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Sample records for genstande fra forskningscenter

  1. Presence of hydroxyl in the Fra Mauro region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhnoy, Alexey; Wöhler, Christian; Sinitsyn, Mikhail; Grumpe, Arne; Feoktistova, Ekaterina; Shevchenko, Vladislav

    Lunar pyroclastic deposits (LPDs) are known to consist of volcanic material (basalt and glass) ejected by eruptions [1]. In the southern part of the crater Fra Mauro, a localised LPD is associated with Rima Parry V [2]. In [3], a suppressed neutron flux is described for the Fra Mauro region based on measurements of the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) [4], interpreted as an indicator of hydroxyl (OH). In this study we compare these measurements with NIR hyperspectral data acquired by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M(3) ) [5] instrument. The suppression factor of the neutron flux is defined according to delta = (N_ref-N_ex)/N_ref [6,7] with N_ex as the average count rate of the omnidirectional sensor (SETN) [8] of LEND for the region under study (here: the Fra Mauro region) and N_ref as the average count rate for a reference area (here: immediately west of Fra Mauro). For Fra Mauro crater, a suppression factor of 2.4% with a standard error of 0.41% was found. The epithermal neutron flux can be assumed to be inversely proportional to the hydrogen content. Hence, the measured positive suppression factor indicates a positive anomaly of the hydrogen content at up to 1 m depth. Under the approximative assumption of a proportional relation between the suppression factor delta and the hydrogen content, the observation in [7] of a suppression factor of 18% in the crater Cabeus associated with a homogeneous hydrogen content of about 500 ppm implies an enrichment in hydrogen by about 70 ppm for the Fra Mauro region. However, these values do not specifically refer to the small Fra Mauro LPD but to a larger area of about 150 km diameter. To identify the LPD-specific suppression factor, it would be necessary to acquire collimated neutron flux measurements. We have complemented the LEND-based measurements by the analysis of spectral reflectance data acquired by the M(3) instrument. The presence of OH in the surface material leads to an absorption band beyond 2700 nm

  2. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) explains FRA's communication and enforcement policies concerning small entities subject to the federal... enforcement actions against small businesses. Small Entity Communication Policy It is FRA's policy that all... facts and situations that arise in the course of railroad operations. These agency communications...

  3. Apollo 14 - Nature and origin of rock types in soil from the Fra Mauro formation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitken, F. K.; Anderson, D. H.; Bass, M. N.; Brown, R. W.; Butler, P., Jr.; Heiken, G.; Jakes, P.; Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Takeda, H.

    1971-01-01

    Compositions of glasses in the Apollo 14 soil correspond to four types of Fra Mauro basalts, to mare basalts and soils, and, in minor amounts, to gabbroic anorthosite and potash granite. The Fra Mauro basalts can be related by simple low pressure crystal-liquid fractionation that implies a parent composition like that of Apollo 14 sample 14310.

  4. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code C Appendix C... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. C Appendix C to Part 215—FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code The following defect code has been established for...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code C Appendix C... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. C Appendix C to Part 215—FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code The following defect code has been established for...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code C Appendix C... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. C Appendix C to Part 215—FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code The following defect code has been established for...

  7. Requirement of Fra proteins for communication channels between cells in the filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Omairi-Nasser, Amin; Mariscal, Vicente; Austin, Jotham R; Haselkorn, Robert

    2015-08-11

    The filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 differentiates specialized cells, heterocysts, that fix atmospheric nitrogen and transfer the fixed nitrogen to adjacent vegetative cells. Reciprocally, vegetative cells transfer fixed carbon to heterocysts. Several routes have been described for metabolite exchange within the filament, one of which involves communicating channels that penetrate the septum between adjacent cells. Several fra gene mutants were isolated 25 y ago on the basis of their phenotypes: inability to fix nitrogen and fragmentation of filaments upon transfer from N+ to N- media. Cryopreservation combined with electron tomography were used to investigate the role of three fra gene products in channel formation. FraC and FraG are clearly involved in channel formation, whereas FraD has a minor part. Additionally, FraG was located close to the cytoplasmic membrane and in the heterocyst neck, using immunogold labeling with antibody raised to the N-terminal domain of the FraG protein.

  8. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of the code is to establish a uniform language among FRA, States, and the railroad industry that will... springs broken in a cluster; (4) Has three or more springs broken. (E) Truck bolster and center...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of the code is to establish a uniform language among FRA, States, and the railroad industry that will... springs broken in a cluster; (4) Has three or more springs broken. (E) Truck bolster and center...

  10. FRaC: a feature-modeling approach for semi-supervised and unsupervised anomaly detection

    PubMed Central

    Brodley, Carla; Slonim, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Anomaly detection involves identifying rare data instances (anomalies) that come from a different class or distribution than the majority (which are simply called “normal” instances). Given a training set of only normal data, the semi-supervised anomaly detection task is to identify anomalies in the future. Good solutions to this task have applications in fraud and intrusion detection. The unsupervised anomaly detection task is different: Given unlabeled, mostly-normal data, identify the anomalies among them. Many real-world machine learning tasks, including many fraud and intrusion detection tasks, are unsupervised because it is impractical (or impossible) to verify all of the training data. We recently presented FRaC, a new approach for semi-supervised anomaly detection. FRaC is based on using normal instances to build an ensemble of feature models, and then identifying instances that disagree with those models as anomalous. In this paper, we investigate the behavior of FRaC experimentally and explain why FRaC is so successful. We also show that FRaC is a superior approach for the unsupervised as well as the semi-supervised anomaly detection task, compared to well-known state-of-the-art anomaly detection methods, LOF and one-class support vector machines, and to an existing feature-modeling approach. PMID:22639542

  11. Frequency of Fra X syndrome among institutionalized mentally retarded males in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurczak, T.; Bocian, E.; Milewski, M.

    1996-07-12

    Results of cytogenetic studies, performed in a group of 201 institutionalized mentally retarded males, are presented. At least two cytogenetic methods for eliciting the Xq27.3 fragile site, recommended by the Fourth International Workshop on the Fra X Syndrome were used. A subgroup of 67 out of 201 studied males was also examined using molecular methods. In 6 (2.9%) males fra X syndrome was diagnosed. All cytogenetic positive results were confirmed by molecular analysis. Five patients had full expansion CGG repeats and one had both premutation and full mutation. Postulated frequency of fra X syndrome in Polish population being 0.2-0.4 / 1,000 males seems to be lower than it could be expected on the basis of previous literature data. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. Implications of FRA 16A structure for the mechanism of chromosomal fragile site genesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nancarrow, J.K.; Kremer, E.; Holman, K.; Eyre, H.; Callen, D.F.; Sutherland, G.R.; Richards, R.I. ); Doggett, N.A. ); Paslier, D.Le )

    1994-06-24

    Fragile sites are chemically induced nonstaining gaps in chromosomes. Different fragile sites vary in frequency in the population and in the chemistry of their induction. DNA sequences encompassing and including the rare, autosomal, folate-sensitive fragile site, FRA16A, were isolated by positional cloning. The molecular basis of FRA16A was found to be expansion of a normally polymorphic p(CCG)[sub n] repeat. This repeat was adjacent to a CpG island that was methylated in fragile site-expressing individuals. The FRA16A locus in individuals who do not express the fragile site is not a site of DNA methylation (imprinting), which suggests that the methylation associated with fragile sites may be a consequence and not a cause of their genesis.

  13. The F8H Glycosyltransferase is a Functional Paralog of FRA8 Involved in Glucuronoxylan Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The FRAGILE FIBER8 gene was previously shown to be required for the biosynthesis of the reducing end tetrasaccharide sequence of glucuronoxylan (GX) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we demonstrate that F8H, a close homolog of FRA8, is a functional ortholog of FRA8 involved in GX bi...

  14. Expression profiling of genes regulated by Fra-1/AP-1 transcription factor during bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Fra-1/AP-1 transcription factor regulates the expression of genes controlling various processes including migration, invasion, and survival as well as extracellular remodeling. We recently demonstrated that loss of Fra-1 leads to exacerbated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, accompanied by enhanced expression of various inflammatory and fibrotic genes. To better understand the molecular mechanisms by which Fra-1 confers protection during bleomycin-induced lung injury, genome-wide mRNA expression profiling was performed. Results We found that Fra-1 regulates gene expression programs that include: 1) several cytokines and chemokines involved in inflammation, 2) several genes involved in the extracellular remodeling and cell adhesion, and 3) several genes involved in programmed cell death. Conclusion Loss of Fra-1 leads to the enhanced expression of genes regulating inflammation and immune responses and decreased the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, suggesting that this transcription factor distinctly modulates early pro-fibrotic cellular responses. PMID:23758685

  15. 49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FRA Administrator's determination of random... the violation rate for the entire industry. All information used for the determination is drawn from... reports from employers, and may make appropriate modifications in calculating the industry violation...

  16. 49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FRA Administrator's determination of random... the violation rate for the entire industry. All information used for the determination is drawn from... reports from employers, and may make appropriate modifications in calculating the industry violation...

  17. 49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Approval of design of individual railroad programs... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF... individual railroad programs by FRA. (a) Each railroad shall submit its written certification program and...

  18. 49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Approval of design of individual railroad programs... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF... individual railroad programs by FRA. (a) Each railroad shall submit its written certification program and...

  19. 49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Approval of design of individual railroad programs... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF... individual railroad programs by FRA. (a) Each railroad shall submit its written certification program and...

  20. 49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Approval of design of individual railroad programs... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF... individual railroad programs by FRA. (a) Each railroad shall submit its written certification program and...

  1. 49 CFR 240.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of design of individual railroad programs... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF... individual railroad programs by FRA. (a) Each railroad shall submit its written certification program and...

  2. 75 FR 59322 - Notice of Availability of Answers to Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Buy America & FRA's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... number FRA-2010-0147. All electronic submissions must be made to the U.S. Government electronic site at... comments on the U.S. Government electronic docket site; (2) Fax: (202) 493-2251; (3) Mail: U.S. Department... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. Dysregulation of Fra1 expression by Wnt/β-catenin signalling promotes glioma aggressiveness through epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Huaijun; Mu, Xiaodan; Cui, Jianling; Peng, Zhigang

    2017-04-28

    Aberrant expression of Fos-related antigen-1 (Fra1) is commonly elevated in various malignant cancers and is strongly implicated in invasion and metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its dysregulation in human glioma remain poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that up-regulation of Fra1 plays a crucial role in the glioma aggressiveness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) activated by Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway. In glioma cells, activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling by Wnt3a administration obviously induced EMT and directly activated the transcription of Fra1. Phenotype experiments revealed that up-regulation of Fra1 induced by Wnt/β-catenin signalling drove the EMT of glioma cells. Furthermore, it was found that the cisplatin resistance acquired by Wnt/β-catenin signalling activation depended on increased expression of Fra1. Analysis of clinical specimens verified a positive correlation between Fra1 and β-catenin as well as a poor prognosis in glioma patients with double-high expressions of them. These findings indicate that an aberrant Wnt/β-catenin signalling leads to the EMT and drug resistance of glioma via Fra1 induction, which suggests novel therapeutic strategies for the malignant disease.

  4. Chromosomal fragile site, FRA16A: Implications for fragile site genesis

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, R.I.; Nancarrow, J.K.; Mangelsdorf, M.

    1994-09-01

    Fragile sites are chemically induced non-staining gaps in chromosomes. Different fragile sites vary in frequency in the population and in the chemistry of their induction. The fragile sites sequenced to date (FRAXA and FRAXE) are rare, folate sensitive sites located on the X chromosomes. They have similar DNA sequence composition of a p(CCG)n repeat adjacent to a methylatable CpG island. Individuals expressing the fragile site have an unstable expanded repeat and methylation of the adjacent CpG island. FRAXA is associated with the most common form of familial mental retardation, Fragile X Syndrome. In order to further understand the relationship between the DNA sequence composition, position in the genome, and the chemistry of induction of fragile sites, we have characterized the rare, folate sensitive fragile site on human chromosome 16 referred to as FRA16A. The molecular basis of FRA16A was found to be expansion of a normally polymorphic p(CCG)n repeat. This repeat was adjacent to a CpG island that was methylated in fragile-site-expressing individuals. The FRA16A locus in individuals who do not express the fragile site is not a site of DNA methylation (imprinting) which suggests that the methylation associated with fragile sites may be a consequence and not a cause of their genesis. We have analyzed the normal repeat copy numbers for the fragile site p(CCG)n repeats in European, Japanese and Indian populations. While the FRAXA and FRAXE repeats show similar distributions of copy numbers, the FRA16A p(CCG)n repeat in Europeans has a greater range and number of alleles (23.7% have n>25) than its Japanese and Indian counterparts. In conjunction with our previous data demonstrating linkage disequilibrium (founder chromosomes) at the FRAXA locus, these data suggest that certain p(CCG)n repeats are inherently unstable.

  5. The Strawberry Pathogenesis-related 10 (PR-10) Fra a Proteins Control Flavonoid Biosynthesis by Binding to Metabolic Intermediates*

    PubMed Central

    Casañal, Ana; Zander, Ulrich; Muñoz, Cristina; Dupeux, Florine; Luque, Irene; Botella, Miguel Angel; Schwab, Wilfried; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Marquez, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related 10 (PR-10) proteins are involved in many aspects of plant biology but their molecular function is still unclear. They are related by sequence and structural homology to mammalian lipid transport and plant abscisic acid receptor proteins and are predicted to have cavities for ligand binding. Recently, three new members of the PR-10 family, the Fra a proteins, have been identified in strawberry, where they are required for the activity of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, which is essential for the development of color and flavor in fruits. Here, we show that Fra a proteins bind natural flavonoids with different selectivity and affinities in the low μm range. The structural analysis of Fra a 1 E and a Fra a 3-catechin complex indicates that loops L3, L5, and L7 surrounding the ligand-binding cavity show significant flexibility in the apo forms but close over the ligand in the Fra a 3-catechin complex. Our findings provide mechanistic insight on the function of Fra a proteins and suggest that PR-10 proteins, which are widespread in plants, may play a role in the control of secondary metabolic pathways by binding to metabolic intermediates. PMID:24133217

  6. Fra-1 protooncogene regulates IL-6 expression in macrophages and promotes the generation of M2d macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingshan; Ni, Hong; Lan, Lan; Wei, Xiaoli; Xiang, Rong; Wang, Yue

    2010-06-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a prominent role in the growth of tumor cells. As the major inflammatory component of the TME, M2d macrophages are educated by the TME such that they adopt an immunosuppressive role that promotes tumor metastasis and progression. Fra-1 forms activator protein-1 heterodimers with Jun partners and drives gene transcription. Fra-1 is thought to drastically induce tumorigenesis and progression. However, the functional role of Fra-1 in the generation of M2d macrophages is poorly understood to date. Here, we demonstrate that 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells, when co-cultured with RAW264.7 macrophage cells, skew the RAW264.7 macrophage cell differentiation into M2d macrophages. The 4T1 cells stimulate de novo overexpression of Fra-1 in RAW264.7 cells, and then Fra-1 binds to the interleukin 6 (IL-6) promoter to increase the production of the cytokine IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells. IL-6 acts in an autocrine fashion to skew RAW264.7 macrophage cell differentiation into M2d macrophages. These findings open new insights into how to reverse M2d macrophage-induced immune tolerance to improve the efficacy of immunotherapeutic approaches.

  7. Fra Angelico's painting technique revealed by terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica; Picollo, Marcello; Cucci, Costanza; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated with terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI) the well-known Lamentation over the dead Christ panel painting (San Marco Museum, Florence) painted by Fra Giovanni Angelico within 1436 and 1441. The investigation provided a better understanding of the construction and gilding technique used by the eminent artist, as well as the plastering technique used during the nineteenth-century restoration intervention. The evidence obtained from THz-TDI scans was correlated with the available documentation on the preservation history of the art piece. Erosion and damages documented for the wooden support, especially in the lower margin, found confirmation in the THz-TD images.

  8. The Yeast Iron Regulatory Proteins Grx3/4 and Fra2 Form Heterodimeric Complexes Containing a [2Fe-2S] Cluster with Cysteinyl and Histidyl Ligation†

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haoran; Mapolelo, Daphne T.; Dingra, Nin N.; Naik, Sunil G.; Lees, Nicolas S.; Hoffman, Brian M.; Riggs-Gelasco, Pamela J.; Huynh, Boi Hanh; Johnson, Michael K.; Outten, Caryn E.

    2009-01-01

    The transcription of iron uptake and storage genes in S. cerevisiae is primarily regulated by the transcription factor Aft1. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Aft1 is dependent upon mitochondrial Fe-S cluster biosynthesis via a signaling pathway that includes the cytosolic monothiol glutaredoxins (Grx3 and Grx4) and the BolA homologue Fra2. However the interactions between these proteins and the iron-dependent mechanism by which they control Aft1 localization are unclear. To reconstitute and characterize components of this signaling pathway in vitro, we have overexpressed yeast Fra2 and Grx3/4 in E. coli. We have shown that co-expression of recombinant Fra2 with Grx3 or Grx4 allows purification of a stable [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster-containing Fra2-Grx3 or Fra2-Grx4 heterodimeric complex. Reconstitution of a [2Fe-2S] cluster on Grx3 or Grx4 without Fra2 produces a [2Fe-2S]-bridged homodimer. UV-visible absorption and CD, resonance Raman, EPR, ENDOR, Mössbauer, and EXAFS studies of [2Fe-2S] Grx3/4 homodimers and the [2Fe-2S] Fra2-Grx3/4 heterodimers indicate that inclusion of Fra2 in the Grx3/4 Fe-S complex causes a change in the cluster stability and coordination environment. Taken together, our analytical, spectroscopic, and mutagenesis data indicate that Grx3/4 and Fra2 form a Fe-S-bridged heterodimeric complex with Fe ligands provided by the active site cysteine of Grx3/4, glutathione, and a histidine residue. Overall, these results suggest that the ability of the Fra2-Grx3/4 complex to assemble a [2Fe-2S] cluster may act as a signal to control the iron regulon in response to cellular iron status in yeast. PMID:19715344

  9. fra-1: a serum-inducible, cellular immediate-early gene that encodes a fos-related antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, D R; Curran, T

    1988-01-01

    A set of proteins antigenically related to the c-fos protein (Fos) are induced by serum in fibroblasts. To isolate cDNA clones of genes encoding such proteins, a lambda gt11 expression cDNA library constructed from serum-stimulated rat fibroblasts was screened with antibodies raised against a hydrophilic region (amino acids 127 to 152) of Fos. One of the positive clones identified, termed fra-1 (Fos-related antigen) was characterized. It encoded a protein that shared several regions of extensive amino acid homology with Fos (including the region that showed similarity to both the yeast GCN4 regulatory protein and the protein encoded by the jun oncogene), although its nucleotide sequence was considerably diverged from that of the c-fos gene. Only a subset of the agents and conditions that activated c-fos also induced fra-1. Induction of fra-1 expression following serum stimulation was delayed compared with that of c-fos. However, like c-fos, fra-1 was induced rapidly by serum in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitors. Thus, a family of Fos-related, inducible genes are involved in the cellular immediate-early transcriptional response to extracellular stimuli. Images PMID:3133553

  10. Fracture network evaluation program (FraNEP): A software for analyzing 2D fracture trace-line maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeeb, Conny; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Bons, Paul D.; Virgo, Simon; Blum, Philipp

    2013-10-01

    Fractures, such as joints, faults and veins, strongly influence the transport of fluids through rocks by either enhancing or inhibiting flow. Techniques used for the automatic detection of lineaments from satellite images and aerial photographs, LIDAR technologies and borehole televiewers significantly enhanced data acquisition. The analysis of such data is often performed manually or with different analysis software. Here we present a novel program for the analysis of 2D fracture networks called FraNEP (Fracture Network Evaluation Program). The program was developed using Visual Basic for Applications in Microsoft Excel™ and combines features from different existing software and characterization techniques. The main novelty of FraNEP is the possibility to analyse trace-line maps of fracture networks applying the (1) scanline sampling, (2) window sampling or (3) circular scanline and window method, without the need of switching programs. Additionally, binning problems are avoided by using cumulative distributions, rather than probability density functions. FraNEP is a time-efficient tool for the characterisation of fracture network parameters, such as density, intensity and mean length. Furthermore, fracture strikes can be visualized using rose diagrams and a fitting routine evaluates the distribution of fracture lengths. As an example of its application, we use FraNEP to analyse a case study of lineament data from a satellite image of the Oman Mountains.

  11. 49 CFR 229.207 - New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes to existing FRA-approved locomotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New locomotive crashworthiness design standards and changes to existing FRA-approved locomotive crashworthiness design standards. 229.207 Section 229.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL...

  12. 49 CFR 228.407 - Analysis of work schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of submissions; fatigue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... review and approval of submissions; fatigue mitigation plans. 228.407 Section 228.407 Transportation... Transportation § 228.407 Analysis of work schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of submissions; fatigue... train employee at risk for a level of fatigue at which safety may be compromised. Schedules...

  13. 49 CFR 228.407 - Analysis of work schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of submissions; fatigue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... review and approval of submissions; fatigue mitigation plans. 228.407 Section 228.407 Transportation... schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of submissions; fatigue mitigation plans. (a) Analysis of... fatigue at which safety may be compromised. Schedules identified in paragraph (g) of this section do...

  14. 49 CFR 228.407 - Analysis of work schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of submissions; fatigue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... review and approval of submissions; fatigue mitigation plans. 228.407 Section 228.407 Transportation... Transportation § 228.407 Analysis of work schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of submissions; fatigue... train employee at risk for a level of fatigue at which safety may be compromised. Schedules...

  15. 49 CFR 228.407 - Analysis of work schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of submissions; fatigue...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... review and approval of submissions; fatigue mitigation plans. 228.407 Section 228.407 Transportation... Transportation § 228.407 Analysis of work schedules; submissions; FRA review and approval of submissions; fatigue... train employee at risk for a level of fatigue at which safety may be compromised. Schedules...

  16. Bulk magnetization properties of the Fra Mauro and Reiner Gamma Formations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.

    1980-01-01

    In the reported investigation, bulk magnetization properties within two lunar surface geologic units have been inferred using low-altitude, high-resolution Apollo 16 subsatellite magnetometer data. On the basis of correlations of mapped anomalies with relatively surficial units on the central near side, a surface plate model with thickness much less than the subsatellite altitude was adopted and was used to represent the sources of largest anomalies. The results strongly suggest that directional coherence of the surface density of magnetization can occur over horizontal scales up to 100 km. Tentative evidence for a lack of directional coherence on scales greater than 100 km was found in the case of the Fra Mauro Formation.

  17. Sedimentology of clastic rocks from the Fra Mauro region of the moon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A thin-section examination of sixteen clastic rock samples returned by the Apollo 14 mission from the Fra Mauro region of the moon suggests the presence of at least two distinctly different lithologies. Five of the samples (group I) are characterized by an abundant glassy matrix and glass particles and lesser amounts of plagioclase and pyroxene grains, and lithic clasts. The other eleven samples (group II) are relatively fine grained, very poorly sorted, and consist largely of pyroxene, plagioclase, and lithic clasts set in an abundant mineralic matrix. Group I and II lithologies were probably both deposited from impact generated base surges. The differences between them stem not as much from the basic sedimentary processes as from the differences in the magnitude of the events generating the base surges and the resultant difference in available detrital materials.

  18. The common fragile site FRA16D gene product WWOX: roles in tumor suppression and genomic stability.

    PubMed

    Aqeilan, Rami I; Abu-Remaileh, Muhannad; Abu-Odeh, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    The fragile WWOX gene, encompassing the chromosomal fragile site FRA16D, is frequently altered in human cancers. While vulnerable to DNA damage itself, recent evidence has shown that the WWOX protein is essential for proper DNA damage response (DDR). Furthermore, the gene product, WWOX, has been associated with multiple protein networks, highlighting its critical functions in normal cell homeostasis. Targeted deletion of Wwox in murine models suggests its in vivo requirement for proper growth, metabolism, and survival. Recent molecular and biochemical analyses of WWOX functions highlighted its role in modulating aerobic glycolysis and genomic stability. Cumulatively, we propose that the gene product of FRA16D, WWOX, is a functionally essential protein that is required for cell homeostasis and that its deletion has important consequences that contribute to the neoplastic process. This review discusses the essential role of WWOX in tumor suppression and genomic stability and how its alteration contributes to cancer transformation.

  19. Rb-Sr ages of igneous rocks from the Apollo 14 mission and the age of the Fra Mauro formation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1971-01-01

    Internal Rb-Sr isochrons were determined on four basaltic rocks and on a basaltic clast from a breccia from the Fra Mauro landing site. An internal isochron was determined for rock 12004 and yielded a value in agreement with previous results for basaltic rocks from the Apollo 12 site. The crystallization ages for Apollo 14 basalts are only 0.2 to 0.3 AE older than were found for mare basalts from the Sea of Tranquility. Assuming these leucocratic igneous rocks to be representative of the Fra Mauro site, it follows that there were major igneous processes active in these regions, and presumably throughout the highlands, at times only slightly preceding the periods at which the maria were last flooded.

  20. Ubiquitin-independent proteasomal degradation of Fra-1 is antagonized by Erk1/2 pathway-mediated phosphorylation of a unique C-terminal destabilizer.

    PubMed

    Basbous, Jihane; Chalbos, Dany; Hipskind, Robert; Jariel-Encontre, Isabelle; Piechaczyk, Marc

    2007-06-01

    Fra-1, a transcription factor that is phylogenetically and functionally related to the proto-oncoprotein c-Fos, controls many essential cell functions. It is expressed in many cell types, albeit with differing kinetics and abundances. In cells reentering the cell cycle, Fra-1 expression is transiently stimulated albeit later than that of c-Fos and for a longer time. Moreover, Fra-1 overexpression is found in cancer cells displaying high Erk1/2 activity and has been linked to tumorigenesis. One crucial point of regulation of Fra-1 levels is controlled protein degradation, the mechanism of which remains poorly characterized. Here, we have combined genetic, pharmacological, and signaling studies to investigate this process in nontransformed cells and to elucidate how it is altered in cancer cells. We report that the intrinsic instability of Fra-1 depends on a single destabilizer contained within the C-terminal 30 to 40 amino acids. Two serines therein, S252 and S265, are phosphorylated by kinases of the Erk1/2 pathway, which compromises protein destruction upon both normal physiological induction and tumorigenic constitutive activation of this cascade. Our data also indicate that Fra-1, like c-Fos, belongs to a small group of proteins that may, under certain circumstances, undergo ubiquitin-independent degradation by the proteasome. Our work reveals both similitudes and differences between Fra-1 and c-Fos degradation mechanisms. In particular, the presence of a single destabilizer within Fra-1, instead of two that are differentially regulated in c-Fos, explains the much faster turnover of the latter when cells traverse the G(0)/G(1)-to-S-phase transition. Finally, our study offers further insights into the signaling-regulated expression of the other Fos family proteins.

  1. The role of late/slow replication of the FRA16D in common fragile site induction.

    PubMed

    Palakodeti, Aparna; Han, Yu; Jiang, Yanwen; Le Beau, Michelle M

    2004-01-01

    The FRA16D, at 16q23, spans the WWOX gene and is one of the most highly expressed common fragile sites observed when DNA replication is perturbed by aphidicolin. Several lines of evidence suggest that fragile sites are regions of DNA that are unusually sensitive to interference during replication. We have determined that the FRA16D alleles replicate in a synchronous fashion and that replication of these sequences occurs primarily in late S phase extending into G2 phase. Exposure to aphidicolin, an inhibitor of DNA polymerase alpha, results in a modest increase in cells with replication of FRA16D sequences in early S phase. This may represent initiation of replication in early S phase coupled with slow replication progression, or, alternatively, these cells may have passed through mitosis, entered the G1-S phase of the next cell cycle, and initiated replication/repair. Our results support a model in which common fragile sites are sequences that may initiate replication in early-mid S phase but are slow to complete replication, and the chromosomal breaks and gaps observed in metaphase cells result from unreplicated DNA.

  2. SIRT1 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis in colorectal cancer by regulating Fra-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feifei; Su, Li; Yao, Chao; Liu, Limei; Shen, Junjie; Liu, Chungang; Chen, Xuejiao; Luo, Yongli; Jiang, Lupin; Shan, Juanjuan; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Wei; Shao, Jimin; Qian, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Understanding molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis is urgently required for targeted therapy and prognosis of metastatic CRC. In this study, we explored potential effects of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) on CRC metastasis. Our data showed that ectopic expression of SIRT1 markedly increased the migration and invasion of CRC cells. In contrast, silencing SIRT1 repressed this behavior in aggressive CRC cells. Tumor xenograft experiments revealed that knockdown of SIRT1 impaired CRC metastasis in vivo. Silencing SIRT1 in CRC cells induced mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), which is the reverse process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and characterized by a gain of epithelial and loss of mesenchymal markers. We provided a mechanistic insight toward regulation of Fra-1 by SIRT1 and demonstrated a direct link between the SIRT1-Fra-1 axis and EMT. Moreover, SIRT1 expression correlated positively with Fra-1 expression, metastasis and overall survival in patients with CRC. Taken together, our data provide a novel mechanistic role of SIRT1 in CRC metastasis, suggesting that SIRT1 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for metastatic CRC.

