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Sample records for genting highlands malaysia

  1. Diversity of fusarium species from highland areas in malaysia.

    PubMed

    Manshor, Nurhazrati; Rosli, Hafizi; Ismail, Nor Azliza; Salleh, Baharuddin; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2012-12-01

    Fusarium is a cosmopolitan and highly diversified genus of saprophytic, phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. However, the existence and diversity of a few species of Fusarium are restricted to a certain area or climatic condition. The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence and diversity of Fusarium species in tropical highland areas in Malaysia and to compare with those in temperate and subtropical regions. A series of sampling was carried out in 2005 to 2009 at several tropical highland areas in Malaysia that is: Cameron Highlands, Fraser Hills and Genting Highlands in Pahang; Penang Hill in Penang; Gunung Jerai in Kedah; Kundasang and Kinabalu Park in Sabah; Kubah National Park and Begunan Hill in Sarawak. Sampling was done randomly from various hosts and substrates. Isolation of Fusarium isolates was done by using pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) agar and 1449 isolates of Fusarium were successfully recovered. Based on morphological characteristics, 20 species of Fusarium were identified. The most prevalent species occurring on the highlands areas was F. solani (66.1%) followed by F. graminearum (8.5%), F. oxysporum (7.8%), F. semitectum (5.7%), F. subglutinans (3.5%) and F. proliferatum (3.4%). Other Fusarium species, namely F. avenaceum, F. camptoceras, F. chlamydosporum, F. compactum, F. crookwellense, F. culmorum, F. decemcellulare, F. equiseti, F. nygamai, F. poae, F. proliferatum, F. sacchari, F. sporotrichioides, F. sterilihyphosum and F. verticillioides accounted for 1% recoveries. The present study was the first report on the occurrences of Fusarium species on highland areas in Malaysia.

  2. Diversity of Fusarium Species from Highland Areas in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Manshor, Nurhazrati; Rosli, Hafizi; Ismail, Nor Azliza; Salleh, Baharuddin; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium is a cosmopolitan and highly diversified genus of saprophytic, phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. However, the existence and diversity of a few species of Fusarium are restricted to a certain area or climatic condition. The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence and diversity of Fusarium species in tropical highland areas in Malaysia and to compare with those in temperate and subtropical regions. A series of sampling was carried out in 2005 to 2009 at several tropical highland areas in Malaysia that is: Cameron Highlands, Fraser Hills and Genting Highlands in Pahang; Penang Hill in Penang; Gunung Jerai in Kedah; Kundasang and Kinabalu Park in Sabah; Kubah National Park and Begunan Hill in Sarawak. Sampling was done randomly from various hosts and substrates. Isolation of Fusarium isolates was done by using pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) agar and 1449 isolates of Fusarium were successfully recovered. Based on morphological characteristics, 20 species of Fusarium were identified. The most prevalent species occurring on the highlands areas was F. solani (66.1%) followed by F. graminearum (8.5%), F. oxysporum (7.8%), F. semitectum (5.7%), F. subglutinans (3.5%) and F. proliferatum (3.4%). Other Fusarium species, namely F. avenaceum, F. camptoceras, F. chlamydosporum, F. compactum, F. crookwellense, F. culmorum, F. decemcellulare, F. equiseti, F. nygamai, F. poae, F. proliferatum, F. sacchari, F. sporotrichioides, F. sterilihyphosum and F. verticillioides accounted for 1% recoveries. The present study was the first report on the occurrences of Fusarium species on highland areas in Malaysia. PMID:24575229

  3. Four new species of Cephennomicrus Reitter (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae) from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2015-01-19

    Four new species of Cephennomicrus are described from Malaysia: C. curvidens sp. n., C. gentingensis sp. n. (both from the Genting Highlands, West Malaysia), C. santubongensis sp. n. and C. muluensis sp. n. (both from Sarawak, East Malaysia). Male genitalia of all new taxa are illustrated and diagnostic characters are discussed. 

  4. Prediction of sedimentation using integration of RS, RUSLE model and GIS in Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghani, A. H. A.; Lihan, T.; Rahim, S. A.; Musthapha, M. A.; Idris, W. M. R.; Rahman, Z. A.

    2013-11-01

    Soil erosion and sediment yield are strongly affected by land use change. Spatially distributed erosion models are of great interest to predict soil erosion loss and sediment yield. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine sediment yield using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model in Geographical Information System (GIS) environment at Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia. Sediment yield at the study area was determined using RUSLE model in GIS environment The RUSLE factors were computed by utilizing information on rainfall erosivity (R) using interpolation of rainfall data, soil erodibility (K) using soil map and field measurement, vegetation cover (C) using satellite images, length and steepness (LS) using contour map and conservation practices using satellite images based on land use/land cover. Field observations were also done to verify the predicted sediment yield. The results indicated that the rate of sediment yield in the study area ranged from very low to extremely high. The higher SY value can be found at middle and lower catchments of Cameron Highland. Meanwhile, the lower SY value can be found at the north part of the study area. Sediment yield value turned out to be higher close to the river due to the topographic characteristic, vegetation type and density, climate and land use within the drainage basin.

  5. Parasitic infections among Orang Asli (aborigine) in the Cameron Highlands, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hakim, S Lokman; Gan, C C; Malkit, K; Azian, My Noor; Chong, C K; Shaari, N; Zainuddin, W; Chin, C N; Sara, Y; Lye, M S

    2007-05-01

    In April 2004, an outbreak of acute diarrheal illness occurred among the Orang Asli (aborigine) in the Cameron Highlands, Pahang State, Peninsular Malaysia, where rotavirus was later implicated as the cause. In the course of the epidemic investigation, stool samples were collected and examined for infectious agents including parasites. Soil transmitted helminthes (STH), namely Ascaris lumbricoides (25.7%), Trichuris trichiura (31.1%) and hookworm (8.1%), and intestinal protozoa, which included Giardia lamblia (17.6%), Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (9.4%), Blastocystis hominis (8.1%) and Cryptosporidium parvum (2.7%), were detected. Forty-four (59.5%) were infected with at least one parasite, 24 (32.4%), 12 (16.2%) and 8 (10.8%) had single, double and triple parasitic infections, respectively. STH were prevalent with infections occurring as early as in infancy. Giardia lamblia, though the most commonly found parasite in samples from symptomatic subjects, was within the normally reported rate of giardiasis among the various communities in Malaysia, and was an unlikely cause of the outbreak. However, heavy pre-existing parasitic infections could have contributed to the severity of the rotavirus diarrheal outbreak.

  6. Spatial and Temporal Variation of Water Quality in the Bertam Catchment, Cameron Highlands, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rasul, G

    2016-12-16

    The spatio-temporal variability of water quality associated with anthropogenic activities was studied for the Bertam River and its main tributaries within the Bertam Catchment, Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. A number of physico-chemical parameters of collected samples were analyzed to evaluate their spatio-temporal variability. Non-parametric statistical analysis showed significant temporal and spatial differences (p<0.05) in most of the parameters across the Catchment. Parameters except DO and COD displayed higher values in rainy season.The higher concentration of total suspended solids was caused due to massive soil erosion and sedimentation. Seasonal variations in contaminant concentrations are largely affected by precipitation and anthropogenic influences.Untreated domestic wastewater discharge as well as agricultural runoff significantly influenced the water quality. Poor agricultural practices and development activities at slope areas also affected the water quality within the Catchment. The analytical results provided a basis for protection of river environments and ecological restoration in mountainous Bertam Catchment.

  7. Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) over mountainous region of Cameron Highlands- Batang Padang Catchment of Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidek, L. M.; Mohd Nor, M. D.; Rakhecha, P. R.; Basri, H.; Jayothisa, W.; Muda, R. S.; Ahmad, M. N.; Razad, A. Z. Abdul

    2013-06-01

    The Cameron Highland Batang Padang (CHBP) catchment situated on the main mountain range of Peninsular Malaysia is of large economical importance where currently a series of three dams (Sultan Abu Bakar, Jor and Mahang) exist in the development of water resources and hydropower. The prediction of the design storm rainfall values for different return periods including PMP values can be useful to review the adequacy of the current spillway capacities of these dams. In this paper estimates of the design storm rainfalls for various return periods and also the PMP values for rainfall stations in the CHBP catchment have been computed for the three different durations of 1, 3 & 5 days. The maximum values for 1 day, 3 days and 5 days PMP values are found to be 730.08mm, 966.17mm and 969.0mm respectively at Station number 4513033 Gunung Brinchang. The PMP values obtained were compared with previous study results undertaken by NAHRIM. However, the highest ratio of 1 day, 3 day and 5 day PMP to highest observed rainfall are found to be 2.30, 1.94 and 1.82 respectively. This shows that the ratio tend to decrease as the duration increase. Finally, the temporal pattern for 1 day, 3day and 5 days have been developed based on observed extreme rainfall at station 4513033 Gunung Brinchang for the generation of Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) in dam break analysis.

  8. Willingness to pay for highlands' agro-tourism recreational facility: A case of Boh Tea plantation, Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Syamsul Herman M.; M, Nur A'in C.; S, Ahmad; S, Ramachandran

    2014-03-01

    The increase in tourist demand for highland experience is inevitable. Cameron Highlands, established as a Tea Plantation Estate during the British Colonial era in 1929, has evolved into a major highland tourism destination providing a cool climatic experience coupled with scenic beauty in the midst of Tudor concept architecture which enhances the destinations historical value. Realising such tourism potential, the Boh Plantation management has provided a visitor centre as recreational facility for tourist utilisation. However, the absence in imposing an entrance fee has left a vacuum in determining the recreational economic value of this facility as the benefit of this agro-tourism product to tourists remains unknown. It would be important for the management to identify the benefit since the development and maintenance of the facility is costly. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to estimate the benefit of such establishment in highlands area by assessing visitor's Willingness to pay (WTP). The study examines, explores and debates the issues in a critical yet supportive environment especially highlands. The study obtained 179 usable questionnaires from visitors during weekends, weekdays and public holidays. The result showed that 59% of the visitors were willing to pay for the agro-tourism product. The WTP was estimated at RM 7.21 (1.81). Three factors were found to be influencing WTP which were monthly income, years of education and perception on scenery. Although the study was conducted post development, the finding indicated the WTP for current management practise. Should the management change its style, it would also affect WTP and also the total economic value. Since WTP is established concept, the finding of the study reflects on the opportunities, barriers and challenges inherent in embracing post-disciplinary approaches to research and suggest ways to further enhance the approach.

  9. Heavy rainfall intensity triggering the landslide at Sungai Ruil Cameron Highland Malaysia - A Case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaafar, K. B.

    2012-04-01

    Landslide in the village of Sungai Ruil, Brinchang, Cameron Highlands, Malaysia occurred on August 7, 2011 at 5:50 pm. This incident has caused six houses buried by debris or mud which engaged seven fatalities and two injuries This landslide has been classified as landslide debris flow. Total area of the village involved is around 40 hectares whilst the catchment area of the village is around 80 hectares. The landslide forensic investigation was carried out to identify the caused of the failure. There are three methods in conducting the study that involved geological mapping and interpretation for assessment of geological hazards. The second method is the debris flow hazard assessment in all the drainage including rainfall analysis. The rainfall analysis was carried out to produce the snake line and critical line. The third method is an analysis of slope stability in locations with high potential of slope failure in the area. There are three factors identified that resulted from this incident. The first factor is the presence of geological factors weakness (covered by colluviums), weathered material, orientation and location of adversely discontinuities and relict slope failure. While the second factor is the appearance of the morphology of hilly terrain, presence of channel order 0 or 'ephemeral drainage' and river bed gradient more than 35 degrees. The third factor is human activity that build water barrier. While the high intensity of rainfall in a short period of time is believed to be a triggering factor. This paper will discuss in detail on how intensity and duration of rainfall induce the landslide and predict the threshold value at the area.

  10. Two new species of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Cameron's Highlands, Peninsular Malaysia, with keys to 21 species of the Simulium asakoae species-group.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, H; Sofian-Azirun, M; Ya'cob, Z; Hashim, R

    2014-02-14

    Two new black fly species, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) brinchangense and S. (G.) tanahrataense, are described on the basis of reared adult females, males, pupae and larvae from Cameron's Highlands, Peninsular Malaysia. These new species are assigned to the asakoae species-group within Simulium (Gomphostilbia) and taxonomic notes are given to distinguish each new species from six known species in Malaysia. Revised keys to identify all 21 species including 13 species from other countries are provided for females, males, pupae and mature larvae. The species diversity of the asakoae species-group in Cameron's Highlands is briefly noted.

  11. Use of multi-temporal SPOT-5 satellite images for land degradation assessment in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia using Geospatial techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nampak, Haleh; Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2016-07-01

    Soil erosion is the common land degradation problem worldwide because of its economic and environmental impacts. Therefore, land-use change detection has become one of the major concern to geomorphologists, environmentalists, and land use planners due to its impact on natural ecosystems. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between land use/cover changes and land degradation in the Cameron highlands (Malaysia) through multi-temporal remotely sensed satellite images and ancillary data. Land clearing in the study area has resulted increased soil erosion due to rainfall events. Also unsustainable development and agriculture, mismanagement and lacking policies contribute to increasing soil erosion rates. The LULC distribution of the study area was mapped for 2005, 2010, and 2015 through SPOT-5 satellite imagery data which were classified based on object-based classification. A soil erosion model was also used within a GIS in order to study the susceptibility of the areas affected by changes to overland flow and rain splash erosion. The model consists of four parameters, namely soil erodibility, slope, vegetation cover and overland flow. The results of this research will be used in the selection of the areas that require mitigation processes which will reduce their degrading potential. Key words: Land degradation, Geospatial, LULC change, Soil erosion modelling, Cameron highlands.

  12. A spatial decision support system (SDSS) for sustainable tourism planning in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminu, M.; Matori, A. N.; Yusof, K. W.

    2014-02-01

    The study describes a methodological approach based on an integrated use of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Analytic Network Process (ANP) of Multi Criteria Evaluation (MCE) to determine nature conservation and tourism development priorities among the highland areas. A set of criteria and indicators were defined to evaluate the highlands biodiversity conservation and tourism development. Pair wise comparison technique was used in order to support solution of a decision problem by evaluating possible alternatives from different perspectives. After the weights have been derived from the pairwise comparison technique, the next step was to compute the unweighted supermatrix, weighted supermatrix and the limit matrix. The limit matrix was normalized to obtain the priorities and the results transferred into GIS environment. Elements evaluated and ranked were represented by criterion maps. Map layers reflecting the opinion of different experts involved were summed using the weighted overlay approach of GIS. Subsequently sustainable tourism development scenarios were generated. The generation of scenarios highlighted the critical issues of the decision problem because it allows one to gradually narrow down a problem.

  13. New locality record of Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo.

    PubMed

    Heo, C C; Aisha, S; Kurahashi, H; Omar, B

    2013-03-01

    Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a rare species of the subfamily Rhiniinae (tribe Cosminini) was recorded for the first time in Malaysia. We collected one male and two females during a field trip conducted at Genting Highland, Pahang, peninsular Malaysia in May 2011. A 3-day old cow liver was offered as attractant and dipterans collected were transferred to the laboratory for specimens processing and identification. The adults of I. paurogonita were attracted to the odour and then captured by using a sweep net. Isomyia paurogonita was also recorded from two other localities in Peninsular and Malaysian Borneo, namely Gombak Utara, Selangor and Sibu, Sarawak.

  14. Description of a new species of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Cameron's Highlands, Peninsular Malaysia, with keys to 18 species of the Simulium asakoae species-group.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Hashim, Rosli

    2013-11-01

    Simulium (Comphostilbia) izuae sp. nov. is described from female, male, pupal, and larval specimens collected from Cameron's Highlands, Peninsular Malaysia. This new species is placed in the asakoae species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia. The pupa of this new species is characterized by the gill with eight long filaments arranged as (3 + 3) + 2 filaments, of which the ventral pair of filaments is borne on a stalk that is always shorter than the common basal stalk. Taxonomic notes to distinguish this new species from five other Malaysian species and 12 other species of the asakoae species-group from other countries are given. Keys to identify all 18 species of the asakoae species-group are also provided for females, males, pupae, and mature larvae.

  15. Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1988-08-01

    In this discussion of Malaysia, attention is directed to the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Malaysia. In 1987 Malaysia's population was estimated to be 16.5 million with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The infant mortality rate is 25/1000 with a life expectancy of 66 years. Peninsular Malaysia borders Thailand in the north and is separated from Singapore in the south by the narrow Johore Strait. About 50% of the area is covered by tropical jungle. The population distribution is uneven, with some 13.5 of the 16.5 million residents concentrated on the Peninsular Malaysia lowlands. The Malays, the largest population group, make up 49%. Nearly 1/3 of the Malaysians are Chinese, and Malaysians of Indian descent comprise slightly over 9% of the population. The early Buddhist Malay kingdom of Srivijaya, based at what currently is Palembang, Sumatra, dominated much of the Malay Peninsula from the 9th to the 13th centuries A.D. Full European control over the sultanates of the Malay Peninsula, Sabah, and Sarawak was not achieved until the latter half of the 19th century. During British control, a well-ordered system of public administration was created, public services were extended, and large-scale rubber and tin production was developed. Colonial rule was interrupted by the Japanese invasion and occupation from 1942-45. Malaysia achieved independence on August 31, 1957, and is a constitutional monarchy, nominally headed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, or paramount ruler. The ruler also is the leader of the Islamic faith in Malaysia. Executive power is vested in the Cabinet, led by the prime minister. The Malaysian legal system is based on English common law. The currently ruling Barisan Nasional, formed in 1973, includes 13 parties, among them the chief components of the former Alliance, a coalition of community-based parties. Malaysia's economic record is 1

  16. Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Niel, Eloise Smith; Schelander, Bjorn

    This book provides an overview of Malaysia's history and culture. The book begins with a prehistoric times and continues through nationhood. Each chapter provides background information along with student activities and project suggestions. Chapters include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Early Trade and Civilization"; (3) "The…

  17. Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1985-12-01

    The 1984 Current Population Estimates on 2 Malaysian states, Sabah and Sarawak, has just been published by the Department of Statistics. This report, which describes population trends between 1980-84, is part of a new series aimed at providing information on current population estimates. The population of Sabah grew at an annual rate of 3.7% in 1980-84, while growth rates were 2.4% for Sarawak and 2.5% for Peninsular Malaysia. Of sabah's 1984 population of 1.2 million, 1 million were classified as indigenous persons and .2 million were Chinese. In Sarawak the population was 1.4 million, 1 million of whom were indigenous and .4 million were Chinese. 39% of Sarawak's 1984 population consisted of persons below 15 years of age and 4% were age 65 years or over. In Sabah, these proportions were 44% and 2%, respectively. Also recently published is a population report for the state of Melake based on data from the 1980 Census. According to the Census, Melaka had a population of 464,754 persons, representing 3.4% of Malaysia's total population of 13.7 million. The Census enumerated 81,102 households, with an average of 5.4 persons in each. During the 1970-80 intercensal period, Melaka's annual growth rate was 1%. About 23% of the population lived in urban areas. The median age of the population was 19.4 years in 1980, which is 2.9 years older than in 1970. The total fertility rate was 4/woman in 1980. 65% of those aged 12 years and over had completed a primary education, and 77% of those aged 10 years and over were literate.

  18. Use of high resolution Airborne Laser Scanning data for landslide interpretation under mixed forest and tropical rainforest: case study in Barcelonnette, France and Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azahari Razak, Khamarrul; Straatsma, Menno; van Westen, Cees; Malet, Jean-Philippe; de Jong, Steven M.

    2010-05-01

    Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) is the state of the art technology for topographic mapping over a wide variety of spatial and temporal scales. It is also a promising technique for identification and mapping of landslides in a forested mountainous landscape. This technology demonstrates the ability to pass through the gaps between forest foliage and record the terrain height under vegetation cover. To date, most of the images either derived from satellite imagery, aerial-photograph or synthetic aperture radar are not appropriate for visual interpretation of landslide features that are covered by dense vegetation. However, it is a necessity to carefully map the landslides in order to understand its processes. This is essential for landslide hazard and risk assessment. This research demonstrates the capabilities of high resolution ALS data to recognize and identify different types of landslides in mixed forest in Barcelonnette, France and tropical rainforest in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. ALS measurements over the 100-years old forest in Bois Noir catchment were carried out in 2007 and 2009. Both ALS dataset were captured using a Riegl laser scanner. First and last pulse with density of one point per meter square was derived from 2007 ALS dataset, whereas multiple return (of up to five returns) pulse was derived from July 2009 ALS dataset, which consists of 60 points per meter square over forested terrain. Generally, this catchment is highly affected by shallow landslides which mostly occur beneath dense vegetation. It is located in the dry intra-Alpine zone and represented by the climatic of the South French Alps. In the Cameron Highlands, first and last pulse data was captured in 2004 which covers an area of up to 300 kilometres square. Here, the Optech laser scanner was used under the Malaysian national pilot study which has slightly low point density. With precipitation intensity of up to 3000 mm per year over rugged topography and elevations up to 2800 m a

  19. Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1980-10-01

    The official government policy in Malaysia is to reduce the rate of population growth through decreasing fertility levels and a program of economic and social restructuring. Population policy was conceived as encompassing wider dimensions than family planning, with emphasis on spatial distribution policies. The first Population and Housing Census was undertaken by the government in 1970. Regular decennial census taking occurred between 1891 and 1957. Birth and death registrations are considered incomplete. Population issues are integrated by various organizations into their ongoing programs such as those of the Ministries of Health, Education or Agriculture. The National Family Planning Board, an interministerial body in the Prime Minister's Department, has input from development planning units. A population studies group was established within the Economic Planning Unit. The total 1980 population was 13,640,000; the rate of population growth was 2.6 from 1975-80. Life expectancy was 61.3. Morbidity and mortality rates have dropped because of disease control and malnutrition reduction. 7.4% of the population are foreign born. Spatial distribution is to be adjusted through rural land development and resettlement; promotion of industrial development in low-income states; development of new growth centers and towns; and, urban development and renewal.

  20. Determination of pesticide residues in leafy vegetables at parts per billion levels by a chemometric study using GC-ECD in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Farina, Yang; Abdullah, Md Pauzi; Bibi, Nusrat; Khalik, Wan Mohd Afiq Wan Mohd

    2017-06-01

    A simple and sensitive analytical method has been developed employing gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC-ECD), and validated for screening and quantification of 15 pesticide residues at trace levels in cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, lettuce, celery, spinach, and mustard. The method consists of two steps, first, to determine the significance of each factor by Pareto chart followed by optimization of these significant factors using central composite design (CCD). Minitab statistical software was used for these multivariate experiments for the generation of 2(4-1) design and CCD matrices. The method evaluation was done by external standard calibration with linearity range between 0.5 and 3mg/kg, with correlation coefficient 0.99, limit of detection (LOD) ranges between 0.02 and 4.5ng/g, and limit of quantification (LOQ) ranges between 0.2 and 45ng/g. The average recovery was between 60% and 128%, with RSD 0.2-19.8%. The method was applied on real vegetable samples from Cameron Highlands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Phylogenetic relationships of geckos of the Hemiphyllodactylus harterti group, a new species from Penang Island, Peninsular Malaysia, and a likely case of true cryptic speciation.

    PubMed

    Cobos, Anthony; Grismer, L Lee; Wood, Perry L; Quah, Evan S H; Anuar, Shahrul; Muin, Mohd Abdul

    2016-05-03

    An integrative taxonomic analysis based on the mitochondrial gene ND2 and its flanking tRNAs, morphology, and color pattern indicates that a newly discovered gecko described herein as Hemiphyllodactylus cicak sp. nov. from Penang Hill on the Island of Penang, Peninsular Malaysia is a member of the H. harterti group. Hemiphyllodactylus cicak sp. nov. is most closely related to the clade composed of the sister species H. harterti from Bukit Larut, Perak in the Bintang Mountain Range and H. bintik from Gunung Tebu, Terengganu from the Timur Mountain Range. These three allopatric species form a monophyletic group that extends approximately 270 km across three isolated mountain ranges in northern Peninsular Malaysia. The molecular analysis also indicates that H. titiwangsaensis from the Titiwangsa Mountain Range is composed of three genetically distinct allopatric populations. The southern two populations from Fraser's Hill and Genting Highlands, Pahang have an uncorrected pairwise sequence divergence of 3.5% whereas these two populations have 12.4 and 12.8 % sequence divergences, respectively, from the northern population at Cameron Highlands, Pahang. Although the high sequence divergence clearly distinguishes the southern two populations from the former as a different species, all three populations are morphologically indistinguishable, leading to the hypothesis of a true, cryptic speciation event.

  2. Egg phenotype differentiation in sympatric cuckoo Cuculus canorus gentes.

    PubMed

    Antonov, Anton; Stokke, B G; Vikan, J R; Fossøy, F; Ranke, P S; Røskaft, E; Moksnes, A; Møller, A P; Shykoff, J A

    2010-06-01

    The brood parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus consists of gentes, which typically parasitize only a single host species whose eggs they often mimic. Where multiple cuckoo gentes co-exist in sympatry, we may expect variable but generally poorer mimicry because of host switches or inter-gens gene flow via males if these also contribute to egg phenotypes. Here, we investigated egg trait differentiation and mimicry in three cuckoo gentes parasitizing great reed warblers Acrocephalus arundinaceus, marsh warblers Acrocephalus palustris and corn buntings Miliaria calandra breeding in close sympatry in partially overlapping habitat types. The three cuckoo gentes showed a remarkable degree of mimicry to their three host species in some but not all egg features, including egg size, a hitherto largely ignored feature of egg mimicry. Egg phenotype matching for both background and spot colours as well as for egg size has been maintained in close sympatry despite the possibility for gene flow.

  3. I Remember Highlander

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Hawkins, Maria

    2016-01-01

    "I Remember Highlander" reflects on the life choices of Marion Barry and Herman Henning Jr., fraternity brothers who sought the same goal but took different paths. The essay examines cultural and family situations that shaped lives and decisions.

  4. Mapping Lunar Highlands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-05

    This graphic depicting the bulk density of the lunar highlands on the near and far sides of the moon was generated using gravity data from NASA GRAIL mission and topography data from NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  5. Highland/Lowland contact

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-14

    The smooth plains of Elysium embay the blocky broken up highlands of Aeolis in this image from NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The plains have been interpreted by researchers to be possibly mudflows or lava flows.

  6. I Remember Highlander

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Hawkins, Maria

    2016-01-01

    "I Remember Highlander" reflects on the life choices of Marion Barry and Herman Henning Jr., fraternity brothers who sought the same goal but took different paths. The essay examines cultural and family situations that shaped lives and decisions.

