stress reactivity to an academic examination: influence of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Verschoor, Ellen; Markus, C Rob

    2011-07-01

    The current study examined the singular and interactive effects of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism on affective and physiological stress responses to an academic examination in healthy undergraduate students. From 771 students, 46 short/short (S/S)-allele carriers and 48 long/long (L/L)-allele carriers with the lowest and the highest neuroticism scores (80 females, 14 males; mean age±SD: 20.3±1.7 years) were selected. Salivary cortisol concentrations, mood and perceived stress were assessed before and after a 2-h written examination and compared with a control day. Negative mood, perceived stress and cortisol significantly increased during the examination compared to the control day. Negative stress effects on mood and perceived stress were significantly larger for S/S-allele carriers compared to L/L-allele carriers, regardless of trait neuroticism. Since vulnerability to real-life stressors is an important risk factor for depression pathogenesis, this may be a mediating factor making S/S-allele carriers more susceptible for depression symptoms.

  3. Genotype-environment interactions affecting preflowering physiological and morphological traits of Brassica rapa grown in two watering regimes.

    PubMed

    El-Soda, Mohamed; Boer, Martin P; Bagheri, Hedayat; Hanhart, Corrie J; Koornneef, Maarten; Aarts, Mark G M

    2014-02-01

    Plant growth and productivity are greatly affected by drought, which is likely to become more threatening with the predicted global temperature increase. Understanding the genetic architecture of complex quantitative traits and their interaction with water availability may lead to improved crop adaptation to a wide range of environments. Here, the genetic basis of 20 physiological and morphological traits is explored by describing plant performance and growth in a Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line (RIL) population grown on a sandy substrate supplemented with nutrient solution, under control and drought conditions. Altogether, 54 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified, of which many colocated in 11 QTL clusters. Seventeen QTL showed significant QTL-environment interaction (Q×E), indicating genetic variation for phenotypic plasticity. Of the measured traits, only hypocotyl length did not show significant genotype-environment interaction (G×E) in both environments in all experiments. Correlation analysis showed that, in the control environment, stomatal conductance was positively correlated with total leaf dry weight (DW) and aboveground DW, whereas in the drought environment, stomatal conductance showed a significant negative correlation with total leaf DW and aboveground DW. This correlation was explained by antagonistic fitness effects in the drought environment, controlled by a QTL cluster on chromosome A7. These results demonstrate that Q×E is an important component of the genetic variance and can play a great role in improving drought tolerance in future breeding programmes. PMID:24474811

  4. Genotype-dependent molecular evolution of sheep bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions in vitro affects their zoonotic potential.

    PubMed

    Krejciova, Zuzana; Barria, Marcelo A; Jones, Michael; Ironside, James W; Jeffrey, Martin; González, Lorenzo; Head, Mark W

    2014-09-19

    Prion diseases are rare fatal neurological conditions of humans and animals, one of which (variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) is known to be a zoonotic form of the cattle disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). What makes one animal prion disease zoonotic and others not is poorly understood, but it appears to involve compatibility between the prion strain and the host prion protein sequence. Concerns have been raised that the United Kingdom sheep flock may have been exposed to BSE early in the cattle BSE epidemic and that serial BSE transmission in sheep might have resulted in adaptation of the agent, which may have come to phenotypically resemble scrapie while maintaining its pathogenicity for humans. We have modeled this scenario in vitro. Extrapolation from our results suggests that if BSE were to infect sheep in the field it may, with time and in some sheep genotypes, become scrapie-like at the molecular level. However, the results also suggest that if BSE in sheep were to come to resemble scrapie it would lose its ability to affect humans.

  5. Pathways to poor educational outcomes for HIV/AIDS-affected youth in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Orkin, Mark; Boyes, Mark E; Cluver, Lucie D; Zhang, Yuning

    2014-01-01

    A recent systematic review of studies in the developing world has critically examined linkages from familial HIV/AIDS and associated factors such as poverty and child mental health to negative child educational outcomes. In line with several recommendations in the review, the current study modelled relationships between familial HIV/AIDS, poverty, child internalising problems, gender and four educational outcomes: non-enrolment at school, non-attendance, deficits in grade progression and concentration problems. Path analyses reveal no direct associations between familial HIV/AIDS and any of the educational outcomes. Instead, HIV/AIDS-orphanhood or caregiver HIV/AIDS-sickness impacted indirectly on educational outcomes via the poverty and internalising problems that they occasioned. This has implications for evidence-based policy inferences. For instance, by addressing such intervening variables generally, rather than by seeking to target families affected by HIV/AIDS, interventions could avoid exacerbating stigmatisation, while having a more direct and stronger impact on children's educational outcomes. This analytic approach also suggests that future research should seek to identify causal paths, and may include other intervening variables related to poverty (such as child housework and caring responsibilities) or to child mental health (such as stigma and abuse), that are linked to both familial HIV/AIDS and educational outcomes.

  6. Genotype on the pigmentation regulating PMEL17 gene affects behavior in chickens raised without physical contact with conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Anna-Carin; Mormede, Pierre; Kerje, Susanne; Jensen, Per

    2011-03-01

    Chickens homozygous for the Dominant white or wild-type allele of PMEL17 were subjected to a broad phenotyping in order to detect consistent differences between genotypes. To exclude feather pecking, the chickens were individually housed without physical contact, from the day of hatching, and tested for social, aggressive, fear and exploratory behaviors, and corticosterone and testosterone levels were assessed. In a principal component analysis, 53.2% of the behavior variation was explained by two factors. Factor one was an activity and social factor, and there was a significant effect of genotype on the factor scores. On factor two, related to aggressive behavior, there were significant effects of genotype, sex and their interaction. There were no genotype effects on hormone levels or any other measured non-behavioral phenotypes. Hence, differences in behavior between PMEL17 genotypes remained when negative social experiences were excluded, indicating a direct pleiotropic effect of the gene on behavior.

  7. Arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase genotype affects steady-state distribution and clearance of arsenic in arsenate-treated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Michael F.; Edwards, Brenda C.; Herbin-Davis, Karen M.; Saunders, Jesse; Styblo, Miroslav; Thomas, David J.

    2010-12-15

    Arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes formation of mono-, di-, and tri-methylated metabolites of inorganic arsenic. Distribution and retention of arsenic were compared in adult female As3mt knockout mice and wild-type C57BL/6 mice using a regimen in which mice received daily oral doses of 0.5 mg of arsenic as arsenate per kilogram of body weight. Regardless of genotype, arsenic body burdens attained steady state after 10 daily doses. At steady state, arsenic body burdens in As3mt knockout mice were 16 to 20 times greater than in wild-type mice. During the post dosing clearance period, arsenic body burdens declined in As3mt knockout mice to {approx} 35% and in wild-type mice to {approx} 10% of steady-state levels. Urinary concentration of arsenic was significantly lower in As3mt knockout mice than in wild-type mice. At steady state, As3mt knockout mice had significantly higher fractions of the body burden of arsenic in liver, kidney, and urinary bladder than did wild-type mice. These organs and lung had significantly higher arsenic concentrations than did corresponding organs from wild-type mice. Inorganic arsenic was the predominant species in tissues of As3mt knockout mice; tissues from wild-type mice contained mixtures of inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites. Diminished capacity for arsenic methylation in As3mt knockout mice prolongs retention of inorganic arsenic in tissues and affects whole body clearance of arsenic. Altered retention and tissue tropism of arsenic in As3mt knockout mice could affect the toxic or carcinogenic effects associated with exposure to this metalloid or its methylated metabolites.

  8. Factors affecting outcome in poor grade subarachnoid haemorrhage: An institutional study

    PubMed Central

    Kranthi, Sannepaneni; Sahu, Barada P.; Aniruddh, Purohit

    2016-01-01

    Context: Poor grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is usually associated with unfavorable outcomes and optimal management is deemed complicated. Most centres follow an expectant management strategy or a less aggressive approach till patients improve to good clinical grades. This approach has been associated with higher mortality and morbidity. However, not all patients with poor clinical condition fare badly. Identification and early aggressive management of this select group of patients may lead to favorable outcomes. Settings and Design: Prospective non-randomized study. Materials and Methods: We prospectively analyzed 19 cases presented in WFNS grade 4 and 5 and factors affecting their outcome at a tertiary care centre in south India. This study was aimed at identifying those few poor grade patients who are probable candidates for a good outcome. Statistical Analysis Used: All the variables were analyzed for possible correlations with the SPSS version 13 software. The Chi-square test with a P < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: Of 19 cases, 13 were operated and good outcome was seen in 53.8% of the patients who underwent surgery and aggressive management. All 7 patients who were managed conservatively died. 15.8% of the patients had low density changes (P = 0.625). Absence of such changes was associated with a good long term outcome (P = 0.004). 9 patients had intraventricular hemorrhage at presentation and 5 patients having hydrocephalus underwent extra-ventricular drainage. Statistically significant factors precluding good outcome were the presence of infarcts and thick SAH in the cisterns. Conclusions: Poor grade (WFNS 4 and 5) SAH patients with or without ICH, IVH, if operated within 3 days can give rise to favorable outcome in around 50%. However, presence of patchy infarcts associated with thick subarachnoid blood (Fisher grade 3) precludes long term survival or meaningful recovery. Hence, aggressive management is unlikely to alter the

  9. Factors affecting outcome in poor grade subarachnoid haemorrhage: An institutional study

    PubMed Central

    Kranthi, Sannepaneni; Sahu, Barada P.; Aniruddh, Purohit

    2016-01-01

    Context: Poor grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is usually associated with unfavorable outcomes and optimal management is deemed complicated. Most centres follow an expectant management strategy or a less aggressive approach till patients improve to good clinical grades. This approach has been associated with higher mortality and morbidity. However, not all patients with poor clinical condition fare badly. Identification and early aggressive management of this select group of patients may lead to favorable outcomes. Settings and Design: Prospective non-randomized study. Materials and Methods: We prospectively analyzed 19 cases presented in WFNS grade 4 and 5 and factors affecting their outcome at a tertiary care centre in south India. This study was aimed at identifying those few poor grade patients who are probable candidates for a good outcome. Statistical Analysis Used: All the variables were analyzed for possible correlations with the SPSS version 13 software. The Chi-square test with a P < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: Of 19 cases, 13 were operated and good outcome was seen in 53.8% of the patients who underwent surgery and aggressive management. All 7 patients who were managed conservatively died. 15.8% of the patients had low density changes (P = 0.625). Absence of such changes was associated with a good long term outcome (P = 0.004). 9 patients had intraventricular hemorrhage at presentation and 5 patients having hydrocephalus underwent extra-ventricular drainage. Statistically significant factors precluding good outcome were the presence of infarcts and thick SAH in the cisterns. Conclusions: Poor grade (WFNS 4 and 5) SAH patients with or without ICH, IVH, if operated within 3 days can give rise to favorable outcome in around 50%. However, presence of patchy infarcts associated with thick subarachnoid blood (Fisher grade 3) precludes long term survival or meaningful recovery. Hence, aggressive management is unlikely to alter the

  10. Predictability of a Professional Practice Model to Affect Nurse and Patient Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Stallings-Welden, Lois M; Shirey, Maria R

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of patients experience needless deaths and injuries as a result of errors while hospitalized for an unrelated problem. The lack of an established professional practice model (PPM) of nursing may be a contributing factor to patient care quality and safety breaches. The PPM of nursing was tested for its ability to affect nurse and patient outcomes. Using a retrospective/prospective research design, secondary data were collected from 2395 staff nurses on 15 inpatient-nursing units covering a 6-year timeframe. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and the Pearson correlation. Nurse and patient outcomes on 2 hospital campuses reached statistical significance. Positive correlations were seen between the initiation of a PPM and subsequent nurses' perception of quality of care, nurse interactions, decision making, autonomy, job enjoyment, and patient satisfaction. This study provides empirical evidence that a uniquely designed PPM in alignment with organizational context can indeed impact nurse and patient outcomes in a community health system. PMID:26049597

  11. In-vitro fertilisation treatment: factors affecting its results and outcome.

    PubMed

    Qublan, H S; Malkawi, H Y; Tahat, Y A; Areidah, S; Nusair, B; Khreisat, B M; Al-Quraan, G; Abu-Assaf, A; Hadaddein, M F; Abu-Jassar, H

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine factors affecting results and outcome of in-vitro fertilisation (IVF). In this retrospective study, a total of 891 infertile women underwent IVF/ICSI cycles at the King Hussein Medical Center (KHMC) between January 2001 and December 2002. Conventional IVF treatment was performed in 64.6% of women and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in 35.4%, using a standardised long luteal protocol. Pregnancy rate was analysed according to age, type of infertility, cause of infertility, duration of infertility, number of eggs collected and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. A total of 126 cycles (14.1%) were cancelled. Among 765 cycles continued, fertilisation rate was 73.9%, implantation rate was 15.1% and pregnancy rate was 29.8%. Pregnant women had a multiple pregnancy rate of 28.9%, abortion rate of 13.6% and ectopic pregnancy rate of 1.3%. Duration and type of infertility had no significant effect on the pregnancy rate. Factors which appear to affect significantly the outcome of treatment include the woman's age, cause of infertility, basal concentrations of FSH, adequate ovarian responsiveness and the number of eggs collected. In some cases with poor outcome, the understanding of these factors may predict the results and lead to the development of new strategies to improve the outcome of IVF treatment.

  12. Light, genotype, and abscisic acid affect chloroplast positioning in guard cells of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves in distinct ways.

    PubMed

    Königer, Martina; Jessen, Brita; Yang, Rui; Sittler, Dorothea; Harris, Gary C

    2010-09-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of light intensity, genotype, and various chemical treatments on chloroplast movement in guard cells of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. After treatment at various light intensities (dark, low, and high light), leaf discs were fixed with glutaraldehyde, and imaged using confocal laser microscopy. Each chloroplast was assigned a horizontal (close to pore, center, or epidermal side) and vertical (outer, middle, inner) position. White light had a distinct effect on chloroplast positioning, most notably under high light (HL) when chloroplasts on the upper leaf surface of wild-type (WT) moved from epidermal and center positions toward the pore. This was not the case for phot1-5/phot2-1 or phot2-1 plants, thus phototropins are essential for chloroplast positioning in guard cells. In npq1-2 mutants, fewer chloroplasts moved to the pore position under HL than in WT plants, indicating that white light can affect chloroplast positioning also in a zeaxanthin-dependent way. Cytochalasin B inhibited the movement of chloroplasts to the pore under HL, while oryzalin did not, supporting the idea that actin plays a role in the movement. The movement along actin cables is dependent on CHUP1 since chloroplast positioning in chup1 was significantly altered. Abscisic acid (ABA) caused most chloroplasts in WT and phot1-5/phot2-1 to be localized in the center, middle part of the guard cells irrespective of light treatment. This indicates that not only light but also water stress influences chloroplast positioning.

  13. The cosmetic outcome of external dacryocystorhinostomy scar and factors affecting it

    PubMed Central

    Waly, Mostafa A; Shalaby, Osama E; Elbakary, Molham A; Hashish, Aiman A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To study the cosmetic outcome of external dacryocystorhinostomy (Ex-DCR) and to detect the factors affecting it. Patients and Methods: Prospective randomized interventional study included forty patients who were treated by 40 Ex-DCRs. In twenty patients, medial canthal vertical incision was used and in the other twenty cases, subciliary incision was used. The skin was closed using vicryl 6-0 or prolene 6-0 interrupted sutures, and each one was randomly used in twenty patients (10 patients of each incision type). Cosmetic outcome was evaluated 6 months postoperative by the patients and by an oculoplastic surgeon on a four grades scale. Cosmetic results and its correlation to patients’ age, sex, skin complexion, type of incision, and type of skin sutures were studied. Results: The mean scar grading was 0.98 ± 1.0 and 1.3 ± 1.0 in patients’ and examiner's assessment. About 27.5% described their scars as cosmetically significant. The cosmetic outcome was significantly affected by the type of incision with only 5% significant scars in subciliary incision group. Prolene 6-0 suture was associated with better cosmetic results with 15% significant scars. 50% of dark-skinned patients showed cosmetically significant scars. Although no correlation was found between patients’ age and cosmetic outcome, pediatric patients showed higher tendency to scar visibility with mean scar grade 1.2 ± 1.0 and 1.5 ± 0.9 in patients’ and examiner's assessment. Conclusion: Dark skinned and pediatric patients are more prone to visible Ex-DCR scar. The use of subciliary approach and prolene 6-0 skin sutures is associated with more favorable cosmetic outcome. PMID:27221676

  14. Short communication: CSN1S1-CSN3 (α(S1)-κ-casein) composite genotypes affect detailed milk protein composition of Mediterranean water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Giantin, M; Gervaso, M; Rostellato, R; Coletta, A; Dacasto, M; Carnier, P

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of composite CSN1S1-CSN3 [α(S1)-κ-casein (CN)] genotype on milk protein composition in Mediterranean water buffalo. Content of α(S1)-CN, α(S2)-CN, β-CN, γ-CN, κ-CN, glycosylated and unglycosylated κ-CN, α-lactalbumin, and β-lactoglobulin was measured by reversed-phase HPLC using 621 individual milk samples. Genotypes at CSN1S1 and CSN3 were also obtained by reversed-phase HPLC. Two alleles were detected at CSN1S1 (corresponding to the A and B variants, O62823: p.Leu193Ser,) and at CSN3 (corresponding to the X1 and X2 variants, CAP12622.1: p.Ile156Thr). Increased proportions of α(S1)-CN in total casein (TCN) were associated with genotypes carrying CSN1S1 A. Genotypes associated with a marked decrease of the proportion of α(S1)-CN in TCN (composite genotypes AB-X1X1 and BB-X1X2) were associated with marked increases in the proportion of α(S2)-CN. In addition, composite genotypes carrying the X1 allele at CSN3 were associated with a greater proportion of α(S2)-CN in TCN relative to those carrying CSN3 X2. Composite genotypes greatly affected also the variability of ratios of κ-CN to TCN, with genotypes carrying the X1 allele at CSN3 being associated with decreased ratios. The decreased content of glycosylated κ-CN associated with CSN3 X1 was responsible for the overall lower content of total κ-CN in milk of X1-carrying animals. Increasing the frequency of specific genotypes might be an effective way to alter milk protein composition, namely the proportion of α(S1)-CN, α(S2)-CN, and κ-CN in TCN, and the degree of glycosylation of κ-CN. PMID:22959943

  15. Short communication: CSN1S1-CSN3 (α(S1)-κ-casein) composite genotypes affect detailed milk protein composition of Mediterranean water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Giantin, M; Gervaso, M; Rostellato, R; Coletta, A; Dacasto, M; Carnier, P

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of composite CSN1S1-CSN3 [α(S1)-κ-casein (CN)] genotype on milk protein composition in Mediterranean water buffalo. Content of α(S1)-CN, α(S2)-CN, β-CN, γ-CN, κ-CN, glycosylated and unglycosylated κ-CN, α-lactalbumin, and β-lactoglobulin was measured by reversed-phase HPLC using 621 individual milk samples. Genotypes at CSN1S1 and CSN3 were also obtained by reversed-phase HPLC. Two alleles were detected at CSN1S1 (corresponding to the A and B variants, O62823: p.Leu193Ser,) and at CSN3 (corresponding to the X1 and X2 variants, CAP12622.1: p.Ile156Thr). Increased proportions of α(S1)-CN in total casein (TCN) were associated with genotypes carrying CSN1S1 A. Genotypes associated with a marked decrease of the proportion of α(S1)-CN in TCN (composite genotypes AB-X1X1 and BB-X1X2) were associated with marked increases in the proportion of α(S2)-CN. In addition, composite genotypes carrying the X1 allele at CSN3 were associated with a greater proportion of α(S2)-CN in TCN relative to those carrying CSN3 X2. Composite genotypes greatly affected also the variability of ratios of κ-CN to TCN, with genotypes carrying the X1 allele at CSN3 being associated with decreased ratios. The decreased content of glycosylated κ-CN associated with CSN3 X1 was responsible for the overall lower content of total κ-CN in milk of X1-carrying animals. Increasing the frequency of specific genotypes might be an effective way to alter milk protein composition, namely the proportion of α(S1)-CN, α(S2)-CN, and κ-CN in TCN, and the degree of glycosylation of κ-CN.

  16. Field-Isolated Genotypes of Mycobacterium bovis Vary in Virulence and Influence Case Pathology but Do Not Affect Outbreak Size

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David M.; Allen, Adrian R.; Mallon, Thomas R.; McDowell, Stanley W. J.; Bishop, Stephen C.; Glass, Elizabeth J.; Bermingham, Mairead L.; Woolliams, John A.; Skuce, Robin A.

    2013-01-01

    Strains of many infectious agents differ in fundamental epidemiological parameters including transmissibility, virulence and pathology. We investigated whether genotypes of Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, bTB) differ significantly in transmissibility and virulence, combining data from a nine-year survey of the genetic structure of the M. bovis population in Northern Ireland with detailed records of the cattle population during the same period. We used the size of herd breakdowns as a proxy measure of transmissibility and the proportion of skin test positive animals (reactors) that were visibly lesioned as a measure of virulence. Average breakdown size increased with herd size and varied depending on the manner of detection (routine herd testing or tracing of infectious contacts) but we found no significant variation among M. bovis genotypes in breakdown size once these factors had been accounted for. However breakdowns due to some genotypes had a greater proportion of lesioned reactors than others, indicating that there may be variation in virulence among genotypes. These findings indicate that the current bTB control programme may be detecting infected herds sufficiently quickly so that differences in virulence are not manifested in terms of outbreak sizes. We also investigated whether pathology of infected cattle varied according to M. bovis genotype, analysing the distribution of lesions recorded at post mortem inspection. We concentrated on the proportion of cases lesioned in the lower respiratory tract, which can indicate the relative importance of the respiratory and alimentary routes of infection. The distribution of lesions varied among genotypes and with cattle age and there were also subtle differences among breeds. Age and breed differences may be related to differences in susceptibility and husbandry, but reasons for variation in lesion distribution among genotypes require further investigation. PMID:24086351

  17. New Avian Paramyxoviruses Type I Strains Identified in Africa Provide New Outcomes for Phylogeny Reconstruction and Genotype Classification

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Patricia; Briand, François-Xavier; Molia, Sophie; Gaidet, Nicolas; Cappelle, Julien; Chevalier, Véronique; Balança, Gilles; Traoré, Abdallah; Grillet, Colette; Maminiaina, Olivier Fridolin; Guendouz, Samia; Dakouo, Marthin; Samaké, Kassim; Bezeid, Ould El Mamy; Diarra, Abbas; Chaka, Hassen; Goutard, Flavie; Thompson, Peter; Martinez, Dominique; Jestin, Véronique; Albina, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most lethal diseases of poultry worldwide. It is caused by an avian paramyxovirus 1 that has high genomic diversity. In the framework of an international surveillance program launched in 2007, several thousand samples from domestic and wild birds in Africa were collected and analyzed. ND viruses (NDV) were detected and isolated in apparently healthy fowls and wild birds. However, two thirds of the isolates collected in this study were classified as virulent strains of NDV based on the molecular analysis of the fusion protein and experimental in vivo challenges with two representative isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on the F and HN genes showed that isolates recovered from poultry in Mali and Ethiopia form new groups, herein proposed as genotypes XIV and sub-genotype VIf with reference to the new nomenclature described by Diel’s group. In Madagascar, the circulation of NDV strains of genotype XI, originally reported elsewhere, is also confirmed. Full genome sequencing of five African isolates was generated and an extensive phylogeny reconstruction was carried out based on the nucleotide sequences. The evolutionary distances between groups and the specific amino acid signatures of each cluster allowed us to refine the genotype nomenclature. PMID:24204623

  18. Endometrial polyps smaller than 1.5 cm do not affect ICSI outcome.

    PubMed

    Isikoglu, M; Berkkanoglu, M; Senturk, Z; Coetzee, K; Ozgur, K

    2006-02-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the presence of endometrial polyps discovered during ovarian stimulation affects the outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. This retrospective descriptive study was conducted in a private assisted reproductive technology unit. Medical records of ICSI cycles performed between January 2003 and December 2004 were reviewed. Patients were divided into three groups: patients with endometrial polyps discovered during ovarian stimulation (group 1, n=15), patients who underwent hysteroscopic polyp resection prior to their ICSI cycle (group 2, n=40) and patients without polyps (group 3, n=956). Main outcome measures were clinical pregnancy rates and implantation rates. Age of the patients, age of the husbands, body mass index, total amount of gonadotrophins used, length of stimulation, peak oestradiol concentrations, peak endometrial thickness and number of embryos replaced were not significantly different between the groups, nor were the pregnancy and implantation rates. Only one patient (12.5%) from the first group experienced miscarriage within 12 weeks of pregnancy. In conclusion, endometrial polyps discovered during ovarian stimulation do not negatively affect pregnancy and implantation outcomes in ICSI cycles.

  19. Does Augmented Reality Affect High School Students' Learning Outcomes in Chemistry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Jonathan Christopher

    Some teens may prefer using a self-directed, constructivist, and technologic approach to learning rather than traditional classroom instruction. If it can be demonstrated, educators may adjust their teaching methodology. The guiding research question for this study focused on how augmented reality affects high school students' learning outcomes in chemistry, as measured by a pretest and posttest methodology when ensuring that the individual outcomes were not the result of group collaboration. This study employed a quantitative, quasi-experimental study design that used a comparison and experimental group. Inferential statistical analysis was employed. The study was conducted at a high school in southwest Colorado. Eighty-nine respondents returned completed and signed consent forms, and 78 participants completed the study. Results demonstrated that augmented reality instruction caused posttest scores to significantly increase, as compared to pretest scores, but it was not as effective as traditional classroom instruction. Scores did improve under both types of instruction; therefore, more research is needed in this area. The present study was the first quantitative experiment controlling for individual learning to validate augmented reality using mobile handheld digital devices that affected individual students' learning outcomes without group collaboration. This topic was important to the field of education as it may help educators understand how students learn and it may also change the way students are taught.

  20. Risk and protective factors for internalizing and externalizing outcomes among HIV-affected youth in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Li, Michelle; Betancourt, Theresa; Eustache, Eddy; Oswald, Catherine; Louis, Ermaze; Mukherjee, Joia; Surkan, Pamela J; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to: (1) estimate the levels of internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors among youth affected by HIV in central Haiti; and (2) examine the risk and protective factors associated with these outcomes to identify potential areas of intervention for HIV-affected youth. Baseline data for 492 youth affected by HIV (ages 10-17) and their 330 caregivers were collected for a pilot study of a psychosocial support intervention. Participants were recruited from a list of HIV-positive patients receiving care at Partners In Health/Zanmi Lasante clinic sites. Internalizing and externalizing behaviors were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Demographic, economic, and social indicators were collected using a structured questionnaire administered by trained social workers. Youth affected by HIV in central Haiti displayed high levels of internalizing and, to a lesser degree, externalizing symptoms. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated risk factors most strongly associated with internalizing symptoms (socioeconomic status, parental depressive symptoms) and externalizing behaviors (household living arrangements, such as living with a stepparent). Social support had a protective effect on externalizing behaviors for both caregiver (β=-0.03, p=0.01) and self-report (β=-0.05, p<0.0001). High levels of psychological distress were observed in this population, especially with respect to internalizing outcomes. Interventions should address the economic security, mental health, and access to antiretroviral therapy for families affected by HIV, as well as emphasize the importance of building supportive caregiver-child relationships to decrease the psychological symptoms and impact of other life stressors experienced by youth affected by HIV in Haiti and similar resource-limited settings.

  1. Risk and protective factors for internalizing and externalizing outcomes among HIV-affected youth in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Li, Michelle; Betancourt, Theresa; Eustache, Eddy; Oswald, Catherine; Louis, Ermaze; Mukherjee, Joia; Surkan, Pamela J; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to: (1) estimate the levels of internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors among youth affected by HIV in central Haiti; and (2) examine the risk and protective factors associated with these outcomes to identify potential areas of intervention for HIV-affected youth. Baseline data for 492 youth affected by HIV (ages 10-17) and their 330 caregivers were collected for a pilot study of a psychosocial support intervention. Participants were recruited from a list of HIV-positive patients receiving care at Partners In Health/Zanmi Lasante clinic sites. Internalizing and externalizing behaviors were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Demographic, economic, and social indicators were collected using a structured questionnaire administered by trained social workers. Youth affected by HIV in central Haiti displayed high levels of internalizing and, to a lesser degree, externalizing symptoms. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated risk factors most strongly associated with internalizing symptoms (socioeconomic status, parental depressive symptoms) and externalizing behaviors (household living arrangements, such as living with a stepparent). Social support had a protective effect on externalizing behaviors for both caregiver (β=-0.03, p=0.01) and self-report (β=-0.05, p<0.0001). High levels of psychological distress were observed in this population, especially with respect to internalizing outcomes. Interventions should address the economic security, mental health, and access to antiretroviral therapy for families affected by HIV, as well as emphasize the importance of building supportive caregiver-child relationships to decrease the psychological symptoms and impact of other life stressors experienced by youth affected by HIV in Haiti and similar resource-limited settings. PMID:25950916

  2. Paternal investment and status-related child outcomes: timing of father's death affects offspring success.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Mary K; Scelza, Brooke A

    2012-09-01

    Recent work in human behavioural ecology has suggested that analyses focusing on early childhood may underestimate the importance of paternal investment to child outcomes since such investment may not become crucial until adolescence or beyond. This may be especially important in societies with a heritable component to status, as later investment by fathers may be more strongly related to a child's adult status than early forms of parental investment that affect child survival and child health. In such circumstances, the death or absence of a father may have profoundly negative effects on the adult outcomes of his children that cannot be easily compensated for by the investment of mothers or other relatives. This proposition is tested using a multigenerational dataset from Bangalore, India, containing information on paternal mortality as well as several child outcomes dependent on parental investment during adolescence and young adulthood. The paper examines the effects of paternal death, and the timing of paternal death, on a child's education, adult income, age at marriage and the amount spent on his or her marriage, along with similar characteristics of spouses. Results indicate that a father's death has a negative impact on child outcomes, and that, in contrast to some findings in the literature on father absence, the effects of paternal death are strongest for children who lose their father in late childhood or adolescence.

  3. Genotype-by-environment interactions and adaptation to local temperature affect immunity and fecundity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lazzaro, Brian P; Flores, Heather A; Lorigan, James G; Yourth, Christopher P

    2008-03-01

    Natural populations of most organisms harbor substantial genetic variation for resistance to infection. The continued existence of such variation is unexpected under simple evolutionary models that either posit direct and continuous natural selection on the immune system or an evolved life history "balance" between immunity and other fitness traits in a constant environment. However, both local adaptation to heterogeneous environments and genotype-by-environment interactions can maintain genetic variation in a species. In this study, we test Drosophila melanogaster genotypes sampled from tropical Africa, temperate northeastern North America, and semi-tropical southeastern North America for resistance to bacterial infection and fecundity at three different environmental temperatures. Environmental temperature had absolute effects on all traits, but there were also marked genotype-by-environment interactions that may limit the global efficiency of natural selection on both traits. African flies performed more poorly than North American flies in both immunity and fecundity at the lowest temperature, but not at the higher temperatures, suggesting that the African population is maladapted to low temperature. In contrast, there was no evidence for clinal variation driven by thermal adaptation within North America for either trait. Resistance to infection and reproductive success were generally uncorrelated across genotypes, so this study finds no evidence for a fitness tradeoff between immunity and fecundity under the conditions tested. Both local adaptation to geographically heterogeneous environments and genotype-by-environment interactions may explain the persistence of genetic variation for resistance to infection in natural populations.

  4. Genotype-by-Environment Interactions and Adaptation to Local Temperature Affect Immunity and Fecundity in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Lazzaro, Brian P.; Flores, Heather A.; Lorigan, James G.; Yourth, Christopher P.

    2008-01-01

    Natural populations of most organisms harbor substantial genetic variation for resistance to infection. The continued existence of such variation is unexpected under simple evolutionary models that either posit direct and continuous natural selection on the immune system or an evolved life history “balance” between immunity and other fitness traits in a constant environment. However, both local adaptation to heterogeneous environments and genotype-by-environment interactions can maintain genetic variation in a species. In this study, we test Drosophila melanogaster genotypes sampled from tropical Africa, temperate northeastern North America, and semi-tropical southeastern North America for resistance to bacterial infection and fecundity at three different environmental temperatures. Environmental temperature had absolute effects on all traits, but there were also marked genotype-by-environment interactions that may limit the global efficiency of natural selection on both traits. African flies performed more poorly than North American flies in both immunity and fecundity at the lowest temperature, but not at the higher temperatures, suggesting that the African population is maladapted to low temperature. In contrast, there was no evidence for clinal variation driven by thermal adaptation within North America for either trait. Resistance to infection and reproductive success were generally uncorrelated across genotypes, so this study finds no evidence for a fitness tradeoff between immunity and fecundity under the conditions tested. Both local adaptation to geographically heterogeneous environments and genotype-by-environment interactions may explain the persistence of genetic variation for resistance to infection in natural populations. PMID:18369474

  5. Using skinfold calipers while teaching body fatness-related concepts: cognitive and affective outcomes.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, J R; Eklund, R C; Williams, A C

    2003-12-01

    Body composition testing has been advocated as part of fitness test batteries in an educational effort to promote health-related fitness, and to prevent public health problems like obesity. However, the measurement of the body composition of children and youth, especially involving the use of skinfold calipers, has raised concerns. In two experiments the cognitive and affective consequences of skinfold caliper use in a 7th grade (155 boys, 177 girls, total N = 332) health/physical education context were examined. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the students could be taught to accurately measure a partner and/or significantly learn body fatness-related concepts compared to controls. It was also shown that inexpensive plastic Fat Control calipers produced accurate measurements. Experiment 2 was designed to replicate the significant cognitive outcome effects, and also to test the hypothesis that psychological damage is a likely consequence of skinfold caliper use-and that hypothesis was refuted. Specifically, knowledge scores, and outcome scores on adapted affect scales (e.g., PANAS, MAACL), physical self-esteem scales (CY-PSPP) and on the Social Physique Anxiety Scale supported the premise that skinfold calipers can be used in an educational context to facilitate cognitive learning without causing adverse affective consequences.

  6. SPORT: Does incidental durotomy affect long-term outcomes in cases of Spinal Stenosis?

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Atman; Ball, Perry A.; Bekelis, Kimon; Lurie, Jon; Mirza, Sohail K.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Weinstein, James N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Incidental durotomy is a familiar encounter during surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis. The impact of durotomy on long-term outcomes remains a matter of debate. Objective To determine the impact of durotomy on the long-term outcomes of patients in the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT). Methods SPORT cohort participants with a confirmed diagnosis of spinal stenosis (SPS), without associated spondylolisthesis, undergoing standard, first-time, open decompressive laminectomy, with or without fusion, were followed from baseline at 6 weeks, and 3, 6, 12 months and yearly thereafter, at 13 spine clinics in 11 US states. Patient data from this prospectively gathered database was reviewed. As of May 2009, the mean follow-up among all analyzed patients was 43.8 months. Results 409 patients underwent first-time open laminectomy with or without fusion. 37 (9%) of these patients had an incidental durotomy. No significant differences were observed with or without durotomy in age, sex, race, body mass index, the prevalence of smoking, diabetes and hypertension, decompression level, number of levels decompressed, or whether or not an additional fusion was performed. The durotomy group had significantly increased operative duration, operative blood loss and inpatient stay. There were however, no differences in incidence of nerve root injury, mortality, additional surgeries, primary outcomes (SF-36 scores of body pain or physical function, or Oswestry disability index) at yearly follow ups to 4 years. Conclusions Incidental durotomy during first time lumbar laminectomy for spinal stenosis did not impact long-term outcomes in affected patients. PMID:25692369

  7. Maternal apolipoprotein E genotype as a potential risk factor for poor birth outcomes: The Bogalusa Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Marni B.; Harville, Emily W.; Kelly, Tanika N.; Bazzano, Lydia A.; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between apolipoprotein E (apoE) genotype and preterm birth (PTB) and small for gestational age (SGA). Study Design ApoE phenotyping was performed on 680 women linked to 1 065 births. Allele frequencies were compared and PTB and SGA risk was estimated using log-binomial regression. Results The ε2 allele was more common in SGA births (p < 0.01). SGA risk was increased among ε2 carriers compared to genotype ε3/ε3, though associations were attenuated following adjustment for maternal age, education, race, smoking, and prenatal visits. Stronger associations were observed for term SGA (first birth: aRR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.06 – 2.98; any birth: aRR = 1.52, 95% CI 0.96 – 2.40) and among whites specifically (first: aRR = 2.88, 95% CI 1.45 – 5.69; any: aRR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.46 – 5.22). Conclusions Associations between maternal apoE genotype and SGA may represent decreased fetal growth in women with lower circulating cholesterol levels. PMID:26890557

  8. Predicted and experienced affective responses to the outcome of the 2008 U.S. presidential election.

    PubMed

    Kitchens, Michael B; Corser, Grant C; Gohm, Carol L; VonWaldner, Kristen L; Foreman, Elizabeth L

    2010-12-01

    People typically have intense feelings about politics. Therefore, it was no surprise that the campaign and eventual election of Barack Obama were highly anticipated and emotionally charged events, making it and the emotion experienced afterward a useful situation in which to replicate prior research showing that people typically overestimate the intensity and duration of their future affective states. Consequently, it was expected that Obama supporters and McCain supporters might overestimate the intensity of their affective responses to the outcome of the election. Data showed that while McCain supporters underestimated how happy they would be following the election, Obama supporters accurately predicted how happy they would be following the election. These data provide descriptive information on the accuracy of people's predicted reactions to the 2008 U.S. presidential election. The findings are discussed in the context of the broad literature and this specific and unique event. PMID:21323142

  9. Lifestyle-Related Diseases Affect Surgical Outcomes after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Sakaura, Hironobu; Miwa, Toshitada; Yamashita, Tomoya; Kuroda, Yusuke; Ohwada, Tetsuo

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Objective Hyperlipidemia (HL) and hypertension (HT) lead to systemic atherosclerosis. Not only atherosclerosis but also bone fragility and/or low bone mineral density result from diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this study was to examine whether these lifestyle-related diseases affected surgical outcomes after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). Methods The subjects comprised 122 consecutive patients who underwent single-level PLIF for degenerative lumbar spinal disorders. The clinical results were assessed using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score before surgery and at 2 years postoperatively. The fusion status was graded as union in situ, collapsed union, or nonunion at 2 years after surgery. The abdominal aorta calcification (AAC) score was assessed using preoperative lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine. Results HL did not significantly affect the JOA score recovery rate. On the other hand, HT and CKD (stage 3 to 4) had a significant adverse effect on the recovery rate. The recovery rate was also lower in the DM group than in the non-DM group, but the difference was not significant. The AAC score was negatively correlated with the JOA score recovery rate. The fusion status was not significantly affected by HL, HT, DM, or CKD; however, the AAC score was significantly higher in the collapsed union and nonunion group than in the union in situ group. Conclusions At 2 years after PLIF, the presence of HT, CKD, and AAC was associated with significantly worse clinical outcomes, and advanced AAC significantly affected fusion status. PMID:26835195

  10. Mechanisms of Behavioral and Affective Treatment Outcomes in a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Boys.

    PubMed

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Loeber, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for effective treatment for behavioral problems continues to grow, yet evidence about the effective mechanisms underlying those interventions has lagged behind. The Stop Now and Plan (SNAP) program is a multicomponent intervention for boys between 6 and 11. This study tested putative treatment mechanisms using data from 252 boys in a randomized controlled trial of SNAP versus treatment as usual. SNAP includes a 3 month group treatment period followed by individualized intervention, which persisted through the 15 month study period. Measures were administered in four waves: at baseline and at 3, 9 and 15 months after baseline. A hierarchical linear modeling strategy was used. SNAP was associated with improved problem-solving skills, prosocial behavior, emotion regulation skills, and reduced parental stress. Prosocial behavior, emotion regulation skills and reduced parental stress partially mediated improvements in child aggression. Improved emotion regulation skills partially mediated treatment-related child anxious-depressed outcomes. Improvements in parenting behaviors did not differ between treatment conditions. The results suggest that independent processes may drive affective and behavioral outcomes, with some specificity regarding the mechanisms related to differing treatment outcomes.

  11. Surgery for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis in SPORT: Does incidental durotomy affect outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Atman; Ball, Perry A.; Bekelis, Kimon; Lurie, Jon; Mirza, Sohail K.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Zhao, Wenyan; Weinstein, James N.

    2011-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective review of a prospectively collected multi-institutional database. Objective In the present analysis we investigate the impact of incidental durotomy on outcome in patients undergoing surgery for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. Summary of Background Data Surgery for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis has several potential complications, one of the most common of which is incidental durotomy. The effect of incidental durotomy on outcome, however, remains uncertain. Methods Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial cohort participants with a confirmed diagnosis of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) undergoing standard first-time open decompressive laminectomy, with or without fusion, were followed from baseline at 6 weeks, and 3, 6, 12 months and yearly thereafter, at 13 spine clinics in 11 US states. Patient data from this prospectively gathered database was reviewed. As of May 2009, the mean (Standard Deviation) follow-up among all analyzed DS patients was 46.6 (13.1) months (No durotomy: 46.7 vs. Had durotomy: 45.2, p-value=0.49). The median (range) follow-up time among all analyzed DS patients was 47.6 (2.5, 84) months. Results A 10.5% incidence of durotomy was detected among the 389 patients undergoing surgery. No significant differences were observed with or without durotomy in age, race, the prevalence of smoking, diabetes and hypertension, decompression level, number of levels, or whether a fusion was performed. There were no differences in incidence of nerve root injury, post-op mortality, additional surgeries, SF-36 scores of body pain or physical function, or Oswestry disability index at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years. Conclusions Incidental durotomy during first time surgery for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis does not appear to impact outcome in affected patients. PMID:21971123

  12. Lung perfusion and emphysema distribution affect the outcome of endobronchial valve therapy

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Christian; Theilig, Dorothea; Herzog, Dominik; Poellinger, Alexander; Doellinger, Felix; Schreiter, Nils; Schreiter, Vera; Schürmann, Dirk; Temmesfeld-Wollbrueck, Bettina; Hippenstiel, Stefan; Suttorp, Norbert; Hubner, Ralf-Harto

    2016-01-01

    The exclusion of collateral ventilation (CV) and other factors affect the clinical success of endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR). However, despite its benefits, the outcome of ELVR remains difficult to predict. We investigated whether clinical success could be predicted by emphysema distribution assessed by computed tomography scan and baseline perfusion assessed by perfusion scintigraphy. Data from 57 patients with no CV in the target lobe (TL) were retrospectively analyzed after ELVR with valves. Pulmonary function tests (PFT), St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and 6-minute walk tests (6MWT) were performed on patients at baseline. The sample was grouped into high and low levels at the median of TL perfusion, ipsilateral nontarget lobe (INL) perfusion, and heterogeneity index (HI). These groups were analyzed for association with changes in outcome parameters from baseline to 3 months follow-up. Compared to baseline, patients showed significant improvements in PFT, SGRQ, and 6MWT (all P≤0.001). TL perfusion was not associated with changes in the outcome. High INL perfusion was significantly associated with increases in 6MWT (P=0.014), and high HI was associated with increases in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), (P=0.012). Likewise, there were significant correlations for INL perfusion and improvement of 6MWT (r=0.35, P=0.03) and for HI and improvement in FEV1 (r=0.45, P=0.001). This study reveals new attributes that associate with positive outcomes for patient selection prior to ELVR. Patients with high perfusions in INL demonstrated greater improvements in 6MWT, while patients with high HI were more likely to respond in FEV1. PMID:27354783

  13. Evidence that COMT genotype and proline interact on negative-symptom outcomes in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Clelland, C L; Drouet, V; Rilett, K C; Smeed, J A; Nadrich, R H; Rajparia, A; Read, L L; Clelland, J D

    2016-01-01

    Elevated peripheral proline is associated with psychiatric disorders, and there is evidence that proline is a neuromodulator. The proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) gene, which encodes the enzyme that catalyzes proline catabolism, maps to human chromosome 22q11.2, a region conferring risk of schizophrenia. In the Prodh-null mouse, an interaction between elevated peripheral proline and another 22q11.2 gene, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), on neurotransmission and behavior has been reported. We explored the relationship between fasting plasma proline levels and COMT Val(158)Met genotype on symptoms (positive, negative and total) in schizophrenia patients. In an exploratory study we also examined symptom change in patients with bipolar disorder. There was a significant interaction between peripheral proline and COMT on negative symptoms in schizophrenia (P<0.0001, n=95). In COMT Val/Val patients, high proline was associated with low Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptom (SANS) scores. In contrast, high proline was associated with high SANS scores in patients carrying a Met allele. The relationship between proline and COMT also appears to modify negative symptoms across psychiatric illness. In bipolar disorder, a significant interaction was also observed on negative-symptom change (P=0.007, n=43). Negative symptoms are intractable and largely unaddressed by current medications. These data indicate a significant interaction between peripheral proline and COMT genotype, influencing negative symptoms in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. That high proline has converse effects on symptoms by COMT genotype, may have implications for therapeutic decisions. PMID:27622935

  14. Evidence that COMT genotype and proline interact on negative-symptom outcomes in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Clelland, C L; Drouet, V; Rilett, K C; Smeed, J A; Nadrich, R H; Rajparia, A; Read, L L; Clelland, J D

    2016-01-01

    Elevated peripheral proline is associated with psychiatric disorders, and there is evidence that proline is a neuromodulator. The proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) gene, which encodes the enzyme that catalyzes proline catabolism, maps to human chromosome 22q11.2, a region conferring risk of schizophrenia. In the Prodh-null mouse, an interaction between elevated peripheral proline and another 22q11.2 gene, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), on neurotransmission and behavior has been reported. We explored the relationship between fasting plasma proline levels and COMT Val158Met genotype on symptoms (positive, negative and total) in schizophrenia patients. In an exploratory study we also examined symptom change in patients with bipolar disorder. There was a significant interaction between peripheral proline and COMT on negative symptoms in schizophrenia (P<0.0001, n=95). In COMT Val/Val patients, high proline was associated with low Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptom (SANS) scores. In contrast, high proline was associated with high SANS scores in patients carrying a Met allele. The relationship between proline and COMT also appears to modify negative symptoms across psychiatric illness. In bipolar disorder, a significant interaction was also observed on negative-symptom change (P=0.007, n=43). Negative symptoms are intractable and largely unaddressed by current medications. These data indicate a significant interaction between peripheral proline and COMT genotype, influencing negative symptoms in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. That high proline has converse effects on symptoms by COMT genotype, may have implications for therapeutic decisions. PMID:27622935

  15. Goat α(s1)-casein genotype affects milk fat globule physicochemical properties and the composition of the milk fat globule membrane.

    PubMed

    Cebo, C; Lopez, C; Henry, C; Beauvallet, C; Ménard, O; Bevilacqua, C; Bouvier, F; Caillat, H; Martin, P

    2012-11-01

    Milk fat secretion is a complex process that initiates in the endoplasmic reticulum of the mammary epithelial cell by the budding of lipid droplets. Lipid droplets are finally released as fat globules in milk enveloped by the apical plasma membrane of the mammary epithelial cell. The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) thus comprises membrane-specific proteins and polar lipids (glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids) surrounding a core of neutral lipids (mainly triacylglycerols and cholesterol esters). We have recently described major proteins of the MFGM in the goat and we have highlighted prominent differences between goats and bovine species, especially regarding lactadherin, a major MFGM protein. Here, we show that, in the goat species, the well-documented genetic polymorphism at the α(s1)-casein (CSN1S1) locus affects both structure and composition of milk fat globules. We first evidenced that both milk fat globule size and ζ-potential are related to the α(s1)-casein genotype. At midlactation, goats displaying strong genotypes for α(s1)-casein (A/A goats) produce larger fat globules than goats with a null genotype at the CSN1S1 locus (O/O goats). A linear relationship (R(2)=0.75) between fat content (g/kg) in the milk and diameter of fat globules (μm) was established. Moreover, we found significant differences with regard to MFGM composition (including both polar lipids and MFGM proteins) from goats with extreme genotype at the CSN1S1 locus. At midlactation, the amount of polar lipids is significantly higher in the MFGM from goats with null genotypes for α(s1)-casein (O/O goats; 5.97±0.11mg/g of fat; mean ± standard deviation) than in the MFGM from goats with strong genotypes for α(s1)-casein (A/A goats; 3.96±0.12mg/g of fat; mean ± standard deviation). Two MFGM-associated proteins, namely lactadherin and stomatin, are also significantly upregulated in the MFGM from goats with null genotype for α(s1)-casein at early lactation. Our findings are

  16. Critical Factors Affecting the Assessment of Student Learning Outcomes: A Delphi Study of the Opinions of Community College Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify critically important factors that affect the meaningful assessment of student learning outcomes and study why these factors were critically important. A three-round Delphi process was used to solicit the opinions of individuals who were actively involved in student learning outcomes assessment…

  17. High Incidence of Noonan Syndrome Features Including Short Stature and Pulmonic Stenosis in Patients carrying NF1 Missense Mutations Affecting p.Arg1809: Genotype-Phenotype Correlation.

    PubMed

    Rojnueangnit, Kitiwan; Xie, Jing; Gomes, Alicia; Sharp, Angela; Callens, Tom; Chen, Yunjia; Liu, Ying; Cochran, Meagan; Abbott, Mary-Alice; Atkin, Joan; Babovic-Vuksanovic, Dusica; Barnett, Christopher P; Crenshaw, Melissa; Bartholomew, Dennis W; Basel, Lina; Bellus, Gary; Ben-Shachar, Shay; Bialer, Martin G; Bick, David; Blumberg, Bruce; Cortes, Fanny; David, Karen L; Destree, Anne; Duat-Rodriguez, Anna; Earl, Dawn; Escobar, Luis; Eswara, Marthanda; Ezquieta, Begona; Frayling, Ian M; Frydman, Moshe; Gardner, Kathy; Gripp, Karen W; Hernández-Chico, Concepcion; Heyrman, Kurt; Ibrahim, Jennifer; Janssens, Sandra; Keena, Beth A; Llano-Rivas, Isabel; Leppig, Kathy; McDonald, Marie; Misra, Vinod K; Mulbury, Jennifer; Narayanan, Vinodh; Orenstein, Naama; Galvin-Parton, Patricia; Pedro, Helio; Pivnick, Eniko K; Powell, Cynthia M; Randolph, Linda; Raskin, Salmo; Rosell, Jordi; Rubin, Karol; Seashore, Margretta; Schaaf, Christian P; Scheuerle, Angela; Schultz, Meredith; Schorry, Elizabeth; Schnur, Rhonda; Siqveland, Elizabeth; Tkachuk, Amanda; Tonsgard, James; Upadhyaya, Meena; Verma, Ishwar C; Wallace, Stephanie; Williams, Charles; Zackai, Elaine; Zonana, Jonathan; Lazaro, Conxi; Claes, Kathleen; Korf, Bruce; Martin, Yolanda; Legius, Eric; Messiaen, Ludwine

    2015-11-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most frequent genetic disorders, affecting 1:3,000 worldwide. Identification of genotype-phenotype correlations is challenging because of the wide range clinical variability, the progressive nature of the disorder, and extreme diversity of the mutational spectrum. We report 136 individuals with a distinct phenotype carrying one of five different NF1 missense mutations affecting p.Arg1809. Patients presented with multiple café-au-lait macules (CALM) with or without freckling and Lisch nodules, but no externally visible plexiform neurofibromas or clear cutaneous neurofibromas were found. About 25% of the individuals had Noonan-like features. Pulmonic stenosis and short stature were significantly more prevalent compared with classic cohorts (P < 0.0001). Developmental delays and/or learning disabilities were reported in over 50% of patients. Melanocytes cultured from a CALM in a segmental NF1-patient showed two different somatic NF1 mutations, p.Arg1809Cys and a multi-exon deletion, providing genetic evidence that p.Arg1809Cys is a loss-of-function mutation in the melanocytes and causes a pigmentary phenotype. Constitutional missense mutations at p.Arg1809 affect 1.23% of unrelated NF1 probands in the UAB cohort, therefore this specific NF1 genotype-phenotype correlation will affect counseling and management of a significant number of patients. PMID:26178382

  18. High Incidence of Noonan Syndrome Features Including Short Stature and Pulmonic Stenosis in Patients carrying NF1 Missense Mutations Affecting p.Arg1809: Genotype-Phenotype Correlation.

