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Sample records for genotype affects outcome

  1. Epilepsy due to PNPO mutations: genotype, environment and treatment affect presentation and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Philippa B.; Camuzeaux, Stephane S.M.; Footitt, Emma J.; Mills, Kevin A.; Gissen, Paul; Fisher, Laura; Das, Krishna B.; Varadkar, Sophia M.; Zuberi, Sameer; McWilliam, Robert; Stödberg, Tommy; Plecko, Barbara; Baumgartner, Matthias R.; Maier, Oliver; Calvert, Sophie; Riney, Kate; Wolf, Nicole I.; Livingston, John H.; Bala, Pronab; Morel, Chantal F.; Feillet, François; Raimondi, Francesco; Del Giudice, Ennio; Chong, W. Kling; Pitt, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The first described patients with pyridox(am)ine 5’-phosphate oxidase deficiency all had neonatal onset seizures that did not respond to treatment with pyridoxine but responded to treatment with pyridoxal 5’-phosphate. Our data suggest, however, that the clinical spectrum of pyridox(am)ine 5’-phosphate oxidase deficiency is much broader than has been reported in the literature. Sequencing of the PNPO gene was undertaken for a cohort of 82 individuals who had shown a reduction in frequency and severity of seizures in response to pyridoxine or pyridoxal 5’-phosphate. Novel sequence changes were studied using a new cell-free expression system and a mass spectrometry-based assay for pyridoxamine phosphate oxidase. Three groups of patients with PNPO mutations that had reduced enzyme activity were identified: (i) patients with neonatal onset seizures responding to pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (n = 6); (ii) a patient with infantile spasms (onset 5 months) responsive to pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (n = 1); and (iii) patients with seizures starting under 3 months of age responding to pyridoxine (n = 8). Data suggest that certain genotypes (R225H/C and D33V) are more likely to result in seizures that to respond to treatment with pyridoxine. Other mutations seem to be associated with infertility, miscarriage and prematurity. However, the situation is clearly complex with the same combination of mutations being seen in patients who responded and did not respond to pyridoxine. It is possible that pyridoxine responsiveness in PNPO deficiency is affected by prematurity and age at the time of the therapeutic trial. Other additional factors that are likely to influence treatment response and outcome include riboflavin status and how well the foetus has been supplied with vitamin B6 by the mother. For some patients there was a worsening of symptoms on changing from pyridoxine to pyridoxal 5’-phosphate. Many of the mutations in PNPO affected residues involved in binding flavin

  2. Epilepsy due to PNPO mutations: genotype, environment and treatment affect presentation and outcome.

    PubMed

    Mills, Philippa B; Camuzeaux, Stephane S M; Footitt, Emma J; Mills, Kevin A; Gissen, Paul; Fisher, Laura; Das, Krishna B; Varadkar, Sophia M; Zuberi, Sameer; McWilliam, Robert; Stödberg, Tommy; Plecko, Barbara; Baumgartner, Matthias R; Maier, Oliver; Calvert, Sophie; Riney, Kate; Wolf, Nicole I; Livingston, John H; Bala, Pronab; Morel, Chantal F; Feillet, François; Raimondi, Francesco; Del Giudice, Ennio; Chong, W Kling; Pitt, Matthew; Clayton, Peter T

    2014-05-01

    The first described patients with pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency all had neonatal onset seizures that did not respond to treatment with pyridoxine but responded to treatment with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Our data suggest, however, that the clinical spectrum of pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency is much broader than has been reported in the literature. Sequencing of the PNPO gene was undertaken for a cohort of 82 individuals who had shown a reduction in frequency and severity of seizures in response to pyridoxine or pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Novel sequence changes were studied using a new cell-free expression system and a mass spectrometry-based assay for pyridoxamine phosphate oxidase. Three groups of patients with PNPO mutations that had reduced enzyme activity were identified: (i) patients with neonatal onset seizures responding to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (n = 6); (ii) a patient with infantile spasms (onset 5 months) responsive to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (n = 1); and (iii) patients with seizures starting under 3 months of age responding to pyridoxine (n = 8). Data suggest that certain genotypes (R225H/C and D33V) are more likely to result in seizures that to respond to treatment with pyridoxine. Other mutations seem to be associated with infertility, miscarriage and prematurity. However, the situation is clearly complex with the same combination of mutations being seen in patients who responded and did not respond to pyridoxine. It is possible that pyridoxine responsiveness in PNPO deficiency is affected by prematurity and age at the time of the therapeutic trial. Other additional factors that are likely to influence treatment response and outcome include riboflavin status and how well the foetus has been supplied with vitamin B6 by the mother. For some patients there was a worsening of symptoms on changing from pyridoxine to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Many of the mutations in PNPO affected residues involved in binding flavin mononucleotide or

  3. Prenatal ultrasound, genotype, and outcome in a large cohort of prenatally affected patients with autosomal-recessive polycystic kidney disease and other hereditary cystic kidney diseases.

    PubMed

    Erger, Florian; Brüchle, Nadina Ortiz; Gembruch, Ulrich; Zerres, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the sonographic and clinical genotype-phenotype correlations in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) and other cystic kidney diseases (CKD) in a large cohort of prenatally detected fetuses with hereditary CKD. We retrospectively studied the clinical and diagnostic data of 398 patients referred with prenatal ultrasound findings suggestive of CKD between 1994 and 2010. Cases with confirmed hereditary CKD (n = 130) were analyzed as to their prenatal ultrasound findings, genotype, and possible predictors of clinical outcome. ARPKD was most common in our non-representative sample. Truncating PKHD1 mutations led to a significantly reduced neonatal prognosis, with two such mutations being invariably lethal. Sonographically visible kidney cysts occurred in only 3% of ARPKD cases. Renal abnormalities in Meckel syndrome (MKS) appeared earlier than in ADPKD (19.6 ± 3.7 vs. 29.8 ± 5.1 GW) or ARPKD (19.6 ± 3.7 vs. 30.2 ± 1.2 GW). Additional CNS malformations were not found in ARPKD, but were highly sensitive for MKS. Pulmonary hypoplasia, oligo/anhydramnios (OAH), and kidney enlargement were associated with a significantly worse neonatal prognosis. Genotype, sonographic signs of OAH, enlarged kidney size, and pulmonary hypoplasia can be useful predictors of neonatal survival. We propose sonographic morphological criteria for ARPKD, ADPKD, MKS, and renal cyst and diabetes syndrome (RCAD). We further propose a clinical diagnostic algorithm for differentiating cystic kidney diseases.

  4. APOE genotype affects the presynaptic compartment of glutamatergic nerve terminals

    PubMed Central

    Dumanis, Sonya B.; DiBattista, Amanda M.; Miessau, Matthew; Moussa, Charbel E.H.; Rebeck, G. William

    2012-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype affects outcomes of Alzheimer’s Disease and other conditions of brain damage. Using APOE knock-in mice, we have previously shown that APOE- ε4 Targeted Replacement (TR) mice have fewer dendritic spines and reduced branching in cortical neurons. Since dendritic spines are postsynaptic sites of excitatory neurotransmission, we used APOE TR mice to examine whether APOE genotype affected the various elements of the glutamate-glutamine cycle. We found that levels of glutamine synthetase and glutamate uptake transporters were unchanged among the APOE genotypes. However, compared to APOE- ε3 TR mice, APOE-ε4 TR mice had decreased glutaminase levels (18%, p<0.05), suggesting decreased conversion of glutamine to glutamate. APOE-ε4 TR mice also had increased levels of the vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT1 (20%, p<0.05), suggesting that APOE genotype affects presynaptic terminal composition. To address whether these changes affected normal neurotransmission, we examined the production and metabolism of glutamate and glutamine at 4–5 months and 1 year. Using high frequency 13C/1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we found that APOE-ε4 TR mice have decreased production of glutamate and increased levels of glutamine. These factors may contribute to the increased risk of neurodegeneration associated with APOE-ε4, and also act as surrogate markers for AD risk. PMID:22862561

  5. HIV Infection Affects Streptococcus mutans Levels, but Not Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, G.; Saxena, D.; Chen, Z.; Norman, R.G.; Phelan, J.A.; Laverty, M.; Fisch, G.S.; Corby, P.M.; Abrams, W.; Malamud, D.; Li, Y.

    2012-01-01

    We report a clinical study that examines whether HIV infection affects Streptococcus mutans colonization in the oral cavity. Whole stimulated saliva samples were collected from 46 HIV-seropositive individuals and 69 HIV-seronegative control individuals. The level of S. mutans colonization was determined by conventional culture methods. The genotype of S. mutans was compared between 10 HIV-positive individuals before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and 10 non-HIV-infected control individuals. The results were analyzed against viral load, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts, salivary flow rate, and caries status. We observed that S. mutans levels were higher in HIV-infected individuals than in the non-HIV-infected control individuals (p = 0.013). No significant differences in S. mutans genotypes were found between the two groups over the six-month study period, even after HAART. There was a bivariate linear relationship between S. mutans levels and CD8+ counts (r = 0.412; p = 0.007), but not between S. mutans levels and either CD4+ counts or viral load. Furthermore, compared with non-HIV-infected control individuals, HIV-infected individuals experienced lower salivary secretion (p = 0.009) and a positive trend toward more decayed tooth surfaces (p = 0.027). These findings suggest that HIV infection can have a significant effect on the level of S. mutans, but not genotypes. PMID:22821240

  6. Influence of Acanthamoeba genotype on clinical course and outcomes for patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis in Spain.

    PubMed

    Arnalich-Montiel, Francisco; Lumbreras-Fernández, Blanca; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; Valladares, Basilio; Lopez-Velez, Rogelio; Morcillo-Laiz, Rafael; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-04-01

    Genotype T4 is by far the most frequent genotype of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and therefore has been considered the most virulent. This study included 14 cases of AK of genotype T4 and three cases of non-T4 genotype. We found that cases of non-T4 genotype had a worse response to medical therapy, greater need for surgical intervention, greater risk of extracorneal involvement, and remarkably poorer final visual outcome than those of T4 genotype, suggesting an association between Acanthamoeba virulence and genotype that requires additional case investigation.

  7. Influence of Acanthamoeba Genotype on Clinical Course and Outcomes for Patients with Acanthamoeba Keratitis in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Lumbreras-Fernández, Blanca; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M.; Valladares, Basilio; Lopez-Velez, Rogelio; Morcillo-Laiz, Rafael; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Genotype T4 is by far the most frequent genotype of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and therefore has been considered the most virulent. This study included 14 cases of AK of genotype T4 and three cases of non-T4 genotype. We found that cases of non-T4 genotype had a worse response to medical therapy, greater need for surgical intervention, greater risk of extracorneal involvement, and remarkably poorer final visual outcome than those of T4 genotype, suggesting an association between Acanthamoeba virulence and genotype that requires additional case investigation. PMID:24430449

  8. Do School Facilities Affect Academic Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Mark

    This review explores which facility attributes affect academic outcomes the most and in what manner and degree. The research is examined in six categories: indoor air quality, ventilation, and thermal comfort; lighting; acoustics; building age and quality; school size; and class size. The review concludes that school facilities affect learning.…

  9. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P.; Diener, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. Methods To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as a predictor of relationship, adjustment, self worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilized multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Results Early adolescent positive affect predicted less relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers), healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. Conclusions The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. PMID:27075545

  10. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed

    2016-07-01

    Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  11. Embryonic genotype and inbreeding affect preimplantation development in cattle.

    PubMed

    Lazzari, G; Colleoni, S; Duchi, R; Galli, A; Houghton, F D; Galli, C

    2011-05-01

    Infertility in cattle herds is a growing problem with multifactorial causes. Embryonic genotype and level of inbreeding are among the many factors that can play a role on reproductive efficiency. To investigate this issue, we produced purebred and crossbred bovine embryos by in vitro techniques from Holstein oocytes and Holstein or Brown Swiss semen and analyzed several cellular and molecular features. In the first experiment, purebred and crossbred embryos, obtained from abattoir oocytes, were analyzed for cleavage, development to morula/blastocyst stages, amino acid metabolism and gene expression of developmentally important genes. The results indicated significant differences in the percentage of compacted morulae, in the expression of three genes at the blastocyst stage (MNSOD, GP130 and FGF4) and in the utilization of serine, asparagine, methionine and tryptophan in day 6 embryos. In the second experiment, bovine oocytes were collected by ovum pick up from ten Holstein donors and fertilized with the semen of the respective Holstein sires or with Brown Swiss semen. The derived embryos were grown in vitro up to day 7, and were then transferred to synchronized recipients and recovered on day 12. We found that purebred/inbred embryos had lower blastocyst rate on days 7-8, were smaller on day 12 and had lower expression of the trophoblast gene PLAC8. Overall, these results indicate reduced and delayed development of purebred embryos compared with crossbred embryos. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that embryo genotype and high inbreeding can affect amino acid metabolism, gene expression, preimplantation development and therefore fertility in cattle.

  12. Hepatitis C Genotype Influences Post-Liver Transplant Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Varela, Isabel; Lai, Jennifer C.; Verna, Elizabeth C.; O'Leary, Jacqueline G.; Stravitz, R. Todd; Forman, Lisa M.; Trotter, James F.; Brown, Robert S.; Terrault, Norah A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In non-transplant patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), HCV genotype has been linked with a differential response to antiviral therapy, risk of steatosis and fibrosis, as well as all-cause mortality, but the role of HCV genotypes in post-transplant disease progression is less clear. Methods Using the multicenter CRUSH-C cohort, genotype-specific rates of advanced fibrosis, HCV-specific graft loss and, response of antiviral therapy were examined. Results Among 745 recipients [605 (81%) genotype 1, 53 (7%) genotype 2, and 87 (12%) genotype 3] followed for a median of 3.1 years (range 2.0-8.0) the unadjusted cumulative rate of advanced fibrosis at 3 years was 31%, 19% and 19% for genotypes 1, 2 and 3 (p=0.008). After multivariable adjustment, genotype remained a significant predictor, with genotype 2 having a 66% lower risk (p=0.02) and genotype 3 having a 41% lower risk (p=0.07) of advanced fibrosis compared to genotype 1 patients. The cumulative 5-year rates of HCV-specific graft survival were 84%, 90% and 94% for genotypes 1, 2 and 3, p=0.10. A total of 37% received antiviral therapy, with higher rates of sustained virologic response in patients with genotype 2 (HR=5.10; p=0.003) and genotype 3 (HR=3.27; p=0.006) compared to patients with genotype 1. Conclusion Risk of advanced fibrosis and response to therapy are strongly influenced by genotype. LT recipients with HCV genotype 1 have the highest risk of advanced fibrosis and lowest SVR rate. These findings highlight the need for genotype-specific management strategies. PMID:25211520

  13. Fusarium keratitis: genotyping, in vitro susceptibility and clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Oechsler, Rafael A; Feilmeier, Michael R; Miller, Darlene; Shi, Wei; Hofling-Lima, Ana Luisa; Alfonso, Eduardo C

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine differences in the clinical characteristics and antifungal susceptibility patterns among molecularly characterized ocular Fusarium sp isolates. Methods 58 Fusarium isolates obtained from 52 eyes of 52 patients were retrieved from the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute’s (BPEI) ocular microbiology laboratory and grown in pure culture. These isolates were characterized based on DNA sequence analysis of the ITS1/2 and rDNA regions. Antifungal susceptibilities were determined for each isolate using broth microdilution methods and the corresponding medical records were reviewed to determine clinical outcomes. Results Fusarium (F.) solani isolates had significantly higher voriconazole MIC90 values than F. non-solani organisms (16 and 4ug/ml, respectively). F. solani isolates also exhibited a significantly longer time to cure (65 vs 40.5 days), a worse follow up BCVA (20/118 vs 20/36), and increased need for urgent surgical management (7 vs 0 penetrating keratoplasties) when compared to F. non-solani isolates. Conclusions This is the first report to examine the correlation between ocular genotyped Fusarium species and clinical outcomes. It supports the overall worse prognosis for F. solani versus F. non-solani isolates, including higher voriconazole resistance by the former. The clinical implementation of molecular-based diagnostics and antifungal efficacy testing, may yield important prognostic and therapeutic information that could improve the management of fungal ocular infections. PMID:23343947

  14. Factor v Leiden homozygous genotype and pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Biron-Andréani, Christine; Bauters, Anne; Le Cam-Duchez, Véronique; Delahousse, Bénédicte; Lequerrec, Agnès; Dutrillaux, Fabienne; Boinot, Catherine; Saladin-Thiron, Catherine; Polack, Benoit; Gruel, Yves; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2009-12-01

    To assess the rate of early (first trimester) and late (second and third trimester) fetal loss in women who are factor V Leiden homozygous. Between December 1995 and February 2007, consecutive, unrelated white women who were factor V Leiden homozygous and who had been pregnant at least once were recruited from 10 French hemostasis units. For reasons of comparison, we included women who were factor V Leiden heterozygous and a group of noncarriers. The frequency of early and late fetal loss was assessed retrospectively and compared among the three groups. The effect of concomitant thrombophilic abnormalities was evaluated. The overall pregnancy outcome was reported. We analyzed 240 thromboprophylaxis-free pregnancies in 95 women who were factor V Leiden homozygous, 425 in 195 women who were factor V Leiden heterozygous, and 182 in 73 women who were noncarriers. The risk of late fetal loss was higher in women who were homozygous (13/95, 13.7%) compared with those who were noncarriers (1/73, 1.4%, odds ratio 11.41, 95% confidence interval 1.46-89.46, P=.002), whereas it was similar in women who were heterozygous and in noncarriers (6/195, 3.1% compared with 1/73, 1.4%, P=.68). The percentage of women with early fetal loss was similar in the three groups (P=.81). The live-birth rate was 80%, 84%, and 85%, respectively, for women who where homozygous, heterozygous, and noncarriers (P=.88). The factor V Leiden homozygous genotype increases the risk of late fetal loss. However, the overall likelihood of a positive outcome is high in our series of women who were homozygous. III.

  15. Plant genotypes affect aboveground and belowground herbivore interactions by changing chemical defense.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoqiong; Guo, Wenfeng; Siemann, Evan; Wen, Yuanguang; Huang, Wei; Ding, Jianqing

    2016-12-01

    Spatially separated aboveground (AG) and belowground (BG) herbivores are closely linked through shared host plants, and both patterns of AG-BG interactions and plant responses may vary among plant genotypes. We subjected invasive (USA) and native (China) genotypes of tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) to herbivory by the AG specialist leaf-rolling weevil Heterapoderopsis bicallosicollis and/or the root-feeding larvae of flea beetle Bikasha collaris. We measured leaf damage and leaves rolled by weevils, quantified beetle survival, and analyzed flavonoid and tannin concentrations in leaves and roots. AG and BG herbivores formed negative feedbacks on both native and invasive genotypes. Leaf damage by weevils and the number of beetle larvae emerging as adults were higher on invasive genotypes. Beetles reduced weevil damage and weevils reduced beetle larval emergence more strongly for invasive genotypes. Invasive genotypes had lower leaf and root tannins than native genotypes. BG beetles decreased leaf tannins of native genotypes but increased root tannins of invasive genotypes. AG herbivory increased root flavonoids of invasive genotypes while BG herbivory decreased leaf flavonoids. Invasive genotypes had lower AG and BG herbivore resistance, and negative AG-BG herbivore feedbacks were much stronger for invasive genotypes. Lower tannin concentrations explained overall better AG and BG herbivore performances on invasive genotypes. However, changes in tannins and flavonoids affected AG and BG herbivores differently. These results suggest that divergent selection on chemical production in invasive plants may be critical in regulating herbivore performances and novel AG and BG herbivore communities in new environments.

  16. PEPA-1* genotype affects return rate for hatchery steelhead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisenbichler, R.R.; Hayes, M.C.; Rubin, S.P.; Wetzel, L.A.; Baker, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Allozymes continue to be useful as genetic markers in a variety of studies; however, their utility often hinges on the selective neutrality of the allelic variation. Our study tested for neutrality between the two most common alleles (*100 and *110) at the cytosol nonspecific dipeptidase locus (PEPA-1*) in steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery in Idaho. We tested for differential growth and survival among fish with the * 100/100, *100/ 110, and *110/110 genotypes rearing in a hatchery or a natural stream. We repeated the study for two year-classes, using heterozygous (*100/110) adults to make the experimental crosses. This design avoided differences in family contribution among genotypes because each cross produced all three genotypes. We divided the progeny from each family into two groups. One group was reared in a hatchery for 1 year and then released for migration to the sea and subsequent return to the hatchery as adults. The other group was released into a natural stream and monitored for 3 years. We found no significant differences in size or survival among PEPA-1* genotypes for either the naturally reared fish or the hatchery-reared fish immediately prior to release as smolts. For females, survival to returning adult also was similar among genotypes; however, hatchery-reared males with the *110/110 genotype returned at a higher rate than did males with the *100/ 100 genotype; heterozygous males were intermediate. These results indicate that selection occurs at the PEPA-1* locus or at one or more loci tightly linked to it. The finding of nearly equal frequencies for these two alleles in the source population suggests that selection differentials among genotypes reverse or vary from year to year; otherwise, steady directional selection would drive the *100 allele to low frequencies or extinction. Locus PEPA-1* seems inappropriate for genetic marks in studies of steelhead that span the full life cycle and probably should be avoided

  17. Interleukin 28B.rs12979860 genotype does not affect hepatitis C viral load in Egyptians with genotype 4 chronic infection.

    PubMed

    Abdelwahab, Sayed F; Zakaria, Zainab; Allam, Walaa R; Hamdy, Shaimaa; Mahmoud, Mohamed A; Sobhy, Maha; Rewisha, Eman; Waked, Imam

    2015-11-01

    Several host and viral factors affect the natural history of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection. Interleukin 28B (IL28B).rs12979860 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was found to predict viral clearance with and without therapy. Subjects with the CC (favorable) genotype of IL28B.rs12979860 were more likely to spontaneously clear the infection and respond favorably to therapy. These data suggest that subjects with the "favorable" CC genotype might have a lower viral load when compared to those with the "unfavorable" TT genotype. Therefore, we examined the effect of IL28B.rs12979860 SNP on HCV viral load and clearance among HCV-infected Egyptians. This cross sectional study was conducted on 375 HCV antibody-positive subjects. Detection and quantification of HCV-RNA was determined by RT-PCR. IL28B.rs12979860 genotyping was performed using SYBR green real-time PCR and specific primers. Of 375 HCV-antibody positive subjects, 239 (63.7%) had chronic HCV infection while the remaining 136 (36.3%) subjects had spontaneously cleared the virus. The frequency of IL28-B CC, CT, and TT genotypes among spontaneous resolvers were 54.4%, 39.0%, and 6.6% while among the chronically infected subjects, they were 31.4%, 49.8%, and 18.8%, respectively. As expected, IL28 genotype predicted spontaneous HCV clearance (p < 0.001). The average HCV viral loads were 1.5 ± 0.69 x 10(6), 0.62 ± 0.11 x 10(6) and 0.51 ± 0.14 x 10(6) IU/ml among chronic subjects with the IL28B.rs12979860 CC, CT and TT genotypes, respectively (p > 0.05). In conclusion, our results show that IL28B.rs12979860 genotype does not affect viral load among chronic HCV infected Egyptians. These findings further confirm the complexity of viral host interactions in determining HCV infection outcome.

  18. Cropping history affects nodulation and symbiotic efficiency of distinct hairy vetch genotypes with resident soil rhizobia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Presence of compatible rhizobia strains is essential for nodulation and BNF of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, HV). We evaluated how past HV cultivation affects nodulation and nitrogen fixation across host genotypes. Five groups of HV genotypes were inoculated with soil dilutions from six paired fields,...

  19. Apolipoprotein E genotype and outcome in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Cotten, C Michael; Goldstein, Ricki F; McDonald, Scott A; Goldberg, Ronald N; Salhab, Walid A; Carlo, Waldemar A; Tyson, Jon E; Finer, Neil N; Walsh, Michele C; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Laptook, Abbot R; Guillet, Ronnie; Schibler, Kurt; Van Meurs, Krisa P; Poindexter, Brenda B; Stoll, Barbara J; O'Shea, T Michael; Duara, Shahnaz; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D; Shankaran, Seetha

    2014-03-01

    Adults with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene alleles e4 and e2 are at high risk of poor neurological outcome after brain injury. The e4 allele has been associated with cerebral palsy (CP), and the e2 allele has been associated with worse neurological outcome with congenital heart disease. This study was done to test the hypothesis that the APOE genotype is associated with outcome among neonates who survive after hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We conducted a cohort study of infants who survived HIE and had 18-22 mo standardized neurodevelopmental evaluations to assess associations between disability and the APOE genotypes e3/e3, e4/-, and e2/-. A total of 139 survivors were genotyped. Of these, 86 (62%) were of the e3/e3, 41 (29%) were of the e4/-, and 14 (10%) were of the e2/- genotypes. One hundred and twenty-nine infants had genotype and follow-up data; 26% had moderate or severe disabilities. Disability prevalence was 30 and 19% among those with and without the e3/e3 genotype, 25 and 26% among those with and without the e2 allele, and 18 and 29% among those with and without the e4 allele, respectively. None of the differences were statistically significant. CP prevalence was also similar among genotype groups. Disability was not associated with the APOE genotype in this cohort of HIE survivors.

  20. Plant genotype and induced defenses affect the productivity of an insect-killing obligate viral pathogen.

    PubMed

    Shikano, Ikkei; McCarthy, Elizabeth M; Elderd, Bret D; Hoover, Kelli

    2017-09-01

    Plant-mediated variations in the outcomes of host-pathogen interactions can strongly affect epizootics and the population dynamics of numerous species, including devastating agricultural pests such as the fall armyworm. Most studies of plant-mediated effects on insect pathogens focus on host mortality, but few have measured pathogen yield, which can affect whether or not an epizootic outbreak occurs. Insects challenged with baculoviruses on different plant species and parts can vary in levels of mortality and yield of infectious stages (occlusion bodies; OBs). We previously demonstrated that soybean genotypes and induced anti-herbivore defenses influence baculovirus infectivity. Here, we used a soybean genotype that strongly reduced baculovirus infectivity when virus was ingested on induced plants (Braxton) and another that did not reduce infectivity (Gasoy), to determine how soybean genotype and induced defenses influence OB yield and speed of kill. These are key fitness measures because baculoviruses are obligate-killing pathogens. We challenged fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, with the baculovirus S. frugiperda multi-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV) during short or long-term exposure to plant treatments (i.e., induced or non-induced genotypes). Caterpillars were either fed plant treatments only during virus ingestion (short-term exposure to foliage) or from the point of virus ingestion until death (long-term exposure). We found trade-offs of increasing OB yield with slower speed of kill and decreasing virus dose. OB yield increased more with longer time to death and decreased more with increasing virus dose after short-term feeding on Braxton compared with Gasoy. OB yield increased significantly more with time to death in larvae that fed until death on non-induced foliage than induced foliage. Moreover, fewer OBs per unit of host tissue were produced when larvae were fed induced foliage than non-induced foliage. These findings highlight the

  1. Factors affecting the outcome of corneal transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Coster, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Corneal grafting has been attempted for 200 years. Greatly improved results in recent years have been attributed to developments in anaesthesia, asepsis, and immunological and anti-inflammatory therapy. The important factors affecting the outcome of corneal grafting today are the degree of vascularisation of the cornea before surgery, the inflammatory status at the time of surgery, and the number of antigenic determinants shared by donor and host. Allograft rejection is the most common cause of corneal graft failure. Animal experiments suggest that cyclosporin A given at the time of surgery is likely to prove the most effective means available for preventing corneal graft rejection. Although the introduction of more specific immunosuppressive agents is important, the development of techniques to improve the environment of the outer eye demands the highest priority. Corneal disease is the commonest cause of blindness on a world scale, but many patients are unacceptable for grafting with the currently accepted criteria for operability. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6166235

  2. Evidence for a Link between Parasite Genotype and Outcome of Infection with Entamoeba histolytica▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ibne Karim M.; Mondal, Utpal; Roy, Shantanu; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A.; Clark, C. Graham

    2007-01-01

    The factors determining whether a person infected with Entamoeba histolytica develops disease remain obscure. To investigate whether the parasite genome contributes to the outcome, we have investigated the distribution of parasite genotypes among E. histolytica-infected individuals in Bangladesh. Samples were obtained from individuals who either were asymptomatic, had diarrhea/dysentery, or had developed a liver abscess. Genotypes were determined by using six tRNA-linked polymorphic markers, and their distributions among the three sample groups were evaluated. A significant population differentiation in the genotype distribution was found for four of the six individual markers as well as for the combined genotypes, suggesting that the parasite genome does contribute in some way to the outcome of infection with E. histolytica. The markers themselves do not indicate the nature of the underlying genetic differences, but they may be linked to loci that do have an impact on the outcome of infection. PMID:17122021

  3. Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype predicts greater aggression through impulsive reactivity to negative affect.

    PubMed

    Chester, David S; DeWall, C Nathan; Derefinko, Karen J; Estus, Steven; Peters, Jessica R; Lynam, Donald R; Jiang, Yang

    2015-04-15

    Low functioning MAOA genotypes have been reliably linked to increased reactive aggression, yet the psychological mechanisms of this effect remain largely unknown. The low functioning MAOA genotype's established link to diminished inhibition and greater reactivity to conditions of negative affect suggest that negative urgency, the tendency to act impulsively in the context of negative affect, may fill this mediating role. Such MAOA carriers may have higher negative urgency, which may in turn predict greater aggressive responses to provocation. To test these hypotheses, 277 female and male participants were genotyped for an MAOA SNP yet to be linked to aggression (rs1465108), and then reported their negative urgency and past aggressive behavior. We replicated the effect of the low functioning MAOA genotype on heightened aggression, which was mediated by greater negative urgency. These results suggest that disrupted serotonergic systems predispose individuals towards aggressive behavior by increasing impulsive reactivity to negative affect.

  4. Hepatitis B virus in Buenos Aires, Argentina: genotypes, virological characteristics and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pezzano, S C; Torres, C; Fainboim, H A; Bouzas, M B; Schroder, T; Giuliano, S F; Paz, S; Alvarez, E; Campos, R H; Mbayed, V A

    2011-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is classified into eight major genotypes, A-H, which are geographically distributed worldwide. The aim of this work was to describe the clinical characteristics associated with the HBV genotypes circulating in Buenos Aires city. The study included 139 patients infected with HBV, whose clinical courses were classified as acute symptomatic self-limiting hepatitis, inactive carrier state and chronic active hepatitis (HBV e-antigen (HBeAg)-positive and HBeAg-negative). The HBV genotypes were determined in 128 patients by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and phylogenetic analysis. Biochemical, virological, clinical and histological features were analysed. A differential distribution of genotypes between acute symptomatic and chronic infections was found. Among the acute cases, genotype F was predominant (65.2%, 30/46) and genotype D was rare (4.3%, 2/46), whereas among the chronic infections, a homogeneous distribution of genotypes A (26.8%, 22/82), D (31.7%, 26/82) and F (36.6%, 30/82), with an unusual presence of genotypes B (1.2%, 1/82) and C (3.7%, 3/82), was observed. Regarding the liver histology of chronically infected patients, genotype F tended to display higher histological activity indexes. Mutations related to HBV surface antigen immunoreactivity, antiviral resistance and HBeAg-negative status were studied. This work constitutes, to our knowledge, the first description of the clinical characteristics related to HBV genotypes in Argentina, where the distribution of genotypes in patients with acute infection has not been reported previously. Finally, it was established that genotype F is the prevalent genotype among the acute symptomatic infections in Buenos Aires city, and that it shows a tendency to cause an adverse disease outcome among the chronic cases.

  5. Factors affecting genotyping success in giant panda fecal samples

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ying; Liu, Hong-Yi; Yang, Hai-Qiong; Li, Yu-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Fecal samples play an important role in giant panda conservation studies. Optimal preservation conditions and choice of microsatellites for giant panda fecal samples have not been established. In this study, we evaluated the effect of four factors (namely, storage type (ethanol (EtOH), EtOH −20 °C, 2-step storage medium, DMSO/EDTA/Tris/salt buffer (DETs) and frozen at −20 °C), storage time (one, three and six months), fragment length, and repeat motif of microsatellite loci) on the success rate of microsatellite amplification, allelic dropout (ADO) and false allele (FA) rates from giant panda fecal samples. Amplification success and ADO rates differed between the storage types. Freezing was inferior to the other four storage methods based on the lowest average amplification success and the highest ADO rates (P < 0.05). The highest microsatellite amplification success was obtained from either EtOH or the 2-step storage medium at three storage time points. Storage time had a negative effect on the average amplification of microsatellites and samples stored in EtOH and the 2-step storage medium were more stable than the other three storage types. We only detected the effect of repeat motif on ADO and FA rates. The lower ADO and FA rates were obtained from tri- and tetra-nucleotide loci. We suggest that freezing should not be used for giant panda fecal preservation in microsatellite studies, and EtOH and the 2-step storage medium should be chosen on priority for long-term storage. We recommend candidate microsatellite loci with longer repeat motif to ensure greater genotyping success for giant panda fecal studies. PMID:28560107

  6. Factors affecting genotyping success in giant panda fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Liu, Hong-Yi; Yang, Hai-Qiong; Li, Yu-Dong; Zhang, He-Min

    2017-01-01

    Fecal samples play an important role in giant panda conservation studies. Optimal preservation conditions and choice of microsatellites for giant panda fecal samples have not been established. In this study, we evaluated the effect of four factors (namely, storage type (ethanol (EtOH), EtOH -20 °C, 2-step storage medium, DMSO/EDTA/Tris/salt buffer (DETs) and frozen at -20 °C), storage time (one, three and six months), fragment length, and repeat motif of microsatellite loci) on the success rate of microsatellite amplification, allelic dropout (ADO) and false allele (FA) rates from giant panda fecal samples. Amplification success and ADO rates differed between the storage types. Freezing was inferior to the other four storage methods based on the lowest average amplification success and the highest ADO rates (P < 0.05). The highest microsatellite amplification success was obtained from either EtOH or the 2-step storage medium at three storage time points. Storage time had a negative effect on the average amplification of microsatellites and samples stored in EtOH and the 2-step storage medium were more stable than the other three storage types. We only detected the effect of repeat motif on ADO and FA rates. The lower ADO and FA rates were obtained from tri- and tetra-nucleotide loci. We suggest that freezing should not be used for giant panda fecal preservation in microsatellite studies, and EtOH and the 2-step storage medium should be chosen on priority for long-term storage. We recommend candidate microsatellite loci with longer repeat motif to ensure greater genotyping success for giant panda fecal studies.

  7. Influence of COMT genotype and affective distractors on the processing of self-generated thought.

    PubMed

    Kilford, Emma J; Dumontheil, Iroise; Wood, Nicholas W; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-06-01

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme is a major determinant of prefrontal dopamine levels. The Val(158)Met polymorphism affects COMT enzymatic activity and has been associated with variation in executive function and affective processing. This study investigated the effect of COMT genotype on the flexible modulation of the balance between processing self-generated and processing stimulus-oriented information, in the presence or absence of affective distractors. Analyses included 124 healthy adult participants, who were also assessed on standard working memory (WM) tasks. Relative to Val carriers, Met homozygotes made fewer errors when selecting and manipulating self-generated thoughts. This effect was partly accounted for by an association between COMT genotype and visuospatial WM performance. We also observed a complex interaction between the influence of affective distractors, COMT genotype and sex on task accuracy: male, but not female, participants showed a sensitivity to the affective distractors that was dependent on COMT genotype. This was not accounted for by WM performance. This study provides novel evidence of the role of dopaminergic genetic variation on the ability to select and manipulate self-generated thoughts. The results also suggest sexually dimorphic effects of COMT genotype on the influence of affective distractors on executive function. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Influence of COMT genotype and affective distractors on the processing of self-generated thought

    PubMed Central

    Dumontheil, Iroise; Wood, Nicholas W.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-01-01

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme is a major determinant of prefrontal dopamine levels. The Val158Met polymorphism affects COMT enzymatic activity and has been associated with variation in executive function and affective processing. This study investigated the effect of COMT genotype on the flexible modulation of the balance between processing self-generated and processing stimulus-oriented information, in the presence or absence of affective distractors. Analyses included 124 healthy adult participants, who were also assessed on standard working memory (WM) tasks. Relative to Val carriers, Met homozygotes made fewer errors when selecting and manipulating self-generated thoughts. This effect was partly accounted for by an association between COMT genotype and visuospatial WM performance. We also observed a complex interaction between the influence of affective distractors, COMT genotype and sex on task accuracy: male, but not female, participants showed a sensitivity to the affective distractors that was dependent on COMT genotype. This was not accounted for by WM performance. This study provides novel evidence of the role of dopaminergic genetic variation on the ability to select and manipulate self-generated thoughts. The results also suggest sexually dimorphic effects of COMT genotype on the influence of affective distractors on executive function. PMID:25190703

  9. Clinical Features and Outcomes of Patients With Genotype 3 Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Ra Ri; Lee, Sang Soo; Lee, Chang Min; Ji, Sung Bok; Jung, Hee Cheul; Cho, Hyun Chin; Kim, Jin Joo; Lee, Jae Min; Kim, Hong Jun; Ha, Chang Yoon; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae-Hyo; Jung, Woon Tae; Lee, Ok-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 3 infection is very rare in high-income Asia Pacific. The aim of our retrospective observational study was to evaluate the incidence, clinical features, and treatment outcomes of patients with a genotype 3 HCV infection in the Gyeongnam Province of Korea. Ninety-eight consecutive patients diagnosed with a genotype 3 HCV infection at Gyeongsang National University Hospital, between January 2005 and December 2014, were enrolled into the study. Relevant characteristics of the study group included: 80.6% men, mean age of 41.8 years, and including 69 patients with chronic hepatitis, 25 with liver cirrhosis, and 4 with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Risk factors for HCV infection, sustained virologic response rate, development of HCC, and mortality in patients with genotype 3 were retrospectively analyzed. Among all patients diagnosed with a HCV infection during the study period, the prevalence of genotype 3 was 7.3%. The incidence of genotype 3 was higher in young patients with a risk factor of IVDU (54.0%) and tattooing (62.3%). Among 45 treatment-naive genotype 3 patients, sustained virologic response was achieved with a combination of pegylated-interferon alpha and ribavirin in 75.6%. The cumulative 5-year incidence of HCC was 13.6%, and 8.9% for overall mortality. Liver cirrhosis at enrollment was an independent risk factor for HCC development. This is the first study to elucidate the clinical features and outcomes among the patients with HCV genotype 3 infection in Korea. Further prospective studies are needed to investigate transmission routes and outcomes for HCV genotype 3 infections. PMID:26871824

  10. COMMON GENOTYPES AND TREATMENT OUTCOMES OF HCV INFECTION AMONG ETHIOPIAN PATIENTS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Endale; Bane, Abate; Kefene, Hailu

    2016-01-01

    The treatment response of HCV infection is dependent on genotype and stage of the disease. However, genotype pattern and treatment outcomes of HCV infection among Ethiopian patients has not been studied so far. To evaluate the common HCV genotypes and treatment outcomes among Ethiopian adult patients. Adult patients aged 18 and above with HCV infection referred from various regions of the country were included in the study after written informed consent. As there was no free or insurance coverage for treatment of HCV infection in the country, those who could afford to pay for treatment with PEG Interferon and Ribavirin were recruited during January 1, 2008 through December 31,2013 at United Vision, Adera. Old Airport, and Mexico referral higher clinics in Addis Ababa. Patients with decompensated cirrhosis and pregnant ladies were excluded from the study. The patients were counseled on treatment options, cost, treatment outcomes, adverse drug effects, and possible complications. Data were collected on demographic features, clinical characteristics, viral genotypes, and treatment outcomes during follow up visits until six months after completion of recommended standard treatment. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. A total of 200 adults with chronic HCV infection were treated with PEG-Interferon and Ribavirin (for 24 or 48 weeks according to the genotypes) during the study period. Of the 200 patients enrolled in the study, 120 (60%) were male, 90% were from Addis Ababa, and the median age was 48 years. Sixty per cent of the patients were infected with genotype 4,17% with genotype 1, 13.5% with genotype 2 and 9.5% with genotype 3. Eighty percent of the patients had end of treatment response; of these, 74.4% had undetectable HCV RNA at 6th month after end of treatment. The end of treatment response was noted to be close to 90% for patients with HCV genotypes 2 and.3 infections. This study indicates that genotype 4 is the prevalent HCV genotype followed by 1, 2, and

  11. Association between susceptible genotypes to periodontitis and clinical outcomes of periodontal regenerative therapy: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Koidou, Vasiliki-Petros

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this review is to systematically investigate the effect of a susceptible genotype to periodontitis with the clinical outcomes of periodontal regeneration. Material and Methods Based on a focused question, an electronic search identified 155 unique citations. Three journals (Journal of Periodontology, Journal of Clinical Periodontology and Journal of Periodontal Research), references of relevant studies and review articles were hand-searched. Two independent reviewers implementing eligibility inclusion criteria selected the studies. Results Of the 155, four studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All studies were published between 2000 and 2004 and the samples’ size was 40 to 86 patients. Polymorphisms of Interleukin-1 (IL-1) gene were included in all. Three out of four studies failed to identify an association between susceptible genotypes to periodontitis and clinical outcomes of periodontal regeneration, while one found an association. The heterogeneity and small number of studies included prevented the conduct of a meta-analysis. No studies were identified evaluating the effect of other genotypes and as a result only IL-1 genotype studies were included. Conclusions Within the limits of the present review, no direct conclusion for the effect of a susceptible IL-1 genotype status to the clinical outcome after periodontal regeneration could be drawn. The need of more qualitative studies to explore a possible association emerges. Key words:Periodontitis, genotype, periodontal therapy, regeneration, susceptibility, systematic review. PMID:26946210

  12. Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA) Genotype Predicts Greater Aggression Through Impulsive Reactivity to Negative Affect

    PubMed Central

    Chester, David S.; DeWall, C. Nathan; Derefinko, Karen J.; Estus, Steven; Peters, Jessica R.; Lynam, Donald R.; Jiang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Low functioning MAOA genotypes have been reliably linked to increased reactive aggression, yet the psychological mechanisms of this effect remain largely unknown. The low functioning MAOA genotype’s established link to diminished inhibition and greater reactivity to conditions of negative affect suggest that negative urgency, the tendency to act impulsively in the context of negative affect, may fill this mediating role. Such MAOA carriers may have higher negative urgency, which may in turn predict greater aggressive responses to provocation. To test these hypotheses, 277 female and male participants were genotyped for an MAOA SNP yet to be linked to aggression (rs1465108), and then reported their negative urgency and past aggressive behavior. We replicated the effect of the low functioning MAOA genotype on heightened aggression, which was mediated by greater negative urgency. These results suggest that disrupted serotonergic systems predispose individuals towards aggressive behavior by increasing impulsive reactivity to negative affect. PMID:25637908

  13. GALNT14 Genotype Predicts Postoperative Outcome of Stage III Colorectal Cancer With Oxaliplatin as Adjuvant Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wey-Ran; Chiang, Jy-Ming; Liang, Kung-Hao; Lim, Siew-Na; Lai, Ming-Wei; Tsou, Yung-Kuan; Hsieh, Tzu-Yun; Hsu, Chih-Kai; Yeh, Chau-Ting

    2016-04-01

    Adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy is widely used for stage III colorectal cancer (CRC) after curative surgery. CRC is a molecularly heterogeneous disease, and our current knowledge of therapeutic response-related genetic factors remains limited. N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 14 (GALNT14)-rs9679162 genotype is a prognostic predictor for chemotherapy response in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we investigated whether this genotype was related to the therapeutic outcome of stage III CRC.A cohort of 300 stage III CRC patients receiving curative resection followed by oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy was retrospectively recruited. GALNT14 genotypes and the clinicopathological factors were correlated with posttherapeutic prognosis.Of these patients, 18% patients had GALNT14-rs9679162 "TT" and 82% had the "GT" + "GG" genotypes. The analysis showed that the "TT" genotype was associated with unfavorable overall survival (OS, P = 0.009) but not with recurrence-free survival (RFS, P = 0.700). The subgroup analysis showed that the "TT" genotype was associated with unfavorable OS in the following subgroups: age ≤65 years, men, left side CRC, N2 stage, carcinoembryonic antigen >5 ng/mL, and mucinous histology (P = 0.012, 0.011, 0.009, 0.025, 0.013, and 0.007, respectively). Within the latter 2 subgroups, the "TT" genotype was the only independent predictor for OS. Finally, the "TT" genotype was associated with the T4 tumor stage (P = 0.017) and in patients with T4 tumors, the "TT" genotype was the only independent predictor for unfavorable RFS (P = 0.007).GALNT14 "TT" genotype was associated with unfavorable OS in stage III CRC patients receiving curative surgery and adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy.

  14. Conception of Learning Outcomes in the Bloom's Taxonomy Affective Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickiene, Izabela

    2010-01-01

    The article raises a problematic issue regarding an insufficient base of the conception of learning outcomes in the Bloom's taxonomy affective domain. The search for solutions introduces the conception of teaching and learning in the affective domain as well as presents validity criteria of learning outcomes in the affective domain. The…

  15. Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy: correlations between mitochondrial genotype and visual outcome.

    PubMed Central

    Oostra, R J; Bolhuis, P A; Wijburg, F A; Zorn-Ende, G; Bleeker-Wagemakers, E M

    1994-01-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited disease associated with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. We describe the distribution of seven different mtDNA mutations and the clinical findings in 334 LHON patients belonging to 29 families. Mutations described only in LHON at nucleotide positions 11778, 3460, and 14484 were found in 15, two, and nine families respectively. In three families none of these mutations was found. Mutations described in LHON but also in controls at nucleotide positions 15257, 13708, 4917, and 4216 were found in one, 10, three and 12 families respectively. Combinations of mtDNA mutations were found in most families. The patient population mainly consisted of 79.2% to 89.5% males except for one family with only 10 of 17 patients being males (58.9%, p approximately 0.036). In 11 families only the 11778 mutation was found; in this group (WX) the affected males had a mean age of onset of 29.2 years and a mean visual outcome of 0.113. In seven families the 14484, 13708, and 4216 mutations were found; in this group (MA) the affected males had a mean age of onset of 22.0 years and a mean visual outcome of 0.442. In two families no mutation was found at all; in this group (YX) the affected males had a mean age of onset of 18.9 years and a mean visual outcome of 0.167. The mean age of onset in the WX group is significantly higher than in the MA group (p < or = 0.001) and in the YX group (p approximately 0.01). The mean visual outcome in the MA group is significantly better than in the WX group (p genotype

  16. The Hepatitis B Virus Genotype Affects the Persistence of Viral Replication in Immunodeficient NOG Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Yoshinobu; Miyagi, Takuya; Hikita, Hayato; Yoshioka, Teppei; Mukai, Kaori; Nawa, Takatoshi; Sakamori, Ryotaro; Ohkawa, Kazuyoshi; Hiramatsu, Naoki; Takahashi, Takeshi; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Ryo, Akihide; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims At least eight genotypes of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) have been identified. HBV genotype C is the most common genotype in Japan, although the incidence of HBV genotype A is increasing. The reason underlying the differences in viral multiplication of the HBV genotypes is unclear, especially in vivo. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the differences in HBV load and the persistence of viremia in vivo between genotypes A and C. Methods Immunodeficient NOG mice were transfected by hydrodynamic injection with the HBV expression plasmids pHBA1.2 or pHBC1.2, which contain overlength (1.2-mer) copies of the genomes of HBV genotype A or C, respectively. Results One day after transfection, the number of HBcAg-positive hepatocytes and serum HBV DNA levels were similar between mice transfected with pHBA1.2 and pHBC1.2. Serum levels of HBV DNA, HBsAg and HBeAg in mice transfected with pHBA1.2 were maintained over 5 months. In contrast, those in mice with pHBC1.2 gradually decreased over time and reached undetectable levels within 3 months after transfection. HBcAg-stained hepatocytes were detected in mice transfected with pHBA1.2, but not pHBC1.2, 5 months post-transfection. Double-staining immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of cleaved caspase3-stained, HBcAg-positive hepatocytes in the pHBC1.2-transfected mice was higher than in the pHBA1.2-transfected mice 3 days post-transfection. Moreover, the plasmid DNA and covalently closed circular DNA levels were decreased in the livers of pHBC1.2-transfected mice. These results suggested that hepatocytes expressing HBV genotype C were eliminated by apoptosis in the absence of immune cells more often than in hepatocytes expressing HBV genotype A. Conclusions Immunodeficient mice transfected with HBV genotype A develop persistent viremia, whereas those transfected with HBV genotype C exhibit transient viremia accompanied by apoptosis of HBV-expressing hepatocytes. This differences may affect the

  17. Trait Affect and Job Search Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Stephane; Saks, Alan M.; Zikic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the role of trait affect in job search. One hundred and twenty-three university students completed measures of positive and negative affectivity, conscientiousness, job search self-efficacy, job search clarity, and job search intensity during their last year of school while on the job market. At the end of the school…

  18. Association Between Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Genotype and Upper Extremity Motor Outcome After Stroke.

    PubMed

    Chang, Won Hyuk; Park, Eunhee; Lee, Jungsoo; Lee, Ahee; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2017-06-01

    The identification of intrinsic factors for predicting upper extremity motor outcome could aid the design of individualized treatment plans in stroke rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to identify prognostic factors, including intrinsic genetic factors, for upper extremity motor outcome in patients with subacute stroke. A total of 97 patients with subacute stroke were enrolled. Upper limb motor impairment was scored according to the upper limb of Fugl-Meyer assessment score at 3 months after stroke. The prediction of upper extremity motor outcome at 3 months was modeled using various factors that could potentially influence this impairment, including patient characteristics, baseline upper extremity motor impairment, functional and structural integrity of the corticospinal tract, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor genotype. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression models were used to identify the significance of each factor. The independent predictors of motor outcome at 3 months were baseline upper extremity motor impairment, age, stroke type, and corticospinal tract functional integrity in all stroke patients. However, in the group with severe motor impairment at baseline (upper limb score of Fugl-Meyer assessment <25), the number of Met alleles in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor genotype was also an independent predictor of upper extremity motor outcome 3 months after stroke. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor genotype may be a potentially useful predictor of upper extremity motor outcome in patients with subacute stroke with severe baseline motor involvement. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Genotypic differences and prior defoliation affect re-growth and phytochemistry after coppicing in Populus tremuloides.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Michael T; Gusse, Adam C; Lindroth, Richard L

    2012-03-01

    Although considerable research has explored how tree growth and defense can be influenced by genotype, the biotic environment, and their interaction, little is known about how genotypic differences, prior defoliation, and their interactive effects persist in trees that re-grow after damage that severs their primary stem. To address these issues, we established a common garden consisting of twelve genotypes of potted aspen (Populus tremuloides) trees, and subjected half of the trees to defoliation in two successive years. At the beginning of the third year, all trees were severed at the soil surface (coppiced) and allowed to regenerate for five months. Afterwards, we counted the number of root and stump sprouts produced and measured the basal diameter (d) and height (h) of the tallest ramet in each pot. We collected leaves one and two years after the second defoliation and assessed levels of phenolic glycosides, condensed tannins, and nitrogen. In terms of re-growth, we found that the total number of sprouts produced varied by 3.6-fold among genotypes, and that prior defoliation decreased total sprout production by 24%. The size (d(2)h) of ramets, however, did not differ significantly among genotypes or defoliation classes. In terms of phytochemistry, we observed genotypic differences in concentrations of all phytochemicals assessed both one and two years after the second defoliation. Two years after defoliation, we observed effects of prior defoliation in a genotype-by-defoliation interaction for condensed tannins. Results from this study demonstrate that genotypic differences and impacts of prior defoliation persist to influence growth and defense traits in trees even after complete removal of above-ground stems, and thus likely influence productivity and plant-herbivore interactions in forests affected by natural disturbances or actively managed through coppicing.

  20. Demotivation: Affective States and Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falout, Joseph; Elwood, James; Hood, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Demotivation can negatively influence the learner's attitudes and behaviors, degrade classroom group dynamics and teacher's motivation, and result in long-term and widespread negative learning outcomes. 900 university EFL learners were surveyed to investigate the demotivating factors in learning English as a foreign language (EFL) in Japan, and…

  1. Genotype, B-vitamin status, and androgens affect spaceflight-induced ophthalmic changes

    PubMed Central

    Zwart, Sara R.; Gregory, Jesse F.; Zeisel, Steven H.; Gibson, Charles R.; Mader, Thomas H.; Kinchen, Jason M.; Ueland, Per M.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Heer, Martina A.; Smith, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    Ophthalmic changes have occurred in a subset of astronauts on International Space Station missions. Visual deterioration is considered the greatest human health risk of spaceflight. Affected astronauts exhibit higher concentrations of 1-carbon metabolites (e.g., homocysteine) before flight. We hypothesized that genetic variations in 1-carbon metabolism genes contribute to susceptibility to ophthalmic changes in astronauts. We investigated 5 polymorphisms in the methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) genes and their association with ophthalmic changes after flight in 49 astronauts. The number of G alleles of MTRR 66 and C alleles of SHMT1 1420 both contributed to the odds of visual disturbances. Preflight dehydroepiandrosterone was positively associated with cotton wool spots, and serum testosterone response during flight was associated with refractive change. Block regression showed that B-vitamin status and genetics were significant predictors of many of the ophthalmic outcomes that we observed. In one example, genetics trended toward improving (P = 0.10) and B-vitamin status significantly improved (P < 0.001) the predictive model for refractive change after flight. We document an association between MTRR 66 and SHMT1 1420 polymorphisms and spaceflight-induced vision changes. This line of research could lead to therapeutic options for both space travelers and terrestrial patients.—Zwart, S. R., Gregory, J. F., Zeisel, S. H., Gibson, C. R., Mader, T. H., Kinchen, J. M., Ueland, P. M., Ploutz-Snyder, R., Heer, M. A., Smith, S. M. Genotype, B-vitamin status, and androgens affect spaceflight-induced ophthalmic changes. PMID:26316272

  2. Mannose-binding lectin genotypes: potential role in tubal damage and adverse IVF outcome.

    PubMed

    Laisk, Triin; Peters, Maire; Salumets, Andres

    2011-12-01

    The innate immune system provides the first-line defence against genital tract pathogens and is also involved in establishing and maintaining a successful pregnancy. Genetic variation of factors regulating immune response can be associated with complications after genital tract infections and may lead to unfavourable pregnancy outcomes. This study focused on four polymorphisms in the mannose binding lectin gene (MBL2) and assessed their significance in tubal damage and female fertility by comparing genotype frequencies among 388 controls and women with tubal factor infertility (n=155) or previous ectopic pregnancy (n=178). The high-producing MBL2 genotype HYA/LYA was found to have a protective effect, while the hyper-producing MBL2 genotype HYA/HYA and low-producing MBL2 genotypes were associated with susceptibility to tubal factor infertility. Also, the low-producing genotypes showed association with early pregnancy loss in IVF treatment. In conclusion, these data suggest that certain MBL2 genotypes can be associated with tubal damage in patients with evidence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and additionally may contribute to the pathogenesis of early pregnancy loss.

  3. The significance of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes for the disease and treatment outcome among patients with chronic hepatitis B in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Milosevic, Ivana; Delic, Dragan; Lazarevic, Ivana; Pavlovic, Ivana Pesic; Korac, Milos; Bojovic, Ksenija; Jevtovic, Djordje

    2013-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes influence disease progression and treatment outcome. To determine natural history and treatment outcome in patient chronically infected with HBV. A cohort study included 162 treatment naive patients with chronic HBV infection in order to analyze factors influencing natural history of infection and survival. Genotype A was far less prevalent, detected in 14.2%. The prevalence of HbeAg+ serology of 60.8% among patients infected with genotype A was significantly higher then 30.9% recorded among those with genotype D (P=0.02). Even though patients from two genotypes subgroups had significantly different prevalence of HBeAg serology, their viral loads were similar at the time of diagnosis (2.90 log10 and 3.31 log10 HBV DNK IU/μl plasma, for genotypes A and D, respectively). The analyses of viral loads across three serologic patterns of chronic HBV infection were: for HBeAg+/HBeAb-, HbeAg-/HBAb+, and both "e" antigen and antibodies negative: 4.24, 2.67 and 2.69 log10 IU/ml of HBV DNA IU/μl, respectively (P=0.01). Mean time to liver cirrhosis was 23.2±3.4 years and 15.1±8.4 years, for genotypes A and D, respectively (P=0.02). The overall estimated mean survival of patients with chronic HBV infection was 28.4 years, and was influenced by the stage of liver disease, but not by gender, age above 40, viral genotype and lamivudine therapy. Patients infected with genotype D had more rapid progression to ESLD regardless of levels of viral replication. All clinical and laboratory differences between genotypes did not affect survival of patients with chronic hepatitis B, regardless of lamivudine therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Implicit emotion regulation affects outcome evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiwei; Tang, Ping; Luo, Wenbo; Luo, Yue-jia

    2015-01-01

    Efficient implicit emotion regulation processes, which run without awareness, are important for human well-being. In this study, to investigate the influence of implicit emotion regulation on psychological and electrophysiological responses to gains and losses, participants were required to select between two Chinese four-character idioms to match the meaning of the third one before they performed a monetary gambling task. According to whether their meanings were related to emotion regulation, the idioms fell into two categories. Event-related potentials and self-rating emotional experiences to outcome feedback were recorded during the task. Priming emotion regulation reduced subjective emotional experience to both gains and losses and the amplitudes of the feedback-related negativity, while the P3 component was not influenced. According to these results, we suggest that the application of implicit emotion regulation effectively modulated the subjective emotional experience and the motivational salience of current outcomes without the cost of cognitive resources. This study implicates the potential significance of implicit emotion regulation in decision-making processes. PMID:25332404

  5. Implicit emotion regulation affects outcome evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiwei; Tang, Ping; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Wenbo; Luo, Yue-jia

    2015-06-01

    Efficient implicit emotion regulation processes, which run without awareness, are important for human well-being. In this study, to investigate the influence of implicit emotion regulation on psychological and electrophysiological responses to gains and losses, participants were required to select between two Chinese four-character idioms to match the meaning of the third one before they performed a monetary gambling task. According to whether their meanings were related to emotion regulation, the idioms fell into two categories. Event-related potentials and self-rating emotional experiences to outcome feedback were recorded during the task. Priming emotion regulation reduced subjective emotional experience to both gains and losses and the amplitudes of the feedback-related negativity, while the P3 component was not influenced. According to these results, we suggest that the application of implicit emotion regulation effectively modulated the subjective emotional experience and the motivational salience of current outcomes without the cost of cognitive resources. This study implicates the potential significance of implicit emotion regulation in decision-making processes. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Tree species, tree genotypes and tree genotypic diversity levels affect microbe-mediated soil ecosystem functions in a subtropical forest

    PubMed Central

    Purahong, Witoon; Durka, Walter; Fischer, Markus; Dommert, Sven; Schöps, Ricardo; Buscot, François; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Tree species identity and tree genotypes contribute to the shaping of soil microbial communities. However, knowledge about how these two factors influence soil ecosystem functions is still lacking. Furthermore, in forest ecosystems tree genotypes co-occur and interact with each other, thus the effects of tree genotypic diversity on soil ecosystem functions merit attention. Here we investigated the effects of tree species, tree genotypes and genotypic diversity levels, alongside soil physicochemical properties, on the overall and specific soil enzyme activity patterns. Our results indicate that tree species identity, tree genotypes and genotypic diversity level have significant influences on overall and specific soil enzyme activity patterns. These three factors influence soil enzyme patterns partly through effects on soil physicochemical properties and substrate quality. Variance partitioning showed that tree species identity, genotypic diversity level, pH and water content all together explained ~30% variations in the overall patterns of soil enzymes. However, we also found that the responses of soil ecosystem functions to tree genotypes and genotypic diversity are complex, being dependent on tree species identity and controlled by multiple factors. Our study highlights the important of inter- and intra-specific variations in tree species in shaping soil ecosystem functions in a subtropical forest. PMID:27857198

  7. Tree species, tree genotypes and tree genotypic diversity levels affect microbe-mediated soil ecosystem functions in a subtropical forest.

    PubMed

    Purahong, Witoon; Durka, Walter; Fischer, Markus; Dommert, Sven; Schöps, Ricardo; Buscot, François; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2016-11-18

    Tree species identity and tree genotypes contribute to the shaping of soil microbial communities. However, knowledge about how these two factors influence soil ecosystem functions is still lacking. Furthermore, in forest ecosystems tree genotypes co-occur and interact with each other, thus the effects of tree genotypic diversity on soil ecosystem functions merit attention. Here we investigated the effects of tree species, tree genotypes and genotypic diversity levels, alongside soil physicochemical properties, on the overall and specific soil enzyme activity patterns. Our results indicate that tree species identity, tree genotypes and genotypic diversity level have significant influences on overall and specific soil enzyme activity patterns. These three factors influence soil enzyme patterns partly through effects on soil physicochemical properties and substrate quality. Variance partitioning showed that tree species identity, genotypic diversity level, pH and water content all together explained ~30% variations in the overall patterns of soil enzymes. However, we also found that the responses of soil ecosystem functions to tree genotypes and genotypic diversity are complex, being dependent on tree species identity and controlled by multiple factors. Our study highlights the important of inter- and intra-specific variations in tree species in shaping soil ecosystem functions in a subtropical forest.

  8. Tree species, tree genotypes and tree genotypic diversity levels affect microbe-mediated soil ecosystem functions in a subtropical forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purahong, Witoon; Durka, Walter; Fischer, Markus; Dommert, Sven; Schöps, Ricardo; Buscot, François; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2016-11-01

    Tree species identity and tree genotypes contribute to the shaping of soil microbial communities. However, knowledge about how these two factors influence soil ecosystem functions is still lacking. Furthermore, in forest ecosystems tree genotypes co-occur and interact with each other, thus the effects of tree genotypic diversity on soil ecosystem functions merit attention. Here we investigated the effects of tree species, tree genotypes and genotypic diversity levels, alongside soil physicochemical properties, on the overall and specific soil enzyme activity patterns. Our results indicate that tree species identity, tree genotypes and genotypic diversity level have significant influences on overall and specific soil enzyme activity patterns. These three factors influence soil enzyme patterns partly through effects on soil physicochemical properties and substrate quality. Variance partitioning showed that tree species identity, genotypic diversity level, pH and water content all together explained ~30% variations in the overall patterns of soil enzymes. However, we also found that the responses of soil ecosystem functions to tree genotypes and genotypic diversity are complex, being dependent on tree species identity and controlled by multiple factors. Our study highlights the important of inter- and intra-specific variations in tree species in shaping soil ecosystem functions in a subtropical forest.

  9. Attributions of responsibility and affective reactions to decision outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zeelenberg, M; van der Pligt, J; de Vries, N K

    2000-06-01

    Immediate affective reactions to outcomes are more intense following decisions to act than following decisions not to act. This finding holds for both positive and negative outcomes. We relate this "actor-effect" to attribution theory and argue that decision makers are seen as more responsible for outcomes when these are the result of a decision to act as compared to a decision not to act. Experiment 1 (N = 80) tests the main assumption underlying our reasoning and shows that affective reactions to decision outcomes are indeed more intense when the decision maker is seen as more responsible. Experiment 2 (N = 40) tests whether the actor effect can be predicted on the basis of differential attributions following action and inaction. Participants read vignettes in which active and passive actors obtained a positive or negative outcome. Action resulted in more intense affect than inaction, and positive outcomes resulted in more intense affect than negative outcomes. Experiment 2 further shows that responsibility attributions and affective reactions to outcomes are highly correlated; that is, more extreme affective reactions are associated with more internal attributions. We discuss the implications for research on post-decisional reactions.

  10. Aluminium long-term stress differently affects photosynthesis in rye genotypes.

    PubMed

    Silva, Sónia; Pinto, Glória; Dias, Maria Celeste; Correia, Carlos Manuel; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Pinto-Carnide, Olinda; Santos, Conceição

    2012-05-01

    The ability of crops to overcome Al toxicity varies among crop species and cultivars. Among the Triticeae genus, rye (Secale cereale) is considered the most Al-tolerant species. In the present work, two rye genotypes differing in Al tolerance ('Riodeva': Al-sensitive and 'Donkowsky Zlote': Al-tolerant) were exposed to 1.11 and 1.85 mM Al during three weeks. Growth, water status and photosynthesis related parameters were assessed. After three weeks of Al exposure, both genotypes presented similar decrease in leaf growth. Al-induced RWC decreased in both genotypes, but was more remarkable in 'Riodeva'. Al toxicity induced a decrease in net photosynthetic rate only after three weeks of exposure. In 'D. Zlote', A decrease was accompanied by stomatal closure, Chl a content and q(p) reduction, but no alterations in RuBisCo or sFBPase activity were observed. In 'Riodeva' plants exposed to 1.11 mM Al, A decrease was accompanied by C(i)/C(a) increase whereas in plants exposed to 1.85 mM Al C(i)/C(a) was not affected. Nevertheless, for both conditions RuBisCo activity decreased. A decrease did not limited glucose accumulation in neither of the rye genotypes. This study revealed that Al-induced earlier damages in the 'Riodeva' genotype, but both genotypes showed long-term high susceptibility to Al. Furthermore, the photosynthetic parameters proved to be a good tool to monitor Al-sensitivity and long-term exposure showed to be crucial to evaluate Al-sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The neural basis of risky choice with affective outcomes.

    PubMed

    Suter, Renata S; Pachur, Thorsten; Hertwig, Ralph; Endestad, Tor; Biele, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Both normative and many descriptive theories of decision making under risk are based on the notion that outcomes are weighted by their probability, with subsequent maximization of the (subjective) expected outcome. Numerous investigations from psychology, economics, and neuroscience have produced evidence consistent with this notion. However, this research has typically investigated choices involving relatively affect-poor, monetary outcomes. We compared choice in relatively affect-poor, monetary lottery problems with choice in relatively affect-rich medical decision problems. Computational modeling of behavioral data and model-based neuroimaging analyses provide converging evidence for substantial differences in the respective decision mechanisms. Relative to affect-poor choices, affect-rich choices yielded a more strongly curved probability weighting function of cumulative prospect theory, thus signaling that the psychological impact of probabilities is strongly diminished for affect-rich outcomes. Examining task-dependent brain activation, we identified a region-by-condition interaction indicating qualitative differences of activation between affect-rich and affect-poor choices. Moreover, brain activation in regions that were more active during affect-poor choices (e.g., the supramarginal gyrus) correlated with individual trial-by-trial decision weights, indicating that these regions reflect processing of probabilities. Formal reverse inference Neurosynth meta-analyses suggested that whereas affect-poor choices seem to be based on brain mechanisms for calculative processes, affect-rich choices are driven by the representation of outcomes' emotional value and autobiographical memories associated with them. These results provide evidence that the traditional notion of expectation maximization may not apply in the context of outcomes laden with affective responses, and that understanding the brain mechanisms of decision making requires the domain of the decision to

  12. Functional outcomes of fungal community shifts driven by tree genotype and spatial-temporal factors in Mediterranean pine forests.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Izquierdo, Leticia; Zabal-Aguirre, Mario; Flores-Rentería, Dulce; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Buée, Marc; Rincón, Ana

    2017-02-09

    Fungi provide relevant ecosystem services contributing to primary productivity and the cycling of nutrients in forests. These fungal inputs can be decisive for the resilience of Mediterranean forests under global change scenarios, making necessary an in-deep knowledge about how fungal communities operate in these ecosystems. By using high-throughput sequencing and enzymatic approaches, we studied the fungal communities associated with three genotypic variants of Pinus pinaster trees, in 45-year-old common garden plantations. We aimed to determine the impact of biotic (i.e., tree genotype) and abiotic (i.e., season, site) factors on the fungal community structure, and to explore whether structural shifts triggered functional responses affecting relevant ecosystem processes. Tree genotype and spatial-temporal factors were pivotal structuring fungal communities, mainly by influencing their assemblage and selecting certain fungi. Diversity variations of total fungal community and of that of specific fungal guilds, together with edaphic properties and tree's productivity, explained relevant ecosystem services such as processes involved in carbon turnover and phosphorous mobilization. A mechanistic model integrating relations of these variables and ecosystem functional outcomes is provided. Our results highlight the importance of structural shifts in fungal communities because they may have functional consequences for key ecosystem processes in Mediterranean forests.

  13. Thematic Teaching: Integrating Cognitive and Affective Outcomes in Elementary Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodeur, Doris R.

    1998-01-01

    Defines thematic teaching, also known as interdisciplinary or authentic instruction, as representing cross-disciplinary programs which integrate cognitive, affective, and psychomotor outcomes. Highlights include integrating thematic teaching into elementary school classrooms, cognitive and social learning theories, motivation, cooperative…

  14. Head Position May Not Affect Outcome After Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Head Position May Not Affect Outcome After Stroke International study suggests patients will do as well ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- New research might turn conventional stroke treatment on its head. An international study suggests ...

  15. Mineral profile in globe artichoke as affected by genotype, head part and environment.

    PubMed

    Pandino, Gaetano; Lombardo, Sara; Mauromicale, Giovanni

    2011-01-30

    The globe artichoke is an important vegetable, widely consumed in the Mediterranean Basin, and is spreading also to other parts of the world. The mineral profile of globe artichoke has been very little investigated. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the content of some essential macrominerals (Na, K, Ca, Mg) and microminerals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn) in nine genotypes of globe artichoke in relation to different head parts (bracts and receptacle), locations and seasons. The mineral profile was significantly affected by genotype, head fraction, location and season. Great variation was found among studied genotypes. 'Blanc Hyerois', Harmony F1', 'Madrigal F1' and 'Violetto di Provenza' showed high levels of both macro- and micromineral content. In particular, these, as well as other genotypes, had a higher content in the receptacle (edible part) than in the bracts. The globe artichoke had a high level of K and mainly, compared to some vegetables, low Na/K ratio, which is important in preventing hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. The results obtained partially improve the lack of data in the literature and this knowledge could be used to develop different crop managements and/or breeding programmes to improve the mineral composition, and thereby enhance human nutrition and health. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Battlefield Acquired Immunogenicity to Metals Affects Orthopedic Implant Outcome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-10-2-0138 TITLE: Battlefield Acquired Immunogenicity to Metals Affects Orthopedic Implant Outcome PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...September 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Battlefield Acquired Immunogenicity to Metals Affects Orthopedic Implant Outcome 5b. GRANT NUMBER...of immune cells isolated during a typical blood draw (6 regular blood draw tubes totaling 60mL) from soldiers exposed to metals in battle and

  17. Web-Based Foreign Language Reading: Affective and Productive Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lueck, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether pedagogically guided web-based reading can improve skimming and scanning significantly (i.e., increased productive outcomes) and whether it can enhance student participation and motivation (i.e., increased affective outcomes). Forty-six students enrolled in two German 3 classes at the high school level were…

  18. Interaction between parental environment and genotype affects plant and seed performance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    He, Hanzi; de Souza Vidigal, Deborah; Snoek, L Basten; Schnabel, Sabine; Nijveen, Harm; Hilhorst, Henk; Bentsink, Leónie

    2014-12-01

    Seed performance after dispersal is highly dependent on parental environmental cues, especially during seed formation and maturation. Here we examine which environmental factors are the most dominant in this respect and whether their effects are dependent on the genotypes under investigation. We studied the influence of light intensity, photoperiod, temperature, nitrate, and phosphate during seed development on five plant attributes and thirteen seed attributes, using 12 Arabidopsis genotypes that have been reported to be affected in seed traits. As expected, the various environments during seed development resulted in changed plant and/or seed performances. Comparative analysis clearly indicated that, overall, temperature plays the most dominant role in both plant and seed performance, whereas light has a prominent impact on plant traits. In comparison to temperature and light, nitrate mildly affected some of the plant and seed traits while phosphate had even less influence on those traits. Moreover, clear genotype-by-environment interactions were identified. This was shown by the fact that individual genotypes responded differentially to the environmental conditions. Low temperature significantly increased seed dormancy and decreased seed longevity of NILDOG1 and cyp707a1-1, whereas low light intensity increased seed dormancy and decreased seed longevity of NILDOG3 and NILDOG6. This also indicates that different genetic and molecular pathways are involved in the plant and seed responses. By identifying environmental conditions that affect the dormancy vs longevity correlation in the same way as previously identified naturally occurring loci, we have identified selective forces that probably shaped evolution for these important seed traits.