  7. The Ozark Highlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ethridge, Max

    2009-01-01

    The Ozark Highlands include diverse topographic, geologic, soil, and hydrologic conditions that support a broad range of habitat types. The landscape features rugged uplands - some peaks higher than 2,500 feet above sea level - with exposed rock and varying soil depths and includes extensive areas of karst terrain. The Highlands are characterized by extreme biological diversity and high endemism (uniqueness of species). Vegetation communities are dominated by open oak-hickory and shortleaf pine woodlands and forests. Included in this vegetation matrix is an assemblage of various types of fens, forests, wetlands, fluvial features, and carbonate and siliceous glades. An ever-growing human population in the Ozark Highlands has become very dependent on reservoirs constructed on major rivers in the region and, in some cases, groundwater for household and public water supply. Because of human population growth in the Highlands and increases in industrial and agricultural activities, not only is adequate water quantity an issue, but maintaining good water quality is also a challenge. Point and nonpoint sources of excessive nutrients are an issue. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership programs to monitor water quality and develop simulation tools to help stakeholders better understand strategies to protect the quality of water and the environment are extremely important. The USGS collects relevant data, conducts interpretive studies, and develops simulation tools to help stakeholders understand resource availability and sustainability issues. Stakeholders dependent on these resources are interested in and benefit greatly from evolving these simulation tools (models) into decision support systems that can be used for adaptive management of water and ecological resources. The interaction of unique and high-quality biological and hydrologic resources and the effects of stresses from human activities can be evaluated best by using a multidisciplinary approach that the USGS

  8. Creating Highlander Wherever You Are

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan; Mullett, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Highlander Research and Education Center serves as a catalyst for grassroots organizing and movement building. This article focuses on an interview with education coordinator Susan Williams who has worked at Highlander for 26 years. We discuss how others can and do create powerful popular education experiences anywhere, whether they have a…

  9. Creating Highlander Wherever You Are

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan; Mullett, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Highlander Research and Education Center serves as a catalyst for grassroots organizing and movement building. This article focuses on an interview with education coordinator Susan Williams who has worked at Highlander for 26 years. We discuss how others can and do create powerful popular education experiences anywhere, whether they have a…

  10. Chapter 1: Central Arizona Highlands

    Treesearch

    Peter F. Ffolliott

    1999-01-01

    The Central Arizona Highlands are a distinct biogeographic, climatic, and physiographic province that forms a diverse ecotone between the larger Colorado Plateau to the north and the Sonoran Desert ecoregions to the south (figure 1). The Highlands coincide approximately with the Arizona Transition Zone identified by ecologists, geologists and others. This region is one...

  11. The Gent-McWilliams parameterization: 20/20 hindsight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gent, Peter R.

    It has now been 20 years since the Gent and McWilliams paper on "Isopycnal Mixing in Ocean Circulation Models" was published in January 1990 issue of the Journal of Physical Oceanography. That paper was highlighted at the CLIVAR Working Group on Ocean Model Development "Workshop on Ocean Mesoscale Eddies" which was held at the UK Meteorological Office in April 2009, and this review paper is based on the talk given at that Workshop. It contains some hindsights on how the parameterization of the effect of mesoscale eddies on the mean flow came about; which is a question that I am asked quite often. A few important results from including the parameterization in a non-eddy-resolving ocean model are recalled. Including this parameterization, along with other improvements to all the components, in the first version of the Community Climate System Model resulted in the first non-drifting control simulation in a climate model that did not require flux corrections. Also included are brief comments on how the Gent and McWilliams eddy parameterization has been modified and improved since the original proposal in 1990.

  12. Quantitative dermal measurements following treatment with AirGent.

    PubMed

    Kobus, Kazimierz F; Dydymski, Tomasz

    2010-09-01

    As an alternative to other minimally-invasive approaches to facial rejuvenation, enhancement and treatment of the dermis with a compressed air molecule of hyaluronic acid (HA) is a promising method in that it lacks some of the drawbacks of other procedures. The novelty of these systems, one of which is tested in this study, is based on the supposition that jet lateral dispersion of HA produces both instant dermal augmentation and specific wound-healing processes, leading to its long-term dermal thickening. The authors report on the efficacy and safety of the AirGent system (PerfAction, Rehovot, Israel), which is a renewal system designed to initiate a wound-healing process in the dermal layer. It is a computer-guided system that delivers treatment through compressed air molecules of HA to the dermal layer of the skin. The authors treated 20 patients (a total of 105 treatment sessions) with the AirGent system between May 2008 and November 2008. Each patient received three treatments at three- to four-week intervals. Each patient's skin thickness was measured with ultrasonography pretreatment, immediately after each session, and at six months posttreatment. Seven days after the last procedure, an increase in skin thickness was observed in all patients. The most significant differences were noted in the upper lip area, where the thickness had increased by an average of 1.3 mm. Six months after the last session, an increase in skin thickness was still noted in most patients, at which time the biggest difference was noted around the eyes, where the skin remained thicker by an average of 0.77 mm over baseline. According to the results of the Global Improvement Assessment questionnaire, at the six-month follow-up to evaluate their satisfaction with the long-term results, at least 59.9% of patients still noted at least a slight improvement in their appearance. Although a small group of patients and a relatively short period of observation limit the scope of our conclusions

  13. Detection of tropical landslides using airborne lidar data and multi imagery: A case study in genting highland, pahang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khamsin, I.; Zulkarnain, M.; Razak, K. A.; Rizal, S.

    2014-02-01

    The landslide geomorphological system in a tropical region is complex, and its understanding often depends on the completeness and correctness of landslide inventorization. In mountainous regions, landslides pose a significant impact and are known as an important geomorphic process in shaping major landscape in the tropics. A modern remote sensing based approach has revolutionized the landslide investigation in a forested terrain. Optical satellite imagery, aerial photographs and synthetic aperture radar images are less effective to create reliable tropical DTMs for landslide recognition, and even so in the forested equatorial regions. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) data have been used to construct the digital terrain model (DTM) under dense vegetation, but its reliability for landslide recognition in the tropics remains surprisingly unknown. The present study aims at providing better insight into the use of airborne laser scanning (ALS) data. For the bare-earth extraction, several prominent filtering algorithms and surface interpolation methods, i.e. progressive TIN densitification, morphological, and command prompt from Lastool are evaluated in a qualitative analysis, aiming at removing non-ground points while preserving important landslide features. As a result, a large landslide can be detected using OOA. Small landslides remain unrecognized. Three out of five landslides can be detected, with a 60 percent overall accuracy.

  14. Highland/Lowland contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The smooth plains of Elysium embay the blocky broken up highlands of Aeolis. The plains have been interpreted by researchers to be possibly mudflows or lava flows.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -0.8, Longitude 170.8 East (189.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  15. 75 FR 60840 - Highland Capital Management, L.P. and Highland Funds I; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMISSION Highland Capital Management, L.P. and Highland Funds I; Notice of Application September 27, 2010.... Applicants: Highland Capital Management, L.P. (the ``Adviser'') and Highland Funds I (the ``Trust'' and... ``Adviser'') or its successors; (b) uses the multi-manager structure described in the application; and (c...

  16. A Gaussian-product stochastic Gent-McWilliams parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grooms, I.

    2016-12-01

    The locally-averaged horizontal buoyancy flux by mesoscale eddies is computed from eddy-resolving quasigeostrophic simulations of ocean-mesoscale eddy dynamics. This flux has a very non-Gaussian distribution peaked at zero, not at the mean value. This non-Gaussian flux distribution arises because the flux is a product of zero-mean random variables: the eddy velocity and buoyancy. A framework for stochastic Gent-McWilliams (GM) parameterization based around stochastic parameterization of the horizontal subgrid-scale density flux is presented. Gaussian random field models for subgrid-scale velocity and buoyancy are developed. The product of these Gaussian random fields is used to construct a non-Gaussian stochastic parameterization of the horizontal subgrid-scale density flux, which leads to a non-Gaussian stochastic GM parameterization. This new parameterization is tested in an idealized box ocean model, and compared to a Gaussian approach that simply multiplies the deterministic GM parameterization by a Gaussian random field. The non-Gaussian approach has a significant impact on both the mean and variability of the simulations, more so than the Gaussian approach; for example, the non-Gaussian simulation has a much larger net kinetic energy and a stronger overturning circulation than a comparable Gaussian simulation. Future directions for development of the stochastic GM parameterization and extensions of the Gaussian-product approach are discussed.

  17. A Gaussian-product stochastic Gent-McWilliams parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grooms, Ian

    2016-10-01

    The locally-averaged horizontal buoyancy flux by mesoscale eddies is computed from eddy-resolving quasigeostrophic simulations of ocean-mesoscale eddy dynamics. This flux has a very non-Gaussian distribution peaked at zero, not at the mean value. This non-Gaussian flux distribution arises because the flux is a product of zero-mean random variables: the eddy velocity and buoyancy. A framework for stochastic Gent-McWilliams (GM) parameterization is presented. Gaussian random field models for subgrid-scale velocity and buoyancy are developed. The product of these Gaussian random fields is used to construct a non-Gaussian stochastic parameterization of the horizontal subgrid-scale density flux, which leads to a non-Gaussian stochastic GM parameterization. This new non-Gaussian stochastic GM parameterization is tested in an idealized box ocean model, and compared to a Gaussian approach that simply multiplies the deterministic GM parameterization by a Gaussian random field. The non-Gaussian approach has a significant impact on both the mean and variability of the simulations, more so than the Gaussian approach; for example, the non-Gaussian simulation has a much larger net kinetic energy and a stronger overturning circulation than a comparable Gaussian simulation. Future directions for development of the stochastic GM parameterization and extensions of the Gaussian-product approach are discussed.

  18. HIGHLAND RIDGE ROADLESS AREA, NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitebread, Donald H.; Brown, S. Don

    1984-01-01

    The mineral-resource potential of the Highland Ridge Roadless Area, Nevada was evaluated on the basis of results from field investigations. One area along the west border of the Highland Ridge Roadless Area has substantiated mineral-resource potential for tungsten. Several other areas are classed as having probable mineral-resource potential, based mainly upon anomalously high values of tungsten, lead, silver, and zinc in concentrates of stream sediments. Most of the roadless area is underlain by rocks in the upper plate of the Snake Range decollement, and is considered to have little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. No energy resource potential was identified in the area.

  19. Spotlight: Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Patriquin, W

    1988-03-01

    Focus is on Malaysia -- its population and land area, its total fertility rate and mortality rate, economic development, contraceptive usage, and population policy. In 1987 Malaysia's population was estimated to be 16.1 million with births 31/1000 population and deaths 7/1000 population. The rate of natural increase is 2.4%, the total fertility rate 3.9 children/woman, and the infant mortality rate 30/1000 live births. Ethnically, Malaysia is made up of several distinct groups. Indigenous Malays are the most numerous -- about 50% of the population. Their unique characteristics include that they are Moslem, rural, and usually of lower economic status. Chinese make up the 2nd largest group of Malaysians, nearly 1/3 of the population. This group is active in trade, business, and finance and possesses considerable economic power. About 10% of the population is of Indian descent. Malaysia has experienced much economic growth. Traditional exports grew in volume and value during the 1970; the petroleum sector expanded so rapidly it accounts for 1/4 of all exports. One reason for Malaysia's rapid economic growth is the government's promotion of industrialization and foreign investment. According to the 1982 contraceptive prevalence survey, 42% of currently married women 15-44 years were using contraception. The government considers the current rate of national increase to be satisfactory, but in 1984 it adopted a population policy to more than quadruple its population in 2100 to 70 million. It intends to accomplish this by instituting pronatalist incentives to help the fall in the national growth rate. The government's rationale for more population growth is that a larger domestic population could better support industrial growth that otherwise might be stymied by "protectionist policies practiced by developed countries." Incentives to encourage fertility include income-tax deductions and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children.

  20. Singapore, Malaysia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-07-09

    This view of the Malay Peninsula shows the city state of Singapore, Malaysia (1.5N, 104.0E) with all its urban, industrial and commercial land use areas. Singapore is located at the south tip of the Malay peninsula separated by the Johor Strait. The prosporous island state, once Asia's major trade center, is now highly industrialized despite its small size and its ideal location has made this island a hub of trade, shipping and service industries.

  1. Singapore, Malaysia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view of the Malay Peninsula shows the city state of Singapore, Malaysia (1.5N, 104.0E) with all its urban, industrial and commercial land use areas. Singapore is located at the south tip of the Malay peninsula separated by the Johor Strait. The prosporous island state, once Asia's major trade center, is now highly industrialized despite its small size and its ideal location has made this island a hub of trade, shipping and service industries.

  2. Malaria in Highlands of Ecuador since 1900

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Fiona F.

    2012-01-01

    A recent epidemic of malaria in the highlands of Bolivia and establishment of multiple Anopheles species mosquitoes in the highlands of Ecuador highlights the reemergence of malaria in the Andes Mountains in South America. Because malaria was endemic to many highland valleys at the beginning of the 20th century, this review outlines the 20th century history of malaria in the highlands of Ecuador, and focuses on its incidence (e.g., geographic distribution) and elimination from the northern highland valleys of Pichincha and Imbabura and the role of the Guayaquil to Quito railway in creating highland larval habitat and inadvertently promoting transportation of the vector and parasite. Involvement of control organizations in combating malaria in Ecuador is also outlined in a historical context. PMID:22469234

  3. Imagery Exercises for Young Highland Dancers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Irene L.; Munroe-Chandler, Krista J.

    2017-01-01

    Scottish Highland Dance (Highland Dance), known for its accompaniment of bagpipe music and traditional wearing of the kilt, has captured the interest of many dancers and spectators worldwide. It requires strength, stamina, coordination, and very controlled movements. Such intricate technique and movements can be difficult to master, especially for…

  4. Imagery Exercises for Young Highland Dancers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Irene L.; Munroe-Chandler, Krista J.

    2017-01-01

    Scottish Highland Dance (Highland Dance), known for its accompaniment of bagpipe music and traditional wearing of the kilt, has captured the interest of many dancers and spectators worldwide. It requires strength, stamina, coordination, and very controlled movements. Such intricate technique and movements can be difficult to master, especially for…

  5. Ozark-Ouachita Highlands Assessment: Summary Report

    Treesearch

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture

    1999-01-01

    This publication summarizes four other reports prepared as part of the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands Assessment. The summary report addresses social and economic conditions and trends, aquatic conditions, air quality, and terrestrial vegetation and wildlife of the Highlands in Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri.

  6. A highland sample strategy for Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehon, Rene A.

    1994-01-01

    Potential landing sites are confined to latitudes between 0 deg and 30 deg N and surfaces below 0 km elevation. The landing ellipse is 100 x 200 km oriented N 74 deg E. The constraints essentially eliminate the slopes of Elysium Mons, Olympus Mons, Tharsis Ridge, Lunae Plaunum, all the southern highlands, and almost all the Noachian material of Arabia Terra. Those areas that remain as potential landing sites are chiefly lowland plains of Amazonis Chryse, Isidis, and Elysium Planitia. Any attempt to sample highland material further constrains the possible landing sites by eliminating areas of Hesperian or Amazonian lavas and sediments. One possible sampling strategy is to sample materials within those few 'highland' terrains that extend to low elevations. A second strategy is to sample materials at the mouth of an outflow channel that drains from the highlands. Potential landing sites include outflow channel material at the edge of Chryse Planitia and highland materials bordering southern Amazonis Planitia.

  7. Petrology of the Apollo 12 highland component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.

    1985-11-01

    Petrologic study of highland rock fragments handpicked from the Apollo 12 coarse fines confirms the KREEPy nature of the A-12 highland components and the importance of norites and alkali anorthosites. This is in contrast to the calcic, non-KREEPy A-16 and A-11 highland lithologies. The results add to the complexity of the igneous lunar highland rocks, which models for the formation of the lunar crust must take into account. A model involving moonwide differentiation followed by serial magmatism and heavy brecciation seems to be required. Results also show that non-KREEPy highland materials are present at the A-12 site and may represent Copernican and Imbrium ejecta, whereas the KREEPy materials may represent pre-Imbrian terra, as at the A-14 site.

  8. Dragons in the mist: three new species of Pseudocalotes Fitzinger (Squamata: Agamidae) from the sky island archipelago of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Grismer, L Lee; Quah, Evan S H; Wood, Perry L Jr; Anuar, Shahrul; Muin, Abdul; Davis, Hayden R; Murdoch, Matthew L; Grismer, Jesse L; Cota, Michael; Cobos, Anthony J

    2016-07-07

    An integrative taxonomic analysis is used to delimit and describe three new species of Pseudocalotoes from the sky island archipelago of the Banjaran (=mountain range) Titiwangsa of Peninsular Malaysia. Pseudocalotes drogon sp. nov., from Fraser's Hill, Pahang is basal to the sister species P. larutensis from Bukit Larut, Perak in the Banjaran Bintang and the new species P. rhaegal sp. nov. from Cameron Highlands, Pahang. Pseudocalotes drogon sp. nov. is differentiated from all other species of Psuedocalotes by having the combination of a flat rostrum; seven postrostrals; an interparietal; 11 circumorbitals; five canthals; 7-10 superciliaries; one scale between the rostral and nasal; nine supralabials; eight infralabials; 10 postnasal-suborbital scales; four postmentals; five or six sublabials; five or six chinshields; 47 smooth, wide, gular scales; weak transverse gular and antehumeral folds; two enlarged scales between the ear and eye; enlarged upper and lower posttemporals; a single enlarged supratympanic; no enlarged postrictals; three large scales bordering the dorsal margin of the ear opening; large pretympanic scales; eight scales in the nuchal crest not separated by a gap; enlarged vertebral scales extending to the tip of the tail; keeled and non-plate-like scales on flanks; 51 midbody scales; midventrals smaller than dorsals; 19 subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; 23 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; preaxial scales on third toe enlarged and spinose; subdigital lamellae not unicarinate; HW/HL 0.52; HL/SVL 0.31; no elbow or knee patches; and a male dewlap color of lime-green bearing a central yellow spot. Pseudocalotes rhaegal sp. nov. is differentiated from all other Psuedocalotes by having the combination of a convex rostrum; 6-8 postrostrals; an interparietal; nine or 10 circumorbitals; five canthals; 7-10 superciliaries; one or two scales between the rostral and nasal scales; eight or nine supralabials; seven or eight infralabials; 11 or 12

  9. Applications of PIXE to biological and biomedical samples at the university of gent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenhaut, W.; Vandenhaute, J.; Duflou, H.; De Reuck, J.

    1987-03-01

    The research on biological and biomedical samples, conducted at the University of Gent during the last 4-5 years and using PIXE as analytical technique, is presented. Our optimized sample/target preparation methods are described, and the accuracy and precision obtainable with them are discussed. Two comprehensive biological/biomedical research projects, initiated at Gent, are presented. The first aims at investigating possible trace element changes in tissues of experimental animals (rats) as a result of liver necrosis or cirrhosis, induced by intraperitoneal injection with CCl 4. The second project involves the determination of the regional distribution of trace elements in the human brain. Eight elements, i.e. K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se and Rb, are being measured in up to 50 different regions of 12 normal brains, and in selected brain regions from patients with neurological disorders. Some of the results of the two projects are discussed.

  10. Cryptic gentes revealed in pallid cuckoos Cuculus pallidus using reflectance spectrophotometry

    PubMed Central

    Starling, M; Heinsohn, R; Cockburn, A; Langmore, N.E

    2006-01-01

    Many cuckoo species lay eggs that match those of their hosts, which can significantly reduce rejection of their eggs by the host species. However, egg mimicry is problematic for generalist cuckoos that parasitize several host species with different egg types. Some generalist cuckoos have overcome this problem by evolving several host-specific races (gentes), each with its own, host-specific egg type. It is unknown how generalist cuckoos lacking gentes are able to avoid egg rejection by hosts. Here we use reflectance spectrophotometry (300–700 nm) on museum egg collections to test for host-specific egg types in an Australian generalist cuckoo reported to have a single egg type. We show that the colour of pallid cuckoo (Cuculus pallidus) eggs differed between four host species, and that their eggs closely mimicked the eggs of the host they parasitized. These results reveal that pallid cuckoos have host-specific egg types that have not been detected by human observation, and indicate that gentes could be more common than previously realized. PMID:16822754

  11. Lunar highlands breccias generated by major impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, O. B.

    1977-01-01

    The processes that may have been involved in the formation of most of the major types of lunar breccias are discussed. Some of the types of highlands breccias that may have originated in large impacts are identified.

  12. Closer Look at Lunar Highland Crust

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-05

    This image depicting the porosity of the lunar highland crust was derived using bulk density data from NASA GRAIL mission and independent grain density measurements from NASA Apollo moon mission samples as well as orbital remote-sensing data.

  13. Origin of the Lunar Highland Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, P. D., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the origin of the oldest lunar crust was a main scientific objective of the last three Apollo missions, 15, 16, and 17, all of which landed in or near highland exposures. Starting with Apollo 15, the astronauts took hundreds of 70 mm surface photographs. These pictures have been re-studied, and reveal pervasive layering in the lunar highland crust visited by the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  14. Highland crust at the Apollo 14 site: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shervais, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Recent petrologic studies of pristine nonmare samples from the Apollo 14 site have demonstrated the unique character of the western highlands crust. Many of the lithologies which occur here are not found at other highland sites or represent unique variations of more common lithologies. Rare highland samples found at the Apollo 12 site have petrologic and geochemical affinities with the Apollo 14 highland suite and the two sites taken together constitute what can be called the Western Highland Province. Rocks of the Western Highland Province are geochemically distinct from similar lithologies found at eastern highland sites (Apollo 15, Apollo 16, Apollo 17, and the Luna sites) -- a fact which adds further complications to current petrogenetic models for the lunar crust. Nonetheless, an understanding of how the Western Highlands Province formed and why it differs from highland crust in the east is crucial to our overall understanding of primordial lunar differentiation and petrogenesis.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of ancient Peruvian highlanders.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Ken-ichi; Adachi, Noboru; Guillen, Sonia; Shimada, Izumi

    2006-09-01

    Ancient DNA recovered from 57 individuals excavated by Hiram Bingham at the rural communities of Paucarcancha, Patallacta, and Huata near the famed Inca royal estate and ritual site of Machu Picchu was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, and the results were compared with ancient and modern DNA from various Central Andean areas to test their hypothesized indigenous highland origins. The control and coding regions of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 35 individuals in this group were sequenced, and the haplogroups of each individual were determined. The frequency data for the haplogroups of these samples show clear proximity to those of modern Quechua and Aymara populations in the Peruvian and Bolivian highlands, and contrast with those of pre-Hispanic individuals of the north coast of Peru that we defined previously. Our study suggests a strong genetic affinity between sampled late pre-Hispanic individuals and modern Andean highlanders. A previous analysis of the Machu Picchu osteological collection suggests that the residents there were a mixed group of natives from various coastal and highland regions relocated by the Inca state for varied purposes. Overall, our study indicates that the sampled individuals from Paucarcancha and Patallacta were indigenous highlanders who provided supportive roles for nearby Machu Picchu. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Mapping of government land encroachment in Cameron Highlands using multiple remote sensing datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zin, M. H. M.; Ahmad, B.

    2014-02-01

    The cold and refreshing highland weather is one of the factors that give impact to socio-economic growth in Cameron Highlands. This unique weather of the highland surrounded by tropical rain forest can only be found in a few places in Malaysia. It makes this place a famous tourism attraction and also provides a very suitable temperature for agriculture activities. Thus it makes agriculture such as tea plantation, vegetable, fruits and flowers one of the biggest economic activities in Cameron Highlands. However unauthorized agriculture activities are rampant. The government land, mostly forest area have been encroached by farmers, in many cases indiscriminately cutting down trees and hill slopes. This study is meant to detect and assess this encroachment using multiple remote sensing datasets. The datasets were used together with cadastral parcel data where survey lines describe property boundary, pieces of land are subdivided into lots of government and private. The general maximum likelihood classification method was used on remote sensing image to classify the land-cover in the study area. Ground truth data from field observation were used to assess the accuracy of the classification. Cadastral parcel data was overlaid on the classification map in order to detect the encroachment area. The result of this study shows that there is a land cover change of 93.535 ha in the government land of the study area between years 2001 to 2010, nevertheless almost no encroachment took place in the studied forest reserve area. The result of this study will be useful for the authority in monitoring and managing the forest.

  17. Chemistry of the Apollo 11 highland component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laul, J. C.; Papike, J. J.; Simon, S. B.; Shearer, C. K.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-eight Apollo 11 lunar highland fragments from coarse fines 10085 have been subjected to petrologic and chemical study. Six major chemical groups are identified: (a) high-K KREEP; (b) anorthosite with a 10X chondrite positive Eu anomaly and anorthosite with 30X positive Eu anomaly; (c) ANT; (d) LKFM; (e) anorthositic gabbro with no Eu anomaly, with a positive Eu anomaly, and with a negative Eu anomaly; and (f) dominant Highland component, 2X-10X chondrite with a positive 10X-14X Eu anomaly. Newly recognized groups are presented based on the REE patterns: (a) ANT group with 5X La and a 22X positive Eu anomaly; (b) 10X flat with 14X positive Eu anomaly; and (c) 2-3X flat with a 10X positive Eu anomaly. The highland suite is very low in K and REE, and is overall quite similar to the Apollo 16 suite.

  18. Chemistry of the Apollo 11 highland component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laul, J. C.; Papike, J. J.; Simon, S. B.; Shearer, C. K.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-eight Apollo 11 lunar highland fragments from coarse fines 10085 have been subjected to petrologic and chemical study. Six major chemical groups are identified: (a) high-K KREEP; (b) anorthosite with a 10X chondrite positive Eu anomaly and anorthosite with 30X positive Eu anomaly; (c) ANT; (d) LKFM; (e) anorthositic gabbro with no Eu anomaly, with a positive Eu anomaly, and with a negative Eu anomaly; and (f) dominant Highland component, 2X-10X chondrite with a positive 10X-14X Eu anomaly. Newly recognized groups are presented based on the REE patterns: (a) ANT group with 5X La and a 22X positive Eu anomaly; (b) 10X flat with 14X positive Eu anomaly; and (c) 2-3X flat with a 10X positive Eu anomaly. The highland suite is very low in K and REE, and is overall quite similar to the Apollo 16 suite.