    PubMed

    Rojnueangnit, Kitiwan; Xie, Jing; Gomes, Alicia; Sharp, Angela; Callens, Tom; Chen, Yunjia; Liu, Ying; Cochran, Meagan; Abbott, Mary-Alice; Atkin, Joan; Babovic-Vuksanovic, Dusica; Barnett, Christopher P; Crenshaw, Melissa; Bartholomew, Dennis W; Basel, Lina; Bellus, Gary; Ben-Shachar, Shay; Bialer, Martin G; Bick, David; Blumberg, Bruce; Cortes, Fanny; David, Karen L; Destree, Anne; Duat-Rodriguez, Anna; Earl, Dawn; Escobar, Luis; Eswara, Marthanda; Ezquieta, Begona; Frayling, Ian M; Frydman, Moshe; Gardner, Kathy; Gripp, Karen W; Hernández-Chico, Concepcion; Heyrman, Kurt; Ibrahim, Jennifer; Janssens, Sandra; Keena, Beth A; Llano-Rivas, Isabel; Leppig, Kathy; McDonald, Marie; Misra, Vinod K; Mulbury, Jennifer; Narayanan, Vinodh; Orenstein, Naama; Galvin-Parton, Patricia; Pedro, Helio; Pivnick, Eniko K; Powell, Cynthia M; Randolph, Linda; Raskin, Salmo; Rosell, Jordi; Rubin, Karol; Seashore, Margretta; Schaaf, Christian P; Scheuerle, Angela; Schultz, Meredith; Schorry, Elizabeth; Schnur, Rhonda; Siqveland, Elizabeth; Tkachuk, Amanda; Tonsgard, James; Upadhyaya, Meena; Verma, Ishwar C; Wallace, Stephanie; Williams, Charles; Zackai, Elaine; Zonana, Jonathan; Lazaro, Conxi; Claes, Kathleen; Korf, Bruce; Martin, Yolanda; Legius, Eric; Messiaen, Ludwine

    2015-11-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most frequent genetic disorders, affecting 1:3,000 worldwide. Identification of genotype-phenotype correlations is challenging because of the wide range clinical variability, the progressive nature of the disorder, and extreme diversity of the mutational spectrum. We report 136 individuals with a distinct phenotype carrying one of five different NF1 missense mutations affecting p.Arg1809. Patients presented with multiple café-au-lait macules (CALM) with or without freckling and Lisch nodules, but no externally visible plexiform neurofibromas or clear cutaneous neurofibromas were found. About 25% of the individuals had Noonan-like features. Pulmonic stenosis and short stature were significantly more prevalent compared with classic cohorts (P < 0.0001). Developmental delays and/or learning disabilities were reported in over 50% of patients. Melanocytes cultured from a CALM in a segmental NF1-patient showed two different somatic NF1 mutations, p.Arg1809Cys and a multi-exon deletion, providing genetic evidence that p.Arg1809Cys is a loss-of-function mutation in the melanocytes and causes a pigmentary phenotype. Constitutional missense mutations at p.Arg1809 affect 1.23% of unrelated NF1 probands in the UAB cohort, therefore this specific NF1 genotype-phenotype correlation will affect counseling and management of a significant number of patients.

  19. Positive smoking outcome expectancies mediate the association between negative affect and smoking urge among women during a quit attempt.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Lam, Cho Y; Chen, Minxing; Adams, Claire E; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Stewart, Diana W; McClure, Jennifer B; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2014-08-01

    Ecological momentary assessment was used to examine associations between negative affect, positive smoking outcome expectancies, and smoking urge during the first 7 days of a smoking quit attempt. Participants were 302 female smokers who enrolled in an individually tailored smoking cessation treatment study. Multilevel mediation analysis was used to examine the temporal relationship among the following: (a) the effects of negative affect and positive smoking outcome expectancies at 1 assessment point (e.g., time j) on smoking urge at the subsequent time point (e.g., time j + 1) in Model 1; and, (b) the effects of negative affect and smoking urge at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 in Model 2. The results from Model 1 showed a statistically significant effect of negative affect at time j on smoking urge at time j + 1, and this effect was mediated by positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j, both within- and between-participants. In Model 2, the within-participant indirect effect of negative affect at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 through smoking urge at time j was nonsignificant. However, a statistically significant indirect between-participants effect was found in Model 2. The findings support the hypothesis that urge and positive smoking outcome expectancies increase as a function of negative affect, and suggest a stronger effect of expectancies on urge as opposed to the effect of urge on expectancies.

  20. Factors That Affect Proliferation of Salmonella in Tomatoes Post-Harvest: The Roles of Seasonal Effects, Irrigation Regime, Crop and Pathogen Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Marvasi, Massimiliano; Hochmuth, George J.; Giurcanu, Mihai C.; George, Andrée S.; Noel, Jason T.; Bartz, Jerry; Teplitski, Max

    2013-01-01

    Main Objectives Fresh fruits and vegetables become increasingly recognized as vehicles of human salmonellosis. Physiological, ecological, and environmental factors are all thought to contribute to the ability of Salmonella to colonize fruits and vegetables pre- and post-harvest. The goal of this study was to test how irrigation levels, fruit water congestion, crop and pathogen genotypes affect the ability of Salmonella to multiply in tomatoes post-harvest. Experimental Design Fruits from three tomato varieties, grown over three production seasons in two Florida locations, were infected with seven strains of Salmonella and their ability to multiply post-harvest in field-grown tomatoes was tested. The field experiments were set up as a two-factor factorial split plot experiment, with the whole-plot treatments arranged in a randomized complete-block design. The irrigation treatment (at three levels) was the whole-plot factor, and the split-plot factor was tomato variety, with three levels. The significance of the main, two-way, and three-way interaction effects was tested using the (type III) F-tests for fixed effects. Mean separation for each significant fixed effect in the model was performed using Tukey’s multiple comparison testing procedure. Most Important Discoveries and Significance The irrigation regime per se did not affect susceptibility of the crop to post-harvest proliferation of Salmonella. However, Salmonella grew significantly better in water-congested tissues of green tomatoes. Tomato maturity and genotype, Salmonella genotype, and inter-seasonal differences were the strongest factors affecting proliferation. Red ripe tomatoes were significantly and consistently more conducive to proliferation of Salmonella. Tomatoes harvested in the driest, sunniest season were the most conducive to post-harvest proliferation of the pathogen. Statistically significant interactions between production conditions affected post-harvest susceptibility of the crop to the

  1. Learning science in a cooperative setting: Academic achievement and affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Baird, J. Hugh

    A learning unit in earth science was taught to high school students, using a jigsaw-group mastery learning approach. The sample consisted of 73 students in the experimental group and 47 students who learned the topic in an individualized mastery learning approach. The study lasted 5 weeks. Pretests and posttests on academic achievement and affective outcomes were administered. Data were treated with an analysis of covariance. The results show that students of the experimental group achieved significantly higher on academic outcomes, both normative and objective scores. On the creative essay test, the differences in number of ideas and total essay score were not significant between the groups, although the mean scores for number of words were higher for the individualized mastery learning group. On the affective domain, jigsaw-group mastery learning students scored significantly higher on self-esteem, number of friends, and involvement in the classroom. No differences were found in cohesiveness, cooperation, competition, and attitudes toward the subject learned. The results are discussed through the evaluation and comparison of the two methods of instruction used in this study.The cooperative learning movement began in junior high schools as part of the desegregation process, aiming at facilitating positive ethnic relations and increasing academic achievement and social skills among diverse students (Aronson, Stephan, Sikes, Blaney, & Snapp, 1978; Sharan & Hertz-Lazarowitz, 1980; Slavin, 1980). However, elementary teachers quickly recognized the potential of cooperative methods, and such methods were adopted freely in elementary schools before becoming widespread on the junior and senior high level. It has only been during the past few years that application of cooperative learning has been studied extensively with these older students.Cooperative learning methods generally involve heterogeneous groups working together on tasks that are deliberately structured to

  2. Obesity Early in Adulthood Increases Risk but Does Not Affect Outcomes of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Manal M.; Abdel-Wahab, Reham; Kaseb, Ahmed; Shalaby, Ahmed; Phan, Alexandria T.; El-Serag, Hashem B.; Hawk, Ernest; Morris, Jeff; Raghav, Kanwal Pratap Singh; Lee, Ju-Seog; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Bortus, Gehan; Torres, Harrys A.; Amos, Christopher I.; Wolff, Robert A.; Li, Donghui

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Despite the significant association between obesity and several cancers, it has been difficult to establish an association between obesity and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients with HCC often have ascites, making it a challenge to accurately determine body mass index (BMI), and many factors contribute to the development of HCC. We performed a case–control study to investigate whether obesity early in adulthood affects risk, age of onset, or outcomes of patients with HCC. METHODS We interviewed 622 patients newly diagnosed with HCC from January 2004 through December 2013, along with 660 healthy controls (frequency-matched by age and sex) to determine weights, heights, and body sizes (self-reported) at various ages before HCC development or enrollment as controls. Multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the independent effects of early obesity on risk for HCC and patient outcomes, respectively. BMI was calculated, and patients with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 were considered obese. RESULTS Obesity in early adulthood (age, mid-20s to mid-40s) is a significant risk factor for HCC. The estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 2.6 (1.4–4.4), 2.3 (1.2–4.4), and 3.6 (1.5–8.9) for the entire population, men, and women, respectively. Each unit increase in BMI at early adulthood was associated with a 3.89-month decrease in age at HCC diagnosis (P<.001). Moreover, there is a synergistic interaction between obesity and hepatitis virus infection. However, we found no effect of obesity on the overall survival of patients with HCC. CONCLUSION Early adulthood obesity is associated with increased risk of developing HCC at a young age in the absence of major HCC risk factors, with no effect on outcomes of patients with HCC. PMID:25836985

  3. Visual Acuity Testing: Feedback Affects Neither Outcome nor Reproducibility, but Leaves Participants Happier

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Michael; Schäfer, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of visual acuity is a well standardized procedure at least for expert opinions and clinical trials. It is often recommended not giving patients feedback on the correctness of their responses. As this viewpoint has not been quantitatively examined so far, we quantitatively assessed possible effects of feedback on visual acuity testing. In 40 normal participants we presented Landolt Cs in 8 orientations using the automated Freiburg Acuity Test (FrACT, outcome measures were absolute visual acuity (logMAR), its test-retest agreement (limits of agreement) and participants’ comfort estimates on a 5-step symmetric Likert scale. Feedback influenced acuity outcome significantly (p = 0.02), but with a tiny effect size: 0.02 logMAR poorer acuity for (D) compared to (A), even weaker effects for (B) and (C). Test-retest agreement was high (limits of agreement: ± 1.0 lines) and did not depend on feedback (p>0.5). The comfort ranking clearly differed, by 2 steps on the Likert scale: the condition (A)–no feedback–was on average “slightly uncomfortable”, the other three conditions were “slightly comfortable” (p<0.0001). Feedback affected neither reproducibility nor the acuity outcome to any relevant extent. The participants, however, reported markedly greater comfort with any kind of feedback. We conclude that systematic feedback (as implemented in FrACT) offers nothing but advantages for routine use. PMID:26824693

  4. Visual Acuity Testing: Feedback Affects Neither Outcome nor Reproducibility, but Leaves Participants Happier.

    PubMed

    Bach, Michael; Schäfer, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of visual acuity is a well standardized procedure at least for expert opinions and clinical trials. It is often recommended not giving patients feedback on the correctness of their responses. As this viewpoint has not been quantitatively examined so far, we quantitatively assessed possible effects of feedback on visual acuity testing. In 40 normal participants we presented Landolt Cs in 8 orientations using the automated Freiburg Acuity Test (FrACT, outcome measures were absolute visual acuity (logMAR), its test-retest agreement (limits of agreement) and participants' comfort estimates on a 5-step symmetric Likert scale. Feedback influenced acuity outcome significantly (p = 0.02), but with a tiny effect size: 0.02 logMAR poorer acuity for (D) compared to (A), even weaker effects for (B) and (C). Test-retest agreement was high (limits of agreement: ± 1.0 lines) and did not depend on feedback (p>0.5). The comfort ranking clearly differed, by 2 steps on the Likert scale: the condition (A)-no feedback-was on average "slightly uncomfortable", the other three conditions were "slightly comfortable" (p<0.0001). Feedback affected neither reproducibility nor the acuity outcome to any relevant extent. The participants, however, reported markedly greater comfort with any kind of feedback. We conclude that systematic feedback (as implemented in FrACT) offers nothing but advantages for routine use.

  5. Learning science in a cooperative setting: Academic achievement and affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Baird, J. Hugh

    A learning unit in earth science was taught to high school students, using a jigsaw-group mastery learning approach. The sample consisted of 73 students in the experimental group and 47 students who learned the topic in an individualized mastery learning approach. The study lasted 5 weeks. Pretests and posttests on academic achievement and affective outcomes were administered. Data were treated with an analysis of covariance. The results show that students of the experimental group achieved significantly higher on academic outcomes, both normative and objective scores. On the creative essay test, the differences in number of ideas and total essay score were not significant between the groups, although the mean scores for number of words were higher for the individualized mastery learning group. On the affective domain, jigsaw-group mastery learning students scored significantly higher on self-esteem, number of friends, and involvement in the classroom. No differences were found in cohesiveness, cooperation, competition, and attitudes toward the subject learned. The results are discussed through the evaluation and comparison of the two methods of instruction used in this study.The cooperative learning movement began in junior high schools as part of the desegregation process, aiming at facilitating positive ethnic relations and increasing academic achievement and social skills among diverse students (Aronson, Stephan, Sikes, Blaney, & Snapp, 1978; Sharan & Hertz-Lazarowitz, 1980; Slavin, 1980). However, elementary teachers quickly recognized the potential of cooperative methods, and such methods were adopted freely in elementary schools before becoming widespread on the junior and senior high level. It has only been during the past few years that application of cooperative learning has been studied extensively with these older students.Cooperative learning methods generally involve heterogeneous groups working together on tasks that are deliberately structured to

  6. Through what mechanisms do protected areas affect environmental and social outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Paul J.; Hanauer, Merlin M.

    2015-01-01

    To develop effective protected area policies, scholars and practitioners must better understand the mechanisms through which protected areas affect social and environmental outcomes. With strong evidence about mechanisms, the key elements of success can be strengthened, and the key elements of failure can be eliminated or repaired. Unfortunately, empirical evidence about these mechanisms is limited, and little guidance for quantifying them exists. This essay assesses what mechanisms have been hypothesized, what empirical evidence exists for their relative contributions and what advances have been made in the past decade for estimating mechanism causal effects from non-experimental data. The essay concludes with a proposed agenda for building an evidence base about protected area mechanisms. PMID:26460122

  7. Parathyroid nuclear scan. A focused review on the technical and biological factors affecting its outcome

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Subramanian; Milas, Mira; Neumann, Donald; Parikh, Rikesh T.; Siperstein, Alan; Licata, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective Technetium Parathyroid Scintigraphy (TS) is the most popular noninvasive localization procedure in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Awareness of various factors involved in technetium uptake helps understand the outcome of TS. Methods We utilize a case of changing TS scans in a patient to review the literature on the various biological and technical factors involved in technetium uptake by the abnormal parathyroid tissue. A 56 year female was diagnosed with PHPT and osteopenia. An initial scan using 99mTc-Tetrofosmin showed no definite areas of abnormal parathyroid tissue. Patient refused surgical exploration, was started on Bisphosponates and subsequently monitored. Five years later she suffered fracture of her right wrist. A repeat TS using 99mTc-Sestamibi revealed hypervascular parathyroid lesion in the right lower neck. She underwent successful removal of a right lower parathyroid adenoma. Results Technical factors like the type of Tc isotope used, imaging techniques and biological factors like biochemical parameters (calcium, vitamin D levels), adenoma size, content of oxyphilic cells, vascularity can affect the outcome of the scan. Conclusion Clinicians should be aware of technical and biological factors that could result in negative scan in parathyroid nuclear scintigraphy. PMID:25002876

  8. The Kupffer Cell Number Affects the Outcome of Living Donor Liver Transplantation from Elderly Donors

    PubMed Central

    Hidaka, Masaaki; Eguchi, Susumu; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Soyama, Akihiko; Ono, Shinichiro; Adachi, Tomohiko; Natsuda, Koji; Kugiyama, Tota; Hara, Takanobu; Okada, Satomi; Imamura, Hajime; Miuma, Satoshi; Miyaaki, Hisamitsu

    2016-01-01

    Background There have been no previous reports how Kupffer cells affect the outcome of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) with an elderly donor. The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of Kupffer cells on LDLT. Methods A total of 161 adult recipients underwent LDLT. The graft survival, prognostic factors for survival, and graft failure after LDLT were examined between cases with a young donor (<50, n = 112) and an elderly donor (≥50, N = 49). The Kupffer cells, represented by CD68-positive cell in the graft, were examined in the young and elderly donors. Results In a multivariable analysis, a donor older than 50 years, sepsis, and diabetes mellitus were significant predictors of graft failure after LDLT. The CD68 in younger donors was significantly more expressed than that in elderly donors. The group with a less number of CD68-positive cells in the graft had a significantly poor survival in the elderly donor group and prognostic factor for graft failure. Conclusions The worse outcome of LDLT with elderly donors might be related to the lower number of Kupffer cells in the graft, which can lead to impaired recovery of the liver function and may predispose patients to infectious diseases after LDLT.

  9. Exposing physicians to reduced residency work hours did not adversely affect patient outcomes after residency.

    PubMed

    Jena, Anupam B; Schoemaker, Lena; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-10-01

    In 2003, work hours for physicians-in-training (residents) were capped by regulation at eighty hours per week, leading to the hotly debated but unexplored issue of whether physicians today are less well trained as a result of these work-hour reforms. Using a unique database of nearly all hospitalizations in Florida during 2000-09 that were linked to detailed information on the medical training history of the physician of record for each hospitalization, we studied whether hospital mortality and patients' length-of-stay varied according to the number of years a physician was exposed to the 2003 duty-hour regulations during his or her residency. We examined this database of practicing Florida physicians, using a difference-in-differences analysis that compared trends in outcomes of junior physicians (those with one-year post-residency experience) pre- and post-2003 to a control group of senior physicians (those with ten or more years of post-residency experience) who were not exposed to these reforms during their residency. We found that the duty-hour reforms did not adversely affect hospital mortality and length-of-stay of patients cared for by new attending physicians who were partly or fully exposed to reduced duty hours during their own residency. However, assessment of the impact of the duty-hour reforms on other clinical outcomes is needed.

  10. Improving the outcomes of children affected by parental substance abuse: a review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Stacy; Conner, Emma; Miller, Melodi; Messina, Nena

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse is a major public health concern that impacts not just the user but also the user’s family. The effect that parental substance abuse has on children has been given substantial attention over the years. Findings from the literature suggest that children of substance-abusing parents have a high risk of developing physical and mental health and behavioral problems. A number of intervention programs have been developed for parents who have a substance abuse problem. There have also been a number of interventions that have been developed for children who have at least one parent with a substance abuse problem. However, it remains unclear how we can best mitigate the negative effects that parental substance abuse has on children due to the scarcity of evaluations that utilize rigorous methodologies such as experimental designs. The purpose of this study is to review randomized controlled trials of intervention programs targeting parents with substance abuse problems and/or children with at least one parent with a substance abuse problem in order to identify programs that show some promise in improving the behavioral and mental health outcomes of children affected by parental substance abuse. Four randomized controlled trials that met our eligibility criteria were identified using major literature search engines. The findings from this review suggest that interventions that focus on improving parenting practices and family functioning may be effective in reducing problems in children affected by parental substance abuse. However, further research utilizing rigorous methodologies are needed in order to identify other successful interventions that can improve the outcomes of these children long after the intervention has ended. PMID:25670915

  11. ADAPTATION OF SUBJECTIVE RESPONSES TO ALCOHOL IS AFFECTED BY AN INTERACTION OF GABRA2 GENOTYPE AND RECENT DRINKING

    PubMed Central

    Kosobud, Ann E.K.; Wetherill, Leah; Plawecki, Martin H.; Kareken, David A.; Liang, Tiebing; Nurnberger, John L.; Windisch, Kyle; Xuei, Xiaoling; Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; O’Connor, Sean J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Subjective perceptions of alcohol intoxication are associated with altered risk for alcohol abuse and dependence. Acute adaptation of these perceptions may influence such risk, and may involve genes associated with pleasant perceptions or the relief of anxiety. This study assessed the effect of variation in the GABAA receptor genes GABRG1 and GABRA2 and recent drinking history on the acute adaptation of subjective responses to alcohol. Methods 132 non-dependent moderate to heavy drinkers, aged 21–27, participated in 2 single-blind, counterbalanced sessions, approximately one week apart. One session was an intravenous alcohol “clamp”, during which breath alcohol concentration was held steady at 60 mg/dL (60 mg%) for 3 hours, and the other an identical session using saline infusion. Subjective perceptions of intoxication, enjoyment, stimulation, relaxation, anxiety, tiredness and estimated number of drinks were acquired before (baseline), and during the first and final 45 minutes of the clamp. A placebo-adjusted index of the subject’s acute adaptation to alcohol was calculated for each of the 7 subjective measures, and used in a principal component analysis to create a single aggregate estimate for each subject’s adaptive response to alcohol. Analysis of covariance tested if GABRA2 and GABRG1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes, gender, placebo session, family history of alcoholism, recent drinking history, and the genotype x recent drinking history interaction significantly predicted the adaptive response. Results Recent drinking history (p=0.01), and recent drinking history x genotype interaction (p=0.01) were significantly associated with acute adaptation of the subjective responses to alcohol for the GABRA2 SNP rs279858. Conclusion Higher recent drinking was found to be associated with reduced acute tolerance to positive, stimulating effects of alcohol in carriers of the rs279858 risk allele. We postulate that the GABRA2 effect on

  12. The Host Genotype and Environment Affect Strain Types of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum Inhabiting the Intestinal Tracts of Twins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Hang, Xiaomin; Tan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the influences of host genotype and environment on Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum inhabiting human intestines at the strain level, six pairs of twins, divided into two groups (children and adults), were recruited. Each group consisted of two monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs and one dizygotic (DZ) twin pair. Child twins had been living together from birth, while adult twins had been living separately for 5 to 10 years. A total of 345 B. longum subsp. longum isolates obtained from 60 fecal samples from these twins were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and 35 sequence types (STs) were finally acquired. Comparison of strains within and between the twin pairs showed that no strains with identical STs were observed between unrelated individuals or within adult DZ twin pairs. Eight STs were found to be monophyletic, existing within MZ twins and child DZ twins. The similarity of strain types within child cotwins was significantly higher than that within adult cotwins, which indicated that environment was one of the important determinants in B. longum subsp. longum strain types inhabiting human intestines. However, although these differences between MZ and DZ twins were observed, it is still difficult to reach an exact conclusion about the impact of host genotype. This is mainly because of the limited number of subjects tested in the present study and the lack of strain types tracing in the same twin pairs from birth until adulthood. PMID:25956768

  13. Temperature-dependent genotype-by-genotype interaction between a pathogenic fungus and its hyperparasitic virus.

    PubMed

    Bryner, Sarah Franziska; Rigling, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The outcome of host-parasite interactions may depend not only on the genotypes of the species involved but also on environmental factors. We used the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight, and its hyperparasitic virus, Cryphonectria hypovirus-1 (CHV1), to test for genotype-by-genotype-by-environment interactions in a host-parasite system. In C. parasitica, infection with CHV1 induces a hypovirulent phenotype with reduced virulence toward the chestnut tree (Castanea spp.) and thus controls chestnut blight in many European regions. In contrast, uninfected virulent C. parasitica have nearly eradicated the American chestnut in North America. We applied a full factorial design and assessed the fungal growth and sporulation of four C. parasitica strains, uninfected and infected with each of the four known CHV1 subtypes, at 12°, 18°, 24°, and 30°C. We found a significant (P ≤ .00001) genotype-by-genotype-by-environment interaction, demonstrating the potential for a selection mosaic. As a consequence, different host and parasite genotypes would be selected under different climatic conditions, affecting the coevolutionary dynamics of the host-parasite interaction and the course of chestnut blight epidemics. Genotype-by-genotype-by-environment interactions are essential to take into account when designing biological control strategies.

  14. Benefits of adversity?! How life history affects the behavioral profile of mice varying in serotonin transporter genotype

    PubMed Central

    Bodden, Carina; Richter, S. Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S.; Kloke, Vanessa; Gerß, Joachim; Palme, Rupert; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lewejohann, Lars; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral profiles are influenced by both positive and negative experiences as well as the genetic disposition. Traditionally, accumulating adversity over lifetime is considered to predict increased anxiety-like behavior (“allostatic load”). The alternative “mismatch hypothesis” suggests increased levels of anxiety if the early environment differs from the later-life environment. Thus, there is a need for a whole-life history approach to gain a deeper understanding of how behavioral profiles are shaped. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of life history on the behavioral profile of mice varying in serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype, an established mouse model of increased anxiety-like behavior. For this purpose, mice grew up under either adverse or beneficial conditions during early phases of life. In adulthood, they were further subdivided so as to face a situation that either matched or mismatched the condition experienced so far, resulting in four different life histories. Subsequently, mice were tested for their anxiety-like and exploratory behavior. The main results were: (1) Life history profoundly modulated the behavioral profile. Surprisingly, mice that experienced early beneficial and later escapable adverse conditions showed less anxiety-like and more exploratory behavior compared to mice of other life histories. (2) Genotype significantly influenced the behavioral profile, with homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice displaying highest levels of anxiety-like and lowest levels of exploratory behavior. Our findings concerning life history indicate that the absence of adversity does not necessarily cause lower levels of anxiety than accumulating adversity. Rather, some adversity may be beneficial, particularly when following positive events. Altogether, we conclude that for an understanding of behavioral profiles, it is not sufficient to look at experiences during single phases of life, but the whole life history has to be considered

  15. Teammates and social influence affect weight loss outcomes in a team-based weight loss competition

    PubMed Central

    Leahey, Tricia M.; Kumar, Rajiv; Weinberg, Brad M.; Wing, Rena R.

    2013-01-01

    Team-based Internet interventions are increasing in popularity as a way of promoting weight loss in large numbers of individuals. Given that social networks influence health behavior change, this study investigated the effects of teammates and social influence on individual weight loss during a team-based weight loss competition. Shape Up Rhode Island 2009 was a 12-week online program open to adult residents of Rhode Island. Participants joined with a team and competed with other teams on weight loss and/or physical activity. OW/OB individuals (N=3,330; 76%female; age=46.1±10.8; BMI=31.2±5.3kg/m2), representing 987 teams, completed the weight loss program. Multilevel modeling was used to examine whether weight loss clustered among teammates and whether percentage of teammates in the weight loss division and reported teammate influence on weight loss were associated with individual weight outcomes. OW/OB completers reported losing 4.2±3.4% of initial body weight. Weight loss was similar among teammates (ICC=.10, p<.001). Moreover, having a greater percentage of teammates in the weight loss division and reporting higher social influence for weight loss were associated with greater percent weight loss (p’s≤.002). Similarly, achieving a clinically significant (5%) weight loss tended to cluster within teams (ICC=0.09;p<.001) and having more teammates in the weight loss division and higher social influence for weight loss were associated with increased likelihood of achieving a 5% weight loss (OR=1.06; OR=1.20, respectively). These results suggest that teammates affect weight loss outcomes during a team-based intervention. Harnessing and maximizing teammate influence for weight loss may enhance weight losses in large-scale team-based weight loss programs. PMID:22310234

  16. Does therapist’s attitude affect clinical outcome of lumbar facet joint injections?

    PubMed Central

    Middendorp, Marcus; Kollias, Konstantinos; Ackermann, Hanns; Splettstößer, Annina; Vogl, Thomas J; Khan, M Fawad; Maataoui, Adel

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate if the clinical outcome of intra-articular lumbar facet joint injections is affected by the therapist’s attitude. METHODS: A total of 40 patients with facet joint-associated chronic low back pain were randomly divided into two groups. All patients received computed tomography-guided, monosegmental intra-articular facet joint injections. Following the therapeutic procedure, the patients of the experimental group (EG) held a conversation with the radiologist in a comfortable atmosphere. During the dialog, the patients were encouraged to ask questions and were shown four images. The patients of the control group (CG) left the clinic without any further contact with the radiologist. Outcome was assessed using a pain-based Verbal Numeric Scale at baseline, at 1 wk and at 1, 3, and 6 mo after first treatment. RESULTS: The patient demographics showed no differences between the groups. The patients of the EG received 57 interventional procedures in total, while the patients of the CG received 70 interventional procedures. In both groups, the pain scores decreased significantly over the entire observation period. Compared to the CG, the EG showed a statistically significant reduction of pain at 1 wk and 1 mo post-treatment, while at 3 and 6 mo after treatment, there were no significant differences between both groups. CONCLUSION: Our results show a significant effect on pain relief during the early post-interventional period in the EG as compared to the CG. The basic principle behind the higher efficacy might be the phenomenon of hetero-suggestion. PMID:27358691

  17. Factors Affecting Outcome in Acute Hypertriglyceridemic Pancreatitis Treated with Plasma Exchange: An Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gubensek, Jakob; Buturovic-Ponikvar, Jadranka; Romozi, Karmen; Ponikvar, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The optimal therapy for hypertriglyceridemic acute pancreatitis, especially the role of plasma exchange (PE), is not entirely clear. The aim of our large, single-center, observational, cohort study was to analyze the factors affecting outcome in hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis treated with PE. Methods We included 111 episodes of hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis treated with PE, which occurred in 103 different patients. The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, triglycerides, delay to first PE, and PE treatment details were retrospectively obtained from the patients’ records. The main outcome measures were length of hospitalization and in-hospital mortality. Results The patients were 47±9 years old and the median APACHE II score at first PE was 4 (inter-quartile range (IQR) 2–7). There was a seasonal variation in the incidence of hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis, and the recurrence rate was 1.6% per year. Triglycerides at presentation did not correlate with APACHE II or influence the outcome. The mean reduction in triglycerides during PE was 59% (from 44±31 to 18±15 mmol/l), which was twice the reduction observed during conservative treatment (27% daily). The median hospital stay was 16 days (IQR 10–24) and in-hospital mortality was 5%. The median delay to first PE was 35 hours (IQR 24–52), and there was no difference in mortality in the early and late PE groups (7% vs. 6%, p = 0.79). The group with citrate anticoagulation during PE had a significantly lower mortality than the group with heparin anticoagulation (1% vs. 11%, p = 0.04), and citrate was an independent predictor also in the multivariate model (p = 0.049). Conclusions PE effectively reduced serum triglycerides faster than could be expected with conservative treatment. The delay in PE therapy did not influence survival. We found that citrate anticoagulation during PE was associated with reduced mortality, which should be confirmed in a

  18. Whole-Genome Sequencing and iPLEX MassARRAY Genotyping Map an EMS-Induced Mutation Affecting Cell Competition in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Hyun; Rimesso, Gerard; Reynolds, David M.; Cai, Jinlu; Baker, Nicholas E.

    2016-01-01

    Cell competition, the conditional loss of viable genotypes only when surrounded by other cells, is a phenomenon observed in certain genetic mosaic conditions. We conducted a chemical mutagenesis and screen to recover new mutations that affect cell competition between wild-type and RpS3 heterozygous cells. Mutations were identified by whole-genome sequencing, making use of software tools that greatly facilitate the distinction between newly induced mutations and other sources of apparent sequence polymorphism, thereby reducing false-positive and false-negative identification rates. In addition, we utilized iPLEX MassARRAY for genotyping recombinant chromosomes. These approaches permitted the mapping of a new mutation affecting cell competition when only a single allele existed, with a phenotype assessed only in genetic mosaics, without the benefit of complementation with existing mutations, deletions, or duplications. These techniques expand the utility of chemical mutagenesis and whole-genome sequencing for mutant identification. We discuss mutations in the Atm and Xrp1 genes identified in this screen. PMID:27574103

  19. Variable Gene Dispersal Conditions and Spatial Deforestation Patterns Can Interact to Affect Tropical Tree Conservation Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kashimshetty, Yamini; Pelikan, Stephan; Rogstad, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF) biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG), which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring) had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively) than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively), with ‘Near’ distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene dispersal

  20. Variable gene dispersal conditions and spatial deforestation patterns can interact to affect tropical tree conservation outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kashimshetty, Yamini; Pelikan, Stephan; Rogstad, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF) biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG), which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring) had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively) than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively), with 'Near' distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene dispersal

  1. Second generation peanut genotypes resistant to thrips-transmitted tomato spotted wilt virus exhibit tolerance rather than true resistance and differentially affect thrips fitness.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Anita; Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Sundaraj, Sivamani; Culbreath, Albert K; Riley, David G

    2013-04-01

    Spotted wilt disease caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (family Bunyaviridae; genus Tospovirus) is a major constraint to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production in the southeastern United States. Reducing yield losses to TSWV has heavily relied on planting genotypes that reduce the incidence of spotted wilt disease. However, mechanisms conferring resistance to TSWV have not been identified in these genotypes. Furthermore, no information is available on how these genotypes influence thrips fitness. In this study, we investigated the effects of newly released peanut genotypes (Georganic, GA-06G, Tifguard, and NC94022) with field resistance to TSWV and a susceptible genotype (Georgia Green) on tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), fitness, and TSWV incidence. Thrips-mediated transmission resulted in TSWV infection in both TSWV-resistant and susceptible genotypes and they exhibited typical TSWV symptoms. However, some resistant genotypes had reduced viral loads (fewer TSWV N-gene copies) than the susceptible genotype. F. fusca larvae acquired TSWV from resistant and susceptible genotypes indicating that resistant genotypes also can serve as inoculum sources. Unlike resistant genotypes in other crops that produce local lesions (hypersensitive reaction) upon TSWV infection, widespread symptom development was noticed in peanut genotypes. Results indicated that the observed field resistance in peanut genotypes could be because of tolerance. Further, fitness studies revealed some, but not substantial, differences in thrips adult emergence rates and developmental time between resistant and susceptible genotypes. Thrips head capsule length and width were not different when reared on different genotypes.

  2. Outcomes and Risk Factors Affecting Mortality in Patients Who Underwent Colorectal Emergency Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Nam Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Emergency colorectal surgery has a high risk of mortality and morbidity because of incomplete bowel preparation, bacterial proliferation, and contamination. In this study, we investigated the outcomes and the risk factors affecting mortality in patients who had undergone emergency surgery for the treatment of various colorectal diseases. Methods This study is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data to survey the clinical results for patients who had undergone emergency colorectal surgery from January 2014 to December 2014. We analyzed various clinicopathologic factors, which were divided into 3 categories: preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative. Results A total of 50 patients had undergone emergency colorectal surgery during the time period covered by this study. Among them, 10 patients (20%) died during the postoperative period. A simple linear regression analysis showed that the risk factors for mortality were old age, preoperative hypotension, and a high American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) score. Moreover, a multiple linear regression analysis showed a high ASA score and preoperative hypotension to be independent risk factors. Conclusion In this study, emergency colorectal surgery showed a relatively high mortality rate. Furthermore, the independent risk factors for mortality were preoperative hypotension and high ASA score; thus, patients with these characteristics need to be evaluated more carefully and receive better care if the mortality rate is to be reduced. PMID:27626023

  3. Perceptions of Intragroup Rejection and Coping Strategies: Malleable Factors Affecting Hispanic Adolescents’ Emotional and Academic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Michael T.; Crano, William D.; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding psychosocial factors that affect the academic achievement of Hispanic adolescents remains a nationwide priority in the United States. Extending previous studies of the stressful effects of perceived discrimination, this year-long longitudinal study examined the correlates of perceived ethnic in-group rejection, coping strategies and fatalistic beliefs, on depressive symptoms, grades, and college aspirations of 2,214 Hispanic adolescents (54 % female) in Southern California. Based on the transactional model of stress and coping and on self-perception theory, structural equation models revealed that high perceived intragroup rejection (10th grade) and low levels of active coping (11th grade) were associated with depressive symptoms in 11th grade. Also, depressive symptoms partially mediated the link between intragroup rejection and both academic outcomes. Avoidant coping strategies (e.g., watching TV) also predicted depressive symptoms and were positively related to fatalism. In addition, fatalism was negatively related to grades and aspiration to attend college. The findings suggest the need to help adolescents find adequate outlets for communication and to create awareness about the potential effects of intragroup rejection. PMID:24234042

  4. Cultural factors affecting diet and pregnancy outcome of Mexican American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Y M

    1999-09-01

    A study was conducted to describe the cultural beliefs, nutrition knowledge, food intake, and attitudes about weight gain of Mexican American adolescents, and their relationship to pregnancy weight gain and infant's birth weight. A convenience sample of 46 pregnant adolescents, who were self-identified Mexican American primigravidas aged 13-18 years, were recruited from 6 San Francisco Bay Area and San Jose clinic sites. Data were collected over an 18-month period from Winter 1994 to Spring 1995. Results showed that acculturation affected nutritional knowledge, attitudes about weight gain during pregnancy, and the psychosocial and educational level of pregnant Mexican American adolescents. There were no differences in the quality of diet and pregnancy outcomes, gestational weeks at delivery, or birth weight among acculturated, versus the nonacculturated adolescents. Both benefited from cultural protective factors related to their dependence on the family for emotional, economic, and social support. Nutrition recommendations should emphasize the importance of maintaining traditional food habits and nutritive value information of American foods.

  5. Outcomes and Risk Factors Affecting Mortality in Patients Who Underwent Colorectal Emergency Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Nam Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Emergency colorectal surgery has a high risk of mortality and morbidity because of incomplete bowel preparation, bacterial proliferation, and contamination. In this study, we investigated the outcomes and the risk factors affecting mortality in patients who had undergone emergency surgery for the treatment of various colorectal diseases. Methods This study is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data to survey the clinical results for patients who had undergone emergency colorectal surgery from January 2014 to December 2014. We analyzed various clinicopathologic factors, which were divided into 3 categories: preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative. Results A total of 50 patients had undergone emergency colorectal surgery during the time period covered by this study. Among them, 10 patients (20%) died during the postoperative period. A simple linear regression analysis showed that the risk factors for mortality were old age, preoperative hypotension, and a high American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) score. Moreover, a multiple linear regression analysis showed a high ASA score and preoperative hypotension to be independent risk factors. Conclusion In this study, emergency colorectal surgery showed a relatively high mortality rate. Furthermore, the independent risk factors for mortality were preoperative hypotension and high ASA score; thus, patients with these characteristics need to be evaluated more carefully and receive better care if the mortality rate is to be reduced.

  6. Pattern and molecular epidemiology of Hepatitis B virus genotypes circulating in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Awan, Zunaira; Idrees, Muhammad; Amin, Irum; Butt, Sadia; Afzal, Samia; Akbar, Haji; Rehman, Irshad-ur; Younas, Saima; Shahid, Muhammad; Lal, Amreek; Saleem, Sana; Rauff, Bisma

    2010-12-01

    The continuously mutating nature of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is responsible for the emergence of varying genotypes in different regions of the world affecting the disease outcome. The objective of the current study was to find out the pattern of HBV genotypes circulating in Pakistan. HBV genotypes were determined in HBV chronic patients of different age and gender from all the four different geographical regions (provinces) of Pakistan for a period of 2 years (2007-2009). Out of the total 3137 consecutive patients, 300 (175; 58.3% males and 125; 41.7% females) were randomly selected for HBV genotype A through H determination using molecular genotyping methods. Total 269 (89.6%) isolates were successfully genotyped where as 31 (10.3%) samples failed to generate a type-specific PCR band and were found untypable. Out of the successfully genotyped samples, 43 (14.3%) were with type A, 54 (18%) were with type B, 83 (27.6%) were with type C, 39 (13%) were with type D, 2 (0.6%) were with type E, 4 (1.3%) were with genotype F and total 44 (14.6%) were with mixed HBV infections. Of the mixed genotype infection cases, 16 were with genotypes A/D, 9 were B/C, six were A/D/F, five were with genotypes A/F, two were with A/B/D and B/E and one each for A/C as well as A/E genotypes. Four common genotypes of HBV found worldwide (A, B, C & D) were isolated from Pakistan along with uncommon genotypes E and F for the first time in Pakistan. Overall Genotype C is the most prevalent genotype. Genotypes B and C are predominant in Punjab & Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa, respectively whereas genotype A in Sindh.

  7. Does neonatal morphine use affect neuropsychological outcomes at 8 to 9 years of age?

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Joke; van Lingen, Richard A; Valkenburg, Abraham J; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Groot Jebbink, Liesbeth; Wijnberg-Williams, Barbara; Anand, Kanwaljeet J S; Tibboel, Dick; van Dijk, Monique

    2013-03-01

    Morphine is widely used to treat severe pain in neonatal intensive care unit patients. Animal studies suggest adverse long-term side effects of neonatal morphine, but a follow-up study of 5-year-old children who participated in a morphine-placebo controlled trial as newborns found no such effects on the child's general functioning. This study indicated that morphine may negatively affect response inhibition, a domain of executive functions. Therefore, we performed a second follow-up study in the same population at the age of 8 to 9 years, focused on the child's general functioning in terms of intelligence, visual motor integration, and behavior and on executive functions. Children in the morphine group showed significantly less externalizing problems according to the parents but more internalizing behavior according to the teachers, but only after adjustment for intelligence quotient (IQ), potential confounders using a propensity score, and additional open-label morphine. Morphine-treated children showed significantly fewer problems with executive functions in daily life as rated by parents for the subscales inhibition and organization of materials and for planning/organizing as rated by the teachers. After adjustment for IQ and the propensity score, executive functioning as rated by the parents remained statistically significantly better in the morphine-treated group. The influence of the additional morphine given was not of a significant influence for any of the outcome variables. Overall, the present study demonstrates that continuous morphine infusion of 10 μg/kg/h during the neonatal period does not harm general functioning and may even have a positive influence on executive functions at 8 to 9 years.

  8. The effect of playing a science center-based mobile game: Affective outcomes and gender differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood-Blaine, Dana

    Situated in a hands-on science center, The Great STEM Caper was a collaborative mobile game built on the ARIS platform that was designed to engage 5th-9th grade players in NGSS science and engineering practices while they interacted with various exhibits. Same gender partners sharing one iPad would search for QR codes placed at specific exhibits; scanning a code within the game would launch a challenge for that exhibit. The primary hypothesis was that in- game victories would be equivalent to "mastery experiences" as described by Bandura (1997) and would result in increased science self-efficacy. Gender differences in gameplay behaviors and perceptions were also studied. The study included two groups, one that played the game during their visit and one that explored the science center in the traditional way. The Motivation to Learn Science Questionnaire was administered to participants in both groups both before and after their visit to the science center. Participants wore head-mounted GoPro cameras to record their interactions within the physical and social environment. No differences in affective outcomes were found between the game and comparison groups or between boys and girls in the game group. The MLSQ was unable to measure any significant change in science self-efficacy, interest and enjoyment of science, or overall motivation to learn science in either group. However, girls outperformed boys on every measure of game achievement. Lazzaro's (2004) four types of fun were found to be a good fit for describing the gender differences in game perceptions and behaviors. Girls tended to enjoy hard fun and collaborative people fun while boys enjoyed easy fun and competitive people fun. While boys associated game achievement with enjoyment and victory, girls perceived their game achievement as difficult, rather than enjoyable or victorious.

  9. Fighting while parasitized: can nematode infections affect the outcome of staged combat in beetles?

    PubMed

    Vasquez, David; Willoughby, Anna; Davis, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    The effects of non-lethal parasites may be felt most strongly when hosts engage in intense, energy-demanding behaviors. One such behavior is fighting with conspecifics, which is common among territorial animals, including many beetle species. We examined the effects of parasites on the fighting ability of a saproxylic beetle, the horned passalus (Odontotaenius disjunctus, Family: Passalidae), which is host to a non-lethal nematode, Chondronema passali. We pitted pairs of randomly-chosen (but equally-weighted) beetles against each other in a small arena and determined the winner and aggression level of fights. Then we examined beetles for the presence, and severity of nematode infections. There was a non-significant tendency (p = 0.065) for the frequency of wins, losses and draws to differ between beetles with and without C. passali; non-parasitized individuals (n = 104) won 47% of their fights while those with the parasite (n = 88) won 34%, a 13% difference in wins. The number of nematodes in a beetle affected the outcome of fights between infected and uninfected individuals in an unexpected fashion: fighting ability was lowest in beetles with the lowest (p = 0.033), not highest (p = 0.266), nematode burdens. Within-fight aggression was highest when both beetles were uninfected and lowest when both were infected (p = 0.034). Collectively, these results suggest the nematode parasite, C. passali, is associated with a modest reduction in fighting ability in horned passalus beetles, consistent with the idea that parasitized beetles have lower energy available for fighting. This study adds to a small but growing body of evidence showing how parasites negatively influence fighting behavior in animals.

  10. Fighting while Parasitized: Can Nematode Infections Affect the Outcome of Staged Combat in Beetles?

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, David; Willoughby, Anna; Davis, Andrew K.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of non-lethal parasites may be felt most strongly when hosts engage in intense, energy-demanding behaviors. One such behavior is fighting with conspecifics, which is common among territorial animals, including many beetle species. We examined the effects of parasites on the fighting ability of a saproxylic beetle, the horned passalus (Odontotaenius disjunctus, Family: Passalidae), which is host to a non-lethal nematode, Chondronema passali. We pitted pairs of randomly-chosen (but equally-weighted) beetles against each other in a small arena and determined the winner and aggression level of fights. Then we examined beetles for the presence, and severity of nematode infections. There was a non-significant tendency (p = 0.065) for the frequency of wins, losses and draws to differ between beetles with and without C. passali; non-parasitized individuals (n = 104) won 47% of their fights while those with the parasite (n = 88) won 34%, a 13% difference in wins. The number of nematodes in a beetle affected the outcome of fights between infected and uninfected individuals in an unexpected fashion: fighting ability was lowest in beetles with the lowest (p = 0.033), not highest (p = 0.266), nematode burdens. Within-fight aggression was highest when both beetles were uninfected and lowest when both were infected (p = 0.034). Collectively, these results suggest the nematode parasite, C. passali, is associated with a modest reduction in fighting ability in horned passalus beetles, consistent with the idea that parasitized beetles have lower energy available for fighting. This study adds to a small but growing body of evidence showing how parasites negatively influence fighting behavior in animals. PMID:25830367

  11. Testing self-determined motivation as a mediator of the relationship between psychological needs and affective and behavioral outcomes.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Meghan H; Crocker, Peter R E

    2007-10-01

    Self-determination theory suggests that when psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness are met, participants experience more self-determined types of motivation and more positive outcomes. Limited research has examined this mediational role of self-determined motivation in adult physical activity participants, and very few studies have included assessments of relatedness. This study tested the hypothesis that self-determined motivation would mediate the relationship between psychological need fulfillment and affective and behavioral outcomes. Adult dragon boaters (N = 558) between the ages of 19 and 83 completed a questionnaire on motivational aspects of dragon boating. Competence, relatedness, and autonomy all significantly predicted self-determined motivation, but self-determined motivation only partially mediated their relationship with positive and negative affect. These findings demonstrate the importance of all three needs in adult activity motivation and suggest that the relationships between needs, self-determination, and outcomes may be complex.

  12. The Effects of Spiritual/Religious Engagement on College Students' Affective Outcomes: Differences by Gender and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennick, Liz A.; Smedley, Cynthia Toms; Fisher, Dan; Wallace, Elizabeth; Young, Kim

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the general and differential effects of spiritual/religious engagement on affective college outcomes (i.e., leadership skills, interpersonal skills, social satisfaction, sense of belonging, and psychological well-being) across different gender and racial groups among undergraduate students at research universities. The study…

  13. The Effect of Grouping and Program Type on Scholastic and Affective Outcomes in the Mawhiba Schools Partnership Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batterjee, Adel A.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have struggled for decades to determine whether ability grouping is helpful or harmful; however, study findings have been inconsistent. To assess the effect of grouping and program type on scholastic and affective outcomes, three grouping types (gifted separate-class enrichment, pull-out gifted enrichment, and no enrichment), three…

  14. Cognitive and Socio-Affective Outcomes of Project-Based Learning: Perceptions of Greek Second Chance School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutrouba, Konstantina; Karageorgou, Elissavet

    2013-01-01

    The present questionnaire-based study was conducted in 2010 in order to examine 677 Greek Second Chance School (SCS) students' perceptions about the cognitive and socio-affective outcomes of project-based learning. Data elaboration, statistical and factor analysis showed that the participants found that project-based learning offered a second…

  15. Linking Affective Commitment, Career Self-Efficacy, and Outcome Expectations: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Amanda M.; Dahling, Jason J.; Garcia, Pablo A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested a model based on the satisfaction model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT) that links college students' affective commitment to their major (the emotional identification that students feel toward their area of study) with career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and career outcome expectations. Results indicate that CDSE…

  16. How Group Experience Affects Outcomes from NOLS Programs: A Means-End Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Marni; Soule, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Using means-end theory, this study evaluates how being part of a group influences outcomes of National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) participants. This study examines outcomes from NOLS courses during the summer of 2006 in the Wind River Mountain Range of Wyoming. Immediately following 2006 course completion, a convenience sample of 345…

  17. Simulation of normal, carrier and affected controls for large-scale genotyping of cattle for factor XI deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyaya, P N; Jha, M; Muraleedharan, P; Gupta, R R; Rathod, R N; Mehta, H H; Khoda, V K

    2006-01-01

    An insertion mutation within exon 12 of the factor XI gene has been described in Holstein cattle. This has opened the prospect for large-scale screening of cattle using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for the rapid identification of heterozygous animals. To facilitate such a screening process, the mutant and normal alleles of factor XI gene, represented by 244- and 320-bp PCR amplified fragments, were individually cloned in Escherichia coli using a multicopy plasmid cloning vehicle to generate pFXI-N and pFXI-M, respectively. The authenticity of the inserts was confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. A nested PCR method was developed, by which PCR amplicons generated from primers with annealing sites on the recombinant plasmids and by flanking the insert were used as templates for amplification of the diagnostic products using factor XI gene-specific primers. An equimolar mixture of both PCR amplicons, originating from pFXI-N and pFXI-M, constituted the carrier control while the individual amplicons were the affected and normal controls. The controls were used as references for in-gel comparison to screen a population of 307 cattle and 259 water buffaloes; the frequency of the mutant allele was found to be 0. No DNA size standards were required in this study. The simulated control DNA samples representing normal, carrier and affected cattle have the potential to help in large-scale screening of a cattle population for individuals that are carriers or affected by factor XI deficiency.

  18. Personality and serotonin transporter genotype interact with social context to affect immunity and viral set-point in simian immunodeficiency virus disease.

    PubMed

    Capitanio, John P; Abel, Kristina; Mendoza, Sally P; Blozis, Shelley A; McChesney, Michael B; Cole, Steve W; Mason, William A

    2008-07-01

    From the beginning of the AIDS epidemic, stress has been a suspected contributor to the wide variation seen in disease progression, and some evidence supports this idea. Not all individuals respond to a stressor in the same way, however, and little is known about the biological mechanisms by which variations in individuals' responses to their environment affect disease-relevant immunologic processes. Using the simian immunodeficiency virus/rhesus macaque model of AIDS, we explored how personality (Sociability) and genotype (serotonin transporter promoter) independently interact with social context (Stable or Unstable social conditions) to influence behavioral expression, plasma cortisol concentrations, SIV-specific IgG, and expression of genes associated with Type I interferon early in infection. SIV viral RNA set-point was strongly and negatively correlated with survival as expected. Set-point was also associated with expression of interferon-stimulated genes, with CXCR3 expression, and with SIV-specific IgG titers. Poorer immune responses, in turn, were associated with display of sustained aggression and submission. Personality and genotype acted independently as well as in interaction with social condition to affect behavioral responses. Together, the data support an "interactionist" perspective [Eysenck, H.J., 1991. Personality, stress and disease: an interactionist perspective. Psychol. Inquiry 2, 221-232] on disease. Given that an important goal of HIV treatment is to maintain viral set-point as low as possible, our data suggest that supplementing anti-retroviral therapy with behavioral or pharmacologic modulation of other aspects of an organism's functioning might prolong survival, particularly among individuals living under conditions of threat or uncertainty.

  19. Foreign language affects the contribution of intentions and outcomes to moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Geipel, Janet; Hadjichristidis, Constantinos; Surian, Luca

    2016-09-01

    We examine whether the use of a foreign language, as opposed to the native language, influences the relative weight intentions versus outcomes carry in moral evaluations. In Study 1, participants were presented with actions that had positive outcomes but were motivated by dubious intentions, while in Study 2 with actions that had negative outcomes but were motivated by positive intentions. Participants received the materials either in their native or a foreign language. Foreign language prompted more positive moral evaluations in Study 1 and less positive evaluations in Study 2. These results show that foreign language reduces the relative weight placed on intentions versus outcomes. We discuss several theoretical accounts that are consistent with the results such as that foreign language attenuates emotions (triggered by intentions) or it depletes cognitive resources. PMID:27232522

  20. Does family group decision making affect child welfare outcomes? Findings from a randomized control study.

    PubMed

    Berzin, Stephanie Cosner; Cohen, Ed; Thomas, Karen; Dawson, William C

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of two family group decision-making programs (FGDM; Fresno n = 60; Riverside n = 50) administered under the California Title IV-E Waiver Demonstration Project. This is the only evaluation using random assignment to examine FGDM. Overall, results did not indicate more positive outcomes for children receiving the intervention, but did indicate that children were not worse than those receiving traditional services; outcomes examined were related to child safety, placement stability, and permanence. PMID:19391466

  1. Environmental Conditions Affect Botrytis cinerea Infection of Mature Grape Berries More Than the Strain or Transposon Genotype.

    PubMed

    Ciliberti, Nicola; Fermaud, Marc; Roudet, Jean; Rossi, Vittorio

    2015-08-01

    Effects of environment, Botrytis cinerea strain, and their interaction on the infection of mature grape berries were investigated. The combined effect of temperature (T) of 15, 20, 25, and 30°C and relative humidity (RH) of 65, 80, 90, and 100% was studied by inoculating berries with mycelium plugs. Regardless of the T, no disease occurred at 65% RH, and both disease incidence and severity increased with increasing RH. The combined effect of T (5 to 30°C) and wetness duration (WD) of 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 h was studied by inoculating berries with conidia. At WD of 36 h, disease incidence was approximately 75% of affected berries at 20 or 25°C, 50% at 15°C, and 30 to 20% at 30 and 10°C; no infection occurred at 5°C. Under favorable conditions (100% RH or 36 h of WD) and unfavorable conditions (65% RH or 3 h of WD), berry wounding did not significantly affect disease incidence; under moderately favorable conditions (80% RH or 6 to 12 h of WD), disease incidence was approximately 1.5 to 5 times higher in wounded than in intact berries. Our data collectively showed that (i) T and RH or WD were more important than strain for mature berry infection by either mycelium or conidia and (ii) the effect of the environment on the different strains was similar. Two equations were developed describing the combined effect of T and RH, or T and WD, on disease incidence following inoculation by mycelium (R2=0.99) or conidia (R2=0.96), respectively. These equations may be useful in the development of models used to predict and control Botrytis bunch rot during berry ripening. PMID:26218433

  2. Patient characteristics that affect the outcome of total hip arthroplasty: a review

    PubMed Central

    Young, Nancy L.; Cheah, David; Waddell, James P.; Wright, James G.