  3. The Fra-1–miR-134–SDS22 feedback loop amplifies ERK/JNK signaling and reduces chemosensitivity in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianmin; Sun, Yimin; Zhang, Pei-Ying; Qian, Mengyao; Zhang, Hengchao; Chen, Xiao; Ma, Di; Xu, Yunsheng; Chen, Xiaoming; Tang, Kai-Fu

    2016-01-01

    The Fra-1 transcription factor is frequently upregulated in multiple types of tumors. Here we found that Fra-1 promotes miR-134 expression. miR-134 activates JNK and ERK by targeting SDS22, which in turn induces Fra-1 expression and leads to miR-134 upregulation. In addition, miR-134 augmented H2AX S139 phosphorylation by activating JNK and promoted non-homologous end joining (NHEJ)-mediated DNA repair. Therefore, ectopic miR-134 expression reduced chemosensitivity in ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, miR-134 promotes cell proliferation, migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells, and enhances tumor growth in vivo. Of particular significance, both Fra-1 and miR-134 are upregulated in ovarian cancer tissues, and Fra-1 and miR-134 expression is positively correlated. High levels of miR-134 expression were associated with a reduced median survival of ovarian cancer patients. Our study revealed that a Fra-1-miR-134 axis drives a positive feedback loop that amplifies ERK/JNK signaling and reduces chemosensitivity in ovarian cancer cells. PMID:27685628

  4. UCSD/FRA non-contact ultrasonic guided-wave system for rail inspection: an update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coccia, Stefano; Phillips, Robert; Nucera, Claudio; Bartoli, Ivan; Salamone, Salvatore; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Fateh, Mahmood; Carr, Gary

    2011-04-01

    The University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under a Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development (R&D) grant, is developing a system for high-speed and non-contact rail defect detection. A prototype has been designed and field tested with the support of Volpe National Transportation Systems Center and ENSCO, Inc. The goal of this project is to develop a rail defect detection system that provides (a) better defect detection reliability (including internal transverse head defects under shelling and vertical split head defects), and (b) higher inspection speed than achievable by current rail inspection systems. This effort is also in direct response to Safety Recommendations issued by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) following the disastrous train derailments at Superior, WI in 1992 and Oneida, NY in 2007 among others. The UCSD prototype uses non-contact ultrasonic probing of the rail head (laser and air-coupled), ultrasonic guided waves, and a proprietary real-time statistical analysis algorithm that maximizes the sensitivity to defects while minimizing false positives. The current design allows potential inspection speeds up to 40 mph, although all field tests have been conducted up to 15 mph so far. This paper summarizes (a) the latest technology development test conducted at the rail defect farm of Herzog, Inc. in St Joseph, MO in June 2010, and (b) the completion of the new Rail Defect Farm facility at the UCSD Camp Elliott Field Station with partial in-kind donations from the Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) Railway.

  5. Fra-1 is downregulated in cervical cancer tissues and promotes cervical cancer cell apoptosis by p53 signaling pathway in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Songshu; Zhou, Yanhong; Yi, Wei; Luo, Guijuan; Jiang, Bin; Tian, Qi; Li, Yueran; Xue, Min

    2015-04-01

    Cervical cancer is a potentially preventable disease; however, it is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. Cervical cancer is thought to develop through a multistep process involving virus, tumor suppressor genes, proto-oncogenes and immunological factors. It is known that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary but insufficient to cause malignancy. At present, the etiology of cervical carcinoma remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that the expression of FOS-like antigen-1 (Fra-1) gene was downregulated in cervical cancer compared with the adjacent non-cancerous tissues by RT-qPCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blotting techniques. To uncover the effect of Fra-1 on cervical cancer, we tested and confirmed that Fra-1 significantly inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells by MMT assays in vitro. At the same time, overexpression of Fra-1 promoted apoptosis of HeLa cells. To explore the possible mechanism of Fra-1 in cervical cancer, we tested the expression levels of key molecules in p53 signaling pathway by western blotting technology. The results showed that p53 was downregulated in cervical cancer compared with the adjacent non-cancerous tissues, but MDM2 proto-oncogene, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (MDM2) was upregulated in cervical cancer. In vitro, the p53 was upregulated and MDM2 was downregulated in HeLa cells with Fra-1 overexpression. In summary, our results suggested that Fra-1 expression is low in cervical cancer tissues and promotes apoptosis of cervical cancer cells by p53 signaling pathway.

  6. Neoplastic transformation of rat thyroid cells requires the junB and fra-1 gene induction which is dependent on the HMGI-C gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Vallone, D; Battista, S; Pierantoni, G M; Fedele, M; Casalino, L; Santoro, M; Viglietto, G; Fusco, A; Verde, P

    1997-01-01

    The expression of the high mobility group I (HMGI)-C chromatin component was shown previously to be essential for the establishment of the neoplastic phenotype in retrovirally transformed thyroid cell lines. To identify possible targets of the HMGI-C gene product, we have analyzed the AP-1 complex in normal, fully transformed and antisense HMGI-C-expressing rat thyroid cells. We show that neoplastic transformation is associated with a drastic increase in AP-1 activity, which reflects multiple compositional changes. The strongest effect is represented by the dramatic junB and fra-1 gene induction, which is prevented in cell lines expressing the antisense HMGI-C. These results indicate that the HMGI-C gene product is essential for the junB and fra-1 transcriptional induction associated with neoplastic transformation. The inhibition of Fra-1 protein synthesis by stable transfection with a fra-1 antisense RNA vector significantly reduces the malignant phenotype of the transformed thyroid cells, indicating a pivotal role for the fra-1 gene product in the process of cellular transformation. PMID:9311991

  7. From FRA to RFN: How the Family Resemblance Approach Can Be Transformed for Science Curriculum Analysis on Nature of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Ebru; Erduran, Sibel

    2016-11-01

    The inclusion of Nature of Science (NOS) in the science curriculum has been advocated around the world for several decades. One way of defining NOS is related to the family resemblance approach (FRA). The family resemblance idea was originally described by Wittgenstein. Subsequently, philosophers and educators have applied Wittgenstein's idea to problems of their own disciplines. For example, Irzik and Nola adapted Wittgenstein's generic definition of the family resemblance idea to NOS, while Erduran and Dagher reconceptualized Irzik and Nola's FRA-to-NOS by synthesizing educational applications by drawing on perspectives from science education research. In this article, we use the terminology of "Reconceptualized FRA-to-NOS (RFN)" to refer to Erduran and Dagher's FRA version which offers an educational account inclusive of knowledge about pedagogical, instructional, curricular and assessment issues in science education. Our motivation for making this distinction is rooted in the need to clarify the various accounts of the family resemblance idea.The key components of the RFN include the aims and values of science, methods and methodological rules, scientific practices, scientific knowledge as well as the social-institutional dimensions of science including the social ethos, certification, and power relations. We investigate the potential of RFN in facilitating curriculum analysis and in determining the gaps related to NOS in the curriculum. We analyze two Turkish science curricula published 7 years apart and illustrate how RFN can contribute not only to the analysis of science curriculum itself but also to trends in science curriculum development. Furthermore, we present an analysis of documents from USA and Ireland and contrast them to the Turkish curricula thereby illustrating some trends in the coverage of RFN categories. The results indicate that while both Turkish curricula contain statements that identify science as a cognitive-epistemic system, they

  8. The NFAT-1 DNA binding complex in activated T cells contains Fra-1 and JunB.

    PubMed Central

    Boise, L H; Petryniak, B; Mao, X; June, C H; Wang, C Y; Lindsten, T; Bravo, R; Kovary, K; Leiden, J M; Thompson, C B

    1993-01-01

    Activation of T cells induces transcription of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene. IL-2 expression is regulated through the binding of transcription factors to multiple sites within the IL-2 enhancer. One such cis-acting element within the IL-2 enhancer is the NFAT-1 (nuclear factor of activated T cells) binding site. NFAT-1 binding activity is absent in resting cells but is induced upon T-cell activation. The induction of NFAT-1 binding activity can be inhibited by cyclosporin A, potentially accounting for the ability of cyclosporin A to inhibit IL-2 production by T cells. We have previously reported that the NFAT-1 binding complex is composed of at least two proteins and that the 5' portion of the NFAT-1 sequence acts as a binding site for one or more proteins from the Ets family of transcription factors. We now report that the 3' portion of the NFAT-1 sequence contains a variant AP-1 binding site. NFAT-1 binding can be specifically inhibited by oligonucleotides containing a consensus AP-1 site. Moreover, mutation of the AP-1 site at the 3' end of the NFAT-1 sequence inhibits both NFAT-1 binding and the ability of the NFAT-1 binding site to activate expression from a reporter plasmid upon T-cell activation. Since AP-1 sites bind dimeric protein complexes composed of individual members of the Fos and Jun families of transcription factors, we used antibodies specific for individual Fos and Jun family members to determine whether they are present in the NFAT-1 binding complex. These experiments demonstrated that the NFAT-1 binding complex contains JunB and Fra-1 proteins. Northern (RNA) blot analyses demonstrate that both fra-1 and junB mRNAs are induced upon T-cell activation, although fra-1 mRNA is present even in quiescent T cells. Of interest, junB is not expressed in quiescent T cells, and it is induced with kinetics that are similar to those for the induction of IL-2 mRNA expression. Taken together, these results suggested that the JunB-Fra-1 heterodimer is the

  9. WWOX, the chromosomal fragile site FRA16D spanning gene: Its role in metabolism and contribution to cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Amanda; Lee, Cheng Shoou; Dayan, Sonia; O’Keefe, Louise

    2015-01-01

    The WWOX gene spans the common chromosomal fragile site FRA16D that is located within a massive (780 kb) intron. The WWOX gene is very long, at 1.1 Mb, which may contribute to the very low abundance of the full-length 1.4 kb mRNA. Alternative splicing also accounts for a variety of aberrant transcripts, most of which are devoid of C-terminal sequences required for WWOX to act as an oxidoreductase. The mouse WWOX gene also spans a chromosomal fragile site implying some sort of functional relationship that confers a selective advantage. The encoded protein domains of WWOX are conserved through evolution (between humans and Drosophila melanogaster) and include WW domains, an NAD -binding site, short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase enzyme and nuclear compartmentalization signals. This homology has enabled functional analyses in D. melanogaster that demonstrate roles for WWOX in reactive oxygen species regulation and metabolism. Indeed the human WWOX gene is also responsive to altered metabolism. Cancer cells typically exhibit altered metabolism (Warburg effect). Many cancers exhibit FRA16D DNA instability that results in aberrant WWOX expression and is associated with poor prognosis for these cancers. It is therefore thought that aberrant WWOX expression contributes to the altered metabolism in cancer. In addition, others have found that a specific (low-expression) allele of WWOX genotype contributes to cancer predisposition. PMID:25595186

  10. Selective participation of c-Jun with Fra-2/c-Fos promotes aggressive tumor phenotypes and poor prognosis in tongue cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shilpi; Kumar, Prabhat; Kaur, Harsimrut; Sharma, Nishi; Saluja, Daman; Bharti, Alok C.; Das, Bhudev C.

    2015-01-01

    Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is most aggressive head and neck cancer often associated with HR-HPV infection. The role of AP-1 which is an essential regulator of HPV oncogene expression and tumorigenesis is not reported in tongue cancer. One hundred tongue tissue biopsies comprising precancer, cancer and adjacent controls including two tongue cancer cell lines were employed to study the role of HPV infection and AP-1 family proteins. An exclusive prevalence (28%) of HR-HPV type 16 was observed mainly in well differentiated tongue carcinomas (78.5%). A higher expression and DNA binding activity of AP-1 was observed in tongue tumors and cancer cell lines with c-Fos and Fra-2 as the major binding partners forming the functional AP-1 complex but c-Jun participated only in HPV negative and poorly differentiated carcinoma. Knocking down of Fra-2 responsible for aggressive tongue tumorigenesis led to significant reduction in c-Fos, c-Jun, MMP-9 and HPVE6/E7 expression but Fra-1 and p53 were upregulated. The binding and expression of c-Fos/Fra-2 increased as a function of severity of tongue lesions, yet selective participation of c-Jun appears to promote poor differentiation and aggressive tumorigenesis only in HPV negative cases while HPV infection leads to well differentiation and better prognosis preferably in nonsmokers. PMID:26581505

  11. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety Verification and Validation F Appendix F to Part 236..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Pt. 236, App. F Appendix F to Part 236—Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety Verification and Validation F Appendix F to Part 236..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Pt. 236, App. F Appendix F to Part 236—Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC...

  13. WWOX, the common fragile site FRA16D gene product, regulates ATM activation and the DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Abu-Odeh, Mohammad; Salah, Zaidoun; Herbel, Christoph; Hofmann, Thomas G; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2014-11-04

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer. The WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) is a tumor suppressor spanning the common chromosomal fragile site FRA16D. Here, we report a direct role of WWOX in DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair. We show that Wwox deficiency results in reduced activation of the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) checkpoint kinase, inefficient induction and maintenance of γ-H2AX foci, and impaired DNA repair. Mechanistically, we show that, upon DNA damage, WWOX accumulates in the cell nucleus, where it interacts with ATM and enhances its activation. Nuclear accumulation of WWOX is regulated by its K63-linked ubiquitination at lysine residue 274, which is mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase ITCH. These findings identify a novel role for the tumor suppressor WWOX and show that loss of WWOX expression may drive genomic instability and provide an advantage for clonal expansion of neoplastic cells.

  14. WWOX, the common fragile site FRA16D gene product, regulates ATM activation and the DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Odeh, Mohammad; Salah, Zaidoun; Herbel, Christoph; Hofmann, Thomas G.; Aqeilan, Rami I.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer. The WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) is a tumor suppressor spanning the common chromosomal fragile site FRA16D. Here, we report a direct role of WWOX in DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair. We show that Wwox deficiency results in reduced activation of the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) checkpoint kinase, inefficient induction and maintenance of γ-H2AX foci, and impaired DNA repair. Mechanistically, we show that, upon DNA damage, WWOX accumulates in the cell nucleus, where it interacts with ATM and enhances its activation. Nuclear accumulation of WWOX is regulated by its K63-linked ubiquitination at lysine residue 274, which is mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase ITCH. These findings identify a novel role for the tumor suppressor WWOX and show that loss of WWOX expression may drive genomic instability and provide an advantage for clonal expansion of neoplastic cells. PMID:25331887

  15. In quest of lunar regolith breccias of exotic provenance - A uniquely anorthositic sample from the Fra Mauro (Apollo 14) highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jerde, Eric A.; Warren, Paul H.; Morris, Richard V.

    1990-01-01

    Bulk compositions of 21 Apollo regolith breccias were determined using an INAA procedure modified from that of Kallemeyn et al. (1989). With one major exception, namely, the 14076,1 sample, the regolith breccias analyzed were found to be not significantly different from the surfaces from which they were collected. In contrast, the 14076,1 sample from the Fra Mauro (Apollo 14) region is a highly anorthositic regolith breccia from a site where anorthosites are extremely scarce. The sample's composition resembles soils from the Descartes (Apollo 16) highlands. However, the low statistical probability for long-distance horizontal transport by impact cratering, together with the relatively high contents of imcompatible elements in 14076,1 suggest that this regolith breccia originated within a few hundred kilometers of the Apollo 14 site. Its compositional resemblance to ferroan anorthosite strengthens the hypothesis that ferroan anorthosite originated as the flotation crust of a global magmasphere.

  16. Chagas disease-specific antigens: characterization of epitopes in CRA/FRA by synthetic peptide mapping and evaluation by ELISA-peptide assay

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The identification of epitopes in proteins recognized by medically relevant antibodies is useful for the development of peptide-based diagnostics and vaccines. In this study, epitopes in the cytoplasmic repetitive antigen (CRA) and flagellar repetitive antigen (FRA) proteins from Trypanosoma cruzi were identified using synthetic peptide techniques and pooled sera from Chagasic patients. The epitopes were further assayed with an ELISA assay based on synthetic peptides. Methods Twenty-two overlapping synthetic peptides representing the coding sequence of the T. cruzi CRA and FRA proteins were assessed by a Spot-synthesis array analysis using sera donated by patients with Chagas disease. Shorter peptides were selected that represented the determined epitopes and synthesized by solid phase synthesis to evaluate the patterns of cross-reactivities and discrimination through an ELISA-diagnostic assay. Results The peptide Spot-synthesis array successfully identified two IgG antigenic determinants in the CRA protein and four in FRA. Bioinformatics suggested that the CRA antigens were unique to T. cruzi while the FRA antigen showed similarity with sequences present within various proteins from Leishmania sp. Subsequently, shorter peptides representing the CRA-1, CRA-2 and FRA-1 epitopes were synthesized by solid phase synthesis and assayed by an ELISA-diagnostic assay. The CRA antigens gave a high discrimination between Chagasic, Leishmaniasis and T. cruzi-uninfected serum. A sensitivity and specificity of 100% was calculated for CRA. While the FRA antigen showed a slightly lower sensitivity (91.6%), its specificity was only 60%. Conclusions The epitopes recognized by human anti-T. cruzi antibodies have been precisely located in two biomarkers of T. cruzi, CRA and FRA. The results from screening a panel of patient sera through an ELISA assay based on peptides representing these epitopes strongly suggest that the sequences from CRA would be useful for the

  17. Cloning and sequencing of the Bet v 1-homologous allergen Fra a 1 in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) shows the presence of an intron and little variability in amino acid sequence.

    PubMed

    Musidlowska-Persson, Anna; Alm, Rikard; Emanuelsson, Cecilia

    2007-02-01

    The Fra a 1 allergen in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) is homologous to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, which has numerous isoforms differing in terms of amino acid sequence and immunological impact. To map the extent of sequence differences in the Fra a 1 allergen, PCR cloning and sequencing was applied. Several genomic sequences of Fra a 1, with a length of either 584, 591 or 594 nucleotides, were obtained from three different strawberry varieties. All contained one intron, with the length of either 101 or 110 nucleotides. By sequencing 30 different clones, eight different DNA sequences were obtained, giving in total five potential Fra a 1 protein isoforms, with high sequence similarity (>97% sequence identity) and only seven positions of amino acid variability, which were largely confirmed by mass spectrometry of expressed proteins. We conclude that the sequence variability in the strawberry allergen Fra a 1 is small, within and between strawberry varieties, and that multiple spots, previously detected in 2DE, are presumably due to differences in post-translational modification rather than differences in amino acid sequence. The most abundant Fra a 1 isoform sequence, recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli after removal of the intron, was recognized by IgE from strawberry allergic patients. It cross-reacted with antibodies to Bet v 1 and the homologous apple allergen Mal d 1 (61 and 78% sequence identity, respectively), and will be used in further analyses of variation in Fra a 1-expression.

  18. Contribution of REM sleep to Fos and FRA expression in the vestibular nuclei of rat leading to vestibular adaptation during the STS-90 Neurolab Mission.

    PubMed

    Pompeiano, O

    2007-01-01

    1. Electrophysical studies performed in ground-based experiments have shown that VN neurons respond to labyrinthine signals following stimulation of macular gravity receptors. Additional evidence indicates that VN neurons may also respond to extralabyrinthine signals of pontine origin, which occur during the PGO waves typical of REM sleep (Bizzi et al., 1964a, b; cf. also Pompeiano, 1967, 1970, 1974 for ref.). 2. In a previous study (Pompeiano et al., 2002) changes in Fos and FRA expression were used to identify the short-term (Fos) and the long-term (FRA) molecular changes which affect the VN neurons at different time points of the space flight. In particular, while Fos protein persists in the brain tissue only for a few hours (6-8 hrs) after its induction, FRA proteins, which can also be induced in the same experimental conditions, persist in the brain tissue for longer periods of time (i.e. from 12/24 hrs to days). 3. In order to relate the changes in gene expression which occurred in the VN during the space flight either to gravity changes or to REM sleep, we investigated in a recent study (Centini et al, 2006) the changes in Fos and FRA expression which occurred in different phases of the sleep-waking cycle, thus being indicative of the animal state. We could then compare the results obtained during the space lab Mission with those previously observed either in ground-based experiments during the physiological state of waking and slow-wave (SWS) or during neurochemically induced episodes of PS, as obtained after microinjection of appropriate agents in dorsal pontine structures of rats. 4. Our findings indicated that a waking state possibly associated with episodes of SWS, occurred at FD2 and FD14, i.e. at launch and after exposure of the animal to microgravity. It appeared also that at the reentry (R + 1) rather than at launch (FD2), an increase in Fos and FRA expression affected the noradrenergic LC neurons, as well as several related structures. These

  19. Sources of clasts in terrestrial impact melts - Clues to the origin of LKFM. [Low-K Fra Mauro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, K. A.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.; Spudis, P. D.; Grieve, R. A. F.

    1989-01-01

    Low-K Fra Mauro (LKFM) 'basalt', which is found exclusively as an impact melt rock, cannot be modeled geochemically from its clast population or from any combination of known pristine lunar rock types. To clarify clast/melt relationships, a study was made of impact melt rocks from Mistastin Lake crater, Labrador, where there are only three target rocks: anorthosite, quartz monzonite, and granodiorite. Feldspar compositions in these rocks define distinct fields on the An-Ab-Or ternary diagram, making it possible to identify the source of each feldspar clast. Clasts in the Mistastin impact melts do not reflect the abundance of target rocks melted during the impact. The abundance of anorthosite in the clast population varies from 34 to 100 percent compared to a relatively constant value of 65 percent calculated to be in the melt matrix. Therefore the clasts appear to be derived predominantly from material relatively far removed from the zone of impact melting. Melt-matrix composition is dictated strictly by the composition of the target materials within a small radius around and below the point of impact. This suggests that the LKFM composition was derived from a lower crustal source.

  20. Reducing inpatient falls in a 100% single room elderly care environment: evaluation of the impact of a systematic nurse training programme on falls risk assessment (FRA)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Inderpal; Okeke, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Inpatient falls (IF) are the most commonly reported safety incidents. The high rate of inpatient falls was reported in a newly built hospital, within Aneurin Bevan University Health Board, Wales (UK). The aim of the project is to reduce the incidence of IF and associated adverse clinical outcomes in a hospital with 100% single rooms. The key mechanism for improvement was education and training of nursing staff around falls risk factors. A Plan-Do-Study-Act methodology was used and a geriatrician-led, systematic nurse training programme on the understanding and correct use of existing multifactorial falls risk assessment (FRA) tool was implemented in April 2013. Pre-training baseline data revealed inadequate falls assessment and low completion rates of the FRA tool. Subsequent, post-training data showed improvement in compliance with all aspects of FRA. Concurrent with nurse training, the actual falls incidence/1000 patient-bed-days fell significantly from the baseline of 18.19±3.46 (Nov 2011-March 2013) to 13.36±2.89 (p<0.001) over next 12 months (April 2013-March 2014) and remained low (mean falls 12.81±2.85) until November 2015. Improved clinical outcomes have been observed in terms of a reduction of length of stay and new care home placements, making total annualised savings of £642,055. PMID:27559476

  1. Role of the WWOX gene, encompassing fragile region FRA16D, in suppression of pancreatic carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shunji; Semba, Shuho; Maeda, Naoko; Aqeilan, Rami I; Huebner, Kay; Yokozaki, Hiroshi

    2008-07-01

    The WW-domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene spans the common chromosomal fragile site FRA16D (16q23.2) and is believed to be a tumor suppressor in various human malignancies. We have previously shown frequent down-modulation of Wwox expression in pancreatic carcinoma (PC); however, biological function of Wwox in pancreatic duct carcinogenesis remains unknown. In PANC-1 (Wwox-negative) PC-derived cells, restoration of recombinant WWOX gene expression with adenoviral gene delivery (Ad-WWOX) effectively increased the number of cells with subG(1) DNA contents in a multiplicity of infection-dependent manners: Ad-WWOX infection up-regulated caspase-3 activity and reduced procaspase-3 and procaspase-8 levels. We also confirmed that restoration of WWOX gene suppressed cell growth in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. In addition, transduction of wild-type WWOX-expressing vector inhibited PANC-1 colony formation; however, substitution of Y33 of Wwox with arginine did not lead to inhibition of colony formation, suggesting the biological significance of the WW1 domain of Wwox for its tumor-suppressing activity. In PC tissue samples, abundant cytoplasmic Wwox expression was detected in the normal pancreatic duct epithelium, whereas Wwox expression was frequently reduced not only in a large fraction of PC but also in precancerous lesions in accord with the pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) grade, which was closely correlated with patients' poorer outcome. Interestingly, the existence of Wwox expression was associated with elevated mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (Smad4) protein levels in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that down-modulation of Wwox expression is an early event and may be associated with the down-regulation of Smad4 protein levels during pancreatic duct carcinogenesis.

  2. From FRA to RFN, or How the Family Resemblance Approach Can Be Transformed for Science Curriculum Analysis on Nature of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Ebru; Erduran, Sibel

    2016-12-01

    The inclusion of Nature of Science (NOS) in the science curriculum has been advocated around the world for several decades. One way of defining NOS is related to the family resemblance approach (FRA). The family resemblance idea was originally described by Wittgenstein. Subsequently, philosophers and educators have applied Wittgenstein's idea to problems of their own disciplines. For example, Irzik and Nola adapted Wittgenstein's generic definition of the family resemblance idea to NOS, while Erduran and Dagher reconceptualized Irzik and Nola's FRA-to-NOS by synthesizing educational applications by drawing on perspectives from science education research. In this article, we use the terminology of "Reconceptualized FRA-to-NOS (RFN)" to refer to Erduran and Dagher's FRA version which offers an educational account inclusive of knowledge about pedagogical, instructional, curricular and assessment issues in science education. Our motivation for making this distinction is rooted in the need to clarify the various accounts of the family resemblance idea.The key components of the RFN include the aims and values of science, methods and methodological rules, scientific practices, scientific knowledge as well as the social-institutional dimensions of science including the social ethos, certification, and power relations. We investigate the potential of RFN in facilitating curriculum analysis and in determining the gaps related to NOS in the curriculum. We analyze two Turkish science curricula published 7 years apart and illustrate how RFN can contribute not only to the analysis of science curriculum itself but also to trends in science curriculum development. Furthermore, we present an analysis of documents from USA and Ireland and contrast them to the Turkish curricula thereby illustrating some trends in the coverage of RFN categories. The results indicate that while both Turkish curricula contain statements that identify science as a cognitive-epistemic system, they

  3. A scientific approach to the characterization of the painting materials of Fra Mattia della Robbia polychrome terracotta altarpiece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadori, M. L.; Barcelli, S.; Casoli, A.; Mazzeo, R.; Prati, S.

    2013-12-01

    During the last restoration (2008-2011) of the polychrome terracotta altarpiece called Coronation of Virgin between Saints Rocco, Sebastian, Peter martyr and Antonio abbot, located in the collegiate church of S. Maria Assunta in Montecassiano (Macerata, Italy), scientific investigations were carried out to acquire detailed information about the painting technique. The identification of materials allowed a correct restoration. The altarpiece is almost entirely realized by Marco della Robbia (Fra Mattia), dates back to the first half of the XVI century and represents an interesting example of painted terracotta produced by using two different techniques: glazed polychrome terracotta and the "cold painting" technique. The characterization of the samples' material constituents was obtained by analysing the cross-sections and the fragments by different techniques (optical, SEM-EDS and ATR-FTIR microscopy as well as GC-MS), as the real nature of a component is often difficult to assess with one single technique. The optical microscope examination of paint cross-sections shows the presence of many layers, indicating the complexity of the paint stratigraphic morphologies. The original polychromy of della Robbia's masterpiece is constituted of cinnabar, red lake, red lead, orpiment, red ochre, lead white, lead tin yellow, green earth and raw umber. Two different types of gilding technique have been distinguished. The first one presents a glue mordant, and the second one shows an oil mordant composed by a mixture of red lead, red ochre, cinnabar and orpiment. The GC-MS analysis allowed the characterisation of linseed oil and a mixture of animal glue and egg as binding media stratigraphically located by the use of ATR-FTIR mapping microscopy. The analytical results of the painted terracotta integrated investigations show that original technique adopted is characterised by the application of pigments in an oil-binding medium directly applied on the substrates, probably treated

  4. A CGG-repeat expansion mutation in ZNF713 causes FRA7A: association with autistic spectrum disorder in two families.

    PubMed

    Metsu, Sofie; Rainger, Jacqueline K; Debacker, Kim; Bernhard, Birgitta; Rooms, Liesbeth; Grafodatskaya, Daria; Weksberg, Rosanna; Fombonne, Eric; Taylor, Martin S; Scherer, Stephen W; Kooy, R Frank; FitzPatrick, David R

    2014-11-01

    We report de novo occurrence of the 7p11.2 folate-sensitive fragile site FRA7A in a male with an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) due to a CGG-repeat expansion mutation (∼450 repeats) in a 5' intron of ZNF713. This expanded allele showed hypermethylation of the adjacent CpG island with reduced ZNF713 expression observed in a proband-derived lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL). His unaffected mother carried an unmethylated premutation (85 repeats). This CGG-repeat showed length polymorphism in control samples (five to 22 repeats). In a second unrelated family, three siblings with ASD and their unaffected father were found to carry FRA7A premutations, which were partially or mosaically methylated. In one of the affected siblings, mitotic instability of the premutation was observed. ZNF713 expression in LCLs in this family was increased in three of these four premutation carriers. A firm link cannot yet be established between ASD and the repeat expansion mutation but plausible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed.