  19. Literacy in Postcolonial Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandian, Ambigapathy

    1997-01-01

    Discusses literacy in the postcolonial era (since 1957) in Malaysia. Notes that while the literacy rate has risen dramatically, a growing problem that demands urgent attention is "Reading Reluctancy." Discusses survey results regarding major reasons leading to reading reluctancy, and discusses the future of literacy in Malaysia. (SR)

  20. Female Prisoners in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teh, Yik Koon

    2006-01-01

    This is a study on 422 female prisoners in peninsular Malaysia. More than half of the female prisoners are foreigners, mainly from Indonesia and Thailand. This study surveys the background of the respondents and identifies factors that may have influenced them to commit the offences. Female prisoners in Malaysia, particularly those who are…

  1. Female Prisoners in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teh, Yik Koon

    2006-01-01

    This is a study on 422 female prisoners in peninsular Malaysia. More than half of the female prisoners are foreigners, mainly from Indonesia and Thailand. This study surveys the background of the respondents and identifies factors that may have influenced them to commit the offences. Female prisoners in Malaysia, particularly those who are…

  2. Rock types present in lunar highland soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    Several investigators have studied soils from the lunar highlands with the objective of recognizing the parent rocks that have contributed significant amounts of material to these soils. Comparing only major element data, and thus avoiding the problems induced by individual classifications, these data appear to converge on a relatively limited number of rock types. The highland soils are derived from a suite of highly feldspathic rocks comprising anorthositic gabbros (or norites), high alumina basalts, troctolites, and less abundant gabbroic (or noritic) anorthosites, anorthosites, and KREEP basalts.

  3. Management of grassy bald communities in the Roan Highlands

    Treesearch

    James T. Donaldson; N. Schubert; Lisa C. Huff

    2010-01-01

    No place better exemplifies that which is rare and unique within high-elevation communities of the Appalachian Mountains than the highlands of Roan Mountain. The Roan Highlands are protected through a landscape-level conservation initiative originally established by the Southern Appalachian Highlands Conservancy and the U.S. Forest Service in 1974.

  4. Physiographic Sections of the Guiana Highlands, Venezuela and Guyana.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    and Guiana Highlands , all physiographic provinces. To subdivide the Guiana Highlands into smaller units the geology, geomorphic features, soils, and...This report discusses the nature of the Guiana Shield and delimits meaningful subdivisions. The Shield contains the Guiana Lowlands, Guiana Hills...formulation of three physiographic sections, the Sierra de Imataca, the Tepui Section, and the Western Highlands Section.

  5. New York - New Jersey Highlands Regional Study: 2002 Update

    Treesearch

    Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry

    2003-01-01

    Stewardship Goals For The New York - New Jersey Highlands This 2002 Update of the 1992 New York - New Jersey Highlands Regional Study embodies the following goals for the long-term stewardship of the Highlands: 1. Manage future growth that is compatible with the region's ecological constraints; 2. Maintain an adequate surface and ground water supply that...

  6. Conservation priorities in the Apache Highlands ecoregion

    Treesearch

    Dale Turner; Rob Marshall; Carolyn A. F. Enquist; Anne Gondor; David F. Gori; Eduardo Lopez; Gonzalo Luna; Rafaela Paredes Aguilar; Chris Watts; Sabra Schwartz

    2005-01-01

    The Apache Highlands ecoregion incorporates the entire Madrean Archipelago/Sky Island region. We analyzed the current distribution of 223 target species and 26 terrestrial ecological systems there, and compared them with constraints on ecosystem integrity (e.g., road density) to determine the most efficient set of areas needed to maintain current biodiversity. The...

  7. A Report on the Highlander Folk School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassara, Beverly B.

    The Highlander Folk School was founded as an alternative kind of education with no academic admission requirements, no examinations or grades, and no set curriculum. Hard times were caused by lack of funds and the radical nature of its purpose--to help poor people know their rights and stand up for them. As an undergraduate, Myles Horton, its…

  8. Highlander: No Ordinary School. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glen, John M.

    This book updates the 1988 examination of Highlander, one of the South's most extraordinary and controversial institutions. Newly available materials and the latest scholarship details the school's most recent work in Appalachia, its efforts to bring international grassroots groups together on common issues, and its support of emerging economic…

  9. Highland Elementary School. Learning by Example Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fager, Jennifer

    As part of a series of stories about real-world schools that have achieved substantial success in school improvement over multiple-year periods, this report provides an in-depth look at one school's efforts to improve student learning. The school profiled is Highland Elementary School, located in Salem, Oregon, serving a student population of…

  10. The Highlander Heritage: Education for Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjerandsen, Carl

    1983-01-01

    Founded in 1932 at Monteagle, Tennessee, Highlander has functioned as a residential school, serving a variety of constituencies. Throughout its history, it has sought to help disadvantaged victims of injustice and poverty, principally in the South, to learn how to change their conditions. (SSH)

  11. A Report on the Highlander Folk School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassara, Beverly B.

    The Highlander Folk School was founded as an alternative kind of education with no academic admission requirements, no examinations or grades, and no set curriculum. Hard times were caused by lack of funds and the radical nature of its purpose--to help poor people know their rights and stand up for them. As an undergraduate, Myles Horton, its…

  12. Ozark-Ouachita Highlands Assessment: Aquatic Conditions

    Treesearch

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides citizens, private and public organizations, scientists, and others with information about the aquatic conditions in or near national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes water quality analyses,...

  13. Ozark-Ouachita Highlands Assessment: Air Quality

    Treesearch

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides information about the atmospheric conditions in and near the national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes information about particulate matter, visibility, ozone concentrations, and acid...

  14. Human malaria in the highlands of Yemen

    PubMed Central

    AL-Mekhlafi, A M; AL-Mekhlafi, H M; Mahdy, M A K; Azazy, A A; Fong, M Y

    2011-01-01

    Between June 2008 and March 2009, a cross-sectional study of human malaria was carried out in four governorates of Yemen, two (Taiz and Hodiedah) representing the country’s highlands and the others (Dhamar and Raymah) the country’s coastal plains/foothills. The main aims were to determine the prevalences of Plasmodium infection among 455 febrile patients presenting for care at participating health facilities and to investigate the potential risk factors for such infection. Malarial infection was detected in 78 (17·1%) of the investigated patients and was more likely to be detected among the febrile patients from the highlands than among those presenting in the coastal plains/foothills (22·6% v.13·9%; χ2 = 10·102; P = 0·018). Binary logistic-regression models identified low household income [odds ratio (OR) = 13·52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2·62–69·67; P = 0·002], living in a household with access to a water pump (OR = 4·18; CI = 1·60–10·96; P = 0·004) and living in a household near a stream (OR = 4·43; CI = 1·35–14·56; P = 0·014) as significant risk factors for malarial infection in the highlands. Low household income was the only significant risk factor identified for such infection in the coastal plains and foothills (OR = 8·20; CI = 1·80–37·45; P = 0·007). It is unclear why febrile patients in the highlands of Yemen are much more likely to be found to have malarial infection than their counterparts from the coastal plains and foothills. Although it is possible that malarial transmission is relatively intense in the highlands, it seems more likely that, compared with those who live at lower altitudes, those who live in the highlands are less immune to malaria, and therefore more likely to develop febrile illness following malarial infection. Whatever the cause of the symptomatic malarial infection commonly found in the highlands of Yemen, it is a matter of serious

  15. Adult Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junid, Yusof bin

    1971-01-01

    In Malaysia, education and training programs are expected to play a vital role in promoting national unity, i.e., through such things as language standardization and goodwill courses for non-Malays. (Author/SP)

  16. World Beat: Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldberg, Gregory H.

    1994-09-01

    Malaysia is soaring economically, but it lags behind in science education. Starting virtually from scratch, astronomy proponents are building an astronomy education program. Its focus is a gleaming new planetarium in Kuala Lumpur.

  17. Night Pass over Malaysia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This video showing night lights over Malaysia was taken by the crew of Expedition 28 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Aug. 21, 2011, from 19:33:05 to 19:3...

  18. Association between recent internal travel and malaria in Ugandan highland and highland fringe areas.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Caroline A; Bruce, Jane; Bhasin, Amit; Roper, Cally; Cox, Jonathan; Abeku, Tarekegn A

    2015-06-01

    To examine the association between travel (recency of travel, transmission intensity at destination compared to origin and duration of travel) and confirmed malaria in Uganda. Health facility-based case-control study in highland (~2200 m), and highland fringe (~1500 m) areas with adjustment for other covariates. In the highland site, patients who had travelled to areas of higher transmission intensity than their home (origin) areas recently were nearly seven times more likely to have confirmed malaria than those who had not (OR 6.9; P = 0.01, 95% CI: 1.4-33.1). In the highland fringe site, there was also a statistically significant association between travel and malaria (OR 2.1; P = 0.04, 95% CI: 1.1-3.9). For highland areas, or areas of low malaria transmission, health authorities need to consider internal migrants when designing malaria control programs. Control interventions should include information campaigns reminding residents in these areas of the risk of malaria infection through travel and to provide additional mosquito nets for migrants to use during travel. Health authorities may wish to improve diagnosis in health facilities in highland areas by adding travel history to malaria case definitions. Where routine monitoring data are used to evaluate the impact of interventions on the malaria burden in highland areas, health authorities and donors need ensure that only cases from the local area and not 'imported cases' are counted. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A note on: "A Gaussian-product stochastic Gent-McWilliams parameterization"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Malte F.

    2017-02-01

    This note builds on a recent article by Grooms (2016), which introduces a new stochastic parameterization for eddy buoyancy fluxes. The closure proposed by Grooms accounts for the fact that eddy fluxes arise as the product of two approximately Gaussian variables, which in turn leads to a distinctly non-Gaussian distribution. The directionality of the stochastic eddy fluxes, however, remains somewhat ad-hoc and depends on the reference frame of the chosen coordinate system. This note presents a modification of the approach proposed by Grooms, which eliminates this shortcoming. Eddy fluxes are computed based on a stochastic mixing length model, which leads to a frame invariant formulation. As in the original closure proposed by Grooms, eddy fluxes are proportional to the product of two Gaussian variables, and the parameterization reduces to the Gent and McWilliams parameterization for the mean buyoancy fluxes.

  20. Time Series Analysis of Heavy Metal Concentrations along the Watershed Gradient in Cameron Highlands: Geospatial Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haron, S. H.; Ismail, B. S.; Mispan, M. R.; Abd Rahman, N. F.; Khalid, K.; Rasid, M. Z. Abdul; Sidek, L. M.

    2016-03-01

    Heavy metal, particularly cadmium, lead, and arsenic, constitute a significant potential threat to human health. Some metals are extremely toxic to humans and the toxic heavy metals of greatest concern include cadmium, lead, and arsenic. The objective of the study conducted was to determine the accumulation and distribution status of heavy metal cadmium (Cd) in the sediment of Bertam River from September 2014 to February 2015 in the agricultural areas of Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. The sediment samples were collected randomly in three replicates from ten sampling points in the agricultural areas of Cameron Highlands. The heavy metals in the sediment were extracted using the wet acid method and the sample concentrations are then tested for metal concentrations by the spectrography method using Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) spectrography. Inverse distance weighting (IDW) was used to create a map of metal concentrations for a point on the polygon dataset spatial interpolation. There is an increasing trend of Cd from the upstream to downstream stations along Bertam River during the rainy season. The activity range of Cd is 0.07 to 2.83 µg/g during the rainy season, whereas, during the dry season, Cd activity ranged from 0.26-0.83µg/g.

  1. Pyroxene poikiloblastic rocks from the lunar highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bence, A. E.; Papike, J. J.; Sueno, S.; Delano, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    The results of detailed petrographic, X-ray, electron microprobe, ion probe, and Ar-40/Ar-39 age studies of pyroxene poikiloblastic breccias, an important lunar highlands lithology, are interpreted to indicate that high grade metamorphic recrystallization occurred over wide regions of the moon at about 4.0 G.y. This metamorphism was probably related to a period of high meteorite influx at that time. The temperatures achieved were highly variable but in some cases were sufficiently intense to cause varying degrees of partial melting of the precursor highlands breccias. A complete spectrum of metamorphic grades from only slight recrystallization to virtually complete melting would be expected in such a model. Such a spectrum is observed in the Apollo 16 rocks.

  2. Impact Crater Deposits in the Martian Highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mest, S. C.; Crown, D. a.

    2005-01-01

    The martian highlands of Noachis Terra (20-30 deg S, 20-50 deg E), Tyrrhena Terra (0-30 deg S, 50- 100 deg E) and Terra Cimmeria (0-60 deg S, 120-170 deg E) preserve long and complex histories of degradation, but the relative effects of such factors as fluvial, eolian, and mass wasting processes have not been well constrained. The effects of this degradation are best observed on large (D greater than 10 km) impact craters that characterize the ancient highlands. Some craters exhibit distinct interior deposits, but precise origins of these deposits are enigmatic; infilling may occur by sedimentary (e.g., fluvial, lacustrine, eolian), mass wasting and (or) volcanic processes.

  3. Cultural Astronomy in the Armenian Highland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Suvaryan, Yu. M.; Mickaelian, A. M. (Eds.)

    2016-12-01

    The book contains 29 articles of the Proceedings of the Young Scientists Conference "Cultural Astronomy in the Armenian Highland" held at the Armenian National Academy of Sciences on 20-23 June 2016. It consists of 4 main sections: "Introductory", "Cultural Astronomy", "Archaeoastronomy", "Scientific Tourism and Journalism, Astronomical Education and Amateur Astronomy". The book may be interesting to astronomers, culturologists, philologists, linguists, historians, archaeologists, art historians, ethnographers and to other specialists, as well as to students.

  4. [Inheritance of notched ears in Highland cattle].

    PubMed

    Scheider, A; Schmidt, P; Distl, O

    1994-10-01

    The present study describes an anomaly of the pinna of the ear and its distribution in Highland Cattle. The investigation is based on a questionnaire survey in farms in Bavaria keeping robust breeds and on registering data in 15 selected farms. In the year 1991, there were registered 548 Highland stud book cows in 108 farms. In four herds animals of the breed Highland Cattle were observed which showed crop ears. Always both ears were affected and this ear defect could be already observed in newborn calves. Crop ears appeared in very different forms. In some cases only small changes of the external ear could be recognized, in more severe cases, grooves in the external ear could be found and in the most severe case, the external ear was totally deformed and drastically reduced in size. In one herd, 45 animals out of the progeny of 46 of one affected breeding bull showed crop ears. The pedigrees indicated that this defect of the ear pinna is inherited and a single autosomal gene with nearly additive (incomplete dominant) action may be involved. Homozygote recessive animals are free from crop ears, animals homozygote for the mutated allele carry totally deformed external ears and heterozygote animals do not show as severe forms of crop ears as homozygote ones.

  5. The lunar highland melt-rock suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Size can be used as a criterion to select 18 large (larger than 1 cm) samples from among 148 melt-rock fragments of all sizes. This selection provides a suite of large samples which represent the important chemical variants among highland melt rocks; each large sample has enough material for a number of sample-destructive studies, as well as for future reference. Cluster analysis of the total data base of 148 highland melt rocks shows six distinct groups: anorthosite, gabbroic anorthosite, anorthositic gabbro ('highland basalt'), low K Fra Mauro, intermediate-K Fra Mauro, and high-K. Large samples are available for four of the melt-rock groups (gabbroic anorthosite, anorthositic gabbro, low-K Fra Mauro, and intermediate-K Fra Mauro). This sample selection reveals two subgroups of anorthositic gabbro (one anorthite-poor with negative Eu anomaly and one anorthite-rich without Eu anomaly). There is a sharp distinction between those Apollo 16 melt rocks and glasses which have both been classified as 'gabbroic anorthosite'.

  6. Malaysia Promotes Excellence in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murugesan, Vinodini

    2003-01-01

    Highlights the role of English in Malaysia, English in the education system, students learning English, English teachers, instruction and the syllabus, inservice support, private English education, English in tertiary education, and opportunities for teachers in Malaysia. (VWL)

  7. Dental education in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Razak, Abdul Aziz Abdul; Bird, William F

    2007-12-01

    There was only one dental school in Malaysia until 1997 but five new schools have been established since 1998. This review provides information about dental education in Malaysia including; the history of dental education, the current dental school system and curriculum, and dental licensure. There are four public and two private dental schools in Malaysia. High school graduates are required to take the nationwide matriculation entrance examination or the Higher School Certificate (HSC) to apply for a dental degree programme. A five-year dental programme leads to the BDS or the DDS degree. National or state examinations are not required to practise dentistry. Currently, there are approximately 2,500 dentists, with a ratio of 1 dentist for every 10,000 people.

  8. Mercury pollution in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Jinap, S; Ismail, Ahmad; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have been published on levels of mercury contamination of the environment, and of food and human tissues in Peninsular Malaysia, there is a serious dearth of research that has been performed in East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak). Industry is rapidly developing in East Malaysia, and, hence, there is a need for establishing baseline levels of mercury contamination in environmental media in that part of the country by performing monitoring studies. Residues of total mercury and inorganic in food samples have been determined in nearly all previous studies that have been conducted; however, few researchers have analyzed samples for the presence of methlymercury residues. Because methylmercury is the most toxic form of mercury, and because there is a growing public awareness of the risk posed by methylmercury exposure that is associated with fish and seafood consumption, further monitoring studies on methylmercury in food are also essential. From the results of previous studies, it is obvious that the economic development in Malaysia, in recent years, has affected the aquatic environment of the country. Primary areas of environmental concern are centered on the rivers of the west Peninsular Malaysian coast, and the coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca, wherein industrial activities are rapidly expanding. The sources of existing mercury input to both of these areas of Malaysia should be studied and identified. Considering the high levels of mercury that now exists in human tissues, efforts should be continued, and accelerated in the future, if possible, to monitor mercury contamination levels in the coastal states, and particularly along the west Peninsular Malaysian coast. Most studies that have been carried out on mercury residues in environmental samples are dated, having been conducted 20-30 years ago; therefore, the need to collect much more and more current data is urgent. Furthermore, establishing baseline levels of mercury exposure to

  9. Discretizing the Gent-McWilliams velocity and isopycnal diffusion with a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestiaux, A.; Kärnä, T.; Melchior, S.; Lambrechts, J.; Remacle, J. F.; Deleersnijder, E.; Fichefet, T.

    2012-04-01

    The discretization of the Gent-McWilliams velocity and isopycnal diffusion with a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method is presented. Both processes are implemented in an ocean model thanks to a tensor related to the mesoscale eddies. The antisymmetric part of this tensor is computed from the Gent-McWilliams velocity and is subsequently included in the tracer advection equation. This velocity can be constructed to be divergence-free. The symmetric part that describes the diapycnal and isopycnal diffusions requires a special treatment. A stable and physically sound isopycnal tracer diffusion scheme is needed. Here, an interior penalty method is chosen that enables to build stable diffusion terms. However, due to the strong anisotropy of the diffusion, the common-usual penalty factor by Ern et al. (2008) is not sufficient. A novel method for computing the penalty term of Ern is then proposed for diffusion equations when both the diffusivity and the mesh are strongly anisotropic. Two test cases are resorted to validate the methodology and two more realistic applications illustrate the diapycnal and isopycnal diffusions, as well as the Gent-McWilliams velocity.

  10. Highland macrolichen flora of Northwestern Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jae-Seoun; Wang, Li-Song; Oh, Soon-Ok; Kim, Gyoung Hee; Lim, Kwang-Mi; Jung, Jae-Sung; Koh, Young Jin

    2005-06-01

    Fifty-six species in 36 genera of macrolichens are reported from the Zhongdian area, northwest Yunnan, China during the lichenological expedition for highland macrolichen survey in June, 2004. More than 60% of these species have not been reported in South Korea. All of the 182 collected specimens are deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) at Sunchon National University in Korea, and some of them are duplicated in the lichen herbarium, Crytogamic Herbarium, Kunming Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica (KUN-L) in China. This is the first report on the macrolichen flora in the visited areas.

  11. Radionuclides at Descartes in the central highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    Throium, uranium, potassium, aluminium-26, and sodium-22 were measured by nondestructive gamma ray spectrometry in six soil and two rock samples gathered by Apollo 16 in the lunar central highlands. The soil samples probably include both major geologic formations in the vicinity, the Cayley and Descartes Formations, although it is possible that the Descartes Formation is not represented. The rock samples have low concentrations of primordial radionuclides. The Al concentrations were lower than could be expected from the high abundance of alumina in the Apollo 16 soils reported earlier, but this could be due to lower concentrations of target elements in these soils, sampling depth variations, or regolithic mixing (exposure age variations).

  12. Crater destruction on the Venusian highlands by tectonic processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohn, Howard A.; Schaber, Gerald G.

    1993-01-01

    It is apparent that few, if any, craters as old, or highly modified as Imbrian craters on the surface of the moon are present on the Venusian highlands, or indeed anywhere on the planet's surface. Degraded craters such as those seen on the Moon, Mercury, or Mars are conspicuously absent. Furthermore, virtually all the impact craters on the Venusian surface show modification only by extensional tectonics, whereas the Venusian highlands show modification by compression, strike-slip movement, and finally by extension. Presumably at an earlier time, the surface of Venus resembled the surfaces of the other inner planets. The relatively recent resurfacing event that produced the plains units may be a mechanism for covering the older craters in the plains, but these vast outpourings of lava cannot be invoked as a mechanism for covering the craters on the Venusian highlands. If the plains units had covered the highlands, the entire Venusian surface would appear to be as smooth as the plains units that are embayed by and, therefore, postdate the highlands. The last major tectonic events to affect the highlands such as those seen on Ovda Regio appear to be thrust faulting with consequent folding, followed by at least three episodes of strike-slip faulting and finally extensional faulting. To test whether such tectonic movements could have destroyed highlands crater, a preliminary experiment was conducted by using a Lunar Orbiter mosaic of the lunar uplands as an analog for the ancient Venusian highlands.

  13. Print Advertisements in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Azirah

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines print advertisements in Malaysia to determine how advertisers seek to achieve their primary goal of persuading or influencing an audience by the use of both language and visuals. It describes the main component moves and rhetorical strategies used by writers to articulate the communicative purpose of the genre and the language…

  14. Country Profiles, Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzuki, Ariffin Bin; Peng, J. Y.

    A profile of Malaysia is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  15. Education Reforms in Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunus, Aida Suraya Muhammad

    Malaysia's agenda in the late 1990s involved making the transition from an industrial economy to a knowledge-based economy. Thus, the more traditional purpose of education, that is, to produce an educated person, needs to be reevaluated. If the nation's Vision 2020 is to become a reality, the educational program needs to make a fundamental shift…

  16. Education in Malaysia: 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia).

    Malaysia's education system has experienced a variety of situations and circumstances since May 1956, when the Razak Education Committee laid the foundation for a national system of education. Discussed in this publication are the history of educational development; educational organization and administration; the structure of education;…

  17. Print Advertisements in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Azirah

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines print advertisements in Malaysia to determine how advertisers seek to achieve their primary goal of persuading or influencing an audience by the use of both language and visuals. It describes the main component moves and rhetorical strategies used by writers to articulate the communicative purpose of the genre and the language…

  18. Informed Questions on Malaysia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    National War College Course 5604 Informed Questions on Malaysia BG Tay, Lim Heng, Army...collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources...gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate

  19. English in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Bernadette; Richards, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    This article seeks to lay out the use and importance of English in Malaysia from the time when the British ruled what was then Malaya to the present moment. When the British came to colonize the country, they brought with them their culture, their language and their beliefs. They introduced the English language as the medium of instruction in the…

  20. Classic to postclassic in highland central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dumond, D E; Muller, F

    1972-03-17

    The data and argument we have presented converge on three points. 1) With the decline and abandonment of Teotihuacan by the end of the Metepec phase (Teotihuacan IV), the valleys of Mexico and of Puebla-Tlax-cala witnessed the development of a ceramic culture that was represented, on the one hand, by obvious Teotihuacan derivations in presumably ritual ware and possible Teotihuacan derivations in simpler pottery of red-on-buff, and, on the other hand, by elements that seem to represent a resurgence of Preclassic characteristics. Whether the development is explained through a measure of outside influence or as a local phenomenon, the direct derivation of a substantial portion of the complex from Classic Teotihuacan is unmistakable. This transitional horizon predated the arrival of plumbate tradeware in highland central Mexico. 2) The transitional horizon coincided with (and no doubt was an integral part of) an alteration of Classic settlement patterns so drastic that it must bespeak political disruption. Nevertheless, there is no evidence that the Postclassic center of Tula represented a significant force in the highlands at that time. There is no evidence that the center of Cholula, which may even have been substantially abandoned during the previous period, was able to exert any force at this juncture; it appears more likely that Cholula was largely reoccupied after the abandonment of Teotihuacan. There is no direct evidence of domination by Xochicalco or any other known major foreign center, although some ceramic traits suggest that relatively minor influences may have emanated from Xochicalco; unfortunately, the state of research at that center does not permit a determination at this time. Thus the most reasonable view on the basis of present evidence is that the abandonment of Teotihuacan was not the direct result of the strength of another centralized power, although some outside populations may have been involved in a minor way. Whatever the proximate cause

  1. Apennine Front revisited - Diversity of Apollo 15 highland rock types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Marvin, Ursula B.; Vetter, Scott K.; Shervais, John W.

    1988-01-01

    The Apollo 15 landing site is geologically the most complex of the Apollo sites, situated at a mare-highland interface within the rings of two of the last major basin-forming impacts. Few of the Apollo 15 samples are ancient highland rocks derived from the early differentiation of the moon, or impact melts from major basin impacts. Most of the samples are regolith breccias containing abundant clasts of younger volcanic mare and KREEP basalts. The early geologic evolution of the region can be understood only by examining the small fragments of highland rocks found in regolith breccias and soils. Geochemical and petrologic studies of clasts and matrices of three impact melt breccias and four regolith breccias are presented. Twelve igneous and metamorphic rocks show extreme diversity and include a new type of ferroan norite. Twenty-five samples of highland impact melt are divided into groups based on composition. These impact melts form nearly a continuum over more than an order of magnitude in REE concentrations. This continuum may result from both major basin impacts and younger local events. Highland rocks from the Apennine Front include most of the highland rock types found at all of the other sites. An extreme diversity of highland rocks is a fundamental characteristic of the Apennine Front and is a natural result of its complex geologic evolution.

  2. Malaysia Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia's energy industry is a critical sector of growth for the entire economy, and it makes up almost 20% of the total gross domestic product. New tax and investment incentives, starting in 2010, aim to promote oil and natural gas exploration and development in the country's deepwater and marginal fields as well as promote energy efficiency measures and use of alternative energy sources. These fiscal incentives are part of the country's economic transformation program to leverage its resources and geographic location to be one of Asia's top energy players by 2020. Another key pillar in Malaysia's energy strategy is to become a regional oil and natural gas storage, trading, and development hub that will attract technical expertise and downstream services that can compete in Asia.