    1998-01-01

    Objective To review the literature regarding patient factors pertinent to the outcome of total hip arthroplasty (THA). Data sources MEDLINE from 1966 onward (key words “hip prosthesis” and “treatment outcome”) and literature previously known to the authors and cited in papers from all sources. Study selection All identified studies were included provided the methodology permitted assessment of the effect of patient factors and a clear outcome was defined (either prosthesis survival or specific functional outcomes). Data extraction The patient factors, methods and outcomes described in each paper were summarized on a data extraction form. Data synthesis All data were reviewed by one author. This process was repeated by a second author, and the findings were reviewed by the remaining 2 authors to verify the findings. The best functional outcomes and prosthesis survival rates were reported among patients who were between 45 and 75 years of age, weighed less than 70 kg, had strong social support, had a higher educational level, had better preoperative functional status and had no comorbid disease. Conclusion Important research remains to be done to examine the magnitude and interaction of patient factors on the outcome of THA. PMID:9627543

  3. Yield and quality grade outcomes as affected by molecular breeding values for commercial beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Thompson, N M; DeVuyst, E A; Brorsen, B W; Lusk, J L

    2015-05-01

    Although genetic tests for many economically important beef cattle traits are commercially available, additional information is needed to help the industry better understand how the results from these tests translate into phenotypic outcomes. This information has important implications for marker-assisted management. The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between molecular breeding values (MBV) characterizing yield grade and marbling and distributions of phenotypic outcomes for yield grade and quality grade. Using data collected from commercially-fed cattle, mixed-model regression equations were estimated for yield grade and quality grade outcomes for both the full sample of commercial cattle (n= 8,995) and a subsample of black-hided steers (n = 4,790). Significant yield grade (P < 0.01) and marbling (P < 0.01) MBV effects were found. However, the yield grade MBV held up better at predicting phenotypic outcomes than the marbling MBV. Estimated conditional probability mass functions of yield and quality grade outcomes for the general population and black-hided steers were similar. Since distributions for black-hided steers were expected to be more applicable from a management perspective, we focused our analysis on these animals. For example, black-hided steers with "low" genetic potential for yield grade and marbling had about a 29% chance of achieving the base price or better on a price grid (yield grade 3 or lower and quality grade Low Choice or better). Increasing genetic potential for marbling increased the likelihood of achieving this same outcome. However, increasing genetic potential for yield grade was unlikely to increase overall carcass quality given its large deleterious effect on quality grade outcomes. Instead, simultaneous improvements in genetic potential for yield grade and marbling offered much more reliable improvements in overall carcass quality. For example, an animal with "moderate" genetic potential for both yield

  4. Impact of genotypic drug resistance mutations on clinical and immunological outcomes in HIV-infected adults on HAART in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Seyler, Catherine; Adjé-Touré, Christiane; Messou, Eugène; Dakoury-Dogbo, Nicole; Rouet, François; Gabillard, Delphine; Nolan, Monica; Toure, Siaka; Anglaret, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    Background The impact of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in African adults on HAART has never been reported. Methods In 2004 in Abidjan, 106 adults on HAART had plasma viral load (VL) measurements. Patients with detectable VL had resistance genotypic tests. Patients were followed-up until 2006. Main outcomes were serious morbidity and immunological failure (CD4 count < 200/mm3). Results At study entry, the median previous time on HAART was 37 months and the median CD4 count 266/mm3; 58% of patients had undetectable VL, 20% detectable VL with no major resistance mutations, and 22% detectable VL with ≥1 major mutations. At study termination, 20% of patients had <200 CD4/mm3. Factors associated with immunological failure were a low baseline CD4 count (p=0.007) and ≥1 resistance mutations at baseline (p=0.04). Compared with patients with undetectable VL, those with detectable VL without mutations and those with ≥1 mutations had adjusted hazard ratios of immunological failure of 2.56 (95%CI 0.76–8.54) and 4.32 (1.38–13.57), respectively. In patients with undetectable VL and detectable VL without and with mutations, the median change in CD4 count between study entry and termination was +129/mm3, +51/mm3 and +3/mm3, respectively. One patient died. The 18-months probability of remaining free of morbidity was 0.79 in patients with undetectable VL and 0.69 in those with resistance mutations (p=0.19). Conclusion In this setting with restricted access to second-line HAART regimens, patients with major resistance mutations had higher rates of immunological failure, but most of them maintained stable CD4 count and stayed alive during 20 months. PMID:17502726

  5. The Mediating Role of Affective Commitment in the Relation of the Feedback Environment to Work Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris-Watts, Christina; Levy, Paul E.

    2004-01-01

    The Feedback Environment, as opposed to the formal performance appraisal process, is comprised of the daily interactions between members of an organization (Steelman, Levy, & Snell, in press). Relations between the feedback environment and work outcome variables such as Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) were examined through the mediating…

  6. Neighborhoods and Youth: How Neighborhood Demographics and Social Processes Affect Youth Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisher, Ray

    2008-01-01

    Researchers over the past two decades have increasingly recognized the importance of neighborhood contexts for youth development. For example, living in a disadvantaged neighborhood has been associated with a wide range of negative outcomes throughout the early years of the life course. However, neighborhoods likely have very different effects,…

  7. Impact of Law-Related Education Materials on Student Cognitive and Affective Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Barry J.; Smith, David L.

    1980-01-01

    Reports results of an evaluation of a tenth-grade unit developed by the High School Education Law Project (HELP) in Australia. The study measured student attitudes toward the normality of judges, enjoyment of legal studies, and dynamic nature, influenceability, and comprehensibility of the law. Cognitive outcomes were also measured. (KC)

  8. Culture-Specific Variables That May Affect Employment Outcomes for Mexican-American Youth with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier-Kronick, Nancy

    This paper reviews variables specific to the Mexican-American culture that might influence work-related behavior and outcomes for youths with disabilities from this population. Areas covered include: parental/family network; cultural view of disability; religious influences; acculturation levels; language issues; education and employment…

  9. Behavior Therapy and the Transdermal Nicotine Patch: Effects on Cessation Outcome, Affect, and Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinciripini, Paul M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Process and outcome of a smoking cessation program using behavior therapy along (BT) or behavior therapy plus the nicotine patch (BTP) was studied in 64 participants. Abstinence was significantly higher for the BTP group from the end of behavioral treatment (79% vs. 63%) through the three-month follow-up, with the effects weakening at the six- and…

  10. Do Neighbours Affect Teenage Outcomes? Evidence from Neighbourhood Changes in England. CEE DP 122

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Stephen; Silva, Olmo; Weinhardt, Felix

    2010-01-01

    There are large disparities between the achievements, behaviour and aspirations of children growing up in different neighbourhoods. This has contributed to the view that neighbourhoods can determine individuals' outcomes. Notably, in the long run these effects could lead to larger social inequality and reduce social mobility, which is why they…

  11. Does Surgical Management of the Hand in Children with Spastic Unilateral Cerebral Palsy Affect Functional Outcome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Munster, Judith C.; Maathuis, Karel G. B.; Haga, Nienke; Verheij, Nienke P.; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this review was to examine the literature on the effects of surgery of the spastic hand in children with cerebral palsy on functional outcome and muscle coordination. We performed a search of the relevant literature in Medline, Embase, and Biological Abstracts from 1966 to June 2006. The search resulted in eight studies on the effect of…

  12. Does Family Group Decision Making Affect Child Welfare Outcomes? Findings from a Randomized Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berzin, Stephanie Cosner; Cohen, Ed; Thomas, Karen; Dawson, William C.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of two family group decision-making programs administered under the California Title IV-E Waiver Demonstration Project. This is the only evaluation using random assignment to examine FGDM. Overall, results did not indicate more positive outcomes for children receiving the intervention, but did indicate that…

  13. Does Year Round Schooling Affect the Outcome and Growth of California's API Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Amery D.; Stone, Jake E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined whether year round schooling (YRS) in California had an effect upon the outcome and growth of schools' Academic Performance Index (API) scores. While many previous studies had examined the connection between YRS and academic achievement, most had lacked the statistical rigour required to provide reliable interpretations. As a…

  14. Can a future choice affect a past measurement’s outcome?

    SciTech Connect

    Aharonov, Yakir; Cohen, Eliahu; Elitzur, Avshalom C.

    2015-04-15

    An EPR experiment is studied where each particle within the entangled pair undergoes a few weak measurements (WMs) along some pre-set spin orientations, with the outcomes individually recorded. Then the particle undergoes one strong measurement along an orientation chosen at the last moment. Bell-inequality violation is expected between the two final measurements within each EPR pair. At the same time, statistical agreement is expected between these strong measurements and the earlier weak ones performed on that pair. A contradiction seemingly ensues: (i) Bell’s theorem forbids spin values to exist prior to the choice of the orientation measured; (ii) A weak measurement is not supposed to determine the outcome of a successive strong one; and indeed (iii) Almost no disentanglement is inflicted by the WMs; and yet (iv) The outcomes of weak measurements statistically agree with those of the strong ones, suggesting the existence of pre-determined values, in contradiction with (i). Although the conflict can be solved by mere mitigation of the above restrictions, the most reasonable resolution seems to be that of the Two-State-Vector Formalism (TSVF), namely, that the choice of the experimenter has been encrypted within the weak measurement’s outcomes, even before the experimenters themselves know what their choice will be.

  15. Generalizability of Gottman and Colleagues' Affective Process Models Of Couples' Relationship Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Crosby, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    The generalizability of the affective process models of J. M. Gottman et al. (1998) was examined using a community-based sample of 85 married or cohabiting couples with at-risk backgrounds. Predictive associations between affective processes assessed at about age 21 years and relationship status and satisfaction assessed approximately 2.5 years…

  16. Does Cognitive Impairment Affect Rehabilitation Outcome in Parkinson’s Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Ferrazzoli, Davide; Ortelli, Paola; Maestri, Roberto; Bera, Rossana; Giladi, Nir; Ghilardi, Maria Felice; Pezzoli, Gianni; Frazzitta, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Background: The cognitive status is generally considered as a major determinant of rehabilitation outcome in Parkinson’s disease (PD). No studies about the effect of cognitive impairment on motor rehabilitation outcomes in PD have been performed before. Objective: This study is aimed to evaluate the impact of cognitive decline on rehabilitation outcomes in patients with PD. Methods: We retrospectively identified 485 patients with PD hospitalized for a 4-week Multidisciplinary Intensive Rehabilitation Treatment (MIRT) between January 2014 and September 2015. According to Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), patients were divided into: group 1—normal cognition (score 27–30), group 2—mild cognitive impairment (score 21–26), group 3—moderate or severe cognitive impairment (score ≤ 20). According to Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), subjects were divided into patients with normal (score ≥13.8) and pathological (score <13.8) executive functions. The outcome measures were: Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Parkinson’s Disease Disability Scale (PDDS), Six Minutes Walking Test (6MWT), Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Results: All scales had worse values with the increase of cognitive impairment and passing from normal to pathological executive functions. After rehabilitation, all the outcome measures improved in all groups (p < 0.0001). Between groups, the percentage of improvement was significantly different for total UPDRS (p = 0.0009, best improvement in normal MMSE group; p = 0.019, best improvement in normal FAB group), and BBS (p < 0.0001, all pairwise comparisons significant, best improvement in patients with worse MMSE score; p < 0.0001, best improvement in patients with pathological FAB). TUG (p = 0.006) and BBS (p < 0.0001) improved in patients with pathological FAB score, more than in those with normal FAB score. Conclusions: Patients gain benefit in the rehabilitative outcomes, regardless of cognition

  17. Does alteration in biodiversity really affect disease outcome? - A debate is brewing.

    PubMed

    Zargar, U R; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, Fayaz; Rather, M I

    2015-01-01

    How changes in biodiversity alter the transmission of infectious diseases is presently under debate. Epidemiologists and ecologists have put a lot of effort to understand the mechanism behind biodiversity-disease relationship. Two important mechanisms, i.e. dilution and amplification theories have in some manner made it clear that biodiversity and disease outcome have an intimate relationship. The dilution effect theory seems to answer some overarching questions, but paucity of information about many disease systems is a real obstacle for its acceptance. Also, there is hardly any agreement on host population threshold and critical community size vis-à-vis wild life diseases. We suggest a multidimensional approach whereby the same disease system needs to be studied in different ecological zones and then the effect of biodiversity on disease outcome needs to be ascertained. Nonetheless, caution is to be taken while jumping to any conclusion as biodiversity-disease relationship is a multifactorial process.

  18. Method of induction could affect emotional outcomes: comment on markey, chin, vanepps, and loewenstein (2014 ).

    PubMed

    Bench, Shane W; Yaugher, Ashley C; Lench, Heather C

    2015-04-01

    Markey, Chin, Vanepps, and Loewenstein (2014) demonstrated six methods for the induction of boredom. However, a clear and testable definition of boredom should be established prior to experimental manipulation of the construct. Defining boredom from a functional emotion perspective is one approach that affords a definition separable from the outcomes associated with boredom and insight into which manipulations may effectively target the construct. PMID:25730196

  19. An update to the HIV-TRePS system: the development of new computational models that do not require a genotype to predict HIV treatment outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Revell, Andrew D.; Wang, Dechao; Wood, Robin; Morrow, Carl; Tempelman, Hugo; Hamers, Raph; Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Streinu-Cercel, Adrian; Ene, Luminita; Wensing, Annemarie; Reiss, Peter; van Sighem, Ard I.; Nelson, Mark; Emery, Sean; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Lane, H. Clifford; Larder, Brendan A.; Reiss, Peter; van Sighem, Ard; Montaner, Julio; Harrigan, Richard; Rinke de Wit, Tobias; Hamers, Raph; Sigaloff, Kim; Agan, Brian; Marconi, Vincent; Wegner, Scott; Sugiura, Wataru; Zazzi, Maurizio; Streinu-Cercel, Adrian; Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Gatell, Jose; Lazzari, Elisa; Gazzard, Brian; Nelson, Mark; Pozniak, Anton; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Ruiz, Lidia; Clotet, Bonaventura; Staszewski, Schlomo; Torti, Carlo; Lane, Cliff; Metcalf, Julie; Perez-Elias, Maria-Jesus; Carr, Andrew; Norris, Richard; Hesse, Karl; Vlahakis, Emanuel; Tempelman, Hugo; Barth, Roos; Morrow, Carl; Wood, Robin; Ene, Luminita; Dragovic, Gordana; Emery, Sean; Cooper, David; Torti, Carlo; Baxter, John; Monno, Laura; Torti, Carlo; Gatell, Jose; Clotet, Bonventura; Picchio, Gaston; deBethune, Marie-Pierre; Perez-Elias, Maria-Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The optimal individualized selection of antiretroviral drugs in resource-limited settings is challenging because of the limited availability of drugs and genotyping. Here we describe the development of the latest computational models to predict the response to combination antiretroviral therapy without a genotype, for potential use in such settings. Methods Random forest models were trained to predict the probability of a virological response to therapy (<50 copies HIV RNA/mL) following virological failure using the following data from 22 567 treatment-change episodes including 1090 from southern Africa: baseline viral load and CD4 cell count, treatment history, drugs in the new regimen, time to follow-up and follow-up viral load. The models were assessed during cross-validation and with an independent global test set of 1000 cases including 100 from southern Africa. The models' accuracy [area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC)] was evaluated and compared with genotyping using rules-based interpretation systems for those cases with genotypes available. Results The models achieved AUCs of 0.79–0.84 (mean 0.82) during cross-validation, 0.80 with the global test set and 0.78 with the southern African subset. The AUCs were significantly lower (0.56–0.57) for genotyping. Conclusions The models predicted virological response to HIV therapy without a genotype as accurately as previous models that included a genotype. They were accurate for cases from southern Africa and significantly more accurate than genotyping. These models will be accessible via the online treatment support tool HIV-TRePS and have the potential to help optimize antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings where genotyping is not generally available. PMID:24275116

  20. Does amblyopia affect educational, health, and social outcomes? Findings from 1958 British birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Rahi, J S; Cumberland, P M; Peckham, C S

    2006-01-01

    Objective To determine any association of amblyopia with diverse educational, health, and social outcomes in order to inform current debate about population screening for this condition. Design, setting, and participants Comparison of 8432 people with normal vision in each eye with 429 (4.8%) people with amblyopia (childhood unilateral reduced acuity when tested with correction and unaccounted for by eye disease) from the 1958 British birth cohort, with respect to subsequent health and social functioning. Results No functionally or clinically significant differences existed between people with and without amblyopia in educational outcomes, behavioural difficulties or social maladjustment, participation in social activities, unintended injuries (school, workplace, or road traffic accidents as driver), general or mental health and mortality, paid employment, or occupation based social class trajectories. Conclusions It may be difficult to distinguish, at population level, between the lives of people with amblyopia and those without, in terms of several important outcomes. A pressing need exists for further concerted research on what it means to have amblyopia and, specifically, how this varies with severity and how it changes with treatment, so that screening programmes can best serve those who have the most to gain from early identification. PMID:16520328

  1. Geographic Distribution of Regional Metastatic Nodes Affects Outcome of Trimodality-Eligible Patients with Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shiozaki, Hironori; Slack, Rebecca; Sudo, Kazuki; Elimova, Elena; Wadhwa, Roopma; Chen, Hsiang-Chun; Skinner, Heath D.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Lee, Jeffrey H.; Weston, Brian; Bhutani, Manoop S.; Blum, Mariela A.; Rogers, Jane E.; Maru, Dipen M.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Ajani, Jaffer A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Malignant nodes in patients with localized esophageal adenocarcinoma (L-EAC) portend a poor prognosis. We assessed the distribution of nodes to correlate with outcome of patients undergoing chemoradiation/surgery (trimodality). Methods We studied 209 L-EAC patients who had confirmed or suspicious nodes at baseline staging. All patients had trimodality therapy. Patients were grouped by nodal geography: above the diaphragm (AD), below the diaphragm (BD), or above and below the diaphragm (ABD). Survival estimates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The outcomes in subgroups were assessed by the log-rank test. Results Patients were primarily Caucasians (91%), men (93%), and had baseline stage III L-EAC (89%). The median follow-up was 2.8 years (range, 0.4 to 11.7 years). Of the 209 patients, 35% (n=73) had nodes AD, 20% (n=41) had nodes BD, and 45% (n=95) had nodes ABD. ABD patients had the 5-year overall survival rate of 33% compared to AD patients (55%) and BD (60%; P=0.02). Patients with higher histology grade were also at higher risk of relapse and had poor survival (P<0.01 for both). Conclusions L-EAC patients in the ABD group had worst outcome after trimodality compared to those in the AD or BD group. Novel strategies are needed for ABD patients. PMID:25765098

  2. Effect of a Family Intervention on Psychological Outcomes of Children Affected by Parental HIV

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Ji, Guoping; Wu, Jie; Xiao, Yongkang

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses intervention outcomes in children’s self-esteem, perceived parental care, and problem behavior and their potential connections to intervention outcomes in depressive symptoms and family functioning reported by parents living with HIV (PLH) and family members. A total of 79 families, consisting of 79 children, 88 PLH and 79 family members, were recruited from Anhui province, China. The intervention was delivered at the individual, family and community levels. Face-to-face interviews were administered at baseline, 3, and 6 months. A mixed-effects regression model was used to assess the intervention effect on the improvement of children’s reported self-esteem, parental care, and problem behavior. To further investigate the association between the parental measures and their children’s outcomes, we added parental measure as a time-varying covariate to explore whether the intervention effect on children was influenced by the parental measures. We observed some intervention effects related to children’s psychological measures accompanied by the improvement in mental health of PLH and family members. Our study findings highlight the importance of empowering families as a whole to confront HIV related challenges and the need to develop child-adequate and age-specific intervention strategies. PMID:24643313

  3. Nonsurgical scar management of the face: does early versus late intervention affect outcome?

    PubMed

    Parry, Ingrid; Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina; Greenhalgh, David

    2013-01-01

    Special emphasis is placed on the clinical management of facial scarring because of the profound physical and psychological impact of facial burns. Noninvasive methods of facial scar management include pressure therapy, silicone, massage, and facial exercises. Early implementation of these scar management techniques after a burn injury is typically accepted as standard burn rehabilitation practice, however, little data exist to support this practice. This study evaluated the timing of common noninvasive scar management interventions after facial skin grafting in children and the impact on outcome, as measured by scar assessment and need for facial reconstructive surgery. A retrospective review of 138 patients who underwent excision and grafting of the face and subsequent noninvasive scar management during a 10-year time frame was conducted. Regression analyses were used to show that earlier application of silicone was significantly related to lower Modified Vancouver Scar Scale scores, specifically in the subscales of vascularity and pigmentation. Early use of pressure therapy and implementation of facial exercises were also related to lower Modified Vancouver Scar Scale vascularity scores. No relationship was found between timing of the interventions and facial reconstructive outcome. Early use of silicone, pressure therapy, and exercise may improve scar outcome and accelerate time to scar maturity. PMID:23816994

  4. Effect of a family intervention on psychological outcomes of children affected by parental HIV.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Ji, Guoping; Wu, Jie; Xiao, Yongkang

    2014-11-01

    This study assesses intervention outcomes in children's self-esteem, perceived parental care, and problem behavior and their potential connections to intervention outcomes in depressive symptoms and family functioning reported by parents living with HIV (PLH) and family members. A total of 79 families were recruited from Anhui province, China. The intervention was delivered at the individual, family and community levels. Face-to-face interviews were administered at baseline, 3 and 6 months. A mixed-effects regression model was used to assess the intervention effect on the improvement of children's reported self-esteem, parental care, and problem behavior. To further investigate the association between the parental measures and their children's outcomes, we added parental measure as a time-varying covariate to explore whether the intervention effect on children was influenced by the parental measures. We observed some intervention effects related to children's psychological measures accompanied by the improvement in mental health of PLH and family members. Our study findings highlight the importance of empowering families as a whole to confront HIV related challenges and the need to develop child-adequate and age-specific intervention strategies. PMID:24643313

  5. Do nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs affect the outcome of arthroscopic Bankart repair?

    PubMed

    Blomquist, J; Solheim, E; Liavaag, S; Baste, V; Havelin, L I

    2014-12-01

    To achieve pain control after arthroscopic shoulder surgery, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a complement to other analgesics. However, experimental studies have raised concerns that these drugs may have a detrimental effect on soft tissue-to-bone healing and, thus, have a negative effect on the outcome. We wanted to investigate if there are any differences in the clinical outcome after the arthroscopic Bankart procedure for patients who received NSAIDs prescription compared with those who did not. 477 patients with a primary arthroscopic Bankart procedure were identified in the Norwegian shoulder instability register and included in the study. 32.5% received prescription of NSAIDs post-operatively. 370 (78%) of the patients answered a follow-up questionnaire containing the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability index (WOSI). Mean follow-up was 21 months. WOSI at follow-up were 75% in the NSAID group and 74% in the control group. 12% of the patients in the NSAID group and 14% in the control group reported recurrence of instability. The reoperation rate was 5% in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups. Prescription of short-term post-operative NSAID treatment in the post-operative period did not influence on the functional outcome after arthroscopic Bankart procedures. PMID:24750379

  6. Effect of a family intervention on psychological outcomes of children affected by parental HIV.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Ji, Guoping; Wu, Jie; Xiao, Yongkang

    2014-11-01

    This study assesses intervention outcomes in children's self-esteem, perceived parental care, and problem behavior and their potential connections to intervention outcomes in depressive symptoms and family functioning reported by parents living with HIV (PLH) and family members. A total of 79 families were recruited from Anhui province, China. The intervention was delivered at the individual, family and community levels. Face-to-face interviews were administered at baseline, 3 and 6 months. A mixed-effects regression model was used to assess the intervention effect on the improvement of children's reported self-esteem, parental care, and problem behavior. To further investigate the association between the parental measures and their children's outcomes, we added parental measure as a time-varying covariate to explore whether the intervention effect on children was influenced by the parental measures. We observed some intervention effects related to children's psychological measures accompanied by the improvement in mental health of PLH and family members. Our study findings highlight the importance of empowering families as a whole to confront HIV related challenges and the need to develop child-adequate and age-specific intervention strategies.

  7. Proteome Differences between Hepatitis B Virus Genotype-B- and Genotype-C-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Revealed by iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dahai; Zeng, Yongyi; Xing, Xiaohua; Liu, Hongzhi; Lin, Minjie; Han, Xiao; Liu, Xiaolong; Liu, Jingfeng

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the main cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in southeast Asia where HBV genotype B and genotype C are the most prevalent. Viral genotypes have been reported to significantly affect the clinical outcomes of HCC. However, the underlying molecular differences among different genotypes of HBV virus infected HCC have not been revealed. Here, we applied isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology integrated with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis to identify the proteome differences between the HBV genotypes B- and C-induced HCC. In brief, a total of 83 proteins in the surrounding noncancerous tissues and 136 proteins in the cancerous tissues between HBV genotype-B- and genotype-C-induced HCC were identified, respectively. This information revealed that there might be different molecular mechanisms of the tumorigenesis and development of HBV genotypes B- and C-induced HCC. Furthermore, our results indicate that the two proteins ARFIP2 and ANXA1 might be potential biomarkers for distinguishing the HBV genotypes B- and C-induced HCC. Thus, the quantitative proteomic analysis revealed molecular differences between the HBV genotypes B- and C-induced HCC, and might provide fundamental information for further deep study. PMID:26709725

  8. Social Variables Affecting Mate Preferences, Copulation and Reproductive Outcome in a Pack of Free-Ranging Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Valsecchi, Paola; Natoli, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Mating and reproductive outcome is often determined by the simultaneous operation of different mechanisms like intra-sexual competition, mating preferences and sexual coercion. The present study investigated how social variables affected mating outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs, a species supposed to have lost most features of the social system of wolves during domestication. We found that, although the pack comprised multiple breeding individuals, both male copulation success and female reproductive success were positively influenced by a linear combination of dominance rank, age and leadership. Our results also suggest that mate preferences affect mating outcome by reinforcing the success of most dominant individuals. In particular, during their oestrous period bitches clearly searched for the proximity of high-ranking males who displayed affiliative behaviour towards them, while they were more likely to reject the males who intimidated them. At the same time, male courting effort and male-male competition for receptive females appeared to be stronger in the presence of higher-ranking females, suggesting a male preference for dominant females. To our knowledge, these results provide the first clear evidence of social regulation of reproductive activities in domestic dogs, and suggest that some common organizing mechanisms may contribute to shape the social organization of both dogs and wolves. PMID:24905360

  9. Social variables affecting mate preferences, copulation and reproductive outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs.

    PubMed

    Cafazzo, Simona; Bonanni, Roberto; Valsecchi, Paola; Natoli, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Mating and reproductive outcome is often determined by the simultaneous operation of different mechanisms like intra-sexual competition, mating preferences and sexual coercion. The present study investigated how social variables affected mating outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs, a species supposed to have lost most features of the social system of wolves during domestication. We found that, although the pack comprised multiple breeding individuals, both male copulation success and female reproductive success were positively influenced by a linear combination of dominance rank, age and leadership. Our results also suggest that mate preferences affect mating outcome by reinforcing the success of most dominant individuals. In particular, during their oestrous period bitches clearly searched for the proximity of high-ranking males who displayed affiliative behaviour towards them, while they were more likely to reject the males who intimidated them. At the same time, male courting effort and male-male competition for receptive females appeared to be stronger in the presence of higher-ranking females, suggesting a male preference for dominant females. To our knowledge, these results provide the first clear evidence of social regulation of reproductive activities in domestic dogs, and suggest that some common organizing mechanisms may contribute to shape the social organization of both dogs and wolves. PMID:24905360

  10. Factors Affecting Outcomes in Patients Treated Surgically for Upper Extremity Tumors and Tumor-Like Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Jesse E; Graves, Christopher M; TeKippe, Ashley; Buckwalter, Joseph A; Miller, Benjamin J

    2013-01-01

    There is little data available regarding outcomes of patients who have undergone surgery for tumors of the upper extremity. Functional data after surgery for upper extremity tumors would aid in guiding patient expectations in the peri-operative period. The purpose of this study was to identify patient, tumor, and surgery-related characteristics associated with patient-reported physical and emo-tional function before and after surgery for tumors of the upper extremity. Pre- and post-operative mental and physical Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) scores were collected from 79 patients with benign and malignant neoplasms of the upper extremity. A retrospective chart review was performed to ascertain whether tumor behavior, type, location, patient sex, age, surgical specimen size, or type of surgery were correlated with differing outcomes. Our outcome measure was patient-reported physi-cal and mental score (SF-36) at less than one year, one to two years, and greater than two years post-operatively. We found that patients with tumors proximal to the elbow and patients with right-sided tumors had statistically significantly lower post-operative physical scores at minimum two-year follow-up (p=0.02). Additionally, lower physical scores were associated with age greater than 50 (p=0.03) and tumor resection rather than curettage (p=0.01). The subset of patients with hereditary multiple exostoses had significantly lower post-operative physical scores than other patient sub-populations. There was no difference in physical function after surgery between patients with benign and malig-nant tumors, patients with tumors larger than 5 cm and less than 5 cm in greatest dimension, and patients with bone versus soft tissue tumors. Inter-estingly, we found that there was no difference in mental function scores between any comparisons. Our results suggest that patient age, tumor location, and type of surgery are correlated with patient-reported physical function following sur

  11. Older Age Does Not Affect Healing Time and Functional Outcomes After Fracture Nonunion Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Taormina, David P.; Shulman, Brandon S.; Karia, Raj; Spitzer, Allison B.; Konda, Sanjit R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Elderly patients are at risk of fracture nonunion, given the potential setting of osteopenia, poorer fracture biology, and comorbid medical conditions. Risk factors predicting fracture nonunion may compromise the success of fracture nonunion surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of patient age on clinical and functional outcome following long bone fracture nonunion surgery. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data identified 288 patients (aged 18-91) who were indicated for long bone nonunion surgery. Two-hundred and seventy-two patients satisfied study inclusion criteria and analyses were performed comparing elderly patients aged ≥65 years (n = 48) with patients <65 years (n = 224) for postoperative wound complications, Short Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment (SMFA) functional status, healing, and surgical revision. Regression analyses were performed to look for associations between age, smoking status, and history of previous nonunion surgery with healing and functional outcome. Twelve-month follow-up was obtained on 91.5% (249 of 272) of patients. Results: Despite demographic differences in the aged population, including a predominance of medical comorbidities (P < .01) and osteopenia (P = .02), there was no statistical differences in the healing rate of elderly patients (95.8% vs 95.1%, P = .6) or time to union (6.2 ± 4.1 months vs. 7.2 ± 6.6, P = .3). Rates of postoperative wound complications and surgical revision did not statistically differ. Elderly patients reported similar levels of function up to 12 months after surgery. Regression analyses failed to show any significant association between age and final union or time to union. There was a strong positive association between smoking and history of previous nonunion surgery with time to union. Age was associated (positively) with 12-month SMFA activity score. Conclusions: Smoking and failure of previous surgical

  12. The MICA-129 dimorphism affects NKG2D signaling and outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Isernhagen, Antje; Malzahn, Dörthe; Viktorova, Elena; Elsner, Leslie; Monecke, Sebastian; von Bonin, Frederike; Kilisch, Markus; Wermuth, Janne Marieke; Walther, Neele; Balavarca, Yesilda; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Engelke, Michael; Walter, Lutz; Bickeböller, Heike; Kube, Dieter; Wulf, Gerald; Dressel, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The MHC class I chain-related molecule A (MICA) is a highly polymorphic ligand for the activating natural killer (NK)-cell receptor NKG2D. A single nucleotide polymorphism causes a valine to methionine exchange at position 129. Presence of a MICA-129Met allele in patients (n = 452) undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) increased the chance of overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.77, P = 0.0445) and reduced the risk to die due to acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) (odds ratio [OR] = 0.57, P = 0.0400) although homozygous carriers had an increased risk to experience this complication (OR = 1.92, P = 0.0371). Overall survival of MICA-129Val/Val genotype carriers was improved when treated with anti-thymocyte globulin (HR = 0.54, P = 0.0166). Functionally, the MICA-129Met isoform was characterized by stronger NKG2D signaling, triggering more NK-cell cytotoxicity and interferon-γ release, and faster co-stimulation of CD8+ T cells. The MICA-129Met variant also induced a faster and stronger down-regulation of NKG2D on NK and CD8+ T cells than the MICA-129Val isoform. The reduced cell surface expression of NKG2D in response to engagement by MICA-129Met variants appeared to reduce the severity of aGVHD. PMID:26483398

  13. The MICA-129 dimorphism affects NKG2D signaling and outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Isernhagen, Antje; Malzahn, Dörthe; Viktorova, Elena; Elsner, Leslie; Monecke, Sebastian; von Bonin, Frederike; Kilisch, Markus; Wermuth, Janne Marieke; Walther, Neele; Balavarca, Yesilda; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Engelke, Michael; Walter, Lutz; Bickeböller, Heike; Kube, Dieter; Wulf, Gerald; Dressel, Ralf

    2015-10-19

    The MHC class I chain-related molecule A (MICA) is a highly polymorphic ligand for the activating natural killer (NK)-cell receptor NKG2D. A single nucleotide polymorphism causes a valine to methionine exchange at position 129. Presence of a MICA-129Met allele in patients (n = 452) undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) increased the chance of overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.77, P = 0.0445) and reduced the risk to die due to acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) (odds ratio [OR] = 0.57, P = 0.0400) although homozygous carriers had an increased risk to experience this complication (OR = 1.92, P = 0.0371). Overall survival of MICA-129Val/Val genotype carriers was improved when treated with anti-thymocyte globulin (HR = 0.54, P = 0.0166). Functionally, the MICA-129Met isoform was characterized by stronger NKG2D signaling, triggering more NK-cell cytotoxicity and interferon-γ release, and faster co-stimulation of CD8(+) T cells. The MICA-129Met variant also induced a faster and stronger down-regulation of NKG2D on NK and CD8(+) T cells than the MICA-129Val isoform. The reduced cell surface expression of NKG2D in response to engagement by MICA-129Met variants appeared to reduce the severity of aGVHD.

  14. Sleep apnoea adversely affects the outcome in patients who undergo posterior lumbar fusion

    PubMed Central

    Stundner, O.; Chiu, Y-L.; Sun, X.; Ramachandran, S-K.; Gerner, P.; Vougioukas, V.; Mazumdar, M.; Memtsoudis, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of sleep apnoea, little information is available regarding its impact on the peri-operative outcome of patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion. Using a national database, patients who underwent lumbar fusion between 2006 and 2010 were identified, sub-grouped by diagnosis of sleep apnoea and compared. The impact of sleep apnoea on various outcome measures was assessed by regression analysis. The records of 84 655 patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion were identified and 7.28% also had a diagnostic code for sleep apnoea. Compared with patients without sleep apnoea, these patients were older, more frequently female, had a higher comorbidity burden and higher rates of peri-operative complications, post-operative mechanical ventilation, blood transfusion, and intensive care. Patients with sleep apnoea also had longer and more costly periods of hospitalisation. In the regression analysis, sleep apnoea emerged as an independent risk factor for the development of peri-operative complications (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.50, Confidence Interval (CI) 1.38;1.62), blood transfusions (OR 1.12, CI 1.03;1.23), mechanical ventilation (OR 6.97, CI 5.90;8.23), critical care services (OR 1.86, CI 1.71;2.03), prolonged hospitalisation and increased cost (OR 1.28, CI 1.19;1.37; OR 1.10, CI 1.03;1.18). Patients with sleep apnoea who undergo posterior lumbar fusion pose significant challenges to clinicians. PMID:24493191

  15. Client Preferences Affect Treatment Satisfaction, Completion, and Clinical Outcome: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Bennett, Charles B.; Trentacosta, Christopher J.; McLear, Caitlin

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis on the effects of client preferences on treatment satisfaction, completion, and clinical outcome. Our search of the literature resulted in 34 empirical articles describing 32 unique clinical trials that either randomized some clients to an active choice condition (shared decision making condition or choice of treatment) or assessed client preferences. Clients who were involved in shared decision making, chose a treatment condition, or otherwise received their preferred treatment evidenced higher treatment satisfaction (ESd = .34; p < .001), increased completion rates (ESOR = 1.37; ESd = .17; p < .001), and superior clinical outcome (ESd = .15; p < .0001), compared to clients who were not involved in shared decision making, did not choose a treatment condition, or otherwise did not receive their preferred treatment. Although the effect sizes are modest in magnitude, they were generally consistent across several potential moderating variables including study design (preference versus active choice), psychoeducation (informed versus uninformed), setting (inpatient versus outpatient), client diagnosis (mental health versus other), and unit of randomization (client versus provider). Our findings highlight the clinical benefit of assessing client preferences, providing treatment choices when two or more efficacious options are available, and involving clients in treatment-related decisions when treatment options are not available. PMID:25189522

  16. Factors affecting surgical outcome of endoscopic third ventriculostomy in congenital hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Ajay; Suri, Ashish; Bansal, Sumit; Chandra, P Sarat; Kumar, Rajinder; Singh, Manmohan; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2014-09-01

    Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is an accepted modality of treatment for obstructive hydrocephalus, with good results in adult patients. However in the pediatric age group results vary from poor to similar to the adult population. This study evaluates the outcome of ETV in congenital hydrocephalus of both early and delayed presentation, and investigates factors that determine the outcome. Patients with congenital hydrocephalus who underwent ETV between January 2006 and December 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Any conditions potentially influencing the need for redo surgery (persistent cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] leak not responding to local measures, tense fontanelle, increased ventricular size, recurrence of symptoms or radiological evidence of failure) were analyzed. A total of 102 patients with a mean age of 7.45years were included. Presenting features were increasing head circumference and delayed milestones. Ninety-eight patients had triventricular hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis. Procedures performed were ETV only (n=74), ETV with aqueductoplasty (n=22), ETV with cystoventriculostomy (n=2) and aqueductoplasty only (n=2). Failure of ETV occurred in 11 patients and all were managed with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. CSF leak in the perioperative period was the only factor that was significantly associated with failure of ETV. ETV is a safe procedure with a good success rate and can be offered to children with aqueductal stenosis. There is a higher chance of failure if there is a CSF leak in the early or late postoperative period.

  17. How does family drug treatment court participation affect child welfare outcomes?

    PubMed

    Gifford, Elizabeth Joanne; Eldred, Lindsey Morgan; Vernerey, Allison; Sloan, Frank Allen

    2014-10-01

    Parental substance use is a risk factor for child maltreatment. Family drug treatment courts (FDTCs) have emerged in the United States as a policy option to treat the underlying condition and promote family preservation. This study examines the effectiveness of FDTCs in North Carolina on child welfare outcomes. Data come from North Carolina records from child protection services, court system, and birth records. Three types of parental participation in a FDTC are considered: referral, enrolling, and completing an FDTC. The sample includes 566 children who were placed into foster care and whose parents participated in a FDTC program. Findings indicate that children of parents who were referred but did not enroll or who enrolled but did not complete had longer stays in foster care than children of completers. Reunification rates for children of completers were also higher. Outcomes for children in the referred and enrolled groups did not differ in the multivariate analyses. While effective substance use treatment services for parents may help preserve families, future research should examine factors for improving participation and completion rates as well as factors involved in scaling programs so that more families are served.

  18. Can aircraft noise less than or equal 115 to dBA adversely affect reproductive outcome in USAF women?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, P. A.

    1985-06-01

    It has been suggested, mainly through animal studies, that exposure to high noise levels may be associated with lower birth weight, reduced gestational length and other adverse reproductive outcomes. Few studies have been done on humans to show this association. The Air Force employs pregnant women in areas where there is a high potential for exposure to high noise levels. This study proposes a method to determine if there is an association between high frequency noise levels or = 115 dBA and adverse reproductive outcomes through a review of records and self-administered questionnaires in a case-comparison design. Prevelance rates will be calculated and a multiple logistic regression analysis computed for the independent variables that can affect reproduction.

  19. Affecting Factors and Outcome on Intermittent Internet Pulling Behavior in Taiwan's Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hui-Jen; Lay, Yun-Long

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays people's lives heavily rely on Internet facilities. Internet users generally have constant Internet connectivity and intermittently click on sites they want to access even amidst studying or working. In this study, we sought to examine the factors affecting intermittent Internet pulling behavior on undergraduate students. Furthermore, the…

  20. Discussion of Developmental Plasticity: Factors Affecting Cognitive Outcome after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Sandra Bond; McKinnon, Lyn

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses psychobiological factors that affect recovery after traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents, including biological pathophysiology of the injury, the cognitive stage of the child at injury, the amount of time after injury, the challenge level of tasks, and the child's reserve of psychosocial resources. (Contains…

  1. Cognitive and Affective Outcomes: Their Relationship to Effective Teaching and Students' Evaluations of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overall, Jesse U.; Marsh, Herbert W.

    The relationship between students' evaluations and both cognitive and affective consequences of instruction was investigated. A total of 924 undergraduate students of the University of California at Los Angeles who had completed an introductory computer programming class were subjects. Responses to a 38-item evaluation questionnaire provided…

  2. User Experience of Mobile Interactivity: How Do Mobile Websites Affect Attitudes and Relational Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dou, Xue

    2013-01-01

    Mobile media offer new opportunities for fostering communications between individuals and companies. Corporate websites are being increasingly accessed via smart phones and companies are scrambling to offer a mobile-friendly user experience on their sites. However, very little is known about how interactivity in the mobile context affects user…

  3. Assessment of Affective Outcomes of Instruction With High School Sophomore Biology Students and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Lynn W.

    An instrument was developed to determine the teacher's and student's educational objectives in the affective domain for high school biology. The 65 item attitude assessment scale was based on the same subject matter as "Biological Science: Molecules to Man," and structured according to Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia's taxonomy. In a pilot study the…

  4. History of previous knee surgery does not affect the clinical outcomes of primary total knee arthroplasty in an Asian population

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Bryan; Chong, Hwei Chi; Tan, Andrew Hwee Chye

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with a history of previous knee surgeries, such as anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) and high tibial osteotomy (HTO), often have a higher likelihood of requiring a subsequent total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, there is relatively limited data, especially in the Asian population, on how previous knee surgery could affect the clinical outcomes of TKA. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the impact of previous knee surgeries on the clinical outcomes of future TKA. Methods We reviewed the prospectively-collected data of 303 patients who underwent TKA by a single surgeon from a total joint registry of a tertiary hospital over a period of 5 years. Those with a history of previous knee surgery were identified. The SF-36 Health Survey, Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and Knee Society Score (KSS) were used to evaluate clinical outcomes pre-operatively, at 6 months and 2 years. Results Previous knee surgery did not have a significant impact on the patients’ pre-operative baseline clinical scores and body mass index (BMI). Patients with a history of knee surgery undergo TKA at a significantly younger age (mean of 6.6 years younger). On follow-up, patients with a history of knee surgery have similar post-operative outcome scores as those without previous knee surgery. Also, a high proportion of these patients are satisfied with their post-operative results and feel that their expectations have been met. Conclusions Patients with previous knee surgery had TKA at a significantly younger age than those without. But these patients have similar clinical and quality of life outcomes after TKA. In addition, a high proportion of these patients are satisfied with the results of surgery and feel that their expectations of TKA are met. This is important for clinicians when counselling patients pre-operatively.

  5. History of previous knee surgery does not affect the clinical outcomes of primary total knee arthroplasty in an Asian population

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Bryan; Chong, Hwei Chi; Tan, Andrew Hwee Chye

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with a history of previous knee surgeries, such as anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) and high tibial osteotomy (HTO), often have a higher likelihood of requiring a subsequent total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, there is relatively limited data, especially in the Asian population, on how previous knee surgery could affect the clinical outcomes of TKA. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the impact of previous knee surgeries on the clinical outcomes of future TKA. Methods We reviewed the prospectively-collected data of 303 patients who underwent TKA by a single surgeon from a total joint registry of a tertiary hospital over a period of 5 years. Those with a history of previous knee surgery were identified. The SF-36 Health Survey, Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and Knee Society Score (KSS) were used to evaluate clinical outcomes pre-operatively, at 6 months and 2 years. Results Previous knee surgery did not have a significant impact on the patients’ pre-operative baseline clinical scores and body mass index (BMI). Patients with a history of knee surgery undergo TKA at a significantly younger age (mean of 6.6 years younger). On follow-up, patients with a history of knee surgery have similar post-operative outcome scores as those without previous knee surgery. Also, a high proportion of these patients are satisfied with their post-operative results and feel that their expectations have been met. Conclusions Patients with previous knee surgery had TKA at a significantly younger age than those without. But these patients have similar clinical and quality of life outcomes after TKA. In addition, a high proportion of these patients are satisfied with the results of surgery and feel that their expectations of TKA are met. This is important for clinicians when counselling patients pre-operatively. PMID:27668223

  6. Social–Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Bronwyn E.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social–emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspectives in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary model that will inform policy makers, administrators, and schools about the social–emotional factors that act as both risk and protective factors for disadvantaged students’ learning and opportunities for academic success. Four critical social–emotional components that influence achievement performance (academic and school attachment, teacher support, peer values, and mental health) are reviewed. PMID:23255834

  7. Commensal microbiota affects ischemic stroke outcome by regulating intestinal γδT cells

    PubMed Central

    Benakis, Corinne; Brea, David; Caballero, Silvia; Faraco, Giuseppe; Moore, Jamie; Murphy, Michelle; Sita, Giulia; Racchumi, Gianfranco; Ling, Lilan; Pamer, Eric G.; Iadecola, Costantino; Anrather, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Commensal gut bacteria impact the host immune system and can influence disease processes in several organs, including the brain. However, it remains unclear whether the microbiota has an impact on the outcome of acute brain injury. Here we show that antibiotic-induced alterations in the intestinal flora reduces ischemic brain injury in mice, an effect transmissible by fecal transplants. Intestinal dysbiosis alters immune homeostasis in the small intestine leading to an increase in regulatory T cells and a reduction in IL-17+ γδ T cells, through altered dendritic cell activity. Dysbiosis suppresses trafficking of effector T cells from the gut to the leptomeninges after stroke. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-17 are required for the neuroprotection afforded by intestinal dysbiosis. The findings reveal a previously unrecognized gut-brain axis and the impact of the intestinal flora and meningeal IL-17+ γδ T cells on ischemic injury. PMID:27019327

  8. Does previous transurethral prostate surgery affect oncologic and continence outcomes after RARP?

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Kai; Katz, Benjamin F; Sehgal, Shailen S; Yu, Sue-Jean S; Su, Yu-Chen; Lightfoot, Andrew; Lee, Ziho; Llukani, Elton; Monahan, Kelly; Lee, David I

    2015-12-01

    We examined the effect of previous transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) on multiple oncologic and continence outcomes after robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). We performed a retrospective cohort study of a total of 2693 patients from 2007 to 2014 who underwent RARP. Patients were stratified into 49 patients who had previous TURP prior to RARP (group 1) and 2644 patients who had no TURP prior to RARP (group 2). We collected operative variables including estimated blood loss, operative time, and positive surgical margin (PSM) rates. Urinary continence, defined as 0 pads per day (PPD), and social continence, defined as 1-PPD, were also assessed. American Urological Association Symptoms Score (AUASS), overall ability to function sexually, and Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) questionnaire were evaluated at 3 and 12 months after RARP. Weakness of urinary stream (EPIC #4d) at 12 months imposed a greater problem for group 1 patients with prior TURP compared to group 2 patients without prior TURP (p = 0.012). PSM was not statistically significant between the two groups (p = 0.110). Group 1 patients had a greater PSM rate (30.61 %) as compared to group 2 (20.95 %). PSM locations in group 1 patients showed the most common locations at the posterior and apex. The difference between the two groups for AUASS, overall sexual function, estimated blood loss, operative time, urinary continence, and social continence was not statistically significant. We examined the effect of previous TURP on postoperative RARP continence and oncologic outcomes. This data can be used to counsel those with prior TURP before RARP. PMID:26530840

  9. The copulatory plug delays ejaculation by rival males and affects sperm competition outcome in house mice.

    PubMed

    Sutter, A; Lindholm, A K

    2016-08-01

    Females of many species mate with multiple males (polyandry), resulting in male-male competition extending to post-copulation (sperm competition). Males adapt to such post-copulatory sexual selection by altering features of their ejaculate that increase its competitiveness and/or by decreasing the risk of sperm competition through female manipulation or interference with rival male behaviour. At ejaculation, males of many species deposit copulatory plugs, which are commonly interpreted as a male adaptation to post-copulatory competition and are thought to reduce or delay female remating. Here, we used a vertebrate model species, the house mouse, to study the consequences of copulatory plugs for post-copulatory competition. We experimentally manipulated plugs after a female's first mating and investigated the consequences for rival male behaviour and paternity outcome. We found that even intact copulatory plugs were ineffective at preventing female remating, but that plugs influenced the rival male copulatory behaviour. Rivals facing intact copulatory plugs performed more but shorter copulations and ejaculated later than when the plug had been fully or partially removed. This suggests that the copulatory plug represents a considerable physical barrier to rival males. The paternity share of first males increased with a longer delay between the first and second males' ejaculations, indicative of fitness consequences of copulatory plugs. However, when males provided little copulatory stimulation, the incidence of pregnancy failure increased, representing a potential benefit of intense and repeated copulation besides plug removal. We discuss the potential mechanisms of how plugs influence sperm competition outcome and consequences for male copulatory behaviour.

  10. The copulatory plug delays ejaculation by rival males and affects sperm competition outcome in house mice.

    PubMed

    Sutter, A; Lindholm, A K

    2016-08-01

    Females of many species mate with multiple males (polyandry), resulting in male-male competition extending to post-copulation (sperm competition). Males adapt to such post-copulatory sexual selection by altering features of their ejaculate that increase its competitiveness and/or by decreasing the risk of sperm competition through female manipulation or interference with rival male behaviour. At ejaculation, males of many species deposit copulatory plugs, which are commonly interpreted as a male adaptation to post-copulatory competition and are thought to reduce or delay female remating. Here, we used a vertebrate model species, the house mouse, to study the consequences of copulatory plugs for post-copulatory competition. We experimentally manipulated plugs after a female's first mating and investigated the consequences for rival male behaviour and paternity outcome. We found that even intact copulatory plugs were ineffective at preventing female remating, but that plugs influenced the rival male copulatory behaviour. Rivals facing intact copulatory plugs performed more but shorter copulations and ejaculated later than when the plug had been fully or partially removed. This suggests that the copulatory plug represents a considerable physical barrier to rival males. The paternity share of first males increased with a longer delay between the first and second males' ejaculations, indicative of fitness consequences of copulatory plugs. However, when males provided little copulatory stimulation, the incidence of pregnancy failure increased, representing a potential benefit of intense and repeated copulation besides plug removal. We discuss the potential mechanisms of how plugs influence sperm competition outcome and consequences for male copulatory behaviour. PMID:27206051

  11. Correlating Cleaning Thoroughness with Effectiveness and Briefly Intervening to Affect Cleaning Outcomes: How Clean Is Cleaned?

    PubMed Central

    Hosford, Eve; Ong, Ana; Richesson, Douglas; Fraser, Susan; Kwak, Yoon; Miller, Sonia; Julius, Michael; McGann, Patrick; Lesho, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The most efficient approach to monitoring and improving cleaning outcomes remains unresolved. We sought to extend the findings of a previous study by determining whether cleaning thoroughness (dye removal) correlates with cleaning efficacy (absence of molecular or cultivable biomaterial) and whether one brief educational intervention improves cleaning outcomes. Design Before-after trial. Setting Newly built community hospital. Intervention 90 minute training refresher with surface-specific performance results. Methods Dye removal, measured by fluorescence, and biomaterial removal and acquisition, measured with culture and culture-independent PCR-based assays, were clandestinely assessed for eight consecutive months. At this midpoint, results were presented to the cleaning staff (intervention) and assessments continued for another eight consecutive months. Results 1273 surfaces were sampled before and after terminal room cleaning. In the short-term, dye removal increased from 40.3% to 50.0% (not significant). For the entire study period, dye removal also improved but not significantly. After the intervention, the number of rooms testing positive for specific pathogenic species by culturing decreased from 55.6% to 36.6% (not significant), and those testing positive by PCR fell from 80.6% to 53.7% (P = 0.016). For nonspecific biomaterial on surfaces: a) removal of cultivable Gram-negatives (GN) trended toward improvement (P = 0.056); b) removal of any cultivable growth was unchanged but acquisition (detection of biomaterial on post-cleaned surfaces that were contaminant-free before cleaning) worsened (P = 0.017); c) removal of PCR-based detection of bacterial DNA improved (P = 0.046), but acquisition worsened (P = 0.003); d) cleaning thoroughness and efficacy were not correlated. Conclusion At this facility, a minor intervention or minimally more aggressive cleaning may reduce pathogen-specific contamination, but not without unintended consequences. PMID

  12. Activation of less affected corticospinal tract and poor motor outcome in hemiplegic pediatric patients: a diffusion tensor tractography imaging study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Son, Su Min

    2015-12-01

    The less affected hemisphere is important in motor recovery in mature brains. However, in terms of motor outcome in immature brains, no study has been reported on the less affected corticospinal tract in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the condition of the less affected corticospinal tract and motor function in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Forty patients with hemiplegia due to perinatal or prenatal injury (13.7 ± 3.0 months) and 40 age-matched typically developing controls were recruited. These patients were divided into two age-matched groups, the high functioning group (20 patients) and the low functioning group (20 patients) using functional level of hemiplegia scale. Diffusion tensor tractography images showed that compared with the control group, the patient group of the less affected corticospinal tract showed significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value. Significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value in the low functioning group were observed than in the high functioning group. These findings suggest that activation of the less affected hemisphere presenting as increased fiber number and decreased fractional anisotropy value is related to poor motor function in pediatric hemiplegic patients.

