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Sample records for genting highlands malaysia

  1. A new species of Simulium (Simulium) (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Genting Highlands, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Low, Van Lun; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2018-06-01

    Simulium (Simulium) rasuli sp. nov. is described from two females collected by a Malaise trap in Genting Highlands, Peninsular Malaysia. This new species is placed in the Simulium christophersi species-group of the subgenus Simulium. The female of this new specie is characterized by the scutum with three longitudinal vittae, dark legs, claw with a small subbasal tooth, and ovipositor valve triangular with its inner margin nearly straight. This new species is distinguished in the female from all the six named species of the species-group by the entirely brownish-black femora and tibiae. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Spatial and Temporal Variation of Water Quality in the Bertam Catchment, Cameron Highlands, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rasul, M G; Islam, Mir Sujaul; Yunus, Rosli Bin Mohd; Mokhtar, Mazlin Bin; Alam, Lubna; Yahaya, F M

    2017-12-01

      The spatio-temporal variability of water quality associated with anthropogenic activities was studied for the Bertam River and its main tributaries within the Bertam Catchment, Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. A number of physico-chemical parameters of collected samples were analyzed to evaluate their spatio-temporal variability. Nonparametric statistical analysis showed significant temporal and spatial differences (p < 0.05) in most of the parameters across the catchment. Parameters except dissolved oxygen and chemical oxygen demand displayed higher values in rainy season. The higher concentration of total suspended solids was caused by massive soil erosion and sedimentation. Seasonal variations in contaminant concentrations are largely affected by precipitation and anthropogenic influences. Untreated domestic wastewater discharge as well as agricultural runoff significantly influenced the water quality. Poor agricultural practices and development activities at slope areas also affected the water quality within the catchment. The analytical results provided a basis for protection of river environments and ecological restoration in mountainous Bertam Catchment.

  3. Prediction of sedimentation using integration of RS, RUSLE model and GIS in Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghani, A. H. A.; Lihan, T.; Rahim, S. A.; Musthapha, M. A.; Idris, W. M. R.; Rahman, Z. A.

    2013-11-01

    Soil erosion and sediment yield are strongly affected by land use change. Spatially distributed erosion models are of great interest to predict soil erosion loss and sediment yield. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine sediment yield using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model in Geographical Information System (GIS) environment at Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia. Sediment yield at the study area was determined using RUSLE model in GIS environment The RUSLE factors were computed by utilizing information on rainfall erosivity (R) using interpolation of rainfall data, soil erodibility (K) using soil map and field measurement, vegetation cover (C) using satellite images, length and steepness (LS) using contour map and conservation practices using satellite images based on land use/land cover. Field observations were also done to verify the predicted sediment yield. The results indicated that the rate of sediment yield in the study area ranged from very low to extremely high. The higher SY value can be found at middle and lower catchments of Cameron Highland. Meanwhile, the lower SY value can be found at the north part of the study area. Sediment yield value turned out to be higher close to the river due to the topographic characteristic, vegetation type and density, climate and land use within the drainage basin.

  4. Willingness to pay for highlands' agro-tourism recreational facility: A case of Boh Tea plantation, Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Syamsul Herman M.; M, Nur A'in C.; S, Ahmad; S, Ramachandran

    2014-03-01

    The increase in tourist demand for highland experience is inevitable. Cameron Highlands, established as a Tea Plantation Estate during the British Colonial era in 1929, has evolved into a major highland tourism destination providing a cool climatic experience coupled with scenic beauty in the midst of Tudor concept architecture which enhances the destinations historical value. Realising such tourism potential, the Boh Plantation management has provided a visitor centre as recreational facility for tourist utilisation. However, the absence in imposing an entrance fee has left a vacuum in determining the recreational economic value of this facility as the benefit of this agro-tourism product to tourists remains unknown. It would be important for the management to identify the benefit since the development and maintenance of the facility is costly. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to estimate the benefit of such establishment in highlands area by assessing visitor's Willingness to pay (WTP). The study examines, explores and debates the issues in a critical yet supportive environment especially highlands. The study obtained 179 usable questionnaires from visitors during weekends, weekdays and public holidays. The result showed that 59% of the visitors were willing to pay for the agro-tourism product. The WTP was estimated at RM 7.21 (1.81). Three factors were found to be influencing WTP which were monthly income, years of education and perception on scenery. Although the study was conducted post development, the finding indicated the WTP for current management practise. Should the management change its style, it would also affect WTP and also the total economic value. Since WTP is established concept, the finding of the study reflects on the opportunities, barriers and challenges inherent in embracing post-disciplinary approaches to research and suggest ways to further enhance the approach.

  5. Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) over mountainous region of Cameron Highlands- Batang Padang Catchment of Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidek, L. M.; Mohd Nor, M. D.; Rakhecha, P. R.; Basri, H.; Jayothisa, W.; Muda, R. S.; Ahmad, M. N.; Razad, A. Z. Abdul

    2013-06-01

    The Cameron Highland Batang Padang (CHBP) catchment situated on the main mountain range of Peninsular Malaysia is of large economical importance where currently a series of three dams (Sultan Abu Bakar, Jor and Mahang) exist in the development of water resources and hydropower. The prediction of the design storm rainfall values for different return periods including PMP values can be useful to review the adequacy of the current spillway capacities of these dams. In this paper estimates of the design storm rainfalls for various return periods and also the PMP values for rainfall stations in the CHBP catchment have been computed for the three different durations of 1, 3 & 5 days. The maximum values for 1 day, 3 days and 5 days PMP values are found to be 730.08mm, 966.17mm and 969.0mm respectively at Station number 4513033 Gunung Brinchang. The PMP values obtained were compared with previous study results undertaken by NAHRIM. However, the highest ratio of 1 day, 3 day and 5 day PMP to highest observed rainfall are found to be 2.30, 1.94 and 1.82 respectively. This shows that the ratio tend to decrease as the duration increase. Finally, the temporal pattern for 1 day, 3day and 5 days have been developed based on observed extreme rainfall at station 4513033 Gunung Brinchang for the generation of Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) in dam break analysis.

  6. ANFIS modeling for the assessment of landslide susceptibility for the Cameron Highland (Malaysia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet; Sezer, Ebru; Gokceoglu, Candan; Buchroithner, Manfred F.

    2010-05-01

    Landslides are one of the recurrent natural hazard problems throughout most of Malaysia. In landslide literature, there are several approaches such as probabilistic, bivariate and multivariate statistical models, fuzzy and artificial neural network models etc. However, a neuro-fuzzy application on the landslide susceptibility assessment has not been encountered in the literature. For this reason, this study presents the results of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) using remote sensing data and GIS for landslide susceptibility analysis in a part of the Cameron Highland areas in Malaysia. Landslide locations in the study area were identified by interpreting aerial photographs and satellite images, supported by extensive field surveys. Landsat TM satellite imagery was used to map vegetation index. Maps of topography, lineaments, NDVI and land cover were constructed from the spatial datasets. Seven landslide conditioning factors such as altitude, slope angle, curvature, distance from drainage, lithology, distance from faults and NDVI were extracted from the spatial database. These factors were analyzed using an ANFIS to produce the landslide susceptibility maps. During the model development works, total 5 landslide susceptibility models were constructed. For verification, the results of the analyses were then compared with the field-verified landslide locations. Additionally, the ROC curves for all landslide susceptibility models were drawn and the area under curve values were calculated. Landslide locations were used to validate results of the landslide susceptibility map and the verification results showed 97% accuracy for the model 5 employing all parameters produced in the present study as the landslide conditioning factors. The validation results showed sufficient agreement between the obtained susceptibility map and the existing data on landslide areas. Qualitatively, the model yields reasonable results which can be used for preliminary land

  7. Use of multi-temporal SPOT-5 satellite images for land degradation assessment in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia using Geospatial techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nampak, Haleh; Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2016-07-01

    Soil erosion is the common land degradation problem worldwide because of its economic and environmental impacts. Therefore, land-use change detection has become one of the major concern to geomorphologists, environmentalists, and land use planners due to its impact on natural ecosystems. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between land use/cover changes and land degradation in the Cameron highlands (Malaysia) through multi-temporal remotely sensed satellite images and ancillary data. Land clearing in the study area has resulted increased soil erosion due to rainfall events. Also unsustainable development and agriculture, mismanagement and lacking policies contribute to increasing soil erosion rates. The LULC distribution of the study area was mapped for 2005, 2010, and 2015 through SPOT-5 satellite imagery data which were classified based on object-based classification. A soil erosion model was also used within a GIS in order to study the susceptibility of the areas affected by changes to overland flow and rain splash erosion. The model consists of four parameters, namely soil erodibility, slope, vegetation cover and overland flow. The results of this research will be used in the selection of the areas that require mitigation processes which will reduce their degrading potential. Key words: Land degradation, Geospatial, LULC change, Soil erosion modelling, Cameron highlands.

  8. A spatial decision support system (SDSS) for sustainable tourism planning in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminu, M.; Matori, A. N.; Yusof, K. W.

    2014-02-01

    The study describes a methodological approach based on an integrated use of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Analytic Network Process (ANP) of Multi Criteria Evaluation (MCE) to determine nature conservation and tourism development priorities among the highland areas. A set of criteria and indicators were defined to evaluate the highlands biodiversity conservation and tourism development. Pair wise comparison technique was used in order to support solution of a decision problem by evaluating possible alternatives from different perspectives. After the weights have been derived from the pairwise comparison technique, the next step was to compute the unweighted supermatrix, weighted supermatrix and the limit matrix. The limit matrix was normalized to obtain the priorities and the results transferred into GIS environment. Elements evaluated and ranked were represented by criterion maps. Map layers reflecting the opinion of different experts involved were summed using the weighted overlay approach of GIS. Subsequently sustainable tourism development scenarios were generated. The generation of scenarios highlighted the critical issues of the decision problem because it allows one to gradually narrow down a problem.

  9. Distribution and fate of HCH isomers and DDT metabolites in a tropical environment-case study Cameron Highlands-Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Saadati, Naghmeh; Abdullah, Md Pauzi; Zakaria, Zuriati; Rezayi, Majid; Hosseinizare, Nader

    2012-11-07

    The serious impact effects of persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine pesticides, especially dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane family (DDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) have been causing widespread concern, despite effective control on their manufacturing, agricultural and vector practices. In that, in addition to the previous global limitations on DDTs usage, α-HCH, β-HCH and lindane have also became an on-going topic of global relevance based on the latest Stockholm Convention list on 10th of May 2009. Concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane family (DDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) were determined by GC-ECD in Cameron Highlands, the main vegetables and flowers farming area in Malaysia as an agricultural tropical environment. A total of 112 surface water and sediment samples at eight points were collected along the main rivers in the area namely Telom and Bertam in the dry and wet seasons of 2011. Total concentration of HCH isomers ranged from not detected to 25.03 ng/L in the water (mean of 5.55 ±6.0 ng/L), while, it ranged from 0.002 to 59.17 ng/g (mean of 8.06±9.39 ng/g) in the sediment. Total concentration of DDT and its metabolites in the water samples varied from not detected to 8.0 ng/L (mean of 0.90±1.66 ng/g), whereas, it was in the range of 0.025 to 23.24 ng/g (mean of 2.55±4.0 ng/g) in the surface sediment samples. The ratio of HCHs and DDTs composition indicated an obvious historical usage and new inputs of these pesticides. Among alpha, beta, gamma and delta isomers of HCH, gamma was the most dominant component in the sediment and water as well. Some seasonal variations in the level of selected pesticides were noted. The results illustrate distribution, behaviour and fate of HCHs, and DDTs have closely connected with topological and meteorological properties of the area beyond their chemical characterizations. The features of environmental circumstances exceed one or more of these characters in

  10. Effect of urbanization activities towards the formation of urban heat island in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, M. H.; Latiff, N. A. A.; Ismail, K.; Isa, N. K. M.

    2018-04-01

    This study carried out to study the effect of urbanization activities towards the formation of Urban Heat Islands (UHI) in Cameron Highlands (CH).The aim of this study is to identify the formation of UHI in CH following the urbanization activities. This study also involved two main data that are primary through field survey and secondary data from collection data. In addition, this study was used qualitative and quantitative method. The data was taken two times a day, at a day and night between the hours of 12:00 to 14:00 and 19:00 to 21:00. Data in this study analyzed by using correlation analysis and analysis of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) which known as interpolation. Result found the formation of UHI in CH was concentrated at city centre namely in Pekan Tanah Rata. From the whole average value, city centre was recorded the highest reading of temperatures which is 30.5°C, while reading of temperature for subtown and suburban was recorded 28.6°C and 23.8°C. Average of humidity in CH during the day was recorded as highest reading in the suburban area namely Tringkap Bee Farm (station 11) which is 58.4%. Then, average of humidity in CH at night was recorded highest reading in the suburban area namely Habu Mini Market 91 (station 9) which the value is 83.2%. The reading of wind speed in CH during the day recorded the highest reading day at the suburban namely Tringkap Bee Farm (station 11) which the value is 2.3 m/s. While, following the reading of wind speed in CH at night, suburban namely Habu Mini Market 91(station 9) was recorded the highest reading which is 0.8 m/s. The Intensity of Urban Heat Island in CH during the day was recorded 2.8°C, while at night intensity of UHI was recorded 1.4°C. Overall, the urbanization activities in CH had caused the formation of UHI. Therefore, measures of legislation such as protect forest from development by control the urbanization activities need to be implemented so that the formation of UHI can be reduced and

  11. Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1988-08-01

    In this discussion of Malaysia, attention is directed to the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Malaysia. In 1987 Malaysia's population was estimated to be 16.5 million with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The infant mortality rate is 25/1000 with a life expectancy of 66 years. Peninsular Malaysia borders Thailand in the north and is separated from Singapore in the south by the narrow Johore Strait. About 50% of the area is covered by tropical jungle. The population distribution is uneven, with some 13.5 of the 16.5 million residents concentrated on the Peninsular Malaysia lowlands. The Malays, the largest population group, make up 49%. Nearly 1/3 of the Malaysians are Chinese, and Malaysians of Indian descent comprise slightly over 9% of the population. The early Buddhist Malay kingdom of Srivijaya, based at what currently is Palembang, Sumatra, dominated much of the Malay Peninsula from the 9th to the 13th centuries A.D. Full European control over the sultanates of the Malay Peninsula, Sabah, and Sarawak was not achieved until the latter half of the 19th century. During British control, a well-ordered system of public administration was created, public services were extended, and large-scale rubber and tin production was developed. Colonial rule was interrupted by the Japanese invasion and occupation from 1942-45. Malaysia achieved independence on August 31, 1957, and is a constitutional monarchy, nominally headed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, or paramount ruler. The ruler also is the leader of the Islamic faith in Malaysia. Executive power is vested in the Cabinet, led by the prime minister. The Malaysian legal system is based on English common law. The currently ruling Barisan Nasional, formed in 1973, includes 13 parties, among them the chief components of the former Alliance, a coalition of community-based parties. Malaysia's economic record is 1

  12. Use of high resolution Airborne Laser Scanning data for landslide interpretation under mixed forest and tropical rainforest: case study in Barcelonnette, France and Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azahari Razak, Khamarrul; Straatsma, Menno; van Westen, Cees; Malet, Jean-Philippe; de Jong, Steven M.

    2010-05-01

    Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) is the state of the art technology for topographic mapping over a wide variety of spatial and temporal scales. It is also a promising technique for identification and mapping of landslides in a forested mountainous landscape. This technology demonstrates the ability to pass through the gaps between forest foliage and record the terrain height under vegetation cover. To date, most of the images either derived from satellite imagery, aerial-photograph or synthetic aperture radar are not appropriate for visual interpretation of landslide features that are covered by dense vegetation. However, it is a necessity to carefully map the landslides in order to understand its processes. This is essential for landslide hazard and risk assessment. This research demonstrates the capabilities of high resolution ALS data to recognize and identify different types of landslides in mixed forest in Barcelonnette, France and tropical rainforest in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. ALS measurements over the 100-years old forest in Bois Noir catchment were carried out in 2007 and 2009. Both ALS dataset were captured using a Riegl laser scanner. First and last pulse with density of one point per meter square was derived from 2007 ALS dataset, whereas multiple return (of up to five returns) pulse was derived from July 2009 ALS dataset, which consists of 60 points per meter square over forested terrain. Generally, this catchment is highly affected by shallow landslides which mostly occur beneath dense vegetation. It is located in the dry intra-Alpine zone and represented by the climatic of the South French Alps. In the Cameron Highlands, first and last pulse data was captured in 2004 which covers an area of up to 300 kilometres square. Here, the Optech laser scanner was used under the Malaysian national pilot study which has slightly low point density. With precipitation intensity of up to 3000 mm per year over rugged topography and elevations up to 2800 m a

  13. Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Niel, Eloise Smith; Schelander, Bjorn

    This book provides an overview of Malaysia's history and culture. The book begins with a prehistoric times and continues through nationhood. Each chapter provides background information along with student activities and project suggestions. Chapters include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Early Trade and Civilization"; (3) "The…

  14. Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1980-10-01

    The official government policy in Malaysia is to reduce the rate of population growth through decreasing fertility levels and a program of economic and social restructuring. Population policy was conceived as encompassing wider dimensions than family planning, with emphasis on spatial distribution policies. The first Population and Housing Census was undertaken by the government in 1970. Regular decennial census taking occurred between 1891 and 1957. Birth and death registrations are considered incomplete. Population issues are integrated by various organizations into their ongoing programs such as those of the Ministries of Health, Education or Agriculture. The National Family Planning Board, an interministerial body in the Prime Minister's Department, has input from development planning units. A population studies group was established within the Economic Planning Unit. The total 1980 population was 13,640,000; the rate of population growth was 2.6 from 1975-80. Life expectancy was 61.3. Morbidity and mortality rates have dropped because of disease control and malnutrition reduction. 7.4% of the population are foreign born. Spatial distribution is to be adjusted through rural land development and resettlement; promotion of industrial development in low-income states; development of new growth centers and towns; and, urban development and renewal.

  15. Egg phenotype differentiation in sympatric cuckoo Cuculus canorus gentes.

    PubMed

    Antonov, Anton; Stokke, B G; Vikan, J R; Fossøy, F; Ranke, P S; Røskaft, E; Moksnes, A; Møller, A P; Shykoff, J A

    2010-06-01

    The brood parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus consists of gentes, which typically parasitize only a single host species whose eggs they often mimic. Where multiple cuckoo gentes co-exist in sympatry, we may expect variable but generally poorer mimicry because of host switches or inter-gens gene flow via males if these also contribute to egg phenotypes. Here, we investigated egg trait differentiation and mimicry in three cuckoo gentes parasitizing great reed warblers Acrocephalus arundinaceus, marsh warblers Acrocephalus palustris and corn buntings Miliaria calandra breeding in close sympatry in partially overlapping habitat types. The three cuckoo gentes showed a remarkable degree of mimicry to their three host species in some but not all egg features, including egg size, a hitherto largely ignored feature of egg mimicry. Egg phenotype matching for both background and spot colours as well as for egg size has been maintained in close sympatry despite the possibility for gene flow.

  16. Highland Park, Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Allen; Broderick, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    This article features the "Barber School of the Gifted and Talented" in Highland Park, Michigan. The school is located in a tiny 2.96 square-mile, economically challenged city--very challenged--completely surrounded by Detroit's 143 square miles and its almost one million people. It is one of five schools in Highland Park--one preK-5 and…

  17. I Remember Highlander

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Hawkins, Maria

    2016-01-01

    "I Remember Highlander" reflects on the life choices of Marion Barry and Herman Henning Jr., fraternity brothers who sought the same goal but took different paths. The essay examines cultural and family situations that shaped lives and decisions.

  18. Mapping Lunar Highlands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-05

    This graphic depicting the bulk density of the lunar highlands on the near and far sides of the moon was generated using gravity data from NASA GRAIL mission and topography data from NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  19. Corneal Thickness in Highlanders.

    PubMed

    Patyal, Sagarika; Arora, Amit; Yadav, Arun; Sharma, Vijay K

    2017-03-01

    Patyal, Sagarika, Amit Arora, Arun Yadav, and Vijay K. Sharma. Corneal thickness in highlanders. High Alt Med Biol. 18:56-60, 2017. Corneal thickness is an important parameter with diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Various studies have highlighted increase in corneal thickness in lowlanders on ascending to high altitude. However, there are no studies in the published literature pertaining to corneal thickness of the highlanders who are inhabitants of such altitudes. Hence, study was carried out with objective to determine the corneal thickness of highlanders living at heights of more than 11,000 feet and compare it with corneal thickness of lowlanders. The highlander participants of the study consisted of inhabitants of Ladakh region of India at an altitude of 11,000 feet or more and lowlander participants consisted of inhabitants at an altitude of 1500 feet. A total of 254 highlanders and 212 lowlanders participated. A mean of 25 measurements of central corneal thickness (CCT) of every participant was obtained for each eye using ultrasonic pachymeter. The mean age of the participants was 41.8 (15.9) and 47.7 (17.7) years among lowlanders and highlanders, respectively. The highlanders had 11.95 μm lower mean CCT reading compared to lowlanders after adjusting for age and sex (p value <0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in mean CCT readings of right eye and left eye in either lowlanders or highlanders. Age also had a significant effect after adjustment for location and gender (p = 0.001). CCT decreased by 0.31 μm with every year increase in the age. Gender had no statistically significant effect. This study found statistically significant difference in CCT measurements between highlanders and lowlanders. The thinner corneas of highlanders may have a bearing on diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma, refractive surgery, contact lens fitting implantation of Intacs, and astigmatic keratectomy done on such patients. The study also

  20. Quantitative dermal measurements following treatment with AirGent.

    PubMed

    Kobus, Kazimierz F; Dydymski, Tomasz

    2010-09-01

    As an alternative to other minimally-invasive approaches to facial rejuvenation, enhancement and treatment of the dermis with a compressed air molecule of hyaluronic acid (HA) is a promising method in that it lacks some of the drawbacks of other procedures. The novelty of these systems, one of which is tested in this study, is based on the supposition that jet lateral dispersion of HA produces both instant dermal augmentation and specific wound-healing processes, leading to its long-term dermal thickening. The authors report on the efficacy and safety of the AirGent system (PerfAction, Rehovot, Israel), which is a renewal system designed to initiate a wound-healing process in the dermal layer. It is a computer-guided system that delivers treatment through compressed air molecules of HA to the dermal layer of the skin. The authors treated 20 patients (a total of 105 treatment sessions) with the AirGent system between May 2008 and November 2008. Each patient received three treatments at three- to four-week intervals. Each patient's skin thickness was measured with ultrasonography pretreatment, immediately after each session, and at six months posttreatment. Seven days after the last procedure, an increase in skin thickness was observed in all patients. The most significant differences were noted in the upper lip area, where the thickness had increased by an average of 1.3 mm. Six months after the last session, an increase in skin thickness was still noted in most patients, at which time the biggest difference was noted around the eyes, where the skin remained thicker by an average of 0.77 mm over baseline. According to the results of the Global Improvement Assessment questionnaire, at the six-month follow-up to evaluate their satisfaction with the long-term results, at least 59.9% of patients still noted at least a slight improvement in their appearance. Although a small group of patients and a relatively short period of observation limit the scope of our conclusions

  1. Channeled Southern Highlands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-30

    This enhanced color image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) shows the heavily channeled and ancient southern highlands of Mars. The elongated and jagged features are windblown dunes, perhaps hardened and eroded. For more information see https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22436

  2. The Ozark Highlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ethridge, Max

    2009-01-01

    The Ozark Highlands include diverse topographic, geologic, soil, and hydrologic conditions that support a broad range of habitat types. The landscape features rugged uplands - some peaks higher than 2,500 feet above sea level - with exposed rock and varying soil depths and includes extensive areas of karst terrain. The Highlands are characterized by extreme biological diversity and high endemism (uniqueness of species). Vegetation communities are dominated by open oak-hickory and shortleaf pine woodlands and forests. Included in this vegetation matrix is an assemblage of various types of fens, forests, wetlands, fluvial features, and carbonate and siliceous glades. An ever-growing human population in the Ozark Highlands has become very dependent on reservoirs constructed on major rivers in the region and, in some cases, groundwater for household and public water supply. Because of human population growth in the Highlands and increases in industrial and agricultural activities, not only is adequate water quantity an issue, but maintaining good water quality is also a challenge. Point and nonpoint sources of excessive nutrients are an issue. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership programs to monitor water quality and develop simulation tools to help stakeholders better understand strategies to protect the quality of water and the environment are extremely important. The USGS collects relevant data, conducts interpretive studies, and develops simulation tools to help stakeholders understand resource availability and sustainability issues. Stakeholders dependent on these resources are interested in and benefit greatly from evolving these simulation tools (models) into decision support systems that can be used for adaptive management of water and ecological resources. The interaction of unique and high-quality biological and hydrologic resources and the effects of stresses from human activities can be evaluated best by using a multidisciplinary approach that the USGS

  3. Chapter 1: Central Arizona Highlands

    Treesearch

    Peter F. Ffolliott

    1999-01-01

    The Central Arizona Highlands are a distinct biogeographic, climatic, and physiographic province that forms a diverse ecotone between the larger Colorado Plateau to the north and the Sonoran Desert ecoregions to the south (figure 1). The Highlands coincide approximately with the Arizona Transition Zone identified by ecologists, geologists and others. This region is one...

  4. Creating Highlander Wherever You Are

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan; Mullett, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Highlander Research and Education Center serves as a catalyst for grassroots organizing and movement building. This article focuses on an interview with education coordinator Susan Williams who has worked at Highlander for 26 years. We discuss how others can and do create powerful popular education experiences anywhere, whether they have a…

  5. Crater Highlands, Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour in February 2000, acquired elevation measurements for nearly all of Earth's landmass between 60oN and 56oS latitudes. For many areas of the world SRTM data provide the first detailed three-dimensional observation of landforms at regional scales. SRTM data were used to generate this view of the Crater Highlands along the East African Rift in Tanzania. Landforms are depicted with colored height and shaded relief, using a vertical exaggeration of 2X and a southwestwardly look direction.

    Lake Eyasi is depicted in blue at the top of the image, and a smaller lake occurs in Ngorongoro Crater. Near the image center, elevations peak at 3648 meters (11,968 feet) at Mount Loolmalasin, which is south of Ela Naibori Crater. Kitumbeine (left) and Gelai (right) are the two broad mountains rising from the rift lowlands. Mount Longido is seen in the lower left, and the Meto Hills are in the right foreground.

    Tectonics, volcanism, landslides, erosion and deposition -- and their interactions -- are all very evident in this view. The East African Rift is a zone of spreading between the African (on the west) and Somali (on the east) crustal plates. Two branches of the rift intersect here in Tanzania, resulting in distinctive and prominent landforms. One branch trends nearly parallel the view and includes Lake Eyasi and the very wide Ngorongoro Crater. The other branch is well defined by the lowlands that trend left-right across the image (below center, in green). Volcanoes are often associated with spreading zones where magma, rising to fill the gaps, reaches the surface and builds cones. Craters form if a volcano explodes or collapses. Later spreading can fracture the volcanoes, which is especially evident on Kitumbeine and Gelai Mountains (left and right, respectively, lower center).

    The Crater Highlands rise far above the adjacent savannas, capture moisture from passing air masses

  6. Cryptic gentes revealed in pallid cuckoos Cuculus pallidus using reflectance spectrophotometry

    PubMed Central

    Starling, M; Heinsohn, R; Cockburn, A; Langmore, N.E

    2006-01-01

    Many cuckoo species lay eggs that match those of their hosts, which can significantly reduce rejection of their eggs by the host species. However, egg mimicry is problematic for generalist cuckoos that parasitize several host species with different egg types. Some generalist cuckoos have overcome this problem by evolving several host-specific races (gentes), each with its own, host-specific egg type. It is unknown how generalist cuckoos lacking gentes are able to avoid egg rejection by hosts. Here we use reflectance spectrophotometry (300–700 nm) on museum egg collections to test for host-specific egg types in an Australian generalist cuckoo reported to have a single egg type. We show that the colour of pallid cuckoo (Cuculus pallidus) eggs differed between four host species, and that their eggs closely mimicked the eggs of the host they parasitized. These results reveal that pallid cuckoos have host-specific egg types that have not been detected by human observation, and indicate that gentes could be more common than previously realized. PMID:16822754

  7. Malaria in Highlands of Ecuador since 1900

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Fiona F.

    2012-01-01

    A recent epidemic of malaria in the highlands of Bolivia and establishment of multiple Anopheles species mosquitoes in the highlands of Ecuador highlights the reemergence of malaria in the Andes Mountains in South America. Because malaria was endemic to many highland valleys at the beginning of the 20th century, this review outlines the 20th century history of malaria in the highlands of Ecuador, and focuses on its incidence (e.g., geographic distribution) and elimination from the northern highland valleys of Pichincha and Imbabura and the role of the Guayaquil to Quito railway in creating highland larval habitat and inadvertently promoting transportation of the vector and parasite. Involvement of control organizations in combating malaria in Ecuador is also outlined in a historical context. PMID:22469234

  8. 27 CFR 9.159 - Yorkville Highlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yorkville Highlands. 9.159 Section 9.159 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.159 Yorkville Highlands. (a) Name. The name of th...

  9. 27 CFR 9.159 - Yorkville Highlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yorkville Highlands. 9.159 Section 9.159 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.159 Yorkville Highlands. (a) Name. The name of th...

  10. 27 CFR 9.159 - Yorkville Highlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yorkville Highlands. 9.159 Section 9.159 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.159 Yorkville Highlands. (a) Name. The name of th...

  11. 27 CFR 9.159 - Yorkville Highlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yorkville Highlands. 9.159 Section 9.159 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.159 Yorkville Highlands. (a) Name. The name of th...

  12. 27 CFR 9.159 - Yorkville Highlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yorkville Highlands. 9.159 Section 9.159 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.159 Yorkville Highlands. (a) Name. The name of th...

  13. Ozark-Ouachita Highlands Assessment: Summary Report

    Treesearch

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture

    1999-01-01

    This publication summarizes four other reports prepared as part of the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands Assessment. The summary report addresses social and economic conditions and trends, aquatic conditions, air quality, and terrestrial vegetation and wildlife of the Highlands in Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri.

  14. Imagery Exercises for Young Highland Dancers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Irene L.; Munroe-Chandler, Krista J.

    2017-01-01

    Scottish Highland Dance (Highland Dance), known for its accompaniment of bagpipe music and traditional wearing of the kilt, has captured the interest of many dancers and spectators worldwide. It requires strength, stamina, coordination, and very controlled movements. Such intricate technique and movements can be difficult to master, especially for…

  15. A highland sample strategy for Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehon, Rene A.

    1994-01-01

    Potential landing sites are confined to latitudes between 0 deg and 30 deg N and surfaces below 0 km elevation. The landing ellipse is 100 x 200 km oriented N 74 deg E. The constraints essentially eliminate the slopes of Elysium Mons, Olympus Mons, Tharsis Ridge, Lunae Plaunum, all the southern highlands, and almost all the Noachian material of Arabia Terra. Those areas that remain as potential landing sites are chiefly lowland plains of Amazonis Chryse, Isidis, and Elysium Planitia. Any attempt to sample highland material further constrains the possible landing sites by eliminating areas of Hesperian or Amazonian lavas and sediments. One possible sampling strategy is to sample materials within those few 'highland' terrains that extend to low elevations. A second strategy is to sample materials at the mouth of an outflow channel that drains from the highlands. Potential landing sites include outflow channel material at the edge of Chryse Planitia and highland materials bordering southern Amazonis Planitia.

  16. A note on: "A Gaussian-product stochastic Gent-McWilliams parameterization"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Malte F.

    2017-02-01

    This note builds on a recent article by Grooms (2016), which introduces a new stochastic parameterization for eddy buoyancy fluxes. The closure proposed by Grooms accounts for the fact that eddy fluxes arise as the product of two approximately Gaussian variables, which in turn leads to a distinctly non-Gaussian distribution. The directionality of the stochastic eddy fluxes, however, remains somewhat ad-hoc and depends on the reference frame of the chosen coordinate system. This note presents a modification of the approach proposed by Grooms, which eliminates this shortcoming. Eddy fluxes are computed based on a stochastic mixing length model, which leads to a frame invariant formulation. As in the original closure proposed by Grooms, eddy fluxes are proportional to the product of two Gaussian variables, and the parameterization reduces to the Gent and McWilliams parameterization for the mean buyoancy fluxes.

  17. Suicide in the Highlands of Scotland.

    PubMed

    Stark, C; Matthewson, F; O'Neill, N; Oates, K; Hay, A

    2002-01-01

    The Highlands have one of the highest suicide rates in Scotland. This paper describes suicide and deliberate self-harm in the Highlands in the last 20 years and explores possible reasons for the differences from the Scottish average. Retrospective analysis of routine data from the SMRI/SMR01 scheme and information on deaths from the Registrar General. Suicide and undetermined deaths were combined in the analysis. Highland and Scotland 1978-98. The high rates in Highland are caused by an excess of male deaths. Highland has had consistently high male suicide rates over the 20 year period compared to Scotland. These differences do not disappear when deaths of non-Highland residents are excluded. By comparison, deliberate self-harm admissions follow a similar pattern to Scotland as a whole. Causes of death differed from Scotland as a whole, with an over-representation of drowning, gases and firearm deaths. Highland suicide rates are elevated compared to Scotland. This is mainly due to an excess of deaths in men up to the age of 74 years, and is not accounted for by deaths of non-residents. Female deaths are not elevated in comparison to the rest of Scotland. Male attempted suicide rates do not differ from Scotland. Lethality of method--drowning, car exhausts and firearms--may contribute to the elevated male death rates.

  18. Spotlight: Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Patriquin, W

    1988-03-01

    Focus is on Malaysia -- its population and land area, its total fertility rate and mortality rate, economic development, contraceptive usage, and population policy. In 1987 Malaysia's population was estimated to be 16.1 million with births 31/1000 population and deaths 7/1000 population. The rate of natural increase is 2.4%, the total fertility rate 3.9 children/woman, and the infant mortality rate 30/1000 live births. Ethnically, Malaysia is made up of several distinct groups. Indigenous Malays are the most numerous -- about 50% of the population. Their unique characteristics include that they are Moslem, rural, and usually of lower economic status. Chinese make up the 2nd largest group of Malaysians, nearly 1/3 of the population. This group is active in trade, business, and finance and possesses considerable economic power. About 10% of the population is of Indian descent. Malaysia has experienced much economic growth. Traditional exports grew in volume and value during the 1970; the petroleum sector expanded so rapidly it accounts for 1/4 of all exports. One reason for Malaysia's rapid economic growth is the government's promotion of industrialization and foreign investment. According to the 1982 contraceptive prevalence survey, 42% of currently married women 15-44 years were using contraception. The government considers the current rate of national increase to be satisfactory, but in 1984 it adopted a population policy to more than quadruple its population in 2100 to 70 million. It intends to accomplish this by instituting pronatalist incentives to help the fall in the national growth rate. The government's rationale for more population growth is that a larger domestic population could better support industrial growth that otherwise might be stymied by "protectionist policies practiced by developed countries." Incentives to encourage fertility include income-tax deductions and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children.

  19. Closer Look at Lunar Highland Crust

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-05

    This image depicting the porosity of the lunar highland crust was derived using bulk density data from NASA GRAIL mission and independent grain density measurements from NASA Apollo moon mission samples as well as orbital remote-sensing data.

  20. Singapore, Malaysia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view of the Malay Peninsula shows the city state of Singapore, Malaysia (1.5N, 104.0E) with all its urban, industrial and commercial land use areas. Singapore is located at the south tip of the Malay peninsula separated by the Johor Strait. The prosporous island state, once Asia's major trade center, is now highly industrialized despite its small size and its ideal location has made this island a hub of trade, shipping and service industries.

  1. Singapore, Malaysia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-07-09

    This view of the Malay Peninsula shows the city state of Singapore, Malaysia (1.5N, 104.0E) with all its urban, industrial and commercial land use areas. Singapore is located at the south tip of the Malay peninsula separated by the Johor Strait. The prosporous island state, once Asia's major trade center, is now highly industrialized despite its small size and its ideal location has made this island a hub of trade, shipping and service industries.

  2. Isostatic Compensation of the Lunar Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sori, Michael M.; James, Peter B.; Johnson, Brandon C.; Soderblom, Jason M.; Solomon, Sean C.; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2018-02-01

    The lunar highlands are isostatically compensated at large horizontal scales, but the specific compensation mechanism has been difficult to identify. With topographic data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter and gravity data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory, we investigate support of highland topography. Poor correlation between crustal density and elevation shows that Pratt compensation is not important in the highlands. Using spectrally weighted admittance, we compared observed values of geoid-to-topography ratio (GTR) with those predicted by isostatic models. Observed GTRs are 25.8+7.5-5.7 m/km for the nearside highlands and 39.3+5.7-6.2 m/km for the farside highlands. These values are not consistent with flexural compensation of long-wavelength topography or Airy isostasy defined under an assumption of equal mass in crustal columns. Instead, the observed GTR values are consistent with models of Airy compensation in which isostasy is defined under a requirement of equal pressures at equipotential surfaces at depth. The gravity and topography data thus reveal that long-wavelength topography on the Moon is most likely compensated by variations in crustal thickness, implying that highland topography formed early in lunar history before the development of a thick elastic lithosphere.

  3. Dragons in the mist: three new species of Pseudocalotes Fitzinger (Squamata: Agamidae) from the sky island archipelago of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Grismer, L Lee; Quah, Evan S H; Wood, Perry L Jr; Anuar, Shahrul; Muin, Abdul; Davis, Hayden R; Murdoch, Matthew L; Grismer, Jesse L; Cota, Michael; Cobos, Anthony J

    2016-07-07

    An integrative taxonomic analysis is used to delimit and describe three new species of Pseudocalotoes from the sky island archipelago of the Banjaran (=mountain range) Titiwangsa of Peninsular Malaysia. Pseudocalotes drogon sp. nov., from Fraser's Hill, Pahang is basal to the sister species P. larutensis from Bukit Larut, Perak in the Banjaran Bintang and the new species P. rhaegal sp. nov. from Cameron Highlands, Pahang. Pseudocalotes drogon sp. nov. is differentiated from all other species of Psuedocalotes by having the combination of a flat rostrum; seven postrostrals; an interparietal; 11 circumorbitals; five canthals; 7-10 superciliaries; one scale between the rostral and nasal; nine supralabials; eight infralabials; 10 postnasal-suborbital scales; four postmentals; five or six sublabials; five or six chinshields; 47 smooth, wide, gular scales; weak transverse gular and antehumeral folds; two enlarged scales between the ear and eye; enlarged upper and lower posttemporals; a single enlarged supratympanic; no enlarged postrictals; three large scales bordering the dorsal margin of the ear opening; large pretympanic scales; eight scales in the nuchal crest not separated by a gap; enlarged vertebral scales extending to the tip of the tail; keeled and non-plate-like scales on flanks; 51 midbody scales; midventrals smaller than dorsals; 19 subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; 23 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; preaxial scales on third toe enlarged and spinose; subdigital lamellae not unicarinate; HW/HL 0.52; HL/SVL 0.31; no elbow or knee patches; and a male dewlap color of lime-green bearing a central yellow spot. Pseudocalotes rhaegal sp. nov. is differentiated from all other Psuedocalotes by having the combination of a convex rostrum; 6-8 postrostrals; an interparietal; nine or 10 circumorbitals; five canthals; 7-10 superciliaries; one or two scales between the rostral and nasal scales; eight or nine supralabials; seven or eight infralabials; 11 or 12

  4. Chemistry of the Apollo 11 highland component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laul, J. C.; Papike, J. J.; Simon, S. B.; Shearer, C. K.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-eight Apollo 11 lunar highland fragments from coarse fines 10085 have been subjected to petrologic and chemical study. Six major chemical groups are identified: (a) high-K KREEP; (b) anorthosite with a 10X chondrite positive Eu anomaly and anorthosite with 30X positive Eu anomaly; (c) ANT; (d) LKFM; (e) anorthositic gabbro with no Eu anomaly, with a positive Eu anomaly, and with a negative Eu anomaly; and (f) dominant Highland component, 2X-10X chondrite with a positive 10X-14X Eu anomaly. Newly recognized groups are presented based on the REE patterns: (a) ANT group with 5X La and a 22X positive Eu anomaly; (b) 10X flat with 14X positive Eu anomaly; and (c) 2-3X flat with a 10X positive Eu anomaly. The highland suite is very low in K and REE, and is overall quite similar to the Apollo 16 suite.

  5. Mapping of government land encroachment in Cameron Highlands using multiple remote sensing datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zin, M. H. M.; Ahmad, B.

    2014-02-01

    The cold and refreshing highland weather is one of the factors that give impact to socio-economic growth in Cameron Highlands. This unique weather of the highland surrounded by tropical rain forest can only be found in a few places in Malaysia. It makes this place a famous tourism attraction and also provides a very suitable temperature for agriculture activities. Thus it makes agriculture such as tea plantation, vegetable, fruits and flowers one of the biggest economic activities in Cameron Highlands. However unauthorized agriculture activities are rampant. The government land, mostly forest area have been encroached by farmers, in many cases indiscriminately cutting down trees and hill slopes. This study is meant to detect and assess this encroachment using multiple remote sensing datasets. The datasets were used together with cadastral parcel data where survey lines describe property boundary, pieces of land are subdivided into lots of government and private. The general maximum likelihood classification method was used on remote sensing image to classify the land-cover in the study area. Ground truth data from field observation were used to assess the accuracy of the classification. Cadastral parcel data was overlaid on the classification map in order to detect the encroachment area. The result of this study shows that there is a land cover change of 93.535 ha in the government land of the study area between years 2001 to 2010, nevertheless almost no encroachment took place in the studied forest reserve area. The result of this study will be useful for the authority in monitoring and managing the forest.

  6. New York - New Jersey Highlands Regional Study: 2002 Update

    Treesearch

    Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry

    2003-01-01

    Stewardship Goals For The New York - New Jersey Highlands This 2002 Update of the 1992 New York - New Jersey Highlands Regional Study embodies the following goals for the long-term stewardship of the Highlands: 1. Manage future growth that is compatible with the region's ecological constraints; 2. Maintain an adequate surface and ground water supply that...

  7. Management of grassy bald communities in the Roan Highlands

    Treesearch

    James T. Donaldson; N. Schubert; Lisa C. Huff

    2010-01-01

    No place better exemplifies that which is rare and unique within high-elevation communities of the Appalachian Mountains than the highlands of Roan Mountain. The Roan Highlands are protected through a landscape-level conservation initiative originally established by the Southern Appalachian Highlands Conservancy and the U.S. Forest Service in 1974.

  8. Ozark-Ouachita Highlands Assessment: Aquatic Conditions

    Treesearch

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides citizens, private and public organizations, scientists, and others with information about the aquatic conditions in or near national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes water quality analyses,...

  9. Ozark-Ouachita Highlands Assessment: Air Quality

    Treesearch

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides information about the atmospheric conditions in and near the national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes information about particulate matter, visibility, ozone concentrations, and acid...

  10. Conservation priorities in the Apache Highlands ecoregion

    Treesearch

    Dale Turner; Rob Marshall; Carolyn A. F. Enquist; Anne Gondor; David F. Gori; Eduardo Lopez; Gonzalo Luna; Rafaela Paredes Aguilar; Chris Watts; Sabra Schwartz

    2005-01-01

    The Apache Highlands ecoregion incorporates the entire Madrean Archipelago/Sky Island region. We analyzed the current distribution of 223 target species and 26 terrestrial ecological systems there, and compared them with constraints on ecosystem integrity (e.g., road density) to determine the most efficient set of areas needed to maintain current biodiversity. The...

  11. Association between recent internal travel and malaria in Ugandan highland and highland fringe areas.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Caroline A; Bruce, Jane; Bhasin, Amit; Roper, Cally; Cox, Jonathan; Abeku, Tarekegn A

    2015-06-01

    To examine the association between travel (recency of travel, transmission intensity at destination compared to origin and duration of travel) and confirmed malaria in Uganda. Health facility-based case-control study in highland (~2200 m), and highland fringe (~1500 m) areas with adjustment for other covariates. In the highland site, patients who had travelled to areas of higher transmission intensity than their home (origin) areas recently were nearly seven times more likely to have confirmed malaria than those who had not (OR 6.9; P = 0.01, 95% CI: 1.4-33.1). In the highland fringe site, there was also a statistically significant association between travel and malaria (OR 2.1; P = 0.04, 95% CI: 1.1-3.9). For highland areas, or areas of low malaria transmission, health authorities need to consider internal migrants when designing malaria control programs. Control interventions should include information campaigns reminding residents in these areas of the risk of malaria infection through travel and to provide additional mosquito nets for migrants to use during travel. Health authorities may wish to improve diagnosis in health facilities in highland areas by adding travel history to malaria case definitions. Where routine monitoring data are used to evaluate the impact of interventions on the malaria burden in highland areas, health authorities and donors need ensure that only cases from the local area and not 'imported cases' are counted. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Impact Crater Deposits in the Martian Highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mest, S. C.; Crown, D. a.

    2005-01-01

    The martian highlands of Noachis Terra (20-30 deg S, 20-50 deg E), Tyrrhena Terra (0-30 deg S, 50- 100 deg E) and Terra Cimmeria (0-60 deg S, 120-170 deg E) preserve long and complex histories of degradation, but the relative effects of such factors as fluvial, eolian, and mass wasting processes have not been well constrained. The effects of this degradation are best observed on large (D greater than 10 km) impact craters that characterize the ancient highlands. Some craters exhibit distinct interior deposits, but precise origins of these deposits are enigmatic; infilling may occur by sedimentary (e.g., fluvial, lacustrine, eolian), mass wasting and (or) volcanic processes.

  13. A new species of Leptolalax (Amphibia, Anura, Megophryidae) from Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masafumi; Belabut, Daicus M; Ahmad, Norhayati; Yong, Hoi-Sen

    2009-03-01

    A new megophryid species, Leptolalax kecil, is described from the Cameron Highlands of Peninsular Malaysia on the basis of acoustic and morphological characteristics. It has an advertisement call dissimilar to that of other, congeneric species, and is the smallest of the known Leptolalax. It is similar to L. pluvialis from Vietnam in small body size, but differs from it in ventral color, and in the size and color of the pectoral gland. The distributional pattern of the new species Is discussed.

  14. Cultural Astronomy in the Armenian Highland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Suvaryan, Yu. M.; Mickaelian, A. M. (Eds.)

    2016-12-01

    The book contains 29 articles of the Proceedings of the Young Scientists Conference "Cultural Astronomy in the Armenian Highland" held at the Armenian National Academy of Sciences on 20-23 June 2016. It consists of 4 main sections: "Introductory", "Cultural Astronomy", "Archaeoastronomy", "Scientific Tourism and Journalism, Astronomical Education and Amateur Astronomy". The book may be interesting to astronomers, culturologists, philologists, linguists, historians, archaeologists, art historians, ethnographers and to other specialists, as well as to students.

  15. Menopause in highland Guatemala Mayan women.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Donna E

    2003-04-25

    To explore any feelings and symptoms surrounding menopause among Mayan women in three ethnolinguistic groups in highland Guatemala and compare these with previous reports from Mexico. This was a qualitative exploratory study of the experiences around menopause of eight middle aged women and one local key informant in each of three villages in western highland Guatemala (n=27). Individual interviews were conducted in women with irregular menses or whose menses has ceased in the last 3 years. Field notes were kept and then an analysis undertaken by the author. Twenty-four Mayan women, aged 38-55, and three Mayan key informants (all women over age 50) were interviewed. Most women reported some symptoms, including hot flashes, night sweats, changes in libido, irritability, moodiness, abdominal cramps and menstrual clots occurring at some stage during the last 3 years. Although women reported symptoms, they mostly accepted them with equanimity; and rejoiced at the cessation of their periods. Highland Guatemalan Mayan women reported symptoms that were not reported in Mayan women in Yucatan, Mexico in the years surrounding menopause. The reasons for this disparity are unclear but may reflect differences in body weight and diet. Despite these symptoms, Mayan women looked forward to menopause and their newfound freedom and status. Symptoms in women in the years around menopause must be interpreted in geographical, nutritional, biological, psychological and cultural context.

  16. Vertebrate Damage Control Research in Agriculture, Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-30

    sparrow Passer domesticus Rice, wheat Munias Lonchura striata and Millets L. malacca CARNIVORES Maior Pests Golden jackal Canis aureus Sugarcane...1990, Genting Highlands, Malaysia, pp. 115-122. Haque, M. E., R. K. Pandit, S. Ahmad, and J. E. Brooks. 1993. Status of the golden jackal as an...11 Rodent Control Strategies ................................... 12 Jackal Research .......................................... 12

  17. Time Series Analysis of Heavy Metal Concentrations along the Watershed Gradient in Cameron Highlands: Geospatial Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haron, S. H.; Ismail, B. S.; Mispan, M. R.; Abd Rahman, N. F.; Khalid, K.; Rasid, M. Z. Abdul; Sidek, L. M.

    2016-03-01

    Heavy metal, particularly cadmium, lead, and arsenic, constitute a significant potential threat to human health. Some metals are extremely toxic to humans and the toxic heavy metals of greatest concern include cadmium, lead, and arsenic. The objective of the study conducted was to determine the accumulation and distribution status of heavy metal cadmium (Cd) in the sediment of Bertam River from September 2014 to February 2015 in the agricultural areas of Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. The sediment samples were collected randomly in three replicates from ten sampling points in the agricultural areas of Cameron Highlands. The heavy metals in the sediment were extracted using the wet acid method and the sample concentrations are then tested for metal concentrations by the spectrography method using Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) spectrography. Inverse distance weighting (IDW) was used to create a map of metal concentrations for a point on the polygon dataset spatial interpolation. There is an increasing trend of Cd from the upstream to downstream stations along Bertam River during the rainy season. The activity range of Cd is 0.07 to 2.83 µg/g during the rainy season, whereas, during the dry season, Cd activity ranged from 0.26-0.83µg/g.

  18. The deep structure of Venusian plateau highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimm, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    Magellan gravity data confirm that several of the large, tectonically deformed, plateau-like highlands on venus are shallowly compensated, most likely by crustal thickness variations. Apparent depths of isostatic compensation, computed in the spatial domain, range from 30 to 50 km for Alpha, Tellus, Ovda, and Thetis Regiones. Using a two-layer model for isostatic compensation, Alpha, Tellus, and Ovda are best represented as nearly completely compensated in crust that is regionally 20-40 km thick around these highlands, with little contribution from deeper mantle sources. In contrast to these three areas, a stronger regional gravity high associated with Thetis requires a significant upper mantle component to compensation. This is evident in the spectral admittance as a pronounced deep, long-wavelength anomaly. In the two-layer isostatic model, a broad, deeply compensated upland underlies a shallowly compensated central block of Thetis. If this deep component is interpreted as a thermal anomaly, the loci of maximum upwelling agree well with sites of recent extension. The plateau highlands are thus physiographically and isostatically equivalent to terrestrial continents, though probably not compositionally. They also share the record of a long tectonic history. The large regional gravity anomaly of Thetis indicates that active mantle proceses continue even beneath some areas (tessera) thought to be a relic of a former geological regime. The excellent agreement of modeled crustal thicknesses around Alpha, Tellus, and Ovda Regiones suggests that 20-40 km is a representative global value for the plains. Such a crust is thicker than previously estimated and about twice as thick as the expected thickness of crust produced at venusian spreading centers

  19. Radionuclides at Descartes in the central highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    Throium, uranium, potassium, aluminium-26, and sodium-22 were measured by nondestructive gamma ray spectrometry in six soil and two rock samples gathered by Apollo 16 in the lunar central highlands. The soil samples probably include both major geologic formations in the vicinity, the Cayley and Descartes Formations, although it is possible that the Descartes Formation is not represented. The rock samples have low concentrations of primordial radionuclides. The Al concentrations were lower than could be expected from the high abundance of alumina in the Apollo 16 soils reported earlier, but this could be due to lower concentrations of target elements in these soils, sampling depth variations, or regolithic mixing (exposure age variations).

  20. Evolution of the lunar highland crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, S. R.; Bence, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of three distinct element associations in the lunar highland crust is discussed in terms of the Taylor-Jakes model which involves melting of most of the moon during accretion. Sources for (1) high Ca, Al, Sr, Eu, (2) high Mg and Cr, and (3) high K, REE, Zr, Hf, Nb are suggested. Bombardment by large projectiles during the differentiation process causes melting and mixing, which produces a wide range of compositions in the crust. The formation of dunite, troctolite, high-, medium-, and low-K Fra Mauro basalts, and rocks close to the olivine-spinel-plagioclase peritectic point is considered.

  1. The Rediscovery of Sphenomorphus malayanus Doria, 1888 (Squamata: Scincidae) from the Titiwangsa Mountain Range of Peninsular Malaysia and its re-description as S. senja sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Grismer, L Lee; Quah, Evan S H

    2015-03-11

    The discovery of an additional specimen of Sphenomorphus malayanus Doria, 1888 from Gunung Brinchang, Cameron Highlands, Pahang in Peninsular Malaysia reveals that it is not conspecific with the type specimen from Gunung Singgalan, West Sumatra, 600 km to the south. The new specimen and an additional specimen previously collected from Gunung Gerah, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia, 56 km to the north, are described here as the new species S. senja sp. nov. and differ from S. malayanus by having a larger SVL (60.0-65 mm versus 53 mm); a deeply recessed as opposed to a shallow tympanum; 72 or 73 versus 76 paravertebral scales; eight or nine superciliary scales as opposed to 10; and the posteriormost superciliary scale being large as opposed to small. Cameron Highlands is unique among other upland areas in Peninsular Malaysia in that it harbors an unprecedented number of closely related ecological equivalents living in close sympatry or syntopy.

  2. Female Prisoners in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teh, Yik Koon

    2006-01-01

    This is a study on 422 female prisoners in peninsular Malaysia. More than half of the female prisoners are foreigners, mainly from Indonesia and Thailand. This study surveys the background of the respondents and identifies factors that may have influenced them to commit the offences. Female prisoners in Malaysia, particularly those who are…

  3. Apennine Front revisited - Diversity of Apollo 15 highland rock types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Marvin, Ursula B.; Vetter, Scott K.; Shervais, John W.

    1988-01-01

    The Apollo 15 landing site is geologically the most complex of the Apollo sites, situated at a mare-highland interface within the rings of two of the last major basin-forming impacts. Few of the Apollo 15 samples are ancient highland rocks derived from the early differentiation of the moon, or impact melts from major basin impacts. Most of the samples are regolith breccias containing abundant clasts of younger volcanic mare and KREEP basalts. The early geologic evolution of the region can be understood only by examining the small fragments of highland rocks found in regolith breccias and soils. Geochemical and petrologic studies of clasts and matrices of three impact melt breccias and four regolith breccias are presented. Twelve igneous and metamorphic rocks show extreme diversity and include a new type of ferroan norite. Twenty-five samples of highland impact melt are divided into groups based on composition. These impact melts form nearly a continuum over more than an order of magnitude in REE concentrations. This continuum may result from both major basin impacts and younger local events. Highland rocks from the Apennine Front include most of the highland rock types found at all of the other sites. An extreme diversity of highland rocks is a fundamental characteristic of the Apennine Front and is a natural result of its complex geologic evolution.

  4. Lakshmi Planum: A distinctive highland volcanic province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Kari M.; Head, James W.