  3. A contribution to the knowledge of Orthoptera diversity from Peninsular Malaysia: Bukit Larut, Perak.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ming Kai; Kamaruddin, Khairul Nizam

    2016-05-12

    Bukit Larut is a hill station at the southern tip of the Bintang Range, Perak of Peninsular Malaysia. While the biodiversity of Bukit Larut has been previously documented, its entomofauna, including the Orthoptera, remains relatively unknown. A faunistic survey was conducted in 2015 as part of the continuous exploration of the highlands in Malay Peninsula. An annotated species list of 71 (24 Caelifera and 47 Ensifera) species of Orthoptera from ten families (five from each order) is presented here. While the coverage of lineages in the orthopteran phylogeny is well-represented, the diversity in Bukit Larut is dominated by the three main families: Acrididae, Gryllidae and Tettigoniidae. Eight new locality records for Bukit Larut and/or Peninsular Malaysia and potential new species awaiting description highlight that the orthopteran diversity in Bukit Larut is not exhaustive.

  4. A new record of Fannia prisca Stein, 1918 (Diptera:Fanniidae) from peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Heo, Chong Chin; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Nishida, Kazumi; Tan Siew, Hwa; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; Mohamed, Abdullah Marwi; Jeffrey, John; Omar, Baharudin

    2008-12-01

    Fannia prisca Stein, 1918 is newly recorded from peninsular Malaysia. This record is based on 4 male specimens from Mount Berembun, Brinchang, Cameron Highland, Pahang state, peninsular Malaysia. It is previously recorded from China, Mongolia, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Bonin Island, Thailand and oriental region. The male of Fannia prisca can be differentiated from male Fannia scalaris by the following features: for F. prisca, mid-coxa without spine; mid-tibia normal or without stout triangular ventral projection; and hind tibia usually with 2 av, while F. scalaris has several stout hook-like spines on the anterior margin; mid-tibia with stout triangular ventral projection and hind tibia usually with 3 av. Both F. prisca and F. scalaris can be differentiated from Fannia leucosticta by looking at its hind tibia, which only has 1 av.

  5. Notes on Pandanus atrocarpus Griff and P. tectorius Parkinson in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azahana, A.; Wickneswari, R.; Noraini, T.; Nordahlia, A. S.; Solihani, N. S.; Nurnida, M. K.

    2015-09-01

    A study was conducted on two species of Pandanus, to investigate the occurrence of P. atrocarpus Griff and P. tectorius Parkinson in Peninsular Malaysia. Traditionally their leaves are used as woven materials to make mats, baskets and hats. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current status on occurrence of these two species in Peninsular Malaysia. Field data on plant localities and morphological traits were recorded. Digital images of all characters were captured for comparative analysis. Leaf and root tissues of 19 individuals of P. atrocarpus and seven individuals of P. tectorius were collected for anatomical and micromorphological studies. Pandanus atrocarpus could be easily found at riverside areas in Kelantan and Langkawi, rubber plantations in Perak and Terengganu, at highland areas in Pahang and at the beach areas in Kedah. Meanwhile P. tectorius is commonly found in the coastal areas of Johor, Terengganu, Kedah, Selangor and can found to grow on rocky cliffs too.

  6. Lakshmi Planum: A distinctive highland volcanic province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Kari M.; Head, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Lakshmi Planum, a broad smooth plain located in western Ishtar Terra and containing two large oval depressions (Colette and Sacajawea), has been interpreted as a highland plain of volcanic origin. Lakshmi is situated 3 to 5 km above the mean planetary radius and is surrounded on all sides by bands of mountains interpreted to be of compressional tectonic origin. Four primary characteristics distinguish Lakshmi from other volcanic regions known on the planet, such as Beta Regio: (1) high altitude, (2) plateau-like nature, (3) the presence of very large, low volcanic constructs with distinctive central calderas, and (4) its compressional tectonic surroundings. Building on the previous work of Pronin, the objective is to establish the detailed nature of the volcanic deposits on Lakshmi, interpret eruption styles and conditions, sketch out an eruption history, and determine the relationship between volcanism and the tectonic environment of the region.

  7. Hydrated Minerals in the Martian Southern Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wray, James J.; Seelos, F. P.; Murchie, S. L.; Squyres, S. W.

    2008-09-01

    Hydrated minerals including sulfates, phyllosilicates, and hydrated silica have been observed on the surface of Mars by the orbital near-infrared spectrometers OMEGA and CRISM [1,2]. Global maps from OMEGA [3,4] show that km-scale and larger exposures of these minerals are scattered widely throughout the planet's low and mid latitudes, but are relatively rare. Yet CRISM has found hundreds to thousands of Fe/Mg-phyllosilicate exposures in the highlands of Terra Tyrrhena alone [2], suggesting that smaller exposures may be much more common. To search for such exposures, we have surveyed the browse products from all PDS-released CRISM targeted observations (as of July 2008) across a large fraction of the Southern highlands, including the Noachis, Cimmeria, and Sirenum regions. Sulfates are observed in Noachian-aged terrains in each of these regions, including as far South as -63º latitude, suggesting that sulfate formation may have occurred locally or regionally throughout a large fraction of Martian history. Some of our strongest phyllosilicate detections occur adjacent to inferred chloride-bearing deposits [5] in Terra Sirenum. Also in Sirenum, the D 100 km Columbus crater contains light-toned, hydrated sulfate-bearing layers overlying materials that contain both a kaolin group clay and Fe/Mg-smectite clay, in different locations. However, phyllosilicates do not appear predominantly associated with impact craters in the regions surveyed, in contrast with Terra Tyrrhena [2]. We are currently searching for additional hydrated mineral exposures using CRISM multispectral data, providing further detail on their global distribution and identifying local areas of interest for future focused studies. [1] Bibring, J.-P. et al. (2005) Science 307, 1576-1581. [2] Mustard, J. F. et al. (2008) Nature 454, 305-309. [3] Bibring, J.-P. et al. (2006) Science 312, 400-404. [4] Poulet, F. et al. (2007) Mars 7, Abs. #3170. [5] Osterloo M. M. et al. (2008) Science 319, 1651-1654.

  8. Sustainable Land Management in the Ethiopian Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan; Araya, Tesfay

    2014-05-01

    Through centuries of farming practices the farmers and pastoralists in Ethiopia were managing their land resources pertaining to the needs of prevalent populations. With an increasing population and growing demands, more land was put under cultivation. Subsequently forest areas were cleared, encroaching agriculture into steep slopes and areas that were not suitable for agricultural activities. Land degradation and particularly soil erosion by water not only reduced the productivity of the land but also aggravated the effects of drought, such as famine and migration. Obvious signs of degradation in the highlands of Ethiopia are wide gullies swallowing fertile lands and rock outcrops making farming a risky business. But also less visible sheet erosion processes result in a tremendous loss of fertile topsoil, particularly on cropland. Efforts have been made by the farming communities to mitigate land degradation by developing local practices of conserving soil and water. With keen interest and openness one can observe such indigenous practices in all corners of Ethiopia. Notwithstanding these practices, there were also efforts to introduce other soil and water conservation interventions to control erosion and retain the eroded soils. Since the early 1980s numerous campaigns were carried out to build terraces in farmlands and sloping areas. Major emphasis was given to structural technologies rather than on vegetative measures. Currently the landscape of the northern highlands is dotted with millions of hectares of terraced fields and in some places with planned watershed management interventions including exclosures. Apparently these interventions were introduced without prior investigating the detailed problems and conservation needs of the local population. Intensive research is undertaken on the processes of degradation, the impact of the different intervention measures and the role of communities in sustainably managing their land. This paper attempts to review the

  9. Impact melt in small lunar highland craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plescia, J. B.; Cintala, M. J.

    2012-03-01

    Impact melt deposits have been identified in small, simple impact craters within the lunar highlands. Such deposits are rare, but have been observed in craters as small as 170 m diameter. The melt occurs as well-defined pools on the crater floor, as well as veneers on the inner crater wall and stringers of material extending over the rim and away from the crater. Model calculations indicate that the amount of melt formed in craters 100-2000 m diameter would amount to a few to ˜106 m3, representing <1% of the crater volume. Thus, significant, visible impact melt deposits would not be expected in such small craters as most of the melt material that was formed would be ejected. Variations in the properties of the projectile or the target cannot account for the amount of observed melt; the amount of melt produced is largely insensitive to such variations. Rather, we suggest that these small melt-containing craters represent near-vertical impacts in which the axes of melting and melt motion are essentially straight down, toward the base of the transient cavity. For a given event energy under vertical impact conditions, the volume of melt produced would be greater than in an oblique impact and the momentum of the material would be directed vertically downward with minimal lateral momentum such that most of the melt is retained within the crater interior. Since vertical impacts are relatively rare, such small craters with visible, interior melt deposits are rare. While we focus here on the highlands, such craters also occur on the maria.

  10. Ancient and Medieval Cosmology in Armenian Highland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, Sona V.; Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2016-12-01

    Humankind has always sought to recognize the nature of various sky related phenomena and tried to give them explanations. It is especially vivid in ancient cultures, many of which are related to the Middle East. The purpose of this study is to identify ancient Armenian's pantheistic and cosmological perceptions, world view, notions and beliefs. By this study we answer the question "How did the Universe work in Ancient Armenian Highland?" The paper focuses on the structure of the Universe and many phenomena of nature that have always had major influence on ancient Armenians thinking. Here we weave together astronomy, anthropology and mythology of Armenia, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions. The initial review of the study covers Moses of Khoren, Yeznik of Koghb, Anania Shirakatsi and other 5th-7th centuries historians' and scientists' records about the Universe related superstitious beliefs and cosmological understanding. By discussing and comparing Universe structure in various regional traditions, myths, folk songs and phraseological units we very often came across "seven worlds", "seven earths" and "seven layers" concepts. We draw parallels between scientific and mythological Earth and Heaven and thus find similar number of layers on both of the ancient and modern thinking. In the article we also give some details about the tripartite structure of the Universe and how these parts are connected with axis. This axis is either a column or a Cosmic Tree (Kenatz Tsar). In Armenian culture the preliminary meanings of the Kenatz Tsar are more vivid in folk songs (Jan gyulums), plays, epic, and so on, which was subsequently mixed with religious and spiritual views. We conclude that the perception of the Universe structure and celestial objects had a significant impact on culture and worldview of the people of the Armenian Highland; particularly it was one of the bases of the regional cultural diversity.

  11. Hypertension in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Naing, Cho; Yeoh, Peng Nam; Wai, Victor Nyunt; Win, Ni Ni; Kuan, Lai Pei; Aung, Kyan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to determine trends in prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension in Malaysia and to assess the relationship between socioeconomic determinants and prevalence of hypertension in Malaysia. The distribution of hypertension in Malaysia was assessed based on available data in 3 National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs) and 1 large scale non-NHMS during the period of 1996 to 2011. Summary statistics was used to characterize the included surveys. Differences in prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension between any 2 surveys were expressed as ratios. To assess the independent associations between the predictors and the outcome variables, regression analyses were employed with prevalence of hypertension as an outcome variable. Overall, there was a rising trend in the prevalence of hypertension in adults ≥30 years: 32.9% (30%–35.8%) in 1996, 42.6% (37.5%–43.5%) in 2006, and 43.5% (40.4%–46.6%) in 2011. There were significant increase of 32% from 1996 to 2011 (P < 0.001) and of 29% from 1996 to 2006 (P < 0.05), but only a small change of 1% from 2006 to 2011 (P = 0.6). For population ≥18 years, only a 1% increase in prevalence of hypertension occurred from the 2006 NHMS (32.2%) to the 2011 NHMS (32.7%) (P = 0.25). A relative increase of 13% occurred in those with primary education (P < 0.001) and a 15% increase was seen in those with secondary education (P < 0.001). The rate of increase in the prevalence of hypertension in the population with income level RM 3000–3999 was the highest (18%) during this period. In general, the older age group had higher prevalence of hypertension in the 2006 and 2011 NHMSs. The prevalence peaked at 74.1% among population aged 65 to 69 years in the 2011 NHMS. Both the proportion of awareness and the control of hypertension in Malaysia improved from 1996 to 2006. A change in the control of hypertension was 13% higher in women than in men. The findings suggest that

  12. Organic compounds in urban aerosols from Gent, Belgium: Characterization, sources, and seasonal differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KubáTová, Alena; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Claeys, Magda; Cafmeyer, Jan; Maenhaut, Willy

    2002-11-01

    About 100 individual organic compounds were determined in urban aerosols collected at Gent, Belgium. The compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and quantitative data were obtained by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Measurements of the particulate mass and of organic and elemental carbon mass were also made. Aerosol samples from a winter and a summer campaign were analyzed in order to examine seasonal differences. The major part of the extractable and elutable organic carbon in both winter and summer aerosols was found to correspond to an unresolved complex mixture that is typical for car exhaust. The prevailing resolved organic compounds in both seasons were n-alkanes and fatty acids, but the distribution patterns of individual components within each class showed seasonal differences. The n-alkane pattern for summer aerosols was clearly affected by emissions from the vegetation, while that of fatty acids revealed a lower relative abundance of unsaturated fatty acids in summer than winter that can be related to more extensive atmospheric oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids during summer. Concentrations of dicarboxylic acids and related products that are believed to be oxidation products of hydrocarbons and fatty acids were highest in summer aerosols. Some individual compounds in the latter class could only be detected in summer samples and showed the highest concentrations on hot summer days that were characterized by maximum temperatures above 25°C and increased ozone concentrations. The latter compounds included novel, recently identified glutaric acid derivatives, namely, 3-isopropyl and 3-acetyl pentanedioic acid, likely originating from atmospheric oxidation of reactive monoterpene or sesquiterpene precursors that still need to be identified. Several compounds were found that are markers of wood combustion, including diterpenoic acids, lignin pyrolysis products, and levoglucosan. The quantitative results obtained for

  13. What Lunar Meteorites Tell Us About the Lunar Highlands Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    The first meteorite to be found1 that was eventually (1984) recognized to have originated from the Moon is Yamato 791197. The find date, November 20, 1979, was four days after the end of the first Conference on the Lunar Highland Crust. Since then, >75 other lunar meteorites have been found, and these meteorites provide information about the lunar highlands that was not known from studies of the Apollo and Luna samples

  14. New York/New Jersey Highlands -- ecological and economic sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, C.

    1997-08-01

    The New York/New Jersey Highlands region is one million acres of Appalachian ridges and valleys that stretch from the Hudson to the Delaware River. The spatial relationship of Highlands to the New York/New Jersey metropolitan area provides a unique opportunity for regional development. The New Jersey Highlands Region, stretching from the Hudson River to the Delaware River, is an area critical to the overall environmental quality of the nation`s largest metropolitan area. However, there is substantial development pressure in this region. The way in which the Highlands Region is developed in the near future will have long-lasting effects. Patterns of population density, water use, pollution and resource consumption are difficult to rectify once established. All indications point to the Highlands becoming the latest addition to the urban sprawl of the New York/New Jersey metropolitan areas. Great cooperation and motivation would be required to change this pattern. This paper will attempt to explore the ecological merits of a Highland greenway proposal, the economic impacts and possible planning techniques which might effect a win/win situation.

  15. Indian Ocean Dipole drives malaria resurgence in East African highlands.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Masahiro; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Minakawa, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    Malaria resurgence in African highlands in the 1990s has raised questions about the underlying drivers of the increase in disease incidence including the role of El-Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, climatic anomalies other than the ENSO are clearly associated with malaria outbreaks in the highlands. Here we show that the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), a coupled ocean-atmosphere interaction in the Indian Ocean, affected highland malaria re-emergence. Using cross-wavelet coherence analysis, we found four-year long coherent cycles between the malaria time series and the dipole mode index (DMI) in the 1990s in three highland localities. Conversely, we found a less pronounced coherence between malaria and DMI in lowland localities. The highland/lowland contrast can be explained by the effects of mesoscale systems generated by Lake Victoria on its climate basin. Our results support the need to consider IOD as a driving force in the resurgence of malaria in the East African highlands.

  16. Global update: Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Malaysia produces more condoms than any other country in the world, yet it has one of the lowest per capita condom usage rates. The official number of HIV-infected persons and of persons with AIDS in Malaysia is 5140 and 72, respectively. People working in AIDS prevention efforts believe the actual number of HIV-infected people is closer to 50,000 and climbing. People working in AIDS prevention efforts believe the actual number of HIV-infected people is closer to 50,000 and climbing. Public health officials report that AIDS is spreading rapidly through Malaysia's relatively large population of IV drug users. The Ministry of Health wants to introduce comprehensive and pragmatic efforts to stem the AIDS epidemic. They include sex education in schools, ways to prevent IV drug users from sharing needles, promotion of condoms among high risk groups, and screening to monitor HIV transmission. Islamic and Catholic groups oppose these program and policy measures, however. The new director of the Ministry's AIDS prevention unit announced during a meeting of health officials that a return to the teaching of Islam and adoption of Islamic values are the means to deal with AIDS. He suggested that boys and girls be separated, television be rigorously censored, and that Muslim scholars not be limited to mosques to do their teaching. The government has greatly increased the 1993 AIDS budget with all of the funds dedicated to blood screening, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and health education. The deputy health minister noted that the NGOs are supposed to address the more sensitive issues. The government does not allow any of the funds to directly go to condom promotion or programs for IV drug users, however.

  17. Key environments: Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Cranbrook, The Earl of.

    1987-01-01

    After a century of scientific investigation, it is now possible to understand Malaysia's complex ecosystem as an essential prerequisite to the successful management for conservation and long term productivity in the area. Contents: The physical setting: Forest types and forest zonation; The dipterocarps; Forest palms; Forest bamboos; Herbaceous flowering plants; Ferns; Higher fungi; Forest tree biology; Forest management; Mammals; Genetic diversity and evolution; Mammals; Distribution and ecology, Earl of Cranbook, Birds; Termites in rain forests; Forest lepidoptera; Freshwaters; Animal conservation strategies; People of the forest.

  18. Diagnosis of Cystic Echinococcosis, Central Peruvian Highlands

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Armando E.; Zhang, Wenbao; McManus, Donald P.; Lopera, Luis; Ninaquispe, Berenice; Garcia, Hector H.; Rodríguez, Silvia; Verastegui, Manuela; Calderon, Carmen; Pan, William K.Y.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in a central Peruvian Highland district by using 4 diagnostic methods: ultrasonography for 949 persons, radiography for 829, and 2 serologic tests for 929 (2 immunoblot formats using bovine hydatid cyst fluid [IBCF] and recombinant EpC1 glutathione S-transferase [rEpC1-GST] antigens). For the IBCF and rEpC1-GST testing, prevalence of liver and pulmonary CE was 4.7% and 1.1% and seropositivity was 8.9% and 19.7%, respectively. Frequency of seropositive results for IBCF and rEpC1-GST testing was 35.7% and 16.7% (all hepatic cysts), 47.1% and 29.4% (hepatic calcifications excluded), and 22.2% and 33.3% (lung cysts), respectively. Weak immune response against lung cysts, calcified cysts, small cysts, and cysts in sites other than lung and liver might explain the poor performance of the serodiagnostic tests. We confirm that CE is highly endemic to Peru and emphasize the limited performance of available serologic assays in the field. PMID:18258119

  19. Lunar basin formation and highland stratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, K. A.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Scott, D. H.

    1974-01-01

    Multiring impact basins, formed after solidification of the lunar crust, account for most or all premare regional deposits and structures expressed in the lunar landscape and for major topographic and gravity variations. A fresh basin has two or more concentric mountain rings, a lineated ejecta blanket, and secondary impact craters. Crackled material on the floor may be impact melt. The ejecta blanket was emplaced at least partly as a ground-hugging flow and was probably hot. A suggested model of basin formation is that the center lifts up and the rings form by inward collapse during evisceration. The resulting basin is shallow and has a central uplift of the mantle. This results in a central gravity high and a ring low. Later flooding by mare basalt has since modified most near side basins. Highland deposits of plains, furrowed and pitted terrain, and various hills, domes, and craters that were interpreted before the Apollo missions as being volcanic can now be interpreted as being basin related.

  20. Delta hepatitis in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, M; Dimitrakakis, M; Tan, D S

    1986-06-01

    Sera from one hundred and fifty nine Malaysian individuals were screened for the prevalence of delta markers. These included 15 HBsAg positive homosexuals, 16 acute hepatitis B cases, 9 chronic hepatitis B patients, 13 healthy HBsAg carriers and 106 intravenous (i.v.) drug abusers, of whom 27 were positive for HBsAg only and the rest were anti-HBc IgG positive but HBsAg negative. The prevalence of delta markers in the homosexuals was found to be 6.7%, in the HBsAg positive drug abusers 17.8%, in acute hepatitis B cases 12.5%. No evidence of delta infection was detected in healthy HBsAg carriers, chronic hepatitis B cases and HBsAg negative i.v. drug abusers. With reference to i.v. drug abusers, the prevalence of delta markers was higher in Malays (23%) than in Chinese (7%) although the latter had a higher HBsAg carrier rate. Although the HBsAg carrier rate in the homosexuals was high, their delta prevalence rate was low as compared to drug abusers. In Malaysia, as in other non-endemic regions, hepatitis delta virus transmission appeared to occur mainly via the parenteral and sexual routes. This is the first time in Malaysia that a reservoir of delta infection has been demonstrated in certain groups of the population at high risk for hepatitis B.

  1. Tartarus Colles: A sampling of the Martian highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murchie, Scott; Treiman, Allan

    1994-01-01

    Several of the most fundamental issues about the geology of Mars can be addressed using information on composition and structure of the plateau plains ('highlands') that cover approximately half the planet. The units that compose the highlands are interpreted as a mixture of volcanic, fluvial, lacustrine, and impact ejecta deposits. A more precise inventory of differing of igneous and sedimentary lithologies in highland rock units would not only lead to a better understanding of how the plateau plains formed, but would also clarify the nature of the surface environment during the first 800 m.y. of martian history. Structural features including bedforms, joints, and small faults that are unresolved from orbit record a history of the emplacement and deformation of the highlands. In addition, weathering products present in this very ancient terrain represent a mineralogic record of past climate and of the pathways by which bedrock is altered chemically. Their similarity or dissimilarity to bright soils observed spectroscopically and in situ at the Viking Lander sites will be evidence for the relative roles of regional sources and global eolian transport in producing the widespread cover of 'dust.' Unfortunately, these issues are difficult to address in the plateau plains proper, because bedrock is covered by mobile sand and weathering products, which dominate both surface composition and remotely measurable spectral properties. However, the 'Tartarus Colles' site, located at 11.41 deg N, 197.69 deg W at an elevation of -1 km, provides an excellent opportunity to address the highland geology within the mission constraints of Mars Pathfinder. The site is mapped as unit HNu, and consists of knobby remnants of deeply eroded highlands. It contains rolling hills, but lacks steep escarpments and massifs common in most highland remnants, and is free of large channels that would have removed colluvium from eroded upper portions of the stratigraphic column. These

  2. Tartarus Colles: A sampling of the Martian highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murchie, Scott; Treiman, Allan

    Several of the most fundamental issues about the geology of Mars can be addressed using information on composition and structure of the plateau plains ('highlands') that cover approximately half the planet. The units that compose the highlands are interpreted as a mixture of volcanic, fluvial, lacustrine, and impact ejecta deposits. A more precise inventory of differing of igneous and sedimentary lithologies in highland rock units would not only lead to a better understanding of how the plateau plains formed, but would also clarify the nature of the surface environment during the first 800 m.y. of martian history. Structural features including bedforms, joints, and small faults that are unresolved from orbit record a history of the emplacement and deformation of the highlands. In addition, weathering products present in this very ancient terrain represent a mineralogic record of past climate and of the pathways by which bedrock is altered chemically. Their similarity or dissimilarity to bright soils observed spectroscopically and in situ at the Viking Lander sites will be evidence for the relative roles of regional sources and global eolian transport in producing the widespread cover of 'dust.' Unfortunately, these issues are difficult to address in the plateau plains proper, because bedrock is covered by mobile sand and weathering products, which dominate both surface composition and remotely measurable spectral properties. However, the 'Tartarus Colles' site, located at 11.41 deg N, 197.69 deg W at an elevation of -1 km, provides an excellent opportunity to address the highland geology within the mission constraints of Mars Pathfinder. The site is mapped as unit HNu, and consists of knobby remnants of deeply eroded highlands. It contains rolling hills, but lacks steep escarpments and massifs common in most highland remnants, and is free of large channels that would have removed colluvium from eroded upper portions of the stratigraphic column. These

  3. Comparison pesticide residue levels in the surface of Bertam River in Cameron Highlands, Pahang

    SciTech Connect

    Haron, S. H. Ismail, B. S.

    2015-09-25

    The presence of pesticide residues in the surface water of Bertam River in the agricultural areas of Cameron Highlands in Pahang, Malaysia was monitored from May to October 2014. The sampling sites were located at 10 sampling points along the Bertam River in the vegetable planting areas. The extraction method of the pesticide (organophosphate/pyrethroid) from the river samples used solid phase extraction followed by gas chromatography (with electron capture detector, ECD). Insecticides, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos were found in the surface water of Bertam River. High level concentrations of those insecticides in the river were observed during the period from May to October 2014, a period which included both seasons (wet and dry seasons). The highest concentration of 2.66 µg/mL and 1.23 µg/mL of cypermethrin was observed during the wet and dry seasons respectively. This could be due to the frequent usage of the above-mentioned insecticides coupled with contamination that could have originated from the application sites. Meanwhile, the lowest concentration detected in the surface water was chlorpyrifos (0.11 µg/mL and 0.17 µg/mL) during the dry and wet seasons, respectively.

  4. Comparison pesticide residue levels in the surface of Bertam River in Cameron Highlands, Pahang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haron, S. H.; Ismail B., S.

    2015-09-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in the surface water of Bertam River in the agricultural areas of Cameron Highlands in Pahang, Malaysia was monitored from May to October 2014. The sampling sites were located at 10 sampling points along the Bertam River in the vegetable planting areas. The extraction method of the pesticide (organophosphate/pyrethroid) from the river samples used solid phase extraction followed by gas chromatography (with electron capture detector, ECD). Insecticides, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos were found in the surface water of Bertam River. High level concentrations of those insecticides in the river were observed during the period from May to October 2014, a period which included both seasons (wet and dry seasons). The highest concentration of 2.66 µg/mL and 1.23 µg/mL of cypermethrin was observed during the wet and dry seasons respectively. This could be due to the frequent usage of the above-mentioned insecticides coupled with contamination that could have originated from the application sites. Meanwhile, the lowest concentration detected in the surface water was chlorpyrifos (0.11 µg/mL and 0.17 µg/mL) during the dry and wet seasons, respectively.