  13. Activation of less affected corticospinal tract and poor motor outcome in hemiplegic pediatric patients: a diffusion tensor tractography imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Son, Su Min

    2015-01-01

    The less affected hemisphere is important in motor recovery in mature brains. However, in terms of motor outcome in immature brains, no study has been reported on the less affected corticospinal tract in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the condition of the less affected corticospinal tract and motor function in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Forty patients with hemiplegia due to perinatal or prenatal injury (13.7 ± 3.0 months) and 40 age-matched typically developing controls were recruited. These patients were divided into two age-matched groups, the high functioning group (20 patients) and the low functioning group (20 patients) using functional level of hemiplegia scale. Diffusion tensor tractography images showed that compared with the control group, the patient group of the less affected corticospinal tract showed significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value. Significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value in the low functioning group were observed than in the high functioning group. These findings suggest that activation of the less affected hemisphere presenting as increased fiber number and decreased fractional anisotropy value is related to poor motor function in pediatric hemiplegic patients. PMID:26889198

  14. Nonambulatory cows: Duration of recumbency and quality of nursing care affect outcome of flotation therapy.

    PubMed

    Stojkov, J; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2016-03-01

    Cows that are unable or unwilling to stand and remain recumbent for ≥ 12 h are defined as nonambulatory. Care and management of nonambulatory cattle is considered a major animal welfare concern facing the livestock industry, particularly the dairy sector. Flotation therapy has gained interest as a means to promote recovery in nonambulatory cows and is based on the concept that by floating the cow in warm water, secondary pressure damage to muscles and nerves will be reduced. The objective of this study was to assess the physiological responses to stress related to the flotation therapy and to evaluate the effect of recumbency duration and nursing care on the outcome of the flotation therapy. The outcomes of 34 nonambulatory Holstein dairy cows were analyzed after they were subjected to flotation therapy. The duration of recumbency and quality of nursing care provided before initiation of the flotation treatment were assessed based on producer responses to survey questions, and from on-site observations by the researchers. A veterinarian examined all cows before flotation therapy began. The treatment was divided into 5 phases: baseline (before filling), manipulation (placing the cow into the tank), filling (the tank was filled with water), flotation (the cow was confined in the filled tank), and draining (water was removed from the tank). Stress responses to the procedure, excluding the manipulation portion, were assessed using heart rate variability. The high-frequency component (HF normalized units) decreased during the filling and draining phases (2.8 ± 0.2 and 3.1 ± 0.4, respectively) compared with the baseline and floating phase (5.1 ± 0.6 and 4.9 ± 0.3, [corrected] respectively). These results indicate that the stress related to the flotation therapy is greatest during the filling and draining phases of the treatment, when cows likely have to exert increased effort to transition to a standing position. The flotation therapy was less likely to be

  15. Maternal Prenatal Positive Affect, Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms and Birth Outcomes: The PREDO Study

    PubMed Central

    Kuusinen, Tiina; Tuovinen, Soile; Villa, Pia; Hämäläinen, Esa; Laivuori, Hannele; Kajantie, Eero; Räikkönen, Katri

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated whether maternal prenatal emotions are associated with gestational length and birth weight in the large PREDO Study with multiple measurement points of emotions during gestation. Methods Altogether 3376 pregnant women self-assessed their positive affect (PA, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) and depressive (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CES-D) and anxiety (Spielberger State Anxiety Scale, STAI) symptoms up to 14 times during gestation. Birth characteristics were derived from the National Birth Register and from medical records. Results One standard deviation (SD) unit higher PA during the third pregnancy trimester was associated with a 0.05 SD unit longer gestational length, whereas one SD unit higher CES-D and STAI scores during the third trimester were associated with 0.04–0.05 SD unit shorter gestational lengths (P-values ≤ 0.02), corresponding to only 0.1–0.2% of the variation in gestational length. Higher PA during the third trimester was associated with a significantly decreased risk for preterm (< 37 weeks) delivery (for each SD unit higher positive affect, odds ratio was 0.8-fold (P = 0.02). Mothers with preterm delivery showed a decline in PA and an increase in CES-D and STAI during eight weeks prior to delivery. Post-term birth (≥ 42 weeks), birth weight and fetal growth were not associated with maternal prenatal emotions. Conclusions This study with 14 measurements of maternal emotions during pregnancy show modest effects of prenatal emotions during the third pregnancy trimester, particularly in the weeks close to delivery, on gestational length. From the clinical perspective, the effects were negligible. No associations were detected between prenatal emotions and birth weight. PMID:26919119

  16. Does psychiatric comorbidity in alcohol-dependent patients affect treatment outcome?

    PubMed

    Mann, Karl; Hintz, Thomas; Jung, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Comorbidity in alcohol research refers to the presence of alcohol dependency and another major psychiatric disorder. The existence of additional disorders may have consequences for treatment planning and success. The aims of this paper are therefore: 1) to give an overview on prevalence rates in studies with representative cohorts and hospital-based samples; 2) to report results on gender differences and 3) to determine the impact of comorbidity on treatment outcome. Comorbidity was examined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) in N = 118 (61 male and 57 female) alcohol-dependent patients who were socially well integrated. Results show that 65% of the female patients but only 28% of the male patients had a lifetime history of additional psychiatric disorders. Significantly more phobic/anxiety disorders, mood disorders occur in female patients. One year after inpatient treatment, overall 39% had suffered a relapse. More detailed analysis revealed that 55% of the non-comorbid but only 28% of the comorbid women suffered a relapse, thus contradicting our initial hypothesis that comorbid patients have a poorer prognosis with regard to their alcohol dependence. Male comorbid (40.9%) and non-comorbid (35.3%) patients showed no significant differences regarding relapse rates.

  17. The biology of NK cells and their receptors affects clinical outcomes after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT).

    PubMed

    Foley, Bree; Felices, Martin; Cichocki, Frank; Cooley, Sarah; Verneris, Michael R; Miller, Jeffrey S

    2014-03-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells were first identified for their capacity to reject bone marrow allografts in lethally irradiated mice without prior sensitization. Subsequently, human NK cells were detected and defined by their non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted cytotoxicity toward transformed or virally infected target cells. Karre et al. later proposed 'the missing self hypothesis' to explain the mechanism by which self-tolerant cells could kill targets that had lost self MHC class I. Subsequently, the receptors that recognize MHC class I to mediate tolerance in the host were identified on NK cells. These class I-recognizing receptors contribute to the acquisition of function by a dynamic process known as NK cell education or licensing. In the past, NK cells were assumed to be short lived, but more recently NK cells have been shown to mediate immunologic memory to secondary exposures to cytomegalovirus infection. Because of their ability to lyse tumors with aberrant MHC class I expression and to produce cytokines and chemokines upon activation, NK cells may be primed by many stimuli, including viruses and inflammation, to contribute to a graft-versus-tumor effect. In addition, interactions with other immune cells support the therapeutic potential of NK cells to eradicate tumor and to enhance outcomes after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

  18. Does passive smoking affect the outcome of grommet insertion in children?

    PubMed

    Praveen, C V; Terry, R M

    2005-06-01

    Bilateral myringotomy with insertion of ventilation tube (grommet) is the most common surgical procedure done on children under general anaesthetic. A prospective study was conducted on children undergoing grommet insertion to ascertain any relationship between exposures of passive smoking to the outcome of grommet insertion. Six hundred and six children (with 1174 ears) who underwent grommet insertion for recurrent secretory otitis media were followed up till the grommets were extruded. Thirty-three children (65 per cent), whose mothers smoked when they were pregnant, had bilateral narrow external ear canals. The median survival rate of grommet was 59 weeks in children who were exposed to passive smoking as compared to 86 weeks for non-exposed children and the extrusion rate of grommet was 36 per cent higher at the end of one year if both parents smoked compared to the non-smoking group. Post-extrusion myringosclerosis was 64 per cent if both parents smoked and less than 20 per cent if neither parents smoked. It is concluded that post-operative infection rate, attic retraction, post-extrusion myringosclerosis and permanent perforations of tympanic membrane were more common in children exposed to passive smoking. The study provides further support to professional and governmental advice that passive smoking is harmful.

  19. Do adolescents' own intentions regarding healthy behaviours affect outcome? A two-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Berg-Kelly, K; Kullander, K

    1999-09-01

    Adolescents' own intentions regarding health behaviours, in addition to their context, are believed to be important for the health habits they chose. This was studied prospectively over a 2-y period. A total of 552 students, 391 aged 13 y and 161 aged 15 y, reported their health and problem behaviours, socioeconomic background and intentions regarding health behaviours through questionnaires in 1991 and in 1993. Outcome dealt with three domains: health habits; acquisition of adult lifestyles; and problem behaviours. The material was analysed for correlations. Significant results were entered into multiple regression stepwise procedures. As expected, already having initiated adult lifestyles or problem behaviours were the most important factors associated with such behaviours 2 y later. Further analyses were then limited to those students who had not started such lifestyles, in order to determine what factors kept them from doing so in a 2-y span. Key predictors for healthy behaviours were adolescents' own decisions not to engage in adult lifestyles or risky behaviours, family processes consistent with support and school satisfaction. Association with peer groups where smoking and drinking were commonplace predicted less optimal behaviours. Gender or socioeconomic factors were not predictive. The results support a comprehensive approach to health promotion during adolescence.

  20. EEG-neurofeedback for optimising performance. I: a review of cognitive and affective outcome in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Gruzelier, John H

    2014-07-01

    A re-emergence of research on EEG-neurofeedback followed controlled evidence of clinical benefits and validation of cognitive/affective gains in healthy participants including correlations in support of feedback learning mediating outcome. Controlled studies with healthy and elderly participants, which have increased exponentially, are reviewed including protocols from the clinic: sensory-motor rhythm, beta1 and alpha/theta ratios, down-training theta maxima, and from neuroscience: upper-alpha, theta, gamma, alpha desynchronisation. Outcome gains include sustained attention, orienting and executive attention, the P300b, memory, spatial rotation, RT, complex psychomotor skills, implicit procedural memory, recognition memory, perceptual binding, intelligence, mood and well-being. Twenty-three of the controlled studies report neurofeedback learning indices along with beneficial outcomes, of which eight report correlations in support of a meditation link, results which will be supplemented by further creativity and the performing arts evidence in Part II. Validity evidence from optimal performance studies represents an advance for the neurofeedback field demonstrating that cross fertilisation between clinical and optimal performance domains will be fruitful. Theoretical and methodological issues are outlined further in Part III.

  1. EEG-neurofeedback for optimising performance. I: a review of cognitive and affective outcome in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Gruzelier, John H

    2014-07-01

    A re-emergence of research on EEG-neurofeedback followed controlled evidence of clinical benefits and validation of cognitive/affective gains in healthy participants including correlations in support of feedback learning mediating outcome. Controlled studies with healthy and elderly participants, which have increased exponentially, are reviewed including protocols from the clinic: sensory-motor rhythm, beta1 and alpha/theta ratios, down-training theta maxima, and from neuroscience: upper-alpha, theta, gamma, alpha desynchronisation. Outcome gains include sustained attention, orienting and executive attention, the P300b, memory, spatial rotation, RT, complex psychomotor skills, implicit procedural memory, recognition memory, perceptual binding, intelligence, mood and well-being. Twenty-three of the controlled studies report neurofeedback learning indices along with beneficial outcomes, of which eight report correlations in support of a meditation link, results which will be supplemented by further creativity and the performing arts evidence in Part II. Validity evidence from optimal performance studies represents an advance for the neurofeedback field demonstrating that cross fertilisation between clinical and optimal performance domains will be fruitful. Theoretical and methodological issues are outlined further in Part III. PMID:24125857

  2. Data on IL-6 c.-174 G>C genotype and allele frequencies in patients with coronary heart disease in dependence of cardiovascular outcome.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Stefan; Schlitt, Axel; Benten, Ann-Christin; Hofmann, Britt; Schaller, Hans-Günter; Schulz, Susanne

    2016-09-01

    In this data article we present data on the distribution of alleles and genotypes of the interleukin (IL)-6 c.-174 G>C polymorphism (rs 1800795) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) in dependence of the incidence of new cardiovascular events (combined endpoint: myocardial infarction, stroke/TIA, cardiac death, death according to stroke) within three years follow-up. Moreover, we investigated putative associations between individual expression of IL-6 genotypes and IL-6 serum level. This investigation is a subanalysis of the article entitled "The Interleukin 6 c.-174 CC genotype is a predictor for new cardiovascular events in patients with coronary heart disease within three years follow-up" (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01045070) (Reichert et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27570807

  3. Severity of lung fibrosis affects early surgical outcomes of lung cancer among patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema.

    PubMed

    Mimae, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kenji; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Ikeda, Norihiko; Takamochi, Kazuya; Aokage, Keiju; Shimada, Yoshihisa; Miyata, Yoshihiro; Okada, Morihito

    2016-07-01

    Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is defined as upper lobe emphysema and lower lobe fibrosis, which are representative lung disorders that increase the prevalence of lung cancer. This unique disorder may affect the morbidity and mortality during the early period after surgery. The present study aimed to identify which clinicopathological features significantly affect early surgical outcomes after lung resection in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and in those with CPFE.We retrospectively assessed 2295 patients with NSCLC and found that 151 (6.6%) had CPFE. All were surgically treated between January 2008 and December 2010 at 4 institutions.The postoperative complication rates for patients with and without CPFE were 39% and 17%, respectively. The 90-day mortality rates were higher among patients with than without CPFE (7.9% vs 1%). Acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia was the main cause of death among 12 patients with CPFE who died within 90 days after surgery. Multivariate logistic regression analysis selected CPFE, gender, age, and clinical stage as independent predictive factors for postoperative complications, and CPFE, clinical stage, and sex for 90-day mortality. The severity of lung fibrosis on preoperative CT images was an independent predictive factor for 90-day mortality among patients with CPFE.The key predictive factor for postoperative mortality and complications of lung resection for NSCLC was CPFE. The severity of lung fibrosis was the principal predictor of early outcomes after lung surgery among patients with CPFE and NSCLC. PMID:27442681

  4. Factors affecting short- and long-term outcomes of manipulation under anaesthesia in patients with adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Owen, John M; Sayers, Adrian E; Woods, David A

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to evaluate and determine the factors that affect short- and long-term outcome following manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA) of patients with adhesive capsulitis. Methods Patients recruited from January 1999 to January 2010 were retrospectively analyzed and classified as having primary or secondary adhesive capsulitis. All patients were assessed for range of movement (ROM) and Oxford Shoulder Scores (OSS) before and immediately postoperatively, as well as for OSS more than 1 year post MUA. Results In total, 295 patients (315 shoulders) were sequentially recruited, and information was collected at baseline, as well as at a mean follow-up of 28 days and 3.6 years. A significant improvement in OSS and ROM was noted 1 month post MUA (p < 0.0001) with females benefiting more than males (p < 0.0025). Long-term follow-up revealed that the improvement in OSS was maintained (p < 0.0001). Secondary adhesive capsulitis significantly reduced the efficacy of MUA as assessed by ROM (p < 0.0001). Other factors (age, initial ROM and OSS, and length of symptoms prior to MUA) did not significantly affect the outcome over the short- or long-term. Conclusions The findings of the present study show that all patient groups had a significantly improved ROM and OSS in the short-term with long-term maintenance of improved OSS. PMID:27582942

  5. Severity of lung fibrosis affects early surgical outcomes of lung cancer among patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema.

    PubMed

    Mimae, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kenji; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Ikeda, Norihiko; Takamochi, Kazuya; Aokage, Keiju; Shimada, Yoshihisa; Miyata, Yoshihiro; Okada, Morihito

    2016-07-01

    Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is defined as upper lobe emphysema and lower lobe fibrosis, which are representative lung disorders that increase the prevalence of lung cancer. This unique disorder may affect the morbidity and mortality during the early period after surgery. The present study aimed to identify which clinicopathological features significantly affect early surgical outcomes after lung resection in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and in those with CPFE.We retrospectively assessed 2295 patients with NSCLC and found that 151 (6.6%) had CPFE. All were surgically treated between January 2008 and December 2010 at 4 institutions.The postoperative complication rates for patients with and without CPFE were 39% and 17%, respectively. The 90-day mortality rates were higher among patients with than without CPFE (7.9% vs 1%). Acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia was the main cause of death among 12 patients with CPFE who died within 90 days after surgery. Multivariate logistic regression analysis selected CPFE, gender, age, and clinical stage as independent predictive factors for postoperative complications, and CPFE, clinical stage, and sex for 90-day mortality. The severity of lung fibrosis on preoperative CT images was an independent predictive factor for 90-day mortality among patients with CPFE.The key predictive factor for postoperative mortality and complications of lung resection for NSCLC was CPFE. The severity of lung fibrosis was the principal predictor of early outcomes after lung surgery among patients with CPFE and NSCLC.

  6. Effects of a group-based reproductive management extension programme on key management outcomes affecting reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Brownlie, Tom S; Morton, John M; Heuer, Cord; McDougall, Scott

    2015-02-01

    A group-based reproductive management extension programme has been designed to help managers of dairy herds improve herd reproductive performance. The aims of this study were, firstly, to assess effects of participation by key decision makers (KDMs) in a farmer action group programme in 2009 and 2010 on six key management outcomes (KMOs) that affect reproductive performance over 2 years (2009-2010 and 2010-2011), and secondly, to describe KDM intentions to change management behaviour(s) affecting each management outcome after participation in the programme. Seasonal calving dairy herds from four regions of New Zealand were enrolled in the study. Intentions to modify management behaviour were recorded using the formal written action plans developed during the extension programme. KMOs assessed were calving pattern of the herd, pre-calving heifer liveweight, pre-calving and premating body condition score (BCS), oestrus detection, anoestrus cow management and bull management. Participation was associated with improvements in heifer liveweight, more heifers calving in the first 6 weeks of the seasonal calving period, premating BCS and oestrus detection. No significant effects were observed on anoestrus cow management or bull management. KDMs with greater numbers of proposed actions had lower 6 week in-calf rates in the second study year than KDMs who proposed fewer actions. A more effective strategy to ensure more appropriate objectives is proposed. Strategies to help KDMs to implement proposed actions more successfully should be investigated to improve the programme further.

  7. Do early quadriceps exercises affect the outcome of ACL reconstruction? A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Triston; Williams, Marie T; Chipchase, Lucy S

    2005-01-01

    A prospective, blinded, randomised controlled trial investigated the effectiveness of quadriceps exercises following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. A treatment group (Quadriceps exercise group) performed straight leg raises and isometric quadriceps contractions throughout the first two postoperative weeks, and a second group (No quadriceps exercise group) did not. A battery of outcome measures assessed subjects postoperatively at day one, two weeks, and one, three and six months. A total of 103 patients (Quadriceps exercise n = 48, No quadriceps exercise n = 55) commenced the study with 91 subjects available at final follow up (Quadriceps exercise n = 47, No quadriceps exercise n = 44). Performance of quadriceps exercises significantly improved a number of knee flexion and extension range of motion measurements (p = 0.01 to 0.04). No significant differences were found between the two groups at any postoperative period for quadriceps lag (p = 0.36), functional hop testing (p = 0.49 to 0.51), isokinetic quadriceps strength (p = 0.70 to 0.72), the majority of numerical analogue scores (p = 0.1 to 0.94) and Cincinnati scores (p = 0.10 to 0.84). Subjects performing quadriceps exercises reported significantly higher pain scores with exercise on the first postoperative day (p = 0.02). At six months postoperatively, the Quadriceps exercise subjects reported significantly more favourable Cincinnati scores for symptoms (p = 0.005) and problems with sport (p = 0.05). While average knee laxity was not significantly different between treatment groups over time (p = 0.27 to 0.94), quadriceps exercise performance was associated with a significantly lower incidence of abnormal knee laxity. Isometric quadriceps exercises and straight leg raises can be safely prescribed during the first two postoperative weeks and confer advantages for faster recovery of knee range of motion and stability. It remains to be proven whether the magnitude of differences between groups is

  8. Biofilm layers affect the treatment outcomes of NaF and Nano-hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M; He, L B; Exterkate, R A M; Cheng, L; Li, J Y; Ten Cate, J M; Crielaard, W; Deng, D M

    2015-04-01

    During caries formation, dental biofilms function not only as acid producers but also as reservoirs and diffusion barriers for active caries-preventive components. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of biofilms as a stagnant layer on the efficacy of NaF and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA). Biofilms of Streptococcus mutans C180-2 were formed on the surfaces of artificially demineralized enamel in an active attachment biofilm model. After 2 days of biofilm formation, the model was subjected to a pH-cycling schedule, together with a control group without biofilms. Specimens were treated for 5 min twice daily with water, a 10% nHA slurry, or 18.4 mM NaF. At the end of the pH-cycling period, the biofilms were removed for the determination of the viable counts, the lactic acid production, and the calcium content. The mineral changes in the demineralized enamel blocks were analyzed by transversal microradiography. No differences in the biofilm viable counts and lactic acid production were found in the different treatment groups. The mean calcium content of the biofilms in the nHA group was 60.7 ± 15.3 mmol/g wet weight, which was approximately 8-fold higher than in the other 2 groups. The application of NaF resulted in net remineralization, but in the presence of a biofilm, net demineralization was observed. In contrast, nHA treatment reduced further demineralization compared with the water treatment, but the presence of a biofilm enhanced this effect. In conclusion, the presence of biofilms clearly influenced the treatment outcomes of anticaries products. Biofilms could either enhance or impede their efficacy. This result implies that biofilms should be included in the in vitro tests for the preclinical screening of caries-protective agents. PMID:25576469

  9. How Are Outcomes Affected by Combining the Pemberton and Salter Osteotomies?

    PubMed Central

    Tonbul, Murat

    2008-01-01

    The Pembersal operation combines features of the Pemberton and Salter osteotomies. Results have usually been reported in patients with dysplasia but without frank dislocation. We asked if the following factors influence the outcome of the Pembersal operation in patients with dislocated hips: triradiate cartilage damage causing early closure; the acetabular index improvement; and the age of the patient at time of operation. We assessed triradiate cartilage damage, a modified McKay clinical classification, acetabular index, center-edge angles, Reimers index, acetabular depth-to-width ratios, Severin classification and Tönnis grading of 33 patients (44 hips) have been evaluated in this retrospective study. The mean age at surgery was 5 years (range, 1.5–14 years). The minimum followup was 5 years (mean, 10.5 years; range, 5–17 years). Preoperatively, three (7%) hips were Tönnis Grade 2, 10 (23%) were Grade 3, and 31 (70%) were Grade 4. Eight (18%) hips were Severin Class 1, 32 (73%) Class 2, and four (9%) were Class 3. According to McKay’s criteria satisfactory results with a rate of 76% were obtained. Premature closure of the triradiate cartilage occurred in eight (18%) hips and postoperative avascular necrosis of the femoral head in three (6%) hips. Satisfactory clinical and radiographic improvements in the aforementioned parameters can be obtained by Pembersal osteotomy. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic case series. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18335299

  10. Biofilm layers affect the treatment outcomes of NaF and Nano-hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M; He, L B; Exterkate, R A M; Cheng, L; Li, J Y; Ten Cate, J M; Crielaard, W; Deng, D M

    2015-04-01

    During caries formation, dental biofilms function not only as acid producers but also as reservoirs and diffusion barriers for active caries-preventive components. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of biofilms as a stagnant layer on the efficacy of NaF and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA). Biofilms of Streptococcus mutans C180-2 were formed on the surfaces of artificially demineralized enamel in an active attachment biofilm model. After 2 days of biofilm formation, the model was subjected to a pH-cycling schedule, together with a control group without biofilms. Specimens were treated for 5 min twice daily with water, a 10% nHA slurry, or 18.4 mM NaF. At the end of the pH-cycling period, the biofilms were removed for the determination of the viable counts, the lactic acid production, and the calcium content. The mineral changes in the demineralized enamel blocks were analyzed by transversal microradiography. No differences in the biofilm viable counts and lactic acid production were found in the different treatment groups. The mean calcium content of the biofilms in the nHA group was 60.7 ± 15.3 mmol/g wet weight, which was approximately 8-fold higher than in the other 2 groups. The application of NaF resulted in net remineralization, but in the presence of a biofilm, net demineralization was observed. In contrast, nHA treatment reduced further demineralization compared with the water treatment, but the presence of a biofilm enhanced this effect. In conclusion, the presence of biofilms clearly influenced the treatment outcomes of anticaries products. Biofilms could either enhance or impede their efficacy. This result implies that biofilms should be included in the in vitro tests for the preclinical screening of caries-protective agents.

  11. Does the addition of a nerve wrap to a motor nerve repair affect motor outcomes?

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Yup; Parisi, Thomas J; Friedrich, Patricia F; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wrapping bioabsorbable nerve conduit around primary suture repair on motor nerve regeneration in a rat model. Forty rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups according to the type of repair of the rat sciatic nerve: group I had primary suture repair; group II had primary suture repair and bioabsorbable collagen nerve conduit (NeuraGen® 1.5 mm, Integra LifeSciences Corp., Plainsboro, NJ) wrapped around the repair. At 12 weeks, no significant differences in the percentage of recovery between the two groups were observed with respect to compound muscle action potentials, isometric muscle force, and muscle weight (P = 0.816, P = 0.698, P = 0.861, respectively). Histomorphometric analysis as compared to the non-operative sites was also not significantly different between the two groups in terms of number of myelinated axons, myelinated fiber area, and nerve fiber density (P = 0.368, P = 0.968, P = 0.071, respectively). Perineural scar tissue formation was greater in primary suture repair group (0.36 ± 0.15) than in primary repair plus conduit wrapping group (0.17 ± 0.08). This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Wrapping bioabsorbable nerve conduit around primary nerve repair can decrease perineural scar tissue formation. Although the scar-decreasing effect of bioabsorbable nerve wrap does not translate into better motor nerve recovery in this study, it might have an effect on the functional outcome in humans where scar formation is much more evident than in rats.

  12. The antagonism between MCT-1 and p53 affects the tumorigenic outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background MCT-1 oncoprotein accelerates p53 protein degradation via a proteosome pathway. Synergistic promotion of the xenograft tumorigenicity has been demonstrated in circumstance of p53 loss alongside MCT-1 overexpression. However, the molecular regulation between MCT-1 and p53 in tumor development remains ambiguous. We speculate that MCT-1 may counteract p53 through the diverse mechanisms that determine the tumorigenic outcomes. Results MCT-1 has now identified as a novel target gene of p53 transcriptional regulation. MCT-1 promoter region contains the response elements reactive with wild-type p53 but not mutant p53. Functional p53 suppresses MCT-1 promoter activity and MCT-1 mRNA stability. In a negative feedback regulation, constitutively expressed MCT-1 decreases p53 promoter function and p53 mRNA stability. The apoptotic events are also significantly prevented by oncogenic MCT-1 in a p53-dependent or a p53-independent fashion, according to the genotoxic mechanism. Moreover, oncogenic MCT-1 promotes the tumorigenicity in mice xenografts of p53-null and p53-positive lung cancer cells. In support of the tumor growth are irrepressible by p53 reactivation in vivo, the inhibitors of p53 (MDM2, Pirh2, and Cop1) are constantly stimulated by MCT-1 oncoprotein. Conclusions The oppositions between MCT-1 and p53 are firstly confirmed at multistage processes that include transcription control, mRNA metabolism, and protein expression. MCT-1 oncogenicity can overcome p53 function that persistently advances the tumor development. PMID:21138557

  13. Factors affecting outcome of coronary reperfusion with intracoronary streptokinase in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Smalling, R W; Fuentes, F; Matthews, M W; Kuhn, J; Nishikawa, A; Walker, W E; Adams, P R; Gould, K L

    1987-03-01

    Aggressive interventional therapy in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is expensive, time-consuming and not without significant risk. To determine which patients are most likely to benefit from such therapy, the effects of patient age, reperfusion success, admission left ventricular (LV) function, infarct location, admission clinical class, time from onset of pain to reperfusion and admission electrocardiographic findings on the outcome of coronary reperfusion in AMI were assessed in 292 prospectively studied, sequential patients from August 1980 to January 1984. Two hundred ten patients received intracoronary streptokinase (SK) therapy on admission and 82 patients, who either refused the protocol or met exclusion criteria, served as control subjects. Patients older than 65 years showed little improvement in 1-year mortality risk and no significant improvement in LV function during hospitalization after treatment with intracoronary SK. The remaining patients, 178 treated with SK and 48 control, were well matched and served as the basis for further comparisons. In this subgroup of patients, reperfusion success was associated with improved survival and LV function (mortality rate 3%, vs 17% in control subjects; increase in ejection fraction [EF] 18% vs 4%). Patients with an EF of less than 45% on admission showed a 21 +/- 30% increase in EF, compared with an increase in control subjects of 8 +/- 19%, and a lower 1-year mortality rate than controls (6% vs 21%, p = 0.01). Patients with anterior AMI had a significant increase in EF in the SK group (22 +/- 31%) and lower mortality compared with control subjects (5% vs 25%, p = 0.003).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Does Hypothyroidism Affect Post-Operative Outcome of Patients Undergoing Carpal Tunnel Release?

    PubMed Central

    Roshanzamir, Sharareh; Mortazavi, Sahameddin; Dabbaghmanesh, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Risk factors associated with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome include repetitive use of hand and wrist, advanced age, obesity, pregnancy, diabetes mellitus and thyroid disease. Decompression of the median nerve is the last treatment of choice usually indicated when negative results to conservative treatments remain for three months. In this study, we aimed to find out whether hypothyroid patients would respond to CTS surgical decompression differently in comparison to healthy individuals. Methods This case control study was conducted on patients with CTS in need of surgical release who were refered to Shahid Faghihi hospital, International Branch of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran from January 2013 to January 2015. Twenty-five hypothyroid and 22 euthyroid patients were recruited. Hypothyroidism was diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and serum TSH level. All patients were followed for three weeks after surgery and a Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTQ) was completed for them pre and post operation. An electrophysiological study was performed during the same follow up period. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 16. Results The CTS grade reported by electrophysiological study, decreased significantly 3 weeks after operation in comparison with preoperative grades (p<0.001). A significant decrease was observed in the immediate postoperative BCTQ scores compared to preoperative (p<0.001). Also a decrease was detected in the three weeks of postoperative follow up compared to immediate postoperative BCTQ scores (p<0.001) and preoperative BCTQ scores (p<0.001). Postoperative BCTQ scores of euthyroid patients decreased more in comparison to hypothyroid patients (p<0.001). Conclusion It seems that, hypothyroidism has an effect on postoperative outcome of carpal tunnel release. PMID:27790353

  15. Treatment outcome and factors affecting time to recovery in children with severe acute malnutrition treated at outpatient therapeutic care program

    PubMed Central

    Mengesha, Melkamu Merid; Deyessa, Negussie; Tegegne, Balewgizie Sileshi; Dessie, Yadeta

    2016-01-01

    Background The outpatient therapeutic care program (OTP) of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) has been decentralized to health post level in Ethiopia since 2008–2009. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding treatment outcomes and factors related to the duration of stay on treatment after its decentralization to health post level. Objective This study was aimed to assess treatment outcome and factors affecting time to recovery in children with SAM treated at OTP. Design Health facility–based retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from 348 patient cards. The outcome variable was time to recovery. Descriptive analysis was done using percentages for categorical data and mean/median for continuous variables. A robust method of analyzing time to event data, the Cox proportional-hazard regression, was used. All statistical tests in this study are declared significant at p<0.05. Result 89.1% of children with kwashiorkor and 69.4% of children with marasmus were recovered. Of the total children studied, 22% were readmitted cases. The median time of recovery was 35 days for children with kwashiorkor and 49 days for children with marasmus. Children older than 3 years were 33% less likely to achieve nutritional recovery [adjusted hazard ratio, AHR=0.67, 95% confidence interval, CI (0.46, 0.97)]. Similarly, marasmic children stayed longer on treatment [AHR=0.42, 95% CI (0.32, 0.56)]. However, children who gained Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) ≥ 0.24 mm/day were 59% more likely to recover faster [AHR=1.59, 95% CI (1.23, 2.06)]. Conclusions Close monitoring of weight and MUAC gain to assess nutritional improvement with due emphasis given to children with lower admission weight, children of age 3 years and above and marasmic children will have a positive effect on treatment duration and outcome. PMID:27396484

  16. How genetic variation affects patient response and outcome to therapy for psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Richard T; Smith, Catherine H

    2010-11-01

    Psoriasis is a prevalent chronic inflammatory condition that affects the skin. There are many treatments available for psoriasis but they are not universally effective and some have associated toxicities. Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics explore the relationship between individual genetic variation and drug effect to allow targeted 'personalized' therapy for patients. There has been very limited pharmacogenetic research regarding psoriasis, with most limited to small retrospective case-control studies looking at single-nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes involved in drug pharmacokinetics. We review the pharmacogenetic investigation of treatments for psoriasis to date, including emerging pharmacogenomic studies. In addition, we discuss how such genetic data could be incorporated into routine clinical practice and future areas for development in this field. PMID:20979559

  17. Video games do affect social outcomes: a meta-analytic review of the effects of violent and prosocial video game play.

    PubMed

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Mügge, Dirk O

    2014-05-01

    Whether video game play affects social behavior is a topic of debate. Many argue that aggression and helping are affected by video game play, whereas this stance is disputed by others. The present research provides a meta-analytical test of the idea that depending on their content, video games do affect social outcomes. Data from 98 independent studies with 36,965 participants revealed that for both violent video games and prosocial video games, there was a significant association with social outcomes. Whereas violent video games increase aggression and aggression-related variables and decrease prosocial outcomes, prosocial video games have the opposite effects. These effects were reliable across experimental, correlational, and longitudinal studies, indicating that video game exposure causally affects social outcomes and that there are both short- and long-term effects. PMID:24458215

  18. Video games do affect social outcomes: a meta-analytic review of the effects of violent and prosocial video game play.

    PubMed

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Mügge, Dirk O

    2014-05-01

    Whether video game play affects social behavior is a topic of debate. Many argue that aggression and helping are affected by video game play, whereas this stance is disputed by others. The present research provides a meta-analytical test of the idea that depending on their content, video games do affect social outcomes. Data from 98 independent studies with 36,965 participants revealed that for both violent video games and prosocial video games, there was a significant association with social outcomes. Whereas violent video games increase aggression and aggression-related variables and decrease prosocial outcomes, prosocial video games have the opposite effects. These effects were reliable across experimental, correlational, and longitudinal studies, indicating that video game exposure causally affects social outcomes and that there are both short- and long-term effects.

  19. Prenatal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) affects reproductive outcomes in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Niermann, Sarah; Rattan, Saniya; Brehm, Emily; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that prenatal DEHP exposure affects female reproduction. To test this hypothesis, pregnant female CD-1 mice were orally dosed daily with tocopherol-stripped corn oil (vehicle control) or DEHP (20μg/kg/day-750mg/kg/day) from gestation day 11-birth. Pups were counted, weighed, and sexed at birth, ovaries were subjected to evaluations of follicle numbers on postnatal days (PNDs) 8 and 21, and fertility was evaluated at 3-9 months. The results indicate that prenatal DEHP exposure increased male-to-female ratio compared to controls. Prenatal DEHP exposure also increased preantral follicle numbers at PND 21 compared to controls. Further, 22.2% of the 20 μg/kg/day treated animals took longer than 5 days to get pregnant at 3 months and 28.6% of the 750 mg/kg/day treated animals lost some of their pups at 6 months. Thus, prenatal DEHP exposure alters F1 sex ratio, increases preantral follicle numbers, and causes some breeding abnormalities PMID:25765777

  20. Factors affecting the outcome of artificial insemination using cryopreserved spermatozoa in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Li, Desheng; Zhou, Yingmin; Zhou, Qiang; Li, Rengui; Wang, Chengdong; Huang, Zhi; Hull, Vanessa; Zhang, Hemin

    2012-01-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is an important component of captive breeding programs for endangered species, such as the giant panda. The panda has been the subject of increasingly successful captive breeding programs involving a compilation of assisted breeding techniques, including AI using cryopreserved spermatozoa. AI implementation is currently hampered by a lack of understanding of the factors that may cause failure. We investigated factors influencing the probability of success of AI for 14 giant panda females housed at the China Center for Research and Conservation of the Giant Panda (CCRCGP) inseminated in a total of 20 instances using cryopreserved spermatozoa from 11 males currently residing in 6 different captive breeding institutions. One of the pandas was the oldest giant panda female to ever successfully conceive from AI (20.5 years old). The success of AI was significantly affected by the timing of AI in relationship to both timing of peak urinary estrogen of the female and percent decline in urinary estrogen between the peak level and the first AI attempt. Our results suggest that the window for successful AI in giant pandas may be narrower than previously suspected, although individual differences in rates of decline in urinary estrogen may reflect some degree of variation in this crucial window across females. Our results are consistent with recent research on pandas and other species that demonstrates the efficacy of cryopreserved spermatozoa for AI and highlights the need for more in-depth analysis of factors related to female physiology that may influence its success.

  1. Understanding the local socio-political processes affecting conservation management outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2014-05-01

    Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level.

  2. Understanding the Local Socio-political Processes Affecting Conservation Management Outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M.; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2014-05-01

    Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level.

  3. Factors affecting the outcome of artificial insemination using cryopreserved spermatozoa in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Li, Desheng; Zhou, Yingmin; Zhou, Qiang; Li, Rengui; Wang, Chengdong; Huang, Zhi; Hull, Vanessa; Zhang, Hemin

    2012-01-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is an important component of captive breeding programs for endangered species, such as the giant panda. The panda has been the subject of increasingly successful captive breeding programs involving a compilation of assisted breeding techniques, including AI using cryopreserved spermatozoa. AI implementation is currently hampered by a lack of understanding of the factors that may cause failure. We investigated factors influencing the probability of success of AI for 14 giant panda females housed at the China Center for Research and Conservation of the Giant Panda (CCRCGP) inseminated in a total of 20 instances using cryopreserved spermatozoa from 11 males currently residing in 6 different captive breeding institutions. One of the pandas was the oldest giant panda female to ever successfully conceive from AI (20.5 years old). The success of AI was significantly affected by the timing of AI in relationship to both timing of peak urinary estrogen of the female and percent decline in urinary estrogen between the peak level and the first AI attempt. Our results suggest that the window for successful AI in giant pandas may be narrower than previously suspected, although individual differences in rates of decline in urinary estrogen may reflect some degree of variation in this crucial window across females. Our results are consistent with recent research on pandas and other species that demonstrates the efficacy of cryopreserved spermatozoa for AI and highlights the need for more in-depth analysis of factors related to female physiology that may influence its success. PMID:21932329

  4. Understanding the local socio-political processes affecting conservation management outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2014-05-01

    Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level. PMID:24522894

  5. Prenatal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) affects reproductive outcomes in female mice.

    PubMed

    Niermann, Sarah; Rattan, Saniya; Brehm, Emily; Flaws, Jodi A

    2015-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that prenatal DEHP exposure affects female reproduction. To test this hypothesis, pregnant female CD-1 mice were orally dosed daily with tocopherol-stripped corn oil (vehicle control) or DEHP (20 μg/kg/day-750 mg/kg/day) from gestation day 11-birth. Pups were counted, weighed, and sexed at birth, ovaries were subjected to evaluations of follicle numbers on postnatal days (PNDs) 8 and 21, and fertility was evaluated at 3-9 months. The results indicate that prenatal DEHP exposure increased male-to-female ratio compared to controls. Prenatal DEHP exposure also increased preantral follicle numbers at PND 21 compared to controls. Further, 22.2% of the 20 μg/kg/day treated animals took longer than 5 days to get pregnant at 3 months and 28.6% of the 750 mg/kg/day treated animals lost some of their pups at 6 months. Thus, prenatal DEHP exposure alters F1 sex ratio, increases preantral follicle numbers, and causes some breeding abnormalities. PMID:25765777

  6. ERCC1 expression affects outcome in metastatic pancreatic carcinoma treated with FOLFIRINOX: A single institution analysis

    PubMed Central

    Strippoli, Antonia; Rossi, Sabrina; Martini, Maurizio; Basso, Michele; D'Argento, Ettore; Schinzari, Giovanni; Barile, Rosalba; Cassano, Alessandra; Barone, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction No clinically useful predictive factor has been yet identified for treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer (mPC). It is noteworthy that FOLFIRINOX, despite its high toxicity, is effective only in some patients. We retrospectively analyzed expression of excision repair cross-complementing group-1 (ERCC1) - involved in the repair of platinum induced damage - in patients affected by mPC treated with FOLFIRINOX in order to evaluate its predictive role. Results FOLFIRINOX resulted more effective in patients with normal ERCC1 levels than in those with ERCC1 hyper-expression. Median progression free survival (PFS) was 11 vs. 4 months (HR 0.26; 95% CI 0.14-0.50; p<.0001), median overall survival (OS) 16 vs. 8 months (HR 0.23; 95% CI 0.12-0.46; p<.0001) and disease control rate (DCR) 93% vs. 50% (p=0.00006). The advantage was confirmed at univariate and multivariate analysis. Patients and Methods 71 patients with histologically proven mPC and treated with FOLFIRINOX as first-line therapy were considered eligible. mRNA ERCC1 expression was determined using RT-PCR analysis. Discussion ERCC1 might be an effective predictor of response to FOLFIRINOX in mPC. Patients overexpressing ERCC1 should be excluded by this often toxic therapy and referred to an alternative treatment. PMID:27147577

  7. Cardiovascular and affective outcomes of active gaming: using the nintendo wii as a cardiovascular training tool.

    PubMed

    Naugle, Keith E; Naugle, Kelly M; Wikstrom, Erik A

    2014-02-01

    Active-video gaming is purported to produce similar cardiovascular responses as aerobic fitness activities. This study compared the emotional and cardiovascular effects of Wii games with those of traditional exercise in college-aged adults with different exercise backgrounds. Specifically, the percentage of heart rate reserve, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), level of enjoyment, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule scores were compared between subjects who reported exercising frequently at high intensities (high-intensity exerciser group: age = 20.18 years [0.87]; Height = 165.23 cm [9.97]; Mass = 62.37 kg [11.61]), N = 11 and those who exercise more often at lower intensities (low-intensity exercisers group: age = 20.72 years [1.19]; Height = 164.39 cm [8.05]; Mass = 68.04 kg [10.71]), N = 11. The subjects completed six 20-minute exercises sessions: treadmill walking, stationary cycling, and Wii's Tennis, Boxing, Cycling, and Step. The low-intensity exerciser group achieved a greater percentage of heart rate reserve (a) during traditional exercise compared with that during Wii boxing, (b) playing Wii boxing compared with that for Wii tennis, and (c) playing Wii boxing compared with that when the high-intensity exercisers group played any Wii games (p < 0.05). The RPE was greater for boxing and cycling compared with that for tennis and step (p < 0.05). Ratings of enjoyment and the increase in positive emotion were greater for boxing and for tennis compared with those for traditional exercises (p < 0.05). Results suggest that Wii boxing shows the greatest potential as a cardiovascular fitness tool among the Wii games, particularly for individuals who typically exercise at lower intensities.

  8. Variables that affect the expansion rate and outcome of small abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Cronenwett, J L; Sargent, S K; Wall, M H; Hawkes, M L; Freeman, D H; Dain, B J; Curé, J K; Walsh, D B; Zwolak, R M; McDaniel, M D

    1990-02-01

    Seventy-three patients with small (less than 6 cm in diameter) abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) were selected for nonoperative management and followed up with sequential ultrasound size measurements. Fifty-four men and 19 women, 51 to 89 years of age (mean 70 years), had an initial mean AAA size of 4.1 cm (anteroposterior) x 4.3 cm (lateral) diameter, with a calculated elliptic cross-sectional area of 14.3 cm2. After a mean of 37 months of follow-up, AAA area increased at a mean rate of 20% per year (3 cm2 yr; 0.4 to 0.5 cm/yr diameter). Expansion rate was not affected by initial aneurysm size. During follow-up, only 3 patients (4%) required urgent operation (1 died), 26 patients (36%) died of non-AAA causes, and 26 patients (36%) underwent elective AAA repair because of progressive size increase (1 died). Elective operations were performed at the rate of 10% per year, when mean AAA size had increased to 22 cm2 (5.1 cm in diameter). Multiple regression analysis of clinical parameters available at presentation indicated that subsequent elective AAA repair was predicted by younger age at diagnosis and larger initial aneurysm size. As anticipated, patients who underwent surgery had more rapid aneurysm expansion (5.3 cm2/yr) compared with patients who did not undergo surgery (1.6 cm2/yr; p less than 0.05). This difference was caused by more rapid expansion during later follow-up intervals among patients selected for operation and was not predicted by the change in aneurysm size observed during initial ultrasonographic follow-up. Final aneurysm size was predicted by initial size, duration of follow-up, and both systolic and diastolic pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Efficacy and Factors Affecting Outcome of Gemcitabine Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, P.-I.; Chao, Yee; Li, C.-P.; Lee, R.-C.; Chi, K.-H.; Shiau, C.-Y.; Wang, L.-W.; Yen, S.-H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and prognostic factors of gemcitabine (GEM) concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 2002 and December 2005, 55 patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer treated with GEM (400 mg/m{sup 2}/wk) concurrently with radiotherapy (median dose, 50.4 Gy; range, 26-61.2) at Taipei Veterans General Hospital were enrolled. GEM (1,000 mg/m{sup 2}) was continued after CCRT as maintenance therapy once weekly for 3 weeks and repeated every 4 weeks. The response, survival, toxicity, and prognostic factors were evaluated. Results: With a median follow-up of 10.8 months, the 1- and 2-year survival rate was 52% and 19%, respectively. The median overall survival (OS) and median time to progression (TTP) was 12.4 and 5.9 months, respectively. The response rate was 42% (2 complete responses and 21 partial responses). The major Grade 3-4 toxicities were neutropenia (22%) and anorexia (19%). The median OS and TTP was 15.8 and 9.5 months in the GEM CCRT responders compared with 7.5 and 3.5 months in the nonresponders, respectively (both p < 0.001). The responders had a better Karnofsky performance status (KPS) (86 {+-} 2 vs. 77 {+-} 2, p = 0.002) and had received a greater GEM dose intensity (347 {+-} 13 mg/m{sup 2}/wk vs. 296 {+-} 15 mg/m{sup 2}/wk, p = 0.02) than the nonresponders. KPS and serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 were the most significant prognostic factors of OS and TTP. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that GEM CCRT is effective and tolerable for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. The KPS and GEM dose correlated with response. Also, the KPS and CA 19-9 level were the most important factors affecting OS and TTP.

  10. Pregnancy outcomes, site of delivery, and community schisms in regions affected by the armed conflict in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Brentlinger, Paula E; Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Cedeño, Marcos Arana; Morales, Lic Guadalupe Vargas; Hernán, Miguel A; Micek, Mark A; Ford, Douglas

    2005-09-01

    The Zapatista armed conflict began in the state of Chiapas, Mexico, in 1994, and overlaps pre-existing local disputes about land, religion, and other issues. Related disruptions in access to and utilization of health services have been alleged to have compromised local health status, particularly in vulnerable subgroups such as indigenous women and infants. The study objective was to measure maternal and perinatal mortality ratios and utilization of pregnancy-related health services in the region affected by the Zapatista conflict, and to describe associations between these primary outcome measures, socioeconomic and demographic factors, and factors associated with inter-party and intra-community conflict. A cross-sectional, population-based survey was conducted in 46 communities in three regions. The study subjects were 1227 women, 13-49 years old, who had been pregnant during the preceding 2 years (1999-2001). Principal outcome measures were maternal and perinatal mortality, and site of delivery. Secondary analyses explored associations between primary outcomes and socioeconomic, demographic, and conflict-related factors. Most births (87.1%) occurred at home. The crude observed maternal and perinatal mortality ratios were 607/100,000 and 23.5/1000 live births, respectively. Those who died had difficulty accessing emergency obstetrical care. Both home birth and mortality were associated with descriptors of intra-community conflict. Observed maternal and perinatal mortality ratios were substantially higher than those officially reported for Mexico or Chiapas. Reduction of high reproductive mortality ratios will require attention to socioeconomic and conflict-related problems, in addition to improved access to emergency obstetrical services.

  11. Cognitive and Affective Predictors of Treatment Outcome in Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Shireen L.; Vogt, Dawne S.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined cognitive and affective predictors of treatment dropout and treatment efficacy in Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) and Prolonged Exposure (PE) for PTSD. Study participants were women with PTSD from a sexual assault who received at least one session of either treatment (n=145) as part of a randomized clinical trial. Results revealed that younger age, lower intelligence, and less education were associated with higher treatment dropout, whereas higher depression and guilt at pretreatment were associated with greater improvement in PTSD symptomatology. Results by treatment condition indicated that women with higher anger at pretreatment were more likely to drop out of PE and that older women in PE and younger women in CPT had the best overall outcomes. These findings have implications for efforts to enhance treatment efficacy and retention in CBT treatment protocols. PMID:19595295

  12. Cognitive and affective predictors of treatment outcome in Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Shireen L; Vogt, Dawne S; Resick, Patricia A

    2009-09-01

    This study examined cognitive and affective predictors of treatment dropout and treatment efficacy in Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) and Prolonged Exposure (PE) for PTSD. Study participants were women with PTSD from a sexual assault who received at least one session of either treatment (n = 145) as part of a randomized clinical trial. Results revealed that younger age, lower intelligence, and less education were associated with higher treatment dropout, whereas higher depression and guilt at pretreatment were associated with greater improvement in PTSD symptomatology. Results by treatment condition indicated that women with higher anger at pretreatment were more likely to dropout of PE and that older women in PE and younger women in CPT had the best overall outcomes. These findings have implications for efforts to enhance treatment efficacy and retention in CBT treatment protocols. PMID:19595295

  13. An investigation of home advantage and other factors affecting outcomes in English one-day cricket matches.

    PubMed

    Morley, Bruce; Thomas, Dennis

    2005-03-01

    We examined the factors affecting the outcome of cricket matches played in the English one-day county cricket league. In particular, we focused on the home-field effect and the importance of winning the pre-match toss of a coin to determine a team's strategic decision to bat first or second. A home-field effect appeared to be confirmed in that home teams won 57% of all matches with a win/loss result. A logistical regression model was used, with the outcome variable defined in terms of a home team win/loss. We found that while winning the toss is an important aspect of a one-day cricket match, other factors tend to dominate in determining the result, especially team quality and match importance for the home and away teams in the overall league context. Our results also indicate, not surprisingly given the nature of cricket attendance and spectating, that the crowd effect is largely insignificant. The results of our study do not support any rule changes requiring the abandonment of the coin toss to determine batting order.

  14. History of Ureteral Stenting Negatively Affects the Outcomes of Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy. Results of a Matched-pair Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sfoungaristos, Stavros; Gofrit, Ofer N; Pode, Dov; Landau, Ezekiel H; Yutkin, Vladimir; Latke, Arie; Duvdevani, Mordechai

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of ureteral stenting history to the outcomes of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, we retrospectively analysed patients who underwent shockwave lithotripsy with Dornier Gemini lithotripter between September 2010 and August 2012. Forty seven patients (group A) who had a double J stent which was removed just before the procedure were matched-paired with another 47 patients (group B) who underwent shockwave lithotripsy having no stent history. The correlation between ureteral stenting history and stone-free rates was assessed. Stone-free rates were 68.1% and 87.2% for patients of group A and B, respectively (p=0.026). Postoperative complications were not different between groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that stone size (p=0.007), stone location (p=0.044) and history of ureteral stenting (p=0.046) were independent predictors for stone clearance after shockwave lithotripsy. Ureteral stents adversely affect shockwave lithotripsy outcome, even if they are removed before the procedure. Stenting history should divert treatment plan towards intracorporeal lithotripsy.

  15. History of Ureteral Stenting Negatively Affects the Outcomes of Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy. Results of a Matched-pair Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sfoungaristos, Stavros; Gofrit, Ofer N; Pode, Dov; Landau, Ezekiel H; Yutkin, Vladimir; Latke, Arie; Duvdevani, Mordechai

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of ureteral stenting history to the outcomes of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, we retrospectively analysed patients who underwent shockwave lithotripsy with Dornier Gemini lithotripter between September 2010 and August 2012. Forty seven patients (group A) who had a double J stent which was removed just before the procedure were matched-paired with another 47 patients (group B) who underwent shockwave lithotripsy having no stent history. The correlation between ureteral stenting history and stone-free rates was assessed. Stone-free rates were 68.1% and 87.2% for patients of group A and B, respectively (p=0.026). Postoperative complications were not different between groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that stone size (p=0.007), stone location (p=0.044) and history of ureteral stenting (p=0.046) were independent predictors for stone clearance after shockwave lithotripsy. Ureteral stents adversely affect shockwave lithotripsy outcome, even if they are removed before the procedure. Stenting history should divert treatment plan towards intracorporeal lithotripsy. PMID:26445394

  16. Resolving the Effects of Maternal and Offspring Genotype on Dyadic Outcomes in Genome Wide Complex Trait Analysis (“M-GCTA”)

    PubMed Central

    Pourcain, Beate St.; Smith, George Davey; York, Timothy P.; Evans, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Genome wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) is extended to include environmental effects of the maternal genotype on offspring phenotype (“maternal effects”, M-GCTA). The model includes parameters for the direct effects of the offspring genotype, maternal effects and the covariance between direct and maternal effects. Analysis of simulated data, conducted in OpenMx, confirmed that model parameters could be recovered by full information maximum likelihood (FIML) and evaluated the biases that arise in conventional GCTA when indirect genetic effects are ignored. Estimates derived from FIML in OpenMx showed very close agreement to those obtained by restricted maximum likelihood using the published algorithm for GCTA. The method was also applied to illustrative perinatal phenotypes from ∼4,000 mother-offspring pairs from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. The relative merits of extended GCTA in contrast to quantitative genetic approaches based on analyzing the phenotypic covariance structure of kinships are considered. PMID:25060210

  17. 48 week outcomes of maraviroc-containing regimens following the genotypic or Trofile assay in HIV-1 failing subjects: the OSCAR Study.