  19. Interaction between parental environment and genotype affects plant and seed performance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    He, Hanzi; de Souza Vidigal, Deborah; Snoek, L. Basten; Schnabel, Sabine; Nijveen, Harm; Hilhorst, Henk; Bentsink, Leónie

    2014-01-01

    Seed performance after dispersal is highly dependent on parental environmental cues, especially during seed formation and maturation. Here we examine which environmental factors are the most dominant in this respect and whether their effects are dependent on the genotypes under investigation. We studied the influence of light intensity, photoperiod, temperature, nitrate, and phosphate during seed development on five plant attributes and thirteen seed attributes, using 12 Arabidopsis genotypes that have been reported to be affected in seed traits. As expected, the various environments during seed development resulted in changed plant and/or seed performances. Comparative analysis clearly indicated that, overall, temperature plays the most dominant role in both plant and seed performance, whereas light has a prominent impact on plant traits. In comparison to temperature and light, nitrate mildly affected some of the plant and seed traits while phosphate had even less influence on those traits. Moreover, clear genotype-by-environment interactions were identified. This was shown by the fact that individual genotypes responded differentially to the environmental conditions. Low temperature significantly increased seed dormancy and decreased seed longevity of NILDOG1 and cyp707a1-1, whereas low light intensity increased seed dormancy and decreased seed longevity of NILDOG3 and NILDOG6. This also indicates that different genetic and molecular pathways are involved in the plant and seed responses. By identifying environmental conditions that affect the dormancy vs longevity correlation in the same way as previously identified naturally occurring loci, we have identified selective forces that probably shaped evolution for these important seed traits. PMID:25240065

  20. Estrogen receptor-alpha genotype affects exercise-related reduction of arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Koichiro; Maeda, Seiji; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Otsuki, Takeshi; Sugawara, Jun; Tanabe, Takumi; Miyauchi, Takashi; Kuno, Shinya; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Matsuda, Mitsuo

    2008-02-01

    Arterial stiffness, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, increases with advancing age. Arterial stiffness is improved by regular exercise, but individual responses to exercise training are variable. Given that estrogen and estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) can induce vasodilation and can exert an antiatherosclerotic effect in vessels, we hypothesized that gene polymorphisms of ER-alpha might influence the ability of regular exercise to improve arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women. One hundred ninety-five healthy postmenopausal women (62 +/- 6 yr, mean +/- SD) participated in our cross-sectional study. We determined the genotype of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at -401T/C of intron 1 of the ER-alpha gene. Arterial stiffness was measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and daily physical activity was estimated by a uniaxial accelerometer. Subjects were divided into active and inactive groups according to the median value (200 kcal.d(-1)) of energy expenditure. baPWV in individuals with the TT variant of -401T/C genotype were significantly higher than for individuals with the TC+CC genotype. No significant differences in mean baPWV values were found between the active group and the inactive group (P = 0.09). A significant reduction of baPWV secondary to increased daily physical activity was observed in individuals with the TC+CC genotype but not in individuals with the TT genotype (TT/active: 1470 +/- 36 cm.s(-1); TT/inactive: 1457 +/- 34 cm.s(-1); TC+CC/active: 1359 +/- 21 cm.s(-1); TC+CC/inactive: 1433 +/- 24 cm.s(-1)). These results suggest that ER-alpha polymorphism affects the regular exercise-related reduction in arterial stiffness in healthy postmenopausal women.

  1. Interleukin-6 -174 genotype, periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dashash, M; Nugent, J; Baker, P; Tansinda, D; Blinkhorn, F

    2008-05-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether maternal periodontal disease and variant genotypes of IL-6 gene are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. A total of 145 pregnant women were recruited from St Mary's Hospital, Manchester, UK. Bleeding on probing (BOP) and pocket depth indices were recorded on all teeth. Amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction was used for -174 IL-6 genotyping. Birth weight was assessed using the individualized birth ratio (IBR) with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) defined as an IBR below the fifth percentile. The G/G genotype results in more BOP % sites in Caucasian (P < 0.001) and Afro-Caribbean pregnant women (P = 0.035). In addition, a marginal significant association between the -174 C/C genotype and IUGR was observed (P = 0.06). The -174* C allele was more frequent in women with IUGR than in normal women (63 vs 37%, P = 0.05). Moreover, the combination between the carriage of -174C allele and increased bleeding sites have increased the risk of IUGR (P = 0.006). Future studies, with a larger sample size, are required to better clarify the relationship between the IL-6 gene polymorphism, periodontal disease, and IUGR.

  2. Defining and Assessing Affective Outcomes in Undergraduate Pediatric Dentistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Claire L.

    1990-01-01

    The affective aspect of the curriculum is defined as the development of appropriate and measurable values such as ethical behavior, honesty, tolerance, and becoming a life-long learner. In outcome assessment of the affective category, the goal is to evaluate the transition of the student to a professional. (MLW)

  3. Affection for Patients as a Factor in Therapists' Outcome Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Paul J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Explores the possibility of separating psychotherapists' judgments of treatment outcome from their affective reactions to their patients. If therapists' judgments of symptom remission cannot be utilized independently of their affection for their patients, this would present reason to doubt the utility of such judgments despite their current…

  4. Affective Neural Responses Modulated by Serotonin Transporter Genotype in Clinical Anxiety and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Oathes, Desmond J.; Hilt, Lori M.; Nitschke, Jack B.

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin transporter gene variants are known to interact with stressful life experiences to increase chances of developing affective symptoms, and these same variants have been shown to influence amygdala reactivity to affective stimuli in non-psychiatric populations. The impact of these gene variants on affective neurocircuitry in anxiety and mood disorders has been studied less extensively. Utilizing a triallelic assay (5-HTTLPR and rs25531) to assess genetic variation linked with altered serotonin signaling, this fMRI study investigated genetic influences on amygdala and anterior insula activity in 50 generalized anxiety disorder patients, 26 of whom also met DSM-IV criteria for social anxiety disorder and/or major depressive disorder, and 39 healthy comparison subjects. A Group x Genotype interaction was observed for both the amygdala and anterior insula in a paradigm designed to elicit responses in these brain areas during the anticipation of and response to aversive pictures. Patients who are S/LG carriers showed less activity than their LA/LA counterparts in both regions and less activity than S/LG healthy comparison subjects in the amygdala. Moreover, patients with greater insula responses reported higher levels of intolerance of uncertainty, an association that was particularly pronounced for patients with two LA alleles. A genotype effect was not established in healthy controls. These findings link the serotonin transporter gene to affective circuitry findings in anxiety and depression psychopathology and further suggest that its impact on patients may be different from effects typically observed in healthy populations. PMID:25675343

  5. Genotypic and Phenotypic Diversity Does Not Affect Productivity and Drought Response in Competitive Stands of Trifolium repens.

    PubMed

    Huber, Heidrun; During, Heinjo J; Bruine de Bruin, Fabienne; Vermeulen, Peter J; Anten, Niels P R

    2016-01-01

    Clonal plants can form dense canopies in which plants of different genetic origin are competing for the uptake of essential resources. The competitive relationships among these clones are likely to be affected by extreme environmental conditions, such as prolonged drought spells, which are predicted to occur more frequently due to global climate change. This, in turn, may alter characteristics of the ecological system and its associated functioning. We hypothesized that the relative success of individual clones will depend on the size of the ramets as ramets with larger leaves and longer petioles (large ramets) were predicted to have a competitive advantage in terms of increased light interception over smaller-sized ramets. Under drier conditions the relative performances of genotypes were expected to change leading to a change in genotype ranking. We also hypothesized that increased genotypic and phenotypic diversity will increase stand performance and resistance to drought. These hypotheses and the mechanisms responsible for shifts in competitive relationships were investigated by subjecting genotypes of the important pasture legume Trifolium repens to competition with either genetically identical clones, genetically different but similarly sized clones, or genetically as well as morphologically different clones under well-watered and dry conditions. Competitive relationships were affected by ramet size with large genotypes outperforming small genotypes in diverse stands in terms of biomass production. However, large genotypes also produced relatively fewer ramets than small genotypes and could not benefit in terms of clonal reproduction from competing with smaller genotypes, indicating that evolutionary shifts in genotype composition will depend on whether ramet size or ramet number is under selection. In contrast to our hypotheses, diversity did not increase stand performance under different selection regimes and genotype ranking was hardly affected by soil

  6. COMT and 5-HT1A-receptor genotypes potentially affect executive functions improvement after cognitive remediation in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Bosia, Marta; Bechi, Margherita; Pirovano, Adele; Buonocore, Mariachiara; Lorenzi, Cristina; Cocchi, Federica; Bramanti, Placido; Smeraldi, Enrico; Cavallaro, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has been proved to improve cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and to enhance functional outcomes of classical rehabilitation. However, CRT outcomes are heterogeneous and predictors of response are still unknown. Genetic variability, especially in the dopaminergic system, has been hypothesized to affect CRT. We previously reported that rs4680 of the catechol-O-methyltrasferase (COMT) influences improvements in executive functions in patients treated with CRT, but this result was not confirmed by other studies. Such inconsistent findings may depend, other than on clinical variables, also on other genes involved in cognition. Recent studies proved that serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A-R) regulates dopamine in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and clinical works suggested a 5-HT1A-R role in cognition. We then analysed possible effects of COMT rs4680 and 5-HT1A-R rs6295 on CRT outcomes, taking into account also clinical and demographic factors. Eighty-six clinically stabilized schizophrenia patients treated with three months CRT were assessed with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, as a measure of executive functions, at enrolment and after CRT treatment, and underwent COMT and 5-HT1A-R genotyping. We found a significant main effect of COMT genotype and an interaction with 5-HT1A-R on executive function improvement after CRT. The results suggest that these two polymorphisms may have an additive effect on individual capacity to recover from cognitive deficit, probably through their role on PFC dopaminergic transmission modulation, known to be critical for modulating cognitive functions. PMID:25750798

  7. The Scion/Rootstock Genotypes and Habitats Affect Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community in Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Song, Fang; Pan, Zhiyong; Bai, Fuxi; An, Jianyong; Liu, Jihong; Guo, Wenwu; Bisseling, Ton; Deng, Xiuxin; Xiao, Shunyuan

    2015-01-01

    Citrus roots have rare root hairs and thus heavily depend on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for mineral nutrient uptake. However, the AMF community structure of citrus is largely unknown. By using 454-pyrosequencing of 18S rRNA gene fragment, we investigated the genetic diversity of AMF colonizing citrus roots, and evaluated the impact of habitats and rootstock and scion genotypes on the AMF community structure. Over 7,40,000 effective sequences were obtained from 77 citrus root samples. These sequences were assigned to 75 AMF virtual taxa, of which 66 belong to Glomus, highlighting an absolute dominance of this AMF genus in symbiosis with citrus roots. The citrus AMF community structure is significantly affected by habitats and host genotypes. Interestingly, our data suggests that the genotype of the scion exerts a greater impact on the AMF community structure than that of the rootstock where the physical root-AMF association occurs. This study not only provides a comprehensive assessment for the community composition of the AMF in citrus roots under different conditions, but also sheds novel insights into how the AMF community might be indirectly influenced by the spatially separated yet metabolically connected partner—the scion—of the grafted citrus tree. PMID:26648932

  8. Cold sore susceptibility gene-1 genotypes affect the expression of herpes labialis in unrelated human subjects.

    PubMed

    Kriesel, John D; Bhatia, Amiteshwar; Thomas, Alun

    2014-01-01

    Our group has recently described a gene on human chromosome 21, the Cold Sore Susceptibility Gene-1 (CSSG-1, also known as C21orf91), which may confer susceptibility to frequent cold sores in humans. We present here a genotype-phenotype analysis of CSSG-1 in a new, unrelated human population. Seven hundred fifty-eight human subjects were enrolled in a case/control Cold Sore Study. CSSG-1 genotyping, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) serotyping, demographic and phenotypic data was available from 622 analyzed subjects. Six major alleles (H1-H6) were tested for associations with each of the self-reported phenotypes. The statistical analysis was adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity. Genotype-phenotype associations were analyzed from 388 HSV1-seropositive subjects. There were significant CSSG-1 haplotype effects on annual cold sore outbreaks (P=0.006), lifetime cold sores (P=0.012) and perceived cold sore severity (P=0.012). There were relatively consistent trends toward protection from frequent and severe cold sores among those with the H3 or H5/6 haplotypes, whereas those with H1, H2, and H4 haplotypes tended to have more frequent and more severe episodes. Different alleles of the newly described gene CSSG-1 affect the expression of cold sore phenotypes in this new, unrelated human population, confirming the findings of the previous family-based study.

  9. Light response of sunflower and canola as affected by plant density, plant genotype and N fertilization.

    PubMed

    Soleymani, A

    2017-08-01

    Crop response to light is an important parameter determining crop growth. Three field (split plots) experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of plant density, plant genotype and N fertilization on the light absorption and light extinction of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.). A detailed set of plant growth, light absorption and crop yield and oil related parameters were determined. Light was measured at noon during the sunny days with clear sky. In experiment I, although the plant density (PD) of 14 resulted in the highest rate of sunflower light absorption (31.37%) and light extinction (0.756), the highest rate of grain yield and grain oil yield was resulted at PD12 at 3639 and 1457.9kg/ha, respectively; as well as by genotype SUP.A. In experiment II (canola), PD80 resulted in the highest rate of light absorption (13.13%), light extinction (0.63), grain yield (2189.4kg/ha) and grain oil yield (556.54kg/ha). This was also the case for Genotype H. In experiment III (canola), although N150 resulted in the highest rate of light absorption (10.74%) and light extinction (0.48), the highest rate of grain yield (3413.6kg/ha) and grain oil yield (891.86kg/ha) was resulted at N100 as well as by Genotype H401. Results indicate how light properties, crop growth and yield of sunflower and canola can be affected by plant and environmental parameters, which are also of practical use by farmers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Genotype over-diagnosis in amygdala responsiveness: affective processing in social anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Furmark, Tomas; Henningsson, Susanne; Appel, Lieuwe; Åhs, Fredrik; Linnman, Clas; Pissiota, Anna; Faria, Vanda; Oreland, Lars; Bani, Massimo; Pich, Emilio Merlo; Eriksson, Elias; Fredrikson, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Background Although the amygdala is thought to be a crucial brain region for negative affect, neuroimaging studies do not always show enhanced amygdala response to aversive stimuli in patients with anxiety disorders. Serotonin (5-HT)–related genotypes may contribute to interindividual variability in amygdala responsiveness. The short (s) allele of the 5-HT transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and the T variant of the G-703T polymorphism in the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) gene have previously been associated with amygdala hyperresponsivity to negative faces in healthy controls. We investigated the influence of these polymorphisms on amygdala responsiveness to angry faces in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) compared with healthy controls. Methods We used positron emission tomography with oxygen 15-labelled water to assess regional cerebral blood flow in 34 patients with SAD and 18 controls who viewed photographs of angry and neutral faces presented in counterbalanced order. We genotyped all participants with respect to the 5-HTTLPR and TPH2 polymorphisms. Results Patients with SAD and controls had increased left amygdala activation in response to angry compared with neutral faces. Genotype but not diagnosis explained a significant portion of the variance in amygdala responsiveness, the response being more pronounced in carriers of s and/or T alleles. Limitations Our analyses were limited owing to the small sample and the fact that we were unable to match participants on genotype before enrolment. In addition, other imaging techniques not used in our study may have revealed additional effects of emotional stimuli. Conclusion Amygdala responsiveness to angry faces was more strongly related to serotonergic polymorphisms than to diagnosis of SAD. Emotion activation studies comparing amygdala excitability in patient and control groups could benefit from taking variation in 5-HT–related genes into account. PMID:19125211

  11. Pathogen and host genotype differently affect pathogen fitness through their effects on different life-history stages

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adaptation of pathogens to their hosts depends critically on factors affecting pathogen reproductive rate. While pathogen reproduction is the end result of an intricate interaction between host and pathogen, the relative contributions of host and pathogen genotype to variation in pathogen life history within the host are not well understood. Untangling these contributions allows us to identify traits with sufficient genetic variation for selection to act and to identify mechanisms of coevolution between pathogens and their hosts. We investigated the effects of pathogen and host genotype on three life-history components of pathogen fitness; infection efficiency, latent period, and sporulation capacity, in the oat crown rust fungus, Puccinia coronata f.sp. avenae, as it infects oats (Avena sativa). Results We show that both pathogen and host genotype significantly affect total spore production but do so through their effects on different life-history stages. Pathogen genotype has the strongest effect on the early stage of infection efficiency, while host genotype most strongly affects the later life-history stages of latent period and sporulation capacity. In addition, host genotype affected the relationship between pathogen density and the later life-history traits of latent period and sporulation capacity. We did not find evidence of pathogen-by-host genotypic (GxG) interactions. Conclusion Our results illustrate mechanisms by which variation in host populations will affect the evolution of pathogen life history. Results show that different pathogen life-history stages have the potential to respond differently to selection by host or pathogen genotype and suggest mechanisms of antagonistic coevolution. Pathogen populations may adapt to host genotypes through increased infection efficiency while their plant hosts may adapt by limiting the later stages of pathogen growth and spore production within the host. PMID:22857005

  12. APOL1 genotype and kidney transplantation outcomes from deceased African American donors

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Barry I.; Pastan, Stephen O.; Israni, Ajay K.; Schladt, David; Julian, Bruce A.; Gautreaux, Michael D.; Hauptfeld, Vera; Bray, Robert A.; Gebel, Howard M.; Kirk, Allan D.; Gaston, Robert S.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Farney, Alan C.; Orlando, Giuseppe; Stratta, Robert J.; Mohan, Sumit; Ma, Lijun; Langefeld, Carl D.; Bowden, Donald W.; Hicks, Pamela J.; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Palanisamy, Amudha; Reeves-Daniel, Amber M.; Brown, W. Mark; Divers, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    Background Two apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) renal-risk variants in donors and African American (AA) recipient race are associated with worse allograft survival in deceased-donor kidney transplantation (DDKT) from AA donors. To detect other factors impacting allograft survival from deceased AA kidney donors, APOL1 renal-risk variants were genotyped in additional AA kidney donors. Methods APOL1 genotypes were linked to outcomes in 478 newly analyzed DDKTs in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. Multivariate analyses accounting for recipient age, sex, race, panel reactive antibody level, HLA match, cold ischemia time, donor age, and expanded-criteria donation were performed. These 478 transplantations and 675 DDKTs from a prior report were jointly analyzed. Results Fully-adjusted analyses limited to the new 478 DDKTs replicated shorter renal allograft survival in recipients of APOL1-two-renal-risk-variant kidneys (HR 2.00; p=0.03). Combined analysis of 1153 DDKTs from AA donors revealed donor APOL1 high-risk genotype (HR 2.05; p=3×10−4), older donor age (HR 1.18; p=0.05), and younger recipient age (HR 0.70; p=0.001) adversely impacted allograft survival. Although prolonged allograft survival was seen in many recipients of APOL1-two-renal-risk-variant kidneys, follow-up serum creatinine concentrations were higher than in recipients of zero/one APOL1-renal-risk variant kidneys. A competing risk analysis revealed that APOL1 impacted renal allograft survival, but not recipient survival. Interactions between donor age and APOL1 genotype on renal allograft survival were non-significant. Conclusions Shorter renal allograft survival is reproducibly observed after DDKT from APOL1-two-renal-risk-variant donors. Younger recipient age and older donor age have independent adverse effects on renal allograft survival. PMID:26566060

  13. APOL1 Genotype and Kidney Transplantation Outcomes From Deceased African American Donors.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Barry I; Pastan, Stephen O; Israni, Ajay K; Schladt, David; Julian, Bruce A; Gautreaux, Michael D; Hauptfeld, Vera; Bray, Robert A; Gebel, Howard M; Kirk, Allan D; Gaston, Robert S; Rogers, Jeffrey; Farney, Alan C; Orlando, Giuseppe; Stratta, Robert J; Mohan, Sumit; Ma, Lijun; Langefeld, Carl D; Bowden, Donald W; Hicks, Pamela J; Palmer, Nicholette D; Palanisamy, Amudha; Reeves-Daniel, Amber M; Brown, W Mark; Divers, Jasmin

    2016-01-01

    Two apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) renal-risk variants in donors and African American (AA) recipient race are associated with worse allograft survival in deceased-donor kidney transplantation (DDKT) from AA donors. To detect other factors impacting allograft survival from deceased AA kidney donors, APOL1 renal-risk variants were genotyped in additional AA kidney donors. The APOL1 genotypes were linked to outcomes in 478 newly analyzed DDKTs in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. Multivariate analyses accounting for recipient age, sex, race, panel-reactive antibody level, HLA match, cold ischemia time, donor age, and expanded criteria donation were performed. These 478 transplantations and 675 DDKTs from a prior report were jointly analyzed. Fully adjusted analyses limited to the new 478 DDKTs replicated shorter renal allograft survival in recipients of APOL1 2-renal-risk-variant kidneys (hazard ratio [HR], 2.00; P = 0.03). Combined analysis of 1153 DDKTs from AA donors revealed donor APOL1 high-risk genotype (HR, 2.05; P = 3 × 10), older donor age (HR, 1.18; P = 0.05), and younger recipient age (HR, 0.70; P = 0.001) adversely impacted allograft survival. Although prolonged allograft survival was seen in many recipients of APOL1 2-renal-risk-variant kidneys, follow-up serum creatinine concentrations were higher than that in recipients of 0/1 APOL1 renal-risk-variant kidneys. A competing risk analysis revealed that APOL1 impacted renal allograft survival, but not recipient survival. Interactions between donor age and APOL1 genotype on renal allograft survival were nonsignificant. Shorter renal allograft survival is reproducibly observed after DDKT from APOL1 2-renal-risk-variant donors. Younger recipient age and older donor age have independent adverse effects on renal allograft survival.

  14. Genotypic Diversity Is Associated with Clinical Outcome and Phenotype in Cryptococcal Meningitis across Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Beale, Mathew A.; Sabiiti, Wilber; Robertson, Emma J.; Fuentes-Cabrejo, Karen M.; O’Hanlon, Simon J.; Jarvis, Joseph N.; Loyse, Angela; Meintjes, Graeme; Harrison, Thomas S.; May, Robin C.; Fisher, Matthew C.; Bicanic, Tihana

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is a major cause of mortality throughout the developing world, yet little is known about the genetic markers underlying Cryptococcal virulence and patient outcome. We studied a cohort of 230 Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn) isolates from HIV-positive South African clinical trial patients with detailed clinical follow-up using multi-locus sequence typing and in vitro phenotypic virulence assays, correlating these data with clinical and fungal markers of disease in the patient. South African Cn displayed high levels of genetic diversity and locus variability compared to globally distributed types, and we identified 50 sequence types grouped within the main molecular types VNI, VNII and VNB, with 72% of isolates typed into one of seven 'high frequency' sequence types. Spatial analysis of patients’ cryptococcal genotype was not shown to be clustered geographically, which might argue against recent local acquisition and in favour of reactivation of latent infection. Through comparison of MLST genotyping data with clinical parameters, we found a relationship between genetic lineage and clinical outcome, with patients infected with the VNB lineage having significantly worse survival (n=8, HR 3.35, CI 1.51-7.20, p=0.003), and this was maintained even after adjustment for known prognostic indicators and treatment regimen. Comparison of fungal genotype with in vitro phenotype (phagocytosis, laccase activity and CSF survival) performed on a subset of 89 isolates revealed evidence of lineage-associated virulence phenotype, with the VNII lineage displaying increased laccase activity (p=0.001) and ex vivo CSF survival (p=0.0001). These findings show that Cryptococcus neoformans is a phenotypically heterogeneous pathogen, and that lineage plays an important role in cryptococcal virulence during human infection. Furthermore, a detailed understanding of the genetic diversity in Southern Africa will support further investigation into how genetic diversity is

  15. Genotypic Diversity Is Associated with Clinical Outcome and Phenotype in Cryptococcal Meningitis across Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Beale, Mathew A; Sabiiti, Wilber; Robertson, Emma J; Fuentes-Cabrejo, Karen M; O'Hanlon, Simon J; Jarvis, Joseph N; Loyse, Angela; Meintjes, Graeme; Harrison, Thomas S; May, Robin C; Fisher, Matthew C; Bicanic, Tihana

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is a major cause of mortality throughout the developing world, yet little is known about the genetic markers underlying Cryptococcal virulence and patient outcome. We studied a cohort of 230 Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn) isolates from HIV-positive South African clinical trial patients with detailed clinical follow-up using multi-locus sequence typing and in vitro phenotypic virulence assays, correlating these data with clinical and fungal markers of disease in the patient. South African Cn displayed high levels of genetic diversity and locus variability compared to globally distributed types, and we identified 50 sequence types grouped within the main molecular types VNI, VNII and VNB, with 72% of isolates typed into one of seven 'high frequency' sequence types. Spatial analysis of patients' cryptococcal genotype was not shown to be clustered geographically, which might argue against recent local acquisition and in favour of reactivation of latent infection. Through comparison of MLST genotyping data with clinical parameters, we found a relationship between genetic lineage and clinical outcome, with patients infected with the VNB lineage having significantly worse survival (n=8, HR 3.35, CI 1.51-7.20, p=0.003), and this was maintained even after adjustment for known prognostic indicators and treatment regimen. Comparison of fungal genotype with in vitro phenotype (phagocytosis, laccase activity and CSF survival) performed on a subset of 89 isolates revealed evidence of lineage-associated virulence phenotype, with the VNII lineage displaying increased laccase activity (p=0.001) and ex vivo CSF survival (p=0.0001). These findings show that Cryptococcus neoformans is a phenotypically heterogeneous pathogen, and that lineage plays an important role in cryptococcal virulence during human infection. Furthermore, a detailed understanding of the genetic diversity in Southern Africa will support further investigation into how genetic diversity is

  16. Institutional Factors Affecting Biophysical Outcomes in Forest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Although there is considerable interest in the impact of diverse policies affecting the biophysical outcomes in forests, gaining a substantial sample over time of forests under different institutional arrangements has been difficult. This article analyzes data from 46 forests located in six countries over time. In forests where policies have been…

  17. Emphasizing and Measuring Affective Outcomes in an Introductory Gerontology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Clifton E.; Richburg, Robert W.

    A model is presented for developing an introductory gerontology course in which teaching strategies are aimed primarily at realizing affective rather than cognitive outcomes in the lives of students. The four course objectives are described in terms of the following areas: (1) examination of personal values and attitudes concerning aging and the…

  18. Using Student Support Systems to Increase Cognitive and Affective Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soled, Suzanne Wegener; Bosma, Jennifer F.

    1992-01-01

    Student support systems (small groups of students who meet to learn), help combat the problem of large student-to-teacher ratios and increase cognitive and affective outcomes. Small groups allow large amounts of participation and interaction, rapid error correction, individualized practice, and self-paced work that actively involves students in…

  19. Institutional Factors Affecting Biophysical Outcomes in Forest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Although there is considerable interest in the impact of diverse policies affecting the biophysical outcomes in forests, gaining a substantial sample over time of forests under different institutional arrangements has been difficult. This article analyzes data from 46 forests located in six countries over time. In forests where policies have been…

  20. Factors Affecting the Outcomes of School Bond Elections in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lode, Marlin D.

    In spite of a nationwide concern for the crumbling infrastructure of school buildings, the prospects of passing bond issues to repair or replace buildings are elusive. This study examined positive and negative factors that affected the outcomes of school bond elections in four purposefully-selected school districts in Iowa. Variables that…

  1. Do learning style and learning environment affect learning outcome?

    PubMed

    DiBartola, L M; Miller, M K; Turley, C L

    2001-01-01

    This study compared learning outcomes of students with different learning styles, as identified by the Kolb Learning Style Inventory indicators, in a traditional in-class environment with those taking the same course via distance education. The above-average scores were evenly distributed, 47% of the in-class group and 43% of the distance group. For three of the four learning styles, there was no relationship to learning outcome or environment. The Diverger group did show a relationship with above-average scores in the distance group (83%). The findings support that the classroom or distance environment did not influence learning outcome. Learning style did not appear to affect learning outcome in either group, except that the Diverger learning style may have a positive relationship to learning in the distance environment.

  2. Daily Affective Experiences Predict Objective Sleep Outcomes among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tavernier, Royette; Choo, Sungsub B; Grant, Kathryn; Adam, Emma K

    2015-01-01

    Summary Adolescence is a sensitive period for changes in both sleep and affect. Although past research has assessed the association between affect and sleep among adolescents, few studies have examined both trait (typical) and day-to-day changes in affect, and fewer still have specifically examined negative social evaluative emotions (NSEE; e.g., embarrassment) in relation to sleep. We examined both between- and within-person variations in daily affect in relation to four objectively-measured sleep outcomes (sleep hours, sleep latency, sleep efficiency, and length of wake bouts) among adolescents. Participants (N = 77 high school students, 42.9% female; M = 14.37 years) wore an actiwatch and completed daily diaries for 3 days. Results of hierarchical linear models (controlling for age, gender, race, ethnicity, parental employment status, income, puberty, and caffeine) indicated that NSEE and high arousal affective experiences generally predicted poor sleep outcomes, whereas low arousal affective experiences were associated with good sleep outcomes. Specifically, at the person level, adolescents reporting higher NSEE had shorter average sleep hours, and those experiencing higher anxiety-nervousness had longer wake bouts. In addition, individuals experiencing more dysphoria (sad, depressed, lonely) had longer average sleep hours and shorter wake bouts, while those experiencing more calmness had shorter sleep latencies. At the within person level, individuals had longer sleep latencies following days that they had experienced high arousal positive affect (e.g., excitement) and had longer wake bouts following days they had experienced more NSEE. Results highlight the detrimental effects of NSEE and high arousal affective states for adolescent sleep. PMID:26365539

  3. Daily affective experiences predict objective sleep outcomes among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tavernier, Royette; Choo, Sungsub B; Grant, Kathryn; Adam, Emma K

    2016-02-01

    Adolescence is a sensitive period for changes in both sleep and affect. Although past research has assessed the association between affect and sleep among adolescents, few studies have examined both trait (typical) and day-to-day changes in affect, and fewer still have specifically examined negative social evaluative emotions (e.g. embarrassment) in relation to sleep. Both between- and within-person variations in daily affect were examined in relation to four objectively-measured sleep outcomes (sleep hours; sleep latency; sleep efficiency; and length of wake bouts) among adolescents. Participants (N = 77 high-school students; 42.9% female; M = 14.37 years) wore an actiwatch and completed daily-diaries for 3 days. The results of hierarchical linear models (controlling for age, gender, race, ethnicity, parental employment status, income, puberty and caffeine) indicated that negative social evaluative emotions and high-arousal affective experiences generally predicted poor sleep outcomes, whereas low-arousal affective experiences were associated with good sleep outcomes. Specifically, at the person level, adolescents reporting higher negative social evaluative emotions had shorter average sleep hours, and those experiencing higher anxiety–nervousness had longer wake bouts. In addition, individuals experiencing more dysphoria (sad, depressed, lonely) had longer average sleep hours and shorter wake bouts, while those experiencing more calmness had shorter sleep latencies. At the within-person level, individuals had longer sleep latencies following days that they had experienced high-arousal positive affect (e.g. excitement), and had longer wake bouts following days they had experienced more negative social evaluative emotions. The results highlight the detrimental effects of negative social evaluative emotions and high-arousal affective states for adolescent sleep.

  4. Maternal serotonin transporter genotype affects risk for ASD with exposure to prenatal stress.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Patrick M; Hudson, Melissa; Connors, Susan L; Tilley, Michael R; Liu, Xudong; Beversdorf, David Q

    2016-11-01

    Stress exposure during gestation is implicated in several neuropsychiatric conditions, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous research showed that prenatal stress increases risk for ASD with peak exposure during the end of the second and the beginning of the third trimester. However, exposures to prenatal stress do not always result in ASD, suggesting that other factors may interact with environmental stressors to increase ASD risk. The present study examined a maternal genetic variation in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) affecting stress tolerance and its interaction with the effect of environmental stressors on risk for ASD. Two independent cohorts of mothers of ASD children recruited by the University of Missouri and Queen's University were surveyed regarding the prenatal environment and genotyping on 5-HTTLPR was performed to explore this relationship. In both samples, mothers of children with ASD carrying the stress susceptible short allele variant of 5-HTTLPR experienced a greater number of stressors and greater stress severity when compared to mothers carrying the long allele variant. The temporal peak of stressors during gestation in these mothers was consistent with previous findings. Additionally, increased exposure to prenatal stress was not reported in the pregnancies of typically developing siblings from the same mothers, regardless of maternal genotype, suggesting against the possibility that the short allele might increase the recall of stress during pregnancy. The present study provides further evidence of a specific maternal polymorphism that may affect the risk for ASD with exposure to prenatal stress. Autism Res 2016, 9: 1151-1160. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Genotypic and Phenotypic Diversity Does Not Affect Productivity and Drought Response in Competitive Stands of Trifolium repens

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Heidrun; During, Heinjo J.; Bruine de Bruin, Fabienne; Vermeulen, Peter J.; Anten, Niels P. R.

    2016-01-01

    Clonal plants can form dense canopies in which plants of different genetic origin are competing for the uptake of essential resources. The competitive relationships among these clones are likely to be affected by extreme environmental conditions, such as prolonged drought spells, which are predicted to occur more frequently due to global climate change. This, in turn, may alter characteristics of the ecological system and its associated functioning. We hypothesized that the relative success of individual clones will depend on the size of the ramets as ramets with larger leaves and longer petioles (large ramets) were predicted to have a competitive advantage in terms of increased light interception over smaller-sized ramets. Under drier conditions the relative performances of genotypes were expected to change leading to a change in genotype ranking. We also hypothesized that increased genotypic and phenotypic diversity will increase stand performance and resistance to drought. These hypotheses and the mechanisms responsible for shifts in competitive relationships were investigated by subjecting genotypes of the important pasture legume Trifolium repens to competition with either genetically identical clones, genetically different but similarly sized clones, or genetically as well as morphologically different clones under well-watered and dry conditions. Competitive relationships were affected by ramet size with large genotypes outperforming small genotypes in diverse stands in terms of biomass production. However, large genotypes also produced relatively fewer ramets than small genotypes and could not benefit in terms of clonal reproduction from competing with smaller genotypes, indicating that evolutionary shifts in genotype composition will depend on whether ramet size or ramet number is under selection. In contrast to our hypotheses, diversity did not increase stand performance under different selection regimes and genotype ranking was hardly affected by soil

  6. Tamoxifen Metabolite Concentrations, CYP2D6 Genotype and Breast Cancer Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Madlensky, Lisa; Natarajan, Loki; Tchu, Simone; Pu, Minya; Mortimer, Joanne; Flatt, Shirley W.; Nikoloff, D. Michele; Hillman, Grantland; Fontecha, Marcel R.; Lawrence, H. Jeffrey; Parker, Barbara A.; Wu, Alan H.B.; Pierce, John P.

    2011-01-01

    We explored whether breast cancer outcomes are associated with endoxifen and other metabolites of tamoxifen, and to examine potential correlates of endoxifen concentrations including CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotype and body mass index (BMI). Tamoxifen, endoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen and N-desmethyltamoxifen concentrations were measured from 1370 estrogen receptor positive breast cancer patients participating in the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study, and tested for associations with breast cancer outcomes. Breast cancer outcomes were not associated with tamoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen or N-desmethyltamoxifen concentrations. For endoxifen, a threshold was identified suggesting that women in the upper four quintiles of endoxifen had a 26% lower recurrence rate than women in the bottom quintile. (HR=0.74; 95% CI, [0.55, 1.00]). Predictors of membership in this higher risk bottom quintile were poor/intermediate metabolizer genotype, higher BMI, and low tamoxifen concentrations. This study suggests a minimal threshold at which endoxifen is effective against breast cancer recurrence, which 80% of tamoxifen-takers achieve. PMID:21430657

  7. Factors affecting intellectual outcome in pediatric brain tumor patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ellenberg, L.; McComb, J.G.; Siegel, S.E.; Stowe, S.

    1987-11-01

    A prospective study utilizing repeated intellectual testing was undertaken in 73 children with brain tumors consecutively admitted to Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles over a 3-year period to determine the effect of tumor location, extent of surgical resection, hydrocephalus, age of the child, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy on cognitive outcome. Forty-three patients were followed for at least two sequential intellectual assessments and provide the data for this study. Children with hemispheric tumors had the most general cognitive impairment. The degree of tumor resection, adequately treated hydrocephalus, and chemotherapy had no bearing on intellectual outcome. Age of the child affected outcome mainly as it related to radiation. Whole brain radiation therapy was associated with cognitive decline. This was especially true in children below 7 years of age, who experienced a very significant loss of function after whole brain radiation therapy.

  8. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    PubMed Central

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per; Vindbjerg, Erik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Elklit, Ask

    2016-01-01

    Background The effects of treatment in trials with trauma-affected refugees vary considerably not only between studies but also between patients within a single study. However, we know little about why some patients benefit more from treatment, as few studies have analysed predictors of treatment outcome. Objective The objective of the study was to examine possible psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees. Method The participants were 195 adult refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who were enrolled in a 6- to 7-month treatment programme at the Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry (CTP), Denmark. The CTP Predictor Index used in the study included 15 different possible outcome predictors concerning the patients’ past, chronicity of mental health problems, pain, treatment motivation, prerequisites for engaging in psychotherapy, and social situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms Checklist-90, Global Assessment of Functioning scales, and pain rated on visual analogue scales. The relations between treatment outcomes and the total score as well as subscores of the CTP Predictor Index were analysed. Results Overall, the total score of the CTP Predictor Index was significantly correlated to pre- to post treatment score changes on the majority of the ratings mentioned above. While employment status was the only single item significantly correlated to HTQ-score changes, a number of single items from the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with changes in depression and anxiety symptoms, but the size of the correlation coefficients were modest. Conclusions The total score of the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with outcomes on most

  9. Plant age and genotype affect the bacterial community composition in the tuber rhizosphere of field-grown sweet potato plants.

    PubMed

    Marques, Joana M; da Silva, Thais F; Vollu, Renata E; Blank, Arie F; Ding, Guo-Chun; Seldin, Lucy; Smalla, Kornelia

    2014-05-01

    The hypothesis that sweet potato genotypes containing different starch yields in their tuberous roots can affect the bacterial communities present in the rhizosphere (soil adhering to tubers) was tested in this study. Tuberous roots of field-grown sweet potato of genotypes IPB-149 (commercial genotype), IPB-052, and IPB-137 were sampled three and six months after planting and analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes PCR-amplified from total community DNA. The statistical analysis of the DGGE fingerprints showed that both plant age and genotypes influenced the bacterial community structure in the tuber rhizosphere. Pyrosequencing analysis showed that the IPB-149 and IPB-052 (both with high starch content) displayed similar bacterial composition in the tuber rhizosphere, while IPB-137 with the lowest starch content was distinct. In comparison with bulk soil, higher 16S rRNA gene copy numbers (qPCR) and numerous genera with significantly increased abundance in the tuber rhizosphere of IPB-137 (Sphingobium, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Chryseobacterium) indicated a stronger rhizosphere effect. The genus Bacillus was strongly enriched in the tuber rhizosphere samples of all sweet potato genotypes studied, while other genera showed a plant genotype-dependent abundance. This is the first report on the molecular identification of bacteria being associated with the tuber rhizosphere of different sweet potato genotypes.

  10. Prognostic Factors Affecting Visual Outcome in Acanthamoeba Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Elmer Y.; Joslin, Charlotte E.; Sugar, Joel; Shoff, Megan E.; Booton, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify clinical and demographic factors associated with a worse visual outcome in Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). Design Retrospective, case control study. Participants A total of 72 eyes of 65 patients with AK who were diagnosed at the University of Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary between May of 2003 and May of 2007 with treatment complete by October of 2007. The first affected eye was analyzed in bilateral disease. Methods Patient demographic, clinical characteristics, treatment methods, and final visual outcome data were collected through medical record reviews for all patients diagnosed with AK. Cases were defined as patients with AK with a visual outcome worse than 20/25 or those requiring penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). Controls were defined as patients with AK with a visual outcome of 20/25 or better. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) identifying prognostic factors associated with a worse visual outcome. Main Outcome Measures Final visual outcome worse than 20/25. Results AK was confirmed through microbiologic evidence in 48 of 65 eyes (73.8%) or with confocal microscopy in 62 of 65 eyes (95.4%). Final visual acuity data were available in 61 of 65 eyes (93.8%); of these 61 eyes, 40 (65.6%) achieved a final visual acuity of 20/25 or better. In multivariable analysis, deep stromal involvement or the presence of a ring infiltrate at presentation was independently associated with worse visual outcomes (OR, 10.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.91–36.17). Symptom duration before diagnosis was statistically predictive of disease stage at presentation (OR, 4.43; 95% CI, 0.99–19.83; multivariable analysis) but not final visual outcome (OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 0.83–7.88; univariate analysis). PKP was performed in 11 of 12 eyes with active disease. Conclusions Corneal disease staging at presentation with slit-lamp examination was highly predictive of worse outcomes, allowing the identification of patients who might benefit from

  11. Factors affecting the visual outcome in acute central serous chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Qamar Ul; Farooq, Muhammad Asad; Mehboob, Mohammad Asim

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the visual outcome in patients with acute Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) and to analyze the association of clinical, angiographic and tomographic factors with final visual outcome in Pakistani population. Methods: This study was conducted at AFIO Rawalpindi and PNS Shifa Naval hospital Karachi from November 2011 to August 2016. Fifty five eyes of 53 patients with acute CSCR were included. All patients underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination including SD OCT imaging at baseline, One month and three month and FFA was performed at baseline. Primary outcome measures were measurement of initial and final BCVA and CFT. SPSS 13.0 was used for the analysis of data. Results: Mean age of study population was 36.66 ± 6.24 years. On OCT mean CFT at baseline was 467.49 ± 144.80 µm in affected eye, whereas mean CFT measurements at final follow up was 244.67 ± 32.99 µm (p <0.01). Presenting mean log MAR BCVA was 0.47 ± 0.25 and final mean log MAR BCVA was 0.18 ± 0.14 (p <0.01). Baseline BCVA showed statistically significant association with final BCVA (p=0.03). Conclusion: Presenting VA of 6/12 or better is associated with favorable visual outcome in patients with acute CSCR. PMID:28367162

  12. C-reactive protein genotype affects exercise training—induced changes in insulin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Obisesan, Thomas O.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Ferrell, Robert E.; Phares, Dana A.; McKenzie, Jennifer A.; Prior, Steven J.; Hagberg, James M.

    2009-01-01

    An etiologic role for chronic inflammation in the development of insulin resistance has been hypothesized. We determined whether the -732A/G and +219G/A C-reactive protein (CRP) gene variants affect insulin and glucose measures and whether these variants affect training-related changes in insulin sensitivity and glucose measures. Men and women 50 to 75 years old (n = 61) underwent baseline testing that included glucose tolerance, maximal oxygen consumption, body composition, CRP levels, and genotyping assessments. Tests were repeated after 24 weeks of aerobic exercise training. In bivariate analyses, CRP -732A/G G allele carriers had significantly lower baseline postprandial plasma glucose and after-training CRP levels. After exercise training, the -732A/G G allele carriers had ∼28% increase in insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and ∼26% reduction in insulin area under the curve (AUC), compared with the ∼7% increase in ISI and ∼15% reduction in insulin AUC in the A allele homozygotes ( P = .03). The significant enhancement of ISI in -732A/G G allele carriers remained evident in analyses limited to those with normal glucose tolerance. Multivariate analyses adjusted for demographic and biologic variables confirmed the significant enhancement of training-induced improvement in ISI by the CRP gene variant. In addition, the CRP -732A/G and +219G/A haplotype significantly associated with training-induced improvements in ISI and insulin AUC in separate multivariate models. In conclusion, the CRP -732A/G variant modulates exercise training—related improvements in ISI and glucose AUC, and the haplotype of the CRP -732A/G and +219G/A variants significantly affected training-induced changes in ISI and insulin AUC. PMID:16546475

  13. Affective Outcomes of Coursework on Computer Technology in Nursing

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Barbara; Delaney, Connie; Weiler, Kay

    1989-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine affective outcomes of the introduction to computer technology provided baccalaureate nursing students. Correlates of positive attitudes were also investigated. Third, the construct validity of the two parallel forms of the attitude measure employed was studied. A one group, pre-test, post-test design was used. Analysis using a paired t-test showed that students' attitudes were significantly higher after the coursework than before it. Significant relationships between attitudes toward computing and the following factors were revealed: area of greatest interest in computing, expectations of future use of computers, age, and basic nursing/RN student status. Outcomes of the study contribute to the construct validity of the attitude measures.

  14. Vestibular rehabilitation strategies and factors that affect the outcome.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriadou, Anna; Skalidi, Nikoleta; Velegrakis, Georgios A

    2012-11-01

    Ever since the introduction of Cawthorne-Cooksey exercises, vestibular rehabilitation (VR) has been gaining popularity in the treatment of the dizzy patient. Numerous studies support the effectiveness of VR in improving balance/walking skills, eye-head coordination and the quality of life of the patient. Different rehabilitation protocols have been used to treat patients with peripheral and central vestibular disorders. Assessment of the patients' progress is based on the patients' selfperception of dizziness and their functional skills. Factors such as age, medication, time of onset of vertigo and home based VR have been evaluated on their effect on the rehabilitation's outcome. The aim of this review is to evaluate rehabilitation strategies and discuss the factors that affect the outcome.

  15. Glycogen storage disease type III: diagnosis, genotype, management, clinical course and outcome.

    PubMed

    Sentner, Christiaan P; Hoogeveen, Irene J; Weinstein, David A; Santer, René; Murphy, Elaine; McKiernan, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Ulrike; Beauchamp, Nicholas J; Taybert, Joanna; Laforêt, Pascal; Petit, François M; Hubert, Aurélie; Labrune, Philippe; Smit, G Peter A; Derks, Terry G J

    2016-09-01

    Glycogen storage disease type III (GSDIII) is a rare disorder of glycogenolysis due to AGL gene mutations, causing glycogen debranching enzyme deficiency and storage of limited dextrin. Patients with GSDIIIa show involvement of liver and cardiac/skeletal muscle, whereas GSDIIIb patients display only liver symptoms and signs. The International Study on Glycogen Storage Disease (ISGSDIII) is a descriptive retrospective, international, multi-centre cohort study of diagnosis, genotype, management, clinical course and outcome of 175 patients from 147 families (86 % GSDIIIa; 14 % GSDIIIb), with follow-up into adulthood in 91 patients. In total 58 AGL mutations (non-missense mutations were overrepresented and 21 novel mutations were observed) were identified in 76 families. GSDIII patients first presented before the age of 1.5 years, hepatomegaly was the most common presenting clinical sign. Dietary management was very diverse and included frequent meals, uncooked cornstarch and continuous gastric drip feeding. Chronic complications involved the liver (hepatic cirrhosis, adenoma(s), and/or hepatocellular carcinoma in 11 %), heart (cardiac involvement and cardiomyopathy, in 58 % and 15 %, respectively, generally presenting in early childhood), and muscle (pain in 34 %). Type 2 diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in eight out of 91 adult patients (9 %). In adult patients no significant correlation was detected between (non-) missense AGL genotypes and hepatic, cardiac or muscular complications. This study demonstrates heterogeneity in a large cohort of ageing GSDIII patients. An international GSD patient registry is warranted to prospectively define the clinical course, heterogeneity and the effect of different dietary interventions in patients with GSDIII.

  16. Neutralizing Antibodies in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C, Genotype 1, against a Panel of Genotype 1 Culture Viruses: Lack of Correlation to Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Jannie; Jensen, Tanja B.; Carlsen, Thomas H. R.; Schønning, Kristian; Christensen, Peer Brehm; Laursen, Alex Lund; Krarup, Henrik; Bukh, Jens; Weis, Nina

    2013-01-01

    The correlation of neutralizing antibodies to treatment outcome in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether neutralizing antibodies could be used as an outcome predictor in patients with chronic HCV, genotype 1, infection treated with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin. Thirty-nine patients with chronic hepatitis C, genotype 1a or 1b, with either sustained virologic response (n = 23) or non-sustained virologic response (n = 16) were enrolled. Samples taken prior to treatment were tested for their ability to neutralize 6 different HCV genotype 1 cell culture recombinants (1a: H77/JFH1, TN/JFH1, DH6/JFH1; 1b: J4/JFH1, DH1/JFH1, DH5/JFH1). The results were expressed as the highest dilution yielding 50% neutralization (NAb50-titer). We observed no genotype or subtype specific differences in NAb50-titers between patients with chronic HCV infection with and without sustained virologic response when tested against any of the included culture viruses. However, NAb50-titers varied significantly with a mean reciprocal NAb50-titer of 800 (range: 100–6400) against DH6/JFH1 compared to a mean NAb50-titer of 50 (range: <50–400) against all other included isolates. Subsequent studies demonstrated that the efficient neutralization of DH6/JFH1 could be linked to engineered adaptive mutations in the envelope-2 protein. In analysis of envelope 1 and 2 sequences of HCV, recovered from a subset of patients, we observed no apparent link between relatedness of patient sequences with culture viruses used and the corresponding neutralization results. In conclusion, pre-treatment levels of neutralizing antibodies against HCV genotype 1 isolates could not predict treatment outcome in patients with chronic HCV infection. High neutralization susceptibility of DH6/JFH1 could be correlated with adaptive envelope mutations previously highlighted as important for neutralization. Our study

  17. Genotyping the High Altitude Mestizo Ecuadorian Population Affected with Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Andrade, Alejandro; Salazar-Ruales, Carolina; Zambrano, Ana Karina; Guevara, Patricia; Leone, Paola E.

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most commonly diagnosed type of cancer in males with 1,114,072 new cases in 2015. The MTHFR enzyme acts in the folate metabolism, which is essential in methylation and synthesis of nucleic acids. MTHFR C677T alters homocysteine levels and folate assimilation associated with DNA damage. Androgens play essential roles in prostate growth. The SRD5A2 enzyme metabolizes testosterone and the V89L polymorphism reduces in vivo SRD5A2 activity. The androgen receptor gene codes for a three-domain protein that contains two polymorphic trinucleotide repeats (CAG, GGC). Therefore, it is essential to know how PC risk is associated with clinical features and polymorphisms in high altitude Ecuadorian mestizo populations. We analyzed 480 healthy and 326 affected men from our three retrospective case-control studies. We found significant association between MTHFR C/T (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2; P = 0.009), MTHFR C/T+T/T (OR = 2.22; P = 0.009), and PC. The SRD5A2 A49T substitution was associated with higher pTNM stage (OR = 2.88; P = 0.039) and elevated Gleason grade (OR = 3.15; P = 0.004). Additionally, patients with ≤21 CAG repeats have an increased risk of developing PC (OR = 2.99; P < 0.001). In conclusion, genotype polymorphism studies are important to characterize genetic variations in high altitude mestizo populations. PMID:28685147

  18. Bacterial Genotype Affects the Manifestation and Persistence of Bovine Staphylococcus aureus Intramammary Infection

    PubMed Central

    Haveri, M.; Taponen, S.; Vuopio-Varkila, J.; Salmenlinna, S.; Pyörälä, S.

    2005-01-01

    Two-hundred seventeen Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 116 dairy cows with intramammary infections were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to study the association between symptom severity, persistence of infection, and bacterial genotype. Among five main genotypes infecting 90% of the cows, one was associated with severe clinical symptoms but reduced persistence. PMID:15695718

  19. Prevalence of HBV genotypes in South American immigrants affected by HBV-related chronic active hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Emilio; Scotto, Gaetano; Faleo, Giuseppina; Cibelli, Donatella Concetta; Angarano, Gioacchino

    2007-06-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of HBV infection in a population of South American immigrants in Italy and to determine in patients with detectable serum HBV-DNA the HBV genotypes. Between April 2005 and April 2006 a total of 130 South American immigrants were tested for HBsAg. In HBsAg positive patients the biochemical and virological activity of infection and the possible presence of co-infections (HCV, HDV, HIV) were evaluated. In patients with detectable serum HBV DNA, the HBV genotype was determined by INNOLiPA. Among the 130 subjects tested, 14 (10.7%) resulted HBsAg positive. All were men, with a mean age of 22 years (range 19-37) and 12 (85.7 %) came from Brazil, while 2 (14.3%) came from Ecuador. All patients infected by HBV had elevated alanine-aminotransferase serum levels (mean level was 127 IU/L, range 74-312) and serum HBV DNA detectable by PCR-Real Time (mean level 1,037,652 copies/mL, range 19,876-1,377,648). Genotype distribution was as follow: genotype D, 9 (64.2%), genotype A, 5 (35.8%). All patients infected by genotype D came from Brazil, while among the patients infected by genotype A, three came from Brazil and two from Ecuador. Our study evidences a moderate prevalence of HBV-infection in South American immigrants with the identification of two genotypes, D and A. These genotypes are not the most prevalent in the South America and this is probably the expression of a possible geographical redistribution of HBV genotypes.

  20. Clinical outcomes and molecular genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk samples of dairy primiparous Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Guccione, J; Cosandey, A; Pesce, A; Di Loria, A; Pascale, M; Piantedosi, D; Steiner, A; Graber, H U; Ciaramella, P

    2014-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens causing mastitis in dairy cows and in Mediterranean buffaloes. Genotype B (GTB) is contagious in dairy cows and may occur in up to 87% of cows of a dairy herd. It was the aim of this study to evaluate genotypes present, clinical outcomes, and prevalence of Staph. aureus in milk samples of primiparous Mediterranean dairy buffaloes. Two hundred composite milk samples originating from 40 primiparous buffaloes were collected from May to June 2012, at d 10, 30, 60, 90, and 150 d in milk (DIM) to perform somatic cell counts and bacteriological cultures. Daily milk yields were recorded. Before parturition until 40 to 50 DIM, all primiparous animals were housed separated from the pluriparous animals. Milking was performed in the same milking parlor, but the primiparous animals were milked first. After 50 DIM, the primiparous were mixed with the pluriparous animals, including the milking procedure. Individual quarter samples were collected from each animal, and aliquots of 1 mL were mixed and used for molecular identification and genotyping of Staph. aureus. The identification of Staph. aureus was performed verifying the presence of nuc gene by nuc gene PCR. All the nuc-positive isolates were subjected to genotype analysis by means of PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and analyzed by a miniaturized electrophoresis system. Of all 200 composite samples, 41 (20.5%) were positive for Staph. aureus, and no genotype other than GTB was identified. The prevalence of samples positive for Staph. aureus was 0% at 10 DIM and increased to a maximum of 22/40 (55%) at 90 DIM. During the period of interest, 14 buffaloes tested positive for Staph. aureus once, 6 were positive twice, and 5 were positive 3 times, whereas 15 animals were negative at every sampling. At 90 and 150 DIM, 7 (17.5%) and 3 buffaloes (7.5%), respectively, showed clinical mastitis (CM), and only 1 (2.5%) showed CM at both

  1. Late-onset Tay-Sachs disease: phenotypic characterization and genotypic correlations in 21 affected patients.

    PubMed

    Neudorfer, Orit; Pastores, Gregory M; Zeng, Bai J; Gianutsos, John; Zaroff, Charles M; Kolodny, Edwin H

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the phenotype (and corresponding genotype) of adult patients with late-onset Tay-Sachs disease, a clinical variant of the GM2-gangliosidoses. A comprehensive physical examination, including neurological assessments, was performed to establish the current disease pattern and severity. In addition, the patients' past medical histories were reviewed. The patients' alpha-subunit mutations (beta-Hexosaminidase A genotype) were determined and correlated with their corresponding clinical findings and disease course. Twenty-one patients (current mean age: 27.0 years; range: 14-47 years) were identified. The pedigree revealed a relative with the "classic" infantile or late-onset form of Tay-Sachs disease in four (out of 18) unrelated families. The patients were predominantly male (15/21 individuals) and of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry (15/18 families). Mean age at onset was 18.1 years; balance problems and difficulty climbing stairs were the most frequent presenting complaints. In several cases, the diagnosis was delayed (mean age at diagnosis: 27.0 years). Analysis of the beta-hex A gene revealed the G269S mutation as the most common disease allele; found in homozygosity (N = 1) or heterozygosity (N = 18; including 2 sib pairs). Disease onset (age 36 years) was delayed and progression relatively slower in the homozygous G269S patient. Two siblings (ages 28 and 31 years), of non-Jewish ancestry, were compound heterozygotes (TATC1278/W474C); their clinical course is dominated by psychiatric problems. Brain imaging studies revealed marked cerebellar atrophy in all patients (N = 18) tested, regardless of disease stage. Late-onset Tay-Sachs disease is an infrequent disorder and the diagnosis is often missed or delayed (by approximately 8 years). Early on, the majority of patients develop signs of either cerebellar or anterior motor neuron involvement. Affected individuals may also develop psychotic episodes. In most cases, the later

  2. Scorpion sting envenomation in children: factors affecting the outcome.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rajniti; Mishra, Om Prakash; Pandey, Nisha; Singh, Tej Bali

    2011-05-01

    To identify and correlate various factors affecting the outcome of children with scorpion sting envenomation treated with prazosin in a tertiary care hospital. The study included 90 children admitted with scorpion sting envenomation over a period of four and half year. Grading of severity was done on the basis of local or systemic involvement, and management protocol was followed as per hospital guidelines. All cases with envenomation were given prazosin at a dose of 30 μg/kg/dose;first repeat dose at 3 h followed by every 6 h till recovery. Patients with acute pulmonary edema (APE) were treated as per standard protocol. All patients had perspiration and cold extremities. Most of them had sting over extremities except two,having over the trunk. Shock was present in 48(53.3%), whereas myocarditis, encephalopathy, pulmonary edema and priapism were present in 38(42.2%), 32(35.5%), 34(37.8%), and 28(31.1%) children, respectively. Eight (8.9%) children had died. The mean value of blood pressure, sodium and potassium among survivors and non-survivors was insignificant. Mortality was significantly higher in children presented after 6 h of bite. Patients, who had metaboloic acidosis, tachpnea, myocarditis, APE, encephalopathy and priapism had significantly higher mortality (p < 0.05). Symptoms of acidosis, tachypnea, myocarditis, APE, encephalopathy after 6 h of sting are major contributing factors affecting outcome in children with scorpion sting envenomation.

  3. Genotype, phenotype, and outcomes of nine patients with T-B+NK+ SCID.

    PubMed

    Yu, Grace P; Nadeau, Kari C; Berk, David R; de Saint Basile, Geneviève; Lambert, Nathalie; Knapnougel, Perrine; Roberts, Joseph; Kavanau, Kristina; Dunn, Elizabeth; Stiehm, E Richard; Lewis, David B; Umetsu, Dale T; Puck, Jennifer M; Cowan, Morton J

    2011-11-01

    There are few reports of clinical presentation, genotype, and HCT outcomes for patients with T-B+NK+ SCID. Between 1981 and 2007, eight of 84 patients with SCID who received and/or were followed after HCT at UCSF had the T-B+NK+ phenotype. One additional patient with T-B+NK+ SCID was identified as the sibling of a patient treated at UCSF. Chart reviews were performed. Molecular analyses of IL7R, IL2RG, JAK3, and the genes encoding the CD3 T-cell receptor components δ (CD3D), ε (CD3E), and ζ (CD3Z) were carried out. IL7R mutations were documented in four patients and CD3D mutations in two others. Three patients had no defects found. Only two of nine patients had an HLA-matched related HCT donor. Both survived, and neither developed GVHD. Five of seven recipients of haploidentical grafts survived. Although the majority of reported cases of T-B+NK+ SCID are caused by defects in IL7R, CD3 complex defects were also found in this series and should be considered when evaluating patients with T-B+NK+ SCID. Additional genes, mutations in which account for T-B+NK+ SCID, remain to be found. Better approaches to early diagnosis and HCT treatment are needed for patients lacking an HLA-matched related donor. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Type of Speech Material Affects Acceptable Noise Level Test Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Xaver; Dingemanse, Gertjan; Goedegebure, André; Janse, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test, in which individuals indicate what level of noise they are willing to put up with while following speech, has been used to guide hearing aid fitting decisions and has been found to relate to prospective hearing aid use. Unlike objective measures of speech perception ability, ANL outcome is not related to individual hearing loss or age, but rather reflects an individual’s inherent acceptance of competing noise while listening to speech. As such, the measure may predict aspects of hearing aid success. Crucially, however, recent studies have questioned its repeatability (test–retest reliability). The first question for this study was whether the inconsistent results regarding the repeatability of the ANL test may be due to differences in speech material types used in previous studies. Second, it is unclear whether meaningfulness and semantic coherence of the speech modify ANL outcome. To investigate these questions, we compared ANLs obtained with three types of materials: the International Speech Test Signal (ISTS), which is non-meaningful and semantically non-coherent by definition, passages consisting of concatenated meaningful standard audiology sentences, and longer fragments taken from conversational speech. We included conversational speech as this type of speech material is most representative of everyday listening. Additionally, we investigated whether ANL outcomes, obtained with these three different speech materials, were associated with self-reported limitations due to hearing problems and listening effort in everyday life, as assessed by a questionnaire. ANL data were collected for 57 relatively good-hearing adult participants with an age range representative for hearing aid users. Results showed that meaningfulness, but not semantic coherence of the speech material affected ANL. Less noise was accepted for the non-meaningful ISTS signal than for the meaningful speech materials. ANL repeatability was comparable

  5. Genotype, dietary manipulation and food allocation affect indices of welfare in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Jones, E K M; Zaczek, V; MacLeod, M; Hocking, P M

    2004-12-01

    1. An experiment was performed to compare the welfare of three broiler breeder genotypes (Label Rouge (LA), experimental dwarf (ER) and standard (SR)) fed on a Control or high Fibre diet. The LA birds were fed ad libitum and the other groups were reared to their recommended body weight targets. A group of standard broiler breeders was also fed a restricted amount of food, but to a lesser degree than SR, to achieve the same proportion of body weight (SE) as ER relative to ad libitum-fed dwarfs based on previous research. LA, ER, SR and SE are referred to as 'groups' in the text. 2. Welfare was assessed by comparing time budgets and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios (HL ratios) at 5, 10 and 15 weeks and immune responses at 15 weeks of age. In addition the weight and water content of the gastrointestinal tract at 4-h intervals at the end of the experiment were studied in LA and SR fed on both diets. 3. Body weights of LA, ER and SR fed on the Fibre diets were depressed and LA ate less of the Fibre than the Control diet. The coefficient of variation of body weight at 15 weeks was 7.9% in LA and similar (10.8 to 11.6%) in the other groups. 4. Drinking, litter-directed behaviour, resting and standing were affected by a group x age interaction with restricted birds showing increased drinking over time and less time spent resting compared to LA. The behaviour of ER birds was similar to SE. 5. HL ratios were within the normal biological range although all restricted-fed birds had an elevated HL ratio at 10 weeks of age relative to week 5 whereas LA birds had a reduced HL ratio at 15 weeks relative to 5 and 10 weeks of age. Immune responses were lower in ER and SE and the highest response was in SR. 6. No effects of diet were identified on behaviour, white blood cell counts or HL ratio. 7. With the exception of the crop, the dry weights of digesta in each section of the gut were similar in LA and SR birds. The results suggest that drinker-directed activity might be a substitute

  6. Factors affecting the outcome of frozen-thawed embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Veleva, Zdravka; Orava, Mauri; Nuojua-Huttunen, Sinikka; Tapanainen, Juha S; Martikainen, Hannu

    2013-09-01

    Which clinical and laboratory factors affect live birth rate (LBR) after frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET)? Top quality embryo characteristics, endometrial preparation protocol, number of embryos transferred and BMI affected independently the LBR in FET. FET is an important part of present-day IVF/ICSI treatment. There is limited understanding of the factors affecting success rates after FET. This is a two-centre retrospective cohort study. Analysis was carried out on 1972 consecutive FET cycles in 1998-2007, with embryos frozen on Day 2. The primary outcome was LBR per cycle. We assessed the independent effect on LBR of the following variables: female age, female age at embryo freezing, BMI, diagnosis, primary versus secondary infertility, fertilization by IVF versus ICSI, pregnancy in the fresh cycle, type (spontaneous, spontaneous with luteal progesterone and estrogen/progesterone substitution) and rank of the FET cycle, as well as number and presence (yes versus no) of top quality embryo(s) at freezing, thawing and transfer, damaged thawed embryos and overnight culture. In 78% of the cycles with top quality embryos frozen (n = 1319), at least one embryo still had high-quality morphology after thawing. Top quality embryo morphology observed at any stage of culture improved the outcome even if high-quality characteristics disappeared before transfer. LBRs after the transfer of a top quality embryo were similar in the FET (24.9%) and fresh cycles of the same period (21.9%). The chance of live birth increased significantly if ≥1 top quality embryo was present at freezing (odds ratio (OR) 1.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-3.14), at thawing (OR 1.93, CI 1.20-3.11) or at transfer (OR 3.41, CI 2.12-5.48). Compared with spontaneous cycles with luteal support, purely spontaneous cycles (OR 0.58, CI 0.40-0.84) and hormonally substituted FET (OR 0.47, CI 0.32-0.69) diminished the odds of pregnancy. BMI (OR 0.96, CI 0.92-0.99) and transfer of two embryos versus

  7. Does obesity affect surgical outcomes in degenerative scoliosis?

    PubMed

    Fu, Lingjie; Chang, Michael S; Crandall, Dennis G; Revella, Jan

    2014-11-15

    Retrospective cohort analysis of prospectively collected data. To determine whether an association exists between body mass and surgical outcomes in patients with degenerative scoliosis after long instrumented spinal arthrodesis (≥ 4 discs). Obesity is thought to be associated with increased surgical complications and inferior clinical outcomes in adults. There are no studies analyzing the effect of obesity on surgical outcomes in patients with degenerative scoliosis after long instrumented spinal arthrodesis. Eighty-four consecutive patients with degenerative scoliosis (69 females and 15 males; mean age, 68.6 ± 8.0 yr) with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were included in this study. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to body mass index (BMI): obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m², n = 19), overweight (BMI = 25-29.9 kg/m², n = 35), and normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m², n = 30). Radiographical measures, Oswestry Disability Index, visual analogue scale score, as well as comorbidities and complications were reviewed and analyzed for all patients preoperatively and at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Compared with the normal weight group, no significant differences in surgical methods, comorbidities, complication rates, curve correction, or radiographical measures were found in the obese and overweight groups, except for a greater preoperative lumbar lordosis in the overweight group (-40.3° ± 13.8° vs. -26.0° ± 18.9°, P < 0.05). At 2-year follow-up, Oswestry Disability Index and visual analogue scalescores improved significantly in all groups compared with preoperatively (P < 0.01). The changes of Oswestry Disability Index and visual analogue scalescores from preoperatively to final follow-up were similar in the 3 groups (P > 0.05). Obesity did not affect the amount of deformity correction and did not increase comorbidities and postoperative complication rates. Overweight patients had a greater lumbar lordosis before surgery than normal weight patients. Obese and

  8. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Genotype Affects Age-Related Changes in Plasticity in Working Memory: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Riemer, Thomas G.; Schulte, Stefanie; Onken, Johanna; Heinz, Andreas; Rapp, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Recent work suggests that a genetic variation associated with increased dopamine metabolism in the prefrontal cortex (catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met; COMT) amplifies age-related changes in working memory performance. Research on younger adults indicates that the influence of dopamine-related genetic polymorphisms on working memory performance increases when testing the cognitive limits through training. To date, this has not been studied in older adults. Method. Here we investigate the effect of COMT genotype on plasticity in working memory in a sample of 14 younger (aged 24–30 years) and 25 older (aged 60–75 years) healthy adults. Participants underwent adaptive training in the n-back working memory task over 12 sessions under increasing difficulty conditions. Results. Both younger and older adults exhibited sizeable behavioral plasticity through training (P < .001), which was larger in younger as compared to older adults (P < .001). Age-related differences were qualified by an interaction with COMT genotype (P < .001), and this interaction was due to decreased behavioral plasticity in older adults carrying the Val/Val genotype, while there was no effect of genotype in younger adults. Discussion. Our findings indicate that age-related changes in plasticity in working memory are critically affected by genetic variation in prefrontal dopamine metabolism. PMID:24772423

  9. Sugarcane genotype variation in leaf photosynthesis properties and yield as affected by mill mud application

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Variability in yield among sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) genotypes grown with and without mill mud application on sand soils in Florida has been documented, but little is known about what causes yield differences and if there are any relationships between yield components and physio...

  10. Physiological traits and meat quality of pigs as affected by genotype and housing system.

    PubMed

    Lebret, B; Prunier, A; Bonhomme, N; Foury, A; Mormède, P; Dourmad, J Y

    2011-05-01

    The influence of pig housing system: alternative (bedding with outdoor area, BO) vs. conventional (slatted floor, SF) on growth performance, reactivity to pre-slaughter handling and meat quality was evaluated in two genotypes differing in the sire line, Duroc (CD) or synthetic (CS) with 40 pigs/genotype. Animal response to housing did not differ between genotypes. BO pigs had higher growth rate and feed intake, but similar carcass composition to SF pigs. Levels of stress related hormones and plasma metabolites at slaughter were not different between BO and SF pigs, suggesting that housing did not influence pig reactivity to pre-slaughter handling. Similar (Longissimus lumborum and Biceps femoris) or slightly reduced (Semimembranosus) pH values, higher drip, lipid content and juiciness were observed in BO compared with SF pork. CD pigs had more tender meat than CS. In conclusion, the BO system resulted in higher feed intake, faster growth rate, increased intramuscular fat, and improved eating quality in both genotypes. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Melanin content in melanoma metastases affects the outcome of radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Brożyna, Anna A; Jóźwicki, Wojciech; Roszkowski, Krzysztof; Filipiak, Jan; Slominski, Andrzej T

    2016-04-05

    Melanin possess radioprotective and scavenging properties, and its presence can affect the behavior of melanoma cells, its surrounding environment and susceptibility to the therapy, as showed in vitro experiments. To determine whether melanin presence in melanoma affects the efficiency of radiotherapy (RTH) we evaluated the survival time after RTH treatment in metastatic melanoma patients (n = 57). In another cohort of melanoma patients (n = 84), the relationship between melanin level and pT and pN status was determined. A significantly longer survival time was found in patients with amelanotic metastatic melanomas in comparison to the melanotic ones, who were treated with either RTH or chemotherapy (CHTH) and RTH. These differences were more significant in a group of melanoma patients treated only with RTH. A detailed analysis of primary melanomas revealed that melanin levels were significantly higher in melanoma cells invading reticular dermis than the papillary dermis. A significant reduction of melanin pigmentation in pT3 and pT4 melanomas in comparison to pT1 and T2 tumors was observed. However, melanin levels measured in pT3-pT4 melanomas developing metastases (pN1-3, pM1) were higher than in pN0 and pM0 cases. The presence of melanin in metastatic melanoma cells decreases the outcome of radiotherapy, and melanin synthesis is related to higher disease advancement. Based on our previous cell-based and clinical research and present research we also suggest that inhibition of melanogenesis can improve radiotherapy modalities. The mechanism of relationship between melanogenesis and efficacy of RTH requires additional studies, including larger melanoma patients population and orthotopic, imageable mouse models of metastatic melanoma.