    Lakshmi Planum, a broad smooth plain located in western Ishtar Terra and containing two large oval depressions (Colette and Sacajawea), has been interpreted as a highland plain of volcanic origin. Lakshmi is situated 3 to 5 km above the mean planetary radius and is surrounded on all sides by bands of mountains interpreted to be of compressional tectonic origin. Four primary characteristics distinguish Lakshmi from other volcanic regions known on the planet, such as Beta Regio: (1) high altitude, (2) plateau-like nature, (3) the presence of very large, low volcanic constructs with distinctive central calderas, and (4) its compressional tectonic surroundings. Building on the previous work of Pronin, the objective is to establish the detailed nature of the volcanic deposits on Lakshmi, interpret eruption styles and conditions, sketch out an eruption history, and determine the relationship between volcanism and the tectonic environment of the region.

  5. Lakshmi Planum: A distinctive highland volcanic province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Kari M.; Head, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Lakshmi Planum, a broad smooth plain located in western Ishtar Terra and containing two large oval depressions (Colette and Sacajawea), has been interpreted as a highland plain of volcanic origin. Lakshmi is situated 3 to 5 km above the mean planetary radius and is surrounded on all sides by bands of mountains interpreted to be of compressional tectonic origin. Four primary characteristics distinguish Lakshmi from other volcanic regions known on the planet, such as Beta Regio: (1) high altitude, (2) plateau-like nature, (3) the presence of very large, low volcanic constructs with distinctive central calderas, and (4) its compressional tectonic surroundings. Building on the previous work of Pronin, the objective is to establish the detailed nature of the volcanic deposits on Lakshmi, interpret eruption styles and conditions, sketch out an eruption history, and determine the relationship between volcanism and the tectonic environment of the region.

  6. Seismic activity noted at Medicine Lake Highlands

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, D.

    1988-12-01

    The sudden rumble of earthquakes beneath Medicine Lake Highlands this fall gave geologists an early warning that one of Northern California's volcanoes may be stirring back to life. Researchers stressed that an eruption of the volcano is not expected soon. But the flurry of underground shocks in late September, combined with new evidence of a pool of molten rock beneath the big volcano, has led them to monitor Medicine Lake with new wariness. The volcano has been dormant since 1910, when it ejected a brief flurry of ash - worrying no one. A federal team plans to take measurements ofmore » Medicine Lake, testing for changes in its shape caused by underground pressures. The work is scheduled for spring because snows have made the volcano inaccessible. But the new seismic network is an effective lookout, sensitive to very small increases in activity.« less

  7. Modeling of microclimatic characteristics of highland area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitdikova, Iuliia; Rusin, Igor

    2013-04-01

    Microclimatic characteristics of highlands may vary considerably over distances of a few meters depending on slope and aspect. There is a problem of estimation of components of surface energy balance based on observation of single stations for description of microclimate highlands. The aim of this paper is to develop a method that would restore microclimatic characteristics of terrain, based on observations of the single station, by physical extrapolation. The input parameters to obtain the microclimatic characteristics are as follows: air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed on two vertical levels, air pressure, surface temperature, direct and diffused solar radiation and surface albedo. The recent version of the Meteorological Radiation Model (MRM) has been used to calculate a solar radiation over the area and to estimate an influence of cloudiness amounts. The height, slope and aspect were accounted at each point with using a digital elevation model. Have been supposed that air temperature and specific humidity vary with altitude only. Net radiation was calculated at all points of the area. Supposed that the difference between the surface temperature and the air temperature is a linear function of net radiation. The empirical coefficient, which depends on wind speed with adjustment of given area. Latent and sensible fluxes are calculated by using the modified Bowen ratio, which varies on the area. Method was tested on field research in Krasnodar region (RF). The meteorological observations were made every three hour on actinometric and gradient sites. The editional gradient site with different orientation of the slope was organized from 400 meters of the main site. Topographic survey of area was made 1x1,3 km in size for a digital elevation model constructing. At all points of the area of radiation and heat balance were calculated. The results of researches are the maps of surface temperature, net radiation, latent and sensible fluxes. The calculations

  8. Sustainable Land Management in the Ethiopian Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan; Araya, Tesfay

    2014-05-01

    Through centuries of farming practices the farmers and pastoralists in Ethiopia were managing their land resources pertaining to the needs of prevalent populations. With an increasing population and growing demands, more land was put under cultivation. Subsequently forest areas were cleared, encroaching agriculture into steep slopes and areas that were not suitable for agricultural activities. Land degradation and particularly soil erosion by water not only reduced the productivity of the land but also aggravated the effects of drought, such as famine and migration. Obvious signs of degradation in the highlands of Ethiopia are wide gullies swallowing fertile lands and rock outcrops making farming a risky business. But also less visible sheet erosion processes result in a tremendous loss of fertile topsoil, particularly on cropland. Efforts have been made by the farming communities to mitigate land degradation by developing local practices of conserving soil and water. With keen interest and openness one can observe such indigenous practices in all corners of Ethiopia. Notwithstanding these practices, there were also efforts to introduce other soil and water conservation interventions to control erosion and retain the eroded soils. Since the early 1980s numerous campaigns were carried out to build terraces in farmlands and sloping areas. Major emphasis was given to structural technologies rather than on vegetative measures. Currently the landscape of the northern highlands is dotted with millions of hectares of terraced fields and in some places with planned watershed management interventions including exclosures. Apparently these interventions were introduced without prior investigating the detailed problems and conservation needs of the local population. Intensive research is undertaken on the processes of degradation, the impact of the different intervention measures and the role of communities in sustainably managing their land. This paper attempts to review the

  9. Ancient and Medieval Cosmology in Armenian Highland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, Sona V.; Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2016-12-01

    Humankind has always sought to recognize the nature of various sky related phenomena and tried to give them explanations. It is especially vivid in ancient cultures, many of which are related to the Middle East. The purpose of this study is to identify ancient Armenian's pantheistic and cosmological perceptions, world view, notions and beliefs. By this study we answer the question "How did the Universe work in Ancient Armenian Highland?" The paper focuses on the structure of the Universe and many phenomena of nature that have always had major influence on ancient Armenians thinking. Here we weave together astronomy, anthropology and mythology of Armenia, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions. The initial review of the study covers Moses of Khoren, Yeznik of Koghb, Anania Shirakatsi and other 5th-7th centuries historians' and scientists' records about the Universe related superstitious beliefs and cosmological understanding. By discussing and comparing Universe structure in various regional traditions, myths, folk songs and phraseological units we very often came across "seven worlds", "seven earths" and "seven layers" concepts. We draw parallels between scientific and mythological Earth and Heaven and thus find similar number of layers on both of the ancient and modern thinking. In the article we also give some details about the tripartite structure of the Universe and how these parts are connected with axis. This axis is either a column or a Cosmic Tree (Kenatz Tsar). In Armenian culture the preliminary meanings of the Kenatz Tsar are more vivid in folk songs (Jan gyulums), plays, epic, and so on, which was subsequently mixed with religious and spiritual views. We conclude that the perception of the Universe structure and celestial objects had a significant impact on culture and worldview of the people of the Armenian Highland; particularly it was one of the bases of the regional cultural diversity.

  10. Diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis, central Peruvian Highlands.

    PubMed

    Gavidia, Cesar M; Gonzalez, Armando E; Zhang, Wenbao; McManus, Donald P; Lopera, Luis; Ninaquispe, Berenice; Garcia, Hector H; Rodríguez, Silvia; Verastegui, Manuela; Calderon, Carmen; Pan, William K Y; Gilman, Robert H

    2008-02-01

    We evaluated prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in a central Peruvian Highland district by using 4 diagnostic methods: ultrasonography for 949 persons, radiography for 829, and 2 serologic tests for 929 (2 immunoblot formats using bovine hydatid cyst fluid [IBCF] and recombinant EpC1 glutathione S-transferase [rEpC1-GST] antigens). For the IBCF and rEpC1-GST testing, prevalence of liver and pulmonary CE was 4.7% and 1.1% and seropositivity was 8.9% and 19.7%, respectively. Frequency of seropositive results for IBCF and rEpC1-GST testing was 35.7% and 16.7% (all hepatic cysts), 47.1% and 29.4% (hepatic calcifications excluded), and 22.2% and 33.3% (lung cysts), respectively. Weak immune response against lung cysts, calcified cysts, small cysts, and cysts in sites other than lung and liver might explain the poor performance of the serodiagnostic tests. We confirm that CE is highly endemic to Peru and emphasize the limited performance of available serologic assays in the field.

  11. Phylogenetic inferences of Nepenthes species in Peninsular Malaysia revealed by chloroplast (trnL intron) and nuclear (ITS) DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Bunawan, Hamidun; Yen, Choong Chee; Yaakop, Salmah; Noor, Normah Mohd

    2017-01-26

    The chloroplastic trnL intron and the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region were sequenced for 11 Nepenthes species recorded in Peninsular Malaysia to examine their phylogenetic relationship and to evaluate the usage of trnL intron and ITS sequences for phylogenetic reconstruction of this genus. Phylogeny reconstruction was carried out using neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. All the trees revealed two major clusters, a lowland group consisting of N. ampullaria, N. mirabilis, N. gracilis and N. rafflesiana, and another containing both intermediately distributed species (N. albomarginata and N. benstonei) and four highland species (N. sanguinea, N. macfarlanei, N. ramispina and N. alba). The trnL intron and ITS sequences proved to provide phylogenetic informative characters for deriving a phylogeny of Nepenthes species in Peninsular Malaysia. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular phylogenetic study of Nepenthes species occurring along an altitudinal gradient in Peninsular Malaysia.

  12. Mercury pollution in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Jinap, S; Ismail, Ahmad; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have been published on levels of mercury contamination of the environment, and of food and human tissues in Peninsular Malaysia, there is a serious dearth of research that has been performed in East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak). Industry is rapidly developing in East Malaysia, and, hence, there is a need for establishing baseline levels of mercury contamination in environmental media in that part of the country by performing monitoring studies. Residues of total mercury and inorganic in food samples have been determined in nearly all previous studies that have been conducted; however, few researchers have analyzed samples for the presence of methlymercury residues. Because methylmercury is the most toxic form of mercury, and because there is a growing public awareness of the risk posed by methylmercury exposure that is associated with fish and seafood consumption, further monitoring studies on methylmercury in food are also essential. From the results of previous studies, it is obvious that the economic development in Malaysia, in recent years, has affected the aquatic environment of the country. Primary areas of environmental concern are centered on the rivers of the west Peninsular Malaysian coast, and the coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca, wherein industrial activities are rapidly expanding. The sources of existing mercury input to both of these areas of Malaysia should be studied and identified. Considering the high levels of mercury that now exists in human tissues, efforts should be continued, and accelerated in the future, if possible, to monitor mercury contamination levels in the coastal states, and particularly along the west Peninsular Malaysian coast. Most studies that have been carried out on mercury residues in environmental samples are dated, having been conducted 20-30 years ago; therefore, the need to collect much more and more current data is urgent. Furthermore, establishing baseline levels of mercury exposure to

  13. Guiana Highlands, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    These two images show exactly the same area in South America, the Guiana Highlands straddling the borders of Venezuela, Guyana and Brazil. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the image on the right was generated with a new data set recently released by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) called SRTM30, which represents a significant improvement in our knowledge of the topography of much of the world.

    GTOPO30, with a resolution of about 928 meters (1496 feet), was developed over a three-year period and published in 1996, and since then has been the primary source of digital elevation data for scientists and analysts involved in global studies. However, since it was compiled from a number of different map sources with varying attributes, the data for some parts of the globe were inconsistent or of low quality.

    The SRTM data, on the other hand, were collected within a ten-day period using the same instrument in a uniform fashion, and were processed into elevation data using consistent processing techniques. Thus SRTM30 provides a new resource of uniform quality for all parts of the Earth, and since the data, which have an intrinsic resolution of about 30 meters, were averaged and resampled to match the GTOPO30 sample spacing and format, and can be used by the same computer software without modification.

    The Guiana Highlands are part of the Guyana Shield, which lies in northeast South America and represent one of the oldest land surfaces in the world. Chemical weathering over many millions of years has created a landscape of flat-topped table mountains with dramatic, steep cliffs with a large number of spectacular waterfalls. For example Angel Falls, at 979 meters the highest waterfall in the world, plunges from Auyan Tebuy, part of a mesa of the type that may have been the

  14. Martian Highlands at Night in Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This nighttime temperature image from the camera system on NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows the ancient, heavily cratered surface of the highlands between Isidis and Elysium Planitia. The image is entered near 9 degrees north latitude, 109 degrees east longitude, and covers an area approximately 32 kilometers (20 miles) wide by 120 kilometers (75 miles) long. The bright 'splashes' extending outward from the three large craters are the remnants of the rocky material thrown out when the impact occurred. The nighttime temperature differences are due primarily to differences in the abundance of rocky materials that retain their heat at night and stay relatively warm. Fine grained dust and sand cool off more rapidly at night. The circular rims of the craters in this region are warm at night, showing that rocks are still present on the steep walls inside the craters. The 'splash' ejecta patterns are also warmer than their surroundings, and are covered by material that was blasted out when the craters formed. The temperatures in this scene vary from approximately -105 degrees Celsius (-157 degrees Fahrenheit)(darkest) to -75 degrees Celsius (-103 degrees Fahrenheit) (lightest). This image was acquired using the instrument's infrared Band 9, centered at 12.6 micrometers. North is toward the left in this image.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science in Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. Additional science partners are located at the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and at Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin

  15. Isostatic compensation of equatorial highlands on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucinskas, Algis B.; Turcotte, Donald L.

    1994-01-01

    Spherical harmonic models for Venus' global topography and gravity incorporating Magellan data are used to test isostatic compensation models in five 30 deg x 30 deg regions representative of the main classes of equatorial highlands. The power spectral density for the harmonic models obeys a power-law scaling with spectral slope Beta approximately 2 (Brown noise) for the topography and Beta approximately 3 (Kaula's law) for the geoid, similar to what is observed for Earth. The Venus topography spectrum has lower amplitudes than Earth's which reflects the dominant lowland topography on Venus. Observed degree geoid to topography ratios (GTRs) on Venus are significantly smaller than degree GTRs for uncompensated topography, indicative of substantial compensation. Assuming a global Airy compensation, most of the topography is compensated at depths greater than 100 km, suggesting a thick lithosphere on Venus. For each region considered we obtain a regional degree of compensation C from a linear regression of Bouguer anomaly versus Bouguer gravity data. Geoid anomaly (N) versus topography variation (h) data for each sample were compared, in the least-squares sense, to theoretical correlations for Pratt, Airy, and thermal thinning isostasy models yielding regional GTR, zero-elevation crustal thickness (H), and zero elevation thermal lithosphere thickness (y(sub L(sub 0)), respectively. We find the regional compensation to be substantial (C approximately 52-80%), and the h, N data correlations in the chosen areas can be explained by isostasy models applicable on the Earth and involving variations in crustal thickness (Airy) and/or lithospheric (thermal thinning) thickness. However, a thick crust and lithosphere (y(sub L(sub 0)) approximately 300 km) must be assumed for Venus.

  16. Respiratory Toxicity of Lunar Highland Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-wing; Wallace, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Lunar dust exposures occurred during the Apollo missions while the crew was on the lunar surface and especially when microgravity conditions were attained during rendezvous in lunar orbit. Crews reported that the dust was irritating to the eyes and in some cases respiratory symptoms were elicited. NASA s vision for lunar exploration includes stays of 6 months on the lunar surface hence the health effects of periodic exposure to lunar dust need to be assessed. NASA has performed this assessment with a series of in vitro and in vivo tests on authentic lunar dust. Our approach is to "calibrate" the intrinsic toxicity of lunar dust by comparison to a nontoxic dust (TiO2) and a highly toxic dust (quartz) using intratrachael instillation of the dusts in mice. A battery of indices of toxicity is assessed at various time points after the instillations. Cultures of selected cells are exposed to test dusts to assess the adverse effects on the cells. Finally, chemical systems are used to assess the nature of the reactivity of various dusts and to determine the persistence of reactivity under various environmental conditions that are relevant to a space habitat. Similar systems are used to assess the dissolution of the dust. From these studies we will be able to set a defensible inhalation exposure standard for aged dust and predict whether we need a separate standard for reactive dust. Presently-available data suggest that aged lunar highland dust is slightly toxic, that it can adversely affect cultured cells, and that the surface reactivity induced by grinding the dust persists for a few hours after activation.

  17. Print Advertisements in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Azirah

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines print advertisements in Malaysia to determine how advertisers seek to achieve their primary goal of persuading or influencing an audience by the use of both language and visuals. It describes the main component moves and rhetorical strategies used by writers to articulate the communicative purpose of the genre and the language…

  18. Country Profiles, Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzuki, Ariffin Bin; Peng, J. Y.

    A profile of Malaysia is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  19. English Teaching Profile: Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The status of the use and instruction of English in Malaysia, where it is a commonly-used second language, is described. The following topics are discussed: (1) the general status and role of English in Malaysian society in recent years; (2) English within the educational system (preschool, elementary, secondary, higher, adult, military, prison,…

  20. English in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Bernadette; Richards, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    This article seeks to lay out the use and importance of English in Malaysia from the time when the British ruled what was then Malaya to the present moment. When the British came to colonize the country, they brought with them their culture, their language and their beliefs. They introduced the English language as the medium of instruction in the…

  1. Education Reforms in Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunus, Aida Suraya Muhammad

    Malaysia's agenda in the late 1990s involved making the transition from an industrial economy to a knowledge-based economy. Thus, the more traditional purpose of education, that is, to produce an educated person, needs to be reevaluated. If the nation's Vision 2020 is to become a reality, the educational program needs to make a fundamental shift…

  2. EARTHSHINE ON A YOUNG MOON: EXPLAINING THE LUNAR FARSIDE HIGHLANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Arpita; Wright, Jason T.; Sigurðsson, Steinn

    2014-06-20

    The lunar farside highlands problem refers to the curious and unexplained fact that the farside lunar crust is thicker, on average, than the nearside crust. Here we recognize the crucial influence of Earthshine, and propose that it naturally explains this hemispheric dichotomy. Since the accreting Moon rapidly achieved synchronous rotation, a surface and atmospheric thermal gradient was imposed by the proximity of the hot, post-giant impact Earth. This gradient guided condensation of atmospheric and accreting material, preferentially depositing crust-forming refractories on the cooler farside, resulting in a primordial bulk chemical inhomogeneity that seeded the crustal asymmetry. Our model provides amore » causal solution to the lunar highlands problem: the thermal gradient created by Earthshine produced the chemical gradient responsible for the crust thickness dichotomy that defines the lunar highlands.« less

  3. Mars - A large highland volcanic province revealed by Viking images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. H.; Tanaka, K. L.

    1982-01-01

    Many of the mountains in the rugged highland terrain of the Phaethontis and Thaumasia quadrangles are believed to be of volcanic origin. Those provisionally mapped as volcanoes have diagnostic characteristics such as lobate flow fronts around their bases, depressed central areas, or have massive, bulbous accumulations of material of no determinable origin other than volcanic. Most of the volcanoes are younger than materials forming the highlands but are older than early lava flows from Arsia Mons. Many are aligned along older fault and ridge systems that are transverse to the more recent and prominent faults transecting the region. The older faults are generally buried by plains lava flows but their traces are visible in several places in the highlands. These faults are relatively short in length.

  4. Comparison pesticide residue levels in the surface of Bertam River in Cameron Highlands, Pahang

    SciTech Connect

    Haron, S. H., E-mail: ismail@ukm.edu.my; Ismail, B. S., E-mail: sthumaira@yahoo.com

    The presence of pesticide residues in the surface water of Bertam River in the agricultural areas of Cameron Highlands in Pahang, Malaysia was monitored from May to October 2014. The sampling sites were located at 10 sampling points along the Bertam River in the vegetable planting areas. The extraction method of the pesticide (organophosphate/pyrethroid) from the river samples used solid phase extraction followed by gas chromatography (with electron capture detector, ECD). Insecticides, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos were found in the surface water of Bertam River. High level concentrations of those insecticides in the river were observed during the period from Maymore » to October 2014, a period which included both seasons (wet and dry seasons). The highest concentration of 2.66 µg/mL and 1.23 µg/mL of cypermethrin was observed during the wet and dry seasons respectively. This could be due to the frequent usage of the above-mentioned insecticides coupled with contamination that could have originated from the application sites. Meanwhile, the lowest concentration detected in the surface water was chlorpyrifos (0.11 µg/mL and 0.17 µg/mL) during the dry and wet seasons, respectively.« less

  5. Comparison pesticide residue levels in the surface of Bertam River in Cameron Highlands, Pahang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haron, S. H.; Ismail B., S.

    2015-09-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in the surface water of Bertam River in the agricultural areas of Cameron Highlands in Pahang, Malaysia was monitored from May to October 2014. The sampling sites were located at 10 sampling points along the Bertam River in the vegetable planting areas. The extraction method of the pesticide (organophosphate/pyrethroid) from the river samples used solid phase extraction followed by gas chromatography (with electron capture detector, ECD). Insecticides, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos were found in the surface water of Bertam River. High level concentrations of those insecticides in the river were observed during the period from May to October 2014, a period which included both seasons (wet and dry seasons). The highest concentration of 2.66 µg/mL and 1.23 µg/mL of cypermethrin was observed during the wet and dry seasons respectively. This could be due to the frequent usage of the above-mentioned insecticides coupled with contamination that could have originated from the application sites. Meanwhile, the lowest concentration detected in the surface water was chlorpyrifos (0.11 µg/mL and 0.17 µg/mL) during the dry and wet seasons, respectively.

  6. Notes on Pandanus atrocarpus Griff and P. tectorius Parkinson in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azahana, A.; Wickneswari, R.; Noraini, T.; Nordahlia, A. S.; Solihani, N. S.; Nurnida, M. K.

    2015-09-01

    A study was conducted on two species of Pandanus, to investigate the occurrence of P. atrocarpus Griff and P. tectorius Parkinson in Peninsular Malaysia. Traditionally their leaves are used as woven materials to make mats, baskets and hats. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current status on occurrence of these two species in Peninsular Malaysia. Field data on plant localities and morphological traits were recorded. Digital images of all characters were captured for comparative analysis. Leaf and root tissues of 19 individuals of P. atrocarpus and seven individuals of P. tectorius were collected for anatomical and micromorphological studies. Pandanus atrocarpus could be easily found at riverside areas in Kelantan and Langkawi, rubber plantations in Perak and Terengganu, at highland areas in Pahang and at the beach areas in Kedah. Meanwhile P. tectorius is commonly found in the coastal areas of Johor, Terengganu, Kedah, Selangor and can found to grow on rocky cliffs too.

  7. "Free Primary Education" in Lesotho and the Disadvantages of the Highlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urwick, James

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the effects of national policies associated with "Education for All" on a disadvantaged region, the highlands of Lesotho. Since 2000 a programme of "Free Primary Education" has improved the position of the highlands in access to primary schooling; nevertheless, highland primary schools compare poorly with…

  8. The Jagged Shores of Pluto Highlands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-09

    This enhanced color view from NASA's New Horizons spacecraft zooms in on the southeastern portion of Pluto's great ice plains, where at lower right the plains border rugged, dark highlands informally named Krun Macula. Krun Macula -- Krun is the lord of the underworld in the Mandaean religion, and a macula is a dark feature on a planetary surface -- is believed to get its dark red color from tholins, complex molecules found across Pluto. Krun Macula rises 1.5 miles (2.5 kilometers) above the surrounding plain -- informally named Sputnik Planum -- and is scarred by clusters of connected, roughly circular pits that typically reach between 5 and 8 miles (8 and 13 kilometers) across, and up to 1.5 miles (2.5 kilometers) deep. At the boundary with Sputnik Planum, these pits form deep valleys reaching more than 25 miles (40 kilometers) long, 12.5 miles (20 kilometers) wide and almost 2 miles (3 kilometers) deep (almost twice as deep as the Grand Canyon in Arizona), and have floors covered with nitrogen ice. New Horizons scientists think these pits may have formed through surface collapse, although what may have prompted such a collapse is a mystery. This scene was created using three separate observations made by New Horizons in July 2015. The right half of the image is composed of 260 feet- (80 meter-) per-pixel data from the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), obtained at 9,850 miles (15,850 kilometers) from Pluto, about 23 minutes before New Horizons' closest approach. The left half is composed of 410 feet- (125 meter-) per-pixel LORRI data, obtained about six minutes earlier, with New Horizons 15,470 miles (24,900 kilometers) from Pluto. These data respectively represent portions of the highest- and second-highest-resolution observations obtained by New Horizons in the Pluto system. The entire scene was then colorized using 2230 feet- (680 meter-) per-pixel data from New Horizons' Ralph/Multispectral Visual Imaging Camera (MVIC), obtained at 21,100 miles (33

  9. The Jagged Shores of Pluto Highlands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-09

    This enhanced color view from NASA's New Horizons spacecraft zooms in on the southeastern portion of Pluto's great ice plains, where at lower right the plains border rugged, dark highlands informally named Krun Macula. Krun Macula -- Krun is the lord of the underworld in the Mandaean religion, and a macula is a dark feature on a planetary surface -- is believed to get its dark red color from tholins, complex molecules found across Pluto. Krun Macula rises 1.5 miles (2.5 kilometers) above the surrounding plain -- informally named Sputnik Planum -- and is scarred by clusters of connected, roughly circular pits that typically reach between 5 and 8 miles (8 and 13 kilometers) across, and up to 1.5 miles (2.5 kilometers) deep. At the boundary with Sputnik Planum, these pits form deep valleys reaching more than 25 miles (40 kilometers) long, 12.5 miles (20 kilometers) wide and almost 2 miles (3 kilometers) deep (almost twice as deep as the Grand Canyon in Arizona), and have floors covered with nitrogen ice. New Horizons scientists think these pits may have formed through surface collapse, although what may have prompted such a collapse is a mystery. This scene was created using three separate observations made by New Horizons in July 2015. The right half of the image is composed of 260 feet- (80 meter-) per-pixel data from the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), obtained at 9,850 miles (15,850 kilometers) from Pluto, about 23 minutes before New Horizons' closest approach. The left half is composed of 410 feet- (125 meter-) per-pixel LORRI data, obtained about six minutes earlier, with New Horizons 15,470 miles (24,900 kilometers) from Pluto. These data respectively represent portions of the highest- and second-highest-resolution observations obtained by New Horizons in the Pluto system. The entire scene was then colorized using 2230 feet- (680 meter-) per-pixel data from New Horizons' Ralph/Multispectral Visual Imaging Camera (MVIC), obtained at 21,100 miles (33

  10. Hydrogeology of the Mogollon Highlands, central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, John T.C.; Steinkampf, William C.; Flynn, Marilyn E.

    2005-01-01

    The Mogollon Highlands, 4,855 square miles of rugged, mountainous terrain at the southern edge of the Colorado Plateau in central Arizona, is characterized by a bedrock-dominated hydrologic system that results in an incompletely integrated regional ground-water system, flashy streamflow, and various local water-bearing zones that are sensitive to drought. Increased demand on the water resources of the area as a result of recreational activities and population growth have made necessary an increased understanding of the hydrogeology of the region. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study of the geology and hydrology of the region in cooperation with the Arizona Department of Water Resources under the auspices of the Arizona Rural Watershed Initiative, a program launched in 1998 to assist rural areas in dealing with water-resources issues. The study involved the analysis of geologic maps, surface-water and ground-water flow, and water and rock chemical data and spatial relationships to characterize the hydrogeologic framework. The study area includes the southwestern corner of the Colorado Plateau and the Mogollon Rim, which is the eroded edge of the plateau. A 3,000- to 4,000-foot sequence of early to late Paleozoic sedimentary rocks forms the generally south-facing scarp of the Mogollon Rim. The area adjacent to the edge of the Mogollon Rim is an erosional landscape of rolling, step-like terrain exposing Proterozoic metamorphic and granitic rocks. Farther south, the Sierra Ancha and Mazatzal Mountain ranges, which are composed of various Proterozoic rocks, flank an alluvial basin filled with late Cenozoic sediments and volcanic flows. Eight streams with perennial to intermittent to ephemeral flow drain upland regions of the Mogollon Rim and flow into the Salt River on the southern boundary or the Verde River on the western boundary. Ground-water flow paths generally are controlled by large-scale fracture systems or by karst features in carbonate rocks. Stream

  11. Educating for Social Justice: The Harry Lasker Library at Highlander.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveland, George

    1999-01-01

    Traces the history of the Harry Lasker Library at the Highlander Research and Education Center near Knoxville, Tennessee, from the first book donations in 1933 to its revitalization in the mid-1990s. Discusses the role of the library as a resource center supporting nonformal education for social activism and the contributions of librarians Hilda…

  12. Descartes highlands: Possible analogs around the Orientale Basin, part D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Two possible analogs, although not entirely satisfactory, offer reasonable alternatives to the volcanic interpretation of the Descartes highlands. Reconsideration of this complex terrain, prompted by the preliminary results of the Apollo 16 mission, will lead to the revision of some theories on lunar volcanism and also to a better understanding of the landforms caused by the formation of multi-ring basins.

  13. Landslide monitoring in the Atlantic Highlands area, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Pamela A.; Ashland, Francis X.; Fiore, Alex R.

    2017-08-25

    Shallow and deep-seated landslides have occurred episodically on the steep coastal bluffs of the Atlantic Highlands area (Boroughs of Atlantic Highlands and Highlands) in New Jersey. The oldest documented deep-seated landslide occurred in April 1782 and significantly changed the morphology of the bluff. However, recent landslides have been mostly shallow in nature and have occurred during large storms with exceptionally heavy rainfall. These shallow landslides have resulted in considerable damage to residential property and local infrastructure and threatened human safety.The recent shallow landslides in the area (locations modified from New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection) consist primarily of slumps and flows of earth and debris within areas of historical landslides or on slopes modified by human activities. Such landslides are typically triggered by increases in shallow soil moisture and pore-water pressure caused by sustained and intense rainfall associated with spring nor’easters and late summer–fall tropical cyclones. However, the critical relation between rainfall, soil-moisture conditions, and landslide movement has not been fully defined. The U.S. Geological Survey is currently monitoring hillslopes within the Atlantic Highlands area to better understand the hydrologic and meteorological conditions associated with shallow landslide initiation.

  14. 27 CFR 9.122 - Western Connecticut Highlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Highlands. 9.122 Section 9.122 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... (Litchfield-Hartford-New Haven County line); (6) The boundary then travels approximately 7 miles west along the Litchfield-New Haven County line to Connecticut Route #8 at Waterville in the Town of Waterbury...

  15. Ozark-Ouachita Highlands Assessment: Terrestrial Vegetation and Wildlife

    Treesearch

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides citizens, private and public organizations, scientists, and others with information about terrestrial animals, plants, and biological communities in and near the national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. The...

  16. Oak Mortality Trends on the Interior Highlands of Arkansas

    Treesearch

    James F. Rosson

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program, I studied mortality trends of oak (Quercus spp.) across four physiographic sections of the Interior Highlands in Arkansas. Surveys for 1978, 1988, and 1995 showed oak mortality levels of 3.9, 8.9, and 5.5 percent, respectively. Increases...

  17. Economic value of ecosystem attributes in the Southern Appalachian highlands

    Treesearch

    Thomas Holmes; Brent Sohngen; Linwood Pendleton; Robert Mendelsohn

    1997-01-01

    The hedonic travel cost method was used to make preliminary estimates of the economic value of ecosystem attributes found in the Southern Appalachian highlands. Travel costs were estimated using origin-destination data from Wilderness Area permits, and site attribute data were collected by field crews. Ecosystem attribute price frontiers were estimated and used to...

  18. History of watershed research in the Central Arizona Highlands

    Treesearch

    Malchus B. Baker

    1999-01-01

    The Central Arizona Highlands have been the focus of a wide range of research efforts designed to learn more about the effects of natural and human induced disturbances on the functioning, processes, and components of the region's ecosystems. The watershed research spearheaded by the USDA Forest Service and its cooperators continues to lead to a comprehensive...

  19. Schooling and Bilingualization in a Highland Guatemalan Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Julia Becker

    To examine the process of language shift (bilingualization) in an area where there is a local dialect equivalent to a "language of solidarity" and a national language equivalent to a "language of power," language interactions in the impoverished village of San Marcos in the highlands of Guatemala were examined. Although Spanish…

  20. Ozark-Ouachita Highlands Assessment: Social and Economic Conditions

    Treesearch

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides information about the social and economic conditions in and near the national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes an archeological and historical background, describes demographic conditions and...

  1. The Ozark Highlands pine-oak woodland restoration partnership

    Treesearch

    Tim A. Nigh

    2007-01-01

    A partnership of more than 20 state, federal, and nongovernmental organizations has been formed to pursue and promote restoration of Shortleaf Pine-Oak Woodland ecosystems throughout the Ozark Highlands. This paper provides a brief overview of the partnership, its goals and strategies, partner organizations, and current activities.

  2. INTERACTIVE HABITAT MODELS FOR MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLAND STREAM FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In most wadeable streams of the Mid-Atlantic Highland region of the eastern United States, habitat alteration resulting from development in the watershed is the primary stressor for fish. Models that predict the presence of stream fish species based on habitat characteristics ca...

  3. Virulence diversity of Uromyces Appendiculatus in the Highlands of Guatemala

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The common bean is planted throughout Guatemala, especially in the highlands of the South East, North East, and South West regions. In these regions, temperatures fluctuate between 16 y 20 °C and the average rain precipitation is about 1000 mm. These conditions are optimum for the rust disease and b...

  4. Malaysia Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia's energy industry is a critical sector of growth for the entire economy, and it makes up almost 20% of the total gross domestic product. New tax and investment incentives, starting in 2010, aim to promote oil and natural gas exploration and development in the country's deepwater and marginal fields as well as promote energy efficiency measures and use of alternative energy sources. These fiscal incentives are part of the country's economic transformation program to leverage its resources and geographic location to be one of Asia's top energy players by 2020. Another key pillar in Malaysia's energy strategy is to become a regional oil and natural gas storage, trading, and development hub that will attract technical expertise and downstream services that can compete in Asia.

  5. Hypertension in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Naing, Cho; Yeoh, Peng Nam; Wai, Victor Nyunt; Win, Ni Ni; Kuan, Lai Pei; Aung, Kyan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to determine trends in prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension in Malaysia and to assess the relationship between socioeconomic determinants and prevalence of hypertension in Malaysia. The distribution of hypertension in Malaysia was assessed based on available data in 3 National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs) and 1 large scale non-NHMS during the period of 1996 to 2011. Summary statistics was used to characterize the included surveys. Differences in prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension between any 2 surveys were expressed as ratios. To assess the independent associations between the predictors and the outcome variables, regression analyses were employed with prevalence of hypertension as an outcome variable. Overall, there was a rising trend in the prevalence of hypertension in adults ≥30 years: 32.9% (30%–35.8%) in 1996, 42.6% (37.5%–43.5%) in 2006, and 43.5% (40.4%–46.6%) in 2011. There were significant increase of 32% from 1996 to 2011 (P < 0.001) and of 29% from 1996 to 2006 (P < 0.05), but only a small change of 1% from 2006 to 2011 (P = 0.6). For population ≥18 years, only a 1% increase in prevalence of hypertension occurred from the 2006 NHMS (32.2%) to the 2011 NHMS (32.7%) (P = 0.25). A relative increase of 13% occurred in those with primary education (P < 0.001) and a 15% increase was seen in those with secondary education (P < 0.001). The rate of increase in the prevalence of hypertension in the population with income level RM 3000–3999 was the highest (18%) during this period. In general, the older age group had higher prevalence of hypertension in the 2006 and 2011 NHMSs. The prevalence peaked at 74.1% among population aged 65 to 69 years in the 2011 NHMS. Both the proportion of awareness and the control of hypertension in Malaysia improved from 1996 to 2006. A change in the control of hypertension was 13% higher in women than in men. The findings suggest that

  6. Reemergence of Endemic Chikungunya, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Sam, I-Ching; Wong, Pooi-Fong; Hooi, Poh-Sim; Roslan, Nuruliza

    2007-01-01

    Chikungunya virus infection recently reemerged in Malaysia after 7 years of nondetection. Genomic sequences of recovered isolates were highly similar to those of Malaysian isolates from the 1998 outbreak. The reemergence of the infection is not part of the epidemics in other Indian Ocean countries but raises the possibility that chikungunya virus is endemic in Malaysia. PMID:17370532

  7. Global update: Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Malaysia produces more condoms than any other country in the world, yet it has one of the lowest per capita condom usage rates. The official number of HIV-infected persons and of persons with AIDS in Malaysia is 5140 and 72, respectively. People working in AIDS prevention efforts believe the actual number of HIV-infected people is closer to 50,000 and climbing. People working in AIDS prevention efforts believe the actual number of HIV-infected people is closer to 50,000 and climbing. Public health officials report that AIDS is spreading rapidly through Malaysia's relatively large population of IV drug users. The Ministry of Health wants to introduce comprehensive and pragmatic efforts to stem the AIDS epidemic. They include sex education in schools, ways to prevent IV drug users from sharing needles, promotion of condoms among high risk groups, and screening to monitor HIV transmission. Islamic and Catholic groups oppose these program and policy measures, however. The new director of the Ministry's AIDS prevention unit announced during a meeting of health officials that a return to the teaching of Islam and adoption of Islamic values are the means to deal with AIDS. He suggested that boys and girls be separated, television be rigorously censored, and that Muslim scholars not be limited to mosques to do their teaching. The government has greatly increased the 1993 AIDS budget with all of the funds dedicated to blood screening, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and health education. The deputy health minister noted that the NGOs are supposed to address the more sensitive issues. The government does not allow any of the funds to directly go to condom promotion or programs for IV drug users, however.

  8. An integrative taxonomic review of the agamid genus Bronchocela (Kuhl, 1820) from Peninsular Malaysia with descriptions of new montane and insular endemics.

    PubMed

    Grismer, L Lee; Wood, P L; Lee, Cheol Haeng; Quah, Evan S H; Anuar, Shahrul; Ngadi, Ehwan; Sites, Jack W

    2015-04-20

    An integrative taxonomic analysis is used to identify and describe two new species of the agamid genus Bronchocela (Kuhl) from Peninsular Malaysia: an upland species B. shenlong sp. nov. from Bukit Larut, Perak in the Bintang Mountain Range and Parit Falls, Cameron Highlands, Pahang in the Titiwangsa Mountain Range and an insular species, B. rayaensis sp. nov., from Pulau Langkawi, Kedah off the northwest coast on the border with Thailand. Both species are diagnosed from each other and all other species of Bronchocela on the basis of body shape, scale morphology, and color pattern. The analysis also demonstrates the remarkable genetic similarity of B. cristatella (Kuhl) throughout 1120 km of its range from northern Peninsular Malaysia to western Borneo despite its highly variable coloration and pattern. The two new species are appended to a rapidly growing list of newly described lizard species (60 to date) from Peninsular Malaysia tallied within the last decade.

  9. Hydrogeology and groundwater quality of Highlands County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spechler, Rick M.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater is the main source of water supply in Highlands County, Florida. As the demand for water in the county increases, additional information about local groundwater resources is needed to manage and develop the water supply effectively. To address the need for additional data, a study was conducted to evaluate the hydrogeology and groundwater quality of Highlands County. Total groundwater use in Highlands County has increased steadily since 1965. Total groundwater withdrawals increased from about 37 million gallons per day in 1965 to about 107 million gallons per day in 2005. Much of this increase in water use is related to agricultural activities, especially citrus cultivation, which increased more than 300 percent from 1965 to 2005. Highlands County is underlain by three principal hydrogeologic units. The uppermost water-bearing unit is the surficial aquifer, which is underlain by the intermediate aquifer system/intermediate confining unit. The lowermost hydrogeologic unit is the Floridan aquifer system, which consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer, as many as three middle confining units, and the Lower Floridan aquifer. The surficial aquifer consists primarily of fine-to-medium grained quartz sand with varying amounts of clay and silt. The aquifer system is unconfined and underlies the entire county. The thickness of the surficial aquifer is highly variable, ranging from less than 50 to more than 300 feet. Groundwater in the surficial aquifer is recharged primarily by precipitation, but also by septic tanks, irrigation from wells, seepage from lakes and streams, and the lateral groundwater inflow from adjacent areas. The intermediate aquifer system/intermediate confining unit acts as a confining layer (except where breached by sinkholes) that restricts the vertical movement of water between the surficial aquifer and the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. The sediments have varying degrees of permeability and consist of permeable limestone, dolostone, or

  10. Mission Applications of a HIAD for the Mars Southern Highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winski, Richard; Bose, Dave; Komar, David R.; Samareh, Jamshid

    2013-01-01

    Recent discoveries of evidence of a flowing liquid in craters throughout the Mars Southern Highlands, like Terra Sirenum, have spurred interest in sending science missions to those locations; however, these locations are at elevations that are much higher (0 to +4 km MOLA) than any previous landing site (-1 to -4 km MOLA). New technologies may be needed to achieve a landing at these sites with significant payload mass to the surface. A promising technology is the hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (HIAD); a number of designs have been advanced but the stacked torus has been recently successfully flight tested in the IRVE-2 and IRVE-3 projects through the NASA Langley Research Center. This paper will focus on a variety of mission applications of the stacked torus type attached HIAD to the Mars southern highlands.

  11. Genesis of highland basalt breccias - A view from 66095

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, J. R., Jr.; Taylor, L. A.

    1980-01-01

    Electron microprobe and defocused beam analyses of the lunar highland breccia sample 66095 show it consists of a fine-grained subophitic matrix containing a variety of mineral and lithic clasts, such as intergranular and cataclastic ANT, shocked and unshocked plagioclase, and basalts. Consideration of the chemistries of both matrix and clasts provides a basis for a qualitative three-component mixing model consisting of an ANT plutonic complex, a Fra Mauro basalt, and minor meteoric material.

  12. Childhood drowning in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hss, Amar-Singh; Tan, Pui San; Hashim, Lina

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to collate data on childhood drowning in Malaysia and review existing drowning prevention measures. This study used secondary data from governmental and non-governmental agencies. All reported fatal drownings from 2000 to 2007 and all reported non-fatal drownings from 2000 to 2008 were included. Data were analysed to provide understanding of the epidemiology of drowning incidents, risk factors and available preventive efforts. On average 286 (range 248-344) children died yearly due to drowning with a death rate of 3.05 per 100,000 annually. An additional average of 207 children drowned but survived annually (1.99 per 100,000). The estimated burden of drowning in children (death and non-death) is 5 per 100,000. There was no reduction in annual drowning fatalities over time. Most drowning took place in east coast regions during the annual monsoon season. It was 3.52 (2.80-4.41) times more common in boys and most prevalent among 10-14 years. Most prevalent sites of all-age drowning were seas and rivers. Limited water safety regulations are currently available in the country. This is the first comprehensive national study in Malaysia on paediatric drowning and highlights the magnitude of the problem. It calls for concerted effort to devise effective national drowning prevention measures.

  13. Prehistoric human impact on rainforest biodiversity in highland New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Haberle, Simon G

    2007-02-28

    In the highlands of New Guinea, the development of agriculture as an indigenous innovation during the Early Holocene is considered to have resulted in rapid loss of forest cover, a decrease in forest biodiversity and increased land degradation over thousands of years. But how important is human activity in shaping the diversity of vegetation communities over millennial time-scales? An evaluation of the change in biodiversity of forest habitats through the Late Glacial transition to the present in five palaeoecological sites from highland valleys, where intensive agriculture is practised today, is presented. A detailed analysis of the longest and most continuous record from Papua New Guinea is also presented using available biodiversity indices (palynological richness and biodiversity indicator taxa) as a means of identifying changes in diversity. The analysis shows that the collapse of key forest habitats in the highland valleys is evident during the Mid - Late Holocene. These changes are best explained by the adoption of new land management practices and altered disturbance regimes associated with agricultural activity, though climate change may also play a role. The implications of these findings for ecosystem conservation and sustainability of agriculture in New Guinea are discussed.

  14. Ancient fluvial processes in the equatorial highlands of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craddock, Robert A.; Maxwell, Ted A.

    1991-01-01

    Martian highland craters typically lack ejecta deposits, have no noticeable rim, and are flat floored. In addition, crater size frequency distribution curves show that highland craters have depleted populations less than 20 km in diameter. A variety of processes have been suggested to explain these observations including deposition of aeolian or volcanic materials up to the crater rim crests, thermal creep, terrain softening, and mass wasting. However, none of these processes adequately explains both the crater morphology and population distribution. In order to explain both the Martian highland crater morphology and population distribution, a fluvial process is proposed which is capable of removing the loose crater rim material. The resulting effect is to decrease the crater diameter, thereby causing the population curves to bendover. The eroded material is redistributed, burying or partially burying smaller diameter craters before complete erosion. This material may also be deposited into local topographic lows, creating the depositional basins observed. A fluvial process explains both sets of observations: crater morphology and crater population distribution curves.

  15. Independent Molecular Basis of Convergent Highland Adaptation in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Takuno, Shohei; Ralph, Peter; Swarts, Kelly; Elshire, Rob J.; Glaubitz, Jeffrey C.; Buckler, Edward S.; Hufford, Matthew B.; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar traits in different species or lineages of the same species; this often is a result of adaptation to similar environments, a process referred to as convergent adaptation. We investigate here the molecular basis of convergent adaptation in maize to highland climates in Mesoamerica and South America, using genome-wide SNP data. Taking advantage of archaeological data on the arrival of maize to the highlands, we infer demographic models for both populations, identifying evidence of a strong bottleneck and rapid expansion in South America. We use these models to then identify loci showing an excess of differentiation as a means of identifying putative targets of natural selection and compare our results to expectations from recently developed theory on convergent adaptation. Consistent with predictions across a wide parameter space, we see limited evidence for convergent evolution at the nucleotide level in spite of strong similarities in overall phenotypes. Instead, we show that selection appears to have predominantly acted on standing genetic variation and that introgression from wild teosinte populations appears to have played a role in highland adaptation in Mexican maize. PMID:26078279

  16. Orbital observations of the lunar highlands on Apollo 16 and their interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattingly, T. K.; El-Baz, F.

    1973-01-01

    From orbital altitudes, the lunar highlands display the same surface characteristics on both the far and near sides. Rugged terra and plains forming materials all appear as if dusted with a uniform mantle. No stratigraphy or evidence of layering are seen in highland craters, with the possible exception of South Ray Crater in the Descartes landing site area. Among the discussed small scale features of the lunar highlands are: fine lineaments, that appear to be real rather than artifacts of lighting, on both horizontal and inclined surfaces; ridge-like scarps that cut across highland topography; and benches that are believed to be high lava marks rather than talus accumulates.

  17. Chemical mixing model studies of lunar orbital geochemical data - Apollo 16 and 17 highlands compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, P. D.; Hawke, B. R.

    1982-01-01

    Chemical mixing model studies of lunar geochemical data for the central and Taurus-Littrow lunar highlands were performed utilizing pristine highland rock types as end member compositions. The central highlands show considerable diversity in composition; anorthosite is the principal rock type in the Apollo 16/Descartes region, while norite predominates in the highlands west of the landing site. This change in crustal composition is coincident with a major color boundary seen in earth-based multispectral data and probably represents the presence of distinct geochemical provinces within the central highlands. The Taurus-Littrow highlands are dominated by norite; anorthosite is far less abundant than in the central highlands. This suggests that the impact target for the Serenitatis basin was different than that of the Nectaris basin and further strengthens the hypothesis that the lunar highlands are petrologically heterogeneous on a regional basis. It is suggested that the lunar highlands should be viewed in terms of geochemical provinces that have undergone distinct and complex igneous and impact histories.

  18. Two new species of Scirtothrips genus-group (Thripidae) of Northern Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Y F; Mound, L A

    2016-03-07

    The survey of Thysanoptera in peninsular Malaysia has been concentrated largely in areas growing crops and flowers around Kuala Lumpur, and the Cameron Highlands, and there are few records of these insects from native forests particularly in the northern part of the country. The two species described here were collected during a recent visit to Belum-Temengor Forest Complex, in Perak State, part of the second largest forested area on the peninsular, and connected to the Bang Lang National Park, in Yala Province, Thailand. This forest has been well known as home to a number of endangered animals, including Malayan tigers and Asian elephants, as well as remarkable plant species such as Rafflesia with the world's largest flowers (Abdullah et al. 2011). Despite this, forest areas are facing a major challenge from the insatiable demand for timber, palm oil and minerals, with an 80% increase in deforestation rate in Malaysia between 1990 and 2005 (FAO 2010). Forested land in peninsular Malaysia has been estimated at 5.88 million-ha or 44% of total area, but the coverage of reserved virgin forest is about 0.40 % or 23,002-ha (Dahlan 2008).

  19. Land Degradation Processes in the Humid Ethiopian highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenhuis, Tammo; Tebebu, Tigist; Belachew, Meseret; Langendoen, Eddy; Giri, Shree; Tilahun, Seifu

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation after forest clearing forces a distinct pattern on agricultural production starting with high yields just after clearing to poor productivity or even abandonment after 30-40 years. In the humid Ethiopian highlands forest soils have initial a high organic matter content that decreases with time after clearing. When the organic matter becomes less than 3%, aggregates break up, other cementing elements are being leached out and the texture becomes finer. Since settling velocity in water is related to particle size, the finer soil increases sediment concentration in the infiltration water and hardpan formation accelerates restricting deep percolation of water. This in turn affect the hydrology in which an excess water flows more rapidly as lateral flow to valley bottoms which become wetter with gully formation starting to transmit the additional water down slope approximately 10 years after the initial clearing. This degradation pattern occurs in all soils in the Ethiopian highlands, but the severity varies with climate and parent material. Although we do not yet understand to what degree these factors influence the degradation pattern, it is important to recognize the process because it directly affects the effectiveness of imposed management practices. In this presentation, we will highlight the degradation process for two watersheds in the semi humid Ethiopian highlands. We will document how soil properties changes and discuss hardpan formation and gully development. In addition, we will consider the effect of presently implemented governmental sponsored conservation practices and alternative management practices that might be more beneficial. We are looking forward to discussions on combating the effect of soil degradation in tropical monsoonal regions.

  20. Temperature suitability for malaria climbing the Ethiopian Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Bradfield; Dinku, Tufa; Raman, Anita; Thomson, Madeleine C.

    2017-06-01

    While the effect of climate change on the prevalence of malaria in the highlands of Eastern Africa has been the topic of protracted debate, temperature is widely accepted as a fundamentally important environmental factor constraining its transmission. Air temperatures below approximately 18 °C and 15 °C, respectively, prohibit the development of the Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax parasites responsible for the majority of malaria cases in Ethiopia. Low temperatures also impede the development rates of the Anopheles mosquito vectors. While locations of sufficiently high elevation have temperatures below these transmission thresholds, a fundamental question is how such temperature ‘threshold elevations’ are changing with time. A lack of high quality, high spatial resolution climate data has previously prohibited a rigorous investigation. Using a newly developed national temperature dataset for Ethiopia that combines numerous in-situ surface observations with downscaled reanalysis data, we here identify statistically significant increases in elevation for both the 18 °C and 15 °C thresholds in highland areas between 1981-2014. Substantial interannual and spatial variations in threshold elevations are identified, the former associated with the El Niño Southern-Oscillation and the latter with the complex climate of the region. The estimated population in locations with an upward trend in the 15 °C threshold elevation is approximately 6.5 million people (2.2 million for 18 °C). While not a direct prediction of the additional population made vulnerable to malaria through a shift to higher temperature, our results underscore a newly acquired ability to investigate climate variability and trends at fine spatial scales across Ethiopia, including changes in a fundamental constraint on malaria transmission in the Ethiopian Highlands.

  1. Geospatializing The Klang Gate Quartz Ridge in Malaysia: A Technological Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azahari Razak, Khamarrul; Mohamad, Zakaria; Zaki Ibrahim, Mohd; Azad Rosle, Qalam; Hattanajmie Abd Wahab, Mohd; Abu Bakar, Rabieahtul; Mohd Akib, Wan Abdul Aziz Wan

    2015-04-01

    Establishment of inventories on geological heritage, or geoheritage resources is a step forward for a comprehensive geoheritage management leading to a better conservation at national and global levels. Compiling and updating inventory of geoheritage is a tedious process and even so in a tropical environment. Malaysia has a tremendous list of geodiversity and generating its national database is a multi-institutional effort and worthwhile investment. However, producing accurate and reliable characteristics of such landform and spectacular geological features remained elusive. The advanced and modern mapping techniques have revolutionized the mapping, monitoring and modelling of the earth surface processes and landforms. Yet the methods for quantification of geodiversity physical features are not fully utilized in Malaysia for a better understanding its processes and activity. This study provides a better insight into the use of advanced active remote sensing technology for characterizing the forested Quartz Ridge in Malaysia. We have developed the novel method and tested in the Klang Gates Quartz Ridge, Selangor. The granitic country rock made up by quartz mineral is known as the longest quartz ridge in Malaysia and characterized by rugged topography, steep slopes, densely vegetated terrain and also rich-biodiversity area. This study presents an integrated field methodological framework and processing scheme by taking into account the climatic, topographic, geologic, and anthropogenic challenges in an equatorial region. Advanced terrestrial laser scanning system was used to accurately capture, map and model the ridge carried out within a relatively stringent time period. The high frequency Global Navigation Satellite System and modern Total Station coupled with the optical satellite and radar imageries and also advanced spatial analysis were fully utilized in the field campaign and data assessment performed during the recent monsoon season. As a result, the mapping

  2. The geology of Burnsville Cove, Bath and Highland Counties, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swezey, Christopher; Haynes, John T.; Lambert, Richard A.; White, William B.; Lucas, Philip C.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    Burnsville Cove is a karst region in Bath and Highland Counties of Virginia. A new geologic map of the area reveals various units of limestone, sandstone, and siliciclastic mudstone (shale) of Silurian through Devonian age, as well as structural features such as northeast-trending anticlines and synclines, minor thrust faults, and prominent joints. Quaternary features include erosional (strath) terraces and accumulations of mud, sand, and gravel. The caves of Burnsville Cove are located within predominantly carbonate strata above the Silurian Williamsport Sandstone and below the Devonian Oriskany Sandstone. Most of the caves are located within the Silurian Tonoloway Limestone, rather than the Silurian-Devonian Keyser Limestone as reported previously.

  3. A ferroelectric model for the low emissivity highlands on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, Michael K.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Brackett, Robert A.; Fegley, Bruce, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A model to explain the low emissivity venusian highlands is proposed utilizing the temperature-dependent dielectric constant of ferroelectric minerals. Ferroelectric minerals are known to occur in alkaline and carbonite rocks, both of which are plausible for Venus. Ferroelectric minerals possess extremely high dielectric constants (10(exp 5)) over small temperature intervals and are only required in minor (much less than 1%) abundances to explain the observed emissivities. The ferroelectric model can account for: (1) the observed reduction in emissivity with increased altitude, (2) the abrupt return to normal emissivities at highest elevations, and (3) the variations in the critical elevation observed from region to region.

  4. Late Holocene volcanic activity and environmental change in Highland Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohse, Jon C.; Hamilton, W. Derek; Brenner, Mark; Curtis, Jason; Inomata, Takeshi; Morgan, Molly; Cardona, Karla; Aoyama, Kazuo; Yonenobu, Hitoshi

    2018-07-01

    We present a record of late Holocene volcanic eruptions with elemental data for a sequence of sampled tephras from Lake Amatitlan in Highland Guatemala. Our tephrochronology is anchored by a Bayesian P_Sequence age-depth model based on multiple AMS radiocarbon dates. We compare our record against a previously published study from the same area to understand the record of volcanism and environmental changes. This work has implications for understanding the effects of climate and other environmental changes that may be related to the emission of volcanic aerosols at local, regional and global scales.