    PubMed

    Nozza, Silvia; Pignataro, Angela Rosa; Galli, Laura; Svicher, Valentina; Alteri, Claudia; Boeri, Enzo; Ripa, Marco; Castagna, Antonella; Sampaolo, Michela; Clementi, Massimo; Perno, Carlo Federico; Lazzarin, Adriano

    2016-09-01

    This study assessed the 48-week efficacy of an antiretroviral therapy including maraviroc following the assessment of co-receptor tropism by use of Geno2Pheno algorithm or the Trofile phenotypic assay in failing treatment-experienced HIV-1 patients. This was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, non-inferiority trial. Treatment-experienced subjects with HIV-RNA ≥500 copies/mL were randomized (1:1) to undergo co-receptor tropism testing by the Geno- 2Pheno algorithm (with a false positive rate >10%) or the Trofile assay before starting a new antiretroviral treatment which included maraviroc. The primary endpoint was the 48 week proportion of patients with treatment success (TS). Intention-to-treat analyses are also reported. One hundred and fifty-five experienced patients were analysed: 77 patients in the Trofile arm and 78 in the Genotype arm. The 48-week proportion of TS was 87% in the Trofile arm and 89% in the Genotype arm (difference: 1.5%, 95%CI: -8.9% to 11.8%) suggesting non-inferiority. In the Trofile arm, 10 patients had treatment failure: 5 viral rebound, 5 discontinuations. In the Genotype arm, 9 patients had treatment failure: 7 viral rebound, 2 lost to follow-up. CD4+ significantly increased from baseline to week 48 in both arms. 48-week treatment success was similar for maraviroc-including therapy prescribed following the Trofile phenotypic assay or Geno2Pheno algorithm. PMID:27602417

  18. Lack of evidence to support the association of a single IL28B genotype SNP rs12979860 with the HTLV-1 clinical outcomes and proviral load

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Interleukin 28B (IL28B) rs12979860 polymorphisms was recently reported to be associated with the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) proviral load (PvL) and the development of the HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Methods In an attempt to examine this hypothesis, we assessed the association of the rs12979860 genotypes with HTLV-1 PvL levels and clinical status in 112 unrelated Brazilian subjects (81 HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers, 24 individuals with HAM/TSP and 7 with Adult T cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL)). Results All 112 samples were successfully genotyped and their PvLs compared. Neither the homozygote TT nor the heterozygote CT mutations nor the combination genotypes (TT/CT) were associated with a greater PvL. We also observed no significant difference in allele distribution between asymptomatic carriers and patients with HTLV-1 associated HAM/TSP. Conclusions Our study failed to support the previously reported positive association between the IL28B rs12979860 polymorphisms and an increased risk of developing HAM/TSP in the Brazilian population. PMID:23259930

  19. Susceptibility of biallelic haplotype and genotype frequencies to genotyping error.

    PubMed

    Moskvina, Valentina; Schmidt, Karl Michael

    2006-12-01

    With the availability of fast genotyping methods and genomic databases, the search for statistical association of single nucleotide polymorphisms with a complex trait has become an important methodology in medical genetics. However, even fairly rare errors occurring during the genotyping process can lead to spurious association results and decrease in statistical power. We develop a systematic approach to study how genotyping errors change the genotype distribution in a sample. The general M-marker case is reduced to that of a single-marker locus by recognizing the underlying tensor-product structure of the error matrix. Both method and general conclusions apply to the general error model; we give detailed results for allele-based errors of size depending both on the marker locus and the allele present. Multiple errors are treated in terms of the associated diffusion process on the space of genotype distributions. We find that certain genotype and haplotype distributions remain unchanged under genotyping errors, and that genotyping errors generally render the distribution more similar to the stable one. In case-control association studies, this will lead to loss of statistical power for nondifferential genotyping errors and increase in type I error for differential genotyping errors. Moreover, we show that allele-based genotyping errors do not disturb Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the genotype distribution. In this setting we also identify maximally affected distributions. As they correspond to situations with rare alleles and marker loci in high linkage disequilibrium, careful checking for genotyping errors is advisable when significant association based on such alleles/haplotypes is observed in association studies.

  20. Preoperative opioid strength may not affect outcomes of anterior cervical procedures: a post hoc analysis of 2 prospective, randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Michael P.; Anderson, Paul A.; Sasso, Rick C.; Riew, K. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Object The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between preoperative opioid strength and outcomes of anterior cervical decompressive surgery. Methods A retrospective cohort of 1004 patients enrolled in 1 of 2 investigational device exemption studies comparing cervical total disc arthroplasty (TDA) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for single-level cervical disease causing radiculopathy or myelopathy was selected. At a preoperative visit, opioid use data, Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores, 36-ltem Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) scores, and numeric rating scale scores for neck and arm pain were collected. Patients were divided into strong (oxycodone/morphine/meperidine), weak (codeine/propoxyphene/ hydrocodone), and opioid-naïve groups. Preoperative and postoperative (24 months) outcomes scores were compared within and between groups using the paired t-test and ANCOVA, respectively. Results Patients were categorized as follows: 226 strong, 762 weak, and 16 opioid naïve. The strong and weak groups were similar with respect to age, sex, race, marital status, education level, Worker's Compensation status, litigation status, and alcohol use. At 24-month follow-up, no differences in change in arm or neck pain scores (arm: strong –52.3, weak –50.6, naïve –54.0, p = 0.244; neck: strong –52.7, weak –50.8, naïve –44.6, p = 0.355); NDI scores (strong –36.0, weak –33.3, naïve –32.3, p = 0.181); or SF-36 Physical Component Summary scores (strong: 14.1, weak 13.3, naïve 21.7, p = 0.317) were present. Using a 15-point improvement in NDI to determine success, the authors found no between-groups difference in success rates (strong 80.6%, weak 82.7%, naïve 73.3%, p = 0.134). No difference existed between treatment arms (TDA vs ACDF) for any outcome at any time point. Conclusions Preoperative opioid strength did not adversely affect outcomes in this analysis. Careful patient selection can yield good results in this patient

  1. Calcium-Vitamin D Co-supplementation Affects Metabolic Profiles, but not Pregnancy Outcomes, in Healthy Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Asemi, Zatollah; Samimi, Mansooreh; Siavashani, Mehrnush Amiri; Mazloomi, Maryam; Tabassi, Zohreh; Karamali, Maryam; Jamilian, Mehri; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy is associated with unfavorable metabolic profile, which might in turn result in adverse pregnancy outcomes. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of calcium plus Vitamin D administration on metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes in healthy pregnant women. Methods: This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed among 42 pregnant women aged 18–40 years who were at week 25 of gestation. Subjects were randomly allocated to consume either 500 mg calcium-200 IU cholecalciferol supplements (n = 21) or placebo (n = 21) for 9 weeks. Blood samples were obtained at the onset of the study and after 9-week trial to determine related markers. Post-delivery, the newborn's weight, length, and head circumference were measured during the first 24 h after birth. Results: Consumption of calcium-Vitamin D co-supplements resulted in a significant reduction of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels compared with placebo (−1856.8 ± 2657.7 vs. 707.1 ± 3139.4 μg/mL, P = 0.006). We also found a significant elevation of plasma total antioxidant capacity (89.3 ± 118.0 vs. −9.4 ± 164.9 mmol/L, P = 0.03), serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (2.5 ± 3.5 vs. −1.7 ± 1.7 ng/mL, P < 0.0001), and calcium levels (0.6 ± 0.6 vs. −0.1 ± 0.4 mg/dL, P < 0.0001). The supplementation led to a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure (−1.9 ± 8.3 vs. 3.1 ± 5.2 mmHg, P = 0.02) compared with placebo. No significant effect of calcium-Vitamin D co-supplements was seen on other metabolic profiles. We saw no significant change of the co-supplementation on pregnancy outcomes as well. Conclusions: Although calcium-Vitamin D co-supplementation for 9 weeks in pregnant women resulted in improved metabolic profiles, it did not affect pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27076887

  2. Diversity of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genotypes and KIR2DL2/3 variants in HCV treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Castiñeira, Jose Ramón; López-Vázquez, Antonio; Martínez-Borra, Jesús; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Prieto, Jesús; López-Rodríguez, Rosario; Sanz-Cameno, Paloma; de la Vega, Juan; Rodrigo, Luis; Pérez-López, Rosa; Pérez-Álvarez, Ramón; López-Larrea, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the distribution of KIR haplotypes and the KIR2DL2/3 alleles in chronic HCV-infected patients in order to establish the influence on the response to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin classical treatment. The alleles study of previously associated KIR2DL2/3 showed that KIR2DL2*001 was more frequent in non-SVR (NSVR) (42.2% vs. 27.5%, p<0.05) and KIR2DL3*001 was associated with sustained viral response (SVR) (41.6% vs. 61.2%, p<0.005). The KIR2DL3*001-HLA-C1 association was also significant (24.5% vs. 45.7%, p<0.001). From the frequencies of KIR obtained, 35 genotypes were assigned on the basis of previous studies. The centromeric A/A genotype was more frequent in SVR (44.1% vs. 34.5%, p<0.005) and the centromeric B/B genotype was found to be significantly more frequent in NSVR (20.9% vs. 11.2%, p<0.001). The logic regression model showed the importance of KIR genes in predicting the response to combined treatment, since the positive predictive value (PPV) was improved (from 55.9% to 75.3%) when the analysis of KIR was included in addition to the IFNL3 rs12979860 polymorphism. The study of KIR receptors may be a powerful tool for predicting the combined treatment response in patients with chronic HCV infection in association with the determination of IFNL3 polymorphism. PMID:24927414

  3. Genotypic Tannin Levels in Populus tremula Impact the Way Nitrogen Enrichment Affects Growth and Allocation Responses for Some Traits and Not for Others.

    PubMed

    Bandau, Franziska; Decker, Vicki Huizu Guo; Gundale, Michael J; Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber

    2015-01-01

    Plant intraspecific variability has been proposed as a key mechanism by which plants adapt to environmental change. In boreal forests where nitrogen availability is strongly limited, nitrogen addition happens indirectly through atmospheric N deposition and directly through industrial forest fertilization. These anthropogenic inputs of N have numerous environmental consequences, including shifts in plant species composition and reductions in plant species diversity. However, we know less about how genetic differences within plant populations determine how species respond to eutrophication in boreal forests. According to plant defense theories, nitrogen addition will cause plants to shift carbon allocation more towards growth and less to chemical defense, potentially enhancing vulnerability to antagonists. Aspens are keystone species in boreal forests that produce condensed tannins to serve as chemical defense. We conducted an experiment using ten Populus tremula genotypes from the Swedish Aspen Collection that express extreme levels of baseline investment into foliar condensed tannins. We investigated whether investment into growth and phenolic defense compounds in young plants varied in response to two nitrogen addition levels, corresponding to atmospheric N deposition and industrial forest fertilization. Nitrogen addition generally caused growth to increase, and tannin levels to decrease; however, individualistic responses among genotypes were found for height growth, biomass of specific tissues, root:shoot ratios, and tissue lignin and N concentrations. A genotype's baseline ability to produce and store condensed tannins also influenced plant responses to N, although this effect was relatively minor. High-tannin genotypes tended to grow less biomass under low nitrogen levels and more at the highest fertilization level. Thus, the ability in aspen to produce foliar tannins is likely associated with a steeper reaction norm of growth responses, which suggests a

  4. Genotypic Tannin Levels in Populus tremula Impact the Way Nitrogen Enrichment Affects Growth and Allocation Responses for Some Traits and Not for Others.

    PubMed

    Bandau, Franziska; Decker, Vicki Huizu Guo; Gundale, Michael J; Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber

    2015-01-01

    Plant intraspecific variability has been proposed as a key mechanism by which plants adapt to environmental change. In boreal forests where nitrogen availability is strongly limited, nitrogen addition happens indirectly through atmospheric N deposition and directly through industrial forest fertilization. These anthropogenic inputs of N have numerous environmental consequences, including shifts in plant species composition and reductions in plant species diversity. However, we know less about how genetic differences within plant populations determine how species respond to eutrophication in boreal forests. According to plant defense theories, nitrogen addition will cause plants to shift carbon allocation more towards growth and less to chemical defense, potentially enhancing vulnerability to antagonists. Aspens are keystone species in boreal forests that produce condensed tannins to serve as chemical defense. We conducted an experiment using ten Populus tremula genotypes from the Swedish Aspen Collection that express extreme levels of baseline investment into foliar condensed tannins. We investigated whether investment into growth and phenolic defense compounds in young plants varied in response to two nitrogen addition levels, corresponding to atmospheric N deposition and industrial forest fertilization. Nitrogen addition generally caused growth to increase, and tannin levels to decrease; however, individualistic responses among genotypes were found for height growth, biomass of specific tissues, root:shoot ratios, and tissue lignin and N concentrations. A genotype's baseline ability to produce and store condensed tannins also influenced plant responses to N, although this effect was relatively minor. High-tannin genotypes tended to grow less biomass under low nitrogen levels and more at the highest fertilization level. Thus, the ability in aspen to produce foliar tannins is likely associated with a steeper reaction norm of growth responses, which suggests a

  5. An Analysis of Factors Affecting Genotyping Success from Museum Specimens Reveals an Increase of Genetic and Morphological Variation during a Historical Range Expansion of a European Spider.

    PubMed

    Krehenwinkel, Henrik; Pekar, Stano

    2015-01-01

    Natural history collections house an enormous amount of plant and animal specimens, which constitute a promising source for molecular analyses. Storage conditions differ among taxa and can have a dramatic effect on the success of DNA work. Here, we analyze the feasibility of DNA extraction from ethanol preserved spiders (Araneae). We tested genotyping success using several hundred specimens of the wasp spider, Argiope bruennichi, deposited in two large German natural history collections. We tested the influence of different factors on the utility of specimens for genotyping. Our results show that not the specimen's age, but the museum collection is a major predictor of genotyping success. These results indicate that long term storage conditions should be optimized in natural history museums to assure the utility of collections for DNA work. Using historical material, we also traced historical genetic and morphological variation in the course of a poleward range expansion of A. bruennichi by comparing contemporary and historical specimens from a native and an invasive population in Germany. We show that the invasion of A. bruennichi is tightly correlated with an historical increase of genetic and phenotypic variation in the invasive population. PMID:26309219

  6. Co-dependence of genotype and dietary protein intake to affect expression on amino acid/peptide transporters in porcine skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Kong, X; Li, F; Tan, B; Li, Y; Duan, Y; Yin, Y; He, J; Hu, C; Blachier, F; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-01-01

    A total of 96 barrows (48 pure-bred Bama mini-pigs representing fatty genotype, and 48 Landrace pigs representing lean genotype) were randomly assigned to either a low- or adequate-protein treatment diet. The experimental period commenced at 5 weeks of age and extended to the finishing period. After euthanasia, blood and skeletal muscle samples were collected from pigs at the nursery, growing, and finishing phases. Our results indicate that the concentrations of free AAs in the plasma and muscle decreased as the age of the pigs increased. In addition, a strain × growth phase interaction (P < 0.05) was observed for the free AA pool in the plasma and muscle. The low-protein diet upregulated (P < 0.05) the mRNA levels for T1R1/T1R3 involved in glutamate binding, but downregulated (P < 0.05) the mRNA levels for PAT1, PAT2, and ASCT2, which transport neutral AAs into muscles. Bama mini-pigs had higher (P < 0.05) mRNA levels for LAT1, SNAT2, and EAAC1, but a lower (P < 0.05) mRNA level for PepT1, compared with Landrace pigs. Collectively, our findings indicate that adequate provision of dietary protein plays an important role in regulating profiles of free AA pools and expression of key AA/peptide transporters/transceptors in a genotype- and tissue-specific manner.

  7. An Analysis of Factors Affecting Genotyping Success from Museum Specimens Reveals an Increase of Genetic and Morphological Variation during a Historical Range Expansion of a European Spider

    PubMed Central

    Krehenwinkel, Henrik; Pekar, Stano

    2015-01-01

    Natural history collections house an enormous amount of plant and animal specimens, which constitute a promising source for molecular analyses. Storage conditions differ among taxa and can have a dramatic effect on the success of DNA work. Here, we analyze the feasibility of DNA extraction from ethanol preserved spiders (Araneae). We tested genotyping success using several hundred specimens of the wasp spider, Argiope bruennichi, deposited in two large German natural history collections. We tested the influence of different factors on the utility of specimens for genotyping. Our results show that not the specimen’s age, but the museum collection is a major predictor of genotyping success. These results indicate that long term storage conditions should be optimized in natural history museums to assure the utility of collections for DNA work. Using historical material, we also traced historical genetic and morphological variation in the course of a poleward range expansion of A. bruennichi by comparing contemporary and historical specimens from a native and an invasive population in Germany. We show that the invasion of A. bruennichi is tightly correlated with an historical increase of genetic and phenotypic variation in the invasive population. PMID:26309219

  8. An Analysis of Factors Affecting Genotyping Success from Museum Specimens Reveals an Increase of Genetic and Morphological Variation during a Historical Range Expansion of a European Spider.

    PubMed

    Krehenwinkel, Henrik; Pekar, Stano

    2015-01-01

    Natural history collections house an enormous amount of plant and animal specimens, which constitute a promising source for molecular analyses. Storage conditions differ among taxa and can have a dramatic effect on the success of DNA work. Here, we analyze the feasibility of DNA extraction from ethanol preserved spiders (Araneae). We tested genotyping success using several hundred specimens of the wasp spider, Argiope bruennichi, deposited in two large German natural history collections. We tested the influence of different factors on the utility of specimens for genotyping. Our results show that not the specimen's age, but the museum collection is a major predictor of genotyping success. These results indicate that long term storage conditions should be optimized in natural history museums to assure the utility of collections for DNA work. Using historical material, we also traced historical genetic and morphological variation in the course of a poleward range expansion of A. bruennichi by comparing contemporary and historical specimens from a native and an invasive population in Germany. We show that the invasion of A. bruennichi is tightly correlated with an historical increase of genetic and phenotypic variation in the invasive population.

  9. The Impact of IL28B Genotype and Liver Fibrosis on the Hepatic Expression of IP10, IFI27, ISG15, and MX1 and Their Association with Treatment Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Domagalski, Krzysztof; Pawłowska, Małgorzata; Kozielewicz, Dorota; Dybowska, Dorota; Tretyn, Andrzej; Halota, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    The strong impact of interleukin 28B (IL28B) polymorphisms on sustained virological response (SVR) after peginterferon and ribavirin treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is well-known. We investigated IL28B variability and hepatic expression of IP10, IFI27, ISG15, and MX1 in CHC patients, the relation of each with their clinical characteristics, and how they associated with responses to combined therapy. Genotyping and gene expression analysis were conducted in a selected cohort of treatment-naïve patients who underwent interferon and ribavirin treatment. Differential expression of IP10, IFI27, ISG15, and MX1 genes was assessed from pretreatment liver biopsies using quantitative PCR. Histopathological evaluation of liver specimens was performed on the basis of the Scheuer’s modified scale. We showed that hepatic IFI27, ISG15, and MX1 expression was lower in the IL28B CC 12979860 and TT rs8099917 groups than in the CT-TT rs12979860 and TG-GG rs8099917 groups (P < 0.001). We found no differences in IP10 expression between the IL28B genotypes (P > 0.05); in contrast, IP10 expression was significantly affected by the progression of fibrosis (P = 0.007). We showed that the rs12979860 CC genotype was associated with successful treatment when compared to the rs12979860 CT-TT genotype (P = 0.004). Additionally, the expression levels of IP10, IFI27 and ISG15, but not MX1, were significantly higher in non-SVR patients than in SVR patients. The effect of variation in IL28B on the results of IFN-based treatment may be associated with changes in IFI27 and ISG15, but not with IP10. Silencing of IP10 is positive and independent from IL28B prediction of SVR, which is strongly associated with liver fibrosis in CHC patients. PMID:26115415

  10. Compressed Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Erlich, Yaniv; Gordon, Assaf; Brand, Michael; Hannon, Gregory J.; Mitra, Partha P.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades we have steadily increased our knowledge on the genetic basis of many severe disorders. Nevertheless, there are still great challenges in applying this knowledge routinely in the clinic, mainly due to the relatively tedious and expensive process of genotyping. Since the genetic variations that underlie the disorders are relatively rare in the population, they can be thought of as a sparse signal. Using methods and ideas from compressed sensing and group testing, we have developed a cost-effective genotyping protocol to detect carriers for severe genetic disorders. In particular, we have adapted our scheme to a recently developed class of high throughput DNA sequencing technologies. The mathematical framework presented here has some important distinctions from the ’traditional’ compressed sensing and group testing frameworks in order to address biological and technical constraints of our setting. PMID:21451737

  11. Genotypic Tannin Levels in Populus tremula Impact the Way Nitrogen Enrichment Affects Growth and Allocation Responses for Some Traits and Not for Others

    PubMed Central

    Bandau, Franziska; Decker, Vicki Huizu Guo; Gundale, Michael J.; Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber

    2015-01-01

    Plant intraspecific variability has been proposed as a key mechanism by which plants adapt to environmental change. In boreal forests where nitrogen availability is strongly limited, nitrogen addition happens indirectly through atmospheric N deposition and directly through industrial forest fertilization. These anthropogenic inputs of N have numerous environmental consequences, including shifts in plant species composition and reductions in plant species diversity. However, we know less about how genetic differences within plant populations determine how species respond to eutrophication in boreal forests. According to plant defense theories, nitrogen addition will cause plants to shift carbon allocation more towards growth and less to chemical defense, potentially enhancing vulnerability to antagonists. Aspens are keystone species in boreal forests that produce condensed tannins to serve as chemical defense. We conducted an experiment using ten Populus tremula genotypes from the Swedish Aspen Collection that express extreme levels of baseline investment into foliar condensed tannins. We investigated whether investment into growth and phenolic defense compounds in young plants varied in response to two nitrogen addition levels, corresponding to atmospheric N deposition and industrial forest fertilization. Nitrogen addition generally caused growth to increase, and tannin levels to decrease; however, individualistic responses among genotypes were found for height growth, biomass of specific tissues, root:shoot ratios, and tissue lignin and N concentrations. A genotype’s baseline ability to produce and store condensed tannins also influenced plant responses to N, although this effect was relatively minor. High-tannin genotypes tended to grow less biomass under low nitrogen levels and more at the highest fertilization level. Thus, the ability in aspen to produce foliar tannins is likely associated with a steeper reaction norm of growth responses, which suggests a

  12. CYP4F2 affects phenotypic outcome in adrenoleukodystrophy by modulating the clearance of very long-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    van Engen, Catherine E; Ofman, Rob; Dijkstra, Inge M E; van Goethem, Tessa Jacobs; Verheij, Eveline; Varin, Jennifer; Vidaud, Michel; Wanders, Ronald J A; Aubourg, Patrick; Kemp, Stephan; Barbier, Mathieu

    2016-10-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder caused by the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) due to mutations in the ABCD1 gene. The phenotypic spectrum ranges from a fatal cerebral demyelinating disease in childhood (cerebral ALD) to a progressive myelopathy without cerebral involvement in adulthood (adrenomyeloneuropathy). Because ABCD1 mutations have no predictive value with respect to clinical outcome a role for modifier genes was postulated. We report that the CYP4F2 polymorphism rs2108622 increases the risk of developing cerebral ALD in Caucasian patients. The rs2108622 polymorphism (c.1297G>A) results in an amino acid substitution valine for methionine at position 433 (p.V433M). Using cellular models of VLCFA accumulation, we show that p.V433M decreases the conversion of VLCFA into very long-chain dicarboxylic acids by ω-oxidation, a potential escape route for the deficient peroxisomal β-oxidation of VLCFA in ALD. Although p.V433M does not affect the catalytic activity of CYP4F2 it reduces CYP4F2 protein levels markedly. These findings open perspectives for therapeutic interventions in a disease with currently limited treatment options. PMID:27425035

  13. Clinicopathological Features and Prognostic Factors Affecting Survival Outcomes in Isolated Locoregional Recurrence of Breast Cancer: Single-Institutional Series

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae Su; Lee, Ji Yun; Lim, Sung Hee; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kim, Seok Won; Nam, Seok Jin; Ahn, Jin Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck; Park, Yeon Hee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic features and prognostic factors affecting outcome in patients with isolated locoregional recurrence of breast cancer (ILRR). Methods We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 104 patients who were diagnosed with ILRR and underwent curative surgery from January 2000 to December 2010 at Samsung Medical Center. Results Among 104 patients, 43 (41%) underwent total mastectomy and 61 (59%) underwent breast-conserving surgery for primary breast cancer. The median time from initial operation to ILRR was 35.7 months (4.5–132.3 months). After diagnosis of ILRR, 45 (43%) patients were treated with mastectomy, 41 (39%) with excision of recurred lesion, and 18 (17%) with node dissection. During a median follow-up of 8.9 years, the 5-year overall survival was 77% and 5-year distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) was 54%. On multivariate analysis, younger age (< 35 years), higher stage, early onset of elapse (≤ 24 months), lymph node recurrences, and subtype of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) were found to be independently associated with DMFS. Patients in the no chemotherapy group showed a longer DMFS after surgery for ILRR than those treated with chemotherapy (median 101.5 vs. 48.0 months, p = 0.072) but without statistical significance. Conclusion Our analysis showed that younger age (< 35 years), higher stage, early onset of relapse (≤ 24 months), lymph node recurrence, and subtype of TNBC are the worst prognostic factors for ILRR. PMID:27648567

  14. SSR genotyping.

    PubMed

    Mason, Annaliese S

    2015-01-01

    SSR genotyping involves the use of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) as DNA markers. SSRs, also called microsatellites, are a type of repetitive DNA sequence ubiquitous in most plant genomes. SSRs contain repeats of a motif sequence 1-6 bp in length. Due to this structure SSRs frequently undergo mutations, mainly due to DNA polymerase errors, which involve the addition or subtraction of a repeat unit. Hence, SSR sequences are highly polymorphic and may be readily used for detection of allelic variation within populations. SSRs are present within both genic and nongenic regions and are occasionally transcribed, and hence may be identified in expressed sequence tags (ESTs) as well as more commonly in nongenic DNA sequences. SSR genotyping involves the design of DNA-based primers to amplify SSR sequences from extracted genomic DNA, followed by amplification of the SSR repeat region using polymerase chain reaction, and subsequent visualization of the resulting DNA products, usually using gel electrophoresis. These procedures are described in this chapter. SSRs have been one of the most favored molecular markers for plant genotyping in the last 20 years due to their high levels of polymorphism, wide distribution across most plant genomes, and ease of use and will continue to be a useful tool in many species for years to come.

  15. Genotyping-by-sequencing approach indicates geographic distance as the main factor affecting genetic structure and gene flow in Brazilian populations of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas; Silva, Oscar Arnaldo Batista Neto E; Brandão, Marcelo Mendes; Omoto, Celso; Sperling, Felix A H

    2015-06-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is one of the major pests of stone and pome fruit species in Brazil. Here, we applied 1226 SNPs obtained by genotyping-by-sequencing to test whether host species associations or other factors such as geographic distance structured populations of this pest. Populations from the main areas of occurrence of G. molesta were sampled principally from peach and apple orchards. Three main clusters were recovered by neighbor-joining analysis, all defined by geographic proximity between sampling localities. Overall genetic structure inferred by a nonhierarchical amova resulted in a significant ΦST value = 0.19109. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that SNPs gathered by genotyping-by-sequencing can be used to infer genetic structure of a pest insect in Brazil; moreover, our results indicate that those markers are very informative even over a restricted geographic scale. We also demonstrate that host plant association has little effect on genetic structure among Brazilian populations of G. molesta; on the other hand, reduced gene flow promoted by geographic isolation has a stronger impact on population differentiation. PMID:26029261

  16. Genotyping-by-sequencing approach indicates geographic distance as the main factor affecting genetic structure and gene flow in Brazilian populations of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas; Silva, Oscar Arnaldo Batista Neto e; Brandão, Marcelo Mendes; Omoto, Celso; Sperling, Felix A H

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is one of the major pests of stone and pome fruit species in Brazil. Here, we applied 1226 SNPs obtained by genotyping-by-sequencing to test whether host species associations or other factors such as geographic distance structured populations of this pest. Populations from the main areas of occurrence of G. molesta were sampled principally from peach and apple orchards. Three main clusters were recovered by neighbor-joining analysis, all defined by geographic proximity between sampling localities. Overall genetic structure inferred by a nonhierarchical amova resulted in a significant ΦST value = 0.19109. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that SNPs gathered by genotyping-by-sequencing can be used to infer genetic structure of a pest insect in Brazil; moreover, our results indicate that those markers are very informative even over a restricted geographic scale. We also demonstrate that host plant association has little effect on genetic structure among Brazilian populations of G. molesta; on the other hand, reduced gene flow promoted by geographic isolation has a stronger impact on population differentiation. PMID:26029261

  17. Arsenic affects mineral nutrients in grains of various Indian rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes grown on arsenic-contaminated soils of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Sanjay; Tripathi, R D; Srivastava, Sudhakar; Singh, Ragini; Kumar, Amit; Tripathi, Preeti; Dave, Richa; Rai, U N; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Trivedi, P K; Tuli, R; Adhikari, B; Bag, M K

    2010-09-01

    The exposure of paddy fields to arsenic (As) through groundwater irrigation is a serious concern that may not only lead to As accumulation to unacceptable levels but also interfere with mineral nutrients in rice grains. In the present field study, profiling of the mineral nutrients (iron (Fe), phosphorous, zinc, and selenium (Se)) was done in various rice genotypes with respect to As accumulation. A significant genotypic variation was observed in elemental retention on root Fe plaque and their accumulation in various plant parts including grains, specific As uptake (29-167 mg kg(-1) dw), as well as As transfer factor (4-45%). Grains retained the least level of As (0.7-3%) with inorganic As species being the dominant forms, while organic As species, viz., dimethylarsinic acid and monomethylarsonic acid, were non-detectable. In all tested varieties, the level of Se was low (0.05-0.12 mg kg(-1) dw), whereas that of As was high (0.4-1.68 mg kg(-1) dw), considering their safe/recommended daily intake limits, which may not warrant their human consumption. Hence, their utilization may increase the risk of arsenicosis, when grown in As-contaminated areas.

  18. Genotyping-by-sequencing approach indicates geographic distance as the main factor affecting genetic structure and gene flow in Brazilian populations of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas; Silva, Oscar Arnaldo Batista Neto E; Brandão, Marcelo Mendes; Omoto, Celso; Sperling, Felix A H

    2015-06-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is one of the major pests of stone and pome fruit species in Brazil. Here, we applied 1226 SNPs obtained by genotyping-by-sequencing to test whether host species associations or other factors such as geographic distance structured populations of this pest. Populations from the main areas of occurrence of G. molesta were sampled principally from peach and apple orchards. Three main clusters were recovered by neighbor-joining analysis, all defined by geographic proximity between sampling localities. Overall genetic structure inferred by a nonhierarchical amova resulted in a significant ΦST value = 0.19109. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that SNPs gathered by genotyping-by-sequencing can be used to infer genetic structure of a pest insect in Brazil; moreover, our results indicate that those markers are very informative even over a restricted geographic scale. We also demonstrate that host plant association has little effect on genetic structure among Brazilian populations of G. molesta; on the other hand, reduced gene flow promoted by geographic isolation has a stronger impact on population differentiation.

  19. Arsenic affects mineral nutrients in grains of various Indian rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes grown on arsenic-contaminated soils of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Sanjay; Tripathi, R D; Srivastava, Sudhakar; Singh, Ragini; Kumar, Amit; Tripathi, Preeti; Dave, Richa; Rai, U N; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Trivedi, P K; Tuli, R; Adhikari, B; Bag, M K

    2010-09-01

    The exposure of paddy fields to arsenic (As) through groundwater irrigation is a serious concern that may not only lead to As accumulation to unacceptable levels but also interfere with mineral nutrients in rice grains. In the present field study, profiling of the mineral nutrients (iron (Fe), phosphorous, zinc, and selenium (Se)) was done in various rice genotypes with respect to As accumulation. A significant genotypic variation was observed in elemental retention on root Fe plaque and their accumulation in various plant parts including grains, specific As uptake (29-167 mg kg(-1) dw), as well as As transfer factor (4-45%). Grains retained the least level of As (0.7-3%) with inorganic As species being the dominant forms, while organic As species, viz., dimethylarsinic acid and monomethylarsonic acid, were non-detectable. In all tested varieties, the level of Se was low (0.05-0.12 mg kg(-1) dw), whereas that of As was high (0.4-1.68 mg kg(-1) dw), considering their safe/recommended daily intake limits, which may not warrant their human consumption. Hence, their utilization may increase the risk of arsenicosis, when grown in As-contaminated areas. PMID:20490609

  20. Genotypic and phenotypic comparison of Escherichia coli from uterine infections with different outcomes: clinical metritis in the cow and pyometra in the bitch.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Sofia; Silva, Elisabete; Lemsaddek, Abdelhak; Lopes-da-Costa, Luís; Mateus, Luisa

    2014-05-14

    Escherichia coli uterine infection originates different clinical outcomes in the canine and bovine species. Here, E. coli strains isolated from bovine clinical metritis and canine pyometra cases were analyzed by PFGE, screened for 33 virulence factor (VF) genes and for phylogenetic grouping. Bovine and canine E. coli isolates presented a low degree of genetic similarity. Canine E. coli strains belonged to phylogenetic group B2 and presented a high number of VF genes, whereas bovine E. coli strains belonged to phylogenetic groups B1 and A and had a low number of VF genes. In conclusion, E. coli strains isolated from cow clinical metritis had a low potential of virulence. In contrast, bitch pyometra E. coli isolates had a high virulence potential, which might be relevant in the pathogenesis of pyometra. These differences between canine and bovine E. coli isolates may partially explain the different outcomes of the uterine infection in the two species. PMID:24598134

  1. The seed's protein and oil content, fatty acid composition, and growing cycle length of a single genotype of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) as affected by environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    As a botanical source, variability in chia seed composition could be expected between growing locations, and between years within a location, due to genotype and environment effects as well genetic x environment's interactions. The objective of the present study was to determine the location effect on the growing cycle length, and seed's protein content, lipid content, and fatty acid profiles, of a single chia genotype. Seeds of chia genotype Tzotzol grown on eight sites in five different ecosystems were tested. One site was in Argentina, in the Semi-Arid Chaco ecosystem (T(5)); one was in Bolivia, in the Sub-Humid Chaco ecosystem (T(4)); and six in Ecuador, one in the Coastal Desert (T(3)), two on the Tropical Rain Forest (T(2)), and three in the Inter-Andean Dry Valley ecosystem (T(1)). Seeds from plants grown in T(4) and in T(3) contained significantly (P <0.05) more protein percentage than did seeds from the other three ecosystems. No significant (P <0.05) differences in protein content were found between T(3) and T(4), and between T(1), T(2), and T(5). Seeds from T(1) and T(5) ecosystems, with 33.5 and 32.2%, respectively, were the numerically highest oil content producers, but their results were only significantly (P <0.05) higher when compared with the T(2) seeds. Significant (P <0.05) differences in palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and alpha-linolenic fatty acids between oils from seeds grown in different ecosystems were detected, however. Oil of seeds grown in the T(3) ecosystem had the palmitic, stearic and oleic fatty acids' highest contents. Palmitic and oleic fatty acid levels were significantly (P <0.05) higher when were compared to that of seeds grown in the T(1) ecosystem, and stearic when was compared to that of seeds grown in the T(5) ecosystem; omega-6 linoleic fatty acid content was significantly (P <0.05) lower in oils of seeds produced in T(1), and T(2) than in those produced in T(3), T(4), and T(5) ecosystems; omega-3 alpha-linolenic fatty

  2. Hp-normogram (normo-graham) for Assessing the Outcome of H. pylori Therapy: Effect of Resistance, Duration, and CYP2C19 Genotype.

    PubMed

    Graham, David Y

    2016-04-01

    There have been hundreds of H. pylori eradication trials and yet doubt remains regarding the best regimen for any situation. With most regimens, treatment failure is the result of resistance to one component (e.g., clarithromycin). Thus, if one knows the treatment success with two groups (all with susceptible and with all with resistant infections), one can construct a normogram that provides a reliable estimate of the outcome at any prevalence of resistance. The same data can be used to estimate the prevalence of resistance in any clinical trial, the effects duration of therapy, and effects of any procedures to improve outcome (e.g., increasing the proton-pump inhibitor dose, the duration of therapy, etc.). Because the Hp-normo-graham can reliably predict the outcome of clinical trials, it can also obviate the need for many clinical trials in populations where resistance is common. Here, we illustrate the construction of Hp-normo-graham and its use to describe the effects of resistance, duration of therapy, attempts to improve results, and the prevalence of resistance and to obviate the need for many clinical trials.

  3. Vascular Risk Factors in Patients with Different Subtypes of Ischemic Stroke May Affect Their Outcome after Intravenous tPA

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jinma; Nair, Deepak S.; Parker, Sarah; Jahnel, Jan L.; Swanson-Devlin, Teresa G.; Beck, Judith M.; Mathews, Maureen; McNeil, Clayton J.; Upadhyaya, Manas; Gao, Yuan; Dong, Qiang; Wang, David Z.

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous (IV) tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only approved noninvasive therapy for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). However, after tPA treatment, the outcome of patients with different subtypes of stroke according to their vascular risk factors remains to be elucidated. We aim to explore the relationship between the outcome and different risk factors in patients with different subtype of acute strokes treated with IV tPA. Records of patients in this cohort were reviewed. Data collected and analysed included the demographics, vascular risk factors, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores, 90-day modified Rankin Scores (mRS), and subtypes of stroke. By using the 90-day mRS, patients were dichotomized into favorable versus unfavorable outcome in each subtype of stroke. We identified the vascular risk factors that are likely associated with the poor outcome in each subtype. Among 570 AIS patients received IV tPA, 217 were in the large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) group, 146 in the small vessel occlusion(SVO) group, and 140 in the cardioaortic embolism(CE) group. Lower NIHSS score on admission was related to favorable outcome in patients in all subtypes. Patients with history of dyslipidemia were likely on statin treatment before their admission and hence less likely to have elevated cholesterol level on admission. Therefore, there was a possible paradoxical effect on the outcome in patients with LAA and SVO subtypes of strokes. SVO patients with history of diabetes had higher risk of unfavorable outcome. SVO patients had favorable outcome if their time from onset to treatment was short. In conclusion, the outcome of patients treated with IV tPA may be related to different vascular risk factors associated with different subtypes of stroke. PMID:26247772

  4. Genotype and fetal size affect maternal-fetal amino acid status and fetal endocrinology in Large White × Landrace and Meishan pigs.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Cheryl J; Nwagwu, Margaret O; McArdle, Harry J

    2013-01-01

    This study compared maternal plasma amino acid concentrations, placental protein secretion in vitro and fetal body composition and plasma amino acid and hormone concentrations in feto-placental units from the smallest and a normally-sized fetus carried by Large White × Landrace or Meishan gilts on Day 100 of pregnancy. Compared with Large White × Landrace, Meishan placental tissue secreted more protein and Meishan fetuses contained relatively more fat and protein, but less moisture. Fetal plasma concentrations of insulin, triiodothryonine, thyroxine and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II were higher in Meishan than Large White × Landrace fetuses. In both breeds, fetal cortisol concentrations were inversely related to fetal size, whereas concentrations of IGF-I were higher in average-sized fetuses. Concentrations of 10 amino acids were higher in Large White × Landrace than Meishan gilts, while glutamine concentrations were higher in Meishan gilts. Concentrations of alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and threonine were higher in Meishan than Large White × Landrace fetuses. Average-sized fetuses had higher concentrations of asparagine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, threonine, tyrosine and valine than the smallest fetus. This study revealed novel genotype and fetal size differences in porcine maternal-fetal amino acid status and fetal hormone and metabolite concentrations.

  5. Maize Genotype and Food Matrix Affect the Provitamin A Carotenoid Bioefficacy from Staple and Carrot-fortified Feeds in Mongolian Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Schmaelzle, Samantha; Gannon, Bryan; Crawford, Serra; Arscott, Sara A.; Goltz, Shellen; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia; Pixley, Kevin V.; Simon, Philipp W.; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Biofortification to increase provitamin A carotenoids is an agronomic approach to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Two studies compared biofortified foods using in vitro and in vivo methods. Study 1 screened maize genotypes (n = 44) using in vitro analysis, which demonstrated decreasing micellarization with increasing provitamin A. Thereafter, seven 50% biofortified maize feeds that hypothesized a one-to-one equivalency between β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene were fed to Mongolian gerbils. Total liver retinol differed among the maize groups (P = 0.0043). Study 2 assessed provitamin A bioefficacy from 0.5% high-carotene carrots added to 60% staple-food feeds, followed by in vitro screening. Liver retinol was highest in the potato and banana groups, maize group retinol did not differ from baseline, and all treatments differed from control (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene have similar bioefficacy; meal matrix effects influence provitamin A absorption from carrot; and in vitro micellarization does not predict bioefficacy. PMID:24341827

  6. Maize genotype and food matrix affect the provitamin A carotenoid bioefficacy from staple and carrot-fortified feeds in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Schmaelzle, Samantha; Gannon, Bryan; Crawford, Serra; Arscott, Sara A; Goltz, Shellen; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia; Pixley, Kevin V; Simon, Philipp W; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2014-01-01

    Biofortification to increase provitamin A carotenoids is an agronomic approach to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Two studies compared biofortified foods using in vitro and in vivo methods. Study 1 screened maize genotypes (n = 44) using in vitro analysis, which demonstrated decreasing micellarization with increasing provitamin A. Thereafter, seven 50% biofortified maize feeds that hypothesized a one-to-one equivalency between β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene were fed to Mongolian gerbils. Total liver retinol differed among the maize groups (P = 0.0043). Study 2 assessed provitamin A bioefficacy from 0.5% high-carotene carrots added to 60% staple-food feeds, followed by in vitro screening. Liver retinol was highest in the potato and banana groups, maize group retinol did not differ from baseline, and all treatments differed from control (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene have similar bioefficacy; meal matrix effects influence provitamin A absorption from carrot; and in vitro micellarization does not predict bioefficacy.

  7. Long-term asymmetric hearing affects cochlear implantation outcomes differently in adults with pre- and postlingual hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Boisvert, Isabelle; McMahon, Catherine M; Dowell, Richard C; Lyxell, Björn

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, a single cochlear implant is offered as a treatment for a bilateral hearing loss. In cases where there is asymmetry in the amount of sound deprivation between the ears, there is a dilemma in choosing which ear should be implanted. In many clinics, the choice of ear has been guided by an assumption that the reorganisation of the auditory pathways caused by longer duration of deafness in one ear is associated with poorer implantation outcomes for that ear. This assumption, however, is mainly derived from studies of early childhood deafness. This study compared outcomes following implantation of the better or poorer ear in cases of long-term hearing asymmetries. Audiological records of 146 adults with bilateral hearing loss using a single hearing aid were reviewed. The unaided ear had 15 to 72 years of unaided severe to profound hearing loss before unilateral cochlear implantation. 98 received the implant in their long-term sound-deprived ear. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to assess the relative contribution of potential predictors to speech recognition performance after implantation. Duration of bilateral significant hearing loss and the presence of a prelingual hearing loss explained the majority of variance in speech recognition performance following cochlear implantation. For participants with postlingual hearing loss, similar outcomes were obtained by implanting either ear. With prelingual hearing loss, poorer outcomes were obtained when implanting the long-term sound-deprived ear, but the duration of the sound deprivation in the implanted ear did not reliably predict outcomes. Contrary to an apparent clinical consensus, duration of sound deprivation in one ear has limited value in predicting speech recognition outcomes of cochlear implantation in that ear. Outcomes of cochlear implantation are more closely related to the period of time for which the brain is deprived of auditory stimulation from both ears. PMID:26043227

  8. Long-term asymmetric hearing affects cochlear implantation outcomes differently in adults with pre- and postlingual hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Boisvert, Isabelle; McMahon, Catherine M; Dowell, Richard C; Lyxell, Björn

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, a single cochlear implant is offered as a treatment for a bilateral hearing loss. In cases where there is asymmetry in the amount of sound deprivation between the ears, there is a dilemma in choosing which ear should be implanted. In many clinics, the choice of ear has been guided by an assumption that the reorganisation of the auditory pathways caused by longer duration of deafness in one ear is associated with poorer implantation outcomes for that ear. This assumption, however, is mainly derived from studies of early childhood deafness. This study compared outcomes following implantation of the better or poorer ear in cases of long-term hearing asymmetries. Audiological records of 146 adults with bilateral hearing loss using a single hearing aid were reviewed. The unaided ear had 15 to 72 years of unaided severe to profound hearing loss before unilateral cochlear implantation. 98 received the implant in their long-term sound-deprived ear. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to assess the relative contribution of potential predictors to speech recognition performance after implantation. Duration of bilateral significant hearing loss and the presence of a prelingual hearing loss explained the majority of variance in speech recognition performance following cochlear implantation. For participants with postlingual hearing loss, similar outcomes were obtained by implanting either ear. With prelingual hearing loss, poorer outcomes were obtained when implanting the long-term sound-deprived ear, but the duration of the sound deprivation in the implanted ear did not reliably predict outcomes. Contrary to an apparent clinical consensus, duration of sound deprivation in one ear has limited value in predicting speech recognition outcomes of cochlear implantation in that ear. Outcomes of cochlear implantation are more closely related to the period of time for which the brain is deprived of auditory stimulation from both ears.

  9. Long-Term Asymmetric Hearing Affects Cochlear Implantation Outcomes Differently in Adults with Pre- and Postlingual Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Boisvert, Isabelle; McMahon, Catherine M.; Dowell, Richard C.; Lyxell, Björn

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, a single cochlear implant is offered as a treatment for a bilateral hearing loss. In cases where there is asymmetry in the amount of sound deprivation between the ears, there is a dilemma in choosing which ear should be implanted. In many clinics, the choice of ear has been guided by an assumption that the reorganisation of the auditory pathways caused by longer duration of deafness in one ear is associated with poorer implantation outcomes for that ear. This assumption, however, is mainly derived from studies of early childhood deafness. This study compared outcomes following implantation of the better or poorer ear in cases of long-term hearing asymmetries. Audiological records of 146 adults with bilateral hearing loss using a single hearing aid were reviewed. The unaided ear had 15 to 72 years of unaided severe to profound hearing loss before unilateral cochlear implantation. 98 received the implant in their long-term sound-deprived ear. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to assess the relative contribution of potential predictors to speech recognition performance after implantation. Duration of bilateral significant hearing loss and the presence of a prelingual hearing loss explained the majority of variance in speech recognition performance following cochlear implantation. For participants with postlingual hearing loss, similar outcomes were obtained by implanting either ear. With prelingual hearing loss, poorer outcomes were obtained when implanting the long-term sound-deprived ear, but the duration of the sound deprivation in the implanted ear did not reliably predict outcomes. Contrary to an apparent clinical consensus, duration of sound deprivation in one ear has limited value in predicting speech recognition outcomes of cochlear implantation in that ear. Outcomes of cochlear implantation are more closely related to the period of time for which the brain is deprived of auditory stimulation from both ears. PMID:26043227

  10. Clinical outcome of patients with follicular lymphoma receiving chemoimmunotherapy in the PRIMA study is not affected by FCGR3A and FCGR2A polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Ghesquières, Hervé; Cartron, Guillaume; Seymour, John Francis; Delfau-Larue, Marie-Hélène; Offner, Fritz; Soubeyran, Pierre; Perrot, Aurore; Brice, Pauline; Bouabdallah, Réda; Sonet, Anne; Dupuis, Jehan; Casasnovas, Olivier; Catalano, John Vincent; Delmer, Alain; Jardin, Fabrice; Verney, Aurélie; Dartigues, Peggy; Salles, Gilles

    2012-09-27

    In patients with follicular lymphoma treated with single-agent rituximab, single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FCGR3A gene are known to influence response and progression-free survival. The prognostic role of FCGR3A and FCGR2A polymorphisms in patients with follicular lymphoma treated with rituximab and chemotherapy combination remains controversial and has not been evaluated in the context of rituximab maintenance. FCGR3A and FCGR2A single nucleotide polymorphisms were evaluated in, respectively, 460 and 455 patients treated in the PRIMA study to investigate whether these were associated with response rate and patient outcome after rituximab chemotherapy induction and 2-year rituximab maintenance. In this representative patient cohort, complete and unconfirmed complete responses after rituximab chemotherapy were observed in 65%, 67%, 66% (P = .86) and 60%, 72%, 66% (P = .21) of FCGR3A VV, VF, FF and FCGR2A HH, HR, RR carriers, respectively. After 2 years of rituximab maintenance (or observation), response rates did not differ among the different genotypes. Progression-free survival measured from either treatment initiation or randomization to observation or maintenance was not influenced by these polymorphisms. These data indicate that FCGR3A and FCGR2A polymorphisms do not influence response rate and outcome when rituximab is combined with chemotherapy or used as maintenance treatment. The PRIMA study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00140582. PMID:22885164

  11. Gene-Environment Interaction of ApoE Genotype and Combat Exposure on PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Michael J.; Genderson, Margo; Grant, Michael D.; Logue, Mark; Zink, Tyler; McKenzie, Ruth; Franz, Carol E.; Panizzon, Matthew; Lohr, James B.; Jerskey, Beth; Kremen, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Factors determining who develops PTSD following trauma are not well understood. The €4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene is associated with dementia and unfavorable outcome following brain insult. PTSD is also associated with dementia. Given evidence that psychological trauma adversely affects the brain, we hypothesized that the apoE genotype moderates effects of psychological trauma on PTSD pathogenesis. To investigate the moderation of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and combat exposure, we used 172 participants with combat trauma sustained during the Vietnam War. PTSD symptoms were the dependent variable and number of combat experiences, apoE genotype, and the combat experiences × apoE genotype interaction were predictors. We also examined the outcome of a diagnosis of PTSD (n = 39) versus no PTSD diagnosis (n = 131). The combat × apoE genotype interaction was significant for both PTSD symptoms (P = .014) and PTSD diagnosis (P = .009). ApoE genotype moderates the relationship between combat exposure and PTSD symptoms. Although the pathophysiology of PTSD is not well understood, the €4 allele is related to reduced resilience of the brain to insult. Our results are consistent with the €4 allele influencing the effects of psychological trauma on the brain, thereby affecting the risk of PTSD. PMID:24132908

  12. Gene-environment interaction of ApoE genotype and combat exposure on PTSD.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Michael J; Genderson, Margo; Grant, Michael D; Logue, Mark; Zink, Tyler; McKenzie, Ruth; Franz, Carol E; Panizzon, Matthew; Lohr, James B; Jerskey, Beth; Kremen, William S

    2013-10-01

    Factors determining who develops PTSD following trauma are not well understood. The €4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene is associated with dementia and unfavorable outcome following brain insult. PTSD is also associated with dementia. Given evidence that psychological trauma adversely affects the brain, we hypothesized that the apoE genotype moderates effects of psychological trauma on PTSD pathogenesis. To investigate the moderation of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and combat exposure, we used 172 participants with combat trauma sustained during the Vietnam War. PTSD symptoms were the dependent variable and number of combat experiences, apoE genotype, and the combat experiences × apoE genotype interaction were predictors. We also examined the outcome of a diagnosis of PTSD (n = 39) versus no PTSD diagnosis (n = 131). The combat × apoE genotype interaction was significant for both PTSD symptoms (P = .014) and PTSD diagnosis (P = .009). ApoE genotype moderates the relationship between combat exposure and PTSD symptoms. Although the pathophysiology of PTSD is not well understood, the €4 allele is related to reduced resilience of the brain to insult. Our results are consistent with the €4 allele influencing the effects of psychological trauma on the brain, thereby affecting the risk of PTSD. PMID:24132908

  13. IL36RN Mutations Affect Protein Expression and Function: A Basis for Genotype-Phenotype Correlation in Pustular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Tauber, Marie; Bal, Elodie; Pei, Xue-Yuan; Madrange, Marine; Khelil, Amel; Sahel, Houria; Zenati, Akila; Makrelouf, Mohamed; Boubridaa, Khaled; Chiali, Amel; Smahi, Naima; Otsmane, Farida; Bouajar, Bakar; Marrakchi, Slaheddine; Turki, Hamida; Bourrat, Emmanuelle; Viguier, Manuelle; Hamel, Yamina; Bachelez, Hervé; Smahi, Asma

    2016-09-01

    Homozygous or compound heterozygous IL36RN gene mutations underlie the pathogenesis of psoriasis-related pustular eruptions including generalized pustular psoriasis, palmoplantar pustular psoriasis, acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau, and acute generalized exanthematous pustular eruption. We identified two unreported IL36RN homozygous mutations (c.41C>A/p.Ser14X and c.420_426del/p.Gly141MetfsX29) in patients with familial generalized pustular psoriasis. We analyzed the impact of a spectrum of IL36RN mutations on IL-36 receptor antagonist protein by using site-directed mutagenesis and expression in HEK293T cells. This enabled us to differentiate null mutations with complete absence of IL-36 receptor antagonist (the two previously unreported mutations, c.80T>C/p.Leu27Pro, c.28C>T/p.Arg10X, c.280G>T/p.Glu94X, c.368C>G/p.Thr123Arg, c.368C>T/p.Thr123Met, and c.227C>T/p.Pro76Leu) from mutations with decreased (c.95A>G/p.His32Arg, c.142C>T/p.Arg48Trp, and c.308C>T/p.Ser113Leu) or unchanged (c.304C>T/p.Arg102Trp and c.104A>G/p.Lys35Arg) protein expression. Functional assays measuring the impact of mutations on the capacity to repress IL-36-dependent activation of the NF-κB pathway showed complete functional impairment for null mutations, whereas partial or no impairment was observed for other mutations considered as hypomorphic. Finally, null mutations were associated with severe clinical phenotypes (generalized pustular psoriasis, acute generalized exanthematous pustular eruption), whereas hypomorphic mutations were identified in both localized (palmoplantar pustular psoriasis, acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau) and generalized variants. These results provide a preliminary basis for genotype-phenotype correlation in patients with deficiency of the IL-36Ra (DITRA), and suggest the involvement of other factors in the modulation of clinical expression. PMID:27220475

  14. Attitudes and factors affecting acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping as an alternative to Pap testing among multiethnic Malaysian women

    PubMed Central

    Ma'som, Mahirah; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Nasir, Nazrila Hairizan; Bellinson, Jerome; Subramaniam, Shridevi; Ma, Yuntong; Yap, Siew-Hwei; Goh, Pik-Pin; Gravitt, Patti; Woo, Yin Ling

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the attitudes and acceptability of self-administered cervicovaginal sampling compared with conventional physician-acquired Papanicolaou (Pap) smear among multiethnic Malaysian women. Method A cross-sectional study was carried out via interviewer-administered surveys from August 2013 through August 2015 at five government-run, urban health clinics in the state of Selangor. Subjects were participants from an ongoing community-based human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study who answered a standard questionnaire before and after self-sampling. The cervicovaginal self-sampling for HPV genotyping was performed using a simple brush (‘Just for Me’; Preventive Oncology International, Hong Kong). Detailed data on sociodemographics, previous Pap smear experience, and attitudes towards self-administered cervicovaginal sampling were collected and analysed. Acceptability was inferred using a five-item Likert scale that included six different subjective descriptives: experience, difficulty, convenience, embarrassment, discomfort or pain, and confidence in collecting one's own sample. Results Of the 839 participants, 47.9% were Malays, followed by 30.8% Indians, 18.8% Chinese and 2.5% from other ethnicities. The median age of the participants was 38 years (IQR 30–48). Some 68.2% of participants indicated a preference for self-sampling over the Pap test, with 95% indicating willingness to follow-up a positive result at the hospital. Age, ethnicity and previous Pap test experience were significant independent factors associated with preference for self-sampling. The older the individual, the less likely they were to prefer self-sampling (adjusted OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.98). The Chinese were less likely to prefer self-sampling (72.6%) than the Malays (85.1%) (adjusted OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.98, p=0.004). Participants who had never undergone a Pap smear were also more likely to prefer self-sampling (88.5%) than

  15. Intra-articular corticosteroids in the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Safety, efficacy, and features affecting outcome. A comprehensive review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Gotte, Alisa Carman

    2009-01-01

    Intra-articular corticosteroid injection (IACI) has been used in the treatment of inflammatory arthritis in adults for over fifty years. Over the last two decades, IACI has become an important tool in the management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), particularly in the oligoarthritis subset of JIA. Many factors may affect the efficacy of this treatment modality, although the majority of evidence on this topic is anecdotal, nonconvincing, or conflicting. The review examines the rationale, efficacy, safety, and application of the use of IACI in the treatment of JIA, focusing on factors that affect the outcome following IACI.