  12. Radiation-induced sarcomas of bone: factors that affect outcome.

    PubMed

    Kalra, S; Grimer, R J; Spooner, D; Carter, S R; Tillman, R M; Abudu, A

    2007-06-01

    We identified 42 patients who presented to our unit over a 27-year period with a secondary radiation-induced sarcoma of bone. We reviewed patient, tumour and treatment factors to identify those that affected outcome. The mean age of the patients at presentation was 45.6 years (10 to 84) and the mean latent interval between radiotherapy and diagnosis of the sarcoma was 17 years (4 to 50). The median dose of radiotherapy given was estimated at 50 Gy (mean 49; 20 to 66). There was no correlation between radiation dose and the time to development of a sarcoma. The pelvis was the most commonly affected site (14 patients (33%)). Breast cancer was the most common primary tumour (eight patients; 19%). Metastases were present at diagnosis of the sarcoma in nine patients (21.4%). Osteosarcoma was the most common diagnosis and occurred in 30 cases (71.4%). Treatment was by surgery and chemotherapy when indicated: 30 patients (71.4%) were treated with the intention to cure. The survival rate was 41% at five years for those treated with the intention to cure but in those treated palliatively the mean survival was only 8.8 months (2 to 22), and all had died by two years. The only factor found to be significant for survival was the ability to completely resect the tumour. Limb sarcomas had a better prognosis (66% survival at five years) than central ones (12% survival at five years) (p = 0.009). Radiation-induced sarcoma is a rare complication of radiotherapy. Both surgical and oncological treatment is likely to be compromised by the treatment received previously by the patient.

  13. Genotype, B-vitamin status, and androgens affect spaceflight-induced ophthalmic changes.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Sara R; Gregory, Jesse F; Zeisel, Steven H; Gibson, Charles R; Mader, Thomas H; Kinchen, Jason M; Ueland, Per M; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Heer, Martina A; Smith, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    Ophthalmic changes have occurred in a subset of astronauts on International Space Station missions. Visual deterioration is considered the greatest human health risk of spaceflight. Affected astronauts exhibit higher concentrations of 1-carbon metabolites (e.g., homocysteine) before flight. We hypothesized that genetic variations in 1-carbon metabolism genes contribute to susceptibility to ophthalmic changes in astronauts. We investigated 5 polymorphisms in the methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) genes and their association with ophthalmic changes after flight in 49 astronauts. The number of G alleles of MTRR 66 and C alleles of SHMT1 1420 both contributed to the odds of visual disturbances. Preflight dehydroepiandrosterone was positively associated with cotton wool spots, and serum testosterone response during flight was associated with refractive change. Block regression showed that B-vitamin status and genetics were significant predictors of many of the ophthalmic outcomes that we observed. In one example, genetics trended toward improving (P = 0.10) and B-vitamin status significantly improved (P < 0.001) the predictive model for refractive change after flight. We document an association between MTRR 66 and SHMT1 1420 polymorphisms and spaceflight-induced vision changes. This line of research could lead to therapeutic options for both space travelers and terrestrial patients. © FASEB.

  14. Gel versus capillary electrophoresis genotyping for categorizing treatment outcomes in two anti-malarial trials in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Molecular genotyping is performed in anti-malarial trials to determine whether recurrent parasitaemia after therapy represents a recrudescence (treatment failure) or new infection. The use of capillary instead of agarose gel electrophoresis for genotyping offers technical advantages, but it is unclear whether capillary electrophoresis will result in improved classification of anti-malarial treatment outcomes. Methods Samples were genotyped using both gel and capillary electrophoresis from randomized trials of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) vs. dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) performed in two areas of Uganda: Kanungu, where transmission is moderate, and Apac, where transmission is very high. Both gel and capillary methods evaluated polymorphic regions of the merozoite surface protein 1 and 2 and glutamine rich protein genes. Results Capillary electrophoresis detected more alleles and provided higher discriminatory power than agarose gel electrophoresis at both study sites. There was only moderate agreement between classification of outcomes with the two methods in Kanungu (kappa = 0.66) and poor agreement in Apac (kappa = 0.24). Overall efficacy results were similar when using gel vs. capillary methods in Kanungu (42-day risk of treatment failure for AL: 6.9% vs. 5.5%, p = 0.4; DP 2.4% vs. 2.9%, p = 0.5). However, the measured risk of recrudescence was significantly higher when using gel vs. capillary electrophoresis in Apac (risk of treatment failure for AL: 17.0% vs. 10.7%, p = 0.02; DP: 8.5% vs. 3.4%, p = 0.03). Risk differences between AL and DP were not significantly different whether gel or capillary methods were used. Conclusions Genotyping with gel electrophoresis overestimates the risk of recrudescence in anti-malarial trials performed in areas of high transmission intensity. Capillary electrophoresis provides more accurate outcomes for such trials and should be performed when possible. In areas of moderate transmission, gel electrophoresis

  15. Apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype status is not associated with neuroimaging outcomes in a large cohort of HIV+ individuals.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Sarah A; Paul, Robert H; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Morgan, Erin E; Vaida, Florin; Deng, Qianqian; Chen, Jie Ashley; Letendre, Scott; Ellis, Ronald; Clifford, David B; Marra, Christina M; Collier, Ann C; Gelman, Benjamin B; McArthur, Justin C; McCutchan, J Allen; Simpson, David M; Morgello, Susan; Grant, Igor; Ances, Beau M

    2016-10-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies suggest a negative relationship between the apolipoprotein (ApoE) ε4 allele and brain integrity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (HIV+) individuals, although the presence of this relationship across adulthood remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to clarify the discrepancies using a large, diverse group of HIV+ individuals and multiple imaging modalities sensitive to HIV. The association of ApoE ε4 with structural neuroimaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was examined in 237 HIV+ individuals in the CNS HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) study. Cortical and subcortical gray matter, abnormal and total white matter, ventricles, sulcal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and cerebellar gray matter, white matter, and CSF volumes, and MRS concentrations of myo-inositol, creatine, N-acetyl-aspartate, and choline in the frontal white matter (FWM), frontal gray matter (FGM), and basal ganglia were examined. Secondary analyses explored this relationship separately in individuals ≥50 years old (n = 173) and <50 years old (n = 63). No significant differences were observed between ApoE ε4+ (ApoE ε3/ε4 and ApoE ε4/ε4) individuals (n = 69) and ApoE ε4- (ApoE ε2/ε3 and ApoE ε3/ε3) individuals (n = 167). When individuals were further divided by age, no significant genotype group differences were identified in individuals <50 or ≥50 years of age on any neuroimaging outcome. The ApoE ε4 allele did not affect brain integrity in this large, diverse sample of HIV+ individuals. The effects of ApoE ε4 may not be apparent until more advanced ages and may be more prominent when present along with other risk factors for neuronal damage.

  16. Dietary protein intake affects expression of genes for lipid metabolism in porcine skeletal muscle in a genotype-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingying; Li, Fengna; He, Lingyun; Tan, Bie; Deng, Jinping; Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Yinghui; Geng, Meimei; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-04-14

    Skeletal muscle is a major site for the oxidation of fatty acids (FA) in mammals, including humans. Using a swine model, we tested the hypothesis that dietary protein intake regulates the expression of key genes for lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. A total of ninety-six barrows (forty-eight pure-bred Bama mini-pigs (fatty genotype) and forty-eight Landrace pigs (lean genotype)) were fed from 5 weeks of age to market weight. Pigs of fatty or lean genotype were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments (low- or adequate-protein diet), with twenty-four individually fed pigs per treatment. Our data showed that dietary protein levels affected the expression of genes involved in the anabolism and catabolism of lipids in the longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles in a genotype-dependent manner. Specifically, Bama mini-pigs had more intramuscular fat, SFA and MUFA, as well as elevated mRNA expression levels of lipogenic genes, compared with Landrace pigs. In contrast, Bama mini-pigs had lower mRNA expression levels of lipolytic genes than Landrace pigs fed an adequate-protein diet in the growing phase. These data are consistent with higher white-fat deposition in Bama mini-pigs than in Landrace pigs. In conclusion, adequate provision of dietary protein (amino acids) plays an important role in regulating the expression of key lipogenic genes, and the growth of white adipose tissue, in a genotype- and tissue-specific manner. These findings have important implications for developing novel dietary strategies in pig production.

  17. Genotype: A Crucial but Not Unique Factor Affecting the Clinical Phenotypes in Fabry Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaohui; Ren, Hong; Shen, Pingyan; Wang, Weiming; Xu, Yaowen; Ni, Liyan; Yu, Xialian; Chen, Xiaonong; Zhang, Wen; Yang, Li; Li, Xiao; Xu, Jing; Chen, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Numerous α-galactosidase A (α-gal A) gene (GLA) mutations have been identified in Fabry disease (FD), but studies on genotype-phenotype correlation are limited. This study evaluated the features of GLA gene mutations and genotype-phenotype relationship in Chinese FD patients. Gene sequencing results, demographic information, clinical history, and laboratory findings were collected from 73 Chinese FD patients. Totally 47 mutations were identified, including 23 novel mutations which might be pathogenic. For male patients, those with frameshift and nonsense mutations presented the classical FD, whereas those with missense mutations presented both of classical and atypical phenotypes. Interestingly, two male patients with missense mutation p.R356G from two unrelated families, and two with p.R301Q from one family presented different phenotypes. A statistically significant association was found between the levels of α-gal A enzyme activity and ocular changes in males, though no significant association was found between residual enzyme activity level and genotype or clinical phenotypes. For female patients, six out of seven with frameshift mutations and one out of nine with missense mutation presented the classical FD, and α-gal A activity in those patients was found to be significantly lower than that of patients with atypical phenotypes (13.73 vs. 46.32 nmol/ml/h/mg). Our findings suggest that the α-gal A activity might be associated with the clinical severity in female patients with FD. But no obvious associations between activity level of α-gal A and genotype or clinical phenotypes were found for male patients. PMID:27560961

  18. 6R-tetrahydrobiopterin treated PKU patients below 4 years of age: Physical outcomes, nutrition and genotype.

    PubMed

    Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luis; Bueno, María A; Couce, María L; Lage, Sergio; Dalmau, Jaime; Vitoria, Isidro; Llarena, Marta; Andrade, Fernando; Blasco, Javier; Alcalde, Carlos; Gil, David; García, María C; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Ruiz, Mónica; Ruiz, María A; Peña-Quintana, Luis; González, David; Sánchez-Valverde, Felix

    2015-05-01

    Phenylalanine-restricted diets have proven effective in treating phenylketonuria. However, such diets have occasionally been reported to hinder normal development. Our study aimed to assess whether treating 0-4-year-old phenylketonuric patients with 6R-tetrahydrobiopterin might prevent growth retardation later in life. We conducted a longitudinal retrospective study which examined anthropometric characteristics of phenylketonuric patients on 6R-tetrahydrobiopterin therapy (22 subjects), and compared them with a group of phenylketonuric patients on protein-restricted diets (44 subjects). Nutritional issues were also considered. We further explored possible relationships between mutations in the PAH gene, BH4 responsiveness and growth outcome. No significant growth improvements were observed in either the group on 6R-tetrahydrobiopterin treatment (height Z-score: initial= -0.57 ± 1.54; final=-0.52 ± 1.29; BMI Z-score: initial=0.17 ± 1.05; final=0.18 ± 1.00) or the diet-only group (height Z-score: initial=-0.92 ± 0.96; final= -0.78 ± 1.08; BMI Z-score: initial=0.17 ± 0.97; final=-0.07 ± 1.03) over the 1-year observation period. Furthermore, we found no significant differences (p>0.05) between the two groups at any of the time points considered (0, 6 and 12 months). Patients on 6R-tetrahydrobiopterin increased their phenylalanine intake (from 49.1 [25.6-60.3] to 56.5 [39.8-68.3] mgkg(-1)day(-1)) and natural protein intake (from 1.0 [0.8-1.7] to 1.5 [1.0-1.8] g kg(-1)day(-1)), and some patients managed to adopt normal diets. Higher phenylalanine and natural protein intakes were positively correlated with better physical outcomes in the diet-only group (p<0.05). No correlation was found between patient genotype and physical outcomes, results being similar regardless of the nutritional approach used. We did not detect any side effects due to 6R-tetrahydrobiopterin administration. Our study indicates that treating 0-4-year-old phenylketonuric patients with 6R

  19. Learning Outcomes in Affective Domain within Contemporary Architectural Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savic, Marko; Kashef, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary architectural education has shifted from the traditional focus on providing students with specific knowledge and skill sets or "inputs" to outcome based, student-centred educational approach. Within the outcome based model, students' performance is assessed against measureable objectives that relate acquired knowledge…

  20. Do Learning Style and Learning Environment Affect Learning Outcome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBartola, Leesa M.; Miller, Miriam K.; Turley, Catherine L.

    2001-01-01

    Kolb's Learning Style Inventory was completed by 29 allied health students on campus and 27 in distance education. Both groups had similar learning outcomes. Only the Diverger learning style showed a correlation between learning environment and outcome: 83% of Divergers with above average grades were in distance education. (Contains 20…

  1. Do Learning Style and Learning Environment Affect Learning Outcome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBartola, Leesa M.; Miller, Miriam K.; Turley, Catherine L.

    2001-01-01

    Kolb's Learning Style Inventory was completed by 29 allied health students on campus and 27 in distance education. Both groups had similar learning outcomes. Only the Diverger learning style showed a correlation between learning environment and outcome: 83% of Divergers with above average grades were in distance education. (Contains 20…

  2. Learning Outcomes in Affective Domain within Contemporary Architectural Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savic, Marko; Kashef, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary architectural education has shifted from the traditional focus on providing students with specific knowledge and skill sets or "inputs" to outcome based, student-centred educational approach. Within the outcome based model, students' performance is assessed against measureable objectives that relate acquired knowledge…

  3. Pea roots affect immobilisation and solubilisation of phosphorus depending on genotype, stage and phosphorous source.

    PubMed

    Ahokas, Hannu; Heikkilä, Eila; Ramstedt, Leena

    2011-06-01

    To assess the efficiency of pea roots to mobilize available phosphorus (P) from P compounds we subjected various pea genotypes to a post-treatment method. Axenic seedlings were raised on P-deficient semisolid synthetic medium using control blanks without a plant otherwise treated in the same way. AlPO(4), CaHPO(4), FePO(4), apatite and meat-bone-meal (MBM) were tested. A genotype was tested from 1-day through 15-days of growth. There were differences between the compounds (p < 0.001). P was dissolved from CaHPO(4) with apparent maxima at 72-h intervals and to a significantly lesser extent from MBM. With AlPO(4), FePO(4) and apatite, the roots did not show a dissolving effect, but, on the contrary, significantly immobilised P. In each case a correlation with an increase in acidity, H(+) (p < 0.001) was observed. The correlation was negative in the AlPO(4), FePO(4) and apatite series. A CaHPO(4) treatment combined with apatite or MBM significantly decreased solubility of P from that of CaHPO(4) singly. Tests with six additional genotypes showed that all solubilised P from CaHPO(4), some to a significant extent from apatite, MBM or slightly from FePO(4), but none from AlPO(4). The accumulation of nearly water-insoluble aluminium and iron phosphates in field and virgin soils is partly explainable by the immobilisation through the root action on P, which we have found also with other plant species. The root responses must also have ecophysiological functions distinct from P acquisition. © 2011 The Authors.

  4. Genotypic variation in tetraploid wheat affecting homoeologous pairing in hybrids with Aegilops peregrina.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, H; Feldman, M

    2001-12-01

    The Ph1 gene has long been considered the main factor responsible for the diploid-like meiotic behavior of polyploid wheat. This dominant gene, located on the long arm of chromosome 5B (5BL), suppresses pairing of homoeologous chromosomes in polyploid wheat and in their hybrids with related species. Here we report on the discovery of genotypic variation among tetraploid wheats in the control of homoeologous pairing. Compared with the level of homoeologous pairing in hybrids between Aegilops peregrina and the bread wheat cultivar Chinese Spring (CS), significantly higher levels of homoeologous pairing were obtained in hybrids between Ae. peregrina and CS substitution lines in which chromosome 5B of CS was replaced by either 5B of Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides line 09 (TTD09) or 5G of Triticum timopheevii ssp. timopheevii line 01 (TIMO1). Similarly, a higher level of homoeologous pairing was found in the hybrid between Ae. peregrina and a substitution line of CS in which chromosome arm 5BL of line TTD140 substituted for 5BL of CS. It appears that the observed effect on the level of pairing is exerted by chromosome arm 5BL of T turgidum ssp. dicoccoides, most probably by an allele of Ph1. Searching for variation in the control of homoeologous pairing among lines of wild tetraploid wheat, either T turgidum ssp. dicoccoides or T timopheevii ssp. armeniacum, showed that hybrids between Ae. peregrina and lines of these two wild wheats exhibited three different levels of homoeologous pairing: low, low intermediate, and high intermediate. The low-intermediate and high-intermediate genotypes may possess weak alleles of Ph1. The three different T turgidum ssp. dicoccoides pairing genotypes were collected from different geographical regions in Israel, indicating that this trait may have an adaptive value. The availability of allelic variation at the Ph1 locus may facilitate the mapping, tagging, and eventually the isolation of this important gene.

  5. GSTM1 and APE1 genotypes affect arsenic-induced oxidative stress: a repeated measures study

    PubMed Central

    Breton, Carrie V; Kile, Molly L; Catalano, Paul J; Hoffman, Elaine; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mahiuddin, Golam; Christiani, David C

    2007-01-01

    Background Chronic arsenic exposure is associated with an increased risk of skin, bladder and lung cancers. Generation of oxidative stress may contribute to arsenic carcinogenesis. Methods To investigate the association between arsenic exposure and oxidative stress, urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was evaluated in a cohort of 97 women recruited from an arsenic-endemic region of Bangladesh in 2003. Arsenic exposure was measured in urine, toenails, and drinking water. Drinking water and urine samples were collected on three consecutive days. Susceptibility to oxidative stress was evaluated by genotyping relevant polymorphisms in glutathione-s transferase mu (GSTM1), human 8-oxoguanine glycosylase (hOGG1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) genes using the Taqman method. Data were analyzed using random effects Tobit regression to account for repeated measures and 8-OHdG values below the detection limit. Results A consistent negative effect for APE1 was observed across water, toenail and urinary arsenic models. APE1 148 glu/glu + asp/glu genotype was associated with a decrease in logged 8-OHdG of 0.40 (95%CI -0.73, -0.07) compared to APE1 148 asp/asp. An association between total urinary arsenic and 8-OHdG was observed among women with the GSTM1 null genotype but not in women with GSTM1 positive. Among women with GSTM1 null, a comparison of the second, third, and fourth quartiles of total urinary arsenic to the first quartile resulted in a 0.84 increase (95% CI 0.27, 1.42), a 0.98 increase (95% CI 033, 1.66) and a 0.85 increase (95% CI 0.27, 1.44) in logged 8-OHdG, respectively. No effects between 8-OHdG and toenail arsenic or drinking water arsenic were observed. Conclusion These results suggest the APE1 variant genotype decreases repair of 8-OHdG and that arsenic exposure is associated with oxidative stress in women who lack a functional GSTM1 detoxification enzyme. PMID:18053222

  6. Neuroblastoma Patients' KIR and KIR-ligand Genotypes Influence Clinical Outcome for Dinutuximab-based Immunotherapy: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Amy K; Wang, Wei; Carmichael, Lakeesha; Kim, KyungMann; Mendonca, Eneida A; Song, Yiqiang; Hess, Dustin; Reville, Patrick K; London, Wendy B; Naranjo, Arlene; Hank, Jacquelyn A; Diccianni, Mitchell B; Reisfeld, Ralph A; Gillies, Stephen D; Matthay, Katherine K; Cohn, Susan L; Hogarty, Michael D; Maris, John M; Park, Julie R; Ozkaynak, Mehmet Fevzi; Gilman, Andrew; Yu, Alice L; Sondel, Paul M

    2017-10-02

    In 2010, a Children's Oncology Group (COG) phase III randomized trial for high-risk neuroblastoma patients (ANBL0032) demonstrated improved event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) following treatment with an immunotherapy regimen of dinutuximab, GM-CSF, IL-2, and isotretinoin compared to treatment with isotretinoin alone. Dinutuximab, a chimeric anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody, acts in part via NK cells. Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIRs) on NK cells and their interactions with KIR-ligands can influence NK cell function. We investigated whether KIR/KIR-ligand genotypes were associated with EFS or OS in this trial. We genotyped patients from COG study, ANBL0032, and evaluated the effect of KIR/KIR-ligand genotypes on clinical outcomes. Cox regression models and log-rank tests were used to evaluate associations of EFS and OS with KIR/KIR-ligand genotypes. In this trial, patients with the "all KIR-ligands present" genotype, as well as patients with inhibitory KIR2DL2 with its ligand (HLA-C1) together with inhibitory KIR3DL1 with its ligand (HLA-Bw4) were associated with improved outcome if they received immunotherapy. In contrast, for patients with the complementary KIR/KIR-ligand genotypes, clinical outcome was not significantly different for patients that received immunotherapy vs. those receiving isotretinoin alone. These data show that administration of immunotherapy is associated with improved outcome for neuroblastoma patients with certain KIR/KIR-ligand genotypes, while this was not seen for patients with other KIR/KIR-ligand genotypes. Further investigation of KIR/KIR-ligand genotypes may clarify their role in cancer-immunotherapy, and may enable KIR/KIR-ligand genotyping to be utilized prospectively for identifying patients likely to benefit from certain cancer immunotherapy regimens. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Psychological Factors Affecting Rehabilitation and Outcomes Following Elective Orthopaedic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Flanigan, David C; Everhart, Joshua S; Glassman, Andrew H

    2015-09-01

    Orthopaedic surgery often requires many months of rehabilitation to achieve a successful outcome, regardless of subspecialty. Several important psychological factors strongly influence pain perceptions, rehabilitation compliance, and patient outcomes after common orthopaedic surgeries that require extensive rehabilitation, including total joint arthroplasty, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and spine surgery for degenerative disease. Early recognition of patients exhibiting psychological distress, fear-avoidance behavior, or poor perceived self-efficacy or pessimistic personality traits can be used to improve preoperative risk stratification for poor rehabilitation or surgical outcomes. Several intervention strategies exist to address these psychological factors when they appear to contribute suboptimal postoperative rehabilitation or recovery.

  8. Fatty acid composition of canola (Brassica napus L.), as affected by agronomical, genotypic and environmental parameters.

    PubMed

    Omidi, Heshmat; Tahmasebi, Zeinaldin; Naghdi Badi, Hassan Ali; Torabi, Hossein; Miransari, Mohammad

    2010-03-01

    Vegetable oils with a high relative amount of unsaturated fatty acids are of great significance for human health. There is not any data on the effects of tillage practices on fatty acid composition of canola (Brassica napus L.). Hence, in a 2-year split plot experiment, the effects of different tillage systems (no (NT), minimum (MT) and conventional tillage (CT)), canola genotypes (Hyola 401 (V1) and PF (V2)) and sowing dates (including Sep. 8, 23 and Oct. 7) on the fatty acid composition of canola were evaluated. Tillage practices and the combination of canola genotypes and sowing dates were randomized to the main and sub-plots, respectively. The highest oleic acid content was the result of combining NT, V1 and Sep. 23, and the lowest was related to the combination of CT, V2 and Oct. 7. While the combination of NT, V1 and D1 resulted in the highest amount of unsaturated fatty acids, this amount was the lowest for the combination of CT, V2 and Sep. 23. For the selection of an appropriate canola producing strategy, all these parameters must be taken into account. The combination of NT, V1 and Sep. 23 may be the most favorable cropping strategy for canola production under a Mediterranean climate. Copyright 2009 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. TT genotype of GNAS1 T393C polymorphism predicts better outcome of advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Hong-Yun; Hu, Wei-Guo; Wang, Xiu-Ling; Zhu, Fan; Song, Qin-Bin

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the potential prognostic value of GNAS1 T393C polymorphism in advanced non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: We extracted genomic DNA from the peripheral blood leucocytes of 94 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the allelic discrimination. The correlation between genotype and overall survival was evaluated using the multivariate analysis and Kaplan-Meier approach. RESULTS: Thirty-eight out of 94 (40%) patients displayed a TT genotype, 29 out of 94 (31%) a CT genotype and 27 out of 94 (29%) a CC genotype. The median survival of TT (25 mo) genotype carriers was longer than CT (12 mo) or CC (8 mo) genotype carriers. The favorable TT genotype predicted better overall survival (OS) (2-year OS: 48%; P =0.01) compared with CT (2-year OS: 18%) or CC (2-year OS: 15%) genotype. However, dichotomization between C-genotypes (CC + CT) and T-genotypes (TT) revealed significantly lower survival rates (2-year OS: 16%; P = 0.01) for C allele carriers. CONCLUSION: Our data provided strong evidence that the GNAS1 T393C genetic polymorphism influenced the prognosis in advanced non-small lung cancer with a worse outcome for C allele carriers. PMID:25516778

  10. Nurse managed prenatal programs affect outcomes for corporations.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P E; Bitowski, B E; Bell, P L

    1997-09-01

    Faced with higher medical costs and increased insurance premiums, corporations are focusing on health promotion and wellness. With increasing numbers of women in the workforce, corporations have identified the need for prenatal programs. By developing, initiating, and evaluating outcome-based prenatal programs nurses can target the health care needs of this select population. One such program documented several outcomes including improved employee health and an 86% reduction in maternal/newborn costs.

  11. Affect-modulated startle: interactive influence of catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met genotype and childhood trauma.

    PubMed

    Klauke, Benedikt; Winter, Bernward; Gajewska, Agnes; Zwanzger, Peter; Reif, Andreas; Herrmann, Martin J; Dlugos, Andrea; Warrings, Bodo; Jacob, Christian; Mühlberger, Andreas; Arolt, Volker; Pauli, Paul; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    The etiology of emotion-related disorders such as anxiety or affective disorders is considered to be complex with an interaction of biological and environmental factors. Particular evidence has accumulated for alterations in the dopaminergic and noradrenergic system--partly conferred by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene variation--for the adenosinergic system as well as for early life trauma to constitute risk factors for those conditions. Applying a multi-level approach, in a sample of 95 healthy adults, we investigated effects of the functional COMT Val158Met polymorphism, caffeine as an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist (300 mg in a placebo-controlled intervention design) and childhood maltreatment (CTQ) as well as their interaction on the affect-modulated startle response as a neurobiologically founded defensive reflex potentially related to fear- and distress-related disorders. COMT val/val genotype significantly increased startle magnitude in response to unpleasant stimuli, while met/met homozygotes showed a blunted startle response to aversive pictures. Furthermore, significant gene-environment interaction of COMT Val158Met genotype with CTQ was discerned with more maltreatment being associated with higher startle potentiation in val/val subjects but not in met carriers. No main effect of or interaction effects with caffeine were observed. Results indicate a main as well as a GxE effect of the COMT Val158Met variant and childhood maltreatment on the affect-modulated startle reflex, supporting a complex pathogenetic model of the affect-modulated startle reflex as a basic neurobiological defensive reflex potentially related to anxiety and affective disorders.

  12. Impact of IL28B and PNPLA3 polymorphisms on treatment outcomes in patients infected with genotype 6 hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Wong, Grace Lai-Hung; Chan, Henry Lik-Yuen; Tse, Chi-Hang; Chan, Polly Oi-Ying; Cheng, Joe Cho-Yiu; Cheng, Jackie Siu-Woon; Lau, Sharon Hoi-Ying; Lee, Elbert Kam-Yeung; Ma, Justin Ming-Yin; Chan, Anthony Wing-Hung; Choi, Paul Cheung-Lung; Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun

    2015-06-01

    Interleukin-28B (IL28B) and patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) gene polymorphisms are associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance and fatty liver, respectively. We aimed to test if their polymorphisms are associated with virologic responses in Chinese chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. This was a retrospective-prospective cohort study. Consecutive patients infected by genotype 1 and 6 HCV received antiviral therapy were included. Host IL-28B rs12979860/rs8099917 and PNPLA3 rs738409 genotype were tested. The primary outcome was sustained virologic response (sustained virologic response [SVR]: undetectable HCV RNA 24 weeks post-treatment). From 305 patients had positive antibody to HCV, 52 and 31 patients infected by genotype 1 and 6 HCV, respectively were recruited. Mean age was 58 ± 11 years; 70% were male. Mean baseline HCV RNA was 6.8 ± 2.7 log IU/ml. The SVR for patients infected by genotype 1 and 6 HCV was 67.3% and 90.3%, respectively. The proportions of IL28B genotypes were 78%, 21%, and 1% for TT/TG/GG at rs8099917, and 81%, 18%, and 1% for CC/TC/TT at rs12979860, respectively. The proportions of PNPLA3 rs738409 genotypes were 16%, 36%, and 48% for GG/GC/CC. IL28B genotype was significantly associated with SVR in patients infected by genotype 1 but not genotype 6 HCV, with 80% versus 38% of patients infected by genotype 1 achieved SVR carried TT versus TG/GG at rs8099917, respectively (P=0.003). PNPLA3 genotype was not associated with SVR. IL28B gene with rs8099917 T allele as an independent predictor of SVR in Chinese CHC patients infected by genotype 1 but not genotype 6 HCV. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Factors Affecting Phenotype Variability in a Family with CMT2B: Gender and LRSAM1 Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Peddareddygari, Leema Reddy; Oberoi, Kinsi; Vellore, Jaasrini Reddy; Grewal, Raji P.

    2016-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2) is an autosomal dominant axonal neuropathy caused by mutations in various genes. The subtype CMT2B results from missense mutations in RAB7A, member RAS oncogene family gene, whereas missense mutations in the Leucine-rich repeat and sterile alpha motif-containing protein 1 (LRSAM1) gene cause CMT2P. We describe the genotype/phenotype analysis of a family in which a previously described mutation in the RAB7A gene and a novel mutation in the LRSAM1 gene were identified. In this family, none of the individuals had ulceromutilating features, and there was a marked variability in the age of onset. We discuss the possible etiology of the observed phenotypic variability including the role of gender and possible RAB7A/LRSAM1 gene interactions. PMID:27462242

  14. COMT genotype affects brain white matter pathways in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Zalesky, Andrew; Park, Subin; Yang, Young-Hui; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, BoAh; Song, In-Chan; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Jae-Won

    2015-01-01

    Increased dopamine availability may be associated with impaired structural maturation of brain white matter connectivity. This study aimed to derive a comprehensive, whole-brain characterization of large-scale axonal connectivity differences in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) associated with catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism. Using diffusion tensor imaging, whole-brain tractography, and an imaging connectomics approach, we characterized altered white matter connectivity in youth with ADHD who were COMT Val-homozygous (N = 29) compared with those who were Met-carriers (N = 29). Additionally, we examined whether dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) and dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) polymorphisms were associated with white matter differences. Level of attention was assessed using the continuous performance test before and after an 8-week open-label trial of methylphenidate (MPH). A network of white matter connections linking 18 different brain regions was significantly weakened in youth with ADHD who were COMT Met-carriers compared to those who were Val-homozygous (P < 0.05, family-wise error-corrected). A measure of white matter integrity, fractional anisotropy, was correlated with impaired pretreatment performance in continuous performance test omission errors and response time variability, as well as with improvement in continuous performance test response time variability after MPH treatment. Altered white matter connectivity was exclusively based on COMT genotypes, and was not evident in DAT1 or DRD4. We demonstrated that white matter connectivity in youth with ADHD is associated with COMT Val158Met genotypes. The present findings suggest that different layers of dopamine-related genes and interindividual variability in the genetic polymorphisms should be taken into account when investigating the human connectome.

  15. C-Reactive Protein Genotypes Affect Baseline, but not Exercise Training–Induced Changes, in C-Reactive Protein Levels

    PubMed Central

    Obisesan, Thomas O.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Phillips, Tracey; Ferrell, Robert E.; Phares, Dana A.; Prior, Steven J.; Hagberg, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study is to determine whether C-reactive protein (CRP) gene variants affect baseline and training-induced changes in plasma CRP levels. Methods and Results Sixty-three sedentary men and women aged 50 to 75 years old underwent baseline testing (VOmax, body composition, CRP levels). They repeated these tests after 24 weeks of exercise training while on a low-fat diet. The CRP +219G/A variant significantly associated with CRP levels before and after training after accounting for the effects of demographic and biological variables. CRP −732A/G genotype was significantly related on a univariate basis to CRP levels after training. The CRP +29T/A variant did not affect CRP levels before or after training. In regression analyses, the +219 and −732 variants each had significant effects on CRP levels before and after training. Subjects homozygous for the common A/G −732/+219 haplotype exhibited the highest CRP levels, and having the rare allele at either site was associated with significantly lower CRP levels. CRP levels decreased significantly with training (−0.38±0.18 mg/L; P=0.03). However, none of the CRP variants was associated with the training-induced CRP changes. Conclusion CRP +219G/A and −732A/G genotypes and haplotypes and exercise training appear to modulate CRP levels. However, training-induced CRP reductions appear to be independent of genotype at these loci. PMID:15271790

  16. Mouse arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase genotype affects metabolism and tissue dosimetry of arsenicals after arsenite administration in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baowei; Arnold, Lora L; Cohen, Samuel M; Thomas, David J; Le, X Chris

    2011-12-01

    Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) producing a number of methylated arsenic metabolites. Although methylation has been commonly considered a pathway for detoxification of arsenic, some highly reactive methylated arsenicals may contribute to toxicity associated with exposure to inorganic arsenic. Here, adult female wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice and female As3mt knockout (KO) mice received drinking water that contained 1, 10, or 25 ppm (mg/l) of arsenite for 33 days and blood, liver, kidney, and lung were taken for arsenic speciation. Genotype markedly affected concentrations of arsenicals in tissues. Summed concentrations of arsenicals in plasma were higher in WT than in KO mice; in red blood cells, summed concentrations of arsenicals were higher in KO than in WT mice. In liver, kidney, and lung, summed concentrations of arsenicals were greater in KO than in WT mice. Although capacity for arsenic methylation is much reduced in KO mice, some mono-, di-, and tri-methylated arsenicals were found in tissues of KO mice, likely reflecting the activity of other tissue methyltransferases or preabsorptive metabolism by the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract. These results show that the genotype for arsenic methylation determines the phenotypes of arsenic retention and distribution and affects the dose- and organ-dependent toxicity associated with exposure to inorganic arsenic.

  17. Can a future choice affect a past measurement's outcome?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonov, Yakir; Cohen, Eliahu; Elitzur, Avshalom C.

    2015-04-01

    An EPR experiment is studied where each particle within the entangled pair undergoes a few weak measurements (WMs) along some pre-set spin orientations, with the outcomes individually recorded. Then the particle undergoes one strong measurement along an orientation chosen at the last moment. Bell-inequality violation is expected between the two final measurements within each EPR pair. At the same time, statistical agreement is expected between these strong measurements and the earlier weak ones performed on that pair. A contradiction seemingly ensues: (i) Bell's theorem forbids spin values to exist prior to the choice of the orientation measured; (ii) A weak measurement is not supposed to determine the outcome of a successive strong one; and indeed (iii) Almost no disentanglement is inflicted by the WMs; and yet (iv) The outcomes of weak measurements statistically agree with those of the strong ones, suggesting the existence of pre-determined values, in contradiction with (i). Although the conflict can be solved by mere mitigation of the above restrictions, the most reasonable resolution seems to be that of the Two-State-Vector Formalism (TSVF), namely, that the choice of the experimenter has been encrypted within the weak measurement's outcomes, even before the experimenters themselves know what their choice will be.

  18. Does Instructor's Image Size in Video Lectures Affect Learning Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pi, Z.; Hong, J.; Yang, J.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most commonly used forms of video lectures is a combination of an instructor's image and accompanying lecture slides as a picture-in-picture. As the image size of the instructor varies significantly across video lectures, and so do the learning outcomes associated with this technology, the influence of the instructor's image size should…

  19. [Relationship of genotypes with clinical phenotypes and outcomes in children with cobalamin C type combined methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria].

    PubMed

    Yu, Ya-Fen; Li, Fang; Ma, Hong-Wei

    2015-08-01

    To analyze mutation types, clinical features, and treatment outcomes of cobalamin C (cblC) type combined methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria (MMA-HC) and to investigate the relationship of genotypes with clinical phenotypes and outcomes. The clinical data of 16 Chinese children diagnosed with cblC type MMA-HC by gene analysis were retrospectively analyzed. According to the onset age, the patients were classified into early onset (≤1 year) and late onset (>1 year). According to the clinical phenotype, the patients were classified into mild, moderate, and severe groups. All the patients were treated with vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) or hydroxocobalamin, betaine, folate, vitamin B6, and L-carnitine. Fifteen patients belonged to the early onset type, including 11 in the severe group and 4 in the moderate group. The remaining one belonged to the late onset type. Seven reported mutations and two novel mutations (c.445_446delTG and c.349G>c) were detected. The c.609G>A and c.658_660delAAG were the most common mutations detected in 13 (81%) out of 16 patients. The genotype caused by compound heterozygous mutations of these two alleles (c.609 G>A/c.658_660delAAG) was the most common in the patients, detected in 4 (25%) out of 16 patients. Patients with this genotype had severe microcephaly and eye diseases and these clinical manifestations were not improved after the treatment. The patient with late-onset cblC type MMA-HC had normal clinical phenotypes after treatment. In the 15 early onset patients, the more severe the clinical phenotype, the worse the treatment outcome. The cblC type MMA-HC mainly manifests as early onset in China and c.609G >A and c.658_660delAAG are the most common mutations causing this disease. The clinical phenotypes are associated with the outcomes in children with cblC type MMA-HC.

  20. Genotype-environment interactions at quantitative trait loci affecting inflorescence development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Ungerer, Mark C; Halldorsdottir, Solveig S; Purugganan, Michael D; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2003-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity and genotype-environment interactions (GEI) play a prominent role in plant morphological diversity and in the potential functional capacities of plant life-history traits. The genetic basis of plasticity and GEI, however, is poorly understood in most organisms. In this report, inflorescence development patterns in Arabidopsis thaliana were examined under different, ecologically relevant photoperiod environments for two recombinant inbred mapping populations (Ler x Col and Cvi x Ler) using a combination of quantitative genetics and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Plasticity and GEI were regularly observed for the majority of 13 inflorescence traits. These observations can be attributable (at least partly) to variable effects of specific QTL. Pooled across traits, 12/44 (27.3%) and 32/62 (51.6%) of QTL exhibited significant QTL x environment interactions in the Ler x Col and Cvi x Ler lines, respectively. These interactions were attributable to changes in magnitude of effect of QTL more often than to changes in rank order (sign) of effect. Multiple QTL x environment interactions (in Cvi x Ler) clustered in two genomic regions on chromosomes 1 and 5, indicating a disproportionate contribution of these regions to the phenotypic patterns observed. High-resolution mapping will be necessary to distinguish between the alternative explanations of pleiotropy and tight linkage among multiple genes. PMID:14504242

  1. Genotype-environment interactions at quantitative trait loci affecting inflorescence development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ungerer, Mark C; Halldorsdottir, Solveig S; Purugganan, Michael D; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2003-09-01

    Phenotypic plasticity and genotype-environment interactions (GEI) play a prominent role in plant morphological diversity and in the potential functional capacities of plant life-history traits. The genetic basis of plasticity and GEI, however, is poorly understood in most organisms. In this report, inflorescence development patterns in Arabidopsis thaliana were examined under different, ecologically relevant photoperiod environments for two recombinant inbred mapping populations (Ler x Col and Cvi x Ler) using a combination of quantitative genetics and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Plasticity and GEI were regularly observed for the majority of 13 inflorescence traits. These observations can be attributable (at least partly) to variable effects of specific QTL. Pooled across traits, 12/44 (27.3%) and 32/62 (51.6%) of QTL exhibited significant QTL x environment interactions in the Ler x Col and Cvi x Ler lines, respectively. These interactions were attributable to changes in magnitude of effect of QTL more often than to changes in rank order (sign) of effect. Multiple QTL x environment interactions (in Cvi x Ler) clustered in two genomic regions on chromosomes 1 and 5, indicating a disproportionate contribution of these regions to the phenotypic patterns observed. High-resolution mapping will be necessary to distinguish between the alternative explanations of pleiotropy and tight linkage among multiple genes.

  2. Virulence factor genotypes of Helicobacter pylori affect cure rates of eradication therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    The cure rates of Helicobacter pylori infection by using a combination of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and antimicrobial agents are mainly influenced by bacterial susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and the magnitude of acid inhibition during the treatment. Currently used empirical triple therapies do not reliably produce a ≥80% cure rate on an intention-to-treat basis. Therefore, tailored regimens based on relevant microbiological findings and pharmacogenomics are recommended for attaining an acceptable ≥95% cure rate. Recently, virulence factors of H. pylori, such as cagA and vacA, are reported to be major factors determining the cure rates. Individuals infected with strains with cagA-negative and vacA s2 genotypes have significantly increased risk of eradication failure of H. pylori infection. These virulence factors enhance gastric mucosal inflammation and are associated with the development of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. H. pylori virulence factors induce proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, which influence mucosal inflammation and/or gastric acid secretion. When physicians select an H. pylori eradication regimen with an acceptable cure rate, they might need to consider H. pylori virulence factors, especially cagA and vacA. PMID:19219527

  3. Isolated polycystic morphology: Does it affect the IVF treatment outcomes?

    PubMed

    Bezirganoglu, N; Seckin, K D; Baser, E; Karsli, M F; Yeral, M I; Cicek, M N

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare women who have normal ovarian ultrasonographic findings and women with ovulatory polycystic ovary (PCO), in terms of IVF treatment outcome. The study was conducted at a tertiary referral hospital and included 906 women who underwent IVF treatment. Of these, 224 of the women had PCO (24.7%) and 682 of the women had normal ovarian morphology (75.3%) at the time of ultrasonographic examination prior to IVF. The treatment outcomes were compared between the two groups. In the PCO group, the number of oocytes at the size of > 16 mm, the overall number of collected oocytes and the number of fertilised oocytes were found to be significantly higher. Furthermore, the rates of implantation, biochemical pregnancy and clinical pregnancy were significantly higher in the PCO group (p < 0.05). The detection of PCO morphology on baseline ultrasonography in IVF candidates may be associated with higher treatment success.

  4. Enhance placebo, avoid nocebo: How contextual factors affect physiotherapy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Testa, Marco; Rossettini, Giacomo

    2016-08-01

    Placebo and nocebo represent complex and distinct psychoneurobiological phenomena in which behavioural and neurophysiological modifications occur together with the application of a treatment. Despite a better understanding of this topic in the medical field, little is known about their role in physiotherapy. The aim of this review is: a) to elucidate the neurobiology behind placebo and nocebo effects, b) to describe the role of the contextual factors as modulators of the clinical outcomes in rehabilitation and c) to provide clinical and research guidelines on their uses. The physiotherapist's features, the patient's features, the patient-physiotherapist relationship, the characteristics of the treatment and the overall healthcare setting are all contextual factors influencing clinical outcomes. Since every physiotherapy treatment determines a specific and a contextual effect, physiotherapists should manage the contextual factors as a boosting element of any manual therapy to improve placebo effects and avoid detrimental nocebo effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors affecting seizure outcome after epilepsy surgery: an observational series.

    PubMed

    Bell, Gail S; de Tisi, Jane; Gonzalez-Fraile, Juan Carlos; Peacock, Janet L; McEvoy, Andrew W; Harkness, William F J; Foong, Jacqueline; Pope, Rebecca A; Diehl, Beate; Sander, Josemir W; Duncan, John S

    2017-11-01

    Surgical treatment can bring seizure remission in people with focal epilepsy but requires careful selection of candidates. To determine which preoperative factors are associated with postoperative seizure outcome. We audited seizure outcome of 693 adults who had resective epilepsy surgery between 1990 and 2010 and used survival analysis to detect preoperatively identifiable risk factors of poor seizure outcome. Seven factors were significantly associated with increased probability of recurrence of seizures with impaired awareness postsurgery: MRI findings (eg, HR adjusted for other variables in the model 2.5; 95% CI 1.6 to 3.8 for normal MRI compared with hippocampal sclerosis), a history of secondarily generalised convulsive seizures (2.3; 95% CI 1.7 to 3.0 for these seizures in the previous year vs never), psychiatric history (1.3; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7), learning disability (1.8; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.6) and extratemporal (vs temporal) surgery (1.4; 95% CI 1.02, 2.04). People with an older onset of epilepsy had a higher probability of seizure recurrence (1.01; 95% CI 1.00, 1.02) as did those who had used more antiepileptic drugs (1.05; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.09). Combinations of variables associated with seizure recurrence gave overall low probabilities of 5-year seizure freedom (eg, a normal MRI and convulsive seizures in the previous year has a probability of seizure freedom at 5 years of approximately 0.19). Readily identified clinical features and investigations are associated with reduced probability of good outcome and need consideration when planning presurgical evaluation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Factors affecting functional outcome after lower extremity amputation.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Abdullah Bin; Saeed, Usama Bin; Zain-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Ahmad Khan, Rana Dawood; Yasin, Ajmal

    2015-11-01

    More than 100,000 major lower extremity amputations -- amputations at the metatarsal, below-knee or above-knee level -- are performed yearly in the United States. Despite improvements in long-term outcome, operative mortality following such amputations has remained stable at 9% to 10% over the last 20 years. Several predictors for functional outcome of amputee patients are mentioned in the literature. The current study was planned to assess the impact of comorbidities on functional status after lower extremity amputations. It was a prospective comparative study held at the Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Punjab Medical College, Faisalabad, and affiliated hospitals. The study included 104 patients regardless of age and gender. Patients were allocated into trans-metatarsal (TM) group, below-knee (BK) amputation group and above-knee (AK) amputation group. Comorbidities before amputation included diabetes mellitus (70.7%), coronary heart disease (57.1%), chronic kidney disease (53.6%), and/or congestive heart failure (52.1%). Mortality within 30 days of hospital discharge was 9%, and hospital readmission was 27.7%. Stroke, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and poor baseline cognitive function were associated with the poorest functional outcome after amputation. Patients undergoing BK or AK amputation failed to return to their functional baseline within 6 months. Higher amputation level, history of stroke, ESRD, poor baseline cognitive scores, and female gender are factors associated with inferior functional status after amputation.

  7. Factors affecting patient outcome in primary cutaneous aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Tatara, Alexander M.; Mikos, Antonios G.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Primary cutaneous aspergillosis (PCA) is an uncommon infection of the skin. There is a paucity of organized literature regarding this entity in regard to patient characteristics, associated Aspergillus species, and treatment modalities on outcome (disease recurrence, disease dissemination, and mortality). We reviewed all published reports of PCA from 1967 to 2015. Cases were deemed eligible if they included the following: patient baseline characteristics (age, sex, underlying condition), evidence of proven or probable PCA, primary treatment strategy, and outcome. We identified 130 eligible cases reported from 1967 to 2015. The patients were predominantly male (63.8%) with a mean age of 30.4 ± 22.1 years. Rates of PCA recurrence, dissemination, and mortality were 10.8%, 18.5%, and 31.5%, respectively. In half of the cases, there was an association with a foreign body. Seven different Aspergillus species were reported to cause PCA. Systemic antifungal therapy without surgery was the most common form of therapy (60% of cases). Disease dissemination was more common in patients with underlying systemic conditions and occurred on average 41.4 days after PCA diagnosis (range of 3–120 days). In a multivariate linear regression model of mortality including only patients with immunosuppressive conditions, dissemination and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome were statistically significantly associated with increased mortality. Nearly one-third of patients with PCA die with the disease. Dissemination and host status are critical in patient outcome. PMID:27367980

  8. Supervisors are central to work characteristics affecting nurse outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rodwell, John; Noblet, Andrew; Demir, Defne; Steane, Peter

    2009-01-01

    To examine the predictive capability of the demand-control-support (DCS) model, augmented by organizational justice variables, on attitudinal- and health-related outcomes for nurses caring for elderly patients. The study is based on a cross-sectional survey design and involved 168 nurses working with elderly patients in facilities of a medium to large Australian organization. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of scales designed for measuring independent (e.g., demand, control, support, organizational justice) and dependent (e.g., job satisfaction, organizational commitment, wellbeing and psychological distress) variables. Multiple regression analyses were undertaken to identify significant predictors of the outcome variables. The DCS model explains the largest amount of variance across both the attitudinal and health outcomes with 27% of job satisfaction and 49% of organizational commitment, and 33% of psychological distress and 35% of wellbeing, respectively. Additional variance was explained by the justice variables for job satisfaction (5%), organizational commitment (4%), and psychological distress (23%). Using organizational justice variables to augment the DCS model was valuable in better understanding the work conditions experienced by nurses caring for elderly patients. Inclusion of curvilinear effects added clarity to the potentially artifactual nature of certain interaction variables. The results indicated practical implications for managers of nurses caring for elderly patients in terms of developing and maintaining levels of job control, support, and fairness, as well as monitoring levels of job demands. The results particularly show the importance of nurses' immediate supervisors.

  9. Partial rotator cuff tears in adolescents: factors affecting outcomes.

    PubMed

    Eisner, Eric A; Roocroft, Joanna H; Moor, Molly A; Edmonds, Eric W

    2013-01-01

    In the adult population, rotator cuff tears are common and established treatment methods yield satisfactory results. In adolescents, however, these injuries are uncommon and few treatment methods and outcome reports exist. The purpose of this study was to examine a series of adolescent rotator cuff tears, identify associated pathology, and report treatment outcomes. A retrospective comparative analysis of adolescent patients treated for rotator cuff tears diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or arthroscopy between 2008 and 2010 was performed. Patients were divided by treatment rendered: nonoperative or operative. Demographic and diagnostic variables were compared between the 2 groups. After release to full activity, 3 patient outcome measures were obtained: QuickDASH (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand), QuickDASH Sports module, and the Single Assessment Numerical Evaluation (SANE). Fifty-three adolescents (38 boys and 15 girls) with a mean age of 15.8 years (8.8 to 18.8 y) met the inclusion criteria. All rotator cuff tears were partial articular-sided tendon avulsions, and surgical treatment (when required) consisted of debridement to stable edges. All patients underwent a trial of at least 6 weeks of physical therapy, with 57% failing to improve and requiring subsequent surgery. In the patients that were treated nonoperatively, 39% were diagnosed with associated pathology based on MRI findings, whereas operative patients exhibited an associated pathology rate of 70%. Patients with MRI-diagnosed associated pathology were 1.8 times more likely (95% confidence interval, 1.02-3.13, P=0.025) to require surgery compared with those without MRI-identified associated pathology. Nineteen patients (13 operative, 6 nonoperative) completed the outcome questionnaires at a mean 16.9 months after treatment. QuickDASH, SANE, and QuickDASH Sports module scores were not statistically different between nonoperative and operative treatment groups (7.5 vs. 8.1, P=0

  10. Relationships among affect, work, and outcome in group therapy for patients with complicated grief.

    PubMed

    Piper, William E; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Joyce, Anthony S; McCallum, Mary; Rosie, John S

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among patient affect (experienced and expressed), work, and outcome in two forms of time-limited, short-term group therapy for complicated grief. Work was defined as the degree to which the patient pursued the primary objectives of the two forms of therapy. Substantial evidence of direct relationships between the experience and expression of positive affect and favorable outcome was found. A direct relationship between work and favorable outcome was also found. Additive and interaction effects indicated that the combination of these two types of predictor variables (positive affect, work) had a stronger relationship to favorable outcome than either variable alone. Some evidence was found for an inverse relationship between the experience and expression of negative affect and favorable outcome. The findings were consistent with a social-functional theory of the impact of affect on others during bereavement. Clinical implications of the findings are considered.

  11. Back pain during war: an analysis of factors affecting outcome.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Steven P; Nguyen, Conner; Kapoor, Shruti G; Anderson-Barnes, Victoria C; Foster, Leslie; Shields, Cynthia; McLean, Brian; Wichman, Todd; Plunkett, Anthony

    2009-11-09

    Back pain is the leading cause of disability in the world, but it is even more common in soldiers deployed for combat operations. Aside from battle injuries and psychiatric conditions, spine pain and other musculoskeletal conditions are associated with the lowest return-to-unit rate among service members medically evacuated out of Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom. Demographic, military-specific, and outcome data were prospectively collected over a 2-week period at the Deployed Warrior Medical Management Center in Germany on 1410 consecutive soldiers medically evacuated out of theaters of combat operations for a primary diagnosis pertaining to back pain between 2004 and 2007. The 2-week period represents the maximal allowable time an evacuated soldier can spend in treatment before disposition (ie, return to theater or evacuate to United States) is rendered. Electronic medical records were then reviewed to examine the effect a host of demographic and clinical variables had on the categorical outcome measure, return to unit. The overall return-to-unit rate was 13%. Factors associated with a positive outcome included female sex, deployment to Afghanistan, being an officer, and a history of back pain. Trends toward not returning to duty were found for navy and marine service members, coexisting psychiatric morbidity, and not being seen in a pain clinic. The likelihood of a service member medically evacuated out of theater with back pain returning to duty is low irrespective of any intervention(s) or characteristic(s). More research is needed to determine whether concomitant treatment of coexisting psychological factors and early treatment "in theater" can reduce attrition rates.

  12. The Synergistic Effect of Affective Factors on Student Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Brady Michael; Lin, Huann-shyang; Yore, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how affective and self-related factors impact participation in science learning and environmental awareness and responsibility. Using PISA 2006 datasets from Taiwan and Canada having similar level of science competency, the model for this study verifies and expands an earlier model by examining the relationships among…

  13. Family-School Links: How Do They Affect Educational Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan, Ed.; Dunn, Judith F., Ed.

    This book explores issues related to the links between families and schools and how they affect children's educational achievement, and is organized as follows: Part 1, titled "Families and Schools: How Can They Work Together To Promote Children's School Success?" contains the following chapters: chapter 1, "Family Involvement in…

  14. The Synergistic Effect of Affective Factors on Student Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Brady Michael; Lin, Huann-shyang; Yore, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how affective and self-related factors impact participation in science learning and environmental awareness and responsibility. Using PISA 2006 datasets from Taiwan and Canada having similar level of science competency, the model for this study verifies and expands an earlier model by examining the relationships among…

  15. Learning with Computers in Small Groups: Cognitive and Affective Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mevarech, Zemira R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examines the effects of cooperative and individualistic computer-assisted instruction (CAI) programs on cognitive and affective variables in Israeli grade six mathematics classes. Analyses of the data indicate that students who used CAI for drill and practice in pairs performed better than students who used the same program individually. (30…

  16. Cognitive and Affective Learning Outcomes of Gifted Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delcourt, Marcia A. B.; Cornell, Dewey G.; Goldberg, Marc D.

    2007-01-01

    This project was a 2-year investigation of elementary school children placed in programs for high-ability learners. The primary purpose of the study was to investigate academic and affective changes in students during their first 2 years in a gifted program. Students were assessed during the fall of one year and the spring of the next year.…

  17. How much do immigration and trade affect labor market outcomes?

    PubMed

    Borjas, G J; Freeman, R B; Katz, L F

    1997-01-01

    "This paper provides new estimates of the impact of immigration and trade on the U.S. labor market.... We examine the relation between economic outcomes for native workers and immigrant flows to regional labor markets.... We...use the factor proportions approach to examine the contributions of immigration and trade to recent changes in U.S. educational wage differentials and attempt to provide a broader assessment of the impact of immigration on the incomes of U.S. natives." Comments and discussion by John DiNardo, John M. Abowd, and others are included (pp. 68-85).

  18. Decisions That Affect Outcomes in the Distant Future.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    75-030-0713 and #78-072-0721 NSF Grant #FNn-72-04149-AO1 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK The Board of...lng expoctat in- about the. outcomes by charging or rebat in ; i, each cuotomr. P The concept of a social brokerage ftrm i sinilar to that ,f , charity ...contributes to charities . For this reason, we would ask the individual questions about other decisions and tradeoffs 104 .0. -e e ’. ". ’*- . " 0 Lvd 6 . he has

  19. Potential clinical and economic outcomes of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype-guided dosing in patients starting warfarin therapy.

    PubMed

    You, J H S; Tsui, K K N; Wong, R S M; Cheng, G

    2009-11-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration has updated the label information for warfarin to encourage the use of genetic information before initiating treatment with the drug. We used decision-tree modeling to simulate the outcomes of CYP2C9 and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 (VKORC1) genotype-guided dosing in patients in whom warfarin therapy is to be initiated. The inputs for the model were derived from the literature. The incremental costs per unit outcome improved (ICERs) were US$347,059 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained, $170,192 per adverse event averted, and $1,106,250 per life saved. The outcomes of 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the ICER per QALY gained was >$50,000 62.1% of the time. ICER was sensitive to baseline international normalized ratio (INR) control, reduction in out-of-range INRs by genotype-guided dosing, and genotyping cost. In conclusion, genotype-guided dosing for warfarin therapy does not appear to be cost-effective, with the potential ICER per QALY being >$50,000. Lowering the genotyping cost, improving effectiveness of INR control of the genotype-guided dosing algorithm, and applying the algorithm in practice sites with high out-of-range INRs would improve the cost-effectiveness of the dosing algorithm.

  20. Coping with ovarian cancer: do coping styles affect outcomes?

    PubMed

    Hopkins, M Laura; McDowell, Ian; Le, Tien; Fung, Michael Fung Kee

    2005-05-01

    The majority of patients with ovarian cancer face a long road of persistent hardship and strain. Treatment of this disease is intense, involving aggressive debulking surgery and multiple chemotherapy regimens. Coping with the disease and its treatment challenges patients on many levels. This review was developed to summarize the evidence concerning the impact of coping strategies on outcomes in patients with ovarian cancer. A comprehensive search of the literature in the field of coping and ovarian cancer was undertaken. Using the Ovid interface, 3 electronic databases, including Medline, Cinahl, and PsycINFO, were searched using the search terms "coping," "cancer," and "ovarian cancer." In addition, a critical appraisal of the 2 most widely used scales to assess coping strategies was a component of this work. This review highlights the relative lack of knowledge on coping in ovarian cancer, the methodologic challenges to its study, and the need to develop an instrument that is tailored to evaluate coping strategies used by patients with ovarian cancer. A validated instrument to assess coping strategies used by patients with ovarian cancer is needed. Identification of strategies that are maladaptive or destructive in patients with ovarian cancer could be used to improve quality of care for patients burdened by this disease. Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians. After completion of this article, the reader should be able to list the potential coping strategies for patients with ovarian cancer, to explain the various coping assessment scales, and to summarize the evidence concerning the impact of coping strategies on outcomes in ovarian cancer patients.

  1. Socioeconomic status does not affect the outcome of liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hwan Y; Galabova, Violetta; Edwin, David; Thuluvath, Paul J

    2002-12-01

    The outcome of liver transplantation is dependent on many factors. It was suggested that racial disparities in outcome may be related to differences in socioeconomic status (SES). In this retrospective study, we analyzed the effect of SES on graft and patient survival. Two hundred seventy-six adult patients who underwent liver transplantation at our institution from July 1988 to June 2001 were included in the analysis. Educational and occupation statuses were coded using established criteria (Hollingshead Index of Social Status [HI]). SES then was calculated using the HI formula: SES = education level x 3 + occupation x 5, and categorized into four groups: group 1, score less than 29 (n = 71); group 2, score of 29 to 42 (n = 82); group 3, score of 42 to 53 (n = 69); and group 4, score greater than 53 (n = 54). Kaplan-Meier analysis was used for graft and patient survival, and Cox regression analysis was used to determine the effect of confounding factors. Demographics of all four groups were similar. One-, 2-, and 5-year graft and patient survival did not differ significantly across groups by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression survival analysis. In conclusion, SES did not predict graft and patient survival after liver transplantation.

  2. CFTR genotype and clinical outcomes of adult patients carried as cystic fibrosis disease.

    PubMed

    Bonadia, Luciana Cardoso; de Lima Marson, Fernando Augusto; Ribeiro, Jose Dirceu; Paschoal, Ilma Aparecida; Pereira, Monica Corso; Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando; Bertuzzo, Carmen Silvia

    2014-05-01

    There are nearly 2000 cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) mutations that cause cystic fibrosis (CF). These mutations are classified into six classes; on the one hand, the first three classes cause severe disease involvement in early childhood, on the other hand, the Class IV, V and VI mutations cause minor severe disease in the same age. Nowadays, with therapeutic advances in CF management and competence of pediatricians, physicians of adults have to deal with two groups of CF patients: (i) adults diagnosed in childhood with severe mutations and (ii) adults who initiated symptoms in adulthood and with Class IV, V and VI mutations. The aim of this study was to analyze adults from a clinical center, treated as CF disease, screening the CFTR genotype and evaluating the clinical characteristics. Thirty patients followed as CF disease at the University Hospital were enrolled. After a complete molecular CFTR negative screening and sweat test levels between 40 and 59mEq/L, five patients were characterized as non-CF disease and were excluded. Molecular screening was performed by CFTR gene sequencing/MLPA or by specific mutation screening. Clinical data was obtained from medical records. The patients were divided into three groups: (1) patients with Class I, II and III mutations in two CFTR alleles; (2) genotype with at least one allele of Class IV, V or VI CFTR mutations and, (3) non-identified CFTR mutation+one patient with one allele with CFTR mutation screened (Class I). There was an association of CFTR class mutation and sodium/chloride concentration in the sweat test (sodium: p=0.040; chloride: p=0.016), onset of digestive symptoms (p=0.012), lung function parameter (SpO2 - p=0.016), Bhalla score (p=0.021), age at diagnosis (p=0.008) and CF-related diabetes (p=0.029). There was an association between Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronic colonization (as clinical marker for the lung disease status) and lung impairment (FEV1% - p=0.027; Bhalla score - p=0.021), CF

  3. A Synthetic Community Approach Reveals Plant Genotypes Affecting the Phyllosphere Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Bodenhausen, Natacha; Bortfeld-Miller, Miriam; Ackermann, Martin; Vorholt, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    The identity of plant host genetic factors controlling the composition of the plant microbiota and the extent to which plant genes affect associated microbial populations is currently unknown. Here, we use a candidate gene approach to investigate host effects on the phyllosphere community composition and abundance. To reduce the environmental factors that might mask genetic factors, the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana was used in a gnotobiotic system and inoculated with a reduced complexity synthetic bacterial community composed of seven strains representing the most abundant phyla in the phyllosphere. From a panel of 55 plant mutants with alterations in the surface structure, cell wall, defense signaling, secondary metabolism, and pathogen recognition, a small number of single host mutations displayed an altered microbiota composition and/or abundance. Host alleles that resulted in the strongest perturbation of the microbiota relative to the wild-type were lacs2 and pec1. These mutants affect cuticle formation and led to changes in community composition and an increased bacterial abundance relative to the wild-type plants, suggesting that different bacteria can benefit from a modified cuticle to different extents. Moreover, we identified ein2, which is involved in ethylene signaling, as a host factor modulating the community's composition. Finally, we found that different Arabidopsis accessions exhibited different communities, indicating that plant host genetic factors shape the associated microbiota, thus harboring significant potential for the identification of novel plant factors affecting the microbiota of the communities. PMID:24743269

  4. Does pregnancy affect outcome of methadone maintenance treatment?

    PubMed

    Crandall, Cynthia; Crosby, Ross D; Carlson, Gregory A

    2004-06-01

    Studies of pregnant women receiving methadone maintenance have tended to focus on teratogenic, prenatal, and neonatal issues. We are not aware of any controlled studies comparing pregnant to non-pregnant heroin-addicted women in methadone treatment. This article presents findings from a study examining treatment outcome between pregnant and non-pregnant participants in a metropolitan methadone-maintenance program. Participants were 51 pregnant women and 51 non-pregnant women enrolled in a methadone maintenance program between 1994 and 2003. Groups were compared on demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, urinalysis results and retention rates. Groups were comparable in terms of most demographic characteristics and severity of addiction at intake. Groups did not differ significantly in terms of urinalysis results or retention rates. While most women reduced their drug use, a majority of both groups continued to use illicit drugs at least occasionally. Psychiatric comorbidity was significantly different with the non-pregnant group being more psychiatrically disordered. Clinical implications are discussed.

  5. Socioeconomic, cultural, and behavioral factors affecting Hispanic health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Morales, Leo S; Lara, Marielena; Kington, Raynard S; Valdez, Robert O; Escarce, José J

    2002-11-01

    Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher porverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. This paradox is described in the literature as the epidemiological paradox or Hispanic health paradox. In this paper, the authors selectively review data and research supporting the existence of the epidemiological paradox. They find substantial support for the existence of the epidemiological paradox, particularly among Mexican Americans. Census undercounts of Hispanics, misclassification of Hispanic deaths, and emigration of Hispanics do not fully account for the epidemiological paradox. Identifying protective factors underlying the epidemiological paradox, while improving access to care and the economic conditions among Hispanics, are important research and policy implications of this review.

  6. SOCIOECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND BEHAVIORAL FACTORS AFFECTING HISPANIC HEALTH OUTCOMES

    PubMed Central

    MORALES, LEO S.; LARA, MARIELENA; KINGTON, RAYNARD S.; VALDEZ, ROBERT O.; ESCARCE, JOSÉ J.

    2006-01-01

    Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher poverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. This paradox is described in the literature as the epidemiological paradox or Hispanic health paradox. In this paper, the authors selectively review data and research supporting the existence of the epidemiological paradox. They find substantial support for the existence of the epidemiological paradox, particularly among Mexican Americans. Census undercounts of Hispanics, misclassification of Hispanic deaths, and emigration of Hispanics do not fully account for the epidemiological paradox. Identifying protective factors underlying the epidemiological paradox, while improving access to care and the economic conditions among Hispanics, are important research and policy implications of this review. PMID:12407964

  7. Secondary science classroom dissections: Informing policy by evaluating cognitive outcomes and exploring affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allspaw, Kathleen M.

    Animal protection organizations claim that dissection is pedagogically unsound and that it will cause students to lose respect for non-human animals. Science teacher organizations support curricula that teach respect for animal life and include dissection. Prior research compared dissection to dissection alternatives. Four of the six studies revealed no difference between groups on tests of cognitive outcomes. One study revealed that dissection was superior, and one revealed that the alternative was superior. No differences in attitudes toward science, dissection or school were found. Attitudes toward non-human animals were not measured. This study focused on the dissections of earthworms and frogs in middle and high school classrooms. Pre and post-tests of conceptual understanding revealed failing scores and no significant pre/post differences. Because these tests required critical thinking skills, and the dissection activities did not, it is difficult to determine if the poor performance on these tests indicates the inability of the students to think critically, and/or if it indicates the ineffectiveness of dissection. Further studies of dissections that focus on critical thinking would be necessary to make this distinction. Classroom observations, student written narratives, and student and adult interviews revealed mixed attitudes toward non-human animals. Student behaviors during dissection were similar to those behaviors exhibited during non-dissection activities. Most students and adults readily supported worm dissections while they expressed some trepidation about frog dissections. Students and adults universally expressed affection for their pets and opposed the use of their own pets for dissection/research. There was slight support for the use of dogs and cats for dissection/research, but only those students who expressed hate for cats said that they could dissect cats. None of the students or adults expressed a willingness to dissect dogs. Some students

  8. Traumatic asphyxia following stadium crowd surge: stadium factors affecting outcome.

    PubMed

    DeAngeles, D; Schurr, M; Birnbaum, M; Harms, B

    1998-10-01

    Stadium crowd surges frequently occur following major athletic events. A recent crowd surge injured more than 80 persons by trampling and/or crushing. This incident was reviewed to identify injury patterns consistent with crush-related injury. In addition, the incident was reviewed to determine which stadium policy and design factors may have potentiated this event. A recent crowd surge occurred following a college football game. This resulted in 86 people being transported to the University of Wisconsin and other area hospitals. All charts were reviewed to evaluate patient outcomes. The stadium was examined as were security system video tapes to evaluate stadium factors that contributed to this event. Current policies were obtained through the university sports administration. Of 86 patients transported for evaluation of stadium-related injuries, 10 were treated for traumatic asphyxia. Other injuries requiring hospital admission included musculo-skeletal trauma in two patients and one grade II liver injury. Six others were admitted overnight for observation. Several stadium factors were identified that contributed to the event, and appropriate changes in crowd control policies and stadium design were instated to prevent recurrence. This report details the largest single report of traumatic asphyxia second to the England Hillsborough disaster. Several stadium factors were identified that resulted in crush-related injury. Cooperative review and modification of stadium policies and design may prevent such events in the future.

  9. Single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolates from pigs affected with chronic erysipelas in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shiraiwa, Kazumasa; Ogawa, Yohsuke; Nishikawa, Sayaka; Kusumoto, Masahiro; Eguchi, Masahiro; Shimoji, Yoshihiro

    2017-04-05

    Over the past decades, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae strains displaying similar phenotypic and genetic profiles of the attenuated, acriflavine-resistant E. rhusiopathiae Koganei 65-0.15 strain (serovar 1a) have been frequently isolated from pigs affected with chronic erysipelas in Japan. In this study, using the conventional PCR assay that was designed to detect strain-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites found in the genome of the vaccine strain, we analyzed E. rhusiopathiae isolates from pigs with chronic disease in farms where the Koganei vaccine was used. Out of a total of 155 isolates, 101 isolates (65.2%) were determined to be the vaccine strain by SNP-based PCR. Among the 101 PCR-positive isolates, four isolates were found to be sensitive to acriflavine.

  10. Intervention outcomes among HIV-affected families over 18 months.

    PubMed

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Rice, Eric; Comulada, W Scott; Best, Karin; Elia, Carla; Peters, Katherine; Li, Li; Green, Sara; Valladares, Ena

    2012-07-01

    We evaluate the efficacy of a family-based intervention over time among HIV-affected families. Mothers living with HIV (MLH; n = 339) in Los Angeles and their school-aged children were randomized to either an intervention or control condition and followed for 18 months. MLH and their children in the intervention received 16 cognitive-behavioral, small-group sessions designed to help them maintain physical and mental health, parent while ill, address HIV-related stressors, and reduce HIV-transmission behaviors. At recruitment, MLH reported few problem behaviors related to physical health, mental health, or sexual or drug transmission acts. Compared to MLH in the control condition, intervention MLH were significantly more likely to monitor their own CD4 cell counts and their children were more likely to decrease alcohol and drug use. Most MLH and their children had relatively healthy family relationships. Family-based HIV interventions should be limited to MLH who are experiencing substantial problems.