  5. Left ventricular adaptation to high altitude: speckle tracking echocardiography in lowlanders, healthy highlanders and highlanders with chronic mountain sickness.

    PubMed

    Dedobbeleer, Chantal; Hadefi, Alia; Pichon, Aurelien; Villafuerte, Francisco; Naeije, Robert; Unger, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Hypoxic exposure depresses myocardial contractility in vitro, but has been associated with indices of increased cardiac performance in intact animals and in humans, possibly related to sympathetic nervous system activation. We explored left ventricular (LV) function using speckle tracking echocardiography and sympathetic tone by spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) in recently acclimatized lowlanders versus adapted or maladapted highlanders at high altitude. Twenty-six recently acclimatized lowlanders, 14 healthy highlanders and 12 highlanders with chronic mountain sickness (CMS) were studied. Control measurements at sea level were also obtained in the lowlanders. Altitude exposure in the lowlanders was associated with slightly increased blood pressure, decreased LV volumes and decreased longitudinal strain with a trend to increased prevalence of post-systolic shortening (p = 0.06), whereas the low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio increased (1.62 ± 0.81 vs. 5.08 ± 4.13, p < 0.05) indicating sympathetic activation. Highlanders had a similarly raised LF/HF ratio, but no alteration in LV deformation. Highlanders with CMS had no change in LV deformation, no significant increase in LF/HF, but decreased global HRV still suggestive of increased sympathetic tone, and lower mitral E/A ratio compared to healthy highlanders. Short-term altitude exposure in lowlanders alters indices of LV systolic function and increases sympathetic nervous system tone. Life-long altitude exposure in highlanders is associated with similar sympathetic hyperactivity, but preserved parameters of LV function, whereas diastolic function may be altered in those with CMS. Altered LV systolic function in recently acclimatized lowlanders may be explained by combined effects of hypoxia and changes in loading conditions.

  6. Guiana Highlands, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    These two images show exactly the same area in South America, the Guiana Highlands straddling the borders of Venezuela, Guyana and Brazil. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the image on the right was generated with a new data set recently released by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) called SRTM30, which represents a significant improvement in our knowledge of the topography of much of the world.

    GTOPO30, with a resolution of about 928 meters (1496 feet), was developed over a three-year period and published in 1996, and since then has been the primary source of digital elevation data for scientists and analysts involved in global studies. However, since it was compiled from a number of different map sources with varying attributes, the data for some parts of the globe were inconsistent or of low quality.

    The SRTM data, on the other hand, were collected within a ten-day period using the same instrument in a uniform fashion, and were processed into elevation data using consistent processing techniques. Thus SRTM30 provides a new resource of uniform quality for all parts of the Earth, and since the data, which have an intrinsic resolution of about 30 meters, were averaged and resampled to match the GTOPO30 sample spacing and format, and can be used by the same computer software without modification.

    The Guiana Highlands are part of the Guyana Shield, which lies in northeast South America and represent one of the oldest land surfaces in the world. Chemical weathering over many millions of years has created a landscape of flat-topped table mountains with dramatic, steep cliffs with a large number of spectacular waterfalls. For example Angel Falls, at 979 meters the highest waterfall in the world, plunges from Auyan Tebuy, part of a mesa of the type that may have been the

  7. Guiana Highlands, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    These two images show exactly the same area in South America, the Guiana Highlands straddling the borders of Venezuela, Guyana and Brazil. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the image on the right was generated with a new data set recently released by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) called SRTM30, which represents a significant improvement in our knowledge of the topography of much of the world.

    GTOPO30, with a resolution of about 928 meters (1496 feet), was developed over a three-year period and published in 1996, and since then has been the primary source of digital elevation data for scientists and analysts involved in global studies. However, since it was compiled from a number of different map sources with varying attributes, the data for some parts of the globe were inconsistent or of low quality.

    The SRTM data, on the other hand, were collected within a ten-day period using the same instrument in a uniform fashion, and were processed into elevation data using consistent processing techniques. Thus SRTM30 provides a new resource of uniform quality for all parts of the Earth, and since the data, which have an intrinsic resolution of about 30 meters, were averaged and resampled to match the GTOPO30 sample spacing and format, and can be used by the same computer software without modification.

    The Guiana Highlands are part of the Guyana Shield, which lies in northeast South America and represent one of the oldest land surfaces in the world. Chemical weathering over many millions of years has created a landscape of flat-topped table mountains with dramatic, steep cliffs with a large number of spectacular waterfalls. For example Angel Falls, at 979 meters the highest waterfall in the world, plunges from Auyan Tebuy, part of a mesa of the type that may have been the

  8. Dune Field in a Southern Highlands Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 5 September 2003

    Dark dunes sit on a rough, eroding sedimentary surface in the floor of an 83 km diameter crater. This crater is one of dozens in Noachis Terra, in the southern highlands of Mars, to have both dark dunes and an eroding surface. Note how the dunes seem to ignore the underlying rough surface in some cases, while in other places the dunes seem to have wrapped themselves around sharp knobs.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -40.5, Longitude 34.6 East (325.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Respiratory Toxicity of Lunar Highland Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-wing; Wallace, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Lunar dust exposures occurred during the Apollo missions while the crew was on the lunar surface and especially when microgravity conditions were attained during rendezvous in lunar orbit. Crews reported that the dust was irritating to the eyes and in some cases respiratory symptoms were elicited. NASA s vision for lunar exploration includes stays of 6 months on the lunar surface hence the health effects of periodic exposure to lunar dust need to be assessed. NASA has performed this assessment with a series of in vitro and in vivo tests on authentic lunar dust. Our approach is to "calibrate" the intrinsic toxicity of lunar dust by comparison to a nontoxic dust (TiO2) and a highly toxic dust (quartz) using intratrachael instillation of the dusts in mice. A battery of indices of toxicity is assessed at various time points after the instillations. Cultures of selected cells are exposed to test dusts to assess the adverse effects on the cells. Finally, chemical systems are used to assess the nature of the reactivity of various dusts and to determine the persistence of reactivity under various environmental conditions that are relevant to a space habitat. Similar systems are used to assess the dissolution of the dust. From these studies we will be able to set a defensible inhalation exposure standard for aged dust and predict whether we need a separate standard for reactive dust. Presently-available data suggest that aged lunar highland dust is slightly toxic, that it can adversely affect cultured cells, and that the surface reactivity induced by grinding the dust persists for a few hours after activation.

  10. Martian Highlands at Night in Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This nighttime temperature image from the camera system on NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows the ancient, heavily cratered surface of the highlands between Isidis and Elysium Planitia. The image is entered near 9 degrees north latitude, 109 degrees east longitude, and covers an area approximately 32 kilometers (20 miles) wide by 120 kilometers (75 miles) long. The bright 'splashes' extending outward from the three large craters are the remnants of the rocky material thrown out when the impact occurred. The nighttime temperature differences are due primarily to differences in the abundance of rocky materials that retain their heat at night and stay relatively warm. Fine grained dust and sand cool off more rapidly at night. The circular rims of the craters in this region are warm at night, showing that rocks are still present on the steep walls inside the craters. The 'splash' ejecta patterns are also warmer than their surroundings, and are covered by material that was blasted out when the craters formed. The temperatures in this scene vary from approximately -105 degrees Celsius (-157 degrees Fahrenheit)(darkest) to -75 degrees Celsius (-103 degrees Fahrenheit) (lightest). This image was acquired using the instrument's infrared Band 9, centered at 12.6 micrometers. North is toward the left in this image.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science in Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. Additional science partners are located at the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and at Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin

  11. Isostatic compensation of equatorial highlands on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucinskas, Algis B.; Turcotte, Donald L.

    1994-01-01

    Spherical harmonic models for Venus' global topography and gravity incorporating Magellan data are used to test isostatic compensation models in five 30 deg x 30 deg regions representative of the main classes of equatorial highlands. The power spectral density for the harmonic models obeys a power-law scaling with spectral slope Beta approximately 2 (Brown noise) for the topography and Beta approximately 3 (Kaula's law) for the geoid, similar to what is observed for Earth. The Venus topography spectrum has lower amplitudes than Earth's which reflects the dominant lowland topography on Venus. Observed degree geoid to topography ratios (GTRs) on Venus are significantly smaller than degree GTRs for uncompensated topography, indicative of substantial compensation. Assuming a global Airy compensation, most of the topography is compensated at depths greater than 100 km, suggesting a thick lithosphere on Venus. For each region considered we obtain a regional degree of compensation C from a linear regression of Bouguer anomaly versus Bouguer gravity data. Geoid anomaly (N) versus topography variation (h) data for each sample were compared, in the least-squares sense, to theoretical correlations for Pratt, Airy, and thermal thinning isostasy models yielding regional GTR, zero-elevation crustal thickness (H), and zero elevation thermal lithosphere thickness (y(sub L(sub 0)), respectively. We find the regional compensation to be substantial (C approximately 52-80%), and the h, N data correlations in the chosen areas can be explained by isostasy models applicable on the Earth and involving variations in crustal thickness (Airy) and/or lithospheric (thermal thinning) thickness. However, a thick crust and lithosphere (y(sub L(sub 0)) approximately 300 km) must be assumed for Venus.

  12. Healthcare financing in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kananatu, K

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Malaysian healthcare system and its method of financing. The development of the healthcare delivery system in Malaysia is commendable. However, the strength and weaknesses of the public healthcare system and the financing problems encountered are also discussed. Cost of healthcare and funding of both the public and private sectors were also revealed. One must optimise the advantages of operating a health financing scheme which is affordable and controllable which contribute towards cost-containment and quality assurance. Thus, there is a need for the establishment of a National Healthcare Financing, a mechanism to sustain the healthcare delivery network and operate it as a viable option. A model of the National Health Financing Scheme (NHFS) was proposed.

  13. Medical education in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Victor K E

    2008-01-01

    Malaysia has a long history of medical education, with Singapore becoming the first medical school to serve the region after its foundation in 1905. The first school to be established in Kuala Lumpur after independence from the British was the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Malaya in 1963. Whilst today there are 21 public and private medical schools, all offering a 5 year undergraduate programme, some private schools have diversified by developing international collaboration and conduct twinning or credit-transfer programmes. All medical schools require accreditation by the National Accreditation Board and the Malaysian Medical Council. Although the criteria for accreditation is comprehensive and covers a broad range of areas of assessment, it is debatable whether it always matches the needs of the country. The dramatic increase in medical schools in the last two decades has posed challenges in terms of maintenance of quality, physical infrastructure and suitably qualified faculty.

  14. Malaria vector productivity in relation to the highland environment in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Minakawa, Noboru; Omukunda, Elizabeth; Zhou, Guofa; Githeko, Andrew; Yan, Guiyun

    2006-09-01

    The reasons for the resurgence of malaria in the African highlands have been subject of debate. Because vector abundance is important for malaria transmission, gaining a better understanding of vector biology is a key to understanding the mechanisms of highland malaria. We studied vector productivity in relation to the highland environment and compared productivity between lowland and highland sites. We found lower vector productivity in the highland and in wetlands where the temperature was lower. Immature stage development time was significantly longer in the highland site. Development time was significantly shorter in aquatic habitats in cultivated areas than in wetlands, and survival rate was significantly higher in cultivated areas. Fecundity was significantly lower in the highland site. These findings suggest that changes in local temperature and land use contribute to an increase of malaria vectors in the highland.

  15. EARTHSHINE ON A YOUNG MOON: EXPLAINING THE LUNAR FARSIDE HIGHLANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Arpita; Wright, Jason T.; Sigurðsson, Steinn

    2014-06-20

    The lunar farside highlands problem refers to the curious and unexplained fact that the farside lunar crust is thicker, on average, than the nearside crust. Here we recognize the crucial influence of Earthshine, and propose that it naturally explains this hemispheric dichotomy. Since the accreting Moon rapidly achieved synchronous rotation, a surface and atmospheric thermal gradient was imposed by the proximity of the hot, post-giant impact Earth. This gradient guided condensation of atmospheric and accreting material, preferentially depositing crust-forming refractories on the cooler farside, resulting in a primordial bulk chemical inhomogeneity that seeded the crustal asymmetry. Our model provides a causal solution to the lunar highlands problem: the thermal gradient created by Earthshine produced the chemical gradient responsible for the crust thickness dichotomy that defines the lunar highlands.

  16. Predicting potential effects of climate change on Ozark Highlands streams

    SciTech Connect

    Willson, G.D.; Rabeni, C.F.; Galat, D.L. )

    1993-06-01

    The Ozark Highlands biogeographic area centers on two National Park Service units: Ozark National Scenic Riverways in Missouri and Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The Ozark Highlands is part of a national network of 20 research sites established to determine the potential influence of global change on ecosystems and their adaptability. The Ozark Highlands program will integrate historic and proxy stream flows, fluvial geomorphology, and trophic-level responses in streams to model aquatic systems under mid-continent, climate change scenarios. Climate change in Ozarks streams will likely alter hydrologic/geomorphic patterns and disrupt community structure and ecological processes. Initially, the program has focused on defining variation inherent in stream systems and how ecological processes and biota respond to that variability.

  17. Composition of the projectiles that bombarded the lunar highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gros, J.; Takahashi, H.; Hertogen, J.; Morgan, J. W.; Anders, E.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty highland samples from Apollo 14, 15, and 17 and the eucrites Juvinas and Morre County were analyzed by radiochemical neutron activation for Ag, Au, Bi, Br, Cd, Cs, Ge, In, Ir, Ni, Os, Pd, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, U, and Zn. The meteoritic components of 82 highland rocks were recalculated with the new corrections for the indigenous contribution and were classified by discriminant and cluster analysis as well as ternary diagrams, using Ir, Re, Au and Ni as diagnostic elements. To characterize these groups more fully, average abundances of meteoritic volatiles (Sb, Ge, Ag, Se, Te, and Bi) were calculated from regressions against Ir.

  18. "Free Primary Education" in Lesotho and the Disadvantages of the Highlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urwick, James

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the effects of national policies associated with "Education for All" on a disadvantaged region, the highlands of Lesotho. Since 2000 a programme of "Free Primary Education" has improved the position of the highlands in access to primary schooling; nevertheless, highland primary schools compare poorly with…

  19. 76 FR 58850 - Highland Capital Management, L.P., et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... COMMISSION Highland Capital Management, L.P., et al.; Notice of Application September 15, 2011. AGENCY... Capital Management, L.P. (``HCM''), Highland Funds Asset Management, L.P. (``HFAM''), Highland Funds I..., personally or by mail. Hearing requests should be received by the Commission by 5:30 p.m. on October 11, 2011...

  20. The Jagged Shores of Pluto Highlands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-09

    This enhanced color view from NASA's New Horizons spacecraft zooms in on the southeastern portion of Pluto's great ice plains, where at lower right the plains border rugged, dark highlands informally named Krun Macula. Krun Macula -- Krun is the lord of the underworld in the Mandaean religion, and a macula is a dark feature on a planetary surface -- is believed to get its dark red color from tholins, complex molecules found across Pluto. Krun Macula rises 1.5 miles (2.5 kilometers) above the surrounding plain -- informally named Sputnik Planum -- and is scarred by clusters of connected, roughly circular pits that typically reach between 5 and 8 miles (8 and 13 kilometers) across, and up to 1.5 miles (2.5 kilometers) deep. At the boundary with Sputnik Planum, these pits form deep valleys reaching more than 25 miles (40 kilometers) long, 12.5 miles (20 kilometers) wide and almost 2 miles (3 kilometers) deep (almost twice as deep as the Grand Canyon in Arizona), and have floors covered with nitrogen ice. New Horizons scientists think these pits may have formed through surface collapse, although what may have prompted such a collapse is a mystery. This scene was created using three separate observations made by New Horizons in July 2015. The right half of the image is composed of 260 feet- (80 meter-) per-pixel data from the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), obtained at 9,850 miles (15,850 kilometers) from Pluto, about 23 minutes before New Horizons' closest approach. The left half is composed of 410 feet- (125 meter-) per-pixel LORRI data, obtained about six minutes earlier, with New Horizons 15,470 miles (24,900 kilometers) from Pluto. These data respectively represent portions of the highest- and second-highest-resolution observations obtained by New Horizons in the Pluto system. The entire scene was then colorized using 2230 feet- (680 meter-) per-pixel data from New Horizons' Ralph/Multispectral Visual Imaging Camera (MVIC), obtained at 21,100 miles (33

  1. The Jagged Shores of Pluto Highlands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-09

    This enhanced color view from NASA's New Horizons spacecraft zooms in on the southeastern portion of Pluto's great ice plains, where at lower right the plains border rugged, dark highlands informally named Krun Macula. Krun Macula -- Krun is the lord of the underworld in the Mandaean religion, and a macula is a dark feature on a planetary surface -- is believed to get its dark red color from tholins, complex molecules found across Pluto. Krun Macula rises 1.5 miles (2.5 kilometers) above the surrounding plain -- informally named Sputnik Planum -- and is scarred by clusters of connected, roughly circular pits that typically reach between 5 and 8 miles (8 and 13 kilometers) across, and up to 1.5 miles (2.5 kilometers) deep. At the boundary with Sputnik Planum, these pits form deep valleys reaching more than 25 miles (40 kilometers) long, 12.5 miles (20 kilometers) wide and almost 2 miles (3 kilometers) deep (almost twice as deep as the Grand Canyon in Arizona), and have floors covered with nitrogen ice. New Horizons scientists think these pits may have formed through surface collapse, although what may have prompted such a collapse is a mystery. This scene was created using three separate observations made by New Horizons in July 2015. The right half of the image is composed of 260 feet- (80 meter-) per-pixel data from the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), obtained at 9,850 miles (15,850 kilometers) from Pluto, about 23 minutes before New Horizons' closest approach. The left half is composed of 410 feet- (125 meter-) per-pixel LORRI data, obtained about six minutes earlier, with New Horizons 15,470 miles (24,900 kilometers) from Pluto. These data respectively represent portions of the highest- and second-highest-resolution observations obtained by New Horizons in the Pluto system. The entire scene was then colorized using 2230 feet- (680 meter-) per-pixel data from New Horizons' Ralph/Multispectral Visual Imaging Camera (MVIC), obtained at 21,100 miles (33

  2. Health Information in Malay (Bahasa Malaysia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → Malay (Bahasa Malaysia) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/malay.html Health Information in Malay (Bahasa Malaysia) To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  3. Hydrogeology of the Mogollon Highlands, central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, John T.C.; Steinkampf, William C.; Flynn, Marilyn E.

    2005-01-01

    The Mogollon Highlands, 4,855 square miles of rugged, mountainous terrain at the southern edge of the Colorado Plateau in central Arizona, is characterized by a bedrock-dominated hydrologic system that results in an incompletely integrated regional ground-water system, flashy streamflow, and various local water-bearing zones that are sensitive to drought. Increased demand on the water resources of the area as a result of recreational activities and population growth have made necessary an increased understanding of the hydrogeology of the region. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study of the geology and hydrology of the region in cooperation with the Arizona Department of Water Resources under the auspices of the Arizona Rural Watershed Initiative, a program launched in 1998 to assist rural areas in dealing with water-resources issues. The study involved the analysis of geologic maps, surface-water and ground-water flow, and water and rock chemical data and spatial relationships to characterize the hydrogeologic framework. The study area includes the southwestern corner of the Colorado Plateau and the Mogollon Rim, which is the eroded edge of the plateau. A 3,000- to 4,000-foot sequence of early to late Paleozoic sedimentary rocks forms the generally south-facing scarp of the Mogollon Rim. The area adjacent to the edge of the Mogollon Rim is an erosional landscape of rolling, step-like terrain exposing Proterozoic metamorphic and granitic rocks. Farther south, the Sierra Ancha and Mazatzal Mountain ranges, which are composed of various Proterozoic rocks, flank an alluvial basin filled with late Cenozoic sediments and volcanic flows. Eight streams with perennial to intermittent to ephemeral flow drain upland regions of the Mogollon Rim and flow into the Salt River on the southern boundary or the Verde River on the western boundary. Ground-water flow paths generally are controlled by large-scale fracture systems or by karst features in carbonate rocks. Stream

  4. Two new species of Scirtothrips genus-group (Thripidae) of Northern Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Y F; Mound, L A

    2016-03-07

    The survey of Thysanoptera in peninsular Malaysia has been concentrated largely in areas growing crops and flowers around Kuala Lumpur, and the Cameron Highlands, and there are few records of these insects from native forests particularly in the northern part of the country. The two species described here were collected during a recent visit to Belum-Temengor Forest Complex, in Perak State, part of the second largest forested area on the peninsular, and connected to the Bang Lang National Park, in Yala Province, Thailand. This forest has been well known as home to a number of endangered animals, including Malayan tigers and Asian elephants, as well as remarkable plant species such as Rafflesia with the world's largest flowers (Abdullah et al. 2011). Despite this, forest areas are facing a major challenge from the insatiable demand for timber, palm oil and minerals, with an 80% increase in deforestation rate in Malaysia between 1990 and 2005 (FAO 2010). Forested land in peninsular Malaysia has been estimated at 5.88 million-ha or 44% of total area, but the coverage of reserved virgin forest is about 0.40 % or 23,002-ha (Dahlan 2008).

  5. Malaria in the African highlands: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, S W; Martens, W J

    1998-01-01

    Many of the first European settlers in Africa sought refuge from the heat and diseases of the plains by moving to the cool and salubrious highlands. Although many of the highlands were originally malaria free, there has been a progressive rise in the incidence of the disease over the last 50 years, largely as a consequence of agroforestry development, and it has been exacerbated by scarce health resources. In these areas of fringe transmission where the malaria pattern is unstable, epidemics may be precipitated by relatively subtle climatic changes. Since there is little immunity against the disease in these communities, outbreaks can be devastating, resulting in a substantial increase in morbidity and death among both children and adults. We present here the results obtained using a mathematical model designed to identify these epidemic-prone regions in the African highlands and the differences expected to occur as a result of projected global climate change. These highlands should be recognized as an area of special concern. We further recommend that a regional modelling approach should be adopted to assess the extent and severity of this problem and help improve disease surveillance and the quality of health care delivered in this unstable ecosystem.

  6. Landslide monitoring in the Atlantic Highlands area, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Pamela A.; Ashland, Francis X.; Fiore, Alex R.

    2017-08-25

    Shallow and deep-seated landslides have occurred episodically on the steep coastal bluffs of the Atlantic Highlands area (Boroughs of Atlantic Highlands and Highlands) in New Jersey. The oldest documented deep-seated landslide occurred in April 1782 and significantly changed the morphology of the bluff. However, recent landslides have been mostly shallow in nature and have occurred during large storms with exceptionally heavy rainfall. These shallow landslides have resulted in considerable damage to residential property and local infrastructure and threatened human safety.The recent shallow landslides in the area (locations modified from New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection) consist primarily of slumps and flows of earth and debris within areas of historical landslides or on slopes modified by human activities. Such landslides are typically triggered by increases in shallow soil moisture and pore-water pressure caused by sustained and intense rainfall associated with spring nor’easters and late summer–fall tropical cyclones. However, the critical relation between rainfall, soil-moisture conditions, and landslide movement has not been fully defined. The U.S. Geological Survey is currently monitoring hillslopes within the Atlantic Highlands area to better understand the hydrologic and meteorological conditions associated with shallow landslide initiation.

  7. INTERACTIVE HABITAT MODELS FOR MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLAND STREAM FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In most wadeable streams of the Mid-Atlantic Highland region of the eastern United States, habitat alteration resulting from development in the watershed is the primary stressor for fish. Models that predict the presence of stream fish species based on habitat characteristics ca...

  8. Malaria in the African highlands: past, present and future.

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, S. W.; Martens, W. J.

    1998-01-01

    Many of the first European settlers in Africa sought refuge from the heat and diseases of the plains by moving to the cool and salubrious highlands. Although many of the highlands were originally malaria free, there has been a progressive rise in the incidence of the disease over the last 50 years, largely as a consequence of agroforestry development, and it has been exacerbated by scarce health resources. In these areas of fringe transmission where the malaria pattern is unstable, epidemics may be precipitated by relatively subtle climatic changes. Since there is little immunity against the disease in these communities, outbreaks can be devastating, resulting in a substantial increase in morbidity and death among both children and adults. We present here the results obtained using a mathematical model designed to identify these epidemic-prone regions in the African highlands and the differences expected to occur as a result of projected global climate change. These highlands should be recognized as an area of special concern. We further recommend that a regional modelling approach should be adopted to assess the extent and severity of this problem and help improve disease surveillance and the quality of health care delivered in this unstable ecosystem. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:9615495

  9. INTERACTIVE HABITAT MODELS FOR MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLAND STREAM FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In most wadeable streams of the Mid-Atlantic Highland region of the eastern United States, habitat alteration resulting from development in the watershed is the primary stressor for fish. Models that predict the presence of stream fish species based on habitat characteristics ca...

  10. Oak Mortality Trends on the Interior Highlands of Arkansas

    Treesearch

    James F. Rosson

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program, I studied mortality trends of oak (Quercus spp.) across four physiographic sections of the Interior Highlands in Arkansas. Surveys for 1978, 1988, and 1995 showed oak mortality levels of 3.9, 8.9, and 5.5 percent, respectively. Increases...

  11. On the age of KREEP. [in lunar highland rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palme, H.

    1977-01-01

    It is noted that the variable Rb-Sr model ages of lunar highland rocks containing a significant amount of KREEP basalt may be best explained by some fractionation of Rb from Sr during metamorphism 3.9 billion years ago, but the uniformity of the KREEP-type trace-element pattern in different highland samples indicates that elements such as the rare earth were hardly fractionated at all during the metamorphic event. Data are presented which show that the Rb/Sr fractionation 3.9 billion years ago was due to Rb mobilization alone in most cases and that this fractionation can be accounted for by coupling of Rb to other, less volatile incompatible elements. Variations of Rb in lunar highland rocks are analyzed, a correction method is applied for the Rb/Sr fractionation, and results are evaluated separately for Apollo 16 VHA and KREEP basalts, Apollo 17 noritic breccias, Apollo 14 KREEP breccias, Apollo 15 KREEP basalts, and Apollo 15-KREEP-enriched breccias. Evidence for volatilization of alkalis from glasses of impact origin is summarized, and an apparent correlation is discussed between meteoritic component (as given by the Ir/Au ratio) and rock type (as given by the U or Rb content) for many lunar highland samples.

  12. Ozark-Ouachita Highlands Assessment: Terrestrial Vegetation and Wildlife

    Treesearch

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides citizens, private and public organizations, scientists, and others with information about terrestrial animals, plants, and biological communities in and near the national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. The...