  5. A role for katanin in plant cell division: microtubule organization in dividing root cells of fra2 and lue1Arabidopsis thaliana mutants.

    PubMed

    Panteris, Emmanuel; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S; Voulgari, Georgia; Papadopoulou, Galini

    2011-07-01

    Severing of microtubules by katanin has proven to be crucial for cortical microtubule organization in elongating and differentiating plant cells. On the contrary, katanin is currently not considered essential during cell division in plants as it is in animals. However, defects in cell patterning have been observed in katanin mutants, implying a role for it in dividing plant cells. Therefore, microtubule organization was studied in detail by immunofluorescence in dividing root cells of fra2 and lue1 katanin mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. In both, early preprophase bands consisted of poorly aligned microtubules, prophase spindles were multipolar, and the microtubules of expanding phragmoplasts were elongated, bended toward and connected to the surface of daughter nuclei. Accordingly, severing by katanin seems to be necessary for the proper organization of these microtubule arrays. In both fra2 and lue1, metaphase/anaphase spindles and initiating phragmoplasts exhibited typical organization. However, they were obliquely oriented more frequently than in the wild type. It is proposed that this oblique orientation may be due to prophase spindle multipolarity and results in a failure of the cell plate to follow the predetermined division plane, during cytokinesis, producing oblique cell walls in the roots of both mutants. It is therefore concluded that, like in animal cells, katanin is important for plant cell division, influencing the organization of several microtubule arrays. Moreover, failure in microtubule severing indirectly affects the orientation of the division plane.

  6. Grifolin inhibits tumor cells adhesion and migration via suppressing interplay between PGC1α and Fra-1/LSF-MMP2/CD44 axes

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiangjian; Li, Namei; Zhong, Juanfang; Tan, Zheqiong; Liu, Ying; Dong, Xin; Cheng, Can; Xu, Zhijie; Li, Hongde; Yang, Lifang; Tang, Min; Weng, Xinxian; Yi, Wei; Liu, Jikai; Cao, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Grifolin, a farnesyl phenolic compound isolated from the fresh fruiting bodies of the mushroom Albatrellus confluens, exhibits effective antitumor bioactivity in previous study of our group and other lab. In this study, we observed that grifolin inhibited tumor cells adhesion and migration. Moreover, grifolin reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and caused cellular ATP depletion in high-metastatic tumor cells. PGC1α (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, coactivator 1α) encodes a transcriptional co-activator involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration and play a critical role in the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Interestingly, grifolin suppressed the mRNA as well as protein level of PGC1α. We further identified that MMP2 and CD44 expressions were PGC1α inducible. PGC1α can bind with metastatic-associated transcription factors: Fra-1 and LSF and the protein-protein interaction was attenuated by grifolin treatment. Overall, these findings suggest that grifolin decreased ROS generation and intracellular ATP to suppress tumor cell adhesion/migration via impeding the interplay between PGC1α and Fra-1 /LSF-MMP2/CD44 axes. Grifolin may develop as a promising lead compound for antitumor therapies by targeting energy metabolism regulator PGC1α signaling. PMID:27626695

  7. Insights on the Side Panels of the Franciscan Triptych by Fra Angelico Using Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch Dandolo, Corinna L.; Picollo, Marcello; Cucci, Costanza; Ginanni, Marina; Prandi, Elena; Scudieri, Magnolia; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2017-04-01

    The side panels of the Franciscan Triptych ( St. Jerome, St. John the Baptist, and the Archangel Gabriel and St. Francis, St. Onofrio, and the Virgin Annunciate, by Fra Angelico, before 1429) were scanned by means of terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI). THz analysis supplied information on the stratigraphy of the panel paintings and the associated construction, "gessoing" and gilding techniques. Furthermore, THz-TDI provided information regarding the location of restoration materials within the painting stratigraphy on St. Jerome, St. John the Baptist, and the Archangel Gabriel, as well as on the extension and nature of subsurface cracks in the panel painting of St. Francis, St. Onofrio, and the Virgin Annunciate.

  8. Insights on the Side Panels of the Franciscan Triptych by Fra Angelico Using Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch Dandolo, Corinna L.; Picollo, Marcello; Cucci, Costanza; Ginanni, Marina; Prandi, Elena; Scudieri, Magnolia; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2016-12-01

    The side panels of the Franciscan Triptych (St. Jerome, St. John the Baptist, and the Archangel Gabriel and St. Francis, St. Onofrio, and the Virgin Annunciate, by Fra Angelico, before 1429) were scanned by means of terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI). THz analysis supplied information on the stratigraphy of the panel paintings and the associated construction, "gessoing" and gilding techniques. Furthermore, THz-TDI provided information regarding the location of restoration materials within the painting stratigraphy on St. Jerome, St. John the Baptist, and the Archangel Gabriel, as well as on the extension and nature of subsurface cracks in the panel painting of St. Francis, St. Onofrio, and the Virgin Annunciate.

  9. The Natural Selection of the Chemical Elements (by R. J. P. Williams and J. J. R. Fraústo da Silva)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, George B.

    1998-12-01

    Clarendon: New York, 1996. xxvi + 646 pp. Figs., tables. 20.5 x 25.6 cm. ISBN 0-19-855843-0. $80.00. R. J. P. Williams, Royal Society Research Professor Emeritus at Wadham College, Oxford University, and J. J. R. Fraústo da Silva, Professor of Analytical Chemistry at the Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, have collaborated on two previous volumes: New Trends in Bio-inorganic Chemistry (1978) and The Biological Chemistry of the Elements (3rd printing, 1994). Their latest collaborative effort is a book whose ambitious objective is "to show the relationship of every kind of material around us, living and nonliving, to the properties of the chemical elements of the periodic table." The "natural selection" of the chemical elements results from a number of factors, all of which are described in detail. Among these are chemical affinity related to the electronic configuration of their atoms, thermodynamic and kinetic stability, and "functional value to an organisation such as a living system". The physicist's approach to material through phase structure and the phase rule is stressed rather than the chemist's approach through bonding theories. The entire book possesses a strong environmental and interdisciplinary emphasis.

  10. Dysarthria in individuals with Parkinson's disease: a protocol for a binational, cross-sectional, case-controlled study in French and European Portuguese (FraLusoPark)

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Rita; Mercier, Céline; Santos, Helena; Atkinson-Clement, Cyril; Carvalho, Joana; Welby, Pauline; Oliveira, Pedro; D'Imperio, Mariapaola; Frota, Sónia; Letanneux, Alban; Vigario, Marina; Cruz, Marisa; Martins, Isabel Pavão; Viallet, François

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) have to deal with several aspects of voice and speech decline and thus alteration of communication ability during the course of the disease. Among these communication impairments, 3 major challenges include: (1) dysarthria, consisting of orofacial motor dysfunction and dysprosody, which is linked to the neurodegenerative processes; (2) effects of the pharmacological treatment, which vary according to the disease stage; and (3) particular speech modifications that may be language-specific, that is, dependent on the language spoken by the patients. The main objective of the FraLusoPark project is to provide a thorough evaluation of changes in PD speech as a result of pharmacological treatment and disease duration in 2 different languages (French vs European Portuguese). Methods and analysis Individuals with PD are enrolled in the study in France (N=60) and Portugal (N=60). Their global motor disability and orofacial motor functions is assessed with specific clinical rating scales, without (OFF) and with (ON) pharmacological treatment. 2 groups of 60 healthy age-matched volunteers provide the reference for between-group comparisons. Along with the clinical examinations, several speech tasks are recorded to obtain acoustic and perceptual measures. Patient-reported outcome measures are used to assess the psychosocial impact of dysarthria on quality of life. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the local responsible committees on human experimentation and is conducted in accordance with the ethical standards. A valuable large-scale database of speech recordings and metadata from patients with PD in France and Portugal will be constructed. Results will be disseminated in several articles in peer-reviewed journals and in conference presentations. Recommendations on how to assess speech and voice disorders in individuals with PD to monitor the progression and management of symptoms will be provided

  11. Variations in the FRA10AC1 Fragile Site and 15q21 Are Associated with Cerebrospinal Fluid Aβ1-42 Level.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingqin S; Parrado, Antonio R; Samtani, Mahesh N; Narayan, Vaibhav A

    2015-01-01

    Proteolytic fragments of amyloid and post-translational modification of tau species in Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as well as cerebral amyloid deposition are important biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease. We conducted genome-wide association study to identify genetic factors influencing CSF biomarker level, cerebral amyloid deposition, and disease progression. The genome-wide association study was performed via a meta-analysis of two non-overlapping discovery sample sets to identify genetic variants other than APOE ε4 predictive of the CSF biomarker level (Aβ1-42, t-Tau, p-Tau181P, t-Tau:Aβ1-42 ratio, and p-Tau181P:Aβ1-42 ratio) in patients enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. Loci passing a genome-wide significance threshold of P < 5 x 10-8 were followed-up for replication in an independent sample set. We also performed joint meta-analysis of both discovery sample sets together with the replication sample set. In the discovery phase, we identified variants in FRA10AC1 associated with CSF Aβ1-42 level passing the genome-wide significance threshold (directly genotyped SNV rs10509663 PFE = 1.1 x 10-9, imputed SNV rs116953792 PFE = 3.5 x 10-10), rs116953792 (Pone-sided = 0.04) achieved replication. This association became stronger in the joint meta-analysis (directly genotyped SNV rs10509663 PFE = 1.7 x 10-9, imputed SNV rs116953792 PFE = 7.6 x 10-11). Additionally, we identified locus 15q21 (imputed SNV rs1503351 PFE = 4.0 x 10-8) associated with CSF Aβ1-42 level. No other variants passed the genome-wide significance threshold for other CSF biomarkers in either the discovery sample sets or joint analysis. Gene set enrichment analyses suggested that targeted genes mediated by miR-33, miR-146, and miR-193 were enriched in various GWAS analyses. This finding is particularly important because CSF biomarkers confer disease susceptibility and may be predictive of the likelihood of disease progression in Alzheimer's Disease.

  12. Variations in the FRA10AC1 Fragile Site and 15q21 Are Associated with Cerebrospinal Fluid Aβ1-42 Level

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingqin S.; Parrado, Antonio R.; Samtani, Mahesh N.; Narayan, Vaibhav A.

    2015-01-01

    Proteolytic fragments of amyloid and post-translational modification of tau species in Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as well as cerebral amyloid deposition are important biomarkers for Alzheimer’s Disease. We conducted genome-wide association study to identify genetic factors influencing CSF biomarker level, cerebral amyloid deposition, and disease progression. The genome-wide association study was performed via a meta-analysis of two non-overlapping discovery sample sets to identify genetic variants other than APOE ε4 predictive of the CSF biomarker level (Aβ1–42, t-Tau, p-Tau181P, t-Tau:Aβ1–42 ratio, and p-Tau181P:Aβ1–42 ratio) in patients enrolled in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. Loci passing a genome-wide significance threshold of P < 5 x 10−8 were followed-up for replication in an independent sample set. We also performed joint meta-analysis of both discovery sample sets together with the replication sample set. In the discovery phase, we identified variants in FRA10AC1 associated with CSF Aβ1–42 level passing the genome-wide significance threshold (directly genotyped SNV rs10509663 PFE = 1.1 x 10−9, imputed SNV rs116953792 PFE = 3.5 x 10−10), rs116953792 (Pone-sided = 0.04) achieved replication. This association became stronger in the joint meta-analysis (directly genotyped SNV rs10509663 PFE = 1.7 x 10−9, imputed SNV rs116953792 PFE = 7.6 x 10−11). Additionally, we identified locus 15q21 (imputed SNV rs1503351 PFE = 4.0 x 10−8) associated with CSF Aβ1–42 level. No other variants passed the genome-wide significance threshold for other CSF biomarkers in either the discovery sample sets or joint analysis. Gene set enrichment analyses suggested that targeted genes mediated by miR-33, miR-146, and miR-193 were enriched in various GWAS analyses. This finding is particularly important because CSF biomarkers confer disease susceptibility and may be predictive of the likelihood of disease progression in

  13. The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder - study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA - net trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Group-based social skills training (SST) has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manualised SOSTA–FRA program will result in improved social responsiveness (measured by the parent rated social responsiveness scale, SRS) compared to treatment as usual (TAU). It is further expected, that parent and self reported anxiety and depressive symptoms will decline and pro-social behaviour will increase in the treatment group. A neurophysiological study in the Frankfurt HFASD subgroup will be performed pre- and post treatment to assess changes in neural function induced by SST versus TAU. Methods/design The SOSTA – net trial is designed as a prospective, randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with two parallel groups. The primary outcome is change in SRS score directly after the intervention and at 3 months follow-up. Several secondary outcome measures are also obtained. The target sample consists of 220 individuals with ASD, included at the six study centres. Discussion This study is currently one of the largest trials on SST in children and adolescents with HFASD worldwide. Compared to recent randomised controlled studies, our study shows several advantages with regard to in- and exclusion criteria, study methods, and the therapeutic approach chosen, which can be easily implemented in non-university-based clinical settings. Trial registration ISRCTN94863788 – SOSTA – net: Group-based social skills training in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder. PMID:23289935

  14. Cbf genes of the Fr-A2 allele are differentially regulated between long-term cold acclimated crown tissue of freeze-resistant and – susceptible, winter wheat mutant lines

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Fedora; Chen, Ding-Geng; Ge, Xijin; Kenefick, Don

    2009-01-01

    Background In order to identify genes that might confer and maintain freeze resistance of winter wheat, a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed between control and 4 wk cold-acclimated crown tissue of two winter wheat lines that differ in field freeze survival. The lines, generated by azide mutagenesis of the winter wheat cultivar 'Winoka' were designated FR (75% survival) and FS (30% survival). Using two winter lines for this comparative analysis removed the influence of differential expression of the vernalization genes and allowed our study to focus on Cbf genes located within the Fr-A2 allele independent of the effect of the closely mapped Vrn allele. Results Vernalization genes, (Vrn-A1, B1 and D1), and the transcription factor gene, TaVrt-2, were up-regulated to the same extent in FR and FS lines with cold acclimation thus confirming that azide mutagenesis had not modified the winter habitat of the lines. One category of Cbf genes, (Cbf-2, -A22 and B-22) reflected an increase in level of expression with cold acclimation in both FR and FS lines. Another category of Cbf genes (Cbf-3, -5, -6, -12, -14 and -19) were differentially expressed between cold-acclimated FR and FS lines relative to the non-acclimated controls. Comparison of expression patterns of the two categories of Cbf genes with the expression patterns of a set of ABA-dependent and -independent Cor/Lea genes revealed similar patterns of expression for this sample of Cor/Lea genes with that for Cbf-2 and -22. This pattern of expression was also exhibited by the Vrn genes. Conclusion Some Cor/Lea genes may be co-regulated by the Vrn genes during cold acclimation and the Vrn genes may also control the expression of Cbf-2, -A22 and -B22. The increased freeze survival by the FR line and the increase in expression levels of wheat Cbf genes, Cbf-3, -5, -6, -12, -14 and -19 with cold acclimation in the FR line suggests a possible gain of function mutation resulting in higher levels of expression

  15. Fra leggi fisiche ed equazioni matematiche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaldi, Francesco

    2006-04-01

    The author deals with the common names usually given to mathematical expressions. Newton's law of universal gravitation was never expressed by Newton in the complete form presented below as equation number 1. A different case is represented by Kepler's equation indicated here as equation number 4. That formula contains the definition of a uniform angular motion for the mean anomaly, which Kepler constantly refused and substituted with an area measure for this anomaly. The author would like to suggest two names to be remembered for these mathematical expressions: Henry Cavendish, for the first, and Leonard Euler, for the second.

  16. Apollo 14: Science at Fra Mauro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The many scientific activities and experiments performed during the Apollo 14 Mission are presented in a descriptive, non-technical format. Content relates to experiments on the lunar surface and to those performed while traveling in space, and provides a great deal of information about the flight. Many photographs from the journey, a map of the…

  17. Vínculos sobre um modelo de quartessência de Chaplygin usando observações do satélite chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.

    2003-08-01

    Observações de Supernovas do tipo Ia mostram que a expansão do Universo está acelerando. Segundo as equações de Einstein uma componente com pressão negativa (energia escura) é necessária para explicar a aceleração cósmica. Além da energia escura é usualmente admitido que no Universo há também uma matéria exótica com pressão zero, que é chamada de matéria escura. Essa componente possui um papel fundamental na formação de estruturas no Universo. Recentemente tem se explorado a possibilidade de que matéria e energia escura poderiam ser unificadas através de uma única componente, que tem sido denominada de quartessência. Um exemplo de fluido com essas características é o Gás de Chaplygin Generalizado, que possui uma equação de estado da forma p = -A/ra. Inicialmente consideramos o caso especial a = 1 (gás de Chaplygin) e vinculamos parâmetros do modelo utilizando observações em raios-X do satélite Chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias. Uma comparação dos vínculos obtidos com esse teste com outros testes, tais como supernovas e idade do Universo, mostra que esse teste é bastante restritivo. Exibiremos ainda resultados para o caso em que a curvatura é nula e o parâmetro a está compreendido no intervalo -1 < a 1.

  18. Ancient crustal components in the Fra Mauro breccias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, J. W.; Taylor, L. A.; Laul, J. C.

    1983-11-01

    Texturally pristine clasts preserve primary petrographic relationships and mineral compositions, yielding insights into igneous processes of the early lunar crust that cannot be gained from highly shocked and brecciated 'chemically pristine' samples. The use of texture as a prime criterion allows for expansion of the data base derived solely from chemical criteria, and provides complementary data. Texturally pristine clasts from the Apollo 14 site studied here include anorthosite, troctolites, gabbronorites, and basalts. Alkali anorthosites are plagioclase orthocumulates and may form by flotation in Mg-suite plutons. Ferroan anorthosite was cataclastically deformed and metamorphosed to granulite facies. Troctolites include both 01 + Plg and 01 + En + Plg cumulates. Major and trace element analyses of two troctolites reveal 'eastern' geochemical affinities that contrast other 'western' troctolites. Gabbronorites are Pig + Plg + or - Sp cumulates whose parent magmas may range from high-Al to intermediate-Ti mare basalt. At least three varieties of mare basalt are found at Apollo 14: high-Al, low-Ti; low-Al, intermediate-Ti; and low-Al, Ti VHK basalt. VHK (Very High Potassium) basalt is a new variety indigenous to Apollo 14.

  19. Ancient crustal components in the Fra Mauro breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shervais, J. W.; Taylor, L. A.; Laul, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Texturally pristine clasts preserve primary petrographic relationships and mineral compositions, yielding insights into igneous processes of the early lunar crust that cannot be gained from highly shocked and brecciated 'chemically pristine' samples. The use of texture as a prime criterion allows for expansion of the data base derived solely from chemical criteria, and provides complementary data. Texturally pristine clasts from the Apollo 14 site studied here include anorthosite, troctolites, gabbronorites, and basalts. Alkali anorthosites are plagioclase orthocumulates and may form by flotation in Mg-suite plutons. Ferroan anorthosite was cataclastically deformed and metamorphosed to granulite facies. Troctolites include both 01 + Plg and 01 + En + Plg cumulates. Major and trace element analyses of two troctolites reveal 'eastern' geochemical affinities that contrast other 'western' troctolites. Gabbronorites are Pig + Plg + or - Sp cumulates whose parent magmas may range from high-Al to intermediate-Ti mare basalt. At least three varieties of mare basalt are found at Apollo 14: high-Al, low-Ti; low-Al, intermediate-Ti; and low-Al, Ti VHK basalt. VHK (Very High Potassium) basalt is a new variety indigenous to Apollo 14.

  20. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....dot.gov. (3) Region 3 consists of Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida. The mailing address of the Regional Headquarters is: Atlanta Federal Center, 61 Forsythe Street, SW., Suite 16T20, Atlanta, Georgia 30303. The fax number is 404-562-3830....

  1. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....dot.gov. (3) Region 3 consists of Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida. The mailing address of the Regional Headquarters is: Atlanta Federal Center, 61 Forsythe Street, SW., Suite 16T20, Atlanta, Georgia 30303. The fax number is 404-562-3830....

  2. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....dot.gov. (3) Region 3 consists of Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida. The mailing address of the Regional Headquarters is: Atlanta Federal Center, 61 Forsythe Street, SW., Suite 16T20, Atlanta, Georgia 30303. The fax number is 404-562-3830....

  3. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....dot.gov. (3) Region 3 consists of Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida. The mailing address of the Regional Headquarters is: Atlanta Federal Center, 61 Forsythe Street, SW., Suite 16T20, Atlanta, Georgia 30303. The fax number is 404-562-3830....

  4. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....dot.gov. (3) Region 3 consists of Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida. The mailing address of the Regional Headquarters is: Atlanta Federal Center, 61 Forsythe Street, SW., Suite 16T20, Atlanta, Georgia 30303. The fax number is 404-562-3830....

  5. 49 CFR 219.602 - FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... objective, neutral criteria which ensures that every covered employee has a substantially equal statistical... play a role in selection, i.e., no employee may be selected as a result of the exercise of...

  6. 49 CFR 219.602 - FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... objective, neutral criteria which ensures that every covered employee has a substantially equal statistical... play a role in selection, i.e., no employee may be selected as a result of the exercise of...

  7. 75 FR 8785 - Agency Request for Emergency Processing of Collection of Information Associated With FRA's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    .... Robert Brogan (tel. (202) 493-6292) or Ms. Kimberly Toone (tel. (202) 493-6132). These numbers are not toll-free. A copy of this ICR may also be obtained electronically by contacting Mr. Brogan at...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... continue to evolve to meet the needs of the railroad industry. For purposes of this policy statement, the... understands that small entities in the railroad industry have significantly different characteristics than... new regulations, persistent safety concerns, emerging technology, and compliance issues. Also,...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... continue to evolve to meet the needs of the railroad industry. For purposes of this policy statement, the... understands that small entities in the railroad industry have significantly different characteristics than... new regulations, persistent safety concerns, emerging technology, and compliance issues. Also,...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... continue to evolve to meet the needs of the railroad industry. For purposes of this policy statement, the... understands that small entities in the railroad industry have significantly different characteristics than... new regulations, persistent safety concerns, emerging technology, and compliance issues. Also,...

  11. Geomorphology of crater and basin deposits - Emplacement of the Fra Mauro formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. H.; Oberbeck, V. R.

    1975-01-01

    Characteristics of continuous deposits near lunar craters larger than about 1 km wide are considered, and it is concluded that (1) concentric dunes, radial ridges, and braided lineations result from deposition of the collision products of ejecta from adjacent pairs of similarly oriented secondary-crater chains and are, therefore, concentrations of secondary-crater ejecta; (2) intracrater ridges are produced within preexisting craters surrounding a fresh primary crater by ricocheting and focusing of secondary-crater ejecta from the preexisting craters' walls; and (3) secondary cratering has produced many of the structures of the continuous deposits of relatively small lunar craters and is the dominant process for emplacement of most of the radial facies of the continuous deposits of large lunar craters and basins. The percentages of Imbrium ejecta in deposits and the nature of Imbrium sculpturing are investigated.

  12. 49 CFR 242.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Approval of design of individual railroad programs... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF CONDUCTORS Program and Eligibility Requirements § 242.103 Approval of design of individual railroad...

  13. 49 CFR 242.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Approval of design of individual railroad programs... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF CONDUCTORS Program and Eligibility Requirements § 242.103 Approval of design of individual railroad...

  14. 49 CFR 242.103 - Approval of design of individual railroad programs by FRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Approval of design of individual railroad programs... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF CONDUCTORS Program and Eligibility Requirements § 242.103 Approval of design of individual railroad...

  15. "Speech Act" Fra Teoria e Prassi Didattica. (The Speech Act between Theory and Pedagogical Practice).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minardi, Giovanni

    1982-01-01

    The author traces the development of speech act theory from Wittgenstein and Austin through Searle to Grice and shows how their work led to the notional functional approach to language teaching, which is based on the learner and his/her communicative needs. (CFM)

  16. Exposure ages and neutron capture record in lunar samples from Fra Mauro.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugmair, G. W.; Marti, K.

    1972-01-01

    Cosmic-ray exposure ages of Apollo 14 rocks and rock fragments obtained by the Kr81-Kr83 method range from 27 to 700 m.y. Rock 14321, collected near the Cone crater rim, is one of the many approximately 27 m.y. old ejecta which were reported at the Third Lunar Science Conference. All the other rocks have considerably higher exposure ages. Isotopic anomalies from neutron capture in gadolinium, bromine, and barium are used to obtain information on the lunar neutron spectrum at various depths below the lunar surface. The flux ratio of resonance and slow (less than 0.3 eV) neutrons is found to be nearly constant in the topmost approximately 100 g/sq cm.

  17. 75 FR 34213 - Solicitation of Applications and Notice of Funding Availability for the FRA Railroad System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... grants: to conduct a Locomotive Biofuel Study, and to conduct a Study of the Use of Bio-based... for the two grant programs: (1) To conduct a Locomotive Biofuel Study, and (2) to conduct a Study...

  18. 75 FR 27112 - Solicitation of Applications and Notice of Funding Availability for the FRA Railroad System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... parties for two grants: (1) To conduct a Locomotive Biofuel Study, and (2) to conduct a Study of the Use... the Environmental Protection Agency, to conduct a ``Locomotive Biofuel Study.'' This study will focus... could use biofuel blends to power locomotives and other vehicles that can operate on diesel fuel,...

  19. 49 CFR 219.602 - FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... reported positive rate for the entire industry. All information used for this determination is drawn from... reports from railroads, and may make appropriate modifications in calculating the industry positive rate... testing through a consortium, the number of employees to be tested may be calculated for each...

  20. 49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the violation rate for the entire industry. All information used for the determination is drawn from... reports from employers, and may make appropriate modifications in calculating the industry violation rate... alcohol testing through a consortium, the number of employees to be tested may be calculated for...

  1. 49 CFR 219.602 - FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reported positive rate for the entire industry. All information used for this determination is drawn from... reports from railroads, and may make appropriate modifications in calculating the industry positive rate... testing through a consortium, the number of employees to be tested may be calculated for each...

  2. 49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the violation rate for the entire industry. All information used for the determination is drawn from... reports from employers, and may make appropriate modifications in calculating the industry violation rate... alcohol testing through a consortium, the number of employees to be tested may be calculated for...

  3. 49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the violation rate for the entire industry. All information used for the determination is drawn from... reports from employers, and may make appropriate modifications in calculating the industry violation rate... alcohol testing through a consortium, the number of employees to be tested may be calculated for...

  4. 49 CFR 219.602 - FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... reported positive rate for the entire industry. All information used for this determination is drawn from... reports from railroads, and may make appropriate modifications in calculating the industry positive rate... testing through a consortium, the number of employees to be tested may be calculated for each...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SBREFA: The severity of the safety or health risk presented; the existence of alternative methods of... action to correct the violations and prevent a recurrence. Small entities should be sure to address...

  6. Sintering and hot pressing of Fra Mauro composition glass and the lithification of lunar breccias.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonds, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    It is proposed that Apollo 14 type breccias lithify by sintering of particles of matrix glass under stress-free conditions. Meteorite impacts generate the heat necessary for sintering. Compacted angular particles of glass with the composition of an Apollo 14 rock were sintered experimentally. Loose clods of sub 37 micron grains form in several days at 700 C. Synthetic rocks, which texturally resemble the breccias, were produced at 795 C and above in 7.5 hours. Glass devitrified with increasing temperature. At 850 C, devitrification prevents much further densification of the synthetic breccias after 2 hours. Experiments compressing glass at 500 bars at 600 C produced dense vitreous masses which did not resemble lunar breccias. Confining pressure does not play a major role in lithifying the breccias. It is concluded that Apollo 14 type lunar breccias form at shallow depths at 800 C+ in a period of minutes to days.

  7. Mirvetuximab Soravtansine and Gemcitabine Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With FRa-Positive Recurrent Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, Fallopian Tube, Endometrial, or Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-10

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  8. Copy number and haplotype variation at the VRN-A1 and central FR-A2 loci are associated with frost tolerance in hexaploid wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frost tolerance is a key trait to ensure winter wheat survival. Natural variation for this trait is mainly associated with allelic differences at the VERNALIZATION 1 (VRN1) and FROST RESISTANCE 2 (FR2) loci. VRN1 regulates the transition between vegetative and reproductive stages and FR2, a locus in...

  9. Bringing Chemistry to Life: From Matter to Man (by R. J. P. Williams and J. J. R. Fraústo da Silva)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasfeld, Arthur

    2001-04-01

    Literature Cited

    1. Reviewed by Kauffman, G. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1559.
    2. Zubay, G. Origins of Life on the Earth and in the Cosmos, 2nd ed.; Academic: New York, 2000.
    3. Schultz, E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1001.

  10. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., national, or international standards. (f) The reviewer shall analyze all Fault Tree Analyses (FTA), Failure..., and compliance with railroad, vendor, supplier, industry, national, or international standards. (g..., industry, national, or international standards were followed. The number of modules audited must...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., national, or international standards. (f) The reviewer shall analyze all Fault Tree Analyses (FTA), Failure..., and compliance with railroad, vendor, supplier, industry, national, or international standards. (g..., industry, national, or international standards were followed. The number of modules audited must...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., national, or international standards. (f) The reviewer shall analyze all Fault Tree Analyses (FTA), Failure..., and compliance with railroad, vendor, supplier, industry, national, or international standards. (g..., industry, national, or international standards were followed. The number of modules audited must...