  11. Postoperative outcomes following pancreaticoduodenectomy: how should age affect clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Faraj, Walid; Alameddine, Raafat; Mukherji, Deborah; Musallam, Khaled; Haydar, Ali; Eloubiedi, Mohamed; Shamseddine, Ali; Halal, Ali; Abou-Alfa, Ghassan K; O'Reilly, Eileen M; Jamali, Faek; Khalife, Mohamed

    2013-06-06

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy is an increasingly common procedure performed for both benign and malignant disease. There are conflicting data regarding the safety of pancreatic resection in older patients. Potentially modifiable perioperative risk factors to improve outcomes in older patients have yet to be determined. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) database for 2008 to 2009 was used for this retrospective analysis. Patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy were identified and divided into those above and below the age of 65. Preoperative risk factors and postoperative morbidity and mortality were evaluated. Among 2,045 patients included in this analysis, 994 patients were >65 years (48.6%) while 1,051 were (less than or equal to) 65 years (51.4%). Thirty-day mortality was higher in the older age group compared to the younger age group 3.6% vs. 1.9% respectively, P = 0.017, odds ratio 1.94. Older patients had a higher incidence of unplanned intubation, ventilator support >48 h and septic shock compared with younger patients. On multivariate logistic regression, after adjusting for other 30-day postoperative occurrences (significant at the P <0.1 level) only septic shock was independently associated with a higher odds of mortality, unplanned intubation, and ventilator support >48 h in older patients compared with younger patients. This report from a population-based database is the first to highlight postoperative sepsis as an independent risk factor for mortality and morbidity in older patients undergoing pancreatic resection. Careful perioperative management addressing this issue is essential for patients over the age of 65.

  12. Postoperative outcomes following pancreaticoduodenectomy: how should age affect clinical practice?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pancreaticoduodenectomy is an increasingly common procedure performed for both benign and malignant disease. There are conflicting data regarding the safety of pancreatic resection in older patients. Potentially modifiable perioperative risk factors to improve outcomes in older patients have yet to be determined. Methods The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) database for 2008 to 2009 was used for this retrospective analysis. Patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy were identified and divided into those above and below the age of 65. Preoperative risk factors and postoperative morbidity and mortality were evaluated. Results Among 2,045 patients included in this analysis, 994 patients were >65 years (48.6%) while 1,051 were (less than or equal to) 65 years (51.4%). Thirty-day mortality was higher in the older age group compared to the younger age group 3.6% vs. 1.9% respectively, P = 0.017, odds ratio 1.94. Older patients had a higher incidence of unplanned intubation, ventilator support >48 h and septic shock compared with younger patients. On multivariate logistic regression, after adjusting for other 30-day postoperative occurrences (significant at the P <0.1 level) only septic shock was independently associated with a higher odds of mortality, unplanned intubation, and ventilator support >48 h in older patients compared with younger patients. Conclusions This report from a population-based database is the first to highlight postoperative sepsis as an independent risk factor for mortality and morbidity in older patients undergoing pancreatic resection. Careful perioperative management addressing this issue is essential for patients over the age of 65. PMID:23742036

  13. Nrf2-dependent gene expression is affected by the proatherogenic apoE4 genotype-studies in targeted gene replacement mice.

    PubMed

    Graeser, Anne-Christin; Boesch-Saadatmandi, Christine; Lippmann, Jana; Wagner, Anika E; Huebbe, Patricia; Storm, Niels; Höppner, Wolfgang; Wiswedel, Ingrid; Gardemann, Andreas; Minihane, Anne M; Döring, Frank; Rimbach, Gerald

    2011-10-01

    An apoE4 genotype is an important risk factor for cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. The higher cardiovascular disease risk of apoE4 carriers as compared to the apoE3 genotype has been mainly attributed to the differences in blood lipids between the two genotype subgroups. Recently, a potential protective role of the transcription factor Nrf2 in cardiovascular disease prevention has been suggested. In this study, we show that Nrf2-dependent gene expression is affected by the apoE genotype. ApoE4 vs. apoE3 mice exhibited lower hepatic Nrf2 nuclear protein levels. Furthermore, mRNA and protein levels of Nrf2 target genes including glutathione-S-transferase, heme oxygenase-1 and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, quinone 1 were significantly lower in apoE4 as compared to apoE3 mice. Lower hepatic mRNA levels of phase II enzymes, as observed in apoE4 vs. apoE3 mice, were accompanied by higher mRNA levels of phase I enzymes including Cyp26a1 and Cyp3a16. Furthermore, miRNA-144, miRNA-125b, and miRNA-29a involved in Nrf2 signaling, inflammation, and regulation of phase I enzyme gene expression were affected by the apoE genotype. We provide first evidence that Nrf2 is differentially regulated in response to the apoE genotype.

  14. Beyond control of acute exacerbation: enhancing affective and cognitive outcomes.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2003-11-01

    From the perspective of efficacy, the main advantages of the group of new antipsychotic drugs, including ziprasidone, clozapine, quetiapine, olanzapine, and risperidone, are their ability to improve cognitive function. Other advantages are more selective, eg, clozapine in treatment-resistant schizophrenia, while the advantages for positive and negative symptoms in neuroleptic responsive patients are modest and sometimes difficult to demonstrate. The advantage for cognitive function is important because of abundant evidence that cognitive function is a key predictor of work and social function acquisition. The drug-induced cognitive improvement can synergize with typical rehabilitation programs and more experimental cognitive retraining programs to optimize these areas of improvement. Improved cognition also has implications for better compliance and decreased caretaker burden. It is also important to consider the efficacy of antipsychotics to improve mood and negative symptoms and to provide a biological framework for their ability to achieve these advantages over typical neuroleptic drugs. This article will provide new data on efficacy of this class of drugs relative to each other and to typical neuroleptics. Current theories linking efficacy in cognition to unique effects on cortical dopaminergic and cholinergic function and improved patterns of connectivity in the brain during cognitive task performance will be discussed. Finally, pharmacologic strategies to augment affect and cognitive improvements due to the new antipsychotic drug therapies will be discussed.

  15. Anticipatory smiling: Linking early affective communication and social outcome

    PubMed Central

    Parlade, Meaghan Venezia; Messinger, Daniel S.; Delgado, Christine E.F.; Kaiser, Marygrace Yale; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Mundy, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    In anticipatory smiles, infants appear to communicate pre-existing positive affect by smiling at an object and then turning the smile toward an adult. We report two studies in which the precursors, development, and consequences of anticipatory smiling were investigated. Study 1 revealed a positive correlation between infant smiling at 6 months and the level of anticipatory smiling at 8 and 10 months during joint attention episodes, as well as a positive correlation between anticipatory smiling and parent-rated social expressivity scores at 30 months. Study 2 confirmed a developmental increase in the number of infants using anticipatory smiles between 9 and 12 months that had been initially documented in the Study 1 sample [Venezia, M., Messinger, D. S., Thorp, D., & Mundy, P. (2004). The development of anticipatory smiling. Infancy, 6(3), 397–406]. Additionally, anticipatory smiling at 9 months positively predicted parent-rated social competence scores at 30 months. Findings are discussed with regard to the importance of anticipatory smiling in early socioemotional development. PMID:19004500

  16. Prediction and diagnosis of clinical outcomes affecting restoration margins.

    PubMed

    Dennison, J B; Sarrett, D C

    2012-04-01

    The longevity of dental restorations is largely dependent on the continuity at the interface between the restorative material and adjacent tooth structure (the restoration margin). Clinical decisions on restoration repair or replacement are usually based upon the weakest point along that margin interface. Physical properties of a restorative material, such as polymerisation shrinkage, water sorption, solubility, elastic modulus and shear strength, all have an effect on stress distribution and can significantly affect margin integrity. This review will focus on two aspects of margin deterioration in the oral environment: the in vitro testing of margin seal using emersion techniques to simulate the oral environment and to predict clinical margin failure and the relationship between clinically observable microleakage and secondary caries. The many variables associated with in vitro testing of marginal leakage and the interpretation of the data are presented in detail. The most recent studies of marginal leakage mirror earlier methodology and lack validity and reliability. The lack of standardised testing procedures makes it impossible to compare studies or to predict the clinical performance of adhesive materials. Continual repeated in vitro studies contribute little to the science in this area. Clinical evidence is cited to refute earlier conclusions that clinical microleakage (penetrating margin discoloration) leads to caries development and is an indication for restoration replacement. Margin defects, without visible evidence of soft dentin on the wall or base of the defect, should be monitored, repaired or resealed, in lieu of total restoration replacement. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Food stoichiometry affects the outcome of Daphnia–parasite interaction

    PubMed Central

    Aalto, Sanni L; Pulkkinen, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for growth in consumers. P-limitation and parasite infection comprise one of the most common stressor pairs consumers confront in nature. We conducted a life-table study using a Daphnia–microsporidian parasite model, feeding uninfected or infected Daphnia with either P-sufficient or P-limited algae, and assessed the impact of the two stressors on life-history traits of the host. Both infection and P-limitation negatively affected some life-history traits tested. However, under P-limitation, infected animals had higher juvenile growth rate as compared with uninfected animals. All P-limited individuals died before maturation, regardless of infection. The numbers of spore clusters of the microsporidian parasite did not differ in P-limited or P-sufficient hosts. P-limitation, but not infection, decreased body phosphorus content and ingestion rates of Daphnia tested in separate experiments. As parasite spore production did not suffer even under extreme P-limitation, our results suggest that parasite was less limited by P than the host. We discuss possible interpretations concerning the stoichiometrical demands of parasite and suggest that our results are explained by parasite-driven changes in carbon (C) allocation of the hosts. We conclude that the impact of nutrient starvation and parasite infection on consumers depends not only on the stoichiometric demands of host but also those of the parasite. PMID:23762513

  18. Dopamine transporter SLC6A3 genotype affects cortico-striatal activity of set-shifts in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Habak, Claudine; Noreau, Anne; Nagano-Saito, Atsuko; Mejía-Constaín, Beatriz; Degroot, Clotilde; Strafella, Antonio P; Chouinard, Sylvain; Lafontaine, Anne-Louise; Rouleau, Guy A; Monchi, Oury

    2014-11-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative condition that affects motor function along with a wide range of cognitive domains, including executive function. The hallmark of the pathology is its significant loss of nigrostriatal dopamine, which is necessary for the cortico-striatal interactions that underlie executive control. Striatal dopamine reuptake is mediated by the SLC6A3 gene (formerly named DAT1) and its polymorphisms, which have been largely overlooked in Parkinson's disease. Thirty patients (ages 53-68 years; 19 males, 11 females) at early stages of Parkinson's disease, were genotyped according to a 9-repeat (9R) or 10-repeat (10R) allele on the SLC6A3/DAT1 gene. They underwent neuropsychological assessment and functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a set-shifting task (a computerized Wisconsin Card Sorting Task) that relies on fronto-striatal interactions. Patients homozygous on the 10R allele performed significantly better on working memory tasks than 9R-carrier patients. Most importantly, patients carrying a 9R allele exhibited less activation than their 10R homozygous counterparts in the prefrontal cortex, premotor cortex and caudate nucleus, when planning and executing a set-shift. This pattern was exacerbated for conditions that usually recruit the striatum compared to those that do not. This is the first study indicating that the SLC6A3/DAT1 genotype has a significant effect on fronto-striatal activation and performance in Parkinson's disease. This effect is stronger for conditions that engage the striatum. Longitudinal studies are warranted to assess this polymorphism's effect on the clinical evolution of patients with Parkinson's disease, especially with cognitive decline.

  19. A severe genotype with favourable outcome in very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Touma, E; Rashed, M; Vianey-Saban, C; Sakr, A; Divry, P; Gregersen, N; Andresen, B

    2001-01-01

    A patient with very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is reported. He had a severe neonatal presentation and cardiomyopathy. He was found to be homozygous for a severe mutation with no residual enzyme activity. Tandem mass spectrometry on dried blood spots revealed increased long chain acylcarnitines. VLCAD enzyme activity was severely decreased to 2% of control levels. Dietary management consisted of skimmed milk supplemented with medium chain triglycerides and L-carnitine. Outcome was good and there was no acute recurrence.

 PMID:11124787

  20. A multilevel examination of affective job insecurity climate on safety outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lixin; Probst, Tahira M

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has established a causal link between individual perceptions of job insecurity and safety outcomes. However, whether job insecurity climate is associated with safety outcomes has not been studied. The purpose of the current study was to explore the main and cross-level interaction effects of affective job insecurity climate on safety outcomes, including behavioral safety compliance, reporting attitudes, workplace injuries, experienced safety events, unreported safety events, and accident underreporting, beyond individual affective job insecurity. With 171 employees nested in 40 workgroups, multilevel analyses revealed that the negative impacts of individual affective job insecurity on safety outcomes are exacerbated when they occur in a climate of high affective job insecurity. These results are interpreted in light of safety management efforts and suggest that efforts to create a secure climate within one's workgroup may reap safety-related benefits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Psychosocial Environment and Affective Outcomes in Technology-Rich Classrooms: Testing a Causal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Jeffrey P.; Fraser, Barry J.

    2009-01-01

    Research investigated classroom environment antecedent variables and student affective outcomes in Australian high schools. The Technology-Rich Outcomes-Focused Learning Environment Inventory (TROFLEI) was used to assess 10 classroom environment dimensions: student cohesiveness, teacher support, involvement, investigation, task orientation,…

  2. Genomic variation by whole-genome SNP mapping arrays predicts time-to-event outcome in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a comparison of CLL and HapMap genotypes.

    PubMed

    Schweighofer, Carmen D; Coombes, Kevin R; Majewski, Tadeusz; Barron, Lynn L; Lerner, Susan; Sargent, Rachel L; O'Brien, Susan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Wierda, William G; Czerniak, Bogdan A; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Keating, Michael J; Abruzzo, Lynne V

    2013-03-01

    Genomic abnormalities, such as deletions in 11q22 or 17p13, are associated with poorer prognosis in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We hypothesized that unknown regions of copy number variation (CNV) affect clinical outcome and can be detected by array-based single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. We compared SNP genotypes from 168 untreated patients with CLL with genotypes from 73 white HapMap controls. We identified 322 regions of recurrent CNV, 82 of which occurred significantly more often in CLL than in HapMap (CLL-specific CNV), including regions typically aberrant in CLL: deletions in 6q21, 11q22, 13q14, and 17p13 and trisomy 12. In univariate analyses, 35 of total and 11 of CLL-specific CNVs were associated with unfavorable time-to-event outcomes, including gains or losses in chromosomes 2p, 4p, 4q, 6p, 6q, 7q, 11p, 11q, and 17p. In multivariate analyses, six CNVs (ie, CLL-specific variations in 11p15.1-15.4 or 6q27) predicted time-to-treatment or overall survival independently of established markers of prognosis. Moreover, genotypic complexity (ie, the number of independent CNVs per patient) significantly predicted prognosis, with a median time-to-treatment of 64 months versus 23 months in patients with zero to one versus two or more CNVs, respectively (P = 3.3 × 10(-8)). In summary, a comparison of SNP genotypes from patients with CLL with HapMap controls allowed us to identify known and unknown recurrent CNVs and to determine regions and rates of CNV that predict poorer prognosis in patients with CLL.

  3. Impact of KIR and HLA Genotypes on Outcomes after Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sobecks Ronald, M; Tao, Wang; Medhat, Askar; Gallagher Meighan, M; Michael, Haagenson; Stephen, Spellman; Marcelo, Fernandez-Vina; Karl-Johan, Malmberg; Carlheinz, Muller; Minoo, Battiwalla; James, Gajewski; Verneris Michael, R; Olle, Ringden; Marino Susana, R; Stella, Davies; Jason, Dehn; Martin, Bornhäuser; Yoshihiro, Inamoto; Ann, Woolfrey; Peter, Shaw; Marilyn, Pollack; Daniel, Weisdorf; Jeffrey, Miller; Hurley Carolyn, K; Lee Stephanie, J; Hsu Katharine, C

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are regulated killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) interactions with HLA class I ligands. Several models of NK reactivity have been associated with improved outcomes following myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but this issue has not been rigorously addressed in reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) unrelated donor (URD) HCT. We studied 909 patients undergoing RIC-URD HCT. Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, n=612) lacking ≥1 KIR ligands experienced higher grade III–IV acute graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD) (HR 1.6, 95%CI 1.16–2.28, p=0.005) compared to those with all ligands present. Absence of HLA-C2 for donor KIR2DL1 was associated with higher grade II–IV (HR 1.4, p=0.002) and III–IV acute GvHD (HR 1.5, p=0.01) compared to HLA-C2+patients. AML patients with KIR2DS1+, HLA-C2 homozygous donors had greater treatment-related mortality compared to others (HR 2.4, 95%CI 1.4–4.2, p=0.002), but did not experience lower relapse. There were no significant associations with outcomes for AML when assessing donor activating KIRs or centromeric KIR content, nor for any donor-recipient KIR-HLA assessments in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (n=297). KIR-HLA combinations in RIC-URD HCT recapitulate some but not all KIR-HLA effects observed in myeloablative HCT. PMID:25960307

  4. H. pylori clinical isolates have diverse babAB genotype distributions over different topographic sites of stomach with correlation to clinical disease outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Shew-Meei; Sheu, Bor-Shyang; Chiang, Wen-Cheng; Kao, Cheng-Yen; Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Yang, Hsiao-Bai; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    2012-05-30

    Intragenomic recombination between babA and babB mediates antigenic variations and may help H. pylori colonization. This study determined whether variable genotypes of babA and babB correlate to different clinical disease outcomes, and can distribute over the different gastric niches. This study enrolled 92 clinical strains (45 from peptic ulcer, 27 from gastritis, and 20 from gastric cancer) to detect whether the babA and babB are at locus A or B by PCR reactions using the primers designed from the upstream and variable region of the babA and babB genes. Four genotypes of babA and babB (A B, AB B, A AB, AB AB) were found. The distribution of the 4 genotypes in 92 clinical strains was significantly different among patients with different gastric diseases (p < 0.05). The isolates from gastric cancer patients had a higher rate of AB AB genotype than those from non-cancer patients (40.0% vs. 9.7%, p < 0.05). The AB AB genotype was associated with a higher intensity of intestinal metaplasia (p < 0.05), but did not correlate with a higher inflammation and colonization density in gastric histology (p > 0.05). Besides, the study enrolled 19 patients to verify whether variable genotypes of babAB existed in the different gastric niches. Among the patients infected with more than one babAB genotypes over antrum and corpus, there were higher rate of genotypes as A B or AB AB in isolates from antrum than in those from corpus (75.0 % vs. 16.7%, p < 0.05). The H. pylori isolate with the AB AB genotype correlates with an increased gastric cancer risk, and colonize in an antrum predominant manner.

  5. Impact of CTLA4 genotype and other immune response gene polymorphisms on outcomes after single umbilical cord blood transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Renato; Zago, Marco A; Querol, Sergio; Volt, Fernanda; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Sanz, Guillermo; Pouthier, Fabienne; Kogler, Gesine; Vicario, José L; Bergamaschi, Paola; Saccardi, Riccardo; Lamas, Carmen H; Díaz-de-Heredia, Cristina; Michel, Gerard; Bittencourt, Henrique; Tavella, Marli; Panepucci, Rodrigo A; Fernandes, Francisco; Pavan, Julia; Gluckman, Eliane; Rocha, Vanderson

    2017-01-26

    We evaluated the impact of recipient and cord blood unit (CBU) genetic polymorphisms related to immune response on outcomes after unrelated cord blood transplantations (CBTs). Pretransplant DNA samples from 696 CBUs with malignant diseases were genotyped for NLRP1, NLRP2, NLRP3, TIRAP/Mal, IL10, REL, TNFRSF1B, and CTLA4. HLA compatibility was 6 of 6 in 10%, 5 of 6 in 39%, and ≥4 of 6 in 51% of transplants. Myeloablative conditioning was used in 80%, and in vivo T-cell depletion in 81%, of cases. The median number of total nucleated cells infused was 3.4 × 10(7)/kg. In multivariable analysis, patients receiving CBUs with GG-CTLA4 genotype had poorer neutrophil recovery (hazard ratio [HR], 1.33; P = .02), increased nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (HR, 1.50; P < .01), and inferior disease-free survival (HR, 1.41; P = .02). We performed the same analysis in a more homogeneous subset of cohort 1 (cohort 2, n = 305) of patients who received transplants for acute leukemia, all given a myeloablative conditioning regimen, and with available allele HLA typing (HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1). In this more homogeneous but smaller cohort, we were able to demonstrate that GG-CTLA4-CBU was associated with increased NRM (HR, 1.85; P = .01). Use of GG-CTLA4-CBU was associated with higher mortality after CBT, which may be a useful criterion for CBU selection, when multiple CBUs are available.

  6. Cognitive and Affective Outcomes of Short-Term Service-Learning Experiences: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Darrel R.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the performance differences in cognitive and affective outcomes between students who completed a short-term service-learning experience and students who watched a video exemplar of the task. Performance measures were obtained via a written reflection paper that contained both cognitive and affective components. Results revealed…

  7. Evaluation of Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA Genotypes and Correlation With Clinical Outcome in Patients With Dyspepsia in Hamadan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Arebestani, Mohammad Reza; Sayedin Khorasani, Masood; Majlesi, Amir; Jaefari, Mohammad

    2014-11-01

    Helicobacter pylori is known to be a causative agent of chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer in human. Diverse genotypes of H. pylori strains have different virulence potency and geographic distribution. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the cytotoxin-associated gene (cagA), and the various vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) genotypes of H. pylori strains and clinical outcomes in patients referred to Shahid-Beheshti Hospital in Hamadan, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, biopsy samples were collected consecutively from 153 patients with gastric cancer (GC), peptic ulcer dyspepsia (PUD) and non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) in the gastroenterology department of Shahid-Beheshti Hospital in Hamadan province, the west of Iran. H. pylori infection was confirmed in 83 patients (3 with GC, 27 with PUD, and 53 with NUD) by histology, rapid urease test (RUT) and culture. Genomic DNA was extracted from the bacterial isolate and was further confirmed with 16S rRNA gene sequencing as H. pylori, and characterized based on cagA and vacA genotyping using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. In this study, vacA genotypes s1/m2, s1/m1, s2/m2 and s2/m1 were determined in 43.4%, 19.3%, 13.2% and 6% of the isolated H. pylori, respectively. The vacAs1 genotype was detected in 52 (62.6%) isolates, of which the vacAs1a genotype was detected in 45.2, 40.7, and 66.6% of the isolates from patients with NUD, PUD, and GC, respectively. The cagA-positive genotype was determined in 73 (87.9%) isolates and 10 (12.1%) were negative. The frequency rates of cagA gene were 84.9, 92.6 and 100% in isolates of patients with NUD, PUD, and GC, respectively. The cagA-positive genotype is strongly associated with s1a/m2 and s1a/m1 vacA genotypes. The most predominant VacA genotypes in our areas were s1/m2 and s1/m1, which regard as the genotypes with more virulence intensity. The H. pylori vacAs1a, cagA genotypes have a significant relationship with the

  8. Genotype-environment interactions affecting preflowering physiological and morphological traits of Brassica rapa grown in two watering regimes.

    PubMed

    El-Soda, Mohamed; Boer, Martin P; Bagheri, Hedayat; Hanhart, Corrie J; Koornneef, Maarten; Aarts, Mark G M

    2014-02-01

    Plant growth and productivity are greatly affected by drought, which is likely to become more threatening with the predicted global temperature increase. Understanding the genetic architecture of complex quantitative traits and their interaction with water availability may lead to improved crop adaptation to a wide range of environments. Here, the genetic basis of 20 physiological and morphological traits is explored by describing plant performance and growth in a Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line (RIL) population grown on a sandy substrate supplemented with nutrient solution, under control and drought conditions. Altogether, 54 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified, of which many colocated in 11 QTL clusters. Seventeen QTL showed significant QTL-environment interaction (Q×E), indicating genetic variation for phenotypic plasticity. Of the measured traits, only hypocotyl length did not show significant genotype-environment interaction (G×E) in both environments in all experiments. Correlation analysis showed that, in the control environment, stomatal conductance was positively correlated with total leaf dry weight (DW) and aboveground DW, whereas in the drought environment, stomatal conductance showed a significant negative correlation with total leaf DW and aboveground DW. This correlation was explained by antagonistic fitness effects in the drought environment, controlled by a QTL cluster on chromosome A7. These results demonstrate that Q×E is an important component of the genetic variance and can play a great role in improving drought tolerance in future breeding programmes.

  9. Affective and neuroendocrine stress reactivity to an academic examination: influence of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Verschoor, Ellen; Markus, C Rob

    2011-07-01

    The current study examined the singular and interactive effects of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism on affective and physiological stress responses to an academic examination in healthy undergraduate students. From 771 students, 46 short/short (S/S)-allele carriers and 48 long/long (L/L)-allele carriers with the lowest and the highest neuroticism scores (80 females, 14 males; mean age±SD: 20.3±1.7 years) were selected. Salivary cortisol concentrations, mood and perceived stress were assessed before and after a 2-h written examination and compared with a control day. Negative mood, perceived stress and cortisol significantly increased during the examination compared to the control day. Negative stress effects on mood and perceived stress were significantly larger for S/S-allele carriers compared to L/L-allele carriers, regardless of trait neuroticism. Since vulnerability to real-life stressors is an important risk factor for depression pathogenesis, this may be a mediating factor making S/S-allele carriers more susceptible for depression symptoms.

  10. Genotype-dependent molecular evolution of sheep bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions in vitro affects their zoonotic potential.

    PubMed

    Krejciova, Zuzana; Barria, Marcelo A; Jones, Michael; Ironside, James W; Jeffrey, Martin; González, Lorenzo; Head, Mark W

    2014-09-19

    Prion diseases are rare fatal neurological conditions of humans and animals, one of which (variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) is known to be a zoonotic form of the cattle disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). What makes one animal prion disease zoonotic and others not is poorly understood, but it appears to involve compatibility between the prion strain and the host prion protein sequence. Concerns have been raised that the United Kingdom sheep flock may have been exposed to BSE early in the cattle BSE epidemic and that serial BSE transmission in sheep might have resulted in adaptation of the agent, which may have come to phenotypically resemble scrapie while maintaining its pathogenicity for humans. We have modeled this scenario in vitro. Extrapolation from our results suggests that if BSE were to infect sheep in the field it may, with time and in some sheep genotypes, become scrapie-like at the molecular level. However, the results also suggest that if BSE in sheep were to come to resemble scrapie it would lose its ability to affect humans. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Genotype-dependent Molecular Evolution of Sheep Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Prions in Vitro Affects Their Zoonotic Potential*

    PubMed Central

    Krejciova, Zuzana; Barria, Marcelo A.; Jones, Michael; Ironside, James W.; Jeffrey, Martin; González, Lorenzo; Head, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Prion diseases are rare fatal neurological conditions of humans and animals, one of which (variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) is known to be a zoonotic form of the cattle disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). What makes one animal prion disease zoonotic and others not is poorly understood, but it appears to involve compatibility between the prion strain and the host prion protein sequence. Concerns have been raised that the United Kingdom sheep flock may have been exposed to BSE early in the cattle BSE epidemic and that serial BSE transmission in sheep might have resulted in adaptation of the agent, which may have come to phenotypically resemble scrapie while maintaining its pathogenicity for humans. We have modeled this scenario in vitro. Extrapolation from our results suggests that if BSE were to infect sheep in the field it may, with time and in some sheep genotypes, become scrapie-like at the molecular level. However, the results also suggest that if BSE in sheep were to come to resemble scrapie it would lose its ability to affect humans. PMID:25100723

  12. Metabolic composition of apple rootstock rhizodeposits differs in a genotype-specific manner and affects growth of subsequent plantings

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The percolated rhizodeposit composition and quantity of 4 apple rootstock genotypes grown in sand was examined via liquid chromatography mass spectrometry time-of-flight, specifically contrasting the rhizodeposits of apple replant disease susceptible genotypes (M26, M9Nic29) with apple replant disea...

  13. Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Outcome of Peginterferon Plus Ribavirin in Patients Infected with Genotype 6 Hepatitis C Virus in Korea: A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Su Rin; Kim, Young Seok; Lim, Young-Seok; Lee, June Sung; Lee, Jin Woo; Kim, Sun Myung; Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Lee, Myung Seok; Park, Sang Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Because of the limited geographic distribution, there have been insufficient data regarding hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 6 in Korea. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and available treatment outcomes of patients with genotype 6 HCV in Korea. Methods From 2004 to 2014, data were collected from Korean patients infected with genotype 6 HCV in eight hospitals. Results Thirty-two patients had genotype 6 HCV. The median age was 44 years, and 6c was the most common subtype. The baseline median alanine transaminase level was 88 (21 to 1,019) IU/mL, and the HCV RNA level was 1,405,000 (96,500 to 28,844,529) IU/mL. Twenty-five patients were treated with peginterferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin. Three follow-up losses occurred. Additionally, 13 patients attained a sustained virologic response (SVR), seven patients relapsed, and two patients exhibited a null response. The SVR rates were 40% and 75% for the 24- and more than 48-week treatments, respectively, and five of the six patients who achieved a rapid virologic response (RVR) attained a SVR. Conclusions Korean patients infected with genotype 6 HCV are relatively young, and 6c is the most common subtype. When treated with PEG-IFN and ribavirin, the SVR rate was 52%. Similar to other genotypes, a longer duration of treatment and attainment of RVR are important for SVR. PMID:27728965

  14. Arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase genotype affects steady-state distribution and clearance of arsenic in arsenate-treated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Michael F.; Edwards, Brenda C.; Herbin-Davis, Karen M.; Saunders, Jesse; Styblo, Miroslav; Thomas, David J.

    2010-12-15

    Arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes formation of mono-, di-, and tri-methylated metabolites of inorganic arsenic. Distribution and retention of arsenic were compared in adult female As3mt knockout mice and wild-type C57BL/6 mice using a regimen in which mice received daily oral doses of 0.5 mg of arsenic as arsenate per kilogram of body weight. Regardless of genotype, arsenic body burdens attained steady state after 10 daily doses. At steady state, arsenic body burdens in As3mt knockout mice were 16 to 20 times greater than in wild-type mice. During the post dosing clearance period, arsenic body burdens declined in As3mt knockout mice to {approx} 35% and in wild-type mice to {approx} 10% of steady-state levels. Urinary concentration of arsenic was significantly lower in As3mt knockout mice than in wild-type mice. At steady state, As3mt knockout mice had significantly higher fractions of the body burden of arsenic in liver, kidney, and urinary bladder than did wild-type mice. These organs and lung had significantly higher arsenic concentrations than did corresponding organs from wild-type mice. Inorganic arsenic was the predominant species in tissues of As3mt knockout mice; tissues from wild-type mice contained mixtures of inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites. Diminished capacity for arsenic methylation in As3mt knockout mice prolongs retention of inorganic arsenic in tissues and affects whole body clearance of arsenic. Altered retention and tissue tropism of arsenic in As3mt knockout mice could affect the toxic or carcinogenic effects associated with exposure to this metalloid or its methylated metabolites.

  15. Surgeon experience affects outcome of forearm arteriovenous fistulae more than outcomes of upper-arm fistulae.

    PubMed

    Regus, Susanne; Almási-Sperling, Veronika; Rother, Ulrich; Meyer, Alexander; Lang, Werner

    2017-03-21

    There is still an ongoing discussion about the influence of vascular surgeon experience on the immediate and long-term outcome of newly created arteriovenous fistula (AVF) for patients on hemodialysis (HD). The aim of this study was to compare failure and patency rates of AVF between experienced consultants and resident trainees with special focus on location of the anastomosis on the forearm or upper arm. Between November 2012 and September 2016, 159 patients (83 on HD and 76 preemptive) received an AVF (90 radiocephalic [RCAVF] on the forearm; 69 brachiocephalic [BCAVF] in the elbow) by two experienced vascular surgeons (group A; n = 74) or five residents in training with one-to-four years of experience (group B; n = 85). We compared the two groups for demographic and treatment data, immediate failures (IF), bleeding complications and patency rates. There were no significant differences in demographic data between the two groups. Vessel diameters were significantly lower for forearm compared to upper arm arteries (p = 0.026) and veins (p = 0.05). There was a significantly increased risk for IF in group B for RCAVF (p = 0.003), but not for BCAVF (p = 1.000). Furthermore, the cumulative primary patency was reduced in group B for RCAVF (p<0.001), but not for BCAVF (p = 0.899). Surgeon experience seems to have more influence on the immediate and long-term outcome of newly created forearm AVF compared to those located on the upper arm.

  16. Factors affecting treatment outcomes in drug-resistant tuberculosis cases in the Northern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Elliott, E; Draper, H R; Baitsiwe, P; Claassens, M M

    2014-09-21

    The Northern Cape Province has low cure rates (21%) for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). We audited the programme to identify factors affecting treatment outcomes. Cases admitted to two drug-resistant TB units from 2007 to 2009 had data extracted from clinical folders. Unfavourable treatment outcomes were found in 58% of the 272 cases. A multivariable regression analysis found that male sex was associated with unfavourable outcome (P = 0.009). Weight at diagnosis (P < 0.001) and oral drug adherence (P < 0.001) were also associated with an unfavourable outcome; however, injectable drug adherence was not (P = 0.395). Positive baseline smear and human immunodeficiency virus positive status were not associated with unfavourable outcome. Shorter, more patient-friendly regimens may go a long way to improving adherence and outcomes.

  17. Gene-environment interplay in affect and dementia: emotional modulation of cognitive expression in personal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Palomo, T; Beninger, R J; Kostrzewa, R M; Archer, T

    2004-01-01

    A multitude of factors, that either singly, interactively, or sequentially influence the gene-environment interplay in affective and dementia states, include several phases of neurodevelopmental liability in both humans and laboratory animals. Genetic vulnerability for both affective disorders and dementia describes a scenario distinguished by progressive need for concern, particularly in view of the interplay between these areas of ill-health. The contribution of emotional and cognitive expression to personal outcomes, e.g., as a function of affective personality type, a state-dependent analysis of personality characteristics, appears to pervade both the individual's experience of social and physical environments and the performance of cognitive tasks. The role of the endocannabinoids in mental health may offer insights for the psychopharmacology of both cognition and affect. Maladaptive emotional reactions and a defective cognitive ability will contribution to unsatisfactory/maladaptive coping strategies, in turn, leading to further complications of an affective and dysfunctional nature, eventually with a clinical psychopathological outcome. These considerations impinge upon critical issues concerning predisposition and vulnerability. Classical eye-blink conditioning provides a highly established procedure for assessment of defective physiology in models of Alzheimer's dementia. In order to develop a consideration of the array of situations presenting the variation of outcome due to type of affective personality, the role of fear and anxiety and stress in affective states influencing cognition are examined and the critical role of brain circuits mediating emotions influencing cognitive outcomes is discussed.

  18. Pneumocystis jiroveci in Portuguese immunocompromised patients: association of specific ITS genotypes with treatment failure, bad clinical outcome and childhood.

    PubMed

    Matos, Olga; Lee, Chao-Hung; Jin, Shaoling; Li, Baozheng; Costa, Marina C; Gonçalves, Luzia; Antunes, Francisco

    2003-11-01

    We analyzed the genetic variation among isolates of Pneumocystis jiroveci from Portuguese immunocompromised patients with PCP at the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear rRNA operon and at the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene. Pulmonary secretions from 42 patients with PCP corresponding to 43 episodes were studied. Demographic, immunological, and clinical data were obtained from all patients. By combining the two regions ITS1 and ITS2, we found 17 different ITS types of P. jiroveci, two of them were new types (Pb and Pe). The four most prevalent ITS types were Eg (23.3%), Eb and Ne (11.6% each), and Bi (9.3%). A single type was detected in 95.3% of the samples and 4.7% had mixed infections with three different ITS types. DHPS mutants were present in 17 (46%), and the wildtype was present in 20 (54%) of 37 isolates. No association was found between ITS and DHPS types and between DHPS types and therapy or response to anti-PCP treatment. Type Ne presented an association with negative response to anti-PCP treatment (P<0.001) and with death before 120 days after PCP diagnosis (P=0.025). Type Eb was significantly more common in children than in adults (P=0.001). Our data suggest an association of specific ITS genotypes with treatment failure, bad clinical outcome and childhood.

  19. Association of susceptible genotypes to periodontal disease with the clinical outcome and tooth survival after non-surgical periodontal therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Doufexi, Aikaterini-Ellisavet; Kalogirou, Fotini

    2016-01-01

    Background The real clinical utility of genetic testing is the prognostic value of genetic factors in the clinical outcome of periodontal treatment and the tooth survival. A meta-analysis was undertaken to estimate the effect of a susceptible genotype to periodontitis on the clinical outcomes of non-surgical periodontal therapy and the tooth survival. Material and Methods A systematic search of MEDLINE-Pubmed, Cochrane Library and Scopus was performed. Additionally, a hand search was done in three journals. No specific language restriction was applied. Two reviewers screened independently titles and abstracts or full text copies. Quality assessment of all the included studies was held. Results Initial screening of electronic databases resulted in 283 articles. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria, nine of them examined the clinical outcome, while the other one investigated the tooth survival in susceptible individuals after non-surgical periodontal therapy. Eight of included studies were selected for the meta-analysis. IL-1 positive genotypes increase the risk of tooth loss, while no association found between the bleeding on probing (BOP), clinical attachment loss (CAL) and plaque index (PI) with the genotype status. Probing pocket depth (PPD) reduction in the first three months and in long-term results found to have a significant association with the genotype. Conclusions There is no difference in the clinical measurements after non-surgical periodontal treatment, apart from PPD. More publications are needed to identify a cause-effect relationship. Key words:Periodontal disease, periodontitis, periodontal therapy, clinical outcome, tooth loss, susceptibility, polymorphism, genotype, meta-analysis, systematic review. PMID:26595831

  20. Does the Incredible Years reduce child externalizing problems through improved parenting? The role of child negative affectivity and serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype.

    PubMed

    Weeland, Joyce; Chhangur, Rabia R; Jaffee, Sara R; Van Der Giessen, Danielle; Matthys, Walter; Orobio De Castro, Bram; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2017-04-24

    In a randomized controlled trial, the Observational Randomized Controlled Trial of Childhood Differential Susceptibility (ORCHIDS study), we tested whether observed parental affect and observed and reported parenting behavior are mechanisms of change underlying the effects of the behavioral parent training program the Incredible Years (IY). Furthermore, we tested whether some children are more susceptible to these change mechanisms because of their temperamental negative affectivity and/or serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype. Participants were 387 Dutch children between 4 and 8 years of age (M age = 6.31, SD = 1.33; 55.3% boys) and their parents. Results showed that although IY was successful in improving parenting behavior and increasing parental positive affect, these effects did not explain the significant decreases in child externalizing problems. We therefore found no evidence for changes in parenting behavior or parental affect being the putative mechanisms of IY effectiveness. Furthermore, intervention effects on child externalizing behavior were not moderated by child negative affectivity or 5-HTTLPR genotype. However, child 5-HTTLPR genotype did moderate intervention effects on negative parenting behavior. This suggests that in research on behavioral parent training programs, "what works for which parents" might also be an important question.

  1. Light, genotype, and abscisic acid affect chloroplast positioning in guard cells of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves in distinct ways.

    PubMed

    Königer, Martina; Jessen, Brita; Yang, Rui; Sittler, Dorothea; Harris, Gary C

    2010-09-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of light intensity, genotype, and various chemical treatments on chloroplast movement in guard cells of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. After treatment at various light intensities (dark, low, and high light), leaf discs were fixed with glutaraldehyde, and imaged using confocal laser microscopy. Each chloroplast was assigned a horizontal (close to pore, center, or epidermal side) and vertical (outer, middle, inner) position. White light had a distinct effect on chloroplast positioning, most notably under high light (HL) when chloroplasts on the upper leaf surface of wild-type (WT) moved from epidermal and center positions toward the pore. This was not the case for phot1-5/phot2-1 or phot2-1 plants, thus phototropins are essential for chloroplast positioning in guard cells. In npq1-2 mutants, fewer chloroplasts moved to the pore position under HL than in WT plants, indicating that white light can affect chloroplast positioning also in a zeaxanthin-dependent way. Cytochalasin B inhibited the movement of chloroplasts to the pore under HL, while oryzalin did not, supporting the idea that actin plays a role in the movement. The movement along actin cables is dependent on CHUP1 since chloroplast positioning in chup1 was significantly altered. Abscisic acid (ABA) caused most chloroplasts in WT and phot1-5/phot2-1 to be localized in the center, middle part of the guard cells irrespective of light treatment. This indicates that not only light but also water stress influences chloroplast positioning.

  2. Serotonin 5-HTTLPR Genotype Modulates Reactive Visual Scanning of Social and Non-social Affective Stimuli in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Christou, Antonios I.; Wallis, Yvonne; Bair, Hayley; Zeegers, Maurice; McCleery, Joseph P.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have documented the 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms as genetic variants that are involved in serotonin availability and also associated with emotion regulation and facial emotion processing. In particular, neuroimaging and behavioral studies of healthy populations have produced evidence to suggest that carriers of the Short allele exhibit heightened neurophysiological and behavioral reactivity when processing aversive stimuli, particularly in brain regions involved in fear. However, an additional distinction has emerged in the field, which highlights particular types of fearful information, i.e., aversive information which involves a social component versus non-social aversive stimuli. Although processing of each of these stimulus types (social and non-social) is believed to involve a subcortical neural system which includes the amygdala, evidence also suggests that the amygdala itself may be particularly responsive to socially significant environmental information, potentially due to the critical relevance of social information for humans. Examining individual differences in neurotransmitter systems which operate within this subcortical network, and in particular the serotonin system, may be critically informative for furthering our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying responses to emotional and affective stimuli. In the present study we examine visual scanning patterns in response to both aversive and positive images of a social or non-social nature in relation to 5-HTTLPR genotypes, in 49 children aged 4–7 years. Results indicate that children with at least one Short 5-HTTLPR allele spent less time fixating the threat-related non-social stimuli, compared with participants with two copies of the Long allele. Interestingly, a separate set of analyses suggests that carriers of two copies of the short 5-HTTLPR allele also spent less time fixating both the negative and positive non-social stimuli. Together, these findings support the

  3. Serotonin 5-HTTLPR Genotype Modulates Reactive Visual Scanning of Social and Non-social Affective Stimuli in Young Children.

    PubMed

    Christou, Antonios I; Wallis, Yvonne; Bair, Hayley; Zeegers, Maurice; McCleery, Joseph P

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have documented the 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms as genetic variants that are involved in serotonin availability and also associated with emotion regulation and facial emotion processing. In particular, neuroimaging and behavioral studies of healthy populations have produced evidence to suggest that carriers of the Short allele exhibit heightened neurophysiological and behavioral reactivity when processing aversive stimuli, particularly in brain regions involved in fear. However, an additional distinction has emerged in the field, which highlights particular types of fearful information, i.e., aversive information which involves a social component versus non-social aversive stimuli. Although processing of each of these stimulus types (social and non-social) is believed to involve a subcortical neural system which includes the amygdala, evidence also suggests that the amygdala itself may be particularly responsive to socially significant environmental information, potentially due to the critical relevance of social information for humans. Examining individual differences in neurotransmitter systems which operate within this subcortical network, and in particular the serotonin system, may be critically informative for furthering our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying responses to emotional and affective stimuli. In the present study we examine visual scanning patterns in response to both aversive and positive images of a social or non-social nature in relation to 5-HTTLPR genotypes, in 49 children aged 4-7 years. Results indicate that children with at least one Short 5-HTTLPR allele spent less time fixating the threat-related non-social stimuli, compared with participants with two copies of the Long allele. Interestingly, a separate set of analyses suggests that carriers of two copies of the short 5-HTTLPR allele also spent less time fixating both the negative and positive non-social stimuli. Together, these findings support the

  4. The Duffy null genotype is associated with a lower level of CCL2, leukocytes and neutrophil count but not with the clinical outcome of HTLV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    da Silva-Malta, Maria Clara Fernandes; Sales, Camila Campos; Guimarães, Jacqueline Cronemberger; de Cássia Gonçalves, Poliane; Chaves, Daniel Gonçalves; Santos, Hadassa Campos; da Costa Pereira, Alexandre; Ribas, João Gabriel; de Freitas Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara; Martins, Marina Lobato

    2017-08-04

    Chemokines are important in the immune response against viral infections, and may play a role in human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) pathogenesis. Polymorphisms in the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC), such as rs12075 (A>G; FY*B>FY*A) and rs281477 (-46T>C; GATA-1 box) may influence circulating concentrations of proinflammatory chemokines. We investigate whether Duffy genotypes influence the HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL) level, HTLV-1 infection outcome and chemokine concentrations in HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers (AC=162), HAM/TSP patients (HAM=135) and seronegative individuals (SN=71). Quantification of plasmatic IL8, CCL2 and CCL5 were performed by flow cytometry and Duffy genotypes were investigated by real-time PCR. HTLV-1 PVL was quantified in peripheral blood. To control for spurious association, individual ancestry profiles in AC and HAM groups were investigated.Results/Key findings. PVL and IL8 level were significantly higher in the HAM group than in the AC group, but were not associated with Duffy genotypes. The highest CCL2 and CCL5 levels were seen in the SN group, and there was no difference when comparing the infected groups. The level of CCL5 was not associated with Duffy genotypes. The polymorphism -46 C/C that abrogates the DARC expression on the erythrocytes was significantly associated with lower levels of CCL2, neutrophil and white blood cell (WBC) counts in HTLV-1-infected individuals. We conclude that although the Duffy null genotype was associated with leukopenia, neutropenia and lower levels of CCL2, the data do not suggest the influence of Duffy genotypes on the neurologic outcome of HTLV-1 infection, but may be a confounding factor in comparison HTLV-1-infected populations with different ancestries, especially when defining inflammatory biomarkers.

  5. The effects of affective and cognitive empathy on adolescents' behavior and outcomes in conflicts with mothers.

    PubMed

    Van Lissa, Caspar J; Hawk, Skyler T; Meeus, Wim H J

    2017-02-09

    The current study investigated whether manipulations of affective and cognitive empathy have differential effects on observed behavior and self-reported outcomes in adolescent-mother conflict discussions. We further examined how these situational empathy inductions interact with preexisting empathic dispositions. To promote ecological validity, we conducted home visits to study conflict discussions about real disagreements in adolescent-mother relationships. We explored the roles of sex, age, and maternal support and power as covariates and moderators. Results indicated that the affective empathy manipulation had no significant effects on behavior, although a trend in the hypothesized direction suggested that affective empathy might promote active problem solving. The cognitive empathy manipulation led to lower conflict escalation and promoted other-oriented listening for adolescents low in dispositional cognitive empathy. State-trait interactions indicated that the empathy manipulations had significant effects on self-reported outcomes for adolescents lower in dispositional empathic concern. For these adolescents, both manipulations promoted outcome satisfaction, but only the cognitive manipulation promoted perceived fairness. This suggests that cognitive empathy, in particular, allows adolescents to distance themselves from the emotional heat of a conflict and listen to mothers' point of view, leading to outcomes perceived as both satisfying and fair. These findings are relevant for interventions and clinicians because they demonstrate unique effects of promoting affective versus cognitive empathy. Because even these minimal manipulations promoted significant effects on observed behavior and self-reported outcomes, particularly for low-empathy adolescents, stronger structural interventions are likely to have marked benefits.

  6. The effects of different sources of occupational stress on affective, motivational, and psychosomatic outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Ovalle, N.K. II.

    1991-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of role conflict, role ambiguity, and five additional potential sources of occupational stress on an affective outcome (job satisfaction), a motivational outcome (intent to quit), and two psychosomatic outcomes (mental and physical anxiety). In addition to role conflict and role ambiguity, the five additional sources of occupational stress centered on job characteristics, work pressures, rewards and opportunities, interaction of the job and home life, and lack of job challenge. Data were collected from 85 technicians and managers in a service organization. The results of correlation and multiple regression analyses indicated that each of the sources of stress have significant yet different effects on the outcomes. Moreover, role conflict and ambiguity did not have as much of an effect across all outcomes as the other five sources of stress. These findings could be used to improve the measurement, understanding, and treatment of occupational stress. Other implications are discussed. 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. The presence or severity of pulmonary hypertension does not affect outcomes for single-lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Julliard, Walker A; Meyer, Keith C; De Oliveira, Nilto C; Osaki, Satoru; Cornwell, Richard C; Sonetti, David A; Maloney, James D

    2016-05-01

    Advanced lung disease (ALD) that requires lung transplantation (LTX) is frequently associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Whether the presence of PH significantly affects the outcomes following single-lung transplantation (SLT) remains controversial. Therefore, we retrospectively examined the outcomes of 279 consecutive SLT recipients transplanted at our centre, and the patients were split into four groups based on their mean pulmonary artery pressure values. Outcomes, including long-term survival and primary graft dysfunction, did not differ significantly for patients with versus without PH, even when PH was severe. We suggest that SLT can be performed safely in patients with ALD-associated PH.

  8. Requesting workplace accommodations: Impact of self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and positive affect.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shengli; Fabian, Ellen; Xu, Jie

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and positive affect on intentions to request workplace accommodations among people with disabilities (PWDs). Seven-hundred and fourteen adults with disabilities participated in an online survey study. This study used structural equation modeling to examine the impact of self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and positive affect on intentions to request workplace accommodations. The results showed that self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and positive affect accounted for 55.1% of the variance in accommodation request intentions. Accommodation request is a complex process that involves cognitive and affective factors for individuals with disabilities. Rehabilitation professionals need to help PWDs boost their level of self-efficacy and outcome expectancy by engaging in accommodation request and goal-setting skills training. In addition, rehabilitation professionals should assist PWDs to recognize the significance of positive affect in the process of accommodation request. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Harsh discipline, childhood sexual assault, and MAOA genotype: An investigation of main and interactive effects on diverse clinical externalizing outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Derringer, Jaime; Krueger, Robert F.; Irons, Daniel E.; Iacono, William G.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the impact of MAOA genotype, childhood sexual assault, and harsh discipline on clinical externalizing symptoms (substance problems, adult antisocial behavior, and conduct disorder). Participants were 841 individual twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study assessed through age 25. MAOA genotype was not associated with differences in any phenotype, nor was there a significant interaction between MAOA and harsh discipline for any phenotype or a significant interaction between MAOA and childhood sexual assault for substance problems. We found evidence that childhood sexual assault interacted with MAOA genotype to predict antisocial behavior and conduct disorder symptoms. Individuals with the low MAOA activity genotype who reported childhood sexual assault had more symptoms than individuals with either the high MAOA activity genotype and/or no history of childhood sexual assault. These findings suggest that the previously reported interaction between MAOA and childhood maltreatment may be specific to the antisocial subset of externalizing disorders. PMID:20364435

  10. Harsh discipline, childhood sexual assault, and MAOA genotype: an investigation of main and interactive effects on diverse clinical externalizing outcomes.

    PubMed

    Derringer, Jaime; Krueger, Robert F; Irons, Daniel E; Iacono, William G

    2010-09-01

    We studied the impact of MAOA genotype, childhood sexual assault, and harsh discipline on clinical externalizing symptoms (substance problems, adult antisocial behavior, and conduct disorder). Participants were 841 individual twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study assessed through age 25. MAOA genotype was not associated with differences in any phenotype, nor was there a significant interaction between MAOA and harsh discipline for any phenotype or a significant interaction between MAOA and childhood sexual assault for substance problems. We found evidence that childhood sexual assault interacted with MAOA genotype to predict antisocial behavior and conduct disorder symptoms. Individuals with the low MAOA activity genotype who reported childhood sexual assault had more symptoms than individuals with either the high MAOA activity genotype and/or no history of childhood sexual assault. These findings suggest that the previously reported interaction between MAOA and childhood maltreatment may be specific to the antisocial subset of externalizing disorders.

  11. Effects of acute psychosocial stress exposure on endocrine and affective reactivity in college students differing in the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Verschoor, Ellen; Markus, C Rob

    2011-07-01

    Enhanced stress vulnerability has been implicated in the pathogenesis of affective disorders. Although both genetic (5-HTTLPR) and cognitive (neuroticism) factors are known to increase stress vulnerability, no experimental study has investigated the interaction between these two factors on psychobiological reactivity following acute stress exposure. This study used a balanced experimental design to examine the interaction between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism in neuroendocrine and affective stress responses. From a large group of 771 students, 48 carriers of the short/short (S/S) allele and 48 carriers of the long/long (L/L) allele with the lowest and the highest neuroticism scores (77 females, 19 males; mean age ± SD: 20.6 ± 2 years) were selected and exposed to an acute psychosocial stressor. Mood was assessed before and after the stressor, and salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before and at 20, 30, and 60 min after stressor onset. Acute stress increased salivary cortisol concentration regardless of either 5-HTTLPR genotype or neuroticism, but it caused a less profound negative mood change in L/L compared to S/S-allele carriers with the lowest neuroticism scores. The 5-HTTLPR genotype influences affective reactivity to acute stress conditional upon neuroticism, improving resilience to acute stress in L/L-allele carriers if they do not already possess high cognitive-affective (neuroticism) vulnerability.

  12. Aggression in pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) breeding groups affects pregnancy outcome

    PubMed Central

    Ha, James; Alloway, Hayley; Sussman, Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    Past research has shown that aggressive behaviors can affect female reproductive outcome in non-human primate captive breeding programs. In this study, aggressive behaviors were recorded in a colony of pigtailed macaque monkeys (Macaca nemestrina) and related to pregnancy outcome. For twenty-two weeks, behavioral data were collected from nine breeding groups, consisting of zero to one male (some males were removed after a cycle of conceptions for husbandry reasons) and four to eight females. Observations included all occurrences of eleven aggressive behaviors during 15-minute observation sessions, one to three times a week. Mean weekly aggression levels during the study period were determined for each group, as well as for each pregnancy. Aggression data were summarized with Principal Components Analyses (PCA). Results indicate that pigtailed macaque aggression falls into five distinctive categories: warn, engage, threaten, pursue, and attack. Breeding groups differed in their levels of aggression, even after controlling for group size, presence of a sire, and group stability. Levels of the five aggression categories were found to affect the probability that a pregnancy ended in either a natural birth of a live infant, a clinical intervention producing a live infant, or a nonviable outcome. The predictive value of aggression was significant when clinical interventions were included as possible reproductive outcomes, Behavioral observation of captive groups could identify “risk” conditions affecting pregnancy outcome and the requirement for clinical intervention. PMID:21898511

  13. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials reveals an improved clinical outcome of using genotype plus clinical algorithm for warfarin dosing.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhenqi; Feng, Shaoguang; Ling, Peng; Zhang, Guoqing

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have raised interest in using the genotyping of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 to guide warfarin dosing. However, there is lack of solid evidence to prove that genotype plus clinical algorithm provides improved clinical outcomes than the single clinical algorithm. The results of recent reported clinical trials are paradoxical and needs to be systematically evaluated. In this study, we aim to assess whether genotype plus clinical algorithm of warfarin is superior to the single clinical algorithm through a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). All relevant studies from PubMed and reference lists from Jan 1, 1995 to Jan 13, 2014 were extracted and screened. Eligible studies included randomized trials that compared clinical plus pharmacogenetic algorithms group to single clinical algorithm group using adult (≥ 18 years) patients with disease conditions that require warfarin use. We further used fix-effect models to calculate the mean difference or the risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs to analyze the extracted data. The statistical heterogeneity was calculated using I(2). The percentage of time within the therapeutic INR range was considered to be the primary clinical outcome. The initial search strategy identified 50 citations and 7 trials were eligible. These seven trials included 1,910 participants, including 960 patients who received genotype plus clinical algorithm of warfarin dosing and 950 patients who received clinical algorithm only. We discovered that the percentage of time within the therapeutic INR range of the genotype-guided group was improved compared with the standard group in the RCTs when the initial standard dose was fixed (95% CI 0.09-0.40; I(2) = 47.8%). However, for the studies using non-fixed initial doses, the genotype-guided group failed to exhibit statistically significant outcome compared to the standard group. No significant difference was observed in the incidences of adverse events (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.84-1.04; I(2) = 0%, p

  14. Allele and genotype frequency of a genetic variant in ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene affecting glycemic response to metformin in South Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Vilvanathan, Saranya; Gurusamy, Umamaheswaran; Mukta, V.; Das, Ashok Kumar; Chandrasekaran, Adithan

    2014-01-01

    Allele and genotype frequency of a genetic variant in ATM gene affecting glycemic response to metformin in South Indian population. Context: The novel polymorphism in ATM gene (rs11212617), which is implicated to have association with metformin response, exhibits inter-ethnic variability in the allele and genotype frequency distribution. Aims and Design: The objective of the present study is to establish the allele and genotype frequency of rs11212617 single nucleotide polymorphism in ATM gene, in South Indian population and to find if this variant has any role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in 2 cohorts of populations, 112 healthy volunteers and 118 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes by phenol-chloroform method and genotyping was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction using TaqMan assay. Results: In South Indian population, the frequency of major A allele was 0.65 and the minor C allele was 0.35. AA and CC are the homozygous genotypes with frequency of 0.39 and 0.09 respectively. The frequency of heterozygous genotype AC (0.52) was found to be higher than the homozygotes. There was no significant difference in the frequency distribution in the diabetic population, which implies that this variant does not have any causative role in the disease etiology. The frequency distributions were found to be significantly different from the distributions in other ethnic populations such as Caucasians, Chinese, Japanese and Africans. But there was no significant difference when compared with the Gujarati Indians of Houston. Conclusion: The frequency distribution of this novel variant in South Indian population forms a framework for further gene disease association studies to establish the association of this variant with metformin response. Our study could not find any association of this variant with respect to the disease

  15. Coping with Challenge and Hindrance Stressors in Teams: Behavioral, Cognitive, and Affective Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Matthew J.; Ellis, Aleksander P. J.; Stein, Jordan H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize the challenge-hindrance framework to examine the discrete and combined effects of different environmental stressors on behavioral, cognitive, and affective outcomes at the team level. Results from 83 teams working on a command and control simulation indicated that the introduction of a challenge stressor…

  16. Technology Integration before Student Outcomes: Factors Affecting Teacher Adoption of Technology in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Alankar

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1920s, ICTs have been endorsed as solutions to challenges of access and quality in education. Proponents have also supported technology use in education on grounds that it could potentially impact cognitive, affective, and pedagogical outcomes. Based on these perceived benefits, many developed and developing countries have been…

  17. Coping with Challenge and Hindrance Stressors in Teams: Behavioral, Cognitive, and Affective Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Matthew J.; Ellis, Aleksander P. J.; Stein, Jordan H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize the challenge-hindrance framework to examine the discrete and combined effects of different environmental stressors on behavioral, cognitive, and affective outcomes at the team level. Results from 83 teams working on a command and control simulation indicated that the introduction of a challenge stressor…

  18. Technology Integration before Student Outcomes: Factors Affecting Teacher Adoption of Technology in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Alankar

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1920s, ICTs have been endorsed as solutions to challenges of access and quality in education. Proponents have also supported technology use in education on grounds that it could potentially impact cognitive, affective, and pedagogical outcomes. Based on these perceived benefits, many developed and developing countries have been…

  19. Competition within Computer-Assisted Cooperative Learning Environments: Cognitive, Affective, and Social Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Fu-Yun

    2001-01-01

    Examines the effects and implications of embedding the element of competition in computer-assisted cooperative learning situations on student cognitive, affective, and social outcomes. Results of statistical analyses of Taiwanese fifth graders show that cooperation without inter-group competition engendered better attitudes and promoted more…

  20. School Factors Explaining Achievement on Cognitive and Affective Outcomes: Establishing a Dynamic Model of Educational Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creemers, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic model of educational effectiveness defines school level factors associated with student outcomes. Emphasis is given to the two main aspects of policy, evaluation, and improvement in schools which affect quality of teaching and learning at both the level of teachers and students: a) teaching and b) school learning environment. Five…

  1. How Features of Educational Technology Applications Affect Student Reading Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Alan C. K.; Slavin, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to learn from rigorous evaluations of alternative technology applications how features of using technology programs and characteristics of their evaluations affect reading outcomes for students in grades K-12. The review applies consistent inclusion standards to focus on studies that met high methodological standards.…

  2. Ozone affects ascorbate and glutathione biosynthesis as well as amino acid contents in three Euramerican poplar genotypes.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Jennifer; Keski-Saari, Sarita; Keinänen, Markku; Cohen, David; Ningre, Nathalie; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Baldet, Pierre; Gibon, Yves; Dizengremel, Pierre; Vaultier, Marie-Noëlle; Jolivet, Yves; Oksanen, Elina; Le Thiec, Didier

    2014-03-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant that causes oxidative stress by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the leaf. The capacity to detoxify ROS and repair ROS-induced damage may contribute to ozone tolerance. Ascorbate and glutathione are known to be key players in detoxification. Ozone effects on their biosynthesis and on amino acid metabolism were investigated in three Euramerican poplar genotypes (Populus deltoides Bartr. × Populus nigra L.) differing in ozone sensitivity. Total ascorbate and glutathione contents were increased in response to ozone in all genotypes, with the most resistant genotype (Carpaccio) showing an increase of up to 70%. Reduced ascorbate (ASA) concentration at least doubled in the two most resistant genotypes (Carpaccio and Cima), whereas the most sensitive genotype (Robusta) seemed unable to regenerate ASA from oxidized ascorbate (DHA), leading to an increase of 80% of the oxidized form. Increased ascorbate (ASA + DHA) content correlated with the increase in gene expression in its biosynthetic pathway, especially the putative gene of GDP-l-galactose phosphorylase VTC2. Increased cysteine availability combined with increased expression of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GSH1) and glutathione synthetase (GSH2) genes allows higher glutathione biosynthesis in response to ozone, particularly in Carpaccio. In addition, ozone caused a remobilization of amino acids with a decreased pool of total amino acids and an increase of Cys and putrescine, especially in Carpaccio. In addition, the expression of genes encoding threonine aldolase was strongly induced only in the most tolerant genotype, Carpaccio. Reduced ascorbate levels could partly explain the sensitivity to ozone for Robusta but not for Cima. Reduced ascorbate level alone is not sufficient to account for ozone tolerance in poplar, and it is necessary to consider several other factors including glutathione content.

  3. Need for Cognitive Closure Modulates How Perceptual Decisions Are Affected by Task Difficulty and Outcome Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Vanda; Tosoni, Annalisa; Brizi, Ambra; Salvato, Ilaria; Kruglanski, Arie W.; Galati, Gaspare; Mannetti, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which Need for Cognitive Closure (NCC), an individual-level epistemic motivation, can explain inter-individual variability in the cognitive effort invested on a perceptual decision making task (the random motion task). High levels of NCC are manifested in a preference for clarity, order and structure and a desire for firm and stable knowledge. The study evaluated how NCC moderates the impact of two variables known to increase the amount of cognitive effort invested on a task, namely task ambiguity (i.e., the difficulty of the perceptual discrimination) and outcome relevance (i.e., the monetary gain associated with a correct discrimination). Based on previous work and current design, we assumed that reaction times (RTs) on our motion discrimination task represent a valid index of effort investment. Task ambiguity was associated with increased cognitive effort in participants with low or medium NCC but, interestingly, it did not affect the RTs of participants with high NCC. A different pattern of association was observed for outcome relevance; high outcome relevance increased cognitive effort in participants with moderate or high NCC, but did not affect the performance of low NCC participants. In summary, the performance of individuals with low NCC was affected by task difficulty but not by outcome relevance, whereas individuals with high NCC were influenced by outcome relevance but not by task difficulty; only participants with medium NCC were affected by both task difficulty and outcome relevance. These results suggest that perceptual decision making is influenced by the interaction between context and NCC. PMID:26716987

  4. Clinical outcomes associated with proton pump inhibitor use among clopidogrel-treated patients within CYP2C19 genotype groups following acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Depta, Jeremiah P.; Lenzini, Petra A.; Lanfear, David E.; Wang, Tracy Y.; Spertus, John A.; Bach, Richard G.; Cresci, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    We examined clinical outcomes with proton pump inhibitors (PPI) use within CYP2C19 genotype groups during clopidogrel treatment following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). 2062 patients were genotyped for CYP2C19*2 and *17 variants in TRIUMPH. 12 month clinical outcomes were analyzed among patients discharged on clopidogrel within CYP2C19*2 carrier, CYP2C19*17 carrier, and CYP2C19*1 homozygote genotype groups. PPI use was not associated with a difference in mortality. Among clopidogrel-treated Caucasians following AMI, PPI use was associated with a significantly higher rate of cardiac rehospitalization (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.19-2.19; p = 0.002) compared with no PPI use. PPI users who were carriers of the CYP2C19*17 variant experienced significantly higher rates of cardiac rehospitalization (HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.26-3.33; p = 0.003), carriers of the CYP2C19*2 variant had a trend toward increased 1-year cardiac rehospitalization (HR 1.69, 95% CI 0.95-2.99; P=0.07) while no significant differences were observed among CYP2C19*1 homozygotes. These results indicate that the risks associated with PPI use among clopidogrel-treated Caucasian post-MI patients are impacted by CYP2C19 genotype, and suggest knowledge of genotype may be useful for personalizing PPI use among patients following AMI to reduce rehospitalization. PMID:25001880

  5. Student perceptions of their biology teacher's interpersonal teaching behaviors and student achievement and affective learning outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Wade Clay, Jr.

    The primary goals of this dissertation were to determine the relationships between interpersonal teaching behaviors and student achievement and affective learning outcomes. The instrument used to collect student perceptions of teacher interpersonal teaching behaviors was the Questionnaire on Teacher Interactions (QTI). The instrument used to assess student affective learning outcomes was the Biology Student Affective Instrument (BSAI). The interpersonal teaching behavior data were collected using students as the observers. 111 students in an urban influenced, rural high school answered the QTI and BSAI in September 1997 and again in April 1998. At the same time students were pre and post tested using the Biology End of Course Examination (BECE). The QTI has been used primarily in European and Oceanic areas. The instrument was also primarily used in educational stratified environment. This was the first time the BSAI was used to assess student affective learning outcomes. The BECE is a Texas normed cognitive assessment test and it is used by Texas schools districts as the end of course examination in biology. The interpersonal teaching behaviors model was tested to ascertain if predictive power in the USA and in a non-stratified educational environment. Findings indicate that the QTI is an adequate predictor of student achievement in biology. The results were not congruent with the non-USA data and results, this indicates that the QTI is a society/culturally sensitive instrument and the instrument needs to be normed to a particular society/culture before it is used to affect teachers' and students' educational environments.

  6. Elevated depressive affect is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes among African Americans with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Michael J; Kimmel, Paul L; Greene, Tom; Gassman, Jennifer J; Wang, Xuelei; Brooks, Deborah H; Charleston, Jeanne; Dowie, Donna; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Cooper, Lisa A; Bruce, Marino A; Kusek, John W; Norris, Keith C; Lash, James P

    2011-09-01

    This study was designed to examine the impact of elevated depressive affect on health outcomes among participants with hypertensive chronic kidney disease in the African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Cohort Study. Elevated depressive affect was defined by Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) thresholds of 11 or more, above 14, and by 5-Unit increments in the score. Cox regression analyses were used to relate cardiovascular death/hospitalization, doubling of serum creatinine/end-stage renal disease, overall hospitalization, and all-cause death to depressive affect evaluated at baseline, the most recent annual visit (time-varying), or average from baseline to the most recent visit (cumulative). Among 628 participants at baseline, 42% had BDI-II scores of 11 or more and 26% had a score above 14. During a 5-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of cardiovascular death/hospitalization was significantly greater for participants with baseline BDI-II scores of 11 or more compared with those with scores <11. The baseline, time-varying, and cumulative elevated depressive affect were each associated with a significant higher risk of cardiovascular death/hospitalization, especially with a time-varying BDI-II score over 14 (adjusted HR 1.63) but not with the other outcomes. Thus, elevated depressive affect is associated with unfavorable cardiovascular outcomes in African Americans with hypertensive chronic kidney disease.

  7. Elevated depressive affect is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes among African Americans with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Michael J.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Greene, Tom; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Wang, Xuelei; Brooks, Deborah H.; Charleston, Jeanne; Dowie, Donna; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Cooper, Lisa A.; Bruce, Marino A.; Kusek, John W.; Norris, Keith C.; Lash, James P.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the impact of elevated depressive affect on health outcomes among participants with hypertensive chronic kidney disease in the African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Cohort Study. Elevated depressive affect was defined by Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) thresholds of 11 or more, above 14, and by 5-Unit increments in the score. Cox regression analyses were used to relate cardiovascular death/hospitalization, doubling of serum creatinine/end-stage renal disease, overall hospitalization, and all-cause death to depressive affect evaluated at baseline, the most recent annual visit (time-varying), or average from baseline to the most recent visit (cumulative). Among 628 participants at baseline, 42% had BDI-II scores of 11 or more and 26% had a score above 14. During a 5-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of cardiovascular death/hospitalization was significantly greater for participants with baseline BDI-II scores of 11 or more compared with those with scores <11. The baseline, time-varying, and cumulative elevated depressive affect were each associated with a significant higher risk of cardiovascular death/hospitalization, especially with a time-varying BDI-II score over 14 (adjusted HR 1.63) but not with the other outcomes. Thus, elevated depressive affect is associated with unfavorable cardiovascular outcomes in African Americans with hypertensive chronic kidney disease. PMID:21633409

  8. Genotype, viral load and age as independent predictors of treatment outcome of interferon-alpha 2a treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Construct group.

    PubMed

    Bell, H; Hellum, K; Harthug, S; Maeland, A; Ritland, S; Myrvang, B; von der Lippe, B; Raknerud, N; Skaug, K; Gutigard, B G; Skjaerven, R; Prescott, L E; Simmonds, P

    1997-01-01

    Patients with chronic hepatitis C respond differently when treated with interferon. We randomized 116 patients with chronic hepatitis C in order to compare two dosage regimens of recombinant interferon alpha 2a:3 MIU x 3 per week for 6 months (arm A) or 6 MIU x 3 per week for 3 months and then 3 MIU x 3 per week for 3 months (arm B). There were no significant differences concerning outcome between the two dose regimens: sustained clearance of HCV viremia 6 months after the end of treatment was obtained in 12/59 (20%) in group A compared with 18/57 (32%) in group B (p = 0.24). In patients with genotype 1a, 4/31 (13%), in genotype 1b, none of 9 (0%), 9/15 (60%) in genotype 2, and 17/58 (29%) in genotype 3, showed sustained clearance of HCV viremia 6 months after the end of treatment (p = 0.002). In a stepwise logistic regression analysis, only pretreatment viral load (p = 0.0001), genotype (p = 0.001) and age (p = 0.04) were identified as independent predictors of sustained clearance of HCV viremia. Liver histology as assessed by Knodell index was significantly improved in patients with sustained HCV RNA response 6 months after the end of treatment (5.2 +/- 2.2 vs 2.6 +/- 2.2, p < 0.001), but not in responders with relapse or in non-responders. In conclusion, stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that viral load, HCV genotype and age were the only independent predictors for sustained HCV RNA response.