  13. Unearthing Seeds of Fire: The Idea of Highlander.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Frank

    The book recounts the history and explains the philosophy of Highlander Folk School in the Cumberland Mountains of Tennessee. Devoted to social reform, the school has functioned in an unconventional way to develop leadership and participation in three social movements in the South: the labor organizing drives of the thirties, the civil rights…

  14. Unraveling the Origin of the Lunar Highlands Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2010-09-01

    The nonmare rocks that dominate the highlands of the Moon are particularly fascinating because they tell us about the origin of the most ancient crust. Two random samples of highlands rocks arrived to Earth as lunar meteorites Allan Hills (ALH) A81005 and Dhofar 309. Researchers Allan Treiman, Amy Maloy, Juliane Gross (Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston) and Chip Shearer (University of New Mexico) took a look at a particular kind of fragment inside these meteorites so geochemically distinct from other highlands materials as to warrant further investigations of their mineral, bulk, and trace element compositions. The attention-grabbing fragments are magnesium-rich anorthositic granulites that tell part of the story of lunar crustal evolution, though the details of the story are still being worked out. Magnesian anorthositic granulites, found in several distinct lunar meteorites, may represent a widespread rock type in the highlands, a notion supported by remote sensing chemical data. These fragments could be metamorphosed relicts of KREEP-free plutons that intruded into the plagioclase-rich ancient crust.

  15. Economic value of ecosystem attributes in the Southern Appalachian highlands

    Treesearch

    Thomas Holmes; Brent Sohngen; Linwood Pendleton; Robert Mendelsohn

    1997-01-01

    The hedonic travel cost method was used to make preliminary estimates of the economic value of ecosystem attributes found in the Southern Appalachian highlands. Travel costs were estimated using origin-destination data from Wilderness Area permits, and site attribute data were collected by field crews. Ecosystem attribute price frontiers were estimated and used to...

  16. Schooling and Bilingualization in a Highland Guatemalan Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Julia Becker

    To examine the process of language shift (bilingualization) in an area where there is a local dialect equivalent to a "language of solidarity" and a national language equivalent to a "language of power," language interactions in the impoverished village of San Marcos in the highlands of Guatemala were examined. Although Spanish…

  17. History of watershed research in the Central Arizona Highlands

    Treesearch

    Malchus B. Baker

    1999-01-01

    The Central Arizona Highlands have been the focus of a wide range of research efforts designed to learn more about the effects of natural and human induced disturbances on the functioning, processes, and components of the region's ecosystems. The watershed research spearheaded by the USDA Forest Service and its cooperators continues to lead to a comprehensive...

  18. Educating for Social Justice: The Harry Lasker Library at Highlander.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveland, George

    1999-01-01

    Traces the history of the Harry Lasker Library at the Highlander Research and Education Center near Knoxville, Tennessee, from the first book donations in 1933 to its revitalization in the mid-1990s. Discusses the role of the library as a resource center supporting nonformal education for social activism and the contributions of librarians Hilda…

  19. Ozark-Ouachita Highlands Assessment: Social and Economic Conditions

    Treesearch

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides information about the social and economic conditions in and near the national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes an archeological and historical background, describes demographic conditions and...

  20. Virulence diversity of Uromyces Appendiculatus in the Highlands of Guatemala

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The common bean is planted throughout Guatemala, especially in the highlands of the South East, North East, and South West regions. In these regions, temperatures fluctuate between 16 y 20 °C and the average rain precipitation is about 1000 mm. These conditions are optimum for the rust disease and b...

  1. Focus on Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Forman, L T

    1979-01-01

    Prospects for a stable, prospering economy in Malaysia appear threatened by an uneven distribution of wealth among non-Malay, particularly Chinese, residents. Native Malays, Bumiputra, have benefitted from the government's 20 year New Economic Policy, a system of subsidies to correct economic imbalances among the races. Malay corporate ownership has increased from 2.4% in 1970 to 28% in 1979. However, equity must increase by 26% annually to meet NEP targets. Without the GNP expanding 7-8% yearly, the government will be tempted to acquire assets at low prices. 70% of the total Malay ownership was held by public enterprises holding equity in trust. An elite group of Bumiputra will own a fair number of shares reserved by 1970. 1/5 of the population of Kuala Lumpur are squatters. Among these groups, communal tension is high. The Chinese businessmen are most resistant to native management. Since they control private domestic investment, they have political power. The Industrial Coordination Act (ICA), which gives power to civil servants through a licensing system, protects the system. The Asian Foundation supports management training, business development, and university demonstration projects in legal aid, solar energy, and community psychiatry. Malaysian competence in English enables widespread distribution of the Books for Asia program.

  2. Distribution of nitrate in the unsaturated zone, Highland-East Highlands area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, John M.; Bradford, Wesley L.

    1980-01-01

    Nitrogen in the unsaturated soil zone in the Highland-East Highlands area of San Bernardino County, Calif., has been suspected as the source of nitrate in water from wells. Plans to recharge the local aquifers with imported surface water would raise the water table and intercept that nitrogen. This study was made to describe the distribution of inorganic nitrogen and other chemical constituents and nitrogen-using bacteria in the unsaturated zone, to relate nitrogen occurrences, in a general way, to present and historical land use, and to attempt to predict nitrogen concentrations in ground water after recharge. Some generalized correlations between nitrogen occurrence and land use were observed. In 11 of 13 test holes, the maximum nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N) concentrations occurred within 10 feet of the surface, suggesting that the major source of nitrogen is from the surface at these sites. Test holes were ranked according to maximum NO3--N in the top 10 feet, total NO3--N in the top 10 feet, and total NO3--N in the top 40 feet. In all three rankings, the top seven test holes were the same--five in or near present or historical agricultural areas (primarily citrus groves), one in a feedlot, and one adjacent to an abandoned sewage-treatment plant. Two test holes in historically uninhabited areas ranked lowest. The control test hole in an uninhabited area ranked high in geometric mean of ammonium-nitrogen concentration (NH4+-N), suggesting that present in freshly weathered granite. The geometric means of NH4+-N concentrations in six of eight citrus-related test holes were significantly lower than in the control hole, suggesting that irrigation in citrus groves may have created conditions favoring nitrification of the primary NH4+-N. Rank correlation analyses between various measurements in test holes showed that high NO3--N concentrations tend to occur with high specific conductance and chloride concentrations in soil extracts. If recharge is carried out as planned

  3. Burden of stroke in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Loo, Keat Wei; Gan, Siew Hua

    2012-02-01

    Stroke is one of the top five leading causes of death and one of the top 10 causes for hospitalization in Malaysia. Stroke is also in the top five diseases with the greatest burden of disease, based on disability-adjusted life years. However, prospective studies on stroke in Malaysia are limited. To date, neither the prevalence of stroke nor its incidence nationally has been recorded. Hypertension is the major risk factor for stroke. The mean age of stroke patients in Malaysia is between 54.5 and 62.6 years. Traditional medicine is commonly practiced. With the increasing number of stroke cases annually, more government and nongovernment organizations should be involved in primary and secondary prevention strategies.

  4. History of Neurosurgery in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Raffiq, Azman; Abdullah, Jafri Malin; Haspani, Saffari; Adnan, Johari Siregar

    2015-12-01

    The development of neurosurgical services and training in Malaysia began in 1963, with the first centre established in its capital city at Hospital Kuala Lumpur, aimed to provide much needed neurosurgical services and training in the field of neurology and neurosurgery. This center subsequently expanded in 1975 with the establishment of the Tunku Abdul Rahman Neuroscience Institute (IKTAR); which integrated the three allied interdependent disciplines of neurosurgery, neurology and psychiatry. The establishment of this institute catalysed the rapid expansion of neurosurgical services in Malaysia and paved the way for development of comprehensive training for doctors, nurses, and paramedics. This culminated in the establishments of a local comprehensive neurosurgery training program for doctors in 2001; followed by a training program for nurses and paramedics in 2006. To date, there are more than 60 neurosurgeons providing expert care in 11 centers across Malaysia, along with trained personnel in the field of neurosciences.

  5. History of Neurosurgery in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    RAFFIQ, Azman; ABDULLAH, Jafri Malin; HASPANI, Saffari; ADNAN, Johari Siregar

    2015-01-01

    The development of neurosurgical services and training in Malaysia began in 1963, with the first centre established in its capital city at Hospital Kuala Lumpur, aimed to provide much needed neurosurgical services and training in the field of neurology and neurosurgery. This center subsequently expanded in 1975 with the establishment of the Tunku Abdul Rahman Neuroscience Institute (IKTAR); which integrated the three allied interdependent disciplines of neurosurgery, neurology and psychiatry. The establishment of this institute catalysed the rapid expansion of neurosurgical services in Malaysia and paved the way for development of comprehensive training for doctors, nurses, and paramedics. This culminated in the establishments of a local comprehensive neurosurgery training program for doctors in 2001; followed by a training program for nurses and paramedics in 2006. To date, there are more than 60 neurosurgeons providing expert care in 11 centers across Malaysia, along with trained personnel in the field of neurosciences. PMID:27006632

  6. Health technology assessment in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sivalal, Sadasivan

    2009-07-01

    Malaysia, as a rapidly developing country, has been facing tremendous pressures in its attempts to maximize scarce resources. Despite this problem, Malaysia has made great strides in developing its health services, and has successfully provided good access to the population to healthcare services, reduced the incidence of many communicable diseases, and improved life expectancies and other global indices of health care, some of which are comparable to that of developed countries. The Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Unit was set up in Malaysia in August 1995 in the Ministry of Health Malaysia and has since grown tremendously in size and resources. To date, forty-three in-depth assessments have been carried out, and the recommendations of these assessments were subsequently implemented. In addition, approximately 140 rapid assessment reports were produced in response to requests from policy and decision makers. HTA has been able to provide input into formulation of national and Ministry of Health Malaysia policies, and provide a basis for clinical practice guidelines development, input into purchasing decisions, regulation of drugs, as well as advertisements related to health. A major challenge is sustainability of the program, to be able to have trained personnel competent to take on the demanding tasks of assessments and the sustained efforts that are required. In addition, there need to be constant efforts to create awareness of the utility of HTA so that its services are used and its full potential realized. The scope of services may also need to be expanded to include an early warning system. Malaysia has successfully implemented a health technology program that has had major impact on policy formulation and decision making at various levels. Challenges may be faced in sustaining and developing the program further.

  7. Developing a Malaysia flood model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haseldine, Lucy; Baxter, Stephen; Wheeler, Phil; Thomson, Tina

    2014-05-01

    Faced with growing exposures in Malaysia, insurers have a need for models to help them assess their exposure to flood losses. The need for an improved management of flood risks has been further highlighted by the 2011 floods in Thailand and recent events in Malaysia. The increasing demand for loss accumulation tools in Malaysia has lead to the development of the first nationwide probabilistic Malaysia flood model, which we present here. The model is multi-peril, including river flooding for thousands of kilometres of river and rainfall-driven surface water flooding in major cities, which may cause losses equivalent to river flood in some high-density urban areas. The underlying hazard maps are based on a 30m digital surface model (DSM) and 1D/2D hydraulic modelling in JFlow and RFlow. Key mitigation schemes such as the SMART tunnel and drainage capacities are also considered in the model. The probabilistic element of the model is driven by a stochastic event set based on rainfall data, hence enabling per-event and annual figures to be calculated for a specific insurance portfolio and a range of return periods. Losses are estimated via depth-damage vulnerability functions which link the insured damage to water depths for different property types in Malaysia. The model provides a unique insight into Malaysian flood risk profiles and provides insurers with return period estimates of flood damage and loss to property portfolios through loss exceedance curve outputs. It has been successfully validated against historic flood events in Malaysia and is now being successfully used by insurance companies in the Malaysian market to obtain reinsurance cover.

  8. Assessment Profile of Malaysia: High-Stakes External Examinations Dominate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Saw Lan

    2010-01-01

    Malaysia is a federation of 13 states located in South-east Asia. The country consists of two geographical regions; Peninsular Malaysia (also known as West Malaysia) and Malaysian Borneo (also known as East Malaysia) separated by the South China Sea. The educational administration in Malaysia is highly centralised with four hierarchical levels;…

  9. Assessment Profile of Malaysia: High-Stakes External Examinations Dominate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Saw Lan

    2010-01-01

    Malaysia is a federation of 13 states located in South-east Asia. The country consists of two geographical regions; Peninsular Malaysia (also known as West Malaysia) and Malaysian Borneo (also known as East Malaysia) separated by the South China Sea. The educational administration in Malaysia is highly centralised with four hierarchical levels;…

  10. A preliminary report on ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) recovered from forensic entomological studies conducted in different ecological habitats in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chen, C D; Nazni, W A; Lee, H L; Hashim, R; Abdullah, N A; Ramli, R; Lau, K W; Heo, C C; Goh, T G; Izzul, A A; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2014-06-01

    This study reported the ant species that were recovered from monkey carcasses in three different ecological habitats in Malaysia. The study was conducted from 9 May - 10 October 2007, 6 May - 6 August 2008 and 26 May - 14 July 2009 in forested area (Gombak, Selangor), coastal area (Tanjong Sepat, Selangor) and highland area (Bukit Cincin, Pahang), respectively. Monkey carcass was used as a model for human decomposition in this study. A total of 4 replicates were used in each of the study sites. Ants were observed to prey on eggs, larvae, pupae and newly emerged flies. This study found that ant species could be found at all stages of decomposition, indicating that ants were not a significant indicator for faunal succession. However, different species of ants were obtained from monkey carcasses placed in different ecological habitats. Cardiocondyla sp. was only found on carcasses placed in the coastal area; while Pheidole longipes, Hypoponera sp. and Pachycondyla sp. were solely found on carcasses placed in the highland area. On the other hand, Pheidologeton diversus and Paratrechina longicornis were found in several ecological habitats. These data suggests that specific ant species can act as geographic indicators for different ecological habitats in forensic entomology cases in Malaysia.

  11. Primary Teacher Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Chin Phoi; Yee, Chin Peng

    2012-01-01

    In Malaysia the training of primary school teachers is solely carried out by teacher training institutes which offer the Bachelor of Teaching with Honors (Primary education) program and was first launched in 2007. This program prepares primary school teachers specializing in various subjects or major and is carried out in 27 teacher training…

  12. Child Care Services in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pheng, Liew Sau

    2007-01-01

    Malaysia is a multi-ethnic, multi-racial, and multi-religious country with a population of more than 25 million people who live in the Peninsular and the States of Sabah and Sarawak on Borneo Island. It is a harmonious and peaceful nation comprised of Malays, who are the ethnic majority, followed by Chinese, Indians, Ibans, Kadazandusuns, and…

  13. Child Care Services in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pheng, Liew Sau

    2007-01-01

    Malaysia is a multi-ethnic, multi-racial, and multi-religious country with a population of more than 25 million people who live in the Peninsular and the States of Sabah and Sarawak on Borneo Island. It is a harmonious and peaceful nation comprised of Malays, who are the ethnic majority, followed by Chinese, Indians, Ibans, Kadazandusuns, and…

  14. The Mountaineer-Malaysia Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    A 26-day summer field course of West Virginia University's (WVU) Recreation and Parks Department took students to Malaysia's mountains and rainforests to observe how Malaysians are managing national parks, problem elephants, and population pressures on parks. The adventure provided powerful learning experiences. Further exchanges between WVU and…

  15. The Mountaineer-Malaysia Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    A 26-day summer field course of West Virginia University's (WVU) Recreation and Parks Department took students to Malaysia's mountains and rainforests to observe how Malaysians are managing national parks, problem elephants, and population pressures on parks. The adventure provided powerful learning experiences. Further exchanges between WVU and…

  16. Migrant labor absorption in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nayagam, J

    1992-01-01

    The use of migrant workers to ease labor shortages caused by rapid industrialization in Malaysia during the twentieth century is examined. "This paper will focus on: (1) the extent, composition and distribution of migrant workers; (2) the labor shortage and absorption of migrant workers; and (3) the role of migrant workers in the government's economic restructuring process."

  17. Space technology developments in Malaysia:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabirin, A.

    The venture of space is, by nature, a costly one. However, exploring space is not just an activity reserved for international superpowers. Smaller and emerging space nations, some with burgeoning space programs of their own, can play a role in space technology development and interplanetary exploration, sometimes simply by just being there. Over the past four decades, the range of services delivered by space technologies in Malaysia has grown enormously. For many business and public services, space based technologies have become the primary means of delivery of such services. Space technology development in Malaysia started with Malaysia's first microsatellite, TiungSAT-1. TiungSAT-1 has been successfully launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on the 26th of September 2000 on a Russian-Ukrainian Dnepr rocket. There have been wide imaging applications and information extraction using data from TiungSAT-1. Various techniques have been applied to the data for different applications in environmental assessment and monitoring as well as resource management. As a step forward, Malaysia has also initiated another space technology programme, RAZAKSAT. RAZAKSAT is a 180kg class satellite designed to provide 2.5meter ground sampling distance resolution imagery on a near equatorial orbit. Its mission objective is to demonstrate the capability of a medium high resolution remote sensing camera using a cost effective small satellite platform and a multi-channel linear push-broom electro-optical instrument. Realizing the immense benefits of space technology and its significant role in promoting sustainable development, Malaysia is committed to the continuous development and advancement of space technology within the scope of peaceful use of outer space and boosting its national economic growth through space related activities.

  18. Geospatializing The Klang Gate Quartz Ridge in Malaysia: A Technological Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azahari Razak, Khamarrul; Mohamad, Zakaria; Zaki Ibrahim, Mohd; Azad Rosle, Qalam; Hattanajmie Abd Wahab, Mohd; Abu Bakar, Rabieahtul; Mohd Akib, Wan Abdul Aziz Wan

    2015-04-01

    Establishment of inventories on geological heritage, or geoheritage resources is a step forward for a comprehensive geoheritage management leading to a better conservation at national and global levels. Compiling and updating inventory of geoheritage is a tedious process and even so in a tropical environment. Malaysia has a tremendous list of geodiversity and generating its national database is a multi-institutional effort and worthwhile investment. However, producing accurate and reliable characteristics of such landform and spectacular geological features remained elusive. The advanced and modern mapping techniques have revolutionized the mapping, monitoring and modelling of the earth surface processes and landforms. Yet the methods for quantification of geodiversity physical features are not fully utilized in Malaysia for a better understanding its processes and activity. This study provides a better insight into the use of advanced active remote sensing technology for characterizing the forested Quartz Ridge in Malaysia. We have developed the novel method and tested in the Klang Gates Quartz Ridge, Selangor. The granitic country rock made up by quartz mineral is known as the longest quartz ridge in Malaysia and characterized by rugged topography, steep slopes, densely vegetated terrain and also rich-biodiversity area. This study presents an integrated field methodological framework and processing scheme by taking into account the climatic, topographic, geologic, and anthropogenic challenges in an equatorial region. Advanced terrestrial laser scanning system was used to accurately capture, map and model the ridge carried out within a relatively stringent time period. The high frequency Global Navigation Satellite System and modern Total Station coupled with the optical satellite and radar imageries and also advanced spatial analysis were fully utilized in the field campaign and data assessment performed during the recent monsoon season. As a result, the mapping

  19. Lunar highland rock types: Their implications for impact induced fractionation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, W. C.; Warner, J. L.; Simonds, C. H.

    1974-01-01

    The first step in a petrologic study must be a classification based on observed textures and mineralogy. Lunar rocks, may be classified into three major groups: (1) coarse-grained igneous rocks, (2) fine-grained igneous rocks and (3) breccias. Group 1 is interpreted as primitive lunar crustal rocks that display various degrees of crushing and/or annealing. Group 2 is interpreted as volcanic rocks. Group 3 is interpreted as resulting from impacts on the lunar surface and is subdivided on the basis of matrix textures into fragmental breccias, crystalline breccias that have been annealed, and crystalline breccias with igneous matrices. A synthesis of the relevant data concerning lunar highlands polymict breccias from the fields of petrography, chemistry, photogeology, and impact studies compels the prediction that the breccias should have homogeneous matrices from rock to rock within regions of the highlands of limited size where impact mixing has been efficient and extensive.

  20. The Lunar Highland Crust: Complex or Simple Petrogenesis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S. R.; Koeberl, C.

    1992-07-01

    Following the general acceptance of the magma ocean hypothesis, models for the evolution of the highland crust of the Moon have become increasingly complicated, just as religious and philosophical systems have always diverged from the teachings of their founder. Three components make up the highland crust: the ferroan anorthosite, which crystallizes early from the magma ocean, depletes the deep interior in Eu, and adds a large Eu enrichment to the crust. KREEP, choked with incompatible trace elements from the residual 2% melt resulting from the crystallization of the magma ocean is pervasively mixed into the crust by cratering. KREEP adds a deep Eu depletion, with high abundances of the other REE parallel to those of the ferroan anorthosites. The third well-recognized component is the Mg Suite, commonly about 100-200 Ma younger, with intermediate REE patterns parallel to the ferroan anorthosites and KREEP (Fig. 1). If the highland crust were formed from many igneous events, in which the Mg suite comes from several separate plutons, crystallization and separation of mineral phases would surely result in REE patterns with diverse slopes, as is observed on Earth. This does not seem to have occurred. For example, the deep-seated troctolite 76535 has a well-established age of 4236 +- 15 Ma (Premo and Tatsumoto, 1992), much younger than the 4440 +- 20 Ma crystallization age of the lunar crust (Carlson and Lugmair, 1988), and the 4400-Ma closure ages for the source regions of the lunar mare basalts. If 76535 formed as a separate intrusion by partial melting during "serial magmatism" 200 Ma after the ferroan anorthosites crystallized, why is its REE pattern parallel to those of all the other highland rocks (Fig. 1)? Two explanations seem viable. The first possibility is that a diverse crust may have been homogenized by cratering. Alternatively, only one major igneous event produced the lunar highland crust. All subsequent complexity in ages and production of "igneous

  1. Chloride-bearing materials in the southern highlands of Mars.

    PubMed

    Osterloo, M M; Hamilton, V E; Bandfield, J L; Glotch, T D; Baldridge, A M; Christensen, P R; Tornabene, L L; Anderson, F S

    2008-03-21

    Chlorides commonly precipitate during the evaporation of surface water or groundwater and during volcanic outgassing. Spectrally distinct surface deposits consistent with chloride-bearing materials have been identified and mapped using data from the 2001 Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System. These deposits are found throughout regions of low albedo in the southern highlands of Mars. Geomorphologic evidence from orbiting imagery reveals these deposits to be light-toned relative to their surroundings and to be polygonally fractured. The deposits are small (< approximately 25 km(2)) but globally widespread, occurring in middle to late Noachian terrains with a few occurrences in early Hesperian terrains. The identification of chlorides in the ancient southern highlands suggests that near-surface water was available and widespread in early Martian history.

  2. Hydrogeology and groundwater quality of Highlands County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spechler, Rick M.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater is the main source of water supply in Highlands County, Florida. As the demand for water in the county increases, additional information about local groundwater resources is needed to manage and develop the water supply effectively. To address the need for additional data, a study was conducted to evaluate the hydrogeology and groundwater quality of Highlands County. Total groundwater use in Highlands County has increased steadily since 1965. Total groundwater withdrawals increased from about 37 million gallons per day in 1965 to about 107 million gallons per day in 2005. Much of this increase in water use is related to agricultural activities, especially citrus cultivation, which increased more than 300 percent from 1965 to 2005. Highlands County is underlain by three principal hydrogeologic units. The uppermost water-bearing unit is the surficial aquifer, which is underlain by the intermediate aquifer system/intermediate confining unit. The lowermost hydrogeologic unit is the Floridan aquifer system, which consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer, as many as three middle confining units, and the Lower Floridan aquifer. The surficial aquifer consists primarily of fine-to-medium grained quartz sand with varying amounts of clay and silt. The aquifer system is unconfined and underlies the entire county. The thickness of the surficial aquifer is highly variable, ranging from less than 50 to more than 300 feet. Groundwater in the surficial aquifer is recharged primarily by precipitation, but also by septic tanks, irrigation from wells, seepage from lakes and streams, and the lateral groundwater inflow from adjacent areas. The intermediate aquifer system/intermediate confining unit acts as a confining layer (except where breached by sinkholes) that restricts the vertical movement of water between the surficial aquifer and the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. The sediments have varying degrees of permeability and consist of permeable limestone, dolostone, or

  3. Mission Applications of a HIAD for the Mars Southern Highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winski, Richard; Bose, Dave; Komar, David R.; Samareh, Jamshid

    2013-01-01

    Recent discoveries of evidence of a flowing liquid in craters throughout the Mars Southern Highlands, like Terra Sirenum, have spurred interest in sending science missions to those locations; however, these locations are at elevations that are much higher (0 to +4 km MOLA) than any previous landing site (-1 to -4 km MOLA). New technologies may be needed to achieve a landing at these sites with significant payload mass to the surface. A promising technology is the hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (HIAD); a number of designs have been advanced but the stacked torus has been recently successfully flight tested in the IRVE-2 and IRVE-3 projects through the NASA Langley Research Center. This paper will focus on a variety of mission applications of the stacked torus type attached HIAD to the Mars southern highlands.

  4. Mafic rocks of the Adirondack Highlands: One suite or many

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, P.R. . New York State Museum)

    1993-03-01

    Mafic rocks in the granulite facies terrane of the Adirondack Highlands form at least 3 and possibly as many as 6 groups, based on field, petrographic, and geochemical criteria. Most abundant is the olivine metagabbro-amphibolite group (OMA), equivalent to the mafic suite'' of Olson (J. Petrol. 33:471, 1992). OMA occurs in irregular to tabular bodies, locally with intrusive relations, in all major rock types in the E and central Highlands. OMA is strongly olivine normative and forms a continuous differentiation series (Olson, 1992). Plagioclase-two pyroxene-garnet granulites (PGG) form dikes up to several m wide, in anorthositic host rocks. PGG are ferrogabbroic or ferrodioritic and approximately silica saturated. Two subgroups differ sharply in Mg, P, and trace elements. Ferrodiorite and monzodiorite gneisses (FMG), quartz normative and commonly migmatitic, occur in several large bodies in the NE Highlands and as extensive thin sheets in the W and SE Highlands, in association with anorthositic rocks. Three subgroups are distinguishable using Mg/Fe ratios and trace elements. Major element least-squares modeling suggests that both PGG and FMG could be derived by fractionation of gabbroic anorthosite liquids. A differentiation series is not evident, however, and both trace element (Ba, Rb, Sr, Zr and REE) data and normative plagioclase (An [>=] plag. in anorthosite) indicate a more complex origin. One subgroup of FMG may be early cumulates of the mangerite-charnockite suite. The chemistry of OMA, PGG, and FMG reflects their evolved nature and cannot be readily interpreted in terms of magma sources.