  5. WATERSHED RESTORATION AND FISHERIES MANAGEMENT IN THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation is about watershed restoration and fisheries management in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands. The goal of the Canaan Valley Institue is to develop and implement solutions to restore damaged areas and protect aquatic systems in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands. A decision ana...

  6. Mineralogical and Chemical Characterization of Lunar Highland Regolith: Lessons Learned from Mare Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Cahill, J. T.; Patchen, A.; Pieters, C.; Morris, R.; Keller, L. P.; McKay, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    The Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium has begun study of the <45 m fractions of ten representative highland soils, chosen for their contrasting maturities. Difficulties are addressed in the modal and chemical analyses of these highland soils. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. A New Turnaround Model: Michigan's Highland Park Goes Charter. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spalding, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    This brief examines the series of events that led to the Highland Park school district being converted to a system of charter public schools in 2012. Used as a strategy to help the district eliminate its large fiscal debt while still providing resident students with a local public school option, Highland Park's charter conversion is one of the…

  8. Oak decline across the Ozark Highlands- from stand to landscape and regional scale processes

    Treesearch

    Marty Spetich; Zhaofei Fan; Hong S. He; Wen J. Wang; Michael K. Crosby; Stephen R. Shifley

    2016-01-01

    Oak decline has been a problem in forests of the Ozark Highlands (OzH) for decades. It has impacted upland oak-hickory forests, particularly species in the red oak group (Quercus section Lobatae) across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas, and Oklahoma. The oak decline complex is often described in terms of predisposing...

  9. Mars, highlands-lowlands: Viking contributions to mariner relative age studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, D.H.

    1978-01-01

    Stratigraphic relations between lowland plains and highlands, two major types of Martian geologic-terrain units, were not directly distinguishable on Mariner-9 images. Morphologic characteristics and crater densities suggested that the lava plains beneath their eolian cover were younger than adjacent highland rocks, which form a plateau bounded in many places by highly dissected escarpments. Alternatively, the lowland plains could be the older unit and represent a broad erosional surface exhumed by southward retreat of the highlands along their frontal scarp. Viking photos across five areas of the highland-lowland boundary, however, tend to confirm the younger age of the plains-forming lava flows. A time interval of several hundred million years probably occurred between the retreat of the highland scarp and its latest embayment by lava extrusions in the lowlands. ?? 1978.

  10. Challenges to Malaysia’s National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-09

    be noted that the fall of Melaka did not mark the end of the regime, for it had been embedded in Malay political culture, it was the institution of...of Malaysia marked the beginning of a long term territorial expansion programme whereby eventually even Indonesia would have to merge with Malaysia...Malaysia. Malaysia’s new government was legitimate and world recognition was in order. From February till mid April 1962, Lord Cobbold , a former Governor

  11. Malaysia`s Peninsular Gas system gets another segment

    SciTech Connect

    Savini, C.F.

    1997-12-01

    Stage 3 of Malaysia`s Peninsular Gas utilization Project is nearing completion by a joint venture of Saipem (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd and Peremba Construction Sdn Bhd. Under Petronas Gas Berhad, all stages of the Peninsular Gas Utilization Project are to provide natural gas to commercial customers recovered from complexes off the east coast of the Malaysian Peninsula. Stage 3 consists of 448 km of 36-in. pipeline from the Stage 2 teeoff in Meru, Selangor, northward to Pauh in Perlis, close to the Malaysian-Thailand border. Included in the permanent facilities are six main line valve stations, two scraper stations, six cathodic-protection stations,more » and five teeoffs. The paper discusses construction, cathodic protection, hydrostatic testing, and quality assurance.« less

  12. Focus on Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Forman, L T

    1979-01-01

    Prospects for a stable, prospering economy in Malaysia appear threatened by an uneven distribution of wealth among non-Malay, particularly Chinese, residents. Native Malays, Bumiputra, have benefitted from the government's 20 year New Economic Policy, a system of subsidies to correct economic imbalances among the races. Malay corporate ownership has increased from 2.4% in 1970 to 28% in 1979. However, equity must increase by 26% annually to meet NEP targets. Without the GNP expanding 7-8% yearly, the government will be tempted to acquire assets at low prices. 70% of the total Malay ownership was held by public enterprises holding equity in trust. An elite group of Bumiputra will own a fair number of shares reserved by 1970. 1/5 of the population of Kuala Lumpur are squatters. Among these groups, communal tension is high. The Chinese businessmen are most resistant to native management. Since they control private domestic investment, they have political power. The Industrial Coordination Act (ICA), which gives power to civil servants through a licensing system, protects the system. The Asian Foundation supports management training, business development, and university demonstration projects in legal aid, solar energy, and community psychiatry. Malaysian competence in English enables widespread distribution of the Books for Asia program.

  13. Lunar highlands volcanism implications from Luna 20 and Apollo 16

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilshire, H.G.; Wilhelms, D.E.; Howard, K.A.

    1974-01-01

    Highlands materials sampled at the Apollo 16 and Luna 20 sites represent units of distinctive morphology that are widespread on the lunar nearside. Samples from the Apollo 16 site represent hilly and furrowed materials of the Descartes highlands and Cayley Formation. Materials were collected by Luna 20 from terrain resembling the Descartes terrain. Most photogeologic interpretations of these units favored volcanic origins, but the samples fail to support this interpretation. Luna 20 soil fragments are mainly glassy microbreccia with lithic inclusions of fine-grained hornfels; less than 3 percent of the fragments have textures of volcanic rocks, and most of these are likely crystalline products of impact melting. Apollo 16 soils formed on ejecta derived from a plutonic anorthosite-norite-troctolite suite. The similarity of Luna 20 soils indicates that these too formed as regolith on ejecta of anorthosite-norite-troctolitc composition. Interpretation of the samples from the two locations now suggests that hilly and furrowed terrains, previously thought to be of volcanic origin, are impact ejecta; in view of the plutonic nature of the source rocks and their extensive fusion and metamorphism, it is likely that the ejecta were derived from multiring basins. At one point, the Apollo 16 site, the Cayley Formation is composed of basin ejecta.

  14. A mantle plume model for the Equatorial Highlands of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Walter S.; Hager, Bradford H.

    1991-01-01

    The possibility that the Equatorial Highlands are the surface expressions of hot upwelling mantle plumes is considered via a series of mantle plume models developed using a cylindrical axisymmetric finite element code and depth-dependent Newtonian rheology. The results are scaled by assuming whole mantle convection and that Venus and the earth have similar mantle heat flows. The best model fits are for Beta and Atla. The common feature of the allowed viscosity models is that they lack a pronounced low-viscosity zone in the upper mantle. The shape of Venus's long-wavelength admittance spectrum and the slope of its geoid spectrum are also consistent with the lack of a low-viscosity zone. It is argued that the lack of an asthenosphere on Venus is due to the mantle of Venus being drier than the earth's mantle. Mantle plumes may also have contributed to the formation of some smaller highland swells, such as the Bell and Eistla regions and the Hathor/Innini/Ushas region.

  15. History of Neurosurgery in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Raffiq, Azman; Abdullah, Jafri Malin; Haspani, Saffari; Adnan, Johari Siregar

    2015-12-01

    The development of neurosurgical services and training in Malaysia began in 1963, with the first centre established in its capital city at Hospital Kuala Lumpur, aimed to provide much needed neurosurgical services and training in the field of neurology and neurosurgery. This center subsequently expanded in 1975 with the establishment of the Tunku Abdul Rahman Neuroscience Institute (IKTAR); which integrated the three allied interdependent disciplines of neurosurgery, neurology and psychiatry. The establishment of this institute catalysed the rapid expansion of neurosurgical services in Malaysia and paved the way for development of comprehensive training for doctors, nurses, and paramedics. This culminated in the establishments of a local comprehensive neurosurgery training program for doctors in 2001; followed by a training program for nurses and paramedics in 2006. To date, there are more than 60 neurosurgeons providing expert care in 11 centers across Malaysia, along with trained personnel in the field of neurosciences.

  16. History of Neurosurgery in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    RAFFIQ, Azman; ABDULLAH, Jafri Malin; HASPANI, Saffari; ADNAN, Johari Siregar

    2015-01-01

    The development of neurosurgical services and training in Malaysia began in 1963, with the first centre established in its capital city at Hospital Kuala Lumpur, aimed to provide much needed neurosurgical services and training in the field of neurology and neurosurgery. This center subsequently expanded in 1975 with the establishment of the Tunku Abdul Rahman Neuroscience Institute (IKTAR); which integrated the three allied interdependent disciplines of neurosurgery, neurology and psychiatry. The establishment of this institute catalysed the rapid expansion of neurosurgical services in Malaysia and paved the way for development of comprehensive training for doctors, nurses, and paramedics. This culminated in the establishments of a local comprehensive neurosurgery training program for doctors in 2001; followed by a training program for nurses and paramedics in 2006. To date, there are more than 60 neurosurgeons providing expert care in 11 centers across Malaysia, along with trained personnel in the field of neurosciences. PMID:27006632

  17. Secondary lead production in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, M. J.; Lim, S. S.

    The increase in the number of vehicles and, subsequently, the volume of batteries made by manufacturers in Malaysia have seen a dramatic rise in lead demand over the last five years. Without any lead mines, the only source of lead in Malaysia has been from the recycling of lead/acid batteries. Metal Reclamation (Industries) has commenced the design of a new and advanced secondary lead plant at West Port, Malaysia to meet the increasing demand for lead and the increasingly stringent environmental regulations. The plant is designed to produce up to 75 000 t of lead and lead alloys per year. The plant will also produce, as by-products: polypropylene chips, wallboard-grade gypsum, non-leachable slag for use in construction. A discussion of the process and the products from the new secondary smelter is outlined.

  18. Burden of stroke in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Loo, Keat Wei; Gan, Siew Hua

    2012-02-01

    Stroke is one of the top five leading causes of death and one of the top 10 causes for hospitalization in Malaysia. Stroke is also in the top five diseases with the greatest burden of disease, based on disability-adjusted life years. However, prospective studies on stroke in Malaysia are limited. To date, neither the prevalence of stroke nor its incidence nationally has been recorded. Hypertension is the major risk factor for stroke. The mean age of stroke patients in Malaysia is between 54.5 and 62.6 years. Traditional medicine is commonly practiced. With the increasing number of stroke cases annually, more government and nongovernment organizations should be involved in primary and secondary prevention strategies.

  19. Developing a Malaysia flood model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haseldine, Lucy; Baxter, Stephen; Wheeler, Phil; Thomson, Tina

    2014-05-01

    Faced with growing exposures in Malaysia, insurers have a need for models to help them assess their exposure to flood losses. The need for an improved management of flood risks has been further highlighted by the 2011 floods in Thailand and recent events in Malaysia. The increasing demand for loss accumulation tools in Malaysia has lead to the development of the first nationwide probabilistic Malaysia flood model, which we present here. The model is multi-peril, including river flooding for thousands of kilometres of river and rainfall-driven surface water flooding in major cities, which may cause losses equivalent to river flood in some high-density urban areas. The underlying hazard maps are based on a 30m digital surface model (DSM) and 1D/2D hydraulic modelling in JFlow and RFlow. Key mitigation schemes such as the SMART tunnel and drainage capacities are also considered in the model. The probabilistic element of the model is driven by a stochastic event set based on rainfall data, hence enabling per-event and annual figures to be calculated for a specific insurance portfolio and a range of return periods. Losses are estimated via depth-damage vulnerability functions which link the insured damage to water depths for different property types in Malaysia. The model provides a unique insight into Malaysian flood risk profiles and provides insurers with return period estimates of flood damage and loss to property portfolios through loss exceedance curve outputs. It has been successfully validated against historic flood events in Malaysia and is now being successfully used by insurance companies in the Malaysian market to obtain reinsurance cover.

  20. Coldspots or hotspots? The origin of plateau-shaped highlands on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    A compelling question for the terrestrial planets is the origin of the highland regions on Venus. Data on the topography, gravity signature, and surface morphology returned by the Pioneer Venus, Venera 15/16, and Magellan spacecraft represent a basis for dividing these highlands into two distinct groups: volcanic rises and plateau-shaped highlands. Volcanic rises are generally thought to be due to mantle upwellings in the form of large mantle plumes and are thus similar in origin to terrestrial hotspots. There is less agreement as to the origin of plateau-shaped highlands (PSH). Coldspot mantle downwelling can lead to the formation of a highland region under Venus conditions, and previous to Magellan some PSH (particularly W. Ishtar Terra and Ovda and Thetis Regiones) were suggested to be compressionally deformed regions of thickened crust created by mantle downwelling. A hotspot model proposes that such regions are formed by magmatism and tectonism related to the near-surface ascent of either the diapir-shaped large mantle plume or a solitary disturbance propagating up a plume conduit. The characteristics of both volcanic rises and plateau-shaped highlands on Venus and the models for their formation are briefly reviewed, and tests that may help to make clear which model best explains the plateau-shaped highlands are considered.

  1. Comparison of leaf anatomy on some Nepenthes spp. (Nepenthaceae) from highland and lowland habitat in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimy, N. Q.; Nisyawati, Metusala, D.

    2017-07-01

    Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae) is one of the unique plants with pitcher to absorb nutritional needs. This dicotyledonous plant is able to live in the lowland and highland. The difference of their habitat may influence its anatomical structures, such in leaves. This study aimed to compare the anatomy of lowland and highland Nepenthes leaves. We examined Nepenthes rafflesiana and N. mirabilis from the group of lowland Nepenthes. We also examined Nepenthes aristolochioides and N. singalana from the group of highland Nepenthes. Each species was represented by three adult leaves from 1-3 individual plants. Each leaf was made transverse section by using a hand mini microtome and the paradermal section was made by leaf screaping technique. Paradermal and the transverse section were dehydrated by using graded series of alcohol. Transverse section was stained with safranin 1 % and fastgreen 1 %, while the paradermal section with safranin 1 %. Microscopic observations were performed at Bioimaging Laboratory, Universitas Indonesia, Depok using a light microscope. The results showed there are differences in the anatomy structure between these two habitats. Highland Nepenthes has thicker and larger hypodermis than lowland Nepenthes. Cuticle layer in the highland Nepenthes was thicker than the lowland Nepenthes. Nectary gland on the highland Nepenthes was thicker and larger than the lowland Nepenthes. In addition, highland Nepenthes has bigger and fewer stomata density than the lowland Nepenthes.

  2. An ethnobotany of the Lukomir Highlanders of Bosnia & Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Ferrier, Jonathan; Saciragic, Lana; Trakić, Sabina; Chen, Eric C H; Gendron, Rachelle L; Cuerrier, Alain; Balick, Michael J; Redžić, Sulejman; Alikadić, Emira; Arnason, John T

    2015-11-25

    This aim of this study is to report upon traditional knowledge and use of wild medicinal plants by the Highlanders of Lukomir, Bjelašnica, Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). The Highlanders are an indigenous community of approximately 60 transhumant pastoralist families who speak Bosnian (Bosanski) and inhabit a highly biodiverse region of Europe. This paper adds to the growing record of traditional use of wild plants within isolated communities in the Balkans. An ethnobotanical study using consensus methodology was conducted in Lukomir in Bjelašnica's mountains and canyons. Field work involved individual semi-structured interviews during which informants described plants, natural product remedies, and preparation methods on field trips, garden tours, while shepherding, or in settings of their choice. Plant use categories were ranked with informant consensus factor and incorporated into a phylogenetic tree. Plants cited were compared to other ethnobotanical surveys of the country. Twenty five people were interviewed, resulting in identification of 58 species (including two subspecies) from 35 families, which were cited in 307 medicinal, 40 food, and seven material use reports. Individual plant uses had an average consensus of five and a maximum consensus of 15 out of 25. There were a number of rare and endangered species used as poisons or medicine that are endemic to Flora Europaea and found in Lukomir. Ten species (including subspecies) cited in our research have not previously been reported in the systematic ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plant use in B&H: (Elymus repens (L.) Gould, Euphorbia myrsinites L., Jovibarba hirta (L.) Opiz, Lilium bosniacum (Beck) Fritsch, Matricaria matricarioides (Less.) Porter ex Britton, Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.) Newman, Rubus saxatilis L., Silene uniflora Roth ssp. glareosa (Jord.) Chater & Walters, Silene uniflora Roth ssp. prostrata (Gaudin) Chater & Walters, Smyrnium perfoliatum L.). New uses not reported in any of the

  3. Assessment Profile of Malaysia: High-Stakes External Examinations Dominate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Saw Lan

    2010-01-01

    Malaysia is a federation of 13 states located in South-east Asia. The country consists of two geographical regions; Peninsular Malaysia (also known as West Malaysia) and Malaysian Borneo (also known as East Malaysia) separated by the South China Sea. The educational administration in Malaysia is highly centralised with four hierarchical levels;…

  4. The use of magical plants by curanderos in the Ecuador highlands

    PubMed Central

    Cavender, Anthony P; Albán, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Although the use of plants for treating supernaturally caused illnesses (e.g., soul loss, evil wind, witchcraft) has been documented in the Ecuador highlands, so-called magical plants have received much less focused attention than plants used for treating naturalistic disorders. Drawing on interviews done in 2002 and 2003 with 116 curanderos residing in the Ecuador highlands, this paper examines the characteristics of plants identified as magical, how they are used, and how the study of magical plants provides insights into the mindscape of residents of the highlands. PMID:19161618

  5. Secondary lead production in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, J.S.S.; Lim, C.L.

    1988-04-01

    In the absence of a lead producers' association in Malaysia and the continued presence of illegal operators whose activities are confined to remelting of cable scraps and/or smelting of battery scraps using a shaft furnace, this paper relies heavily on the information obtained from Metal Reclamation Industries, Sdn. Bhd. -the only modern integrated lead smelter in the country. Consequently, the authors can only present a semiquantitative and general paper on secondary lead production in Malaysia covering the following areas: history; secondary lead smelting; raw material; products; quality control; pollution controls; and future of secondary lead production in Malaysia. They concludemore » that if Malaysia is to become a major secondary lead producer in the Asian region, the industry must: (1) import raw materials in the form of scrapped batteries; (2) develop or acquire new technology; (3) cope with changing pollution regulations, and (4) develop technical skills and efficient quality controls to meet new challenges. 2 figures, 3 tables.« less

  6. Primary Teacher Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Chin Phoi; Yee, Chin Peng

    2012-01-01

    In Malaysia the training of primary school teachers is solely carried out by teacher training institutes which offer the Bachelor of Teaching with Honors (Primary education) program and was first launched in 2007. This program prepares primary school teachers specializing in various subjects or major and is carried out in 27 teacher training…

  7. Child Care Services in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pheng, Liew Sau

    2007-01-01

    Malaysia is a multi-ethnic, multi-racial, and multi-religious country with a population of more than 25 million people who live in the Peninsular and the States of Sabah and Sarawak on Borneo Island. It is a harmonious and peaceful nation comprised of Malays, who are the ethnic majority, followed by Chinese, Indians, Ibans, Kadazandusuns, and…

  8. The Mountaineer-Malaysia Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    A 26-day summer field course of West Virginia University's (WVU) Recreation and Parks Department took students to Malaysia's mountains and rainforests to observe how Malaysians are managing national parks, problem elephants, and population pressures on parks. The adventure provided powerful learning experiences. Further exchanges between WVU and…

  9. Rebel girls? Unplanned pregnancy and colonialism in highlands Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Butt, Leslie; Munro, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    In highlands Papua, Indonesia, rapid social change under a colonial system of governance has created novel sexual opportunities for young indigenous women. Recent scholarship has viewed similar youthful sexual practices that challenge the status quo as expressions of personal agency. By looking at how young women and their families cope with unplanned pregnancies, we suggest that a more viable analytic approach would be to view sexuality, pregnancy and childbirth as a single unit of analysis. From this perspective, young women's experiences are primarily ones of constraint. Case studies offer insights into the ways a political context of colonial domination limits options and choices for young women who have children born out of wedlock. In particular, this paper describes how the 'settler gaze' - omnipresent colonial norms and judgments - creates regulatory effects in the realm of reproduction.

  10. Mars: Stratigraphy of Western Highlands and Polar Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Scott, D. H.; Tuesink, M. F.

    1985-01-01

    Geologic mapping and stratigraphic studies of Mars based on Viking images improved knowledge of the relative age and occurrence of geologic units on a global scale. Densities of geologic units or features during the Noarchian, Hesperian, and Amazonian periods are indicated for the North and South polar regions as well as the equatorial region of Mars. Cumulative counts of crater size frequencies for craters larger than 2 km in diameter on plateau units mapped in the western region of Mars counts indicate that the plateau terrain as a whole was thinly resurfaced during the Hesperian Period, and a large proportion of pre-existing craters less than 10 to 15 km in diameter was buried. The formation of northern plains, subpolar highlands, and both polar regions is also described.

  11. Tropical Airborne LiDAR for Landslide Assessment in Malaysia: a technical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Manap, Mohamad; Azhari Razak, Khamarrul; Mohamad, Zakaria; Ahmad, Azhari; Ahmad, Ferdaus; Mohamad Zin, Mazlan; A'zad Rosle, Qalam

    2015-04-01

    Malaysia has faced a substantial number of landslide events every year. Cameron Highlands, Pahang is one of the badly areas affected by slope failures characterized by extreme climate, rugged topographic and weathered geological structures in a tropical environment. A high frequency of landslide occurrence in the hilly areas is predominantly due to the geological materials, tropical monsoon seasons and uncontrolled agricultural activities. Therefore the Government of Malaysia through the Prime Minister Department has allocated a special budget to conduct national level hazard and risk mapping project through Minerals and Geoscience Department Malaysia, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. The primary aim of this project is to provide slope hazard risk information for a better slope management in Malaysia. In addition this project will establish national infrastructure for geospatial information on the geological terrain and slope by emphasizing the disaster risk throughout the country. The areas of interest are located in the three different selected areas i.e. Cameron Highlands (275 square kilometers), Ipoh (200 square kilometers) and Cheras Kajang -- Batang kali (650 square kilometers). These areas are selected based on National Slope Master Plan (2009 -- 2023) that endorsed by Malaysia Government Cabinet. The national hazard and risk mapping project includes six parts of major tasks: (1) desk study and mobilization, (2) airborne LiDAR data acquisition and analysis, (3) field data acquisition and verification, (4) hazard and risk for natural terrain, (5) hazard and risk analysis for man-made slope and (6) Man-made slope mitigation/preventive measures. The project was authorized in September, 2014 and will be ended in March, 2016. In this paper, the main focus is to evaluate the suitability of integrated capability of airborne- and terrestrial LiDAR data acquisition and analysis, and also digital photography for regional landslide assessment. The

  12. Space technology developments in Malaysia:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabirin, A.

    The venture of space is, by nature, a costly one. However, exploring space is not just an activity reserved for international superpowers. Smaller and emerging space nations, some with burgeoning space programs of their own, can play a role in space technology development and interplanetary exploration, sometimes simply by just being there. Over the past four decades, the range of services delivered by space technologies in Malaysia has grown enormously. For many business and public services, space based technologies have become the primary means of delivery of such services. Space technology development in Malaysia started with Malaysia's first microsatellite, TiungSAT-1. TiungSAT-1 has been successfully launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on the 26th of September 2000 on a Russian-Ukrainian Dnepr rocket. There have been wide imaging applications and information extraction using data from TiungSAT-1. Various techniques have been applied to the data for different applications in environmental assessment and monitoring as well as resource management. As a step forward, Malaysia has also initiated another space technology programme, RAZAKSAT. RAZAKSAT is a 180kg class satellite designed to provide 2.5meter ground sampling distance resolution imagery on a near equatorial orbit. Its mission objective is to demonstrate the capability of a medium high resolution remote sensing camera using a cost effective small satellite platform and a multi-channel linear push-broom electro-optical instrument. Realizing the immense benefits of space technology and its significant role in promoting sustainable development, Malaysia is committed to the continuous development and advancement of space technology within the scope of peaceful use of outer space and boosting its national economic growth through space related activities.

  13. Connecticut Highlands Technical Report - Documentation of the Regional Rainfall-Runoff Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahearn, Elizabeth A.; Bjerklie, David M.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides the supporting data and describes the data sources, methodologies, and assumptions used in the assessment of existing and potential water resources of the Highlands of Connecticut and Pennsylvania (referred to herein as the “Highlands”). Included in this report are Highlands groundwater and surface-water use data and the methods of data compilation. Annual mean streamflow and annual mean base-flow estimates from selected U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gaging stations were computed using data for the period of record through water year 2005. The methods of watershed modeling are discussed and regional and sub-regional water budgets are provided. Information on Highlands surface-water-quality trends is presented. USGS web sites are provided as sources for additional information on groundwater levels, streamflow records, and ground- and surface-water-quality data. Interpretation of these data and the findings are summarized in the Highlands study report.

  14. INTERACTIVE HABITAT SUITABILITY MODELS FOR STREAM FISHES IN THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Models that predict the presence of stream fish species based on habitat characteristics can be useful in watershed management. We developed such models for each of fourteen Mid-Atlantic Highlands stream fish species/groups.

  15. 76 FR 4129 - Lake Wales Ridge National Wildlife Refuge, Highlands and Polk Counties, FL; Final Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ..., including the endangered sand skink. The refuge exists as part of a network of scrubs which include lands... Biological Station, and Polk and Highland Counties, with similar purposes to protect and manage what remains...

  16. An In-Situ Study of REE Abundances in Three Anorthositic Impact Melt Lunar Highland Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consolmagno, G. J.; Russell, S. S.; Jeffries, T. E.

    2004-03-01

    REE measurements of the lunar highland meteorites DAG 400, Dhofar 081, and NWA 482, and models of the REE in melts in equilibrium with them, suggest that they may contain components more primitive than those found in Apollo FAN samples.

  17. Differentiation and volcanism in the lunar highlands: photogeologic evidence and Apollo 16 implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trask, N.J.; McCauley, J.F.

    1972-01-01

    Materials of possible volcanic origin in the lunar highlands include (1) highland plains materials, (2) materials forming closely spaced hills in which summit furrows and chains of craters are common and (3) materials forming closely spaced hills (some of which parallel the lunar grid) on which summit furrows and chain craters are rare. The highland plains materials probably are basaltic lavas with less Fe and Ti than the mare plains materials. The two hilly units appear to consist of materials that, if volcanic, were more viscous in the molten state than any of the lunar plains units; thus these materials may be significantly enriched in felsic components. Most of the highland materials of possible volcanic origin formed after the Imbrium multi-ring basin but before mare material completed flooding parts of the moon; they therefore postdate accretion of the moon and may represent several episodes of premare volcanism. ?? 1972.

  18. Classification and evaluation for forest sites on the Western Highland Rim and Pennyroyal

    Treesearch

    Glendon W. Smalley

    1980-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive forest site classification system for the Western Highland Rim and Western Pennyroyal-Limestone area in northwest Alabama, west-central Tennessee, and western Kentucky. The system is based on physiography, geology, soils, topography, and vegetation.

  19. Classification and evaluation for forest sites on the Eastern Highland Rim and Pennyroyal.

    Treesearch

    Glendon W. Smalley

    1983-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive forest site classification system for the Eastern Highland Rim and Pennyroyal in north Alabama, east-central Tennessee, and central Kentucky. The system is based on physiography, geology, soils, topography, and vegetation.

  20. Mineralogy of Huygens Basin, Mars: A Transect of Noachian Highlands Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelos, K. D.; Ackiss, S. E.; Seelos, F. P.; McBeck, J. A.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Hash, C. D.; Viviano, C. E.; Murchie, S. L.

    2018-06-01

    Huygens crater represents a unique probe of the Noachain crust in the Hellas rim region. We have identified four mineralogic units within a morphologic context to understand the ancient martian highlands.

  1. IDENTIFICATION AND LOCATION OF FUNDAMENTAL FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To predict fish community response to environmental restoration in the Highlands Region one must first have information on fish abundance and diversity. We used data collected by the US Environmental Protection Agency's EMAP (Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program) to i...

  2. Obesity in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ismail, M N; Chee, S S; Nawawi, H; Yusoff, K; Lim, T O; James, W P T

    2002-08-01

    significantly higher in Chinese and urban subjects. Men were moderately active with the exception of the Dayaks. Chinese women were considerably less active than Chinese men. Chinese and Dayak women were less active than Malay and Indian women. In both men and women, Indians recorded the highest PALs. Hence, current nutrition and health surveys reveal that Malaysians are already affected by western health problems. The escalation of obesity, once thought to be an urban phenomenon, has now spread to the rural population at an alarming rate. As Malaysia proceeds rapidly towards a developed economy status, the health of its population will probably continue to deteriorate. Therefore, a national strategy needs to be developed to tackle both dietary and activity contributors to the excess weight gain of the Malaysian population.

  3. Emergence or improved detection of Japanese encephalitis virus in the Himalayan highlands?

    PubMed Central

    Baylis, Matthew; Barker, Christopher M.; Caminade, Cyril; Joshi, Bhoj R.; Pant, Ganesh R.; Rayamajhi, Ajit; Reisen, William K.; Impoinvil, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in the Himalayan highlands is of significant veterinary and public health concern and may be related to climate warming and anthropogenic landscape change, or simply improved surveillance. To investigate this phenomenon, a One Health approach focusing on the phylogeography of JEV, the distribution and abundance of the mosquito vectors, and seroprevalence in humans and animal reservoirs would be useful to understand the epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in highland areas. PMID:26956778

  4. Population trends in Malaysia: 1970-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Saharani Abdul; Ghani, Puzziawati Ab; Daud, Noorizam

    2014-12-01

    The size of population in Malaysia had reached 28.3 million in 2010 and is expected to increase to 38.6 million in the next 30 years. This demographic milestone that is causing renewed attention to the challenges caused by population growth. This paper looks at the last 40 years of changes in Malaysia population structure due to the changes in demographic phenomenon using data obtained from the Department of Statistics Malaysia. The principal finding of this research indicates that population structure in Malaysia had changed dramatically from the year 1970 to 2010. At the same time, Malaysia has completed its demographic transition in less than four decades. The fall in fertility and mortality rates have led to an improvement in the life expectancy of the population which has resulted an ageing population in Malaysia.

  5. Malaysia implements the integrated approach.

    PubMed

    1977-01-01

    Malaysia has implemented an integrated approach in providing family planning services to eligible couples. In 1964 the government of Malaysia adopted a national family planning program, and implementation began in the urban areas and extended into the rural areas. Other agencies are involved in providing family planning services and information including the Federation of Family Planning Associations, the Ministry of Health, the National Family Planning Board, and the Federal Land Development Authority. The number of women practicing contraception has increased from 20,726 in 1967 to 533,646 by 1976. and other methods, 3.9%, respectively. There has been an increase in the percentage of acceptors between ages 15-29 from 56% in 1968 to 71.3% in 1975. The 2nd Malaysian national plan will use a multidisciplinary approach to the problem.

  6. Debris flow study in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrin Jaafar, Kamal

    2016-04-01

    The phenomenon of debris flow occurs in Malaysia occasionally. The topography of Peningsular Malysia is characterized by the central mountain ranges running from south to north. Several parts of hilly areas with steep slopes, combined with high saturation of soil strata that deliberately increase the pore water pressure underneath the hill slope. As a tropical country Malaysia has very high intensity rainfall which is triggered the landslide. In the study area where the debris flow are bound to occur, there are a few factors that contribute to this phenomenon such as high rainfall intensity, very steep slope which an inclination more than 35 degree and sandy clay soil type which is easily change to liquidity soil. This paper will discuss the study of rainfall, mechanism, modeling and design of mitigation measure to avoid repeated failure in future in same area.

  7. Determinants of child malnutrition in rural and urban Ecuadorian highlands.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Johana; Van Camp, John; Wijaya, Sylviana; Donoso, Silvana; Huybregts, Lieven

    2014-09-01

    To identify and compare the sociodemographic determinants of stunting, wasting and overweight among infants of urban and rural areas in the Ecuadorian highlands. Cross-sectional study. Nabon (rural) and Cuenca (urban) cantons, Azuay Province, Ecuador. A total of 703 children aged 0-24 months and their caregivers (227 rural and 476 urban) recruited during the period from June to September 2008. Stunting prevalence was significantly higher in the rural area (37·4 % v. 17·7 %; P < 0·001) while wasting (7·1 %) and overweight (17·1 %) prevalence were more similar between areas. Determinants of stunting for the pooled sample were male gender (OR = 1·43; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·92; P = 0·02), preterm delivery (OR = 1·65; 95 % CI 1·14, 2·38; P = 0·008), child's age (OR = 1·04; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·07; P = 0·011), maternal education (OR = 0·95; 95 % CI 0·92, 0·99; P = 0·025) and facility-based delivery (OR = 0·57; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·74; P < 0·001). The latter was also a determinant of overweight (OR = 0·39; 95 % CI 0·25, 0·62; P < 0·001). Rural determinants of stunting were maternal height (OR = 0·004; 95 % CI 0·00004, 0·39; P = 0·018), diarrhoea prevalence (OR = 2·18; 95 % CI 1·13, 4·21; P = 0·02), socio-economic status (OR = 0·79; 95 % CI 0·64, 0·98; P = 0·030) and child's age (OR = 1·07; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·11; P = 0·005). Urban determinants were: maternal BMI for stunting (OR = 0·91; 95 % CI 0·84, 0·99; P = 0·027), cough prevalence (OR = 0·57; 95 % CI 0·34, 0·96; P = 0·036) and facility-based delivery (OR = 0·25; 95 % CI 0·09, 0·73; P = 0·011) for overweight, and hygiene for wasting (OR = 0·57; 95 % CI 0·36, 0·89; P = 0·013). Infant malnutrition was associated with different sociodemographic determinants between urban and rural areas in the Ecuadorian highlands, a finding which contributes to prioritize the determinants to be assessed in nutritional interventions.

  8. Kyanite-Bearing Migmatites at Ledge Mountain, Adirondack Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, B.; Leech, M.; Metzger, E. P.

    2017-12-01

    Sillimanite-rich felsic migmatites exposed at Ledge Mountain represent the only location in the Adirondack Highlands where kyanite has been found. The texturally young kyanite is overprinted on sillimanite in largely undeformed pegmatitic leucosomes, suggesting a late episode of melting taking place deeper than previously thought, and requiring a counter-clockwise P-T path. A final phase of anatexis ca. 1050 Ma in the Eastern Adirondack Highlands is consistent with an influx of fluid or decompression from extension in sillimanite-bearing migmatites. Temperatures both from this study and previous work are consistent with granulite-facies metamorphism, however the presence of kyanite requires higher pressure conditions corresponding to deeper burial of these central Adirondack rocks. We used Perple_X to model phase equilibria using XRF+ICP-MS whole-rock chemistries for the kyanite-bearing migmatites. Pseudosection models suggest that the peak P-T mineral assemblage kyanite + mesoperthite + garnet + rutile formed at approximately 15-20kb and 1000°C which is higher than previously proposed for granulites in the region. These P-T conditions for peak metamorphism are similar to those reported for the distinctive and relatively rare assemblage that we observe kyanite + hypersolvus feldspar (now mesoperthite) + garnet + rutile. We have evidence of isothermal decompression to <11kb and 880°-1000°C based on Grt + Pl equilibrium in the assemblage Grt + Pl ± Kfs + Qz + Ilm + melt. The leucocratic melt phase comprises 16 vol. % of the rock at these P-T conditions which is sufficient for ductile flow in the deep crust. This melt phase is present syn-exhumation and helped to buoyantly exhume Ledge Moutain rocks beneath bounding normal faults as a granitic gneiss dome. Preliminary U-Pb SHRIMP zircon ages from Ledge Mountain kyanite-bearing migmatites show anatexis continuing well after high-grade metamorphism is believed to have ceased in the range. A counter-clockwise P

  9. The Kuznets process in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Randolph, S

    1990-10-01

    This study looks at how the Kuznets process, the structural determinants of the aggregate inequality trend during the course of economic development, is transpiring in Malaysia. A time-series test of Kuznets's hypothesis concerning the trend in participation income in the course of economic growth and its underlying structural components is conducted using data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey. The study covers the period 1968-76 during which the equalizing phase of growth was expected to take hold. Analysis determined that while many of the underlying processes which Kuznets speculated combined to generate the aggregate trend in participation income are at work in Malaysia, others are either absent or their phasing has been altered. The equalizing phase in the course of development has been delayed in arriving. Inequality in the nonagricultural sector exceeded that in the agricultural sector, and the wage gap which opened during the early phase of development declined with further development. These findings conform with Kuznets's expectations. Available time-series evidence from other currently developing countries suggests that inequality is typically higher in the nonagricultural sector during the early phase of development and that an increasing and subsequently decreasing between-sector wage gap is a broadly shared experience. This study's findings also support Kuznets's expectation that inequality within the agricultural sector can worsen in the face of dualistic agricultural development. Finally, Malaysia's trend in inequality within the nonagricultural sector exerted the greatest influence upon the aggregate trend in inequality per Kuznets's hypothesis.

  10. Characterization and simulation of the quantity and quality of water in the Highland Lakes, Texas, 1983-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, Timothy H.; Rast, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Results from the simulations indicate that saline inflows to the Highland Lakes similar to those of the releases from Natural Dam Salt Lake during 1987–89 are unlikely to cause large increases in future concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate in the Highland Lakes. The results also indicate that high-salinity water will continue to be diluted as it is transported downstream through the Highland Lakes, even during extended dry periods.

  11. Malaria resurgence in the East African highlands: Temperature trends revisited

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, M.; Ahumada, J. A.; Chaves, L. F.; Rodó, X.; Bouma, M.

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of malaria in the East African highlands has increased since the end of the 1970s. The role of climate change in the exacerbation of the disease has been controversial, and the specific influence of rising temperature (warming) has been highly debated following a previous study reporting no evidence to support a trend in temperature. We revisit this result using the same temperature data, now updated to the present from 1950 to 2002 for four high-altitude sites in East Africa where malaria has become a serious public health problem. With both nonparametric and parametric statistical analyses, we find evidence for a significant warming trend at all sites. To assess the biological significance of this trend, we drive a dynamical model for the population dynamics of the mosquito vector with the temperature time series and the corresponding detrended versions. This approach suggests that the observed temperature changes would be significantly amplified by the mosquito population dynamics with a difference in the biological response at least 1 order of magnitude larger than that in the environmental variable. Our results emphasize the importance of considering not just the statistical significance of climate trends but also their biological implications with dynamical models. PMID:16571662

  12. Nomadic ecology shaped the highland geography of Asia's Silk Roads.

    PubMed

    Frachetti, Michael D; Smith, C Evan; Traub, Cynthia M; Williams, Tim

    2017-03-08

    There are many unanswered questions about the evolution of the ancient 'Silk Roads' across Asia. This is especially the case in their mountainous stretches, where harsh terrain is seen as an impediment to travel. Considering the ecology and mobility of inner Asian mountain pastoralists, we use 'flow accumulation' modelling to calculate the annual routes of nomadic societies (from 750 m to 4,000 m elevation). Aggregating 500 iterations of the model reveals a high-resolution flow network that simulates how centuries of seasonal nomadic herding could shape discrete routes of connectivity across the mountains of Asia. We then compare the locations of known high-elevation Silk Road sites with the geography of these optimized herding flows, and find a significant correspondence in mountainous regions. Thus, we argue that highland Silk Road networks (from 750 m to 4,000 m) emerged slowly in relation to long-established mobility patterns of nomadic herders in the mountains of inner Asia.

  13. Nail haemorrhages in native highlanders of the Peruvian Andes

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Donald; Harris, Peter; Williams, David; Krüger, Hever

    1981-01-01

    Nail haemorrhages are of interest to the chest physician and cardiologist. While the common type in the distal part of the nail is produced by the minor trauma of daily life, the rarer form—scattered through the nail substance—appears to be related to hypoxaemia brought about by heart and lung disease. We thought it would be of interest to study a population which was naturally hypoxaemic because of living at high altitude. Accordingly we have studied the frequency and types of nail haemorrhage in Quechua Indians who are permanently exposed to the hypobaric hypoxia of the Andes. We found the haemorrhages to be common both in mestizos living on the coastal plain and in the native highlanders. They appeared to increase in frequency with altitude but were of the distal type and would thus seem to be the result of minor trauma as at sea level. However, just as in cases of cyanotic congenital heart disease at low altitude, those with exaggerated hypoxaemia and pronounced elevation of haematocrit—namely, subjects with Monge's disease (chronic mountain sickness)—had scattered haemorrhages in the nail substance. Images

  14. Watershed morphology of highland and mountain ecoregions in eastern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Splinter, D.K.; Dauwalter, D.C.; Marston, R.A.; Fisher, W.L.

    2011-01-01

    The fluvial system represents a nested hierarchy that reflects the relationship among different spatial and temporal scales. Within the hierarchy, larger scale variables influence the characteristics of the next lower nested scale. Ecoregions represent one of the largest scales in the fluvial hierarchy and are defined by recurring patterns of geology, climate, land use, soils, and potential natural vegetation. Watersheds, the next largest scale, are often nested into a single ecoregion and therefore have properties that are indicative of a given ecoregion. Differences in watershed morphology (relief, drainage density, circularity ratio, relief ratio, and ruggedness number) were evaluated among three ecoregions in eastern Oklahoma: Ozark Highlands, Boston Mountains, and Ouachita Mountains. These ecoregions were selected because of their high-quality stream resources and diverse aquatic communities and are of special management interest to the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation. One hundred thirty-four watersheds in first-through fourth-order streams were compared. Using a nonparametric, two-factor analysis of variance (?? = 0.05) we concluded that the relief, drainage density, relief ratio, and ruggedness number all changed among ecoregion and stream order, whereas circularity ratio only changed with stream order. Our study shows that ecoregions can be used as a broad-scale framework for watershed management. ?? 2011 by Association of American Geographers.

  15. Rural income and forest reliance in highland Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Prado Córdova, José Pablo; Wunder, Sven; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Börner, Jan

    2013-05-01

    This paper estimates rural household-level forest reliance in the western highlands of Guatemala using quantitative methods. Data were generated by the way of an in-depth household income survey, repeated quarterly between November 2005 and November 2006, in 11 villages (n = 149 randomly selected households). The main sources of income proved to be small-scale agriculture (53 % of total household income), wages (19 %) and environmental resources (14 %). The latter came primarily from forests (11 % on average). In the poorest quintile the forest income share was as high as 28 %. All households harvest and consume environmental products. In absolute terms, environmental income in the top quintile was 24 times higher than in the lowest. Timber and poles, seeds, firewood and leaf litter were the most important forest products. Households can be described as 'regular subsistence users': the share of subsistence income is high, with correspondingly weak integration into regional markets. Agricultural systems furthermore use important inputs from surrounding forests, although forests and agricultural uses compete in household specialization strategies. We find the main household determinants of forest income to be household size, education and asset values, as well as closeness to markets and agricultural productivity. Understanding these common but spatially differentiated patterns of environmental reliance may inform policies aimed at improving livelihoods and conserving forests.

  16. Figurines, flint clay sourcing, the Ozark Highlands, and Cahokian acquisition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, T.E.; Hughes, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    At the pinnacle of Eastern Woodlands' prehistoric cultural development, Cahokia has been interpreted as a political and economic power participating in prestige-goods exchanges and trade networks stretching from the Great Plains to the South Atlantic. Among the more spectacular of the Cahokian elite artifacts were stone pipes and figurines made from a distinctive red stone previously identified as Arkansas bauxite. In this research, we used a combination of X-ray diffraction, sequential acid dissolution, and inductively coupled plasma analyses to establish the source of the raw material used in the manufacture of the red figurines and pipes that epitomize the Cahokian-style. Our research demonstrates that these objects were made of locally available flint clays. This finding, in conjunction with other evidence, indicate Cahokian exploitation of many mineral and stone resources focuses on the northern Ozark Highlands to the exclusion of other areas. These findings indicate that we must reassess the direction, extent, and role of Cahokian external contacts and trade in elite goods. Copyright ?? 2000 by the Society for American Archaeology.

  17. Family characteristics of suicides in Cameron Highlands: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Maniam, T

    1994-09-01

    Cameron Highlands has one of the highest suicide rates in the world, especially among Indians. Forty Indian families (19 suicides; 21 controls) were studied to compare family characteristics such as income, overcrowding, birth order of index cases of suicide, family history of suicidal behaviour or mental illness, marital disharmony, presence of alcohol abuse, availability of, and knowledge about, weedicides/insecticides, talk/threat of suicide among family members and experience of significant losses in the past year. Controls were matched for age, sex and educational level with the index cases of suicide. A significant difference was only found for one of the above factors, namely increased experience of significant losses in the past year in the family of index cases of suicide. More than 75% in both groups had alcohol related problems. About equal proportions in each group had a family history of suicidal behaviour and mental illness. There was more marital disharmony in families of suicides but this failed to reach significance. These results and methodological limitations of this study are discussed.

  18. Rural Income and Forest Reliance in Highland Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado Córdova, José Pablo; Wunder, Sven; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Börner, Jan

    2013-05-01

    This paper estimates rural household-level forest reliance in the western highlands of Guatemala using quantitative methods. Data were generated by the way of an in-depth household income survey, repeated quarterly between November 2005 and November 2006, in 11 villages ( n = 149 randomly selected households). The main sources of income proved to be small-scale agriculture (53 % of total household income), wages (19 %) and environmental resources (14 %). The latter came primarily from forests (11 % on average). In the poorest quintile the forest income share was as high as 28 %. All households harvest and consume environmental products. In absolute terms, environmental income in the top quintile was 24 times higher than in the lowest. Timber and poles, seeds, firewood and leaf litter were the most important forest products. Households can be described as `regular subsistence users': the share of subsistence income is high, with correspondingly weak integration into regional markets. Agricultural systems furthermore use important inputs from surrounding forests, although forests and agricultural uses compete in household specialization strategies. We find the main household determinants of forest income to be household size, education and asset values, as well as closeness to markets and agricultural productivity. Understanding these common but spatially differentiated patterns of environmental reliance may inform policies aimed at improving livelihoods and conserving forests.

  19. Malaysia (country/area statements).

    PubMed

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Malaysia by 1984 achieved a crude death rate of 5.3/1000, an infant mortality rate of 17/1000 live births, and a 1983 life expectancy at birth of 67.6 for males and 72.3 for females due primarily to socioeconomic development, better nutrition, and a health system covering 95% of the rural population. Substantial mortality differentials still exist between Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak, between urban and rural areas, and among ethnic groups. Differences in the coverage and quality of mortality statistics also exist. 83.2% of Malaysia's total population of 15.5 million is in Peninsular Malaysia, 7.3% in Sabah, and 9.5% in Sarawak. In Peninsular Malaysia, 55.1% are Malays, 33.9% Chinese, and 10.3% Indians. About 40% of the population is urban, and 39% is under age 15. The average annual rate of growth declined from 2.6% in the 1960s to 2.3% in the 1970s. The total fertility rate fell from 5.1 children in 1970 to 4.1 in 1980. A rise in age at 1st marriage and reduction in marital fertility have been partly offset by an increase in the proportion of women of childbearing age. The population is projected to grow to about 22 million by the year 2000. Chinese and Indians are expected to approach replacement level fertility by that year, but Malay fertility is expected to remain high for some time. Internal migration, 45% of which is intrarural, increased markedly in the 1970s, probably due to rapid modernization, industrialization, land development, and regional imbalances in economic development. In absolute terms a total of 410,000 persons moved from rural to urban areas during the 1970s. Important progress has been made in regional development programs, but further regional development requires resolution of problems related to internal migration and greater efforts to relocate industries in the less developed areas. The

  20. EPAS1 variants in high altitude Tibetan wolves were selectively introgressed into highland dogs.

    PubMed

    vonHoldt, Bridgett; Fan, Zhenxin; Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Wayne, Robert K

    2017-01-01

    Admixture can facilitate adaptation. For example, black wolves have obtained the variant causing black coat color through past hybridization with domestic dogs and have higher fitness than gray colored wolves. Another recent example of the transfer of adaptive variation between the two species has been suggested by the similarity between high altitude Tibetan mastiffs and wolves at the EPAS1 gene, a transcription factor induced in low oxygen environments. Here, we investigate the directionality of admixture in EPAS1 between 28 reference highland gray wolves, 15 reference domestic dogs, and 21 putatively admixed highland wolves. This experimental design represents an expanded sample of Asian dogs and wolves from previous studies. Admixture was inferred using 17,709 publicly available SNP genotypes on canine chromosome 10. We additionally conducted a scan for positive selection in the highland dog genome. We find an excess of highland gray wolf ancestry at the EPAS1 locus in highland domestic dogs, suggesting adaptive introgression from wolves to dogs. The signal of admixture is limited in genomic extent to a small region on chromosome 10, indicating that it is the focus of selection in an oxygen-limited environment. Our results suggest that an adaptive variant of EPAS1 in highland wolves was transferred to highland dogs, carrying linked variants that potentially function in hypoxia response at high elevation. The intertwined history of dogs and wolves ensures a unique evolutionary dynamic where variants that have appeared in the history of either species can be tested for their effects on fitness under natural and artificial selection. Such coupled evolutionary histories may be key to the persistence of wild canines and their domesticated kin given the increasing anthropogenic modifications that characterize the future of both species.

  1. A Typology of Bilingual Education in Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudart, Hyacinth

    1987-01-01

    Offers a typology of bilingual education in Malaysia, identifying four main types of transfer varieties (initial transfer, retransfer, circular transfer, and gradual transfer) of bilingual education and presenting an overview of bilingual education choices in Malaysia's public schools. (Author/CB)

  2. The Evolution of Special Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lay Wah; Low, Hui Min

    2014-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of special education in Malaysia across four chronological stages: before and during the early colonial period (before 1900), pre-independence (1900-1957), post-independence (1957-1990) and modern Malaysia (1990 to the present), through document analysis. By placing current issues and trends within a historical…

  3. Workplace Learning in Malaysia: The Learner's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Idris, Khairuddin

    2005-01-01

    This paper offers a scenario of workplace learning as practiced in Malaysia. Based on survey research, the article describes learner profiles, learning provision and pattern. The analysis shows that Malaysians participate in formal workplace learning as part of their employment activities. Workplace learning in Malaysia is contextual, promoted by…

  4. Homeschool in Malaysia: A Foresight Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim-Soon, Ng; Rahman Bin Ahmad, Abd; Bin Sulaiman, Muhammad Ibrahim; Sirisa, Ng Mei Xin

    2015-01-01

    Homeschooling in Malaysia is a form of alternative education that emphasizes quality education based on moral values and beliefs while strengthening family bonds. This alternative form of education is being practiced by a growing number of families in Malaysia. As such, the Ministry of Education has given the green light for intending parents who…

  5. An Exploration of African Students in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lian, Irene Tan Ai

    2011-01-01

    The exploratory study is an attempt to understand the reasons that prompted African students to study in Malaysia, the challenges encountered and the coping strategies used. The research on such topics among international students is well documented, but studies on international students in Malaysia are scarce. The sample included 155 African…

  6. Economic Education in Malaysia: A Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    This report provides a brief description of economic education in Malaysia and indicates interest, on the part of various Asian countries, i.e., Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines, in the establishment of economic education programs. (Editor/RK)

  7. Malay Special Rights: "Affirmative Action" in Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Mah Hui

    This paper provides an overview of Malaysia's affirmative action program, legally constituted as Malay Special Rights. An introduction defines the aim of the program as improving the economic position of Bumiputras, who consist of Malays and other indigenous communities. These, it is said, are Malaysia's most economically disadvantaged groups;…

  8. Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Jeremy W.; Nor, Rohana Mat; Ramayah, Soshila; Tang, Thean Hock; Zainuddin, Zainul F.

    1999-01-01

    Molecular typing with IS6110 was applied to Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from all parts of Malaysia. The degree of clustering increased with patient age, suggesting that reactivation may contribute to clustering. Identical banding patterns were also obtained for isolates from widely separate regions. Therefore, the use of clustering as a measure of recent transmission must be treated with caution. Strains related to the Beijing family were common in Peninsular Malaysia but were less common in Sabah and Sarawak, while a distinct group of strains comprised nearly 40% of isolates from East Malaysia but such strains were rare in Peninsular Malaysia. Single-copy strains, common in South and Southeastern Asia, constituted nearly 20% of isolates from the peninsula but were virtually absent in East Malaysia. The marked geographical difference in the prevailing strains indicates not only a restricted dissemination of M. tuberculosis but also a considerable degree of stability in the banding patterns. PMID:10203468

  9. Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Dale, J W; Nor, R M; Ramayah, S; Tang, T H; Zainuddin, Z F

    1999-05-01

    Molecular typing with IS6110 was applied to Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from all parts of Malaysia. The degree of clustering increased with patient age, suggesting that reactivation may contribute to clustering. Identical banding patterns were also obtained for isolates from widely separate regions. Therefore, the use of clustering as a measure of recent transmission must be treated with caution. Strains related to the Beijing family were common in Peninsular Malaysia but were less common in Sabah and Sarawak, while a distinct group of strains comprised nearly 40% of isolates from East Malaysia but such strains were rare in Peninsular Malaysia. Single-copy strains, common in South and Southeastern Asia, constituted nearly 20% of isolates from the peninsula but were virtually absent in East Malaysia. The marked geographical difference in the prevailing strains indicates not only a restricted dissemination of M. tuberculosis but also a considerable degree of stability in the banding patterns.

  10. Characterization of Simulium (Simulium) hackeri Edwards (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Malaysia: Morphological description of the pupa and larva, and DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Low, Van Lun; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2018-04-27

    Simulium (Simulium) hackeri Edwards, 1928 of the Simulium variegatum species-group from Malaysia was described initially based on the female specimen from Cameron Highlands, Pahang. In the present study, the pupa and larva of this species are described for the first time. Their morphological characters resemble those of the Simulium variegatum species-group by having six gill filaments per side, abdomen with dorsal spine-combs at least on segments 7 and 8, cocoon with wall-pocket shaped and with or without an anterodorsal projection. Postgenal cleft of the larva medium-sized, rarely small, ventral papillae small or absent. The DNA barcode of this species is also reported herein. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ranking malaria risk factors to guide malaria control efforts in African highlands.

    PubMed

    Protopopoff, Natacha; Van Bortel, Wim; Speybroeck, Niko; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Baza, Dismas; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Coosemans, Marc

    2009-11-25

    Malaria is re-emerging in most of the African highlands exposing the non immune population to deadly epidemics. A better understanding of the factors impacting transmission in the highlands is crucial to improve well targeted malaria control strategies. A conceptual model of potential malaria risk factors in the highlands was built based on the available literature. Furthermore, the relative importance of these factors on malaria can be estimated through "classification and regression trees", an unexploited statistical method in the malaria field. This CART method was used to analyse the malaria risk factors in the Burundi highlands. The results showed that Anopheles density was the best predictor for high malaria prevalence. Then lower rainfall, no vector control, higher minimum temperature and houses near breeding sites were associated by order of importance to higher Anopheles density. In Burundi highlands monitoring Anopheles densities when rainfall is low may be able to predict epidemics. The conceptual model combined with the CART analysis is a decision support tool that could provide an important contribution toward the prevention and control of malaria by identifying major risk factors.