  9. Donor CTLA-4 genotype influences clinical outcome after T cell-depleted allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donors.

    PubMed

    Bosch-Vizcaya, Anna; Pérez-García, Arianne; Brunet, Salut; Solano, Carlos; Buño, Ismael; Guillem, Vicent; Martínez-Laperche, Carolina; Sanz, Guillermo; Barrenetxea, Cristina; Martínez, Carmen; Tuset, Esperanza; Lloveras, Natàlia; Coll, Rosa; Guardia, Ramon; González, Yolanda; Roncero, Josep M; Bustins, Anna; Gardella, Santiago; Fernández, Cristalina; Buch, Joan; Gallardo, David

    2012-01-01

    CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4) plays a pivotal role in inhibiting T cell activation through competitive interaction with B7 molecules and interruption of costimulatory signals mediated by CD28. Polymorphisms on the CTLA-4 gene have been previously associated with autoimmune diseases, predisposition to leukemic relapse, and with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) or relapse after allogeneic transplant. As CTLA-4 is expressed on T-lymphocytes, the aim of this study was to determine whether the donor CTLA-4 CT60 genotype also influences clinical outcome even after T cell depletion with CD34-positive selection. We studied 136 patient-donor pairs. Overall survival (OS) was worse for those patients who received grafts from a donor with the CT60 AA genotype rather than from a donor with the AG or GG genotype (35.6% vs 49.4%; P = .043). This association was confirmed through multivariate analysis, which identified the donor CT60 genotype as an independent risk factor for OS (P = .008; hazard ratio [HR]: 2.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-4.08). The donor CT60 AA genotype was also associated with lower disease-free survival, this being related to an increased risk of relapse (P = .001; HR: 3.41, 95% CI: 1.67-6.96) and a trend toward higher transplant-related mortality. These associations were stronger when considering only patients in the early stage of disease. Our results suggest that graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) activity after T cell depletion is conditioned by the donor CTLA-4 genotype. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. How temporal evolution of intracranial collaterals in acute stroke affects clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Paliwal, Prakash; Low, Adrian F.; Tay, Edgar L.W.; Gopinathan, Anil; Nadarajah, Mahendran; Ting, Eric; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Seet, Raymond C.S.; Ahmad, Aftab; Chan, Bernard P.L.; Teoh, Hock L.; Soon, Derek; Rathakrishnan, Rahul; Sharma, Vijay K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We compared intracranial collaterals on pretreatment and day 2 brain CT angiograms (CTA) to assess their evolution and relationship with functional outcomes in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients treated with IV tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Methods: Consecutive AIS patients who underwent pretreatment and day 2 CTA and received IV tPA during 2010–2013 were included. Collaterals were evaluated by 2 independent neuroradiologists using 3 predefined criteria: the Miteff system, the Maas system, and 20-point collateral scale by the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score methodology. We stratified our cohort by baseline pre-tPA state of their collaterals and by recanalization status of the primary vessel for analysis. Good outcomes at 3 months were defined by a modified Rankin Scale score of 0–1. Results: This study included 209 patients. Delayed collateral recruitment by any grading system was not associated with good outcomes. All 3 scoring systems showed that collateral recruitment on the follow-up CTA from a baseline poor collateral state was significantly associated with poor outcome and increased bleeding risk. When the primary vessel remained persistently occluded, collateral recruitment was significantly associated with worse outcomes. Interestingly, collateral recruitment was significantly associated with increased mortality in 2 of the 3 grading systems. Conclusions: Not all collateral recruitment is beneficial; delayed collateral recruitment may be different from early recruitment and can result in worse outcomes and higher mortality. Prethrombolysis collateral status and recanalization are determinants of how intracranial collateral evolution affects functional outcomes. PMID:26740681

  11. Association between physical pain and alcohol treatment outcomes: The mediating role of negative affect.

    PubMed

    Witkiewitz, Katie; McCallion, Elizabeth; Vowles, Kevin E; Kirouac, Megan; Frohe, Tessa; Maisto, Stephen A; Hodgson, Ray; Heather, Nick

    2015-12-01

    Physical pain and negative affect have been described as risk factors for alcohol use following alcohol treatment. The current study was a secondary analysis of 2 clinical trials for alcohol use disorder (AUD) to examine the associations between pain, negative affect and AUD treatment outcomes. Participants included 1,383 individuals from the COMBINE Study (COMBINE Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence; COMBINE Study Research Group, 2003; 31% female, 23% ethnic minorities, average age = 44.4 [SD = 10.2]), a multisite combination pharmacotherapy and behavioral intervention study for AUD in the United States, and 742 individuals from the United Kingdom Alcohol Treatment Trial (UKATT Research Team, 2001; 25.9% female, 4.4% ethnic minorities, average age = 41.6 [SD = 10.1]) a multisite behavioral intervention study for AUD in the United Kingdom. The Form-90 was used to collect alcohol use data, the Short Form Health Survey and Quality of Life measures were used to assess pain, and negative affect was assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory (COMBINE) and the General Health Questionnaire (UKATT). Pain scores were significantly associated with drinking outcomes in both datasets. Greater pain scores were associated with greater negative affect and increases in pain were associated with increases in negative affect. Negative affect significantly mediated the association between pain and drinking outcomes and this effect was moderated by social behavior network therapy (SBNT) in the UKATT study, with SBNT attenuating the association between pain and drinking. Findings suggest pain and negative affect are associated among individuals in AUD treatment and that negative affect mediated pain may be a risk factor for alcohol relapse. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Association between Physical Pain and Alcohol Treatment Outcomes: The Mediating Role of Negative Affect

    PubMed Central

    Witkiewitz, Katie; McCallion, Elizabeth; Vowles, Kevin E.; Kirouac, Megan; Frohe, Tessa; Maisto, Stephen A.; Hodgson, Ray; Heather, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Objective Physical pain and negative affect have been described as risk factors for alcohol use following alcohol treatment. The current study was a secondary analysis of two clinical trials for alcohol use disorder (AUD) to examine the associations between pain, negative affect and AUD treatment outcomes. Method Participants included 1383 individuals from the COMBINE Study (COMBINE Study Group, 2003; 31% female, 23% ethnic minorities, average age=44.4 (SD=10.2)), a multisite combination pharmacotherapy and behavioral intervention study for AUD in the United States, and 742 individuals from the United Kingdom Alcohol Treatment Trial (UKATT Research Team, 2001; 25.9% female, 4.4% ethnic minorities, average age=41.6 (SD=10.1)) a multisite behavioral intervention study for AUD in the United Kingdom. The Form-90 was used to collect alcohol use data, the Short Form Health Survey and Quality of Life measures were used to assess pain, and negative affect was assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory (COMBINE) and the General Health Questionnaire (UKATT). Results Pain scores were significantly associated with drinking outcomes in both datasets. Greater pain scores were associated with greater negative affect and increases in pain were associated with increases in negative affect. Negative affect significantly mediated the association between pain and drinking outcomes and this effect was moderated by social behavior network therapy (SBNT) in the UKATT study, with SBNT attenuating the association between pain and drinking. Conclusion Findings suggest pain and negative affect are associated among individuals in AUD treatment and that negative affect mediated pain may be a risk factor for alcohol relapse. PMID:26098375

  13. Phosphoglucose isomerase genotype affects running speed and heat shock protein expression after exposure to extreme temperatures in a montane willow beetle.

    PubMed

    Rank, Nathan E; Bruce, Douglas A; McMillan, David M; Barclay, Colleen; Dahlhoff, Elizabeth P

    2007-03-01

    Eastern Sierra Nevada populations of the willow beetle Chrysomela aeneicollis commonly experience stressfully high and low environmental temperatures that may influence survival and reproduction. Allele frequencies at the enzyme locus phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) vary across a climatic latitudinal gradient in these populations, with PGI allele 1 being most common in cooler regions and PGI allele 4 in warmer ones. PGI genotypes differ in heat and cold tolerance and in expression of a 70 kDa heat shock protein. Here we examine genetic, behavioral and environmental factors affecting a performance character, running speed, for willow beetles, and assess effects of consecutive cold and heat exposure on running speed and expression of Hsp70 in the laboratory. In nature, running speed depends on air temperature and is higher for males than females. Mating beetles ran faster than single beetles, and differences among PGI genotypes in male running speed depended on the presence of females. In the laboratory, exposure to cold reduced subsequent running speed, but the amount of this reduction depended on PGI genotype and previous thermal history. Effects of exposure to heat also depended on life history stage and PGI genotype. Adults possessing allele 1 ran fastest after a single exposure to stressful temperature, whereas those possessing allele 4 ran faster after repeated exposure. Larvae possessing allele 4 ran fastest after a single stressful exposure, but running speed generally declined after a second exposure to stressful temperature. The ranking of PGI genotypes after the second exposure depended on whether a larva had been exposed to cold or heat. Effects of temperature on Hsp70 expression also varied among PGI genotypes and depended on type of exposure, especially for adults (single heat exposure, two cold exposures: PGI 1-1>1-4>4-4; other multiple extreme exposures: 4-4>1-4>1-1). There was no consistent association between alleles at other polymorphic enzyme loci

  14. Molecular identification and successful treatment of Chlamydophila psittaci (genotype B) in a clinically affected Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus)

    PubMed Central

    Razmyar, J.; Rajabioun, M.; Zaeemi, M.; Afshari, A.

    2016-01-01

    Avian chlamydiosis is caused by Chlamydiophila psittaci with the highest infection rate in parrots (Psittacidae) and pigeons (Columbiformes). A two-year-old Congo African grey parrot was examined since the bird had shown clinical signs of anorexia, depression, diarrhea, and mild dyspnea and based on biochemical and hemathological analysis the bird was diagnosed as having anemia, leukocytosis, heterophilia, lymphopenia and monocytosis. With regards to clinical and paraclinical findings, the case was diagnosed to be carrying Chlamydiophila spp. In addition, choanal cleft and cloaca swabs were positive for Chlamydiophila spp. in a diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (600 bp amplicon). Polymerase chain reaction products were typed by ompA gene-based PCR, using CTU/CTL primers (1050 bp amplicon). The PCR product sequence was compared with the sequences obtained from GenBank. The phylogenetic tree has revealed 100% identity with genotype B obtained from previous studies. The bird was hospitalized and treated with doxycycline regimen for 45 days, with a weekly sampling process to trace the presence of C. psittaci DNA in faecal and choanal swabs, this process continued to the point where the specimens turned negative after two weeks. Laboratory and radiology results were within normal limits after the treatment. Genotype B is predominantly isolated from Columbidae and there have not been any reports regarding the clinically affected African gray parrot with this genotype. Subsequently, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of chlamydiosis by genotype B on Congo African grey parrot. PMID:28224015

  15. Does Val/Val genotype of GSTP1 enzyme affects susceptibility to colorectal cancer in Saudi Arabia?.

    PubMed

    Khabaz, Mohamad Nidal; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah Ahmed; Nedjadi, Taoufik; Gar, Mamdooh Abdullah; Bakarman, Marwan; Gazzaz, Zohair Jamil; Ibrahim, Adel Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP1) is a candidate enzyme that may be involved in colorectal cancer susceptibility. Polymorphism of GSTP1 gene may cause changes in expression or structure which lead to alteration in the efficiency of catalytic function of the enzyme variants, i.e., deficient detoxification of carcinogens and consequently influences coloreActal cancer development. The present report examined the possible impact of GSTP1 (Ilel05Val) polymorphism and the risk of colorectal cancer. Samples of paraffin embedded tissues from 83 patients with colorectal cancer as well as thirty five non-cancerous colon tissues were collected from the archive of the pathology department at King Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia. All cancer and control samples were subjects to DNA extraction then amplification. DNA genetic analyzer from Applied Biosystems was used to sequence the product of amplification for genotypes determination. None of the genotypes of GSTP1 was associated with the risk of colorectal cancer development. There were no statistical differences in the frequencies of GSTP1 genotypes between colorectal cancer cases and controls. The incidence of (Val/Val) genotype in colorectal cancer cases was three folds higher than controls. This finding is not statistically significant, but it could be of clinical consequence that it may increase the risk of colorectal cancer in Saudi Arabia.

  16. Date of shoot collection, genotype, and original shoot position affect early rooting of dormant hardwood cuttings of Populus

    Treesearch

    R. S., Jr. Zalesny; A.H. Wiese

    2006-01-01

    Identifying superior combinations among date of dormant- season shoot collection, genotype, and original shoot position can increase the rooting potential of Populus cuttings. Thus, the objectives of our study were to: 1) evaluate variation among clones in early rooting from hardwood cuttings processed every three weeks from shoots collected...

  17. Comparison of rhizosphere properties as affected by different Bt- and non-Bt-cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genotypes and fertilization.

    PubMed

    Ahamd, Maqshoof; Abbasi, Waleed Mumtaz; Jamil, Moazzam; Iqbal, Muhammad; Hussain, Azhar; Akhtar, Muhammad Fakhar-U-Zaman; Nazli, Farheen

    2017-06-01

    Incorporation of genetically modified crops in the cropping system raises the need for studying the effect of these crops on the soil ecosystem. The current study aimed to compare the effect of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)- and non-Bt-cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genotypes on rhizosphere properties under fertilized and unfertilized soil conditions. One non-Bt-cotton (IUB 75) and four Bt-cotton varieties (IUB-222, MM-58, IUB-13, FH-142) were sown in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in a factorial fashion with three replications under unfertilized (T1) and fertilized (T2 at NPK 310-170-110 kg ha(-1)) soil conditions. The culturable soil bacterial population was recorded at flowering, boll opening, and harvesting stages, while other rhizosphere biological and chemical properties were recorded at harvesting. Results revealed that Bt-cotton genotypes IUB-222 and FH-142 showed significantly higher rhizosphere total nitrogen, NH4(+)-N, available phosphorus, and available potassium. Total organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon was also maximum in the rhizosphere of IUB-222 under fertilized conditions. Similarly, bacterial population (CFU g(-1)) at flowering stage and at harvesting was significantly higher in the rhizosphere of IUB-222 as compared to non-Bt- (IUB-75) and other Bt-cotton genotypes under same growth conditions. It showed that Bt genotypes can help in maintaining soil macronutrients (total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium) under proper nutrient management. Moreover, Bt-cotton genotypes seem to strengthen certain biological properties of the soil, thus increasing the growth and yield capability, maintaining available nutrients in the soil as compared to non-Bt cotton, while no harmful effects of Bt cotton on soil properties was detected.

  18. Local bone quality affects the outcome of prosthetic total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuan-Ching; Jiang, Ching-Chuan; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Tsai, Chia-Jung; Chiang, Hongsen

    2016-02-01

    Osteoporosis and osteoarthritis commonly coexist in the elderly. In patients undergoing prosthetic total knee arthroplasty (TKA), the bone quality around the knee joint may affect the safety of prosthetic implantation and consequently satisfaction with the surgical outcome. We recruited 50 postmenopausal women undergoing TKA for primary osteoarthritis; 43 completed the study protocol. The bone quality parameters of the operated knee, including bone mineral density assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and microarchitecture variables assessed using micro-computed tomography, were determined. Surgical outcomes were assessed according to immediate (<1 week) postoperative pain quantified using the visual analog scale and knee function quantified using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) at 2 and 6 months postoperatively. The influence of bone quality parameters on surgical outcomes was analyzed using simple and multiple regression analyses. Volumetric bone mineral density (R(2)  = 0.187-0.234, p < 0.01), the structural model index (R(2)  = 0.103-0.181, p < 0.05), and trabecular separation (R(2)  = 0.289-0.424, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with postoperative pain and improvement according to the KOOS. In conclusion, local bone quality, including mineral content and microarchitecture, affects the surgical outcome of TKA. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Molecular profiling of advanced solid tumors and patient outcomes with genotype-matched clinical trials: the Princess Margaret IMPACT/COMPACT trial.

    PubMed

    Stockley, Tracy L; Oza, Amit M; Berman, Hal K; Leighl, Natasha B; Knox, Jennifer J; Shepherd, Frances A; Chen, Eric X; Krzyzanowska, Monika K; Dhani, Neesha; Joshua, Anthony M; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Serra, Stefano; Clarke, Blaise; Roehrl, Michael H; Zhang, Tong; Sukhai, Mahadeo A; Califaretti, Nadia; Trinkaus, Mateya; Shaw, Patricia; van der Kwast, Theodorus; Wang, Lisa; Virtanen, Carl; Kim, Raymond H; Razak, Albiruni R A; Hansen, Aaron R; Yu, Celeste; Pugh, Trevor J; Kamel-Reid, Suzanne; Siu, Lillian L; Bedard, Philippe L

    2016-10-25

    The clinical utility of molecular profiling of tumor tissue to guide treatment of patients with advanced solid tumors is unknown. Our objectives were to evaluate the frequency of genomic alterations, clinical "actionability" of somatic variants, enrollment in mutation-targeted or other clinical trials, and outcome of molecular profiling for advanced solid tumor patients at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre (PM). Patients with advanced solid tumors aged ≥18 years, good performance status, and archival tumor tissue available were prospectively consented. DNA from archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue was tested using a MALDI-TOF MS hotspot panel or a targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) panel. Somatic variants were classified according to clinical actionability and an annotated report included in the electronic medical record. Oncologists were provided with summary tables of their patients' molecular profiling results and available mutation-specific clinical trials. Enrolment in genotype-matched versus genotype-unmatched clinical trials following release of profiling results and response by RECIST v1.1 criteria were evaluated. From March 2012 to July 2014, 1893 patients were enrolled and 1640 tested. After a median follow-up of 18 months, 245 patients (15 %) who were tested were subsequently treated on 277 therapeutic clinical trials, including 84 patients (5 %) on 89 genotype-matched trials. The overall response rate was higher in patients treated on genotype-matched trials (19 %) compared with genotype-unmatched trials (9 %; p < 0.026). In a multi-variable model, trial matching by genotype (p = 0.021) and female gender (p = 0.034) were the only factors associated with increased likelihood of treatment response. Few advanced solid tumor patients enrolled in a prospective institutional molecular profiling trial were treated subsequently on genotype-matched therapeutic trials. In this non-randomized comparison, genotype

  20. Are lifetime affective disorders predictive of long-term outcome in severe adolescent anorexia nervosa?

    PubMed

    Carrot, B; Radon, L; Hubert, T; Vibert, S; Duclos, J; Curt, F; Godart, N

    2017-03-03

    Depression and anxiety are commonly associated with anorexia nervosa (AN) and contribute to difficulties in social integration, a negative factor for outcome in AN. The link between those disorders and AN has been poorly studied. Thus, our objective was to investigate (1) the link between outcome nine years after hospitalisation for AN and the occurrence of lifetime anxious or depressive comorbidities; (2) the prognostic value of these comorbidities on patient outcome; 181 female patients were hospitalised for AN (between 13 and 22 years old), and were re-evaluated for their psychological, dietary, physical and social outcomes, from 6 to 12 years after their hospitalisation. The link between anxious and depressive disorders (premorbid to AN and lifetime) and the outcome assessment criteria were tested through multivariate analyses; 63% of the participants had good or intermediate outcome, 83% had presented at least one anxiety or depression disorder in the course of their lives, half of them before the onset of AN. Premorbid obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD), BMI at admission, and premenarchal AN all contribute to poor prognosis. Social phobia and agoraphobia affect the subjects' quality of life and increase eating disorder symptoms. These results encourage a systematic assessment of, and care for, anxiety and depression comorbidities among female adolescent patients with a particular focus on premorbid OCD.

  1. Pathways to poor educational outcomes for HIV/AIDS-affected youth in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Orkin, Mark; Boyes, Mark E; Cluver, Lucie D; Zhang, Yuning

    2014-01-01

    A recent systematic review of studies in the developing world has critically examined linkages from familial HIV/AIDS and associated factors such as poverty and child mental health to negative child educational outcomes. In line with several recommendations in the review, the current study modelled relationships between familial HIV/AIDS, poverty, child internalising problems, gender and four educational outcomes: non-enrolment at school, non-attendance, deficits in grade progression and concentration problems. Path analyses reveal no direct associations between familial HIV/AIDS and any of the educational outcomes. Instead, HIV/AIDS-orphanhood or caregiver HIV/AIDS-sickness impacted indirectly on educational outcomes via the poverty and internalising problems that they occasioned. This has implications for evidence-based policy inferences. For instance, by addressing such intervening variables generally, rather than by seeking to target families affected by HIV/AIDS, interventions could avoid exacerbating stigmatisation, while having a more direct and stronger impact on children's educational outcomes. This analytic approach also suggests that future research should seek to identify causal paths, and may include other intervening variables related to poverty (such as child housework and caring responsibilities) or to child mental health (such as stigma and abuse), that are linked to both familial HIV/AIDS and educational outcomes.

  2. Neuropsychological Functioning Predicts Community Outcomes in Affective and Non-Affective Psychoses: A 6-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Kathryn E.; Cohen, Bruce M.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Sperry, Sarah H.; Öngür, Dost

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Neurocognitive dysfunction is a major symptom feature of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A prognostic relationship between cognition and community outcomes is well-documented in schizophrenia and increasingly recognized in bipolar disorder. However, specific associations amongst neurocognition, diagnosis, state symptomatology, and community functioning are unclear, and few studies have compared these relationships amongst patients with affective and non-affective psychoses in the same study. We examined neurocognitive, clinical, and community functioning in a cross-diagnostic sample of patients with psychotic disorders over a 6-month follow-up interval. Method Neurocognitive, clinical and community functioning were assessed in participants with schizophrenia (n=13), schizoaffective disorder (n=17), or bipolar disorder with psychosis (n=18), and healthy controls (n=18) at baseline and 6 months later. Results Neurocognitive functioning was impaired in all diagnostic groups and, despite reductions in primary symptoms, did not recover on most measures over the follow-up period. Neurocognitive impairment was not associated with diagnosis or clinical improvement. Several neurocognitive scores at baseline (but not diagnosis or clinical baseline or follow-up scores) predicted community functioning at follow-up. Discussion In one of the few studies to longitudinally examine neurocognition in association with clinical and outcomes variables in a cross diagnostic sample of psychotic disorders patients, neurocognitive deficits were pronounced across diagnoses and did not recover on most measures despite significant reductions in clinical symptoms. Baseline neurocognitive functioning was the only significant predictor of patients’ community functioning six months later. Efforts to recognize and address cognitive deficits, an approach that has shown promise in schizophrenia, should be extended to all patients with psychosis. PMID:23791391

  3. Impact of Loading Phase, Initial Response and CFH Genotype on the Long-Term Outcome of Treatment for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fleischhauer, Johannes; Kurz-Levin, Malaika M.; Sutter, Florian K. P.; Berger, Wolfgang; Barthelmes, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Objective Factors influencing the outcome of anti-VEGF treatment in neovascular AMD are still investigated. We analyzed the impact of a loading phase, the significance of an initial response for the long-term and the effect of the CFH polymorphism (p.His402Tyr) on treatment outcome. Methods Patients treated with ranibizumab for neovascular AMD were analyzed over a period of 24 months by assessing effects of loading phase, initial response and genotype of CFH rs1061170 (c.1204C>T, p.His402Tyr). Results 204 eyes were included. A change of +5.0 [−1;+11] letters and +1.5 [−5.5;+9.5] was observed with a median of 4 [3]; [7] and 10 [7]; [14] ranibizumab injections during 12 and 24 months, respectively. Loading phase was no significant predictor for treatment as VA outcome in eyes with and without loading phase was similar (p = 0.846 and p = 0.729) at 12 and 24 months. In contrast, initial response was a significant predictor for improving vision of 5 or more letters at 12 (p = 0.001; OR = 6.75) and 24 months (p = 0.01; OR = 4.66). Furthermore, the CT genotype at CFH rs1061170 was identified as a significant predictor for a favorable VA outcome at 12 and 24 months (OR = 6.75, p = 0.001 and OR = 4.66, p = 0.01). Conclusions Our data suggest that clinical decisions regarding treatment may be guided by observing patients’ initial response as well as their genotype of SNP rs1061170, while the criterion of loading phase may not bear the customary value. PMID:22848690

  4. Factors affecting outcome in poor grade subarachnoid haemorrhage: An institutional study

    PubMed Central

    Kranthi, Sannepaneni; Sahu, Barada P.; Aniruddh, Purohit

    2016-01-01

    Context: Poor grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is usually associated with unfavorable outcomes and optimal management is deemed complicated. Most centres follow an expectant management strategy or a less aggressive approach till patients improve to good clinical grades. This approach has been associated with higher mortality and morbidity. However, not all patients with poor clinical condition fare badly. Identification and early aggressive management of this select group of patients may lead to favorable outcomes. Settings and Design: Prospective non-randomized study. Materials and Methods: We prospectively analyzed 19 cases presented in WFNS grade 4 and 5 and factors affecting their outcome at a tertiary care centre in south India. This study was aimed at identifying those few poor grade patients who are probable candidates for a good outcome. Statistical Analysis Used: All the variables were analyzed for possible correlations with the SPSS version 13 software. The Chi-square test with a P < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: Of 19 cases, 13 were operated and good outcome was seen in 53.8% of the patients who underwent surgery and aggressive management. All 7 patients who were managed conservatively died. 15.8% of the patients had low density changes (P = 0.625). Absence of such changes was associated with a good long term outcome (P = 0.004). 9 patients had intraventricular hemorrhage at presentation and 5 patients having hydrocephalus underwent extra-ventricular drainage. Statistically significant factors precluding good outcome were the presence of infarcts and thick SAH in the cisterns. Conclusions: Poor grade (WFNS 4 and 5) SAH patients with or without ICH, IVH, if operated within 3 days can give rise to favorable outcome in around 50%. However, presence of patchy infarcts associated with thick subarachnoid blood (Fisher grade 3) precludes long term survival or meaningful recovery. Hence, aggressive management is unlikely to alter the

  5. Examining intrinsic versus extrinsic exercise goals: cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sebire, Simon J; Standage, Martyn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2009-04-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (SDT), this study had two purposes: (a) examine the associations between intrinsic (relative to extrinsic) exercise goal content and cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes; and (b) test the mediating role of psychological need satisfaction in the Exercise Goal Content --> Outcomes relationship. Using a sample of 410 adults, hierarchical regression analysis showed relative intrinsic goal content to positively predict physical self-worth, self-reported exercise behavior, psychological well-being, and psychological need satisfaction and negatively predict exercise anxiety. Except for exercise behavior, the predictive utility of relative intrinsic goal content on the dependent variables of interest remained significant after controlling for participants' relative self-determined exercise motivation. Structural equation modeling analyses showed psychological need satisfaction to partially mediate the effect of relative intrinsic goal content on the outcome variables. Our findings support further investigation of exercise goals commensurate with the goal content perspective advanced in SDT.

  6. The Tennessee study: factors affecting treatment outcome and healing time following nonsurgical root canal treatment.

    PubMed

    Azim, A A; Griggs, J A; Huang, G T-J

    2016-01-01

    To determine factors that may influence treatment outcome and healing time following root canal treatment. Root filled and restored teeth by pre-doctoral students were included in this study. Teeth/roots were followed-up regularly, and treatment outcome was evaluated at every follow-up appointment (healed, healing, uncertain or unsatisfactory). Host (age, immune condition, pulp/periapical diagnosis, tooth/root type, location and anatomy) and treatment factors (master apical file size, apical extension, voids and density of root filling) were recorded from patient dental records. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the impact of the factors on treatment outcomes and healing times. A total of 422 roots from 291 teeth met the inclusion criteria with a mean follow-up period of 2 years. The preoperative pulp condition, procedural errors during treatment, apical extension and density of root fillings significantly affected the treatment outcome. The average time required for a periapical lesion to heal was 11.78 months. The healing time increased in patients with compromised healing, patients older than 40 years, roots with Weine type II root canal systems, root canal systems prepared to a master apical file size <35, and roots with overextended fillings (P < 0.1). Multiple host and treatment factors affected the healing time and outcome of root canal treatment. Follow-up protocols should consider these factors before concluding the treatment outcome: patient's age, immune condition, as well as roots with overextended fillings, root canal systems with smaller apical preparations (size <35) or roots with complex canal systems. Intervention may be recommended if the treatment quality was inadequate or if patients became symptomatic. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Modelling the contribution of negative affect, outcome expectancies and metacognitions to cigarette use and nicotine dependence.

    PubMed

    Nikčević, Ana V; Alma, Leyla; Marino, Claudia; Kolubinski, Daniel; Yılmaz-Samancı, Adviye Esin; Caselli, Gabriele; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2017-11-01

    Both positive smoking outcome expectancies and metacognitions about smoking have been found to be positively associated with cigarette use and nicotine dependence. The goal of this study was to test a model including nicotine dependence and number of daily cigarettes as dependent variables, anxiety and depression as independent variables, and smoking outcome expectancies and metacognitions about smoking as mediators between the independents and dependents. The sample consisted of 524 self-declared smokers who scored 3 or above on the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND: Uysal et al., 2004). Anxiety was not associated with either cigarette use or nicotine dependence but was positively associated with all mediators with the exception of stimulation state enhancement and social facilitation. Depression, on the other hand, was found to be positively associated with nicotine dependence (and very weakly to cigarette use) but was not associated with either smoking outcome expectancies or metacognitions about smoking. Only one smoking outcome expectancy (negative affect reduction) was found to be positively associated with nicotine dependence but not cigarette use. Furthermore one smoking outcome expectancy (negative social impression) was found to be positively associated with cigarette use (but not to nicotine dependence). All metacognitions about smoking were found to be positively associated with nicotine dependence. Moreover, negative metacognitions about uncontrollability were found to be positively associated with cigarette use. Metacognitions about smoking appear to be a stronger mediator than smoking outcome expectancies in the relationship between negative affect and cigarette use/nicotine dependence. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Maternal childhood trauma, postpartum depression, and infant outcomes: Avoidant affective processing as a potential mechanism.

    PubMed

    Choi, Karmel W; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Vythilingum, Bavi; Geerts, Lut; Faure, Sheila C; Watt, Melissa H; Roos, Annerine; Stein, Dan J

    2017-03-15

    Women who have experienced childhood trauma may be at risk for postpartum depression, increasing the likelihood of negative outcomes among their children. Predictive pathways from maternal childhood trauma to child outcomes, as mediated by postpartum depression, require investigation. A longitudinal sample of South African women (N=150) was followed through pregnancy and postpartum. Measures included maternal trauma history reported during pregnancy; postpartum depression through six months; and maternal-infant bonding, infant development, and infant physical growth at one year. Structural equation models tested postpartum depression as a mediator between maternal experiences of childhood trauma and children's outcomes. A subset of women (N=33) also participated in a lab-based emotional Stroop paradigm, and their responses to fearful stimuli at six weeks were explored as a potential mechanism linking maternal childhood trauma, postpartum depression, and child outcomes. Women with childhood trauma experienced greater depressive symptoms through six months postpartum, which then predicted negative child outcomes at one year. Mediating effects of postpartum depression were significant, and persisted for maternal-infant bonding and infant growth after controlling for covariates and antenatal distress. Maternal avoidance of fearful stimuli emerged as a potential affective mechanism. Limitations included modest sample size, self-report measures, and unmeasured potential confounders. Findings suggest a mediating role of postpartum depression in the intergenerational transmission of negative outcomes. Perinatal interventions that address maternal trauma histories and depression, as well as underlying affective mechanisms, may help interrupt cycles of disadvantage, particularly in high-trauma settings such as South Africa. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Factors Affecting Burn Contracture Outcome in Developing Countries: A Review of 2506 Patients.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Lauren P; Huang, Alice; Corlew, Daniel Scott; Aeron, Kush; Aeron, Yogi; Rai, Shankar Man; Jovic, Goran; Agag, Richard L

    2016-09-01

    Burn contractures hinder joint mobility, resulting in functional impairment and reduced quality of life. This is of greater significance in developing countries where there are fewer resources for assistance with such impairments. Contracture release reduces deformity, but multiple factors affect the extent of postsurgical improvements and outcomes. Elucidating these factors may enable surgeons to better care for burn patients. This study assesses factors that impact burn contracture resolution in developing nations. A retrospective review of 2506 burn contractures was performed using information extracted from a large nongovernment organization (ReSurge International) database from Nepal, India, and Zambia. Data points included age, type of burn, time elapsed between injury and release, and extent of final release achieved based on preoperative and postoperative images of hand (n = 1960), elbow (n = 371), and knee (n = 176) contractures. Hand improvement was scored based on digit/wrist involvement (severity of dysfunction) and joint extension capability (functionality); elbow and knee improvement were calculated using preoperative and postoperative joint angles. Multivariate analysis was performed. Hands burned by hot liquid had greater functionality after surgery than open-fire burns (P < 0.01). Improvement in severity of dysfunction and functionality were inversely correlated to age (P < 0.01) and time until surgery (P < 0.01). Elbow improvement decreased as age increased (P < 0.01). Postoperative increase of knee extension decreased for each year elapsed between injury and surgery (P < 0.01). Burn type, age when burned, and timing of surgery were significant factors affecting hand outcomes, whereas age affected elbow outcomes, and time elapsed until surgery affected knee results. An algorithm was formulated to enable physicians in developing countries with limited resources to triage patients and optimize patient outcomes.

  10. High Incidence of Noonan Syndrome Features Including Short Stature and Pulmonic Stenosis in Patients carrying NF1 Missense Mutations Affecting p.Arg1809: Genotype-Phenotype Correlation.

    PubMed

    Rojnueangnit, Kitiwan; Xie, Jing; Gomes, Alicia; Sharp, Angela; Callens, Tom; Chen, Yunjia; Liu, Ying; Cochran, Meagan; Abbott, Mary-Alice; Atkin, Joan; Babovic-Vuksanovic, Dusica; Barnett, Christopher P; Crenshaw, Melissa; Bartholomew, Dennis W; Basel, Lina; Bellus, Gary; Ben-Shachar, Shay; Bialer, Martin G; Bick, David; Blumberg, Bruce; Cortes, Fanny; David, Karen L; Destree, Anne; Duat-Rodriguez, Anna; Earl, Dawn; Escobar, Luis; Eswara, Marthanda; Ezquieta, Begona; Frayling, Ian M; Frydman, Moshe; Gardner, Kathy; Gripp, Karen W; Hernández-Chico, Concepcion; Heyrman, Kurt; Ibrahim, Jennifer; Janssens, Sandra; Keena, Beth A; Llano-Rivas, Isabel; Leppig, Kathy; McDonald, Marie; Misra, Vinod K; Mulbury, Jennifer; Narayanan, Vinodh; Orenstein, Naama; Galvin-Parton, Patricia; Pedro, Helio; Pivnick, Eniko K; Powell, Cynthia M; Randolph, Linda; Raskin, Salmo; Rosell, Jordi; Rubin, Karol; Seashore, Margretta; Schaaf, Christian P; Scheuerle, Angela; Schultz, Meredith; Schorry, Elizabeth; Schnur, Rhonda; Siqveland, Elizabeth; Tkachuk, Amanda; Tonsgard, James; Upadhyaya, Meena; Verma, Ishwar C; Wallace, Stephanie; Williams, Charles; Zackai, Elaine; Zonana, Jonathan; Lazaro, Conxi; Claes, Kathleen; Korf, Bruce; Martin, Yolanda; Legius, Eric; Messiaen, Ludwine

    2015-11-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most frequent genetic disorders, affecting 1:3,000 worldwide. Identification of genotype-phenotype correlations is challenging because of the wide range clinical variability, the progressive nature of the disorder, and extreme diversity of the mutational spectrum. We report 136 individuals with a distinct phenotype carrying one of five different NF1 missense mutations affecting p.Arg1809. Patients presented with multiple café-au-lait macules (CALM) with or without freckling and Lisch nodules, but no externally visible plexiform neurofibromas or clear cutaneous neurofibromas were found. About 25% of the individuals had Noonan-like features. Pulmonic stenosis and short stature were significantly more prevalent compared with classic cohorts (P < 0.0001). Developmental delays and/or learning disabilities were reported in over 50% of patients. Melanocytes cultured from a CALM in a segmental NF1-patient showed two different somatic NF1 mutations, p.Arg1809Cys and a multi-exon deletion, providing genetic evidence that p.Arg1809Cys is a loss-of-function mutation in the melanocytes and causes a pigmentary phenotype. Constitutional missense mutations at p.Arg1809 affect 1.23% of unrelated NF1 probands in the UAB cohort, therefore this specific NF1 genotype-phenotype correlation will affect counseling and management of a significant number of patients.

  11. Factors That Affect Proliferation of Salmonella in Tomatoes Post-Harvest: The Roles of Seasonal Effects, Irrigation Regime, Crop and Pathogen Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Marvasi, Massimiliano; Hochmuth, George J.; Giurcanu, Mihai C.; George, Andrée S.; Noel, Jason T.; Bartz, Jerry; Teplitski, Max

    2013-01-01

    Main Objectives Fresh fruits and vegetables become increasingly recognized as vehicles of human salmonellosis. Physiological, ecological, and environmental factors are all thought to contribute to the ability of Salmonella to colonize fruits and vegetables pre- and post-harvest. The goal of this study was to test how irrigation levels, fruit water congestion, crop and pathogen genotypes affect the ability of Salmonella to multiply in tomatoes post-harvest. Experimental Design Fruits from three tomato varieties, grown over three production seasons in two Florida locations, were infected with seven strains of Salmonella and their ability to multiply post-harvest in field-grown tomatoes was tested. The field experiments were set up as a two-factor factorial split plot experiment, with the whole-plot treatments arranged in a randomized complete-block design. The irrigation treatment (at three levels) was the whole-plot factor, and the split-plot factor was tomato variety, with three levels. The significance of the main, two-way, and three-way interaction effects was tested using the (type III) F-tests for fixed effects. Mean separation for each significant fixed effect in the model was performed using Tukey’s multiple comparison testing procedure. Most Important Discoveries and Significance The irrigation regime per se did not affect susceptibility of the crop to post-harvest proliferation of Salmonella. However, Salmonella grew significantly better in water-congested tissues of green tomatoes. Tomato maturity and genotype, Salmonella genotype, and inter-seasonal differences were the strongest factors affecting proliferation. Red ripe tomatoes were significantly and consistently more conducive to proliferation of Salmonella. Tomatoes harvested in the driest, sunniest season were the most conducive to post-harvest proliferation of the pathogen. Statistically significant interactions between production conditions affected post-harvest susceptibility of the crop to the

  12. Factors that affect proliferation of Salmonella in tomatoes post-harvest: the roles of seasonal effects, irrigation regime, crop and pathogen genotype.

    PubMed

    Marvasi, Massimiliano; Hochmuth, George J; Giurcanu, Mihai C; George, Andrée S; Noel, Jason T; Bartz, Jerry; Teplitski, Max

    2013-01-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables become increasingly recognized as vehicles of human salmonellosis. Physiological, ecological, and environmental factors are all thought to contribute to the ability of Salmonella to colonize fruits and vegetables pre- and post-harvest. The goal of this study was to test how irrigation levels, fruit water congestion, crop and pathogen genotypes affect the ability of Salmonella to multiply in tomatoes post-harvest. Fruits from three tomato varieties, grown over three production seasons in two Florida locations, were infected with seven strains of Salmonella and their ability to multiply post-harvest in field-grown tomatoes was tested. The field experiments were set up as a two-factor factorial split plot experiment, with the whole-plot treatments arranged in a randomized complete-block design. The irrigation treatment (at three levels) was the whole-plot factor, and the split-plot factor was tomato variety, with three levels. The significance of the main, two-way, and three-way interaction effects was tested using the (type III) F-tests for fixed effects. Mean separation for each significant fixed effect in the model was performed using Tukey's multiple comparison testing procedure. The irrigation regime per se did not affect susceptibility of the crop to post-harvest proliferation of Salmonella. However, Salmonella grew significantly better in water-congested tissues of green tomatoes. Tomato maturity and genotype, Salmonella genotype, and inter-seasonal differences were the strongest factors affecting proliferation. Red ripe tomatoes were significantly and consistently more conducive to proliferation of Salmonella. Tomatoes harvested in the driest, sunniest season were the most conducive to post-harvest proliferation of the pathogen. Statistically significant interactions between production conditions affected post-harvest susceptibility of the crop to the pathogen. UV irradiation of tomatoes post-harvest promoted Salmonella growth.

  13. How much does emotional valence of action outcomes affect temporal binding?

    PubMed

    Moreton, Joshua; Callan, Mitchell J; Hughes, Gethin

    2017-03-01

    Temporal binding refers to the compression of the perceived time interval between voluntary actions and their sensory consequences. Research suggests that the emotional content of an action outcome can modulate the effects of temporal binding. We attempted to conceptually replicate these findings using a time interval estimation task and different emotionally-valenced action outcomes (Experiments 1 and 2) than used in previous research. Contrary to previous findings, we found no evidence that temporal binding was affected by the emotional valence of action outcomes. After validating our stimuli for equivalence of perceived emotional valence and arousal (Experiment 3), in Experiment 4 we directly replicated Yoshie and Haggard's (2013) original experiment using sound vocalizations as action outcomes and failed to detect a significant effect of emotion on temporal binding. These studies suggest that the emotional valence of action outcomes exerts little influence on temporal binding. The potential implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Different school placements following language unit attendance: which factors affect language outcome?

    PubMed

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Botting, Nicola; Knox, Emma; Simkin, Zoë

    2002-01-01

    The study compared the outcomes of two groups of children who were attending language unit provision at 7 years of age. Of 242 children in the original study, 62 (28%) transferred to mainstream school placements at age 8 years. These children were then closely matched to children still attending language unit provision at this age using measures of non-verbal IQ, expression and comprehension. These two groups of children were compared on outcome at 11 years in the areas of language skill, non-verbal IQ and social behaviour. Teacher/speech-language therapist opinions of placement were also examined as factors affecting outcome. Results show that children who moved to mainstream provision at 8 years were more likely to be attending mainstream at 11 years, although the majority received extra support. No further differences were evident in outcome according to placement type. However, there was a main effect of teacher/therapist opinion on outcome--children whose teachers were not entirely happy with the 8-year placement performed more poorly at 11 years on language measures. There were no differences on any other measures. The findings suggest that follow-on placements for children attending language units need to be more closely in line with teacher's opinions and that more flexibility needs to be evident in school placement policy in order that appropriate educational settings can be arranged.

  15. Environment and host genotype determine the outcome of a plant-virus interaction: from antagonism to mutualism.

    PubMed

    Hily, Jean-Michel; Poulicard, Nils; Mora, Miguel-Ángel; Pagán, Israel; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that plant-virus interactions vary between antagonism and conditional mutualism according to environmental conditions. This hypothesis is based on scant experimental evidence, and to test it we examined the effect of abiotic factors on the Arabidopsis thaliana-Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) interaction. Four Arabidopsis genotypes clustering into two allometric groups were grown under six environments defined by three temperature and two light-intensity conditions. Plants were either CMV-infected or mock-inoculated, and the effects of environment and infection on temporal and resource allocation life-history traits were quantified. Life-history traits significantly differed between allometric groups over all environments, with group 1 plants tolerating abiotic stress better than those of group 2. The effect of CMV infection on host fitness (virulence) differed between genotypes, being lower in group 1 genotypes. Tolerance to abiotic stress and to infection was similarly achieved through life-history trait responses, which resulted in resource reallocation from growth to reproduction. Effects of infection varied according to plant genotype and environment from detrimental to beneficial for host fitness. These results are highly relevant and demonstrate that plant viruses can be pleiotropic parasites along the antagonism-mutualism continuum, which should be considered in analyses of the evolution of plant-virus interactions.

  16. Bad actions or bad outcomes? Differentiating affective contributions to the moral condemnation of harm.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ryan M; Hannikainen, Ivar A; Cushman, Fiery A

    2014-06-01

    Moral condemnation of harmful behavior is influenced by both cognitive and affective processes. However, despite much recent research, the proximate source of affect remains unclear. One obvious contender is empathy; simulating the victim's pain could lead one to judge an action as wrong ("outcome aversion"). An alternative, less obvious source is one's own aversion to performing the action itself ("action aversion"). To dissociate these alternatives, we developed a scale that assessed individual aversions to (a) witnessing others experience painful outcomes (e.g., seeing someone fall down stairs); and (b) performing actions that are harmless yet aversive (e.g., stabbing a fellow actor with a fake stage knife). Across 4 experiments, we found that moral condemnation of both first-person and third-party harmful behavior in the context of moral dilemmas is better predicted by one's aversion to action properties than by an affective response to victim suffering. In a fifth experiment, we manipulated both action aversion and the degree of expected suffering across a number of actions and found that both factors make large, independent contributions to moral judgment. Together, these results suggest we may judge others' actions by imagining what it would feel like to perform the action rather than experience the consequences of the action. Accordingly, they provide a counterpoint to a dominant but largely untested assumption that empathy is the key affective response governing moral judgments of harm.

  17. APOE genotype affects black-white responses of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol subspecies to aerobic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Obisesan, Thomas O; Ferrell, Robert E; Goldberg, Andrew P; Phares, Dana A; Ellis, Tina J; Hagberg, James M

    2008-12-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether ethnicity interacts with the APOE genotype to influence conventionally measured high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) subfraction levels and nuclear magnetic resonance-measured (HDL(NMR)-C) particle size at baseline and after training, and the changes with training. After a 6-week dietary stabilization period, men and postmenopausal women 50 to 75 years old underwent baseline testing (NMR lipid, maximum oxygen consumption, body composition, and genotyping assessments). Tests were repeated after completing 24 weeks of endurance exercise training. At baseline, APOE2/3 blacks had significantly larger particle size (P < .001) and higher total HDL(NMR)-C particle concentration (P = .006) than whites. After 6 months of endurance exercise training, APOE2/3 blacks maintained a significantly larger HDL(NMR)-C particle size (P < .001) and particle concentration of the large HDL(NMR)-C than APOE2/3 whites (P < .001). In multivariate analyses of variance adjusted for demographic and environmental confounding factors and for training-induced changes in lean body mass and intraabdominal fat, the model explained approximately 33% of the observed variability in training-induced improvements in HDL(NMR)-C particle size (P = .002), with APOE2/3 blacks having a greater increase in training-induced changes in HDL(NMR)-C particle size. In a separate but similarly adjusted model for conventionally measured HDL(2)-C, the model explained approximately 49% of the observed variability in training-induced changes in HDL(2)-C. Ethnicity interacted with the E2/3 genotype at the APOE gene locus to influence higher baseline and after-training levels, and greater exercise training-induced improvements in the advantageous HDL-C subfractions in blacks than in whites. APOE2/3 blacks may benefit more from aerobic fitness to reduce cardiovascular risk.

  18. APOE Genotype Affects Black-White Responses of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Subspecies to Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Obisesan, Thomas O.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Goldberg, Andrew P.; Phares, Dana A.; Ellis, Tina J; Hagberg, James M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether ethnicity interacts with the APO E genotype to influence conventionally-measured high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) subfraction levels and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance measured (HDLNMR-C) particle size at baseline, after training, and changes with training. Methods After a 6-week dietary stabilization period, men and postmenopausal women 50-75 yrs old underwent baseline testing (NMR lipid, VO2max, body composition, and genotyping assessments). Tests were repeated after completing 24 wks of endurance exercise-training. Results At baseline, APO E2/3 Blacks had significantly larger particle size (P<0.001) and higher total HDLNMR-C particle concentration (P=0.006) than Whites. After 6 months of endurance exercise-training, APO E2/3 Blacks maintained a significantly larger HDLNMR-C particle size (P<0.001), and particle concentration of the large HDLNMR-C than APO E2/3 Whites (P<0.001). In multivariate ANOVAs adjusted for demographic and environmental confounding factors, and training-induced changes in lean body mass and intra-abdominal fat; the model explained ∼33 percent of the observed variability in training-induced improvements in HDLNMR-C particle size (P=0.002), with APO E2/3 Blacks having a greater increase in training-induced changes in HDLNMR-C particle size. In a separate but similarly adjusted model for conventionally-measured HDL2-C, the model explained, ∼49 percent of the observed variability in training-induced changes in HDL2-C. Conclusion Ethnicity interacted with the E2/3 genotype at the APO E gene locus to influence higher baseline, after training, and greater exercise training-induced improvements in the advantageous HDL-C subfractions in Blacks than in Whites. APO E2/3 Blacks may benefit more from aerobic-fitness to reduce CVD risk. PMID:19013289

  19. Physiological and affective reactivity to a 35% CO₂ inhalation challenge in individuals differing in the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Verschoor, Ellen; Markus, C Rob

    2012-08-01

    The inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide (CO₂) results in an acute stress response in healthy individuals and may accordingly provide a good paradigm to examine potential vulnerability factors for stress reactivity and stress-related psychopathology. It has been proposed that CO₂ reactivity is moderated by genetic (5-HTTLPR) and personality (neuroticism) factors, yet no experimental study has investigated their effects on CO₂ reactivity simultaneously. The current study examined the singular and interactive effects of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism in predicting the affective and physiological response to a 35% CO₂ challenge in a healthy sample of male and female students. From a large group of 771 students, 48 carriers of the low/low expressing allele (S/S, S/Lg, Lg/Lg) and 48 carriers of the high/high expressing allele (La/La) with the lowest and the highest neuroticism scores (77 females, 19 males; mean age ± SD: 20.6 ± 2 years) were selected and underwent a 35% CO₂ inhalation. Visual analogue scales for anxiety and discomfort and the Panic Symptom List were used to assess affective symptomatology, while salivary samples and heart rate were assessed to establish the physiological response. A typical pattern of responses to CO₂ was observed, characterised by increases in anxiogenic symptoms and physical panic symptomatology and a reduction in heart rate; however, no effect on salivary cortisol concentration was observed. Additionally, the CO₂ reactivity did not differ between groups divided by the 5-HTTLPR genotype or neuroticism. Findings of the current study do not support a role for singular or interactive effects of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism on affective and physiological reactivity to a 35% CO₂ inhalation procedure.

  20. Risk and protective factors for internalizing and externalizing outcomes among HIV-affected youth in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Li, Michelle; Betancourt, Theresa; Eustache, Eddy; Oswald, Catherine; Louis, Ermaze; Mukherjee, Joia; Surkan, Pamela J; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to: (1) estimate the levels of internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors among youth affected by HIV in central Haiti; and (2) examine the risk and protective factors associated with these outcomes to identify potential areas of intervention for HIV-affected youth. Baseline data for 492 youth affected by HIV (ages 10-17) and their 330 caregivers were collected for a pilot study of a psychosocial support intervention. Participants were recruited from a list of HIV-positive patients receiving care at Partners In Health/Zanmi Lasante clinic sites. Internalizing and externalizing behaviors were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Demographic, economic, and social indicators were collected using a structured questionnaire administered by trained social workers. Youth affected by HIV in central Haiti displayed high levels of internalizing and, to a lesser degree, externalizing symptoms. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated risk factors most strongly associated with internalizing symptoms (socioeconomic status, parental depressive symptoms) and externalizing behaviors (household living arrangements, such as living with a stepparent). Social support had a protective effect on externalizing behaviors for both caregiver (β=-0.03, p=0.01) and self-report (β=-0.05, p<0.0001). High levels of psychological distress were observed in this population, especially with respect to internalizing outcomes. Interventions should address the economic security, mental health, and access to antiretroviral therapy for families affected by HIV, as well as emphasize the importance of building supportive caregiver-child relationships to decrease the psychological symptoms and impact of other life stressors experienced by youth affected by HIV in Haiti and similar resource-limited settings.

  1. The Host Genotype and Environment Affect Strain Types of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum Inhabiting the Intestinal Tracts of Twins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Hang, Xiaomin; Tan, Jing; Yang, Hong

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the influences of host genotype and environment on Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum inhabiting human intestines at the strain level, six pairs of twins, divided into two groups (children and adults), were recruited. Each group consisted of two monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs and one dizygotic (DZ) twin pair. Child twins had been living together from birth, while adult twins had been living separately for 5 to 10 years. A total of 345 B. longum subsp. longum isolates obtained from 60 fecal samples from these twins were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and 35 sequence types (STs) were finally acquired. Comparison of strains within and between the twin pairs showed that no strains with identical STs were observed between unrelated individuals or within adult DZ twin pairs. Eight STs were found to be monophyletic, existing within MZ twins and child DZ twins. The similarity of strain types within child cotwins was significantly higher than that within adult cotwins, which indicated that environment was one of the important determinants in B. longum subsp. longum strain types inhabiting human intestines. However, although these differences between MZ and DZ twins were observed, it is still difficult to reach an exact conclusion about the impact of host genotype. This is mainly because of the limited number of subjects tested in the present study and the lack of strain types tracing in the same twin pairs from birth until adulthood. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. [Hepatitis B genotype distribution in Portugal and worldwide].

    PubMed

    Mota, Ana; Areias, Jorge; Cardoso, Margarida Fonseca

    2011-01-01

    Infection with Hepatitis B is a public health problem worldwide. In Portugal, around 1% of the population is chronically infected. Some genotypes are only predominant in some geographical regions; however migration around the world can lead to the dissemination of the different genotypes. The heterogeneity of hepatitis B genotypes seems to be related to differences in clinical evolution of the infection and response to antiviral treatment. The present study was designed to review the worldwide geographical distribution of Hepatitis B genotypes, and to analyze the possible relationships with the distribution of genotypes in Portugal. Studies of interest were identified by search on indexed journals. Search of Portuguese information was extended to conference proceedings in the areas of Virology and Hepatology. In Asia genotypes B and C were prevalent; in the North of Africa the genotype D was prevalent, and in the East Coast genotype E was predominant. In the American continent the most predominant genotypes were A, D, F, G and H. In South America, Venezuela and Argentina showed a high prevalence of genotype F, in Brazil genotype A was prevalent. In Europe, including Portugal, genotypes A and D were predominant. In Portugal genotypes C, E and F were observed in Portuguese patients and in immigrant patients. The pattern of global migration affects the pattern of genotype distribution, introducing genotypes in regions where the clinical outcome can differ from the population of origin. The genotypic distribution found in Portugal seems to be associated not just with being a European country, but also with immigration from Africa, Brazil, Eastern Europe, and Asian countries like China. The study of the hepatitis B genotypic distribution should be extended to all regions in Portugal, namely Lisbon where the immigration levels are higher, as well as to the autonomous regions of Portugal, the Azores and Madeira islands. The relationship between hepatitis B genotypes and

  3. Does Augmented Reality Affect High School Students' Learning Outcomes in Chemistry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Jonathan Christopher

    Some teens may prefer using a self-directed, constructivist, and technologic approach to learning rather than traditional classroom instruction. If it can be demonstrated, educators may adjust their teaching methodology. The guiding research question for this study focused on how augmented reality affects high school students' learning outcomes in chemistry, as measured by a pretest and posttest methodology when ensuring that the individual outcomes were not the result of group collaboration. This study employed a quantitative, quasi-experimental study design that used a comparison and experimental group. Inferential statistical analysis was employed. The study was conducted at a high school in southwest Colorado. Eighty-nine respondents returned completed and signed consent forms, and 78 participants completed the study. Results demonstrated that augmented reality instruction caused posttest scores to significantly increase, as compared to pretest scores, but it was not as effective as traditional classroom instruction. Scores did improve under both types of instruction; therefore, more research is needed in this area. The present study was the first quantitative experiment controlling for individual learning to validate augmented reality using mobile handheld digital devices that affected individual students' learning outcomes without group collaboration. This topic was important to the field of education as it may help educators understand how students learn and it may also change the way students are taught.

  4. How Does Definition of Minimum Break Length Affect Objective Measures of Sitting Outcomes Among Office Workers?

    PubMed

    Kloster, Stine; Danquah, Ida Høgstedt; Holtermann, Andreas; Aadahl, Mette; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    2017-01-01

    Harmful health effects associated with sedentary behavior may be attenuated by breaking up long periods of sitting by standing or walking. However, studies assess interruptions in sitting time differently, making comparisons between studies difficult. It has not previously been described how the definition of minimum break duration affects sitting outcomes. Therefore, the aim was to address how definitions of break length affect total sitting time, number of sit-to-stand transitions, prolonged sitting periods and time accumulated in prolonged sitting periods among office workers. Data were collected from 317 office workers. Thigh position was assessed with an ActiGraph GT3X+ fixed on the right thigh. Data were exported with varying bout length of breaks. Afterward, sitting outcomes were calculated for the respective break lengths. Absolute numbers of sit-to-stand transitions decreased, and number of prolonged sitting periods and total time accumulated in prolonged sitting periods increased, with increasing minimum break length. Total sitting time was not influenced by varying break length. The definition of minimum break length influenced the sitting outcomes with the exception of total sitting time. A standard definition of break length is needed for comparison and interpretation of studies in the evolving research field of sedentary behavior.

  5. Paternal investment and status-related child outcomes: timing of father's death affects offspring success.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Mary K; Scelza, Brooke A

    2012-09-01

    Recent work in human behavioural ecology has suggested that analyses focusing on early childhood may underestimate the importance of paternal investment to child outcomes since such investment may not become crucial until adolescence or beyond. This may be especially important in societies with a heritable component to status, as later investment by fathers may be more strongly related to a child's adult status than early forms of parental investment that affect child survival and child health. In such circumstances, the death or absence of a father may have profoundly negative effects on the adult outcomes of his children that cannot be easily compensated for by the investment of mothers or other relatives. This proposition is tested using a multigenerational dataset from Bangalore, India, containing information on paternal mortality as well as several child outcomes dependent on parental investment during adolescence and young adulthood. The paper examines the effects of paternal death, and the timing of paternal death, on a child's education, adult income, age at marriage and the amount spent on his or her marriage, along with similar characteristics of spouses. Results indicate that a father's death has a negative impact on child outcomes, and that, in contrast to some findings in the literature on father absence, the effects of paternal death are strongest for children who lose their father in late childhood or adolescence.

  6. Impact of interferon free regimens on clinical and cost outcomes for chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 patients.

    PubMed

    Younossi, Zobair M; Singer, Mendel E; Mir, Heshaam M; Henry, Linda; Hunt, Sharon

    2014-03-01

    Hepatitis C (HCV) is a common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Current standard treatment for genotype-1 patients uses a triple combination of pegylated-interferon alpha (IFN), ribavirin (RBV) and a direct-acting antiviral agent (DAA) with 75-80% sustained virologic response (SVR) rates. The aim is to determine cost-effectiveness of staging-guided vs. treat all HCV genotype-1 patients with interferon-based vs. interferon-free regimens. A decision analytic Markov model simulating patients until death compared four strategies for treating HCV genotype-1: Triple therapy (IFN, RBV, DAA) with staging-guidance or treat all, and oral IFN-free regimen with staging-guidance or treat all. Strategies with staging initiated treatment at fibrosis stages F2-F4, with staging repeated every 5 years until age 70. The reference case was a treatment-naïve 50-year-old. Analysis was repeated for 50% increase in cost of oral therapy. Effectiveness was measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Treatment of all patients with oral IFN-free regimen was the most cost-effective strategy, with an ICER of $15,709/QALY at baseline cost of oral therapy. The ICER remained below $50,000/QALY in sensitivity analyses for baseline and +50% cost of oral therapy scenarios. The treat all strategy was also the most effective strategy; associated with the lowest risk of developing advanced liver disease. Treating all HCV patients with oral IFN-free regimen reduced the number of patients developing advanced liver disease and increased life expectancy. Additionally, IFN-free regimen without staging may be the most cost-effective approach for treating HCV genotype-1 patients. The efficacy and safety of these regimens must be confirmed using randomized clinical trials. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternal apolipoprotein E genotype as a potential risk factor for poor birth outcomes: The Bogalusa Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Marni B.; Harville, Emily W.; Kelly, Tanika N.; Bazzano, Lydia A.; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between apolipoprotein E (apoE) genotype and preterm birth (PTB) and small for gestational age (SGA). Study Design ApoE phenotyping was performed on 680 women linked to 1 065 births. Allele frequencies were compared and PTB and SGA risk was estimated using log-binomial regression. Results The ε2 allele was more common in SGA births (p < 0.01). SGA risk was increased among ε2 carriers compared to genotype ε3/ε3, though associations were attenuated following adjustment for maternal age, education, race, smoking, and prenatal visits. Stronger associations were observed for term SGA (first birth: aRR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.06 – 2.98; any birth: aRR = 1.52, 95% CI 0.96 – 2.40) and among whites specifically (first: aRR = 2.88, 95% CI 1.45 – 5.69; any: aRR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.46 – 5.22). Conclusions Associations between maternal apoE genotype and SGA may represent decreased fetal growth in women with lower circulating cholesterol levels. PMID:26890557

  8. Predicting outcomes of group cognitive behavior therapy for patients with affective and neurotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Hooke, Geoffrey R; Page, Andrew C

    2002-10-01

    An attempt was made to predict outcomes following group Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) for patients with affective and neurotic disorders. A group of 348 patients at a private psychiatric clinic, treated in a group CBT program, completed the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS) before and after treatment. Prior to treatment, data from the Locus of Control of Behavior (LCB), a Global Assessment of Function (GAF), the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS), and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSE) were also collected. Results indicated that posttreatment stress scores of all patients were predicted by pretreatment stress and self-esteem. Among patients with neurotic disorders, posttreatment anxiety was predicted by initial anxiety and self-esteem whereas among patients with affective disorders, posttreatment anxiety scores were predicted by initial anxiety and GAF. For patients with neurotic disorders, self-esteem did not predict variance in posttreatment depression in addition to that explained by pretreatment depression. In contrast, for patients with affective disorders, pretreatment depression and Locus of Control predicted posttreatment depression.

  9. God imagery and affective outcomes in a spiritually integrative inpatient program.

    PubMed

    Currier, Joseph M; Foster, Joshua D; Abernethy, Alexis D; Witvliet, Charlotte V O; Root Luna, Lindsey M; Putman, Katharine M; Schnitker, Sarah A; VanHarn, Karl; Carter, Janet

    2017-08-01

    Religion and/or spirituality (R/S) can play a vital, multifaceted role in mental health. While beliefs about God represent the core of many psychiatric patients' meaning systems, research has not examined how internalized images of the divine might contribute to outcomes in treatment programs/settings that emphasize multicultural sensitivity with R/S. Drawing on a combination of qualitative and quantitative information with a religiously heterogeneous sample of 241 adults who completed a spiritually integrative inpatient program over a two-year period, this study tested direct/indirect associations between imagery of how God views oneself, religious comforts and strains, and affective outcomes (positive and negative). When accounting for patients' demographic and religious backgrounds, structural equation modeling results revealed: (1) overall effects for God imagery at pre-treatment on post-treatment levels of both positive and negative affect; and (2) religious comforts and strains fully mediated these links. Secondary analyses also revealed that patients' generally experienced reductions in negative emotion in God imagery over the course of their admission. These findings support attachment models of the R/S-mental health link and suggest that religious comforts and strains represent distinct pathways to positive and negative domains of affect for psychiatric patients with varying experiences of God. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Using skinfold calipers while teaching body fatness-related concepts: cognitive and affective outcomes.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, J R; Eklund, R C; Williams, A C

    2003-12-01

    Body composition testing has been advocated as part of fitness test batteries in an educational effort to promote health-related fitness, and to prevent public health problems like obesity. However, the measurement of the body composition of children and youth, especially involving the use of skinfold calipers, has raised concerns. In two experiments the cognitive and affective consequences of skinfold caliper use in a 7th grade (155 boys, 177 girls, total N = 332) health/physical education context were examined. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the students could be taught to accurately measure a partner and/or significantly learn body fatness-related concepts compared to controls. It was also shown that inexpensive plastic Fat Control calipers produced accurate measurements. Experiment 2 was designed to replicate the significant cognitive outcome effects, and also to test the hypothesis that psychological damage is a likely consequence of skinfold caliper use-and that hypothesis was refuted. Specifically, knowledge scores, and outcome scores on adapted affect scales (e.g., PANAS, MAACL), physical self-esteem scales (CY-PSPP) and on the Social Physique Anxiety Scale supported the premise that skinfold calipers can be used in an educational context to facilitate cognitive learning without causing adverse affective consequences.

  11. Adaptation of Subjective Responses to Alcohol is Affected by an Interaction of GABRA2 Genotype and Recent Drinking.

    PubMed

    Kosobud, Ann E K; Wetherill, Leah; Plawecki, Martin H; Kareken, David A; Liang, Tiebing; Nurnberger, John L; Windisch, Kyle; Xuei, Xiaoling; Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana M; O'Connor, Sean J

    2015-07-01

    Subjective perceptions of alcohol intoxication are associated with altered risk for alcohol abuse and dependence. Acute adaptation of these perceptions may influence such risk and may involve genes associated with pleasant perceptions or the relief of anxiety. This study assessed the effect of variation in the GABAA receptor genes GABRG1 and GABRA2 and recent drinking history on the acute adaptation of subjective responses to alcohol. One hundred and thirty-two nondependent moderate to heavy drinkers, aged 21 to 27, participated in 2 single-blind, counterbalanced sessions, approximately 1 week apart. One session was an intravenous alcohol "clamp," during which breath alcohol concentration was held steady at 60 mg/dl (60 mg%) for 3 hours, and the other an identical session using saline infusion. Subjective perceptions of Intoxication, Enjoyment, Stimulation, Relaxation, Anxiety, Tiredness, and Estimated Number of Drinks were acquired before (baseline), and during the first and final 45 minutes of the clamp. A placebo-adjusted index of the subject's acute adaptation to alcohol was calculated for each of the 7 subjective measures and used in a principal component analysis to create a single aggregate estimate for each subject's adaptive response to alcohol. Analysis of covariance tested whether GABRA2 and GABRG1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes, gender, placebo session, family history of alcoholism, recent drinking history, and the genotype × recent drinking history interaction significantly predicted the adaptive response. Recent drinking history (p = 0.01), and recent drinking history × genotype interaction (p = 0.01) were significantly associated with acute adaptation of the subjective responses to alcohol for the GABRA2 SNP rs279858. Higher recent drinking was found to be associated with reduced acute tolerance to positive, stimulating effects of alcohol in carriers of the rs279858 risk allele. We postulate that the GABRA2 effect on

  12. Are periodontal outcomes affected by personality patterns? A 18-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, Carlo; Venuta, Marco; Guaraldi, Gianpaolo; Lalla, Michele; Guaitolini, Stefania; Generali, Luigi; Monzani, Daniele; Cortellini, Pierpaolo; Zaffe, Davide

    2017-09-26

    This research aims to study the relationship between personality traits and periodontal clinical outcomes by taking into account the level of anxiety and depression, periodontal health and oral hygiene behaviour of patients affected with gingivitis or moderate periodontitis requiring periodontal therapy. The periodontal data of 40 systemically healthy patients affected by gingivitis or moderate periodontitis were collected at baseline and 18 months later. The psychological variables, dental awareness and adherence intent of the patients were assessed through questionnaires, and only those patients that exhibited a higher degree of compliance were included in the study. The personality traits (cluster A: paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal; cluster B: borderline, antisocial, narcissistic, and histrionic; cluster C: avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive) and the level of anxiety and depression of the patients were assessed. Patients were instructed with oral hygiene measures and were treated with periodontal therapy. Clusters A and B showed a consistent tendency for reduced levels of oral hygiene (increased full-mouth plaque score - FMPS). The results from cluster B were found to be significantly related to deep periodontal pockets at baseline. On the contrary, cluster C seemed to be linked to clinically better indices, particularly in terms of full-mouth-bleeding-score and pocket depth, both at baseline and 18 months later. The results collected from clusters B and C were directly correlated with anxiety, depression and FMPS. Moreover, anxiety was directly correlated with the patient's need for professional oral-care. Personality traits appear to play a significant role in determining the therapeutic outcomes of periodontal therapy in themselves. Thus, it is ideal for several important psychological, affective or behavioural factors to be associated with various personality traits so as to orient the outcome of periodontal therapy.

  13. The effects of catechol O-methyltransferase genotype on brain activation elicited by affective stimuli and cognitive tasks.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Andreas; Smolka, Michael N

    2006-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) degrades the catecholamine neurotransmitters dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. A functional polymorphism in the COMT gene (val158 met) accounts for a four-fold variation in enzyme activity. The low activity met158 allele has been associated with improved working memory, executive functioning, and attentional control, but also with a higher risk of anxiety-related behaviors. In spite of the strong effect of the COMT genotype on enzyme activity, its effects on behavior are moderate, accounting for only 4% of variance in task performance. Studies of individuals with intermediate phenotypes during activities such as task-dependent brain activation, may more sensitively detect gene effects on the brain. A series of studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) assessed the effects of the COMT val158 met genotype on central processing during working memory, attentional control, and emotional tasks. fMRI revealed a more focused response in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of met158 allele carriers during a working memory task. A comparable effect during the performance of an attentional control task in the cingulate cortex was also observed. These data indicate that met158 allele load is associated with improved processing efficiency in the PFC and cingulate, which might be due to lower prefrontal dopamine (DA) metabolism, higher DA concentrations, and an increased neuronal signal-to-noise ratio during information processing. During performance of an emotional task, reactivity to unpleasant visual stimuli was positively correlated with the number of met158 alleles in the amygdala, as well as in other limbic and paralimbic nodes. This increased limbic reactivity to unpleasant stimuli might be the underlying cause of the lower emotional resilience against negative mood states observed in individuals with a higher met158 allele load. Thus the met158 allele seems to be beneficial during the performance of working memory and

  14. Mutation detection in the ABCC6 gene and genotype-phenotype analysis in a large international case series affected by pseudoxanthoma elasticum.

    PubMed

    Pfendner, Ellen G; Vanakker, Olivier M; Terry, Sharon F; Vourthis, Sophia; McAndrew, Patricia E; McClain, Monica R; Fratta, Sarah; Marais, Anna-Susan; Hariri, Susan; Coucke, Paul J; Ramsay, Michele; Viljoen, Denis; Terry, Patrick F; De Paepe, Anne; Uitto, Jouni; Bercovitch, Lionel G

    2007-10-01

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), an autosomal recessive disorder with considerable phenotypic variability, mainly affects the eyes, skin and cardiovascular system, characterised by dystrophic mineralization of connective tissues. It is caused by mutations in the ABCC6 (ATP binding cassette family C member 6) gene, which encodes MRP6 (multidrug resistance-associated protein 6). To investigate the mutation spectrum of ABCC6 and possible genotype-phenotype correlations. Mutation data were collected on an international case series of 270 patients with PXE (239 probands, 31 affected family members). A denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography-based assay was developed to screen for mutations in all 31 exons, eliminating pseudogene coamplification. In 134 patients with a known phenotype and both mutations identified, genotype-phenotype correlations were assessed. In total, 316 mutant alleles in ABCC6, including 39 novel mutations, were identified in 239 probands. Mutations were found to cluster in exons 24 and 28, corresponding to the second nucleotide-binding fold and the last intracellular domain of the protein. Together with the recurrent R1141X and del23-29 mutations, these mutations accounted for 71.5% of the total individual mutations identified. Genotype-phenotype analysis failed to reveal a significant correlation between the types of mutations identified or their predicted effect on the expression of the protein and the age of onset and severity of the disease. This study emphasises the principal role of ABCC6 mutations in the pathogenesis of PXE, but the reasons for phenotypic variability remain to be explored.