  5. Genesis of highland basalt breccias - A view from 66095

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, J. R., Jr.; Taylor, L. A.

    1980-01-01

    Electron microprobe and defocused beam analyses of the lunar highland breccia sample 66095 show it consists of a fine-grained subophitic matrix containing a variety of mineral and lithic clasts, such as intergranular and cataclastic ANT, shocked and unshocked plagioclase, and basalts. Consideration of the chemistries of both matrix and clasts provides a basis for a qualitative three-component mixing model consisting of an ANT plutonic complex, a Fra Mauro basalt, and minor meteoric material.

  6. Biological correlates of modernization in a Guatemalan highland municipio.

    PubMed

    Scholl, T O; Odell, M E

    1976-01-01

    The demographic correlates of modernization were studied in a municipio of the Guatemalan highlands using, as indicators of modernization, the introduction of chemical fertilizers and of a religous revitalization movement. Accion Catolica. Records, taken from interviews, of 340 women divided into declines (decennial groups) within ten-year birth cohorts extending from before 1925 to 1954, were checked for representativeness against the birth registries for the entire municipio for the years 1965-69.

  7. Genesis of highland basalt breccias - A view from 66095

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, J. R., Jr.; Taylor, L. A.

    1980-01-01

    Electron microprobe and defocused beam analyses of the lunar highland breccia sample 66095 show it consists of a fine-grained subophitic matrix containing a variety of mineral and lithic clasts, such as intergranular and cataclastic ANT, shocked and unshocked plagioclase, and basalts. Consideration of the chemistries of both matrix and clasts provides a basis for a qualitative three-component mixing model consisting of an ANT plutonic complex, a Fra Mauro basalt, and minor meteoric material.

  8. Prehistoric human impact on rainforest biodiversity in highland New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Haberle, Simon G

    2007-02-28

    In the highlands of New Guinea, the development of agriculture as an indigenous innovation during the Early Holocene is considered to have resulted in rapid loss of forest cover, a decrease in forest biodiversity and increased land degradation over thousands of years. But how important is human activity in shaping the diversity of vegetation communities over millennial time-scales? An evaluation of the change in biodiversity of forest habitats through the Late Glacial transition to the present in five palaeoecological sites from highland valleys, where intensive agriculture is practised today, is presented. A detailed analysis of the longest and most continuous record from Papua New Guinea is also presented using available biodiversity indices (palynological richness and biodiversity indicator taxa) as a means of identifying changes in diversity. The analysis shows that the collapse of key forest habitats in the highland valleys is evident during the Mid - Late Holocene. These changes are best explained by the adoption of new land management practices and altered disturbance regimes associated with agricultural activity, though climate change may also play a role. The implications of these findings for ecosystem conservation and sustainability of agriculture in New Guinea are discussed.

  9. Ancient fluvial processes in the equatorial highlands of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craddock, Robert A.; Maxwell, Ted A.

    1991-01-01

    Martian highland craters typically lack ejecta deposits, have no noticeable rim, and are flat floored. In addition, crater size frequency distribution curves show that highland craters have depleted populations less than 20 km in diameter. A variety of processes have been suggested to explain these observations including deposition of aeolian or volcanic materials up to the crater rim crests, thermal creep, terrain softening, and mass wasting. However, none of these processes adequately explains both the crater morphology and population distribution. In order to explain both the Martian highland crater morphology and population distribution, a fluvial process is proposed which is capable of removing the loose crater rim material. The resulting effect is to decrease the crater diameter, thereby causing the population curves to bendover. The eroded material is redistributed, burying or partially burying smaller diameter craters before complete erosion. This material may also be deposited into local topographic lows, creating the depositional basins observed. A fluvial process explains both sets of observations: crater morphology and crater population distribution curves.

  10. Independent Molecular Basis of Convergent Highland Adaptation in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Takuno, Shohei; Ralph, Peter; Swarts, Kelly; Elshire, Rob J.; Glaubitz, Jeffrey C.; Buckler, Edward S.; Hufford, Matthew B.; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar traits in different species or lineages of the same species; this often is a result of adaptation to similar environments, a process referred to as convergent adaptation. We investigate here the molecular basis of convergent adaptation in maize to highland climates in Mesoamerica and South America, using genome-wide SNP data. Taking advantage of archaeological data on the arrival of maize to the highlands, we infer demographic models for both populations, identifying evidence of a strong bottleneck and rapid expansion in South America. We use these models to then identify loci showing an excess of differentiation as a means of identifying putative targets of natural selection and compare our results to expectations from recently developed theory on convergent adaptation. Consistent with predictions across a wide parameter space, we see limited evidence for convergent evolution at the nucleotide level in spite of strong similarities in overall phenotypes. Instead, we show that selection appears to have predominantly acted on standing genetic variation and that introgression from wild teosinte populations appears to have played a role in highland adaptation in Mexican maize. PMID:26078279

  11. The histology of the carotid bodies in highlanders from Ladakh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Q.; Heath, D.; Smith, P.; Norboo, T.

    1988-12-01

    A histological study was made of the carotid bodies in a boy and three adult male highlanders born and residing between altitudes of 3300 m to 4200 m in Ladakh. The carotid bodies were enlarged in two of the men, and in all four subjects showed increased numbers and enlargement of the dark variants of the chief cells of the glomic tissue. In these dark cells the cytoplasm was voluminous, formed streamers and contained many intracytoplasmic vesicles of which some had mused to form larger vesicles that appeared to have discharged from the cell surface. Immunohistochemical studies showed that these cells contained considerable amounts of the peptide met-enkephalin. It is thus considered that prominence of dark cells containing this peptide is characteristic of sustained exposure of the carotid bodies to hypobaric hypoxia. In the middle-aged highlander there was a prominence of sustentacular cells which encroached upon the cores of chief cells and this may be associated with the characteristic loss of hypoxic ventilatory response in the highlander.

  12. Geomorphic evolution of the Martian highlands through ancient fluvial processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craddock, Robert A.; Maxwell, Ted A.

    1993-01-01

    The evolution of crater degradation in the Martian highlands based on variations in crater morphology is traced. The timing of this process related to geology, elevation, and latitude is examined, the nature of fluvial resurfacing is studied, and the approximate rate of denudation is determined. The obtained data make it possible to understand the early geologic history of Mars, the interaction between the atmosphere and surface processes through time, and the nature of highland surface materials. Degradation was found to begin with sheet-flooding and the formation of runoff channels in both the interior and exterior of the craters. Progressive stripping of the ejecta material led to craters with incised rims. Erosion and infilling led to flat doors. With time, continued erosion removed ejecta and rim materials completely. Timing of degradation based on cumulative size-frequency distribution curves of highland crater population indicates that the process ceased completely in the late Hesperian. Global average denudation rates were found to be between 0.0001 and 0.005 mm/yr.

  13. Independent Molecular Basis of Convergent Highland Adaptation in Maize.

    PubMed

    Takuno, Shohei; Ralph, Peter; Swarts, Kelly; Elshire, Rob J; Glaubitz, Jeffrey C; Buckler, Edward S; Hufford, Matthew B; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2015-08-01

    Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar traits in different species or lineages of the same species; this often is a result of adaptation to similar environments, a process referred to as convergent adaptation. We investigate here the molecular basis of convergent adaptation in maize to highland climates in Mesoamerica and South America, using genome-wide SNP data. Taking advantage of archaeological data on the arrival of maize to the highlands, we infer demographic models for both populations, identifying evidence of a strong bottleneck and rapid expansion in South America. We use these models to then identify loci showing an excess of differentiation as a means of identifying putative targets of natural selection and compare our results to expectations from recently developed theory on convergent adaptation. Consistent with predictions across a wide parameter space, we see limited evidence for convergent evolution at the nucleotide level in spite of strong similarities in overall phenotypes. Instead, we show that selection appears to have predominantly acted on standing genetic variation and that introgression from wild teosinte populations appears to have played a role in highland adaptation in Mexican maize.

  14. Geomorphic evolution of the Martian highlands through ancient fluvial processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craddock, R. A.; Maxwell, T. A.

    1993-02-01

    The evolution of crater degradation in the Martian highlands based on variations in crater morphology is traced. The timing of this process related to geology, elevation, and latitude is examined, the nature of fluvial resurfacing is studied, and the approximate rate of denudation is determined. The obtained data make it possible to understand the early geologic history of Mars, the interaction between the atmosphere and surface processes through time, and the nature of highland surface materials. Degradation was found to begin with sheet-flooding and the formation of runoff channels in both the interior and exterior of the craters. Progressive stripping of the ejecta material led to craters with incised rims. Erosion and infilling led to flat doors. With time, continued erosion removed ejecta and rim materials completely. Timing of degradation based on cumulative size-frequency distribution curves of highland crater population indicates that the process ceased completely in the late Hesperian. Global average denudation rates were found to be between 0.0001 and 0.005 mm/yr.

  15. Preliminary delineation and description of the regional aquifers of Tennessee : the Highland Rim aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brahana, J.V.; Bradley, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Highland Rim aquifer system in Tennessee is primarily composed of Mississippian carbonates and occurs west of the Valley and Ridge Province. It crops out in the Highland Rim and the Sequatchie Valley. It has been removed by erosion from the Central Basin. Groundwater in the Highland Rim aquifer system occurs primarily in secondary openings including solution openings, joints, and faults. The Chattanooga Shale is the lower confining layer for the Highland Rim aquifer system. Under the Cumberland plateau, this aquifer system is separated from the overlying Pennsylvanian formations by the Pennington Shale. The Highland Rim aquifer system is an important source of drinking water. It supplies most of the rural, domestic, and many public supplies of drinking water in the Highland Rim. Where there is a dynamic flow system, dissolved solids concentrations are less than 500 mg/L. However, isolated cells may exist where the groundwater has dissolved solids concentrations of more than 1 ,000 mg/L. (USGS)

  16. Population trends in Malaysia: 1970-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Saharani Abdul; Ghani, Puzziawati Ab; Daud, Noorizam

    2014-12-01

    The size of population in Malaysia had reached 28.3 million in 2010 and is expected to increase to 38.6 million in the next 30 years. This demographic milestone that is causing renewed attention to the challenges caused by population growth. This paper looks at the last 40 years of changes in Malaysia population structure due to the changes in demographic phenomenon using data obtained from the Department of Statistics Malaysia. The principal finding of this research indicates that population structure in Malaysia had changed dramatically from the year 1970 to 2010. At the same time, Malaysia has completed its demographic transition in less than four decades. The fall in fertility and mortality rates have led to an improvement in the life expectancy of the population which has resulted an ageing population in Malaysia.

  17. Tropical Airborne LiDAR for Landslide Assessment in Malaysia: a technical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Manap, Mohamad; Azhari Razak, Khamarrul; Mohamad, Zakaria; Ahmad, Azhari; Ahmad, Ferdaus; Mohamad Zin, Mazlan; A'zad Rosle, Qalam

    2015-04-01

    Malaysia has faced a substantial number of landslide events every year. Cameron Highlands, Pahang is one of the badly areas affected by slope failures characterized by extreme climate, rugged topographic and weathered geological structures in a tropical environment. A high frequency of landslide occurrence in the hilly areas is predominantly due to the geological materials, tropical monsoon seasons and uncontrolled agricultural activities. Therefore the Government of Malaysia through the Prime Minister Department has allocated a special budget to conduct national level hazard and risk mapping project through Minerals and Geoscience Department Malaysia, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. The primary aim of this project is to provide slope hazard risk information for a better slope management in Malaysia. In addition this project will establish national infrastructure for geospatial information on the geological terrain and slope by emphasizing the disaster risk throughout the country. The areas of interest are located in the three different selected areas i.e. Cameron Highlands (275 square kilometers), Ipoh (200 square kilometers) and Cheras Kajang -- Batang kali (650 square kilometers). These areas are selected based on National Slope Master Plan (2009 -- 2023) that endorsed by Malaysia Government Cabinet. The national hazard and risk mapping project includes six parts of major tasks: (1) desk study and mobilization, (2) airborne LiDAR data acquisition and analysis, (3) field data acquisition and verification, (4) hazard and risk for natural terrain, (5) hazard and risk analysis for man-made slope and (6) Man-made slope mitigation/preventive measures. The project was authorized in September, 2014 and will be ended in March, 2016. In this paper, the main focus is to evaluate the suitability of integrated capability of airborne- and terrestrial LiDAR data acquisition and analysis, and also digital photography for regional landslide assessment. The

  18. The Mg-suite and the highland crust: An unsolved enigma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Stuart Ross; Norman, Marc D.; Esat, Tezer M.

    1993-01-01

    Most of the rocks returned from the highlands are polymict breccias, pulverized by the massive bombardment. However, some monomict breccias with low siderophile element contents are considered to be 'pristine' rocks that represent the original igneous components making up the highland crust. Three principal pristine constituents make up the lunar highland crust: ferroan anorthosites, the Mg-suite, and KREEP. A discussion of these three constituents is presented.

  19. The Mg-suite and the highland crust: An unsolved enigma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Stuart Ross; Norman, Marc D.; Esat, Tezer M.

    1993-01-01

    Most of the rocks returned from the highlands are polymict breccias, pulverized by the massive bombardment. However, some monomict breccias with low siderophile element contents are considered to be 'pristine' rocks that represent the original igneous components making up the highland crust. Three principal pristine constituents make up the lunar highland crust: ferroan anorthosites, the Mg-suite, and KREEP. A discussion of these three constituents is presented.

  20. Chemical mixing model studies of lunar orbital geochemical data - Apollo 16 and 17 highlands compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, P. D.; Hawke, B. R.

    1982-01-01

    Chemical mixing model studies of lunar geochemical data for the central and Taurus-Littrow lunar highlands were performed utilizing pristine highland rock types as end member compositions. The central highlands show considerable diversity in composition; anorthosite is the principal rock type in the Apollo 16/Descartes region, while norite predominates in the highlands west of the landing site. This change in crustal composition is coincident with a major color boundary seen in earth-based multispectral data and probably represents the presence of distinct geochemical provinces within the central highlands. The Taurus-Littrow highlands are dominated by norite; anorthosite is far less abundant than in the central highlands. This suggests that the impact target for the Serenitatis basin was different than that of the Nectaris basin and further strengthens the hypothesis that the lunar highlands are petrologically heterogeneous on a regional basis. It is suggested that the lunar highlands should be viewed in terms of geochemical provinces that have undergone distinct and complex igneous and impact histories.

  1. Debris flow study in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrin Jaafar, Kamal

    2016-04-01

    The phenomenon of debris flow occurs in Malaysia occasionally. The topography of Peningsular Malysia is characterized by the central mountain ranges running from south to north. Several parts of hilly areas with steep slopes, combined with high saturation of soil strata that deliberately increase the pore water pressure underneath the hill slope. As a tropical country Malaysia has very high intensity rainfall which is triggered the landslide. In the study area where the debris flow are bound to occur, there are a few factors that contribute to this phenomenon such as high rainfall intensity, very steep slope which an inclination more than 35 degree and sandy clay soil type which is easily change to liquidity soil. This paper will discuss the study of rainfall, mechanism, modeling and design of mitigation measure to avoid repeated failure in future in same area.

  2. Malaysia implements the integrated approach.

    PubMed

    1977-01-01

    Malaysia has implemented an integrated approach in providing family planning services to eligible couples. In 1964 the government of Malaysia adopted a national family planning program, and implementation began in the urban areas and extended into the rural areas. Other agencies are involved in providing family planning services and information including the Federation of Family Planning Associations, the Ministry of Health, the National Family Planning Board, and the Federal Land Development Authority. The number of women practicing contraception has increased from 20,726 in 1967 to 533,646 by 1976. and other methods, 3.9%, respectively. There has been an increase in the percentage of acceptors between ages 15-29 from 56% in 1968 to 71.3% in 1975. The 2nd Malaysian national plan will use a multidisciplinary approach to the problem.

  3. Mortality rates decline in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1991-11-01

    Experiencing remarkable decreases in mortality rates over the past 3 decades, Malaysia currently has one of the lowest mortality rates among developing countries, a rate that compares favorably with those of developed countries. Between 1957 and 1989, the crude death rate dropped from 12.4/1000 population to 4.6. Over the same period, Malaysia recorded even greater decreases in the infant mortality rate, from 75.5/1000 births to 15.2. The Maternal mortality rate also declined from 1.48 in 1970 to 0.24 in 1988. The data indicates that mortality rates vary from state to state, and that rural areas have a higher mortality than urban areas. According to a study by the National Population and Family Development Board, the use of maternal and child health services has played an important role in reducing neonatal, perinatal, infant, child, and maternal mortality rates. Nearly all women in Malaysia receive antenatal services. While the country has achieved great gains on mortality rates, programs focusing on specific age and socioeconomic groups could lead to even greater reductions. The Minister for National Unity and Social Development, Dato Napsiah Omar, has called for the development of programs designed to improve the population's quality of life.

  4. Electricity energy outlook in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. S.; Maragatham, K.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    Population and income growth are the key drivers behind the growing demand for energy. Demand for electricity in Malaysia is always growing in tandem with its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth. The growth for electricity in Malaysia forecasted by Economic Planning Unit (EPU) has shown an increase of 3.52% in 2012 compared to 3.48% in 2011. This growth has been driven by strong demand growth from commercial and domestic sectors. The share of electricity consumption to total energy consumption has increased from 17.4% in 2007 to 21.7% in 2012. The total electricity production was reported at 122.12TWh in 2012, where gas is still the major fuel source contributing to 52.7% of the total generation fuel mix of electricity followed by Coal, 38.9%, hydro, 7.3%, oil, 1% and others, 0.2%. This paper aims to discuss the energy outlook particularly the electricity production and ways toward greener environment in electricity production in Malaysia

  5. Malaysia (country/area statements).

    PubMed

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Malaysia by 1984 achieved a crude death rate of 5.3/1000, an infant mortality rate of 17/1000 live births, and a 1983 life expectancy at birth of 67.6 for males and 72.3 for females due primarily to socioeconomic development, better nutrition, and a health system covering 95% of the rural population. Substantial mortality differentials still exist between Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak, between urban and rural areas, and among ethnic groups. Differences in the coverage and quality of mortality statistics also exist. 83.2% of Malaysia's total population of 15.5 million is in Peninsular Malaysia, 7.3% in Sabah, and 9.5% in Sarawak. In Peninsular Malaysia, 55.1% are Malays, 33.9% Chinese, and 10.3% Indians. About 40% of the population is urban, and 39% is under age 15. The average annual rate of growth declined from 2.6% in the 1960s to 2.3% in the 1970s. The total fertility rate fell from 5.1 children in 1970 to 4.1 in 1980. A rise in age at 1st marriage and reduction in marital fertility have been partly offset by an increase in the proportion of women of childbearing age. The population is projected to grow to about 22 million by the year 2000. Chinese and Indians are expected to approach replacement level fertility by that year, but Malay fertility is expected to remain high for some time. Internal migration, 45% of which is intrarural, increased markedly in the 1970s, probably due to rapid modernization, industrialization, land development, and regional imbalances in economic development. In absolute terms a total of 410,000 persons moved from rural to urban areas during the 1970s. Important progress has been made in regional development programs, but further regional development requires resolution of problems related to internal migration and greater efforts to relocate industries in the less developed areas. The

  6. Performance of Highland Ethiopian Cropping Strategies versus Climate Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggen, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Blue Nile Highlands are an important agricultural area of Northern Ethiopia. In these mountains which encompass the source of the Blue Nile, a large variety of crops are grown across agroecozones which have significant differences in rainfall, temperature and soil properties as well as differences in the spatial and temporal variability of those production factors. Using an agroecosystem view of the Blue Nile Highlands which divides the study area into 5 major classifications of climate-soil-management, this paper seeks to understand how future climate change will impact the region in a spatially explicit manner by comparing relative performance of these major crop management strategies. Climate simulations from the 21 CMIP5 models in the NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX-GDDP) dataset will provide daily weather data out to the year 2100 in a 25km grid. RCP's 4.5 and 8.5 are utilized to give optimistic and a pessimistic scenarios of climate forcing. The Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT), a process-based, dynamic crop model, is used to simulate crop production for wheat, maize, sorghum, and barley across the 5 agroecosystems. The DSSAT tool allows for differences in management across the agroecosystems by specific cultivar, planting dates, and fertilization practices (among others). Calibration of the model for each specific cultivar was carried out using on-farm observations from dozens of fields. Results show that some cropping systems and strategies in these highlands are more resilient and others more vulnerable to future climate variability. The results have great potential to inform current targeting of governmental and non-governmental agricultural extension work in the study area to ensure Ethiopia's food security in the future.

  7. [Interspecific association between understory species in a southern highland plantation].

    PubMed

    Hu, Lile; Yan, Boqian; Liu, Qijing; Zhu, Jiaojun

    2005-11-01

    Based upon 2 x 2 contingency table, chi2 test and association coefficient were used to determine the interspecific association between understory species in a southern highland plantation, and to analyze the restoration degree and the stability of southern highland vegetations originated from plantation. The Qianyanzhou in Taihe County of Jiangxi Province, a typical sample of southern highland plantation, was chosen to make the study. The results showed that both in shrub layer and in herb layer, species pair with chi2 reaching significant level (P <0.05) was few in number. In shrub layer, 12 species pairs' association was highly significant (P < 0.01), 19 pairs' was significant (P < 0.05), and other 200 pairs' was nonsignificant, while in herb layer, 11 pairs' was highly significant, 11 pairs' was significant and other 83 pairs' was nonsignificant. According to interspecific association and correlation, shrub layer was divided into two species groups: Group I . Adinandra bockiana, Syzygiumn grijsii, Vaccinium bracteatunm, Ilex aculeolata, Smilax ferox, Eurya muricata and Group II . Lespedeza davidii, Serissa serissoides, Vitex negundo var. cannabifolia. Many species in Group I had a significantly negative association with the species in Group II, and dominant species always played a key role in the relationships among species. The three dominant species in herb layer, Wooduardia japonica, Dryopteris atrata and Adiantun flabellulaturn, had a highly significant positive correlation between each other, and moreover, had a significant or highly significant positive association with many other herbaceous species. Similarily, dominant species in shrub layer played a key role on the interspecific association in the two species groups. The ratios of positive and negative association indicating the species compositions of the two layers were fluctuating, which was 125/106 in shrub layer and 42/63 in herb layer. Several shortcomings of interspecific association method were

  8. Temperature suitability for malaria climbing the Ethiopian Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Bradfield; Dinku, Tufa; Raman, Anita; Thomson, Madeleine C.

    2017-06-01

    While the effect of climate change on the prevalence of malaria in the highlands of Eastern Africa has been the topic of protracted debate, temperature is widely accepted as a fundamentally important environmental factor constraining its transmission. Air temperatures below approximately 18 °C and 15 °C, respectively, prohibit the development of the Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax parasites responsible for the majority of malaria cases in Ethiopia. Low temperatures also impede the development rates of the Anopheles mosquito vectors. While locations of sufficiently high elevation have temperatures below these transmission thresholds, a fundamental question is how such temperature ‘threshold elevations’ are changing with time. A lack of high quality, high spatial resolution climate data has previously prohibited a rigorous investigation. Using a newly developed national temperature dataset for Ethiopia that combines numerous in-situ surface observations with downscaled reanalysis data, we here identify statistically significant increases in elevation for both the 18 °C and 15 °C thresholds in highland areas between 1981-2014. Substantial interannual and spatial variations in threshold elevations are identified, the former associated with the El Niño Southern-Oscillation and the latter with the complex climate of the region. The estimated population in locations with an upward trend in the 15 °C threshold elevation is approximately 6.5 million people (2.2 million for 18 °C). While not a direct prediction of the additional population made vulnerable to malaria through a shift to higher temperature, our results underscore a newly acquired ability to investigate climate variability and trends at fine spatial scales across Ethiopia, including changes in a fundamental constraint on malaria transmission in the Ethiopian Highlands.

  9. Land Degradation Processes in the Humid Ethiopian highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenhuis, Tammo; Tebebu, Tigist; Belachew, Meseret; Langendoen, Eddy; Giri, Shree; Tilahun, Seifu

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation after forest clearing forces a distinct pattern on agricultural production starting with high yields just after clearing to poor productivity or even abandonment after 30-40 years. In the humid Ethiopian highlands forest soils have initial a high organic matter content that decreases with time after clearing. When the organic matter becomes less than 3%, aggregates break up, other cementing elements are being leached out and the texture becomes finer. Since settling velocity in water is related to particle size, the finer soil increases sediment concentration in the infiltration water and hardpan formation accelerates restricting deep percolation of water. This in turn affect the hydrology in which an excess water flows more rapidly as lateral flow to valley bottoms which become wetter with gully formation starting to transmit the additional water down slope approximately 10 years after the initial clearing. This degradation pattern occurs in all soils in the Ethiopian highlands, but the severity varies with climate and parent material. Although we do not yet understand to what degree these factors influence the degradation pattern, it is important to recognize the process because it directly affects the effectiveness of imposed management practices. In this presentation, we will highlight the degradation process for two watersheds in the semi humid Ethiopian highlands. We will document how soil properties changes and discuss hardpan formation and gully development. In addition, we will consider the effect of presently implemented governmental sponsored conservation practices and alternative management practices that might be more beneficial. We are looking forward to discussions on combating the effect of soil degradation in tropical monsoonal regions.