  12. Temperature and population density determine reservoir regions of seasonal persistence in highland malaria.

    PubMed

    Siraj, Amir S; Bouma, Menno J; Santos-Vega, Mauricio; Yeshiwondim, Asnakew K; Rothman, Dale S; Yadeta, Damtew; Sutton, Paul C; Pascual, Mercedes

    2015-12-07

    A better understanding of malaria persistence in highly seasonal environments such as highlands and desert fringes requires identifying the factors behind the spatial reservoir of the pathogen in the low season. In these 'unstable' malaria regions, such reservoirs play a critical role by allowing persistence during the low transmission season and therefore, between seasonal outbreaks. In the highlands of East Africa, the most populated epidemic regions in Africa, temperature is expected to be intimately connected to where in space the disease is able to persist because of pronounced altitudinal gradients. Here, we explore other environmental and demographic factors that may contribute to malaria's highland reservoir. We use an extensive spatio-temporal dataset of confirmed monthly Plasmodium falciparum cases from 1995 to 2005 that finely resolves space in an Ethiopian highland. With a Bayesian approach for parameter estimation and a generalized linear mixed model that includes a spatially structured random effect, we demonstrate that population density is important to disease persistence during the low transmission season. This population effect is not accounted for in typical models for the transmission dynamics of the disease, but is consistent in part with a more complex functional form of the force of infection proposed by theory for vector-borne infections, only during the low season as we discuss. As malaria risk usually decreases in more urban environments with increased human densities, the opposite counterintuitive finding identifies novel control targets during the low transmission season in African highlands. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Temperature and population density determine reservoir regions of seasonal persistence in highland malaria

    PubMed Central

    Siraj, Amir S.; Bouma, Menno J.; Santos-Vega, Mauricio; Yeshiwondim, Asnakew K.; Rothman, Dale S.; Yadeta, Damtew; Sutton, Paul C.; Pascual, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of malaria persistence in highly seasonal environments such as highlands and desert fringes requires identifying the factors behind the spatial reservoir of the pathogen in the low season. In these ‘unstable’ malaria regions, such reservoirs play a critical role by allowing persistence during the low transmission season and therefore, between seasonal outbreaks. In the highlands of East Africa, the most populated epidemic regions in Africa, temperature is expected to be intimately connected to where in space the disease is able to persist because of pronounced altitudinal gradients. Here, we explore other environmental and demographic factors that may contribute to malaria's highland reservoir. We use an extensive spatio-temporal dataset of confirmed monthly Plasmodium falciparum cases from 1995 to 2005 that finely resolves space in an Ethiopian highland. With a Bayesian approach for parameter estimation and a generalized linear mixed model that includes a spatially structured random effect, we demonstrate that population density is important to disease persistence during the low transmission season. This population effect is not accounted for in typical models for the transmission dynamics of the disease, but is consistent in part with a more complex functional form of the force of infection proposed by theory for vector-borne infections, only during the low season as we discuss. As malaria risk usually decreases in more urban environments with increased human densities, the opposite counterintuitive finding identifies novel control targets during the low transmission season in African highlands. PMID:26631558

  14. Malaysia mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Parameshvara Deva, M

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be

  15. Landscape composition and configuration in the central highlands of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tolessa, Terefe; Senbeta, Feyera; Kidane, Moges

    2016-10-01

    Landscape dynamics are common phenomenon in the human-dominated environments whereby it can be observed that the composition and configuration between landscape elements change over time. This dynamism brings about habitat loss and fragmentation that can greatly alter ecosystem services at patch, class, and landscape levels. We conducted a study to examine composition and configuration of forested landscape in the central highlands of Ethiopia using satellite images of over a period of four decades, and FRAGSTAT raster dataset was used to analyze fragmentation. Our result showed five land use/land cover (LULC) types in the study area. Cultivated land and settlement land increased at the expense of forestland, shrubland, and grassland. Fragmentation analysis showed the number of patches increased for all LULC types, indicating the level of fragmentation and interspersion. Juxtaposition increased for shrubland, grassland, and cultivated lands and decreased for settlement and forestland resulting in the fragmentation and isolation of patches. The study of LULC along with fragmentation at the landscape level can help improve our understanding of the pace at which conversion of landscape elements is happening and the impacts on ecosystem services as studies of LULC are courser in nature and would not show how each land use is reducing in size, proximity and shape among other things that determine ecosystem services. Such type of studies in rural landscapes are very vital to consider appropriate land management policies for the landscape level by taking into account the interaction between each element for sustainable development. We recommend land managers, conservationists, and land owners for observing the roles of each patch in the matrix to maximize the benefits than focusing on a single element.

  16. Gallstone disease in Peruvian coastal natives and highland migrants

    PubMed Central

    Moro, P; Checkley, W; Gilman, R; Cabrera, L; Lescano, A; Bonilla, J; Silva, B

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—In a previous study, we found that gallstones were a common occurrence in the high altitude villages of the Peruvian Andes.
AIMS—To determine if high altitude (⩾ 1500 m) is a contributing risk factor for gallstone disease.
METHODS—We conducted a cross sectional study in a periurban community in Lima, Peru, and compared the prevalence of gallstone disease between coastal natives, highland (Sierra) natives and Sierra natives who had migrated to the coast. We also compared the prevalence rates from this study with those from a previous study conducted at high altitude. We examined 1534 subjects >15 years of age for gallstone disease. Subjects were interviewed for the presence or absence of risk factors.
RESULTS—Gallstone disease was more common in females (16.1 cases per 100, 95% CI 13.8-18.2) than in males (10.7 per 100, 95% CI 8.0-13.4). Females had a greater risk of gallstone disease, especially if they had used oral contraception and/or had four or more children. The age adjusted prevalence was not significantly different between coastal natives, Sierra migrants, and Andean villagers. The prevalence of gallstone disease was not associated with time since migration or with having native Sierra parents. After adjusting for other risk factors, Sierra natives who migrated to the coast had a lower prevalence of gallstone disease than coastal natives (odds ratio 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.94).
CONCLUSIONS—This study indicates that high altitude is not a positive risk factor for gallstone disease and confirms that this disease is common in Peruvians, which may be attributable to Peruvian-Indian ethnicity.


Keywords: gallstone disease; cholelithiasis; high altitude; risk factors; epidemiology; Peru PMID:10716689

  17. Highland cattle and Radix labiata, the hosts of Fascioloides magna

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fascioloides magna is a pathogenic fluke introduced to Europe ca 140 years ago. As it is spreading over the continent, new intermediate and definitive hosts might be involved in transmission of the parasite. In Europe, several studies reported potential new intermediate snail hosts (Radix spp.) for F. magna, and also several cases of fascioloidosis of wild and domestic animals were published. However, the data based on molecular and histological analyses confirming these findings remained unreported. This study aims to refer to unique findings of F. magna in European snails and domestic animals (the first observation in the Czech Republic in the last 30 years) and demonstrate the use of molecular techniques in determination of F. magna. Results Two snails of R. labiata naturally infected with F. magna were found; mature cercariae and daughter rediae were observed. Maturity of cercariae was checked by histological methods, however, their ability to encyst was not confirmed. Co-infection of F. magna and Fasciola hepatica in the liver of two highland cattle bulls was proved. Adult fasciolid flukes producing eggs were found in the liver pseudocysts (F. magna) and the bile ducts (F. hepatica). Identification of intermediate hosts, intramolluscan stages, adult flukes and eggs was performed by sequencing the ITS2 region. Connection of F. magna pseudocysts with the gut (via the bile ducts) was not confirmed by means of histological and coprological examinations. Conclusions For the first time, Radix labiata was confirmed as the snail host for F. magna under natural conditions and, together with the finding of F. magna infection in cattle, we can expect further transmission of F. magna from wildlife to livestock in localities shared by these hosts. PMID:24517409

  18. The early Martian environment: Clues from the cratered highlands and the Precambrian Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craddock, R. A.; Maxwell, T. A.

    1993-01-01

    There is abundant geomorphic evidence to suggest that Mars once had a much denser and warmer atmosphere than present today. Outflow channel, ancient valley networks, and degraded impact craters in the highlands all suggest that ancient Martian atmospheric conditions supported liquid water on the surface. The pressure, composition, and duration of this atmosphere is largely unknown. However, we have attempted to place some constraints on the nature of the early Martian atmosphere by analyzing morphologic variations of highland impact crater populations, synthesizing results of other investigators, and incorporating what is know about the geologic history of the early Earth. This is important for understanding the climatic evolution of Mars, the relative abundance of martian volatiles, and the nature of highland surface materials.

  19. Procrustean science - Indigenous siderophiles in the lunar highlands, according to Delano and Ringwood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, E.

    1978-01-01

    Several objections are raised to the contention of Delano and Ringwood (1978) that the siderophiles in the lunar highlands are mainly of indigenous rather than meteoritic origin. It is argued that the rejection of 29 pristine lunar rocks characterized by low siderophilic abundances, plutonic textures and high age on the supposition that they are impact melts is unjustified by petrographic evidence. It is further contended that the approach used by Delano and Ringwood leads to spurious excesses of Au, Ni and volatiles, which disappear when the highland composition is based on pristine lunar rocks rather than undercorrected breccias. Large, systematic depletions relative to terrestrial oceanic tholeiites are revealed by other derivations of abundances in lunar highland materials.

  20. Preliminary evaluation of the Highland Rim aquifer system in Tennessee for receiving injected wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    The EPA has authority under the Safe Drinking Water Act to protect underground sources of drinking water from contamination by deep well injection. An aquifer, however, may be exempted from protection and used for injected wastes where the aquifer meets criteria established in the Agency 's Underground Injection Control program. The Highland Rim aquifer system in Tennessee consists of Mississippian age carbonate rocks and occurs from the Valley and Ridge of East Tennessee to west of the Tennessee River. This aquifer contains potable water and is an important source of drinking water for municipal and domestic supplies on the Highland Rim. The Highland Rim aquifer system under parts of the Cumberland Plateau is not currently used as a source of drinking water and is not expected to be used in the future. These areas meet parts of the EPA 's Underground Injection Control criteria for exempting aquifers to receive injected waste. (Author 's abstract)

  1. GPS Constraints on the Spatial Distribution of Extension in the Ethiopian Highlands and Main Ethiopian Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amere, Y. B.; Bendick, R. O.; Fisseha, S.; Lewi, E.; Reilinger, R. E.; King, R. W.; Kianji, G.

    2014-12-01

    27 campaign and 17 continuous GPS sites spanning the Ethiopian Highlands, Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), and Somali Platform in Ethiopia and Eritrea were measured for varying durations between 1995 and 2014. Velocities at these sites show that present day strain in NE Africa is not localized only in the Afar depression and MER system. Rather, velocities as high as 6 mm/yr relative to stable Nubia occur in the central Ethiopian highlands west of the rift bounding faults; the northern and southern Ethiopian highlands host velocities as high as 3 mm/yr. These approach the magnitude of Nubia-Somalia spreading accommodated within the rift itself of 6 + 1 mm/yr with an azimuth of N770E. The combination of distributed low strain rate deformation contiguous with higher strain rate plate boundary deformation is similar to that expressed in other tectonically active continental settings like Basin and Range and Tibetan Plateau.Keywords: deformation, localized, distributed, strain, stable Nubia.

  2. Pervasive Layering in the Lunar Highland Crust: Evidence from Apollos 15, 16,and 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.; Yang, Tiffany

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results of a photogeologic reconnaissance of 70 mm photographs taken on the lunar surface during the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions, whose primary objective was to investigate the lunar highland crust. Photographs at all three sites, notably the Apennine Front, show pervasive layered structure. These layers are easily distinguished from lighting artifacts, and are considered genuine crustal structures. Their number, thickness, and extent implies that they are lava flows, not ejecta blankets or intrusive features. They appear to be the upper part of the earliest lunar crust, possibly forming a layer tens of kilometers thick. Remote sensing studies (X-ray fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy), indicate that the highland crust is dominantly a feldspathic basalt. It is concluded that the highland layers represent a global crust formed by eruptions of high-alumina basalt in the first few hundred million years of the Moon's history.

  3. Medical Tourism in Malaysia: Prospect and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tourism, combined with the phrase medical, seems to be a new form of tourism which has gained huge popularity in recent decades. Though, a number of literatures available with regard to the tourism industry and the competitiveness of the destination, however, the major aspects which determine the satisfaction of medical tourists are hardly focused specifically on Malaysia. There is a lack of empirical evidence in this area of study which needs to be bridged. Hence, this study aimed at investigating the various factors contributing towards the development of medical tourism in Malaysia. Methods: As the purpose of the research was to find out various factors contributing towards the development of medical tourism in Malaysia, so this study used Structural Equation modeling (SEM) for data analysis. The target population for this study consisted of the medical tourists coming to Malaysia with the primary intension of seeking medical procedures other than sightseeing. A total sample size of 266 was collected through non-probability judgment sampling during the period between December 2012 and February 2013. Results: The result confirms that destination competitiveness and service quality play an important role in the medical tourist’s mind towards medical tourism aspect in Malaysia. Thus, Malaysia need to promote various medical success stories together with the services they offer to attract more foreign patients. Conclusion: This study contributes to the theoretical development in the tourism industry by offering the structured relationship among various aspects contributing towards the development of medical tourism in Malaysia. PMID:26056632

  4. Medical Tourism in Malaysia: Prospect and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Abdullah

    2013-08-01

    Tourism, combined with the phrase medical, seems to be a new form of tourism which has gained huge popularity in recent decades. Though, a number of literatures available with regard to the tourism industry and the competitiveness of the destination, however, the major aspects which determine the satisfaction of medical tourists are hardly focused specifically on Malaysia. There is a lack of empirical evidence in this area of study which needs to be bridged. Hence, this study aimed at investigating the various factors contributing towards the development of medical tourism in Malaysia. As the purpose of the research was to find out various factors contributing towards the development of medical tourism in Malaysia, so this study used Structural Equation modeling (SEM) for data analysis. The target population for this study consisted of the medical tourists coming to Malaysia with the primary intension of seeking medical procedures other than sightseeing. A total sample size of 266 was collected through non-probability judgment sampling during the period between December 2012 and February 2013. The result confirms that destination competitiveness and service quality play an important role in the medical tourist's mind towards medical tourism aspect in Malaysia. Thus, Malaysia need to promote various medical success stories together with the services they offer to attract more foreign patients. This study contributes to the theoretical development in the tourism industry by offering the structured relationship among various aspects contributing towards the development of medical tourism in Malaysia.

  5. Malaria in East African highlands during the past 30 years: impact of environmental changes

    PubMed Central

    Himeidan, Yousif E.; Kweka, Eliningaya J.

    2012-01-01

    East African highlands are one of the most populated regions in Africa. The population densities in the highlands ranged between 158 persons/km2 in Ethiopia and 410 persons/km2 in Rwanda. According to the United Nations Population Fund, the region has the world's highest population growth rate. These factors are likely behind the high rates of poverty among the populations. As there were no employment opportunities other than agricultural, this demographic pressure of poor populations have included in an extensive unprecedented land use and land cover changes such as modification of bushland, woodland, and grassland on hillsides to farmland and transformation of papyrus swamps in valley bottoms to dairy pastures and cropland and changing of fallows on hillsides from short or seasonal to longer or perennial. Areas harvested for food crops were therefore increased by more than 100% in most of the highlands. The lost of forest areas, mainly due to subsistence agriculture, between 1990 and 2010 ranged between 8000 ha in Rwanda and 2,838,000 ha in Ethiopia. These unmitigated environmental changes in the highlands led to rise temperature and optimizing the spread and survival of malaria vectors and development of malaria parasites. Malaria in highlands was initially governed by low ambient temperature, trend of malaria transmission was therefore increased and several epidemics were observed in late 1980s and early 2000s. Although, malaria is decreasing through intensified interventions since mid 2000s onwards, these environmental changes might expose population in the highlands of east Africa to an increase risk of malaria and its epidemic particularly if the current interventions are not sustained. PMID:22934065

  6. Green commercial building insurance in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu Xin Ou; Chew, Boon Cheong; Loo, Heoy Shin; Tan, Lay Hong

    2017-03-01

    Green building construction is growing tremendously globally even in Malaysia. Currently, there are approximate 636 buildings have registered and to be certified with Green Building Index. Among these buildings, 45 buildings have already fulfilled the requirements and fully certified. The other buildings still under provisional certification stage. Malaysia had adopted Green Building Index in 2009 to support a move to promote green building concept. Malaysia starts to move towards green building because Malaysian construction and building industry realizes that both energy consumed and waste produced are reduced without irreversible impacts to ecosystems. Consequently, insurance companies such as Fireman's Fund from America has started the green building insurance policies for their green building in the year of 2006, while Malaysia still remain the coverage for green buildings using conventional property insurance. There are lacks of efforts to be seen from insurance companies to propose green building insurance for these green buildings. There are a few factors which can take into consideration for insurance companies to start the very first green building insurance in Malaysia. Although there are challenges, some efficient strategies have been identified to overcome the problems. The methods used in this research topic is qualitative research. The results obtained shows that green commercial building insurance has a huge business opportunity in Malaysia because the number of green commercial buildings are increasing tremendously in Malaysia. It is a favor to implement green building insurance in Malaysia. Furthermore, insurance companies can consider to add in extra coverage in standard building policy to provide extra protection for non-certified green buildings which have the intention to rebuilt in green when damage happens. Generally, it is very important to introduce green commercial buildings insurance into Malaysia so that all of the green commercial

  7. A review of depression research in malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ng, C G

    2014-08-01

    Depression is a debilitating illness and has become a leading cause of morbidity globally. We aim to summarise the evidence available in regard to the prevalence, type of assessment tools used and treatment options for depression in Malaysia. Two hundred and forty seven articles related to depression were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. Fifty seven articles were selected and reviewed on the basis of clinical relevance and future research implications. Findings were summarised, categorised and presented according to prevalence of depression, depression in women, depression in clinical condition, assessment tools, and treatment of depression. The prevalence of depression in Malaysia was estimated to be between 8 and 12%. The figures were higher among women of low socio-economic background or those with comorbid medical condition. The common assessment tools used in Malaysia include Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). They were translated into the Malay language and their psychometric properties were established. Both pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy were commonly used in Malaysia, and were highly recommended in local clinical practice guidelines. There are discrepancies in the reported rates of depression in Malaysia and this needs to be addressed. There were lack of studies looking into the depression among subgroups in Malaysia especially in the male population. There were several instruments available for assessment of depression in Malaysia but their suitability for the local setting need further research. Both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy were recommended in the local treatment guideline in Malaysia. With the emergence of generic medication, we need to compare their clinical efficacy and tolerability

  8. Emergence or improved detection of Japanese encephalitis virus in the Himalayan highlands?

    PubMed

    Baylis, Matthew; Barker, Christopher M; Caminade, Cyril; Joshi, Bhoj R; Pant, Ganesh R; Rayamajhi, Ajit; Reisen, William K; Impoinvil, Daniel E

    2016-04-01

    The emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in the Himalayan highlands is of significant veterinary and public health concern and may be related to climate warming and anthropogenic landscape change, or simply improved surveillance. To investigate this phenomenon, a One Health approach focusing on the phylogeography of JEV, the distribution and abundance of the mosquito vectors, and seroprevalence in humans and animal reservoirs would be useful to understand the epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in highland areas. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. Geochemistry and stratigraphic relations of middle Proterozoic rocks of the New Jersey Highlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Volkert, Richard A.; Drake, Avery Ala

    1999-01-01

    Middle Proterozoic rocks of the New Jersey Highlands consist of a basement of dacitic, tonalitic, trondhjemitic, and charnockitic rocks that constitute the Losee metamorphic suite. These rocks are unconformably overlain by a layered supracrustal sequence of quartzo-feldspathic and calcareous rocks. Abundant sheets of hornblende- and biotite-bearing rocks of the Byram intrusive suite and clinopyroxene-bearing rocks of the Lake Hopatcong intrusive suite were synkinematically emplaced at about 1,090 Ma. These intrusive suites constitute the Vernon Supersuite. The postorogenic Mount Eve Granite has been dated at 1,020?4 Ma and is confined to the extreme northern Highlands.

  10. Workshop on Pristine Highlands Rocks and the early History of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhi, J. (Editor); Ryder, G. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Oxide composition of the Moon, evidence for an initially totally molten Moon, geophysical contraints on lunar composition, random sampling of a layered intrusion, lunar highland rocks, early evolution of the Moon, mineralogy and petrology of the pristine rocks, relationship of the pristine nonmore rocks to the highlands soils and breccias, ferroan anorthositic norite, early lunar igneous history, compositional variation in ferroan anosthosites, a lunar magma ocean, deposits of lunar pristine rocks, lunar and planetary compositions and early fractionation in the solar nebula, Moon composition models, petrogenesis in a Moon with a chondritic refractory lithophile pattern, a terrestrial analog of lunar ilmenite bearing camulates, and the lunar magma ocean are summarized.

  11. Smallholder Led Irrigation Development in the Humid Ethiopian highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilahun, S. A.; Schmitter, P.; Alemie, T. C.; Yilak, D. L.; Yimer, A.; Mamo, A.; Langan, S.; Baronn, J.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    More than 70% of the population of in sub-Saharan Africa are living in rural areas that depend on the rainfed agriculture for their livelihood on the rainfed agriculture. With the rapidly increasing population, competition for land and water is growing is intensifying. This, together with future landscape and climate change, the rainfed agriculture is unlikely to meet the future food demands. Many donors see irrigation a rational way to solve the future food crises. In Ethiopia, less than 10% of the irrigatable area has been developed. The main limitation of increasing the irrigatable areas is a severe lack of surface water during an extended dry phase of almost seven months. Flow in most rivers currently have dried up before the rain phase begins middle of the dry periods. In response, the Ethiopian government is installing large reservoirs at great cost to store water from the wet monsoon phase. At the same time, small scale household have started using irrigation using wells on sloping lands that have sprung up with minimal governmental intervention. It could be one of the strategies to increase the irrigated acreage without large investments. Donors and governmental planners are eager to follow the farmer's initiatives and intensify irrigation on these hillside areas. However, it is not yet known to the extent that it is sustainable. For this reason, shallow ground water levels and river discharge were measured over a three-year period in the Robit Bata and Dangishta watersheds in Northern Ethiopian highlands for assessing recharge and use of shallow groundwater irrigation during dry period. The theoretical results show that the ground water availability depends on the slope of the land and the depth of the soil. In sloping Robit Bata watershed the groundwater runs out under gravity to the stream channel in 3-4 months after the rainfall stops. The only wells that remain productive are those associated with fractures in the bedrock. For the less sloping

  12. Village poultry production systems in the central highlands of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dessie, T; Ogle, B

    2001-12-01

    Participatory rural appraisal (PRA), supported by checklists and intensive case studies on individual households, was carried out in three villages at three different altitudes in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The chicken production system in each village is described and the problems are discussed. More than 60% of the families kept chickens, and in most cases the women owned and managed the birds and controlled the cash from the sales. The production systems followed were mainly low-input and small-scale, with 7-10 mature birds per household, reared in the back yards with inadequate housing, feeding and health care. The average egg production per clutch was 15-20, with 3-4 clutches per year. The mean number of eggs set per bird was 12.9 +/- 2.2 (n = 160), depending on the size of the bird and season, and the hatching rate was 80.9% +/- 11.1%, range 44%-100% (n = 160). Poultry meat and eggs were generally accepted and appreciated in all three villages. In addition to the small amount of cash income they provide, scavenging chickens have nutritional, cultural and social functions. The flock composition, price of poultry and poultry products, disease outbreaks and hatching of chicks were strongly affected by season. Disease was cited as the most important problem by most of the members of the community, followed by predation, lack of feed, poor housing, insufficient water and parasites. Disease periodically decimated the flocks, and consequently, about 50% of the eggs produced were incubated in order to replace the birds that had died. The major source of loss in the system was the high mortality of chicks (61%) that occurred between hatching and the end of brooding at 8 weeks of age. The system was characterized by no or few inputs and a low output level. The major input was the cost of foundation stock, but after that virtually no cost was involved. The major source of feed for the birds was from the scavenging feed resource base, which comprised table

  13. Health Information in Malay (Bahasa Malaysia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a new window. N Expand Section Nutrition Choose MyPlate: 10 Tips to a Great Plate - English PDF Choose MyPlate: 10 Tips to a Great Plate - Bahasa Malaysia (Malay) PDF Center for Nutrition Policy ...

  14. Hepatitis in Malaysia: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Raihan, Ruksana

    2016-01-01

    Malaysia is multiethnic, with a population of 31,127,247 comprising a mixture of Malays (50.1%), Chinese (22.6%), Indians (6.7%), Aborigines (11.8%), others (0.7%), and noncitizens (8.2%). Like other countries in the region, viral hepatitis is an important public health problem in Malaysia. The 3 most common causes for hepatitis in Malaysia are hepatitis A, B, and C. Hepatitis A has been a reportable disease in Malaysia since 1988. Due to the introduction of government control programs, the national incidence rate has dropped steadily. It is now estimated that 50% of Malaysians less than 30 years of age do not have antibodies to hepatitis A and are therefore susceptible to the disease, which can be prevented by reinforcing the hygiene status of the general population. Malaysia is a country of medium seroprevalence for the hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) in the general population (1.5-9.8%). The major route of transmission is from infected mother to fetus. There are an estimated 1 million people chronically infected with hepatitis B in Malaysia. Approximately 75% of all viral hepatitis cases are due to hepatitis B infection, with a male-to-female ratio of 2:1. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) accounts for more than 80% of the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases seen in Malaysia and HCC is the 3rd most common malignant neoplasm and among the 10 leading causes of death. Most common genotypes are B and C. Incidence rates among Chinese, Malays, and Indians are 36, 26, and 15% respectively. The hepatitis B vaccination program for children was introduced in 1989, which successfully managed to reduce the seroprevalence of infection among Malaysians to 0.01% (graph 4, 2014). But the disease burden will still remain high for some time as the infected people are getting older and living longer. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a growing problem in Malaysia. An estimated 453,700 people were living with HCV infection in Malaysia in 2009 (2.5% of the population

  15. Nipah virus outbreak in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chua, Kaw Bing

    2003-04-01

    Nipah virus, a novel paramyxovirus, closely related to Hendra virus emerged in northern part of Peninsular Malaysia in 1998. The virus caused an outbreak of severe febrile encephalitis in humans with a high mortality rate, whereas, in pigs, encephalitis and respiratory diseases but with a relatively low mortality rate. The outbreak subsequently spread to various regions of the country and Singapore in the south due to the movement of infected pigs. Nipah virus caused systemic infections in humans, pigs and other mammals. Histopathological and radiological findings were characteristic of the disease. Fruitbats of Pteropid species were identified as the natural reservoir hosts. Evidence suggested that climatic and anthropogenic driven ecological changes coupled with the location of piggeries in orchard and the design of pigsties allowed the spill-over of this novel paramyxovirus from its reservoir host into the domestic pigs and ultimately to humans and other animals.

  16. Maritime Security: Malaysia’s Persistent Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    navies, and air forces of the littoral states.”20 In his keynote address at the 2011 Shangri-La Dialogue, Prime Minister Dato’ Sri Najib Tun Razak ...Monitor, Vol. 4 No. 3, 2006. Razak , Dato’ Sri Najib Tun, Prime Minister Malaysia. Keynote Address. Shangri-La Dialogue. Singapore, June 3, 2011... Razak , Dato’ Sri Najib , Deputy Prime Minister Malaysia, Address. Shangri-La Dialogue. Enhancing Maritime Security Cooperation. Singapore, 2005

  17. Recent and prospective population trends in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jones, G W; Tan, P C

    1985-09-01

    Recent population trends in Malaysia are reviewed, with the focus on Peninsular Malaysia. Separate consideration is given to population growth between 1970 and 1980; mortality trends; period and cohort fertility trends; factors affecting fertility, including changes in age structure, nuptiality, and other socioeconomic and demographic changes; and the recent development of a pro-natalist policy involving a goal of a population of 70 million by 2050.

  18. Federation of Malaysia. Country profile.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, L

    1985-01-01

    The 1984 population of Malaysia has been estimated at 14.7 million and the population growth rate averaged 2.3% in 1970-80. Population growth is officially encouraged to form a substantial home market for economic development. Toward this end, the 1985 budget has increased tax deductions for families with 5 children. The capital city of Kuala Lumpur is the largest metropolitan area (1 million population) and the Federal Territory is the most densely populated region. Immigration is strictly controlled by the government, and the percentage of foreign-born citizens was 5% in 1980. China, India, and Pakistan are decreasing in importance as countries of origin. Internal mobility, however, is increasing. Rural-rural migration accounted for 45% of internal migration in 1970-80 and was largely motivated by family reasons. Only 7% of Malaysians are estimated to move in search of work. Racial tensions led the government to grant special economic privileges to native-born Islamic Malays. The greatest proportion of the population is centered in the lowest age groups. The percentage of females 15-29 years of age rose from 26% in 1970 to 30% in 1980 and is expected to continue to rise. Fertility is on the decline. The majority of households in the country involve nuclear families. There has been an increase in the number of men and women who delay marriage or remain single. Education is widely available for children aged 6-15 years and those who meet certain academic standards receive free education up to age 19 years. The current labor force is estimated at 5.4 million, with an annual growth rate of 3.1%. Malaysia's per capita income (US $1860 in 1982) is among the highest in Southeast Asia and the gross national product increased by an average annual rate of 8% in 1970-81. The government plans to move toward the development of heavier industries and more manufacturing concerns.

  19. Population mobility in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jones, G W; Sidh, M S

    1979-12-01

    1970 census materials were used to analyze migration patterns in Peninsular Malaysia. Inter-state migration patterns were analyzed by comparing birth place and current place of residence data, and inter-district and intra-district migration patterns were assessed using information on previous and current place of residence. The proportion of inter-state migrants in the total population increased from 4.7%-10.9% from 1947-1970. 53% of the inter-state migrants were Malays, 33% were Chinese, and 13% were Indian. The states of Selangor and Pahang had the highest net migration gains and Perak had the highest number of out-migrants. Selangor attracted migrants because it was a major industrial, administrative and educational center. Migrants were attracted to Pahang because of recent efforts by the government to promote agricultural development in the state. Areas which showed a net migration loss were experiencing slow economic growth. 48.4% of the inter-state migrants migrated to either rural or suburban areas, 26% moved to cities with populations of 75,000 or more, and 26% moved to towns with populations of 1000-10,000. 48.6% of the inter-state migrants were females. When all types of internal migration were taken into account it was estimated that approximately 30% of the population had moved at some point in their life time. During the early 1900s, Peninsular Malaysia received many immigrants from China, India, and other countries, and the Chinese became the dominant group in many urban areas and in many economic sectors. In 1950 the government, fearing that the Malays would become a minority group in their own country, halted international immigration. The recent increase in internal migration has contributed toward equalizing the influence and power of the Chinese and the Malays in urban areas and in various economic sectors.

  20. Improving efficacy of landscape interventions in the (semi) humid Ethiopian Highlands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite millions of dollars invested in soil and water conservation practices and other landscape interventions in Ethiopian highlands and billions of hours of food-for-work farm labor, sediment concentration in rivers is increasing. Possible ways to reverse the current trend has been investigated b...

  1. Shortleaf pine-bluestem habitat restoration in the Interior Highlands: Implications for stand growth and regeneration

    Treesearch

    James M. Guldin; John Strom; Warren Montague; Larry D. Hedrick

    2004-01-01

    National Forest managers in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas are restoring 155,000 acres of unburned shortleaf pine stands to shortleaf pine-bluestem habitat. Habitat restoration consists of longer rotations, removal of midstory hardwoods, and reintroduction of fire. A study was installed in the spring of 2000 to evaluate shortleaf pine regeneration and overstory...

  2. A Study of Service-Learning at Virginia Highlands Community College and Mountain Empire Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Alice

    This qualitative study was conducted to explore student perceptions of service learning as well as the importance of service learning to community college students. Data were collected through interviews with 24 community college participants from Virginia Highlands Community College and Mountain Empire Community College, both in southwest…

  3. GPS constraints on broad scale extension in the Ethiopian Highlands and Main Ethiopian Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birhanu, Yelebe; Bendick, Rebecca; Fisseha, Shimeles; Lewi, Elias; Floyd, Michael; King, Robert; Reilinger, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Measurements from GPS sites spanning the Ethiopian Highlands, Main Ethiopian Rift, and Somali Platform in Ethiopia and Eritrea show that present-day finite strain rates throughout NE Africa can be approximated at the continent scale by opening on the MER. Most sites in the Ethiopian Highlands are consistent with the motion of the Nubian plate at the level of 1 mm/yr with 95% confidence. However, sites at least as far as 60 km west of the rift show higher velocities relative to the stable Nubian frame of 1-2 mm/yr, requiring a combination of localized and distributed deformation to accommodate the African extensional domain. Off-rift velocities are consistent with ongoing strain related to either high gravitational potential energy or intrusive magmatism away from midrift magmatic segments either on the western rift margin or within the Ethiopian Highlands, especially when combined with likely rheological differences between the Ethiopian Rift and Highlands. Velocities from the Somali Platform are less well determined with uncertainties and residuals from a Somali frame definition at the level of 2-3 mm/yr but without spatially correlated residuals.

  4. Urban and rural risks of Lyme disease in the Scottish Highlands.

    PubMed

    Mavin, S; Hopkins, P C; MacLennan, A; Joss, A W L; Ho-Yen, D O

    2009-05-01

    This paper investigates the pattern of Lyme disease testing and infection within the Highland region of Scotland. Data from all Highland samples tested during 2004-2006 were analysed according to result and patient's residence in relation to the eight fold Scottish Executive's urban/rural classification, and distance from woodland. In total, 1602 patients were tested for Lyme disease, 0.71% of the Highland population. From these, 104 (6.5%) were seropositive. There were more patients tested, and seropositive patients from rural than urban locations, 1113 vs 489, and 79 vs 25 respectively. There were also significantly more seropositive patients per patients tested from rural locations (chi2, p<0.0001). The number of patients tested and seropositive patients increased as the rural areas become more remote. The likelihood of being tested for Lyme disease also increased as the distance between a patient's residence and woodland decreased. The relative risk of being tested elevated by 74% for those patients living within 200 metres of woodland. Those living in the most rural areas of Highland and those living closest to woodland have an increased risk of being tested and having Lyme disease.

  5. 77 FR 58181 - Power Resources, Inc., Smith Ranch Highland Uranium Project; License Renewal Request, Opportunity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 04008964, NRC-2012-0214] Power Resources, Inc., Smith... available in ADAMS) is provided the first time that a document is referenced. The Smith Ranch Highland... (Smith Ranch Technical Report); Accession No. ML12234A539 (Smith Ranch Environmental Report). In addition...

  6. Root reinforcement to soils provided by common Ethiopian highland plants for gully erosion control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grasses and trees are often used to stabilize gully banks. However, the effectiveness of such biological conservation measures has not been investigated for the Ethiopian Highlands. This study, therefore, investigates the reinforcement that plant roots may provide to strengthen gully banks in Ethiop...

  7. Rural Health Care Delivery and Nutrition Program Implementation: A Case Study from Highland Guatemala.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodeheaver, Daniel G.; Rodeheaver, Denise P.

    Between 1978 and 1980, qualitative and numerical data were collected in a health post facility located in Patzite, a rural village in highland Guatemala, in order to determine the effectiveness of rural health service delivery, including nutrition programs. Data were collected by: (1) interviews as to purposes and goals of general health care; (2)…

  8. Balsam fir conservation and red spruce ecosystem restoration initiatives in the West Virginia highlands

    Treesearch

    Corey A. Bonasso; David W. Saville

    2010-01-01

    The West Virginia Highlands Conservancy has been working for more than a decade to protect, conserve, and restore the spruce-fir forests in West Virginia. Beginning in the mid 1990s an effort was initiated to conserve balsam fir in West Virginia where it reaches its southern most extent in North America. This work led to further efforts which have focused on the...

  9. STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR DETERMINATION AND PREDICTION OF FUNDAMENTAL FISH ASSEMBLAGES OF THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A statistical software tool, Stream Fish Community Predictor (SFCP), based on EMAP stream sampling in the mid-Atlantic Highlands, was developed to predict stream fish communities using stream and watershed characteristics. Step one in the tool development was a cluster analysis t...

  10. PREDICTION OF FUNDAMENTAL ASSEMBLAGES OF MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLAND STREAM FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A statistical software tool, the Stream Fish Assemblage Predictor (SFAP), based on stream sampling data collected by the EPA in the mid-Atlantic Highlands, was developed to predict potential stream fish communities using characteristics of the stream and its watershed.
    Step o...

  11. Site factors influencing oak decline in the interior highlands of Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma

    Treesearch

    Edward A. Poole; Eric Heitzman; James M. Guldin

    2006-01-01

    Oak decline is affecting the forests in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. In 2002 and 2003, field plots were established throughout the region to evaluate the influence of topographic position and aspect on oak decline. Density and basal area of dead and dying oaks did not significantly differ by either topographic position or aspect. Lack of...

  12. Modeling the regeneration of oak stands in the Missouri Ozark Highlands

    Treesearch

    Daniel C. Dey; Paul S. Johnson; H.E. Garrett

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a method for modeling the regeneration of even-aged oak stands in the Ozark Highlands of southern Missouri. The approach is based on (i) a growth model that is applicable to both oak sprouts and advance reproduction and (ii) a method for probabilistically estimating future size distributions of trees. The...

  13. Stability of diameter distributions in a managed uneven-aged oak forest in the Ozark Highlands

    Treesearch

    Zhiming Wang; Paul S. Johnson; H. E. Garrett; Stephen R. Shifley

    1997-01-01

    We studied a privately owned 156,000-acre oak-dominated forest in the Ozark Highlands of southern Missouri. The forest has been managed by the single-tree selection method since 1952. Using 40 years of continuous forest inventory records, we analyzed the stability of the shape of tree diameter distributions at the forest-wide scale. Results show that for trees ...

  14. 76 FR 80424 - Highland Capital Management, L.P., et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... be to provide investment returns that closely correspond to the price and performance of its... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Investment Company Act Release No. 29890; 812-13478] Highland... Investment Company Act of 1940 (``Act'') for an exemption from sections 2(a)(32), 5(a)(1), 22(d) and 22(e) of...

  15. Morphological dynamics of gully systems in the subhumid Ethiopian Highlands: The Debre Mawi watershed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gully expansion in the Ethiopian highlands dissects vital agricultural lands with the eroded materials adversely impacting downstream resources, for example as they accumulate in reservoirs. While gully expansion and rehabilitation have been more extensively researched in the semi-arid region of Eth...

  16. Participatory community-based gully rehabilitation on the Ethiopian Highlands: the case of Birr watershed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the last fifty years, sediment concentrations in the Ethiopian highlands have increased two- to three-fold. The current severity of gully erosion is a major cause of increased sediment loads, but gully rehabilitation has proven to be challenging as success rates have been small. This paper descri...

  17. Gully head retreat in the sub-humid Ethiopian Highlands: The Ene-Chilala catchment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the northern highlands of Ethiopia, gully erosion is severe. Despite many efforts to implement gully prevention measures, controlling gully erosion remains a challenge. The objective is to better understand the regional gully erosion processes and to prevent gully head retreat. The study was cond...

  18. Biophysical and economic assessment of a community-based rehabilitated gully in the Ethiopian highlands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the last fifty years, sediment concentrations in the Ethiopian highlands have increased two- to three-fold. The current severity of gully erosion is a major cause of increased sediment loads, but gully rehabilitation has proven to be challenging, with limited success. This paper describes gully r...

  19. DECISION TOOL FOR RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEM MANAGMENT IN THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Canaan Valley Highlands of the Mid-Atlantic, riparian zone restoration has been identified as a critical watershed management practice not only for the ecosystem services provided but also for the potential socioeconomic growth from environmental investment and job creatio...

  20. Site Index Tables for Shortleaf Pine In the Ozark Highlands of Northern Arkansas and Southern Missouri

    Treesearch

    Edwin R. Ferguson; David L. Graney

    1975-01-01

    Field guides are presented for estimating site index on each of the three major soil groups in the Ozark Highland Province: limestone-dolomite, sandstone, and fragipan soils. Factors utilized vary by soil groups but include aspect, township, slope shape and depth to pan, with adjustments for hardwood competition. Tabular predictions were within ± 3 feet of measured...

  1. Competing for Coffee Space: Development-Induced Displacement in the Central Highlands of Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doutriaux, Sylvie; Geisler, Charles; Shively, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam has emerged as the world's second largest producer of coffee. The benefits of this expanding coffee economy are substantial but not universal; their distribution follows ethnic lines despite government commitment to equalize welfare. Focusing on Dak Lak Province in Vietnam's Central Highlands, we investigate this commercial transformation…

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDEX OF BIOTIC INTEGRITY FOR THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 1993 to 1996, fish assemblage data were collected from 309 wadeable streams in the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Highlands region as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program. Stream sites were selected with a probabilistic sampl...

  3. Constraints on Sources of Strong Crustal Magnetism in the Southern Highlands of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, C. A.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic models, guided by results of gravity-topography admittance studies, suggest that the anomaly pattern in the central southern highlands of Mars results from large blocks of coherently magnetized crust separated by 'non-magnetic' areas. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Differences in Optimal Growth Equations For White Oak in the Interior Highlands

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg; James M. Guldin

    2003-01-01

    Optimal growth equations are fundamental to many ecological simulators, but few have been critically examined. This paper reviews some of the behavior of the Potential Relative Increment (PRI) approach. Models for white oak were compared for Arkansas River Valley (ARV), Boston Mountains (BoM), Ouachita Mountains (OM), and Ozark Highlands (OH) ecological sections of the...

  5. Embodying Authentic Leadership through Popular Education at Highlander Research and Education Center: A Qualitative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Griswold, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 and 2014, workshops were held at Highlander Research and Education Center that explored the topics of authentic leadership and popular education. The participants shared their experiences through reflective writing upon completion of the workshops and approximately a year following. These reflections were developed into a case study. This…

  6. Impacts of Second Home Development on Housing Prices in the Southern Appalachian Highlands

    Treesearch

    Seong-Hoon Cho; David H. Newman; David N. Wear

    2003-01-01

    This study estimates the value of socioeconomic, spatial and environmental attributes on housing prices of both urban and rural communities in the primary and second home areas of the Southern Appalachian Highlands, using the hedonic property price model. Distance and environmental attributes are valued more heavily in the rural communities of the second home area than...

  7. Forest fuels and landscape-level fire risk assessment of the ozark highlands, Missouri

    Treesearch

    Michael C. Stambaugh; Richard P. Guyette; Daniel C. Dey

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe a fire risk assessment of the Ozark Highlands. Fire risk is rated using information on ignition potential and fuel hazard. Fuel loading, a component of the fire hazard module, is weakly predicted (r2 = 0.19) by site- and landscape-level attributes. Fuel loading does not significantly differ between Ozark ecological...

  8. Persistence of Allegheny woodrats Neotoma magister across the mid-Atlantic Appalachian Highlands landscape, USA

    Treesearch

    W. Mark Ford; Steven B. Castleberry; Michael T. Mengak; Jane L. Rodrigue; Daniel J. Feller; Kevin R. Russell

    2006-01-01

    We examined a suite of macro-habitat and landscape variables around active and inactive Allegheny woodrat Neotoma magister colony sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the mid-Atlantic Highlands of Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia using an information-theoretic modeling approach. Logistic regression analyses suggested that Allegheny woodrat presence was related...

  9. Incorporating Scottish Highland Games and Activities into Your Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Steven L.; Hannon, James C.; Brusseau, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce a potentially new and exciting group of activities that can be taught in physical education. Activities based on Scottish Highland Games can be an interesting way to incorporate history and literature into the curriculum, as well as introduce students to a variety of unique physical activities. This…

  10. Returning fire to Ozark Highland forest ecosystems: Effects on advance regeneration

    Treesearch

    Daniel C. Dey; George Hartman

    2005-01-01

    In mature forests of the Ozark Highlands, MO, USA, we evaluated fire effects on the survival and growth of tree seedlings and saplings (i.e., advance regeneration), and used this information to develop species-specific models that predict the probability of survival based on initial tree size and number of times burned. A 1000 ha forest area was divided into five units...

  11. Geochronology and petrogenesis of the western highlands alkali suite: Radiogenic isotopic evidence from Apollo 14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Halliday, Alex N.

    1993-03-01

    Several rocks of alkalic affinity, from the western highlands of the Moon, have been analyzed for their Nd and Sr isotopic compositions. One sample yields a Sm-Nd mineral isochron of 4110 = 41 Ma. This age, in conjunction with U-Pb zircon ages on two other alkalic rocks from the Apollo 14 landing site suggests a distinct western highlands 'event' which was approximately 100 Ma in duration. Since the last dregs of the lunar magma ocean likely crystallized prior to 4.3 Ga, this alkalic 'event' may have included the re-melting of evolved plutons or the remobilization of urKREEP trapped liquid from upper mantle cumulates. Alkalic lithologies such as granites and felsites have been known from the Moon since the earliest days of the Apollo lunar sample returns. However, not until 1977 were alkali-rich rocks recognized from typical highlands suites such as ferroan anorthosites (FAN) and norites and Mg-suite rocks. In the intervening years, several other alkali suite samples have been discovered and characterized, mostly through labor-intesive breccia pull-apart studies of clasts and analyses of coarse-fine fractions of soils. We will speculate on the origins of this suite of lunar highlands rocks.

  12. Building Climate Resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay Highlands: A Role for Earth System Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Simane, Belay; Habib, Shahid; Anderson, Martha C.; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Foltz, Jeremy D.

    2012-01-01

    The Blue Nile (Abay) Highlands of Ethiopia are characterized by significant interannual climate variability, complex topography and associated local climate contrasts, erosive rains and erodible soils, and intense land pressure due to an increasing population and an economy that is almost entirely dependent on smallholder, low-input agriculture. As a result, these highland zones are highly vulnerable to negative impacts of climate variability. As patterns of variability and precipitation intensity alter under anthropogenic climate change, there is concern that this vulnerability will increase, threatening economic development and food security in the region. In order to overcome these challenges and to enhance sustainable development in the context of climate change, it is necessary to establish climate resilient development strategies that are informed by best-available Earth System Science (ESS) information. This requirement is complicated by the fact that climate projections for the Abay Highlands contain significant and perhaps irreducible uncertainties. A critical challenge for ESS, then, is to generate and to communicate meaningful information for climate resilient development in the context of a highly uncertain climate forecast. Here we report on a framework for applying ESS to climate resilient development in the Abay Highlands, with a focus on the challenge of reducing land degradation. PMID:22470302

  13. An assessment of the spatial extent and condition of grasslands in the Apache Highlands ecoregion

    Treesearch

    Carolyn A. F. Enquist; David F. Gori

    2005-01-01

    Grasslands in the Apache Highlands ecoregion have experienced dramatic changes. To assess and identify remaining native grasslands for conservation planning and management, we used a combination of expert consultation and field verification. Over two-thirds of native grasslands have experienced shrub encroachment. More than 30% of these may be restorable with...

  14. Economic Determinants of Academic Failure and School Desertion in the Guatemala Highlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvajal, Manuel J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Explores, from an economic perspective, elementary school system adequacy in the rural, indigenous Guatemalan highlands. Estimates least-squares coefficients and elasticities separately for academic failure and school abandonment for each of four indigenous groups. The model explains academic failure better than school desertion. A national policy…

  15. The Nature and Role of Urban Places in the Southern Highlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiman, Robert E.; Lovingood, Paul E., Jr.

    The major towns and cities of the Southern Highlands are sometimes not categorized as "Appalachian," yet they have considerable impact on the character of the region. This study examines the distribution of selected human activities and quality of life variables in 156 counties in West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, North…

  16. The Highland Park Environmental Health Plan: Evaluation and Recommendations for Improving the Urban Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Commerce, Lansing. Community Planning Div.

    The Highland Park environmental health plan includes the following components: Legal and administrative and programmatic relationships, planning studies, residential environment, disease vector control, water and sewage systems, sanitation, air pollution, food protection, industrial and radiological health, and solid waste facilities. (JR)

  17. Making Hope and History Rhyme: Reflections on Popular Education and Leadership Following a Visit to Highlander

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Bríd; Finnegan, Fergal

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on our backgrounds as adult educators in Ireland and our experience at Highlander in 2014. We review our development as critical educators, exposed to deep inequalities in Irish society. We explore role of popular education in fostering social change, beginning with the commitment to equality and freedom, whereby, we produce…

  18. Modeling Gypsy Moth-Related Tree Mortality Under Different Outbreak Scenarios in Interior Highlands Forests

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; James M. Guldin; Jimmie J. Colbert

    2004-01-01

    A simulation was conducted to determine how growth of forests in the Interior Highlands would change under attack by the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.). Simulations were conducted for three different outbreak intensities using the Gypsy Moth Stand-Damage Model. Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) inventory data were used as input for the simulation...

  19. Oak mortality associated with crown dieback and oak borer attack in the Ozark Highlands

    Treesearch

    Zhaofei Fan; John M. Kabrick; Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; Randy G. Jensen

    2008-01-01

    Oak decline and related mortality have periodically plagued upland oak-hickory forests, particularly oak species in the red oak group, across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma since the late 1970s. Advanced tree age and periodic drought, as well as Armillaria root fungi and oak borer attack are believed to contribute to oak decline and mortality....

  20. Oak mortality associated with crown dieback and oak borer attack in the Ozark Highlands

    Treesearch

    Zhaofei Fan; John M. Kabrick; Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; Randy G. Jensen

    2008-01-01

    Oak decline and related mortality have periodically plagued upland oak–hickory forests, particularly oak species in the red oak group, across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma since the late 1970s. Advanced tree age and periodic drought, as well as Armillaria root fungi and oak borer attack are believed to contribute to oak decline and mortality....

  1. Geochronology and petrogenesis of the western highlands alkali suite: Radiogenic isotopic evidence from Apollo 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Halliday, Alex N.

    1993-01-01

    Several rocks of alkalic affinity, from the western highlands of the Moon, have been analyzed for their Nd and Sr isotopic compositions. One sample yields a Sm-Nd mineral isochron of 4110 = 41 Ma. This age, in conjunction with U-Pb zircon ages on two other alkalic rocks from the Apollo 14 landing site suggests a distinct western highlands 'event' which was approximately 100 Ma in duration. Since the last dregs of the lunar magma ocean likely crystallized prior to 4.3 Ga, this alkalic 'event' may have included the re-melting of evolved plutons or the remobilization of urKREEP trapped liquid from upper mantle cumulates. Alkalic lithologies such as granites and felsites have been known from the Moon since the earliest days of the Apollo lunar sample returns. However, not until 1977 were alkali-rich rocks recognized from typical highlands suites such as ferroan anorthosites (FAN) and norites and Mg-suite rocks. In the intervening years, several other alkali suite samples have been discovered and characterized, mostly through labor-intesive breccia pull-apart studies of clasts and analyses of coarse-fine fractions of soils. We will speculate on the origins of this suite of lunar highlands rocks.

  2. Impacts of shortleaf pine-hardwood forest management on soils in the Ouachita Highlands: A review

    Treesearch

    Hal O. Liechty; Michael G. Shelton; Kenneth R. Luckow; Donald J. Turton

    2002-01-01

    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) is the most ecologically and economically important tree species in the Ouachita Highlands of the southcentral United States. This species can occur in relatively pure stands but most frequently exists in mixed stands with various hardwood species. Because of the diversity of land ownership, public concerns about...

  3. Four Pine Species Grown at Four Spacings on the Eastern Highland Rim, Tennessee, After 30 Years

    Treesearch

    Martin R. Schubert; John C. Rennie; Scott E. Schlarbaum

    2004-01-01

    In 1966, four pine species [loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), Virginia pine (P. virginiana Mill.), shortleaf pine (P. echinata Mill.) and eastern white pine (P. strobus L.)] were planted at four spacings (6 x 6 foot 9 x 9 foot 12 x 12 feet and 15 x 15 feet) on the eastern Highland Rim near...

  4. Gypsy Moth Defoliation Potential in the Ouachita/Ozark Highlands Region

    Treesearch

    Andrew M. Liebhold; Kurt W. Gottschalk; James M. Guldin; Rose-Marie Muzika

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - The gypsy moth is expanding its range in North America and is likely to invade the Ouachita/ Ozark Highlands region sometime during this century. A previous analysis indicated that forests in this area are among the most susceptible in North America to defoliation by this insect. We used USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis...

  5. Bulk hydrogen abundances in the lunar highlands: Measurements from orbital neutron data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, David J.; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Plescia, Jeffrey B.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Maurice, Sylvestre; Prettyman, Thomas H.

    2015-07-01

    The first map of bulk hydrogen concentrations in the lunar highlands region is reported. This map is derived using data from the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer (LP-NS). We resolve prior ambiguities in the interpretation of LP-NS data with respect to non-polar hydrogen concentrations by comparing the LP-NS data with maps of the 750 nm albedo reflectance, optical maturity, and the wavelength position of the thermal infrared Christiansen Feature. The best explanation for the variations of LP-NS epithermal neutron data in the lunar highlands is variable amounts of solar-wind-implanted hydrogen. The average hydrogen concentration across the lunar highlands and away from the lunar poles is 65 ppm. The highest hydrogen values range from 120 ppm to just over 150 ppm. These values are consistent with the range of hydrogen concentrations from soils and regolith breccias at the Apollo 16 highlands landing site. Based on a moderate-to-strong correlation of epithermal neutrons and orbit-based measures of surface maturity, the map of highlands hydrogen concentration represents a new global maturity index that can be used for studies of the lunar soil maturation process. We interpret these hydrogen concentrations to represent a bulk soil property related to the long-term impact of the space environment on the lunar surface. Consequently, the derived hydrogen concentrations are not likely related to the surficial enhancements (top tens to hundreds of microns) or local time variations of OH/H2O measured with spectral reflectance data.

  6. 78 FR 57620 - Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... trade mission to Manila, Philippines and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia scheduled for October 23-October 30...

  7. Regional air pollution over Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO

  8. Modelling the effect of temperature change on the extrinsic incubation period and reproductive number of Plasmodium falciparum in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chua, T H

    2012-03-01

    According to the report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Malaysia will experience an increase of 3-5°C in the future. As the development of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, is sensitive to temperature, we investigated, using computer models, the effect of increase of 3º and 5ºC on the possible changes in the epidemiology of malaria transmission of P. falciparum in Malaysia. Four environmentally different locations were selected: Kuala Lumpur (KL), Cameron Highlands (CH), Kota Kinabalu (KK) and Kinabalu Park (KP). The extrinsic incubation period (EIP) was estimated using hourly temperatures and the mean daily temperatures. The EIP values estimated using the mean daily temperature were lower than those computed from hourly temperatures in warmer areas (KL, KK), but higher in the cooler areas (CH, KP). The computer simulations also indicated that the EIP will be decreased if the temperature was raised by 3º or 5ºC, with the effect more pronounced for the greater temperature increase, and for the cooler places. The vector cohort that is still alive at a time to transmit malaria (s(EIP)) also increased when the temperature was raised, with the increase more pronounced in the cooler areas. This study indicates an increase in temperature will have more significant effect in shortening the EIP in a cooler place (eg CH, KP), resulting in a greater s(EIP), and consequently increasing the transmission intensity and malaria risk. A temperature increase arising from the global climate change will likely affect the epidemiology of malaria in Malaysia, especially in the cooler areas.

  9. Report on von Willebrand Disease in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Periayah, Mercy Halleluyah; Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Saad, Arman Zaharil Mat; Yaacob, Nik Soriani; Karim, Faraizah Abdul

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Von Willebrand disease (vWD) is an inherited hemostatic disorder that affects the hemostasis pathway. The worldwide prevalence of vWD is estimated to be 1% of the general population but only 0.002% in Malaysia. AIM: Our present paper has been written to disclose the statistical counts on the number of vWD cases reported from 2011 to 2013. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This article is based on sociodemographic data, diagnoses and laboratory findings of vWD in Malaysia. A total of 92 patients were reported to have vWD in Malaysia from 2011 to 2013. RESULTS: Sociodemographic-analysis revealed that 60% were females, 63% were of the Malay ethnicity, 41.3% were in the 19-44 year old age group and 15.2% were from Sabah, with the East region having the highest registered number of vWD cases. In Malaysia, most patients are predominately affected by vWD type 1 (77.2%). Factor 8, von Willebrand factor: Antigen and vWF: Collagen-Binding was the strongest determinants in the laboratory profiles of vWD. CONCLUSION: This report has been done with great interest to provide an immense contribution from Malaysia, by revealing the statistical counts on vWD from 2011-2013. PMID:27275342

  10. Bangsa Malaysia and Recent Malaysian English Language Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge, Brian

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses Malaysia's English language policies, especially since the mid 1990s, in the light of more recent claims for a united Malaysian nation (under the banner of "bangsa Malaysia") and in the context of English language and its potential for Malaysia to forge more of an externalised identity. It examines the impact of…

  11. Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program: Malaysia 1995. Participants' Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaysian-American Commission on Educational Exchange, Kuala Lumpur.