  15. Affective States and State Tests: Investigating How Affect and Engagement during the School Year Predict End-of-Year Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardos, Zachary A.; Baker, Ryan S. J. D.; San Pedro, Maria O. C. Z.; Gowda, Sujith M.; Gowda, Supreeth M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the correspondence between student affect and behavioural engagement in a web-based tutoring platform throughout the school year and learning outcomes at the end of the year on a high-stakes mathematics exam in a manner that is both longitudinal and fine-grained. Affect and behaviour detectors are used to estimate…

  16. Successful Pregnancy Outcome in a Patient with Solitary Kidney Affected by Angiomyolipoma: A Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Kavita; Nanda, Sakshi; Choudhary, Sumesh; Gandhi, Khushali

    2016-01-01

    Renal angiomyolipoma is a rare benign tumour and its occurrence during pregnancy is even rare. It is usually diagnosed incidentally. It can increase in size during pregnancy and can present acutely as rupture with retroperitoneal haemorrhage, mechanism of which is still unclear. We present a case of successful pregnancy outcome in a patient with congenital solitary kidney affected by angiomyolipoma, diagnosed incidentally at 19 years of age. The patient had conceived twice. Her antenatal and post partum period was uneventful both the times. PMID:27891407

  17. Cryotherapy in Treatment of Keloids: Evaluation of Factors Affecting Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Barara, Meenu; Mendiratta, Vibhu; Chander, Ram

    2012-01-01

    Background: Keloids are cosmetically disfiguring benign fibrous outgrowths, which present as a major therapeutic dilemma due to their frequent recurrence. Despite a wide therapeutic armamentarium available for these scars, none has been found to be completely effective and satisfactory. Cryosurgery has offered some promise in the treatment of keloids.We conducted this study to evaluate the effect of cryotherapy in treatment of keloids and to relate the treatment outcome with the clinico-etiological factors. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based interventional study was conducted in 30 patients of keloids. Patients received two freeze thaw cycles of 15 seconds each at four weekly intervals for six sessions or flattening greater than 75%; whichever occurred earlier. Patients were assessed after three treatment sessions and at treatment completion regarding thickness and firmness of lesions. Patient satisfaction scale was used to evaluate the treatment outcome at completion of six treatment sessions. Paired Students t-test and Analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for statistical analysis. Results: Average flattening noted after 3 and 6 sessions of cryotherapy was 30.76% and 58.13%, respectively. The duration of lesions and thickness of keloids correlated significantly with the result of treatment. The site and aetiology did not influence the outcome of cryosurgical treatment. Conclusion: Cryotherapy seems to be an effective treatment modality for keloids of recent onset, particularly smaller lesions. Duration and thickness of the keloids were found to be the most important factors in determining treatment outcome with cryotherapy in our study. Larger studies are, however, required to confirm the efficacy of this treatment modality and to validate our findings of the factors affecting treatment outcome. PMID:23112514

  18. Epedimiologic, clinical profile and factors affecting the outcome in febrile neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamani, Kalpathi; Gandhi, Linga Vijay; Sadashivudu, Gundeti; Raghunadharao, Digumarti

    2017-01-01

    Background: Febrile neutropenia (FN) is common in cancer patients particularly hematologic malignancies due to intensive cytotoxic chemotherapy. It is an important cause of morbidity, mortality and treatment delays. The risk is greater in patients with ANC < 500/ mm3 and increases dramatically in those with ANC < 100/ mm3 and duration of neutropenia more than 1 week. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, demographic characteristics, clinical profile, mortality, outcome and factors affecting the outcome in patients with febrile neutropenia (FN) admitted at our Center between January 2011 and November 2012. Materials and Methods: All cases of FN admitted in our Institute between January 2011 and November 2012 were analyzed. Data was analyzed using IBM statistic SPSS version 19. Results: A total of 333 episodes of FN were reviewed. Hematologic malignancies accounted for 299 (89.7%) episodes and 88% of all the episodes had grade 4 neutropenia. There was a significant association noted between high serum bilirubin, creatinine and outcome. Isolation of an organism from blood culture, positive findings on chest X-ray and fungal infection was associated with higher mortality. Association between transfusion requirements and outcome was analyzed and it was observed that patients who had multiple component transfusions vs single component ones were at a significantly higher risk of death. There were only 7 deaths noted among the patient population. Conclusion: Leukemias are the leading cause of FN at our Institute. Higher bilirubin, creatinine, chest imaging favoring pneumonia, positive isolates and multiple transfusions had significant association with mortality. Large scale prospective studies are needed to determine the association of preemptive therapy with higher mortality. The outcome of high risk FN in this study is favorable. PMID:28413792

  19. Whole-Genome Sequencing and iPLEX MassARRAY Genotyping Map an EMS-Induced Mutation Affecting Cell Competition in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Hyun; Rimesso, Gerard; Reynolds, David M.; Cai, Jinlu; Baker, Nicholas E.

    2016-01-01

    Cell competition, the conditional loss of viable genotypes only when surrounded by other cells, is a phenomenon observed in certain genetic mosaic conditions. We conducted a chemical mutagenesis and screen to recover new mutations that affect cell competition between wild-type and RpS3 heterozygous cells. Mutations were identified by whole-genome sequencing, making use of software tools that greatly facilitate the distinction between newly induced mutations and other sources of apparent sequence polymorphism, thereby reducing false-positive and false-negative identification rates. In addition, we utilized iPLEX MassARRAY for genotyping recombinant chromosomes. These approaches permitted the mapping of a new mutation affecting cell competition when only a single allele existed, with a phenotype assessed only in genetic mosaics, without the benefit of complementation with existing mutations, deletions, or duplications. These techniques expand the utility of chemical mutagenesis and whole-genome sequencing for mutant identification. We discuss mutations in the Atm and Xrp1 genes identified in this screen. PMID:27574103

  20. Predicted and experienced affective responses to the outcome of the 2008 U.S. presidential election.

    PubMed

    Kitchens, Michael B; Corser, Grant C; Gohm, Carol L; VonWaldner, Kristen L; Foreman, Elizabeth L

    2010-12-01

    People typically have intense feelings about politics. Therefore, it was no surprise that the campaign and eventual election of Barack Obama were highly anticipated and emotionally charged events, making it and the emotion experienced afterward a useful situation in which to replicate prior research showing that people typically overestimate the intensity and duration of their future affective states. Consequently, it was expected that Obama supporters and McCain supporters might overestimate the intensity of their affective responses to the outcome of the election. Data showed that while McCain supporters underestimated how happy they would be following the election, Obama supporters accurately predicted how happy they would be following the election. These data provide descriptive information on the accuracy of people's predicted reactions to the 2008 U.S. presidential election. The findings are discussed in the context of the broad literature and this specific and unique event.

  1. Does 3-Dimensional In Vivo Component Rotation Affect Clinical Outcomes in Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Liow, Ming Han Lincoln; Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Dimitriou, Dimitris; Li, Guoan; Kwon, Young-Min

    2016-10-01

    Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is an effective treatment for single-compartment osteoarthritis. Limited studies have examined the relationship between component rotation and functional outcomes, with no existing consensus to guide "optimal" UKA component rotation. Our study aims to study the effect of 3-dimensional (3D) in vivo UKA component axial rotation on functional outcomes by determining (1) how much component axial rotation variability exists in UKA? and (2) does 3D in vivo UKA component axial rotation affect functional outcomes? Sixty-six UKAs from 58 consecutive patients (36 male [62.1%], age 63.7 ± 9.2 years, body mass index 28.2 ± 4.9 kg/m(2), and mean follow-up time 49.2 months) were imaged in weight-bearing standing position using biplanar radiography. We performed multiple comparisons to analyze the relationship between 3D UKA component alignment and European Quality of Life - 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), UCLA activity score, and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores. Significant improvements in EQ-5D, EQ-5D (United States adjusted), and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores (Sport/Rec) scores were noted postoperatively. However, high variability in 3D UKA femoral (6.2° ± 6.5°) and tibial (4.6° ± 6.4°) component positioning was observed. A trend toward better outcome scores in lower angles of femoral (<2.7° external rotation [ER]) and tibial (2.7° ER to 2.4° internal rotation [IR]) component rotation was noted, with better functional scores observed at mean femoral and tibial rotation angles of 3° ER to 3° IR. Patients with UKA femoral and/or tibial component rotation angles within 3° ER to 3° IR of neutral component alignment reported better functional outcomes. Surgeons should be cognizant of the high variability noted in UKA component axial rotation and its potential correlation with functional scores. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors affecting employment outcomes for people with disabilities who received Disability Employment Services in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yuh; Wang, Yun-Tung; Lin, Meng-Hsiu

    2014-03-01

    One of the most important rehabilitation goals is to return people with disabilities to paid employment. The purposes of this study were (1) to explore employment status and (2) to identify factors that may affect the employment outcomes of people with disabilities who received Disability Employment Services (DES). A retrospective study was conducted on clients who commenced and closed DES between January 2008 and December 2010 in a metropolitan city in Taiwan, using the files from the National Vocational Rehabilitation Services Documentary System. Sixty-nine percent (1,684 out of 2,452) of the clients in this study were engaged in paid employment after receiving DES. Logistic regression analyses indicated that clients with no psychiatric disability or mild impairment and with useful vocational qualifications, typical work experience, more post-employment services, and less pre-employment services were associated with a higher rate of successful employment outcomes. This study provides empirical evidence of the association between person- and DES-related factors and the employment outcomes of people with disabilities. Future improvements in health, school-to-work transition services, and vocational rehabilitation for people with disabilities should place more emphasis on providing work-based work experience, professional vocational training, access to college/professional education, career exploration, effective supported employment services, and other post-employment services.

  3. Mechanisms of Behavioral and Affective Treatment Outcomes in a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Boys

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Loeber, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for effective treatment for behavioral problems continues to grow, yet evidence about the effective mechanisms underlying those interventions has lagged behind. The Stop Now and Plan (SNAP) program is a multicomponent intervention for boys between 6 and 11. This study tested putative treatment mechanisms using data from 252 boys in a randomized controlled trial of SNAP versus treatment as usual. SNAP includes a 3 month group treatment period followed by individualized intervention, which persisted through the 15 month study period. Measures were administered in four waves: at baseline and at 3, 9 and 15 months after baseline. A hierarchical linear modeling strategy was used. SNAP was associated with improved problem-solving skills, prosocial behavior, emotion regulation skills, and reduced parental stress. Prosocial behavior, emotion regulation skills and reduced parental stress partially mediated improvements in child aggression. Improved emotion regulation skills partially mediated treatment-related child anxious-depressed outcomes. Improvements in parenting behaviors did not differ between treatment conditions. The results suggest that independent processes may drive affective and behavioral outcomes, with some specificity regarding the mechanisms related to differing treatment outcomes. PMID:25619927

  4. Ecological specialization and trade affect the outcome of negotiations in mutualism.

    PubMed

    Grman, Emily; Robinson, Todd M P; Klausmeier, Christopher A

    2012-05-01

    By definition, mutualisms involve the exchange of goods or services between partners. It has been shown that mutualism can grade into parasitism, but even when exchange is mutually beneficial, a conflict of interest remains because each partner benefits from reaping more benefits at a lower cost. Metaphorically, the partners negotiate the conditions of trade, the outcome of which will determine the net benefit to each partner. Each partner can adjust its allocation to self-provisioning while negotiating the ratio at which benefits are exchanged. To understand how these two features of trade affect mutualisms, we used the example of the plant-arbuscular mycorrhizal mutualism and modeled uptake and trade of two resources, phosphorus and carbon. In most contexts, the fungus specialized on phosphorus uptake while the plant took up both phosphorus and carbon. However, when phosphorus was abundant and light was scarce, the plant specialized, taking up only carbon and relying on trade for phosphorus. Resource availability was the most important factor determining specialization and the outcome of negotiation and trade, but other aspects of the context were also important. These results suggest experiments to link these two key features of trade with environmental conditions to determine the outcome of mutualism.

  5. Is Measured Hearing Aid Benefit Affected by Seeing Baseline Outcome Questionnaire Responses?

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, ShienPei; Cates, Megan; Saunders, Gabrielle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether hearing aid outcome measured by the Hearing Handicap Inventory (HHI) for the Elderly/Adults (Newman, Weinstein, Jacobson, & Hug, 1990; Ventry & Weinstein, 1982) is differentially affected by informed vs. blind administration of the postfitting questionnaire. Method Participants completed the HHI at their hearing aid evaluation and again at their hearing aid follow-up visit. At follow-up, half received a clean HHI form (blind administration), whereas the remainder responded on their original form (informed administration) and could thus base their follow-up responses on those they gave at the hearing aid evaluation. Results The data show that for the population examined here, informed administration of the follow-up HHI did not yield a different outcome to blind administration of the follow-up HHI. This was not influenced by past hearing aid use, age of the participant, or the duration of time between baseline questionnaire completion and follow-up completion. Conclusion These data suggest that completion of follow-up questionnaires in either informed or blind format will have little impact on HHI responses, most likely because of the many other factors that combined to influence hearing aid outcome. PMID:21940983

  6. Paraoxonase 1 Gene Polymorphism Does Not Affect Clopidogrel Response Variability but Is Associated with Clinical Outcome after PCI

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeehoon; Jeon, Ki-Hyun; Kang, Si-Hyuck; Han, Jung-Kyu; Lee, Sang Eun; Yang, Han-Mo; Lee, Hae-Young; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Oh, Byung-Hee; Park, Young-Bae; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Background Paraoxonase (PON) is a high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) associated enzyme with antioxidative and anti-atherogenic property. Its function is associated with coronary artery disease and its activity genetically controlled. We evaluated whether genetic variation of PON-1 is associated with clinical outcome in a large cohort of Korean patients with drug-eluting stents implantation. Methods A total of 1676 patients with drug-eluting stent implantation were enrolled in the prospective CROSS-VERIFY cohort from June 2006 to June 2010. We genotyped the PON1-Q192R gene, measured clopidogrel on-treatment platelet reactivity (OPR), and analyzed lipid profiles. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and stent thrombosis at 12 months. Results PON-1 genotyping data were available in 1336 patients. Since the Q-allele is associated with decreased PON-activity, we analyzed the outcome between patients with QQ/QR (815 patients, 61%) and those with RR-genotype (521 patients, 39%). After adjustment for common cardiac risk factors, the QQ/QR-genotype was an independent predictor of the primary thrombotic endpoint with an 11-fold increased risk (HR 11.6, 95% CI: 1.55–87.0), but not repeat revascularization (HR 1.12, 95% CI: 0.78–1.61). The QQ/QR-genotype was not associated with OPR (QQ/QR: 231±86 PRU vs. RR 236±82 PRU, p = 0.342) but higher small-dense LDL levels (1.20±0.12 mg/dL vs. 0.76±0.15 mg/dL, p = 0.027). The increased risk of thrombotic outcomes was more profound in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients compared with non-ACS patients. Conclusion PON1 Q-allele is an independent predictor of worse cardiovascular outcome independent of platelet function and is associated with significantly higher levels of small dense LDL-C. PMID:23418418

  7. Affective forecasting in an orangutan: predicting the hedonic outcome of novel juice mixes.

    PubMed

    Sauciuc, Gabriela-Alina; Persson, Tomas; Bååth, Rasmus; Bobrowicz, Katarzyna; Osvath, Mathias

    2016-11-01

    Affective forecasting is an ability that allows the prediction of the hedonic outcome of never-before experienced situations, by mentally recombining elements of prior experiences into possible scenarios, and pre-experiencing what these might feel like. It has been hypothesised that this ability is uniquely human. For example, given prior experience with the ingredients, but in the absence of direct experience with the mixture, only humans are said to be able to predict that lemonade tastes better with sugar than without it. Non-human animals, on the other hand, are claimed to be confined to predicting-exclusively and inflexibly-the outcome of previously experienced situations. Relying on gustatory stimuli, we devised a non-verbal method for assessing affective forecasting and tested comparatively one Sumatran orangutan and ten human participants. Administered as binary choices, the test required the participants to mentally construct novel juice blends from familiar ingredients and to make hedonic predictions concerning the ensuing mixes. The orangutan's performance was within the range of that shown by the humans. Both species made consistent choices that reflected independently measured taste preferences for the stimuli. Statistical models fitted to the data confirmed the predictive accuracy of such a relationship. The orangutan, just like humans, thus seems to have been able to make hedonic predictions concerning never-before experienced events.

  8. SurvivalGWAS_SV: software for the analysis of genome-wide association studies of imputed genotypes with "time-to-event" outcomes.

    PubMed

    Syed, Hamzah; Jorgensen, Andrea L; Morris, Andrew P

    2017-05-19

    Analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with "time to event" outcomes have become increasingly popular, predominantly in the context of pharmacogenetics, where the survival endpoint could be death, disease remission or the occurrence of an adverse drug reaction. However, methodology and software that can efficiently handle the scale and complexity of genetic data from GWAS with time to event outcomes has not been extensively developed. SurvivalGWAS_SV is an easy to use software implemented using C# and run on Linux, Mac OS X & Windows operating systems. SurvivalGWAS_SV is able to handle large scale genome-wide data, allowing for imputed genotypes by modelling time to event outcomes under a dosage model. Either a Cox proportional hazards or Weibull regression model is used for analysis. The software can adjust for multiple covariates and incorporate SNP-covariate interaction effects. We introduce a new console application analysis tool for the analysis of GWAS with time to event outcomes. SurvivalGWAS_SV is compatible with high performance parallel computing clusters, thereby allowing efficient and effective analysis of large scale GWAS datasets, without incurring memory issues. With its particular relevance to pharmacogenetic GWAS, SurvivalGWAS_SV will aid in the identification of genetic biomarkers of patient response to treatment, with the ultimate goal of personalising therapeutic intervention for an array of diseases.

  9. Early symptomatic improvement affects treatment outcome in a study of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Targum, Steven D

    2017-09-08

    Early symptomatic improvement immediately following randomization can affect signal detection in clinical trials. The impact of early improvement of the Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS) on eventual treatment outcome was examined in a 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a putative antidepressant (CX157) versus placebo in depressed subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) who had had an inadequate response to ongoing antidepressant treatment (NCT00739908). MADRS score changes within one week after randomization directly affected treatment outcome at the study endpoint (week 6). The response and remission rates at week 6 increased significantly as the percent of MADRS score improvement increased between baseline and week 1 regardless of treatment assignment. Less MADRS improvement or actual worsening within the first week after randomization was associated with minimal overall MADRS score changes by week 6 in either treatment assignment. Alternatively, CX157 assigned subjects who had ≥30% improvement by week 1 achieved a significantly greater treatment response rate than the matched placebo group at the study endpoint (p = 0.025) that converted the lack of signal detection in the mITT population. This post-hoc analysis highlights the potent effect that early symptomatic improvement immediately following randomization can have on treatment outcome, and is particularly relevant for antidepressant drugs with rapid onset of action. The findings compel further exploration of possible moderating and mediating factors, including the experimental condition itself that can influence early response, and the need to identify "bio-types" within the population of MDD subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure affects fertilization outcome in swine animal model.

    PubMed

    Bernabò, N; Tettamanti, E; Russo, V; Martelli, A; Turriani, M; Mattoli, M; Barboni, B

    2010-06-01

    Modern society continuously exposes the population to electromagnetic radiation, the effects of which on human health, in particular reproduction, are still unknown. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of acute (1h) exposure of boar spermatozoa to a 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on early fertility outcome. The effect of intensities ranging from 0 to 2 mT on morpho-functional integrity of capacitated spermatozoa was examined in vitro. The oviducts containing or without spermatozoa were then exposed to the minimum in vivo, TD(50,) and maximum intensities determined in vitro, 4h before ovulation. The effects of ELF-EMF on spermatozoa in terms of early embryo development were evaluated after 12h and 6 days. It was found that in vitro ELF-EMF > 0.5 mT induced a progressive acrosome damage, thus compromising the ability of spermatozoa to undergo acrosomal reaction after zona pellucida stimulation and reducing the in vitro fertilization outcome. These effects became evident at 0.75 mT and reached the plateau at 1 mT. Under in vivo conditions, the ELF-EMF intensity of 1 mT was able to compromise sperm function, significantly reducing the fertilization rate. In addition, the exposure of oviducts to fields > or = 0.75 mT in the absence of spermatozoa was able to negatively affect early embryo development. In fact, it was found to cause a slowdown in the embryo cleavage. In conclusion, it was demonstrated how and at which intensities ELF-EMF negatively affect early fertility outcome in a highly predictive animal model.

  11. Does Segmental Kyphosis Affect Surgical Outcome after a Posterior Decompressive Laminectomy in Multisegmental Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy?

    PubMed Central

    Rustagi, Tarush; Prasad, Gautam; Deore, Tushar; Bhojraj, Shekhar Y.

    2017-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective analysis. Purpose To compare results of laminectomy in multisegmental compressive cervical myelopathy (CSM) with lordosis versus segmental kyphosis. Overview of Literature Laminectomy is an established procedure for decompression in CSM with cervical lordosis. However in patients with segmental kyphosis, it is associated with risk of progression of kyphosis and poor outcome. Whether this loss of sagittal alignment affects functional outcome is not clear. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 68 patients who underwent laminectomy for CSM from 1998 to 2009. As per preoperative magnetic resonance images, 36 patients had preoperative lordosis (Group 1) and 32 had segmental kyphosis (Group 2). We studied age at the time of surgery, duration of preoperative symptoms, recovery rate, magnitude of postoperative backward shifting of spinal cord and loss of sagittal alignment. Results Mean follow up was 5.05 years (range, 2–13 years) and mean age at the time of surgery 61.88 years. Group 1 had 20 men and 16 women and Group 2 had 19 men and 13 women. Mean recovery rate in Group 1 was 60.32%, in Group 2 was 63.7% without any statistical difference (p-value 0.21, one tailed analysis of variance). Two patients of Group 1 had loss of cervical lordosis by five degrees. In Group 2 seven patients had progression of segmental kyphosis by 5–10 degrees and two patients by more than 10 degrees. Mean cord shift was more in Group 1 (mean, 2.41 mm) as compared to Group 2 (mean, –1.97 mm) but it had no correlation to recovery rate. Patients with younger age (mean, 57 years) and less duration of preoperative symptoms (mean, 4.86 years) had better recovery rate (75%). Conclusions Clinical outcome in CSM is not related to preoperative cervical spine alignment. Thus, lordosis is not mandatory for planning laminectomy in CSM. Good outcome is expected in younger patients operated earliest after onset of symptoms. PMID:28243365

  12. Bacteraemia in ventricular assist devices: a common complication that need not affect clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeldt, Franklin L; Kwa, Lachlan J; Porapakkham, Pramote; Rajadurai, Suraindra; Jones, Kylie; van de Merwe, Juliana; Billah, Baki; Porapakkham, Pornwalee; Esmore, Donald S; Halvorsen, Dag S; Aguirre, Victor J; Spelman, Denis W

    2014-03-01

    Ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation has become an effective option for patients with severe heart failure. However, device-related infections remain a significant problem. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence and microbiological aetiology of bacteraemia in patients with VADs, and to assess the impact of bacteraemia on clinical outcomes. A retrospective study was conducted of patients having VAD implantation at the Alfred Hospital (Melbourne, Australia) from October 1990 to July 2009. Medical records and microbiology databases were reviewed. Patients who were supported with a VAD for 72h or more were evaluated for demographic data, VAD type, the occurrence of bacteraemia and clinical outcomes. During the 19-year period, 135 VAD patients (89 Thoratec PVAD, 10 Novacor, and 36 Ventrassist) supported for a total duration of 17,304 (median 74) support days were included. Sixty-one patients (45%) developed VAD-associated bacteraemia, an incidence of 5.6 episodes per 1000 support days. The incidence of bacteraemia per 1000 days of support was similar for the three devices used: Thoratec PVAD, Novacor and Ventrassist VADs (7.8±0.8, 5.2±1.5 and 3.4±0.5, respectively, p=0.74). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen (25%). The rates of death on device, survival to transplant, recovery with explant and outcomes after transplantation, including 30-day mortality, median survival time and incidence of cerebrovascular accidents were not significantly impacted upon by bacteraemia. Bacteraemia is common in VAD patients. However, the incidence of VAD-associated bacteraemia is independent of device type and with aggressive antimicrobial therapy; clinical outcomes need not be affected by the bacteraemia. Copyright © 2013 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Does sonographic needle guidance affect the clinical outcome of intraarticular injections?

    PubMed

    Sibbitt, Wilmer L; Peisajovich, Andres; Michael, Adrian A; Park, Kye S; Sibbitt, Randy R; Band, Philip A; Bankhurst, Arthur D

    2009-09-01

    This randomized controlled study addressed whether sonographic needle guidance affected clinical outcomes of intraarticular (IA) joint injections. In total, 148 painful joints were randomized to IA triamcinolone acetonide injection by conventional palpation-guided anatomic injection or sonographic image-guided injection enhanced with a one-handed control syringe (the reciprocating device). A one-needle, 2-syringe technique was used, where the first syringe was used to introduce the needle, aspirate any effusion, and anesthetize and dilate the IA space with lidocaine. After IA placement and synovial space dilation were confirmed, a syringe exchange was performed, and corticosteroid was injected with the second syringe through the indwelling IA needle. Baseline pain, procedural pain, pain at outcome (2 weeks), and changes in pain scores were measured with a 0-10 cm visual analog pain scale (VAS). Relative to conventional palpation-guided methods, sonographic guidance resulted in 43.0% reduction in procedural pain (p < 0.001), 58.5% reduction in absolute pain scores at the 2 week outcome (p < 0.001), 75% reduction in significant pain (VAS pain score > or = 5 cm; p < 0.001), 25.6% increase in the responder rate (reduction in VAS score > or = 50% from baseline; p < 0.01), and 62.0% reduction in the nonresponder rate (reduction in VAS score < 50% from baseline; p < 0.01). Sonography also increased detection of effusion by 200% and volume of aspirated fluid by 337%. Sonographic needle guidance significantly improves the performance and outcomes of outpatient IA injections in a clinically significant manner.

  14. Lung perfusion and emphysema distribution affect the outcome of endobronchial valve therapy

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Christian; Theilig, Dorothea; Herzog, Dominik; Poellinger, Alexander; Doellinger, Felix; Schreiter, Nils; Schreiter, Vera; Schürmann, Dirk; Temmesfeld-Wollbrueck, Bettina; Hippenstiel, Stefan; Suttorp, Norbert; Hubner, Ralf-Harto

    2016-01-01

    The exclusion of collateral ventilation (CV) and other factors affect the clinical success of endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR). However, despite its benefits, the outcome of ELVR remains difficult to predict. We investigated whether clinical success could be predicted by emphysema distribution assessed by computed tomography scan and baseline perfusion assessed by perfusion scintigraphy. Data from 57 patients with no CV in the target lobe (TL) were retrospectively analyzed after ELVR with valves. Pulmonary function tests (PFT), St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and 6-minute walk tests (6MWT) were performed on patients at baseline. The sample was grouped into high and low levels at the median of TL perfusion, ipsilateral nontarget lobe (INL) perfusion, and heterogeneity index (HI). These groups were analyzed for association with changes in outcome parameters from baseline to 3 months follow-up. Compared to baseline, patients showed significant improvements in PFT, SGRQ, and 6MWT (all P≤0.001). TL perfusion was not associated with changes in the outcome. High INL perfusion was significantly associated with increases in 6MWT (P=0.014), and high HI was associated with increases in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), (P=0.012). Likewise, there were significant correlations for INL perfusion and improvement of 6MWT (r=0.35, P=0.03) and for HI and improvement in FEV1 (r=0.45, P=0.001). This study reveals new attributes that associate with positive outcomes for patient selection prior to ELVR. Patients with high perfusions in INL demonstrated greater improvements in 6MWT, while patients with high HI were more likely to respond in FEV1. PMID:27354783

  15. Does body mass index affect outcomes for aortic valve replacement surgery for aortic stenosis?

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert L; Herbert, Morley A; Dewey, Todd M; Brinkman, William T; Prince, Syma L; Ryan, William H; Mack, Michael J

    2012-03-01

    Obesity is a worldwide healthcare concern, and its association with several chronic diseases is well documented. However, the effect obesity may have on the acute care delivery is not well understood, and in cardiac surgery, reports are conflicting. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of obesity in an isolated aortic valve replacement population. The hypothesis is that increasing body mass index (BMI) will portend worse long-term outcomes and greater short-term resource utilization secondary to perioperative complications but will not affect perioperative mortality. Data were collected on 1,066 patients undergoing isolated AVR between January 2000 and December 2010. All definitions follow The Society of Thoracic Surgeons guidelines. Body mass indexes were calculated and used both as a continuous independent variable and to categorize patients into three BMI groups. Long-term mortality follow-up was by Social Security Death Index search. Standard bivariate and multivariate comparisons were performed with hierarchical models used for odds ratios. When controlling for standard covariates that negatively impact outcome (sex, age, renal failure needing dialysis, diabetes mellitus, and current smoker), BMI was not predictive for either operative mortality or a composite morbidity-mortality outcome. When divided into three equal-sized groups, there was again no statistical difference among groups for mortality or for the composite variable. Separate analyses for females and males yielded the same lack of correlation. Long-term follow-up out to 12 years shows that the low BMI group has statistically worse survival than the moderate or high BMI groups. Increasing BMI has no independent association with worsened outcomes in the short or long term, and overweight patients have a survival benefit after surgery. Patients who are at the lower end of the BMI scale, however, are at increased risk for poor long-term survival. Copyright © 2012 The Society of

  16. Isothiocyanates, Nitriles, and Epithionitriles from Glucosinolates Are Affected by Genotype and Developmental Stage in Brassica oleracea Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Hanschen, Franziska S.; Schreiner, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Vegetables of the Brassica oleracea group, such as broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage, play an important role for glucosinolate consumption in the human diet. Upon maceration of the vegetable tissue, glucosinolates are degraded enzymatically to form volatile isothiocyanates, nitriles, and epithionitriles. However, only the uptake of isothiocyanates is linked to the cancer-preventive effects. Thus, it is of great interest to evaluate especially the isothiocyanate formation. Here, we studied the formation of glucosinolates and their respective hydrolysis products in sprouts and fully developed vegetable heads of different genotypes of the five B. oleracea varieties: broccoli, cauliflower as well as white, red, and savoy cabbages. Further, the effect of ontogeny (developmental stages) during the head development on the formation of glucosinolates and their respective hydrolysis products was evaluated at three different developmental stages (mini, fully developed, and over-mature head). Broccoli and red cabbage were mainly rich in 4-(methylsulfinyl)butyl glucosinolate (glucoraphanin), whereas cauliflower, savoy cabbage and white cabbage contained mainly 2-propenyl (sinigrin) and 3-(methylsulfinyl)propyl glucosinolate (glucoiberin). Upon hydrolysis, epithionitriles or nitriles were often observed to be the main hydrolysis products, with 1-cyano-2,3-epithiopropane being most abundant with up to 5.7 μmol/g fresh weight in white cabbage sprouts. Notably, sprouts often contained more than 10 times more glucosinolates or their hydrolysis products compared to fully developed vegetables. Moreover, during head development, both glucosinolate concentrations as well as hydrolysis product concentrations changed and mini heads contained the highest isothiocyanate concentrations. Thus, from a cancer-preventive point of view, consumption of mini heads of the B. oleracea varieties is recommended. PMID:28690627

  17. Affective outcomes during and after high-intensity exercise in outdoor green and indoor gym settings.

    PubMed

    Turner, Toby Louis; Stevinson, Clare

    2017-04-01

    Outdoor exercise settings promote greater psychological well-being than synthetic equivalents, although the influence of the exercise context has not been investigated at high exercise intensities. This study compared the psychological effects of high-intensity exercise in outdoor green and indoor gym settings in 22 adult runners using a randomized repeated measures design. Affect and perceived exertion were assessed before, during, and after a 6000-m run with the second half completed at maximum effort. Perceived exertion and activation increased in a progressive manner from baseline to 6000 m, and decreased during the 10-min recovery post-run. Non-significant reductions in affective valence were observed between 3000 and 6000 m, followed by a significant increase post-run. Outcomes did not differ at any time point between the settings. This study suggested that regular runners experience positive affective responses during and after high-intensity exercise in both a natural outdoor environment and an indoor gym.

  18. Further evidence that culture media affect perinatal outcome: findings after transfer of fresh and cryopreserved embryos.

    PubMed

    Nelissen, Ewka C; Van Montfoort, Aafke P; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G; Geraedts, Joep P; Smits, Luc J; Land, Jolande A; Evers, Johannes L; Dumoulin, John C

    2012-07-01

    We have previously shown that the medium used for culturing IVF embryos affects the birthweight of the resulting newborns. This observation with potentially far-reaching clinical consequences during later life, was made in singletons conceived during the first IVF treatment cycle after the transfer of fresh embryos. In the present study, we hypothesize that in vitro culture of embryos during the first few days of preimplantation development affects perinatal outcome, not only in singletons conceived in all rank order cycles but also in twins and in children born after transfer of frozen embryos. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of culture medium on gestational age (GA) at birth. Oocytes and embryos from consecutive treatment cycles were alternately assigned to culture in either medium from Vitrolife or from Cook. Data on a cohort of 294 live born singletons conceived after fresh transfer during any of a patient's IVF treatment cycles, as well as data of 67 singletons conceived after frozen embryo transfer (FET) and of 88 children of 44 twin pregnancies after fresh transfer were analysed by means of multiple linear regression. In vitro culture in medium from Cook resulted in singletons after fresh transfer with a lower mean birthweight (adjusted mean difference, 112 g, P= 0.03), and in more singletons with low birthweight (LBW) <2500 g (P= 0.006) and LBW for GA ≥ 37 weeks (P= 0.015), when compared with singletons born after culture in medium from Vitrolife AB. GA at birth was not related to the medium used (adjusted difference, 0.05 weeks, P = 0.83). Among twins in the Cook group, higher inter-twin mean birthweight disparity and birthweight discordance were found. Z-scores after FET were -0.04 (± 0.14) in the Cook group compared with 0.18 (± 0.21) in the Vitrolife group (P> 0.05). Our findings support our hypothesis that culture medium influences perinatal outcome of IVF singletons and twins. A similar trend is seen in case of singletons born after FET

  19. An update to the HIV-TRePS system: the development and evaluation of new global and local computational models to predict HIV treatment outcomes, with or without a genotype.

    PubMed

    Revell, Andrew D; Wang, Dechao; Wood, Robin; Morrow, Carl; Tempelman, Hugo; Hamers, Raph L; Reiss, Peter; van Sighem, Ard I; Nelson, Mark; Montaner, Julio S G; Lane, H Clifford; Larder, Brendan A

    2016-10-01

    Optimizing antiretroviral drug combination on an individual basis in resource-limited settings is challenging because of the limited availability of drugs and genotypic resistance testing. Here, we describe our latest computational models to predict treatment responses, with or without a genotype, and compare the potential utility of global and local models as a treatment tool for South Africa. Global random forest models were trained to predict the probability of virological response to therapy following virological failure using 29 574 treatment change episodes (TCEs) without a genotype, 3179 of which were from South Africa and were used to develop local models. In addition, 15 130 TCEs including genotypes were used to develop another set of models. The 'no-genotype' models were tested with an independent global test set (n = 1700) plus a subset from South Africa (n = 222). The genotype models were tested with 750 independent cases. The global no-genotype models achieved area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) values of 0.82 and 0.79 with the global and South African tests sets, respectively, and the South African models achieved AUCs of 0.70 and 0.79. The genotype models achieved an AUC of 0.84. The global no-genotype models identified more alternative, locally available regimens that were predicted to be effective for cases that failed their new regimen in the South African clinics than the local models. Both sets of models were significantly more accurate predictors of outcomes than genotyping with rules-based interpretation. These latest global models predict treatment responses accurately even without a genotype, out-performed the local South African models and have the potential to help optimize therapy, particularly in resource-limited settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  20. Impact of UDP-gluconoryltransferase 2B17 genotype on vorinostat metabolism and clinical outcomes in Asian women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wong, Nan-Soon; Seah, Elaine Zh; Wang, Ling-Zhi; Yeo, Wee-Lee; Yap, Hui-Ling; Chuah, Benjamin; Lim, Yi-Wan; Ang, Peter Cs; Tai, Bee-Choo; Lim, Robert; Goh, Boon-Cher; Lee, Soo-Chin

    2011-11-01

    Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor being actively evaluated in solid tumors, is metabolized by UGT2B17. UGT2B17 null genotype (UGT2B17*2) has been shown in vitro to reduce UGT2B17 activity. This variant is common in Asians but rare in Caucasians, and we studied its impact on vorinostat pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in a clinical study in Asian patients with metastatic breast cancer. Eligible patients received 400 mg of vorinostat monotherapy daily in a lead-in phase I followed by a phase II study. Patients were genotyped for UGT2B17*2, which was correlated with vorinostat pharmacokinetics and clinical outcomes. Twenty-six patients were treated with no complete response, one partial response, six stable disease lasting for 12 weeks or more, and 19 progressive disease. Sixteen patients (62%) were UGT2B17*2 homozygotes and had significantly lower mean area under the curve ratio of vorinostat-O-glucuronide/vorinostat (1.84 vs. 2.51 on day 1, P=0.02; 1.63 vs. 2.38 on day 15, P=0.028), and trended toward having higher vorinostat area under the curve (399.02 vs. 318.40, P=0.188), more serious adverse events (31 vs. 0%, P=0.121), higher clinical benefit rate (40 vs. 10%, P=0.179), and longer median progression-free survival (3.0 vs. 1.5 months, P=0.087) than patients with at least one wild-type allele. UGT2B17*2 genotype reduces vorinostat glucuronidation and may increase vorinostat efficacy and toxicity. These observations are important in the development of vorinostat, and may have clinical implications on other cancer and noncancer drugs that are UGT2B17 substrates such as exemestane and ibuprofen.

  1. Impact of esomeprazole on platelet reactivity and clinical outcome according to CYP2C19 genotype in coronary heart disease patients during dual antiplatelet therapy.

    PubMed

    Hokimoto, Seiji; Akasaka, Tomonori; Tabata, Noriaki; Arima, Yuichiro; Tsujita, Kenichi; Sakamoto, Kenji; Kaikita, Koichi; Morita, Kazunori; Kumagae, Naoki; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Oniki, Kentaro; Nakagawa, Kazuko; Ogawa, Hisao

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CYP2C19 polymorphism and co-therapy with esomeprazole on the antiplatelet efficacy of clopidogrel. The antiplatelet efficacy of clopidogrel depends on CYP2C19 polymorphism or the co-administration of some kind of proton pump inhibitor (PPI). CYP2C19 genotype and the residual platelet reactivity (RPR) were measured in 361 coronary heart disease patients (male, mean age 69yrs), and the risk of cardiovascular events over a 3-month follow-up was assessed to evaluate the impact of co-administration of esomeprazole during dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel. The values of RPR did not differ between esomeprazole and non-esomeprazole groups (4389 ± 1112 versus 4079 ± 1355 AU·min, P=0.103). RPR value was higher in intermediate metabolizers (IM) than in extensive metabolizers (EM) (4089 ± 1252 versus 3697 ± 1215 AU·min P=0.012) and, similarly, higher in poor metabolizers (PM) than in IM (4884 ± 1027 versus 4089 ± 1252 AU·min, P<0.001). There were no differences in RPR between esomeprazole and non-esomeprazole groups according to CYP2C19 genotype (EM, 3954 ± 1192 versus 3645 ± 1220 AU·min, P=0.361; IM, 4401 ± 1063 versus 4051 ± 1271 AU·min, P=0.293; PM, 4917 ± 669 versus 4876 ± 1099 AU·min, P=0.907, respectively). There was also no difference in clinical outcomes between esomeprazole and non-esomeprazole groups in the three-month follow-up (0% versus 0.92%, P=0.487). These results suggest that concomitant use of esomeprazole with clopidogrel is not associated with reduced antiplatelet efficacy of clopidogrel or increased risk of cardiovascular events, irrespective of CYP2C19 genotype. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Learning science in a cooperative setting: Academic achievement and affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Baird, J. Hugh

    A learning unit in earth science was taught to high school students, using a jigsaw-group mastery learning approach. The sample consisted of 73 students in the experimental group and 47 students who learned the topic in an individualized mastery learning approach. The study lasted 5 weeks. Pretests and posttests on academic achievement and affective outcomes were administered. Data were treated with an analysis of covariance. The results show that students of the experimental group achieved significantly higher on academic outcomes, both normative and objective scores. On the creative essay test, the differences in number of ideas and total essay score were not significant between the groups, although the mean scores for number of words were higher for the individualized mastery learning group. On the affective domain, jigsaw-group mastery learning students scored significantly higher on self-esteem, number of friends, and involvement in the classroom. No differences were found in cohesiveness, cooperation, competition, and attitudes toward the subject learned. The results are discussed through the evaluation and comparison of the two methods of instruction used in this study.The cooperative learning movement began in junior high schools as part of the desegregation process, aiming at facilitating positive ethnic relations and increasing academic achievement and social skills among diverse students (Aronson, Stephan, Sikes, Blaney, & Snapp, 1978; Sharan & Hertz-Lazarowitz, 1980; Slavin, 1980). However, elementary teachers quickly recognized the potential of cooperative methods, and such methods were adopted freely in elementary schools before becoming widespread on the junior and senior high level. It has only been during the past few years that application of cooperative learning has been studied extensively with these older students.Cooperative learning methods generally involve heterogeneous groups working together on tasks that are deliberately structured to

  3. Phenotype in combination with genotype improves outcome prediction in acute myeloid leukemia: a report from Children's Oncology Group protocol AAML0531.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Andrew P; Eidenschink Brodersen, Lisa; Alonzo, Todd A; Gerbing, Robert B; Menssen, Andrew J; Wilson, Elisabeth R; Kahwash, Samir; Raimondi, Susana C; Hirsch, Betsy A; Gamis, Alan S; Meshinchi, Soheil; Wells, Denise A; Loken, Michael R

    2017-09-07

    Diagnostic biomarkers can be used to determine relapse risk in acute myeloid leukemia, and certain genetic aberrancies have prognostic relevance. A diagnostic immunophenotypic expression profile, which quantifies the amounts of distinct gene products, not just their presence or absence, was established to improve outcome prediction for patients with acute myeloid leukemia. The immunophenotypic expression profile, which defines each patient's leukemia as a location in 15-dimensional space, was generated for 769 patients enrolled in the Children's Oncology Group AAML0531 protocol. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering grouped patients with similar immunophenotypic expression profiles into eleven patient cohorts, demonstrating high associations among phenotype, genotype, morphology, and outcome. Of 95 patients with inv(16), 79% segregated in Cluster A. Of 109 patients with t(8;21), 92% segregated in Clusters A and B. Of 152 patients with 11q23 alterations, 78% segregated in Clusters D, E, F, G, or H. For both inv(16) and 11q23 abnormalities, differential phenotypic expression identified patient groups with different survival characteristics (P<0.05). Clinical outcome analysis revealed that Cluster B (predominantly t(8;21)) was associated with favorable outcome (P<0.001) and Clusters E, G, H, and K were associated with adverse outcomes (P<0.05). Multivariable regression analysis revealed that Clusters E, G, H, and K were independently associated with worse survival (P range <0.001 to 0.008). The Children's Oncology Group AAML0531 trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00372593. Copyright © 2017, Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  4. Through what mechanisms do protected areas affect environmental and social outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Paul J.; Hanauer, Merlin M.

    2015-01-01

    To develop effective protected area policies, scholars and practitioners must better understand the mechanisms through which protected areas affect social and environmental outcomes. With strong evidence about mechanisms, the key elements of success can be strengthened, and the key elements of failure can be eliminated or repaired. Unfortunately, empirical evidence about these mechanisms is limited, and little guidance for quantifying them exists. This essay assesses what mechanisms have been hypothesized, what empirical evidence exists for their relative contributions and what advances have been made in the past decade for estimating mechanism causal effects from non-experimental data. The essay concludes with a proposed agenda for building an evidence base about protected area mechanisms. PMID:26460122

  5. Process-oriented administration of the picture arrangement test does not affect the quantitative outcome.

    PubMed

    Gaudette, M D; Smith, J A

    1998-01-01

    Extracting the maximum amount of qualitative information of cognitive functioning from tests is one of the major goals, of the process approach to neuropsychological assessment. This study examined whether there is a difference in score in the Picture Arrangement (PA) test of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised for participants who completed the standardized versus a process-oriented administration (i.e., asking the person to "tell the story" immediately following each item). Eighteen traumatic brain injury patients and 20 control participants (i. e., non-brain-injury volunteers) were randomly assigned to the standardized administration or the process-oriented administration of the PA test. A 2 x 2 (Group x Type of Administration) analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant interaction effect or main effect for type of administration. Therefore, the process of maximizing the elicitation of qualitative information does not appear to affect the quantitative outcome of the PA test.

  6. Through what mechanisms do protected areas affect environmental and social outcomes?

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Paul J; Hanauer, Merlin M

    2015-11-05

    To develop effective protected area policies, scholars and practitioners must better understand the mechanisms through which protected areas affect social and environmental outcomes. With strong evidence about mechanisms, the key elements of success can be strengthened, and the key elements of failure can be eliminated or repaired. Unfortunately, empirical evidence about these mechanisms is limited, and little guidance for quantifying them exists. This essay assesses what mechanisms have been hypothesized, what empirical evidence exists for their relative contributions and what advances have been made in the past decade for estimating mechanism causal effects from non-experimental data. The essay concludes with a proposed agenda for building an evidence base about protected area mechanisms.

  7. Does the economy affect functional restoration outcomes for patients with chronic disabling occupational musculoskeletal disorders?

    PubMed

    Hartzell, Meredith M; Mayer, Tom G; Neblett, Randy; Marquardt, Dennis J; Gatchel, Robert J

    2015-06-01

    To determine how the economy affects psychosocial and socioeconomic treatment outcomes in a cohort of chronic disabling occupational musculoskeletal disorder (CDOMD) patients who completed a functional restoration program (FRP). A cohort of 969 CDOMD patients with active workers' compensation claims completed an FRP (a medically-supervised, quantitatively-directed exercise progression program, with multi-modal disability management). A good economy (GE) group (n = 532) was released to work during a low unemployment period (2005-2007), and a poor economy (PE) group (n = 437) was released during a higher unemployment period (2008-2010). Patients were evaluated upon admission for demographic and psychosocial variables, and were reassessed at discharge. Socioeconomic outcomes, including work return and work retention 1 year post-discharge, were collected. Some significant differences in psychosocial self-report data were found, but most of the effect sizes were small, so caution should be made when interpreting the data. Compared to the PE group, the GE group reported more depressive symptoms and disability at admission, but demonstrated a larger decrease in depressive symptoms and disability and increase in self-reported quality of life at discharge. The PE group had lower rates of work return and retention 1-year after discharge, even after controlling for other factors such as length of disability and admission work status. CDOMD patients who completed an FRP in a PE year were less likely to return to, or retain, work 1-year after discharge, demonstrating that a PE can be an additional barrier to post-discharge work outcomes. A difference in State unemployment rates of <3% (7 vs. 5%) had a disproportionate effect on patients' failure to return to (19 vs. 6%) or retain (28 vs. 15%) work.

  8. Bystanders affect the outcome of mother–infant interactions in rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Stuart; Gerald, Melissa S.; Suggs, Dianne N.

    2009-01-01

    Animal communication involves the transfer of information between a sender and one or more receivers. However, such interactions do not happen in a social vacuum; third parties are typically present, who can potentially eavesdrop upon or intervene in the interaction. The importance of such bystanders in shaping the outcome of communicative interactions has been widely studied in humans, but has only recently received attention in other animal species. Here, we studied bouts of infant crying among rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in order to investigate how the presence of bystanders may affect the outcome of this signalling interaction between infants and mothers. It was hypothesized that, as crying is acoustically aversive, bystanders may be aggressive to the mother or the infant in order to bring the crying bout to a close. Consequently, it was predicted that mothers should acquiesce more often to crying if in the presence of potentially aggressive animals. In line with this prediction, it was found that mothers gave infants access to the nipple significantly more often when crying occurred in the presence of animals that posed a high risk of aggression towards them. Both mothers and infants tended to receive more aggression from bystanders during crying bouts than outside of this time, although such aggression was extremely rare and was received by less than half of the mothers and infants in the study. Mothers were also found to be significantly more aggressive to their infants while the latter were crying than outside of crying bouts. These results provide new insight into the complex dynamics of mother–offspring conflict, and indicate that bystanders may play an important role in shaping the outcome of signalling interactions between infants and their mothers. PMID:19324744

  9. Visual Acuity Testing: Feedback Affects Neither Outcome nor Reproducibility, but Leaves Participants Happier

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Michael; Schäfer, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of visual acuity is a well standardized procedure at least for expert opinions and clinical trials. It is often recommended not giving patients feedback on the correctness of their responses. As this viewpoint has not been quantitatively examined so far, we quantitatively assessed possible effects of feedback on visual acuity testing. In 40 normal participants we presented Landolt Cs in 8 orientations using the automated Freiburg Acuity Test (FrACT, outcome measures were absolute visual acuity (logMAR), its test-retest agreement (limits of agreement) and participants’ comfort estimates on a 5-step symmetric Likert scale. Feedback influenced acuity outcome significantly (p = 0.02), but with a tiny effect size: 0.02 logMAR poorer acuity for (D) compared to (A), even weaker effects for (B) and (C). Test-retest agreement was high (limits of agreement: ± 1.0 lines) and did not depend on feedback (p>0.5). The comfort ranking clearly differed, by 2 steps on the Likert scale: the condition (A)–no feedback–was on average “slightly uncomfortable”, the other three conditions were “slightly comfortable” (p<0.0001). Feedback affected neither reproducibility nor the acuity outcome to any relevant extent. The participants, however, reported markedly greater comfort with any kind of feedback. We conclude that systematic feedback (as implemented in FrACT) offers nothing but advantages for routine use. PMID:26824693

  10. Visual Acuity Testing: Feedback Affects Neither Outcome nor Reproducibility, but Leaves Participants Happier.

    PubMed

    Bach, Michael; Schäfer, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of visual acuity is a well standardized procedure at least for expert opinions and clinical trials. It is often recommended not giving patients feedback on the correctness of their responses. As this viewpoint has not been quantitatively examined so far, we quantitatively assessed possible effects of feedback on visual acuity testing. In 40 normal participants we presented Landolt Cs in 8 orientations using the automated Freiburg Acuity Test (FrACT, outcome measures were absolute visual acuity (logMAR), its test-retest agreement (limits of agreement) and participants' comfort estimates on a 5-step symmetric Likert scale. Feedback influenced acuity outcome significantly (p = 0.02), but with a tiny effect size: 0.02 logMAR poorer acuity for (D) compared to (A), even weaker effects for (B) and (C). Test-retest agreement was high (limits of agreement: ± 1.0 lines) and did not depend on feedback (p>0.5). The comfort ranking clearly differed, by 2 steps on the Likert scale: the condition (A)-no feedback-was on average "slightly uncomfortable", the other three conditions were "slightly comfortable" (p<0.0001). Feedback affected neither reproducibility nor the acuity outcome to any relevant extent. The participants, however, reported markedly greater comfort with any kind of feedback. We conclude that systematic feedback (as implemented in FrACT) offers nothing but advantages for routine use.

  11. Teammates and social influence affect weight loss outcomes in a team-based weight loss competition.

    PubMed

    Leahey, Tricia M; Kumar, Rajiv; Weinberg, Brad M; Wing, Rena R

    2012-07-01

    Team-based internet interventions are increasing in popularity as a way of promoting weight loss in large numbers of individuals. Given that social networks influence health behavior change, this study investigated the effects of teammates and social influence on individual weight loss during a team-based weight loss competition. Shape Up Rhode Island (SURI) 2009 was a 12-week online program open to adult residents of Rhode Island. Participants joined with a team and competed with other teams on weight loss and/or physical activity. Overweight/obese (OW/OB) individuals (N = 3,330; 76% female; age = 46.1 ± 10.8; BMI = 31.2 ± 5.3 kg/m(2)), representing 987 teams, completed the weight loss program. Multilevel modeling was used to examine whether weight loss clustered among teammates and whether percentage of teammates in the weight loss division and reported teammate influence on weight loss were associated with individual weight outcomes. OW/OB completers reported losing 4.2 ± 3.4% of initial body weight. Weight loss was similar among teammates (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.10, P < 0.001). Moreover, having a greater percentage of teammates in the weight loss division and reporting higher social influence for weight loss were associated with greater percent weight loss (P's ≤ 0.002). Similarly, achieving a clinically significant (5%) weight loss tended to cluster within teams (ICC = 0.09; P < 0.001) and having more teammates in the weight loss division and higher social influence for weight loss were associated with increased likelihood of achieving a 5% weight loss (odds ratio (OR) = 1.06; OR = 1.20, respectively). These results suggest that teammates affect weight loss outcomes during a team-based intervention. Harnessing and maximizing teammate influence for weight loss may enhance weight outcomes in large-scale team-based programs.

  12. Obesity Early in Adulthood Increases Risk but Does Not Affect Outcomes of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Manal M.; Abdel-Wahab, Reham; Kaseb, Ahmed; Shalaby, Ahmed; Phan, Alexandria T.; El-Serag, Hashem B.; Hawk, Ernest; Morris, Jeff; Raghav, Kanwal Pratap Singh; Lee, Ju-Seog; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Bortus, Gehan; Torres, Harrys A.; Amos, Christopher I.; Wolff, Robert A.; Li, Donghui

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Despite the significant association between obesity and several cancers, it has been difficult to establish an association between obesity and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients with HCC often have ascites, making it a challenge to accurately determine body mass index (BMI), and many factors contribute to the development of HCC. We performed a case–control study to investigate whether obesity early in adulthood affects risk, age of onset, or outcomes of patients with HCC. METHODS We interviewed 622 patients newly diagnosed with HCC from January 2004 through December 2013, along with 660 healthy controls (frequency-matched by age and sex) to determine weights, heights, and body sizes (self-reported) at various ages before HCC development or enrollment as controls. Multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the independent effects of early obesity on risk for HCC and patient outcomes, respectively. BMI was calculated, and patients with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 were considered obese. RESULTS Obesity in early adulthood (age, mid-20s to mid-40s) is a significant risk factor for HCC. The estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 2.6 (1.4–4.4), 2.3 (1.2–4.4), and 3.6 (1.5–8.9) for the entire population, men, and women, respectively. Each unit increase in BMI at early adulthood was associated with a 3.89-month decrease in age at HCC diagnosis (P<.001). Moreover, there is a synergistic interaction between obesity and hepatitis virus infection. However, we found no effect of obesity on the overall survival of patients with HCC. CONCLUSION Early adulthood obesity is associated with increased risk of developing HCC at a young age in the absence of major HCC risk factors, with no effect on outcomes of patients with HCC. PMID:25836985

  13. Factors affecting the incidence and outcome of Trueperella pyogenes mastitis in cows

    PubMed Central

    ISHIYAMA, Dai; MIZOMOTO, Tomoko; UEDA, Chise; TAKAGI, Nobuyuki; SHIMIZU, Noriko; MATSUURA, Yu; MAKUUCHI, Yuto; WATANABE, Aiko; SHINOZUKA, Yasunori; KAWAI, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    The main factors affecting the outcome of Trueperella pyogenes (T. pyogenes) mastitis were examined through a survey of diagnostic data and interviews relating to the occurrence of T. pyogenes mastitis in 83 quarters from 82 Holstein cows between August 2012 and April 2014. Ultimately, one cow was sold during the examination, and 82 quarters from 81 cows were used for analysis on prognosis. T. pyogenes mastitis occurred year round in both lactating and dry cows. The incidence of T. pyogenes mastitis did not significantly differ by month or show seasonality in either lactating or dry cows. Therefore, the occurrence of T. pyogenes mastitis also differed from that of summer mastitis. The 1-month survival rate of infected cows was 64.6% (53/82), and the recovery rate of quarters with T. pyogenes mastitis was 14.6% (12/82). Bivariate logistic regression analysis was performed with survival and culling of infected cows as objective variables and with recovery and non-recovery of quarters with T. pyogenes mastitis as objective variables. The severe cases were significantly culled (odds ratio, 16.30) compared to mild cases, and the status of quarters didn’t recover (odds ratio, 6.50). The results suggest that mild to moderate symptom severity at the time of onset are the main factors affecting outcomes in cows and recovery of quarters infected with T. pyogenes mastitis. Further, high level of NAGase activity also suggested the potential use as an indicator of culling of cows with T. pyogenes mastitis. PMID:28163273

  14. Improving the outcomes of children affected by parental substance abuse: a review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Stacy; Conner, Emma; Miller, Melodi; Messina, Nena

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse is a major public health concern that impacts not just the user but also the user’s family. The effect that parental substance abuse has on children has been given substantial attention over the years. Findings from the literature suggest that children of substance-abusing parents have a high risk of developing physical and mental health and behavioral problems. A number of intervention programs have been developed for parents who have a substance abuse problem. There have also been a number of interventions that have been developed for children who have at least one parent with a substance abuse problem. However, it remains unclear how we can best mitigate the negative effects that parental substance abuse has on children due to the scarcity of evaluations that utilize rigorous methodologies such as experimental designs. The purpose of this study is to review randomized controlled trials of intervention programs targeting parents with substance abuse problems and/or children with at least one parent with a substance abuse problem in order to identify programs that show some promise in improving the behavioral and mental health outcomes of children affected by parental substance abuse. Four randomized controlled trials that met our eligibility criteria were identified using major literature search engines. The findings from this review suggest that interventions that focus on improving parenting practices and family functioning may be effective in reducing problems in children affected by parental substance abuse. However, further research utilizing rigorous methodologies are needed in order to identify other successful interventions that can improve the outcomes of these children long after the intervention has ended. PMID:25670915

  15. Perioperative control of hypertension: when will it adversely affect perioperative outcome?

    PubMed

    Sear, John W

    2008-12-01

    Much has been published about the impact of treatment on adverse outcomes in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension is an extremely common condition affecting a significant percentage of the world population. Although care guidelines exist for the medical patient with raised blood pressure, there are no accepted guidelines for the preoperative evaluation and perioperative care of the patient with hypertension who undergoes noncardiac surgery. Of particular importance are defining at-risk groups of patients, and the indications for cancellation to treat and hence reduce this risk. This review examines the interactions between hypertension, drug therapies, anesthesia, and adverse outcomes in these patients. Recommendations for identifying patients at greatest risk of adverse cardiovascular events and cardiac mortality have been developed through evaluation of available data. Based on these findings, the only patients in whom cancellation may be justified and the level of hypertension treated prior to surgery are those with stage 2 hypertension and accompanying target-organ damage, or stage 3 hypertension (blood pressure > 180/> 110 mm Hg).

  16. The Kupffer Cell Number Affects the Outcome of Living Donor Liver Transplantation from Elderly Donors

    PubMed Central

    Hidaka, Masaaki; Eguchi, Susumu; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Soyama, Akihiko; Ono, Shinichiro; Adachi, Tomohiko; Natsuda, Koji; Kugiyama, Tota; Hara, Takanobu; Okada, Satomi; Imamura, Hajime; Miuma, Satoshi; Miyaaki, Hisamitsu

    2016-01-01

    Background There have been no previous reports how Kupffer cells affect the outcome of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) with an elderly donor. The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of Kupffer cells on LDLT. Methods A total of 161 adult recipients underwent LDLT. The graft survival, prognostic factors for survival, and graft failure after LDLT were examined between cases with a young donor (<50, n = 112) and an elderly donor (≥50, N = 49). The Kupffer cells, represented by CD68-positive cell in the graft, were examined in the young and elderly donors. Results In a multivariable analysis, a donor older than 50 years, sepsis, and diabetes mellitus were significant predictors of graft failure after LDLT. The CD68 in younger donors was significantly more expressed than that in elderly donors. The group with a less number of CD68-positive cells in the graft had a significantly poor survival in the elderly donor group and prognostic factor for graft failure. Conclusions The worse outcome of LDLT with elderly donors might be related to the lower number of Kupffer cells in the graft, which can lead to impaired recovery of the liver function and may predispose patients to infectious diseases after LDLT. PMID:27819035

  17. Exposing physicians to reduced residency work hours did not adversely affect patient outcomes after residency.

    PubMed

    Jena, Anupam B; Schoemaker, Lena; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-10-01

    In 2003, work hours for physicians-in-training (residents) were capped by regulation at eighty hours per week, leading to the hotly debated but unexplored issue of whether physicians today are less well trained as a result of these work-hour reforms. Using a unique database of nearly all hospitalizations in Florida during 2000-09 that were linked to detailed information on the medical training history of the physician of record for each hospitalization, we studied whether hospital mortality and patients' length-of-stay varied according to the number of years a physician was exposed to the 2003 duty-hour regulations during his or her residency. We examined this database of practicing Florida physicians, using a difference-in-differences analysis that compared trends in outcomes of junior physicians (those with one-year post-residency experience) pre- and post-2003 to a control group of senior physicians (those with ten or more years of post-residency experience) who were not exposed to these reforms during their residency. We found that the duty-hour reforms did not adversely affect hospital mortality and length-of-stay of patients cared for by new attending physicians who were partly or fully exposed to reduced duty hours during their own residency. However, assessment of the impact of the duty-hour reforms on other clinical outcomes is needed. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  18. Parathyroid nuclear scan. A focused review on the technical and biological factors affecting its outcome.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Subramanian; Milas, Mira; Neumann, Donald; Parikh, Rikesh T; Siperstein, Alan; Licata, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Technetium Parathyroid Scintigraphy (TS) is the most popular noninvasive localization procedure in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Awareness of various factors involved in technetium uptake helps understand the outcome of TS. We utilize a case of changing TS scans in a patient to review the literature on the various biological and technical factors involved in technetium uptake by the abnormal parathyroid tissue. A 56 year female was diagnosed with PHPT and osteopenia. An initial scan using (99m)Tc-Tetrofosmin showed no definite areas of abnormal parathyroid tissue. Patient refused surgical exploration, was started on Bisphosponates and subsequently monitored. Five years later she suffered fracture of her right wrist. A repeat TS using (99m)Tc-Sestamibi revealed hypervascular parathyroid lesion in the right lower neck. She underwent successful removal of a right lower parathyroid adenoma. Technical factors like the type of Tc isotope used, imaging techniques and biological factors like biochemical parameters (calcium, vitamin D levels), adenoma size, content of oxyphilic cells, vascularity can affect the outcome of the scan. Clinicians should be aware of technical and biological factors that could result in negative scan in parathyroid nuclear scintigraphy.

  19. Spirituality and religiousness as predictive factors of outcome in schizophrenia and schizo-affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Sylvia; Perroud, Nader; Gillieron, Christiane; Brandt, Pierre-Yves; Rieben, Isabelle; Borras, Laurence; Huguelet, Philippe

    2011-04-30

    Spirituality and religiousness have been shown to be highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. This study assesses the predictive value of helpful vs. harmful use of religion to cope with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder at 3 years. From an initial cohort of 115 outpatients, 80% were reassessed for positive, negative and general symptoms, clinical global impression, social adaptation and quality of life. For patients with helpful religion at baseline, the importance of spirituality was predictive of fewer negative symptoms, better clinical global impression, social functioning and quality of life. The frequencies of religious practices in community and support from religious community had no effect on outcome. For patients with harmful religion at baseline, no relationships were elicited. This result may be due to sample size. Indeed, helpful spiritual/religious coping concerns 83% of patients, whereas harmful spiritual/religious coping concerns only 14% of patients. Our study shows that helpful use of spirituality is predictive of a better outcome. Spirituality may facilitate recovery by providing resources for coping with symptoms. In some cases, however, spirituality and religiousness are a source of suffering. Helpful vs. harmful spiritual/religious coping appears to be of clinical significance.

  20. Expression of oncogenic BARD1 isoforms affects colon cancer progression and correlates with clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y-Q; Pilyugin, M; Kuester, D; Leoni, V P; Li, L; Casula, G; Zorcolo, L; Schneider-Stock, R; Atzori, L; Irminger-Finger, I

    2012-08-07

    Colon cancer predisposition is associated with mutations in BRCA1. BRCA1 protein stability depends on binding to BARD1. In different cancers, expression of differentially spliced BARD1 isoforms is correlated with poor prognosis and decreased patient survival. We therefore suspected a role of BARD1 isoforms in colon cancer. We performed immunohistochemistry in 168 colorectal cancers, using four antibodies directed against differentially expressed regions of BARD1. We determined structure and relative expression of BARD1 mRNA isoforms in 40 tumour and paired normal peri-tumour tissues. BARD1 expression was correlated with clinical outcome. BARD1 isoforms were expressed in 98% of cases and not correlated with BRCA1. BARD1 mRNA isoforms were upregulated in all tumours as compared with paired normal peri-tumour tissues. Non-correlated expression and localisation of different epitopes suggested insignificant expression of full-length (FL) BARD1. Expression of N- and C-terminal epitopes correlated with increased survival, but expression of epitopes mapping to the middle of BARD1 correlated with decreased survival. Middle epitopes are present in oncogenic BARD1 isoforms, which have pro-proliferative functions. Correlated upregulation of only N- and C-terminal epitopes reflects the expression of isoforms BARD1δ and BARD1φ. Our results suggest that BARD1 isoforms, but not FL BARD1, are expressed in colon cancer and affect its progression and clinical outcome.

  1. Parenting Cognition and Affective Outcomes Following Parent Management Training: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Colalillo, Sara; Johnston, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    Parent management training (PMT) is considered the gold standard in the treatment of child behavior problems. The secondary effects of these interventions, particularly on parent well-being, are infrequently studied, despite evidence that parents of children with behavior problems often experience personal difficulties. This narrative review examined the affective and parenting cognition outcomes of PMT for mothers and fathers of children ages 2-13 years, across 48 controlled treatment studies. Substantial support was found for reductions in parenting stress, and increases in perceived parenting competence following PMT. Evidence indicated fewer improvements in domains more distal from parenting, including parent depressive symptoms and marital relationship dysfunction. A number of studies suggested parent gender as a moderator of parent outcomes of PMT; however, the underrepresentation of fathers in existing research limits conclusions in this regard. Avenues for future research are highlighted to address current gaps in the literature, and to further our understanding of the ways in which both children and parents may benefit from PMT.

  2. Patients with type 1 Gaucher disease in South Florida, USA: demographics, genotypes, disease severity and treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Orenstein, Marissa; Barbouth, Deborah; Bodamer, Olaf A; Weinreb, Neal J

    2014-03-31

    Gaucher disease, an autosomal recessive condition due to deficiency of lysosomal glucocerebrosidase, is a multisystemic disease, with variable age of onset, severity and progression. It is classified into subtypes delineated by the absence (type 1) or presence (type 2 and 3) of primary nervous system involvement. The ethnically diverse, largely immigrant population in South Florida has a spectrum of Gaucher disease phenotypes, creating a challenge for optimization of disease management and an opportunity to explore treatment patterns. Ninety-three records from patients with Gaucher type I in South Florida were retrieved from the International Collaborative Gaucher Group (ICGG) Registry. Individual genotypes were correlated with severity scores and success at achieving published therapeutic goals for haemoglobin concentration, platelet count, spleen volume, liver volume and amelioration of bone pain and bone crises. The majority of patients were diagnosed during the fifth decade of life. Almost two-thirds were homozygous for the N370S mutation, reflecting the large Ashkenazi Jewish population in South Florida. The majority received imiglucerase (62.8%) at various intervals. 24.5% of patients underwent splenectomy before starting enzyme replacement therapy. After a median 12 treatment years, South Florida patients matched or exceeded the ICCG 4 year therapeutic goal achievement for platelet count (85.4% vs. 79.6% success), spleen volume (93.3% vs. 78.0% success), liver volume (93.4% vs. 90.6% success), and bone crises (100% vs. 99% success). Nevertheless, fewer patients with intact spleens had sustained achievement of all 6 therapeutic goals (30.4% versus 41.4%) and only 40% of the splenectomy patients sustained achievement of 5/5 possible goals. 54.7% of the intact spleen patients continued to have bone pain vs. 29.8% in ICCG. Significantly, only 37% of the ICGG patient cohort had bone pain prior to initiation of treatment compared to 73.4% of the South Florida

  3. Early predictive efficacy of core antigen on antiviral outcomes in genotype 1 hepatitis C virus infected patients.

    PubMed

    Feng, Bo; Yang, Rui-Feng; Zhang, Hai-Ying; Luo, Bi-Fen; Kong, Fan-Yun; Rao, Hui-Ying; Jin, Qian; Cong, Xu; Wei, Lai

    2015-01-01

    Response-guided therapy is of limited use in developing countries because hepatitis C virus RNA detection by sensitive molecular methods is time- and labor-consuming and expensive. We evaluated early predictive efficacy of serum hepatitis C virus core antigen kinetics on sustained virologic response in patients with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus during pegylated interferon plus ribavirin treatment. For 478 patients recruited, hepatitis C virus RNAs were detected at baseline, and at weeks 4, 12, 24, 48, and 72 using Cobas TaqMan. Architect hepatitis C virus core antigen was performed at baseline, and weeks 4 and 12. Predictive values of hepatitis C virus core antigen on sustained virologic response were compared to hepatitis C virus RNA. In the first 12 weeks after treatment initiation the dynamic patterns of serum hepatitis C virus core antigen and hepatitis C virus RNA levels were similar in sustained virologic response, relapse, and null response patients groups. Although areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves of hepatitis C virus core antigen were lower than those of hepatitis C virus RNA at the same time points, modeling analysis showed that undetectable hepatitis C virus core antigen (rapid virological response based on hepatitis C virus core antigen) had similar positive predictive value on sustained virologic response to hepatitis C virus RNA at week 4 (90.4% vs 93.3%), and hepatitis C virus core antigen decrease greater than 1log10IU/mL (early virological response based on hepatitis C virus core antigen) had similar negative predictive value to hepatitis C virus RNA at week 12 (94.1% vs 95.2%). Analysis on the validation group demonstrated a positive predictive value of 97.5% in rapid virological response based on hepatitis C virus core antigen and a negative predictive value of 100% in early virological response based on hepatitis C virus core antigen. In conclusion, hepatitis C virus core antigen is comparable to hepatitis C virus RNA in

  4. A Pragmatic Test for Detecting Association between a Dichotomous Trait and the Genotypes of Affected Families, Controls and Independent Cases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Stewart, William C. L.