  13. Projektarbejde i fremmedsprogene: Rapport fra seminar pa Roskilde Universitetscenter (Project Work in Foreign Languages: Report from a Seminar at Roskilde University Center). ROLIG-papir 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsen, Karen Sonne, Ed.

    This report describes a seminar at Roskilde University Center (Denmark) on project work in foreign languages, which brought together language teachers and theorists from different schools, including universities, business schools, technical schools, merchants schools, and high schools, to discuss their experiences with project work in foreign…

  14. Petrogenesis of the western highlands of the moon - Evidence from a diverse group of whitlockite-rich rocks from the Fra Mauro formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Liu, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1992-01-01

    A group of KREEPy basalts has been discovered in Apollo 14 soils. These samples exhibit similarities to both HA and VHK basalts, albeit with much higher REE abundances, and contain up to 2 vol pct whitlockite and can be explained by assimilation of a K-, REE- and P-rich fluids by an original HA or VHK basalt. This KREEP component could have been produced late in the evolution of the lunar magma ocean and is similar in composition to QMD at Apollo 14. Two rocks have trace element compositions that are representative of actual KREEP. One of the samples appears to be petrographically pristine and could represent an actual KREEP basalt rock. Five subophitic high-Al basalts represent sampling of either a slowly cooled impact melt sheet or, more likely, the same basalt flow. Two 'quasi-pristine' highland rocks confirm the postulate of a connection between KREEP and the alkali suite. A newly discovered alkali anorthosite is a plagioclase cumulate with about 15 percent trapped KREEPy liquid.

  15. La ténorraphie percutanée dans les ruptures fraîches du tendon calcanéen: à propos de 67 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bessam, Aman; Hassani, Zouhir Ameziane; Kharmaz, Mohamed; Steinmetz, Alain

    2014-01-01

    La rupture du tendon calcanéen est une des lésions les plus fréquentes en pathologie du sport, les deux options thérapeutiques classiques sont le traitement orthopédique et la chirurgie à ciel ouvert. Dans le but de minimiser ces complications, des techniques mini-invasives de ténorraphie percutanée ont été proposées dont les résultats sont encourageants. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective d'une série de cas de rupture sous cutanée du tendon d'Achille s’étalant de Avril 2005 au Juin 2012 concernant 67 patients; 11 femmes et 56 hommes avec un âge moyen de 41 ans. La cause principale était un accident de sport dans 45 cas. Le diagnostic était évident à l'examen chez tous les patients. Dans deux cas il s'agissait d'une rerupture survenant à 1 et 5 ans d'un traitement orthopédique. Dans un cas il s'agissait d'une rerupture survenant après une ténorraphie percutanée. Dans deux cas il s'agissait d'une rupture sur tendinopathie chronique. Tous les patients avaient bénéficié d'une radio de la cheville qui avait montré une horizontalisation du calcanéum chez 5 patients et surtout elle n'avait pas montré de fracture associée, alors que 15 patients avaient bénéficié d'une échographie qui a confirmé le diagnostic. Tous les patients avaient été opérés dans un délai de moins de 48 heures Une ténorraphie percutanée a été pratiqué chez tous les patients. Le recul moyen est de 43 mois, trois patients ont été perdus de vue Nous avons noté une reprise des activités professionnelle effective en moyen 90 jours après l'intervention et celle des activités sportive à 6 mois en moyenne L’état cutané local a été jugée bon dans 63 cas. Par ailleurs les complications ont été marquées par un seul cas d'infection ayant nécessité une reprise chirurgical a été noté mise à plat, trois cas de rerupture repris par suture à ciel ouvert, un cas d'algodystrophie et un cas de tendinopathie Il n'y a eu aucune complication thromboembolique ni neurologique. Il n'existe pas de réel consensus concernant la prise en charge des ruptures du tendon calcanéen. Ainsi, La ténorraphie percutanée du tendon calcanéen est une méthode simple rapide et efficace, elle allie les avantages de la chirurgie à ciel ouvert en termes de pourcentage de rerupture et les avantages du traitement fonctionnel en rapport avec un faible risque infectieux. PMID:25332749

  16. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for or by manufacturers 1. Manufacturer: Star Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street, Honeoye Falls, NY 14472. FRA identification Nos. FRA-PLE-STAR-845-F (flasher) and FRA-PLE-STAR-845-C...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for or by manufacturers 1. Manufacturer: Star Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street, Honeoye Falls, NY 14472. FRA identification Nos. FRA-PLE-STAR-845-F (flasher) and FRA-PLE-STAR-845-C...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for or by manufacturers 1. Manufacturer: Star Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street, Honeoye Falls, NY 14472. FRA identification Nos. FRA-PLE-STAR-845-F (flasher) and FRA-PLE-STAR-845-C...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for or by manufacturers 1. Manufacturer: Star Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street, Honeoye Falls, NY 14472. FRA identification Nos. FRA-PLE-STAR-845-F (flasher) and FRA-PLE-STAR-845-C...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for or by manufacturers 1. Manufacturer: Star Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street, Honeoye Falls, NY 14472. FRA identification Nos. FRA-PLE-STAR-845-F (flasher) and FRA-PLE-STAR-845-C...

  1. 78 FR 28284 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... April 11, 2013, Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... Equipment; End-of-Train Devices. FRA assigned the petition Docket Number FRA-2013-0040. Specifically, CP... power (DP) mode. CP requests that FRA allow 90 cubic feet per minute (CFM) instead of 60 CFM...

  2. 75 FR 68861 - Miscellaneous Amendments to the Federal Railroad Administration's Accident/Incident Reporting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ...This final rule revises FRA's existing regulations addressing accident/incident reporting in order to clarify ambiguous regulations and to enhance the quality of information available for railroad casualty analysis. In addition, FRA has revised the FRA Guide for Preparing Accident/Incident Reports (FRA Guide), its accident/incident recording and reporting forms and its Companion Guide:......

  3. 5 CFR 6001.104 - Prohibited financial interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... company subject to FRA regulation. (2) No FRA employee appointed after December 1991 shall hold reemployment rights with a railroad company subject to FRA regulation after his or her first year of employment... a railroad company subject to FRA regulation. (b) Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Except...

  4. Dall'italo-austrliano all'italiano: apprendmento linguistico fra gli scolari della seconda generazione (From Italian-Australian to Italian: Language Acquisition among the Students of the Second Generation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubino, Antonia

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the results of research to determine the success of the efforts currently being made in schools to teach pure Italian to the second generation of Italians in Australia in order to replace Italian Australian, a mixture of Italian dialects, Italian, and English. 33 references. (CFM)

  5. Effects of age and communication level on eye contact in fragile X males and non-fragile X autistic males.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I L; Vietze, P M; Sudhalter, V; Jenkins, E C; Brown, W T

    1991-01-01

    Dyadic social gaze and eye contact were examined in fragile X [fra(X)] males and in non-fra(X) autistic males as a function of age and level of communicative ability. Lag sequential analysis showed that responsive eye contact was highly correlated with age and communicative ability in non-fra(X) autistic males but not in fra(X) males. Older, more communicative non-fra(X) autistic males exhibited more responsive eye contact than their fra(X) cohorts. Implications of these observations for theory and intervention are discussed.

  6. 77 FR 45715 - Notice of Public Hearing: Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... FRA-2003-15754] Notice of Public Hearing: Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad The Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad (RBMN) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) seeking...

  7. 75 FR 27053 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Charter Renewal of the Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC). SUMMARY: FRA announces the charter renewal of...

  8. 75 FR 3959 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC) Meeting. SUMMARY: FRA announces the forty-first meeting of...

  9. 77 FR 28421 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Charter Renewal of the Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC). SUMMARY: FRA announces the charter renewal of...

  10. 75 FR 8788 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC) Meeting. SUMMARY: FRA announces the forty-first meeting of...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 222 - Determining Risk Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Pt. 222, App. D... Threshold, please visit FRA's public Web site at http://www.fra.dot.gov. Crossing Corridor Risk Index...

  12. 76 FR 2441 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ...) whether the information collection activities are necessary for FRA to properly execute its functions... collection of information mandated by Federal regulations. In summary, FRA reasons that comments received... TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment...

  13. 77 FR 6411 - Training, Qualification, and Oversight for Safety-Related Railroad Employees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... of 1995 H. Energy Impact I. Privacy Act I. Executive Summary FRA is proposing that FRA's training... of energy other than hand power which is being used on or near railroad track for maintenance,...

  14. Serum folate receptor alpha as a biomarker for ovarian cancer: Implications for diagnosis, prognosis and predicting its local tumor expression.

    PubMed

    Kurosaki, Akira; Hasegawa, Kosei; Kato, Tomomi; Abe, Kenji; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Miyara, Akiko; O'Shannessy, Daniel J; Somers, Elizabeth B; Yasuda, Masanori; Sekino, Tetsuo; Fujiwara, Keiichi

    2016-04-15

    Folate receptor alpha (FRA) is a GPI-anchored glycoprotein and encoded by the FOLR1 gene. High expression of FRA is observed in specific malignant tumors of epithelial origin, including ovarian cancer, but exhibits very limited normal tissue expression, making it as an attractive target for the ovarian cancer therapy. FRA is known to shed from the cell surface into the circulation which allows for its measurement in the serum of patients. Recently, methods to detect the soluble form of FRA have been developed and serum FRA (sFRA) is considered a highly promising biomarker for ovarian cancer. We prospectively investigated the levels of sFRA in patients clinically suspected of having malignant ovarian tumors. A total of 231 patients were enrolled in this study and analyzed for sFRA as well as tumor expression of FRA by immunohistochemistry. High sFRA was predominantly observed in epithelial ovarian cancer patients, but not in patients with benign or borderline gynecological disease or metastatic ovarian tumors from advanced colorectal cancers. Levels of sFRA were highly correlated to clinical stage, tumor grade and histological type and demonstrated superior accuracy for the detection of ovarian cancer than did serum CA125. High sFRA was significantly associated with shorter progression-free survival in both early and advanced ovarian cancer patients. Finally, tumor FRA expression status was strongly correlated with sFRA levels. Taken together, these data suggest that sFRA might be a useful noninvasive serum biomarkers for future clinical trials assessing FRA-targeted therapy.

  15. 77 FR 76596 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ..., the Akron Barberton Cluster Railway (AB) petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) for an... at 49 U.S.C. 21103(a)(4). FRA assigned the petition Docket Number FRA-2010-0144. In its petition, AB... duty after initiating an on-duty period for 6 consecutive days. Specifically, AB seeks an extension...

  16. 76 FR 64 - Safety and Health Requirements Related to Camp Cars

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... extensively on FRA guidelines already in place, which, in turn, were based on the U.S. Department of Labor's... such switching or humping of placarded cars takes place). Procedures on requesting FRA's special... all such systems be safe and working. FRA anticipates that, to ensure that these systems are safe...

  17. 49 CFR 225.37 - Optical media transfer and electronic submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Crossing Accident/Incident Report (Form FRA F 6180.57); and (5) The Employee Human Factor Attachment (Form FRA F 6180.81) (the Employee Human Factor Attachment must be in .pdf or .jpg format only). (b) Each railroad utilizing the optical media option shall submit to FRA a computer CD-ROM containing the...

  18. 49 CFR 225.37 - Optical media transfer and electronic submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Crossing Accident/Incident Report (Form FRA F 6180.57); and (5) The Employee Human Factor Attachment (Form FRA F 6180.81) (the Employee Human Factor Attachment must be in .pdf or .jpg format only). (b) Each railroad utilizing the optical media option shall submit to FRA a computer CD-ROM containing the...

  19. 76 FR 76218 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... regulations contained at Title 49 U.S.C. Section 20302. FRA assigned the petition Docket Number FRA-2011-0091. Specifically, NJT is seeking relief from 49 U.S.C. 20302(1)(B). FRA has determined that NJT has...

  20. 75 FR 27672 - Restrictions on Railroad Operating Employees' Use of Cellular Telephones and Other Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ...FRA is proposing to amend its railroad communications regulations by restricting use of mobile telephones and other distracting electronic devices by railroad operating employees. This proposed rulemaking would codify most of the requirements of FRA Emergency Order No. 26, which would be supplanted by the final rule. FRA proposes that some of the substantive requirements of that order as well......

  1. 75 FR 57597 - Revised Proposal for Revisions to the Schedules of Civil Penalties for a Violation of a Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ...FRA is issuing for comment a revised proposal (New Proposal) that, if adopted, would amend, line-by-line, FRA's schedules of civil penalties (``Schedules'') issued as appendices to FRA's rail safety regulations, as well as other guidance, in order to reflect more accurately the degree of safety risk associated with a violation of each regulatory requirement and to ensure that the civil......

  2. 78 FR 48766 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... June 24, 2013, Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... States Rail Operations. FRA assigned the petition Docket Number FRA-2003-15010. In its petition, CP... desk, located in CP's Network Management Center in Montreal, QC, Canada. CP operates approximately...

  3. 77 FR 43646 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... February 28, 2012, Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... System (C3RS) pilot project for the CP Portage, WI, terminal was initially approved by FRA on March 3, 2008. In Docket Number FRA-2007-0008, CP requested and received a waiver of compliance from...

  4. 75 FR 26839 - Metrics and Standards for Intercity Passenger Rail Service under Section 207 of the Passenger...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... performance and service quality of intercity passenger train operations. In compliance with the statute, the FRA and Amtrak jointly drafted performance metrics and standards for intercity passenger rail service... Intercity Passenger Rail Service,'' on the FRA's Web site. Simultaneously, the FRA published a notice in...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 211 - Statement of Agency Policy Concerning Waivers Related to Shared Use of Trackage or Rights-of-Way...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... state safety oversight program. That is likely to expedite FRA's processing of the petition. FRA will... connection. If movements at the crossing are governed by a signal system, FRA's signal rules (49 CFR parts 233, 235, and 236) apply, as do the signal provisions of the hours of service statute, 49 U.S.C....

  6. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 211 - Statement of Agency Policy Concerning Waivers Related to Shared Use of Trackage or Rights-of-Way...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... state safety oversight program. That is likely to expedite FRA's processing of the petition. FRA will... connection. If movements at the crossing are governed by a signal system, FRA's signal rules (49 CFR parts 233, 235, and 236) apply, as do the signal provisions of the hours of service statute, 49 U.S.C....

  7. 78 FR 71785 - Passenger Train Emergency Systems II

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ...This final rule is intended to further the safety of passenger train occupants through both enhancements and additions to FRA's existing requirements for emergency systems on passenger trains. In this final rule, FRA is adding requirements for emergency passage through vestibule and other interior passageway doors and enhancing emergency egress and rescue access signage requirements. FRA is......

  8. 77 FR 153 - Passenger Train Emergency Systems II

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ...This notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) is intended to further the safety of passenger train occupants through both enhancements and additions to FRA's existing requirements for emergency systems on passenger trains. In this NPRM, FRA is proposing to add requirements for interior vestibule doors and enhance emergency egress and rescue access signage requirements. FRA is also proposing to......

  9. Aberrant Neural Function during Emotion Attribution in Female Subjects with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, Cindy C.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Mackey, Allyson; Mobbs, Dean; Reiss, Allan L.

    2008-01-01

    The neurobiological systems which underlie emotion attribution among female patients with Fragile X (FraX) syndrome are examined. Results show that the emotion circuit which regulates responses to facial stimuli is potentially disrupted among female subjects with FraX syndrome. Anterior cingulate cortex activity in female subjects with FraX…

  10. Autism spectrum disorder in fragile X syndrome: communication, social interaction, and specific behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Walter E; Cortell, Ranon; Kau, Alice S M; Bukelis, Irena; Tierney, Elaine; Gray, Robert M; Cox, Christiane; Capone, George T; Stanard, Pia

    2004-09-01

    The present study extends our previous work on social behavior impairment in young males with fragile X syndrome (FraX). Specifically, we evaluated whether the autistic phenomenon in FraX is expressed as a range of behavioral impairments as in idiopathic autism (Aut). We also examined whether there are behaviors, identified as items of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), that in FraX predispose to or differentiate subjects with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis. Finally, regression models were utilized to test the relative contribution of reduced communication and socialization skills to ADI-R scores and diagnoses. A cohort of 56 boys (3-8 years) with FraX was examined in terms of scores on measures of cognition (IQ was a co-variate in most analyses.), autistic behavior, problem/aberrant behavior, adaptive behavior, and language development. We found that, indeed, in terms of problem behavior and adaptive skills, there is a range of severity from FraX + Aut to FraX + PDD (Pervasive Developmental Disorder) to FraX + none. ADI-R items representing "Play" types of interaction appear to be "susceptibility" factors since they were abnormal across the FraX cohort. Integrated regression models demonstrated that items reflecting complex social interaction differentiated the FraX + ASD (Aut + PDD) subgroup from the rest of the FraX cohort, while abnormalities in basic verbal and non-verbal communication distinguished the most severely affected boys with FraX + Aut from the milder FraX + PDD cohort. Models incorporating language, adaptive communication, and adaptive socialization skills revealed that socialization was not only the main influence on scores but also a predictor of ASD diagnosis. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that the diagnosis of ASD in FraX reflects, to a large extent, an impairment in social interaction that is expressed with variable severity in young males with FraX.

  11. Fe2+ chelator proferrorosamine A: a gene cluster of Erwinia rhapontici P45 involved in its synthesis and its impact on growth of Erwinia amylovora CFBP1430.

    PubMed

    Born, Yannick; Remus-Emsermann, Mitja N P; Bieri, Marco; Kamber, Tim; Piel, Jörn; Pelludat, Cosima

    2016-02-01

    Proferrorosamine A (proFRA) is an iron (Fe2+) chelator produced by the opportunistic plant pathogen Erwinia rhapontici P45. To identify genes involved in proFRA synthesis, transposon mutagenesis was performed. The identified 9.3 kb gene cluster, comprising seven genes, designated rosA-rosG, encodes proteins that are involved in proFRA synthesis. Based on gene homologies, a biosynthetic pathway model for proFRA is proposed. To obtain a better understanding of the effect of proFRA on non-proFRA producing bacteria, E. rhapontici P45 was co-cultured with Erwinia amylovora CFBP1430, a fire-blight-causing plant pathogen. E. rhapontici P45, but not corresponding proFRA-negative mutants, led to a pink coloration of E. amylovora CFBP1430 colonies on King's B agar, indicating accumulation of the proFRA-iron complex ferrorosamine, and growth inhibition in vitro. By saturating proFRA-containing extracts with Fe2+, the inhibitory effect was neutralized, suggesting that the iron-chelating capability of proFRA is responsible for the growth inhibition of E. amylovora CFBP1430.

  12. A current review of folate receptor alpha as a potential tumor target in non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Huan; Guo, Jun; Li, Changzheng; Wang, Zhehai

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading common cause of cancer-related death, with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounting for 80% of all cases. To date, platinum-based doublet chemotherapy is the cornerstone of first-line therapy. However, these agents have limited use in patients who have relapsed and have metastatic disease. Therefore, novel strategies are required to improve the clinical outcome. Folate receptor alpha (FRA) is overexpressed in the majority of NSCLC, particularly in lung adenocarcinomas. FRA is largely absent from normal tissue, making it an attractive therapeutic target. In this review, we discuss FRA expression in NSCLC, conjugated FRA agents, monoclonal antibody, and FRA-specific T-cell-based therapeutic strategies aiming to improve the cure rate of FRA-expressing NSCLC. PMID:26357465

  13. 12 CFR 211.12 - Lending limits and capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FRA (12 U.S.C. 372), as follows: (i) All acceptances outstanding in excess of 200 percent of its tier... described in section 13(7) of the FRA (12 U.S.C. 372); (ii) Any liability of the lender to advance funds to... kind described in section 13(7) of the FRA (12 U.S.C. 372), that is issued and outstanding;...

  14. PARK2, a Large Common Fragile Site Gene, is Part of a Stress Response Network in Normal Cells That is Disrupted During the Development of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Genet 2006; 118: 551-558. 20) Helmich A, Stout-Weibder K, Matthei A, Hermann K, Heiden T, Schrock E. Identification of the human/mouse syntenic common...fragile site FRA7K/Fra12C1—relation of FRA7K and other common fragile sites to evolutionary breakoints. Int J Cancer 2007; 120: 48-54 21) Helmich A

  15. The Expression of Fos, Jun and AP-1 DNA Binding Activity in Rat Supraoptic Nucleus Neurons Following Acute Versus Repeated Osmotic Stimulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-06-22

    stimulation. This pattern has been observed previously in the hippocampus after treatment with the seizure-inducing drug , metrazole (Sonnenberg et al... fosB , and fra-1 and -2. fra refers to ~OS­ ~elated ~ntigen. Western blot experiments and employment of less stringent nucleic acid hybridization...fos, fra-l and fosB , only form heterodimeric complexes with Jun-related proteins (Nakabeppu et al., 1988; Rauscher et al., 1988b) The AP-l site of many

  16. 77 FR 19054 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... Track Safety Standards, Critical Incident, Dark Territory, Fatigue Management, Risk Reduction... recommendations to FRA on railroad safety matters. The RSAC is composed of 54 voting representatives from...

  17. 76 FR 24561 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... the Passenger Hours of Service, Training Standards, Track Safety Standards, Dark Territory, Passenger... FRA on railroad safety matters. The RSAC is composed of 54 voting representatives from 31...

  18. PARK2, a Large Common Fragile Site Gene, is Part of a Stress Response Network in Normal Cells that is Disrupted During the Development of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    FRA11F Parkin 1379130 12/2960 6q26 FRA6G IL1RAPL1 1368739 11/2722 Xp21.2 FRAXC WWOX 1113013 9/2264 16q23.2 FRA16D PDGFFA 917434 24/2550 4q12...Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) gene and the immediately adjacent large 7 Il1RAPL1 gene in FRAXC, LARGE in FRA22B (which is associated with myodystrophy when...Genet 2007; Epub ahead of print. 10) McAvoy S, Ganapathiraju S, Perez DS, James CD, Smith DI. DMD and IL1RAPL1 : Two large adjacent genes localized

  19. 78 FR 57449 - Notice Rescinding a Notice of Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... specifically to conduct additional design, engineering and environmental studies concerning the California... Interstate Maglev project. FRA intended for this PEIS to draw on environmental analysis already...

  20. 49 CFR 268.11 - Project eligibility standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... detail for the preparation of appropriate documentation by FRA to support selection of one project. This... location of their critical habitat; identification of navigable waterways, wetlands and other...

  1. 49 CFR 244.1 - Scope, application, and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD... part prescribes requirements for filing and implementing a Safety Integration Plan with FRA whenever...

  2. 77 FR 75896 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    .... According to data from FRA's Management Information System, the rail industry's random drug testing positive... notice of determination is effective December 26, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elizabeth...

  3. Assignment of human KH-box-containing genes by in situ hybridization: HNRNPK maps to 9q21.32-q21.33, PCBP1 to 2p12-p13, and PCBP2 to 12q13.12-q13.13, distal to FRA12A

    SciTech Connect

    Tommerup, N.; Leffers, H.

    1996-03-01

    This report describes the localization of various human KH-box-containing genes using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Accordingly, HNRNPK was mapped to human chromosome 9q21.32-q21.33, PCBP1 was mapped to human chromosome 2p12-p13, and PCBP2 was mapped to human chromosome 12q13.12-q13.13. These proteins affect RNA-binding capability. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  4. miR-497 suppresses epithelial–mesenchymal transition and metastasis in colorectal cancer cells by targeting fos-related antigen-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Shen, Quan; Zhang, Pingping

    2016-01-01

    Objective MicroRNAs have key roles in tumor metastasis. The acquisition of metastatic capability by cancer cells is associated with epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here, we describe the role and molecular mechanism of miR-497 in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell EMT, migration, and invasion. Methods Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot assays were performed to detect the expression levels of miR-497 and Fos-related antigen-1 (Fra-1) in the CRC cells. HCT116 and SW480 cells with miR-497 overexpression or Fra-1 low expression were constructed by lipofection. Target prediction and luciferase reporter assays were performed to investigate whether Fra-1 is one of the targets of miR-497. Western blot and Transwell assays were performed to detect the effects of miR-497 and Fra-1 on CRC cell EMT, migration and invasion. Results We searched the miRanda, TargetScan, and PicTar databases and found that Fra-1, a key driver of CRC metastasis, is a potential target of miR-497. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis verified downregulation of miR-497 and upregulation of Fra-1 in CRC cells. Western blot and Transwell assays showed that overexpression of miR-497 suppresses CRC cell EMT, migration, and invasion. Luciferase gene reporter assay revealed that Fra-1 is a downstream target of miR-497 as miR-497 bound directly to the 3′ untranslated region of Fra-1 messenger RNA. An inverse correlation was also found between miR-497 and Fra-1 in HCT116 and SW480 cells. Furthermore, knockdown of Fra-1 recuperated the effects of miR-497 overexpression. Conclusion miR-497 suppresses CRC cell EMT, migration, and invasion partly by targeting Fra-1. PMID:27822064

  5. 75 FR 75911 - Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for Reporting Rail Equipment Accidents/Incidents for Calendar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... final rule published December 20, 2005, 70 FR 75414. FRA has found that both the current cost data... that FRA's reporting requirements reflect cost increases that have occurred since the reporting... equipment, signals, tracks, track structures, or roadbed, including labor costs and the costs for...

  6. 75 FR 38343 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... action affecting the environment until after all environmental and historic preservation analyses... Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 470(f)) (NHPA), and related laws and regulations have been completed and FRA has... Central Contractor Registration (CCR) database. FRA also requires that all applicants (other...

  7. 76 FR 81012 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Administration (FRA) for a waiver of compliance from certain provisions of the Federal railroad safety..., Automated vehicle inspection systems; and Section 213.345, Vehicle qualification testing. FRA assigned the... MTA to test the MP36 locomotives with accelerometers, instead of instrumented wheelsets. MTA...

  8. 78 FR 71710 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... assignment allowed under the existing waiver. A copy of the petition, as well as any written communications... written views, data, or comments. FRA does not anticipate scheduling a public hearing in connection with... opportunity for oral comment, they should notify FRA, in writing, before the end of the comment period...

  9. 75 FR 54222 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... requested, and the petitioner's arguments in favor of relief. Aronco Leasing Company (Waiver Petition Docket Number FRA-2010-0120) The Aronco Leasing Company (Aronco), a private passenger car operator based in... Requirements for existing passenger cars. Specifically, Aronco has petitioned FRA for a waiver for...

  10. 78 FR 78275 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    .... SUMMARY: According to data from FRA's Management Information System, the rail industry's random drug... the industry-wide random alcohol testing violation rate has remained below 0.5 percent for the last... determination is effective December 26, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jerry Powers, FRA Drug...

  11. 75 FR 79308 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    .... SUMMARY: Using data from Management Information System annual reports, FRA has determined that the 2009... taken from FRA's Management Information System. Based on this data, the Administrator publishes a.... Because the industry-wide random drug testing positive rate has remained below 1.0 percent for the...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 236 - Independent Review of Verification and Validation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... D Appendix D to Part 236 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued..., AND APPLIANCES Pt. 236, App. D Appendix D to Part 236—Independent Review of Verification and..., in FRA's judgment, for FRA to monitor the assessment. (d) The reviewer shall evaluate the...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 236 - Independent Review of Verification and Validation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... D Appendix D to Part 236 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued..., AND APPLIANCES Pt. 236, App. D Appendix D to Part 236—Independent Review of Verification and..., in FRA's judgment, for FRA to monitor the assessment. (d) The reviewer shall evaluate the...

  14. 77 FR 5293 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2012 AGENCY...: This Notice announces the establishment of FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2012. The designated ERD for calendar year 2012 is docket number FRA-2012-0005. ADDRESSES: See...

  15. 78 FR 3964 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2013 AGENCY...: This Notice announces the establishment of FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2013. The designated ERD for calendar year 2013 is docket number FRA-2013-0001. ADDRESSES: See...

  16. 75 FR 3782 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2010 AGENCY...: This Notice announces the establishment of FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2010. The designated ERD for calendar year 2010 is docket number FRA-2010-0003. ADDRESSES: See...

  17. 76 FR 1209 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2011 AGENCY...: This Notice announces the establishment of FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2011. The designated ERD for calendar year 2011 is docket number FRA-2011-0003. ADDRESSES: See...

  18. 49 CFR 230.60 - Time of washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Washing Boilers § 230.60 Time of washing. (a) Frequency of washing. All boilers shall thoroughly be washed... inspection. The date of the boiler wash shall be noted on the FRA Form No. 1 or FRA Form No. 3. (See...

  19. 75 FR 61386 - Emergency Escape Breathing Apparatus Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ...FRA is proposing to amend its regulations related to occupational safety and health in locomotive cabs in three ways. First and foremost, pursuant to a 2008 Congressional mandate, FRA is proposing to include requirements that railroads provide an appropriate atmosphere-supplying emergency escape breathing apparatus (EEBA) to the members of the train crew and certain other employees while they......

  20. 76 FR 18298 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement for the DesertXpress High-Speed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... DesertXpress High-Speed Passenger Train Project AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), United... the public that a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is being published for the DesertXpress High-Speed Passenger Train Project (DesertXpress project). FRA is the Lead Agency for the...