    These reports and lesson plans were developed by teachers and coordinators who traveled to Malaysia during the summer of 1995 as part of the U.S. Department of Education's Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program. Sections of the report include: (1) "Gender and Economics: Malaysia" (Mary C. Furlong); (2) "Malaysia: An Integrated,…

  12. Antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mahdy, Zaleha Abdullah; Basri, Hashimah; Md Isa, Zaleha; Ahmad, Shuhaila; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Mohd Amin, Rahmah

    2014-04-01

    To determine the adequacy of antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia, and the influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among postnatal women who delivered in two tertiary hospitals. Data were collected from antenatal cards, hospital documents and diet recall on daily milk and calcium intake during pregnancy. SPSS version 19.0 was used for statistical analyses. A total of 150 women were studied. The total daily calcium intake was 834 ± 43 mg (mean ± standard error of the mean), but the calcium intake distribution curve was skewed to the right with a median intake of 725 mg daily. When calcium intake from milk and calcium supplements was excluded, the daily dietary calcium intake was only 478 ± 25 mg. Even with inclusion of milk and calcium supplements, more than a third (n=55 or 36.7%) of the women consumed less than 600 mg calcium in their daily diet. The adequacy of daily calcium intake was not influenced by maternal age, ethnicity, income or maternal job or educational status as well as parity. The daily dietary calcium intake of the Malaysian antenatal population is far from adequate without the addition of calcium supplements and milk. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. National Suicide Registry Malaysia (NSRM).

    PubMed

    Hayati, A N; Kamarul, A K

    2008-09-01

    To create a nationwide system to capture data on completed suicide in Malaysia i.e. the morbidity, geographic and temporal trends and the population at high risk of suicide. Data from this registry can later be used to stimulate and facilitate further research on suicide. This paper describes the rationale and processes involved in developing a national suicide registry in 2007. The diagnosis of suicide is based on the ICD-10 codes for fatal intentional self-harm (X60-X84). A case report form with an accompanying instruction manual had been prepared to ensure systematic and uniform data collection. State Forensic Pathologist's offices are responsible for data collection in their respective states, and in turn will submit the data to a central data management unit. Data collection began in July 2007 and currently in data cleaning process. Training for source data producers is ongoing. In 2008, the NSRM plans to involve university hospitals into its network as currently only Ministry of Health hospitals are involved. The NSRM will be launching its online application for case registration this year while an overview of results will be available via its public domain at www.nsrm.gov.my beginning 20 April 2008. To efficiently capture the data on suicide, a concerted effort between various agencies is needed. A lot of conceptual work and data base development remains to be done in order to position preventive efforts on a more solid foundation.

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A MACROINVERTEBRATE BIOTIC INTEGRITY INDEX (MBII) FOR REGIONALLY ASSESSING MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The multimetric Macroinvertebrate Biotic Integrity Index (MBII) was developed from data collected at 574 wadeable stream reaches in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands region (MAHR) by the USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). Over 100 candidate metrics were eval...

  15. Distribution of Early, Middle, and Late Noachian cratered surfaces in the Martian highlands: Implications for resurfacing events and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Rossman P.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Robbins, Stuart J.

    2013-02-01

    Most of the geomorphic changes on Mars occurred during the Noachian Period, when the rates of impact crater degradation and valley network incision were highest. Fluvial erosion around the Noachian/Hesperian transition is better constrained than the longer-term landscape evolution throughout the Noachian Period, when the highland intercrater geomorphic surfaces developed. We interpret highland resurfacing events and processes using a new global geologic map of Mars (at 1:20,000,000 scale), a crater data set that is complete down to 1 km in diameter, and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter topography. The Early Noachian highland (eNh) unit is nearly saturated with craters of 32-128 km diameter, the Middle Noachian highland (mNh) unit has a resurfacing age of ~4 Ga, and the Late Noachian highland unit (lNh) includes younger composite surfaces of basin fill and partially buried cratered terrain. These units have statistically distinct ages, and their distribution varies with elevation. The eNh unit is concentrated in the high-standing Hellas basin annulus and in highland terrain that was thinly mantled by basin ejecta near 180° longitude. The mNh unit includes most of Arabia Terra, the Argyre vicinity, highland plateau areas between eNh outcrops, and the Thaumasia range. The lNh unit mostly occurs within highland basins. Crater depth/diameter ratios do not vary strongly between the eNh and mNh units, although crater losses to Noachian resurfacing appear greater in lower lying areas. Noachian resurfacing was spatially non-uniform, long-lived, and gravity-driven, more consistent with arid-zone fluvial and aeolian erosion and volcanism than with air fall mantling or mass wasting.

  16. Modeling of gold production in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muda, Nora; Ainuddeen, Nasihah Rasyiqah; Ismail, Hamizun; Umor, Mohd Rozi

    2013-04-01

    This study was conducted to identify the main factors that contribute to the gold production and hence determine the factors that affect to the development of the mining industry in Malaysia. An econometric approach was used by performing the cointegration analysis among the factors to determine the existence of long term relationship between the gold prices, the number of gold mines, the number of workers in gold mines and the gold production. The study continued with the Granger analysis to determine the relationship between factors and gold production. Results have found that there are long term relationship between price, gold production and number of employees. Granger causality analysis shows that there is only one way relationship between the number of employees with gold production in Malaysia and the number of gold mines in Malaysia.

  17. Exploring factors influencing smoking behaviour in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Naidu, Balkish Mahadir

    2012-01-01

    The objective of present study is to investigate the determinants of smoking behaviour among adults in Malaysia. Findings of the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-3) by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, were used. The sample consisted of 34,539 observations. A logistic regression model was thus applied to estimate the probability to participate in smoking. Age, income, gender, marital status, ethnicity, employment status, residential area, education, lifestyle and health status were statistically significant in affecting the likelihood of smoking. Specifically, youngsters, low income earners, males, unmarried individuals, Malays, employed individuals, rural residents and primary educated individuals were more likely to smoke. In conclusion, socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors have significant impacts on smoking participation in Malaysia. Based on these empirical findings, several policy implications are suggested.

  18. Systematics and natural history of Southeast Asian Rock Geckos (genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887) with descriptions of eight new species from Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Grismer, L Lee; Wood, Perry L; Anuar, Shahrul; Riyanto, Awal; Ahmad, Norhayati; Muin, Mohd A; Sumontha, Montri; Grismer, Jesse L; Onn, Chan Kin; Quah, Evan S H; Pauwels, Olivier S A

    2014-10-31

    A well-supported and well-resolved phylogeny based on a concatenated data set from one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes, six morphological characters, and nine color pattern characters for 44 of the 50 species of the Southeast Asian Rock Geckos (genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887) is consistent with the previous taxonomy of Cnemaspis based solely on morphology and color pattern. Cnemaspis is partitioned into four major clades that collectively contain six species groups. The monophyly of all clades and species groups is strongly supported and they are parapatrically distributed across well-established, biogeographical regions ranging from southern Vietnam westward through southern Indochina, southward through the Thai-Malay Peninsula, then eastward to Borneo. Eight new species (Cnemaspis omari sp. nov. from the Thai-Malaysian border; C. temiah sp. nov. from Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia; C. stongensis sp. nov. from Gunung Stong, Kelantan, Malaysia; C. hangus sp. nov. from Bukit Hangus, Pahang, Malaysia; C. sundagekko sp. nov. from Pulau Siantan, Indonesia; C. peninsularis sp. nov. from southern Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, and C. mumpuniae sp. nov. and C. sundainsula sp. nov. from Pulau Natuna Besar, Indonesia) are described based on morphology and color pattern and all but C. sundagekko sp. nov. are included in the phylogenetic analyses. Cnemaspis kendallii is polyphyletic and a composite of six species. An updated taxonomy consistent with the phylogeny is proposed for all 50 species and is based on 25 morphological and 53 color pattern characters scored across 594 specimens. Cladogenetic events and biogeographical relationships within Cnemaspis were likely influenced by this group's low vagility and the cyclical patterns of geographical and environmental changes in Sundaland over the last 25 million years and especially within the last 2.5 million years. The phylogeny indicates that nocturnality, diurnality, substrate preferences, and the presence of

  19. A-B-O and Rh affinities between highland and lowland Quechua-speaking Peruvian populations.

    PubMed

    Frisancho, A R; Klayman, J E

    1975-09-01

    According to the accounts of the Spanish chronicles and various historical analyses the Quechua-speaking population inhabiting the Province of Lamas in the Eastern Tropical Lowlands of Peru are descendants of the Chanca Tribes that migrated from the highlands about 500 years ago. The results of the present study indicate that in terms of the A-B-O and Rh systems the lowland Quechua-speaking population from the Province of Lamas and the highland Quechua population from the Province of Junin are more similar to each other than to other tropical tribes. Therefore, it is quite possible that the present lowland Quechua-speaking population from the Province of Lamas may be descendants of Andean populations.

  20. Fieldpath Lunar Meteorite Graves Nunataks 06157, a Magnesian Piece of the Lunar Highlands Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.; Korotev, R. L.; Korotev, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    To date, 49 feldspathic lunar meteorites (FLMs) have been recovered, likely representing a minimum of 35 different sample locations in the lunar highlands. The compositional variability among FLMs far exceeds the variability observed among highland samples in the Apollo and Luna sample suites. Here we will discuss in detail one of the compositional end members of the FLM suite, Graves Nunataks (GRA) 06157, which was collected by the 2006-2007 ANSMET field team. At 0.79 g, GRA 06157 is the smallest lunar meteorite so far recovered. Despite its small size, its highly feldspathic and highly magnesian composition are intriguing. Although preliminary bulk compositions have been reported, thus far no petrographic descriptions are in the literature. Here we expand upon the bulk compositional data, including major-element compositions, and provide a detailed petrographic description of GRA 06157.

  1. Multi-scale Food Energy and Water Dynamics in the Blue Nile Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitchik, B. F.; Simane, B.; Block, P. J.; Foltz, J.; Mueller-Mahn, D.; Gilioli, G.; Sciarretta, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Ethiopian highlands are often called the "water tower of Africa," giving rise to major transboundary rivers. Rapid hydropower development is quickly transforming these highlands into the "power plant of Africa" as well. For local people, however, they are first and foremost a land of small farms, devoted primarily to subsistence agriculture. Under changing climate, rapid national economic growth, and steadily increasing population and land pressures, these mountains and their inhabitants have become the focal point of a multi-scale food-energy-water nexus with significant implications across East Africa. Here we examine coupled natural-human system dynamics that emerge when basin and nation scale resource development strategies are superimposed on a local economy that is largely subsistence based. Sensitivity to local and remote climate shocks are considered, as is the role of Earth Observation in understanding and informing management of food-energy-water resources across scales.

  2. Assessing the impact of model and climate uncertainty in malaria simulations for the Kenyan Highlands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, A. M.; Thomson, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Simulations of the impact of climate variations on a vector-bornedisease such as malaria are subject to a number of sources ofuncertainty. These include the model structure and parameter settingsin addition to errors in the climate data and the neglect of theirspatial heterogeneity, especially over complex terrain. We use aconstrained genetic algorithm to confront these two sources ofuncertainty for malaria transmission in the highlands of Kenya. Thetechnique calibrates the parameter settings of a process-based,mathematical model of malaria transmission to vary within theirassessed level of uncertainty and also allows the calibration of thedriving climate data. The simulations show that in highland settingsclose to the threshold for sustained transmission, the uncertainty inclimate is more important to address than the malaria modeluncertainty. Applications of the coupled climate-malaria modelling system are briefly presented.

  3. Mineralogy, petrology and chemistry of ANT-suite rocks from the lunar highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinz, M.; Keil, K.

    1977-01-01

    Anorthositic-noritic-troctolitic (ANT) rocks are the oldest and most abundant rocks of the lunar surface, and comprise about 90% of the suite of the lunar highlands. Consideration is given to the mineralogy, petrology, bulk chemistry, and origin of ANT-suite rocks. Problems associated in classifying and labeling lunar highland rocks because of textural complexities occurring from impact modifications are discussed. The mineralogy of ANT-suite rocks, dominated by plagioclase, olivine and pyrozene, and containing various minor minerals, is outlined. The petrology of ANT-suite rocks is reviewed along with the major element bulk composition of these rocks, noting that they are extremely depleted in K2O and P2O5. Various models describing the origin of ANT-suite rocks are summarized, and it is suggested that this origin involves a parental liquid of high-alumina basalt with low Fe/Fe+Mg.

  4. Leptospirosis, an emerging zoonotic disease in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Thayaparan, S; Robertson, I D; Fairuz, A; Suut, L; Abdullah, M T

    2013-12-01

    Leptospirosis is an endemic disease in Malaysia and recently has received increasing attention mainly due to several recent incidents that have resulted in human mortality which have alarmed health professionals in Malaysia. The increasing incidence of leptospirosis in forested regions is associated with the bacteria infecting small wild mammals other than rats. Infection in wildlife could result in the introduction of new serovars to humans and domesticated animals. More research on leptospirosis and the screening of wildlife and humans near wildlife habitats is required to have a better understanding of the involvement of wildlife in the disease.

  5. The vernon supersuite: Mesoproterozoic A-type granitoid rocks in the New Jersey highlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Volkert, R.A.; Drake, Avery A.

    1998-01-01

    Abundant Mesoproterozoic A-type granitoid rocks of two intrusive suites underlie approximately 50 percent of the New Jersey Highlands. These rocks, the Byram Intrusive and Lake Hopatcong Intrusive Suites, consist of granite, alaskite, quartz monzonite, monzonite, and minor pegmatite. Byram and Lake Hopatcong rocks, although different mineralogically, are similar geochemically and contain overlapping abundances of most major and trace elements. Petrographic relationships, geochronology, field relationships, and geochemical similarities support a comagmatic origin for both suites. They constitute the here named Vernon Supersuite.

  6. Association between climate variability and malaria epidemics in the East African highlands.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guofa; Minakawa, Noboru; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2004-02-24

    The causes of the recent reemergence of Plasmodium falciparum epidemic malaria in the East African highlands are controversial. Regional climate changes have been invoked as a major factor; however, assessing the impact of climate in malaria resurgence is difficult due to high spatial and temporal climate variability and the lack of long-term data series on malaria cases from different sites. Climate variability, defined as short-term fluctuations around the mean climate state, may be epidemiologically more relevant than mean temperature change, but its effects on malaria epidemics have not been rigorously examined. Here we used nonlinear mixed-regression model to investigate the association between autoregression (number of malaria outpatients during the previous time period), seasonality and climate variability, and the number of monthly malaria outpatients of the past 10-20 years in seven highland sites in East Africa. The model explained 65-81% of the variance in the number of monthly malaria outpatients. Nonlinear and synergistic effects of temperature and rainfall on the number of malaria outpatients were found in all seven sites. The net variance in the number of monthly malaria outpatients caused by autoregression and seasonality varied among sites and ranged from 18 to 63% (mean=38.6%), whereas 12-63% (mean=36.1%) of variance is attributed to climate variability. Our results suggest that there was a high spatial variation in the sensitivity of malaria outpatient number to climate fluctuations in the highlands, and that climate variability played an important role in initiating malaria epidemics in the East African highlands.

  7. A history of watershed research in experimental forests of the Interior Highlands

    Treesearch

    Daniel A. Marion; Donald Turton; Maria Schleidt

    2014-01-01

    The history of watershed research in the Interior Highlands can be divided into four periods: Initial Start and Stumble (1930s–1950s), Reestablishment and Renewal (1960–1980), Partnerships and Expansion (1980–1990), and New Scales and Paths (1990–present). While each of these periods was marked by different societal concerns and scientific questions, experimental...

  8. Population of Aedes sp in Highland of Wonosobo District and Its Competence as A Dengue Vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Martini; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Hestiningsih, Retno; Purwantisari, Susiana; Yuliawati, Sri

    2017-02-01

    The increased cases of dengue fever have occurred in the highland of Wonosobo District, and the epidemic taken place in 2009 had 59.3 cases per 100,000 populations. This study aimed to describe of vector competence of the mosquitoes as a dengue vector in the highland of Wonosobo District, Central Java Province. The serial laboratory work was done to measure of vector competence complementary with vector bionomic study. The samples were 20 villages, which were located at Wonosobo sub district. Every village was observed about 15-20 houses. The observed variables were vector competition, bionomic and transovarial infection level, and titer of virus on the mosquitoes after injection. Immunohistochemistry or IHC methods were used to identify transovarial infection status. The number of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were almost similar and both were found indoors or outdoors. Based on HI and OI index, the larvae density in the highland was enough high than standard of the program. Transovarial infection was found on Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Environment parameters such as temperature and relative humidity fulfilled the optimum requirement to support the vectors’ life cycle. Transovarial infection has been proven, thus, it indicates that the local transmission has been occurred in this area. Titer of virus was also increasing after day per day. This indicate that the mosquitoes has the ability being vector. As used to do in other area, it is important to conduct breeding places elimination (PSN) indoors as well as outdoors, through active participation of the community in highland area.

  9. Suicide and ethnicity in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Murty, Om Prakash; Cheh, Lo Boon; Bakit, Pangie Anak; Hui, Foo Jhi; Ibrahim, Zarina Binti; Jusoh, Nazirah Binti

    2008-03-01

    This article highlights methods of ending life in different ethnic groups. This inference is drawn from analysis of data from suicidal cases from the University Malaya Medical Centre mortuary. This study also looked at sex, age, social, and employment factors. Kuala Lumpur has sizeable populations of Muslims, Chinese, Indians and Indonesian, etc. This study is based on 251 cases of suicide that were reported at the University Malaya Medical Centre from 2000 to 2004. Malaysia has a population of 22,662,365 people with 3 major ethnic groups: Malay (58%), Chinese (24%), and Indians (8%) with a minority of "others" (10%), which includes foreigners, Sabahan, and Sarawakian. This research found suicides of 164 male (65%) and 87 female (35%) victims. Their age ranged from 15 to 80 years. The age group from 21 to 30 had the highest total cases of suicide (83 of 251; 33.1%). Among ethnic groups highest rate of suicide was among Chinese with a total of 120 cases (120 of 251; 47.8%). As far as lone method of suicide is concerned, hangings accounted for the highest proportion of cases (108 of 251; 43%). Among ethnic groups, jumping from height was the commonest method used by Chinese (49 of 120; 41%), Malay (9 of 16; 56%), and others (15 of 28; 53.4%); whereas, hanging was the commonest method of committing suicide by Indians (49 of 87); Muslims showed the lowest cases of suicide (18 of 251; 7.2%). In poisoning group Indian was the highest ethnic group who used this method (20 of 37; 54.1%).

  10. Thorium concentrations in the lunar surface. V - Deconvolution of the central highlands region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, A. E.; Etchegaray-Ramirez, M. I.; Haines, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of thorium in the lunar central highlands measured from orbit by the Apollo 16 gamma-ray spectrometer is subjected to a deconvolution analysis to yield improved spatial resolution and contrast. Use of two overlapping data fields for complete coverage also provides a demonstration of the technique's ability to model concentrations several degrees beyond the data track. Deconvolution reveals an association between Th concentration and the Kant Plateau, Descartes Mountain and Cayley plains surface formations. The Kant Plateau and Descartes Mountains model with Th less than 1 part per million, which is typical of farside highlands but is infrequently seen over any other nearside highland portions of the Apollo 15 and 16 ground tracks. It is noted that, if the Cayley plains are the result of basin-forming impact ejecta, the distribution of Th concentration with longitude supports an origin from the Imbrium basin rather than the Nectaris or Orientale basins. Nectaris basin materials are found to have a Th concentration similar to that of the Descartes Mountains, evidence that the latter may have been emplaced as Nectaris basin impact deposits.

  11. Characteristics of soils in selected maize growing sites along altitudinal gradients in East African highlands

    PubMed Central

    Njuguna, Elijah; Gathara, Mary; Nadir, Stanley; Mwalusepo, Sizah; Williamson, David; Mathé, Pierre-Etienne; Kimani, Jackson; Landmann, Tobias; Juma, Gerald; Ong’amo, George; Gatebe, Erastus; Ru, Bruno Le; Calatayud, Paul-andré

    2015-01-01

    Maize is the main staple crop in the East African Mountains. Understanding how the edaphic characteristics change along altitudinal gradients is important for maximizing maize production in East African Highlands, which are the key maize production areas in the region. This study evaluated and compared the levels of some macro and micro-elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na and P) and other soil parameters (pH, organic carbon content, soil texture [i.e. % Sand, % Clay and % Silt], cation exchange capacity [CEC], electric conductivity [EC], and water holding capacity [HC]). Soil samples were taken from maize plots along three altitudinal gradients in East African highlands (namely Machakos Hills, Taita Hills and Mount Kilimanjaro) characterized by graded changes in climatic conditions. For all transects, pH, Ca, K and Mg decreased with the increase in altitude. In contrast, % Silt, organic carbon content, Al and water holding capacity (HC) increased with increasing altitude. The research provides information on the status of the physical–chemical characteristics of soils along three altitudinal ranges of East African Highlands and includes data available for further research. PMID:26509187

  12. Composition of soil microbiome along elevation gradients in southwestern highlands of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Yasir, Muhammad; Azhar, Esam I; Khan, Imran; Bibi, Fehmida; Baabdullah, Rnda; Al-Zahrani, Ibrahim A; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed K

    2015-03-14

    Saudi Arabia is mostly barren except the southwestern highlands that are susceptible to environmental changes, a hotspot for biodiversity, but poorly studied for microbial diversity and composition. In this study, 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable region V6 was used to analyze soil bacterial community along elevation gradients of the southwestern highlands. In general, lower percentage of total soil organic matter (SOM) and nitrogen were detected in the analyzed soil samples. Total 33 different phyla were identified across the samples, including dominant phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria. Representative OTUs were grouped into 329 and 508 different taxa at family and genus level taxonomic classification, respectively. The identified OTUs unique to each sample were very low irrespective of the altitude. Jackknifed principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) revealed, overall differences in the bacterial community were more related to the quantity of specific OTUs than to their diversity among the studied samples. Bacterial diversity and soil physicochemical properties did not show consistent changes along the elevation gradients. The large number of OTUs shared between the studied samples suggest the presence of a core soil bacterial community in the southwestern highlands of Saudi Arabia.

  13. Diversification of African tree frogs (genus Leptopelis) in the highlands of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Velasco, Jacobo; Manthey, Joseph D; Freilich, Xenia; Boissinot, Stéphane

    2018-05-01

    The frog genus Leptopelis is composed of ~50 species that occur across sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of these frogs are typically arboreal; however, a few species have evolved a fossorial lifestyle. Most species inhabit lowland forests, but a few species have adapted to high elevations. Five species of Leptopelis occupy the Ethiopian highlands and provide a good opportunity to study the evolutionary transition from an arboreal to a fossorial lifestyle, as well as the diversification in this biodiversity hot spot. We sequenced 14 nuclear and three mitochondrial genes, and generated thousands of SNPs from ddRAD sequencing to study the evolutionary relationships of Ethiopian Leptopelis. The five species of highland Leptopelis form a monophyletic group, which diversified during the late Miocene and Pliocene. We found strong population structure in the fossorial species L. gramineus, with levels of genetic differentiation between populations similar to those found between arboreal species. This could indicate that L. gramineus is a complex of cryptic species. We propose that after the original colonization of the Ethiopian highlands by the ancestor of the L. gramineus group, episodes of vicariance fragmented the ancestral populations of this group. We also report the re-evolution of arboreality in L. susanae, which evolved from a fossorial ancestor, a rare ecological switch in frogs that had previously been reported only once. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Procrustean science - Indigenous siderophiles in the lunar highlands, according to Delano and Ringwood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, E.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to show that Delano and Ringwood (1978) reached the conclusion that the siderophiles in the lunar highlands are mainly of indigenous rather than meteoric origin by stretching and chopping the evidence to fit a preconceived mold. In determining the abundance of siderophiles and volatiles in the lunar highlands, Delano and Ringwood rejected evidence supplied by pristine rocks uncontaminated by meteoric debris, on the basis that these rocks are impact melts. It is argued that there is no evidence that complete melting and slow freezing needed for settling of metal is ever attained in lunar impacts. Moreover, some of the meteorite-free rocks are clasts within, and hence older than the siderophile-rich breccias that Delano and Ringwood consider more pristine. If one uses the pristine highland rocks to determine an indigenous component, no problems with enrichment of Zn, Ge, As, Ag, Sb, and Au in the indigenous component relative to mare basalts are encountered, since the pristine rocks show no significant enrichment in these elements.

  15. Two new species of shrews (Soricidae) from the western highlands of Guatemala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The broad-clawed shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae: Cryptotis) encompass a clade of 5 species—Cryptotis alticolus (Merriam), C. goldmani (Merriam), C. goodwini Jackson, C. griseoventris Jackson, and C. peregrinus (Merriam)—that is known collectively as the Cryptotis goldmani group and is characterized by broadened forefeet, elongated and broadened fore claws, and broadened humeri. These shrews are distributed in highland regions from central Mexico to Honduras. Two broad-clawed shrews, C. goodwini and C. griseoventris, occur in southern Mexico and Guatemala and are presumed sister species whose primary distinguishing feature is the larger size of C. goodwini. In an investigation of variation within and between these 2 species, I studied characteristics of the postcranial skeleton. Statistical analyses of a variety of character suites indicate that the forelimb morphology in this group exhibits less intraspecific variation and greater interspecific variation than cranio-mandibular morphology, although most skull characters support groupings based on forelimb characters. Together, these characters define 4 distinct groups among the specimens examined. C. griseoventris is restricted to the northern highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, and C. goodwini occurs in the southern highlands of Chiapas and Guatemala. Herein, I describe 2 new species of broad-clawed shrews from the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, Guatemala.

  16. Calcite-graphite thermometry of the Franklin Marble, New Jersey Highlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, W.H.; Volkert, R.A.; Meredith, M.T.; Rader, E.L.

    2006-01-01

    We present new stable-isotope data for the Mesoproterozoic Franklin Marble from outcrops along an 80-km traverse parallel to and across strike of the structural grain of the western New Jersey Highlands. Calcite and dolomite from marble have an average ??13C of 0.35??? ?? 0.73??? PDB (n = 46) and a more limited range than other Mesoproterozoic marbles from the Adirondacks and the Canadian Grenville Province. The small range of ??13C values from the New Jersey samples is consistent with the preservation of a primary marine isotopic signature and limited postdepositional isotopic modification, except proximal to Zn or Fe ore deposits and fault zones. Fractionations between calcite and well-formed graphite (??13C[Cal-Gr]) for analyzed Franklin Marble samples average 3.31???. ?? 0.25??? (n = 34), and dolomite-graphite fractionations average 3.07??? ?? 0.30??? (n = 6). Taken together, these indicate an average temperature of 769?? ?? 43??C during metamorphism associated with the Ottawan Orogeny in the New Jersey Highlands. Thus, carbon isotope fractionations demonstrate that the Franklin Marble was metamorphosed at granulite facies conditions. Metamorphic temperatures are relatively constant for the area sampled and overprint the metamorphosed carbonatehosted Zn-Fe-Mn ore deposits. The results of this study support recent work proposing that pressure and temperature conditions during Ottawan orogenesis did not vary greatly across faults that partition the Highlands into structural blocks. ?? 2006 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  17. Climate change and highland malaria: fresh air for a hot debate.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Luis Fernando; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M

    2010-03-01

    In recent decades, malaria has become established in zones at the margin of its previous distribution, especially in the highlands of East Africa. Studies in this region have sparked a heated debate over the importance of climate change in the territorial expansion of malaria, where positions range from its neglect to the reification of correlations as causes. Here, we review studies supporting and rebutting the role of climatic change as a driving force for highland invasion by malaria. We assessed the conclusions from both sides of the argument and found that evidence for the role of climate in these dynamics is robust. However, we also argue that over-emphasizing the importance of climate is misleading for setting a research agenda, even one which attempts to understand climate change impacts on emerging malaria patterns. We review alternative drivers for the emergence of this disease and highlight the problems still calling for research if the multidimensional nature of malaria is to be adequately tackled. We also contextualize highland malaria as an ongoing evolutionary process. Finally, we present Schmalhausen's law, which explains the lack of resilience in stressed systems, as a biological principle that unifies the importance of climatic and other environmental factors in driving malaria patterns across different spatio-temporal scales.

  18. The interbelic Germans from the Banat Highland. Coal, steel, mines and forges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolf, C.; Micliuc, D. M.; Nedeloni, M. D.; Birtarescu, E.; Varga, A.

    2018-01-01

    The difficulties of the reconstruction era, following World War I had been increased by the cessation of some activities in the industrial centres of the Banat Highland. For instance, the copper mines were closed in 1921, the Romanian state forbidding the extraction of this ore. Only in Ocna de Fier a special dispensation had been given. The copper mines from Moldova Nouă, Sasca Montană, Ciclova, Dognecea had also been shut down. This fact caused the acid reaction of some writers. We recall that one of the main ways for improving the material condition, embraced by the ethnic Germans, was working abroad. Many German workers of the Banat Highland had emigrated, taking up an offer of well-paid work during the crisis years: 1929-1933. The miners of the Banat Highland, especially those of German origin, travelled to the areas rich in iron ore and coal of France, namely Alsace and Loraine. Considering that German was spoken there by a significant percentage of the population, the integration into the new working environment did not represent a problem.

  19. Rust and schreibersite in Apollo 16 highland rocks - Manifestations of volatile-element mobility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, R. H.; Taylor, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    Rust is a manifestation of halogen and volatile-metal mobility in the lunar environment. Schreibersite is stable as the primary phosphorus-bearing phase in the highland rocks, a consequence of the inherently low oxygen fugacity within impact-generated melts. Apatite and whitlockite are subordinate in these rocks. The partitioning of P into phosphide in impact-generated melts, and the failure of phosphate to crystallize, effects a decoupling of the halogens and phosphorus. Of the Apollo 16 rocks, 63% contain rust, 70% contain schreibersite, and 52% contain both phases, thereby establishing the pervasiveness of volatile-elements throughout the highland rocks. The major portion of these volatile-bearing phases occur in impact melt-rocks or in breccia matrices. Rhabdites of schreibersite in some of the FeNi grains indicate that there is a meteoritic contribution to the phosphorus in these rocks. Cl/P2O5 ratios in lunar highland rocks are a function of secondary effects, with any apparent Cl-P correlations being coincidential. The present observations preclude the validity of models based on such elemental ratios in these rocks. The presence of rust in the clast laden matrices of pristine rocks indicates fugitive element localization. Pristine clasts may have been contaminated. The basis for a pristine volatile chemistry is questioned.

  20. Different waves and directions of Neolithic migrations in the Armenian Highland.

    PubMed

    Hovhannisyan, Anahit; Khachatryan, Zaruhi; Haber, Marc; Hrechdakian, Peter; Karafet, Tatiana; Zalloua, Pierre; Yepiskoposyan, Levon

    2014-01-01

    The peopling of Europe and the nature of the Neolithic agricultural migration as a primary issue in the modern human colonization of the globe is still widely debated. At present, much uncertainty is associated with the reconstruction of the routes of migration for the first farmers from the Near East. In this context, hospitable climatic conditions and the key geographic position of the Armenian Highland suggest that it may have served as a conduit for several waves of expansion of the first agriculturalists from the Near East to Europe and the North Caucasus. Here, we assess Y-chromosomal distribution in six geographically distinct populations of Armenians that roughly represent the extent of historical Armenia. Using the general haplogroup structure and the specific lineages representing putative genetic markers of the Neolithic Revolution, haplogroups R1b1a2, J2, and G, we identify distinct patterns of genetic affinity between the populations of the Armenian Highland and the neighboring ones north and west from this area. Based on the results obtained, we suggest a new insight on the different routes and waves of Neolithic expansion of the first farmers through the Armenian Highland. We detected at least two principle migratory directions: (1) westward alongside the coastline of the Mediterranean Sea and (2) northward to the North Caucasus.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA Markers Reveal High Genetic Diversity but Low Genetic Differentiation in the Black Fly Simulium tani Takaoka & Davies along an Elevational Gradient in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Low, Van Lun; Adler, Peter H.; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Ya’cob, Zubaidah; Lim, Phaik Eem; Tan, Tiong Kai; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Chen, Chee Dhang; Norma-Rashid, Yusoff; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2014-01-01

    The population genetic structure of Simulium tani was inferred from mitochondria-encoded sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunits I (COI) and II (COII) along an elevational gradient in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. A statistical parsimony network of 71 individuals revealed 71 haplotypes in the COI gene and 43 haplotypes in the COII gene; the concatenated sequences of the COI and COII genes revealed 71 haplotypes. High levels of genetic diversity but low levels of genetic differentiation were observed among populations of S. tani at five elevations. The degree of genetic diversity, however, was not in accordance with an altitudinal gradient, and a Mantel test indicated that elevation did not have a limiting effect on gene flow. No ancestral haplotype of S. tani was found among the populations. Pupae with unique structural characters at the highest elevation showed a tendency to form their own haplotype cluster, as revealed by the COII gene. Tajima’s D, Fu’s Fs, and mismatch distribution tests revealed population expansion of S. tani in Cameron Highlands. A strong correlation was found between nucleotide diversity and the levels of dissolved oxygen in the streams where S. tani was collected. PMID:24941043

  2. Mitochondrial DNA markers reveal high genetic diversity but low genetic differentiation in the black fly Simulium tani Takaoka & Davies along an elevational gradient in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Low, Van Lun; Adler, Peter H; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Lim, Phaik Eem; Tan, Tiong Kai; Lim, Yvonne A L; Chen, Chee Dhang; Norma-Rashid, Yusoff; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2014-01-01

    The population genetic structure of Simulium tani was inferred from mitochondria-encoded sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunits I (COI) and II (COII) along an elevational gradient in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. A statistical parsimony network of 71 individuals revealed 71 haplotypes in the COI gene and 43 haplotypes in the COII gene; the concatenated sequences of the COI and COII genes revealed 71 haplotypes. High levels of genetic diversity but low levels of genetic differentiation were observed among populations of S. tani at five elevations. The degree of genetic diversity, however, was not in accordance with an altitudinal gradient, and a Mantel test indicated that elevation did not have a limiting effect on gene flow. No ancestral haplotype of S. tani was found among the populations. Pupae with unique structural characters at the highest elevation showed a tendency to form their own haplotype cluster, as revealed by the COII gene. Tajima's D, Fu's Fs, and mismatch distribution tests revealed population expansion of S. tani in Cameron Highlands. A strong correlation was found between nucleotide diversity and the levels of dissolved oxygen in the streams where S. tani was collected.

  3. Bilingualism and National Development in Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozog, A. Conrad K.

    1993-01-01

    Malaysia's long tradition of English medium instruction and bilingualism officially ended in 1970. This paper reviews the role of bilingualism in the development of the country, including the role of a bilingual population in national development and the possible effects of the abandonment of bilingual education. (Contains 38 references.)…

  4. The biotechnology and bioeconomy landscape in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Arujanan, Mahaletchumy; Singaram, Muthu

    2018-01-25

    Since 1990s Malaysia aspired to make biotechnology and bioeconomy as her engines of economic growth to utlise the abundance of natural resources and biodiversity. The public sector plays an integral role in developing the sector and various incentives are in place for the private sector to be actively involved and to forge collaboration with the public sector. The country launched its National Biotechnology Policy in 2005 and later launched its National Bioeconomy Programme in 2010 to become the first country in South East Asia and second in Asia after China to have such an initiative. Malaysia is also very proactive in its biosafety law and regulations and has most of the related legal instrument in place. A lot of success has been recorded since the inception of the National Biotechnology Policy in terms of job creation, contribution to GDP through biobusinesses and investment from foreign companies, but the sector is not spared from challenges too. Due to the nature of the discipline that is multidisciplinary and that requires huge amount of investment, expertise and political will, there are a lot of barriers before the country emerges as a bioeconomy player. This paper discusses the public policies, initiatives and funding mechanisms in place in Malaysia that drive its research, development and commercialisation in the area of biotechnology and bioeconomy. The authors also discuss the challenges faced in Malaysia in implementing the policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Law of Student Discipline in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hee, Tie Fatt

    2008-01-01

    Judicial review of decisions on student discipline is limited in Malaysia. This arises because of the general presumption that in the enforcement of school discipline, educators are able to act in the best interest of the student to maintain a safe learning environment. This article examines the range of disciplinary measures in Malaysian schools…

  6. Privatization of Higher Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivalingam, G.

    2007-01-01

    The study will trace the external factors influencing the liberalization, deregulation and privatization of higher education in Malaysia from 1970 to the present and to analyze the effects of liberalization, deregulation and privatization on the modes of privatization and the internal restructuring of institutions of higher learning to increase…

  7. Mass Communication in Malaysia: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tee, Lim Huck, Comp; Sarachandran, V.V., Comp.

    This bibliography lists published and unpublished material relating to mass communications in Malaysia, 1945 to 1973. Most of the items listed are written in English and Malay, and a limited number are in Chinese. The bibliography is divided into 21 sections: bibliography and reference material; communication theory, research methods;…

  8. Nipah Virus Infection in Dogs, Malaysia, 1999

    PubMed Central

    Alim, Asiah N.M.; Bunning, Michel L.; Lee, Ong Bee; Wagoner, Kent D.; Amman, Brian R.; Stockton, Patrick C.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    The 1999 outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis in humans and pigs in Peninsular Malaysia ended with the evacuation of humans and culling of pigs in the epidemic area. Serologic screening showed that, in the absence of infected pigs, dogs were not a secondary reservoir for Nipah virus. PMID:19523300

  9. English Teaching Profile: Sarawak--Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Sarawak, Malaysia, provides an overview of the role of English in the society in general and outlines the status of English use and instruction in the educational system at all levels (preprimary, elementary, secondary, higher, vocational, adult, and teacher education). Topics covered…

  10. English Teaching Profile: Sabah--Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Sabah, Malaysia, provides an overview of the role of English in the society in general and outlines the status of English use and instruction in both the Chinese and government educational systems at all levels. Topics covered are: the characteristics and training of English language…

  11. Teacher Preparation in Malaysia: Needed Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Pauline Swee Choo; Blake, Damian

    2015-01-01

    The article attempts to present personal views of some changes that are needed to be made within teacher education in Malaysia. It uses one teacher education university as a point of reference to forward concerns. The university remains anonymous as it is not the intent of the article to critique the university but rather to highlight the more…

  12. Cultural Construction of Psychiatric Illness in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Razak, Asrenee Ab

    2017-01-01

    The concept of the cultural construction of illness is important in terms of understanding people’s behaviour. In this article, this idea is applied to psychiatric illness in Malaysia to explore how it is informed by sociocultural elements, a process that will help us understand the psychiatric expression and help-seeking behaviour of the country’s population. PMID:28894398

  13. Burnout among Female Teachers in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukundan, Jayakaran; Ahour, Touran

    2011-01-01

    This study is an attempt to survey the burnout level of female teachers in Malaysia and determine the likely factors that are associated with this phenomenon. The subjects of the study were 437 female teachers from primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. A demographic questionnaire was used to collect the data regarding the individual…

  14. Inclusive Education in Malaysia: Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelas, Zalizan M.; Ali, Manisah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia's move towards inclusion was given impetus by its participation in workshops and conferences set up under the auspices of the United Nations (UNESCO 1990; UN 1993; UNESCO 1994). Inclusive education was introduced in the Education Act 1996 as part of the continuum of services available for children with special needs. The purpose of this…

  15. Education in Malaysia: Towards Vision 2020.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Molly N. N.

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship between educational development and Malaysia's sociopolitical and economic context. Under the Vision 2020 rubric, liberalized educational policies are leading to a more democratic, privatized, and decentralized educational system. Curricular revisions stressing basic skills, moral values, and individual development are…

  16. OUTLINE OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN MALAYSIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Perth.

    THE FEDERATION OF MALAYSIA HAD A 1964 POPULATION OF 9,000,000. SPECIALIZATION IN A FEW EXPORT PRODUCTS, NOTABLY RUBBER AND TIN, HAS BEEN THE BASIS OF THE ECONOMY. EDUCATION IS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND EFFORT IS BEING MADE TO ESTABLISH MALAY AS THE NATIONAL LANGUAGE. ELEMENTARY EDUCATION EXTENDS FOR 6 YEARS TO THE LOWER…

  17. Human Capital and Technology Development in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awang, Halimah

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and its relation to the development of human capital in Malaysia as a country undergoing transformation into an ICT-driven and knowledge-based society. Education and training, being the key variable of human capital, is examined in terms of the government…

  18. Father Involvement among Malay Muslims in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhari, Rumaya; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Talib, Mansor Abu

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a study of 989 fathers of school-going children aged 10 through 16 from intact families in rural and urban areas in Selangor, Malaysia. The study aims to explore the factors that affect father involvement among Malay Muslims. Results indicate that fathers' education, marital quality, and number of children are…

  19. Ethnicity, Communal Relations, and Education in Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, C. L.

    Communal life in Malaysia is characterized by discords, tensions, and strife, especially between the Malays and Chinese. By and large, Malays are educationally and economically backward in comparison to non-Malays. Malays seek to redress what they consider racial imbalances through use of their political power. Constitutionally, certain privileges…

  20. Late Cenozoic Samtskhe-Javakheti Volcanic Highland, Georgia:The Result of Mantle Plumes Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okrostsvaridze, Avtandil

    2017-04-01

    Late Cenozoic Samtskhe-Javakheti continental volcanic highland (1500-2500 m a.s.l) is located in the SW part of the Lesser Caucasus. In Georgia the highland occupies more than 4500 km2, however its large part spreads towards the South over the territories of Turkey and Armenia. One can point out three stages of magmatic activity in this volcanic highland: 1. Early Pliocene activity (5.2-2.8 Ma; zircons U-Pb age) - when a large part of the highland was built up. It is formed from volcanic lava-breccias of andesite-dacitic composition, pyroclastic rocks and andesite-basalt lava flow. The evidences of this structure are: a large volume of volcanic material (>1500 km3); big thickness (700-1100 m in average), large-scale of lava flows (length 35 km, width 2.5-3.5 km, thickness 30-80 m), big thickness of volcanic ash horizons (300 cm at some places) and big size of volcanic breccias (diameter >1 m). Based on this data we assume that a source of this structure was a supervolcano (Okrostsvaridze et al., 2016); 2. Early Pleistocene activity (2.4 -1.6 Ma; zircons U-Pb age) - when continental flood basalts of 100-300 m thickness were formed. The flow is fully crystalline, coarse-grained, which mainly consist of olivine and basic labradorite. There 143Nd/144Nd parameter varies in the range of +0.41703 - +0.52304, and 87Sr/88Sr - from 0.7034 to 0.7039; 3. Late Pleistocene activity (0.35-0.021 Ma; zircons U-Pb age) - when intraplate Abul-Samsari linear volcanic ridge of andesite composition was formed stretching to the S-N direction for 40 km with the 8-12 km width and contains more than 20 volcanic edifices. To the South of the Abul-Samsari ridge the oldest (0.35-0.30 Ma; zircons U-Pb age) volcano Didi Abuli (3305 m a.s.l.) is located. To the North ages of volcano edifices gradually increase. Farther North the youngest volcano Tavkvetili (0.021-0. 030 Ma) is located (2583 m a.s.l.). One can see from this description that the Abul-Samsari ridge has all signs characterizing

  1. The genetic history of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Norhalifah, Hanim Kamis; Syaza, Fatnin Hisham; Chambers, Geoffrey Keith; Edinur, Hisham Atan

    2016-07-15

    This article explores the genetic history of the various sub-populations currently living in Peninsular Malaysia. This region has received multiple waves of migrants like the Orang Asli in prehistoric times and the Chinese, Indians, Europeans and Arabs during historic times. There are three highly distinct lineages that make up the Orang Asli; Semang, Senoi and Proto-Malays. The Semang, who have 'Negrito' characteristics, represent the first human settlers in Peninsular Malaysia arriving from about 50,000ya. The Senoi later migrated from Indochina and are a mix between an Asian Neolithic population and the Semang. These Asian genomes probably came in before Austroasiatic languages arrived between 5000 and 4000years ago. Semang and Senoi both now speak Austro-Asiatic languages indicative of cultural diffusion from Senoi to Semang. In contrast, the Proto-Malays who came last to the southern part of this region speak Austronesian language and are Austronesians with some Negrito admixture. It is from this group that the contemporary Malays emerged. Here we provide an overview of the best available genetic evidences (single nucleotide polymorphisms, mitochondrial DNA, Y-chromosome, blood groups, human platelet antigen, human leukocyte antigen, human neutrophil antigen and killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor) supporting the complex genetic history of Peninsular Malaysia. Large scale sampling and high throughput genetic screening programmes such as those using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism analyses have provided insights into various ancestral and admixture genetic fractions in this region. Given the now extensive admixture present in the contemporary descendants of ancient sub-populations in Peninsular Malaysia, improved reconstruction of human migration history in this region will require new evidence from ancient DNA in well-preserved skeletons. All other aspects of the highly diverse and complex genetic makeup in Peninsular Malaysia should be

  2. 78 FR 62583 - Welded Stainless Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Pressure Pipe From Malaysia: Request for Extension of Preliminary Determination,'' ``Welded Stainless Steel... Stainless Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Postponement of...: Charles Riggle (Malaysia), Brandon [[Page 62584

  3. Oral pathology patterns in late farmers of the Central Andes: A comparative perspective between coastal and highland populations.

    PubMed

    Pezo-Lanfranco, Luis; Peralta, Arturo; Guillén, Sonia; Eggers, Sabine

    2017-10-01

    Aiming at future comparisons with earlier hunter-gatherers or transitional populations, this paper intends to characterize and describe the oral pathology pattern of late agriculturalists from Central Andes dating to the Late Intermediate Period (LIP) and Inca periods (1000-1532 CE), and identify differences and/or similarities between coastal and highland populations. Although the botanical inventories of the LIP suggest carbohydrate-rich diets and similar components, it has been hypothesized that coastal and highland populations had, nevertheless, substantially different oral pathology patterns. We evaluated 14 indicators of oral pathology from Los Pinos (n=200) and Armatambo (n=25) sites in the Central Coast and two chronological phases from Laguna de los Cóndores site (LC-Inca, n=23; and LC-LIP, n=55), in the Peruvian northern highlands. The results showed a recurrent pattern of oral pathologies characterized by cervical caries (above 30%), extra-occlusal caries (above 60%), high rates of gross-gross caries, high frequency of ante mortem tooth loss, and signals of periodontal disease among these four populations. The diets of the coast were slightly more abrasive than those of the highlands. Oral pathology patterns were compatible with a slightly more cariogenic diet in the coast than in the highlands. In all four populations, those patterns were modulated by other common factors such as consumption of fermented drinks (maize beer - chicha) and the coca leaf chewing habit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Sprouting Buds of Zebrafish Research in Malaysia: First Malaysia Zebrafish Disease Model Workshop.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Kazuhide Shaun; Tan, Pei Jean; Patel, Vyomesh

    2016-04-01

    Zebrafish is gaining prominence as an important vertebrate model for investigating various human diseases. Zebrafish provides unique advantages such as optical clarity of embryos, high fecundity rate, and low cost of maintenance, making it a perfect complement to the murine model equivalent in biomedical research. Due to these advantages, researchers in Malaysia are starting to take notice and incorporate the zebrafish model into their research activities. However, zebrafish research in Malaysia is still in its infancy stage and many researchers still remain unaware of the full potential of the zebrafish model or have limited access to related tools and techniques that are widely utilized in many zebrafish laboratories worldwide. To overcome this, we organized the First Malaysia Zebrafish Disease Model Workshop in Malaysia that took place on 11th and 12th of November 2015. In this workshop, we showcased how the zebrafish model is being utilized in the biomedical field in international settings as well as in Malaysia. For this, notable international speakers and those from local universities known to be carrying out impactful research using zebrafish were invited to share some of the cutting edge techniques that are used in their laboratories that may one day be incorporated in the Malaysian scientific community.

  5. Security Options for Malaysia in the 1990s.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-08

    Malaysia Plan, p. 195. 2 0 Statement by Malaysia’s Deputy Defence Minister, Dato Abang Abu Bakar quoted by The New Straits Times (Kuala Lumpur: 13 March...Malaysia has a constitutional monarchy 4or& of government. The Yang Dipertuan Agong (King) is chosen every 5 years from among the Sultans (rulers) of...and Dutch spheres of influence. The Pangkor Treaty of 1874 between the British and the Sultan of Perak marked the beginning of British colonial rule

  6. Review of the Burden of Esophageal Cancer in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Siti-Azrin, Ab Hamid; Wan-Nor-Asyikeen, Wan Adnan; Norsa'adah, Bachok

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the top leading causes of cancer-related deaths in Malaysia. To date, neither the prevalence nor incidence of esophageal cancer nationally have been recorded. Esophageal cancer remains a major and lethal health problem even if it is not common in Malaysia. The late presentation of esophageal cancer makes it a difficult and challenging medical problem. Therefore, more governmental and non-governmental organizations of Malaysia should emphasize primary and secondary prevention strategies.

  7. Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia - Controlling the Malacca Straits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    amounted to 44,958,800 metric tons. Peninsular Malaysia registered 9,620 foreign trade vessels entering its ports in 1990 with 57,050,000 registered tons...are separated from peninsular Malaysia by 100 miles of the South China Sea. Important future energy sources lie within islands and atolls in the South...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS MALAYSIA , SINGAPORE, AND INDONESIA- CONTROLLING THE MALACCA STRAITS (CC by Way Bandy, Jr

  8. Geographical distribution of Musa gracilis Holttum in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norfazlina, B.; Wickneswari, R.; Choong, C. Y.

    2016-11-01

    Musa gracilis (Musaceae) is placed under section Callimusa and was considered endemic to Peninsular Malaysia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current occurrence of Musa gracilis in Peninsular Malaysia. The coordinates of each population was recorded using the Global Positioning System (GPS) and mapped to show the geographical distribution of Musa gracilis. This study revealed that Musa gracilis exhibits specific pattern of distribution, which exists only in a lowland areas on the eastern and southern part of Peninsular Malaysia.

  9. Elephantiasis of non-filarial origin (podoconiosis) in the highlands of north-western Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Wanji, S; Tendongfor, N; Esum, M; Che, J N; Mand, S; Tanga Mbi, C; Enyong, P; Hoerauf, A

    2008-09-01

    Lymphoedema, a condition of localized fluid retention, results from a compromised lymphatic system. Although one common cause in the tropics is infection with filarial worms, non-filarial lymphoedema, also known as podoconiosis, has been reported among barefoot farmers in volcanic highland zones of Africa, Central and South America and north-western India. There are conflicting reports on the causes of lymphoedema in the highland regions of Cameroon, where the condition is of great public-health importance. To characterise the focus of lymphoedema in the highlands of the North West province of Cameroon and investigate its real causes, a cross-sectional study was carried out on the adults (aged > or =15 years) living in the communities that fall within the Ndop and Tubah health districts. The subjects, who had to have lived in the study area for at least 10 years, were interviewed, examined clinically, and, when possible, checked for microfilaraemia. The cases of lymphoedema confirmed by ultrasonography and a random sample of the other subjects were also tested for filarial antigenaemia. The interviews, which explored knowledge, attitudes and perceptions (KAP) relating to lymphoedema, revealed that the condition was well known, with each study community having a local name for it. Of the 834 individuals examined clinically, 66 (8.1%) had lymphoedema of the lower limb, with all the clinical stages of this condition represented. None of the 792 individuals examined parasitologically, however, had microfilariae of W. bancrofti (or any other filarial parasite) in their peripheral blood, and only one (0.25%) of the 399 individuals tested for the circulating antigens of W. bancrofti gave a positive result. In addition, none of the 504 mosquitoes caught landing on human bait in the study area and dissected was found to harbour any stage of W. bancrofti. These findings indicate that the elephantiasis seen in the North West province of Cameroon is of non-filarial origin.

  10. Understanding the Chronology and Occupation Dynamics of Oversized Pit Houses in the Southern Brazilian Highlands

    PubMed Central

    Gregorio de Souza, Jonas; Robinson, Mark; Corteletti, Rafael; Cárdenas, Macarena Lucia; Wolf, Sidnei; Iriarte, José; Mayle, Francis; DeBlasis, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    A long held view about the occupation of southern proto-Jê pit house villages of the southern Brazilian highlands is that these sites represent cycles of long-term abandonment and reoccupation. However, this assumption is based on an insufficient number of radiocarbon dates for individual pit houses. To address this problem, we conducted a programme of comprehensive AMS radiocarbon dating and Bayesian modelling at the deeply stratified oversized pit House 1, Baggio I site (Cal. A.D. 1395–1650), Campo Belo do Sul, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. The stratigraphy of House 1 revealed an unparalleled sequence of twelve well preserved floors evidencing a major change in occupation dynamics including five completely burnt collapsed roofs. The results of the radiocarbon dating allowed us to understand for the first time the occupation dynamics of an oversized pit house in the southern Brazilian highlands. The Bayesian model demonstrates that House 1 was occupied for over two centuries with no evidence of major periods of abandonment, calling into question previous models of long-term abandonment. In addition, the House 1 sequence allowed us to tie transformations in ceramic style and lithic technology to an absolute chronology. Finally, we can provide new evidence that the emergence of oversized domestic structures is a relatively recent phenomenon among the southern proto-Jê. As monumental pit houses start to be built, small pit houses continue to be inhabited, evidencing emerging disparities in domestic architecture after AD 1000. Our research shows the importance of programmes of intensive dating of individual structures to understand occupation dynamics and site permanence, and challenges long held assumptions that the southern Brazilian highlands were home to marginal cultures in the context of lowland South America. PMID:27384341

  11. Understanding the Chronology and Occupation Dynamics of Oversized Pit Houses in the Southern Brazilian Highlands.

    PubMed

    Gregorio de Souza, Jonas; Robinson, Mark; Corteletti, Rafael; Cárdenas, Macarena Lucia; Wolf, Sidnei; Iriarte, José; Mayle, Francis; DeBlasis, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    A long held view about the occupation of southern proto-Jê pit house villages of the southern Brazilian highlands is that these sites represent cycles of long-term abandonment and reoccupation. However, this assumption is based on an insufficient number of radiocarbon dates for individual pit houses. To address this problem, we conducted a programme of comprehensive AMS radiocarbon dating and Bayesian modelling at the deeply stratified oversized pit House 1, Baggio I site (Cal. A.D. 1395-1650), Campo Belo do Sul, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. The stratigraphy of House 1 revealed an unparalleled sequence of twelve well preserved floors evidencing a major change in occupation dynamics including five completely burnt collapsed roofs. The results of the radiocarbon dating allowed us to understand for the first time the occupation dynamics of an oversized pit house in the southern Brazilian highlands. The Bayesian model demonstrates that House 1 was occupied for over two centuries with no evidence of major periods of abandonment, calling into question previous models of long-term abandonment. In addition, the House 1 sequence allowed us to tie transformations in ceramic style and lithic technology to an absolute chronology. Finally, we can provide new evidence that the emergence of oversized domestic structures is a relatively recent phenomenon among the southern proto-Jê. As monumental pit houses start to be built, small pit houses continue to be inhabited, evidencing emerging disparities in domestic architecture after AD 1000. Our research shows the importance of programmes of intensive dating of individual structures to understand occupation dynamics and site permanence, and challenges long held assumptions that the southern Brazilian highlands were home to marginal cultures in the context of lowland South America.