  16. Does Combining School and Work Affect School and Post-School Outcomes? Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anlezark, Alison; Lim, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    In this report the authors seek to answer the question of whether combining school and work is detrimental or beneficial to a student's school educational performance and labour market outcomes. They find that young people who combine school and work are distributed right across the school population. Results show that individuals can combine…

  17. Cohorts and Relatedness: Self-Determination Theory as an Explanation of How Learning Communities Affect Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachboard, Martine Robinson; Beachboard, John C.; Li, Wenling; Adkison, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether feelings of relatedness constitute a substantial means by which learning communities (cohorts) improve learning outcomes in higher education. It applies Ryan and Deci's Self-Determination Theory to an analysis of the National Survey of Student Engagement. The SDT hypothesizes that environments that support perceptions…

  18. Gaze Behavior and Affect at 6-Months: Predicting Clinical Outcomes and Language Development in Typically Developing Infants and Infants At-Risk for Autism

    PubMed Central

    Young, Gregory S.; Merin, Noah; Rogers, Sally J.; Ozonoff, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents follow-up longitudinal data to research that previously suggested the possibility of abnormal gaze behavior marked by decreased eye contact in a subgroup of 6-month-old infants at risk for autism (Merin et al., 2007). Using eye-tracking data and behavioral data recorded during a live mother-infant interaction involving the still-face procedure, the predictive utility of gaze behavior and affective behaviors at 6 months was examined using diagnostic outcome data obtained longitudinally over the following 18 months. Results revealed that none of the infants previously identified as showing lower rates of eye-contact had any signs of autism at outcome. In contrast, three infants who were diagnosed with autism demonstrated consistent gaze to the eye region and typical affective responses at 6 months. Individual differences in face scanning and affective responsivity during the live interaction were not related to any continuous measures of symptom frequency or symptom severity. In contrast, results of growth curve models for language development revealed significant relationships between face scanning and expressive language. Greater amounts of fixation to the mother’s mouth during live interaction predicted higher levels of expressive language at outcome and greater rates of growth. These findings suggest that although gaze behavior at 6 months may not provide early markers for autism as initially conceived, gaze to the mouth in particular may be useful in predicting individual differences in language development. PMID:19702771

  19. How does the context and design of participatory decision-making processes affect their outcomes? Evidence from sustainable land management in global drylands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vente, Joris; Reed, Mark; Stringer, Lindsay; Valente, Sandra; Newig, Jens

    2014-05-01

    It is widely accepted that the design of participatory processes in environmental management needs to be adapted to local contexts. Yet, it is not clear which elements of process design are universal, making it difficult to design processes that deliver beneficial outcomes across different contexts. We used empirical evidence to analyse the extent to which context and process design can enable or impede stakeholder participation and facilitate beneficial environmental and social outcomes in a range of decision-making contexts where stakeholders are engaged in environmental management. To explore the role of national-scale context on the outcomes of participatory processes, we interviewed facilitators from a process that was replicated across 13 dryland study sites around the world, which focussed on selecting Sustainable Land Management (SLM) options in close collaboration with stakeholders. To explore the role of process design and local context, we interviewed participants and facilitators in 11 case studies in Spain and Portugal in which different process designs were used. Interview data were analysed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches to characterise relationships between process design, context and process outcomes. The similarity of outcomes across the 13 international study sites suggested that the national socio-cultural context in which a participatory process is conducted has little impact on its outcomes. However, analysis of cases from Spain and Portugal showed that some aspects of local context may affect outcomes. Having said this, factors associated with process design and participant selection played a more significant role in influencing outcomes in both countries. Processes that led to more beneficial outcomes for the environment and/or participants were likely to include: the legitimate representation of stakeholders; professional facilitation including structured methods for eliciting and aggregating information and

  20. Factors associated with an unfavourable outcome after Salter innominate osteotomy in patients with unilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip: does occult dysplasia of the contralateral hip affect the outcome?

    PubMed

    Kaneko, H; Kitoh, H; Mishima, K; Matsushita, M; Kadono, I; Ishiguro, N; Hattori, T

    2014-10-01

    Salter innominate osteotomy is an effective reconstructive procedure for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), but some children have a poor outcome at skeletal maturity. In order to investigate factors associated with an unfavourable outcome, we assessed the development of the contralateral hip. We retrospectively reviewed 46 patients who underwent a unilateral Salter osteotomy at between five and seven years of age, with a mean follow-up of 10.3 years (7 to 20). The patients were divided into three groups according to the centre-edge angle (CEA) of the contralateral hip at skeletal maturity: normal (> 25°, 22 patients), borderline (20° to 25°, 17 patients) and dysplastic (< 20°, 7 patients). The CEA of the affected hip was measured pre-operatively, at eight to nine years of age, at 11 to 12 years of age and at skeletal maturity. The CEA of the affected hip was significantly smaller in the borderline and dysplastic groups at 11 and 12 years of age (p = 0.012) and at skeletal maturity (p = 0.017) than in the normal group. Severin group III was seen in two (11.8%) and four hips (57.1%) of the borderline and dysplastic groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Limited individual development of the acetabulum was associated with an unfavourable outcome following Salter osteotomy. PMID:25274931

  1. Factors associated with an unfavourable outcome after Salter innominate osteotomy in patients with unilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip: does occult dysplasia of the contralateral hip affect the outcome?

    PubMed

    Kaneko, H; Kitoh, H; Mishima, K; Matsushita, M; Kadono, I; Ishiguro, N; Hattori, T

    2014-10-01

    Salter innominate osteotomy is an effective reconstructive procedure for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), but some children have a poor outcome at skeletal maturity. In order to investigate factors associated with an unfavourable outcome, we assessed the development of the contralateral hip. We retrospectively reviewed 46 patients who underwent a unilateral Salter osteotomy at between five and seven years of age, with a mean follow-up of 10.3 years (7 to 20). The patients were divided into three groups according to the centre-edge angle (CEA) of the contralateral hip at skeletal maturity: normal (> 25°, 22 patients), borderline (20° to 25°, 17 patients) and dysplastic (< 20°, 7 patients). The CEA of the affected hip was measured pre-operatively, at eight to nine years of age, at 11 to 12 years of age and at skeletal maturity. The CEA of the affected hip was significantly smaller in the borderline and dysplastic groups at 11 and 12 years of age (p = 0.012) and at skeletal maturity (p = 0.017) than in the normal group. Severin group III was seen in two (11.8%) and four hips (57.1%) of the borderline and dysplastic groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Limited individual development of the acetabulum was associated with an unfavourable outcome following Salter osteotomy.

  2. Mentoring Programs to Affect Delinquency and Associated Outcomes of Youth At-Risk: A Comprehensive Meta-Analytic Reviewi

    PubMed Central

    Tolan, Patrick H.; Henry, David B.; Schoeny, Michael S.; Lovegrove, Peter; Nichols, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To conduct a meta-analytic review of selective and indicated mentoring interventions for effects for youth at risk on delinquency and key associated outcomes (aggression, drug use, academic functioning). We also undertook the first systematic evaluation of intervention implementation features and organization and tested for effects of theorized key processes of mentor program effects. Methods Campbell Collaboration review inclusion criteria and procedures were used to search and evaluate the literature. Criteria included a sample defined as at-risk for delinquency due to individual behavior such as aggression or conduct problems or environmental characteristics such as residence in high-crime community. Studies were required to be random assignment or strong quasi-experimental design. Of 163 identified studies published 1970 - 2011, 46 met criteria for inclusion. Results Mean effects sizes were significant and positive for each outcome category (ranging form d =.11 for Academic Achievement to d = .29 for Aggression). Heterogeneity in effect sizes was noted for all four outcomes. Stronger effects resulted when mentor motivation was professional development but not by other implementation features. Significant improvements in effects were found when advocacy and emotional support mentoring processes were emphasized. Conclusions This popular approach has significant impact on delinquency and associated outcomes for youth at-risk for delinquency. While evidencing some features may relate to effects, the body of literature is remarkably lacking in details about specific program features and procedures. This persistent state of limited reporting seriously impedes understanding about how mentoring is beneficial and ability to maximize its utility. PMID:25386111

  3. Direct and indirect effects of caregiver social support on adolescent psychological outcomes in two South African AIDS-affected communities

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Marisa; Cluver, Lucie; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Kuo, Caroline; Lachman, Jamie M.; Wild, Lauren G.

    2015-01-01

    Caregiver social support has been shown to be protective for caregiver mental health, parenting and child psychosocial outcomes. This is the first known analysis to quantitatively investigate the relationship between caregiver social support and adolescent psychosocial outcomes in HIV-endemic, resource-scarce Southern African communities. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted over 2009-2010 with 2477 South African adolescents aged 10-17 and their adult caregivers (18 years or older) in one urban and one rural community in South Africa’s KwaZulu-Natal province. Adolescent adjustment was assessed using adult caregiver reports of the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), which measures peer problems, hyperactivity, conduct problems, emotional symptoms and child prosocial behavior. Hierarchical linear regressions and multiple mediation analyses, using bootstrapping procedures, were conducted to assess for: a) direct effects of more caregiver social support on better adolescent psychosocial wellbeing; and b) indirect effects mediated by better parenting and caregiver mental health. Direct associations (p<.001), and indirect associations mediated through better parenting, were found for all adolescent outcomes. Findings reinforce the importance of social support components within parenting interventions but also point to scope for positive intervention on adolescent psychosocial wellbeing through the broader family social network. PMID:25623784

  4. Defining Optimal Aerobic Exercise Parameters to Affect Complex Motor and Cognitive Outcomes after Stroke: A Systematic Review and Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, S. M. Mahmudul; Rancourt, Samantha N.; Austin, Mark W.; Ploughman, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Although poststroke aerobic exercise (AE) increases markers of neuroplasticity and protects perilesional tissue, the degree to which it enhances complex motor or cognitive outcomes is unknown. Previous research suggests that timing and dosage of exercise may be important. We synthesized data from clinical and animal studies in order to determine optimal AE training parameters and recovery outcomes for future research. Using predefined criteria, we included clinical trials of stroke of any type or duration and animal studies employing any established models of stroke. Of the 5,259 titles returned, 52 articles met our criteria, measuring the effects of AE on balance, lower extremity coordination, upper limb motor skills, learning, processing speed, memory, and executive function. We found that early-initiated low-to-moderate intensity AE improved locomotor coordination in rodents. In clinical trials, AE improved balance and lower limb coordination irrespective of intervention modality or parameter. In contrast, fine upper limb recovery was relatively resistant to AE. In terms of cognitive outcomes, poststroke AE in animals improved memory and learning, except when training was too intense. However, in clinical trials, combined training protocols more consistently improved cognition. We noted a paucity of studies examining the benefits of AE on recovery beyond cessation of the intervention. PMID:26881101

  5. Does a shorter length of hospital stay affect the outcome and costs of hysterectomy in southern England?

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, A; Rowe, P; Black, N

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To see whether a shorter postoperative length of stay (LOS) for a major procedure, abdominal hysterectomy for benign conditions, was associated with health outcome, the use of formal and lay care after discharge, cost, and satisfaction. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Three hospitals in London and three in Hertfordshire and Bedfordshire. PATIENTS: A total of 363 women undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy with or without oophorectomy: 112 with a short postoperative LOS (five days or less) and 251 with a standard LOS (six days or more). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Wound infection within 10 days and six weeks; change in general health status (Nottingham health profile) after six weeks; general health and change in social activity (lifestyle index) three months after surgery. Mean cost difference for hospitals, use of formal and lay care after discharge, and patient satisfaction. RESULTS: Short LOS was associated with benefits: a lower risk of wound infection in the first 10 days (odds ratio 0.44; p = 0.03) and no deterioration in physical mobility (measured using the NHP) after six weeks- and with adverse outcomes: constipation six weeks later (OR 0.48; p < 0.001) and moderate or severe urinary symptoms six weeks (OR 0.69; p < 0.004) and three months (OR 0.65; p < 0.008) later. On multivariate analysis, the only outcome to remain significantly associated with LOS was physical mobility after six weeks (p = 0.024). There was no significant difference between short and standard stay women as regards their use of formal or lay care after discharge from hospital. The mean cost of hospital care was Pounds251 (in 1992) less for short than for standard stay patients. Most women (73% at six weeks) felt their LOS was appropriate. Short stay women were more likely to feel it was too short, though the difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Short postoperative stays do not seem to be associated with any adverse outcomes and result in

  6. Maintenance of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) in Young CFS Patients Is Associated with the 5-HTTLPR and SNP rs25531 A > G Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Benedicte; Nguyen, Chinh Bkrong Thuy; Moen, Aurora; Fagermoen, Even; Sulheim, Dag; Nilsen, Hilde; Wyller, Vegard Bruun; Gjerstad, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that genetic variability in the SLC6A4 gene encoding the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) may be important for the re-uptake of serotonin (5-HT) in the central nervous system. In the present study we investigated how the 5-HTT genotype i.e. the short (S) versus long (L) 5-HTTLPR allele and the SNP rs25531 A > G affect the physical and psychosocial functioning in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). All 120 patients were recruited from The Department of Paediatrics at Oslo University Hospital, Norway, a national referral center for young CFS patients (12–18 years). Main outcomes were number of steps per day obtained by an accelerometer and disability scored by the Functional Disability Inventory (FDI). Patients with the 5-HTT SS or SLG genotype had a significantly lower number of steps per day than patients with the 5-HTT LALG, SLA or LALA genotype. Patients with the 5-HTT SS or SLG genotype also had a significantly higher FDI score than patients with the 5-HTT LALG, SLA or LALA genotype. Thus, CFS patients with the 5-HTT SS or SLG genotype had worse 30 weeks outcome than CFS patients with the 5-HTT LALG, SLA or LALA genotype. The present study suggests that the 5-HTT genotype may be a factor that contributes to maintenance of CFS. PMID:26473596

  7. Maintenance of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) in Young CFS Patients Is Associated with the 5-HTTLPR and SNP rs25531 A > G Genotype.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Benedicte; Nguyen, Chinh Bkrong Thuy; Moen, Aurora; Fagermoen, Even; Sulheim, Dag; Nilsen, Hilde; Wyller, Vegard Bruun; Gjerstad, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that genetic variability in the SLC6A4 gene encoding the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) may be important for the re-uptake of serotonin (5-HT) in the central nervous system. In the present study we investigated how the 5-HTT genotype i.e. the short (S) versus long (L) 5-HTTLPR allele and the SNP rs25531 A > G affect the physical and psychosocial functioning in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). All 120 patients were recruited from The Department of Paediatrics at Oslo University Hospital, Norway, a national referral center for young CFS patients (12-18 years). Main outcomes were number of steps per day obtained by an accelerometer and disability scored by the Functional Disability Inventory (FDI). Patients with the 5-HTT SS or SLG genotype had a significantly lower number of steps per day than patients with the 5-HTT LALG, SLA or LALA genotype. Patients with the 5-HTT SS or SLG genotype also had a significantly higher FDI score than patients with the 5-HTT LALG, SLA or LALA genotype. Thus, CFS patients with the 5-HTT SS or SLG genotype had worse 30 weeks outcome than CFS patients with the 5-HTT LALG, SLA or LALA genotype. The present study suggests that the 5-HTT genotype may be a factor that contributes to maintenance of CFS.

  8. The Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) Project: Linking Clinical Data with Molecular Analysis to Advance Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Keen, Judy C.; Moore, Helen M.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of how genetic mutations or variability can directly affect phenotypic outcomes, the development of disease, or determination of a tailored treatment protocol is fundamental to advancing personalized medicine. To understand how a genotype affects gene expression and specific phenotypic traits, as well as the correlative and causative associations between such, the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) Project was initiated The GTEx collection of biospecimens and associated clinical data links extensive clinical data with genotype and gene expression data to provide a wealth of data and resources to study the underlying genetics of normal physiology. These data will help inform personalized medicine through the identification of normal variation that does not contribute to disease. Additionally, these data can lead to insights into how gene variation affects pharmacodynamics and individualized responses to therapy. PMID:25809799

  9. Survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine monocyte-derived macrophages is not affected by host infection status but depends on the infecting bacterial genotype.

    PubMed

    Gollnick, Nicole S; Mitchell, Rebecca M; Baumgart, Martin; Janagama, Harish K; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Schukken, Ynte H

    2007-12-15

    In this study we investigated the ability of different Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) strains to survive in bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) of cows naturally infected with M. paratuberculosis and control cows. We tested the hypotheses that infection status of cows affects macrophage killing ability and that survival of M. paratuberculosis in macrophages is dependent on the strain. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from Johne's disease-positive (n=3) and age and stage of lactation matched Johne's disease-negative (n=3) multiparious cows. Following differentiation, MDMs were challenged in vitro with four M. paratuberculosis strains of different host specificity (cattle and sheep). Two hours and 2, 4, and 7 days after infection, ingestion, and intracellular survival of M. paratuberculosis strains were determined by fluorescence microscopy. There was no effect of the origin of MDMs (Johne's disease-positive or control animals) on phagocytosis, survival of bacteria, or macrophage survival. In contrast, important strain differences were observed. These findings suggest that some M. paratuberculosis strains interfere more successfully than others with the ability of macrophages to kill intracellular pathogens which may make it important to include strain typing when designing control programs.

  10. Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus epidemiology: HLA genotype study in 12 north eastern Italian families with two siblings affected by type I diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, L; Drei, F; Gonfiantini, E; Visentin, A; Roata, C; Ciaffoni, S; Maffeis, C

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the relationship between the histocompatibility antigens and type I diabetes mellitus in families living in the north-eastern part of Italy. In each family two siblings were affected by diabetes. HLA-antigens were determined with the lymphocytotoxicity test, utilizing antisera of the series A-B-C-DR. The phenotypic frequencies were compared with those observed in controls. We showed that diabetes has a strong association with HLA DR 3 and/or DR 4 antigens. In particular we registered high frequency of compound heterozygous DR 3 - DR 4 subjects, and this fact supports the hypothesis of the existence of two different genes for diabetes associated with these HLA antigens. Moreover we observed a particular haplotype segregation with a very high percentage of HLA identity between patients belonging to the same family, confirming the association between HLA and genetic susceptibility to insulin dependent diabetes. These results confirm data in the literature and, completed by other data from other patients' families living in our area, will be useful in providing reliable genetic counselling. PMID:2606174

  11. High progesterone levels in women with high ovarian response do not affect clinical outcomes: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The potentially detrimental role of progesterone during the follicular phase has been a matter of controversy for several years; however, few studies have analyzed the effects of combined raised estradiol and progesterone levels on pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of high progesterone levels on clinical outcomes in the context of high ovarian response. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study that included 2850 women classified as high responders. The women were subdivided into six groups depending on their progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration: <0.5 ng/ml (1.81 ng/ml (>p90). Ovarian response was classified as high when > =20 oocytes were retrieved or when estradiol was > =3000 pg/ml. Clinical outcomes of each subgroup were analyzed. We also examined data from frozen-thawed embryo transfers. Results were analyzed with Student’s t- test to compare continuous variables and chi-squared test to compare proportions. A p-value of < =0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The progesterone concentration increased with ovarian response, and elevated progesterone did not show a significant clinical impact on implantation rate and pregnancy rates. These data provide evidence that progesterone levels higher than 1.8 ng/ml do not have detrimental effect on oocyte quality or endometrial receptivity. Conclusions These data allow us to conclude that high progesterone levels correlate significantly with high estradiol levels and that in high responder women; progesterone levels do not show a significant clinical impact on results. PMID:25064138

  12. Serological Assay and Genotyping of Hepatitis C Virus in Infected Patients in Zanjan Province

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh, Abdolreza; Erfanmanesh, Maryam; Ghasemi, Sousan; Mohammadi, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), a public health problem, is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus and a member of the Hepacivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Liver cancer, cirrhosis, and end-stage liver are the outcomes of chronic infection with HCV. HCV isolates show significant heterogeneity in genetics around the world. Therefore, determining HCV genotypes is a vital step in determining prognosis and planning therapeutic strategies. Objectives: As distribution of HCV genotypes is different in various geographical regions and HCV genotyping of patients has not been investigated in Zanjan City, this study was designed for the first time, to determine HCV genotypes in the region and to promote the impact of the treatment. Materials and Methods: Serum samples of 136 patients were collected and analyzed for anti-HCV antibodies using ELISA (The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) method. Then, positive samples were exposed to RT-PCR, which was performed under standard condition. Afterwards, they investigated for genotyping using allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR), and HCV genotype 2.0 line probe assay (LiPA). Results: Samples indicated 216 bp bands on 2% agarose gel. Analyses of the results demonstrated that the most dominant subtype was 3a with frequency of 38.26% in Zanjan Province followed by subtypes of 1b, 1a, 2, and 4 with frequencies of 25.73%, 22.05%, 5.14%, and 4.41%, respectively. The frequency of unknown HCV genotypes was 4.41%. Conclusions: According to the results, it was found that HCV high prevalent genotype in Zanjan is subtype 3a. Analysis of the results provides identification of certain HCV genotypes, and these valuable findings could affect the type and duration of the treatment. PMID:25368655

  13. Genotyping methodologies.

    PubMed

    Bevan, S; Houlston, R S

    2001-01-01

    With current advances in genetics it is now possible to routinely screen the entire genome of multiple affected individuals in the search for disease predisposition genes. Such a large-scale undertaking requires some careful management of both samples and data in order to make best use of all available information. Here we have detailed the two main approaches to a genome-wide search and the best ways we have found of storing, transforming, and analyzing the subsequently produced data, as well as some general considerations to enhance the chances of success. PMID:11280934

  14. Genotyping methodologies.

    PubMed

    Bevan, S; Houlston, R S

    2001-01-01

    With current advances in genetics it is now possible to routinely screen the entire genome of multiple affected individuals in the search for disease predisposition genes. Such a large-scale undertaking requires some careful management of both samples and data in order to make best use of all available information. Here we have detailed the two main approaches to a genome-wide search and the best ways we have found of storing, transforming, and analyzing the subsequently produced data, as well as some general considerations to enhance the chances of success.

  15. Temperature and Plant Genotype Alter Alkaloid Concentrations in Ryegrass Infected with an Epichloë Endophyte and This Affects an Insect Herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Louise M.; Popay, Alison J.; Finch, Sarah C.; Clearwater, Michael J.; Cave, Vanessa M.

    2016-01-01

    Asexual Epichloë endophytes colonize agricultural forage grasses in a relationship which is mutually beneficial and provides the host plant with protection against herbivorous insects. The endophyte strain AR37 (Epichloë festucae var. lolii) produces epoxy-janthitrem alkaloids and is the only endophyte known to provide ryegrass with resistance against porina larvae (Wiseana cervinata (Walker)), a major pasture pest in cooler areas of New Zealand. This study examined the effect of temperature on concentrations of epoxy-janthitrems in AR37-infected ryegrass and determined how the resulting variations in concentration affected consumption, growth and survival of porina larvae. Twenty replicate pairs of perennial (Lolium perenne L.) and Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum Lam.) plants with and without endophyte were prepared by cloning, with one of each pair grown at either high (20°C) or low (7°C) temperature. After 10 weeks, herbage on each plant was harvested, divided into leaf and pseudostem, then freeze dried and ground. Leaf and pseudostem material was then incorporated separately into semi-synthetic diets which were fed to porina larvae in a bioassay over 3 weeks. Epoxy-janthitrem concentrations within the plant materials and the semi-synthetic diets were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. AR37-infected ryegrass grown at high temperature contained high in planta concentrations of epoxy-janthitrem (30.6 μg/g in leaves and 83.9 μg/g in pseudostems) that had a strong anti-feedant effect on porina larvae when incorporated into their diets, reducing their survival by 25–42% on pseudostems. In comparison, in planta epoxy-janthitrem concentrations in AR37-infected ryegrass grown at low temperature were very low (0.67 μg/g in leaves and 7.4 μg/g in pseudostems) resulting in a small anti-feedant effect in perennial but not in Italian ryegrass. Although alkaloid concentrations were greatly reduced by low temperature this reduction did not occur

  16. Temperature and Plant Genotype Alter Alkaloid Concentrations in Ryegrass Infected with an Epichloë Endophyte and This Affects an Insect Herbivore.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Louise M; Popay, Alison J; Finch, Sarah C; Clearwater, Michael J; Cave, Vanessa M

    2016-01-01

    Asexual Epichloë endophytes colonize agricultural forage grasses in a relationship which is mutually beneficial and provides the host plant with protection against herbivorous insects. The endophyte strain AR37 (Epichloë festucae var. lolii) produces epoxy-janthitrem alkaloids and is the only endophyte known to provide ryegrass with resistance against porina larvae (Wiseana cervinata (Walker)), a major pasture pest in cooler areas of New Zealand. This study examined the effect of temperature on concentrations of epoxy-janthitrems in AR37-infected ryegrass and determined how the resulting variations in concentration affected consumption, growth and survival of porina larvae. Twenty replicate pairs of perennial (Lolium perenne L.) and Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum Lam.) plants with and without endophyte were prepared by cloning, with one of each pair grown at either high (20°C) or low (7°C) temperature. After 10 weeks, herbage on each plant was harvested, divided into leaf and pseudostem, then freeze dried and ground. Leaf and pseudostem material was then incorporated separately into semi-synthetic diets which were fed to porina larvae in a bioassay over 3 weeks. Epoxy-janthitrem concentrations within the plant materials and the semi-synthetic diets were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. AR37-infected ryegrass grown at high temperature contained high in planta concentrations of epoxy-janthitrem (30.6 μg/g in leaves and 83.9 μg/g in pseudostems) that had a strong anti-feedant effect on porina larvae when incorporated into their diets, reducing their survival by 25-42% on pseudostems. In comparison, in planta epoxy-janthitrem concentrations in AR37-infected ryegrass grown at low temperature were very low (0.67 μg/g in leaves and 7.4 μg/g in pseudostems) resulting in a small anti-feedant effect in perennial but not in Italian ryegrass. Although alkaloid concentrations were greatly reduced by low temperature this reduction did not occur until

  17. Advancing the Strategic Messages Affecting Robot Trust Effect: The Dynamic of User- and Robot-Generated Content on Human-Robot Trust and Interaction Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuhua Jake; Lee, Seungcheol Austin

    2016-09-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) will soon transform and shift the communication landscape such that people exchange messages with robots. However, successful HRI requires people to trust robots, and, in turn, the trust affects the interaction. Although prior research has examined the determinants of human-robot trust (HRT) during HRI, no research has examined the messages that people received before interacting with robots and their effect on HRT. We conceptualize these messages as SMART (Strategic Messages Affecting Robot Trust). Moreover, we posit that SMART can ultimately affect actual HRI outcomes (i.e., robot evaluations, robot credibility, participant mood) by affording the persuasive influences from user-generated content (UGC) on participatory Web sites. In Study 1, participants were assigned to one of two conditions (UGC/control) in an original experiment of HRT. Compared with the control (descriptive information only), results showed that UGC moderated the correlation between HRT and interaction outcomes in a positive direction (average Δr = +0.39) for robots as media and robots as tools. In Study 2, we explored the effect of robot-generated content but did not find similar moderation effects. These findings point to an important empirical potential to employ SMART in future robot deployment.

  18. Advancing the Strategic Messages Affecting Robot Trust Effect: The Dynamic of User- and Robot-Generated Content on Human-Robot Trust and Interaction Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuhua Jake; Lee, Seungcheol Austin

    2016-09-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) will soon transform and shift the communication landscape such that people exchange messages with robots. However, successful HRI requires people to trust robots, and, in turn, the trust affects the interaction. Although prior research has examined the determinants of human-robot trust (HRT) during HRI, no research has examined the messages that people received before interacting with robots and their effect on HRT. We conceptualize these messages as SMART (Strategic Messages Affecting Robot Trust). Moreover, we posit that SMART can ultimately affect actual HRI outcomes (i.e., robot evaluations, robot credibility, participant mood) by affording the persuasive influences from user-generated content (UGC) on participatory Web sites. In Study 1, participants were assigned to one of two conditions (UGC/control) in an original experiment of HRT. Compared with the control (descriptive information only), results showed that UGC moderated the correlation between HRT and interaction outcomes in a positive direction (average Δr = +0.39) for robots as media and robots as tools. In Study 2, we explored the effect of robot-generated content but did not find similar moderation effects. These findings point to an important empirical potential to employ SMART in future robot deployment. PMID:27585068

  19. Predicting long-term outcomes for children affected by HIV and AIDS: perspectives from the scientific study of children's development.

    PubMed

    Stein, Alan; Desmond, Christopher; Garbarino, James; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Barbarin, Oscar; Black, Maureen M; Stein, Aryeh D; Hillis, Susan D; Kalichman, Seth C; Mercy, James A; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Rapa, Elizabeth; Saul, Janet R; Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A; Richter, Linda M

    2014-07-01

    The immediate and short-term consequences of adult HIV for affected children are well documented. Little research has examined the long-term implications of childhood adversity stemming from caregiver HIV infection. Through overviews provided by experts in the field, together with an iterative process of consultation and refinement, we have extracted insights from the broader field of child development of relevance to predicting the long-term consequences to children affected by HIV and AIDS. We focus on what is known about the impact of adversities similar to those experienced by HIV-affected children, and for which there is longitudinal evidence. Cautioning that findings are not directly transferable across children or contexts, we examine findings from the study of parental death, divorce, poor parental mental health, institutionalization, undernutrition, and exposure to violence. Regardless of the type of adversity, the majority of children manifest resilience and do not experience any long-term negative consequences. However, a significant minority do and these children experience not one, but multiple problems, which frequently endure over time in the absence of support and opportunities for recovery. As a result, they are highly likely to suffer numerous and enduring impacts. These insights suggest a new strategic approach to interventions for children affected by HIV and AIDS, one that effectively combines a universal lattice of protection with intensive intervention targeted to selected children and families. PMID:24991899

  20. An Affective Dimension within Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms among Boys: Personality and Psychopathology Outcomes into Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A dimension of negatively oriented affect within oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, which has been described as irritability, has been shown to predict depression and anxiety. Related constructs have been linked to temperament and personality constructs. However, only a few studies have examined the prediction from…

  1. Outcome of enzyme replacement therapy in Turkish patients with Gaucher disease: does late intervention affect the response?

    PubMed

    Arikan-Ayyildiz, Zeynep; Yüce, Aysel; Emre, Serap; Baysoy, Gökhan; Saltik-Temizel, Inci Nur; Gürakan, Figen

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the outcome of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in Turkish Gaucher patients since it first became available in our country. Eleven patients with type I and one patient with type III Gaucher disease (GD) received therapy as 30-60 U/kg and 120 U/kg every two weeks, respectively, for at least six months, starting a mean period of 4.2 years after the diagnosis. Assessment of response included serial measurements of hematological and biochemical parameters and liver and spleen volumes. Symptoms and signs of bone disease, growth and severity scores were also evaluated. ERT in Turkish patients led to marked improvement in hematological parameters and organomegaly in the majority of them. Patients with growth failure demonstrated catch-up growth. Progression of bone disease was not observed except in two patients who experienced a delay of 15 and 8.6 years, respectively, between the diagnosis and the start of ERT. PMID:22272449

  2. Incidental oesophageal leiomyoma during laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: finding the unexpected does not affect outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jain, Mishank; Atherton, Laura; Acharya, Vikas; Sengupta, Neel; Barreca, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Most bariatric procedures are now performed laparoscopically. Here, we describe a case of incidental oesophageal leiomyoma found during laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). To our knowledge, this is the first such case reported. Our patient was admitted for an elective LRYGB. She had no upper gastrointestinal symptoms, and therefore did not undergo preoperative oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD). During surgery, a hiatus hernia and an incidental oesophageal leiomyoma were found and treated with hernia repair and enucleation. The end outcome was unaffected. We were able to concomitantly treat the unexpected finding of an oesophageal leiomyoma and a hiatus hernia during the LRYGB. The routine use of OGD prior to bariatric surgery is still controversial. While surgeons should be prepared for unexpected pathologies, when performing laparoscopic bariatric surgery, a routine OGD prior to LRYGB is probably not necessary in asymptomatic patients. Laparoscopic enucleation of oesophageal leiomyoma during LRYGB is feasible and safe. PMID:25994827

  3. Timing of Maternal Immunization Affects Immunological and Behavioral Outcomes of Adult Offspring in Siberian Hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    French, Susannah S; Chester, Emily M; Demas, Gregory E

    2016-07-01

    Maternal influences are an important contributing factor to offspring survival, development, and behavior. Common environmental pathogens can induce maternal immune responses and affect subsequent development of offspring. There are likely sensitive periods during pregnancy when animals are particularly vulnerable to environmental disruption. Here we characterize the effects of maternal immunization across pregnancy and postpartum on offspring physiology and behavior in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Hamsters were injected with the antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) (1) prior to pairing with a male (premating), (2) at separation (postmating), (3) at midpregnancy, or (4) after birth (lactation). Maternal food intake, body mass, and immunity were monitored throughout gestation, and litters were measured weekly for growth until adulthood when social behavior, hormone concentrations, and immune responses were determined. We found that immunizations altered maternal immunity throughout pregnancy and lactation. The effects of maternal treatment differed between male and female offspring. Aggressive behavior was enhanced in offspring of both sexes born to mothers treated postmating and thus early in pregnancy relative to other stages. In contrast, maternal treatment and maternal stage differentially affected innate immunity in males and females. Offspring cortisol, however, was unaffected by maternal treatment. Collectively, these data demonstrate that maternal immunization affects offspring physiology and behavior in a time-dependent and sex-specific manner. More broadly, these findings contribute to our understanding of the effects of maternal immune activation, whether it be from environmental exposure or immunization, on immunological and behavioral responses of offspring. PMID:27320639

  4. Improving outcomes for caregivers through treatment of young people affected by war: a randomized controlled trial in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Salhi, Carmel; Hann, Katrina; Kellie, Jim; Kamara, Alimamy; Salomon, Joshua A; Kim, Jane J; Betancourt, Theresa S

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To measure the benefits to household caregivers of a psychotherapeutic intervention for adolescents and young adults living in a war-affected area. Methods Between July 2012 and July 2013, we carried out a randomized controlled trial of the Youth Readiness Intervention – a cognitive–behavioural intervention for war-affected young people who exhibit depressive and anxiety symptoms and conduct problems – in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Overall, 436 participants aged 15–24 years were randomized to receive the intervention (n = 222) or care as usual (n = 214). Household caregivers for the participants in the intervention arm (n = 101) or control arm (n = 103) were interviewed during a baseline survey and again, if available (n = 155), 12 weeks later in a follow-up survey. We used a burden assessment scale to evaluate the burden of care placed on caregivers in terms of emotional distress and functional impairment. The caregivers’ mental health – i.e. internalizing, externalizing and prosocial behaviour – was evaluated using the Oxford Measure of Psychosocial Adjustment. Difference-in-differences multiple regression analyses were used, within an intention-to-treat framework, to estimate the treatment effects. Findings Compared with the caregivers of participants of the control group, the caregivers of participants of the intervention group reported greater reductions in emotional distress (scale difference: 0.252; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.026–0.4782) and greater improvements in prosocial behaviour (scale difference: 0.249; 95% CI: 0.012–0.486) between the two surveys. Conclusion A psychotherapeutic intervention for war-affected young people can improve the mental health of their caregivers. PMID:26668435

  5. Treatment factors affecting outcomes in HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphomas: a pooled analysis of 1546 patients

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xiaonan; Wang, Dan; Tamari, Roni; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Mounier, Nicolas; Kaplan, Lawrence D.; Ribera, Josep-Maria; Spina, Michele; Tirelli, Umberto; Weiss, Rudolf; Galicier, Lionel; Boue, Francois; Wilson, Wyndham H.; Wyen, Christoph; Oriol, Albert; Navarro, José-Tomás; Dunleavy, Kieron; Little, Richard F.; Ratner, Lee; Garcia, Olga; Morgades, Mireia; Remick, Scot C.; Noy, Ariela; Sparano, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Limited comparative data exist for the treatment of HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We analyzed pooled individual patient data for 1546 patients from 19 prospective clinical trials to assess treatment-specific factors (type of chemotherapy, rituximab, and concurrent combination antiretroviral [cART] use) and their influence on the outcomes complete response (CR), progression free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). In our analysis, rituximab was associated with a higher CR rate (odds ratio [OR] 2.89; P < .001), improved PFS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.50; P < .001), and OS (HR 0.51; P < .0001). Compared with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP), initial therapy with more dose-intense regimens resulted in better CR rates (ACVBP [doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vindesine, bleomycin and prednisolone]: OR 1.70; P < .04), PFS (ACVBP: HR 0.72; P = .049; “intensive regimens”: HR 0.35; P < .001) and OS (“intensive regimens”: HR 0.54; P < .001). Infusional etoposide, prednisone, infusional vincristine, infusional doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (EPOCH) was associated with significantly better OS in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (HR 0.33; P = .03). Concurrent use of cART was associated with improved CR rates (OR 1.89; P = .005) and trended toward improved OS (HR 0.78; P = .07). These findings provide supporting evidence for current patterns of care where definitive evidence is unavailable. PMID:24014242

  6. New ways of working: does flexibility in time and location of work change work behavior and affect business outcomes?

    PubMed

    Blok, Merle M; Groenesteijn, Liesbeth; Schelvis, Roos; Vink, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the changing modern economy some new factors have been addressed that are of importance for productivity and economic growth, such as human skills, workplace organization, information and communication technologies (ICT) and knowledge sharing. An increasing number of companies and organizations are implementing measures to better address these factors, often referred to as 'the New Ways of Working (NWW)'. This consists of a large variety of measures that enable flexibility in the time and location of work. Expectations of these measures are often high, such as a reduction in operating costs and an increase of productivity. However, scientific proof is still lacking, and it is worth asking whether al these implementations actually cause a change in work behavior and effect business outcomes positively. This article describes a case study of three departments (total of 73 employees) that changed from a traditional way of working towards a new way of working. Questionnaires and a new developed objective measurement system called 'work@task' were used to measure changes in work behavior (i.e. increased variation in work location, work times and a change towards NWW management style) and the effect on business objectives such as knowledge sharing, employees satisfaction, and collaboration. PMID:22317507

  7. New Ways of Working: does flexibility in time and location of work change work behavior and affect business outcomes?

    PubMed

    Blok, Merle M; Groenesteijn, Liesbeth; Schelvis, Roos; Vink, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the changing modern economy some new factors have been addressed that are of importance for productivity and economic growth, such as human skills, workplace organization, information and communication technologies (ICT) and knowledge sharing. An increasing number of companies and organizations are implementing measures to better address these factors, often referred to as 'the New Ways of Working (NWW)'. This consists of a large variety of measures that enable flexibility in the time and location of work. Expectations of these measures are often high, such as a reduction in operating costs and an increase of productivity. However, scientific proof is still lacking, and it is worth asking whether al these implementations actually cause a change in work behavior and effect business outcomes positively. This article describes a case study of three departments (total of 73 employees) that changed from a traditional way of working towards a new way of working. Questionnaires and a new developed objective measurement system called 'work@task' were used to measure changes in work behavior (i.e. increased variation in work location, work times and a change towards NWW management style) and the effect on business objectives such as knowledge sharing, employees satisfaction, and collaboration. PMID:22317114

  8. Early rehabilitation affects functional outcomes and activities of daily living after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Shimo, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuta; Tokiyoshi, Akinari; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The effect of early rehabilitation protocols after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is currently unknown. We examined short-term effects of early rehabilitation on functional outcomes and activities of daily living after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. [Subject and Methods] An 82-year-old male fell during a walk, resulting in a supraspinatus tear. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was performed using a single-row technique. He wore an abduction brace for 6 weeks after surgery. [Results] From day 1 after surgery, passive range of motion exercises, including forward flexion and internal and external rotation were performed twice per day. Starting at 6 weeks after surgery, active range of motion exercises and muscle strengthening exercises were introduced gradually. At 6 weeks after surgery, his active forward flexion was 150°, UCLA shoulder rating scale score was 34 points, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire disability/symptom score was 36 points. At 20 weeks after surgery, his active forward flexion was 120°, UCLA shoulder rating scale score was 34 points, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire disability/symptom score was 0 points. [Conclusion] These protocols are recommended to physical therapists during rehabilitation for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair to support rapid reintegration into activities of daily living. PMID:27064886

  9. Early rehabilitation affects functional outcomes and activities of daily living after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shimo, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuta; Tokiyoshi, Akinari; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The effect of early rehabilitation protocols after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is currently unknown. We examined short-term effects of early rehabilitation on functional outcomes and activities of daily living after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. [Subject and Methods] An 82-year-old male fell during a walk, resulting in a supraspinatus tear. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was performed using a single-row technique. He wore an abduction brace for 6 weeks after surgery. [Results] From day 1 after surgery, passive range of motion exercises, including forward flexion and internal and external rotation were performed twice per day. Starting at 6 weeks after surgery, active range of motion exercises and muscle strengthening exercises were introduced gradually. At 6 weeks after surgery, his active forward flexion was 150°, UCLA shoulder rating scale score was 34 points, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire disability/symptom score was 36 points. At 20 weeks after surgery, his active forward flexion was 120°, UCLA shoulder rating scale score was 34 points, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire disability/symptom score was 0 points. [Conclusion] These protocols are recommended to physical therapists during rehabilitation for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair to support rapid reintegration into activities of daily living. PMID:27064886

  10. New Ways of Working: does flexibility in time and location of work change work behavior and affect business outcomes?

    PubMed

    Blok, Merle M; Groenesteijn, Liesbeth; Schelvis, Roos; Vink, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the changing modern economy some new factors have been addressed that are of importance for productivity and economic growth, such as human skills, workplace organization, information and communication technologies (ICT) and knowledge sharing. An increasing number of companies and organizations are implementing measures to better address these factors, often referred to as 'the New Ways of Working (NWW)'. This consists of a large variety of measures that enable flexibility in the time and location of work. Expectations of these measures are often high, such as a reduction in operating costs and an increase of productivity. However, scientific proof is still lacking, and it is worth asking whether al these implementations actually cause a change in work behavior and effect business outcomes positively. This article describes a case study of three departments (total of 73 employees) that changed from a traditional way of working towards a new way of working. Questionnaires and a new developed objective measurement system called 'work@task' were used to measure changes in work behavior (i.e. increased variation in work location, work times and a change towards NWW management style) and the effect on business objectives such as knowledge sharing, employees satisfaction, and collaboration.

  11. New ways of working: does flexibility in time and location of work change work behavior and affect business outcomes?

    PubMed

    Blok, Merle M; Groenesteijn, Liesbeth; Schelvis, Roos; Vink, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the changing modern economy some new factors have been addressed that are of importance for productivity and economic growth, such as human skills, workplace organization, information and communication technologies (ICT) and knowledge sharing. An increasing number of companies and organizations are implementing measures to better address these factors, often referred to as 'the New Ways of Working (NWW)'. This consists of a large variety of measures that enable flexibility in the time and location of work. Expectations of these measures are often high, such as a reduction in operating costs and an increase of productivity. However, scientific proof is still lacking, and it is worth asking whether al these implementations actually cause a change in work behavior and effect business outcomes positively. This article describes a case study of three departments (total of 73 employees) that changed from a traditional way of working towards a new way of working. Questionnaires and a new developed objective measurement system called 'work@task' were used to measure changes in work behavior (i.e. increased variation in work location, work times and a change towards NWW management style) and the effect on business objectives such as knowledge sharing, employees satisfaction, and collaboration.

  12. Paternal obesity negatively affects male fertility and assisted reproduction outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jared M; Lane, Michelle; Owens, Julie A; Bakos, Hassan W

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review investigated the effect of paternal obesity on reproductive potential. Databases searched were Pubmed, Ovid, Web of Science, Scopus, Cinahl and Embase. Papers were critically appraised by two reviewers, and data were extracted using a standardized tool. Outcomes were: likelihood of infertility, embryo development, clinical pregnancy, live birth, pregnancy viability, infant development, sperm; concentration, morphology, motility, volume, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and seminal plasma factors. Thirty papers were included, with a total participant number of 115,158. Obese men were more likely to experience infertility (OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.53-1.79), their rate of live birth per cycle of assisted reproduction technology (ART) was reduced (OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.97) and they had a 10% absolute risk increase of pregnancy non-viability. Additionally, obese men had an increased percentage of sperm with low MMP, DNA fragmentation, and abnormal morphology. Clinically significant differences were not found for conventional semen parameters. From these findings it can be concluded that male obesity is associated with reduced reproductive potential. Furthermore, it may be informative to incorporate DNA fragmentation analysis and MMP assessment into semen testing, especially for obese men whose results suggest they should have normal fertility. PMID:26380863

  13. Stereotypes as stumbling-blocks: how coping with stereotype threat affects life outcomes for people with physical disabilities.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Arielle M; Cohen, Geoffrey L

    2014-10-01

    Stereotype threat, the concern about being judged in light of negative stereotypes, causes underperformance in evaluative situations. However, less is known about how coping with stereotypes can aggravate underperformance over time. We propose a model in which ongoing stereotype threat experiences threaten a person's sense of self-integrity, which in turn prompts defensive avoidance of stereotype-relevant situations, impeding growth, achievement, and well-being. We test this model in an important but understudied population: the physically disabled. In Study 1, blind adults reporting higher levels of stereotype threat reported lower self-integrity and well-being and were more likely to be unemployed and to report avoiding stereotype-threatening situations. In Study 2's field experiment, blind students in a compensatory skill-training program made more progress if they had completed a values-affirmation, an exercise that bolsters self-integrity. The findings suggest that stereotype threat poses a chronic threat to self-integrity and undermines life outcomes for people with disabilities.

  14. Haunted by ghosts: prevalence, predictors and outcomes of spirit possession experiences among former child soldiers and war-affected civilians in Northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Neuner, Frank; Pfeiffer, Anett; Schauer-Kaiser, Elisabeth; Odenwald, Michael; Elbert, Thomas; Ertl, Verena

    2012-08-01

    Phenomena of spirit possession have been documented in many cultures. Some authors have argued that spirit possession is a type of psychopathology, and should be included as a category in diagnostic manuals of mental disorders. However, there are hardly any quantitative studies that report the prevalence of spirit possession on a population level and that provide evidence for its validity as a psychopathological entity. In an epidemiological study that was carried out in 2007 and 2008 with N = 1113 youths and young adults aged between 12 and 25 years in war-affected regions of Northern Uganda we examined the prevalence, predictors and outcomes of cen, a local variant of spirit possession. Randomly selected participants were interviewed using a scale of cen, measures of psychopathology (PTSD and depression) as well as indicators of functional outcome on different levels, including suicide risk, daily activities, perceived discrimination, physical complaints and aggression. We found that cen was more common among former child soldiers then among subjects without a history of abduction. Cen was related to extreme levels of traumatic events and uniquely predicted functional outcome even when the effects of PTSD and depression were controlled for. Our findings show that a long-lasting war that is accompanied by the proliferation of spiritual and magical beliefs and propaganda can lead to high levels of harmful spirit possession. In addition, we provide evidence for the incremental validity of spirit possession as a trauma-related psychological disorder in this context.