  1. 77 FR 29307 - Control of Alcohol and Drug Use: Addition of Post-Accident Toxicological Testing for Non...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... routinely tests only for alcohol and controlled substances. At this time, FRA intends to add two types of..., FRA intends to add testing for two types of non-controlled substances (tramadol (a synthetic opioid... anithistamines are usually taken as OTC drugs. Adding testing for these types of non-controlled substances to...

  2. 77 FR 64077 - National Highway-Rail Crossing Inventory Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 234 RIN 2130-AC26 National Highway-Rail Crossing Inventory Reporting Requirements AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: FRA is proposing to require railroads to...

  3. 77 FR 73734 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Doc No: 2012-29835] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration [Docket No. FRA-2000-7257; Notice No. 72] Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Railroad Safety...

  4. 78 FR 20169 - Notice of Availability of an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Hudson Yards Concrete...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Hudson Yards Concrete Casing Project in New York, New York AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... Assessment for the Hudson Yards Concrete Casing Construction. SUMMARY: This notice advises the public that... coordination with Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) for the construction of an underground concrete...

  5. 78 FR 48218 - Emergency Order Establishing Additional Requirements for Attendance and Securement of Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... Terminal The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) of the United States Department of Transportation (DOT... terminal are properly secured against unintended movement. FRA re-examined its regulations governing the... on mainline track or mainline siding outside of a yard or terminal to ensure [[Page 48219

  6. 49 CFR 234.11 - State highway-rail grade crossing action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State highway-rail grade crossing action plans... within 30 days following receipt of written notice from FRA. (4) FRA may condition the awarding of any... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE...

  7. 77 FR 73456 - Update to the TR-12 Fuel Related Rate Adjustment Policy (SDDC Fuel Surcharge Policy)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Department of the Army Update to the TR-12 Fuel Related Rate Adjustment Policy (SDDC Fuel Surcharge Policy...: Reference: TR-12 Fuel Related Rate Adjustment Policy. Background: The following FRA policy applies to... increases in diesel fuel prices. Miscellaneous: A copy of the TR-12 FRA Policy can be accessed via the...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 222 - Alternative Safety Measures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 222, App. B Appendix B to Part 222—Alternative Safety Measures Introduction A public authority seeking... modified SSM. (See appendix D. FRA's web-based Quiet Zone Calculator may be used to complete this... modified SSM. (See appendix D. FRA's web-based Quiet Zone Calculator may be used to complete...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 222 - Alternative Safety Measures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 222, App. B Appendix B to Part 222—Alternative Safety Measures Introduction A public authority seeking... modified SSM. (See appendix D. FRA's web-based Quiet Zone Calculator may be used to complete this... modified SSM. (See appendix D. FRA's web-based Quiet Zone Calculator may be used to complete...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 222 - Determining Risk Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Pt. 222, App. D... injuries that result from collisions involving trains traveling under 25 mph as an AIS level 2 ($46,500... Threshold, please visit FRA's public Web site at http://www.fra.dot.gov. Crossing Corridor Risk Index...

  11. 76 FR 4276 - Hazardous Materials: Improving the Safety of Railroad Transportation of Hazardous Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 174 Hazardous Materials: Improving the Safety of Railroad Transportation of Hazardous Materials AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation... in this aspect of FRA's hazardous materials program. DATES: The public meeting will be held...

  12. 76 FR 63990 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... regarding (i) Whether the information collection activities are necessary for FRA to properly execute its... with the collection of information mandated by Federal regulations. In summary, FRA reasons that... necessary information on each tag and attach the tags to the equipment. There is no retention...

  13. 78 FR 57450 - Notice Rescinding a Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Notice Rescinding a Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact... Railroad Administration (FRA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice rescinding intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). SUMMARY: The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA)...

  14. 75 FR 29385 - Safety Advisory 2010-01

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... Failure of Welded and/or Notched Vertical Hand Brake Supports on FTTX Flatcars. SUMMARY: FRA is issuing... repair of FTTX series flatcars that have welded vertical hand brake supports that have been modified to accommodate a 10-inch wide hand brake step. FRA's Office of Railroad Safety Motive Power and Equipment...

  15. 75 FR 68021 - Draft Finding of No Significant Impact on the Tier 1 Ohio 3C Quick Start Passenger Rail Tier-1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2010-27872] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Draft Finding of... Considering Environmental Impacts (FRA Environmental Procedures) (64 FR 28545, May 26, 1999), the FRA and the... procedures for obtaining funding under the HSIPR Program. (74 FR 29900 (June 23, 2009)). The Interim...

  16. 75 FR 3961 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Waiver of Compliance In accordance with Part 211 of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), notice is hereby given that the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... the FRA Railroad Safety Board on August 19, 1999, for the Sandy/Salt Lake TRAX LRT line), UTA...

  17. 78 FR 14152 - Notice of Intent To Grant Buy America Waiver to Illinois Department of Transportation To Use...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Intent To Grant Buy America Waiver to Illinois Department of... Railroad Administration (FRA), United States Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of intent... ``Federal Railroad Administration'' and include docket number FRA-2012-0033. Due to security procedures...

  18. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  19. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  20. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  1. 76 FR 34801 - Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures In... (PATH) has requested the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) grant a modification of the single car... FRA-2010-0174. PATH operates a fleet of 25 flat cars in consist with revenue cars utilized...

  2. 75 FR 3275 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 and its implementing regulations, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) hereby announces that it is seeking renewal of the following currently approved information collection activities. Before submitting these information collection requirements for clearance by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), FRA is soliciting public......

  3. 75 FR 11992 - Notice of Scheduling of Public Hearing; Association of American Railroads

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... should notify FRA's Docket Clerk, Ms. Michelle Silva, by telephone, e-mail, or in writing, at least 5 business days before the date of the hearing. Ms. Silva's contact information is as follows: FRA, Office of...; e-mail michelle.silva@dot.gov . For information on facilities or services for persons...

  4. 77 FR 64374 - Notification of Petition for Approval; Port Authority Trans-Hudson Product Safety Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... product design. A copy of the petition, as well as any written communications concerning the petition, is... Product Safety Plan In accordance with Part 236 of Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and 49 U.S.C... a Product Safety Plan (PSP). FRA assigned the petition Docket Number FRA-2012-0075. PATH...

  5. 78 FR 54952 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... contained at 49 CFR 229.81, Emergency Pole; shoe insulation. FRA assigned the petition Docket Number FRA-2003-16265. Title 49 CFR 229.81(b) requires that each locomotive equipped with third rail shoes shall.... Removing third rail power from rolling stock equipped with contact shoes by means of such devices...

  6. On the History and Origin of LKFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    1998-01-01

    Fra Mauro is the name of a geologic formation surrounding the Imbrium Basin of the Moon as well as the name of the region of the Apollo 14 lunar landing site. The formation was named for a 16th century Italian geographer and cartographer. In its original invocation in 1971 by the Apollo Soil Survey (ASS), Fra Mauro basalt was not a crystalline basalt, but the designation of a "compositional group" of impact glasses found in the Apollo 14 soil that were basaltic in composition. The ASS noted the similarity between the Fra Mauro basalt glass composition and sample 14310, an unbrecciated, crystalline Apollo 14 rock that would now be designated an impact melt rock. In 1972 the term Fra Mauro basalt was first applied to a rock, sample 14310, although in related papers, Fra Mauro basaltic glass was equated with KREEP. In 1973 the ASS noted that a wide range of K concentrations occurred among glasses of Fra Mauro basaltic composition in the Apollo 15 regolith. The terms high-K, moderate-K and low-K Fra Mauro first occurred in that context, but always as an adjective. Lock Fra Mauro glasses were those with 0.12 +/- 0.07% K2O, compared with 0.47 +/- 0.17% and 1.1 +/- 0.4% for moderate and high-K Fra Mauro glasses and 0.6% for Apollo 15 KREEP basalt. An important evolutionary step in the concept of low Fra Mauro basalt occurred in 1973 when the composition was first used as a component in a mass-balance (mixing) model for Apollo 16 soils [8,9] and later average highlands crust, despite that the term had not yet been applied to an actual rock sample. The first use of the acronym LKFM occurred in a 1973 paper describing glass compositions in Apollo 16 soil.

  7. Myeloid-Specific Fos-Related Antigen-1 Regulates Cigarette Smoke–Induced Lung Inflammation, Not Emphysema, in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Michelle; Rajasekaran, Subbiah; Potteti, Haranatha R.

    2015-01-01

    Heightened lung inflammation is a cardinal feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cigarette smoke (CS)-induced macrophage recruitment and activation, accompanied by abnormal secretion of a number of inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases, play a major role in the pathophysiology of COPD. The Fos-related antigen-1 (Fra-1) transcription factor differentially regulates several cellular processes that are implicated in COPD, such as inflammation and immune responses, cell proliferation and death, and extracellular remodeling. Although CS stimulates Fra-1 expression in the lung, the precise role of this transcription factor in the regulation of CS-induced lung inflammation in vivo is poorly understood. Here, we report that myeloid-specific Fra-1 signaling is important for CS-induced lung macrophagic inflammatory response. In response to chronic CS exposure, mice with Fra-1 specifically deleted in myeloid cells showed reduced levels of CS-induced lung macrophagic inflammation, accompanied by decreased expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines compared with their wild-type counterparts. Consistent with this result, bone marrow–derived Fra-1–null macrophages treated with CS showed decreased levels of proinflammatory mediators and matrix metalloproteinases. Interestingly, deletion of Fra-1 in myeloid cells did not affect the severity of emphysema. We propose that Fra-1 plays a key role in promoting chronic CS-induced lung macrophagic inflammation in vivo, and that targeting this transcription factor may be useful in dampening persistent lung inflammation in patients with COPD. PMID:25489966

  8. The effect on treatment response of fibromyalgic symptoms in early rheumatoid arthritis patients: results from the ESPOIR cohort

    PubMed Central

    Combe, Bernard; Niu, Jingbo; Rincheval, Nathalie; Gaujoux-Viala, Cécile; Felson, David T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate whether patients with RA who belong to the spectrum of fibromyalgic RA (FRA) have an impaired response to treatment measured by traditional activity scores. Methods. Patients from the ESPOIR cohort were analysed. This prospective cohort included 813 patients with early arthritis not initially receiving DMARDs. Among the 697 patients who met RA classification criteria, we studied two groups, one with and the other without FRA. The following endpoints were compared at 6, 12 and 18 months using a mixed linear regression model: 28-joint DAS (DAS28), Simple Disease Activity Index (SDAI), Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) and HAQ. In addition, attainment of low disease activity (LDA; DAS28 <3.2) and remission (DAS28 <2.6, SDAI <3.3, CDAI <2.8) at these time points was analysed. Results. Patients with FRA (n = 120) had higher DAS28, SDAI, CDAI and HAQ scores than patients with RA and no fibromyalgic characteristics (n = 548). DAS28 and other DASs started out higher in subjects with FRA, and while they improved to a similar extent to in the isolated RA group, they remained consistently higher among FRA patients. Achievement of LDA and remission was significantly less likely in subjects with FRA. Conclusion. Patients with FRA and RA will have a similar response to treatment according to the decrease in indexes of disease activity, but may miss the target of remission or LDA. PMID:26175470

  9. Holistic Debriefing: A Paradigm Shift in Leadership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Officer Rolf Folland for the RNOAF 330 Squadron on the subject “debriefing”, 8 October 2005. 2 Bjartveit and Kjærstad, Fra kaos til kosmos , 17 3... kosmos , 22 25 Ibid, 23 26 Moxnes, Hverdagens Angst, 194 27 Bjartveit and Kjærstad, Fra kaos til kosmos , 17 28 Useem, The Leadership Moment, 60 29 Ibid...Psychology (9. ed.). Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers. 1985. Bjartveit, S. & Kjærstad, T. Fra kaos til kosmos . Oslo: Oslo Kolle Forlag

  10. 77 FR 27539 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... bring vehicles or farm equipment across the crossing, it would be necessary to unlock a pushbutton box... comments. FRA does not anticipate scheduling a public hearing in connection with these proceedings...

  11. 77 FR 35741 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... vehicles. Light rail trains begin operation at 4 a.m. with 14 trains running every 15 minutes during the.... FRA does not anticipate scheduling a public hearing in connection with these proceedings since...

  12. 75 FR 9018 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... vehicle designed for the movement of rail cars. The switching and interchange operations of GWWL are... proceedings by submitting written views, data, or comments. FRA does not anticipate scheduling a...

  13. Susceptibility of ornamental pepper banker plant candidates to common greenhouse pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Susceptibility of four potential ornamental pepper banker plant candidates [Black Pearl (BP), Explosive Ember (EE), Masquerade (MA), Red Missile (RM), and a commercial pepper cultivar Blitz (BL)] were evaluated against three common greenhouse pests - Bemisia tabaci, Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Fra...

  14. Hourly Illumination of Shackleton Crater

    NASA Video Gallery

    Illumination of Shackleton crater, a 21-km-diameter (12.5 mile-diameter) structure situated adjacent to the Moon’s south pole. The resolution is 30 meters (approximately 100 feet) per pixel. Fra...

  15. 49 CFR 236.1037 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... this subpart shall maintain at a designated office on the railroad: (1) A current copy of each FRA..., DC 20590, within 15 days of discovery. Documents that are hand delivered must not be enclosed in...

  16. 49 CFR 236.1037 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... this subpart shall maintain at a designated office on the railroad: (1) A current copy of each FRA..., DC 20590, within 15 days of discovery. Documents that are hand delivered must not be enclosed in...

  17. 49 CFR 225.37 - Optical media transfer and electronic submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... option of submitting the following reports, updates, and amendments by way of optical media (CD-ROM), or... railroad utilizing the optical media option shall submit to FRA a computer CD-ROM containing the...

  18. 75 FR 31834 - Adoption of Environmental Impact Statement; Availability of an Environmental Reevaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Adoption of Environmental Impact Statement; Availability of an Environmental Reevaluation AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Adoption and Recirculation of Final Environmental Impact Statement and Notice of Availability...

  19. 75 FR 67451 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... relief. Austin & Texas Central Railroad (Waiver Petition Docket Number FRA-2010-0149) The Austin & Texas...) 54.5 at Milby in Austin, Texas, and MP 115.0 at Burnet, Texas. Since before 1992, there have been...

  20. 49 CFR 234.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... lane to the crossing are not functioning as intended, or in the case of an approach lane for which two... will be available from FRA, as well as FMCSA, as changes are made in this area. Credible report...

  1. 49 CFR 234.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lane to the crossing are not functioning as intended, or in the case of an approach lane for which two... will be available from FRA, as well as FMCSA, as changes are made in this area. Credible report...

  2. 76 FR 15363 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... 19477) or at http://www.dot.gov/privacy.html . Issued in Washington, DC, on March 16, 2011. John G... appropriate docket number (e.g., Waiver Petition Docket Number FRA- 2009-0078) and may be submitted by any...

  3. 49 CFR Table 4 of Subpart B to... - Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Locomotives per § 224.107(b...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... take such additional action as may be necessary to achieve future compliance. (D) Locomotives to be... Report with FRA no later than January 26, 2006, identifying the cars already so equipped. See appendix...

  4. 49 CFR Table 4 of Subpart B to... - Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Locomotives per § 224.107(b...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... take such additional action as may be necessary to achieve future compliance. (D) Locomotives to be... Report with FRA no later than January 26, 2006, identifying the cars already so equipped. See appendix...

  5. Application of Taguchi's method to optimize fiber Raman amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, Mohammad Asif

    2016-04-01

    Taguchi's method is introduced to perform multiobjective optimization of fiber Raman amplifier (FRA). The optimization requirements are to maximize gain and keep gain ripple minimum over the operating bandwidth of a wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) communication link. Mathematical formulations of FRA and corresponding numerical solution techniques are discussed. A general description of Taguchi's method and how it can be integrated with the FRA optimization problem are presented. The proposed method is used to optimize two different configurations of FRA. The performance of Taguchi's method is compared with genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization in terms of output performance and convergence rate. Taguchi's method is found to produce good results with fast convergence rate, which makes it well suited for the nonlinear optimization problems.

  6. 76 FR 8699 - Locomotive Safety Standards; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Parts 229 and 238 RIN 2130-AC16 Locomotive Safety Standards; Correction AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), DOT. ACTION: Proposed rule; correction....

  7. Lunar laser ranging data deposited in the National Space Science Data Center: Filtered observations for January - June 1971 and unfiltered photon detections for July - December 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, J. D.; Shelus, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The filtered data are discussed which were obtained during laser ranging operations with Apollo reflectors placed on the moon at Tranquility Base, Fra Mauro, and Hadley. Unfiltered photon detections are described.

  8. 75 FR 65397 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Daily Inspection, Periodic Inspection, Annual Tests, and Biennial tests records in a centralized... comment, they should notify FRA, in writing, before the end of the comment period and specify the...

  9. 78 FR 59086 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 and its implementing regulations, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA)...

  10. 77 FR 52393 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Railroad Safety... Advisory Committee that develops railroad safety regulations through a consensus process. The RSAC...

  11. 75 FR 44046 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Railroad Safety... advisory committee that develops railroad safety regulations through a consensus process. The RSAC...

  12. 76 FR 67020 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Railroad Safety... Advisory Committee that develops railroad safety regulations through a consensus process. The RSAC...

  13. 78 FR 62002 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-10

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Railroad Safety... Advisory Committee that develops railroad safety regulations through a consensus process. The RSAC...

  14. 78 FR 28284 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ..., Passenger Cars and Cabooses, and 49 CFR part 231, Railroad Safety Appliance Standards. FRA assigned the... complied with all of the conditions of the waiver and that there have been no accidents or...

  15. 77 FR 74736 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... docket number FRA-2012-0087. Applicant: Norfolk Southern Corporation, Mr. Brian Sykes, Chief Engineer C&S... as practicable. Anyone is able to search the electronic form of any written communications...

  16. 75 FR 65707 - Notice Regarding Consideration and Processing of Applications for Financial Assistance Under the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ...-178 (1998) (TEA-21). FRA is hereby correcting that information, stated in the first column, second... principal amount of approximately $1.01 billion have been made under the RRIF Program since TEA-21...

  17. 75 FR 82136 - Adjustment of Nationwide Significant Risk Threshold

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... alternative, a community can establish its quiet zone in comparison to the Risk Index With Horns, which is a... making this recalculation, FRA noted that the total number of gated, non-whistle-ban crossings was...

  18. 75 FR 82139 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... requested, and the petitioner's arguments in favor of relief. Grand Canyon Railway, Inc. [Waiver Petition Docket Number FRA-2010-0143] The Grand Canyon Railway, Inc. (GRCX) seeks a waiver of compliance with...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 218 - Statement of Agency Enforcement Policy on Tampering

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... currently undergoing research testing. FRA has been advised by portions of the regulated community that its... conclusion about the proper interpretation of the word “knowingly” stems from both normal canons of...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 218 - Statement of Agency Enforcement Policy on Tampering

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... currently undergoing research testing. FRA has been advised by portions of the regulated community that its... conclusion about the proper interpretation of the word “knowingly” stems from both normal canons of...

  1. 49 CFR 219.9 - Responsibility for compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... through a joint operating agreement or other binding contract. FRA reserves the right to bring an... contract between the railroad and the other entity or in another document. In the absence of such a...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 222 - Determining Risk Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Pt. 222, App. D... value of the Nationwide Significant Risk Threshold, please visit FRA's public Web site at...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 222 - Determining Risk Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Pt. 222, App. D... value of the Nationwide Significant Risk Threshold, please visit FRA's public Web site at...

  4. 78 FR 28283 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... used only in private industry where FRA-certified glazing was not required. PICK 10 is currently equipped only with safety glass. PICK now intends to operate PICK 10 on its shortline railway in...

  5. 78 FR 42998 - Hazardous Materials: Improving the Safety of Railroad Transportation of Hazardous Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Hazardous Materials: Improving the Safety of Railroad Transportation of Hazardous Materials AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials, Safety Administration (PHMSA... participate in a public meeting addressing the transportation of hazardous materials by rail. FRA and......

  6. 49 CFR 231.33 - Procedure for special approval of existing industry safety appliance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... industry standard; (3) Appropriate data or analysis, or both, for FRA to consider in determining whether..., placement, and attachment of the safety appliances; (5) A demonstration of the ergonomic suitability of...

  7. 49 CFR 231.33 - Procedure for special approval of existing industry safety appliance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... industry standard; (3) Appropriate data or analysis, or both, for FRA to consider in determining whether..., placement, and attachment of the safety appliances; (5) A demonstration of the ergonomic suitability of...

  8. 77 FR 46800 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ..., the application process is grounded on three key principles: (1) promoting collaboration and shared... Administration (FRA) allocates funds to applicants with plans or programs that align with the President's...

  9. 75 FR 20040 - Waiver Extension Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... 39 months, or approval of a Positive Train Control Safety Plan for CAS. The request for regulatory..., subparts A-G. FRA will independently impose appropriate conditions necessary for the safety of...

  10. 49 CFR 230.33 - Welded repairs and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... patches. The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall submit a written request for approval to the FRA Regional Administrator for the installation of flush patches of any size on unstayed portions of the...

  11. 49 CFR 230.33 - Welded repairs and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... patches. The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall submit a written request for approval to the FRA Regional Administrator for the installation of flush patches of any size on unstayed portions of the...

  12. 77 FR 77183 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting Postponement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting Postponement AGENCY... Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC) Meeting Postponement. SUMMARY: FRA recently announced the forty-eighth meeting of the RSAC, a Federal Advisory Committee that develops railroad safety regulations through...

  13. 78 FR 26423 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Advisory Committee that develops railroad safety regulations through a consensus process. The RSAC meeting... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Railroad...

  14. 75 FR 73158 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... advisory committee that develops railroad safety regulations through a consensus process. The RSAC meeting... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Railroad...

  15. 77 FR 67362 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ...: Andrea Martin 202-493-6201. EIS No. 20120355, Final EIS, FRA, 00, Chicago to St. Louis High Speed Rail.../2012, Contact: Andrea Martin 202- 493-6201. EIS No. 20120356, Draft EIS, BLM, AZ, Sun Valley to...

  16. 75 FR 12810 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... relief. Morton Buildings, Inc. The Morton Buildings, Inc. (MBI) has petitioned FRA for a waiver of... clad buildings and the company is located in Morton, IL, with six other manufacturing locations. One...

  17. 49 CFR 219.800 - Annual reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... perform a service for the railroad. (b) As a railroad, you must use the Management Information System (MIS... submission to FRA. For information on where to submit MIS forms and for the electronic version of the...

  18. 49 CFR 219.800 - Annual reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... perform a service for the railroad. (b) As a railroad, you must use the Management Information System (MIS... submission to FRA. For information on where to submit MIS forms and for the electronic version of the...

  19. 49 CFR 219.800 - Annual reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... perform a service for the railroad. (b) As a railroad, you must use the Management Information System (MIS... submission to FRA. For information on where to submit MIS forms and for the electronic version of the...

  20. 49 CFR 219.800 - Annual reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... perform a service for the railroad. (b) As a railroad, you must use the Management Information System (MIS... submission to FRA. For information on where to submit MIS forms and for the electronic version of the...

  1. 78 FR 18672 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 and its implementing regulations, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA)...

  2. 76 FR 34289 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration, (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Office of... Division, RRS-21, Federal Railroad Administration, 1200 New Jersey Ave., SE., Mail Stop 25, Washington,...

  3. 76 FR 2199 - Locomotive Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... analysis for new locomotive electronic systems. FRA believes this proposal will modernize and improve its..., railroad track, signal systems, communications, rolling stock, operating practices, passenger train... requirements for brake, draft, suspension, and electrical systems, and locomotive cabs; and locomotive...

  4. 78 FR 77553 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... various States need for immediate assistance to vital freight transportation pathways and the important... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), United States Department of Transportation (USDOT). ACTION:...

  5. 78 FR 76190 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... economic conditions, and the various States need for immediate assistance to vital freight transportation... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), United States Department of Transportation (USDOT). ACTION:...

  6. 77 FR 24760 - Safety Advisory 2012-02; Restricted Speed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... fatigue; distraction due to the improper use of cell phones; work-related discussions in the cab of the... dangers. FRA encourages railroad industry members to take actions that are consistent with the...

  7. 75 FR 178 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... Number FRA-2009-0121] The Alton & Southern Railway Company (ALS) has petitioned for a waiver of... locomotives leased from the Union Pacific Railroad Company, ALS seeks to complete and maintain an...

  8. 75 FR 51525 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update... of Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC) Working Group Activities. SUMMARY: The FRA is updating its announcement of RSAC's Working Group activities to reflect its current status. FOR...

  9. 75 FR 26841 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... FRA's long-standing definition of ``antiquated'' is being built prior to the end of World War II, even... trackage of the Great Lakes Central (GLC) and shared trackage utilized by GLC, the Ann Arbor Railroad...

  10. 78 FR 34151 - Notice of Public Hearing: Norfolk Southern Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Public Hearing: Norfolk Southern Corporation The Norfolk Southern Corporation (NS) petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) seeking the approval of...

  11. Acute Toxicological Responses of Fischer Rats to Naturally Occurring Asbestos from theUnited States and Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to provide understanding of the toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) including Libby amphibole (LA), Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), EI Dorado Hills tremolite (ED) and Ontario actinolite/ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON). Ratrespirable fra...

  12. 77 FR 38248 - Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 239 Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness AGENCY: Federal... (NPRM). SUMMARY: FRA is proposing to revise its regulations for passenger train emergency preparedness... responders during emergency situations receive initial and periodic training and are subject to...

  13. 78 FR 11948 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Law 104-13, Sec. 2, 109 Stat. 163 (1995) (codified as revised at 44 U.S.C. 3501-3520), and its.... 44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A); 5 CFR 1320.8(d)(1), 1320.10(e)(1), 1320.12(a). Specifically, FRA invites... responses). See 44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)(I)-(iv); 5 CFR 1320.8(d)(1)(I)-(iv). FRA believes that...

  14. 76 FR 55335 - Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ...This NPRM is in response to a statutory mandate that FRA complete a rulemaking proceeding to develop a pilot program that permits a rail carrier or rail carriers that own infrastructure over which Amtrak operates certain passenger rail service routes to petition FRA to be considered as a passenger rail service provider over such a route in lieu of Amtrak for a period not to exceed five years......

  15. Record of decision: Final environmental impact statement/report and 4(f) statement. Northeast Corridor Improvement Project electrification, New Haven, CT to Boston, MA. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This record of decision (ROD) completes the environmental review by the Federal Administration (FRA) of the proposal by the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak) to extend electric train operation from New Haven, CT, to Boston, MA. In this ROD, FRA approves Amtrak`s proposal subject to the inclusion into the project of a number of measures to eliminate or minimize potential adverse environmental impacts.

  16. 75 FR 63889 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... complied with through use of a check-off list. By simplifying their demanding work, check-off lists for 12... and Recommendation Inspectors. Report. FRA F 6180.4b--Check List Sec. 130 Fed'l & State 10 Forms 60 10 231.1. Inspectors. FRA F 6180.4c--Check List Sec. 130 Fed'l & State 30 Forms 60 30 231.2....

  17. Technical Risk Analysis - Exploiting the Power of MBSE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    UNCLASSIFIED DSTO-GD-0734 18. Technical Risk Analysis – Exploiting the Power of MBSE – Despina Tramoundanis1, Wayne Power1 and Daniel Spencer2...Functional Risk Analysis (FRA) conducted within a Model Based Systems Engineering ( MBSE ) environment. FRA is a rigorous technique used to explore potential...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Technical Risk Analysis â Exploiting the Power of MBSE â 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  18. Insular volume reduction in fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jeremy D; Nichols, Taylor; Brignone, Laura; Hall, Scott S; Reiss, Allan L

    2011-06-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FraX) is the most common form of inherited mental deficit and is caused by mutations of the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene on the X chromosome. While males and females with the full FMR1 mutation are affected differently because the disorder is X-linked, both suffer from varying degrees of cognitive impairment, attention deficits and social anxiety. The insula is a sensory integrative region that has been increasingly suggested as a critical area involved in anxiety manifestation. The current study was designed to examine possible changes in insular volume in FraX compared to age- and gender-matched typically developing healthy controls (HC) as well as age-, gender-, and intelligence-matched developmentally delayed controls (DD). An established native-space, manual morphometry method was utilized to quantify total and regional insular volumes using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Total, anterior and posterior insular volumes were found to be reduced in FraX compared to both HC and DD. The current data add to a growing literature concerning brain abnormalities in FraX and suggests that significant volume reduction of the insula is a component of the FraX neuroanatomical phenotype. This finding also provides an intriguing potential neural correlate for hyperarousal and gaze aversion, which are prominent behavioral symptoms of FraX.