  12. Building Climate Resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay Highlands: A Framework for Action

    PubMed Central

    Simane, Belay; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Mesfin, Desalegn

    2012-01-01

    Ethiopia has become warmer over the past century and human induced climate change will bring further warming over the next century at unprecedented rates. On the average, climate models show a tendency for higher mean annual rainfall and for wetter conditions, in particular during October, November and December, but there is much uncertainty about the future amount, distribution, timing and intensity of rainfall. Ethiopia’s low level of economic development, combined with its heavy dependence on agriculture and high population growth rate make the country particularly susceptible to the adverse effects of climate change. Nearly 90% of Ethiopia’s population lives in the Highlands, which include the critical Blue Nile (Abay) Highlands—a region that holds special importance due to its role in domestic agricultural production and international water resources. A five year study of climate vulnerability and adaptation strategies in communities of Choke Mountain, located in the center of the Abay Highlands, has informed a proposed framework for enhancing climate resilience in communities across the region. The framework is motivated by the critical need to enhance capacity to cope with climate change and, subsequently, to advance a carbon neutral and climate resilient economy in Ethiopia. The implicit hypothesis in applying a research framework for this effort is that science-based information, generated through improved understanding of impacts and vulnerabilities of local communities, can contribute to enhanced resilience strategies. We view adaptation to climate change in a wider context of changes, including, among others, market conditions, the political-institutional framework, and population dynamics. From a livelihood perspective, culture, historical settings, the diversity of income generation strategies, knowledge, and education are important factors that contribute to adaptive capacities. This paper reviews key findings of the Choke Mountain study

  13. Landscape determinants and remote sensing of anopheline mosquito larval habitats in the western Kenya highlands.

    PubMed

    Mushinzimana, Emmanuel; Munga, Stephen; Minakawa, Noboru; Li, Li; Feng, Chen-Chieng; Bian, Ling; Kitron, Uriel; Schmidt, Cindy; Beck, Louisa; Zhou, Guofa; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2006-02-16

    In the past two decades the east African highlands have experienced several major malaria epidemics. Currently there is a renewed interest in exploring the possibility of anopheline larval control through environmental management or larvicide as an additional means of reducing malaria transmission in Africa. This study examined the landscape determinants of anopheline mosquito larval habitats and usefulness of remote sensing in identifying these habitats in western Kenya highlands. Panchromatic aerial photos, Ikonos and Landsat Thematic Mapper 7 satellite images were acquired for a study area in Kakamega, western Kenya. Supervised classification of land-use and land-cover and visual identification of aquatic habitats were conducted. Ground survey of all aquatic habitats was conducted in the dry and rainy seasons in 2003. All habitats positive for anopheline larvae were identified. The retrieved data from the remote sensors were compared to the ground results on aquatic habitats and land-use. The probability of finding aquatic habitats and habitats with Anopheles larvae were modelled based on the digital elevation model and land-use types. The misclassification rate of land-cover types was 10.8% based on Ikonos imagery, 22.6% for panchromatic aerial photos and 39.2% for Landsat TM 7 imagery. The Ikonos image identified 40.6% of aquatic habitats, aerial photos identified 10.6%, and Landsate TM 7 image identified 0%. Computer models based on topographic features and land-cover information obtained from the Ikonos image yielded a misclassification rate of 20.3-22.7% for aquatic habitats, and 18.1-25.1% for anopheline-positive larval habitats. One-metre spatial resolution Ikonos images combined with computer modelling based on topographic land-cover features are useful tools for identification of anopheline larval habitats, and they can be used to assist to malaria vector control in western Kenya highlands.

  14. Distribution of 28 elements in size fractions of lunar mare and highlands soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, W. V.; Wasson, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    Four volatile, six siderophile and 18 generally lithophile elements were determined in six sieve fractions of mare soil 15100 (moderately mature) and seven sieve fractions of highlands soil 66080 (highly mature). Previous work (Boynton et al., 1976) showed that the volatile elements in lunar soils were enriched in the finest size fraction relative to the coarsest factors by up to about 20. The present investigation tests Boynton's interpretation that the distribution pattern of the volatiles indicates the presence of two components: a volume-correlated component having volatile concentrations independent of grain size and a surface-correlated component with concentration increasing with decreasing grain size.

  15. Regional Studies of Highland-Lowland Age Differences Across the Mars Crustal Dichotomy Boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H. V.; DeSoto, G. E.; Lazrus, R. M.

    2005-01-01

    Regional differences in crater retention ages (CRAs) across the Mars dichotomy boundary are compared to the global highland-lowland age difference previously determined from visible and buried impact basins based on MOLA-derived Quasi-Circular Depressions (QCDs). Here Western Arabia (WA) is compared with Ismenius Lacus (IL). We find the buried lowlands in the two regions have total CRAs essentially identical to the global average. Even more intriguing, the WA cratered terrain appears to have a CRA like that of the adjacent buried lowlands,

  16. Habitat stability and occurrences of malaria vector larvae in western Kenya highlands.

    PubMed

    Himeidan, Yousif E; Zhou, Guofa; Yakob, Laith; Afrane, Yaw; Munga, Stephen; Atieli, Harrysone; El-Rayah, El-Amin; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2009-10-21

    Although the occurrence of malaria vector larvae in the valleys of western Kenya highlands is well documented, knowledge of larval habitats in the uphill sites is lacking. Given that most inhabitants of the highlands actually dwell in the uphill regions, it is important to develop understanding of mosquito breeding habitat stability in these sites in order to determine their potential for larval control. A total of 128 potential larval habitats were identified in hilltops and along the seasonal streams in the Sigalagala area of Kakamega district, western Kenya. Water availability in the habitats was followed up daily from August 3, 2006 to February 23, 2007. A habitat is defined as stable when it remains aquatic continuously for at least 12 d. Mosquito larvae were observed weekly. Frequencies of aquatic, stable and larvae positive habitats were compared between the hilltop and seasonal stream area using chi2-test. Factors affecting the presence/absence of Anopheles gambiae larvae in the highlands were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Topography significantly affected habitat availability and stability. The occurrence of aquatic habitats in the hilltop was more sporadic than in the stream area. The percentage of habitat occurrences that were classified as stable during the rainy season is 48.76% and 80.79% respectively for the hilltop and stream area. Corresponding frequencies of larvae positive habitats were 0% in the hilltop and 5.91% in the stream area. After the rainy season, only 23.42% of habitat occurrences were stable and 0.01% larvae positive habitats were found in the hilltops, whereas 89.75% of occurrences remained stable in the stream area resulting in a frequency of 12.21% larvae positive habitats. The logistic regression analysis confirmed the association between habitat stability and larval occurrence and indicated that habitat surface area was negatively affecting the occurrence of An. gambiae larvae. While An. gambiae and An

  17. Glucose intolerance associated with hypoxia in people living at high altitudes in the Tibetan highland

    PubMed Central

    Okumiya, Kiyohito; Sakamoto, Ryota; Ishimoto, Yasuko; Kimura, Yumi; Fukutomi, Eriko; Ishikawa, Motonao; Suwa, Kuniaki; Imai, Hissei; Chen, Wenling; Kato, Emiko; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Kasahara, Yoriko; Fujisawa, Michiko; Wada, Taizo; Wang, Hongxin; Dai, Qingxiang; Xu, Huining; Qiao, Haisheng; Ge, Ri-Li; Norboo, Tsering; Tsering, Norboo; Kosaka, Yasuyuki; Nose, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Takayoshi; Tsukihara, Toshihiro; Ando, Kazuo; Inamura, Tetsuya; Takeda, Shinya; Ishine, Masayuki; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Matsubayashi, Kozo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To clarify the association between glucose intolerance and high altitudes (2900–4800 m) in a hypoxic environment in Tibetan highlanders and to verify the hypothesis that high altitude dwelling increases vulnerability to diabetes mellitus (DM) accelerated by lifestyle change or ageing. Design Cross-sectional epidemiological study on Tibetan highlanders. Participants We enrolled 1258 participants aged 40–87 years. The rural population comprised farmers in Domkhar (altitude 2900–3800 m) and nomads in Haiyan (3000–3100 m), Ryuho (4400 m) and Changthang (4300–4800 m). Urban area participants were from Leh (3300 m) and Jiegu (3700 m). Main outcome measure Participants were classified into six glucose tolerance-based groups: DM, intermediate hyperglycaemia (IHG), normoglycaemia (NG), fasting DM, fasting IHG and fasting NG. Prevalence of glucose intolerance was compared in farmers, nomads and urban dwellers. Effects of dwelling at high altitude or hypoxia on glucose intolerance were analysed with the confounding factors of age, sex, obesity, lipids, haemoglobin, hypertension and lifestyle, using multiple logistic regression. Results The prevalence of DM (fasting DM)/IHG (fasting IHG) was 8.9% (6.5%)/25.1% (12.7%), respectively, in all participants. This prevalence was higher in urban dwellers (9.5% (7.1%)/28.5% (11.7%)) and in farmers (8.5% (6.1%)/28.5% (18.3%)) compared with nomads (8.2% (5.7%)/15.7% (9.7%)) (p=0.0140/0.0001). Dwelling at high altitude was significantly associated with fasting IHG+fasting DM/fasting DM (ORs for >4500 and 3500–4499 m were 3.59/4.36 and 2.07/1.76 vs <3500 m, respectively). After adjusting for lifestyle change, hypoxaemia and polycythaemia were closely associated with glucose intolerance. Conclusions Socioeconomic factors, hypoxaemia and the effects of altitudes >3500 m play a major role in the high prevalence of glucose intolerance in highlanders. Tibetan highlanders may be vulnerable to glucose

  18. Geology of a Portion of the Martian Highlands: MTMs -20002, -20007, -25002 and -25007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortezzo, C. M.; Williams, K. K.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a continuing study to understand the relationship between valleys and highland resurfacing through geologic mapping, we are continuing to map seven MTM quads in portions of the Margaritifer, Arabia, and Noachis Terrae. Results from this mapping will also help constrain the role and extent of past water in the region. The MTMs are grouped in two different areas: a 4-quadrangle area (-20002, -20007, -25002, -25007) and an L-shaped area (-15017, -20017, -20022) within the region [1-5]. This abstract focuses on the geologic units and history from mapping in the 4-quadrangle area, but includes a brief update on the L-shaped map area.

  19. Towards the Implementation of Semi-Dynamic Datum for Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariff, N. S.; Gill, J.; Amin, Z. M.; Omar, K. M.

    2017-10-01

    A semi-dynamic datum provides positions with respect to time while taking into account the secular and non-secular deformations, making it the best approach to adapt with the dynamic processes of the earth. Malaysia, as yet, employs a static datum, i.e., GDM2000, at epoch 2000; though Malaysia has evidently been affected by seismic activity for the past decade. Therefore, this paper seeks to propose a design for implementing a semi-dynamic datum for Malaysia. Methodologically, GPS time series analyses are carried out to investigate the seismic activity of Malaysia, which essentially contributes to the proposed design of the semi-dynamic datum for Malaysia. The implications of implementing a semi-dynamic datum for Malaysia are discussed as well. The results indicate that Malaysia undergoes a complex deformation; whereby the earthquakes - primarily the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman, 2005 Nias and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes - have affected the underlying secular velocities of Malaysia. Consequently, from this information, the proposed design, particularly the secular and non-secular deformation models, is described in detail. The proposed semi-dynamic datum comprises a transformation, temporal, and spatial module, and utilizes a bilinear interpolation method. Overall, this paper aims to contribute to the feasibility of a semi-dynamic datum approach for Malaysia.

  20. Indonesian immigrant settlements in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azizah Kassim

    2000-04-01

    For over 2 decades, until the economic crisis in mid-1997, Malaysia's rapid economic growth attracted an influx of foreign labor, mostly from Indonesia, Bangladesh, and the Philippines. In 1997 the number of registered workers was estimated at 1.2 million and undocumented ones at approximately 800,000. The influx created various problems, of which housing is one of the most serious, especially in the Kelang Valley. This paper examines the ways and means by which Indonesian workers, the largest group among foreigners, overcame their accommodation problem. Two types of settlements are identified, that is, illegal ones in the squatter areas and legal ones, which are largely in Malay Reservation Areas. The settlements, which signify Indonesians' success in finding a foothold in Malaysia, today have become a base for more in-migration.

  1. Cofiring biomass with coal: Opportunities for Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, A. A.; Shamsuddin, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Malaysia generated 108,175 GWh of electricity in 2010 where 39.51 % was sourced from coal. Coal power generation is also planned to overtake natural gas as the main fuel for electricity generation within the next two decades. Malaysia also has a vast biomass resource that is currently under-utilised for electricity generation. This paper studies the option of cofiring biomass in existing Malaysian coal power plants to increase the nation's renewable energy mix as well as to reduce its power sector carbon dioxide emission. Benefits of cofiring to the nation were discussed and agricultural residues from palm oil and paddy was identified as a potential source of biomass for cofiring. It was also found that there is a willingness for cofiring by stakeholders but barriers existed in the form of technical issues and lack of clear direction and mechanism.

  2. Changing patterns of clinical malaria since 1965 among a tea estate population located in the Kenyan highlands*

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, G. D.; Biomndo, K.; Hay, S. I.; Snow, R. W.

    2012-01-01

    The changing epidemiology of clinical malaria since 1965 among hospitalized patients was studied at a group of tea estates in the western highlands of Kenya. These data indicate recent dramatic increases in the numbers of malaria admissions (6·5 to 32·5% of all admissions), case fatality (1·3 to 6%) and patients originating from low-risk, highland areas (34 to 59%). Climate change, environmental management, population migration, and breakdown in health service provision seem unlikely explanations for this changing disease pattern. The coincident arrival of chloroquine resistance during the late 1980s in the sub-region suggests that drug resistance is a key factor in the current pattern and burden of malaria among this highland population. PMID:10974991

  3. Reflections from the First Annual Wild and Wonderful Witty and Wacky Workshop Work Week at the Highlander Education and Research Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sodano-Goulet, Keara

    2009-01-01

    Highlander Education and Research Center's remarkable history is a source of inquiry and fascination for adult educators and community organizers alike. Scholars seeking to dissect Highlander's success have visited the Center to uncover the history, place, and methodology. Founded in 1932 by Myles Horton and Don West as an adult education center…

  4. Volume Tables and Point-Sampling Factors for Shortleaf Pines in Plantation on Abandoned Fields in Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia Highlands

    Treesearch

    Glendon W. Smalley; David R. Bower

    1968-01-01

    The tables and equations published here provide ways to estimate total and merchantable cubic-foot volumes, both inside and outside bark, of shortleaf pines (Pinus echinata Mill.) planted on abandoned fields in the Ridge and Valley, Cumberland Plateau, Eastern Highland Rim, and Western Highland Rim regions of Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia (fig. 1). There already are...

  5. Ground truth assessments of forests affected by oak decline and red oak borer in the interior highlands of Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri: preliminary results from overstory analysis

    Treesearch

    James M. Guldin; Edward A. Poole; Eric Heitzman; John M. Kabrick; Rose-Marie Muzika

    2006-01-01

    Forests of the Interior Highlands of Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri are being affected by oak decline and an unprecedented outbreak of a native beetle called the red oak borer. On average, Interior Highlands stands contained 236 trees per acre, of which 32 trees per acre (13.4 percent) were dead or dying. Stands averaged 97 square feet per acre of basal area, of...

  6. Islam and Economic Growth in Malaysia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    Islam and selling out the Malays. The Chinese opposition, particularly the Democratic Action Party ( DAP ), argued that MCA as an accomplice in the...The most influential exponent was the leader of the Islamic Youth Organization (ABIM), Anwar Ibrahim , who later joined Mahathir’s cabinet. Anwar...Research dot com. http://www.asiamarketresearch.com/malaysia. Accessed 6 June 2003. 46 dismissal of his deputy, Anwar Ibrahim , from the government

  7. Occupational rehabilitation in Singapore and Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kay-Fei; Tan, Charlie W C; Yeo, Doreen S C; Tan, Heidi S K; Tan, F L; Tan, E W; Szeto, Grace P Y; Cheng, Andy S K

    2011-03-01

    Asia is the new and favored magnet of economic attention and foreign investments after it made an almost uneventful rebound from the depths of financial crisis of 2008/2009. Not many Western observers fully understand the diversity that is Asia other than perhaps its 2 growing economic giants of China and India. Indeed many smaller countries like Singapore and Malaysia in South East Asia along with Australia and Hong Kong (a Special Administrative Region within China) look to symbiotic relationships with these two economic giants. The purpose of this discussion paper is to examine the current issues related to the development and provision of occupational rehabilitation services in Singapore and Malaysia with a forward-looking view of how Asia's different developing societies could potentially benefit from better alignment of occupational rehabilitation practices and sharing of expertise through international collaboration and dialogue platforms. Seven therapists and one physician who are frequently involved in occupational rehabilitation services in their home countries critically reviewed the current issues in Singapore and Malaysia which included analysis of the prevalence and cost of occupational injury; overview of workers' compensation system; current practices, obstacles, and challenges in providing occupational rehabilitation and return to work practices. They also offered opinions about how to improve the occupational rehabilitation programs of their two home countries. Even though Malaysia and Singapore are two different countries, in many ways their current provision of occupational rehabilitation services and the problems they face with are very similar. There is a lot of room for systemic improvements that require government support and action. Most prominently, the training of more healthcare professionals in the assessment and rehabilitation of the injured worker should be encouraged. There could be better liaison between the many stakeholders and

  8. Profile of narcotic abuse in peninsula Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Buhrich, N; Haq, S

    1980-01-01

    Demographic and drug abuse characteristics of 3,484 new drug abuse contacts presenting to the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia are reported. The large majority were heroin inhalers. They were different from the traditional Eastern opium inhalers and similar to Western heroin injectors in that they were young, male, single, and frequently unemployed. These features and the relative underrepresentation of Chinese suggest that the Chinese of this study did not learn narcotic abuse from opium-smoking relatives.

  9. Labor markets and economic development in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Smith, J P

    1991-01-01

    A researcher analyzed data on male workers from 1262 households from Peninsular Malaysia (1976-1977 Malaysian Family Life Survey) to identify the leading effects of economic development for earnings and employment patterns within labor markets. All 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia profited from the increasing levels of real income over time. The relative income of ethnic Malays, the poorest socioeconomic class, increased more so than the Chinese and Indians. Yet the income of Chinese was 108% higher than Malays and that of Indians was 60%. The difference between Malays and Chinese grew considerably as men aged. Further economic growth resulted in higher earnings for young men than for older men. In addition, the more educated men were the higher their earnings. In fact, education was the most significant determinant of time related growth in incomes. Further, income of men who participated in job training programs grew 2 times as fast than that of men who did not participate in job training programs. Lastly, economic growth increased earnings of men in urban areas more so than those in rural areas. Malaysia had put a lot of time and resources in research and development in rubber and rice production which has resulted in continual introduction of new varieties of rubber trees and rice. These new varieties have increased production considerably. In conclusion, Malaysia was able to experience economic growth because it invested in education and job training for male workers and in research and development to advance production of its 2 most important commodities--rubber and rice.

  10. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of epilepsy on employment in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kheng Seang; Wo, Su Woan; Wong, Mee Hoo; Tan, Chong Tin

    2013-04-01

    Studies on the impact of epilepsy on employment have been extensively performed in European and some Asian countries but not in Southeast Asia such as Malaysia, a country with a robust economy, low unemployment rate, and minimal social security benefits for the unemployed. This study aims to determine the impact of epilepsy on employment in Malaysia. Two hundred fifty subjects (52.4% male) with a mean age of 35.2 years were recruited from a tertiary neurology clinic in Malaysia. Of the 250 subjects, 69.6% were employed full-time, 10.4% employed part-time, and 20.0% unemployed. Furthermore, 42.8% had a monthly income below poverty line, i.e., RM1000 (USD 320). Unemployment was associated with female gender, lower education level, younger age of seizure onset, less responsiveness to first antiepileptic drug (AED), higher seizure frequency and less seizure freedom, and higher total score in seizure severity scale. The age of onset (p=0.017), total score in the seizure severity scale (p=0.018), and the responsiveness to first AED (p=0.045) were the significant predictors of unemployment. Patients with part-time employment had similar education level with those who were unemployed, but they are more likely to be male and married, with intermediate age of seizure onset and seizure severity but with higher seizure frequency. As compared to their age-matched siblings, the patients were more likely to be unemployed (OR 13.1), to be single, and to have lower education level and lower monthly income. Patients with epilepsy have high unemployment rate in Malaysia despite a robust economy and minimal social security. Besides those who were unemployed, many were in part-time or low-income employment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Marriage and ethnicity in West Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chahnazarian, A

    1984-01-01

    "This paper will focus on ethnic differentials in the nuptiality of West Malaysia and on their evolution since the Second World War. The growing similarity of nuptiality patterns in the Malay, Chinese, and Indian communities will be outlined and the influence of age and sex distributions on the observed changes will be examined. The sources of data for this study are the 1947, 1957, and 1970 Population Censuses and the 1974 Malaysian Family and Fertility Survey." excerpt

  13. Effect of Deforestation and Land Use Changes on Mosquito Productivity and Development in Western Kenya Highlands: Implication for Malaria Risk.

    PubMed

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Kimaro, Epiphania E; Munga, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    African highlands were known to be free of malaria for the past 50 years. However, the ever growing human population in the highlands of Africa has led to the deforestation and land coverage changes to create space for more land for cultivation, grazing, and house construction materials needs. This has lead to the creation of suitable breeding habitats, which are in open places. Decrease of canopy and forest cover has led to increased temperature both in outdoors and indoors in deforested areas. This increased temperature has resulted in the shortening of developmental stages of aquatic stages of mosquitoes and sporogony development in adult mosquitoes. Assessment of the effects of deforestation and land coverage changes (decrease), which leads to temperature changes and subsequently increases survivorship of adults and sporogony development in adult mosquitoes' body was gathered from previous data collected from 2003 to 2012 using different analysis techniques. Habitats productivity, species dynamics and abundance, mosquitoes feeding rates, and sporogony development are presented in relation to temperature changes. The effects of temperature rise due to land cover changes in highlands of western Kenya on larval developmental rates, adult sporogony developments, and malaria risk in human population were derived. Vector species dynamics and abundance in relation to land use changes have been found to change with time. This study found that, land cover changes is a key driver for the temperature rise in African highlands and increases the rate of malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae ssp., An. Funestus , and An. arabiensis colonizing the highlands. It has also significantly enhanced sporogony development rate and adult vector survival and therefore the risk of malaria transmission in the highlands.

  14. Comparative entomological study on ecology and behaviour of Anopheles mosquitoes in highland and lowland localities of Derashe District, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gone, Terefe; Balkew, Meshesha; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2014-10-20

    Change in climatic and socio-economic situations is paving the way for the spread of malaria in highland areas which were generally known to be malaria free. Despite this, information regarding highland malaria transmission is scarce. Thus, the present study investigated entomological parameters linked to malaria transmission in the highlands of Southern Ethiopia. A longitudinal entomological study was conducted in three localities situated at different altitudes ranging between 1300 and 2650m above sea level in Derashe district, Southern Ethiopia. Larval and adult anopheline mosquitoes were collected between October 2011 and February 2012. An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.l existed at significantly higher densities in the lowland (Wozeka) in contrast to An. christyi and An. Demeilloni, which were more abundant in the highland localities (P < 0.01). Conversely, An. pharoensis and An. cinereus were scarce and only found in the lowland and highlands, respectively. Habitats of larvae of An. arabiensis were characterized as clear, sun-lit, permanent, still water (streams) without vegetation and situated close to human habitations. On the other hand, habitats of An. christyi are shaded, still, turbid and contain natural water (rain pools) with vegetation and mats of algae. The relative abundance of An. Arabiensis, which is the primary malaria vector in Ethiopia is significantly and positively correlated with water temperature, pH and average depth (P < 0.05). An. arabiensis, An. funestus s.l and An. demeilloni showed zoophilic and exophilic tendencies. None of the anophelines tested for P. falciparum and P. vivax sporozoite infections were positive. In conclusion, malaria parasites and vectors existed in the highlands of Derashe District. Therefore, appropriate disease and vector control strategies must be designed and implemented to prevent potential outbreaks.

  15. Micronutrient status and intervention programs in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Khor, Geok Lin

    2005-06-01

    Approximately 70% of the world's malnourished children live in Asia, giving that region the highest concentration of childhood malnutrition worldwide. Prevalence of stunting and underweight are high especially in south Asia where one in every two preschool children is stunted. Iron-deficiency anemia affects 40%-50% of preschool and primary schoolchildren. Nearly half of all vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia in the world occurs in south and southeast Asia. Iodine deficiency disorders have resulted in high goiter rates in India, Pakistan, and parts of Indonesia. Compared with other developing countries in Asia, the nutrition situation in Malaysia is considerably better, owing to rapid economic and socioeconomic development that has occurred since Malaysia gained its independence in 1957. Prevalence of undernutrition and micronutrient deficiency is markedly lower in Malaysian children. Nonetheless, undernutrition in the form of underweight, stunting, and anemia can be found in poor communities throughout the country. A prevalence of 25% underweight and 35% stunting is reported among young children from poor rural households. Anemia and subclinical forms of vitamin A deficiency were reported in children under 5 years old. Typical of a country in nutrition transition, Malaysia faces the dual burden of malnutrition in children, with the persistence of under-nutrition problems especially among the poor and the emerging overweight problem especially in urban areas. Since 1996, nutrition programs of the government sector are coordinated under the National Plan of Action for Nutrition. These activities and other nutrition intervention efforts by other agencies are discussed in this paper.

  16. A review of human leptospirosis in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    El Jalii, I M; Bahaman, A R

    2004-12-01

    This paper reviews the literature on human leptospirosis in Malaysia from its first description in 1925 until the present day. Fletcher diagnosed the first case of human leptospirosis in Malaysia in 1925. Following Fletcher, many investigations on human leptospirosis in Malaysia disclosed a high prevalence of infection. These investigations indicated that the disease was endemic in the country. Examination of 1993 suspected human cases of leptospirosis by Tan indicated 28 % of the cases were positive. In a recent survey, 2190 serum samples from patients with different clinical manifestations in the country disclosed 12.6% were positive for antibodies to leptospires. The risk to leptospiral infection with respect to occupation, location, sex, race and age groups was demonstrated. Both civilians and military personnel were affected. Thirty-seven serovars from thirteen serogroups have been identified in the country. Recent studies on animal leptospirosis showed that the disease was highly endemic in the animal population. It is considered that the majority of leptospirosis cases in humans were due to association of man with animals and disease-infected environment.

  17. Improving cancer pain management in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Within Malaysia's otherwise highly accessible public healthcare system, palliative medicine is still an underdeveloped discipline. Government surveys have shown that opioid consumption in Malaysia is dramatically lower than the global average, indicating a failure to meet the need for adequate pain control in terminally ill patients. Indeed, based on daily defined doses, only 24% of patients suffering from cancer pain receive regular opioid analgesia. The main barriers to effective pain control in Malaysia relate to physicians' and patients' attitudes towards the use of opioids. In one survey of physicians, 46% felt they lacked knowledge to manage patients with severe cancer pain, and 64% feared effects such as respiratory depression. Fear of addiction is common amongst patients, as is confusion regarding the legality of opioids. Additional barriers include the fact that no training in palliative care is given to medical students, and that smaller clinics often lack facilities to prepare and stock cheap oral morphine. A number of initiatives aim to improve the situation, including the establishment of palliative care departments in hospitals and implementation of post-graduate training programmes. Campaigns to raise public awareness are expected to increase patient demand for adequate cancer pain relief as part of good care. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Demand analysis of tobacco consumption in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ross, Hana; Al-Sadat, Nabilla A M

    2007-11-01

    We estimated the price and income elasticity of cigarette demand and the impact of cigarette taxes on cigarette demand and cigarette tax revenue in Malaysia. The data on cigarette consumption, cigarette prices, and public policies between 1990 and 2004 were subjected to a time-series regression analysis applying the error-correction model. The preferred cigarette demand model specification resulted in long-run and short-run price elasticities estimates of -0.57 and -0.08, respectively. Income was positively related to cigarette consumption: A 1% increase in real income increased cigarette consumption by 1.46%. The model predicted that an increase in cigarette excise tax from Malaysian ringgit (RM) 1.60 to RM2.00 per pack would reduce cigarette consumption in Malaysia by 3.37%, or by 806,468,873 cigarettes. This reduction would translate to almost 165 fewer tobacco-related lung cancer deaths per year and a 20.8% increase in the government excise tax revenue. We conclude that taxation is an effective method of reducing cigarette consumption and tobacco-related deaths while increasing revenue for the government of Malaysia.

  19. Psychological aspects of vasectomy in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wolfers, H; Subbiah, N; Ariffin Bin Mazurka

    1973-09-01

    246 men, aged 21-59, living on rubber estates on the outskirts of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were interviewed 1-4 years after vasectomy in a study conducted by the International Institute for the Study of Human Reproduction of Columbia University and the National Family Planning Board of Malaysia. Most of the men were of Indian origin; 223 were Hindus. The incidence and nature of psychological and medical complications were investigated, but this article treats only the psychological effects. The basic interviews consisted of verbal questionnaires; care was taken to avoid drawing attention to the researchers' interest in psychosexual effects. Men claiming regrets, fears, ill effects, and problems in married life after the operation were 9%, 11%, 54%, and 4%, respectively, of the total population. 11.8% of the men claimed to have a loss of libido. The percentages of men expressing regrets and fears decreased with increasing age, parity, and pregnancies of wife; age here is probably the overriding variable. When the vasectomy decision was joint, rather than the individual decision of either husband or wife, regrets and fears were significantly less (p.05 for both regrets and fears). No couple in the sample was without at least 1 living son, this suggesting that men without heirs will refrain from vasectomy in Malaysia. Higher proportions of men who had lost children reported anxiety. Men reporting psychosexual complications were reinterviewed in depth. In these depth interviews a variety of fantasies associated with the operation was revealed.

  20. Rethinking health care commercialization: evidence from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nwagbara, Vitalis Chukwudi; Rasiah, Rajah

    2015-11-19

    Against the backdrop of systemic inefficiency in the public health care system and the theoretical claims that markets result in performance and efficiency improvement, developing countries' governments have been rapidly commercializing health care delivery. This paper seeks to determine whether commercialization through an expansion in private hospitals has led to performance improvements in public hospitals. Inpatient utilization records of all public hospitals in Peninsular Malaysia over the period 2006-2010 were used in this study. These records were obtained from the Ministry of Health. The study relied on utilization ratios, bed occupancy rates (BOR), bed turnover rates (BTR) and average length of stay (ALOS). The data were analyzed using SPSS 22 Statistical Software and the Pabon Lasso technique. Over 60 % of public hospitals in Malaysia are inefficient and perform sub-optimally. Average BOR among the public hospitals was 56 % in 2006 and 61 % in 2010. There was excessive BTR of 65 and 73 times within the period. Overall, the ALOS was low, falling from 3.4 days in 2006 to 3.1 days in 2010. This study demonstrates that commercialization has not led to performance improvements in the public health care sector in Malaysia. The evidence suggests that efforts to improve performance will require a focus directly on public hospitals.

  1. Heroin dependence and HIV infection in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chawarski, Marek C; Mazlan, Mahmud; Schottenfeld, Richard S

    2006-04-01

    Malaysia is experiencing severe problems with heroin dependence and HIV infection. This, study evaluated drug use and other HIV risk behaviors and their association with HIV and other infectious diseases in heroin-dependent subjects enrolled in a clinical trial of drug abuse treatment in Muar, Malaysia. Baseline assessment of treatment-seeking subjects (n=177) included the Addiction Severity Index; AIDS Risk Inventory; serological tests for HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C; and chest X-ray. All of the subjects were male; 67.8% were Malays, 28.8% Chinese, and 2.3%. Indian. Subjects had a mean (SD) age of 37.2 (9.1) years and 14.4 (8.5) years of using heroin; 76.3% reported lifetime injection drug use (IDU), and 41.5% reported current IDU; 30 of 156 (19.2%) tested HIV positive, 143 of 159 (89.9%) tested hepatitis C positive, and 25 of 159 (15.7%) had radiological evidence of pulmonary tuberbulosis. Malay subjects had a significantly higher prevalence of current IDU, needle sharing (p<0.01), and HIV infection (p<0.05) compared with Chinese subjects. Lifetime IDU, needle sharing, lack of consistent condom use, and Malay ethnicity were significantly associated with HIV infection. The high prevalence of HIV infection among heroin-dependent individuals, in Malaysia supports the important of interventions to reduce the major risk factors for HIV, including IDU, needle sharing, and unprotected sex.

  2. Has Malaysia's antidrug effort been effective?

    PubMed

    Scorzelli, J F

    1992-01-01

    It is a common belief that a massive effort in law enforcement, preventive education and rehabilitation will result in the elimination of a country's drug problem. Based on this premise. Malaysia in 1983 implemented such a multifaceted anti-drug strategy, and the results of a 1987 study by the author suggested that Malaysia's effort had begun to contribute to a steady decrease in the number of identified drug abusers. Although the number of drug-addicted individuals declined, the country's recidivism rates were still high. Because of this high relapse rate, Malaysia expanded their rehabilitation effort and developed a community transition program. In order to determine the impact of these changes on the country's battle against drug abuse, a follow-up study was conducted in 1990. The results of this study did not clearly demonstrate that the Malaysian effort had been successful in eliminating the problem of drug abuse, and raised some questions concerning the effectiveness of the country's drug treatment programs.

  3. Geology of the Terra Cimmeria-Utopia Planitia Highland Lowland Transitional Zone: Final Technical Approach and Scientific Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Tanaka, K. L.

    2010-01-01

    The southern Utopia highland-lowland transitional zone extends from northern Terra Cimmeria to southern Utopia Planitia and contains broad, bench-like platforms with depressions, pitted cones, tholi, and lobate flows. The locally occurring geologic units and landforms contrast other transitional regions and record a spatially partitioned geologic history. We systematically delineated and described the geologic units and landforms of the southern Utopia-Cimmeria highland-lowland transitional zone for the production of a 1:1,000,000-scale geologic map (MTMs 10237, 15237, 20237, 10242, 15242, 20242, 10247, 15247, and 20247). Herein, we present technical and scientific results of this mapping project.

  4. Comparative assessment of lowland and highland Smallholder farmers' vulnerability to climate variability in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayal, D. Y., Sr.; Abshare, M. W. M.; Desta, S. D.; Filho, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Desalegn Yayeh Ayal P.O.BOX 150129 Addis Ababa University Ethiopia Mobil +251910824784 Abstract Smallholder farmers' near term scenario (2010-2039) vulnerability nature and magnitude was examined using twenty-two exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity vulnerability indicators. Assessment of smallholder farmers' vulnerability to climate variability revealed the importance of comprehending exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity induces. Due to differences in level of change in rainfall, temperature, drought frequency, their environmental interaction and variations on adaptive capacity the nature and magnitude of smallholder farmers vulnerability to physical, biological and epidemiological challenges of crop and livestock production varied within and across agro-ecologies. Highlanders' sensitive relates with high population density, erosion and crop disease and pest damage occurrence. Whereas lowlanders will be more sensitive to high crop disease and pest damage, provenance of livestock disease, absence of alternative water sources, less diversified agricultural practices. However, with little variations in the magnitude and nature of vulnerability, both highlanders and lowlanders are victims of climate variability and change. Given the ever increasing population, temperature and unpredictable nature of rainfall variability, the study concluded that future adaptation strategies should capitalize on preparing smallholder farmers for both extremes- excess rainfall and flooding on the one hand and severe drought on the other.

  5. Rusty rock 66095 - A paradigm for volatile-element mobility in highland rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, R. H.; Taylor, L. A.

    The ultimate goals of Apollo 16 consortia investigations are related to a determination of the nature of the early crust of the moon, taking into account questions regarding the petrogenesis of highland breccias and melt-rocks. In addition to these potential objectives, the consortia study of 66095 has also the goal to provide information for an understanding of the origin of volatile elements. Since 66095 is the most volatile-rich sample returned by the Apollo missions and its elemental ratios mimic those in many Apollo 16 breccias, it was selected as a paradigm for the highland breccias. 66095 is a clast-laden, impact-melt breccia. The volatile-rich nature is manifest in the presence of rust, schreibersite, and minor volatile-bearing compounds, usually in association with native metal and/or troilite. Attention is given to aspects of petrography, mineral chemistry, major element chemistry, the volatile bearing phases, and the history of the volatiles starting with their ultimate origin.

  6. Grain and tortilla quality in landraces and improved maize grown in the highlands of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Carrillo, Gricelda; García-Lara, Silverio; Salinas-Moreno, Yolanda; Bergvinson, David J; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia

    2011-06-01

    The maize produced in the highlands of Mexico (>2,400 masl) is generally not accepted by the flour and masa and tortilla industry. The objective of this work was to evaluate the grain quality and tortilla properties of maize landraces commonly grown in the highlands of Mexico and compare them with improved germplasm (hybrids). Germplasm analysis included 11 landraces, 32 white hybrids, and six yellow hybrids. Grain quality was analyzed for a range of physical and chemical factors, as well as for alkaline cooking quality. Landrace grains tended to be heterogeneous in terms of size, hardness and color. All landraces had soft-intermediate grains with an average flotation index (FI) of 61%. In contrast, hybrid grains were homogenous in size and color, and harder than landrace grains, with a FI of 38%. Protein, free sugars, oil and phenolic content in landraces were higher than in the hybrids. Significant correlations were found between phenolic content and tortilla color (r= -0.60; p<0.001). Three landraces were identified as appropriate for the masa and tortilla industry, while all the hybrids evaluated fulfilled the requirements of this industry.

  7. [Claw size of Scottish Highland Cows after pasture and housing periods].

    PubMed

    Nuss, K; Kolp, E; Braun, U; Weidmann, E; Hässig, M

    2014-09-01

    The claws of pastured Scottish Highland Cattle are large and this may raise the question if regular claw trimming is necessary. Therefore, the claws of the right thoracic and pelvic limbs were measured in 22 Scottish Highland cows 4 times 8 weeks apart. The cows were kept on various alpine pastures before the first measurement, on a two-hectare low-land pasture before the second measurement, in a welfare-compliant straw-bedded free stall before the third measurement and on alpine pasture before the fourth measurement. Housing conditions significantly affected claw dimensions. The claws were composed of dry, hard horn during pasture periods, and had prominent weight-bearing hoof-wall borders and soles with a natural axial slope. Long dorsal walls and heels and a greater symmetry were common. Claw lesions were absent. In contrast, free-stall housing was associated with shorter toes and steeper toe angles, but white line deterioration, heel horn erosion, wearing of the axial slope and hoof wall edges were common.

  8. Exploring the Martian Highlands using a Rover-Deployed Ground Penetrating Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, J. A.; Schutz, A. E.; Campbell, B. A.

    2001-01-01

    The Martian highlands record a long and often complex history of geologic activity that has shaped the planet over time. Results of geologic mapping and new data from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft reveal layered surfaces created by multiple processes that are often mantled by eolian deposits. Knowledge of the near-surface stratigraphy as it relates to evolution of surface morphology will provide critical context for interpreting rover/lander remote sensing data and for defining the geologic setting of a highland lander. Rover-deployed ground penetrating radar (GPR) can directly measure the range and character of in situ radar properties, thereby helping to constrain near-surface geology and structure. As is the case for most remote sensing instruments, a GPR may not detect water unambiguously on Mars. Nevertheless, any local, near-surface occurrence of liquid water will lead to large, easily detected dielectric contrasts. Moreover, definition of stratigraphy and setting will help in evaluating the history of aqueous activity and where any water might occur and be accessible. GPR data can also be used to infer the degree of any post-depositional pedogenic alteration or weathering, thereby enabling assessment of pristine versus secondary morphology. Most importantly perhaps, GPR can provide critical context for other rover and orbital instruments/data sets. Hence, rover-deployment of a GPR deployment should enable 3-D mapping of local stratigraphy and could guide subsurface sampling.

  9. Felsic highland crust on Venus suggested by Galileo Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, George L.; Roos-Serote, Maarten; Sugita, Seiji; Gilmore, Martha S.; Kamp, Lucas W.; Carlson, Robert W.; Baines, Kevin H.

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the spatial variation of Venusian surface emissivity at 1.18 μm wavelength and that of near-surface atmospheric temperature using multispectral images obtained by the Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) on board the Galileo spacecraft. The Galileo NIMS observed the nightside thermal emission from the surface and the deep atmosphere of Venus, which is attenuated by scattering from the overlying clouds. To analyze the NIMS data, we used a radiative transfer model based on the adding method. Although there is still an uncertainty in the results owing to the not well known parameters of the atmosphere, our analysis revealed that the horizontal temperature variation in the near-surface atmosphere is no more than +/-2 K on the Venusian nightside and also suggests that the majority of lowlands likely has higher emissivity compared to the majority of highlands. One interpretation for the latter result is that highland materials are generally composed of felsic rocks. Since formation of a large body of granitic magmas requires water, the presence of granitic terrains would imply that Venus may have had an ocean and a mechanism to recycle water into the mantle in the past.

  10. Earliest Pottery on New Guinea Mainland Reveals Austronesian Influences in Highland Environments 3000 Years Ago

    PubMed Central

    Gaffney, Dylan; Summerhayes, Glenn R.; Ford, Anne; Scott, James M.; Denham, Tim; Field, Judith; Dickinson, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Austronesian speaking peoples left Southeast Asia and entered the Western Pacific c.4000-3000 years ago, continuing on to colonise Remote Oceania for the first time, where they became the ancestral populations of Polynesians. Understanding the impact of these peoples on the mainland of New Guinea before they entered Remote Oceania has eluded archaeologists. New research from the archaeological site of Wañelek in the New Guinea Highlands has broken this silence. Petrographic and geochemical data from pottery and new radiocarbon dating demonstrates that Austronesian influences penetrated into the highland interior by 3000 years ago. One potsherd was manufactured along the northeast coast of New Guinea, whereas others were manufactured from inland materials. These findings represent the oldest securely dated pottery from an archaeological context on the island of New Guinea. Additionally, the pottery comes from the interior, suggesting the movements of people and technological practices, as well as objects at this time. The antiquity of the Wañelek pottery is coincident with the expansion of Lapita pottery in the Western Pacific. Such occupation also occurs at the same time that changes have been identified in subsistence strategies in the archaeological record at Kuk Swamp suggesting a possible link between the two. PMID:26331310

  11. Earliest Pottery on New Guinea Mainland Reveals Austronesian Influences in Highland Environments 3000 Years Ago.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Dylan; Summerhayes, Glenn R; Ford, Anne; Scott, James M; Denham, Tim; Field, Judith; Dickinson, William R

    2015-01-01

    Austronesian speaking peoples left Southeast Asia and entered the Western Pacific c.4000-3000 years ago, continuing on to colonise Remote Oceania for the first time, where they became the ancestral populations of Polynesians. Understanding the impact of these peoples on the mainland of New Guinea before they entered Remote Oceania has eluded archaeologists. New research from the archaeological site of Wañelek in the New Guinea Highlands has broken this silence. Petrographic and geochemical data from pottery and new radiocarbon dating demonstrates that Austronesian influences penetrated into the highland interior by 3000 years ago. One potsherd was manufactured along the northeast coast of New Guinea, whereas others were manufactured from inland materials. These findings represent the oldest securely dated pottery from an archaeological context on the island of New Guinea. Additionally, the pottery comes from the interior, suggesting the movements of people and technological practices, as well as objects at this time. The antiquity of the Wañelek pottery is coincident with the expansion of Lapita pottery in the Western Pacific. Such occupation also occurs at the same time that changes have been identified in subsistence strategies in the archaeological record at Kuk Swamp suggesting a possible link between the two.

  12. Doctors and retribution: the hospitalisation of compensation claims in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    van Amstel, Hans; van der Geest, Sjaak

    2004-11-01

    The cultures in the Papua New Guinea Highlands are characterised by a tradition of retribution. Compensation is part of an elaborate system of exchanging gifts, goods and services. Compensation is paid to those who have suffered some kind of loss for which others are held responsible. Such incidents include death or injury caused by fighting, a road accident or domestic violence, theft, rape, gossip, and property damage. Fear of revenge is an important motive for paying compensation. The hospital has become an increasingly important institution for retribution. It provides medical reports to support compensation claims of physical damage in cases involving violence or an accident. Case material, collected by one of the authors who conducted fieldwork in a hospital in the Southern Highlands, shows that the hospital has established itself as an authoritative actor in the local compensation culture. Doctors spend about one afternoon per week writing medical reports for compensation claims. These reports have become an attractive extra source of income for the hospital. The article describes and analyses a number of cases to illustrate the hospital's role in the production and legitimisation of retribution.

  13. The Effects of Amphibian Extirpations on Foodweb Structure and Function in Panamanian Highland Streams.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunte-Brown, M. E.; Kilham, S. S.; Whiles, M. R.; Lips, K.; Pringle, C.; Colon, C.; Brenes, R.; Connelly, S.

    2005-05-01

    Amphibian populations are declining globally in uplands. Stream-dwelling tadpoles are potentially important herbivores, and their loss is expected to cause significant changes in structure and function of lotic ecosystems. This study is part of a collaborative effort to measure changes in trophic structure associated with amphibian extirpations. We used stable isotopes to elucidate trends in Panamanian highland streams at two locations, El Cope and Fortuna, which are differentially affected by the declines. Generally, the nitrogen source in the Fortuna stream, where amphibians have already declined, is primarily atmospheric, whereas it is more recycled in El Cope where tadpoles are still abundant. FBOM is an important food resource in El Cope, and because of the recycled N from tadpole feces, the delta N15 values of the periphyton are higher in the pools than in the riffles in El Cope. Generally, the delta N15 signal of similar trophic groups is lower at Fortuna than at El Cope. The delta N15 signals also tend to fall with increased rainfall. Leaf packs are apparently under-utilized in these systems. Results allow for an assessment of trophic structure in highland neotropical streams and suggest that stream-breeding anuran extirpations may alter nutrient cycling and energy flow.

  14. Presence of Rhodnius ecuadoriensis in sylvatic habitats in the southern highlands (Loja Province) of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Grijalva, M J; Villacis, A G

    2009-05-01

    The main vectors of Chagas disease in Ecuador are Triatoma dimidiata and Rhodnius ecuadoriensis. The latter species occupies domestic and peridomestic habitats, as well as sylvatic ecotopes--particularly associated with Phytelephas aequatorialis palm trees--in the western coastal region of Ecuador. In the southern highlands, however, such palm tree habitats are uncommon, and sylvatic populations of R. ecuadoriensis have not previously been reported to date. This study was carried out in five rural communities in Loja Province in southern Ecuador, where manual triatomine searches were conducted in various sylvatic habitats. A total of 81 squirrel nests (Sciurus stramineus) and > 200 bird nests and other habitats were searched. One hundred three R. ecuadoriensis individuals were found in 11 squirrel nests (infestation index = 13.6%, density = 2 bugs per nest searched, crowding = 9.5 bugs per infested nest, colonization index = 72.7% of infested nests with nymphs). No triatomines were found in bird nests or other sylvatic habitats. The presence of sylvatic R. ecuadoriensis in the southern highlands of Ecuador has important implications for the long-term control of Chagas disease in the region because of the possibility of reinfestation of dwellings after insecticide-based control interventions.

  15. Practices related to postpartum uterine involution in the Western Highlands of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Radoff, K A; Thompson, Lisa M; Bly, K C; Romero, Carolina

    2013-03-01

    Guatemala has the third highest level of maternal mortality in Latin America. Postpartum haemorrhage is the main cause of maternal mortality. In rural Guatemala, most women rely on Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) during labour, delivery, and the postpartum period. Little is known about current postpartum practices that may contribute to uterine involution provided by Mam- and Spanish-speaking TBAs in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. a qualitative study was conducted with 39 women who participated in five focus groups in the San Marcos Department of Guatemala. Questions regarding postpartum practices were discussed during four focus groups of TBAs and one group of auxiliary nurses. three postpartum practices believed to aid postpartum uterine involution were identified: use of the chuj (Mam) (Spanish, temazcal), a traditional wood-fired sauna-bath used by Mam-speaking women; herbal baths and teas; and administration of biomedicines. TBAs provide the majority of care to women during childbirth and the postpartum period and have developed a set of practices to prevent and treat postpartum haemorrhage. Integration of these practices may prove an effective method to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Practices related to postpartum uterine involution in the Western Highlands of Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Radoff, K.A.; Thompson, Lisa M.; Bly, KC; Romero, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Background Guatemala has the third highest level of maternal mortality in Latin America. Postpartum haemorrhage is the main cause of maternal mortality. In rural Guatemala, most women rely on Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) during labour, delivery, and the postpartum period. Little is known about current postpartum practices that may contribute to uterine involution provided by Mam- and Spanish-speaking TBAs in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Methods a qualitative study was conducted with 39 women who participated in five focus groups in the San Marcos Department of Guatemala. Questions regarding postpartum practices were discussed during four focus groups of TBAs and one group of auxiliary nurses. Results three postpartum practices believed to aid postpartum uterine involution were identified: use of the chuj (Mam) (Spanish, temazcal), a traditional wood-fired sauna-bath used by Mam-speaking women; herbal baths and teas; and administration of biomedicines. Conclusions TBAs provide the majority of care to women during childbirth and the postpartum period and have developed a set of practices to prevent and treat postpartum haemorrhage. Integration of these practices may prove an effective method to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. PMID:22762787

  17. The Shawmere anorthosite and OB-1 as lunar highland regolith simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battler, Melissa M.; Spray, John G.

    2009-12-01

    Anorthosite constitutes a major component of the lunar crust and comprises an important, if not dominant, ingredient of the lunar regolith. Given the need for highland regolith simulants in preparation for lunar surface engineering activities, we have selected an appropriate terrestrial anorthosite and performed crushing trials to generate a particle size distribution comparable to Apollo 16 regolith sample 64 500. The root simulant is derived from a granoblastic facies of the Archean Shawmere Complex of the Kapuskasing Structural Zone of Ontario, Canada. The Shawmere exhibits minimal retrogression, is homogeneous and has an average plagioclase composition of An 78 (bytownite). Previous industrial interest in this calcic anorthosite has resulted in quarrying operations, which provide ease of extraction and access for potential large-scale simulant production. A derivative of the Shawmere involves the addition of olivine slag, crushed to yield a particle size distribution similar to that of the agglutinate and glass components of the Apollo sample. This simulant is referred to as OB-1. The Shawmere and OB-1 regolith simulants are lunar highland analogues, conceived to produce geotechnical properties of benefit to designing and testing drilling, excavation and construction equipment for future lunar surface operations.

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure of Scottish Highland red deer (Cervus elaphus) populations: a mitochondrial survey.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Espona, S; Pérez-Barbería, F J; Goodall-Copestake, W P; Jiggins, C D; Gordon, I J; Pemberton, J M

    2009-02-01

    The largest population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Europe is found in Scotland. However, human impacts through hunting and introduction of foreign deer stock have disturbed the population's genetics to an unknown extent. In this study, we analysed mitochondrial control region sequences of 625 individuals to assess signatures of human and natural historical influence on the genetic diversity and population structure of red deer in the Scottish Highlands. Genetic diversity was high with 74 haplotypes found in our study area (115 x 87 km). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that none of the individuals had introgressed mtDNA from foreign species or subspecies of deer and only suggested a very few localized red deer translocations among British localities. A haplotype network and population analyses indicated significant genetic structure (Phi(ST)=0.3452, F(ST)=0.2478), largely concordant with the geographical location of the populations. Mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests indicated a significant population expansion for one of the main haplogroups found in the study area, approximately dated c. 8200 or 16 400 years ago when applying a fast or slow mutation rate, respectively. Contrary to general belief, our results strongly suggest that native Scottish red deer mtDNA haplotypes have persisted in the Scottish Highlands and that the population retains a largely natural haplotype diversity and structure in our study area.

  19. Lunar highland rock types: Their implications for impact-induced fractionation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, W. C.; Warner, J. L.; Simonds, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    Lunar rocks may be classified into three major groups: (1) coarse-grained igneous rocks, (2) fine-grained igneous rocks, and (3) breccias. Group 1 is interpreted as primitive lunar crustal rocks that display various degrees of crushing and/or annealing. Group 2 is interpreted as volcanic rocks. Group 3 is interpreted as resulting from impacts on the lunar surface and is subdivided on the basis of matrix textures into fragmental breccias, crystalline breccias that have been annealed, and crystalline breccias with igneous matrices. A synthesis of the data concerning lunar highlands polymict breccias compels the prediction that the breccias should have homogeneous matrices from rock to rock within regions of the highlands of limited size where impact mixing has been efficient and extensive. But the returned breccias, even from one landing site, display a wide range in composition. This incompatibility between prediction and observation is a paradox that may be resolved by a process that acts after impact mixing to cause a differentiation of the breccia compositions. Partial melting of the local average crustal composition (as modeled by the average soil composition for each site) and separation of melt and residue in ejecta and/or fall-back blankets are compatible with the reviewed data and may resolve the paradox.

  20. Mesoproterozoic graphite deposits, New Jersey Highlands: Geologic and stable isotopic evidence for possible algal origins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Volkert, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Graphite deposits of Mesoproterozoic age are locally abundant in the eastern New Jersey Highlands, where they are hosted by sulphidic biotite-quartz-feldspar gneiss, metaquartzite, and anatectic pegmatite. Gneiss and metaquartzite represent a shallow marine shelf sequence of locally organic-rich sand and mud. Graphite from massive deposits within metaquartzite yielded ??13C values of -26 ?? 2??? (1??), and graphite from massive deposits within biotite-quartz-feldspar gneiss yielded ??13C values of -23 ??4???. Disseminated graphite from biotite-quartz-feldspar gneiss country rock was -22 ??3???, indistinguishable from the massive deposits hosted by the same lithology. Anatectic pegmatite is graphitic only where generated from graphite-bearing host rocks; one sample gave a ??13C value of -15???. The ??34S values of trace pyrrhotite are uniform within individual deposits, but vary from 0 to 9??? from one deposit to another. Apart from pegmatitic occurrences, evidence is lacking for long-range mobilization of carbon during Grenvillian orogenesis or post-Grenvillian tectonism. The field, petrographic, and isotope data suggest that massive graphite was formed by granulite-facies metamorphism of Proterozoic accumulations of sedimentary organic matter, possibly algal mats. Preservation of these accumulations in the sedimentary environment requires anoxic basin waters or rapid burial. Anoxia would also favour the accumulation of dissolved ferrous iron in basin waters, which may explain some of the metasediment-hosted massive magnetite deposits in the New Jersey Highlands. ?? 2000 NRC.

  1. Apollo 17 materials viewed from 2 to 4 mm soil particles: Pre-serenitatis highlands components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.; Bishop, Kaylynn M.

    1993-01-01

    Among the highland lithologies of 2-4 mm rock fragments in North Massif soil 76503, we have found a compositional group, low in incompatible element concentrations, that we interpret as representing the pre-Serenitatis surface. A component of these materials is an igneous-textured lithology that we believe formed in large impact melts. These are compositionally similar to, and possibly precursors of, many of the granulitic breccias that appear to be mixtures of ferroan and magnesian-suite rocks. The polymict, or old, upper-crustal breccias, along with granulitic breccias and the endogenous igneous lithologies found particularly at the North Massif stations, constitute the poorly consolidated portions of North Massif. Highland samples from the South Massif, on the other hand, are enriched in materials of the competent, impact-melt breccias formed by the Serenitatis impact. The competent melt-breccias contain clasts of most of the pre-existing surface materials, but they also contain components not found in the rocks of the poorly consolidated massif materials.