    2017-01-01

    The efficient analysis of hybrid designs [e.g., affected families, controls, and (optionally) independent cases] is attractive because it should have increased power to detect associations between genetic variants and disease. However, the computational complexity of such an analysis is not trivial, especially when the data contain pedigrees of arbitrary size and structure. To address this concern, we developed a pragmatic test of association that summarizes all of the available evidence in certain hybrid designs, irrespective of pedigree size or structure. Under the null hypothesis of no association, our proposed test statistic (POPFAM+) is the quadratic form of two correlated tests: a population-based test (e.g., wQLS), and a family-based test (e.g., PDT). We use the parametric bootstrap in conjunction with an estimate of the correlation to compute p-values, and we illustrate the potential for increased power when (1) the heritability of the trait is high; and, (2) the marker-specific association is driven by the over-representation of risk alleles in cases, and by the preferential transmission of risk alleles from heterozygous parents to their affected offspring. Based on simulation, we show that type I error is controlled, and that POPFAM+ is more powerful than wQLS or PDT alone. In a real data application, we used POPFAM+ to analyze 43 genes of a hybrid epilepsy study containing 85 affected families, 80 independent cases, 234 controls, and 118 reference samples from the International HapMap Project. The results of our analysis identified a promising epilepsy candidate gene for follow-up sequencing: malic enzyme 2 (ME2; min p < 0.0084). PMID:28536599

  5. Genotypic Characterization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Derived from Antiretroviral Drug-Treated Individuals Residing in Earthquake-Affected Areas in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Negi, Bharat Singh; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Joshi, Sunil Kumar; Bastola, Anup; Nakazawa, Minato; Kameoka, Masanori

    2017-09-01

    Molecular epidemiological data on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are limited in Nepal and have not been available in areas affected by the April 2015 earthquake. Therefore, we conducted a genotypic study on HIV-1 genes derived from individuals on antiretroviral therapy residing in 14 districts in Nepal highly affected by the earthquake. HIV-1 genomic fragments were amplified from 40 blood samples of HIV treatment-failure individuals, and a sequencing analysis was performed on these genes. In the 40 samples, 29 protease, 32 reverse transcriptase, 25 gag, and 21 env genes were sequenced. HIV-1 subtyping revealed that subtype C (84.2%, 32/38) was the major subtype prevalent in the region, while CRF01_AE (7.9%, 3/38) and other recombinant forms (7.9%, 3/38) were also detected. In addition, major drug resistance mutations were identified in 21.9% (7/32) of samples, indicating the possible emergence of HIV-1 drug resistance in earthquake-affected areas in Nepal.

  6. Incorporating Meaningful Gamification in a Blended Learning Research Methods Class: Examining Student Learning, Engagement, and Affective Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Meng; Hew, Khe Foon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how the use of meaningful gamification affects student learning, engagement, and affective outcomes in a short, 3-day blended learning research methods class using a combination of experimental and qualitative research methods. Twenty-two postgraduates were randomly split into two groups taught by the same…

  7. Incorporating Meaningful Gamification in a Blended Learning Research Methods Class: Examining Student Learning, Engagement, and Affective Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Meng; Hew, Khe Foon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how the use of meaningful gamification affects student learning, engagement, and affective outcomes in a short, 3-day blended learning research methods class using a combination of experimental and qualitative research methods. Twenty-two postgraduates were randomly split into two groups taught by the same…

  8. Pattern and molecular epidemiology of Hepatitis B virus genotypes circulating in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Awan, Zunaira; Idrees, Muhammad; Amin, Irum; Butt, Sadia; Afzal, Samia; Akbar, Haji; Rehman, Irshad-ur; Younas, Saima; Shahid, Muhammad; Lal, Amreek; Saleem, Sana; Rauff, Bisma

    2010-12-01

    The continuously mutating nature of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is responsible for the emergence of varying genotypes in different regions of the world affecting the disease outcome. The objective of the current study was to find out the pattern of HBV genotypes circulating in Pakistan. HBV genotypes were determined in HBV chronic patients of different age and gender from all the four different geographical regions (provinces) of Pakistan for a period of 2 years (2007-2009). Out of the total 3137 consecutive patients, 300 (175; 58.3% males and 125; 41.7% females) were randomly selected for HBV genotype A through H determination using molecular genotyping methods. Total 269 (89.6%) isolates were successfully genotyped where as 31 (10.3%) samples failed to generate a type-specific PCR band and were found untypable. Out of the successfully genotyped samples, 43 (14.3%) were with type A, 54 (18%) were with type B, 83 (27.6%) were with type C, 39 (13%) were with type D, 2 (0.6%) were with type E, 4 (1.3%) were with genotype F and total 44 (14.6%) were with mixed HBV infections. Of the mixed genotype infection cases, 16 were with genotypes A/D, 9 were B/C, six were A/D/F, five were with genotypes A/F, two were with A/B/D and B/E and one each for A/C as well as A/E genotypes. Four common genotypes of HBV found worldwide (A, B, C & D) were isolated from Pakistan along with uncommon genotypes E and F for the first time in Pakistan. Overall Genotype C is the most prevalent genotype. Genotypes B and C are predominant in Punjab & Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa, respectively whereas genotype A in Sindh. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Interactions of the PPARγ2 polymorphism with fat intake affecting energy metabolism and nutritional outcomes in obese women.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Eliane L; Bressan, Josefina; Martínez, J Alfredo; Marques-Lopes, Iva

    2010-01-01

    To determine the influence of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPARγ2 gene and the dietary lipid intake on energy metabolism and nutritional outcomes in obese women after an acute fat load or following a low-calorie diet for 10 weeks. Sixty obese women (aged 30-46 years) participated in the study and were assigned to 2 groups depending on the genotype: Pro12Pro and Pro12Ala/Ala12Ala carriers. At baseline and after 2 nutritional (short- or long-term) interventions, measurement of anthropometrical and body composition (bioelectrical impedance) variables, dietary assessments, energy metabolism (indirect calorimetry) measurements as well as biochemical and molecular (PPARγ2 genotype) analyses were performed. All women received a high-fat test meal to determine the postprandial metabolism (short term) and an energy-restricted diet for 10 weeks (long term). The frequencies of the Pro12Pro and Pro12Ala/Ala12Ala genotypes were 83.33 and 16.67%, respectively, and reached Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Interestingly, the postprandial energy expenditure after the fat load was higher in subjects carrying the Ala allele. At baseline, the habitual monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) intake inversely correlated with fat oxidation and body mass index in the obese Pro12Ala/Ala12Ala carriers, while a lower PUFA intake (%) in the long-term trial was associated with an increase in the respiratory quotient only in Ala carriers but not in the Pro12Pro genotyped group. The Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPARγ2 gene influenced energy metabolism in the assayed short- and long-term situations since the response to both nutritional interventions differed according to the genotype. The results suggest that fat oxidation and energy expenditure may be lower in Pro12Pro carriers compared to Pro12Ala/Ala12Ala genotypes, while in obese women with Pro12Ala/Ala12Ala polymorphisms in the PPARγ2 gene fat oxidation was negatively correlated with the MUFA and PUFA (%) intake. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG

  10. Environmental Conditions Affect Botrytis cinerea Infection of Mature Grape Berries More Than the Strain or Transposon Genotype.

    PubMed

    Ciliberti, Nicola; Fermaud, Marc; Roudet, Jean; Rossi, Vittorio

    2015-08-01

    Effects of environment, Botrytis cinerea strain, and their interaction on the infection of mature grape berries were investigated. The combined effect of temperature (T) of 15, 20, 25, and 30°C and relative humidity (RH) of 65, 80, 90, and 100% was studied by inoculating berries with mycelium plugs. Regardless of the T, no disease occurred at 65% RH, and both disease incidence and severity increased with increasing RH. The combined effect of T (5 to 30°C) and wetness duration (WD) of 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 h was studied by inoculating berries with conidia. At WD of 36 h, disease incidence was approximately 75% of affected berries at 20 or 25°C, 50% at 15°C, and 30 to 20% at 30 and 10°C; no infection occurred at 5°C. Under favorable conditions (100% RH or 36 h of WD) and unfavorable conditions (65% RH or 3 h of WD), berry wounding did not significantly affect disease incidence; under moderately favorable conditions (80% RH or 6 to 12 h of WD), disease incidence was approximately 1.5 to 5 times higher in wounded than in intact berries. Our data collectively showed that (i) T and RH or WD were more important than strain for mature berry infection by either mycelium or conidia and (ii) the effect of the environment on the different strains was similar. Two equations were developed describing the combined effect of T and RH, or T and WD, on disease incidence following inoculation by mycelium (R2=0.99) or conidia (R2=0.96), respectively. These equations may be useful in the development of models used to predict and control Botrytis bunch rot during berry ripening.

  11. Does therapist’s attitude affect clinical outcome of lumbar facet joint injections?

    PubMed Central

    Middendorp, Marcus; Kollias, Konstantinos; Ackermann, Hanns; Splettstößer, Annina; Vogl, Thomas J; Khan, M Fawad; Maataoui, Adel

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate if the clinical outcome of intra-articular lumbar facet joint injections is affected by the therapist’s attitude. METHODS: A total of 40 patients with facet joint-associated chronic low back pain were randomly divided into two groups. All patients received computed tomography-guided, monosegmental intra-articular facet joint injections. Following the therapeutic procedure, the patients of the experimental group (EG) held a conversation with the radiologist in a comfortable atmosphere. During the dialog, the patients were encouraged to ask questions and were shown four images. The patients of the control group (CG) left the clinic without any further contact with the radiologist. Outcome was assessed using a pain-based Verbal Numeric Scale at baseline, at 1 wk and at 1, 3, and 6 mo after first treatment. RESULTS: The patient demographics showed no differences between the groups. The patients of the EG received 57 interventional procedures in total, while the patients of the CG received 70 interventional procedures. In both groups, the pain scores decreased significantly over the entire observation period. Compared to the CG, the EG showed a statistically significant reduction of pain at 1 wk and 1 mo post-treatment, while at 3 and 6 mo after treatment, there were no significant differences between both groups. CONCLUSION: Our results show a significant effect on pain relief during the early post-interventional period in the EG as compared to the CG. The basic principle behind the higher efficacy might be the phenomenon of hetero-suggestion. PMID:27358691

  12. Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Versus Light Therapy for Seasonal Affective Disorder: Acute Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rohan, Kelly J; Mahon, Jennifer N; Evans, Maggie; Ho, Sheau-Yan; Meyerhoff, Jonah; Postolache, Teodor T; Vacek, Pamela M

    2015-09-01

    Whereas considerable evidence supports light therapy for winter seasonal affective disorder (SAD), data on cognitive-behavioral therapy for SAD (CBT-SAD) are promising but preliminary. This study estimated the difference between CBT-SAD and light therapy outcomes in a large, more definitive test. The participants were 177 adults with a current episode of major depression that was recurrent with a seasonal pattern. The randomized clinical trial compared 6 weeks of CBT-SAD (N=88) and light therapy (N=89). Light therapy consisted of 10,000-lux cool-white florescent light, initiated at 30 minutes each morning and adjusted according to a treatment algorithm based on response and side effects. CBT-SAD comprised 12 sessions of the authors' SAD-tailored protocol in a group format and was administered by Ph.D. psychologists in two 90-minute sessions per week. Outcomes were continuous scores on the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-SAD Version (SIGH-SAD, administered weekly) and Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II, administered before treatment, at week 3, and after treatment) and posttreatment remission status based on cut points. Depression severity measured with the SIGH-SAD and BDI-II improved significantly and comparably with CBT-SAD and light therapy. Having a baseline comorbid diagnosis was associated with higher depression scores across all time points in both treatments. CBT-SAD and light therapy did not differ in remission rates based on the SIGH-SAD (47.6% and 47.2%, respectively) or the BDI-II (56.0% and 63.6%). CBT-SAD and light therapy are comparably effective for SAD during an acute episode, and both may be considered as treatment options.

  13. [Design of a system for genotyping of Gallus gallus based on the rSNP (regulatory single nucleotide polymorphism) alleles affecting the egg shell thickness].

    PubMed

    Barkova, O Iu; Sazanova, A L; Blagoveshchenskiĭ, I Iu; Fomichev, K A; Malewski; Sazanov, A A

    2011-02-01

    PCR amplification of the six fragments of regulatory and coding regions of chicken ChEST985k21 gene (accession no. CR523443), substantially affecting the egg shell thickness quantitative trait, was carried out. Sequencing of these fragments in six chickens from a native Polish breed, Green-legged Partridgenous, with different manifestation of the trait of interest enabled identification of six single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites within the ChEST985k21 sequence. Five of these sites were located in the regulatory region, and one site, in the coding region. For all SNPs identified, the existence of transcription factor binding sites, present in only one allelic variant, was demonstrated. This finding enables considering these sites as regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms, rSNP. The effect of rSNP discovered on the chicken egg shell thickness was tested using PCR amplification with allele-specific primers. In the groups of chicken of Rhode Island Red breed with thick (389.9 +/- 13.09 microm) and thin (315.7 +/- 21.38 microm) egg shells statistically significant differences in the allele frequencies of the ST2_1, ST3_1, ST3_2, and ST3_3 polymorphic loci. In the same groups of birds, statistically significant differences in the shell thickness were observed in the rSNP allele genotypic classes ST2_1, ST3_1, ST3-2, ST3_3, and ST6_1. Based on these data, it was concluded that rSNPs influenced manifestation of the quantitative trait examined, and the genotyping system for marker assisted selection was constructed.

  14. Spatial and temporal factors affecting parasite genotypes encountered by hosts: empirical data from American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) parasitising raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    PubMed

    Dharmarajan, G; Beasley, J C; Rhodes, O E

    2010-06-01

    The American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis) is an important vector of numerous pathogens of humans and animals. In this study, we analysed population genetic patterns in D. variabilis at scales of the host individual (infrapopulation) and population (component population) to elucidate fine-scale spatial and temporal factors influencing transmission dynamics. We genotyped D. variabilis collected from raccoons (Procyon lotor) trapped in two habitat patches (located in Indiana, USA) which were spatially proximate (5.9 km) and limited in size (10.48 Ha and 25.47 Ha, respectively). Despite the fine spatial sampling scale, our analyses revealed significant genetic differentiation amongst component populations and infrapopulations (within each component population), indicating a non-random pattern of encountering tick genotypes by raccoons at both scales evaluated. We found evidence for male-biased dispersal in the ticks themselves (in one component population) and an age-bias in spatial scales at which raccoons encountered ticks in the environment. At the scale of the component population, our analyses revealed that raccoons encountered ticks from a limited number of D. variabilis family groups, likely due to high reproductive variance amongst individual ticks. Finally, we found evidence for a temporal effect with raccoons encountering ticks in the environment as "clumps" of related individuals. While the genetic structure of parasite populations are increasingly being investigated at small spatial scales (e.g. the infrapopulation), our data reveal that genetic structuring can originate at scales below that of the infrapopulation, due to the interaction between temporal and biological factors affecting the encounter of parasites by individual hosts. Ultimately, our data indicate that genetic structure in parasites must be viewed as a consequence of both spatial and temporal variance in host-parasite interactions, which in turn are driven by demographic factors related

  15. Dopamine transporter SLC6A3 genotype affects cortico-striatal activity of set-shifts in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Habak, Claudine; Noreau, Anne; Nagano-Saito, Atsuko; Mejía-Constaín, Beatriz; Degroot, Clotilde; Strafella, Antonio P.; Chouinard, Sylvain; Lafontaine, Anne-Louise; Rouleau, Guy A.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative condition that affects motor function along with a wide range of cognitive domains, including executive function. The hallmark of the pathology is its significant loss of nigrostriatal dopamine, which is necessary for the cortico-striatal interactions that underlie executive control. Striatal dopamine reuptake is mediated by the SLC6A3 gene (formerly named DAT1) and its polymorphisms, which have been largely overlooked in Parkinson’s disease. Thirty patients (ages 53–68 years; 19 males, 11 females) at early stages of Parkinson’s disease, were genotyped according to a 9-repeat (9R) or 10-repeat (10R) allele on the SLC6A3/DAT1 gene. They underwent neuropsychological assessment and functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a set-shifting task (a computerized Wisconsin Card Sorting Task) that relies on fronto-striatal interactions. Patients homozygous on the 10R allele performed significantly better on working memory tasks than 9R-carrier patients. Most importantly, patients carrying a 9R allele exhibited less activation than their 10R homozygous counterparts in the prefrontal cortex, premotor cortex and caudate nucleus, when planning and executing a set-shift. This pattern was exacerbated for conditions that usually recruit the striatum compared to those that do not. This is the first study indicating that the SLC6A3/DAT1 genotype has a significant effect on fronto-striatal activation and performance in Parkinson’s disease. This effect is stronger for conditions that engage the striatum. Longitudinal studies are warranted to assess this polymorphism’s effect on the clinical evolution of patients with Parkinson’s disease, especially with cognitive decline. PMID:25212851

  16. Influence of Genetic Polymorphisms on Clopidogrel Response and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke CYP2C19 Genotype on Clopidogrel Response.

    PubMed

    Han, Yan; Lv, Hui-Hui; Liu, Xu; Dong, Qiang; Yang, Xiao-Li; Li, Shi-Xu; Wu, Shuai; Jiang, Jian-Ming; Luo, Zheng; Zhu, De-Sheng; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Yi; Guan, Yang-Tai; Xu, Jian-Feng

    2015-09-01

    This study sought to evaluate the influence of the genetic polymorphisms on platelet reactivity and clinical outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients taking clopidogrel. Little research has been published on relationships between genetic polymorphisms, platelet reactivity, and clinical outcomes in stroke patients treated with clopidogrel. Patients hospitalized in Changhai Hospital with acute ischemic stroke were randomly enrolled into treatment with a 75-mg daily maintenance dose of clopidogrel. Genotyping was detected by the MassARRAY iPLEX genotyping system (Sequenom Inc, San Diego, CA), and platelet reactivity was evaluated by the VerifyNow P2Y12 test (Accumetrics Inc., San Diego, CA). Sixteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 9 genes were selected and high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity (HPR) was defined as P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) value ≥230. The primary endpoint was ischemic events, including major adverse cardiac events (MACE), recurrence of stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and the composite of vascular death, and the secondary endpoint was bleeding. Of the 345 patients recruited, 275 (79.7%) patients were followed up for 1 year and 122 (35.4%) patients were categorized as HPR. Among the SNPs selected, only the CYP2C19*2 allele and the CYP2C19*3 allele were statistically significantly associated with PRU (P < 0.001 and P = 0.003, respectively). Similarly, the prevalence of HPR was associated with CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). During the 1 year of follow-up, a total of 64 (23.3%) cases of clinical events occurred, including 60 ischemic events and 4 bleeding events. There were no correlation between CYP2C19 variant alleles and clinical outcomes (P > 0.05), but a statistically significant relevance was found between the HPR and the ischemic events in 1 year of follow-up (P = 0.001). CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 had a significant impact on clopidogrel response, but was not associated with ischemic

  17. Metabolic Syndrome but not Obesity Adversely Affects Outcomes after Open Aortoiliac Bypass Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiko; Perlick, Alexa; Miller, Charles C; Sandhu, Harleen K; Afaq, Shaikh; Safi, Hazim J; Azizzadeh, Ali; Charlton-Ouw, Kristofer M

    2017-09-05

    predictors of reintervention. Neither obesity nor the individual components comprising metabolic syndrome was a risk for reintervention. Multivariate analysis demonstrated age, female gender, critical limb ischemia, and non-obesity as the independent risk factors for long-term mortality. Our study supports the "obesity paradox" that obesity by itself is not a risk factor for reintervention and was a protective factor for mortality after open aortoiliac bypass surgery. Bypass graft patency and major amputation rates were not affected. Although the individual components do not predispose to worse outcome, metabolic syndrome is a constellation of factors that, together, are associated with adverse events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Does the Age of a Patient Affect the Outcome of Temporomandibular Joint Arthroscopic Surgery?

    PubMed

    Cho, Jungsuk; Israel, Howard

    2017-06-01

    Although temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders encompass all age groups, it is generally considered to affect young to middle-age adults. The aim of this investigation was to study patients who met the criteria for TMJ arthroscopy and to determine whether there was a difference in outcomes between younger and older patients. This was a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent TMJ operative arthroscopy. The primary variable studied was patient age. Major outcome variables included changes in subjective pain measured by a visual analog scale (VAS) and changes in maximum interincisal opening (MIO) after arthroscopic surgery. Other variables of interest included the presence of systemic disease, synovitis, and osteoarthritis diagnosed arthroscopically. Data analysis included the Student t test, regression analysis (R Studio, Boston, MA), and χ(2) test with a P value less than .05 indicating statistical significance. The study population consisted of 103 patients diagnosed with internal derangement and severe inflammatory or degenerative TMJ disease (Wilkes stages II to V) who underwent operative arthroscopy. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on age (group Y, <40 yr old, n = 51, mean age, 26 yr; group O, >40 yr old, n = 52, mean age, 56 yr). The presence of osteoarthritis diagnosed arthroscopically was significantly greater in group O than in group Y (P < .01). There was significant postoperative improvement in pain (VAS) and MIO in group Y (P < .01) and group O (P < .01). Although the 2 groups showed substantial improvement after arthroscopy, when comparing differences in outcomes between the groups, the absolute postoperative pain level for group O was significantly lower than for group Y (P < .05). Comparison of postoperative MIO did not show a significant difference between group Y and group O (P = .286). Groups Y and O showed substantial improvement in pain (VAS) and mandibular mobility (MIO) after surgical TMJ arthroscopy. Group O had

  19. The 80-hour resident workweek does not adversely affect patient outcomes or resident education.

    PubMed

    de Virgilio, Christian; Yaghoubian, Arezou; Lewis, Roger J; Stabile, Bruce E; Putnam, Brant A

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether the 80-hour resident workweek adversely affects patient outcomes or resident education. To assess patient outcomes, the authors reviewed trauma patient morbidity and mortality at the second busiest level I trauma center in Los Angeles County before (July 1998-June 2003, Period 1) and after (July 2003-June 2005, Period 2) implementation of the duty hour limitation via a retrospective review of a prospective database. All patients were operated and managed by residents under faculty supervision. Patient characteristics included the injury severity score (ISS), mechanism of injury, complications, and death. To assess resident education, the authors compared ABSITE percentile scores, first-time pass rates on the American Board of Surgery Qualifying and Certifying Examinations, and total and chief resident operative case volumes. In addition, they estimated institutional costs incurred to comply with the new duty hour rules. Patient outcomes. Over the entire 7-year study period, 11,518 trauma patients were transported to Harbor-UCLA Medical Center. Compared with Period 1, Period 2 experienced an increase in average yearly patient volume from 1510 to 1981 (p 0.01). The average ISS also increased, from 7.9 to 9.6 (p < 0.0001), as did the proportion of penetrating trauma from 14.8% to 17.6% (p < 0.0001). Morbidity and mortality rates remained unchanged. Resident education. Mean ABSITE scores and first-time Qualifying and Certifying Exam pass rates were unchanged. Mean resident total major case volumes increased significantly in Period 2 from 831 to 1156 (p < 0.0001), whereas chief resident year case volumes were unchanged. The estimated cost incurred by this institution to conform to the new work hour standards was approximately 359,000 dollars per year. Despite concerns that the 80-hour workweek might threaten patient care and resident education, the morbidity and mortality rates at a busy level I trauma center remained unchanged. The quality of

  20. Effects of citalopram and escitalopram on fMRI response to affective stimuli in healthy volunteers selected by serotonin transporter genotype.

    PubMed

    Henry, Michael E; Lauriat, Tara L; Lowen, Steven B; Churchill, Jeffrey H; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Goldman, David; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-09-30

    This study was designed to assess whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) following antidepressant administration (pharmaco-fMRI) is sufficiently sensitive to detect differences in patterns of activation between enantiomers of the same compound. Healthy adult males (n=11) participated in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial with three medication periods during which they received citalopram (racemic mixture), escitalopram (S-citalopram alone), or placebo for 2 weeks. All participants had high expression serotonin transporter genotypes. An fMRI scan that included passive viewing of overt and covert affective faces and affective words was performed after each medication period. Activation in response to overt faces was greater following escitalopram than following citalopram in the right insula, thalamus, and putamen when the faces were compared with a fixation stimulus. For the rapid covert presentation, a greater response was observed in the left middle temporal gyrus in the happy versus fearful contrast following escitalopram than following citalopram. Thus, the combination of genomics and fMRI was successful in discriminating between two very similar drugs. However, the pattern of activation observed suggests that further studies are indicated to understand how to optimally combine the two techniques.

  1. Effects of citalopram and escitalopram on fMRI response to affective stimuli in healthy volunteers selected by serotonin transporter genotype

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Michael E.; Lauriat, Tara L.; Lowen, Steven B.; Churchill, Jeffrey H.; Hodgkinson, Colin A.; Goldman, David; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to assess whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) following antidepressant administration (pharmaco-fMRI) is sufficiently sensitive to detect differences in patterns of activation between enantiomers of the same compound. Healthy adult males (n = 11) participated in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial with three medication periods during which they received citalopram (racemic mixture), escitalopram (S-citalopram alone), or placebo for 2 weeks. All participants had high expression serotonin transporter genotypes. An fMRI scan that included passive viewing of overt and covert affective faces and affective words was performed after each medication period. Activation in response to overt faces was greater following escitalopram than following citalopram in the right insula, thalamus, and putamen when the faces were compared with a fixation stimulus. For the rapid covert presentation, a greater response was observed in the left middle temporal gyrus in the happy versus fearful contrast following escitalopram than following citalopram. Thus, the combination of genomics and fMRI was successful in discriminating between two very similar drugs. However, the pattern of activation observed suggests that further studies are indicated to understand how to optimally combine the two techniques. PMID:23845563

  2. Variable gene dispersal conditions and spatial deforestation patterns can interact to affect tropical tree conservation outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kashimshetty, Yamini; Pelikan, Stephan; Rogstad, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF) biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG), which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring) had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively) than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively), with 'Near' distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene dispersal

  3. Factors affecting early and long-term outcomes after completion pneumonectomy.

    PubMed

    Chataigner, Olivier; Fadel, Elie; Yildizeli, Bedrettin; Achir, Abdallah; Mussot, Sacha; Fabre, Dominique; Mercier, Olaf; Dartevelle, Philippe G

    2008-05-01

    To identify factors that affect operative mortality and morbidity and long-term survival after completion pneumonectomy. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of consecutive patients who underwent completion pneumonectomy at our cardiothoracic surgery department from January 1996 to December 2005. We identified 69 patients, who accounted for 17.8% of all pneumonectomies during the study period; 22 had benign disease and 47 malignant disease (second primary lung cancer, n=19; local recurrence, n=17; or metastasis, n=11). There were 50 males and 19 females with a mean age of 60 years (range, 29-80 years). Postoperative mortality was 12% and postoperative morbidity 41%. Factors associated with postoperative mortality included obesity (p=0.005), coronary artery disease (p=0.03), removal of the right lung (p=0.02), advanced age (p=0.02), and renal failure (p<0.0001). Preoperative renal failure was the only significant risk factor for mortality by multivariate analysis (p=0.036). Bronchopleural fistula developed in seven patients (10%), with risk factors being removal of the right lung (p=0.04) and mechanical stump closure (p=0.03). Overall survival was 65% after 3 years and 46% after 5 years. Long-term survival was not affected by the reason for completion pneumonectomy. Although long-term survival was acceptable, postoperative mortality and morbidity rates remained high, confirming the reputation of completion pneumonectomy as a challenging procedure. Significant comorbidities and removal of the right lung were the main risk factors for postoperative mortality. Improved patient selection and better management of preoperative renal failure may improve the postoperative outcomes of this procedure, which offers a chance for prolonged survival.

  4. Variable Gene Dispersal Conditions and Spatial Deforestation Patterns Can Interact to Affect Tropical Tree Conservation Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kashimshetty, Yamini; Pelikan, Stephan; Rogstad, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF) biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG), which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring) had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively) than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively), with ‘Near’ distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene dispersal

  5. [Impact of CYP2C19 genotype and platelet function on clinical outcome in coronary atherosclerotic heart diseases patients received clopidogrel post percutaneous coronary intervention].

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Zhang, X X; Tian, L; Jiang, J J; Xu, L; Huang, Y L; Liu, H; Li, Y S

    2017-05-24

    Objective: To analyze association of CYP2C19 genotype and platelet function phenotype and their impact on clinical outcomes including bleeding events of coronary artery disease(CAD) patients received clopidogrel post percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI). Methods: Coronary atherosclerotic heart diseases patients underwent elective PCI and coronary stent implantation in Fuwai hospital were prospectively enrolled during May 2012 to April 2013. Patients were assigned into groups by genotype of CYP2C19 (extensive metabolizers, intermediate metabolizers, and poor metabolizers) and phenotype of platelet function (clopidogrel responders, semi-responders, and non-responders). The rates of major adverse cardiovascular events, combined cardiovascular events, and bleeding events were recorded during a at least 12 months follow-up period and compared among above defined groups. The association between genotype or phenotype and clinical outcome was assessed using multivariable Cox regression hazards model. Results: Three hundred and eighty patients received coronary stent implantation and met the inclusion criteria of the study, including 157(41.3%) clopidogrel extensive metabolizers, 176(46.3%) intermediate metabolizers, and 47(12.4%) poor metabolizers according to the genotype grouping; 98(25.8%) were responders to clopidogrel, 149(39.2%) were semi-responders, and 133 (35.0%) were non-responders according to the phenotype grouping. Three hundred and seventy-six patients accomplished follow-up. The highest combined cardiovascular events rate was observed in the poor metabolizers (34.0%(16/47)) as compared to the intermediate metabolizers (19.0%(33/174), P=0.026) and the extensive metabolizers (15.5%(24/155), P=0.005). The highest bleeding events rate was observed in the clopidogrel responders (33.7%(33/98)) as compared to the semi-responders (18.9%(28/149), P=0.008) and non-responders (17.7%(23/130), P=0.008). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, the adjusted risk of

  6. Gender and motor competence affects perceived likelihood and importance of physical activity outcomes among 14 year olds.

    PubMed

    Hands, B; Parker, H E; Rose, E; Larkin, D

    2016-03-01

    Perceptions of the effects of physical activity could facilitate or deter future participation. This study explored the differences between gender and motor competence at 14 years of age in the perceptions of likelihood and importance of physical activity outcomes. The sample comprised 1582 14-year-old adolescents (769 girls) from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Four motor competence groups were formed from a standardized Neuromuscular Developmental Index score (McCarron 1997). Perceptions of the likelihood and the importance of 15 physical activity outcomes were measured by a questionnaire developed for the NSW Schools Fitness and Physical Activity Survey (Booth et al. 1997). Gender (two) × motor competence (four) analyses of variance and Tukey post hoc were conducted on outcome scores (P < 0.02) using SPSS version 17. Gender differences were found in the perceived likelihood and importance of physical activity outcomes within competition, social friendships and injury domains. Motor competence was significant in the perceived likelihood of physical health (P < 0.001), psychosocial (P < 0.009) and competition (P < 0.002) outcomes, with lower perceptions by the least competent groups. Significantly lower importance was perceived for academic outcomes for 14 year olds categorized with low compared with high motor competence (P < 0.005). Regardless of motor competence and gender, the same health and fun outcomes were ranked the highest in likelihood and the highest in importance. Although level of motor competence at 14 years affected the perceived likelihood of health, social and fun outcomes from future participation in physical activity, adolescents highly valued these outcomes, whereas gender affected competition and winning, outcomes that were less valued. Physical activity that promotes these key and valued outcomes may encourage young people's ongoing involvement in physical activity, especially for those

  7. Perceptions of Intragroup Rejection and Coping Strategies: Malleable Factors Affecting Hispanic Adolescents’ Emotional and Academic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Michael T.; Crano, William D.; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding psychosocial factors that affect the academic achievement of Hispanic adolescents remains a nationwide priority in the United States. Extending previous studies of the stressful effects of perceived discrimination, this year-long longitudinal study examined the correlates of perceived ethnic in-group rejection, coping strategies and fatalistic beliefs, on depressive symptoms, grades, and college aspirations of 2,214 Hispanic adolescents (54 % female) in Southern California. Based on the transactional model of stress and coping and on self-perception theory, structural equation models revealed that high perceived intragroup rejection (10th grade) and low levels of active coping (11th grade) were associated with depressive symptoms in 11th grade. Also, depressive symptoms partially mediated the link between intragroup rejection and both academic outcomes. Avoidant coping strategies (e.g., watching TV) also predicted depressive symptoms and were positively related to fatalism. In addition, fatalism was negatively related to grades and aspiration to attend college. The findings suggest the need to help adolescents find adequate outlets for communication and to create awareness about the potential effects of intragroup rejection. PMID:24234042

  8. Selecting networks of nature reserves: methods do affect the long-term outcome

    PubMed Central

    Virolainen, K. M.; Virola, T.; Suhonen, J.; Kuitunen, M.; Lammi, A.; ki, P. Siikam

    1999-01-01

    Data on vascular plants of boreal lakes in Finland were used to compare the efficiency of reserve selection methods in representing four aspects of biodiversity over a 63 year period. These aspects included species richness, phylogenetic diversity, restricted range diversity and threatened species. Our results show that the efficiency of reserve selection methods depends on the selection criteria used and on the aspect of biodiversity under consideration. Heuristic methods and optimizing algorithms were nearly equally efficient in selecting lake networks over a small geographical range. In addition, a scoring procedure was observed to be efficient in maintaining different aspects of biodiversity over time. However, the random selection of lakes seems to be the most inefficient option for a reserve network. In general, reserve selection methods seem to favour lakes that maximize one aspect of diversity at the time of selection, but the network may not be the best option for maintaining the maximum diversity over time. The reserve selection methods do affect the long-term outcome but it is impossible to recommend one method over the others unequivocally.

  9. Factors affecting pregnancy weight gain and relationships with maternal/fetal outcomes in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Akgun, Nilufer; Keskin, Huseyin L.; Ustuner, Isık; Pekcan, Gulden; Avsar, Ayse F.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain on maternal and fetal complications, and to examine whether Turkish women achieve the recommended gestational weight gain. We also investigated the relationship between pregnancy weight gain and mode of delivery, with an examination of maternal anthropometry. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on a population of 986 pregnant women between November 2011 and November 2015 at Atatürk Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Maternal age, BMI, monthly weight gain during pregnancy, infant birth weight, gender, and maternal and fetal adverse outcomes were evaluated. Results: The frequency of maternal complications was positively associated with elevated pre-pregnancy BMI (p<0.05), and weight gain during pregnancy was associated with parity and increased infant birth weight (p<0.05). However, no correlations were observed between mean pregnancy weight gain and maternal complications (p>0.05). The percentage of women who gained the Institute of Medicine (IOM)-recommended amount of weight was the highest in the underweight BMI group (54.1%) and the lowest in the obese BMI group (24.3%). Pregnancy weight gain exceeded IOM recommendations in the overweight (56.3%) and obese (52.5%) groups. Conclusions: While maternal weight gain during pregnancy affects neonatal body weight, higher pre-pregnancy BMI has an adverse effect on recommended weight gain during pregnancy, with increased maternal complications. PMID:28439600

  10. Moderation of the effects of discrimination-induced affective responses on health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X; Fleischli, Mary E; Cutrona, Carolyn E; Stock, Michelle L

    2017-04-23

    The goal of the study was to examine differential mediation of long-term effects of discrimination on health behaviour and health status by internalising (anxiety and depression) and externalising (hostility and anger), and to explore moderation of these effects, specifically, by the presence of support networks and coping tendencies. The current analyses employed structural equation modelling of five waves of data from Black female participants of the Family and Community Health Study over 11 years (M age 37-48). The main outcome variables were health status and alcohol use (frequency and problematic consumption). Perceived racial discrimination was associated with increases in internalising and externalising. In addition, internalising reactions to discrimination were associated with deterioration in health status and increases in problematic drinking; externalising reactions were associated with increases in frequency of drinking. These relations were attenuated by availability of support networks, and exacerbated by use of avoidance coping. The current study (a) replicated previous research suggesting that two different types of affective reactions mediate the relations between perceived racial discrimination and physical health status vs. health-impairing behaviours: internalising and externalising, and (b) revealed moderation of these effects by coping mechanisms.

  11. Thoracic pedicle screw insertion in Asian cadaveric specimen: does radiological pedicle profile affect outcome?

    PubMed

    Chan, Chris Yin Wei; Kwan, Mun Keong; Saw, Lim Beng

    2011-01-01

    Pedicle screw instrumentation has superior biomechanical as well as clinical outcome. Thoracic pedicles show great variation in different population groups, particularly in Asians who have been shown to have smaller pedicle dimensions. Although plain radiographs are widely performed prior to spine surgery, no studies have been done so far to investigate whether the thoracic pedicle profile on plain radiographs affect thoracic pedicle screw insertion. Therefore, this is a cadaveric study aimed to determine the relationship between plain radiographic thoracic pedicle profile in Asians and the outcome of pedicle screw insertion in the thoracic spine. A pre-insertion radiograph with an enlargement reference scale was performed and surgeons were blinded to the plain radiographic morphometry of the thoracic pedicles. From the pre-insertion radiograph, the normalized pedicle width and height (which controls for any magnification error) as well as the pedicle width:body width (PWBW) and pedicle width:pedicle height (PWPH) ratio was derived. 240 pedicle screws were inserted in ten Asian cadavers from T1 to T12 using the funnel technique. 5.0 mm screws were used from T1 to T6 while 6.0 mm screws were used from T7 to T12. Perforations were detected by direct visualization via wide laminectomies after pedicle screw insertion. The outcome of thoracic pedicle screw insertion was correlated with the radiological profile using independent t-test. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to investigate the correlation between the ratios and the normalised pedicle width and height. The narrowest pedicle width is from T3 to T6 determined from normalized measurement of the pedicle width. T5 pedicle width is the smallest measuring 4.1 ± 1.3 mm. The overall perforation rate is 10.4% (25 perforations). There is only one significant perforation. There were twice as many lateral and inferior perforations compared to the medial perforations. 48% of the perforations occurred at T1, T2 and T

  12. Does crossover innervation really affect the clinical outcome? A comparison of outcome between unilateral and bilateral digital nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Oruç, Melike; Ozer, Kadri; Çolak, Özlem; Kankaya, Yüksel; Koçer, Uğur

    2016-09-01

    Digital nerve injuries are the mostly detected nerve injury in the upper extremity. However, since the clinical phenomenon of crossover innervation at some degree from uninjured digital nerve to the injured side occurs after digital nerve injuries is sustained, one could argue that this concept might even result in the overestimation of the outcome of the digital nerve repair. With this knowledge in mind, this study aimed to present novel, pure, focused and valuable clinical data by comparing the outcomes of bilateral and unilateral digital nerve repair. A retrospective review of 28 fingers with unilateral or bilateral digital nerve repair using end-to-end technique in 19 patients within 2 years was performed. Weber's two-point discrimination, sharp/dull discrimination, warm/cold sensation and Visual Analog Scale scoring were measured at final 12-month follow ups in all patients. There was no significant difference in recovery of sensibility after unilateral and bilateral digital nerve repairs. Though there is crossover innervation microscopically, it is not important in the clinical evaluation period. According to clinical findings from this study, crossover innervations appear to be negligible in the estimation of outcomes of digital neurorrhaphy.

  13. A genotype-specific, randomized controlled behavioral intervention to improve the neuroemotional outcome of cardiac surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiac surgery is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures worldwide with >700,000 surgeries in 2006 in the US alone. Cardiac surgery results in a considerable exposure to physical and emotional stress; stress-related disorders such as depression or post-traumatic stress disorder are the most common adverse outcomes of cardiac surgery, seen in up to 20% of patients. Using information from a genome-wide association study to characterize genetic effects on emotional memory, we recently identified a single nucleotide polymorphism of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (the Bcll single nucleotide polymorphism) as a significant genetic risk factor for traumatic memories from cardiac surgery and symptoms of post-traumaticstress disorder. The Bcll high-risk genotype (Bcll GG) has a prevalence of 16.6% in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and is associated with increased glucocorticoid receptor signaling under stress. Concomitant animal experiments have confirmed an essential role of glucocorticoid receptor activation for traumatic memory formation during stressful experiences. Early cognitive behavioral intervention has been shown to prevent stress-related disorders after heart surgery. Methods/Design The proposed study protocol is based on the above mentioned earlier findings from animal experiments and preclinical studies in volunteers. Patients (n = 872) will be genotyped for the Bcll single nucleotide polymorphism before surgery, which should result in 120 homozygous high-risk carriers of the Bcll GG allele and 240 randomly selected low-risk heterozygous or non-carriers of the single nucleotide polymorphism. All patients will then undergo randomization to either cognitive behavioral intervention or a control intervention consisting of non-specific general information about the role of stress in heart disease. The primary efficacy endpoint will be post-traumatic stress levels at one year after surgery as determined by a standardized

  14. Virus and Host Factors Affecting the Clinical Outcome of Bluetongue Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Caporale, Marco; Di Gialleonorado, Luigina; Janowicz, Anna; Wilkie, Gavin; Shaw, Andrew; Savini, Giovanni; Van Rijn, Piet A.; Mertens, Peter; Di Ventura, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bluetongue is a major infectious disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), an arbovirus transmitted by Culicoides. Here, we assessed virus and host factors influencing the clinical outcome of BTV infection using a single experimental framework. We investigated how mammalian host species, breed, age, BTV serotypes, and strains within a serotype affect the clinical course of bluetongue. Results obtained indicate that in small ruminants, there is a marked difference in the susceptibility to clinical disease induced by BTV at the host species level but less so at the breed level. No major differences in virulence were found between divergent serotypes (BTV-8 and BTV-2). However, we observed striking differences in virulence between closely related strains of the same serotype collected toward the beginning and the end of the European BTV-8 outbreak. As observed previously, differences in disease severity were also observed when animals were infected with either blood from a BTV-infected animal or from the same virus isolated in cell culture. Interestingly, with the exception of two silent mutations, full viral genome sequencing showed identical consensus sequences of the virus before and after cell culture isolation. However, deep sequencing analysis revealed a marked decrease in the genetic diversity of the viral population after passaging in mammalian cells. In contrast, passaging in Culicoides cells increased the overall number of low-frequency variants compared to virus never passaged in cell culture. Thus, Culicoides might be a source of new viral variants, and viral population diversity can be another factor influencing BTV virulence. IMPORTANCE Bluetongue is one of the major infectious diseases of ruminants. It is caused by an arbovirus known as bluetongue virus (BTV). The clinical outcome of BTV infection is extremely variable. We show that there are clear links between the severity of bluetongue and the mammalian host species infected

  15. Experimental conditions affect the outcome of Plasmodium falciparum platelet-mediated clumping assays

    PubMed Central

    Arman, Mònica; Rowe, J Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Background Platelet-mediated clumping of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IE) is a parasite adhesion phenotype that has been associated with severe malaria in some, but not all, field isolate studies. A variety of experimental conditions have been used to study clumping in vitro, with substantial differences in parasitaemia (Pt), haematocrit (Ht), and time of reaction between studies. It is unknown whether these experimental variables affect the outcome of parasite clumping assays. Methods The effects of Pt (1, 4 and 12%), Ht (2, 5 and 10%) and time (15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h) on the clumping of P. falciparum clone HB3 were examined. The effects of platelet freshness and parasite maturity were also studied. Results At low Ht (2%), the Pt of the culture has a large effect on clumping, with significantly higher clumping occurring at 12% Pt (mean 47% of IE in clumps) compared to 4% Pt (mean 26% IE in clumps) or 1% Pt (mean 7% IE in clumps) (ANOVA, p = 0.0004). Similarly, at low Pt (1%), the Ht of the culture has a large effect on clumping, with significantly higher clumping occurring at 10% Ht (mean 62% IE in clumps) compared to 5% Ht (mean 25% IE in clumps) or 2% Ht (mean 10% IE in clumps) (ANOVA, p = 0.0004). Combinations of high Ht and high Pt were impractical because of the difficulty assessing clumping in densely packed IE and the rapid formation of enormous clumps that could not be counted accurately. There was no significant difference in clumping when fresh platelets were used compared to platelets stored at 4°C for 10 days. Clumping was a property of mature pigmented-trophozoites and schizonts but not ring stage parasites. Conclusion The Pt and Ht at which in vitro clumping assays are set up have a profound effect on the outcome. All previous field isolate studies on clumping and malaria severity suffer from potential problems in experimental design and methodology. Future studies of clumping should use standardized conditions and control for Pt

  16. MIS Fusion of the SI Joint: Does Prior Lumbar Spinal Fusion Affect Patient Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Sacroiliac (SI) joint pain is a challenging condition to manage as it can mimic discogenic or radicular low back pain, and present as low back, hip, groin and/or buttock pain. Patients may present with a combination of lumbar spine and SI joint symptoms, further complicating the diagnosis and treatment algorithm [1-3]. SI joint pain after lumbar spinal fusion has been reported in the literature. Both clinical and biomechanical studies show the SI joint to be susceptible to increased motion and stress at the articular surface with up to 40-75% of patients developing significant SI joint degeneration after 5 years. In a recent case series study of 50 patients who underwent minimally invasive SI joint arthrodesis, 50% had undergone previous lumbar spinal fusion and 18% had symptomatic lumbar spine pathology treated conservatively [4]. The purpose of this study is to determine if history of previous lumbar fusion or lumbar pathology affects patient outcomes after MIS SI joint fusion surgery. We report on 40 patients with 24 month follow up treated with MIS SI joint fusion using a series of triangular porous plasma coated titanium implants (iFuse, SI-Bone, Inc. San Jose, CA). Outcomes using a numerical rating scale (NRS) for pain were obtained at 3-, 6-, 12- and 24 month follow up intervals. Additionally, patient satisfaction was collected at the latest follow up interval. Patients were separated into 3 cohorts: 1) underwent prior lumbar spine fusion (PF), 2) no history of previous lumbar spine fusion (NF), 3) no history of previous lumbar spine fusion with symptomatic lumbar spine pathology treated conservatively (LP). A repeated measures analysis of variance (rANOVA) was used to determine if the change in NRS pain scores differed across timepoints and subgroups. A decrease in NRS by 2 points was deemed clinically significant [5]. Mean age was 54 (±13) years and varied slightly but not statistically between groups. All subgroups experienced a clinically and

  17. Toll-like Receptor 1 Polymorphisms Affect Innate Immune Responses and Outcomes in Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Wurfel, Mark M.; Gordon, Anthony C.; Holden, Tarah D.; Radella, Frank; Strout, Jeanna; Kajikawa, Osamu; Ruzinski, John T.; Rona, Gail; Black, R. Anthony; Stratton, Seth; Jarvik, Gail P.; Hajjar, Adeline M.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Rieder, Mark; Sevransky, Jonathan; Maloney, James P.; Moss, Marc; Martin, Greg; Shanholtz, Carl; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Gao, Li; Brower, Roy; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Walley, Keith R.; Russell, James A.; Martin, Thomas R.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: Polymorphisms affecting Toll-like receptor (TLR)–mediated responses could predispose to excessive inflammation during an infection and contribute to an increased risk for poor outcomes in patients with sepsis. Objectives: To identify hypermorphic polymorphisms causing elevated TLR-mediated innate immune cytokine and chemokine responses and to test whether these polymorphisms are associated with increased susceptibility to death, organ dysfunction, and infections in patients with sepsis. Methods: We screened single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 43 TLR-related genes to identify variants affecting TLR-mediated inflammatory responses in blood from healthy volunteers ex vivo. The SNP associated most strongly with hypermorphic responses was tested for associations with death, organ dysfunction, and type of infection in two studies: a nested case–control study in a cohort of intensive care unit patients with sepsis, and a case–control study using patients with sepsis, patients with sepsis-related acute lung injury, and healthy control subjects. Measurements and Main Results: The SNP demonstrating the most hypermorphic effect was the G allele of TLR1−7202A/G (rs5743551), which associated with elevated TLR1-mediated cytokine production (P < 2 × 10−20). TLR1−7202G marked a coding SNP that causes higher TLR1-induced NF-κB activation and higher cell surface TLR1 expression. In the cohort of patients with sepsis TLR1−7202G predicted worse organ dysfunction and death (odds ratio, 1.82; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–3.09). In the case-control study TLR1−7202G was associated with sepsis-related acute lung injury (odds ratio, 3.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.59–7.27). TLR1−7202G also associated with a higher prevalence of gram-positive cultures in both clinical studies. Conclusions: Hypermorphic genetic variation in TLR1 is associated with increased susceptibility to organ dysfunction, death, and gram-positive infection in sepsis. PMID

  18. The Frequency and Outcome of Acute Kidney Injury in a Tertiary Hospital: Which Factors Affect Mortality?

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Sukru; Arı, Derya; Ozkan, Gulsum; Cansız, Muammer; Kaynar, Kubra

    2015-07-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in hospitalized patients. Incidence and mortality rates vary from country to country, and according to different in-hospital monitoring units and definitions of AKI. The aim of this study was to determine factors affecting frequency of AKI and mortality in our hospital. We retrospectively evaluated data for 1550 patients diagnosed with AKI and 788 patients meeting the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guideline AKI criteria out of a total of 174 852 patients hospitalized in our institution between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012. Staging was performed based on KDIGO Clinical Practice for Acute Kidney Injury and RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function and End-stage renal failure). Demographic and biochemical data were recorded and correlations with mortality were assessed. The frequency of AKI in our hospital was 0.9%, with an in-hospital mortality rate of 34.6%. At multivariate analysis, diastolic blood pressure (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.87-0.92; P < 0.001), monitoring in the intensive care unit (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.09-0.38; P < 0.001), urine output (OR 4.00, 95% CI 2.03-7.89; P < 0.001), duration of oliguria (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.34-1.69; P < 0.001), length of hospitalization (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.79-0.88; P < 0.001), dialysis requirement (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.12-4.71; P < 0.05), APACHE II score (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.09-1.24; P < 0.001), and albumin level (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.21-0.50; P < 0.001) were identified as independent determinants affecting mortality. Frequency of AKI and associated mortality rates in our regional reference hospital were compatible with those in the literature. This study shows that KDIGO criteria are more sensitive in determining AKI. Mortality was not correlated with staging based on RIFLE or KDIGO. Nonetheless, our identification of urine output as one of the independent determinants of mortality suggests that this

  19. Fighting while Parasitized: Can Nematode Infections Affect the Outcome of Staged Combat in Beetles?

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, David; Willoughby, Anna; Davis, Andrew K.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of non-lethal parasites may be felt most strongly when hosts engage in intense, energy-demanding behaviors. One such behavior is fighting with conspecifics, which is common among territorial animals, including many beetle species. We examined the effects of parasites on the fighting ability of a saproxylic beetle, the horned passalus (Odontotaenius disjunctus, Family: Passalidae), which is host to a non-lethal nematode, Chondronema passali. We pitted pairs of randomly-chosen (but equally-weighted) beetles against each other in a small arena and determined the winner and aggression level of fights. Then we examined beetles for the presence, and severity of nematode infections. There was a non-significant tendency (p = 0.065) for the frequency of wins, losses and draws to differ between beetles with and without C. passali; non-parasitized individuals (n = 104) won 47% of their fights while those with the parasite (n = 88) won 34%, a 13% difference in wins. The number of nematodes in a beetle affected the outcome of fights between infected and uninfected individuals in an unexpected fashion: fighting ability was lowest in beetles with the lowest (p = 0.033), not highest (p = 0.266), nematode burdens. Within-fight aggression was highest when both beetles were uninfected and lowest when both were infected (p = 0.034). Collectively, these results suggest the nematode parasite, C. passali, is associated with a modest reduction in fighting ability in horned passalus beetles, consistent with the idea that parasitized beetles have lower energy available for fighting. This study adds to a small but growing body of evidence showing how parasites negatively influence fighting behavior in animals. PMID:25830367

  20. Infant developmental outcomes following prenatal exposure to antidepressants, and maternal depressed mood and positive affect.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Gillian E; Brain, Ursula; Oberlander, Tim F

    2013-08-01

    Prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressants has been associated with delays in early developmental milestones, but there remains uncertainty. Even among a subset of studies examining the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID), some have reported normal mental and psychomotor development while others have suggested a delay in motor development. Given an increasing number of infants exposed to SRIs, furthering our understanding of the possible developmental implications of SRI exposure in utero is critical. To examine the effects of prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure and maternal mood on infant developmental outcomes at 10months of age. Prospective study of mothers and their 10-month-old infants. We examined 31 mother-child pairs exposed prenatally to SRIs and 52 mother-child pairs who were nonexposed. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development (third edition) scores. Infants exposed prenatally to SRIs scored significantly lower than nonexposed infants on gross motor (P=0.03), social-emotional (P=0.04) and adaptive behavior (P=0.05) subscales of the BSID-III, controlling for pre- and postnatal maternal depressed mood, smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy. No significant differences in any of the BSID-III subscales were observed between infants exposed and infants nonexposed to pre and postnatal maternal depressed mood (P>0.05). Increased levels of maternal positive affect at 10 months predicted increased social-emotional scores (P=0.03). Infants prenatally exposed to SRIs score significantly lower on the gross motor, social-emotional and adaptive behavior subscales of the BSID-III, and this was not explained by underlying maternal depression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of playing a science center-based mobile game: Affective outcomes and gender differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood-Blaine, Dana

    Situated in a hands-on science center, The Great STEM Caper was a collaborative mobile game built on the ARIS platform that was designed to engage 5th-9th grade players in NGSS science and engineering practices while they interacted with various exhibits. Same gender partners sharing one iPad would search for QR codes placed at specific exhibits; scanning a code within the game would launch a challenge for that exhibit. The primary hypothesis was that in- game victories would be equivalent to "mastery experiences" as described by Bandura (1997) and would result in increased science self-efficacy. Gender differences in gameplay behaviors and perceptions were also studied. The study included two groups, one that played the game during their visit and one that explored the science center in the traditional way. The Motivation to Learn Science Questionnaire was administered to participants in both groups both before and after their visit to the science center. Participants wore head-mounted GoPro cameras to record their interactions within the physical and social environment. No differences in affective outcomes were found between the game and comparison groups or between boys and girls in the game group. The MLSQ was unable to measure any significant change in science self-efficacy, interest and enjoyment of science, or overall motivation to learn science in either group. However, girls outperformed boys on every measure of game achievement. Lazzaro's (2004) four types of fun were found to be a good fit for describing the gender differences in game perceptions and behaviors. Girls tended to enjoy hard fun and collaborative people fun while boys enjoyed easy fun and competitive people fun. While boys associated game achievement with enjoyment and victory, girls perceived their game achievement as difficult, rather than enjoyable or victorious.

  2. Inflammatory Bowel Disease Affects the Outcome of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection.

    PubMed

    Khoruts, Alexander; Rank, Kevin M; Newman, Krista M; Viskocil, Kimberly; Vaughn, Byron P; Hamilton, Matthew J; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    A significant fraction of patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) have inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) can break the cycle of CDI recurrence and can be performed without evaluation of the colon. We evaluated the efficacy of colonoscopic FMT in patients with and without IBD, and whether we could identify IBD in patients during this procedure. We collected clinical meta-data and colonoscopy results from 272 consecutive patients that underwent FMT for recurrent CDI at the University of Minnesota from 2008 through 2015. Patients had at least 2 spontaneous relapses of CDI following their initial episode and did not clear the infection after 1 extended antibiotic regimen. We collected random mucosal biopsies from patients' right colons to identify lymphocytic or collagenous colitis during the FMT procedure. Failure or success in clearing CDI was determined within or at 2 months after the FMT. Of patients undergoing FMT, 15% had established IBD and 2.6% were found to have IBD during the FMT procedure. A single colonoscopic FMT cleared CDI from 74.4% of patients with IBD and 92.1% of patients without IBD (P = .0018). Patients had similar responses to FMT regardless of immunosuppressive therapy. More than one-quarter of patients with IBD (25.6%) had a clinically significant flare of IBD after FMT. Lymphocytic colitis was documented in 7.4% of patients with endoscopically normal colon mucosa; only 3 of these patients (20%) required additional treatment for colitis after clearance of CDI. Based on an analysis of 272 patients, FMT is somewhat less effective in clearing recurrent CDI from patients with IBD, compared with patients without IBD, regardless of immunosuppressive therapy. More than 25% of patients with IBD have a disease flare following FMT. Lymphocytic colitis did not affect the outcome of FMT, but a small fraction of these patients required pharmacologic treatment after the procedure. Copyright

  3. Factors affecting pregnancy weight gain and relationships with maternal/fetal outcomes in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akgun, Nilufer; Keskin, Huseyin L; Ustuner, Isık; Pekcan, Gulden; Avsar, Ayse F

    2017-05-01

    To determine the effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain on maternal and fetal complications, and to examine whether Turkish women achieve the recommended gestational weight gain. We also investigated the relationship between pregnancy weight gain and mode of delivery, with an examination of maternal anthropometry.  Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on a population of 986 pregnant women between November 2011 and November 2015 at Atatürk Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Maternal age, BMI, monthly weight gain during pregnancy, infant birth weight, gender, and maternal and fetal adverse outcomes were evaluated. Results: The frequency of maternal complications was positively associated with elevated pre-pregnancy BMI (p less than 0.05), and weight gain during pregnancy was associated with parity and increased infant birth weight (p less than 0.05). However, no correlations were observed between mean pregnancy weight gain and maternal complications (p greater than 0.05). The percentage of women who gained the Institute of Medicine (IOM)-recommended amount of weight was the highest in the underweight BMI group (54.1%) and the lowest in the obese BMI group (24.3%). Pregnancy weight gain exceeded IOM recommendations in the overweight (56.3%) and obese (52.5%) groups. Conclusions: While maternal weight gain during pregnancy affects neonatal body weight, higher pre-pregnancy BMI has an adverse effect on recommended weight gain during pregnancy, with increased maternal complications.

  4. The duration of light treatment and therapy outcome in seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Knapen, S E; van de Werken, M; Gordijn, M C M; Meesters, Y

    2014-09-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is characterized by recurrent episodes of major depression with a seasonal pattern, treated with light therapy (LT). Duration of light therapy differs. This study investigates retrospectively whether a single week of LT is as effective as two weeks, whether males and females respond differently, and whether there is an effect of expectations as assessed before treatment. 83 women, and 25 men received either one-week (n=42) or two weeks (n=66) of LT were included in three studies. Before LT, patients׳ expectations on therapy response were assessed. Depression severity was similar in both groups before treatment (F(1,106)=0.19ns) and decreased significantly during treatment (main effect "time" F(2,105)=176.7, p<0.001). The speed of therapy response differs significantly in treatment duration, in favor of 1 week (F(2,105)=3.2, p=0.046). A significant positive correlation between expectations and therapy response was found in women (ρ=0.243, p=0.027) and not in men (ρ=-0.154,ns). When expectation was added as a covariate in the repeated-measures analysis it shows a positive effect of the level of expectation on the speed of therapy response (F(2,104)=4.1, p=0.018). A limitation is the retrospective design. There is no difference between 1 and 2 weeks of LT in overall therapy outcome, but the speed of therapy response differed between 1 week LT and 2 weeks LT. Together with the significant correlation between expectations and therapy response in women, we hypothesize that expectations play a role in the speed of therapy response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A pilot study on the impact of dopamine, serotonin, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor genotype on long-term functional outcomes after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Stanfill, Ansley; Simpson, Claire; Sherwood, Paula; Poloyac, Samuel; Crago, Elizabeth; Kim, Hyungsuk; Conley, Yvette

    2017-01-01

    Many that survive an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage experience lasting physical disability, which might be improved by medications with effects on the dopaminergic, serotonergic, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor neurotransmitter systems. But it is not clear which patients are most likely to benefit from these therapies. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the relationship of genetic polymorphisms in these pathways with 12-month functional outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Subjects were recruited at the time of admission as a part of a larger parent study. Genotypes were generated using the Affymetrix genome-wide human single-nucleotide polymorphism array 6.0. Those within dopaminergic, serotonergic, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathways were analyzed for associations with functional outcomes at 12 months post aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage using the Glasgow Outcome Scale and the Modified Rankin Scale. The 154 subjects were 55.8 ± 11.3 years old and 74% female; they had Fisher scores of 2.95 ± 0.67, Hunt/Hess scores of 2.66 ± 1.13, and admission Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 12.52 ± 3.79. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the serotonin receptor genes 1B and 1E and dopamine receptor D2 were associated with greater disability (odds ratio: 3.88-3.25, confidence interval: 1.01-14.77), while single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the serotonin receptor genes 2A and 2C and dopamine receptor D5 conferred a risk of poor recovery (odds ratio: 3.31-2.32, confidence interval: 1.00-10.80). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the same serotonin genes, and within the dopamine receptor gene D2, were associated with greater recovery after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (odds ratio: 0.17-0.34, confidence interval: 0.05-0.89). These data demonstrate that there may be an association between genetic factors and functional outcomes post stroke.

  6. Cold affects the transcription of fatty acid desaturases and oil quality in the fruit of Olea europaea L. genotypes with different cold hardiness

    PubMed Central

    Matteucci, M.; D'Angeli, S.; Errico, S.; Lamanna, R.; Perrotta, G.; Altamura, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    The olive tree lacks dormancy and is low temperature sensitive, with differences in cold tolerance and oil quality among genotypes. The oil is produced in the drupe, and the unsaturated fatty acids contribute to its quality. The aim of the present research was to investigate the relationship among development, cold response, expression of fatty acid desaturase (FAD) genes, and unsaturated fatty acid composition in drupes belonging to genotypes differing in leaf cold tolerance, but producing good oil (i.e. the non-hardy Moraiolo, the semi-hardy Frantoio, and the hardy Canino). In all genotypes, cold sensitivity, evaluated by cold-induced transient increases in cytosolic calcium, was high in the epi-mesocarp cells before oil body formation, and decreased during oil biogenesis. However, genotype-dependent differences in cold sensitivity appeared at the end of oil production. Genotype-dependent differences in FAD2.1, FAD2.2, FAD6, and FAD7 expression levels occurred in the epi-mesocarp cells during the oleogenic period. However, FAD2.1 and FAD7 were always the highest in the first part of this period. FAD2.2 and FAD7 increased after cold applications during oleogenesis, independently of the genotype. Unsaturated fatty acids increased in the drupes of the non-hardy genotype, but not in those of the hardy one, after cold exposure at the time of the highest FAD transcription. The results show a direct relationship between FAD expression and lipid desaturation in the drupes of the cold-sensitive genotype, and an inverse relationship in those of the cold-resistant genotype, suggesting that drupe cold acclimation requires a fine FAD post-transcriptional regulation. Hypotheses relating FAD desaturation to storage and membrane lipids, and genotype cold hardiness are discussed. PMID:21357772

  7. Linking Affective Commitment, Career Self-Efficacy, and Outcome Expectations: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Amanda M.; Dahling, Jason J.; Garcia, Pablo A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested a model based on the satisfaction model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT) that links college students' affective commitment to their major (the emotional identification that students feel toward their area of study) with career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and career outcome expectations. Results indicate that CDSE…

  8. Cognitive and Socio-Affective Outcomes of Project-Based Learning: Perceptions of Greek Second Chance School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutrouba, Konstantina; Karageorgou, Elissavet

    2013-01-01

    The present questionnaire-based study was conducted in 2010 in order to examine 677 Greek Second Chance School (SCS) students' perceptions about the cognitive and socio-affective outcomes of project-based learning. Data elaboration, statistical and factor analysis showed that the participants found that project-based learning offered a second…

  9. Cognitive and Socio-Affective Outcomes of Project-Based Learning: Perceptions of Greek Second Chance School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutrouba, Konstantina; Karageorgou, Elissavet

    2013-01-01

    The present questionnaire-based study was conducted in 2010 in order to examine 677 Greek Second Chance School (SCS) students' perceptions about the cognitive and socio-affective outcomes of project-based learning. Data elaboration, statistical and factor analysis showed that the participants found that project-based learning offered a second…

  10. Linking Affective Commitment, Career Self-Efficacy, and Outcome Expectations: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Amanda M.; Dahling, Jason J.; Garcia, Pablo A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested a model based on the satisfaction model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT) that links college students' affective commitment to their major (the emotional identification that students feel toward their area of study) with career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and career outcome expectations. Results indicate that CDSE…

  11. Culture Matters. Factors Affecting the Outcomes of Participation in Vocational Education and Training by Australian Indigenous Peoples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, John; Ardler, William; Morley-Warner, Terri; Solomon, Nicky; Spindler, Laraine

    The factors affecting the outcomes of indigenous Australians' participation in vocational education and training (VET) were examined in a study in which 7 Aboriginal researchers in 5 Australian states and territories interviewed 70 indigenous Australians enrolled in VET and 48 coordinators and teachers in technical and further education (TAFE)…

  12. Factors affecting visual outcomes in patients with diabetic macular edema treated with ranibizumab.

    PubMed

    Channa, R; Sophie, R; Khwaja, A A; Do, D V; Hafiz, G; Nguyen, Q D; Campochiaro, P A

    2014-03-01

    To identify factors associated with visual outcomes in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) treated with ranibizumab (RBZ) in the Ranibizumab for Edema of the mAcula in Diabetes-Protocol 2 (READ-2) Study. Optical coherence tomography scans, fundus photographs, and fluorescein angiograms (FAs) were graded and along with baseline characteristics were correlated with month (M) 24 visual outcome of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ≤20/100 (poor outcome) vs >20/100 (better outcome). Of 101 patients with a M20 visit or beyond, 27 (27%) had BCVA ≤20/100. Comparison of patients with or without poor outcome showed mean baseline BCVA of 16.8 letters (20/125) in the former compared with 30.4 letters (20/63; P<0.001). Mean change in BCVA between baseline and M24 was -2.6 letters in the poor outcome group compared with +9.8 letters (P<0.001). Foveal thickness (FTH) at M24 was 374.1 μm in the poor outcome group compared with 268.8 μm (P<0.01), a difference driven by 14 patients with mean FTH of 450.3 μm. Foveal atrophy occurred in 65% (11/17) in the poor outcome group compared with 17%(12/71, P=0.001). Persistent edema was noted in 52% (14/27) of patients with poor outcome. Laser scars near foveal center were significantly more common in patients with poor outcome who did not have edema vs those who did (78% (7/9) vs 23% (3/13) P=0.03). Poor baseline BCVA (≤20/125) in DME patients predicts poor visual outcome (≤20/100) after 2 years of treatment with RBZ and/or focal/grid laser, often due to foveal atrophy and/or persistent edema.

  13. How Group Experience Affects Outcomes from NOLS Programs: A Means-End Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Marni; Soule, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Using means-end theory, this study evaluates how being part of a group influences outcomes of National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) participants. This study examines outcomes from NOLS courses during the summer of 2006 in the Wind River Mountain Range of Wyoming. Immediately following 2006 course completion, a convenience sample of 345…

  14. How Group Experience Affects Outcomes from NOLS Programs: A Means-End Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Marni; Soule, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Using means-end theory, this study evaluates how being part of a group influences outcomes of National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) participants. This study examines outcomes from NOLS courses during the summer of 2006 in the Wind River Mountain Range of Wyoming. Immediately following 2006 course completion, a convenience sample of 345…

  15. Affective influences in person-environment fit theory: exploring the role of affect as both cause and outcome of P-E fit.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kang Yang Trevor

    2009-09-01

    Person-environment (P-E) fit theory is a general framework that has been used extensively to understand thinking and behavior in organizations. However, recent research has highlighted several important issues that compromise understanding of the P-E fit construct. First, it is widely assumed that affect is only an outcome of P-E fit. Second, understanding of the antecedents to P-E fit is severely limited. Third, the non correspondence between objective and subjective fit components has typically not been accounted for. In a bid to address these issues, the author presents an expanded model of P-E fit and argues for and explicates a more important role for work-based affect (i.e., moods, emotions, and affective attitudes that are experienced at work) in P-E fit theory. Two competing perspectives (affective consistency and hedonistic) are proposed to account for why work-based affect can be a cause of P-E fit. This expanded model of P-E fit improves understanding of how P-E fit is actually experienced and managed as a result of individuals' affective experiences at work.

  16. Chronic urinary retention in men: how we define it, and how does it affect treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Negro, Carlo L A; Muir, Gordon H

    2012-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Chronic urinary retention (CUR) is a poorly defined entity, as the key element of definition, significant postvoid residual urine volume (PVR), has not a worldwide and moreover evidenced-based definition. There is no agreement on which is the threshold value to define a significant PVR and different society produced guidelines with different thresholds ranging from 300 mL to 1000 mL. Diagnosis is difficult, and management has not been defined yet. There is a lack of studies on the best management of these patients, as this group of patients has always been considered at high risk of failure. Only one study compares conservative with the surgical management but it is not a randomised controlled trail. This review offers a systematic appraisal of the most recent publications on CUR. It indicates the absence of a real worldwide agreed definition, as the two keys element of it are not satisfactorily defined yet: significant PVR, is suffering from a lack of evidenced-based definition, and percussable or palpable bladder is a very nebulous concept as it is not a criteria of certainty as different individual variables affect it. This has an important effect on management which is not structured. Most of the trials involving benign prostatic hyperplasia treatments (either medical or surgical) tend to exclude this group of patients, which is a clinically important group, comprising up to a quarter of men undergoing TURP in the UK. Urinary retention describes a bladder that does not empty completely or does not empty at all. Historically, urinary retention has been classified as either acute or chronic the latter is generally classified as high pressure or low pressure according to the bladder filling pressure on urodynamic. A MEDLINE® search for articles written in English and published before January 2010 was done using a list of terms related to urinary retention: 'urinary retention', 'chronic urinary retention

  17. Many women undergoing fertility treatment make poor lifestyle choices that may affect treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Gormack, Alice A; Peek, John C; Derraik, José G B; Gluckman, Peter D; Young, Natalie L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2015-07-01

    What are the lifestyle choices and dietary aspects of women about to undergo fertility treatment in New Zealand? A considerable proportion of women about to undergo fertility treatment make poor lifestyle choices, including the consumption of alcohol and caffeine. Women undergoing fertility treatment are highly motivated to achieve pregnancy, but there are relatively few published data on their lifestyle, lifestyle changes or dietary aspects. This was a cross-sectional study of 250 women aged 20-43 years, taking place between March 2010 and August 2011. Women about to undergo IVF or ICSI treatment in two large fertility clinics in Auckland and Hamilton, New Zealand. Lifestyle and dietary intake questionnaires were individually administered once to each participant 35 days (SD = 22) prior to fertility treatment initiation. Outcome measures included incidence of smoking, consumption of alcohol and caffeinated beverages, BMI, detailed intake of dietary supplements and fertility treatment success. Consumption of certain nutrient supplements was compared with the general female New Zealand population. There were high rates of alcohol (50.8%) and caffeine (86.8%) consumption. Most women (82.8%) reported at least one lifestyle change in preparation for fertility treatment, but less than half of women who consumed alcohol regularly reduced their intake and 60% did not change consumption of caffeinated beverages. Similarly, the majority of women did not change their exercise levels (64.4%) or BMI (83.6%) ahead of fertility treatment. Coffee intake appeared unrelated to treatment outcome, but women who consumed caffeinated herbal tea (36.4% of the study population consumed green tea) had lower odds of becoming pregnant (odds ratio, OR 0.52; P = 0.041 versus those not consuming caffeinated herbal tea). Women who abstained from drinking or reduced alcohol intake had twice the odds of becoming pregnant than those who maintained their drinking habits prior to fertility treatment

  18. Does Alcohol Consumption during Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis Treatment Affect Outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Duraisamy, Karthickeyan; Mrithyunjayan, Sunilkumar; Ghosh, Smita; Nair, Sreenivas Achuthan; Balakrishnan, Shibu; Subramoniapillai, Jayasankar; Oeltmann, John E.; Moonan, Patrick K.; Kumar, Ajay M. V.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale India reports the largest number of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases in the world; yet, no longitudinal study has assessed factors related to treatment outcomes under programmatic conditions in the public sector. Objectives To describe demographic, clinical, and risk characteristics associated with treatment outcomes for all patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis registered in the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme, Kerala State, India from January 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010. Methods Cox regression methods were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess factors associated with an unsuccessful treatment outcome. Measurements and Main Results Of 179 patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis registered, 112 (63%) had successful treatment outcomes (77 bacteriologically cured, 35 treatment completed) and 67 (37%) had unsuccessful treatment outcomes (30 died, 26 defaulted, 9 failed treatment, 1 stopped treatment because of drug-related adverse events, and 1 developed extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis). The hazard for unsuccessful outcome was significantly higher among patients who consumed alcohol during treatment (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.1–17.6) than those who did not. Persons who consumed alcohol during treatment, on average, missed 18 more intensive-phase doses (95% CI, 13–22) than those who did not. Although many patients had diabetes (33%), were ever smokers (39%), or had low body mass index (47%), these factors were not associated with outcome. Conclusion Overall treatment success was greater than global and national averages; however, outcomes among patients consuming alcohol remained poor. Integration of care for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and alcoholism should be considered to improve treatment adherence and outcomes. PMID:24735096

  19. Association Between Mentally Stimulating Activities in Late Life and the Outcome of Incident Mild Cognitive Impairment, With an Analysis of the APOE ε4 Genotype.