  15. Haunted by ghosts: prevalence, predictors and outcomes of spirit possession experiences among former child soldiers and war-affected civilians in Northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Neuner, Frank; Pfeiffer, Anett; Schauer-Kaiser, Elisabeth; Odenwald, Michael; Elbert, Thomas; Ertl, Verena

    2012-08-01

    Phenomena of spirit possession have been documented in many cultures. Some authors have argued that spirit possession is a type of psychopathology, and should be included as a category in diagnostic manuals of mental disorders. However, there are hardly any quantitative studies that report the prevalence of spirit possession on a population level and that provide evidence for its validity as a psychopathological entity. In an epidemiological study that was carried out in 2007 and 2008 with N = 1113 youths and young adults aged between 12 and 25 years in war-affected regions of Northern Uganda we examined the prevalence, predictors and outcomes of cen, a local variant of spirit possession. Randomly selected participants were interviewed using a scale of cen, measures of psychopathology (PTSD and depression) as well as indicators of functional outcome on different levels, including suicide risk, daily activities, perceived discrimination, physical complaints and aggression. We found that cen was more common among former child soldiers then among subjects without a history of abduction. Cen was related to extreme levels of traumatic events and uniquely predicted functional outcome even when the effects of PTSD and depression were controlled for. Our findings show that a long-lasting war that is accompanied by the proliferation of spiritual and magical beliefs and propaganda can lead to high levels of harmful spirit possession. In addition, we provide evidence for the incremental validity of spirit possession as a trauma-related psychological disorder in this context. PMID:22580073

  16. Prolonged Antegrade Cerebral Perfusion via Right Axillary Artery (≥60 min) Does Not Affect Early Outcomes in a Repair of Type A Acute Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Saji, Yoshiaki; Kanemitsu, Hideo; Koyama, Tadaaki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We aim to investigate whether the duration of antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) via right axillary artery with an 8-mm prosthetic graft affects early outcomes in a repair of type A acute aortic dissection (AAD). Methods: Over the 24 months from April 2010, a repair of AAD under ACP via the right axillary artery and mild hypothermic circulatory arrest (rectum temperature, 28–30°C) was performed in 34 patients. Mean age was 64.5 ± 13.7 years of age. Preoperative shock status was in three due to cardiac tamponade. Organ malperfusion occurred in 11 patients preoperatively. Mean follow-up period was 9.6 ± 8.4 months and follow-up rate was 100%. Results: Hospital mortality rate was 8.8%. No newly required hemodialysis and new onset of temporary or permanent neurologic deficits were present in survivors. There were no statistically significant differences of mortality rate, new onset of permanent or temporary neurologic deficits and distal organ dysfunction between ACP duration <60 min and ≥60 min. The 12-month survival was 84.4% ± 6.4%. And, freedom from aorta-related events at 12 and 18 months were 100% ± 0.0% and 88.9% ± 10.5%, respectively. Conclusions: The duration of ACP via right axillary artery does not affect early outcomes following a repair of AAD. PMID:26062579

  17. Association of caregiver quality of care with neurocognitive outcomes in HIV-affected children aged 2–5 years in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Judith K.; Nakasujja, Noeline; Familiar-Lopez, Itziar; Sikorskii, Alla; Murray, Sarah M.; Opoka, Robert; Augustinavicius, Jura; Boivin, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Children affected by HIV are at increased risk of developmental and neuropsychological disturbances due to direct effects of HIV on the brain and direct effects associated with living in poverty. Caregivers can play an important role, through quality caregiving, in mitigating the negative effect of these stressors. This study used baseline data from an ongoing caregiver training intervention trial to evaluate the association between quality of caregiver–child interactions and neurocognitive outcomes in rural HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children in Uganda. We also assessed the extent to which caregiver distress moderated this relationship. Data on 329 caregiver–child dyads were collected between March 2012 and July 2014, when the children were between 2 and 5 years of age. Child outcomes include the Mullen Scales of Early Learning to assess general cognitive ability and the Color Object Association Test to assess immediate memory and total recall. Caregiving quality was assessed using the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment (HOME) total and subscale scores. Caregiver distress was assessed using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. General linear regression models assessed the association between the HOME total and subscale scores and child outcomes, with interaction terms used to test moderation by caregiver distress. Total HOME scores were positively and significantly associated with Mullen scores of cognitive ability; HOME acceptance subscale scores were positively and significantly associated with immediate recall scores. No other associations were statistically significant. As hypothesized, there is a strong association between the HOME and Mullen scores of cognitive ability in our study population, such that children who were assessed as living in environments with more stimulation also presented with a higher level of general neurocognitive development. Our results support the view of program guidance for HIV-affected

  18. Association of caregiver quality of care with neurocognitive outcomes in HIV-affected children aged 2-5 years in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bass, Judith K; Nakasujja, Noeline; Familiar-Lopez, Itziar; Sikorskii, Alla; Murray, Sarah M; Opoka, Robert; Augustinavicius, Jura; Boivin, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Children affected by HIV are at increased risk of developmental and neuropsychological disturbances due to direct effects of HIV on the brain and direct effects associated with living in poverty. Caregivers can play an important role, through quality caregiving, in mitigating the negative effect of these stressors. This study used baseline data from an ongoing caregiver training intervention trial to evaluate the association between quality of caregiver-child interactions and neurocognitive outcomes in rural HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children in Uganda. We also assessed the extent to which caregiver distress moderated this relationship. Data on 329 caregiver-child dyads were collected between March 2012 and July 2014, when the children were between 2 and 5 years of age. Child outcomes include the Mullen Scales of Early Learning to assess general cognitive ability and the Color Object Association Test to assess immediate memory and total recall. Caregiving quality was assessed using the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment (HOME) total and subscale scores. Caregiver distress was assessed using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. General linear regression models assessed the association between the HOME total and subscale scores and child outcomes, with interaction terms used to test moderation by caregiver distress. Total HOME scores were positively and significantly associated with Mullen scores of cognitive ability; HOME acceptance subscale scores were positively and significantly associated with immediate recall scores. No other associations were statistically significant. As hypothesized, there is a strong association between the HOME and Mullen scores of cognitive ability in our study population, such that children who were assessed as living in environments with more stimulation also presented with a higher level of general neurocognitive development. Our results support the view of program guidance for HIV-affected children

  19. A systematic review of the key factors affecting tissue viability and rehabilitation outcomes of the residual limb in lower extremity traumatic amputees.

    PubMed

    Butler, Katrina; Bowen, Catherine; Hughes, Ann-Marie; Torah, Russel; Ayala, Ivo; Tudor, John; Metcalf, Cheryl D

    2014-08-01

    Most traumatic lower limb amputees ambulate using a prosthetic limb. Comfort, appearance of the missing limb and function are confirmed as being important during rehabilitation post-amputation. Emerging evidence suggests that impaired tissue viability of the stump affects rehabilitation and thus clinical ability to provide optimum care. The primary objective of this systematic review was to identify key factors relating to tissue viability of the residual limb in lower extremity traumatic amputees. A secondary objective was to identify factors that affect rehabilitation post-amputation. In total, 218 studies were assessed; 37 met pre-determined criteria. Studies were classified according to the WHO ICF framework and the NHMRC level of evidence. Five key themes emerged; Prosthetic Fit; The Residuum; Quality of Life; Amputee Care and Prosthetic Use. The evidence indicates that high frequencies of skin problems affecting tissue viability within this population are inherently linked to intolerance of the prosthesis. Stump integrity, amputee care regimen and pain were also identified as impacting on quality of life, affecting rehabilitation and the ability to become independently mobile. Levels of evidence within all studies were low and indicative of the majority being non-randomised cohort studies or case-control studies. As there are a limited number of interventional studies, further development of robust outcome measures, clinical trials and prospective studies are of utmost importance to unravel the links between tissue viability and the other key factors. This will inform clinical management strategies and help develop targeted therapies and care pathways. PMID:25193657

  20. Differences in ovarian aging patterns between races are associated with ovarian genotypes and sub-genotypes of the FMR1 gene

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ovarian aging patterns differ between races, and appear to affect fertility treatment outcomes. What causes these differences is, however, unknown. Variations in ovarian aging patterns have recently been associated with specific ovarian genotypes and sub-genotypes of the FMR1 gene. We, therefore, attempted to determine differences in how functional ovarian reserve (FOR) changes with advancing age between races, and whether changes are associated with differences in distribution of ovarian genotypes and sub-genotypes of the FMR1 gene. Methods We determined in association with in vitro fertilization (IVF) FOR in 62 young Caucasian, African and Asian oocyte donors and 536 older infertility patients of all three races, based on follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and oocyte yields, and investigated whether differences between races are associated with differences in distribution of FMR1 genotypes and sub-genotypes. Results Changes in distribution of mean FSH, AMH and oocyte yields between young donors and older infertility patients were significant (all P < 0.001). Donors did not demonstrate significant differences between races in AMH and FSH but demonstrated significant differences in oocyte yields [F(2,59) = 4.22, P = 0.019]: Specifically, African donors demonstrated larger oocyte yields than Caucasians (P = 0.008) and Asians (P = 0.022). In patients, AMH levels differed significantly between races [F (2,533) = 4.25, P = 0.015]. Holm-Sidak post-hoc comparisons demonstrated that Caucasians demonstrated lower AMH in comparison to Asians (P = 0.007). Percentages of FMR1 genotypes and sub-genotypes in patients varied significantly between races, with Asians demonstrating fewer het-norm/low sub-genotypes than Caucasians and Africans (P = 0.012). Conclusion FOR changes in different races at different rates, and appears to parallel ovarian FMR1 genotypes and sub-genotype distributions. Differences

  1. pH and solute concentration of suspension media affect the outcome of high hydrostatic pressure treatment of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Shigenobu; Yamamoto, Kazutaka

    2006-09-01

    The effect of pH and solute concentration of suspension media on high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) induced inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes (approximate 10(8) CFU/ml) was investigated by the using treatment between 300 MPa and 600 MPa at 25 degrees C for 10 min. The suspension media used in this study represented different concentrations (0.1% to 10%) of buffered peptone water (BPW) with an adjusted pH of 4 to 7. An increase in the concentration of BPW resulted in a decreased HHP-induced inactivation of L. monocytogenes that was dependent on the pH of the medium. HHP-treatment at 300 MPa showed no bactericidal effect at neutral pH regardless of the BPW concentration. When the pH of BPW (0.1% to 5%) was reduced to 4, L. monocytogenes was completely inactivated (more than an 8 log cycle reduction) with a HHP-treatment of at least 300 MPa. HHP-treatment above 400 MPa completely inactivated L. monocytogenes in a relatively dilute BPW (0.1% and 1%) with an adjusted pH below 6. While only a 2 log cycle reduction was observed in 10% BPW at the pH ranging from 5 to 7 after treatment with 600 MPa, L. monocytogenes in 10% BPW at pH 4 was completely inactivated. Even though a significant bactericidal effect of HHP-treatment was not observed when applied with a low pressure such as 300 MPa or suspended in higher BPW at neutral pH, a reduction of the pH greatly affected the HHP-induced inactivation of L. monocytogenes. These results indicated that information concerning the pH of food or media would greatly assist an optimization of HHP-treatment for the inactivation of bacteria.

  2. Outcomes and moderators of a preventive school-based mental health intervention for children affected by war in Sri Lanka: a cluster randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    TOL, WIETSE A.; KOMPROE, IVAN H.; JORDANS, MARK J.D.; VALLIPURAM, ANAVARATHAN; SIPSMA, HEATHER; SIVAYOKAN, SAMBASIVAMOORTHY; MACY, ROBERT D.; DE JONG, JOOP T.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to examine outcomes, moderators and mediators of a preventive school-based mental health intervention implemented by paraprofessionals in a war-affected setting in northern Sri Lanka. A cluster randomized trial was employed. Subsequent to screening 1,370 children in randomly selected schools, 399 children were assigned to an intervention (n=199) or waitlist control condition (n=200). The intervention consisted of 15 manualized sessions over 5 weeks of cognitive behavioral techniques and creative expressive elements. Assessments took place before, 1 week after, and 3 months after the intervention. Primary outcomes included post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive, and anxiety symptoms. No main effects on primary outcomes were identified. A main effect in favor of intervention for conduct problems was observed. This effect was stronger for younger children. Furthermore, we found intervention benefits for specific subgroups. Stronger effects were found for boys with regard to PTSD and anxiety symptoms, and for younger children on pro-social behavior. Moreover, we found stronger intervention effects on PTSD, anxiety, and function impairment for children experiencing lower levels of current war-related stressors. Girls in the intervention condition showed smaller reductions on PTSD symptoms than waitlisted girls. We conclude that preventive school-based psychosocial interventions in volatile areas characterized by ongoing war-related stressors may effectively improve indicators of psychological wellbeing and posttraumatic stress-related symptoms in some children. However, they may undermine natural recovery for others. Further research is necessary to examine how gender, age and current war-related experiences contribute to differential intervention effects. PMID:22654944

  3. Does comorbid chronic pain affect posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis and treatment? Outcomes of posttraumatic stress disorder screening in Department of Veterans Affairs primary care.

    PubMed

    Outcalt, Samantha D; Hoen, Helena Maria; Yu, Zhangsheng; Franks, Tenesha Marie; Krebs, Erin E

    2016-01-01

    Because posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is both prevalent and underrecognized, routine primary care-based screening for PTSD has been implemented across the Veterans Health Administration. PTSD is frequently complicated by the presence of comorbid chronic pain, and patients with both conditions have increased symptom severity and poorer prognosis. Our objective was to determine whether the presence of pain affects diagnosis and treatment of PTSD among Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) patients who have a positive PTSD screening test. This retrospective cohort study used clinical and administrative data from six Midwestern VA medical centers. We identified 4,244 VA primary care patients with a positive PTSD screen and compared outcomes for those with and without a coexisting pain diagnosis. Outcomes were three clinically appropriate responses to positive PTSD screening: (1) mental health visit, (2) PTSD diagnosis, and (3) new selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) prescription. We found that patients with coexisting pain had a lower rate of mental health visits than those without pain (hazard ratio: 0.889, 95% confidence interval: 0.821-0.962). There were no significant differences in the rate of PTSD diagnosis or new SSRI prescription between patients with and without coexisting pain.

  4. Disentangling pooled triad genotypes for association studies.

    PubMed

    Shi, Min; Umbach, David M; Weinberg, Clarice R

    2014-09-01

    Association studies that genotype affected offspring and their parents (triads) offer robustness to genetic population structure while enabling assessments of maternal effects, parent-of-origin effects, and gene-by-environment interaction. We propose case-parents designs that use pooled DNA specimens to make economical use of limited available specimens. One can markedly reduce the number of genotyping assays required by randomly partitioning the case-parent triads into pooling sets of h triads each and creating three pools from every pooling set, one pool each for mothers, fathers, and offspring. Maximum-likelihood estimation of relative risk parameters proceeds via log-linear modeling using the expectation-maximization algorithm. The approach can assess offspring and maternal genetic effects and accommodate genotyping errors and missing genotypes. We compare the power of our proposed analysis for testing offspring and maternal genetic effects to that based on a difference approach and that of the gold standard based on individual genotypes, under a range of allele frequencies, missing parent proportions, and genotyping error rates. Power calculations show that the pooling strategies cause only modest reductions in power if genotyping errors are low, while reducing genotyping costs and conserving limited specimens.

  5. Caffeine Use Affects Pregnancy Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diego, Miguel; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Vera, Yanexy; Gil, Karla; Gonzalez-Garcia, Adolfo

    2008-01-01

    A sample of 750 women were interviewed during pregnancy on their depression and anxiety symptoms, substance use and demographic variables. A subsample was seen again at the neonatal stage (n = 152), and their infants were observed for sleep-wake behavior. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were related to caffeine use. Mothers who consumed more…

  6. Animated pedagogical agents: How the presence and nonverbal communication of a virtual instructor affect perceptions and learning outcomes in a computer-based environment about basic physics concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frechette, M. Casey

    One important but under-researched area of instructional technology concerns the effects of animated pedagogical agents (APAs), or lifelike characters designed to enhance learning in computer-based environments. This research sought to broaden what is currently known about APAs' instructional value by investigating the effects of agents' visual presence and nonverbal communication. A theoretical framework based on APA literature published in the past decade guided the design of the study. This framework sets forth that APAs impact learning through their presence and communication. The communication displayed by an APA involves two distinct kinds of nonverbal cues: cognitive (hand and arm gestures) and affective (facial expressions). It was predicted that the presence of an agent would enhance learning and that nonverbal communication would amplify these effects. The research utilized a between-subjects experimental design. Participants were randomly assigned to treatment conditions in a controlled lab setting, and group means were compared with a MANCOVA. Participants received (1) a non-animated agent, (2) an agent with hand and arm gestures, (3) an agent with facial expressions, or (4) a fully animated agent. The agent appeared in a virtual learning environment focused on Kepler's laws of planetary motion. A control group did not receive the visual presence of an agent. Two effects were studied: participants' perceptions and their learning outcomes. Perceptions were measured with an attitudinal survey with five subscales. Learning outcomes were measured with an open-ended recall test, a multiple choice comprehension test, and an open-ended transfer test. Learners presented with an agent with affective nonverbal communication comprehended less than learners exposed to a non-animated agent. No significant differences were observed when a group exposed to a fully animated agent was compared to a group with a non-animated agent. Adding both nonverbal communication

  7. Bed rest following embryo transfer might negatively affect the outcome of IVF/ICSI: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Craciunas, Laurentiu; Tsampras, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    The majority of patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment will reach the stage of embryo transfer (ET), but only a small proportion of transferred embryos implant. Bed rest following ET has been recommended as a way to prevent embryo expulsion by gravity. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published prior to May 2014 reporting the effect of bed rest following ET, and irrespective of language, country of origin, blinding or sample size. Four RCTs, including 757 women met the inclusion criteria. Bed rest following ET did not improve clinical pregnancy and live birth rates, but reduced the implantation rate. The quality of the trials included was moderate because of attrition bias and possible reporting bias. The findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis are concordant with previously published literature and suggest that bed rest is not beneficial following ET. Moreover, it might negatively affect the outcome of IVF/ICSI cycles via stress/anxiety mechanisms.

  8. Bed rest following embryo transfer might negatively affect the outcome of IVF/ICSI: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Craciunas, Laurentiu; Tsampras, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    The majority of patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment will reach the stage of embryo transfer (ET), but only a small proportion of transferred embryos implant. Bed rest following ET has been recommended as a way to prevent embryo expulsion by gravity. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published prior to May 2014 reporting the effect of bed rest following ET, and irrespective of language, country of origin, blinding or sample size. Four RCTs, including 757 women met the inclusion criteria. Bed rest following ET did not improve clinical pregnancy and live birth rates, but reduced the implantation rate. The quality of the trials included was moderate because of attrition bias and possible reporting bias. The findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis are concordant with previously published literature and suggest that bed rest is not beneficial following ET. Moreover, it might negatively affect the outcome of IVF/ICSI cycles via stress/anxiety mechanisms. PMID:26986834

  9. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist for oocyte triggering in endometrial preparation of letrozole stimulation protocols does not affect clinical outcome of frozen-thawed embryo transfer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pin-Xiu; Wei, Ji-Hong; Wei, Li-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of GnRH agonist in comparison with hCG for triggering final oocyte maturation in endometrial preparation of letrozole stimulation protocols for frozen-thawed embryo transfer. Methods: The frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles (FET) that use the letrozole stimulation protocols for endometrial preparation were divided into two groups according the different method of triggering final oocyte maturation. The serum LH and E2 levels, and the endometrial thickness on the day of triggering, the clinical pregnancy rates, the miscarriage rates and live birth rates were compared. Results: There were no significant differences in the age, the endometrial thickness, the number of embryos transferred between the two groups. The clinical pregnancy rate, abortion rate and live birth rates of the group A were similar compared with the group B, P<0.05. Conclusion: Using GnRH agonist for oocyte triggering in endometrial preparation of letrozole stimulation protocols for frozen-thawed embryo transfer does not affect the clinical outcome compared with hCG under the same luteal phase support. PMID:26770535

  10. The Role of the Parent Compound Vitamin D with Respect to Metabolism and Function: Why Clinical Dose Intervals Can Affect Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Carol L.

    2013-01-01

    Context: There is no doubt that vitamin D must be activated to the hormonal form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to achieve full biological activity or that many tissues participate in this activation process—be it endocrine or autocrine. We believe that not only is 25-hydroxyvitamin D important to tissue delivery for this activation process, but also that intact vitamin D has a pivotal role in this process. Objective: In this review, evidence on the vitamin D endocrine/autocrine system is presented and discussed in relation to vitamin D-binding protein affinity, circulating half-lives, and enzymatic transformations of vitamin D metabolites, and how these affect biological action in any given tissue. Conclusions: Circulating vitamin D, the parent compound, likely plays an important physiological role with respect to the vitamin D endocrine/autocrine system, as a substrate in many tissues, not originally thought to be important. Based on emerging data from the laboratory, clinical trials, and data on circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D amassed during many decades, it is likely that for the optimal functioning of these systems, significant vitamin D should be available on a daily basis to ensure stable circulating concentrations, implying that variation in vitamin D dosing schedules could have profound effects on the outcomes of clinical trials because of the short circulating half-life of intact vitamin D. PMID:24106283

  11. Long-term psychosocial outcomes of BRCA1/BRCA2 testing: Differences across affected status and risk-reducing surgery choice

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Kristi D.; Vegella, Patti; Poggi, Elizabeth A.; Peshkin, Beth N.; Tong, Angie; Isaacs, Claudine; Finch, Clinton; Kelly, Scott; Taylor, Kathryn L.; Luta, George; Schwartz, Marc D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have documented the short-term impact of BRCA1/BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) testing; however, little research has examined the long-term impact of testing. We conducted the first long-term prospective study of psychosocial outcomes in a U.S. sample of women who had BRCA1/2 testing. Methods Participants were 464 women who underwent genetic testing for BRCA1/2 mutations. Prior to testing, we measured sociodemographics, clinical variables, and cancer specific and general distress. At long-term follow-up (Median=5.0 years; Range=3.4 to 9.1 years), we assessed cancer specific and genetic testing distress, perceived stress and perceived cancer risk. We evaluated the impact of BRCA1/2 test result and risk reducing surgery on long-term psychosocial outcomes. Results Among participants who had been affected with breast or ovarian cancer, BRCA1/2 carriers reported higher genetic testing distress (β=0.41, P<0.0001), uncertainty (β=0.18, P<0.0001) and perceived stress (β=0.17, P=0.005) compared to women who received negative (i.e., uninformative) results. Among women unaffected with breast/ovarian cancer, BRCA1/2 carriers reported higher genetic testing distress (β=0.39, P<0.0001) and lower positive testing experiences (β=0.25, P=0.008) than women with negative results. Receipt of risk-reducing surgery was associated with lower perceived cancer risk (P<0.0001). Conclusions In this first prospective long-term study in a U.S. sample, we found modestly increased distress in BRCA1/2 carriers compared to women who received uninformative or negative test results. Despite this modest increase in distress, we found no evidence of clinically significant dysfunction. Impact While a positive BRCA1/2 result remains salient among carriers years after testing, testing does not appear to impact long-term psychological dysfunction. PMID:22328347

  12. HIV Genotypic Resistance Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Anti-retroviral Drug Resistance Testing; ARV Resistance Testing Formal name: ...

  13. APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk Assessment ; HDL Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Lipid Profile ; Triglycerides Were you looking instead for APOE genotyping ordered ... the skin called xanthomas, a high level of triglycerides in the blood, and atherosclerosis that develops at ...

  14. Evidence Based-Practice and Affect: The Impact of Physician Attitudes on Outcomes Associated with Clinical Reasoning and Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunphy, Bruce; Dunphy, Stacey; Cantwell, Robert; Bourke, Sid; Fleming, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between obstetrician attitudes and patient outcomes from intrapartum care was examined. Obstetrician attitudes were assessed utilizing a newly-designed pilot 35-item obstetrician attitude questionnaire (OAQ). Twelve obstetricians completed the OAQ, who provided intra-partum care to 4,149 women. Outcome measures included delivery…

  15. Impact of OAS1 Exon 7 rs10774671 Genetic Variation on Liver Fibrosis Progression in Egyptian HCV Genotype 4 Patients.

    PubMed

    Bader El Din, Noha G; Anany, Mohamed A; Dawood, Reham M; Ibrahim, Marwa K; El-Shenawy, Reem; El Abd, Yasmin S; El Awady, Mostafa K

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of genetic variants of oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs10774671 at the exon 7 splice acceptor site on liver fibrosis progression and hepatitis C virus (HCV) outcome in Egyptian HCV genotype 4 patients. In this study, 195 subjects were enrolled; 60 controls and 135 chronic HCV genotype 4 patients with different fibrosis grades. All subjects were genotyped for OAS1 SNP rs10774671 polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. There was an increasing trend of liver fibrosis progression as 52.9% GG, 73.6% GA, and 83.3% AA genotypes were detected in late fibrosis patients (p = 0.025). The AA genotype was higher in the late fibrosis group than in the early fibrosis group (83.3% vs. 16.7%) (p = 0.001). The A allele was significantly affecting the liver fibrosis progression rate, more than the G allele (p = 0.001). The multivariate analysis showed that the OAS1 GA and AA genotypes were independent factors associated with liver progression (p = 0.009, odds ratio [OR] 3.467, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.273-7.584). In addition, the A allele was associated with liver fibrosis progression (p = 0.014, OR 2.525, 95% CI 1.157-4.545). The polymorphism at OAS1 exon 7 rs3741981 might be a potential genetic marker and can be useful in the assessment of liver fibrosis progression and disease outcome in HCV-infected patients. PMID:26505957

  16. The association of white matter volume in psychotic disorders with genotypic variation in NRG1, MOG and CNP: a voxel-based analysis in affected individuals and their unaffected relatives.

    PubMed

    Cannon, D M; Walshe, M; Dempster, E; Collier, D A; Marshall, N; Bramon, E; Murray, R M; McDonald, C

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the role of variation in putative psychosis genes coding for elements of the white matter system by examining the contribution of genotypic variation in three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) neuregulin 1 (NRG1) SNP8NRG221533, myelin oligodendrocytes glycoprotein (MOG) rs2857766 and CNP (rs2070106) and one haplotype HAP(ICE) (deCODE) to white matter volume in patients with psychotic disorder and their unaffected relatives. Structural magnetic resonance imaging and blood samples for genotyping were collected on 189 participants including patients with schizophrenia (SZ) or bipolar I disorder (BDI), unaffected first-degree relatives of these patients and healthy volunteers. The association of genotypic variation with white matter volume was assessed using voxel-based morphometry in SPM5. The NRG1 SNP and the HAP(ICE) haplotype were associated with abnormal white matter volume in the BDI group in the fornix, cingulum and parahippocampal gyrus circuit. In SZ the NRG1 SNP risk allele was associated with lower white matter volume in the uncinate fasciculus (UF), right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the anterior limb of the internal capsule. Healthy G-homozygotes of the MOG SNP had greater white matter volume in areas of the brainstem and cerebellum; this relationship was absent in those with a psychotic disorder and the unaffected relatives groups. The CNP SNP did not contribute to white matter volume variation in the diagnostic groups studied. Variation in the genes coding for structural and protective components of myelin are implicated in abnormal white matter volume in the emotion circuitry of the cingulum, fornix, parahippocampal gyrus and UF in psychotic disorders. PMID:23032943

  17. Genotype Analysis of Bacillus anthracis Strains Circulating in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rume, Farzana Islam; Affuso, Alessia; Serrecchia, Luigina; Rondinone, Valeria; Manzulli, Viviana; Campese, Emanuele; Di Taranto, Pietro; Biswas, Paritosh Kumar; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Yasmin, Mahmuda; Fasanella, Antonio; Hugh-Jones, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is considered an endemic disease affecting ruminants with sporadic zoonotic occurrences in humans. Due to the lack of knowledge about risks from an incorrect removal of infected carcasses, the disease is not properly monitored, and because of the socio-economic conditions, the situation is under-reported and under-diagnosed. For sensitive species, anthrax represents a fatal outcome with sudden death and sometimes bleeding from natural orifices. The most common source of infection for ruminants is ingestion of spores during grazing in contaminated pastures or through grass and water contaminated with anthrax spores. Domestic cattle, sheep and goats can also become infected through contaminated bone meal (used as feed) originating from anthrax-infected carcasses. The present investigation was conducted to isolate B. anthracis organisms from 169 samples (73 soil, 1 tissue, 4 bone and 91 bone meal samples) collected from 12 different districts of Bangladesh. The sampling was carried out from 2012 to 2015. Twelve samples resulted positive for B. anthracis. Biomolecular analyses were conducted starting from the Canonical Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (CanSNP) to analyze the phylogenetic origin of strains. The analysis of genotype, obtained through the Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) with the analysis of 15 Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTR), demonstrated four different genotypes: two of them were previously identified in the district of Sirajganj. The sub-genotyping, conducted with Single Nucleotide Repeats analysis, revealed the presence of eight subgenotypes. The data of the present study concluded that there was no observed correlation between imported cattle feed and anthrax occurrence in Bangladesh and that the remarkable genetic variations of B. anthracis were found in the soil of numerous outbreaks in this country. PMID:27082248

  18. Genotype Analysis of Bacillus anthracis Strains Circulating in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Rume, Farzana Islam; Affuso, Alessia; Serrecchia, Luigina; Rondinone, Valeria; Manzulli, Viviana; Campese, Emanuele; Di Taranto, Pietro; Biswas, Paritosh Kumar; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Yasmin, Mahmuda; Fasanella, Antonio; Hugh-Jones, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is considered an endemic disease affecting ruminants with sporadic zoonotic occurrences in humans. Due to the lack of knowledge about risks from an incorrect removal of infected carcasses, the disease is not properly monitored, and because of the socio-economic conditions, the situation is under-reported and under-diagnosed. For sensitive species, anthrax represents a fatal outcome with sudden death and sometimes bleeding from natural orifices. The most common source of infection for ruminants is ingestion of spores during grazing in contaminated pastures or through grass and water contaminated with anthrax spores. Domestic cattle, sheep and goats can also become infected through contaminated bone meal (used as feed) originating from anthrax-infected carcasses. The present investigation was conducted to isolate B. anthracis organisms from 169 samples (73 soil, 1 tissue, 4 bone and 91 bone meal samples) collected from 12 different districts of Bangladesh. The sampling was carried out from 2012 to 2015. Twelve samples resulted positive for B. anthracis. Biomolecular analyses were conducted starting from the Canonical Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (CanSNP) to analyze the phylogenetic origin of strains. The analysis of genotype, obtained through the Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) with the analysis of 15 Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTR), demonstrated four different genotypes: two of them were previously identified in the district of Sirajganj. The sub-genotyping, conducted with Single Nucleotide Repeats analysis, revealed the presence of eight subgenotypes. The data of the present study concluded that there was no observed correlation between imported cattle feed and anthrax occurrence in Bangladesh and that the remarkable genetic variations of B. anthracis were found in the soil of numerous outbreaks in this country. PMID:27082248

  19. Spartina alterniflora genotype influences facilitation and suppression of high marsh species colonizing an early successional salt marsh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Proffitt, C.E.; Chiasson, R.L.; Owens, A.B.; Edwards, K.R.; Travis, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    1. Genetically based phenotypic and ecotypic variation in a dominant plant species can influence ecological functions and patterns of recruitment by other species in plant communities. However, the nature and degree of importance of genotypic differences is poorly understood in most systems. 2. The dominant salt marsh species, Spartina alterniflora, is known to induce facultative and competitive effects in different plant species, and the outcomes of interactions can be affected by nutrients and flooding stress. Clonal genotypes, which maintained their different plant architecture phenotypes throughout 31 months of a field experiment, underwent considerable genet-specific senescence in their centres over the last 12 months. 3. Different clonal genotypes and different locations (robust edges vs. senescent centres) permitted significantly different levels of light penetration of the canopy (14.8-77.6%), thus establishing spatial heterogeneity for this important environmental factor. 4. S. alterniflora clonal genotype influenced the degree of suppression of the previously dominant Salicornia bigelovii as well as facilitation of recruitment and growth by other plant species. Aster subulatus and Atriplex, patula performed better in Spartina clone centres, and experienced reduced growth in Salicornia-dominated areas. 5. Four other high marsh species (Borrichia frutescens, Aster tenuifolius, Iva frutescens and Limonium carolinianum) colonized only into Spartina clones but not into the Salicornia-dominated area. 6. These results suggest that differences in clone size, centre senescence, stem density, height, total stem length and biomass in different genotypes of a dominant marsh plant species can influence recruitment and growth of other plant species. The spatial pattern of habitat heterogeneity is, at least in part, dependent on the genotypic diversity, and possibly the genetic diversity, of such foundation species. 7. We hypothesize that as genotypic diversity

  20. Long-Term Clinical Impact of Adaptation of Initial Tacrolimus Dosing to CYP3A5 Genotype.

    PubMed

    Pallet, N; Etienne, I; Buchler, M; Bailly, E; Hurault de Ligny, B; Choukroun, G; Colosio, C; Thierry, A; Vigneau, C; Moulin, B; Le Meur, Y; Heng, A-E; Legendre, C; Beaune, P; Loriot, M A; Thervet, E

    2016-09-01

    Pretransplantation adaptation of the daily dose of tacrolimus to CYP3A5 genotype is associated with improved achievement of target trough concentration (C0 ), but whether this improvement affects clinical outcomes is unknown. In the present study, we have evaluated the long-term clinical impact of the adaptation of initial tacrolimus dosing according to CYP3A5 genotype: The transplantation outcomes of the 236 kidney transplant recipients included in the Tactique study were retrospectively investigated over a period of more than 5 years. In the Tactique study, patients were randomly assigned to receive tacrolimus at either a fixed dosage or a dosage determined by their genotype, and the primary efficacy end point was the proportion of patients for whom tacrolimus C0 was within target range (10-15 ng/mL) at day 10. Our results indicate that the incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection and graft survival were similar between the control and the adapted tacrolimus dose groups, as well as between the patients who achieve the tacrolimus C0 target ranges earlier. Patients' death, cancer, cardiovascular events, and infections were also similar, and renal function did not change. We conclude that optimization of initial tacrolimus dose using pharmacogenetic testing does not improve clinical outcomes. PMID:26990694

  1. Host infection history modifies co-infection success of multiple parasite genotypes.

    PubMed

    Klemme, Ines; Louhi, Katja-Riikka; Karvonen, Anssi

    2016-03-01

    Co-infections by multiple parasite genotypes are common and have important implications for host-parasite ecology and evolution through within-host interactions. Typically, these infections take place sequentially, and therefore, the outcome of co-infection may be shaped by host immune responses triggered by previous infections. For example, in vertebrates, specific immune responses play a central role in protection against disease over the course of life, but co-infection research has mostly focused on previously uninfected individuals. Here, we investigated whether sequential exposure and activation of host resistance in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss affects infection success and interactions between co-infecting parasite genotypes of the trematode eye-fluke Diplostomum pseudospathaceum. In accordance with earlier results, we show that a simultaneous attack of two parasite genotypes facilitates parasite establishment in previously uninfected hosts. However, we find for the first time that this facilitation in co-infection is lost in hosts with prior infection. We conclude that vertebrate host infection history can affect the direction of within-host-parasite interactions. Our results may have significant implications for the evolution of co-infections and parasite transmission strategies.

  2. Aphid and ladybird beetle abundance depend on the interaction of spatial effects and genotypic diversity.

    PubMed

    Genung, Mark A; Crutsinger, Gregory M; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Sanders, Nathan J

    2012-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and genotypic diversity of host-plants can affect the structure of associated arthropod communities and the dynamics of populations. Similarly, neighboring plants can also affect interactions between host-plants and their associated arthropods. However, most studies on the effects of host-plant genotypes have largely ignored the potential effects of neighboring host-plants on arthropod communities. In this study, we used a common garden experiment to ask how spatial effects of neighboring patches, along with genotype identity and genotypic diversity in tall goldenrod (Solidago altissima), affect the abundances of a common goldenrod herbivore (Uroleucon nigrotuberculatum) and their dominant predator (Harmonia axyridis, a ladybird beetle). Aphid abundance varied 80-fold among genotypes, while ladybird beetle abundance was not affected by genotype identity. Additionally, there were strong effects of neighboring plots: aphid abundance in a focal plot was positively correlated to aphid abundance in nearby plots, suggesting strong spatial patterning in the abundance of aphids. Neither aphid nor ladybird beetle abundance was affected by genotypic diversity. However, focal plot genotypic diversity mediated the strength of the neighborhood effect (i.e., strong effects for genotype polyculture focal plots and weak effects for genotype monoculture focal plots). Our results show that aphids were directly influenced by host-plant genotype identity while ladybird beetles responded mainly to prey abundance, and suggest that genotypic diversity can influence the effects of spatial processes on the plant-herbivore interactions. PMID:21805301

  3. Aphid and ladybird beetle abundance depend on the interaction of spatial effects and genotypic diversity.

    PubMed

    Genung, Mark A; Crutsinger, Gregory M; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Sanders, Nathan J

    2012-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and genotypic diversity of host-plants can affect the structure of associated arthropod communities and the dynamics of populations. Similarly, neighboring plants can also affect interactions between host-plants and their associated arthropods. However, most studies on the effects of host-plant genotypes have largely ignored the potential effects of neighboring host-plants on arthropod communities. In this study, we used a common garden experiment to ask how spatial effects of neighboring patches, along with genotype identity and genotypic diversity in tall goldenrod (Solidago altissima), affect the abundances of a common goldenrod herbivore (Uroleucon nigrotuberculatum) and their dominant predator (Harmonia axyridis, a ladybird beetle). Aphid abundance varied 80-fold among genotypes, while ladybird beetle abundance was not affected by genotype identity. Additionally, there were strong effects of neighboring plots: aphid abundance in a focal plot was positively correlated to aphid abundance in nearby plots, suggesting strong spatial patterning in the abundance of aphids. Neither aphid nor ladybird beetle abundance was affected by genotypic diversity. However, focal plot genotypic diversity mediated the strength of the neighborhood effect (i.e., strong effects for genotype polyculture focal plots and weak effects for genotype monoculture focal plots). Our results show that aphids were directly influenced by host-plant genotype identity while ladybird beetles responded mainly to prey abundance, and suggest that genotypic diversity can influence the effects of spatial processes on the plant-herbivore interactions.

  4. Genotypic richness predicts phenotypic variation in an endangered clonal plant.

    PubMed

    Evans, Suzanna M; Sinclair, Elizabeth A; Poore, Alistair G B; Bain, Keryn F; Vergés, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Declines in genetic diversity within a species can affect the stability and functioning of populations. The conservation of genetic diversity is thus a priority, especially for threatened or endangered species. The importance of genetic variation, however, is dependent on the degree to which it translates into phenotypic variation for traits that affect individual performance and ecological processes. This is especially important for predominantly clonal species, as no single clone is likely to maximise all aspects of performance. Here we show that intraspecific genotypic diversity as measured using microsatellites is a strong predictor of phenotypic variation in morphological traits and shoot productivity of the threatened, predominantly clonal seagrass Posidonia australis, on the east coast of Australia. Biomass and surface area variation was most strongly predicted by genotypic richness, while variation in leaf chemistry (phenolics and nitrogen) was unrelated to genotypic richness. Genotypic richness did not predict tissue loss to herbivores or epiphyte load, however we did find that increased herbivore damage was positively correlated with allelic richness. Although there was no clear relationship between higher primary productivity and genotypic richness, variation in shoot productivity within a meadow was significantly greater in more genotypically diverse meadows. The proportion of phenotypic variation explained by environmental conditions varied among different genotypes, and there was generally no variation in phenotypic traits among genotypes present in the same meadows. Our results show that genotypic richness as measured through the use of presumably neutral DNA markers does covary with phenotypic variation in functionally relevant traits such as leaf morphology and shoot productivity. The remarkably long lifespan of individual Posidonia plants suggests that plasticity within genotypes has played an important role in the longevity of the species

  5. Genotypic richness predicts phenotypic variation in an endangered clonal plant

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Elizabeth A.; Poore, Alistair G.B.; Bain, Keryn F.; Vergés, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Declines in genetic diversity within a species can affect the stability and functioning of populations. The conservation of genetic diversity is thus a priority, especially for threatened or endangered species. The importance of genetic variation, however, is dependent on the degree to which it translates into phenotypic variation for traits that affect individual performance and ecological processes. This is especially important for predominantly clonal species, as no single clone is likely to maximise all aspects of performance. Here we show that intraspecific genotypic diversity as measured using microsatellites is a strong predictor of phenotypic variation in morphological traits and shoot productivity of the threatened, predominantly clonal seagrass Posidonia australis, on the east coast of Australia. Biomass and surface area variation was most strongly predicted by genotypic richness, while variation in leaf chemistry (phenolics and nitrogen) was unrelated to genotypic richness. Genotypic richness did not predict tissue loss to herbivores or epiphyte load, however we did find that increased herbivore damage was positively correlated with allelic richness. Although there was no clear relationship between higher primary productivity and genotypic richness, variation in shoot productivity within a meadow was significantly greater in more genotypically diverse meadows. The proportion of phenotypic variation explained by environmental conditions varied among different genotypes, and there was generally no variation in phenotypic traits among genotypes present in the same meadows. Our results show that genotypic richness as measured through the use of presumably neutral DNA markers does covary with phenotypic variation in functionally relevant traits such as leaf morphology and shoot productivity. The remarkably long lifespan of individual Posidonia plants suggests that plasticity within genotypes has played an important role in the longevity of the species

  6. Genetic polymorphisms of the human cytomegalovirus UL144 gene in colorectal cancer and its association with clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Pai; Jiang, Jeng-Kai; Chan, Chia-Hao; Teo, Wan-Huai; Yang, Chih-Yung; Chen, Yen-Chung; Chou, Teh-Ying; Lin, Chi-Hung; Chan, Yu-Jiun

    2015-12-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been increasingly detected in colorectal cancer (CRC), and genetic polymorphisms in HCMV affect its pathogenesis. This study aimed to investigate HCMV genetic polymorphisms in CRC and its correlation with the clinical outcomes. We performed PCR and sequencing of a viral immunomodulatory gene, UL144, in clinical isolates and CRC specimens. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences were aligned, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. The clinical, pathological and survival data were compared among tumours with different UL144 genotypes. HCMV was detected in 49 (47.8 %) of the tumour specimens. Genotype A predominated in 43 samples (22/43; 51.2 %) with successful sequencing, followed by genotype B (13/43; 30.2 %) and genotype C (8/43; 18.6 %). The genotypic distribution was similar to that of the clinical isolates and those reported in other Asian populations. The amino acid sequence of genotype B was the most conserved. For stage II and III CRC patients with HCMV-positive tumours, disease-free survival (DFS) varied among the three major genotypes (P50.0046). The presence of genotype B virus in the tumours was associated with a shorter DFS and independently predicted tumour recurrence in a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model (hazard ratio, 5.79; 95 % confidence interval, 1.30–25.81; P50.021). By reverse transcription PCR, tumour samples with genotype B viruses had the highest rate of UL144 expression. Our results suggest that genetic polymorphisms of HCMV UL144 are associated with clinical outcome in CRC and that HCMV may play an immunomodulatory role in the tumour microenvironment of CRC. PMID:26450180

  7. Welcome to the neighbourhood: interspecific genotype by genotype interactions in Solidago influence above- and belowground biomass and associated communities.

    PubMed

    Genung, Mark A; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A

    2012-01-01

    Intra- and interspecific plant-plant interactions are fundamental to patterns of community assembly and to the mixture effects observed in biodiversity studies. Although much research has been conducted at the species level, very little is understood about how genetic variation within and among interacting species may drive these processes. Using clones of both Solidago altissima and Solidago gigantea, we found that genotypic variation in a plant's neighbours affected both above- and belowground plant traits, and that genotype by genotype interactions between neighbouring plants impacted associated pollinator communities. The traits for which focal plant genotypic variation explained the most variation varied by plant species, whereas neighbour genotypic variation explained the most variation in coarse root biomass. Our results provide new insight into genotypic and species diversity effects in plant-neighbour interactions, the extended consequences of diversity effects, and the potential for evolution in response to competitive or to facilitative plant-neighbour interactions. PMID:22070740

  8. Dysregulation Of Innate Immunity In HCV Genotype 1 IL28B Unfavorable Genotype Patients: Impaired Viral Kinetics And Therapeutic Response

    PubMed Central

    Naggie, Susanna; Osinusi, Anu; Katsounas, Antonios; Lempicki, Richard; Herrmann, Eva; Thompson, Alexander J; Clark, Paul J; Patel, Keyur; Muir, Andrew J; McHutchison, John G; Schlaak, Joerg F; Trippler, Martin; Shivakumar, Bhavana; Masur, Henry; Polis, Michael A.; Kottilil, Shyam

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that a single nucleotide polymorphism upstream of the interleukin (IL)-28B gene plays a major role in predicting therapeutic response in HCV-infected patients treated with pegylated interferon-alpha (IFN)/ribavirin. We sought to investigate the mechanism of the IL28B polymorphism, specifically as it relates to early HCV viral kinetics (VK), IFN pharmacokinetics (PK), IFN pharmacodynamics (PD), and gene expression profiles. Two prospective cohorts (HIV/HCV co-infected and HCV mono-infected) completing treatment with IFN/ribavirin were enrolled. Patients (N=88; 44 HIV/HCV and 44 HCV) were genotyped at the polymorphic site rs12979860. In the HIV/HCV cohort frequent serum sampling was completed for HCV RNA and IFN-levels. DNA microarray of PBMCs and individual expression of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) were quantified on IFN-therapy. The IL28B favorable (CC) genotype was associated with improved therapeutic response compared to unfavorable (CT/TT) genotypes. Patients with favorable genotype had greater first and second phase VK (P=0.004 and P=0.036, respectively), IFN maximum anti-viral efficiency (P=0.007) and infected cell death loss (P=0.009) compared to unfavorable genotypes. Functional annotation analysis of DNA microarray data was consistent with depressed innate immune function, particularly of NK cells, from patients with unfavorable genotypes (P<0.004). Induction of innate immunity genes was also lower in unfavorable genotype. ISG expression at baseline and induction with IFN was independent of IL28B genotype. Conclusions Carriers of the IL28B favorable genotype were more likely to have superior innate immune response to IFN-therapy compared to unfavorable genotypes, this suggests the unfavorable genotype has aberrant baseline induction of innate immune response pathways resulting in impaired virologic response. IL28B genotype is associated with more rapid viral kinetics and improved treatment response outcomes independent of

  9. Perinatal health care in a conflict-affected setting: evaluation of health-care services and newborn outcomes at a regional medical centre in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Ahamadani, F A B; Louis, H; Ugwi, P; Hines, R; Pomerleau, M; Ahn, R; Burke, T F; Nelson, B D

    2014-12-01

    A field-based assessment was conducted to assess maternal and newborn health-care services, perinatal and newborn outcomes and associated risk factors at Bint Al-Huda Maternal and Newborn Teaching Hospital, a large referral hospital in southern Iraq. The multi-method approach used interviews, discussions, observation and review of perinatal and newborn outcome data. There is limited assessment of maternal vital signs, labour pattern, fetal response, and complications during pregnancy and labour. Perinatal and neonatal mortality rates are 27.4/1000 births and 30.9/1000 live births respectively. Associated neonatal mortality factors were gestational age < 37 weeks, male sex, birth weight < 2.5 kg, maternal age > 35 years, rural maternal residence and vaginal delivery. Improving birth outcomes in southern Iraq requires evidence-based clinical guidelines, additional supplies and equipment, quality improvement initiatives and in-service training. PMID:25664517

  10. Perinatal health care in a conflict-affected setting: evaluation of health-care services and newborn outcomes at a regional medical centre in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Ahamadani, F A B; Louis, H; Ugwi, P; Hines, R; Pomerleau, M; Ahn, R; Burke, T F; Nelson, B D

    2014-12-01

    A field-based assessment was conducted to assess maternal and newborn health-care services, perinatal and newborn outcomes and associated risk factors at Bint Al-Huda Maternal and Newborn Teaching Hospital, a large referral hospital in southern Iraq. The multi-method approach used interviews, discussions, observation and review of perinatal and newborn outcome data. There is limited assessment of maternal vital signs, labour pattern, fetal response, and complications during pregnancy and labour. Perinatal and neonatal mortality rates are 27.4/1000 births and 30.9/1000 live births respectively. Associated neonatal mortality factors were gestational age < 37 weeks, male sex, birth weight < 2.5 kg, maternal age > 35 years, rural maternal residence and vaginal delivery. Improving birth outcomes in southern Iraq requires evidence-based clinical guidelines, additional supplies and equipment, quality improvement initiatives and in-service training.

  11. Axiom turkey genotyping array

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Axiom®Turkey Genotyping Array interrogates 643,845 probesets on the array, covering 643,845 SNPs. The array development was led by Dr. Julie Long of the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center under a public-private partnership with Hendrix Genetics, Aviagen, and Affymetrix. The Turk...

  12. Risk for family rejection and associated mental health outcomes among conflict-affected adult women living in rural eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Anjalee; Perrin, Nancy A; Mpanano, Remy Mitima; Mullany, Luke C; Murhula, Clovis Mitima; Binkurhorhwa, Arsène Kajabika; Mirindi, Alfred Bacikengi; Banywesize, Jean Heri; Bufole, Nadine Mwinja; Ntwali, Eric Mpanano; Glass, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Stigma due to sexual violence includes family rejection, a complex outcome including economic, behavioral, and physical components. We explored the relationship among conflict-related trauma, family rejection, and mental health in adult women living in rural eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, who participate in a livestock-based microfinance program, Pigs for Peace. Exposure to multiple and different types of conflict-related trauma, including sexual assault, was associated with increased likelihood of family rejection, which in turn was associated with poorer mental health outcomes. Design of appropriate and effective interventions will require understanding family relationships and exposure to different types of trauma in postconflict environments. PMID:24660941

  13. Genome-wide copy number variations using SNP genotyping in a mixed breed swine population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copy number variations (CNVs) are increasingly understood to affect phenotypic variation. This study uses SNP genotyping of trios of mixed breed swine to add to the catalog of known genotypic variation in an important agricultural animal. Porcine SNP60 BeadChip genotypes were collected from 1802 pi...

  14. The longitudinal and interactive effects of HIV status, stimulant use, and host genotype upon neurocognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Levine, Andrew J; Reynolds, Sandra; Cox, Christopher; Miller, Eric N; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Becker, James T; Martin, Eileen; Sacktor, Ned

    2014-06-01

    Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection and illicit stimulant use can adversely impact neurocognitive functioning, and these effects can be additive. However, significant variability exists such that as-of-yet unidentified exogenous and endogenous factors affect one's risk for neurocognitive impairment. Literature on both HIV and stimulant use indicates that host genetic variants in immunologic and dopamine-related genes are one such factor. In this study, the individual and interactive effects of HIV status, stimulant use, and genotype upon neurocognitive functioning were examined longitudinally over a 10-year period. Nine hundred fifty-two Caucasian HIV+ and HIV- cases from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study were included. All cases had at least two comprehensive neurocognitive evaluations between 1985 and 1995. Pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) data were examined in order to avoid the confounding effect of variable drug regimens. Linear mixed models were used, with neurocognitive domain scores as the outcome variables. No four-way interactions were found, indicating that HIV and stimulant use do not interact over time to affect neurocognitive functioning as a function of genotype. Multiple three-way interactions were found that involved genotype and HIV status. All immunologically related genes found to interact with HIV status affected neurocognitive functioning in the expected direction; however, only C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and CCL3 affected HIV+ individuals specifically. Dopamine-related genetic variants generally affected HIV-negative individuals only. Neurocognitive functioning among HIV+ individuals who also used stimulants was not significantly different from those who did not use stimulants. The findings support the role of immunologically related genetic differences in CCL2 and CCL3 in neurocognitive functioning among HIV+ individuals; however, their impact is minor. Being consistent with findings from another cohort

  15. Are Good Intentions Enough? An Investigation of How Mentor Experiences and Expertise Affect Mentor-Mentee Relationship Development and Targeted Youth Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, Lauren A.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, youth mentoring programs are becoming an increasingly popular educational partnership between community adults and local children. Even though programs rely on mentors to help achieve the desired outcomes, very little is known about "what matters" in a mentor. Adhering to functionalist, human capital, teacher…

  16. Prognostic relevance of KRAS genotype in metastatic colorectal cancer patients unfit for FIr-B/FOx intensive regimen

    PubMed Central

    BRUERA, GEMMA; CANNITA, KATIA; GIORDANO, ALDO VICTOR; VICENTINI, ROBERTO; FICORELLA, CORRADO; RICEVUTO, ENRICO

    2014-01-01

    First-line triplet chemotherapy plus bevacizumab (FIr-B/FOx) can improve efficacy of metastatic colorectal cancer (MCRC), KRAS wild-type and mutant. Prognostic relevance of KRAS genotype was evaluated in patients unfit for FIr-B/FOx, treated with conventional medical treatments. Consecutive MCRC patients not eligible for FIr-B/FOx regimen due to age (≥75 years) and/or comorbidities were treated with tailored conventional first-line treatments. KRAS codon 12/13 mutations were screened by direct sequencing. Activity and efficacy were evaluated and compared according to medical treatments, age (non-elderly and elderly ≥65 years), comorbidity stage (Cumulative Illness Rating Scale), metastatic extension (liver-limited and other/multiple metastatic), and KRAS genotype, using log-rank. Selected first line treatments were medical in 37 patients (92.5%), and surgical in 3 patients (7.5%). Medical treatment regimens: triplet, 18 (45%); doublet, 15 (37.5%); mono-therapy, 4 (10%). At median follow-up of 8 months, objective response rate (ORR) was 37%, median progression-free survival (PFS) 7 months, liver metastasectomies 8% (liver-limited disease 37.5%), median overall survival (OS) 13 months. Triplet regimens failed to significantly affect clinical outcome, compared to doublet. According to KRAS genotype, ORR, PFS and OS were, respectively: wild-type 50%, 8 months, 13 months; mutant 25%, 6 months, 9 months. KRAS genotype wild-type compared to mutant significantly affected PFS, while not OS. KRAS c.35 G>A mutation (G12D) significantly affected worse PFS and OS compared to wild-type and/or other mutations. KRAS genotype, specifically the c.35 G>A KRAS mutation, may indicate poor prognosis in MCRC patients unfit for intensive medical treatments. PMID:24715238

  17. Genomic Variants Revealed by Invariably Missing Genotypes in Nelore Cattle

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Joaquim Manoel; Giachetto, Poliana Fernanda; da Silva, Luiz Otávio Campos; Cintra, Leandro Carrijo; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Caetano, Alexandre Rodrigues; Yamagishi, Michel Eduardo Beleza

    2015-01-01

    High density genotyping panels have been used in a wide range of applications. From population genetics to genome-wide association studies, this technology still offers the lowest cost and the most consistent solution for generating SNP data. However, in spite of the application, part of the generated data is always discarded from final datasets based on quality control criteria used to remove unreliable markers. Some discarded data consists of markers that failed to generate genotypes, labeled as missing genotypes. A subset of missing genotypes that occur in the whole population under study may be caused by technical issues but can also be explained by the presence of genomic variations that are in the vicinity of the assayed SNP and that prevent genotyping probes from annealing. The latter case may contain relevant information because these missing genotypes might be used to identify population-specific genomic variants. In order to assess which case is more prevalent, we used Illumina HD Bovine chip genotypes from 1,709 Nelore (Bos indicus) samples. We found 3,200 missing genotypes among the whole population. NGS re-sequencing data from 8 sires were used to verify the presence of genomic variations within their flanking regions in 81.56% of these missing genotypes. Furthermore, we discovered 3,300 novel SNPs/Indels, 31% of which are located in genes that may affect traits of importance for the genetic improvement of cattle production. PMID:26305794

  18. Genomic Variants Revealed by Invariably Missing Genotypes in Nelore Cattle.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Joaquim Manoel; Giachetto, Poliana Fernanda; da Silva, Luiz Otávio Campos; Cintra, Leandro Carrijo; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Caetano, Alexandre Rodrigues; Yamagishi, Michel Eduardo Beleza

    2015-01-01

    High density genotyping panels have been used in a wide range of applications. From population genetics to genome-wide association studies, this technology still offers the lowest cost and the most consistent solution for generating SNP data. However, in spite of the application, part of the generated data is always discarded from final datasets based on quality control criteria used to remove unreliable markers. Some discarded data consists of markers that failed to generate genotypes, labeled as missing genotypes. A subset of missing genotypes that occur in the whole population under study may be caused by technical issues but can also be explained by the presence of genomic variations that are in the vicinity of the assayed SNP and that prevent genotyping probes from annealing. The latter case may contain relevant information because these missing genotypes might be used to identify population-specific genomic variants. In order to assess which case is more prevalent, we used Illumina HD Bovine chip genotypes from 1,709 Nelore (Bos indicus) samples. We found 3,200 missing genotypes among the whole population. NGS re-sequencing data from 8 sires were used to verify the presence of genomic variations within their flanking regions in 81.56% of these missing genotypes. Furthermore, we discovered 3,300 novel SNPs/Indels, 31% of which are located in genes that may affect traits of importance for the genetic improvement of cattle production. PMID:26305794

  19. The Association of Il28b Genotype with the Histological Features of Chronic Hepatitis C Is HCV Genotype Dependent

    PubMed Central

    D’Ambrosio, Roberta; Aghemo, Alessio; De Francesco, Raffaele; Rumi, Maria Grazia; Galmozzi, Enrico; De Nicola, Stella; Cheroni, Cristina; Clark, Paul J.; Ronchi, Guido; Lampertico, Pietro; Colombo, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The interleukin 28B (IL28B) rs12979860 polymorphism is associated with treatment outcome in hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 and 4 patients. Its association with the histological features of chronic hepatitis C and disease severity needs further clarifications. To assess the correlation between IL28B genotype, HCV genotype and liver biopsy findings in untreated patients. Materials and Methods Pre-treatment liver biopsies from 335 HCV Caucasian patients (59% males, age 50 years) enrolled in the MIST study were staged for fibrosis and inflammation according to the METAVIR and the Ishak scoring systems; steatosis was dichotomized as <5% or ≥5%. IL28B was typed by Taqman Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assay. HCV genotype was 1 in 151 (45%), 2 in 99 (30%), 3 in 50 (15%) and 4 in 35 (10%) patients. IL28B genotype was CC in 117 (34%), CT in 166 (49%) and TT in 52 (15%). At univariate analysis, the IL28B CC genotype was associated with severe portal inflammation in HCV-1 patients (CC vs. CT/TT: 86% vs. 63%, p = 0.005), severe lobular inflammation in HCV-2 patients (CC vs. CT/TT: 44% vs. 23%, p = 0.03), and less fatty infiltration in HCV-1 patients (CC vs. CT/TT: 72% vs. 51%, p = 0.02). Despite the lack of any association between IL28B and fibrosis stage, in HCV-3 patients IL28B CC correlated with METAVIR F3–F4 (CC vs. CT/TT: 74% vs. 26%, p = 0.05). At multivariate analysis, the genotype CC remained associated with severe portal inflammation in HCV-1, only (Odds Ratio (OR): 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 3.24 (1.23–8.51)). IL28B genotype is associated with the histological features of chronic hepatitis C in a HCV genotype dependent manner, with CC genotype being independently associated with severe portal inflammation. PMID:24776764

  20. Evaluation of Resistance-Associated Substitutions in NS5A Using Direct Sequence and Cycleave Method and Treatment Outcome with Daclatasvir and Asunaprevir for Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 1

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Kunihide; Morita, Masaru; Morita, Yasuyo; Sugiyama, Gen; Fukushima, Hirofumi; Yano, Yoichi; Noguchi, Kazunori; Nakamura, Hiroki; Hisatomi, Junjiro; Kumemura, Hiroto; Shirachi, Miki; Iwane, Shinji; Okada, Michiaki; Honma, Yuichi; Arinaga-Hino, Teruko; Miyajima, Ichiro; Ogata, Kei; Kuwahara, Reiichiro; Amano, Keisuke; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Kuromatsu, Ryoko; Torimura, Takuji

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of daclatasvir plus asunaprevir therapy in patients infected with hepatitis C virus and determine its relevance to resistant variants. Methods A total of 629 consecutive patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 were assessed. Daclatasvir (60 mg/day) plus asunaprevir (200 mg/day) was given for 24 weeks. The virological responses and resistance-associated substitutions of hepatitis C virus mutants were examined by the direct sequence and cycleave methods were evaluated. Results Overall, 89.4% (555/621) of patients exhibited a sustained virological response (SVR). The SVR rates in the patients with wild type, mixed, and mutant type Y93 by direct sequencing were 92.5% (520/562), 70.3% (26/37), and 42.9% (9/21), respectively. The SVR rates in the patients with 100%, 90%, 80%-30%, and 20%-0% Y93 wild by the cycleave method were 93.4% (456/488), 88.2%(30/34), 56.0%(14/25), and 36.8%(7/19), respectively. In contrast, the SVR rates for the wild type and mixed/mutant type L31 by direct sequencing were 90.2% (534/592) and 72.4% (21/29), respectively. In the multivariate analyses, the wild type Y93, no history of simeprevir therapy, the wild type L31, and low HCV RNA level were independent factors of SVR. Conclusion NS5A resistance-associated substitutions, especially Y93H, were major factors predicting the SVR. Although direct sequencing can predict the SVR rate, the cycleave method is considered to be more useful for predicting the SVR when used in combination. PMID:27684567

  1. Egyptian genotyping of Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    El-Shazly, Atef M; Mowafy, Nawras; Soliman, Mohamed; El-Bendary, Mahmoud; Morsy, Ayman T A; Ramadan, Nashwa I I; Arafa, Wafaa A S

    2004-04-01

    Out of 105 patients infected with Giardia, 38 patients have Genotype I (36.19%), 13 have Genotype II (12.38%), 10 have Genotype III (9.52%), 16 have mixed Genotype infection (15.24%) and 28 with undetermined Giardia infection by PCR (26.67%). None of the control group gave positive results for Giardia in stool by PCR. So, the sensitivity of the test for detection and identification of Giardia Genotypes from the original stool samples was 73.33% and specificity was 100%. Out of 61 cases in the symptomatic group, the prevalence of Giardia Genotype I was 32.79%, Genotype II was 16.39%, Genotype III was 9.84%, mixed Genotype infection was 16.39% and undetermined Genotype was 24.59% as compared to 40.91%, 6.82%, 9.09%, 13.64% & 29.55% in the asymptomatic group respectively. There is statistically insignificant difference between both groups as regarding the prevalence of the different Giardia Genotypes. (P < or = 0.05). The use of PCR as a routine work for diagnosis of giardiasis is not accepted at least in the developing and under-developing countries due to its high cost, the high quality of technical staff and advanced laboratory equipments required for PCR performance. Its application is usually limited to research activities, the detection of water sources contamination and for the detection of a potential source of Giardia infection in epidemics.