  19. Molecular Insights into Frataxin-Mediated Iron Supply for Heme Biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Mielcarek, Andreas; Blauenburg, Bastian; Miethke, Marcus; Marahiel, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    Iron is required as an element to sustain life in all eukaryotes and most bacteria. Although several bacterial iron acquisition strategies have been well explored, little is known about the intracellular trafficking pathways of iron and its entry into the systems for co-factor biogenesis. In this study, we investigated the iron-dependent process of heme maturation in Bacillus subtilis and present, for the first time, structural evidence for the physical interaction of a frataxin homologue (Fra), which is suggested to act as a regulatory component as well as an iron chaperone in different cellular pathways, and a ferrochelatase (HemH), which catalyses the final step of heme b biogenesis. Specific interaction between Fra and HemH was observed upon co-purification from crude cell lysates and, further, by using the recombinant proteins for analytical size-exclusion chromatography. Hydrogen–deuterium exchange experiments identified the landscape of the Fra/HemH interaction interface and revealed Fra as a specific ferrous iron donor for the ferrochelatase HemH. The functional utilisation of the in vitro-generated heme b co-factor upon Fra-mediated iron transfer was confirmed by using the B. subtilis nitric oxide synthase bsNos as a metabolic target enzyme. Complementary mutational analyses confirmed that Fra acts as an essential component for maturation and subsequent targeting of the heme b co-factor, hence representing a key player in the iron-dependent physiology of B. subtilis. PMID:25826316

  20. Frazzled promotes growth cone attachment at the source of a Netrin gradient in the Drosophila visual system

    PubMed Central

    Akin, Orkun; Zipursky, S Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Axon guidance is proposed to act through a combination of long- and short-range attractive and repulsive cues. The ligand-receptor pair, Netrin (Net) and Frazzled (Fra) (DCC, Deleted in Colorectal Cancer, in vertebrates), is recognized as the prototypical effector of chemoattraction, with roles in both long- and short-range guidance. In the Drosophila visual system, R8 photoreceptor growth cones were shown to require Net-Fra to reach their target, the peak of a Net gradient. Using live imaging, we show, however, that R8 growth cones reach and recognize their target without Net, Fra, or Trim9, a conserved binding partner of Fra, but do not remain attached to it. Thus, despite the graded ligand distribution along the guidance path, Net-Fra is not used for chemoattraction. Based on findings in other systems, we propose that adhesion to substrate-bound Net underlies both long- and short-range Net-Fra-dependent guidance in vivo, thereby eroding the distinction between them. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20762.001 PMID:27743477

  1. Insular Volume Reduction in Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jeremy D.; Nichols, Taylor; Brignone, Laura; Hall, Scott S.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is the most common form of inherited mental deficit and is caused by mutations of the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene on the X chromosome. While males and females with the full FMR1 mutation are affected differently because the disorder is X-linked, both suffer from varying degrees of cognitive impairment, attention deficits and social anxiety. The insula is a sensory integrative region that has been increasingly suggested as a critical area involved in anxiety manifestation. The current study was designed to examine possible changes in insular volume in FraX compared to age- and gender-matched typically developing healthy controls (HC) as well as age, gender-, and intelligence-matched developmentally delayed controls (DD). An established native-space, manual morphometry method was utilized to quantify total and regional insular volumes using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Total, anterior and posterior insular volumes were found to be reduced in FraX compared to both HC and DD. The current data add to a growing literature concerning brain abnormalities in FraX and suggests that significant volume reduction of the insula is a component of the FraX neuroanatomical phenotype. This finding also provides an intriguing potential neural correlate for hyperarousal and gaze aversion, which are prominent behavioral symptoms of FraX. PMID:21291994

  2. Fronto-striatal dysfunction and potential compensatory mechanisms in male adolescents with fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hoeft, Fumiko; Hernandez, Arvel; Parthasarathy, Sudharshan; Watson, Christa L; Hall, Scott S; Reiss, Allan L

    2007-06-01

    Response inhibition is an important facet of executive function. Fragile X syndrome (FraX), with a known genetic etiology (fragile X mental retardation-1 (FMR1) mutation) and deficits in response inhibition, may be an ideal condition for elucidating interactions among gene-brain-behavior relationships. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown evidence of aberrant neural activity when individuals with FraX perform executive function tasks, though the specific nature of this altered activity or possible compensatory processes has yet to be elucidated. To address this question, we examined brain activation patterns using fMRI during a go/nogo task in adolescent males with FraX and in controls. The critical comparison was made between FraX individuals and age, gender, and intelligent quotient (IQ)-matched developmentally delayed controls; in addition to a control group of age and gender-matched typically developing individuals. The FraX group showed reduced activation in the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and right caudate head, and increased contralateral (left) VLPFC activation compared with both control groups. Individuals with FraX, but not controls, showed a significant positive correlation between task performance and activation in the left VLPFC. This potential compensatory activation was predicted by the interaction between FMR1 protein (FMRP) levels and right striatal dysfunction. These results suggest that right fronto-striatal dysfunction is likely an identifiable neuro-phenotypic feature of FraX and that activation of the left VLPFC during successful response inhibition may reflect compensatory processes. We further show that these putative compensatory processes can be predicted by a complex interaction between genetic risk and neural function.

  3. Role of AP-1 family proteins in regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak-Wrona, Wioletta; Jablonska, Ewa; Garley, Marzena; Jablonski, Jakub; Radziwon, Piotr; Iwaniuk, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the activity of AP-1 family proteins, e.g. Fra-1, Fra-2, JunB, JunD, and FosB, engaged in the regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and the production of NO by neutrophils (PMN) exposed to N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) xenobiotic. Isolated human PMN were incubated in the presence of NDMA. iNOS mRNA expression was then analyzed using Northern blot and the expression of other proteins in the cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions were assessed using Western blot. The obtained results indicate that NDMA increased iNOS mRNA and protein expression in human PMN. Furthermore, it increased the expression of Fra-1, Fra-2, JunB, and JunD in the cytoplasmic fraction, and FosB expression in the fractions of analyzed cells. As a consequence of inhibiting p38 pathway and JNK, reduced iNOS expression and NO production was noted in PMN exposed to NDMA. Inhibition of the p38 pathway resulted in reduced expression of all analyzed proteins in the cytoplasmic fraction of PMN exposed to NDMA. Furthermore, increased Fra-2 expression and reduced FosB expression were found in the nuclear fraction of those cells. Inhibiting ERK5 pathway resulted in increased JunB expression in both fractions of the analyzed cells. Therefore, no changes in the expression of analyzed proteins in the presence of NDMA were observed in PMN pre-incubated with JNK pathway inhibitor. In conclusion, the results here indicate a role of Fra-1, Fra-2, JunB, JunD, and FosB transcription factors in the regulation of iNOS expression and NO production by human neutrophils exposed to NDMA.

  4. Expression of a mutant form of cellulose synthase AtCesA7 causes dominant negative effect on cellulose biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Morrison, W Herbert; Freshour, Glenn D; Hahn, Michael G; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2003-06-01

    Cellulose synthase catalytic subunits (CesAs) have been implicated in catalyzing the biosynthesis of cellulose, the major component of plant cell walls. Interactions between CesA subunits are thought to be required for normal cellulose synthesis, which suggests that incorporation of defective CesA subunits into cellulose synthase complex could potentially cause a dominant effect on cellulose synthesis. However, all CesA mutants so far reported have been shown to be recessive in terms of cellulose synthesis. In the course of studying the molecular mechanisms regulating secondary wall formation in fibers, we have found that a mutant allele of AtCesA7 gene in the fra5 (fragile fiber 5) mutant causes a semidominant phenotype in the reduction of fiber cell wall thickness and cellulose content. The fra5 missense mutation occurred in a conserved amino acid located in the second cytoplasmic domain of AtCesA7. Overexpression of the fra5 mutant cDNA in wild-type plants not only reduced secondary wall thickness and cellulose content but also decreased primary wall thickness and cell elongation. In contrast, overexpression of the fra6 mutant form of AtCesA8 did not cause any reduction in cell wall thickness and cellulose content. These results suggest that the fra5 mutant protein may interfere with the function of endogenous wild-type CesA proteins, thus resulting in a dominant negative effect on cellulose biosynthesis.

  5. Fos family protein degradation by the proteasome.

    PubMed

    Gomard, Tiphanie; Jariel-Encontre, Isabelle; Basbous, Jihane; Bossis, Guillaume; Moquet-Torcy, Gabriel; Mocquet-Torcy, Gabriel; Piechaczyk, Marc

    2008-10-01

    c-Fos proto-oncoprotein defines a family of closely related transcription factors (Fos proteins) also comprising Fra-1, Fra-2, FosB and DeltaFosB, the latter two proteins being generated by alternative splicing. Through the regulation of many genes, most of them still unidentified, they regulate major functions from the cell level up to the whole organism. Thus they are involved in the control of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, as well as in the control of responses to stresses, and they play important roles in organogenesis, immune responses and control of cognitive functions, among others. Fos proteins are intrinsically unstable. We have studied how two of them, c-Fos and Fra-1, are degraded. Departing from the classical scenario where unstable key cell regulators are hydrolysed by the proteasome after polyubiquitination, we showed that the bulk of c-Fos and Fra-1 can be broken down independently of any prior ubiquitination. Certain conserved structural domains suggest that similar mechanisms may also apply to Fra-2 and FosB. Computer search indicates that certain motifs shared by the Fos proteins and putatively responsible for instability are found in no other protein, suggesting the existence of degradation mechanisms specific for this protein family. Under particular signalling conditions, others have shown that a part of cytoplasmic c-Fos requires ubiquitination for fast turnover. This poses the question of the multiplicity of degradation pathways that apply to proteins depending on their intracellular localization.

  6. Forward cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in an S-band distributed G652 fiber Raman amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zaixuan; Li, Laixiao; Geng, Dan; Liu, Honglin; Jin, Yongxing; Kim, Insoo S.; Wang, Jianfeng; Wu, Xiaobiao; Fang, Dawei; Zhuang, Songlin

    2005-01-01

    The cascaded forward stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in the S band distributed G652 fiber Raman amplifier forward pumped and backward pumped by the tunable power fiber laser and signal source is a tunable narrow spectral bandwidth(<100MHz)ECL have been studied. Forward SBS does not obey the common theory, that only weaken backward-SBS lines existed, according to conservation of energy and momentum and wave vector selected rule. Because the wave-guide character weaken the wave vector rule. The forward transmit sound wave-guide Brillouin scattering lines are generated and amplified in FRA. Forward SBS that is amplified phenomena of transmit sound wave Brillouin scattering in the FRA, during pump power is larger than the threshold value of SBS in a S band G652 FRA. The 2 orders Stokes forward Brillouin lines are present during forward pump power of FRA is 920mW, the pump power of BP line is 7.7dBm and the FRA gain is 15.05dB, the power of first order Brillouin lines is smaller than the second Brillouin scattering line. When pump power is further increased, cascaded SBS lines and comb profile are observed. The even order SBS lines is stronger than odd order SBS lines, The odd order SBS lines are named Brillouin- Rayleigh scattering lines.

  7. Discrimination of the spectral structures of sound signals on the background of interference.

    PubMed

    Supin, A Ya

    2008-06-01

    Presentation of test signals consisting of sounds with rippled spectra allowed measurements of the frequency-resolving ability (FRA) of hearing to be performed in humans without using frequency-dependent masking techniques. This allowed studies of changes in FRA in the presence of noise interference. In conditions of diotic presentation (to both ears in parallel) of the test signal and noise, FRA decreased significantly if the interference frequency was lower or equal to the test signal frequency. The relationship between this effect and the sound intensity and noise:signal ratio varied for low-frequency noise and for noise at the same frequency as the test signal, which indicates that these two types of interference have different mechanisms. However, in both cases, noise of sufficient intensity led to a complete inability to discriminate the fine spectral structure of the test signal. In dichotic presentation (test signal to one ear, noise to the other), noise had virtually no effect on FRA over a wide range of test signal and noise frequencies and noise:signal ratios. Thus, there was essentially complete dichotic release of FRA from the effects noise, which has potential to be used in constructing prosthetic hearing devices.

  8. Task-switching deficits and repetitive behaviour in genetic neurodevelopmental disorders: data from children with Prader-Willi syndrome chromosome 15 q11-q13 deletion and boys with Fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Kate A; Oliver, Chris; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2009-03-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Fragile X syndrome (FraX) are associated with distinctive cognitive and behavioural profiles. We examined whether repetitive behaviours in the two syndromes were associated with deficits in specific executive functions. PWS, FraX, and typically developing (TD) children were assessed for executive functioning using the Test of Everyday Attention for Children and an adapted Simon spatial interference task. Relative to the TD children, children with PWS and FraX showed greater costs of attention switching on the Simon task, but after controlling for intellectual ability, these switching deficits were only significant in the PWS group. Children with PWS and FraX also showed significantly increased preference for routine and differing profiles of other specific types of repetitive behaviours. A measure of switch cost from the Simon task was positively correlated to scores on preference for routine questionnaire items and was strongly associated with scores on other items relating to a preference for predictability. It is proposed that a deficit in attention switching is a component of the endophenotypes of both PWS and FraX and is associated with specific behaviours. This proposal is discussed in the context of neurocognitive pathways between genes and behaviour.

  9. Susceptibility of Spodoptera exigua to 9 toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, Patricia; Ferré, Juan; Escriche, Baltasar

    2008-03-01

    Nine of the most common lepidopteran active Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis have been tested for activity against Spodoptera exigua. Because of possible intraspecific variability, three laboratory strains (FRA, HOL, and MUR) have been used. Mortality assays were performed with the three strains. LC(50) values for the active toxins were determined to the FRA and the HOL strains, whereas susceptibility of the MUR strain was assessed using only two concentrations. The results showed that Cry1Ca, Cry1Da, and Cry1Fa were the most effective toxins with all strains. Cry1Ab was found effective for the HOL strain, but very little effective against FRA (6.5-fold) and MUR strains. Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac were marginally toxic to all strains, whereas the rest of the toxins tested (Cry1Ba, Cry2Aa, and Cry2Ab) were non toxic. Significant differences in susceptibility among strains were also found for Cry1Da, being the FRA strain 25-fold more susceptible than the HOL strain. Growth inhibition, as an additional susceptibility parameter, was determined in the FRA strain with the 9 toxins. The toxicity profile obtained differed from that observed in mortality assays. Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Ca, Cry1Da, and Cry1Fa toxins produced a similar larval growth inhibition. Cry2Aa had a lower but clear effect on larval growth inhibition, whereas Cry1Ba and Cry2Ab did not have any effect.

  10. The prenatal detection of the fragile X chromosome: review of recent experience.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, E C; Brown, W T; Wilson, M G; Lin, M S; Alfi, O S; Wassman, E R; Brooks, J; Duncan, C J; Masia, A; Krawczun, M S

    1986-01-01

    The fragile X chromosome has been identified in specimens from 17 male and 10 female fetuses in 11 laboratories throughout the world, obtained from at least 79 fetuses at increased risk for the fra(X) syndrome. Of these, 19 were confirmed, 6 were pending, 1 was negative and 1 could not be confirmed. Twenty-five of the 79 cases were studied in our laboratory (Institute for Basic Research [IBR]) and resulted in fra(X) demonstration in specimens from 3 male and 5 female fetuses. All 3 males and 2 of the 5 females have been confirmed. When amniocytes from the two confirmed female fetuses were exposed to FUdR after culturing in Chang medium, fra(X) frequencies were virtually negative indicating that Chang medium should not be used in fragile X studies at least when FUdR is used to induce fragility. Finally, amniocytes from a fra(X) male fetus studied in 3 different laboratories exhibited strikingly different frequencies. To date, we have experienced no false-positives or negatives, but the latter case was controversial. It is recommended that laboratories undertaking fra(X) prenatal detection use a combination of at least two different proven induction systems as well as complementary DNA marker studies to prevent false negative diagnosis.

  11. Flamingo, a seven-pass transmembrane cadherin, cooperates with Netrin/Frazzled in Drosophila midline guidance.

    PubMed

    Organisti, Cristina; Hein, Irina; Grunwald Kadow, Ilona C; Suzuki, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    During central nervous system development, several guidance cues and receptors, as well as cell adhesion molecules, are required for guiding axons across the midline and along the anterior-posterior axis. In Drosophila, commissural axons sense the midline attractants Netrin A and B (Net) through Frazzled (Fra) receptors. Despite their importance, lack of Net or fra affects only some commissures, suggesting that additional molecules can fulfill this function. Recently, planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins have been implicated in midline axon guidance in both vertebrate and invertebrate systems. Here, we report that the atypical cadherin and PCP molecule Flamingo/Starry night (Fmi/Stan) acts jointly with Net/Fra signaling during midline development. Additional removal of fmi strongly increases the guidance defects in Net/fra mutants. Rescue and domain deletion experiments suggest that Fmi signaling facilitates commissural pathfinding potentially by mediating axonal fasciculation in a partly homophilic manner. Altogether, our results indicate that contact-mediated cell adhesion via Fmi acts in addition to the Net/Fra guidance system during axon pathfinding across the midline, underlining the importance of PCP molecules during vertebrates and invertebrates midline development.

  12. Gene, Brain, and Behavior Relationships in Fragile X Syndrome: Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lightbody, Amy A.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FraX) remains the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and provides a valuable model for studying gene-brain-behavior relationships. Over the past 15 years, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have emerged with the goal of better understanding the neural pathways contributing to the cognitive and behavioral outcomes seen in individuals with FraX. Specifically, structural MRI studies have established and begun to refine the specific topography of neuroanatomical variation associated with FraX. In addition, functional neuroimaging studies have begun to elucidate the neural underpinnings of many of the unique characteristics of FraX including difficulties with eye gaze, executive functioning, and behavioral inhibition. This review highlights studies with a focus on the relevant gene-brain-behavior connections observed in FraX. The relationship of brain regions and activation patterns to FMRP are discussed as well as the clinical cognitive and behavioral correlates of these neuroimaging findings. PMID:20014368

  13. Safety recommendations and responses availability. [Tank car safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-28

    Documents available from the US National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) include a response by the US Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) to NTSB's report, ''The Accident Performance of Tank Car Safeguards''. FRA has agreed to extend the requirements for top-and-bottom shelf couplers to all tank cars used to transport hazardous materials, and those for head shields and thermal protection to new and rebuilt specification DOT 105 tank cars; to examine the protection afforded to ''nonpressure'' tank cars used to transport specialty products and Class A poisons; to study the ways in which to minimize the damage to the top fittings and bottom outlet valves following train accidents and incorporate these with new car construction; to collect data on tank car derailment behavior to identify breach mechanisms (FRA work in progress); and to conduct studies to evaluate the safe positions in freight trains for placarded hazardous materials rail cars.

  14. Falls risk assessment begins with hello: lessons learned from the use of one home health agency's fall risk tool.

    PubMed

    Flemming, Patricia J; Ramsay, Katherine

    2012-10-01

    Identifying older adults at risk for falls is a challenge all home healthcare agencies (HHAs) face. The process of assessing for falls risk begins with the initial home visit. One HHA affiliated with an academic medical center describes its experience in development and use of a Falls Risk Assessment (FRA) tool over a 10-year period. The FRA tool has been modified since initial development to clarify elements of the tool based on research and to reflect changes in the Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) document. The primary purpose of this article is to share a validated falls risk assessment tool to facilitate identification of fall-related risk factors in the homebound population. A secondary purpose is to share lessons learned by the HHA during the 10 years using the FRA.

  15. Fructose-Asparagine Is a Primary Nutrient during Growth of Salmonella in the Inflamed Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed M.; Newsom, David L.; González, Juan F.; Sabag-Daigle, Anice; Stahl, Christopher; Steidley, Brandi; Dubena, Judith; Dyszel, Jessica L.; Smith, Jenee N.; Dieye, Yakhya; Arsenescu, Razvan; Boyaka, Prosper N.; Krakowka, Steven; Romeo, Tony; Behrman, Edward J.; White, Peter; Ahmer, Brian M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella) is one of the most significant food-borne pathogens affecting both humans and agriculture. We have determined that Salmonella encodes an uptake and utilization pathway specific for a novel nutrient, fructose-asparagine (F-Asn), which is essential for Salmonella fitness in the inflamed intestine (modeled using germ-free, streptomycin-treated, ex-germ-free with human microbiota, and IL10−/− mice). The locus encoding F-Asn utilization, fra, provides an advantage only if Salmonella can initiate inflammation and use tetrathionate as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration (the fra phenotype is lost in Salmonella SPI1− SPI2− or ttrA mutants, respectively). The severe fitness defect of a Salmonella fra mutant suggests that F-Asn is the primary nutrient utilized by Salmonella in the inflamed intestine and that this system provides a valuable target for novel therapies. PMID:24967579

  16. Variation at the fragile X locus does not influence susceptibility to bipolar disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Craddock, N.; Daniels, J.; McGuffin, P.

    1994-06-15

    Over the last 20 years several pedigrees have been reported which are suggestive of linkage between susceptibility to bipolar disorder and markers on chromosome Xq28. Other workers have failed to replicate these reports and the methodology of the positive reports has been criticized. Recently there have been several reports of an association between fragile X (FRA(X)) and affective disorder within families and in unrelated individuals compared with controls. Such reports could be consistent with the Xq28 marker reports because FRA(X) maps to Xq27.3. We report a study at the FRA(X) CGG repeat locus in 79 unrelated Caucasian bipolar probands without fragile X syndrome and 77 unrelated controls. We found no evidence that variation at this locus confers susceptibility to bipolar disorder. 28 refs., 1 fig.

  17. In vivo brain anatomy of adult males with Fragile X syndrome: an MRI study.

    PubMed

    Hallahan, Brian P; Craig, Michael C; Toal, Fiona; Daly, Eileen M; Moore, Caroline J; Ambikapathy, Anita; Robertson, Dene; Murphy, Kieran C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is caused by the expansion of a single trinucleotide gene sequence (CGG) on the X chromosome, and is a leading cause of learning disability (mental retardation) worldwide. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the neuroanatomical abnormalities associated with FraX. Of those that are available many included mixed gender populations, combined FraX children and adults into one sample, and employed manual tracing techniques which measures bulk volume of particular regions. Hence, there is relatively little information on differences in grey and white matter content across whole brain. We employed magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain anatomy in 17 adult males with FraX and 18 healthy controls that did not differ significantly in age. Data were analysed using stereology and VBM to compare (respectively) regional brain bulk volume, and localised grey/white matter content. Using stereology we found that FraX males had a significant increase in bulk volume bilaterally of the caudate nucleus and parietal lobes and of the right brainstem, but a significant decrease in volume of the left frontal lobe. Our complimentary VBM analysis revealed an increased volume of grey matter in fronto-striatal regions (including bilaterally in the caudate nucleus), and increased white matter in regions extending from the brainstem to the parahippocampal gyrus, and from the left cingulate cortex extending into the corpus callosum. People with FraX have regionally specific differences in brain anatomy from healthy controls with enlargement of the caudate nuclei that persists into adulthood.

  18. Regulation of Heart Rate in Drosophila via Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein.

    PubMed

    Novak, Stefanie Mares; Joardar, Archi; Gregorio, Carol C; Zarnescu, Daniela C

    2015-01-01

    RNA binding proteins play a pivotal role in post-transcriptional gene expression regulation, however little is understood about their role in cardiac function. The Fragile X (FraX) family of RNA binding proteins is most commonly studied in the context of neurological disorders, as mutations in Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) are the leading cause of inherited mental retardation. More recently, alterations in the levels of Fragile X Related 1 protein, FXR1, the predominant FraX member expressed in vertebrate striated muscle, have been linked to structural and functional defects in mice and zebrafish models. FraX proteins are established regulators of translation and are known to regulate specific targets in different tissues. To decipher the direct role of FraX proteins in the heart in vivo, we turned to Drosophila, which harbors a sole, functionally conserved and ubiquitously expressed FraX protein, dFmr1. Using classical loss of function alleles as well as muscle specific RNAi knockdown, we show that Drosophila FMRP, dFmr1, is required for proper heart rate during development. Functional analyses in the context of cardiac-specific dFmr1 knockdown by RNAi demonstrate that dFmr1 is required cell autonomously in cardiac cells for regulating heart rate. Interestingly, these functional defects are not accompanied by any obvious structural abnormalities, suggesting that dFmr1 may regulate a different repertoire of targets in Drosophila than in vertebrates. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis that dFmr1 protein is essential for proper cardiac function and establish the fly as a new model for studying the role(s) of FraX proteins in the heart.

  19. Regulation of Heart Rate in Drosophila via Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Stefanie Mares; Joardar, Archi; Gregorio, Carol C.; Zarnescu, Daniela C.

    2015-01-01

    RNA binding proteins play a pivotal role in post-transcriptional gene expression regulation, however little is understood about their role in cardiac function. The Fragile X (FraX) family of RNA binding proteins is most commonly studied in the context of neurological disorders, as mutations in Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) are the leading cause of inherited mental retardation. More recently, alterations in the levels of Fragile X Related 1 protein, FXR1, the predominant FraX member expressed in vertebrate striated muscle, have been linked to structural and functional defects in mice and zebrafish models. FraX proteins are established regulators of translation and are known to regulate specific targets in different tissues. To decipher the direct role of FraX proteins in the heart in vivo, we turned to Drosophila, which harbors a sole, functionally conserved and ubiquitously expressed FraX protein, dFmr1. Using classical loss of function alleles as well as muscle specific RNAi knockdown, we show that Drosophila FMRP, dFmr1, is required for proper heart rate during development. Functional analyses in the context of cardiac-specific dFmr1 knockdown by RNAi demonstrate that dFmr1 is required cell autonomously in cardiac cells for regulating heart rate. Interestingly, these functional defects are not accompanied by any obvious structural abnormalities, suggesting that dFmr1 may regulate a different repertoire of targets in Drosophila than in vertebrates. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis that dFmr1 protein is essential for proper cardiac function and establish the fly as a new model for studying the role(s) of FraX proteins in the heart. PMID:26571124

  20. A Cascade of Iron-Containing Proteins Governs the Genetic Iron Starvation Response to Promote Iron Uptake and Inhibit Iron Storage in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Mercè; Ayté, José; Hidalgo, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential cofactor, but it is also toxic at high levels. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the sensor glutaredoxin Grx4 guides the activity of the repressors Php4 and Fep1 to mediate a complex transcriptional response to iron deprivation: activation of Php4 and inactivation of Fep1 leads to inhibition of iron usage/storage, and to promotion of iron import, respectively. However, the molecular events ruling the activity of this double-branched pathway remained elusive. We show here that Grx4 incorporates a glutathione-containing iron-sulfur cluster, alone or forming a heterodimer with the BolA-like protein Fra2. Our genetic study demonstrates that Grx4-Fra2, but not Fep1 nor Php4, participates not only in iron starvation signaling but also in iron-related aerobic metabolism. Iron-containing Grx4 binds and inactivates the Php4 repressor; upon iron deprivation, the cluster in Grx4 is probably disassembled, the proteins dissociate, and Php4 accumulates at the nucleus and represses iron consumption genes. Fep1 is also an iron-containing protein, and the tightly bound iron is required for transcriptional repression. Our data suggest that the cluster-containing Grx4-Fra2 heterodimer constitutively binds to Fep1, and upon iron deprivation the disassembly of the iron cluster between Grx4 and Fra2 promotes reverse metal transfer from Fep1 to Grx4-Fra2, and de-repression of iron-import genes. Our genetic and biochemical study demonstrates that the glutaredoxin Grx4 independently governs the Php4 and Fep1 repressors through metal transfer. Whereas iron loss from Grx4 seems to be sufficient to release Php4 and allow its nuclear accumulation, total or partial disassembly of the Grx4-Fra2 cluster actively participates in iron-containing Fep1 activation by sequestering its iron and decreasing its interaction with promoters. PMID:25806539

  1. The human chromosomal fragile sites more often involved in constitutional deletions and duplications - A genetic and statistical assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Dora Prata; Sequeira, Inês J.; Figueiredo, Carlos; Rueff, José; Brás, Aldina

    2016-12-01

    Human chromosomal fragile sites (CFSs) are heritable loci or regions of the human chromosomes prone to exhibit gaps, breaks and rearrangements. Determining the frequency of deletions and duplications in CFSs may contribute to explain the occurrence of human disease due to those rearrangements. In this study we analyzed the frequency of deletions and duplications in each human CFS. Statistical methods, namely data display, descriptive statistics and linear regression analysis were applied to analyze this dataset. We found that FRA15C, FRA16A and FRAXB are the most frequently involved CFSs in deletions and duplications occurring in the human genome.

  2. 75 FR 180 - Notice of Public Hearing; Western New York & Pennsylvania Railroad

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... discontinuance and removal of the traffic control signal system between milepost (MP) BR134.0 at North Driftwood, PA, and MP BR44.5 at Machias, NY, on the WNYP Buffalo Line. This proceeding is identified as FRA...., Deputy Associate Administrator for Safety Standards and Program Development. [FR Doc. E9-31111 Filed...

  3. Cytological and molecular characterization of three gametoclones of citrus clementina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three gametoclonal plants of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cv. Nules, designated ESP, FRA, and ITA (derived from three labs in Spain, France, and Italy, respectively), were selected for cytological and molecular characterization in order to elucidate genomic rearrangements provoked by haploidizat...

  4. Interannual, seasonal, and diel variability in the carbon isotope composition of respiration in a C3/C4 agricultural ecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stable carbon isotope ratio 13CO2/12CO2 is a valuable tool for understanding the processes controlling the autotrophic (FRa) and heterotrophic (FRh) contributions to ecosystem respiration (FR) as well as influences of photosynthesis on respiration. There is increasing interest in the temporal va...

  5. 78 FR 71712 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ...) for a waiver of compliance from certain Federal hours of service requirements for train employees engaged in commuter or intercity rail passenger transportation contained at 49 CFR 228.405(a)(3). FRA... January 31, 2014, to February 3, 2014, allowing train employees to exceed the consecutive day...