    PubMed

    Krell-Roesch, Janina; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Pink, Anna; Roberts, Rosebud O; Stokin, Gorazd B; Mielke, Michelle M; Christianson, Teresa J H; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C; Kremers, Walter K; Geda, Yonas E

    2017-03-01

    Cross-sectional associations between engagement in mentally stimulating activities and decreased odds of having mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer disease have been reported. However, little is known about the longitudinal outcome of incident MCI as predicted by late-life (aged ≥70 years) mentally stimulating activities. To test the hypothesis of an association between mentally stimulating activities in late life and the risk of incident MCI and to evaluate the influence of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 genotype. This investigation was a prospective, population-based cohort study of participants in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Participants 70 years or older who were cognitively normal at baseline were followed up to the outcome of incident MCI. The study dates were April 2006 to June 2016. At baseline, participants provided information about mentally stimulating activities within 1 year before enrollment into the study. Neurocognitive assessment was conducted at baseline, with evaluations at 15-month intervals. Cognitive diagnosis was made by an expert consensus panel based on published criteria. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models after adjusting for sex, age, and educational level. The final cohort consisted of 1929 cognitively normal persons (median age at baseline, 77 years [interquartile range, 74-82 years]; 50.4% [n = 973] female) who were followed up to the outcome of incident MCI. During a median follow-up period of 4.0 years, it was observed that playing games (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.65-0.95) and engaging in craft activities (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.57-0.90), computer use (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.57-0.85), and social activities (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.63-0.94) were associated with a decreased risk of incident MCI. In a stratified analysis by APOE ε4 carrier status, the data point toward the lowest risk of incident MCI for APOE ɛ4 noncarriers who engage in

  20. Thrombocytopenia in pregnancy: do the time of diagnosis and delivery route affect pregnancy outcome in parturients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura?

    PubMed

    Yuce, T; Acar, D; Kalafat, E; Alkilic, A; Cetindag, E; Soylemez, F

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the determining effects of diagnosis time on pregnancy outcomes in a population of pregnant women with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Records of all the pregnant women with thrombocytopenia were evaluated. Those with a confirmed diagnosis of ITP were included in the study. Main outcome measures were antenatal thrombocyte count, postpartum haemorrhage rate, and route of delivery. Foetal outcomes such as foetal thrombocyte count, haemorrhage, and birth weight were also reported as secondary outcome measures. Time of diagnosis either antenatal or preconception did not significantly alter the investigated parameters. Delivery route had no impact on complication rates. Time of diagnosis also did not affect treatment modality. ITP is rare disorder accounting for less than 5 % of all pregnant thrombocytopenias. Time of diagnosis does not affect maternal-foetal outcomes or treatment modality unless diagnosis is made during labour. Compared to gestational thrombocytopenia, treatment rates may differ but treatment modalities remain the same and the effort put into making the differential should be weighed against maternal stress factors for lengthy laboratory evaluation as long as the thrombocytopenia is of pure nature without any systemic involvement.

  1. Foreign language affects the contribution of intentions and outcomes to moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Geipel, Janet; Hadjichristidis, Constantinos; Surian, Luca

    2016-09-01

    We examine whether the use of a foreign language, as opposed to the native language, influences the relative weight intentions versus outcomes carry in moral evaluations. In Study 1, participants were presented with actions that had positive outcomes but were motivated by dubious intentions, while in Study 2 with actions that had negative outcomes but were motivated by positive intentions. Participants received the materials either in their native or a foreign language. Foreign language prompted more positive moral evaluations in Study 1 and less positive evaluations in Study 2. These results show that foreign language reduces the relative weight placed on intentions versus outcomes. We discuss several theoretical accounts that are consistent with the results such as that foreign language attenuates emotions (triggered by intentions) or it depletes cognitive resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Affective and Anxiety Disorders on Outcome in Problem Gamblers Attending Routine Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, David; Harvey, Peter; Humeniuk, Rachel; Battersby, Malcolm; Pols, Rene

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the influence of 12-month affective and anxiety disorders on treatment outcomes for adult problem gamblers in routine cognitive-behavioural therapy. A cohort study at a state-wide gambling therapy service in South Australia. Primary outcome measure was rated by participants using victorian gambling screen (VGS) 'harm to self' sub-scale with validated cut score 21+ (score range 0-60) indicative of problem gambling behaviour. Secondary outcome measure was Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). Independent variable was severity of affective and anxiety disorders based on Kessler 10 scale. We used propensity score adjusted random-effects models to estimate treatment outcomes for sub-populations of individuals from baseline to 12 month follow-up. Between July, 2010 and December, 2012, 380 participants were eligible for inclusion in the final analysis. Mean age was 44.1 (SD = 13.6) years and 211 (56%) were males. At baseline, 353 (92.9%) were diagnosed with a gambling disorder using VGS. For exposure, 175 (46%) had a very high probability of a 12-month affective or anxiety disorder, 103 (27%) in the high range and 102 (27%) in the low to moderate range. For the main analysis, individuals experienced similar clinically significant reductions (improvement) in gambling related outcomes across time (p < 0.001). Individuals with co-varying patterns of problem gambling and 12 month affective and anxiety disorders who present to a gambling help service for treatment in metropolitan South Australia gain similar significant reductions in gambling behaviours from routine cognitive-behavioural therapy in the mid-term.

  3. Proteome Differences between Hepatitis B Virus Genotype-B- and Genotype-C-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Revealed by iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dahai; Zeng, Yongyi; Xing, Xiaohua; Liu, Hongzhi; Lin, Minjie; Han, Xiao; Liu, Xiaolong; Liu, Jingfeng

    2016-02-05

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the main cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in southeast Asia where HBV genotype B and genotype C are the most prevalent. Viral genotypes have been reported to significantly affect the clinical outcomes of HCC. However, the underlying molecular differences among different genotypes of HBV virus infected HCC have not been revealed. Here, we applied isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology integrated with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis to identify the proteome differences between the HBV genotypes B- and C-induced HCC. In brief, a total of 83 proteins in the surrounding noncancerous tissues and 136 proteins in the cancerous tissues between HBV genotype-B- and genotype-C-induced HCC were identified, respectively. This information revealed that there might be different molecular mechanisms of the tumorigenesis and development of HBV genotypes B- and C-induced HCC. Furthermore, our results indicate that the two proteins ARFIP2 and ANXA1 might be potential biomarkers for distinguishing the HBV genotypes B- and C-induced HCC. Thus, the quantitative proteomic analysis revealed molecular differences between the HBV genotypes B- and C-induced HCC, and might provide fundamental information for further deep study.

  4. Does unemployment in family affect pregnancy outcome in conditions of high quality maternity care?

    PubMed Central

    Raatikainen, Kaisa; Heiskanen, Nonna; Heinonen, Seppo

    2006-01-01

    Background The influence of unemployment in the family on pregnancy outcome is controversial. Only a few studies have involved investigation of the effect of unemployment of the father on pregnancy. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of unemployment of one or both parents on obstetric outcome in conditions of free antenatal care attended by the entire pregnant population. Methods The data of 24 939 pregnancies included maternal risk factors, pregnancy characteristics and outcome, and was based on a self administered questionnaire at 20 weeks of pregnancy and on clinical records. Results Unemployment was associated with adolescent maternal age, unmarried status and overweight, anemia, smoking, alcohol consumption and prior pregnancy terminations. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that after controlling for these maternal risk factors small differences only were found in pregnancy outcomes between unemployed and employed families. Unemployed women had significantly more often small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants, at an OR of 1.26 (95% CI: 1.12 – 1.42) whereas, in families where both parents were unemployed, the risk of SGA was even higher at an OR of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.18 – 1.73). Otherwise, pregnancy outcome was comparable in the groups studied. Conclusion Free antenatal care was unable to fully overcome the adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with unemployment, SGA risk being highest when both parents are unemployed. PMID:16504118

  5. Geographic inequities in liver allograft supply and demand: does it affect patient outcomes?

    PubMed

    Rana, Abbas; Kaplan, Bruce; Riaz, Irbaz B; Porubsky, Marian; Habib, Shahid; Rilo, Horacio; Gruessner, Angelika C; Gruessner, Rainer W G

    2015-03-01

    Significant geographic inequities mar the distribution of liver allografts for transplantation. We analyzed the effect of geographic inequities on patient outcomes. During our study period (January 1 through December 31, 2010), 11,244 adult candidates were listed for liver transplantation: 5,285 adult liver allografts became available, and 5,471 adult recipients underwent transplantation. We obtained population data from the 2010 United States Census. To determine the effect of regional supply and demand disparities on patient outcomes, we performed linear regression and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Our proposed disparity metric, the ratio of listed candidates to liver allografts available varied from 1.3 (region 11) to 3.4 (region 1). When that ratio was used as the explanatory variable, the R(2) values for outcome measures were as follows: 1-year waitlist mortality, 0.23 and 1-year posttransplant survival, 0.27. According to our multivariate analysis, the ratio of listed candidates to liver allografts available had a significant effect on waitlist survival (hazards ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.40) but was not a significant risk factor for posttransplant survival. We found significant differences in liver allograft supply and demand--but these differences had only a modest effect on patient outcomes. Redistricting and allocation-sharing schemes should seek to equalize regional supply and demand rather than attempting to equalize patient outcomes.

  6. Early life socioeconomic status and metabolic outcomes in adolescents: The role of implicit affect about one's family.

    PubMed

    Chan, Meanne; Miller, Gregory E; Chen, Edith

    2016-04-01

    Previous research suggests that the quality of early family relationships may moderate the association between lower socioeconomic status (SES) and cardiovascular and other health outcomes. In this study, we investigated how implicit measures of early childhood environments (implicit anger, fear, or warmth about one's family) interacted with early life SES to predict metabolic outcomes in a sample of healthy adolescents. Adolescents (N = 259) age 13 to 16 participated with 1 parent. Implicit family affect was measured with a computer-based implicit affect assessment tool. Early life SES was indexed by home crowding (e.g., number of people per bedroom) during the first 5 years of life. Metabolic indicators included resting blood pressure, total cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, and waist circumference. Early life SES significantly interacted with implicit negative family affect in resting systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure levels, such that among those participants with higher early life SES, as implicit negative family affect increased, resting blood pressure also increased. Similarly, early life SES interacted with implicit family warmth to predict total cholesterol levels, such that among those participants with higher early life SES, as implicit family warmth decreased, total cholesterol increased. These patterns were not observed with current SES or with explicit measures of family relationships. These findings provide evidence that implicit family affect moderates the association between early life SES and adolescent metabolic outcomes in a way that suggests that implicit family affect may be more relevant among higher SES adolescents. The utility of implicit psychosocial measures in cardiovascular health studies, particularly for higher SES samples, is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Factors affecting the outcome of distal realignment for patellofemoral disorders of the knee.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Jen; Chan, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Han-Hsiang; Wu, Su-Ter

    2005-06-01

    This study correlated the risk factors with the clinical outcome of distal realignment for patellofemoral disorders in 48 patients with 53 knees with 25 to 96 months follow-up. The indications for surgery included pain and disability due to patellofemoral disorders with failure of at least 6 months of conservative treatments. The evaluations included pain scores, Lysholm functional scores and radiographs of the knee. The overall results were satisfactory in 47 knees (88.7%) and unsatisfactory in six knees (11.3%). There was no correlation of the clinical results with age, sex, body weight and body height, preoperative pain scores and Lysholm scores. However, the clinical outcome correlated with the severity of articular damage and the correction of patellar malalignment. Error in patient selection and inadequate surgical technique were attributable to poor outcomes.

  8. Adolescent and Parent Motivation for Change Affects Psychotherapy Outcomes Among Youth With Poorly Controlled Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Berio, Heidi; Carcone, April Idalski; Naar-King, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Investigate effect of baseline motivation for change on treatment fidelity, therapeutic alliance, treatment dose, and treatment outcome in a randomized controlled trial of family therapy for youth with poorly controlled diabetes. Methods Seventy-four adolescents and caregivers completed measures of motivation for change. Measures of fidelity, alliance, dose, and youth health status were collected. Structural equation modeling was used to test the direct and indirect effects of motivation on treatment outcomes. Results Parent motivation was significantly related to alliance and fidelity. Only alliance was significantly related to posttreatment metabolic control. In adolescent models, only motivation was significantly related to alliance. In both models, motivation had a significant indirect effect on metabolic control through alliance. Conclusions Findings demonstrate the importance of parent and youth initial motivational status and treatment alliance to treatment outcome among youth with poorly controlled diabetes. Additional research on treatment techniques that promote motivation for change is needed. PMID:21933812

  9. Impact of Obesity on Heart and Lung Transplantation: Does Pre-Transplant Obesity Affect Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Bozso, S J; Nagendran, Je; Gill, R S; Freed, D H; Nagendran, Ja

    2017-03-01

    Increasing prevalence of obesity has led to a rise in the number of prospective obese heart and lung transplant recipients. The optimal management strategy of obese patients with end-stage heart and lung failure remains controversial. This review article discusses and provides a summary of the literature surrounding the impact of obesity on outcomes in heart and lung transplantation. Studies on transplant obesity demonstrate controversy in terms of morbidity and mortality outcomes and obesity pre-transplantation. However, the impact of obesity on outcomes seems to be more consistently demonstrated in lung rather than heart transplantation. The ultimate goal in heart and lung transplantation in the obese patient is to identify those at highest risk of complication that may warrant therapies to mitigate risk by addressing comorbid conditions.

  10. The influences of CYP2D6 genotypes and drug interactions on the pharmacokinetics of venlafaxine: exploring predictive biomarkers for treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fen; Kim, Hae-Deun; Na, Han-Sung; Lee, Seok-Yong; Seo, Doo-Won; Choi, Jong-Yeol; Ha, Ji-Hye; Shin, Hee-Jung; Kim, Young-Hoon; Chung, Myeon-Woo

    2015-06-01

    Two biomarkers: concentration ratio of O-desmethylvenlafaxine/venlafaxine and concentration sum of venlafaxine + O-desmethylvenlafaxine were adopted to indicate venlafaxine responses, but neither is validated. To evaluate the ability of two biomarkers in reflecting venlafaxine pharmacokinetic variations, and to further examine their relationship with venlafaxine treatment outcomes. Two well-defined influencing factors: CYP2D6 genotypes and drug interactions were enriched into a three-period crossover study to produce venlafaxine pharmacokinetic variations: In each period, healthy CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers (EM group; n = 12) and CYP2D6*10/*10 intermediate metabolizers (IM group; n = 12) were pretreated with clarithromycin (CYP3A4 inhibitor), or nothing (control), or clarithromycin + paroxetine (CYP3A4 + CYP2D6 inhibitors), before administration of a single-dose of 75 mg venlafaxine. Both biomarkers were evaluated (1) for their relationship with the influencing factors in healthy volunteers and (2) for their relationships with the venlafaxine responses/adverse events reported in two patient studies. Significant venlafaxine pharmacokinetic variations were observed between the EM and IM groups (geometric mean ratio [95 % CI] of area under the curve, 3.0 [1.8-5.1] in the control period), and between the control and clarithromycin + paroxetine periods (4.1 [3.5-4.7] and 2.0 [1.7-2.4] in the EM and IM group, respectively). O-Desmethylvenlafaxine/venlafaxine was superior to venlafaxine + O-desmethylvenlafaxine to reflect the influencing factors. In the patient studies, O-desmethylvenlafaxine/venlafaxine > 4 showed high precision in predicting venlafaxine responders/partial-responders (92 %) and patients without venlafaxine-related adverse events (88 %); the O-desmethylvenlafaxine/venlafaxine < 4 and venlafaxine + O-desmethylvenlafaxine > 400 ng/ml combination showed higher precision (100 %) than O

  11. Do Medical Comorbidities Affect Outcomes in Patients With Rotator Cuff Tears?

    PubMed Central

    Gagnier, Joel J.; Allen, Benjamin; Watson, Scott; Robbins, Christopher B.; Bedi, Asheesh; Carpenter, James E.; Miller, Bruce S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The effects of medical comorbidities on clinical outcomes in patients with rotator cuff tears (RCTs) have not been fully elucidated. This study investigates the association between medical comorbidities, as measured by the Functional Comorbidity Index (FCI), and clinical outcomes in patients treated surgically or nonsurgically for symptomatic, full-thickness RCTs. Hypothesis: Patients with RCTs who have more comorbidities will have worse outcome scores. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: We collected the following outcome measures at baseline and at regular intervals up to 64 weeks in all patients: FCI, the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC), and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score. Changes in outcomes were compared separately for surgical and nonsurgical patients using paired t tests. The relationship of the FCI and all outcomes of interest at baseline, at 64-week follow-up, and for changes from baseline was explored using linear regression modeling. Results: Of the 222 study patients (133 males; mean age, 60.0 ± 9.6 years), 140 completed the 64-week WORC and 120 completed the 64-week ASES. Overall, 128 patients underwent RCT repair, and 94 patients were treated nonsurgically. Both treatment groups improved compared with baseline at 64 weeks on the ASES score and WORC. At 64 weeks, patients with higher baseline FCI scores had worse WORC score (by 74.5 points; P = .025) and ASES score (by 3.8 points; P < .01). A higher FCI score showed a trend toward predicting changes in the WORC and ASES scores at 64 weeks compared with baseline, but this did not reach statistical significance (WORC change, P = .15; ASES change, P = .07). Conclusion: Patients with higher FCI scores at baseline reported worse baseline functional scores and demonstrated less improvement with time. The magnitude of this change may not be clinically significant for single comorbidities. PMID:28856169

  12. Does sensory stimulation threshold affect lumbar facet radiofrequency denervation outcomes? A prospective clinical correlational study.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Steven P; Strassels, Scott A; Kurihara, Connie; Lesnick, Ivan K; Hanling, Steven R; Griffith, Scott R; Buckenmaier, Chester C; Nguyen, Conner

    2011-11-01

    Radiofrequency facet denervation is one of the most frequently performed procedures for chronic low back pain. Although sensory stimulation is generally used as a surrogate measure to denote sufficient proximity of the electrode to the nerve, no study has examined whether stimulation threshold influences outcome. We prospectively recorded data in 61 consecutive patients undergoing lumbar facet radiofrequency denervation who experienced significant pain relief after medial branch blocks. For each nerve lesioned, multiple attempts were made to maximize sensory stimulation threshold (SST). Mean SST was calculated on the basis of the lowest stimulation perceived at 0.1-V increments for each medial branch. A positive outcome was defined as a ≥50% reduction in back pain coupled with a positive satisfaction score lasting ≥3 months. The relationship between mean SST and denervation outcomes was evaluated via a receiver's operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and stratifying outcomes on the basis of various cutoff values. No correlation was noted between mean SST and pain relief at rest (Pearson's r=-0.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.24 to 0.23, P=0.97), with activity (r=-0.17, 95% CI: -0.40 to 0.07, P=0.20), or a successful outcome. No optimal SST could be identified. There is no significant relationship between mean SST during lumbar facet radiofrequency denervation and treatment outcome, which may be due to differences in general sensory perception. Because stimulation threshold was optimized for each patient, these data cannot be interpreted to suggest that sensory testing should not be performed, or that high sensory stimulation thresholds obtained on the first attempt should be deemed acceptable.

  13. Postoperative cervical sagittal imbalance negatively affects outcomes following surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Roguski, Marie; Benzel, Edward C.; Curran, Jill N.; Magge, Subu N.; Bisson, Erica F.; Krishnaney, Ajit A.; Steinmetz, Michael P.; Butler, William E.; Heary, Robert F.; Ghogawala, Zoher

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Prospective observational cohort study Objective To determine if postoperative cervical sagittal balance is an independent predictor of HR-QOL outcome following surgery for CSM. Summary of Background Data Both ventral and dorsal fusion procedures for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) are effective at reducing the symptoms of myelopathy. The importance of cervical sagittal balance in predicting overall HR-QOL outcome following ventral versus dorsal surgery for CSM has not been previously explored. Methods A prospective, nonrandomized cohort of 49 patients undergoing dorsal and ventral fusion surgery for CSM was examined. Preoperative and postoperative C2-C7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA) was measured on standing lateral cervical spine radiographs. Outcome was assessed with two disease-specific measures – the mJOA scale and the Oswestry NDI- and two generalized outcome measures – the SF-36 PCS and EQ-5D. Assessments were performed preoperatively, and at 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year postoperatively. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS v.9.3 (Cary, NC). Results Most patients experienced improvement in all outcome measures regardless of approach. Both preoperative and postoperative C2-C7 SVA measurements were independent predictors of clinically significant improvement in SF-36 PCS scores (p=0.03 and p=0.02). The majority of patients with C2-C7 SVA values greater than 40mm did not improve from an overall HR-QOL perspective (SF-36 PCS) despite improvement in myelopathy. The postoperative sagittal balance value was inversely correlated with a clinically significant improvement of SF-36 PCS scores in patients undergoing dorsal surgery but not ventral surgery (p=0.03 vs. p=0.93). Conclusions Preoperative and postoperative sagittal balance measurements independently predict clinical outcomes following surgery for CSM. PMID:25419682

  14. Phytosiderophore release by wheat genotypes differing in zinc deficiency tolerance grown with Zn-free nutrient solution as affected by salinity.

    PubMed

    Daneshbakhsh, Bahareh; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir Hossein; Shariatmadari, Hossein; Cakmak, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    There is limited information concerning the effect of salinity on phytosiderophores exudation from wheat roots. The aim of this hydroponic experiment was to investigate the effect of salinity on phytosiderophore release by roots of three bread wheat genotypes differing in Zn efficiency (Triticum aestivum L. cvs. Rushan, Kavir, and Cross) under Zn deficiency conditions. Wheat seedlings were transferred to Zn-free nutrient solutions and exposed to three salinity levels (0, 60, and 120 mM NaCl). The results indicated that Cross and Rushan genotypes exuded more phytosiderophore than did the Kavir genotype. Our findings suggest that the adaptive capacity of Zn-efficient 'Cross' and 'Rushan' wheat genotypes to Zn deficiency is due partly to the higher amounts of phytosiderophore release. Only 15 days of Zn deficiency stress was sufficient to distinguish between Zn-efficient (Rushan and Cross) and Zn-inefficient (Kavir) genotypes, with the former genotypes exuding more phytosiderophore than the latter. Higher phytosiderophore exudation under Zn deficiency conditions was accompanied by greater Fe transport from root to shoot. The maximum amount of phytosiderophore was exuded at the third week in 'Cross' and at the fourth week in 'Kavir' and 'Rushan'. For all three wheat genotypes, salinity stress resulted in higher amounts of phytosiderophore exuded by the roots. In general, for 'Kavir', the largest amount of phytosiderophore was exuded from the roots at the highest salinity level (120mM NaCl), while for 'Cross' and 'Rushan', no significant difference was found in phytosiderophore exudation between the 60 and 120 mM NaCl treatments. More investigation is needed to fully understand the physiology of elevated phytosiderophore release by Zn-deficient wheat plants under salinity conditions.

  15. Motivation and Affective Outcomes of Physical Education: Implications for Heath Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reppa, Glykeria P.

    2007-01-01

    Enjoyment and mood affection are considered to be main targets of intervention to promote physical activity (PA). Health education based on PA is seeking to explore the factors that affect children to foster and retain healthy habits. This study recognizes that the teaching methodology is crucial and attempts to investigate the effect two…

  16. Generalizability of Gottman and Colleagues’ Affective Process Models of Couples’ Relationship Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Crosby, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    The generalizability of Gottman et al’s. (1998) affective process models was examined using a community-based sample of 85 married or cohabiting couples with at-risk backgrounds. Predictive associations between affective processes assessed at about age 21 years and relationship status and satisfaction approximately 2.5 years later were examined. The major findings of Gottman et al. failed to replicate. In particular, men’s rejection of their partners’ influence, the lack of men’s deescalation of partners’ negative affect, and women’s negative start up were not predictive of relationship status. Further, differences in affective processes were found when comparing discussion sessions of the men’s versus the women’s chosen topics. The findings suggested that the validity and utility of the affective process models need further investigation. PMID:17372624

  17. An update to the HIV-TRePS system: the development of new computational models that do not require a genotype to predict HIV treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Revell, Andrew D; Wang, Dechao; Wood, Robin; Morrow, Carl; Tempelman, Hugo; Hamers, Raph; Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Streinu-Cercel, Adrian; Ene, Luminita; Wensing, Annemarie; Reiss, Peter; van Sighem, Ard I; Nelson, Mark; Emery, Sean; Montaner, Julio S G; Lane, H Clifford; Larder, Brendan A

    2014-04-01

    The optimal individualized selection of antiretroviral drugs in resource-limited settings is challenging because of the limited availability of drugs and genotyping. Here we describe the development of the latest computational models to predict the response to combination antiretroviral therapy without a genotype, for potential use in such settings. Random forest models were trained to predict the probability of a virological response to therapy (<50 copies HIV RNA/mL) following virological failure using the following data from 22,567 treatment-change episodes including 1090 from southern Africa: baseline viral load and CD4 cell count, treatment history, drugs in the new regimen, time to follow-up and follow-up viral load. The models were assessed during cross-validation and with an independent global test set of 1000 cases including 100 from southern Africa. The models' accuracy [area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC)] was evaluated and compared with genotyping using rules-based interpretation systems for those cases with genotypes available. The models achieved AUCs of 0.79-0.84 (mean 0.82) during cross-validation, 0.80 with the global test set and 0.78 with the southern African subset. The AUCs were significantly lower (0.56-0.57) for genotyping. The models predicted virological response to HIV therapy without a genotype as accurately as previous models that included a genotype. They were accurate for cases from southern Africa and significantly more accurate than genotyping. These models will be accessible via the online treatment support tool HIV-TRePS and have the potential to help optimize antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings where genotyping is not generally available.

  18. Does obesity affect outcomes of treatment for lumbar stenosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis? Analysis of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT)

    PubMed Central

    Rihn, Jeffrey A.; Radcliff, Kristen; Hilibrand, Alan S.; Anderson, David T.; Zhao, Wenyan; Lurie, Jon; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Freedman, Mitch K.; Albert, Todd J.; Weinstein, James N.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective subgroup analysis of prospectively collected data according to treatment received. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine if obesity affects treatment outcomes for lumbar stenosis (SpS) and degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). Summary of Background Data Obesity is thought to be associated with increased complications and potentially less favorable outcomes following the treatment of degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine. This, however, remains a matter of debate in the existing literature. Methods An as-treated analysis was performed on patients enrolled in the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) for the treatment of SpS or DS. A comparison was made between patients with a body mass index (BMI) <30 (“non-obese”, n=373 SpS, 376 DS) and those with a BMI ≥ 30 (“obese”, n=261 SpS, 225 DS). Baseline patient characteristics, intraoperative data, and complications were documented. Primary and secondary outcomes were measured at baseline and regular follow-up time intervals up to 4 years. The difference in improvement over baseline between surgical and nonsurgical treatment (i.e. treatment effect) was determined at each follow-up interval for the obese and nonobese groups. Results At 4-years follow-up, operative and nonoperative treatment provided improvement in all primary outcome measures over baseline in patients with BMI of < 30 and ≥ 30. For SpS patients, there were no differences in the surgical complication or reoperation rates between groups. DS patients with BMI ≥ 30 had a higher postoperative infection rate (5% vs. 1%, p=0.05) and twice the reoperation rate at 4-years follow-up (20% vs. 11%, p=0.01) than those with BMI < 30. At 4-years, surgical treatment of SpS and DS was equally effective in both BMI groups in terms of the primary outcome measures, with the exception that obese DS patients had less improvement from baseline in the SF36 physical function score compared to nonobese patients (22

  19. Does Surgical Management of the Hand in Children with Spastic Unilateral Cerebral Palsy Affect Functional Outcome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Munster, Judith C.; Maathuis, Karel G. B.; Haga, Nienke; Verheij, Nienke P.; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this review was to examine the literature on the effects of surgery of the spastic hand in children with cerebral palsy on functional outcome and muscle coordination. We performed a search of the relevant literature in Medline, Embase, and Biological Abstracts from 1966 to June 2006. The search resulted in eight studies on the effect of…

  20. The Mediating Role of Affective Commitment in the Relation of the Feedback Environment to Work Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris-Watts, Christina; Levy, Paul E.

    2004-01-01

    The Feedback Environment, as opposed to the formal performance appraisal process, is comprised of the daily interactions between members of an organization (Steelman, Levy, & Snell, in press). Relations between the feedback environment and work outcome variables such as Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) were examined through the mediating…

  1. Does Family Group Decision Making Affect Child Welfare Outcomes? Findings from a Randomized Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berzin, Stephanie Cosner; Cohen, Ed; Thomas, Karen; Dawson, William C.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of two family group decision-making programs administered under the California Title IV-E Waiver Demonstration Project. This is the only evaluation using random assignment to examine FGDM. Overall, results did not indicate more positive outcomes for children receiving the intervention, but did indicate that…

  2. Neighborhoods and Youth: How Neighborhood Demographics and Social Processes Affect Youth Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisher, Ray

    2008-01-01

    Researchers over the past two decades have increasingly recognized the importance of neighborhood contexts for youth development. For example, living in a disadvantaged neighborhood has been associated with a wide range of negative outcomes throughout the early years of the life course. However, neighborhoods likely have very different effects,…

  3. Does Year Round Schooling Affect the Outcome and Growth of California's API Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Amery D.; Stone, Jake E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined whether year round schooling (YRS) in California had an effect upon the outcome and growth of schools' Academic Performance Index (API) scores. While many previous studies had examined the connection between YRS and academic achievement, most had lacked the statistical rigour required to provide reliable interpretations. As a…

  4. Culture-Specific Variables That May Affect Employment Outcomes for Mexican-American Youth with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier-Kronick, Nancy

    This paper reviews variables specific to the Mexican-American culture that might influence work-related behavior and outcomes for youths with disabilities from this population. Areas covered include: parental/family network; cultural view of disability; religious influences; acculturation levels; language issues; education and employment…

  5. Does Surgical Management of the Hand in Children with Spastic Unilateral Cerebral Palsy Affect Functional Outcome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Munster, Judith C.; Maathuis, Karel G. B.; Haga, Nienke; Verheij, Nienke P.; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this review was to examine the literature on the effects of surgery of the spastic hand in children with cerebral palsy on functional outcome and muscle coordination. We performed a search of the relevant literature in Medline, Embase, and Biological Abstracts from 1966 to June 2006. The search resulted in eight studies on the effect of…

  6. Neighborhoods and Youth: How Neighborhood Demographics and Social Processes Affect Youth Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisher, Ray

    2008-01-01

    Researchers over the past two decades have increasingly recognized the importance of neighborhood contexts for youth development. For example, living in a disadvantaged neighborhood has been associated with a wide range of negative outcomes throughout the early years of the life course. However, neighborhoods likely have very different effects,…

  7. Behavior Therapy and the Transdermal Nicotine Patch: Effects on Cessation Outcome, Affect, and Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinciripini, Paul M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Process and outcome of a smoking cessation program using behavior therapy along (BT) or behavior therapy plus the nicotine patch (BTP) was studied in 64 participants. Abstinence was significantly higher for the BTP group from the end of behavioral treatment (79% vs. 63%) through the three-month follow-up, with the effects weakening at the six- and…

  8. Do Neighbours Affect Teenage Outcomes? Evidence from Neighbourhood Changes in England. CEE DP 122

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Stephen; Silva, Olmo; Weinhardt, Felix

    2010-01-01

    There are large disparities between the achievements, behaviour and aspirations of children growing up in different neighbourhoods. This has contributed to the view that neighbourhoods can determine individuals' outcomes. Notably, in the long run these effects could lead to larger social inequality and reduce social mobility, which is why they…

  9. Method of induction could affect emotional outcomes: comment on markey, chin, vanepps, and loewenstein (2014 ).

    PubMed

    Bench, Shane W; Yaugher, Ashley C; Lench, Heather C

    2015-04-01

    Markey, Chin, Vanepps, and Loewenstein (2014) demonstrated six methods for the induction of boredom. However, a clear and testable definition of boredom should be established prior to experimental manipulation of the construct. Defining boredom from a functional emotion perspective is one approach that affords a definition separable from the outcomes associated with boredom and insight into which manipulations may effectively target the construct.

  10. Does the Time of Radiotherapy Affect Treatment Outcomes? A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Chan, S; Rowbottom, L; McDonald, R; Bjarnason, G A; Tsao, M; Danjoux, C; Barnes, E; Popovic, M; Lam, H; DeAngelis, C; Chow, E

    2017-04-01

    Circadian rhythm-dependent cell cycle progression produces daily variations in radiosensitivity. This literature review aims to summarise the data on whether radiotherapy outcomes differ depending on administration time. A literature search was conducted on Ovid Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and PubMed using key words such as 'radiotherapy', 'circadian rhythm', 'treatment outcome' and 'survival'. Articles evaluating the correlation between radiotherapy time and outcomes in cancer patients were included and relevant information was extracted. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Four investigated lung cancer patients undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases, with one study observing improved local control and survival in patients treated in the morning. Another two studies with breast and cervical cancer patients observed that the prevalence of toxicities was higher in afternoon and morning cohorts, respectively. Two studies in head and neck cancer patients found trends indicating morning patients experienced less oral mucositis. Increased toxicities and biochemical failure rates were associated with evening treatment in prostate cancer patients. As inconsistencies in the literature exist regarding the time dependency of radiotherapy outcomes, further investigation is warranted.

  11. Can a future choice affect a past measurement’s outcome?

    SciTech Connect

    Aharonov, Yakir; Cohen, Eliahu; Elitzur, Avshalom C.

    2015-04-15

    An EPR experiment is studied where each particle within the entangled pair undergoes a few weak measurements (WMs) along some pre-set spin orientations, with the outcomes individually recorded. Then the particle undergoes one strong measurement along an orientation chosen at the last moment. Bell-inequality violation is expected between the two final measurements within each EPR pair. At the same time, statistical agreement is expected between these strong measurements and the earlier weak ones performed on that pair. A contradiction seemingly ensues: (i) Bell’s theorem forbids spin values to exist prior to the choice of the orientation measured; (ii) A weak measurement is not supposed to determine the outcome of a successive strong one; and indeed (iii) Almost no disentanglement is inflicted by the WMs; and yet (iv) The outcomes of weak measurements statistically agree with those of the strong ones, suggesting the existence of pre-determined values, in contradiction with (i). Although the conflict can be solved by mere mitigation of the above restrictions, the most reasonable resolution seems to be that of the Two-State-Vector Formalism (TSVF), namely, that the choice of the experimenter has been encrypted within the weak measurement’s outcomes, even before the experimenters themselves know what their choice will be.

  12. Cognitive Load Imposed by Ultrasound-Facilitated Teaching Does Not Adversely Affect Gross Anatomy Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamniczky, Heather A.; Cotton, Darrel; Paget, Michael; Ramji, Qahir; Lenz, Ryan; McLaughlin, Kevin; Coderre, Sylvain; Ma, Irene W. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonography is increasingly used in medical education, but its impact on learning outcomes is unclear. Adding ultrasound may facilitate learning, but may also potentially overwhelm novice learners. Based upon the framework of cognitive load theory, this study seeks to evaluate the relationship between cognitive load associated with using…

  13. The Mediating Role of Affective Commitment in the Relation of the Feedback Environment to Work Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris-Watts, Christina; Levy, Paul E.

    2004-01-01

    The Feedback Environment, as opposed to the formal performance appraisal process, is comprised of the daily interactions between members of an organization (Steelman, Levy, & Snell, in press). Relations between the feedback environment and work outcome variables such as Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) were examined through the mediating…

  14. Cognitive load imposed by ultrasound-facilitated teaching does not adversely affect gross anatomy learning outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jamniczky, Heather A; Cotton, Darrel; Paget, Michael; Ramji, Qahir; Lenz, Ryan; McLaughlin, Kevin; Coderre, Sylvain; Ma, Irene W Y

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasonography is increasingly used in medical education, but its impact on learning outcomes is unclear. Adding ultrasound may facilitate learning, but may also potentially overwhelm novice learners. Based upon the framework of cognitive load theory, this study seeks to evaluate the relationship between cognitive load associated with using ultrasound and learning outcomes. The use of ultrasound was hypothesized to facilitate learning in anatomy for 161 novice first-year medical students. Using linear regression analyses, the relationship between reported cognitive load on using ultrasound and learning outcomes as measured by anatomy laboratory examination scores four weeks after ultrasound-guided anatomy training was evaluated in consenting students. Second anatomy examination scores of students who were taught anatomy with ultrasound were compared with historical controls (those not taught with ultrasound). Ultrasound's perceived utility for learning was measured on a five-point scale. Cognitive load on using ultrasound was measured on a nine-point scale. Primary outcome was the laboratory examination score (60 questions). Learners found ultrasound useful for learning. Weighted factor score on "image interpretation" was negatively, but insignificantly, associated with examination scores [F (1,135) = 0.28, beta = -0.22; P = 0.61]. Weighted factor score on "basic knobology" was positively and insignificantly associated with scores; [F (1,138) = 0.27, beta = 0.42; P = 0.60]. Cohorts exposed to ultrasound had significantly higher scores than historical controls (82.4% ± SD 8.6% vs. 78.8% ± 8.5%, Cohen's d = 0.41, P < 0.001). Using ultrasound to teach anatomy does not negatively impact learning and may improve learning outcomes. Anat Sci Educ 10: 144-151. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. Does Prolonged Length of Stay in the Emergency Department Affect Outcome for Stroke Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Minal; Damania, Dushyant; Jain, Anunaya R.; Kanthala, Abhijit R.; Ganti, Latha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Conflicting data exist regarding the association between the length of stay (LOS) of critically ill patients in the emergency department (ED) and their subsequent outcome. However, such patients are an overall heterogeneous group, and we therefore sought to study the association between EDLOS and outcomes in a specific subgroup of critically ill patients, namely those with acute ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack (AIS/TIA). Methods: This was a retrospective review of adult patients with a discharge diagnosis of AIS/TIA presenting to an ED between July 2009 and February 2010. We collected demographics, EDLOS, arrival stroke severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale - NIHSS), intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) use, functional outcome at discharge, discharge destination and hospital-LOS. We analyzed relationship between EDLOS, outcomes and discharge destination after controlling for confounders. Results: 190 patients were included in the cohort. Median EDLOS was 332 minutes (Inter-Quartile Range -IQR: 250.3–557.8). There was a significant inverse linear association between EDLOS and hospital-LOS (p=0.049). Patients who received IV tPA had a shorter median EDLOS (238 minutes, IQR: 194–299) than patients who did not (median: 387 minutes, IQR: 285–588 minutes; p<0.0001). There was no significant association between EDLOS and poor outcome (p=0.40), discharge destination (p=0.20), or death (p=0.44). This remained true even after controlling for IV tPA use, NIHSS and hospital-LOS; and did not change even when analysis was restricted to AIS patients alone. Conclusion: There was no significant association between prolonged EDLOS and outcome for AIS/TIA patients at our institution. We therefore suggest that EDLOS alone is an insufficient indicator of stroke care in the ED, and that the ED can provide appropriate acute care for AIS/TIA patients. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(3):267–275.] PMID:24868303

  16. Restoration of hip architecture with bipolar hemiarthroplasty in the elderly: does it affect early functional outcome?

    PubMed

    Hartel, Maximilian; Arndt, Marius; Eulenburg, Christine Zu; Petersen, Jan Philipp; Rueger, Johannes M; Hoffmann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction of the anatomic architecture correlates with functional outcome in patients receiving elective total hip arthroplasty. In theory similar rules should apply for bipolar hemiarthroplasty in femoral neck fractures. The influence of anatomic restoration after bipolar hemiarthroplasty on short-term clinical and functional outcome is explored in this study. Patients receiving bipolar hemiarthroplasty for intracapsular femoral neck fractures between 2010 and 2012 were included into a retrospective cohort study. Radiologic and functional outcome parameters were recorded during the acute care phase and geriatric rehabilitation. Postoperative mobilization data were recorded and co-morbidities documented for each case. Outcome parameters were obtained during geriatric rehabilitation: Barthel index, Tinetti score, Timed up and go test, Mini-Mental State Examination. The FO-ratio (ratio of femoral offset to the body weight lever arm), HC-ratio (ratio of the height of the hip center to the pelvic height) and the BWLA ratio (ratio of the body weight lever arm to the pelvic height) were obtained from postoperative radiographs. A total of 193 patients with a median age of 84 (IQR = 78-94, 72% female) were analyzed. The in-hospital mortality rate was 5.7%. There was a high proportion of patients with prior co-morbidities (96% with at least one co-morbidity). During rehabilitation the Barthel index improved significantly (p < 0.001) from 40 to 55. The median Tinetti score on rehabilitation discharge was 15.5 (IQR = 10-19.5). The patients significantly improved in the timed up and go test from a median of 22 to 19 s. A significant difference (p < 0.001) was found comparing the FO ratios of the operated vs. non-operated side. None of the radiographic measures, representing the reconstructed anatomic hip geometry, significantly influenced the clinical and geriatric outcome. Applying the short-term functional outcome scores used in this study, optimized anatomic

  17. Does Cognitive Impairment Affect Rehabilitation Outcome in Parkinson’s Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Ferrazzoli, Davide; Ortelli, Paola; Maestri, Roberto; Bera, Rossana; Giladi, Nir; Ghilardi, Maria Felice; Pezzoli, Gianni; Frazzitta, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Background: The cognitive status is generally considered as a major determinant of rehabilitation outcome in Parkinson’s disease (PD). No studies about the effect of cognitive impairment on motor rehabilitation outcomes in PD have been performed before. Objective: This study is aimed to evaluate the impact of cognitive decline on rehabilitation outcomes in patients with PD. Methods: We retrospectively identified 485 patients with PD hospitalized for a 4-week Multidisciplinary Intensive Rehabilitation Treatment (MIRT) between January 2014 and September 2015. According to Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), patients were divided into: group 1—normal cognition (score 27–30), group 2—mild cognitive impairment (score 21–26), group 3—moderate or severe cognitive impairment (score ≤ 20). According to Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), subjects were divided into patients with normal (score ≥13.8) and pathological (score <13.8) executive functions. The outcome measures were: Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Parkinson’s Disease Disability Scale (PDDS), Six Minutes Walking Test (6MWT), Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Results: All scales had worse values with the increase of cognitive impairment and passing from normal to pathological executive functions. After rehabilitation, all the outcome measures improved in all groups (p < 0.0001). Between groups, the percentage of improvement was significantly different for total UPDRS (p = 0.0009, best improvement in normal MMSE group; p = 0.019, best improvement in normal FAB group), and BBS (p < 0.0001, all pairwise comparisons significant, best improvement in patients with worse MMSE score; p < 0.0001, best improvement in patients with pathological FAB). TUG (p = 0.006) and BBS (p < 0.0001) improved in patients with pathological FAB score, more than in those with normal FAB score. Conclusions: Patients gain benefit in the rehabilitative outcomes, regardless of cognition

  18. Prognosis versus actual outcome. IV. The effectiveness of clinical parameters and IL-1 genotype in accurately predicting prognoses and tooth survival.

    PubMed

    McGuire, M K; Nunn, M E

    1999-01-01

    Recently, a genetic marker (IL-1 genotype) that identifies individuals at higher risk for developing severe periodontal disease was discovered. A subgroup of the population reported on earlier was evaluated to determine if knowledge of the patient's IL-1 genotype would improve accuracy in assignment of prognoses and prediction of tooth loss. This subgroup consisted of 42 patients (1,044 teeth) in maintenance care for 14 years; 16 tested IL-1 genotype-positive (IL-1GP). Nine were smokers, and 30 had a history of smoking, with an average of 29.44 pack years. A multiple Cox regression model and Kaplan-Meier survival plots were fit to the subset of patients to evaluate tooth loss. Both IL-1GP and heavy smoking were significantly related to tooth loss. A positive IL-1 genotype increased the risk of tooth loss by 2.7 times, and heavy smoking by 2.9 times. The combined effect of IL-1GP and heavy smoking increased the risk of tooth loss by 7.7 times. The value of clinical parameters traditionally used to assign prognosis was found to be dependent on IL-genotype and smoking status. In the model that included IL-1 genotype and heavy smoking, none of the clinical parameters added significantly to the model for tooth loss while mobility, probing depth, crown-to-root ratio, and percent bone loss added significantly to the model, which included IL-1 genotype in non-smokers. IL-1GP patients and patients who smoked heavily demonstrated a much worse tooth survival rate when compared to IL-1 genotype-negative patients and non-smokers, respectively. Knowledge of the patient's IL-1 genotype and smoking status will improve the clinician's ability to accurately assign prognosis and predict tooth survival. Clinical implications are as follows. Investigators were unable to judge which patients would be IL-GP or negative based on their clinical presentation or family history of tooth loss due to periodontal disease. Since periodontal diseases are multifactorial, knowledge of the patient

  19. Nutritional, Biophysical and Physiological Characteristics of Wild Rocket Genotypes As Affected by Soilless Cultivation System, Salinity Level of Nutrient Solution and Growing Period.

    PubMed

    Bonasia, Anna; Lazzizera, Corrado; Elia, Antonio; Conversa, Giulia

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of defining the best management of nutrient solution (NS) in a soilless system for obtaining high quality baby-leaf rocket, the present study focuses on two wild rocket genotypes ("Nature" and "Naturelle"), grown in a greenhouse under two Southern Italy growing conditions-autumn-winter (AW) and winter-spring (WS)-using two soilless cultivation systems (SCS)-at two electrical conductivity values (EC) of NS. The SCSs used were the Floating System (FS) and Ebb and Flow System (EFS) and the EC values were 2.5 and 3.5 dS m(-1) (EC2.5; EC3.5) for the AW cycle and 3.5 and 4.5 dS m(-1) (EC3.5; EC4.5) for the WS cycle. The yield, bio-physical, physiological and nutritional characteristics were evaluated. Higher fresh (FY) (2.25 vs. 1.50 kg m(-2)) and dry (DY) (230.6 vs. 106.1 g m(-2)) weight yield, leaf firmness (dry matter, 104.3 vs. 83.2 g kg(-1) FW; specific leaf area, 34.8 vs. 24.2 g cm(-2)) and antioxidant compounds (vitamin C, 239.0 vs. 152.7 mg kg(-1) FW; total phenols, 997 vs. 450 mg GAE mg kg(-1) FW; total glucosinulates-GLSs, 1,078.8 vs. 405.7 mg kg(-1) DW; total antioxidant capacity-TAC, 11,534 vs. 8,637 μmol eq trolox kg(-1) FW) and lower nitrates (1,470 vs. 3,460 mg kg(-1) FW) were obtained under WS conditions. The seasonal differences were evident on the GLS profile: some aliphatic GLSs (gluconapoleiferin, glucobrassicanapin) and indolic 4-OH-glucobrassicin were only expressed in WS conditions, while indolic glucobrassicin was only detected in the AW period. Compared with EFS, FS improved leaf firmness, visual quality, antioxidant content (TAC, +11.6%) and reduced nitrate leaf accumulation (-37%). "Naturelle" performed better than "Nature" in terms of yield, visual quality and nutritional profile, with differences more evident under less favorable climatic conditions and when the cultivars were grown in FS. Compared to EC2.5, the EC3.5 treatment did not affect DY while enhancing firmness, visual quality, and antioxidant compounds (TAC, +8%), and

  20. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and treatment outcomes among conflict-affected and forcibly displaced populations: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Optimal adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is required to promote viral suppression and to prevent disease progression and mortality. Forcibly displaced and conflict-affected populations may face challenges succeeding on HAART. We performed a systematic review of the literature on adherence to HAART and treatment outcomes in these groups, including refugees and internally-displaced persons (IDPs), assessed the quality of the evidence and suggest a future research program. Methods Medline, Embase, and Global Health databases for 1995–2011 were searched using the Ovid platform. A backward citation review of subsequent work that had cited the Ovid results was performed using the Web of Science database. ReliefWeb and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) websites were searched for additional grey literature. Results and conclusion We screened 297 records and identified 17 reports covering 15 quantitative and two qualitative studies from 13 countries. Three-quarters (11/15) of the quantitative studies were retrospective studies based on chart review; five studies included <100 clients. Adherence or treatment outcomes were reported in resettled refugees, conflict-affected persons, internally-displaced persons (IDPs), and combinations of refugees, IDPs and other foreign-born persons. The reviewed reports showed promise for conflict-affected and forcibly-displaced populations; the range of optimal adherence prevalence reported was 87–99.5%. Treatment outcomes, measured using virological, immunological and mortality estimates, were good in relation to non-affected groups. Given the diversity of settings where forcibly-displaced and conflict-affected persons access ART, further studies on adherence and treatment outcomes are needed to support scale-up and provide evidence-based justifications for inclusion of these vulnerable groups in national treatment plans. Future studies and program evaluations should focus on systematic monitoring of

  1. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and treatment outcomes among conflict-affected and forcibly displaced populations: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Joshua B; Schilperoord, Marian; Spiegel, Paul; Ross, David A

    2012-10-31

    Optimal adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is required to promote viral suppression and to prevent disease progression and mortality. Forcibly displaced and conflict-affected populations may face challenges succeeding on HAART. We performed a systematic review of the literature on adherence to HAART and treatment outcomes in these groups, including refugees and internally-displaced persons (IDPs), assessed the quality of the evidence and suggest a future research program. Medline, Embase, and Global Health databases for 1995-2011 were searched using the Ovid platform. A backward citation review of subsequent work that had cited the Ovid results was performed using the Web of Science database. ReliefWeb and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) websites were searched for additional grey literature. We screened 297 records and identified 17 reports covering 15 quantitative and two qualitative studies from 13 countries. Three-quarters (11/15) of the quantitative studies were retrospective studies based on chart review; five studies included <100 clients. Adherence or treatment outcomes were reported in resettled refugees, conflict-affected persons, internally-displaced persons (IDPs), and combinations of refugees, IDPs and other foreign-born persons. The reviewed reports showed promise for conflict-affected and forcibly-displaced populations; the range of optimal adherence prevalence reported was 87-99.5%. Treatment outcomes, measured using virological, immunological and mortality estimates, were good in relation to non-affected groups. Given the diversity of settings where forcibly-displaced and conflict-affected persons access ART, further studies on adherence and treatment outcomes are needed to support scale-up and provide evidence-based justifications for inclusion of these vulnerable groups in national treatment plans. Future studies and program evaluations should focus on systematic monitoring of adherence and treatment interruptions by using

  2. Idiosyncratic Variables Affecting Functional Analysis Outcomes: A Review (2001–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Schlichenmeyer, Kevin J.; Roscoe, Eileen M.; Rooker, Griffin W.; Wheeler, Emily E.; Dube, William V.

    2013-01-01

    Although typical functional analyses often produce clear outcomes, some studies have reported ambiguous results that cannot be interpreted. Such undifferentiated outcomes may occur if test conditions do not include relevant antecedent or consequent events. Clinicians then may try to modify the functional analysis conditions to include those events. Hanley, Iwata, and McCord (2003) reviewed the functional analysis literature through the year 2000 and described idiosyncratic variables included in modified functional analyses. The objective of the present review was to present a quantitative analysis of idiosyncratic antecedents and consequences in modified functional analyses during the past decade (2001 to 2010). We discuss the range of stimulus parameters tested and the assessment strategies used for informing the modified analysis conditions. PMID:24114110

  3. Children and Careers: How Family Size Affects Parents' Labor Market Outcomes in the Long Run.

    PubMed

    Cools, Sara; Markussen, Simen; Strøm, Marte

    2017-09-06

    We estimate the effect of family size on various measures of labor market outcomes over the whole career until retirement, using instrumental variables estimation in data from Norwegian administrative registers. Parents' number of children is instrumented with the sex mix of their first two children. We find that having additional children causes sizable reductions in labor supply for women, which fade as children mature and even turn positive for women without a college degree. Among women with a college degree, there is evidence of persistent and even increasing career penalties of family size. Having additional children reduces these women's probability of being employed by higher-paying firms, their earnings rank within the employing firm, and their probability of being the top earner at the workplace. Some of the career effects persist long after labor supply is restored. We find no effect of family size on any of men's labor market outcomes in either the short or long run.

  4. Idiosyncratic variables that affect functional analysis outcomes: a review (2001-2010).

    PubMed

    Schlichenmeyer, Kevin J; Roscoe, Eileen M; Rooker, Griffin W; Wheeler, Emily E; Dube, William V

    2013-01-01

    Although typical functional analyses often produce clear outcomes, some studies have reported ambiguous results that cannot be interpreted. Such undifferentiated outcomes may occur if test conditions do not include relevant antecedent or consequent events. Clinicians then may try to modify the functional analysis conditions to include those events. Hanley, Iwata, and McCord (2003) reviewed the functional analysis literature through 2000 and described idiosyncratic variables included in modified functional analyses. The objective of the present review was to present a quantitative analysis of idiosyncratic antecedents and consequences in modified functional analyses during the past decade (2001 to 2010). We discuss the range of stimulus parameters tested and the assessment strategies used for informing the modified analysis conditions.

  5. Long-term course and outcome in unipolar affective and schizoaffective psychoses.

    PubMed

    Opjordsmoen, S

    1989-04-01

    Of 301 first-time admitted patients with delusional psychoses, 50 met DSM-III criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD), 33 schizoaffective disorder, depressive type (SADD), and 94 schizophrenia. At personal follow-up after 3-39 (mean 22) years, the SADD group was recorded in between on course and outcome variables, but closer to MDD. The findings in MDD and SADD were respectively: remission 66% vs. 42%, personality disorders 14% vs. 12%, anxiety disorder or alcohol abuse 2% vs. 6%, psychosis 18% vs. 36% (with bipolar development in 2% vs. 6%, paranoid disorder 2% vs. 3%, schizophrenia 4% vs. 3%). Chronic psychosis was recorded in 10% vs. 27%. No significant outcome difference was found between early onset MDD and SADD cases and those who fell ill at a higher age. The assumption that antidepressants may induce mania could not be confirmed. Normal premorbid personality seemed to predict a favourable course.

  6. Preoperative factors affecting the outcome of unruptured posterior circulation aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed

    Eftekhar, Behzad; Morgan, Michael Kerin

    2011-01-01

    We retrospectively investigated preoperative variables contributing to adverse surgical outcome for repair of unruptured posterior circulation aneurysms on data collected prospectively between October 1989 and March 2010. Putative risk factors including age, sex, smoking status, positive family history, modified Rankin Score prior to the surgery, size of the aneurysm, specific site (basilar caput and trunk, vertebral artery and posterior inferior cerebellar artery), midline location, presence of calcium, thrombus or irregularity in the aneurysm on preoperative imaging, associated arteriovenous malformation and preoperative coiling were investigated using regression analyses. In a total of 121 operations, surgical mortality and morbidity was 16.3%. For patients with aneurysms less than 9mm this rate was 3.2%. Among the investigated variables we found that size, calcification of the aneurysm and age were each predictors of surgical outcome of unruptured posterior circulation aneurysms.

  7. Revision surgery for recurrent and persistent carpal tunnel syndrome: Clinical results and factors affecting outcomes.

    PubMed

    Djerbi, I; César, M; Lenoir, H; Coulet, B; Lazerges, C; Chammas, M

    2015-12-01

    Thirty-eight hands in 36 patients with recurrent or persistent carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) were reviewed retrospectively after a mean of 51 months (range 12-86) to identify factors that may lead to poor outcomes after surgical management. Clinical assessment focused on pain and sensitivity recovery, measured with a VAS and Weber's two-point discrimination test, respectively. At the latest follow-up, we found 11 excellent, 15 good, nine fair and three poor results. The risk of fair or poor results was significantly higher in the presence of intraneural fibrosis, severe preoperative sensory deficit, neuroma of the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve, workers compensation claims and number of previous surgeries. This last factor also significantly increased the risk of intraneural fibrosis. Despite disappointing outcomes, identification of these factors may improve our prognostic ability for revision surgery in cases of recurrent CTS.

  8. Factors affecting complete hypertension cure after adrenalectomy for aldosterone-producing adenoma: outcomes in a large series.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Zhu, Zhaowei; Xu, Tianyuan; Shen, Zhoujun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of hypokalemia on hypertension outcomes in patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) after adrenalectomy and to determine the factors affecting complete hypertension cure in a large series. Characteristics from 376 APA patients treated with adrenalectomy between 2005 and 2011 were collected from our center. Factors affecting complete hypertension cure were assessed using logistic regression. At the end of follow-up, 207 (55.05%) patients were completely cured, whereas 138 (36.7%) patients were improved, and 31 (8.3%) patients remain refractory. Age (p = 0.028), >2 antihypertensive agents (p < 0.001), duration of hypertension (p < 0.001), duration of hypokalemia (p = 0.037), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.016), and level of plasma aldosterone (p < 0.001) were associated with hypertension outcomes in univariate analysis. However, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only duration of hypertension ≥6 years (OR = 0.496, 95% CI 0.323-0.762, p = 0.001) and level of plasma aldosterone ≥35 ng/dl (OR = 0.503, 95% CI 0.326-0.776, p = 0.002) were the significantly independent factors affecting complete hypertension cure. This is the largest series to show that only duration of hypertension and level of plasma aldosterone were the factors affecting complete hypertension cure after adrenalectomy for APA. This study highlights the importance of early diagnosis and early adrenalectomy. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Risk analysis of the governance system affecting outcomes in the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Dale, Allan P; Vella, Karen; Pressey, Robert L; Brodie, Jon; Gooch, Margaret; Potts, Ruth; Eberhard, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    The state and trend of the Great Barrier Reef's (GBR's) ecological health remains problematic, influencing United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) statements regarding GBR governance. While UNESCO's concerns triggered separate strategic assessments by the Australian and Queensland governments, there has been no independent and integrated review of the key risks within the overall system of governance influencing GBR outcomes. As a case study of international significance, this paper applies Governance Systems Analysis (GSA), a novel analytical framework that identifies the governance themes, domains and subdomains most likely to influence environmental and socio-economic outcomes in complex natural systems. This GBR-focussed application of GSA identifies governance subdomains that present high, medium, or low risk of failure to produce positive outcomes for the Reef. This enabled us to determine that three "whole of system" governance problems could undermine GBR outcomes. First, we stress the integrative importance of the Long Term Sustainability Plan (LTSP) Subdomain. Sponsored by the Australian and Queensland governments, this subdomain concerns the primary institutional arrangements for coordinated GBR planning and delivery, but due to its recent emergence, it faces several internal governance challenges. Second, we find a major risk of implementation failure in the achievement of GBR water quality actions due to a lack of system-wide focus on building strong and stable delivery systems at catchment scale. Finally, we conclude that the LTSP Subdomain currently has too limited a mandate/capacity to influence several high-risk subdomains that have not been, but must be more strongly aligned with Reef management (e.g. the Greenhouse Gas Emission Management Subdomain). Our analysis enables exploration of governance system reforms needed to address environmental trends in the GBR and reflects on the potential application of GSA in

  10. Prognosis in autism: do specialist treatments affect long-term outcome?

    PubMed

    Howlin, P

    1997-06-01

    Many different treatments have been claimed to have a dramatic impact on children with autism. This paper reviews what is known about the outcome in adult life and examines the limitations and advantages of a variety of intervention approaches. It concludes that there is little evidence of any "cure" for autism, but appropriately structured programmes for education and management in the early years can play a significant role in enhancing functioning in later life.

  11. Predictive Factors Affecting Long-Term Outcome of Unilateral Lateral Rectus Recession

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Mi-Jin; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Background There are few long-term outcome reports of unilateral lateral rectus (LR) recession for exotropia including a large number of subjects. Previous reports on unilateral LR recession commonly show extremely low rates of initial overcorrection and large exodrifts after surgery suggesting that the surgical dose may be increased. However, little is known of the long-term outcome of a large unilateral LR recession for exotropia. Objectives To determine long-term outcomes and predictive factors of recurrence after a large unilateral LR recession in patients with exotropia. Data Extraction Retrospective analysis was performed on 92 patients aged 3 to 17 years who underwent 10 mm unilateral LR recession for exotropia of ≤ 25 prism diopters (Δ) with prism and alternate cover testing and were followed up for more than 2 years after surgery. Final success rates within 10Δ of exophoria/tropia and 5Δ of esophoria/tropia at distance in the primary position, improvement in stereopsis and the predictive factors for recurrence were evaluated. Results At 24 months after surgery, 54% of patients had ocular alignment meeting the defined criteria of success, 45% had recurrence and 1% had overcorrection. After a mean follow-up of 39 months, 36% showed success, 63% showed recurrence and 1% resulted in overcorrection. The average time of recurrence was 23.4±14.7 months (range, 1–60 months) and the rate of recurrence per person-year was 23% after unilateral LR recession. Predictive factors of recurrence were a larger preoperative near angle of deviation (>16Δ) and larger initial postoperative exodeviation (>5Δ) at distance. Conclusions Long-term outcome of unilateral LR recession for exotropia showed low success rates with high recurrence, thus should be reserved for patients with a small preoperative near angle of exodeviation. PMID:26418819

  12. Cross-reactive immunologic material status affects treatment outcomes in Pompe disease infants

    PubMed Central

    Kishnani, Priya S.; Goldenberg, Paula C.; DeArmey, Stephanie L.; Heller, James; Benjamin, Danny; Young, Sarah; Bali, Deeksha; Smith, Sue Ann; Li, Jennifer S.; Mandel, Hanna; Koeberl, Dwight; Rosenberg, Amy; Chen, Y-T

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency of acid alpha glucosidase (GAA) causes Pompe disease, which is usually fatal if onset occurs in infancy. Patients synthesize a non-functional form of GAA or are unable to form native enzyme. Enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human GAA (rhGAA) prolongs survival in infantile Pompe patients but may be less effective in cross-reactive immunologic material (CRIM)-negative patients. We retrospectively analyzed the influence of CRIM status on outcome in 21 CRIM-positive and 11 CRIM-negative infantile Pompe patients receiving rhGAA. Patients were from the clinical setting and from clinical trials of rhGAA, were ≤6 months of age, were not invasively ventilated, and were treated with IV rhGAA at a cumulative or total dose of 20 or 40 mg/kg/2 weeks. Outcome measures included survival, invasive ventilator-free survival, cardiac status, gross motor development, development of antibodies to rhGAA, and levels of urinary Glc4. Following 52 weeks of treatment, 6/11 (54.5%) CRIM-negative and 1/21 (4.8%) CRIM-positive patients were deceased or invasively ventilated (p < 0.0001). By age 27.1 months, all CRIM-negative patients and 4/21 (19.0%) CRIM-positive patients were deceased or invasively ventilated. Cardiac function and gross motor development improved significantly more in the CRIM-positive group. IgG antibodies to rhGAA developed earlier and serotiters were higher and more sustained in the CRIM-negative group. CRIM-negative status predicted reduced overall survival and invasive ventilator-free survival and poorer clinical outcomes in infants with Pompe disease treated with rhGAA. The effect of CRIM status on outcome appears to be mediated by antibody responses to the exogenous protein. PMID:19775921

  13. Cross-reactive immunologic material status affects treatment outcomes in Pompe disease infants.

    PubMed

    Kishnani, Priya S; Goldenberg, Paula C; DeArmey, Stephanie L; Heller, James; Benjamin, Danny; Young, Sarah; Bali, Deeksha; Smith, Sue Ann; Li, Jennifer S; Mandel, Hanna; Koeberl, Dwight; Rosenberg, Amy; Chen, Y-T

    2010-01-01

    Deficiency of acid alpha glucosidase (GAA) causes Pompe disease, which is usually fatal if onset occurs in infancy. Patients synthesize a non-functional form of GAA or are unable to form native enzyme. Enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human GAA (rhGAA) prolongs survival in infantile Pompe patients but may be less effective in cross-reactive immunologic material (CRIM)-negative patients. We retrospectively analyzed the influence of CRIM status on outcome in 21 CRIM-positive and 11 CRIM-negative infantile Pompe patients receiving rhGAA. Patients were from the clinical setting and from clinical trials of rhGAA, were 6 months of age, were not invasively ventilated, and were treated with IV rhGAA at a cumulative or total dose of 20 or 40 mg/kg/2 weeks. Outcome measures included survival, invasive ventilator-free survival, cardiac status, gross motor development, development of antibodies to rhGAA, and levels of urinary Glc(4). Following 52 weeks of treatment, 6/11 (54.5%) CRIM-negative and 1/21 (4.8%) CRIM-positive patients were deceased or invasively ventilated (p<0.0001). By age 27.1 months, all CRIM-negative patients and 4/21 (19.0%) CRIM-positive patients were deceased or invasively ventilated. Cardiac function and gross motor development improved significantly more in the CRIM-positive group. IgG antibodies to rhGAA developed earlier and serotiters were higher and more sustained in the CRIM-negative group. CRIM-negative status predicted reduced overall survival and invasive ventilator-free survival and poorer clinical outcomes in infants with Pompe disease treated with rhGAA. The effect of CRIM status on outcome appears to be mediated by antibody responses to the exogenous protein.

  14. Mechanism of injury affects 6-month functional outcome in children hospitalized because of severe injuries.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Alison K; Rothman, Linda; McKeag, Alexandra Moses; Howard, Andrew

    2003-09-01

    The burden of childhood injury is often described using vital statistics for mortality and hospital admissions as a measure of morbidity. Hospital admissions, however, reflect the process of care and do not directly measure children's functional disability. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of mechanism of injury on the functional outcome 6 months after injury in children in an inpatient trauma unit of a pediatric referral hospital. A retrospective cohort of 357 children aged 2 to 15 with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) > 12 was studied to determine the relationship between mechanism of injury (based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision e-code) and functional outcome 6 months after hospital discharge. Wee Functional Independence Measure (WeeFIM) was used to assess functional outcome. Any child with a WeeFIM score less than the maximum (of 126) attainable was classed as requiring assistance, and the relative risk of requiring assistance at 6 months was calculated for each injury mechanism. Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the importance of mechanism of injury, after adjusting for age, gender, ISS, and a primary diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) injury. Mechanism of injury had a significant effect on the functional outcome at 6 months: 72% of pedestrians, 64% of cyclists struck by cars, and 59% of injured motor vehicle occupants required assistance during daily activities. By contrast, only 27% of those injured playing sports and 22% of cyclists injured without motor vehicle involvement required assistance. The relative risk of children requiring assistance was similar with or without adjustment for age, gender, ISS, and CNS injury. Mechanism of injury is significantly associated with requiring assistance 6 months postdischarge, even after controlling for age, injury severity, and the presence of a CNS injury. These data are important both when discussing the prognosis for an individual patient and

  15. Medical conditions affect the outcome of early intervention in preschool children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Mats Anders; Westerlund, Joakim; Hedvall, Åsa; Åmark, Per; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to explore the frequency of genetic and other medical conditions, including epilepsy, in a population-based group of 208 preschool children with early diagnosis of Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and to relate outcome at a 2-year follow-up to the co-existing medical findings. They had all received early intervention. The Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS-II) composite score served as the primary outcome measure. In the total group, 38/208 children (18 %) had a significant medical or genetic condition. Epilepsy was present in 6.3 % at the first assessment and in 8.6 % at follow-up and was associated with more severe intellectual impairment. A history of regression was reported in 22 %. Children with any medical/genetic condition, including epilepsy, as well as children with a history of regression had significantly lower VABS-II scores at the 2-year follow-up. Children with a medical/genetic condition, including epilepsy, had been diagnosed with ASD at an earlier age than those without such conditions, and early age at diagnosis also correlated negatively with adaptive functioning outcome. The results underscore the importance of considering medical/genetic aspects in all young children with ASD and the requirement to individualize and tailor interventions according to their specific needs.

  16. Does amblyopia affect educational, health, and social outcomes? Findings from 1958 British birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Rahi, J S; Cumberland, P M; Peckham, C S

    2006-01-01

    Objective To determine any association of amblyopia with diverse educational, health, and social outcomes in order to inform current debate about population screening for this condition. Design, setting, and participants Comparison of 8432 people with normal vision in each eye with 429 (4.8%) people with amblyopia (childhood unilateral reduced acuity when tested with correction and unaccounted for by eye disease) from the 1958 British birth cohort, with respect to subsequent health and social functioning. Results No functionally or clinically significant differences existed between people with and without amblyopia in educational outcomes, behavioural difficulties or social maladjustment, participation in social activities, unintended injuries (school, workplace, or road traffic accidents as driver), general or mental health and mortality, paid employment, or occupation based social class trajectories. Conclusions It may be difficult to distinguish, at population level, between the lives of people with amblyopia and those without, in terms of several important outcomes. A pressing need exists for further concerted research on what it means to have amblyopia and, specifically, how this varies with severity and how it changes with treatment, so that screening programmes can best serve those who have the most to gain from early identification. PMID:16520328

  17. Pediatric surgeon vs general surgeon: does subspecialty training affect the outcome of appendicitis?

    PubMed

    da Silva, Paulo Sérgio Lucas; de Aguiar, Vânia Euzébio; Waisberg, Jaques

    2014-04-01

    The absence of pediatric surgeons in many centers results in restriction of patient access to pediatric subspecialty care. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of children treated for appendicitis by pediatric surgeons (PS) and by general surgeons (GS). This was a retrospective review of the charts of all consecutive patients <16 years old who underwent appendectomy during 2 years The primary outcome measure was the overall rate of complications. Secondary outcome measures included length of hospital stay (LOS), symptom duration, time from emergency department diagnosis to surgery, and readmission rate within 30 days. A total of 94 patients (PS group, n = 66; GS group, n = 28) were included. PS patients were younger. For patients with complicated appendicitis, complications were significantly more prevalent in the GS group (57% vs 15%; P = 0.0001). Median LOS was not significantly different between the two groups for complicated appendicitis, but patients with non-complicated appendicitis had a significant longer LOS when treated by PS (3.74 ± 1.5 vs 2.57 ± 1.21 days; P = 0.0041). Patients in the PS group had a prolonged use of antibiotics (2 vs 4 days; P = 0.001), and longer LOS (3 vs 4 days; P = 0.0018). Overall complication rates were similar between PS and GS. Complications were significantly more prevalent in patients with complicated appendicitis who were treated by GS. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  18. Distal Radial Fractures in the Superelderly: Does Malunion Affect Functional Outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Clement, N. D.; Duckworth, A. D.; Court-Brown, C. M.; McQueen, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The management of unstable distal radial fractures