  2. The effect of interleukin-1 allele 2 genotype (IL-1a(-889) and IL-1b(+3954)) on the individual's susceptibility to peri-implantitis: case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Ahmed Abd El-Meguid Mostafa; Ebrahem, Mohamed Abd El-Moniem

    2011-06-01

    Individuals bearing the combination of interleukin (IL)-1 allele 2 at IL-1A(-889) and IL-1B(+3954) are referred to as being genotype positive and are susceptible to increased periodontal tissue destruction. The aim of this study was to assess the possible association of IL-1 allele 2 (IL-1A(-889) and IL-B(+3954)) genotypes with the severity of peri-implantitis progression and the effect of this combination on treatment outcomes. Fifty patients with International Team for Implantology implants were studied; patients ranged in age from 35-55 years, and each patient had 1 implant. According to peri-implant tissue status, patients were divided into 2 groups: group I consisted of 25 patients with peri-implantitis, and group II comprised 25 patients with healthy peri-implant tissue. Clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. Epithelial cells were collected from the oral mucosa by plastic spatula and were used for IL-1 genotyping by the polymerase chain reaction technique. Group I patients were subjected to a peri-implantitis treatment and maintenance program. In all, 17 patients from group I and 5 patients from group II were genotype positive, with a statistically significant difference noted between the 2 groups. Group I genotype-positive patients presented with higher scores and measurements of clinical parameters with increased suppuration from peri-implant tissues compared with group II; differences were statistically significant (P < .05). In terms of response to treatment, genotype-negative patients demonstrated better response than genotype-positive patients. The combination of IL-1 allele 2 (IL-1A(-889) and IL-1B(+3954)) in patients with inflamed periodontal or peri-implant tissues acts as a risk factor that leads to greater tissue destruction. IL-1 gene polymorphism at IL-1A(-889) and IL-1B(+3954) may affect outcomes of treatment for peri-implantitis in genotype-positive individuals. PMID:20594066

  3. In tribute to Bob Blanchard: Divergent behavioral phenotypes of 16p11.2 deletion mice reared in same-genotype versus mixed-genotype cages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mu; Lewis, Freeman; Foley, Gillian; Crawley, Jacqueline N

    2015-07-01

    Mouse models offer indispensable heuristic tools for studying genetic and environmental causes of neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism. Development of useful animal models of complex human behaviors depends not only on extensive knowledge of the human disease, but also on a deep understanding of animal behavior and ethology. Robert and Caroline Blanchard pioneered a number of elegant social paradigms in rodents. Their early work led to systematic delineations of rodent naturalist defensive behaviors,which were proven to be highly useful models of human psychiatric disorders, including fear and anxiety. Their work using the Visible Burrow System to study social stress in rats represented an unprecedented approach to study biological mechanisms of depression. In recent years, their extensive knowledge of mouse behavior and ethology enabled them to quickly become leading figures in the field of behavioral genetics of autism. To commemorate Robert Blanchard's influences on animal models of human psychiatric disorders, here we describe a study conceptualized and led by Mu Yang who was trained as a graduate student in the Blanchard laboratory in the early 2000s. This investigation focuses on social housing in a genetic mouse model of 16p11.2 deletion syndrome. Heterozygous deletions and duplications of a segment containing about 29 genes on human chromosome 16 appear in approximately 0.5–1% of all cases of autism. 16p11.2 deletion syndrome is also associated with intellectual disabilities and speech impairments. Our previous studies showed that a mouse model of 16p11.2 deletion syndrome exhibited deficits in vocalizations and novel object recognition, as compared to wildtype littermate control cagemates. In the spirit of Bob Blanchard's careful attention to the role of social dominance in rodent behaviors, we became interested in the question of whether behavioral outcomes of a mutation differ when mutants are housed in mixed genotype cages, versus housing only

  4. In tribute to Bob Blanchard: Divergent behavioral phenotypes of 16p11.2 deletion mice reared in same-genotype versus mixed-genotype cages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mu; Lewis, Freeman; Foley, Gillian; Crawley, Jacqueline N

    2015-07-01

    Mouse models offer indispensable heuristic tools for studying genetic and environmental causes of neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism. Development of useful animal models of complex human behaviors depends not only on extensive knowledge of the human disease, but also on a deep understanding of animal behavior and ethology. Robert and Caroline Blanchard pioneered a number of elegant social paradigms in rodents. Their early work led to systematic delineations of rodent naturalist defensive behaviors,which were proven to be highly useful models of human psychiatric disorders, including fear and anxiety. Their work using the Visible Burrow System to study social stress in rats represented an unprecedented approach to study biological mechanisms of depression. In recent years, their extensive knowledge of mouse behavior and ethology enabled them to quickly become leading figures in the field of behavioral genetics of autism. To commemorate Robert Blanchard's influences on animal models of human psychiatric disorders, here we describe a study conceptualized and led by Mu Yang who was trained as a graduate student in the Blanchard laboratory in the early 2000s. This investigation focuses on social housing in a genetic mouse model of 16p11.2 deletion syndrome. Heterozygous deletions and duplications of a segment containing about 29 genes on human chromosome 16 appear in approximately 0.5–1% of all cases of autism. 16p11.2 deletion syndrome is also associated with intellectual disabilities and speech impairments. Our previous studies showed that a mouse model of 16p11.2 deletion syndrome exhibited deficits in vocalizations and novel object recognition, as compared to wildtype littermate control cagemates. In the spirit of Bob Blanchard's careful attention to the role of social dominance in rodent behaviors, we became interested in the question of whether behavioral outcomes of a mutation differ when mutants are housed in mixed genotype cages, versus housing only

  5. Premature Progesterone Elevation Does Not Affect Pregnancy Outcome in High-Responder Patients Undergoing Short-Interval Coasting in IVF Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Acet, Mustafa; Aktün, Lebriz Hale; Başaranoğlu, Serdar; Yorgunlar, Betül; Acet, Tuba; Deregözü, Ayşegül

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to present the relationship between premature progesterone elevation (PPE) and clinical outcomes in high-responder patients who had a coasting period of <4 days in length due to their high risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and who were treated with a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-agonist) protocol in in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles. Material/Methods This retrospective study was conducted at the University Hospital Assisted Reproductive Technology Center. The outcomes of 101 patients undergoing IVF- intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles who showed a high response to COH (estradiol >4000 pg/ml and/or >20 follicles each ≥10 mm in diameter and at least 20% ≥15 mm) and who were coasted for <4 days were evaluated. Number of oocytes, 2 pronuclei (PN) embryos, implantation rate, and live birth rate were measured. Results The incidence of PPE was 32.6%. Compared with those without PPE, patients with PPE had a higher number of oocytes retrieved. Total mature and fertilized oocytes and the mean number of embryos transferred were not significantly different between groups. Live birth rates (41.9% vs. 38.7%) and implantation rates (26.5% vs. 23%) were also not significantly divergent in the PPE and non-PPE groups, respectively. Conclusions P concentrations ≥1.3 ng/ml on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration, designated in this study as PPE, does not appear to be related to adverse effects in terms of clinical outcomes in high-responder patients undergoing coasting <4 days due to their high risk of developing OHSS treated with a long-acting GnRH-a protocol in IVF-embryo transfer cycles. PMID:26634938

  6. An Audit-Based, Infectious Disease Specialist-Guided Antimicrobial Stewardship Program Profoundly Reduced Antibiotic Use Without Negatively Affecting Patient Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nilholm, Hannah; Holmstrand, Linnea; Ahl, Jonas; Månsson, Fredrik; Odenholt, Inga; Tham, Johan; Melander, Eva; Resman, Fredrik

    2015-04-01

    Background.  Antimicrobial stewardship programs are increasingly implemented in hospital care. They aim to simultaneously optimize outcomes for individual patients with infections and reduce financial and health-associated costs of overuse of antibiotics. Few studies have examined the effects of antimicrobial stewardship programs in settings with low proportions of antimicrobial resistance, such as in Sweden. Methods.  An antimicrobial stewardship program was introduced during 5 months of 2013 in a department of internal medicine in southern Sweden. The intervention consisted of audits twice weekly on all patients given antibiotic treatment. The intervention period was compared with a historical control consisting of patients treated with antibiotics in the same wards in 2012. Studied outcome variables included 28-day mortality and readmission, length of hospital stay, and use of antibiotics. Results.  A reduction of 27% in total antibiotic use (2387 days of any antibiotic) was observed in the intervention period compared with the control period. The reduction was due to fewer patients started on antibiotics as well as to significantly shorter durations of antibiotic courses (P < .001). An earlier switch to oral therapy and a specific reduction in use of third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones was also evident. Mortality, total readmissions, and lengths of stay in hospital were unchanged compared with the control period, whereas readmissions due to a nonresolved infection were fewer during the intervention of 2013. Conclusions.  This study demonstrates that an infectious disease specialist-guided antimicrobial stewardship program can profoundly reduce antibiotic use in a low-resistance setting with no negative effect on patient outcome.

  7. Does Unilateral Oocyte Retrieval due to Transvaginally Inaccessible Ovaries, Contrary to Common Beliefs, Affect IVF/ICSI Treatment Outcomes That Much?

    PubMed Central

    Olgan, Safak; Mumusoglu, Sezcan; Bozdag, Gurkan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment outcomes of unilateral oocyte retrieval in patients with transvaginally inaccessible ovaries. Study Design. Ninety-two women who underwent unilateral oocyte retrieval were retrospectively matched for age, antral follicle count, and body mass index with 184 women who underwent bilateral oocyte retrieval. Each patient in bilateral oocyte retrieval group had the same number of cumulus oophorus complexes (COCs) from single ovary and had comparable number of follicles (±2) on contralateral site where follicular aspiration was performed. Results. The number of COCs, metaphase-2 oocytes, 2-pronuclei, and top-quality embryos was significantly lower in unilateral oocyte retrieval group. However, proportion of patients with an embryo transfer of at least one top-quality embryo was found to be comparable between unilateral and bilateral oocyte retrieval. Subsequently, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were found to be similar between the groups. The ROC curve analysis revealed (AUC = 0.74, 95% CI 0.63–0.86, p = 0.001) that retrieved COCs ≥ 5 from single ovary had sensitivity of 76.0% and specificity of 64.2% for occurrence of a clinical pregnancy. Conclusion. The patients with unilateral oocyte retrieval have reasonable chance of success with IVF. The retrieval of ≥5 COCs from accessible ovary might result in better treatment outcomes among these patients. PMID:27123444

  8. Understanding how pre-impact posture can affect injury outcome in side impact sled tests using a new tool for visualization of cadaver kinematics.

    PubMed

    Donlon, John Paul; Poulard, David; Lessley, David; Riley, Patrick; Subit, Damien

    2015-02-01

    The effect of posture and subject-specific factors on injury outcome is an active field of research in injury biomechanics, in particular in automotive safety research where post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) are used as surrogates. Current PMHS tests routinely include acquisition of the subjects׳ geometry and kinematics. However, combining these two datasets to better understand the injury mechanism is still a challenge. This study investigated the connection between pre-impact posture and resulting injuries in six previously published side impact sled tests (three with a rigid wall and three with an airbag) by creating three-dimensional kinematic animations (3DKA) of the tests. The 3DKA allow qualitative assessment of parameters related to posture and their possible effect on injury outcome. The orientation of the struck scapula and the lateral leaning of the torso were identified as potentially significant parameters. The ranges of variation in these parameters were quantified and compared to the number of rib fractures for each subject: the data suggested a correlation, but there was insufficient data for a probabilistic analysis. The 3DKA were published with this study and are freely available.

  9. Understanding how pre-impact posture can affect injury outcome in side impact sled tests using a new tool for visualization of cadaver kinematics.

    PubMed

    Donlon, John Paul; Poulard, David; Lessley, David; Riley, Patrick; Subit, Damien

    2015-02-01

    The effect of posture and subject-specific factors on injury outcome is an active field of research in injury biomechanics, in particular in automotive safety research where post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) are used as surrogates. Current PMHS tests routinely include acquisition of the subjects׳ geometry and kinematics. However, combining these two datasets to better understand the injury mechanism is still a challenge. This study investigated the connection between pre-impact posture and resulting injuries in six previously published side impact sled tests (three with a rigid wall and three with an airbag) by creating three-dimensional kinematic animations (3DKA) of the tests. The 3DKA allow qualitative assessment of parameters related to posture and their possible effect on injury outcome. The orientation of the struck scapula and the lateral leaning of the torso were identified as potentially significant parameters. The ranges of variation in these parameters were quantified and compared to the number of rib fractures for each subject: the data suggested a correlation, but there was insufficient data for a probabilistic analysis. The 3DKA were published with this study and are freely available. PMID:25579992

  10. Too Much of a Good Thing? How Breadth of Extracurricular Participation Relates to School-Related Affect and Academic Outcomes during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knifsend, Casey A.; Graham, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Although adolescents often participate in multiple extracurricular activities, little research has examined how the breadth of activities in which an adolescent is involved relates to school-related affect and academic performance. Relying on a large, multi-ethnic sample (N = 864; 55.9% female), the current study investigated linear and non-linear…

  11. Caregiving and Developmental Factors Differentiating Young At-Risk Urban Children Showing Resilient Versus Stress-Affected Outcomes: A Replication and Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Peter A.; And Others

    1999-01-01

    Tested hypotheses from an organizational-developmental model for childhood resilience among 7- to 9-year olds. Found that caregiving factors and early development differentiated children with resilient and stress-affected adaptations. Variables reflecting emotionally responsive, competent parenting were direct, proximal predictors of resilience…

  12. Can Helicobacter pylori be eradicated with high-dose proton pump inhibitor in extensive metabolizers with the CYP2C19 genotypic polymorphism?

    PubMed

    Ormeci, A; Emrence, Z; Baran, B; Soyer, O M; Gokturk, S; Evirgen, S; Akyuz, F; Karaca, C; Besisik, F; Kaymakoglu, S; Ustek, D; Demir, K

    2016-05-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) metabolism and pharmacokinetics are regulated by cytochrome P450 enzymes in the liver. Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) polymorphism plays an import role in the metabolism of PPIs. The three possible genotypes for CYP2C19 each has a distinct effect on the pharmacodynamics of PPIs. Homozygote extensive metabolizers (HomEM) are the most frequent genotype and have two wild-types (non-mutant) (*1/*1) alleles. HomEM is associated with increased enzyme activity, which increases the rate of PPI metabolism. Intragastric pH, which is required for eradication, is lowest in HomEM. In HomEMs, an insufficient increase in intragastric pH results in decreased anti-Helicobacter pylori (HP) efficacy of the antibiotics and, therefore, lower eradication rates. We determined whether the HP eradication rate would increase after high-dose PPI treatment of extensive PPI metabolizers who had been treated unsuccessfully with a standard PPI dose. In our report, increasing the PPI dosage in patients with genotype polymorphisms may be effective on eradication rates. Eradication rates are directly affected by CYP2C19 polymorphisms, and eradication treatments should be planned considering such genotypic polymorphisms. Hence, CYP2C19 genotyping prior to treatment may facilitate determination of the optimum PPI dose to improve the therapeutic outcome. However, further researches are required to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27212172

  13. The sperm quality and clinical outcomes were not affected by sY152 deletion in Y chromosome for oligozoospermia or azoospermia men after ICSI treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuanchang; Wu, Tonghua; Li, Guangui; Yin, Biao; Liu, Hongjie; Wan, Caiyun; Zhang, Hongzhan; Zeng, Yong

    2015-12-01

    Azoospermia factor (AZF) microdeletion plays a key role in the genetic etiology of male infertility. The relationship between sY152 deletion in the AZFc region and clinical outcomes is still unclear. This study was to determine the effects of sY152 deletion on the sperm parameters and clinical outcomes of non-obstructive azoospermia or oligozoospermia men after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. A total of 61 infertile men with AZFc microdeletion of the Y chromosome from January 2008 to December 2012 were recruited in the present study. They were divided into two groups, the sY152 group (n=12) and the AZFc group (n=49), based upon whether they have deleted single sY152 marker or all AZFc markers. Fifty azoospermia or oligozoospermia patients without Y chromosome microdeletion were included as the control group. The sperm quality and clinical data were compared among the three groups. Retrospective cohort-control study was performed. The sperm concentration and motility in sY152 group were better than AZFc group (P<0.05), and were comparable to the control group (P>0.05); the morphology, seminal zinc, seminal fructose and seminal carnitine were similar among the three groups (P>0.05). Patients in both sY152 and AZFc groups had lower fertilization rates (68.40% and 70.63%, respectively) than those in the control group (74.91%), and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). No significant differences were found in terms of MII oocyte, high-grade embryo rate, 2PN zygote, number of available embryos and transferred embryos, clinical pregnancy rate, implantation rate, miscarriage rate, multiple pregnancy rate, delivery rate, preterm rate and the male/female ratio among the three groups (P>0.05). Single sY152 deletion might cause a lower fertilization rate, but no adverse effects on sperm quality and clinical outcomes were found. Our study may provide more information for consultation in these patients.

  14. Toward Innovative, Cost-Effective, and Systemic Solutions to Improve Outcomes and Well-Being of Military Families Affected by Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Klin, Ami; Wetherby, Amy M.; Woods, Juliann; Saulnier, Celine; Stapel-Wax, Jennifer; Klaiman, Cheryl; Jones, Warren; Rubin, Emily; Scahill, Lawrence; Call, Nathan; Bearss, Karen; Gunter, Chris; Courtemanche, Charles J.; Lemieux, Anthony; Cox, James C.; Mandell, David S.; Van Decar, James P.; Miller, Ronald A.; Shireman, Cherri L.

    2015-01-01

    The burdens faced by military families who have a child with autism are unique. The usual challenges of securing diagnostic, treatment, and educational services are compounded by life circumstances that include the anxieties of war, frequent relocation and separation, and a demand structure that emphasizes mission readiness and service. Recently established military autism-specific health care benefits set the stage for community-viable and cost-effective solutions that can achieve better outcomes for children and greater well-being for families. Here we argue for implementation of evidence-based solutions focused on reducing age of diagnosis and improving access to early intervention, as well as establishment of a tiered menu of services, individualized to the child and family, that fit with the military ethos and system of health care. Absence of this new model of care could compromise the utility and sustainability of the autism-specific benefit. PMID:25745376

  15. Hepatitis C genotype 6: A concise review and response-guided therapy proposal

    PubMed Central

    Bunchorntavakul, Chalermrat; Chavalitdhamrong, Disaya; Tanwandee, Tawesak

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C genotype 6 is endemic in Southeast Asia [prevalence varies between 10%-60% among all hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection], as well as also sporadically reported outside the area among immigrations. The diagnosis of HCV genotype can be inaccurate with earlier methods of genotyping due to identical 5’-UTR between genotype 6 and 1b, hence the newer genotyping methods with core sequencing are preferred. Risk factors and clinical course of HCV genotype 6 do not differ considerably from other genotypes. Treatment outcome of HCV genotype 6 with a combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin is superior to genotype 1, and nearly comparable to genotype 3, with expected sustained virological response (SVR) rates of 60%-90%. Emerging data suggests that a shorter course 24-wk treatment is equally effective as a standard 48-wk treatment, particularly for those patients who attained undetectable HCV RNA at week 4 (RVR). In addition, baseline and on-treatment predictors of response used for other HCV genotypes appear effective with genotype 6. Although some pan-genotypic direct-acting antivirals have completed phase II/III studies (sofosbuvir and simeprevir) with clinical benefit demonstrated in small number of patients with genotype 6, broad availability of these agents in Southeast Asia may not be expected in the near future. While awaiting the newer therapy, response-guided therapy seems appropriate for patients with HCV genotype 6. Patients with RVR (representing > 70% of patients) are suitable for 24-wk treatment with expected SVR rates > 80%. Patients without RVR and/or those with poor response predictors may benefit from 48 wk of therapy, and a detectable HCV RNA at week 12 (with no early virological response) serves as a stopping rule. This treatment scheme is likely to have a major economic impact on HCV therapy, particularly in Southeast Asia, wherein treatment can be truncated securely in the majority of patients with HCV genotype 6. PMID:24073301

  16. Genotyping Sleep Disorders Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shadan, Farhad F.; Dawson, Arthur; Cronin, John W.; Jamil, Shazia M.; Grizas, Alexandra P.; Koziol, James A.; Kline, Lawrence E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The genetic susceptibility factors underlying sleep disorders might help us predict prognoses and responses to treatment. Several candidate polymorphisms for sleep disorders have been proposed, but there has as yet inadequate replication or validation that the candidates may be useful in the clinical setting. Methods To assess the validity of several candidate associations, we obtained saliva deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples and clinical information from 360 consenting research participants who were undergoing clinical polysomnograms. Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped. These were thought to be related to depression, circadian sleep disorders, sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome (RLS), excessive sleepiness, or to slow waves in sleep. Results With multivariate generalized linear models, the association of TEF rs738499 with depressive symptoms was confirmed. Equivocal statistical evidence of association of rs1801260 (the C3111T SNP in the CLOCK gene) with morningness/eveningness and an association of Apolipoprotein E (APOE) rs429358 with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were obtained, but these associations were not strong enough to be of clinical value by themselves. Predicted association of SNPs with sleep apnea, RLS, and slow wave sleep were not confirmed. Conclusion The SNPs tested would not, by themselves, be of use for clinical genotyping in a sleep clinic. PMID:20396431

  17. Association between psychopathology and problems of psychosocial functioning in the long-term outcome of patients diagnosed with schizophrenic, schizoaffective and affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Bottlender, Ronald; Strauss, Anton; Möller, Hans-Jürgen

    2013-03-01

    Mental health problems do significantly impact on a person's functioning. In the past, problems with psychosocial functioning were mainly associated with the diagnoses of schizophrenia. However, nowadays it is clear that impaired psychosocial functioning is also a common phenomenon in people suffering from affective disorders. Only few studies have investigated psychosocial functioning in patients with affective, schizoaffective and schizophrenic disorders in the long-term and in a comparative approach. In the present study, we analysed the association between psychopathology and psychosocial functioning. This question is relevant as symptom remission and sufficient levels of functioning are considered as important indicators of patients' recovery from their mental health problems. The here reported findings refer to the data of a sample of 177 patients with life-time diagnoses belonging to the schizophrenic, schizoaffective or affective spectrum according to the ICD-10 criteria. Psychopathological, socio-demographic and other illness-related variables were assessed at the index hospitalisation and at the 15-year follow-up evaluation. In the present study, psychopathology is focused on data assessed with the PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale). Information about patients' psychosocial functioning was assessed by using a modified and extended version of the WHO disability assessment scale (WHO-DAS-M). The association between psychosocial functioning and psychopathology was analysed by correlation analyses with the total sample and diagnostic subsamples. The consistency of correlations across the diagnostic groups and domains of psychosocial functioning was calculated. Findings revealed for all diagnostic groups that higher levels of psychopathology were associated with higher levels of problems in psychosocial functioning in various domains. Though there seem to be some differences between psychopathological dimensions and their effects on different aspects

  18. Changes in rainfall amount and frequency do not affect the outcome of the interaction between the shrub Retama sphaerocarpa and its neighbouring grasses in two semiarid communities

    PubMed Central

    Soliveres, Santiago; García-Palacios, Pablo; Maestre, Fernando T.; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the net outcome of the interaction between the shrub Retama sphaerocarpa, our target plant, and different herbaceous neighbours in response to changes in the magnitude and frequency of rainfall events during three years. The experiment was conducted in natural and anthropogenic grasslands dominated by a perennial stress-tolerator and ruderal annual species, respectively. In spite of the neutral or positive effects of neighbours on water availability, neighbouring plants reduced the performance of Retama juveniles, suggesting competition for resources other than water. The negative effects of grasses on the photochemical efficiency of Retama juveniles decreased with higher water availabilities or heavier irrigation pulses, depending on the grassland studied; however, these effects did not extent to the survival and growth of Retama juveniles. Our findings show the prevalence of competitive interactions among the studied plants, regardless of the water availability and its temporal pattern. These results suggest that positive interactions may not prevail under harsher conditions when shade-intolerant species are involved. This study could be used to further refine our predictions of how plant-plant interactions will respond to changes in rainfall, either natural or increased by the ongoing climatic change, in ecosystems where grass-shrubs interactions are prevalent. PMID:25914429

  19. Migration, neighborhoods, and networks: approaches to understanding how urban environmental conditions affect syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Egan, James E; Frye, Victoria; Kurtz, Steven P; Latkin, Carl; Chen, Minxing; Tobin, Karin; Yang, Cui; Koblin, Beryl A

    2011-04-01

    Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM.

  20. Migration, Neighborhoods, and Networks: Approaches to Understanding How Urban Environmental Conditions Affect Syndemic Adverse Health Outcomes Among Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Egan, James E.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Latkin, Carl; Chen, Minxing; Tobin, Karin; Yang, Cui; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM. PMID:21369730

  1. Migration, neighborhoods, and networks: approaches to understanding how urban environmental conditions affect syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Egan, James E; Frye, Victoria; Kurtz, Steven P; Latkin, Carl; Chen, Minxing; Tobin, Karin; Yang, Cui; Koblin, Beryl A

    2011-04-01

    Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM. PMID:21369730

  2. The Role of Negative Affectivity and Negative Reactivity to Emotions in Predicting Outcomes in the Unified Protocol for the Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Boswell, James F.; Gallagher, Matthew W.; Bentley, Kate H.; Ametaj, Amantia; Barlow, David H.

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to understand the contributions of both the trait tendency to experience negative emotions and how one relates to such experience in predicting symptom change during participation in the Unified Protocol (UP), a transdiagnostic treatment for emotional disorders. Data were derived from a randomized controlled trial comparing the UP to a wait-list control / delayed-treatment condition. First, effect sizes of pre- to post-treatment change for frequency of negative emotions and several variables measuring reactivity to emotional experience (emotional awareness and acceptance, fear of emotions, and anxiety sensitivity) were examined. Second, the relative contributions of change in negative emotions and emotional reactivity in predicting symptom (clinician-rated anxiety, depression, and severity of principal diagnosis) reductions were investigated. Results suggested that decreases in the frequency of negative emotions and reactivity to emotions following participation in the UP were both large in magnitude. Further, two emotional reactivity variables (fear of emotions and anxiety sensitivity) remained significantly related to symptom outcomes when controlling for negative emotions, and accounted for significant incremental variance in their prediction. These findings lend support to the notion that psychological health depends less on the frequency of negative emotions and more on how one relates to these emotions when they occur. PMID:22738907

  3. Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes Affect the Outcome of Patients with Operable Triple-Negative Breast Cancer in Combination with Mutated Amino Acid Classes

    PubMed Central

    Kotoula, Vassiliki; Lakis, Sotiris; Vlachos, Ioannis S.; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Zagouri, Flora; Alexopoulou, Zoi; Gogas, Helen; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Aravantinos, Gerasimos; Efstratiou, Ioannis; Pentheroudakis, George; Papadopoulou, Kyriaki; Chatzopoulos, Kyriakos; Papakostas, Pavlos; Sotiropoulou, Maria; Nicolaou, Irene; Razis, Evangelia; Psyrri, Amanda; Kosmidis, Paris; Papadimitriou, Christos; Fountzilas, George

    2016-01-01

    Background Stromal tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) density is an outcome predictor in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Herein we asked whether TILs are related to coding mutation load and to the chemical class of the resulting mutated amino acids, i.e., charged, polar, and hydrophobic mutations. Methods We examined paraffin tumors from TNBC patients who had been treated with adjuvant chemotherapy mostly within clinical trials (training cohort, N = 133; validation, N = 190) for phenotype concordance; TILs density; mutation load and types. Results Concordance of TNBC phenotypes was 42.1% upon local / central, and 72% upon central / central pathology assessment. TILs were not associated with mutation load, type and class of mutated amino acids. Polar and charged mutation patterns differed between TP53 and PIK3CA (p<0.001). Hydrophobic mutations predicted for early relapse in patients with high nodal burden and <50% TILs tumors (training: HR 3.03, 95%CI 1.11–8.29, p = 0.031; validation: HR 2.90, 95%CI 0.97–8.70, p = 0.057), especially if compared to patients with >50% TILs tumors (training p = 0.003; validation p = 0.015). Conclusions TILs density is unrelated to mutation load in TNBC, which may be regarded as an unstable phenotype. If further validated, hydrophobic mutations along with TILs density may help identifying TNBC patients in higher risk for relapse. PMID:27685159

  4. Persistence of DNMT3A R882 mutations during remission does not adversely affect outcomes of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Bhavana; Eisfeld, Ann-Kathrin; Nicolet, Deedra; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Blachly, James S.; Orwick, Shelley; Lucas, David M.; Kohlschmidt, Jessica; Blum, William; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Stone, Richard M.; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Byrd, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Somatic mutation of the DNMT3A gene at the arginine R882 site is common in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). The prognostic significance of DNMT3A R882 mutation clearance, using traditional diagnostic next generation sequencing (NGS) methods, during complete remission (CR) in AML patients is controversial. We examined the impact of clearing DNMT3A R882 mutations at diagnosis to the detectable threshold of <3% during CR on outcome in 56 adult AML patients. Mutational remission, defined as clearance of pre-treatment DNMT3A R882 and all other AML-associated mutations to a variant allele frequency <3%, occurred in 14 patients whereas persistent DNMT3A R882 mutations were observed in 42 patients. There were no significant differences in disease-free or overall survival between patients with and without DNMT3A R882 mutation clearance. Patients with persistent DNMT3A R882 who cleared all other AML mutations and did not acquire new mutations (n = 30), trended towards longer disease-free survival (1·6 vs. 0·6 years, P = 0·06) than patients with persistence of DNMT3A R882, in addition to other mutations or acquisition of new AML-associated mutations, such as those in TET2, JAK2, ASXL1 and TP53 (n = 12). These data demonstrate that DNMT3A R882 mutations, as assessed by traditional NGS methods, persist in the majority of AML patients in CR. PMID:27476855

  5. Intergenerational instability of the CAG repeat of the gene for Machado-Joseph disease (MJD1) is affected by the genotype of the normal chromosome: implications for the molecular mechanisms of the instability of the CAG repeat.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, S; Takiyama, Y; Cancel, G; Rogaeva, E A; Sasaki, H; Wakisaka, A; Zhou, Y X; Takano, H; Endo, K; Sanpei, K; Oyake, M; Tanaka, H; Stevanin, G; Abbas, N; Dürr, A; Rogaev, E I; Sherrington, R; Tsuda, T; Ikeda, M; Cassa, E; Nishizawa, M; Benomar, A; Julien, J; Weissenbach, J; Wang, G X; Agid, Y; St George-Hyslop, P H; Brice, A; Tsuji, S

    1996-07-01

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by unstable expansion of a CAG repeat in the MJD1 gene at 14q32.1. To identify elements affecting the intergenerational instability of the CAG repeat, we investigated whether the CGG/GGG polymorphism at the 3' end of the CAG repeat affects intergenerational instability of the CAG repeat. The [expanded (CAG)n-CGG]/[normal (CAG)n-GGG] haplotypes were found to result in significantly greater instability of the CAG repeat compared to the [expanded (CAG)n-CGG]/[normal (CAG)n-CGG] or [expanded (CAG)nGGG]/[normal (CAG)n-GGG] haplotypes. Multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that the relative risk for a large intergenerational change in the number of CAG repeat units (< -2 or > 2) is 7.7-fold (95% CI: 2.5-23.9) higher in the case of paternal transmission than in that of maternal transmission and 7.4-fold (95% CI: 2.4-23.3) higher in the case of transmission from a parent with the [expanded (CAG)n-CGG]/[normal (CAG)n-GGG] haplotypes than in that of transmission from a parent with the [expanded (CAG)n-CGG]/[normal (CAG)n-CGG] or [expanded (CAG)n-GGG]/[normal (CAG)n-GGG] haplotypes. The combination of paternal transmission and the [expanded (CAG)n-CGG]/[normal (CAG)n-GGG] haplotypes resulted in a 75.2-fold (95% CI: 9.0-625.0) increase in the relative risk compared with that of maternal transmission and the [expanded (CAG)n-CGG]/[normal (CAG)n-CGG] or [expanded (CAG)n-GGG]/[normal (CAG)n-GGG] haplotypes. The results suggest that an inter-allelic interaction is involved in the intergenerational instability of the expanded CAG repeat. PMID:8817326

  6. Do treatment improvements in PTSD severity affect substance use outcomes? A secondary analysis from a randomized clinical trial in NIDA’s Clinical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    Hien, Denise A.; Jiang, Huiping; Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Hu, Mei-Chen; Miele, Gloria M.; Cohen, Lisa R.; Brigham, Gregory S.; Capstick, Carrie; Kulaga, Agatha; Robinson, James; Suarez-Morales, Lourdes; Nunes, Edward V.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the analysis was to examine the temporal course of improvement in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder symptoms among women in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Method Participants were 353 women randomized to 12 sessions of trauma-focused or health education group treatment. PTSD and substance use assessments were conducted during treatment and at 1-week, 3-, 6-, and 12-months post treatment. A continuous Markov model was fit on participants’ four defined responder categories (non-responder, substance use responder, PTSD responder or global responder [improvement in both PTSD and substance use]) to investigate the temporal association between improvement in PTSD and substance use symptom severity during the study’s treatment phase. A generalized linear model was applied to test this relationship over follow-up. Results Non-responders, substance use responders and global responders tended to maintain original classification; PTSD responders were significantly more likely to transition to global responders over time, indicating maintained PTSD improvement was associated with subsequent substance use improvement. Trauma-focused treatment was significantly more effective in achieving substance use improvement compared to the health education group, but only among those who were heavy substance users at baseline and had achieved significant PTSD reductions. Conclusions PTSD severity reductions were more likely to be associated with substance use improvement, with minimal evidence of substance use symptom reduction improving PTSD symptoms. Results support the self-medication model of coping with PTSD symptoms and an empirical basis for integrated interventions for improved substance use outcomes in patients with severe symptomatology. PMID:19917596

  7. Host genetic variants of ABCB1 and IL15 influence treatment outcome in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y; Kham, S K Y; Ariffin, H; Oei, A M I; Lin, H P; Tan, A M; Quah, T C; Yeoh, A E J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Host germline variations and their potential prognostic importance is an emerging area of interest in paediatric ALL. Methods: We investigated the associations between 20 germline variations and various clinical end points in 463 children with ALL. Results: After adjusting for known prognostic factors, variants in two genes were found to be independently associated with poorer EFS: ABCB1 T/T at either 2677 (rs2032582) or 3435 (rs1045642) position (P=0.003) and IL15 67276493G/G (rs17015014; P=0.022). These variants showed a strong additive effect affecting outcome (P<0.001), whereby patients with both risk genotypes had the worst EFS (P=0.001), even after adjusting for MRD levels at the end of remission induction. The adverse effect of ABCB1 T/T genotypes was most pronounced in patients with favourable cytogenetics (P=0.011) while the IL15 67276493G/G genotype mainly affected patients without common chromosomal abnormalities (P=0.022). In both cytogenetic subgroups, increasing number of such risk genotypes still predicted worsening outcome (P<0.001 and=0.009, respectively). Conclusion: These results point to the prognostic importance of host genetic variants, although the specific mechanisms remain unclarified. Inclusion of ABCB1 and IL15 variants may help improve risk assignment strategies in paediatric ALL. PMID:24434428

  8. Does dropping day 5 PEP follow-up affect outcomes? An audit of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis at a central London sexual health clinic.

    PubMed

    O'Keeffe, C; Nwokolo, N; McOwan, A; Whitlock, G

    2015-07-01

    UK post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) guidelines were updated by the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) in 2011. In 2013, we changed policy to omit day 5 PEP follow-up at 56 Dean Street as it was felt clinically unnecessary. This audit compares our performance against BASHH standards for PEP attenders during June 2012 and June 2013. We identified 162 PEP prescriptions; PEP assessment and appropriate sexually transmitted infection testing was done well. PEP completion rates and post-PEP HIV testing were lower than BASHH standards. Following omission of day 5 review, documentation that results have been checked was poor; however, attendance at follow-up was not adversely affected.

  9. HBV Genotypic Variability in Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Carmen L.; Aguilar, Julio C.; Aguiar, Jorge; Muzio, Verena; Pentón, Eduardo; Garcia, Daymir; Guillen, Gerardo; Pujol, Flor H.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%), mainly A2 (149, 60%) but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%), with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7). Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions. PMID:25742179

  10. HBV genotypic variability in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Carmen L; Aguilar, Julio C; Aguiar, Jorge; Muzio, Verena; Pentón, Eduardo; Garcia, Daymir; Guillen, Gerardo; Pujol, Flor H

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%), mainly A2 (149, 60%) but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%), with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7). Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions.

  11. Factors affecting outcomes in patients reaching end-stage kidney disease worldwide: differences in access to renal replacement therapy, modality use, and haemodialysis practices.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Bruce M; Akizawa, Tadao; Jager, Kitty J; Kerr, Peter G; Saran, Rajiv; Pisoni, Ronald L

    2016-07-16

    More than 2 million people worldwide are being treated for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). This Series paper provides an overview of incidence, modality use (in-centre haemodialysis, home dialysis, or transplantation), and mortality for patients with ESKD based on national registry data. We also present data from an international cohort study to highlight differences in haemodialysis practices that affect survival and the experience of patients who rely on this therapy, which is both life-sustaining and profoundly disruptive to their quality of life. Data illustrate disparities in access to renal replacement therapy of any kind and in the use of transplantation or home dialysis, both of which are widely considered preferable to in-centre haemodialysis for many patients with ESKD in settings where infrastructure permits. For most patients with ESKD worldwide who are treated with in-centre haemodialysis, overall survival is poor, but longer in some Asian countries than elsewhere in the world, and longer in Europe than in the USA, although this gap has reduced. Commendable haemodialysis practice includes exceptionally high use of surgical vascular access in Japan and in some European countries, and the use of longer or more frequent dialysis sessions in some countries, allowing for more effective volume management. Mortality is especially high soon after ESKD onset, and improved preparation for ESKD is needed including alignment of decision making with the wishes of patients and families.

  12. Genotypic Variation and Mixtures of Lyme Borrelia in Ixodes Ticks from North America and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Crowder, Chris D.; Matthews, Heather E.; Schutzer, Steven; Rounds, Megan A.; Luft, Benjamin J.; Nolte, Oliver; Campbell, Scott R.; Phillipson, Curtis A.; Li, Feng; Sampath, Ranga; Ecker, David J.; Eshoo, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lyme disease, caused by various species of Borrelia, is transmitted by Ixodes ticks in North America and Europe. Studies have shown the genotype of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) or the species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) affects the ability of the bacteria to cause local or disseminated infection in humans. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a multilocus PCR electrospray mass spectrometry assay to determine the species and genotype Borrelia from ticks collected in New York, Connecticut, Indiana, Southern Germany, and California and characterized isolates from parts of the United States and Europe. These analyses identified 53 distinct genotypes of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto with higher resolution than ospC typing. Genotypes of other members of the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex were also identified and genotyped including B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. lusitaniae, B. spielmanii, and B. valaisiana. While each site in North America had genotypes unique to that location, we found genotypes shared between individual regions and two genotypes found across the United States. Significant B. burgdorferi s.s. genotypic diversity was observed between North America and Europe: only 6.6% of US genotypes (3 of 45) were found in Europe and 27% of the European genotypes (3 of 11) were observed in the US. Interestingly, 39% of adult Ixodes scapularis ticks from North America were infected with more than one genotype of B. burgdorferi s.s. and 22.2% of Ixodes ricinus ticks from Germany were infected with more than one genotype of B. burgdorferi s.l. Conclusions/Significance The presence of multiple Borrelia genotypes in ticks increases the probability that a person will be infected with more than one genotype of B. burgdorferi, potentially increasing the risks of disseminated Lyme disease. Our study indicates that the genotypic diversity of Borrelia in ticks in both North America and Europe is higher then previously reported and can have

  13. Special features of RAD Sequencing data: implications for genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Davey, John W; Cezard, Timothée; Fuentes-Utrilla, Pablo; Eland, Cathlene; Gharbi, Karim; Blaxter, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    Restriction site-associated DNA Sequencing (RAD-Seq) is an economical and efficient method for SNP discovery and genotyping. As with other sequencing-by-synthesis methods, RAD-Seq produces stochastic count data and requires sensitive analysis to develop or genotype markers accurately. We show that there are several sources of bias specific to RAD-Seq that are not explicitly addressed by current genotyping tools, namely restriction fragment bias, restriction site heterozygosity and PCR GC content bias. We explore the performance of existing analysis tools given these biases and discuss approaches to limiting or handling biases in RAD-Seq data. While these biases need to be taken seriously, we believe RAD loci affected by them can be excluded or processed with relative ease in most cases and that most RAD loci will be accurately genotyped by existing tools. PMID:23110438

  14. Special features of RAD Sequencing data: implications for genotyping.

    PubMed

    Davey, John W; Cezard, Timothée; Fuentes-Utrilla, Pablo; Eland, Cathlene; Gharbi, Karim; Blaxter, Mark L

    2013-06-01

    Restriction site-associated DNA Sequencing (RAD-Seq) is an economical and efficient method for SNP discovery and genotyping. As with other sequencing-by-synthesis methods, RAD-Seq produces stochastic count data and requires sensitive analysis to develop or genotype markers accurately. We show that there are several sources of bias specific to RAD-Seq that are not explicitly addressed by current genotyping tools, namely restriction fragment bias, restriction site heterozygosity and PCR GC content bias. We explore the performance of existing analysis tools given these biases and discuss approaches to limiting or handling biases in RAD-Seq data. While these biases need to be taken seriously, we believe RAD loci affected by them can be excluded or processed with relative ease in most cases and that most RAD loci will be accurately genotyped by existing tools.

  15. Absence of heat treatment of serum for culture medium supplementation does not adversely affect the outcome of in-vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Imoedemhe, D A; Sigue, A B; Pacpaco, E L; Olazo, A B; Luciano, E C

    1994-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine if not heat-treating serum prior to use for medium supplementation adversely affected in-vitro fertilization (IVF) of human oocytes. Morphologically mature human oocytes derived from 135 patients undergoing IVF treatment were studied. A total of 504 oocytes were incubated, inseminated and the resulting pronuclear oocytes cultured further in Earle's balanced salt solution (EBSS) supplemented with 10% non-heat-treated serum. Comparisons of fertilization rate and embryonic development were made between these and 687 control oocytes derived from the same patients but incubated, inseminated and resulting pronuclear oocytes cultured further in EBSS supplemented with 10% heat-treated serum. The fertilization rate of 74.4% (375/504) of oocytes handled in serum-supplemented medium that had not been heat-treated was significantly better than the rate of 67.7% (465/687) for controls (P < 0.0125). The proportion of pronucleate oocytes that cleaved was also significantly better in the non-heat-treated serum group: 270/300 (90%) versus 307/375 (81.8%) (P < 0.0025). There was no significant difference in the proportion of embryos with four or more cells at the time of embryo transfer. The results show that the absence of heat treatment of serum used to supplement culture medium has no adverse effect on the fertilization rate and short-term embryo development in vitro; hence we suggest that serum heat treatment is an unnecessary procedure and could be abandoned. PMID:7836531

  16. AN EVALUATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM GENOTYPING

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of 11 previously described species differentiation and genotyping PCR protocols for detection of Cryptosporidium parasites. Genomic DNA from three species of Crytosporidium parasites (genotype 1 and genotype 2 of C. parvum, C. muris, a...

  17. Genotype Specification Language.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Erin H; Sagawa, Shiori; Weis, James W; Schubert, Max G; Bissell, Michael; Hawthorne, Brian; Reeves, Christopher D; Dean, Jed; Platt, Darren

    2016-06-17

    We describe here the Genotype Specification Language (GSL), a language that facilitates the rapid design of large and complex DNA constructs used to engineer genomes. The GSL compiler implements a high-level language based on traditional genetic notation, as well as a set of low-level DNA manipulation primitives. The language allows facile incorporation of parts from a library of cloned DNA constructs and from the "natural" library of parts in fully sequenced and annotated genomes. GSL was designed to engage genetic engineers in their native language while providing a framework for higher level abstract tooling. To this end we define four language levels, Level 0 (literal DNA sequence) through Level 3, with increasing abstraction of part selection and construction paths. GSL targets an intermediate language based on DNA slices that translates efficiently into a wide range of final output formats, such as FASTA and GenBank, and includes formats that specify instructions and materials such as oligonucleotide primers to allow the physical construction of the GSL designs by individual strain engineers or an automated DNA assembly core facility. PMID:26886161

  18. Genotype Specification Language.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Erin H; Sagawa, Shiori; Weis, James W; Schubert, Max G; Bissell, Michael; Hawthorne, Brian; Reeves, Christopher D; Dean, Jed; Platt, Darren

    2016-06-17

    We describe here the Genotype Specification Language (GSL), a language that facilitates the rapid design of large and complex DNA constructs used to engineer genomes. The GSL compiler implements a high-level language based on traditional genetic notation, as well as a set of low-level DNA manipulation primitives. The language allows facile incorporation of parts from a library of cloned DNA constructs and from the "natural" library of parts in fully sequenced and annotated genomes. GSL was designed to engage genetic engineers in their native language while providing a framework for higher level abstract tooling. To this end we define four language levels, Level 0 (literal DNA sequence) through Level 3, with increasing abstraction of part selection and construction paths. GSL targets an intermediate language based on DNA slices that translates efficiently into a wide range of final output formats, such as FASTA and GenBank, and includes formats that specify instructions and materials such as oligonucleotide primers to allow the physical construction of the GSL designs by individual strain engineers or an automated DNA assembly core facility.

  19. Fetal Iron Deficiency and Genotype Influence Emotionality in Infant Rhesus Monkeys123

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Mari S; Hogrefe, Casey E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anemia during the third trimester of fetal development affects one-third of the pregnancies in the United States and has been associated with postnatal behavioral outcomes. This study examines how fetal iron deficiency (ID) interacts with the fetal monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype. MAOA metabolizes monoamine neurotransmitters. MAOA polymorphisms in humans affect temperament and modify the influence of early adverse environments on later behavior. Objective: The aim of the study was to advance translation of developmental ID research in animal models by taking into account genetic factors that influence outcomes in human populations. Methods: Male infant rhesus monkeys 3–4 mo old born to mothers fed an ID (10 ppm iron) diet were compared with controls (100 ppm iron). Infant monkeys with high- or low-transcription rate MAOA polymorphisms were equally distributed between diet groups. Behavioral responses to a series of structured experiences were recorded during a 25-h separation of the infants from their mothers. Results: Infant monkeys with low-transcription MAOA polymorphisms more clearly demonstrated the following ID effects suggested in earlier studies: a 4% smaller head circumference, a 39% lower cortisol response to social separation, a 129% longer engagement with novel visual stimuli, and 33% lesser withdrawal in response to a human intruder. The high MAOA genotype ID monkeys demonstrated other ID effects: less withdrawal and emotionality after social separation and lower “fearful” ratings. Conclusion: MAOA × ID interactions support the role of monoamine neurotransmitters in prenatal ID effects in rhesus monkeys and the potential involvement of common human polymorphisms in determining the pattern of neurobehavioral effects produced by inadequate prenatal nutrition. PMID:25733484

  20. Analysis of Helicobacter pylori Genotypes in Afghani and Iranian Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Dabrii, Hossein; Bolfion, Mehdi; Mirsalehian, Akbar; Rezadehbashi, Maryam; Jafari, Fereshteh; Shokrzadeh, Leila; Sahebekhtiari, Navid; Zojaji, Homayon; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Mirsattari, Darioush; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    The geographical variation in