  2. Towards ESP Programmes in Technical and Vocational Institutions in Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukor, Haji; And Others

    This paper examines the nature of vocational, technical, and polytechnic education in Malaysia, the extent to which English for special purposes (ESP) programs are incorporated into such education, and the need for ESP program reform. In 1992, Malaysia possessed 70 vocational and 9 technical secondary schools, all of which offered some form of ESP…

  3. Multicultural Early Childhood Education: Practices and Challenges in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phoon, Hooi San; Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee Yen; Abdullah, Anna Christina

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural early childhood education is necessary in a culturally diverse country like Malaysia. Preschool teachers play an important role in implementing multicultural education in the classroom. This paper reports the findings of a self-report questionnaire involving 854 preschool teachers in Malaysia. The preschool teachers disclosed their…

  4. Italian in the Linguistic Landscape of Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coluzzi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    This article looks at the presence of Italian in the linguistic landscape (LL) of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Rather surprisingly, Italian is quite visible, and it might even be the most used European language after English. After a general introduction on the Italian language and Malaysia, including the latter's LL, the article goes on to outline the…

  5. Thinking Skill Education and Transformational Progress in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Othman, Nooraini; Mohamad, Khairul Azmi

    2014-01-01

    This paper intends to highlight the issues in thinking skills development and efforts made in addressing these issues in Malaysia. The education system in Malaysia has undergone a huge transformational progress particularly in the field related to the development of thinking skill. Traditionally, thinking skill was not specifically cultivated in…

  6. Contemporary Challenges and Changes: Principals' Leadership Practices in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michelle; Adams, Donnie; Joo, Mabel Tan Hwee; Muniandy, Vasu; Perera, Corinne Jaqueline; Harris, Alma

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the findings from a contemporary study of principals' leadership practices in Malaysia as part of the 7 System Leadership Study. Recent policy developments within Malaysia have increased principals' accountability and have underlined the importance of the role of the principals in transforming school performance and student…

  7. Counseling in Malaysia: History, Current Status, and Future Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    See, Ching Mey; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the history of counseling in Malaysia, provides an update of its current status, and discusses some anticipated future trends for the profession in light of recent developments in the country. Counseling in Malaysia began with school guidance in the 1960s and has now achieved recognition as a profession in…

  8. The Development of Teacher Education in Malaysia: Problems and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Molly N. N.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews patterns of teacher education in Malaysia, highlighting current problems and challenges, discussing recent reforms and policy initiatives in the domain of teacher education, and introducing three articles that focus on: teacher education for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages in Malaysia, training of school counselors in…

  9. Trade in Higher Education Services in Malaysia: Key Policy Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tham, Siew Yean

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, Malaysia has emerged as an unexpected contender in the world market for international students in higher education. Recognizing this sector as a potential new source of growth and export revenue, Malaysia aims to become a regional hub for higher education. In view of this, the objectives of this paper are to profile the pattern of…

  10. Household Expenditures on Private Tutoring: Emerging Evidence from Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenayathulla, Husaina Banu

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring has been a burgeoning phenomenon in Malaysia for decades. This study examines the determinants of private tutoring expenditures in Malaysia using the 2004/2005 Household Expenditures Survey and applies hurdle regression models to the data. The results indicate that total household expenditures, household head's level of education,…

  11. Not Plain Sailing: Malaysia's Language Choice in Policy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Azirah

    2009-01-01

    This paper focusses on language and education issues in Malaysia as they have unfolded in the context of nation building, societal multilingualism and globalization from independence to the present day. The paper first examines the origin and nature of language and medium-of-instruction policies in Malaysia and the rationale for them. Secondly, it…

  12. A Model of Homeschooling Based on Technology in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alias, Norlidah; Rahman, Mohd. Nazri Abdul; Siraj, Saedah; Ibrahim, Ruslina

    2013-01-01

    Homeschooling in Malaysia is a form of alternative education that emphasizes quality education based on moral values and belief in strengthening family ties. The purpose of this study is to produce a model of homeschooling technology-based learning activities in Malaysia as a guideline to improve the quality of education, curriculum and organize…

  13. Outbreak of Human Infection with Sarcocystis nesbitti, Malaysia, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Teoh, Boon-Teong; Sam, Sing-Sin; Chang, Li-Yen; Johari, Jefree; Hooi, Poh-Sim; Lakhbeer-Singh, Harvinder-Kaur; Italiano, Claire M.; Omar, Sharifah F. Syed; Wong, Kum-Thong; Ramli, Norlisah; Tan, Chong-Tin

    2013-01-01

    An outbreak of fever associated with myalgia and myositis occurred in 2012 among 89 of 92 college students and teachers who visited Pangkor Island, Malaysia. The Sarcocystis nesbitti 18S rRNA gene and sarcocysts were obtained from muscle tissues of 2 students. Our findings indicate emergence of S. nesbitti infections in humans in Malaysia. PMID:24274071

  14. A Visual Analysis of Festive Television Commercials in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Lean Mei

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia is a multiracial country with a diverse range of religions, leading to a broad range of religious festivals throughout the year. In recent years, corporate giants such as Petronas, Telekom Malaysia (TM), Tenaga and Astro have taken to airing television commercials (TVCs) that contain a local touch when greeting their customers. Perhaps…

  15. Malaysia's Multimedia Super Corridor and Roles of Information Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Edna

    In Malaysia, the government is supporting the diffusion of the Internet and is spearheading a project to bring Malaysia into the information age, by helping to design a smart city called the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC). The MSC is being planned as a high-technology center where world-class multimedia companies can develop state-of-the-art…

  16. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murugasu, V.

    Work oriented education has been tied to national development in Malaysia since the 1960's. Increasing population, unemployment, and shortages of skilled manpower led the government to relate education more closely to work and develop technical and vocational education. Malaysia extended basic education to lower secondary manpower needs; and…

  17. Innovation Management and Performance Framework for Research University in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowang, Tan Owee; Long, Choi Sang; Rasli, Amran

    2015-01-01

    Institutions of Higher Learning (IHL) in Malaysia are recognized as the core of new innovation development. This paper empirically studies one of IHLs in Malaysia with the objectives to gauge the perceived important level of success factors for innovation management, and to examine the relationship between innovation management success factors…

  18. Beginning Teachers as Policy Workers in Malaysia and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Vivienne Ruth; Young, Sharon; Blanch, Keely; Smith, Lee

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the Malaysia government initiated twinned primary teacher education arrangements with five Southern Hemisphere higher education institutions (HEIs). Participating students completed their teacher education in both Malaysia and a partner HEI. In this paper, we consider the preliminary findings of a comparative study tracking the beginning…

  19. An Analysis of Globalization and Higher Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arokiasamy, Anantha Raj A.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of globalization on private higher education in Malaysia. The impact of globalization and the development of knowledge-based economy have caused much dramatic change to the character and functions of higher education in Malaysia. The major trend is the reforming and restructuring of private higher education in…

  20. Students' Biotechnology Literacy: The Pillars of STEM Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahri, Nurnadiah Mohamed; Suryawati, Evi; Osman, Kamisah

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnology has been widely applied in various products throughout the 21st century. Malaysia selected the biotechnology sector as one of the key strategic technologies that would enable Malaysia to transform into a fully developed nation by the year 2020. However, to date, there has been very little research on the level of biotechnology…

  1. Satisfaction from Academic Activities among Medical Students in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan A.; Bobryshev, Yuri V.

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of data about the levels of satisfaction among medical students in regards to their academic activities in Malaysia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to fill the gap in the existing knowledge. A cross sectional study was carried out at the International medical school, the Management and Science University of Malaysia,…

  2. A Study of Quality Assurance Practices in the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Helen Khoo Chooi; Idrus, Rozhan M.

    2004-01-01

    This article looks at the quality assurance practices amongst three (3) groups of staff in the School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, i.e. lecturers, resident tutors and support staff. 9 dimensions of the Quality Assurance Practices i.e. Staff Development, Planning, Work Process, Team Work, Prioritise Customers, Performance…

  3. Improving efficacy of landscape interventions in the (sub) humid Ethiopian highlands by improved understanding of runoff processes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite millions of dollars invested in soil and water conservation practices in the (sub) humid Ethiopian highlands and billions of hours of food-for-work farm labor, sediment concentration in rivers is increasing. This paper reports on the research to reverse the current trend. Based on the unders...

  4. Improving efficacy of landscape interventions in the (sub) humid Ethiopian highlands by improved understanding of runoff processes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite millions of dollars invested in soil and water conservation practices and other landscape interventions in the Ethiopian highlands and billions of hours of food-for-work farm labor, sediment concentration in rivers is increasing. Possible ways to reverse the current trend have been investiga...

  5. Vital warmth and well-being: steambathing as household therapy among the Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya of highland Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Groark, Kevin P

    2005-08-01

    Among the Maya, the cultural history of steambathing spans more than two millennia. Although it has largely disappeared from the lowlands, household-level steambathing persists in several highland Maya communities in Chiapas, Mexico. In this article, I present an overview of therapeutic steambathing among the Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya. Through an extended discussion of the beliefs and practices surrounding steambathing, I develop several features of highland Maya thinking about physical health and "well-being". In particular, I examine a set of ethnophysiological representations relating to the "thermal" nature of functional bodies, and the relationship of these models to the maintenance and restoration of health. The highland Maya have articulated an elaborate understanding of physical health and well-being coded in an idiom of "vital warmth", and directed toward the preservation and augmentation of the endogenous heat necessary for vitality and vigor. These models simultaneously reflect empirical understandings of bodily states in health and illness, as well as metaphorical assumptions about the thermal nature of functional psychosocial identities. Steambathing draws on and reinforces these models, constituting a core cultural technology for radically altering the thermal state of the patient, an experience which the highland Maya regard as deeply beneficial. The paper closes with a discussion of recent biomedical research into the physiological effects of hyperthermal therapies.

  6. A Matrix Transition Model for an Uneven-Aged, Oak-Hickory Forest in the Missouri Ozark Highlands

    Treesearch

    James R. Lootens; David R. Larsen; Edward F. Loewenstein

    1999-01-01

    We present a matrix growth model for an uneven-aged, oak-hickory forest in the Ozark Highlands of Missouri. The model was developed to predict ingrowth, growth of surviving trees, and mortality by diameter class for a five-year period. Tree removal from management activities is accounted for in the model. We evaluated a progression of models from a static, fixed-...

  7. A matrix transition model for an uneven-aged, oak-hickory forest in the Missouri ozark highlands

    Treesearch

    James R. Lootens; David R. Larsen; Edward F. Loewenstein

    1999-01-01

    We presented a matrix growth model for an uneven-aged, oak-hickory forest in the Ozark Highlands of Missouri. The model was developed to predict ingrowth, growth of surviving trees, and mortality by diameter class for a five-year period. Tree removal from management activities is accounted for in the model. We evaluated a progression of models from a static, fixed...

  8. Application of Serological Tools and Spatial Analysis to Investigate Malaria Transmission Dynamics in Highland Areas of Southwest Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Caroline A.; Cook, Jackie; Nanyunja, Sarah; Bruce, Jane; Bhasin, Amit; Drakeley, Chris; Roper, Cally; Pearce, Richard; Rwakimari, John B.; Abeku, Tarekegn A.; Corran, Patrick; Cox, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Serological markers, combined with spatial analysis, offer a comparatively more sensitive means by which to measure and detect foci of malaria transmission in highland areas than traditional malariometric indicators. Plasmodium falciparum parasite prevalence, seroprevalence, and seroconversion rate to P. falciparum merozoite surface protein-119 (MSP-119) were measured in a cross-sectional survey to determine differences in transmission between altitudinal strata. Clusters of P. falciparum parasite prevalence and high antibody responses to MSP-119 were detected and compared. Results show that P. falciparum prevalence and seroprevalence generally decreased with increasing altitude. However, transmission was heterogeneous with hotspots of prevalence and/or seroprevalence detected in both highland and highland fringe altitudes, including a serological hotspot at 2,200 m. Results demonstrate that seroprevalence can be used as an additional tool to identify hotspots of malaria transmission that might be difficult to detect using traditional cross-sectional parasite surveys or through vector studies. Our study findings identify ways in which malaria prevention and control can be more effectively targeted in highland or low transmission areas via serological measures. These tools will become increasingly important for countries with an elimination agenda and/or where malaria transmission is becoming patchy and focal, but receptivity to malaria transmission remains high. PMID:27022156

  9. Impacts of Land Use Changes on Recreation and Open Space in the New York-New Jersey Highlands Region

    Treesearch

    Chad P. Dawson; Wayne C. Zipperer

    1992-01-01

    The more than I million acre New York-New Jersey Highlands Region is a unique forested and rural landscape at the urban/ wildland interface with the New York-New Jersey Metropolitan area where over 18 million people reside. Conversion of land to residential and urban uses, parcellation of lands, fragmentation of forest cover, and increasing demand for recreational...

  10. A remote sensing-assisted risk rating study to predict oak decline and recovery in the Missouri Ozark Highlands, USA

    Treesearch

    Cuizhen Wang; Hong S. He; John M. Kabrick

    2008-01-01

    Forests in the Ozark Highlands underwent widespread oak decline affected by severe droughts in 1999-2000. In this study, the differential normalized difference water index was calculated to detect crown dieback. A multi-factor risk rating system was built to map risk levels of stands. As a quick response to drought, decline in 2000 mostly occurred in stands at low to...

  11. Poder es Saber. Workshop: Developing a Bilingual Curriculum (New Mexico Highlands University, Las Vegas, New Mexico, June 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass de Martinez, Bernice

    Bilingual teachers and program directors of northern New Mexico attended a workshop at New Mexico Highlands University to examine the curriculum designed to meet the needs of students within the bilingual bicultural setting. Participants were asked to redefine curriculum within the "workshop" setting. Consultants assisted the group in…

  12. Associations between trematode infections in cattle and freshwater snails in highland and lowland areas of Iringa Rural District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nzalawahe, Jahashi; Kassuku, Ayub A; Stothard, J Russell; Coles, Gerald C; Eisler, Mark C

    2015-09-01

    The epidemiology of trematode infections in cattle was investigated within highland and lowland areas of Iringa Rural District, in southern Tanzania. Fecal samples were collected from 450 cattle in 15 villages at altitudes ranging from 696 to 1800 m above the sea level. Freshwater snails were collected from selected water bodies and screened for emergence of cercariae. The infection rates in cattle were Fasciola gigantica 28·2%, paramphistomes 62·8% and Schistosoma bovis 4·8%. Notably, prevalence of trematode infections in cattle was much higher in highland (altitude > 1500 m) as compared with lowland (altitude < 1500 m) areas and was statistically significant (P-value = 0·000) for F. gigantica and paramphistomes but not for S. bovis. The snails collected included Lymnaea natalensis, Bulinus africanus, Bulinus tropicus, Bulinus forskali, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Melanoides tuberculata and Bellamya constricta with a greater proportion of highland (75%) than lowland (36%) water bodies harbouring snails. Altitude is a major factor shaping the epidemiology of F. gigantica and paramphistomes infections in cattle in Iringa Rural District with greater emphasis upon control needed in highland areas.

  13. A multi-century analysis of disturbance dynamics in pine-oak forests of the Missouri Ozark Highlands

    Treesearch

    Chad King; Rose-Marie Muzika

    2013-01-01

    Using dendrochronology and growth release approaches, we analyzed the disturbance history of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mich.) white oak (Quercus alba L.) forests in the Missouri Ozark Highlands. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify growth release events using living and remnant shortleaf pine and white oak, (2)...

  14. Oak Decline and Red Oak Borer in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas an Missouri: Natural Phenomena, Severe Occurrences

    Treesearch

    Dale A. Starkey; Forrest Oliveria; Alexander Mangini; Manfred Mielke

    2004-01-01

    Oak decline is a complex disease resulting in dieback and mortality of oaks. A number of factors are involved and can be classified as predisposing, inciting, or contributing, according to their roles. Decline events have been noted repeatedly during the past century in the eastern U.S. A severe episode of oak decline is occurring in the Interior Highlands region of...

  15. 76 FR 60935 - Notice of Application from ExxonMobil Corporation, Highland Uranium Mine and Millsite, To Amend...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... and Extend the NRC Long-Term Surveillance Boundary With Respect to Materials License SUA-1139 AGENCY... concentration limits and to extend the NRC Long-Term Surveillance Boundary at its Highland Uranium Mine and Mill... wells and at the proposed POC well. The amendment also proposes to expand the Long-Term Surveillance...

  16. Building climate resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay Highlands: Part II-arole for earth system sciences

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Blue Nile (Abay) Highlands of Ethiopia are characterized by significant interannual climate variability, dissected topography and associated local climate contrasts, erosive rains and erodible soils, and intense land pressure due to an increasing population and an economy that is almost entirely...

  17. Intraspecific variation in body size and shape in an andean highland anole species, Anolis ventrimaculatus (Squamata: Dactyloidae).

    PubMed

    Calderón-Espinosa, Martha L; Ortega-León, Angela M; Zamora-Abrego, Joan G

    2013-03-01

    Variation in body characteristics related to lizard locomotion has been poorly studied at the intraspecific level in Anolis species. Local adaptation due to habitat heterogeneity has been reported in some island species. However, studies of mainland species are particularly scarce and suggest different patterns: high variability among highland lizards and poorly differentiated populations in one Amazonian species. We characterized inter population variation of body size and shape in the highland Andean Anolis ventrimaculatus, an endemic species from Western Colombia. A total of 15 morphometric variables were measured in specimens from the reptile collection of the Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional, Colombia. The study included individuals from seven different highland localities. We found size and shape sexual dimorphism, both of which varied among localities. Patterns of variation in body proportions among populations were different in both males and females, suggesting that either sexual or natural selective factors are different in each locality and between sexes. Since this species exhibits a fragmented distribution in highlands, genetic divergence may also be a causal factor of the observed variation. Ecological, behavioral, additional morphological as well as phylogenetic data, may help to understand the evolutionary processes behind the geographic patterns found in this species.

  18. Landscape-scale fire restoration on the big piney ranger district in the Ozark highlands of Arkansas

    Treesearch

    John Andre; McRee Anderson; Douglas Zollner; Marie Melnechuk; Theo Witsell

    2009-01-01

    The Ozark-St. Francis National Forest, The Nature Conservancy (TNC), the Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission, Arkansas Forestry Commission, private landowners, and others are currently engaged in a collaborative project to restore the oak-hickory and pine-oak ecosystems of the Ozark Highlands on 60,000 acres of the Big Piney Ranger District. Frequent historical fires...

  19. Developing a stand hazard index for oak decline in upland Oak forests of the Ozark Highlands, Missouri

    Treesearch

    Fan Zhaofei; Fan Xiuli; Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; W. Keith Moser; Randy G. Jensen; John M. Kabrick

    2011-01-01

    Black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.) and scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea Muenchh.)--two major components (44% of total stand basal area) of upland oak forests--are suffering severe decline and mortality in the Ozark Highlands, Missouri. However, factors influencing their survival (mortality) are not well understood. In this study we...

  20. Mineralogical Study of a Gray Anorthositic Clast in the Yamato 86032 Lunar Meteorite: Windows to the Far-Side Highland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, H.; Nyquist, L. E.; Kojima, H.

    2002-03-01

    We performed a mineralogical study of a large gray clast (Y86032,83-1). Comparing our data and an Ar-Ar age of 4.49 Ga and negative epsilonNd data (Nyquist et al.), we propose that the original anorthosite is an important FAN of the farside highland.

  1. Mortality, scarring, and growth in an oak woodland following prescribed fire and commercial thinning in the Ozark Highlands

    Treesearch

    C.S. Kinkead; M.C. Stambaugh; J.M. Kabrick

    2017-01-01

    Oak-dominated (Quercus Spp.) woodlands are commonly thinned and burned in the Ozark Highlands to prevent canopy closure and regenerate desired species, despite a lack of information regarding tree mortality, scarring, and growth in residual stands. Our study compared stand- and tree-level responses after two prescribed burns across four treatments...

  2. Risk factors of oak decline and regional mortality patterns in the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri

    Treesearch

    Martin A. Spetich; Zhaofei Fan; Xiuli Fan; Hong He; Stephen R. Shifley; W. Keith Moser

    2011-01-01

    Since the late 1970s, oak decline and mortality have plagued Midwestern-upland oak-hickory forests, particularly species in the red oak group (Quercus Section Lobatae) across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas, and Oklahoma (Dwyer and others 1995). Drought is a common inciting factor in oak decline, while advanced tree age is considered a...

  3. Tree species associations of Pinus echinata mill. over a large-scale sampling regime on the interior highlands of Arkansas

    Treesearch

    James F., Jr. Rosson

    2007-01-01

    The Interior Highlands physiographic province of Arkansas is considered the ecological center of the geographic distribution of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.). I used data from the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program to identify the major tree species associates of P. echinata across this 66,700-...

  4. Highland Russet: A Full Season, Processing Variety with High Yields of Uniform U.S. No. 1 Tubers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Highland Russet is a late-season potato variety with light russet skin notable for its high yield of uniform U.S. No. 1 tubers, and good processing and culinary qualities. It resulted from a 1990 cross between Ranger Russet and Russet Legend and has been evaluated for over 15 years in public and ind...

  5. COMPARING STRENGTHS OF GEOGRAPHIC AND NONGEOGRAPHIC CLASSIFICATIONS OF STREAM BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES IN THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) sampled - 500 wadeable streams in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands region of the US during the late spring of 1993 to 1995 for a variety of physical, chemical, and biological indicat...

  6. West Meets East in Malaysia and Singapore. Participants' Papers. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program 1999 (Malaysia and Singapore).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaysian-American Commission on Educational Exchange, Kuala Lumpur.

    These projects were completed by participants in the Fulbright-Hays summer seminar in Malaysia and Singapore in 1999. The participants represented various regions of the U.S. and different grade levels and subject areas. The seminar offered a comprehensive overview of how the people of Malaysia and Singapore live, work, and strive towards their…

  7. Neonatal morbidity and mortality in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abdul Kader, H

    1983-12-01

    Neonatal morbidity and mortality in Peninsular Malaysia are still major heath problems. Although there has been steady decline in neonatal mortality over the years since 1955, the rate of decline has been encouragingly more rapid over the most recent period studies, e.g. 1975-1980. As a component of infant deaths, the proportion of early neonatal deaths has increased from 20.7% in 1955 to 50.6% in 1980. The incidence of low birth weight is about 10.5 to 11%, although this too shows signs of gradually decreasing. More than 1/3 of the babies born did not have their birth weights recorded. Those not recorded are assumed to be those babies delivered at home by traditional birth attendants. Mortality rates decreased with increasing birth weights. Low birth weights are high among Indian and Malay communities in Ma.laysia and these groups also have higher neonatal mortality rates compared to the Chinese for the same time period. Low birth weight babies are born more frequently to mothers 15-24 years of age independent of ethnic background. First borns tend to be more frequently of low birth weight among all 3 ethnic groups. Principal causes of death are difficult to assess because of the scarcity of a standardized classification of these deaths; consented autopsies are difficult to obtain and the services of perinatal pathologists are not available. In addition, approximately 45% of the deaths are non-medically inspected or certified. The clinical classification of neonatal deaths used at the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, indicate that asphyxia, surfactant deficiency disease (respiratory distress syndrome) and bacterial sepsis are responsible for about 70% of the total neonatal deaths; meconium aspiration syndrome accounted for another 8-9%. Although data relating to neonatal mortality is not optimal in Malaysia, there is enough to suggest that new strategies are needed to improve maternity and newborn care.

  8. The economic burden of schizophrenia in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Siew Li; Chong, Huey Yi; Abdul Aziz, Salina; Chemi, Norliza; Othman, Abdul Razak; Md Zaki, Nurzuriana; Vanichkulpitak, Possatorn; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a highly debilitating disease despite its low prevalence. The economic burden associated with SCZ is substantial and mainly attributed to productivity loss. To improve the understanding of economic burden of SCZ in the low- and middle-income country regions, we aimed to determine the economic burden of SCZ in Malaysia. A retrospective study was conducted using a prevalence-based approach from a societal perspective in Malaysia with a 1 year period from 2013. We used micro-costing technique with bottom-up method and included direct medical cost, direct non-medical cost, and indirect cost. The main data source was medical chart review which was conducted in Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL). The medical charts were identified electronically by matching the unique patient's identification number registered under the National Mental Health Schizophrenia Registry and the list of patients in HKL in 2013. Other data sources were government documents, literatures, and local websites. To ensure robustness of result, probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted. The total estimated number of treated SCZ cases in Malaysia in 2015 was 15,104 with the total economic burden of USD 100 million (M) which was equivalent to 0.04% of the national gross domestic product. On average, the mean cost per patient was USD 6,594. Of the total economic burden of SCZ, 72% was attributed to indirect cost, costing at USD 72M, followed by direct medical cost (26%), costing at USD 26M, and direct non-medical cost (2%), costing at USD 1.7M. This study highlights the magnitude of economic burden of SCZ and informs the policy-makers that there is an inadequate support for SCZ patients. More resources should be allocated to improve the condition of SCZ patients and to reduce the economic burden.

  9. The economic burden of schizophrenia in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Teoh, Siew Li; Chong, Huey Yi; Abdul Aziz, Salina; Chemi, Norliza; Othman, Abdul Razak; Md Zaki, Nurzuriana; Vanichkulpitak, Possatorn; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a highly debilitating disease despite its low prevalence. The economic burden associated with SCZ is substantial and mainly attributed to productivity loss. To improve the understanding of economic burden of SCZ in the low- and middle-income country regions, we aimed to determine the economic burden of SCZ in Malaysia. Methods A retrospective study was conducted using a prevalence-based approach from a societal perspective in Malaysia with a 1 year period from 2013. We used micro-costing technique with bottom-up method and included direct medical cost, direct non-medical cost, and indirect cost. The main data source was medical chart review which was conducted in Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL). The medical charts were identified electronically by matching the unique patient’s identification number registered under the National Mental Health Schizophrenia Registry and the list of patients in HKL in 2013. Other data sources were government documents, literatures, and local websites. To ensure robustness of result, probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted. Results The total estimated number of treated SCZ cases in Malaysia in 2015 was 15,104 with the total economic burden of USD 100 million (M) which was equivalent to 0.04% of the national gross domestic product. On average, the mean cost per patient was USD 6,594. Of the total economic burden of SCZ, 72% was attributed to indirect cost, costing at USD 72M, followed by direct medical cost (26%), costing at USD 26M, and direct non-medical cost (2%), costing at USD 1.7M. Conclusion This study highlights the magnitude of economic burden of SCZ and informs the policy-makers that there is an inadequate support for SCZ patients. More resources should be allocated to improve the condition of SCZ patients and to reduce the economic burden. PMID:28814869

  10. Aging in Multi-ethnic Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tey, Nai Peng; Siraj, Saedah Binti; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah Binti; Chin, Ai Vyrn; Tan, Maw Pin; Sinnappan, Glaret Shirley; Müller, Andre Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Multiethnic Malaysia provides a unique case study of divergence in population aging of different sociocultural subgroups within a country. Malaysia represents 3 major ethnicities in Asia-the Malay, Chinese, and Indian. The 3 ethnic groups are at different stages of population aging, as they have undergone demographic transition at different pace amidst rapid social and economic changes. Between 1991 and 2010, the Malaysian population aged 60 and over has more than doubled from about 1 million to 2.2 million, and this is projected to rise to about 7 million or 17.6% of the projected population of 40 million by 2040. In 2010, the aging index ranged from 22.8% among the Bumiputera (Malays and other indigenous groups), to 31.4% among the Indians and 55.0% among the Chinese. Population aging provides great challenges for Malaysia's social and economic development. The increasing prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in older adults, coupled with the erosion of the traditional family support system has increased demands on health care services with an overwhelming need for multidisciplinary and specialized geriatric care. Following the adoption of the National Policy for the Elderly in 1995, issues of population aging have gained increasing attention, especially among researchers. There is an urgent need to increase public awareness, develop infrastructure, as well as support action oriented research that will directly translate to comprehensive and cohesive social strategies, policies, and legislation to protect not just the current older Malaysians but the future of all Malaysians. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Attitudes of GPs towards Older Adults Psychology Services in the Scottish Highlands.

    PubMed

    Todman, Jonathan P F; Law, Jim; MacDougall, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The mental health of older adults is of increasing concern in an aging population and GPs are frequently the gatekeepers to specialist mental health services. Psychotherapy, social interventions and bibliotherapy all have an evidence-base for treating depression and anxiety in the elderly, as does pharmacological treatment. However, the referral rate from GPs for an Older Adults Clinical Psychology service in the Scottish Highlands in the months prior to the study had been very low and the reasons for this were not clear. General practitioners may have felt that depression and anxiety are 'understandable' in older adults and are therefore unsuitable for treatment, or they may have felt that psycho-pharmacotherapy treatments are more effective than the psychotherapy treatment options. Alternatively, local issues associated with the remote location of many NHS Highland GP practices and patients may have prevented them referring. Therefore, the current study aimed to elicit the therapeutic preferences of Highland GPs, the perceived availability of these options and an estimate of the prevalence of older adults in the area suffering from mild or moderate mental health problems. Questionnaires including brief quantitative and qualitative questions were sent to all 284 GPs in the area with 119 (46%) were completed and returned. Responses from GPs suggested that many patients with depression or anxiety may not be referred. The GPs indicated that social therapeutic options are seen to be as effective as pharmacological options and more effective than other psychological and bibliotherapy options. However, GPs indicated that they were substantially more likely to prescribe pharmacological options than other forms of therapy. The GPs suggested that lower waiting times and a more localised service would increase the likelihood of a referral being made. The current study suggests that low awareness of psychological service provision among GPs may have resulted in fewer

  12. The origin of water in the primitive Moon as revealed by the lunar highlands samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jessica J.; Tartèse, Romain; Anand, Mahesh; McCubbin, Francis M.; Franchi, Ian A.; Starkey, Natalie A.; Russell, Sara S.

    2014-03-01

    The recent discoveries of hydrogen (H) bearing species on the lunar surface and in samples derived from the lunar interior have necessitated a paradigm shift in our understanding of the water inventory of the Moon, which was previously considered to be a ‘bone-dry’ planetary body. Most sample-based studies have focused on assessing the water contents of the younger mare basalts and pyroclastic glasses, which are partial-melting products of the lunar mantle. In contrast, little attention has been paid to the inventory and source(s) of water in the lunar highlands rocks which are some of the oldest and most pristine materials available for laboratory investigations, and that have the potential to reveal the original history of water in the Earth-Moon system. Here, we report in-situ measurements of hydroxyl (OH) content and H isotopic composition of the mineral apatite from four lunar highlands samples (two norites, a troctolite, and a granite clast) collected during the Apollo missions. Apart from troctolite in which the measured OH contents in apatite are close to our analytical detection limit and its H isotopic composition appears to be severely compromised by secondary processes, we have measured up to ˜2200 ppm OH in the granite clast with a weighted average δD of ˜ -105±130‰, and up to ˜3400 ppm OH in the two norites (77215 and 78235) with weighted average δD values of -281±49‰ and -27±98‰, respectively. The apatites in the granite clast and the norites are characterised by higher OH contents than have been reported so far for highlands samples, and have H isotopic compositions similar to those of terrestrial materials and some carbonaceous chondrites, providing one of the strongest pieces of evidence yet for a common origin for water in the Earth-Moon system. In addition, the presence of water, of terrestrial affinity, in some samples of the earliest-formed lunar crust suggests that either primordial terrestrial water survived the aftermath

  13. Surveying the Newly Digitized Apollo Metric Images for Highland Fault Scarps on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, N. R.; Pritchard, M. E.; Bell, J. F.; Watters, T. R.; Robinson, M. S.; Lawrence, S.

    2009-12-01

    The presence and distribution of thrust faults on the Moon have major implications for lunar formation and thermal evolution. For example, thermal history models for the Moon imply that most of the lunar interior was initially hot. As the Moon cooled over time, some models predict global-scale thrust faults should form as stress builds from global thermal contraction. Large-scale thrust fault scarps with lengths of hundreds of kilometers and maximum relief of up to a kilometer or more, like those on Mercury, are not found on the Moon; however, relatively small-scale linear and curvilinear lobate scarps with maximum lengths typically around 10 km have been observed in the highlands [Binder and Gunga, Icarus, v63, 1985]. These small-scale scarps are interpreted to be thrust faults formed by contractional stresses with relatively small maximum (tens of meters) displacements on the faults. These narrow, low relief landforms could only be identified in the highest resolution Lunar Orbiter and Apollo Panoramic Camera images and under the most favorable lighting conditions. To date, the global distribution and other properties of lunar lobate faults are not well understood. The recent micron-resolution scanning and digitization of the Apollo Mapping Camera (Metric) photographic negatives [Lawrence et al., NLSI Conf. #1415, 2008; http://wms.lroc.asu.edu/apollo] provides a new dataset to search for potential scarps. We examined more than 100 digitized Metric Camera image scans, and from these identified 81 images with favorable lighting (incidence angles between about 55 and 80 deg.) to manually search for features that could be potential tectonic scarps. Previous surveys based on Panoramic Camera and Lunar Orbiter images found fewer than 100 lobate scarps in the highlands; in our Apollo Metric Camera image survey, we have found additional regions with one or more previously unidentified linear and curvilinear features on the lunar surface that may represent lobate thrust

  14. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wegayehu, Teklu; Tsalla, Tsegaye; Seifu, Belete; Teklu, Takele

    2013-02-18

    Epidemiological information on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in different regions is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control strategies. Therefore, this present study was conducted to assess the magnitude and pattern of intestinal parasitism in highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia. Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2010 and July 2011 at Lante, Kolla Shelle, Dorze and Geressie kebeles of Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia. The study sites and study participants were selected using multistage sampling method. Data were gathered through house-to-house survey. A total of 858 stool specimens were collected and processed using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques for the presence of parasite. Out of the total examined subjects, 342(39.9%) were found positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was the highest 98(11.4%), followed by Giardia lamblia 91(10.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides 67(7.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis 51(5.9%), hookworm 42(4.9%), Trichuris trichiura 24(2.8%), Taenia species 18(2.1%), Hymenolepis nana 7(0.6%) and Schistosoma mansoni 1(0.12%). No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among lowland (37.9%) and highland dwellers (42.3%) (P = 0.185). The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was not significantly different among the study sites but it was relatively higher in Geressie (42.8%) than other kebeles. Sex was not associated with parasitic infections (P = 0.481). No statistically significant difference of infection was observed among the age groups (P = 0.228) but it was higher in reproductive age group. The high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the lowland and highland dwellers in Gamo area indicated that parasitic infections are important public health problems. Thus, infection control measures and the

  15. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the eastern highlands of Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Eastern Highlands area of Papua New Guinea (PNG) has a rich tradition of medicinal plant use. However, rapid modernization is resulting in the loss of independent language traditions and consequently a loss of individuals knowledgeable in medicinal plant use. This report represents a program to document and preserve traditional knowledge concerning medicinal plant use in PNG. This report documents and compares traditional plant use in the Eastern Highlands districts of Unggai-Bena, Okapa, and Obura-Wonenara, and puts these new records in context of previously documented PNG medicinal plant use. Methods This manuscript is an annotated combination of Traditional Medicines survey reports generated by UPNG trainees using a survey questionnaire titled “Information sheet on traditional herbal reparations and medicinal plants of PNG”. The Traditional Medicines survey project is supported by WHO, US NIH and PNG governmental health care initiatives and funding. Results Overall, after “poisoning” (synonymous with “magic”) the most commonly recorded ailments addressed by medicinal plant use were pain, gynecological disease, gastrointestinal maladies, anemia or malnutrition and malaria. However, the recorded indications for plant use varied widely amongst the different survey locations. Unlike many areas of PNG, mixing of ingredients was the most common mode of preparation recorded, except for two areas where the consumption of fresh plant material was more common. Throughout the Eastern Highlands oral administration was most common, with topical application second. Overall, leaves were most commonly used in the preparations of the healers interviewed, followed by bark and stems. Several new medicinal uses of plants were also documented. Conclusions Collaboration between the WHO, UPNG and the PNG Department of Health initiated Traditional Medicine survey program in order to preserve traditional knowledge concerning medicinal plant use in PNG. This

  16. The burden of terrorism in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abul Aziz, Azhar

    2003-01-01

    In the peace-loving, moderate and progressive country of Muslim-dominated Malaysia, violence generally is alien to the culture. Terrorism initially took shape during the post-independence, communist era by jungle recalcitrant actions. In recent years, this has been superceded by a more internationally related trend of violence. Only very few incidents were based locally, while the majority were linked to international groups or organizations abroad, including the Kumpulan Mujahidin Malaysia (KMM), Jemaah Islamiyah (JI), and the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG). Kidnapping with ransom seemed to have been the most commone modus operandi, while killing and robbery accounted for very few of these incidents. The number of victims in each event so far has been small, and smaller for those physically harmed or killed. This pattern of terrorist attacks suggests that the current level of provision of emergency medical services is sufficient to handle such incidents. Recent advances in local emergency medicine also have witnessed the establishment of various teaching and training modules, a pivotal role played by university hospitals and supported by the Ministry of Health. However, the spate of ongoing events of mass destruction such as the conflict in Israel/Palestine, wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, the World Trade Center and Pentagon tragedies of 11 September 2001, and the Bali bombing in Indonesia, remain as great concerns to Malaysians. Both the government and the people of Malaysia abhor such unjustified uses of terror, and take every measure to curtail them. The National Security Council policies of Arahan No. 18 and Arahan No. 20 detail specific roles and responsibilities of various agencies in managing terrorism and disasters respectively, while the use of the stern Internal Security Act that allows indefinite detention without trial, evidently has been an efficient intelligence and security apparatus. With more recent developments of terrorist events regionally and globally

  17. Anisakiasis Causing Acute Dysentery in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Amir, Amirah; Ngui, Romano; Ismail, Wan Hafiz Wan; Wong, Kum T; Ong, Jaxinthe S K; Lim, Yvonne A L; Lau, Yee-Ling; Mahmud, Rohela

    2016-08-03

    Human anisakiasis is a zoonosis acquired by eating raw or undercooked infected seafood. Herein, we report a case of acute dysentery caused by anisakiasis in a 64-year-old man in Malaysia. A colonoscopy was performed and a nematode larva was found penetrating the mucosa of the ascending colon. Bleeding was observed at the site of penetration. Y-shaped lateral epidermal cords were seen from the cross section of the worm, which is a prominent feature of Anisakis larva. Molecular analysis using polymerase chain reaction of cytochrome oxidase 2 (cox2) gene confirmed the specimen to be larva of Anisakis simplex. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Urban squatting and migration in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, M

    1983-01-01

    "This article examines some of the links between the phenomena of urban migration and squatter settlements in the Third World city. This will be done by demonstrating that both are outcomes of fundamental social and political forces that have operated on these societies. Migration and squatting are placed in a context of the historical processes that led to the uneven development of Malaysia. The article offers some explanation for the origin of the inequalities observed in spatial structures--in this case urban housing--by focusing on one of the contributory factors, namely migration." excerpt

  19. Origin of the lunar highlands Mg-suite: An integrated petrology, geochemistry, chronology, and remote sensing perspective

    DOE PAGES

    Shearer, C. K.; Elardo, S. M.; Petro, N. E.; ...

    2014-12-23

    The Mg-suite represents an enigmatic episode of lunar highlands magmatism that presumably represents the first stage of crustal building following primordial differentiation. This review examines the mineralogy, geochemistry, petrology, chronology, and the planetary-scale distribution of this suite of highlands plutonic rocks, presents models for their origin, examines petrogenetic relationships to other highlands rocks, and explores the link between this style of magmatism and early stages of lunar differentiation. Of the models considered for the origin of the parent magmas for the Mg-suite, the data best fit a process in which hot (solidus temperature at ≥2 GPa = 1600 to 1800more » °C) and less dense (r ~3100 kg/m3) early lunar magma ocean cumulates rise to the base of the crust during cumulate pile overturn. Some decompressional melting would occur, but placing a hot cumulate horizon adjacent to the plagioclase-rich primordial crust and KREEP-rich lithologies (at temperatures of <1300 °C) would result in the hybridization of these divergent primordial lithologies, producing Mg-suite parent magmas. As urKREEP (primeval KREEP) is not the “petrologic driver” of this style of magmatism, outside of the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), Mg-suite magmas are not required to have a KREEP signature. Evaluation of the chronology of this episode of highlands evolution indicates that Mg-suite magmatism was initiated soon after primordial differentiation (<10 m.y.). Alternatively, the thermal event associated with the mantle overturn may have disrupted the chronometers utilized to date the primordial crust. Petrogenetic relationships between the Mg-suite and other highlands suites (e.g., alkali-suite and magnesian anorthositic granulites) are consistent with both fractional crystallization processes and melting of distinctly different hybrid sources.« less

  20. Three-dimensional geometric morphometric analysis of talar morphology in extant gorilla taxa from highland and lowland habitats.

    PubMed

    Knigge, Ryan P; Tocheri, Matthew W; Orr, Caley M; Mcnulty, Kieran P

    2015-01-01

    Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) are known to climb significantly more often than eastern gorillas (Gorilla beringei), a behavioral distinction attributable to major differences in their respective habitats (i.e., highland vs. lowland). Genetic evidence suggests that the lineages leading to these taxa began diverging from one another between approximately 1 and 3 million years ago. Thus, gorillas offer a special opportunity to examine the degree to which morphology of recently diverged taxa may be "fine-tuned" to differing ecological requirements. Using three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometrics, we compared talar morphology in a sample of 87 specimens including western (lowland), mountain (highland), and grauer gorillas (lowland and highland populations). Talar shape was captured with a series of landmarks and semilandmarks superimposed by generalized Procrustes analysis. A between-group principal components analysis of overall talar shape separates gorillas by ecological habitat and by taxon. An analysis of only the trochlea and lateral malleolar facet identifies subtle variations in trochlear shape between western lowland and lowland grauer gorillas, potentially indicative of convergent evolution of arboreal adaptations in the talus. Lastly, talar shape scales differently with centroid size for highland and lowland gorillas, suggesting that ankle morphology may track body-size mediated variation in arboreal behaviors differently depending on ecological setting. Several of the observed shape differences are linked biomechanically to the facilitation of climbing in lowland gorillas and to stability and load-bearing on terrestrial substrates in the highland taxa, providing an important comparative model for studying morphological variation in groups known only from fossils (e.g., early hominins). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Isotopic investigation of rivers runoff in glaciated regions of the central Asian arid highlands (southeastern Altai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bantcev, Dmitrii; Ganushkin, Dmitriy; Ekaykin, Alexey; Chistyakov, Kirill

    2017-04-01

    Stable isotopes investigations were carried out during fieldwork in glacier basins of the Mongun-Taiga (southwestern Tuva) and Tsambagarav (northwestern Mongolia) mountain massifs in July, 2016. These Arid highlands are problematic in the context of provision of water resources, and glaciers here play a large part in nourishment of the rivers. Concentrations of the oxygen 18, deuterium and the mineralization were measured in the samples of meltwater, precipitation, water from streams, ice and snow. Sable isotope method was used for separation of the glacier runoff. Average isotopic characteristics for different water sources, such as glacier ice, snow patches and precipitation, were calculated and the contribution of these sources in total runoff was valued. Isotopic method was also used for estimation of contribution of buried ice meltwater from rock glaciers ice cores.

  2. Geochemistry of the lunar highlands as revealed by measurements of thermal neutrons.

    PubMed

    Peplowski, Patrick N; Beck, Andrew W; Lawrence, David J

    2016-03-01

    Thermal neutron emissions from the lunar surface provide a direct measure of bulk elemental composition that can be used to constrain the chemical properties of near-surface (depth <1 m) lunar materials. We present a new calibration of the Lunar Prospector thermal neutron map, providing a direct link between measured count rates and bulk elemental composition. The data are used to examine the chemical and mineralogical composition of the lunar surface, with an emphasis on constraining the plagioclase concentration across the highlands. We observe that the regions of lowest neutron absorption, which correspond to estimated plagioclase concentrations of >85%, are generally associated with large impact basins and are colocated with clusters of nearly pure plagioclase identified with spectral reflectance data.

  3. Distribution and provenance of lunar highland rock types at North Ray Crater, Apollo 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, D.; Ostertag, R.; Borchardt, R.; Malley, J.; Rehfeldt, A.; Reimold, W. U.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with its selenographic setting in the central lunar highlands, the Apollo 16 landing site in the Descartes area is highly important as a prime sampling area for rocks which formed as part of the primordial crust and as a key location for the analysis of the deformation and transport of crustal material by impact processes. The present investigation is concerned with the North Ray crater, which is located on the N-S running boundary between the smooth Cayley plains to the west and the Descartes mountains to the east. Attention is given to aspects of selenography and location of samples, the ejecta distribution of post-Cayley impact craters, sample classification, the frequency distribution of rock types in the North Ray Crater ejecta, an interpretation of compositional and age data, a model of the target stratigraphy and excavation of North Ray Crater, and implications for the emplacement and provenance of North Ray target rocks.

  4. Regional tectonic analysis of Venus equatorial highlands and comparison with Earth-based Magellan radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David R.; Wetherill, George

    1993-01-01

    Research on regional tectonic analysis of Venus equatorial highlands and comparison with earth-based and Magellan radar images is presented. Over the past two years, the tectonic analysis of Venus performed centered on global properties of the planet, in order to understand fundamental aspects of the dynamics of the mantle and lithosphere of Venus. These include studies pertaining to the original constitutive and thermal character of the planet, as well as the evolution of Venus through time, and the present day tectonics. Parameterized convection models of the Earth and Venus were developed. The parameterized convection code was reformulated to model Venus with an initially hydrous mantle to determine how the cold-trap could affect the evolution of the planet.

  5. Ethnomedical treatment of children's diarrheal illnesses in the highlands of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    McKee, L

    1987-01-01

    In rural communities in the Ecuadorian Highlands, gastrointestinal disease is the leading cause of death. This paper proposes a model of the world view that specifies the factors that condition illness or health and a traditional taxonomy that relies on certain criteria to categorize three classes of diarrhea. These determine whether ethnomedical or medical treatment will be used to 'cure' a child. The three illness classes: diarrhea produced by supernatural forces, by humoral imbalances, and by 'infection' differ etiologically. The ambient air and its temperatures, the constitution, humoral state and overt personality characteristics (character) of the individual, and the predelictions of the evil spirits that seek to sap their vital essence all figure in the origins of illness. The model of the world view is related to a folk taxonomy, which, it is asserted, provides a charter for families' responses to child illness, that more often than not, are appropriate under the economic conditions they suffer.

  6. Scientific exploration of low-gravity planetary bodies using the Highland Terrain Hopper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mège, D.; Grygorczuk, J.; Gurgurewicz, J.; Wiśniewski, Ł.; Rickman, H.; Banaszkiewicz, M.; Kuciński, T.; Skocki, K.

    2013-09-01

    Field geoscientists need to collect three-dimensional data in order characterise the lithologic succession and structure of terrains, recontruct their evolution, and eventually reveal the history of a portion of the planet. This is achieved by walking up and down mountains and valleys, interpreting geological and geophysical traverses, and reading measures made at station located at key sites on mountain peaks or rocky promontories. These activities have been denied to conventional planetary exploration rovers because engineering constraints for landing are strong, especially in terms of allowed terrain roughness and slopes. The Highland Terrain Hopper, a new, light and robust locomotion system, addresses the challenge of accessing most areas on low-gravity planetary body for performing scientific observations and measurements, alone or as part of a hopper commando. Examples of geological applications on Mars and the Moon are given.

  7. Cordierite-spinel troctolite, a new magnesium-rich lithology from the lunar highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, Ursula B.; Carey, J. William; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.

    1989-01-01

    A clast of spineltroctolite containing 8 percent cordierite (Mg2,Al4Si5O18) has been identified among the constituents of Apollo 15 regolith breccia 15295. The cordierite and associated anorthite, forsteritic olivine, and pleonaste spinel represent a new, Mg-rich lunar highlands lithology that formed by metamorphism of an igneous spinel cumulate. The cordierite-forsterite pair in the assemblage is stable at a maximum pressure of 2.5 kilobars, equivalent to a depth of 50 kilometers, or 10 kilometers above the lunar crust-mantle boundary. The occurrence of the clast indicates that spinel cumulates are a more important constituent of the lower lunar crust than has been recognized. The rarity of cordierite-spinel troctolite among lunar rock samples suggests that it is excavated only by large impact events, such as the one that formed the adjacent Imbrium Basin.

  8. Cordierite-spinel troctolite, a new magnesium-rich lithology from the lunar highlands.

    PubMed

    Marvin, U B; Carey, J W; Lindstrom, M M

    1989-02-17

    A clast of spinel troctolite containing 8 percent cordierite (Mg(2)Al(4)Si(5)O(18)) has been identified among the constituents of Apollo 15 regolith breccia 15295. The cordierite and associated anorthite, forsteritic olivine, and pleonaste spinel represent a new, Mg-rich lunar highlands lithology that formed by metamorphism of an igneous spinel cumulate. The cordierite-forsterite pair in the assemblage is stable at a maximum pressure of 2.5 kilobars, equivalent to a depth of 50 kilometers, or 10 kilometers above the lunar crust-mantle boundary. The occurrence of the clast indicates that spinel cumulates are a more important constituent of the lower lunar crust than has been recognized. The rarity of cordierite-spinel troctolite among lunar rock samples suggests that it is excavated only by large impact events, such as the one that formed the adjacent Imbrium Basin.

  9. Geochemistry of the lunar highlands as revealed by measurements of thermal neutrons

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Andrew W.; Lawrence, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Thermal neutron emissions from the lunar surface provide a direct measure of bulk elemental composition that can be used to constrain the chemical properties of near‐surface (depth <1 m) lunar materials. We present a new calibration of the Lunar Prospector thermal neutron map, providing a direct link between measured count rates and bulk elemental composition. The data are used to examine the chemical and mineralogical composition of the lunar surface, with an emphasis on constraining the plagioclase concentration across the highlands. We observe that the regions of lowest neutron absorption, which correspond to estimated plagioclase concentrations of >85%, are generally associated with large impact basins and are colocated with clusters of nearly pure plagioclase identified with spectral reflectance data. PMID:27830110

  10. Engima of a thermal anomaly - A TM/AVHRR study of the volcanic Arabian highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blodget, H. W.; Andre, C. G.; Masuoka, P. M.

    1987-01-01

    Discovery of a large thermal anomaly in the western Arabian highlands on Landsat TM imagery is reported. The anomaly, 15 C warmer than surroundings, forms a 2-km-wide arc around the southern flank of Jebel Chada, a volcano active in 1256 AD. It is recorded by AVHRR imagery as well, despite the 1.1-km spatial resolution of this sensor. Air photos and geologic maps show no bedrock unit that corresponds to the anomaly. Digital techniques were applied to the TM and AVHRR data, including contrast enhancement, density slicing, principal components analysis, and construction of multiband composite images. It is concluded that the anomaly results from a thin cover of volcanic ash or cinder that is optically indistinguishable from underlying basalt, rather than from internal (volcanic or hydrologic) heat sources.

  11. Lake trout demographics in relation to burbot and coregonine populations in the Algonquin Highlands, Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carl, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that lake trout populations change in relation to cisco, lake whitefish, round whitefish and burbot populations in lakes in the Algonquin Highlands region of Ontario. Lake trout population change is greatest where cisco and lake whitefish are present. Lake trout populations in lakes without either coregonine tend to have small adults and many juveniles. Where cisco or lake whitefish are present, adult lake trout are large, juvenile abundance is low, and the stock-recruit relationship appears to be uncoupled likely due to a larval bottleneck. Lake trout populations in these lakes may be sensitive to overfishing and recruitment failure. Lake trout populations do not appear to change in relation to round whitefish. There appears to be an indirect positive change on juvenile lake trout abundance through reductions in the density of benthic coregonines in the presence of large, hypolimnetic burbot. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. Ancient Astronomical Hieroglyphs of the Armenian Highland and their Echo in Architectural Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter-Gulanyan, Ani

    2014-10-01

    The credo-spiritual structure formed as a result of astronomical knowledge in the Armenian Highland and recognition of the universe, with its symbolistic signs - which, in our opinion, were expressed in particular by astronomic horoscope hieroglyphs - have had their worship and spiritual speculative feedback both in architecture and in different other arts, especially in symbolic jewelry. A visible link is noticed between the shift of constellations and the civilization development phases. Identification of archeological sources gives the ground to conclude that Armenia has been one of the centers of astronomy. The astronomical signs, having a local origin and having formed ancient astronomical-worship, spiritual-credo structure, have found the feedback of its developments also in other biospheres with respective unique manifestations, in both ancient pagan church architecture and the Christian church architecture, both as a volume form and as a spiritual ideology, with its credosymbolistic signs.

  13. Development of an integrated and sustainable rural service for people with diabetes in the Scottish Highlands.

    PubMed

    Cramp, Geoffrey J

    2006-01-01

    The number of people with diabetes is increasing leading to a greater burden on health care services. The impact of the growing prevalence is accentuated by remote and rural demographic and geographic characteristics. Highland is a sparsely populated remote and rural area in the north of Scotland, characterised by poor access to health-care services and pockets of marked deprivation. Centralised policy developments demanding local implementation compounded the pressures on a system that already had waiting times of over 90 weeks for some people with diabetes. A regional review of services, engaging stakeholders from all disciplines and geographical locations was required to develop acceptable and sustainable solutions. This article describes the extensive mapping process involved, how solutions were derived, and suggests a new service structure to encompass remote health-care issues. Health-care professionals with an interest in diabetes were identified and workshops were organised to include the remote areas of Highland. Patient and carers views were ascertained through workshops and supplemented by written submissions. Using the redesign methodology the patient pathway was mapped, noting service deficiencies and good practice. The information gathered was constructed into a service-level map representing the patient journey. A conference was organised to develop solutions to the issues raised during the mapping process. From these solutions a new service configuration was constructed. Over 300 health-care professionals patients and carers contributed. Fourteen workshops were held across the region including the remote areas, providing 15 local maps of the patient pathways subsequently amalgamated into a service-level map. The current patient pathway in Highland follows a traditional and dichotomous cycle of care in the primary and secondary care setting, partly reflecting the rural nature of healthcare in the Highlands. Four main areas for service improvement

  14. Village-based primary health care in the Central Highlands of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Barrett, B; Ladinsky, J; Volk, N

    2001-02-01

    This paper describes the first year of an ongoing village health care and economic development project in the Krong Buk district of Dak Lak province in Vietnam's Central Highlands. The project serves 21 villages with a total population of just over 15,000. Most belong to ethnic minority groups. Physicians from the province capital of Boun Me Thuot were trained by a multi-disciplinary team of American health care workers to be trainers and supervisors of 21 village health care workers (VHWs). Two months later, a VHW from each village was trained in primary and preventive health care by the physician-supervisors. Since this initial training, each VHW has been provided with materials, medicines and monthly supervision by the physician-supervisors. The health care component has been complemented by an economic development project based on a system of small loans. Data from the first year of monthly reports and from a baseline survey are presented in this paper.