  6. 75 FR 3960 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... unit (EMU) vehicles, constructed to European safety standards for its Caltrain commuter rail service... commuter rail service between San Francisco, CA, and Gilroy, CA , is currently considering a program that... train control system, a key component of this program involves the operation of some non-FRA...

  7. 76 FR 18217 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ..., South Coast Rail Project, To Establish Commuter Passenger Transit Service between Boston and the Cities... EIS, FRA, NV, DesertXpress High-Speed Passenger Train Project, Proposes to Construct and Operate High-Speed Passenger Train between Victorville, California and Las Vegas, Nevada, Review Period Ends:...

  8. 77 FR 68884 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ...) for a waiver of compliance from certain Federal hours of service requirements for train employees engaged in commuter or intercity rail passenger transportation contained at 49 CFR 228.405(a)(3). FRA... revision. A general pick, as described by LIRR, is a biannual event allowing train employees to bid on...

  9. Restoring Forests and Associated Ecosystem Services on Appalachian Coal Surface Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipper, Carl E.; Burger, James A.; Skousen, Jeffrey G.; Angel, Patrick N.; Barton, Christopher D.; Davis, Victor; Franklin, Jennifer A.

    2011-05-01

    Surface coal mining in Appalachia has caused extensive replacement of forest with non-forested land cover, much of which is unmanaged and unproductive. Although forested ecosystems are valued by society for both marketable products and ecosystem services, forests have not been restored on most Appalachian mined lands because traditional reclamation practices, encouraged by regulatory policies, created conditions poorly suited for reforestation. Reclamation scientists have studied productive forests growing on older mine sites, established forest vegetation experimentally on recent mines, and identified mine reclamation practices that encourage forest vegetation re-establishment. Based on these findings, they developed a Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) that can be employed by coal mining firms to restore forest vegetation. Scientists and mine regulators, working collaboratively, have communicated the FRA to the coal industry and to regulatory enforcement personnel. Today, the FRA is used routinely by many coal mining firms, and thousands of mined hectares have been reclaimed to restore productive mine soils and planted with native forest trees. Reclamation of coal mines using the FRA is expected to restore these lands' capabilities to provide forest-based ecosystem services, such as wood production, atmospheric carbon sequestration, wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and water quality protection to a greater extent than conventional reclamation practices.

  10. 77 FR 75697 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... imbalance of inner and outer wheel loads when a rail vehicle traverses a curve. With the right combination... passengers when the vehicle is traversing the curve. To counter the imbalance, the superelevation on the.... FRA does not anticipate scheduling a public hearing in connection with these proceedings since...

  11. 78 FR 14874 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... vehicles used in passenger trains, and 49 CFR 238.309, Periodic brake equipment maintenance. FRA assigned... vehicles is the Meadows Maintenance Complex. This facility was heavily damaged by flood waters as a result... locomotives and 27 self-propelled Arrow vehicles. NJT has also completed the 180-day inspection for...

  12. Developing a Modular Framework for Implementing a Semantic Search Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    the fra mework components and 29 also provide a brief definition of purpose to each. Additionally, the operational contracts precisely d efine ...FUTURE WORK Overall, this res earch successfully accom plished its objectives as d efined in Chapter I. However, severa l areas could benefit

  13. 77 FR 35108 - Gulf, Colorado & San Saba Railway; Emergency Order To Prevent Operation of Trains Over the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    .... Railroads are subject to FRA's safety jurisdiction under the Federal railroad safety laws, 49 U.S.C. 20102... emergency situation involving a hazard of death or personal injury.'' 49 U.S.C. 20104. These orders may... to 10 m.p.h. This includes the trackage over the highway-rail grade crossing at U.S. Highway...

  14. 78 FR 48224 - Lac-Mégantic Railroad Accident Discussion and DOT Safety Recommendations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... 2013-06] Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2013-0196; Notice No...: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) and Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA... export capacity from the Bakken region, located mostly in North Dakota, will increase over the next...

  15. 75 FR 39325 - Notice of Draft Finding of No Significant Impact for the Washington State Portion of the Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Portion of the Pacific Northwest Rail Corridor Upgrades Tier-1 Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Federal... Department of Transportation (WSDOT) prepared a Tier-1 Environmental Assessment (Tier-1 EA) that evaluates... Northwest Rail Corridor (PNWRC Program). Based on the Tier-1 EA, the FRA has prepared a draft finding of...

  16. Fungal trunk diseases: A problem beyond grapevines?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs) are caused by a range of taxonomically unrelated fungi, which occur wherever grapes are grown and are the main biotic factor limiting vineyard productivity and longevity. GTDs cause untenable economic losses. For example, they are considered a “national crisis” in Fra...

  17. The lunar highland melt-rock suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Size can be used as a criterion to select 18 large (larger than 1 cm) samples from among 148 melt-rock fragments of all sizes. This selection provides a suite of large samples which represent the important chemical variants among highland melt rocks; each large sample has enough material for a number of sample-destructive studies, as well as for future reference. Cluster analysis of the total data base of 148 highland melt rocks shows six distinct groups: anorthosite, gabbroic anorthosite, anorthositic gabbro ('highland basalt'), low K Fra Mauro, intermediate-K Fra Mauro, and high-K. Large samples are available for four of the melt-rock groups (gabbroic anorthosite, anorthositic gabbro, low-K Fra Mauro, and intermediate-K Fra Mauro). This sample selection reveals two subgroups of anorthositic gabbro (one anorthite-poor with negative Eu anomaly and one anorthite-rich without Eu anomaly). There is a sharp distinction between those Apollo 16 melt rocks and glasses which have both been classified as 'gabbroic anorthosite'.

  18. 49 CFR 244.17 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... information necessary to support its proposed Safety Integration Plan as FRA may require to satisfy the... applicant requesting that advanced drafts of the proposed Safety Integration Plan and information in support... TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS,...

  19. 49 CFR 244.17 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... information necessary to support its proposed Safety Integration Plan as FRA may require to satisfy the... applicant requesting that advanced drafts of the proposed Safety Integration Plan and information in support... TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS,...

  20. 49 CFR 244.17 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... information necessary to support its proposed Safety Integration Plan as FRA may require to satisfy the... applicant requesting that advanced drafts of the proposed Safety Integration Plan and information in support... TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS,...

  1. 49 CFR 244.17 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information necessary to support its proposed Safety Integration Plan as FRA may require to satisfy the... applicant requesting that advanced drafts of the proposed Safety Integration Plan and information in support... TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS,...

  2. 49 CFR 244.17 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... information necessary to support its proposed Safety Integration Plan as FRA may require to satisfy the... applicant requesting that advanced drafts of the proposed Safety Integration Plan and information in support... TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS,...

  3. WWOX guards genome stability by activating ATM.

    PubMed

    Hazan, Idit; Abu-Odeh, Mohammad; Hofmann, Thomas G; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2015-01-01

    Common fragile sites (CFSs) tend to break upon replication stress and have been suggested to be "hot spots" for genomic instability. Recent evidence, however, implies that in the wake of DNA damage, WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX, the gene product of the FRA16D fragile site), associates with ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and regulates its activation to maintain genomic integrity.

  4. Fatigue and Workload in Four-Man C-5A Cockpit Crews (Volant Galaxy).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    STATEMi NT BETTER THAN SAME AS WORSE THAN I. VERY LIVELY 2. EXTREMELY TIRED 3. QUITE FRESH 4. SLIGHTLY POOPED W 2hi S. EXTREMELY PEPPY 6. SOMEWHAT...FRESH .3 7. PETFREO OUT 8. VERY REFRESHED W 9. FAIRLY WELL POOPED 0 _o 10. READY TO DROP SAM FraM 136 SUBJECTIVE FATIGUE CHECKCARD .5fP 76 Figure 2. On

  5. GHz-THz Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-07

    Material and device breakthroughs for meta-materials, artificial dielectrics, ferrites , multi-ferroics, nano-magnetics, and micro/nano...deposition, atomic layer deposition promises monolayer control without metal catalyst In fra re d Tr an sm is si on (% ) C B N 8 Distribution A

  6. 12 CFR 211.6 - Permissible activities of Edge and agreement corporations in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) International... the United States. (a) Activities incidental to international or foreign business. An Edge or... permitted by section 25A(6) of the FRA (12 U.S.C. 615) and are incidental to international or...

  7. 12 CFR 211.6 - Permissible activities of Edge and agreement corporations in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) International... the United States. (a) Activities incidental to international or foreign business. An Edge or... permitted by section 25A(6) of the FRA (12 U.S.C. 615) and are incidental to international or...

  8. 12 CFR 211.6 - Permissible activities of Edge and agreement corporations in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) International... the United States. (a) Activities incidental to international or foreign business. An Edge or... permitted by section 25A(6) of the FRA (12 U.S.C. 615) and are incidental to international or...

  9. The Mechanism of Tetinoblastoma Protein-Mediated Terminal Cell Cycle Arrest

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    SantaCruz Biotech) or cyclin Dl (AB-3, Neomarker) antibody, c-Fos, c-Jun, Fra-2 and MyoD antibody ( SantaCruz Biotech Inc., USA). Figure 3. The temporal...promoter. Figure 12. Chormatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay for differentiated genuine mouse myoblast cells using MyoD antibody ( SantaCruz Biotech, SC

  10. 78 FR 14875 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ..., as well as any written communications concerning the petition, is available for review online at www... participate in these proceedings by submitting written views, data, or comments. FRA does not anticipate... writing, before the end of the comment period and specify the basis for their request. All...

  11. 78 FR 14876 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... that is permitted by law. A copy of the petition, as well as any written communications concerning the.... Interested parties are invited to participate in these proceedings by submitting written views, data, or... comment, they should notify FRA, in writing, before the end of the comment period and specify the...

  12. 78 FR 35659 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... the petition (included at the end of this notice), as well as any written communications concerning... Federal Holidays. Interested parties are invited to participate in these proceedings by submitting written... for oral comment, they should notify FRA, in writing, before the end of the comment period and...

  13. 78 FR 14876 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... documents. A copy of the petition, as well as any written communications concerning the petition, is... parties are invited to participate in these proceedings by submitting written views, data, or comments... comment, they should notify FRA, in writing, before the end of the comment period and specify the...

  14. 78 FR 1933 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... of the petition, as well as any written communications concerning the petition, is available for... parties are invited to participate in these proceedings by submitting written views, data, or comments... comment, they should notify FRA, in writing, before the end of the comment period and specify the...

  15. 49 CFR 212.107 - Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification. 212.107 Section 212.107... Certification. (a) Scope. In the event the FRA and the State agency do not agree on terms for the participation... the Federal Railroad Safety Act of 1970, the State shall file an annual certification with respect...

  16. 49 CFR 225.41 - Suicide data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suicide data. 225.41 Section 225.41 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS: REPORTS CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.41 Suicide data. FRA does not include suicide data (as defined in § 225.5) in its periodic summaries of data on...

  17. 49 CFR 225.41 - Suicide data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Suicide data. 225.41 Section 225.41 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS: REPORTS CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.41 Suicide data. FRA does not include suicide data (as defined in § 225.5) in its periodic summaries of data on...

  18. 49 CFR 225.41 - Suicide data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Suicide data. 225.41 Section 225.41 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS: REPORTS CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.41 Suicide data. FRA does not include suicide data (as defined in § 225.5) in its periodic summaries of data on...

  19. 49 CFR 225.41 - Suicide data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Suicide data. 225.41 Section 225.41 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS: REPORTS CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.41 Suicide data. FRA does not include suicide data (as defined in § 225.5) in its periodic summaries of data on...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 222 - Guide to Establishing Quiet Zones

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... implementation process. This section also discusses Partial (e.g. night time only quiet zones) and Intermediate... remain qualified. The circumstances that cause the disqualification may not be subject to the control of... recommended to aid in the decision making process (http://www.fra.dot.gov/us/content/1337). The Quiet...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 222 - Guide to Establishing Quiet Zones

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... implementation process. This section also discusses Partial (e.g. night time only quiet zones) and Intermediate... remain qualified. The circumstances that cause the disqualification may not be subject to the control of... recommended to aid in the decision making process (http://www.fra.dot.gov/us/content/1337). The Quiet...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 222 - Guide to Establishing Quiet Zones

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... implementation process. This section also discusses Partial (e.g. night time only quiet zones) and Intermediate... remain qualified. The circumstances that cause the disqualification may not be subject to the control of... recommended to aid in the decision making process (http://www.fra.dot.gov/us/content/1337). The Quiet...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 222 - Guide to Establishing Quiet Zones

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... implementation process. This section also discusses Partial (e.g. night time only quiet zones) and Intermediate... remain qualified. The circumstances that cause the disqualification may not be subject to the control of... recommended to aid in the decision making process (http://www.fra.dot.gov/us/content/1337). The Quiet...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 222 - Guide to Establishing Quiet Zones

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... implementation process. This section also discusses Partial (e.g. night time only quiet zones) and Intermediate... remain qualified. The circumstances that cause the disqualification may not be subject to the control of... recommended to aid in the decision making process (http://www.fra.dot.gov/us/content/1337). The Quiet...

  5. 49 CFR 229.211 - Processing of petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... submitted to the U.S. Department of Transportation Docket Operations (M-30), West Building Ground Floor... requires additional information to appropriately consider the petition, FRA will conduct a hearing on the..., or both which may include validated computer modeling, structural crush analysis, component...

  6. 49 CFR 229.211 - Processing of petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to the U.S. Department of Transportation Docket Operations (M-30), West Building Ground Floor, Room... requires additional information to appropriately consider the petition, FRA will conduct a hearing on the..., or both which may include validated computer modeling, structural crush analysis, component...

  7. 75 FR 55632 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), notice is hereby given that the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... locomotives are primarily used in yard switching service and on rare occasions provide back-up service for.... Lauby, Deputy Associate Administrator for Regulatory and Legislative Operations. BILLING CODE 4910-06-P...

  8. The Reserve Intentions of Active Duty Army Nurses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    nursing students will be declining relatively in proportion to other segments of the population. In addition, recent years have seen a waning vocational...Institute of Nursing Program (WRAIN) which trained nurses fra 1966 to 1978. Table 6 provides a picture of the geograpic distribution of assigrment

  9. 75 FR 1547 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Determination. SUMMARY: Using data from Management Information System... alcohol program data taken from FRA's Management Information System. Based on this data, the Administrator... percent for drugs and 0.15 percent for alcohol. Because the industry-wide random drug testing...

  10. 49 CFR 210.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Standards, 40 CFR part 201. Railroad equipment means rail cars, locomotives, active retarders, and load cell... Administrator has delegated authority to act in the Administrator's stead. Consist of a locomotive and rail cars means one or more locomotives coupled to a rail car or rail cars. FRA means the Federal...

  11. 49 CFR 210.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Standards, 40 CFR part 201. Railroad equipment means rail cars, locomotives, active retarders, and load cell... Administrator has delegated authority to act in the Administrator's stead. Consist of a locomotive and rail cars means one or more locomotives coupled to a rail car or rail cars. FRA means the Federal...

  12. Automated riverine landscape characterization: GIS-based tools for watershed-scale research, assessment, and management

    EPA Science Inventory

    River systems consist of hydrogeomorphic patches (HPs) that emerge at multiple spatiotemporal scales. Functional process zones (FPZs) are HPs that exist at the river valley scae and are important strata for fraing whole-watershed research questions and management plans. Hierarchi...

  13. Cumulative effects of in utero administration of mixtures of "antiandrogens" on male rat reproductive development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although risk assessments are typically conducted on a chemical-by-chemical basis, the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act requires the USEPA to consider cumulative risk of chemicals that act via a common mechanism of toxicity. To this end, we are conducting studies to provide a fra...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 219 - Post-Accident Testing Specimen Collection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Collection of blood and urine specimens is required to be conducted at an independent medical facility... and transfer of blood and urine specimens for three surviving employees can be found in the FRA post.... Each shipping box contains supplies for blood/urine collections from three individuals,...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 219 - Post-Accident Testing Specimen Collection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Collection of blood and urine specimens is required to be conducted at an independent medical facility... and transfer of blood and urine specimens for three surviving employees can be found in the FRA post.... Each shipping box contains supplies for blood/urine collections from three individuals,...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 219 - Post-Accident Testing Specimen Collection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Collection of blood and urine specimens is required to be conducted at an independent medical facility... and transfer of blood and urine specimens for three surviving employees can be found in the FRA post.... Each shipping box contains supplies for blood/urine collections from three individuals,...

  17. 49 CFR 225.12 - Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement... cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement. (a) Rail Equipment... Attachment. If, in reporting a rail equipment accident/incident to FRA, a railroad cites an employee...

  18. 75 FR 69165 - Conductor Certification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ...FRA proposes to prescribe regulations for certification of conductors, as required by the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008. The proposed rule would require railroads to have a formal program for certifying conductors. As part of that program, railroads would be required to have a formal process for training prospective conductors and determining that all persons are competent before......

  19. 75 FR 16564 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ...On January 28, 2010, President Obama announced the first selections for the High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program. This notice builds on the program framework established by FRA in the June 23, 2009 interim program guidance (74 FR 29900), and details the application requirements and procedures for obtaining funding for high- speed rail planning activities under the Department of......

  20. 76 FR 16199 - Hours of Service of Railroad Employees; Substantive Regulations for Train Employees Providing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ...FRA is proposing to amend its hours of service recordkeeping regulations, to establish hours of service regulations, including maximum on-duty periods, minimum off-duty periods, and other limitations, for train employees (e.g., locomotive engineers and conductors) providing commuter and intercity rail passenger transportation. The proposed regulations would require that railroads employing......

  1. 75 FR 16552 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ...On January 28, 2010, President Obama announced the first selections for the High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program. This notice builds on the program framework established by FRA in the June 23, 2009 interim program guidance (74 FR 29900), and details the application requirements and procedures for obtaining the remaining funds available under the Department of Transportation......

  2. 49 CFR 225.27 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Summary,” that the railroad submits to FRA on optical media (CD-ROM) or electronically via the Internet to... subject to the following system requirements: (1) Design Requirements. Any electronic record keeping system used to retain a record required to be retained by this part shall meet the following...

  3. 49 CFR 225.33 - Internal Control Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... full compliance with the letter and spirit of FRA's accident reporting regulations, and to the... or intimidation. (2) The dissemination of the policy statement; complaint procedures. Each railroad... departments); (B) The title of each railroad reporting officer; (C) The title of each manager of...

  4. 49 CFR 225.33 - Internal Control Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... full compliance with the letter and spirit of FRA's accident reporting regulations, and to the... or intimidation. (2) The dissemination of the policy statement; complaint procedures. Each railroad... departments); (B) The title of each railroad reporting officer; (C) The title of each manager of...

  5. 49 CFR 225.33 - Internal Control Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... full compliance with the letter and spirit of FRA's accident reporting regulations, and to the... or intimidation. (2) The dissemination of the policy statement; complaint procedures. Each railroad... departments); (B) The title of each railroad reporting officer; (C) The title of each manager of...

  6. 49 CFR 225.33 - Internal Control Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... full compliance with the letter and spirit of FRA's accident reporting regulations, and to the... or intimidation. (2) The dissemination of the policy statement; complaint procedures. Each railroad... departments); (B) The title of each railroad reporting officer; (C) The title of each manager of...

  7. 49 CFR 225.33 - Internal Control Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... full compliance with the letter and spirit of FRA's accident reporting regulations, and to the... or intimidation. (2) The dissemination of the policy statement; complaint procedures. Each railroad... departments); (B) The title of each railroad reporting officer; (C) The title of each manager of...

  8. 77 FR 61656 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... Approval from FRA. MCHF/BSFSRY states that it is a 501(c)3 not-for-profit organization. This tourist... of MCHF. BSFSRY is a non-insular tourist operation and does not interchange any of the equipment.... Since 2000 MCHF has operated BSFSRY as a historical tourist railroad for the purpose of providing...

  9. 12 CFR 211.8 - Investments and activities abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 211.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... direct investments under section 25 of the FRA (12 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) shall be limited to: (1) Foreign banks; (2) Domestic or foreign organizations formed for the sole purpose of holding shares of a...

  10. Exploring the Prospect for Peace in West Africa: Is ECOMOG the Solution?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    Lieutenant Colonel Jim Jovene Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama March 2002 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden...like to thank my Faculty Research Advisor (FRA) Lieutenant Colonel Jim Jovene , Mrs. Pam Hollabaugh and the Air University librarians for their

  11. 49 CFR 234.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... arm lights) on any approach lane to the crossing are not functioning as intended, or in the case of an approach lane for which two or more pairs of flashing lights are provided, there is not at least one... flagging will be available from FRA, as well as FMCSA, as changes are made in this area. Credible report...

  12. 49 CFR 234.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... arm lights) on any approach lane to the crossing are not functioning as intended, or in the case of an approach lane for which two or more pairs of flashing lights are provided, there is not at least one... flagging will be available from FRA, as well as FMCSA, as changes are made in this area. Credible report...

  13. 49 CFR 234.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... arm lights) on any approach lane to the crossing are not functioning as intended, or in the case of an approach lane for which two or more pairs of flashing lights are provided, there is not at least one... flagging will be available from FRA, as well as FMCSA, as changes are made in this area. Credible report...

  14. 49 CFR 219.800 - Annual reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual reports. 219.800 Section 219.800..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Annual Report § 219.800 Annual reports. (a) Each... States) must submit to FRA by March 15 of each year a report covering the previous calendar year...

  15. Lack of association between mutation size and cognitive/behavior deficits in fragile X males: A brief report

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, G.S.; Simensen, R.

    1996-08-09

    Previously, researchers reported molecular-neurobehavioral or molecular-cognitive associations in individuals with fra(X) (fragile X) mutation. However, not all investigators have noted molecular-behavioral relationships. Consequently, we examined prospectively 30 fra(X) males age 3-15 years from four testing sites to determine whether there was a relationship between mutation size and degree of either cognitive or adaptive behavior deficit. To measure cognitive abilities, all individuals were administered the Stanford-Binet (4th edition) IQ test. To evaluate adaptive behavior (DQ) skills, all individuals were assessed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. To determine fra(X) status, genomic DNA from all individuals was extracted and digested with EcoRI and EagI restriction enzymes. Southern blots were prepared and hybridized with the pE5.1 probe. The Pearson correlation coefficient between full mutation size and composite IQ score revealed a non-significant, near-zero association (r = 0.06; P > .76). The Pearson coefficient between mutation size and DQ also showed a non-significant, near-zero association (r = 0.06; P >.73). We conclude that while fra(X) mutation produces cognitive and behavior deficits in males who inherit the defective gene, there is no relationship between mutation size and degree of deficit. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  16. 77 FR 23159 - Locomotive Safety Standards; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Parts 229 and 238 RIN 2130-AC16 Locomotive Safety Standards; Correction AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY:...

  17. 75 FR 39617 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... that lack of a site meeting the requirements of the horn test regulation has caused SEPTA to be unable to perform any of the required horn tests. SEPTA has recently realized that removal of trees at their... for oral comment, they should notify FRA, in writing, before the end of the comment period and...

  18. 76 FR 80781 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 219 RIN 2130-AA81 Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of... CONTACT: Lamar Allen, Alcohol and Drug Program Manager, Office of Safety Enforcement, Mail Stop 25...-6313); or Kathy Schnakenberg, FRA Alcohol/Drug Program Specialist, (telephone (719) 633-8955)....

  19. 49 CFR 218.97 - Good faith challenge procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Handling Equipment, Switches, and Fixed... equipment, switches, and fixed derails as required by this subpart, or to take actions that would violate... task would violate FRA regulations regarding the handling of equipment, switches, and fixed derails...

  20. 49 CFR 218.97 - Good faith challenge procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Handling Equipment, Switches, and Fixed... equipment, switches, and fixed derails as required by this subpart, or to take actions that would violate... task would violate FRA regulations regarding the handling of equipment, switches, and fixed derails...

  1. 49 CFR 218.97 - Good faith challenge procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Handling Equipment, Switches, and Fixed... equipment, switches, and fixed derails as required by this subpart, or to take actions that would violate... task would violate FRA regulations regarding the handling of equipment, switches, and fixed derails...

  2. 76 FR 72850 - Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for Reporting Rail Equipment Accidents/Incidents for Calendar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 225 RIN 2130-ZA05 Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for... threshold of $9,500. Notice and Comment Procedures In this rule, FRA has recalculated the monetary reporting... DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures This rule has been evaluated in accordance with...

  3. 77 FR 71354 - Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for Reporting Rail Equipment Accidents/Incidents for Calendar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 225 RIN 2130-ZA10 Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for... threshold of $9,900. ] Notice and Comment Procedures In this rule, FRA has recalculated the monetary... 12866 and 13563 and DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures This rule has been evaluated in...

  4. 78 FR 36817 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... comments to OMB within 30 days of publication to best ensure having their full effect. 5 CFR 1320.12(c... bodies of water. FRA has added 49 CFR Part 214 to establish minimum workplace safety standards for... dispatching service employees. The basic information--evidence of unauthorized use of drugs and...

  5. Determining the dispersion characteristics of rivers from the frequency response of the system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambertz, Peter; Palancar, MaríA. C.; Aragón, José M.; Gil, Roberto

    2006-09-01

    A new method of determining the parameters of an aggregated dead zone model (ADZ) to predict longitudinal dispersion in rivers is presented. The method is based on the frequency response analysis (FRA) of observed field tests, which consist of tracer injections (input) and measurement of tracer in downstream sampling points (output) located downstream from the injection point. The ADZ is a combination of plug and completely mixed flow compartments. The ADZ parameters (number of compartments, mean residence time, and delay time) are evaluated by means of Bode plots that give the system order (number of compartments), gain, time constant (mean residence time of each compartment) and delay time. The FRA-ADZ method was checked with tracer data runs in two Spanish rivers, the Tagus and the Ebro rivers. The experimental tracer concentration versus time distributions were compared with the ADZ predicted curves, which were calculated using parameters obtained from the FRA method, and with curves predicted by several classical models. The residence time of several reaches within the two studied rivers was predicted by the FRA-ADZ method with a relative error lower than 10%. The method is generally applicable to ideal and nonideal inputs and is particularly well suited to arbitrary-shaped initial source concentration distributions.

  6. 77 FR 69920 - Notice of Availability for Public Review of the Draft Tier 1 Environmental Impact Statement for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Availability for Public Review of the Draft Tier 1... well as the lack of competitive and attractive travel alternatives to highway and air transportation...: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice...

  7. Gene, Brain, and Behavior Relationships in Fragile X Syndrome: Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightbody, Amy A.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FraX) remains the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and provides a valuable model for studying gene-brain-behavior relationships. Over the past 15 years, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have emerged with the goal of better understanding the neural pathways contributing to the…

  8. 75 FR 65398 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... relief. Canadian Pacific Railway The Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) hereby petitions FRA for a temporary... measurement system. Over the course of 6 months, CP intends to test the new system on their Northeast U.S... frequency that is not possible today. CP asserts that the benefits that are expected to be derived from...

  9. 49 CFR 173.319 - Cryogenic liquids in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... notify the Federal Railroad Administration whenever a tank car containing any flammable cryogenic liquid... Federal Railroad Administration may be made by e-mail to Hmassist@fra.dot.gov or telephone call to (202... section may not be used to transport a hazardous material unless the tank car conforms to all...

  10. 78 FR 59755 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Waiver of Compliance In accordance with Part 211 of Title 49... June 28, 2013, Canadian National Railway (CN) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) for an extension of its existing waiver of compliance from certain provisions of the Federal...

  11. 78 FR 48765 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Waiver of Compliance In accordance with Part 211 of Title 49... July 19, 2013, the Association of American Railroads (AAR) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) for a waiver of compliance from certain provisions of the Federal railroad...

  12. 75 FR 49551 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Waiver of Compliance In accordance with part 211 of title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), notice is hereby given that the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... relief. Walden's Ridge Railroad Company; Heritage Railroad; Southern Appalachia Railway Museum The...

  13. 49 CFR 173.319 - Cryogenic liquids in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... notify the Federal Railroad Administration whenever a tank car containing any flammable cryogenic liquid... Federal Railroad Administration may be made by e-mail to Hmassist@fra.dot.gov or telephone call to (202... section may not be used to transport a hazardous material unless the tank car conforms to all...

  14. 78 FR 75442 - Emergency Order Under 49 U.S.C. 20104 Establishing Requirements for Controlling Passenger Train...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Emergency Order Under 49 U.S.C. 20104 Establishing Requirements for... Commuter Railroad Company AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT... Transportation Authority's Metro- North Commuter Railroad Company (Metro-North) take certain actions to...

  15. 77 FR 60169 - Safety Advisory 2012-04; Worn Rail Conditions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Safety Advisory 2012-04; Worn Rail Conditions AGENCY: Federal Railroad... issuing Safety Advisory 2012-04 to remind track owners, railroads, and their track inspectors of the... Infrastructure Integrity Division, Office of Railroad Safety, FRA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington,...

  16. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607 Section 219.607 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  17. 75 FR 61552 - Federal Railroad Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Informational Filing In accordance with Section 236.913 of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), notice is hereby given that the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) has received an informational filing from the Northeast Illinois Regional Commuter...

  18. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607 Section 219.607 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  19. 49 CFR 225.31 - Investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Investigations. 225.31 Section 225.31..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS: REPORTS CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.31 Investigations. (a) It is the policy of the FRA to investigate rail transportation...