  15. Radiocesium accumulation in mosses from highlands of Serbia and Montenegro: chemical and physiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Dragović, S; Nedić, O; Stanković, S; Bacić, G

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was (i) to determine the activity levels of 137Cs in mosses from highland ecosystems of Serbia and Montenegro, (ii) to find out if radiocesium is associated with essential biomacromolecules, and (iii) to investigate 137Cs distribution among intracellular compartments. It was found that biomolecules of mosses do not bind significant amounts of radiocesium (2.3-3.3% of the absorbed 137Cs), a behavior that was independent of the moss species. Cellular fractionation of mosses showed that membranes are the primary 137Cs-binding sites at the cellular level. They contained 26.1-43.1% of the initial radiocesium activity. It seems that 137Cs-binding molecules in different mosses are of similar chemical nature, and their distribution between various cellular compartments is not species specific.

  16. Phenotypic plasticity in blood–oxygen transport in highland and lowland deer mice

    PubMed Central

    Tufts, Danielle M.; Revsbech, Inge G.; Cheviron, Zachary A.; Weber, Roy E.; Fago, Angela; Storz, Jay F.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In vertebrates living at high altitude, arterial hypoxemia may be ameliorated by reversible changes in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood (regulated by erythropoiesis) and/or changes in blood–oxygen affinity (regulated by allosteric effectors of hemoglobin function). These hematological traits often differ between taxa that are native to different elevational zones, but it is often unknown whether the observed physiological differences reflect fixed, genetically based differences or environmentally induced acclimatization responses (phenotypic plasticity). Here, we report measurements of hematological traits related to blood–O2 transport in populations of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) that are native to high- and low-altitude environments. We conducted a common-garden breeding experiment to assess whether altitude-related physiological differences were attributable to developmental plasticity and/or physiological plasticity during adulthood. Under conditions prevailing in their native habitats, high-altitude deer mice from the Rocky Mountains exhibited a number of pronounced hematological differences relative to low-altitude conspecifics from the Great Plains: higher hemoglobin concentrations, higher hematocrits, higher erythrocytic concentrations of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (an allosteric regulator of hemoglobin–oxygen affinity), lower mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations and smaller red blood cells. However, these differences disappeared after 6 weeks of acclimation to normoxia at low altitude. The measured traits were also indistinguishable between the F1 progeny of highland and lowland mice, indicating that there were no persistent differences in phenotype that could be attributed to developmental plasticity. These results indicate that the naturally occurring hematological differences between highland and lowland mice are environmentally induced and are largely attributable to physiological plasticity during adulthood. PMID

  17. Increase in slow-wave vasomotion by hypoxia and ischemia in lowlanders and highlanders.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Paolo; Faini, Andrea; Castiglioni, Paolo; Brunacci, Fausto; Montaguti, Luca; Severi, Francesca; Gautier, Sylvie; Pretolani, Enzo; Benetos, Athanase; Parati, Gianfranco

    2018-06-21

    The physiological relevance of slow-wave vasomotion is still unclear, even it has been hypothesized it could be a compensatory mechanism enhancing tissue oxygenation in conditions of reduced oxygen supply. Aim of our study was to explore the effects of hypoxia and ischemia on slow-wave vasomotion in microcirculation. Peripheral oxygen saturation and forearm microcirculation flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry) were recorded at baseline and during post-occlusive reactive hyperemia in the Himalaya region from 8 European lowlanders (6 males; aged 29-39yrs) at 1350, 3400 and 5050m, and from 10 Nepalese male highlanders (aged 21-39yrs) at 3400 and 5050m of altitude. The same measurements were also performed at sea level in 16 healthy volunteers (aged 23-61yrs) during a short-term exposure to normobaric hypoxia. In lowlanders, exposure to progressively higher altitude under baseline flow conditions progressively increased 0.06-0.15Hz vasomotion amplitude [power spectral density % expressed as geometric means (geometric standard deviation) =14.0(3.6) at 1350m; 87.0(2.3) at 3400m and 249.8(3.6) at 5050m, p=0.006 and p<0.001 vs 1350m, respectively]. In highlanders, low frequency vasomotion amplitude was similarly enhanced at different altitudes [power spectral density % =183.4(4.1) at 3400m vs 236.0(3.0) at 5050m, p=0.139]. In both groups at altitude it was further increased after ischemic stimulus (p<0.001). At baseline, acute short lasting normobaric hypoxia did not induce low frequency vasomotion, which was conversely induced by ischemia even under normal oxygenation and barometric pressure. This study offers the demonstration of a significant increase in slow-wave vasomotion under prolonged hypobaric-hypoxia exposure at high altitude, with a further enhancement after ischemia induction.

  18. Plasma soluble erythropoietin receptor is decreased during sleep in Andean highlanders with Chronic Mountain Sickness.

    PubMed

    Villafuerte, Francisco C; Corante, Noemí; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Figueroa-Mujíca, Rómulo; Vizcardo-Galindo, Gustavo; Mercado, Andy; Macarlupú, José Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2016-07-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is the main sign of Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS), a highly prevalent syndrome in Andean highlanders. Low pulse O2 saturation (SpO2) during sleep and serum androgens have been suggested to contribute to EE in CMS patients. However, whether these factors have a significant impact on the erythropoietin (Epo) system leading to EE is still unclear. We have recently shown that morning soluble Epo receptor (sEpoR), an endogenous Epo antagonist, is decreased in CMS patients suggesting increased Epo availability (increased Epo/sEpoR). The present study aimed to characterize the nocturnal concentration profile of sEpoR and Epo and their relationship with SpO2, Hct, and serum testosterone in healthy highlanders (HH) and CMS patients. Epo and sEpoR concentrations were evaluated every 4 h (6 PM to 6 AM) and nighttime SpO2 was continuously monitored (10 PM to 6 AM) in 39 male participants (CMS, n = 23; HH, n = 16) aged 21-65 yr from Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4,340 m). CMS patients showed higher serum Epo concentrations throughout the night and lower sEpoR from 10 PM to 6 AM. Consequently, Epo/sEpoR was significantly higher in the CMS group at every time point. Mean sleep-time SpO2 was lower in CMS patients compared with HH, while the percentage of sleep time spent with SpO2 < 80% was higher. Multiple-regression analysis showed mean sleep-time SpO2 and Epo/sEpoR as significant predictors of hematocrit corrected for potential confounders (age, body mass index, and testosterone). Testosterone levels were associated neither with Hct nor with erythropoietic factors. In conclusion, our results show sustained erythropoietic stimulus driven by the Epo system in CMS patients, further enhanced by a continuous exposure to accentuated nocturnal hypoxemia. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Asymptomatic only at first sight: malaria infection among schoolchildren in highland Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Sifft, Kevin C; Geus, Dominik; Mukampunga, Caritas; Mugisha, Jean Claude; Habarugira, Felix; Fraundorfer, Kira; Bayingana, Claude; Ndoli, Jules; Umulisa, Irenee; Karema, Corine; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, George; Aebischer, Toni; Martus, Peter; Sendegeya, Augustin; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2016-11-14

    Plasmodium infection and malaria in school children are increasingly recognized as a relevant public health problem, but data on actual prevalence and health consequences are insufficient. The present study from highland southern Rwanda aimed at estimating infection prevalence among children attending school, at identifying associated factors and at assessing the clinical consequences of these infections. In a survey including 12 schools in the Huye district of Rwanda, 1089 children aged 6-10 years were clinically and anthropometrically examined, malaria parasites were diagnosed by microscopy and PCR, haemoglobin concentrations were measured, and socio-economic and behavioural parameters as well as medical histories were obtained. Upon examination, the vast majority of children was asymptomatic (fever 2.7%). Plasmodium infection was detected in 22.4% (Plasmodium falciparum, 18.8%); 41% of these were submicroscopic. Independent predictors of infection included low altitude, higher age, preceding antimalarial treatment, and absence of electricity or a bicycle in the household. Plasmodium infection was associated with anaemia (mean haemoglobin difference of -1.2 g/dL; 95% CI, -0.8 to -1.5 g/dL), fever, underweight, clinically assessed malnutrition and histories of fever, tiredness, weakness, poor appetite, abdominal pain, and vomiting. With the exception of underweight, these conditions were also increased at submicroscopic infection. Malaria infection is frequent among children attending school in southern highland Rwanda. Although seemingly asymptomatic in the vast majority of cases, infection is associated with a number of non-specific symptoms in the children´s histories, in addition to the impact on anaemia. This argues for improved malaria surveillance and control activities among school children.

  20. The earliest evidence for Upper Paleolithic occupation in the Armenian Highlands at Aghitu-3 Cave.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Andrew W; Gasparyan, Boris; Allué, Ethel; Bigga, Gerlinde; Bruch, Angela A; Cullen, Victoria L; Frahm, Ellery; Ghukasyan, Robert; Gruwier, Ben; Jabbour, Firas; Miller, Christopher E; Taller, Andreas; Vardazaryan, Varduhi; Vasilyan, Davit; Weissbrod, Lior

    2017-09-01

    With its well-preserved archaeological and environmental records, Aghitu-3 Cave permits us to examine the settlement patterns of the Upper Paleolithic (UP) people who inhabited the Armenian Highlands. We also test whether settlement of the region between ∼39-24,000 cal BP relates to environmental variability. The earliest evidence occurs in archaeological horizon (AH) VII from ∼39-36,000 cal BP during a mild, moist climatic phase. AH VI shows periodic occupation as warm, humid conditions prevailed from ∼36-32,000 cal BP. As the climate becomes cooler and drier at ∼32-29,000 cal BP (AH V-IV), evidence for occupation is minimal. However, as cooling continues, the deposits of AH III demonstrate that people used the site more intensively from ∼29-24,000 cal BP, leaving behind numerous stone artifacts, faunal remains, and complex combustion features. Despite the climatic fluctuations seen across this 15,000-year sequence, lithic technology remains attuned to one pattern: unidirectional reduction of small cores geared towards the production of bladelets for tool manufacture. Subsistence patterns also remain stable, focused on medium-sized prey such as ovids and caprids, as well as equids. AH III demonstrates an expansion of social networks to the northwest and southwest, as the transport distance of obsidian used to make stone artifacts increases. We also observe the addition of bone tools, including an eyed needle, and shell beads brought from the east, suggesting that these people manufactured complex clothing and wore ornaments. Remains of micromammals, birds, charcoal, pollen, and tephra relate the story of environmental variability. We hypothesize that UP behavior was linked to shifts in demographic pressures and climatic changes. Thus, by combining archaeological and environmental data, we gain a clearer picture about the first UP inhabitants of the Armenian Highlands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Tracking paraglacial sediment with cosmogenic 10Be using an example from the northwest Scottish Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fame, Michelle L.; Owen, Lewis A.; Spotila, James A.; Dortch, Jason M.; Caffee, Marc W.

    2018-02-01

    Beryllium-10 concentrations in samples of sediment and bedrock from five study sites across the Scottish Highlands trace paraglacial sediment sources and define the nature of glacial erosion for the late Quaternary. Exposure ages derived from 10Be concentrations in ridge and lower elevation bedrock range from 10 to 33 ka, which suggest that polythermal ice and warm based ice were primarily responsible for producing glacial sediment. Comparisons of 10Be concentrations between catchment-wide sediment (2.06 ± 0.34 × 104 to 11.24 ± 1.54 × 104 atoms g-1 SiO2; n = 33), near surface deposits (2.71 ± 0.33 × 104 to 3.48 ± 0.49 × 104 atoms g-1 SiO2; n = 6), 4-m-thick deep till (0.68 × 10410Be atoms g-1 SiO2; n = 1), ridge bedrock (8.93 ± 0.47 × 104 to 34.05 ± 1.66 × 104 atoms g-1 SiO2; n = 20), and lower elevation polished bedrock (6.74 ± 0.67 × 104 to 12.65 ± 0.7 × 104 atoms g-1 SiO2, n = 5) indicate that most sand fluxing through catchments in the Scottish Highlands is sourced from the remobilization and vertical mixing of near surface deposits. These findings indicate that glaciogenic material continues to dominate paraglacial sediment budgets more than 11 ka after deglaciation.

  2. Factors associated with high heterogeneity of malaria at fine spatial scale in the Western Kenyan highlands.

    PubMed

    Baidjoe, Amrish Y; Stevenson, Jennifer; Knight, Philip; Stone, William; Stresman, Gillian; Osoti, Victor; Makori, Euniah; Owaga, Chrispin; Odongo, Wycliffe; China, Pauline; Shagari, Shehu; Kariuki, Simon; Drakeley, Chris; Cox, Jonathan; Bousema, Teun

    2016-06-04

    The East African highlands are fringe regions between stable and unstable malaria transmission. What factors contribute to the heterogeneity of malaria exposure on different spatial scales within larger foci has not been extensively studied. In a comprehensive, community-based cross-sectional survey an attempt was made to identify factors that drive the macro- and micro epidemiology of malaria in a fringe region using parasitological and serological outcomes. A large cross-sectional survey including 17,503 individuals was conducted across all age groups in a 100 km(2) area in the Western Kenyan highlands of Rachuonyo South district. Households were geo-located and prevalence of malaria parasites and malaria-specific antibodies were determined by PCR and ELISA. Household and individual risk-factors were recorded. Geographical characteristics of the study area were digitally derived using high-resolution satellite images. Malaria antibody prevalence strongly related to altitude (1350-1600 m, p < 0.001). A strong negative association with increasing altitude and PCR parasite prevalence was found. Parasite carriage was detected at all altitudes and in all age groups; 93.2 % (2481/2663) of malaria infections were apparently asymptomatic. Malaria parasite prevalence was associated with age, bed net use, house construction features, altitude and topographical wetness index. Antibody prevalence was associated with all these factors and distance to the nearest water body. Altitude was a major driver of malaria transmission in this study area, even across narrow altitude bands. The large proportion of asymptomatic parasite carriers at all altitudes and the age-dependent acquisition of malaria antibodies indicate stable malaria transmission; the strong correlation between current parasite carriage and serological markers of malaria exposure indicate temporal stability of spatially heterogeneous transmission.

  3. A comparative cost analysis of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying in highland Kenya.

    PubMed

    Guyatt, H L; Kinnear, J; Burini, M; Snow, R W

    2002-06-01

    The relative cost of indoor residual house-spraying (IRS) versus insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) forms part of decisions regarding selective malaria prevention. This paper presents a cost comparison of these two approaches as recently implemented by Merlin, a UK emergency relief organization funded through international donor support and working in the highland districts of Gucha and Kisii in Kenya. The financial costs (cash expenditures) and the economic costs (including the opportunity costs of using existing staff and volunteers, and an annualized cost for capital items) were assessed. The financial cost for IRS was US dollars 0.86 per person protected, compared with 4.21 dollars for ITNs (reducing to 3.42 dollars to the provider assuming cost recovery). The economic cost per person protected for IRS was 0.88 dollars, compared with 2.34 dollars for ITNs. The costs for ITNs were sensitive to the number of nets sold per community group ('efficiency'), as the delivery costs constituted upwards of 40% of the total cost. However, even marked increases in efficiency of these groups could not reduce the costs of ITNs to that comparable with IRS, except if more than one cycle of IRS was needed. The implications of predicted reductions in the cost of insecticide for both IRS and ITNs are also explored. The provision of itemized cost data allows predictions to be made on changes in the design of these programmes. Under almost all design scenarios, IRS would appear to be a more cost-efficient means of vector control in the Kenyan highlands.

  4. Effects of late Holocene climate variability and anthropogenic stressors on the vegetation of the Maya highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco-Gaviria, F.; Correa-Metrio, A.; Cordero-Oviedo, C.; López-Pérez, M.; Cárdenes-Sandí, G. M.; Romero, F. M.

    2018-06-01

    Climate variability and human activities have shaped the vegetation communities of the Maya region of southern Mexico and Central America on centennial to millennial timescales. Most research efforts in the region have focused on the lowlands, with relatively little known about the environmental history of the regional highlands. Here we present data from two sediment sequences collected from lakes in the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico. Our aim was to disentangle the relative contributions of climate and human activities in the development of regional vegetation during the late Holocene. The records reveal a long-term trend towards drier conditions with superimposed centennial-scale droughts. A declining moisture trend from 3400 to 1500 cal yr BP is consistent with previously reported southward displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, whereas periodic droughts were probably a consequence of drivers such as El Niño. These conditions, together with dense human occupation, converted the vegetation from forest to more open systems. According to the paleoecological records, cultural abandonment of the area occurred ca. 1500 cal yr BP, favoring forest recovery that was somewhat limited by low moisture availability. About 600 cal yr BP, wetter conditions promoted the establishment of modern montane cloud forests, which consist of a diverse mixture of temperate and tropical elements. The vegetation types that occupied the study area during the last few millennia have remained within the envelope defined by the modern vegetation mosaic. This finding highlights the importance of microhabitats in the maintenance biodiversity through time, even under scenarios of high climate variability and anthropogenic pressure.

  5. Costs of early detection systems for epidemic malaria in highland areas of Kenya and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Dirk H; Abeku, Tarekegn A; Okia, Michael; Rapuoda, Beth; Cox, Jonathan

    2009-01-16

    Malaria epidemics cause substantial morbidity and mortality in highland areas of Africa. The costs of detecting and controlling these epidemics have not been explored adequately in the past. This study presents the costs of establishing and running an early detection system (EDS) for epidemic malaria in four districts in the highlands of Kenya and Uganda. An economic costing was carried out from the health service provider's perspective in both countries. Staff time for data entry and processing, as well as supervising and coordinating EDS activities at district and national levels was recorded and associated opportunity costs estimated. A threshold analysis was carried out to determine the number of DALYs or deaths that would need to be averted in order for the EDS to be considered cost-effective. The total costs of the EDS per district per year ranged between US$ 14,439 and 15,512. Salaries were identified as major cost-drivers, although their relative contribution to overall costs varied by country. Costs of relaying surveillance data between facilities and district offices (typically by hand) were also substantial. Data from Uganda indicated that 4% or more of overall costs could potentially be saved by switching to data transfer via mobile phones. Based on commonly used thresholds, 96 DALYs in Uganda and 103 DALYs in Kenya would need to be averted annually in each district for the EDS to be considered cost-effective. Results from this analysis suggest that EDS are likely to be cost-effective. Further studies that include the costs and effects of the health systems' reaction prompted by EDS will need to be undertaken in order to obtain comprehensive cost-effectiveness estimates.

  6. Linkages between Snow Cover Seasonality, Terrain, and Land Surface Phenology in the Highland Pastures of Kyrgyzstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henebry, Geoffrey; Tomaszewska, Monika; Kelgenbaeva, Kamilya

    2017-04-01

    In the highlands of Kyrgyzstan, vertical transhumance is the foundation of montane agropastoralism. Terrain attributes, such as elevation, slope, and aspect, affect snow cover seasonality, which is a key influence on the timing of plant growth and forage availability. Our study areas include the highland pastures in Central Tien Shan mountains, specifically in the rayons of Naryn and At-Bashy in Naryn oblast, and Alay and Chong-Alay rayons in Osh oblast. To explore the linkages between snow cover seasonality and land surface phenology as modulated by terrain and variations in thermal time, we use 16 years (2001-2016) of Landsat surface reflectance data at 30 m resolution with MODIS land surface temperature and snow cover products at 1 km and 500 m resolution, respectively, and two digital elevation models, SRTM and ASTER GDEM. We model snow cover seasonality using frost degree-days and land surface phenology using growing degree-days as quadratic functions of thermal time: a convex quadratic (CxQ) model for land surface phenology and a concave quadratic (CvQ) model for snow cover seasonality. From the fitted parameter coefficients, we calculated phenometrics, including "peak height" and "thermal time to peak" for the CxQ models and "trough depth" and "thermal time to trough" for the CvQ models. We explore how these phenometrics change as a function of elevation and slope-aspect interactions and due to interannual variability. Further, we examine how snow cover duration and timing affects the subsequent peak height and thermal time to peak in wetter, drier, and normal years.

  7. Hidden histories of gene flow in highland birds revealed with genomic markers.

    PubMed

    Zarza, Eugenia; Faircloth, Brant C; Tsai, Whitney L E; Bryson, Robert W; Klicka, John; McCormack, John E

    2016-10-01

    Genomic studies are revealing that divergence and speciation are marked by gene flow, but it is not clear whether gene flow has played a prominent role during the generation of biodiversity in species-rich regions of the world where vicariance is assumed to be the principal mode by which new species form. We revisit a well-studied organismal system in the Mexican Highlands, Aphelocoma jays, to test for gene flow among Mexican sierras. Prior results from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) largely conformed to the standard model of allopatric divergence, although there was also evidence for more obscure histories of gene flow in a small sample of nuclear markers. We tested for these 'hidden histories' using genomic markers known as ultraconserved elements (UCEs) in concert with phylogenies, clustering algorithms and newer introgression tests specifically designed to detect ancient gene flow (e.g. ABBA/BABA tests). Results based on 4303 UCE loci and 2500 informative SNPs are consistent with varying degrees of gene flow among highland areas. In some cases, gene flow has been extensive and recent (although perhaps not ongoing today), whereas in other cases there is only a trace signature of ancient gene flow among species that diverged as long as 5 million years ago. These results show how a species complex thought to be a model for vicariance can reveal a more reticulate history when a broader portion of the genome is queried. As more organisms are studied with genomic data, we predict that speciation-with-bouts-of-gene-flow will turn out to be a common mode of speciation. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Evaluation of Ages in the Lunar Highlands with Implications for the Evolution of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, L. E.; Gaffney, A. M.; Carlson, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    The lunar highlands are composed of rocks from the ferroan anorthosite (FAN) and Mg-suites. These samples have been extensively studied because they record most of the major events associated with the formation and evolution of the Earth's Moon. Despite their potential to constrain the timing of these events, chronologic investigations are often ambiguous; in most cases because absolute ages and/or initial isotopic compositions are inconsistent with stratigraphic and petrologic relationships of various rock suites inferred from mineralogical and geochemical studies. The problem is exacerbated by the fact that most samples are difficult to date due to their small size and nearly monomineralic nature, as well as isotopic disturbances associated with impacts. Here several criteria are used to assess the reliability of lunar ages, including: (1) concordance between multiple chronometers, (2) linearity of individual isochrons, (3) resistance of the chronometers to disruption by impact or contamination, (4) consistency between initial isotopic compositions and the petrogenisis of samples, and (5) reasonableness of the elemental concentrations of mineral fractions. If only those samples that meet 4 out of 5 of these criteria are used to constrain lunar chronology many of the apparent conflicts between chronometry and petrology disappear. For example, this analysis demonstrates that the most ancient ages reported for lunar samples are some of the least reliable. The oldest ages determined on both FAN and Mg-suite highland rocks with confidence are in fact ~4.35 Ga. This age is concordant with 142Nd mare source formation ages and a peak in zircon ages, suggesting it represents a major event at ~4.35 Ga. In contrast, several apparently reliable KREEP model ages are older at ~4.48 Ga. If these older model ages are correct, they may represent the solidification age of the Moon, whereas the 4.35 Ga event could reflect secondary magmatism and cumulate re-equilibration associated

  9. Costs of early detection systems for epidemic malaria in highland areas of Kenya and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Dirk H; Abeku, Tarekegn A; Okia, Michael; Rapuoda, Beth; Cox, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria epidemics cause substantial morbidity and mortality in highland areas of Africa. The costs of detecting and controlling these epidemics have not been explored adequately in the past. This study presents the costs of establishing and running an early detection system (EDS) for epidemic malaria in four districts in the highlands of Kenya and Uganda. Methods An economic costing was carried out from the health service provider's perspective in both countries. Staff time for data entry and processing, as well as supervising and coordinating EDS activities at district and national levels was recorded and associated opportunity costs estimated. A threshold analysis was carried out to determine the number of DALYs or deaths that would need to be averted in order for the EDS to be considered cost-effective. Results The total costs of the EDS per district per year ranged between US$ 14,439 and 15,512. Salaries were identified as major cost-drivers, although their relative contribution to overall costs varied by country. Costs of relaying surveillance data between facilities and district offices (typically by hand) were also substantial. Data from Uganda indicated that 4% or more of overall costs could potentially be saved by switching to data transfer via mobile phones. Based on commonly used thresholds, 96 DALYs in Uganda and 103 DALYs in Kenya would need to be averted annually in each district for the EDS to be considered cost-effective. Conclusion Results from this analysis suggest that EDS are likely to be cost-effective. Further studies that include the costs and effects of the health systems' reaction prompted by EDS will need to be undertaken in order to obtain comprehensive cost-effectiveness estimates. PMID:19149878

  10. Hydrops associated with chondrodysplasia of the fetus in a miniature Scottish Highland cow.

    PubMed

    Catalina Cabrera, L; McNabb, Bret R; Woods, Sarah E; Cartoceti, Andrew N; Busch, Rosie C

    2016-03-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 2-year-old primiparous miniature Scottish Highland cow with an unknown breeding date was evaluated for suspected hydrops. CLINICAL FINDINGS Transabdominal and transrectal ultrasonographic examination identified a large amount of hypoechoic fluid within an enlarged uterus; the fetus could not be identified. Presence of a severely distended uterus and concerns regarding associated health risks to the cow led to the decision to induce labor. Although fluids were expelled, parturition did not progress further over the following 48 hours. Vaginal examination revealed a partially dilated cervix and an abnormally shaped fetus that was too large to pass vaginally. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Supportive care was provided to the cow, and a stillborn bull calf was delivered by cesarean section. Grossly evident chondrodystrophic dwarfism with hydrocephalus, compatible with so-called bulldog calf malformations, was confirmed by diagnostic imaging and histopathologic evaluation. The cow recovered from surgery uneventfully and was discharged from the hospital the following day. Genetic analysis of DNA from hair roots collected from the sire and dam confirmed both were carriers of an aggrecan-1 gene mutation (bulldog dwarfism1) previously associated with dwarfism and bulldog calf malformations in Dexter cattle. CLINICAL RELEVANCE To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bulldog calf malformations associated with an aggrecan-1 gene mutation in miniature Scottish Highland cattle, confirming that at least 1 genetic mutation associated with this condition is found in cattle breeds other than Dexter. The findings highlighted the clinical importance of testing for known genetic diseases in breeding cattle, particularly among miniature breeds.

  11. Plasma soluble erythropoietin receptor is decreased during sleep in Andean highlanders with Chronic Mountain Sickness

    PubMed Central

    Corante, Noemí; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Figueroa-Mujíca, Rómulo; Vizcardo-Galindo, Gustavo; Mercado, Andy; Macarlupú, José Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2016-01-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is the main sign of Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS), a highly prevalent syndrome in Andean highlanders. Low pulse O2 saturation (SpO2) during sleep and serum androgens have been suggested to contribute to EE in CMS patients. However, whether these factors have a significant impact on the erythropoietin (Epo) system leading to EE is still unclear. We have recently shown that morning soluble Epo receptor (sEpoR), an endogenous Epo antagonist, is decreased in CMS patients suggesting increased Epo availability (increased Epo/sEpoR). The present study aimed to characterize the nocturnal concentration profile of sEpoR and Epo and their relationship with SpO2, Hct, and serum testosterone in healthy highlanders (HH) and CMS patients. Epo and sEpoR concentrations were evaluated every 4 h (6 PM to 6 AM) and nighttime SpO2 was continuously monitored (10 PM to 6 AM) in 39 male participants (CMS, n = 23; HH, n = 16) aged 21-65 yr from Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4,340 m). CMS patients showed higher serum Epo concentrations throughout the night and lower sEpoR from 10 PM to 6 AM. Consequently, Epo/sEpoR was significantly higher in the CMS group at every time point. Mean sleep-time SpO2 was lower in CMS patients compared with HH, while the percentage of sleep time spent with SpO2 < 80% was higher. Multiple-regression analysis showed mean sleep-time SpO2 and Epo/sEpoR as significant predictors of hematocrit corrected for potential confounders (age, body mass index, and testosterone). Testosterone levels were associated neither with Hct nor with erythropoietic factors. In conclusion, our results show sustained erythropoietic stimulus driven by the Epo system in CMS patients, further enhanced by a continuous exposure to accentuated nocturnal hypoxemia. PMID:27125843

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of malaria among children in southern highland Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Steininger, Christian; Shyirambere, Cyprien; Zeile, Irene; Cwinya-Ay, Neniling; Danquah, Ina; Larsen, Christoph H; Eggelte, Teunis A; Uwimana, Aline; Karema, Corine; Musemakweri, Andre; Harms, Gundel; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2011-05-18

    Increased control has produced remarkable reductions of malaria in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa, including Rwanda. In the southern highlands, near the district capital of Butare (altitude, 1,768 m), a combined community-and facility-based survey on Plasmodium infection was conducted early in 2010. A total of 749 children below five years of age were examined including 545 randomly selected from 24 villages, 103 attending the health centre in charge, and 101 at the referral district hospital. Clinical, parasitological, haematological, and socio-economic data were collected. Plasmodium falciparum infection (mean multiplicity, 2.08) was identified by microscopy and PCR in 11.7% and 16.7%, respectively; 5.5% of the children had malaria. PCR-based P. falciparum prevalence ranged between 0 and 38.5% in the villages, and was 21.4% in the health centre, and 14.9% in the hospital. Independent predictors of infection included increasing age, low mid-upper arm circumference, absence of several household assets, reported recent intake of artemether-lumefantrine, and chloroquine in plasma, measured by ELISA. Self-reported bed net use (58%) reduced infection only in univariate analysis. In the communities, most infections were seemingly asymptomatic but anaemia was observed in 82% and 28% of children with and without parasitaemia, respectively, the effect increasing with parasite density, and significant also for submicroscopic infections. Plasmodium falciparum infection in the highlands surrounding Butare, Rwanda, is seen in one out of six children under five years of age. The abundance of seemingly asymptomatic infections in the community forms a reservoir for transmission in this epidemic-prone area. Risk factors suggestive of low socio-economic status and insufficient effectiveness of self-reported bed net use refer to areas of improvable intervention.

  13. Origin and speciation of Picea schrenkiana and Piceasmithiana in the Center Asian Highlands and Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Li, Lili; Sun, Yongshuai; Zou, Jiabin; Yue, Wei; Wang, Xi; Liu, Jianquan

    Elucidating the evolutionary history of current species diversity, especially trees with large effective population sizes and long generation times, is a complicated exercise confounded by gene flow and incomplete lineage sorting. In the present study, we aim to determine the origin and speciation of Picea schrenkiana and Picea smithiana using population genetic data from chloroplast (cp), mitochondrial (mt), and nuclear (nr) genomes. These two species occur in the Central Asian Highlands and Himalayas, respectively, where they are isolated from other Asian congeneric species by the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) or adjacent deserts. Previous studies based on both morphological and molecular evidence suggest that they have contrasting phylogenetic relationships with Picea likiangensis or Picea wilsonii which are closely related and both located in the QTP. We examined genetic variation among 16 loci of three genomes from 30 populations of these four species. At both cpDNA loci and mtDNA loci, P. schrenkiana appeared to be closely related to P. likiangensis , although statistical support for this was weak. However, phylogenetic analyses and speciation tests based on the nuclear data from 11 loci provided evidence that P. schrenkiana and P. smithiana are sister species. These two species diverged around five million years ago (Mya) while the divergence between them and the P. likiangensis - P. wilsonii clade occurred about 18.4 Mya. We also detected gene flow accompanying these speciation events. Our results highlight the complex speciation histories of these alpine conifers due to interspecific gene flow and/or incomplete lineage sorting, and the importance of the early QTP uplifts in promoting the origin of these important conifer species in the Asian highlands.

  14. Climate extremes in Malaysia and the equatorial South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salahuddin, Ahmed; Curtis, Scott

    2011-08-01

    The southern extent of the South China Sea (SCS) is an important natural resource epicenter for Malaysia which experiences climate extremes. This paper documents the variability of extremes in the equatorial SCS through selected ground-based observations of precipitation in Malaysia and ship-based observations of wind data in the Maritime Continent region, to elucidate the interrelationship between precipitation variability over Malaysia and wind variability over the ocean. The data have been carefully inspected and analyzed, and related to the real-time multivariate Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) time series. The analysis suggests that the northeast or boreal winter monsoon dominates extreme rainfall in eastern Malaysian cities. Further, the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo Malaysia are affected by the MJO differently than the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. From the wind analysis we found that average zonal wind is westerly from May to September and easterly from November to April. When the active (convective) phase of the MJO is centered over the Maritime Continent, the strong westerly wind bursts are more frequent in the South China Sea. While more investigation is needed, these results suggest that the status of the Madden-Julian Oscillation can be used to help forecast climate extremes in areas of Malaysia.

  15. Informed consent in Malaysia: an overview.

    PubMed

    Che Ngah, Anisah

    2005-01-01

    The right of a person to control his body is a concept that has long been recognized in Malaysia under the law of torts. The purpose of requiring informed consent is to preserve that right in medical decision-making. Informed Consent is a relatively new concept in medical litigation cases. However in the late 1990's, it has become one of the important claims under negligence made against the doctor for failure to disclose relevant information to patients in respect of the treatment proposed. Whether Malaysia has begun to recognize patient's right to decision-making is yet to be seen. Furthermore the social-cultural relationship between doctors and patients had to be considered. In this respect, the researcher had conducted interviews with doctors and patients to gauge their reaction towards a shared process of decision-making, which is the central issue in the doctrine of informed consent. Findings suggest that in society where primary health care is the main thrust to achieve health for all, the possibility of recognition of the rights of patients to receive information before making decisions about treatment appears remote. The findings also underscore the importance of incorporating aspects of informed consent as part of providing quality service to patients.

  16. Tsunami risk mapping simulation for Malaysia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teh, S.Y.; Koh, H. L.; Moh, Y.T.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

    2011-01-01

    The 26 December 2004 Andaman mega tsunami killed about a quarter of a million people worldwide. Since then several significant tsunamis have recurred in this region, including the most recent 25 October 2010 Mentawai tsunami. These tsunamis grimly remind us of the devastating destruction that a tsunami might inflict on the affected coastal communities. There is evidence that tsunamis of similar or higher magnitudes might occur again in the near future in this region. Of particular concern to Malaysia are tsunamigenic earthquakes occurring along the northern part of the Sunda Trench. Further, the Manila Trench in the South China Sea has been identified as another source of potential tsunamigenic earthquakes that might trigger large tsunamis. To protect coastal communities that might be affected by future tsunamis, an effective early warning system must be properly installed and maintained to provide adequate time for residents to be evacuated from risk zones. Affected communities must be prepared and educated in advance regarding tsunami risk zones, evacuation routes as well as an effective evacuation procedure that must be taken during a tsunami occurrence. For these purposes, tsunami risk zones must be identified and classified according to the levels of risk simulated. This paper presents an analysis of tsunami simulations for the South China Sea and the Andaman Sea for the purpose of developing a tsunami risk zone classification map for Malaysia based upon simulated maximum wave heights. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

  17. Cardiff Acne Disability Index in Sarawak, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acne is considered a cosmetic nuisance in Malaysia since no insurance coverage is provided for its treatment. Its psychological impact is unknown. Objective The aim of this study is to determine the impact of acne on quality of life and its relationship with severity. Methods A cross-sectional study using the Cardiff acne disability index (CADI) and Global Acne Grading System for acne severity grading was done in three government-run dermatology clinics in Sarawak, Malaysia. Results The study cohort of 200 patients had a mean CADI score of 5.1. Most of the patients (59.5%) had mild CADI impairment, with the domain of feelings most affected. Patients with a family income <1,000 United States Dollor/month had a higher mean CADI (mean 5.5 vs. 4.4; p=0.04). Females, indigenous groups, and patients with tertiary education tended to have more severe CADI impairment (p>0.05). The correlation between CADI and mild acne severity was low (Pearson correlation coefficient=0.35; p<0.001) but became insignificant for moderate and severe acne. Conclusion Acne impairment in Sarawak was moderate and must be addressed. It should be viewed as a psychologically disabling disease requiring optimal management and resource allocation. PMID:22577265

  18. Cardiff acne disability index in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yap, Felix Boon-Bin

    2012-05-01

    Acne is considered a cosmetic nuisance in Malaysia since no insurance coverage is provided for its treatment. Its psychological impact is unknown. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of acne on quality of life and its relationship with severity. A cross-sectional study using the Cardiff acne disability index (CADI) and Global Acne Grading System for acne severity grading was done in three government-run dermatology clinics in Sarawak, Malaysia. The study cohort of 200 patients had a mean CADI score of 5.1. Most of the patients (59.5%) had mild CADI impairment, with the domain of feelings most affected. Patients with a family income <1,000 United States Dollor/month had a higher mean CADI (mean 5.5 vs. 4.4; p=0.04). Females, indigenous groups, and patients with tertiary education tended to have more severe CADI impairment (p>0.05). The correlation between CADI and mild acne severity was low (Pearson correlation coefficient=0.35; p<0.001) but became insignificant for moderate and severe acne. Acne impairment in Sarawak was moderate and must be addressed. It should be viewed as a psychologically disabling disease requiring optimal management and resource allocation.

  19. A review of schizophrenia research in malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chee, K Y; Salina, A A

    2014-08-01

    Research in schizophrenia has advanced tremendously. One hundred and seventy five articles related to Schizophrenia were found from a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. This project aims to examine published research articles, in local and international journals in order to provide a glimpse of the research interest in Malaysia with regards to schizophrenia. Single case study, case series report, reviews and registry reports were not included in this review. Medication trial, unless it concerned a wider scope of psychopharmacology was also excluded from this review. A total of 105 articles were included in this review. Despite numerous genetics studies conducted and published, a definitive conclusion on the aetiology or mechanism underlying schizophrenia remains elusive. The National Mental Health - Schizophrenia Registry (NMHR) proved to be an important platform for many studies and publications. Studies stemmed from NMHR have provided significant insight into the baseline characteristic of patients with schizophrenia, pathway to care, and outcomes of the illness. International and regional collaborations have also encouraged important work involving stigma and discrimination in schizophrenia. Ministry of Health's hospitals (MOH) are the main research sites in the country with regards to schizophrenia research. Numbers of schizophrenia research are still low in relation to the number of universities and hospitals in the country. Some of the weaknesses include duplication of studies, over-emphasising clinical trials and ignoring basic clinical research, and the lack of publications in international and regional journals.

  20. Building EOS capability for Malaysia - the options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subari, M. D.; Hassan, A.

    2014-06-01

    Earth observation satellite (EOS) is currently a major tool to monitor earth dynamics and increase human understanding of earth surface process. Since the early 80s, Malaysia has been using EOS images for various applications, such as weather forecasting, land use mapping, agriculture, environment monitoring and others. Until now, all EOS images were obtained from foreign satellite systems. Realising on the strategic need of having its own capability, Malaysia embarked into EOS development programs in the early 90s. Starting with TiungSAT-1, a micro-satellite carrying small camera, then followed by RazakSAT, a small satellite carrying 2.5 m panchromatic (PAN) medium-aperture-camera, the current satellite program development, the RazakSAT-2, designed to carry a 1.0 m high resolution PAN and 4.0m multi-spectral camera, would become a strategic initiative of the government in developing and accelerating the nation's capability in the area of satellite technology and its application. Would this effort continue until all needs of the remote sensing community being fulfilled by its own EOS? This paper will analyze the intention of the Malaysian government through its National Space Policy and other related policy documents, and proposes some policy options on this. Key factors to be considered are specific data need of the EOS community, data availability and the more subjective political motivations such as national pride.

  1. Women and the media in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Adnan, M H

    1987-01-01

    The contributions of and portrayal of women in the Malaysian media are summarized here in detail. Women's access to training in journalism and education is on average better than that of men. There are 3 communications departments in institutions of higher learning in Malaysia, and all enroll more women than men, probably because of women's better language skills and desire to enter a "glamourous" profession. Women's participation in journalism, except for women's magazines, is much more limited, especially at higher levels. Women's abilities are not lacking, as shown by the number of awards Malaysian women journalists have won, but it is felt that women are not assertive, cannot work late or night shifts, cannot be transferred, because of family and domestic obligations. Perhaps journalism curricula should offer women extra courses in effective family management, public speaking or human relations, or assign cadet journalists women mentors. In Malaysia women are generally portrayed in print, electronic and advertising media as either decorative, foolish, consumption driven, or sex objects. Exploitative poses predominate in ads for male markets, such as automobiles and liquor. Sexual roles for women and girls are depicted as those of subservient or silly housewife or in other negative or traditional roles.

  2. Thorium: Issues and prospects in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Majid, Amran Ab.; Sarmani, Sukiman; Bahri, Che Nor Aniza Che Zainul

    2015-04-01

    In Malaysia, thorium exists in minerals and rare earth elements production residue. The average range of thorium content in Malaysian monazite and xenotime minerals was found about 70,000 and 15,000 ppm respectively. About 2,636 tonnes of Malaysian monazite was produced for a period of 5 years (2006-2010) and based on the above data, it can be estimated that Malaysian monazite contains about 184.5 tonnes of thorium. Although thorium can become a major radiological problem to our environment, but with the significant deposit of thorium in Malaysian monazite, it has a prospect as a future alternative fuel in nuclear technology. This paper will discuss the thorium issues in Malaysia especially its long term radiological risks to public health and environment at storage and disposal stages, the prospect of exploring and producing high purity thorium from our rare earth elements minerals for future thorium based reactor. This paper also highlights the holistic approach in thorium recovery from Malaysian rare earth element production residue to reduce its radioactivity and extraction of thorium and rare earth elements from the minerals with minimum radiological impact to health and environment.

  3. Thorium: Issues and prospects in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Majid, Amran Ab.; Sarmani, Sukiman

    2015-04-29

    In Malaysia, thorium exists in minerals and rare earth elements production residue. The average range of thorium content in Malaysian monazite and xenotime minerals was found about 70,000 and 15,000 ppm respectively. About 2,636 tonnes of Malaysian monazite was produced for a period of 5 years (2006-2010) and based on the above data, it can be estimated that Malaysian monazite contains about 184.5 tonnes of thorium. Although thorium can become a major radiological problem to our environment, but with the significant deposit of thorium in Malaysian monazite, it has a prospect as a future alternative fuel in nuclear technology. This papermore » will discuss the thorium issues in Malaysia especially its long term radiological risks to public health and environment at storage and disposal stages, the prospect of exploring and producing high purity thorium from our rare earth elements minerals for future thorium based reactor. This paper also highlights the holistic approach in thorium recovery from Malaysian rare earth element production residue to reduce its radioactivity and extraction of thorium and rare earth elements from the minerals with minimum radiological impact to health and environment.« less

  4. Proximate determinants of fertility in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho; Yew, Siew Yong

    2012-05-01

    The continuing decline in fertility despite a contraction in contraceptive use in Peninsular Malaysia since the mid-1980s has triggered considerable interest in the reasons behind this phenomenon, such as increase in abortion, sterility, and out-of-wedlock pregnancy. Fertility decline has been attributed to rapid socioeconomic development, which can only influence fertility through the intermediate variables. Application of vital statistics, population census, and survey data of Peninsular Malaysia on Bongaarts's model vindicates that marriage postponement and contraceptive use are the 2 most important proximate determinants of fertility, but the effects are not uniform across the ethnic groups. For instance, the predicted total fertility rate for Chinese and Malays are 2.9 and 1.6, respectively, compared with the observed level of 3.0 and 1.9. Postpartum infecundability and abortion also play a part in explaining ethnic fertility differentials. The fertility inhibiting effects of these proximate determinants have significant implications on reproductive health and future population growth.

  5. Malaysia -U.S. Relations: Influencing Factors and its Impact on Malaysia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Viewing the past, the idiosyncrasy of Prime Minister Mahathir had created some ‘tension’ between Malaysia and the U.S.. Mahathir seemed to imply a...character of Mahathir who stood firm in championing the grievances of the Third World countries under the Non Alignment Movement (NAM).26 Similarly...strife between Prime Minister Mahathir and the Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim. Apparently, he was not in favor of how things were going on as to

  6. Minority Language Education in Malaysia: Four Ethnic Communities' Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karla J.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses minority language education in Malaysia, a multilingual and multicultural country. Looks at four language minority groups and what they have done to to provide beginning education programs for their children that use the children's native languages. (Author/VWL)

  7. Chronic Viral Hepatitis in Malaysia: "Where are we now?"

    PubMed

    Raihan, Ruksana; Mohamed, Rosmawati; Radzi Abu Hassan, Muhammad; Md Said, Rosaida

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia is a country where an estimated 1 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and an estimated 2.5% of the adult population are positive for antibody to hepatitis C virus (HCV). Effective nationwide vaccine coverage seems to be a highly effective measure to prevent new HBV infection. Treatment of HCV infection is also a regular practice in Malaysia. These measures highlight the possibility to reach the World Health Organization elimination target by 2030. To achieve this target, the Health Ministry and other nongovernmental organizations, such as My Commitment to Cure (MyC2C) are working together to develop a strategic road map to reach the global elimination target in Malaysia by 2030. How to cite this article: Raihan R, Mohamed R, Hasan MRA, Rosaida MS. Chronic Viral Hepatitis in Malaysia: "Where are we now?" Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2017;7(1):65-67.

  8. The epidemiology of pneumococcal carriage and infections in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Le, Cheng-Foh; Jefferies, Johanna M; Yusof, Mohd Yasim Mohd; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Clarke, Stuart C

    2012-06-01

    In Malaysia, various aspects of the epidemiology of pneumococcal carriage and disease remain largely unclear due to the lack of supporting data. Although a number of relevant studies have been documented, their individual discrete findings are not sufficient to inform experts on pneumococcal epidemiology at a national level. Therefore, in this review we aim to bring together and systematically evaluate the key information regarding pneumococcal disease epidemiology in Malaysia and provide a comprehensive overview of the data. Major aspects discussed include pneumococcal carriage, disease incidence and prevalence, age factors, invasiveness of pneumococci, serotypes, molecular epidemiology and antibiotic susceptibility. Penicillin resistance is increasingly prevalent and studies suggest that the majority of pneumococcal serotypes causing pneumococcal disease in Malaysia are covered by currently available conjugate vaccines. Continued surveillance is needed to provide a better understanding of pneumococcal epidemiology in Malaysia.

  9. Sexuality education in Malaysia: perceived issues and barriers by professionals.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, Zahra Fazli; Low, Wah Yun; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Ghorbani, Behzad

    2014-07-01

    This research explored the perspectives of Malaysian professionals on the issues and barriers affecting the implementation of sexuality education in Malaysia. This qualitative study involved in-depth interviews with 15 key professionals working in the field of sexuality and reproductive health in Malaysia. Thematic analysis was selected to analyze data. Barriers to sexuality education were perceived from 5 aspects: feasibility, acceptability, accountability, strategies, and community unawareness. Respondents believed that implementing national sexuality education is a time-consuming project. They regarded Malaysian multicultural society as a barrier to national sexuality education, and they believed that school-based sexuality education is not easily accomplished in Malaysia; also abstinence-only policy restricts the access of young people to accurate information. Lack of community involvement was perceived as a key concern to sexuality education. Campaigning to promote awareness of families, teachers, community leaders, and policy makers are recommended to help establishing national sexuality education in Malaysia. © 2014 APJPH.

  10. Supporting Effective Feed-in Tariff Development in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Since 2011, Malaysia's overarching policy framework for clean energy development, the New Energy Policy, has led to significant deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency. Building on the New Energy Policy, Malaysia mandated adoption of a renewable energy feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism under the 2011 Renewable Energy Act. In 2013, Malaysia's Sustainable Energy Development Authority partnered with the Clean Energy Solutions Center and the Clean Energy Regulators Initiative (CERI), via the Ask an Expert service, to implement FiT policies and expand renewable energy development. Through collaboration between the government of Malaysia and the Clean Energy Solutions Center, concrete policy actionmore » was supported and implemented, building a strong framework to expand and catalyze clean energy development.« less

  11. Retrospective Study of Leptospirosis in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Garba, Bashiru; Bahaman, Abdul Rani; Khairani-Bejo, Siti; Zakaria, Zunita; Mutalib, Abdul Rahim

    2017-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease transmitted to humans and animals by direct or indirect contact with urine or body fluids from infected animals especially rodents. Infection can be associated with wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe multi-organ syndrome with life-threatening consequences. We conducted a review of published studies on incidences, case reports, sero-epidemiological surveys from year 2000 to 2015 using different electronic data bases. Our study revealed that majority of the studies were conducted in Peninsular Malaysia and predominantly among high-risk human groups. Most of the studies on domestic animals were conducted in the 1980s; hence, the current status of leptospirosis among domestic animal population remains largely unknown. There tend to be a sharp rise in incidence rate among human population in the year 2014 which was attributed to flooding and heavy rainfall experienced as well as recreational activities. Several gaps in epidemiological knowledge were also disclosed.

  12. International Women's Day observed in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1999-12-01

    On the eve of International Women's Day, 80 women representing five women's groups in Malaysia, including Persatuan Sahabat Wanita, CAW's network member, marched from Petaling Jaya to Penang to attend the Women's Day celebration. The group had organized the visitation in order to strengthen its networking. During their meeting with some reporters before their departure to Penang, they demanded that the women's groups be consulted before any guideline on the prevention and handling of sexual harassment at the workplace is drawn up. They said that they have been handling several complaints and their input would help the Human Resource Ministry formulate a comprehensive set of guidelines. This demand by the women's group was in response to the announcement by the Human Resource Minister Datuk Lim Ah Lek that in a month time a code would be ready on guidelines about the establishment and implementation of in-house preventive and redress mechanisms for dealing with sexual harassment. full text

  13. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation : The Short Comings in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Chew Keng; Zakaria, Mohd Idzwan; Rahman, Nik Hisamuddin Nik Abdul; Jaalam, Kamaruddin; Adnan, Wan Aasim Wan

    2008-01-01

    This short review explores the current status of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in Malaysia and highlights some of the factors that have a negative impact on its rate of success. Absence of a unifying body such as a national resuscitation council results in non-uniformity in the practice and teaching of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In the out-of-hospital setting, there is the lack of basic skills and knowledge in performing bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation as well as using an automated external defibrillator among the Malaysian public. The ambulance response time is also a significant negative factor. In the in-hospital setting, often times, resuscitation is first attended by junior doctors or nurses lacking in the skill and experience needed. Resuscitation trolleys were often inadequately equipped. PMID:22589616

  14. Alternative, complementary and traditional medicine in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Talib, N

    2006-09-01

    This paper sets out the practice of traditional, alternative and/or complementary medicine in Malaysia. It gives an overview of the types of alternative medicine available, and the legal regulation, or lack of it within the current setting. The relevant policies and governmental action in this area are highlighted. Relevant case law decisions in this area are also included. The practice of spiritual healing as one form of traditional medicine, and its role within the spectrum of alternative medicine is dealt with briefly. The significant question of integration of alternative medicine within the existing allopathic system is addressed. The paper concludes that as interest in, and usage of alternative medicine is not likely to decrease, certain measures must be taken by the relevant authorities to ensure among others, the safety and efficacy of these medicines.

  15. Sex preference and fertility in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Pong, S L

    1994-01-01

    This study uses data from the Second Malaysian Family Life Survey, conducted in 1988, to examine parents' preferences for the sex of their children within each of Malaysia's three ethnic groups. While Malay and Indian parents do not show a consistent sex preference, Chinese parents prefer to have all sons, or a combination of sons and daughters, with more sons than daughters, or at least an equal number of them. Son preference among the Chinese does not seem to be a constraint to fertility decline among that population. Since 1970, Chinese fertility has dropped rapidly; at the same time, Chinese son preference has become more pronounced. Evidence indicates that further reductions in Chinese fertility, through the reduction in sex preference, would be small.

  16. Determinant of securitization asset pricing in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakri, M. H.; Ali, R.; Ismail, S.; Sufian, F.; Baharom, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Malaysian firms have been reported involve in Asset Back Securities since 1986s where Cagamas is a pioneer. This research aims to examine the factor influencing primary market spread. Least square method and regression analysis are applied for the study period 2004-2012. The result shows one determinants in internal regression model and three determinants in external regression influence or contribute to the primary market spread and are statistically significant in developing the securitization in Malaysia. It can be concluded that transaction size significantly contribute to the determinant primary market spread in internal regression model while liquidity, transaction size and crisis is significant in both regression model. From five hypotheses, three hypotheses support that the determinants have a relationship with primary market spread.

  17. Characteristics of Impact Craters and Interior Deposits: Analysis of the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Volatiles in the Highlands of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mest, S. C.

    2005-01-01

    The martian southern highlands contain impact craters that display pristine to degraded morphologies, and preserve a record of degradation that can be attributed to fluvial, eolian, mass wasting, volcanic and impact-related processes. However, the relative degree of modification by these processes and the amounts of material contributed to crater interiors are not well constrained. Impact craters (D>10 km) within Terra Cimmeria (0deg-60degS, 190deg-240degW), Terra Tyrrhena (0deg-30degS, 260deg-310degW) and Noachis Terra (20deg-50degS, 310deg-340degW) are being examined to better understand the degradational history and evolution of highland terrains. The following scientific objectives will be accomplished. 1) Determine the geologic processes that modified impact craters (and surrounding highland terrains). 2) Determine the sources (e.g. fluvial, lacustrine, eolian, mass wasting, volcanic, impact melt) and relative amounts of material composing crater interior deposits. 3) Document the relationships between impact crater degradation and highland fluvial systems. 4) Determine the spatial and temporal relationships between degradational processes on local and regional scales. And 5) develop models of impact crater (and highland) degradation that can be applied to these and other areas of the martian highlands. The results of this study will be used to constrain the geologic, hydrologic and climatic evolution of Mars and identify environments in which subsurface water might be present or evidence for biologic activity might be preserved.

  18. Motorcycle safety programmes in Malaysia: how effective are they?

    PubMed

    Radin Umar, R S

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents the approach taken by the Malaysian Government to contain motorcycle casualties in Malaysia. It involves the exposure control, crash prevention, behaviour modification and injury control related to humans, vehicles and the environment based on pre-crash, crash and post-crash scenarios of motorcycle accidents. These initiatives emanated mainly from the research and development carried out by the Road Safety Research Centre at Universiti Putra Malaysia. Recent outcomes from these initiatives are presented and their impact is highlighted.

  19. Trends in sustainable landfilling in Malaysia, a developing country.

    PubMed

    Fauziah, S H; Agamuthu, P

    2012-07-01

    In Malaysia, landfills are being filled up rapidly due to the current daily generation of approximately 30,000 tonnes of municipal solid waste. This situation creates the crucial need for improved landfilling practices, as sustainable landfilling technology is yet to be achieved here. The objective of this paper is to identify and evaluate the development and trends in landfilling practices in Malaysia. In 1970, the disposal sites in Malaysia were small and prevailing waste disposal practices was mere open-dumping. This network of relatively small dumps, typically located close to population centres, was considered acceptable for a relatively low population of 10 million in Malaysia. In the 1980s, a national programme was developed to manage municipal and industrial wastes more systematically and to reduce adverse environmental impacts. The early 1990s saw the privatization of waste management in many parts of Malaysia, and the establishment of the first sanitary landfills for MSW and an engineered landfill (called 'secure landfill' in Malaysia) for hazardous waste. A public uproar in 2007 due to contamination of a drinking water source from improper landfilling practices led to some significant changes in the government's policy regarding the country's waste management strategy. Parliament passed the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management (SWPCM) Act 2007 in August 2007. Even though the Act is yet to be implemented, the government has taken big steps to improve waste management system further. The future of the waste management in Malaysia seems somewhat brighter with a clear waste management policy in place. There is now a foundation upon which to build a sound and sustainble waste management and disposal system in Malaysia.

  20. The Evolution of Malaysias Immigration Policy Since 1970

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    The State of the ‘State’ in Globalization: Social Order and Economic Restructuring in Malaysia,” Third World Quarterly 21, no. 6 (2000): 1047. 5...remittance industry.10 In 2009, Malaysia qualified as one to the top remittance-sending countries in the world , with over $6.8 billion (3 percent of...50–51. 10 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Migration and Remittances Factbook 2011 (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2011), 13