  20. 49 CFR 225.31 - Investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Investigations. 225.31 Section 225.31..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS: REPORTS CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.31 Investigations. (a) It is the policy of the FRA to investigate rail transportation...

  1. 49 CFR 225.31 - Investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Investigations. 225.31 Section 225.31..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS: REPORTS CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.31 Investigations. (a) It is the policy of the FRA to investigate rail transportation...

  2. 49 CFR 225.31 - Investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Investigations. 225.31 Section 225.31..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS: REPORTS CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.31 Investigations. (a) It is the policy of the FRA to investigate rail transportation...

  3. 49 CFR 225.31 - Investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Investigations. 225.31 Section 225.31..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS: REPORTS CLASSIFICATION, AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.31 Investigations. (a) It is the policy of the FRA to investigate rail transportation...

  4. 49 CFR 238.313 - Class I brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... correctly aligned in relation to the wheel or to the disc; (6) The engineer's brake valve or controller will..., provided FRA has access to the record upon request. (2) The written or electronic record must contain the...; (iv) The total number of cars inspected during the test; and (v) The signature or...

  5. 78 FR 25344 - Petition for a Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... regulations contained at 49 CFR part 240, Qualification and Certification of Locomotive Engineers. FRA... locomotive or train service, in order to operate an ``engineer-for-an-hour'' (EFH) program. NAUG is a wholly... engineer is in the locomotive cab at all times. NAUG also states in its petition that a qualified...

  6. 78 FR 36738 - Signal System Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ...., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sean Crain, Electronic Engineer, Signal and Train Control Division, Office of Railroad Safety, FRA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE... Report form into an electronic format. The electronic form required all of the same information as...

  7. 49 CFR 238.313 - Class I brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... correctly aligned in relation to the wheel or to the disc; (6) The engineer's brake valve or controller will..., provided FRA has access to the record upon request. (2) The written or electronic record must contain the...; (iv) The total number of cars inspected during the test; and (v) The signature or...

  8. 75 FR 59579 - Restrictions on Railroad Operating Employees' Use of Cellular Telephones and Other Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... Distracting Electronic Devices on the Safe Performance of Duties by Railroad Operating Employees'' \\1\\ was... Performance of Duties by Railroad Operating Employees'' (May 27, 2010). Available online at: http://www.fra... that destroyed the roof of the motorcoach and injured 11 students, including one seriously....

  9. 75 FR 41281 - Bridge Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ...FRA is establishing Federal safety requirements for railroad bridges. This final rule requires track owners to implement bridge management programs, which include annual inspections of railroad bridges, and to audit the programs. This final rule also requires track owners to know the safe load capacity of bridges and to conduct special inspections if the weather or other conditions warrant......

  10. Global forest cover mapping for the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization forest resources assessment 2000 program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, Z.; Waller, E.

    2003-01-01

    Many countries periodically produce national reports on the status and changes of forest resources, using statistical surveys and spatial mapping of remotely sensed data. At the global level, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has conducted a Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) program every 10 yr since 1980, producing statistics and analysis that give a global synopsis of forest resources in the world. For the year 2000 of the FRA program (FRA2000), a global forest cover map was produced to provide spatial context to the extensive survey. The forest cover map, produced at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Data Center (EDC), has five classes: closed forest, open or fragmented forest, other wooded land, other land cover, and water. The first two forested classes at the global scale were delineated using combinations of temporal compositing, modified mixture analysis, geographic stratification, and other classification techniques. The remaining three FAO classes were derived primarily from the USGS global land cover characteristics database (Loveland et al. 1999). Validated on the basis of existing reference data sets, the map is estimated to be 77% accurate for the first four classes (no reference data were available for water), and 86% accurate for the forest and nonforest classification. The final map will be published as an insert to the FAO FRA2000 report.

  11. 78 FR 70623 - Adjustment of Nationwide Significant Risk Threshold

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... zone in comparison to the Risk Index With Horns, which is defined in 49 CFR 222.9 as a measure of risk... appendix D to 49 CFR part 222. In making this recalculation, FRA noted that the total number of...

  12. 49 CFR 232.505 - Pre-revenue service acceptance testing plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... acceptance tests; (3) Correct any safety deficiencies identified by FRA in the design of the equipment or in... measure or determine the success or failure of the tests. If acceptance is to be based on extrapolation of... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pre-revenue service acceptance testing plan....

  13. 49 CFR 232.505 - Pre-revenue service acceptance testing plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... acceptance tests; (3) Correct any safety deficiencies identified by FRA in the design of the equipment or in... measure or determine the success or failure of the tests. If acceptance is to be based on extrapolation of... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pre-revenue service acceptance testing plan....

  14. Tracking the Use of Ada in Commercial Applications; Case Studies and Summary Report. Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-09

    Promoting a reusable component technology enforcing the separation of components. Th FraCADE is a trademark of Dowell-Schlumberger. 1 Hydraulic ... fracturing involves injection of a non-reactive fluid under very high pressure into a well to create a fracture within an oil reservoir. The fracture itself

  15. 76 FR 50812 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ...) has received a request for a waiver of compliance from certain requirements of its safety standards... relief. Dennison Railroad Depot Museum (RPCX 422) The Dennison Railroad Depot Museum (DRDM), an Ohio... by submitting written views, data, or comments. FRA does not anticipate scheduling a public...

  16. 77 FR 31429 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ...) has ] received a request for a waiver of compliance from certain requirements of its safety standards. The South Carolina Railroad Museum (SCRM) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) for... volunteer, nonprofit 501(c)(3) Class III railroad museum that is located in Fairfield County near...

  17. 77 FR 70876 - Revised Guidance for Requesting One-Time Movement Approvals (OTMA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Revised Guidance for Requesting One-Time Movement Approvals (OTMA) AGENCY.... SUMMARY: FRA is notifying the public of the availability of revised guidance for requesting...

  18. 77 FR 24415 - Inflation Adjustment of the Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalty for a Violation of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Parts 209, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223...); 49 CFR 240.223(a), (b). Further, FRA is revising language in 49 CFR part 209, appendix A, ``Statement..., Transportation. 49 CFR Part 220 Communications, Penalties, Radio, Railroad safety, Reporting and...

  19. 78 FR 65422 - Agency Request for Emergency Processing of Collections of Information Associated With Today's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). FRA requests that... Program. OMB Control Number: 2130--New. Frequency: One-time. Affected Public: 49 States. Form(s): SF-424, SF-424C, SF-424D, SF LLL. Other Instruments: Collection of Information Associated with the...

  20. 75 FR 16562 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... proposals for Federally-led multi- state passenger rail corridor planning demonstration projects. SUMMARY... efforts. The planning project would be identified by the States, but funded and managed by FRA in close... planning project, such as specific institutional barriers or operational complexities. Conditions that...

  1. An integrated spectroscopic and wet chemical approach to investigate grass litter decomposition chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Litter decomposition is a key process for soil organic matter formation and terrestrial biogeochemistry. Yet we still lack complete understanding of the chemical transformations which occur in the litter residue as it decomposes. A number of methods such as bulk nutrient concentrations, chemical fra...

  2. 78 FR 16414 - Systems for Telephonic Notification of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration... condition at highway-rail and pathway grade crossings. This document amends and clarifies the final rule..., Transportation Specialist, Grade Crossing Safety and Trespass Prevention, Office of Safety Analysis, FRA,...

  3. 77 FR 43902 - Notice of Availability of a Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the California...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... Statement for the California High-Speed Train Project Fresno to Bakersfield Section AGENCY: Federal Railroad... Statement (EIS) has been prepared for the Fresno to Bakersfield Section of the California High- Speed Train... prepared by FRA and the Authority to meet the federal requirements of the National Environmental Policy...

  4. 49 CFR 228.205 - Access to electronic records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to electronic records. 228.205 Section 228... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES Electronic Recordkeeping § 228.205 Access to electronic records. (a) FRA inspectors and State inspectors participating under...

  5. Characterizing wool keratin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Keratin from wool is a reactive, biocompatible, and biodegradable material. Efficient alkaline extractions gave yields of 68% to 82% protein within 2 to 5 hours of exposure at 65 ºC. The water soluble keratin preparations contained intermediate filament and microfibrillar component-proteins of fra...

  6. Associations between Repetitive Questioning, Resistance to Change, Temper Outbursts and Anxiety in Prader-Willi and Fragile-X Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodcock, K.; Oliver, C.; Humphreys, G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The behavioural phenotypes of Prader-Willi (PWS) and Fragile-X (FraX) syndromes both comprise repetitive behaviours with differences between the profiles. In this study we investigated the context and antecedents to the repetitive behaviours and the association with other behavioural phenotypic characteristics in order to generate…

  7. 78 FR 28012 - Tier One Environmental Impact Statement for the Rochester, Minnesota to Twin Cities, Minnesota...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... Twin Cities, Minnesota Passenger Rail Corridor AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), U.S... for the Rochester, Minnesota to Twin Cities, Minnesota Passenger Rail Corridor (the Corridor) in... corridor-level passenger rail route alternatives between Rochester and the Twin Cities. The Tier One...

  8. 77 FR 21620 - Notice of the Buy America Waiver Request for Vossloh 101-LV Concrete Ties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Notice of the Buy America Waiver Request for Vossloh 101-LV Concrete Ties... requirements for the purchase of Vossloh 101-LV concrete ties, which contain certain components not... consist of the installation of Vossloh 101-LV concrete ties. FRA has received this request from the...

  9. 76 FR 18073 - Track Safety Standards; Concrete Crossties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 213 RIN 2130-AC01 Track Safety Standards; Concrete Crossties... over track constructed with concrete crossties. In particular, FRA is mandating specific requirements for effective concrete crossties, for rail fastening systems connected to concrete crossties, and...

  10. 77 FR 38388 - Notice of Decision to Grant Buy America Waiver to Washington Department of Transportation to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... Transportation to Purchase Vossloh 101-LV Concrete Rail Ties AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... America requirement for the use of Vossloh 101-LV concrete ties in the Pacific Northwest Rail Corridor... infrastructure in California, Texas and Illinois. The Vossloh 101-VL concrete rail ties are made in the...

  11. 75 FR 52490 - Track Safety Standards; Concrete Crossties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 213 RIN 2130-AC01 Track Safety Standards; Concrete Crossties... promote the safety of railroad operations over track constructed with concrete crossties. In particular, FRA is proposing specific requirements for effective concrete crossties, for rail fastening...

  12. Genetic diversity, population structure and genome-wide marker-trait association analysis of the USDA pea (Pisum sativum L.) core collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity, population structure and genome-wide marker-trait association analysis was conducted for the USDA pea (Pisum sativum L.) core collection. The core collection contained 285 accessions with diverse phenotypes and geographic origins. The 137 DNA markers included 102 polymorphic fra...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 237 - Supplemental Statement of Agency Policy on the Safety of Railroad Bridges

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... bridge to safely support its traffic can be determined only by intelligent application of engineering..., including assessing civil penalties and issuance of emergency orders, to protect the safety of railroad..., which FRA may enforce using civil penalties or other means. The guidelines supplement the...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 237 - Supplemental Statement of Agency Policy on the Safety of Railroad Bridges

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... bridge to safely support its traffic can be determined only by intelligent application of engineering..., including assessing civil penalties and issuance of emergency orders, to protect the safety of railroad..., which FRA may enforce using civil penalties or other means. The guidelines supplement the...

  15. 78 FR 44189 - Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures In... the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) per 49 CFR 232.307 to modify the single car air brake test procedures located in AAR Standard S-486, Code of Air Brake System Tests for Freight Equipment-- Single...

  16. 49 CFR 236.1017 - Independent third party Verification and Validation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... that consideration of the methodology used in the risk assessment (§ 236.913(g)(2)(vii)) shall apply only to the extent that a comparative risk assessment was required. To the extent practicable, FRA... Validation. (a) The PTCSP must be supported by an independent third-party assessment when the...

  17. 49 CFR 236.1017 - Independent third party verification and validation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that consideration of the methodology used in the risk assessment (§ 236.913(g)(2)(vii)) shall apply only to the extent that a comparative risk assessment was required. To the extent practicable, FRA... validation. (a) The PTCSP must be supported by an independent third-party assessment when the...

  18. 49 CFR 236.1017 - Independent third party Verification and Validation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... that consideration of the methodology used in the risk assessment (§ 236.913(g)(2)(vii)) shall apply only to the extent that a comparative risk assessment was required. To the extent practicable, FRA... Validation. (a) The PTCSP must be supported by an independent third-party assessment when the...

  19. 49 CFR 236.1017 - Independent third party Verification and Validation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... that consideration of the methodology used in the risk assessment (§ 236.913(g)(2)(vii)) shall apply only to the extent that a comparative risk assessment was required. To the extent practicable, FRA... Validation. (a) The PTCSP must be supported by an independent third-party assessment when the...

  20. 49 CFR 236.1017 - Independent third party Verification and Validation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... that consideration of the methodology used in the risk assessment (§ 236.913(g)(2)(vii)) shall apply only to the extent that a comparative risk assessment was required. To the extent practicable, FRA... Validation. (a) The PTCSP must be supported by an independent third-party assessment when the...

  1. 77 FR 50323 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Roadway Worker Protection Miscellaneous Revisions (RRR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ...FRA is proposing to amend its regulations on railroad workplace safety to resolve interpretative issues that have arisen since the 1996 promulgation of the original Roadway Worker Protection (RWP) regulation. In particular, this NPRM proposes to define certain terms, establish new procedures for snow removal and cleaning on passenger station platforms, resolve miscellaneous interpretive......

  2. 77 FR 23802 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement, a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Report/ Environmental Impact Statement, a Final Section 4(f) Evaluation, and a Draft General Conformity Determination... this notice to advise the public that FRA is issuing a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)...

  3. 77 FR 69920 - Notice of Availability of a Final Tier 1 Environmental Impact Statement, for the Chicago, IL to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Availability of a Final Tier 1 Environmental Impact Statement... of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of availability of final environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: FRA is issuing this notice to advise the public that a Final Environmental Impact...

  4. 75 FR 65399 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... allows more moderate curves, a lower hump, and gentler grades resulting in lower speeds in the switching... operation as presented in Section 2.4 of the AREMA Manual for Railway Engineering. UP also states that the... participate in these proceedings by submitting written views, data, or comments. FRA does not...

  5. 49 CFR 238.107 - Inspection, testing, and maintenance plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspection, testing, and maintenance plan. 238.107... Requirements § 238.107 Inspection, testing, and maintenance plan. (a) General. Beginning on January 1, 2002... develop, and provide to FRA upon request, a detailed inspection, testing, and maintenance plan...

  6. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at...

  7. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at...

  8. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at...

  9. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at...

  10. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at...

  11. 75 FR 32240 - Draft Tier II Environmental Impact Statement: Southeast High Speed Rail Corridor-Richmond, VA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Draft Tier II Environmental Impact Statement: Southeast High Speed Rail... Administration (FRA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Availability of the Tier II... availability of the Southeast High Speed Rail, Richmond, VA to Raleigh, NC Project Draft Tier II...

  12. 75 FR 81710 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... locomotive, the rear of another train, a piece of on-track equipment, a shifted load on a freight car on an... facilitate railroad, rail car owner, and rail equipment manufacturer compliance with agency Railroad Safety... concerns. FRA headquarters safety specialists can then contact railroads, car owners, and...

  13. 77 FR 43645 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ..., SEPTA seeks a waiver allowing travel time from a train employee's home to all reporting points to be considered as time off duty. FRA's current policy only allows travel time (at a designated home terminal... time off duty. Travel time between a train employee's residence and other than regular reporting...

  14. 78 FR 58829 - Second Interim Statement of Agency Policy and Interpretation on the Hours of Service Laws as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... forth in this document, identified as Docket No. FRA-2013-0011, by any of the following methods: Web site: The Federal eRulemaking Portal, http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the Web site's online... Interpretations of Travel Time Involving Signal Employees I. Executive Summary of the Second Interim Statement...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 222 - Determining Risk Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Pt. 222, App. D... injuries that result from collisions involving trains traveling under 25 mph as an AIS level 2 ($46,500... value of the Nationwide Significant Risk Threshold, please visit FRA's public Web site at...

  16. Host-specific association between Flavobacterium columnare genomovars and fish species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 90 Flavobacterium columnare isolates were recovered from predominant wild fish species in the Mobile River, Alabama, USA. Isolates were identified and confirmed by fatty acid methyl ester analysis and specific PCR amplification. Genomovar ascription was performed using 16S-restriction fra...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 209 - Statement of Agency Policy Concerning Enforcement of the Federal Railroad Safety Laws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...). By “general railroad system of transportation,” FRA refers to the network of standard gage track over... metropolitan and suburban areas. Much of this network is interconnected, so that a rail vehicle can travel... the network only by a switch for the receipt of shipments over the system is not a part of the...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 209 - Statement of Agency Policy Concerning Enforcement of the Federal Railroad Safety Laws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... a purposeful act of free will. Thus, FRA considers a “willful” violation to be one that is an... willful violation subjecting that person to a civil penalty. As one of the primary sponsors of the RSIA... to violate the law would be liable for any violations his order caused to occur. One example is...

  19. 75 FR 2466 - State Highway-Rail Grade Crossing Action Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... the proposed rule contained in the NPRM. A fourteen (14) day extension of the comment period will... parties the opportunity to comment on the NPRM and announces a fourteen (14) day extension of the comment..., 2010, the comment period for the NPRM will reopen for fourteen (14) days so that FRA can make...

  20. 49 CFR 1106.4 - The Safety Integration Plan process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to this part shall file a proposed SIP in accordance with the informational requirements prescribed at 49 CFR part 244, or other FRA guidelines or requirements regarding the contents of a SIP, with SEA... SIP shall be made part of the environmental record in the Board proceeding and dealt with in...

  1. 49 CFR 1106.4 - The Safety Integration Plan process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to this part shall file a proposed SIP in accordance with the informational requirements prescribed at 49 CFR part 244, or other FRA guidelines or requirements regarding the contents of a SIP, with SEA... SIP shall be made part of the environmental record in the Board proceeding and dealt with in...

  2. 49 CFR 1106.4 - The Safety Integration Plan process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to this part shall file a proposed SIP in accordance with the informational requirements prescribed at 49 CFR part 244, or other FRA guidelines or requirements regarding the contents of a SIP, with SEA... SIP shall be made part of the environmental record in the Board proceeding and dealt with in...

  3. 49 CFR 1106.4 - The Safety Integration Plan process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to this part shall file a proposed SIP in accordance with the informational requirements prescribed at 49 CFR part 244, or other FRA guidelines or requirements regarding the contents of a SIP, with SEA... SIP shall be made part of the environmental record in the Board proceeding and dealt with in...

  4. 49 CFR 1106.4 - The Safety Integration Plan process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to this part shall file a proposed SIP in accordance with the informational requirements prescribed at 49 CFR part 244, or other FRA guidelines or requirements regarding the contents of a SIP, with SEA... SIP shall be made part of the environmental record in the Board proceeding and dealt with in...

  5. 49 CFR 1106.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Plan (“SIP”) means a comprehensive written plan, prepared in accordance with FRA guidelines or... Board approves the transaction that requires a SIP. Section of Environmental Analysis (“SEA”) means the... proceeding other than those specified above if the Board concludes that a SIP is necessary in its...

  6. 78 FR 66987 - Railroad Safety Technology Program Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Technology Program Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad... applications. SUMMARY: The Railroad Safety Technology Grant Program was first authorized under the Rail Safety... Mark.Hartong@dot.gov , or Mr. David Blackmore, Program Manager-Advanced Technologies, FRA, at (312)...

  7. 75 FR 15484 - Railroad Safety Technology Program Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Technology Program Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad... Applications. SUMMARY: The Rail Safety Technology Program is a newly authorized program under the Rail Safety... ), or Mr. David Blackmore, FRA, Program Manager- Advanced Technologies (Phone: (312) 835-3903,...

  8. 49 CFR 228.205 - Access to electronic records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Access to electronic records. 228.205 Section 228... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES Electronic Recordkeeping § 228.205 Access to electronic records. (a) FRA inspectors and State inspectors participating under...

  9. O3, CO2 and chemical fractionation in ponderosa pine saplings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental factors can affect plant tissue quality which is important for quality of organic matter inputs into soil food webs and decomposition of soil organic matter. Thus the effects of increases in CO2 and O3 and their interactions were determined for various chemical fra...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 209 - Statement of Agency Policy Concerning Enforcement of the Federal Railroad Safety Laws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... associated with traditional railroads. Such term does not include rapid transit operations within an urban... self-contained urban rapid transit systems, FRA's statutory jurisdiction extends to all entities that... metropolitan or suburban area. Urban rapid transit operations are ordinarily not part of the general...

  11. 75 FR 63535 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... relief. Utah Transit Authority As a supplement to the Utah Transit Authority's (UTA) petition for... the FRA Railroad Safety Board on August 19, 1999, for the Sandy/Salt Lake TRAX Light Rail Transit line... line extension of the current Sandy/ Salt Lake TRAX LRT line. This extension will be urban...

  12. 77 FR 37092 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... provide 60-days notice to the public for comment on information collection activities before seeking... FRA to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information being collected; and (iv) ways for... 2012-0006-N-7] Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request AGENCY:...

  13. 49 CFR 229.211 - Processing of petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design... Docket Management System and posted on its Web site at http://www.regulations.gov. (3) In the event FRA... requirements of this subpart and that the proposed change or new design standard satisfies the requirements...

  14. 49 CFR 229.211 - Processing of petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design... Docket Management System and posted on its Web site at http://www.regulations.gov. (3) In the event FRA... requirements of this subpart and that the proposed change or new design standard satisfies the requirements...

  15. 49 CFR 225.18 - Alcohol or drug involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol or drug involvement. 225.18 Section 225.18....18 Alcohol or drug involvement. (a) In preparing Form FRA F 6180.54, “Rail Equipment Accident... the circumstances into the possible involvement of alcohol or drug use or impairment in such...

  16. 49 CFR 225.18 - Alcohol or drug involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol or drug involvement. 225.18 Section 225.18....18 Alcohol or drug involvement. (a) In preparing Form FRA F 6180.54, “Rail Equipment Accident... the circumstances into the possible involvement of alcohol or drug use or impairment in such...

  17. 49 CFR 211.73 - Presiding officer; powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Presiding officer; powers. 211.73 Section 211.73... Presiding officer; powers. (a) An administrative hearing for the review of an emergency order is presided... to 5 CFR 930.213. (b) The presiding officer may exercise the powers of the FRA to regulate...

  18. 78 FR 33466 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... or before July 5, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Robert Brogan, Office of Planning and... as they inspect or service equipment on a particular track or, alternatively, occupy camp cars. FRA... blue signal protection of workers or camp cars. This record also serves as a valuable resource...

  19. Wielding the Military Shield and the Civilian Sword: Norwegian Civil-Military Interagency Cooperation in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    and Mads A. Andersen, “SV: Vi boer sette dato for uttrekning fra Afghanistan” [SV: We should set a date for pulling out of Afghanistan], Verdens Gang......Norwegian context, the research had to be based on other sources. The obvious solution to the problem was to interview professionals with practical

  20. Apollo 14 Impact Glasses and Clementine Data: Implications for Regional Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellner, N. E. B.; Spudis, P. D.; Delano, J. W.; Whittet, D. C. B.

    2002-01-01

    Clementine color image data and analyses of 778 lunar impact glasses have been used together to suggest that the highlands of the Fra Mauro region consist of a KREEP-rich regolith overlying a feldspathic terrain. Low-KREEP impact glasses may possess a memory of impacts prior to 3.9 Ga ago. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. A multiplex PCR assay for determination of mating type in isolates of the honey bee fungal pathogen, Ascosphaera apis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we developed a multiplex PCR for identification of mating type idiomorphs in the filamentous fungus, Ascosphaera apis, the causative agent of chalkbrood disease in the honey bee (Apis melliffera). A combination of gene-specific primers was designed to amplify Mat1-1 and Mat1-2 gene fra...

  2. Urban rats or flying heroes? What can rock pigeons tell us about helminth and virus co-infection?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging diseases are rapidly becoming a global conservation issue, and traditional approaches to understanding transmission among in-situ populations often involved investigating hosts in the context of a single pathogen. Yet it is clear now that understanding disease dynamics within ecological fra...

  3. 49 CFR 238.427 - Suspension system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... approved by FRA under the provisions of § 238.21. (b) Car body accelerations. (1) A passenger car shall not operate under conditions that result in a steady-state lateral acceleration greater than 0.12g as measured... that steady-state lateral acceleration does not exceed 0.1g at the maximum intended cant deficiency....

  4. 49 CFR 238.427 - Suspension system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... approved by FRA under the provisions of § 238.21. (b) Car body accelerations. (1) A passenger car shall not operate under conditions that result in a steady-state lateral acceleration greater than 0.12g as measured... that steady-state lateral acceleration does not exceed 0.1g at the maximum intended cant deficiency....

  5. Investigating Constraint-Based Approaches for the Development of Agile Plans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    presen ...fra mented in T state‐space planning pr n or partia operations All these a and. e environm constraints ynchronizin tion measur the current...is expressed with a time‐parameterized differential inclusion ∈ , for all 0, where the set‐ valued map is defined

  6. 49 CFR 225.18 - Alcohol or drug involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol or drug involvement. 225.18 Section 225.18....18 Alcohol or drug involvement. (a) In preparing Form FRA F 6180.54, “Rail Equipment Accident... the circumstances into the possible involvement of alcohol or drug use or impairment in such...

  7. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  8. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  9. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  10. 49 CFR 225.18 - Alcohol or drug involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol or drug involvement. 225.18 Section 225.18....18 Alcohol or drug involvement. (a) In preparing Form FRA F 6180.54, “Rail Equipment Accident... the circumstances into the possible involvement of alcohol or drug use or impairment in such...

  11. 77 FR 48591 - State Rail Plan Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Federal Railroad Administration State Rail Plan Guidance AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Request for Public Comment on Proposed State Rail Plan Guidance..., submission, and acceptance of State rail plans. State rail plans are documents that are required...

  12. 49 CFR 244.19 - Disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS OF CONTROL Safety Integration Plans § 244.19 Disposition. (a) Standard of review. FRA reviews an applicant's Safety Integration Plan, and any amendments thereto, to determine whether it provides...

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of a Wild-Type Measles Virus Isolated during a 2016 Winter Outbreak in a Refugee Settlement in Calais, France

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Justine; Antona, Denise; Vabret, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Measles outbreaks are regularly reported in European countries despite efforts to improve vaccination coverage. In January 2016, an outbreak occurred in a refugee settlement in Calais, France. We report here the complete genome sequence of a wild-type measles virus isolated from a health care worker (MVi/Calais. FRA/01.16) infected during this outbreak. PMID:28280010

  14. 76 FR 69801 - Conductor Certification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... the comments regarding the drug and alcohol rules proposed in the NPRM, FRA finds that the definition... interfere with DOT's drug and alcohol rules contained in parts 40 and 219. Under DOT's alcohol and drug rules, a SAP is only used when referencing the counseling requirements that follow a Federal drug...

  15. Chronic Social Defeat Stress Modulates Dendritic Spines Structural Plasticity in Adult Mouse Frontal Association Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Chronic stress is associated with occurrence of many mental disorders. Previous studies have shown that dendrites and spines of pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex undergo drastic reorganization following chronic stress experience. So the prefrontal cortex is believed to play a key role in response of neural system to chronic stress. However, how stress induces dynamic structural changes in neural circuit of prefrontal cortex remains unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects of chronic social defeat stress on dendritic spine structural plasticity in the mouse frontal association (FrA) cortex in vivo using two-photon microscopy. We found that chronic stress altered spine dynamics in FrA and increased the connectivity in FrA neural circuits. We also found that the changes in spine dynamics in FrA are correlated with the deficit of sucrose preference in defeated mice. Our findings suggest that chronic stress experience leads to adaptive change in neural circuits that may be important for encoding stress experience related memory and anhedonia. PMID:28197343

  16. 49 CFR 230.48 - Number and capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Number and capacity. 230.48 Section 230.48... Safety Relief Valves § 230.48 Number and capacity. (a) Number and capacity. Every boiler shall be.... An FRA inspector may require verification of sufficient safety valve relieving capacity....

  17. 49 CFR 230.48 - Number and capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Number and capacity. 230.48 Section 230.48... Safety Relief Valves § 230.48 Number and capacity. (a) Number and capacity. Every boiler shall be.... An FRA inspector may require verification of sufficient safety valve relieving capacity....

  18. 49 CFR 230.48 - Number and capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Number and capacity. 230.48 Section 230.48... Safety Relief Valves § 230.48 Number and capacity. (a) Number and capacity. Every boiler shall be.... An FRA inspector may require verification of sufficient safety valve relieving capacity....

  19. 49 CFR 230.48 - Number and capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Number and capacity. 230.48 Section 230.48... Safety Relief Valves § 230.48 Number and capacity. (a) Number and capacity. Every boiler shall be.... An FRA inspector may require verification of sufficient safety valve relieving capacity....

  20. 77 FR 26703 - Inflation Adjustment of the Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalty for a Violation of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Parts 228 and 231 RIN 2130-AB94 Inflation Adjustment of the..., FRA published a final rule, pursuant to the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of...