  10. The Evolution of Special Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lay Wah; Low, Hui Min

    2014-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of special education in Malaysia across four chronological stages: before and during the early colonial period (before 1900), pre-independence (1900-1957), post-independence (1957-1990) and modern Malaysia (1990 to the present), through document analysis. By placing current issues and trends within a historical…

  11. Homeschool in Malaysia: A Foresight Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim-Soon, Ng; Rahman Bin Ahmad, Abd; Bin Sulaiman, Muhammad Ibrahim; Sirisa, Ng Mei Xin

    2015-01-01

    Homeschooling in Malaysia is a form of alternative education that emphasizes quality education based on moral values and beliefs while strengthening family bonds. This alternative form of education is being practiced by a growing number of families in Malaysia. As such, the Ministry of Education has given the green light for intending parents who…

  12. Islam and Economic Growth in Malaysia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    performance. Indonesia is an interesting case to study because of its similarities with Malaysia in terms of multi-ethnic societies and cultures ...Malaysia and Indonesia , they became the majority. Islam survives despite vast differences in ethnic backgrounds, languages, culture , and historical...legitimacy.34 Throughout Indonesia and Malaya, Islam was integrated into popular culture . Sufi missionaries and village teachers settled widely and made

  13. Economic Education in Malaysia: A Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    This report provides a brief description of economic education in Malaysia and indicates interest, on the part of various Asian countries, i.e., Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines, in the establishment of economic education programs. (Editor/RK)

  14. Information Policies in Saudi Arabia and Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhry, Abdus Sattar

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of national information policy focuses on Saudi Arabia and Malaysia. Documents from the two countries that were reviewed to examine policy provisions related to library and information services are listed, and Malaysia's national policy on library and information services is presented as a model for other developing countries. (Contains…

  15. Malay Special Rights: "Affirmative Action" in Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Mah Hui

    This paper provides an overview of Malaysia's affirmative action program, legally constituted as Malay Special Rights. An introduction defines the aim of the program as improving the economic position of Bumiputras, who consist of Malays and other indigenous communities. These, it is said, are Malaysia's most economically disadvantaged groups;…

  16. Economic Education in Malaysia: A Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    This report provides a brief description of economic education in Malaysia and indicates interest, on the part of various Asian countries, i.e., Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines, in the establishment of economic education programs. (Editor/RK)

  17. Workplace Learning in Malaysia: The Learner's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Idris, Khairuddin

    2005-01-01

    This paper offers a scenario of workplace learning as practiced in Malaysia. Based on survey research, the article describes learner profiles, learning provision and pattern. The analysis shows that Malaysians participate in formal workplace learning as part of their employment activities. Workplace learning in Malaysia is contextual, promoted by…

  18. The Evolution of Special Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lay Wah; Low, Hui Min

    2014-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of special education in Malaysia across four chronological stages: before and during the early colonial period (before 1900), pre-independence (1900-1957), post-independence (1957-1990) and modern Malaysia (1990 to the present), through document analysis. By placing current issues and trends within a historical…

  19. An Exploration of African Students in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lian, Irene Tan Ai

    2011-01-01

    The exploratory study is an attempt to understand the reasons that prompted African students to study in Malaysia, the challenges encountered and the coping strategies used. The research on such topics among international students is well documented, but studies on international students in Malaysia are scarce. The sample included 155 African…

  20. Identification of dengue viruses in naturally infected Aedes aegypti females captured with BioGents (BG)-Sentinel traps in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Regina Maria Pinto de; Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes; Abi-Abib, Yasmin Emile Conte; Oliveira, Cintia Mara de; Roque, Rosemary; Azara, Tatiana de; Ohly, Jorg; Degener, Carolin; Geier, Martin; Eiras, Alvaro Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    In Manaus, the first autochthonous cases of dengue fever were registered in 1998. Since then, dengue cases were diagnosed by the isolation of viruses 1, 2, 3, and 4. One hundred eighty-seven mosquitoes were collected with BioGents (BG)-Sentinel traps in 15 urban residential areas in the Northern Zone of Manaus and processed by molecular tests. Infections with dengue viruses 1, 2, 3, and 4 and a case of co-infection with dengue viruses 2 and 3 were identified. These findings corroborate the detection of dengue in clinical samples and reinforce the need for epidemiological surveillance by the Health authorities.

  1. A ferroelectric model for the low emissivity highlands on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, Michael K.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Brackett, Robert A.; Fegley, Bruce, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A model to explain the low emissivity venusian highlands is proposed utilizing the temperature-dependent dielectric constant of ferroelectric minerals. Ferroelectric minerals are known to occur in alkaline and carbonite rocks, both of which are plausible for Venus. Ferroelectric minerals possess extremely high dielectric constants (10(exp 5)) over small temperature intervals and are only required in minor (much less than 1%) abundances to explain the observed emissivities. The ferroelectric model can account for: (1) the observed reduction in emissivity with increased altitude, (2) the abrupt return to normal emissivities at highest elevations, and (3) the variations in the critical elevation observed from region to region.

  2. A ferroelectric model for the low emissivity highlands on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, M. K.; Arvidson, R. E.; Brackett, R. A.; Fegley, B.

    1994-03-01

    A model to explain the low emissivity venusian highlands is proposed utilizing the temperature-dependent dielectric constant of ferroelectric minerals. Ferroelectric minerals are known to occur in alkaline and carbonite rocks, both of which are plausible for Venus. Ferroelectric minerals possess extremely high dielectric constants (105) over small temperature intervals and are only required in minor (much less than 1%) abundances to explain the observed emissivities. The ferroelectric model can account for: (1) the observed reduction in emissivity with increased altitude, (2) the abrupt return to normal emissivities at highest elevations, and (3) the variations in the critical elevation observed from region to region.

  3. The geology of Burnsville Cove, Bath and Highland Counties, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swezey, Christopher; Haynes, John T.; Lambert, Richard A.; White, William B.; Lucas, Philip C.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    Burnsville Cove is a karst region in Bath and Highland Counties of Virginia. A new geologic map of the area reveals various units of limestone, sandstone, and siliciclastic mudstone (shale) of Silurian through Devonian age, as well as structural features such as northeast-trending anticlines and synclines, minor thrust faults, and prominent joints. Quaternary features include erosional (strath) terraces and accumulations of mud, sand, and gravel. The caves of Burnsville Cove are located within predominantly carbonate strata above the Silurian Williamsport Sandstone and below the Devonian Oriskany Sandstone. Most of the caves are located within the Silurian Tonoloway Limestone, rather than the Silurian-Devonian Keyser Limestone as reported previously.

  4. A new species of Parakari (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) from Guiana Highlands.

    PubMed

    Derka, Tomáš; Nieto, Carolina; Svitok, Marek

    2015-10-08

    The genus Parakari was described from Guiana Highlands in southeastern Venezuela by Nieto & Derka in 2011 for two species inhabiting streams draining isolated, flat-topped table mountains called tepuis. A description of a third representative, Parakari roraimensis sp. n., is given here based on material collected from a coldwater stream at the foothills of Roraima-tepui (SE Venezuela). Detailed morphological descriptions of mature nymph and female adult are given. A differential diagnosis and a key to nymphs of the three Parakari species are provided.

  5. A New Turnaround Model: Michigan's Highland Park Goes Charter. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spalding, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    This brief examines the series of events that led to the Highland Park school district being converted to a system of charter public schools in 2012. Used as a strategy to help the district eliminate its large fiscal debt while still providing resident students with a local public school option, Highland Park's charter conversion is one of the…

  6. Oak decline across the Ozark Highlands- from stand to landscape and regional scale processes

    Treesearch

    Marty Spetich; Zhaofei Fan; Hong S. He; Wen J. Wang; Michael K. Crosby; Stephen R. Shifley

    2016-01-01

    Oak decline has been a problem in forests of the Ozark Highlands (OzH) for decades. It has impacted upland oak-hickory forests, particularly species in the red oak group (Quercus section Lobatae) across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas, and Oklahoma. The oak decline complex is often described in terms of predisposing...

  7. Myles Horton (1905-90) of Highlander: Adult Educator and Southern Activist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin; Parker, Betty J.

    As a leader of social change in the South, Myles Horton (1) unionized southern textile workers and coal miners and advanced civil rights through his Highlander school; (2) conducted Highlander workshops for black leaders; (3) first popularized the song "We Shall Overcome"; and (4) initiated Citizenship Schools to help blacks register to…

  8. WATERSHED RESTORATION AND FISHERIES MANAGEMENT IN THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation is about watershed restoration and fisheries management in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands. The goal of the Canaan Valley Institue is to develop and implement solutions to restore damaged areas and protect aquatic systems in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands. A decision ana...

  9. Vocabularies, Knowledge and Social Action in Citizenship Education: The Highlander Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldendorf, Sandra Brenneman

    1989-01-01

    Examines the history and vocabularies of the Highlander Folk School (Tennessee), an adult education school emphasizing decision-making, critical thinking, and active citizen participation. Encourages social studies teachers to become aware of their vocabularies, using the Highlander example in the discourse about the nature of knowledge and the…

  10. WATERSHED RESTORATION AND FISHERIES MANAGEMENT IN THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation is about watershed restoration and fisheries management in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands. The goal of the Canaan Valley Institue is to develop and implement solutions to restore damaged areas and protect aquatic systems in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands. A decision ana...

  11. Mineralogical and Chemical Characterization of Lunar Highland Regolith: Lessons Learned from Mare Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Cahill, J. T.; Patchen, A.; Pieters, C.; Morris, R.; Keller, L. P.; McKay, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    The Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium has begun study of the <45 m fractions of ten representative highland soils, chosen for their contrasting maturities. Difficulties are addressed in the modal and chemical analyses of these highland soils. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. 75 FR 23221 - Highlands Regional Study: Connecticut and Pennsylvania 2010 Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Forest Service Highlands Regional Study: Connecticut and Pennsylvania 2010 Update AGENCY: Forest Service... Conservation Act, Public Law 108- 421, the Forest Service has drafted the Highlands Regional Study: Connecticut and Pennsylvania 2010 Update. The study is now available (see link below) and identifies high...

  13. Mineralogical and Chemical Characterization of Lunar Highland Regolith: Lessons Learned from Mare Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Cahill, J. T.; Patchen, A.; Pieters, C.; Morris, R.; Keller, L. P.; McKay, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    The Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium has begun study of the <45 m fractions of ten representative highland soils, chosen for their contrasting maturities. Difficulties are addressed in the modal and chemical analyses of these highland soils. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Age and regional relationships of granitoid rocks of the Adirondack highlands

    SciTech Connect

    McLelland, J.M. ); Chiarenzelli, J.R.

    1991-07-01

    Approximately 55% of the Adirondack highlands is underlain by granitic to tonalitic rocks that can be subdivided into five groups based on age, composition, and field occurrence: (1) early calcalkaline tonalites (ca. 1300 Ma) and associated granitic rocks (ca. 1250 Ma) of the southern and eastern highlands, (2) older anorogenic plutonic rocks (1145-1160 Ma) that occur throughout the highlands, (3) younger anorogenic plutonic rocks (ca. 1130 Ma) of the northwest highlands, and (5) late leucogranitic rocks (1060-1080 Ma) that occur throughout the northern highlands. The data presented here are in good agreement with zircon ages from the Green Mountains of Vermont as well as from southern Ontario and Quebec and suggest similar geologic histories for these regions. These results document a protracted and complicated evolution for this portion of the Grenville Province.

  15. Lunar highlands volcanism implications from Luna 20 and Apollo 16

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilshire, H.G.; Wilhelms, D.E.; Howard, K.A.

    1974-01-01

    Highlands materials sampled at the Apollo 16 and Luna 20 sites represent units of distinctive morphology that are widespread on the lunar nearside. Samples from the Apollo 16 site represent hilly and furrowed materials of the Descartes highlands and Cayley Formation. Materials were collected by Luna 20 from terrain resembling the Descartes terrain. Most photogeologic interpretations of these units favored volcanic origins, but the samples fail to support this interpretation. Luna 20 soil fragments are mainly glassy microbreccia with lithic inclusions of fine-grained hornfels; less than 3 percent of the fragments have textures of volcanic rocks, and most of these are likely crystalline products of impact melting. Apollo 16 soils formed on ejecta derived from a plutonic anorthosite-norite-troctolite suite. The similarity of Luna 20 soils indicates that these too formed as regolith on ejecta of anorthosite-norite-troctolitc composition. Interpretation of the samples from the two locations now suggests that hilly and furrowed terrains, previously thought to be of volcanic origin, are impact ejecta; in view of the plutonic nature of the source rocks and their extensive fusion and metamorphism, it is likely that the ejecta were derived from multiring basins. At one point, the Apollo 16 site, the Cayley Formation is composed of basin ejecta.

  16. Lunar highland melt rocks - Chemistry, petrology and silicate mineralogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    A selected suite containing several of the largest samples of lunar highland melt rocks includes impact melt specimens (anorthositic gabbro, low-K Fra Mauro) and volcanic specimens (intermediate-K Fra Mauro). Although previous assumptions of LKFM volcanism have fallen into disfavor, no fatal arguments against this hypothesis have been presented, and the evidence of a possibly 'inherited igneous' olivine-plagioclase cosaturation provides cause for keeping a volcanic LKFM hypothesis viable. Comparisons of silicate mineralogy with melt rock compositions provide information on the specimen's composition and cooling history. Plagioclase-rock compositions can be matched to the experimentally determined equilibria for appropriate samples to identify melt rocks with refractory anorthitic clasts. Olivine-rock compositions indicate that melt rock vitrophyres precipitate anomalously Fe-rich olivine; the cause of this anomaly is not immediately evident. The Al-Ti and Ca-Fe-Mg zonation in pyroxene provide information on relative cooling rates of highland melt rocks, but Cr- and Al-content (where Al-rich low-Ca pyroxene cores are preserved in rapidly cooled samples) can be correlated with composition of the host rock.

  17. Non-native species in the vascular flora of highlands and mountains of Iceland

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The highlands and mountains of Iceland are one of the largest remaining wilderness areas in Europe. This study aimed to provide comprehensive and up-to-date data on non-native plant species in these areas and to answer the following questions: (1) How many non-native vascular plant species inhabit highland and mountainous environments in Iceland? (2) Do temporal trends in the immigration of alien species to Iceland differ between highland and lowland areas? (3) Does the incidence of alien species in the disturbed and undisturbed areas within Icelandic highlands differ? (4) Does the spread of non-native species in Iceland proceed from lowlands to highlands? and (5) Can we detect hot-spots in the distribution of non-native taxa within the highlands? Overall, 16 non-native vascular plant species were detected, including 11 casuals and 5 naturalized taxa (1 invasive). Results showed that temporal trends in alien species immigration to highland and lowland areas are similar, but it is clear that the process of colonization of highland areas is still in its initial phase. Non-native plants tended to occur close to man-made infrastructure and buildings including huts, shelters, roads etc. Analysis of spatio-temporal patterns showed that the spread within highland areas is a second step in non-native plant colonization in Iceland. Several statically significant hot spots of alien plant occurrences were identified using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic and these were linked to human disturbance. This research suggests that human-mediated dispersal is the main driving force increasing the risk of invasion in Iceland’s highlands and mountain areas. PMID:26844017

  18. Non-native species in the vascular flora of highlands and mountains of Iceland.

    PubMed

    Wasowicz, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    The highlands and mountains of Iceland are one of the largest remaining wilderness areas in Europe. This study aimed to provide comprehensive and up-to-date data on non-native plant species in these areas and to answer the following questions: (1) How many non-native vascular plant species inhabit highland and mountainous environments in Iceland? (2) Do temporal trends in the immigration of alien species to Iceland differ between highland and lowland areas? (3) Does the incidence of alien species in the disturbed and undisturbed areas within Icelandic highlands differ? (4) Does the spread of non-native species in Iceland proceed from lowlands to highlands? and (5) Can we detect hot-spots in the distribution of non-native taxa within the highlands? Overall, 16 non-native vascular plant species were detected, including 11 casuals and 5 naturalized taxa (1 invasive). Results showed that temporal trends in alien species immigration to highland and lowland areas are similar, but it is clear that the process of colonization of highland areas is still in its initial phase. Non-native plants tended to occur close to man-made infrastructure and buildings including huts, shelters, roads etc. Analysis of spatio-temporal patterns showed that the spread within highland areas is a second step in non-native plant colonization in Iceland. Several statically significant hot spots of alien plant occurrences were identified using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic and these were linked to human disturbance. This research suggests that human-mediated dispersal is the main driving force increasing the risk of invasion in Iceland's highlands and mountain areas.

  19. Development drilling problems offshore Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Osman, M.N.; Maung, M.

    1984-02-01

    This paper highlights the major drilling problems encountered in the field development programmes offshore Malaysia from 1978 to mid-1983. The major problems identified were pipe sticking which was common in all the areas and top hole drilling problems encountered in a few fields offshore Sabah and Sarawak. Generally, the problems were related to drilling deviated wells through the soft and unconsolidated formations common in this region. Preventive measures employed by the Contractors have been effective in overcoming these problems in the later years of the period under consideration.

  20. Malaysia mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Parameshvara Deva, M

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be

  1. Medical Tourism in Malaysia: Prospect and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tourism, combined with the phrase medical, seems to be a new form of tourism which has gained huge popularity in recent decades. Though, a number of literatures available with regard to the tourism industry and the competitiveness of the destination, however, the major aspects which determine the satisfaction of medical tourists are hardly focused specifically on Malaysia. There is a lack of empirical evidence in this area of study which needs to be bridged. Hence, this study aimed at investigating the various factors contributing towards the development of medical tourism in Malaysia. Methods: As the purpose of the research was to find out various factors contributing towards the development of medical tourism in Malaysia, so this study used Structural Equation modeling (SEM) for data analysis. The target population for this study consisted of the medical tourists coming to Malaysia with the primary intension of seeking medical procedures other than sightseeing. A total sample size of 266 was collected through non-probability judgment sampling during the period between December 2012 and February 2013. Results: The result confirms that destination competitiveness and service quality play an important role in the medical tourist’s mind towards medical tourism aspect in Malaysia. Thus, Malaysia need to promote various medical success stories together with the services they offer to attract more foreign patients. Conclusion: This study contributes to the theoretical development in the tourism industry by offering the structured relationship among various aspects contributing towards the development of medical tourism in Malaysia. PMID:26056632

  2. Medical Tourism in Malaysia: Prospect and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Abdullah

    2013-08-01

    Tourism, combined with the phrase medical, seems to be a new form of tourism which has gained huge popularity in recent decades. Though, a number of literatures available with regard to the tourism industry and the competitiveness of the destination, however, the major aspects which determine the satisfaction of medical tourists are hardly focused specifically on Malaysia. There is a lack of empirical evidence in this area of study which needs to be bridged. Hence, this study aimed at investigating the various factors contributing towards the development of medical tourism in Malaysia. As the purpose of the research was to find out various factors contributing towards the development of medical tourism in Malaysia, so this study used Structural Equation modeling (SEM) for data analysis. The target population for this study consisted of the medical tourists coming to Malaysia with the primary intension of seeking medical procedures other than sightseeing. A total sample size of 266 was collected through non-probability judgment sampling during the period between December 2012 and February 2013. The result confirms that destination competitiveness and service quality play an important role in the medical tourist's mind towards medical tourism aspect in Malaysia. Thus, Malaysia need to promote various medical success stories together with the services they offer to attract more foreign patients. This study contributes to the theoretical development in the tourism industry by offering the structured relationship among various aspects contributing towards the development of medical tourism in Malaysia.

  3. Green commercial building insurance in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu Xin Ou; Chew, Boon Cheong; Loo, Heoy Shin; Tan, Lay Hong

    2017-03-01

    Green building construction is growing tremendously globally even in Malaysia. Currently, there are approximate 636 buildings have registered and to be certified with Green Building Index. Among these buildings, 45 buildings have already fulfilled the requirements and fully certified. The other buildings still under provisional certification stage. Malaysia had adopted Green Building Index in 2009 to support a move to promote green building concept. Malaysia starts to move towards green building because Malaysian construction and building industry realizes that both energy consumed and waste produced are reduced without irreversible impacts to ecosystems. Consequently, insurance companies such as Fireman's Fund from America has started the green building insurance policies for their green building in the year of 2006, while Malaysia still remain the coverage for green buildings using conventional property insurance. There are lacks of efforts to be seen from insurance companies to propose green building insurance for these green buildings. There are a few factors which can take into consideration for insurance companies to start the very first green building insurance in Malaysia. Although there are challenges, some efficient strategies have been identified to overcome the problems. The methods used in this research topic is qualitative research. The results obtained shows that green commercial building insurance has a huge business opportunity in Malaysia because the number of green commercial buildings are increasing tremendously in Malaysia. It is a favor to implement green building insurance in Malaysia. Furthermore, insurance companies can consider to add in extra coverage in standard building policy to provide extra protection for non-certified green buildings which have the intention to rebuilt in green when damage happens. Generally, it is very important to introduce green commercial buildings insurance into Malaysia so that all of the green commercial

  4. An ethnobotany of the Lukomir Highlanders of Bosnia & Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Ferrier, Jonathan; Saciragic, Lana; Trakić, Sabina; Chen, Eric C H; Gendron, Rachelle L; Cuerrier, Alain; Balick, Michael J; Redžić, Sulejman; Alikadić, Emira; Arnason, John T

    2015-11-25

    This aim of this study is to report upon traditional knowledge and use of wild medicinal plants by the Highlanders of Lukomir, Bjelašnica, Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). The Highlanders are an indigenous community of approximately 60 transhumant pastoralist families who speak Bosnian (Bosanski) and inhabit a highly biodiverse region of Europe. This paper adds to the growing record of traditional use of wild plants within isolated communities in the Balkans. An ethnobotanical study using consensus methodology was conducted in Lukomir in Bjelašnica's mountains and canyons. Field work involved individual semi-structured interviews during which informants described plants, natural product remedies, and preparation methods on field trips, garden tours, while shepherding, or in settings of their choice. Plant use categories were ranked with informant consensus factor and incorporated into a phylogenetic tree. Plants cited were compared to other ethnobotanical surveys of the country. Twenty five people were interviewed, resulting in identification of 58 species (including two subspecies) from 35 families, which were cited in 307 medicinal, 40 food, and seven material use reports. Individual plant uses had an average consensus of five and a maximum consensus of 15 out of 25. There were a number of rare and endangered species used as poisons or medicine that are endemic to Flora Europaea and found in Lukomir. Ten species (including subspecies) cited in our research have not previously been reported in the systematic ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plant use in B&H: (Elymus repens (L.) Gould, Euphorbia myrsinites L., Jovibarba hirta (L.) Opiz, Lilium bosniacum (Beck) Fritsch, Matricaria matricarioides (Less.) Porter ex Britton, Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.) Newman, Rubus saxatilis L., Silene uniflora Roth ssp. glareosa (Jord.) Chater & Walters, Silene uniflora Roth ssp. prostrata (Gaudin) Chater & Walters, Smyrnium perfoliatum L.). New uses not reported in any of the

  5. Are the Equatorial Highlands on Venus formed by mantle plume diapirs?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Several origins have been proposed for the Equatorial Highlands on Venus, including spreading centers and plume-related uplift. Recently, the spreading center hypothesis has been shown to be incompatible with the measured geoid and topography variations over the highlands. It is also difficult to reconcile the range of geoid anomalies over the highlands with a steady-state plum model. There is a large variation in admittance values (geoid/topography ratios) among highland regions. This variation suggests that different uplifted regions represent distinct stages in a time dependent process. It has been proposed that the Beta Regio, Thetis Regio, Ovda Regio, and Artemis Plateau Equatorial Highland Regions are formed by large mantel diapirs. According to this model, topography and geoid height decrease with increasing age of the highland, as the diapir spreads out beneath the lithosphere. In order to determine if the diapir model is compatible with the sequence of tectonic and volcanic events recorded in the surface geology of the highlands, a series of finite difference calculations were made of the ascent and partial melting of a spherical thermal diapir in an incompressible, infinite Prandtl number, isoviscous fluid.

  6. Comparison of leaf anatomy on some Nepenthes spp. (Nepenthaceae) from highland and lowland habitat in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimy, N. Q.; Nisyawati, Metusala, D.

    2017-07-01

    Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae) is one of the unique plants with pitcher to absorb nutritional needs. This dicotyledonous plant is able to live in the lowland and highland. The difference of their habitat may influence its anatomical structures, such in leaves. This study aimed to compare the anatomy of lowland and highland Nepenthes leaves. We examined Nepenthes rafflesiana and N. mirabilis from the group of lowland Nepenthes. We also examined Nepenthes aristolochioides and N. singalana from the group of highland Nepenthes. Each species was represented by three adult leaves from 1-3 individual plants. Each leaf was made transverse section by using a hand mini microtome and the paradermal section was made by leaf screaping technique. Paradermal and the transverse section were dehydrated by using graded series of alcohol. Transverse section was stained with safranin 1 % and fastgreen 1 %, while the paradermal section with safranin 1 %. Microscopic observations were performed at Bioimaging Laboratory, Universitas Indonesia, Depok using a light microscope. The results showed there are differences in the anatomy structure between these two habitats. Highland Nepenthes has thicker and larger hypodermis than lowland Nepenthes. Cuticle layer in the highland Nepenthes was thicker than the lowland Nepenthes. Nectary gland on the highland Nepenthes was thicker and larger than the lowland Nepenthes. In addition, highland Nepenthes has bigger and fewer stomata density than the lowland Nepenthes.

  7. Rebel girls? Unplanned pregnancy and colonialism in highlands Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Butt, Leslie; Munro, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    In highlands Papua, Indonesia, rapid social change under a colonial system of governance has created novel sexual opportunities for young indigenous women. Recent scholarship has viewed similar youthful sexual practices that challenge the status quo as expressions of personal agency. By looking at how young women and their families cope with unplanned pregnancies, we suggest that a more viable analytic approach would be to view sexuality, pregnancy and childbirth as a single unit of analysis. From this perspective, young women's experiences are primarily ones of constraint. Case studies offer insights into the ways a political context of colonial domination limits options and choices for young women who have children born out of wedlock. In particular, this paper describes how the 'settler gaze' - omnipresent colonial norms and judgments - creates regulatory effects in the realm of reproduction.

  8. Mars: Stratigraphy of Western Highlands and Polar Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Scott, D. H.; Tuesink, M. F.

    1985-01-01

    Geologic mapping and stratigraphic studies of Mars based on Viking images improved knowledge of the relative age and occurrence of geologic units on a global scale. Densities of geologic units or features during the Noarchian, Hesperian, and Amazonian periods are indicated for the North and South polar regions as well as the equatorial region of Mars. Cumulative counts of crater size frequencies for craters larger than 2 km in diameter on plateau units mapped in the western region of Mars counts indicate that the plateau terrain as a whole was thinly resurfaced during the Hesperian Period, and a large proportion of pre-existing craters less than 10 to 15 km in diameter was buried. The formation of northern plains, subpolar highlands, and both polar regions is also described.

  9. 2006 Toyota Highlander-5681 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Highlander hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTEDW21A860005681). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  10. Serum protein polymorphism in Papua New Guinea Eastern Highlands.

    PubMed

    Seger, J; Godelier, M; Halle, L; Lemonnier, P; Lory, J L; Rouger, P; Ruffie, J; Salmon, D; Salomon, D

    1988-01-01

    Four protein polymorphisms: haptoglobin (HP), group specific component (GC), third component of complement (C3) and transferrin (TF), were investigated in Baruya tribes and several other Anga tribes living high in the Wonenara and Marawaka valleys in Papua New Guinea Eastern Highlands. A non-Anga tribe, the Aziana or Kenaze was also sampled. TF*D variant was identified in every group except Usarumpia. A number of anhaptoglobinaemic individuals was noticed. Environmental factors causing hemolysis and haptoglobin consumption are suggested. HP*1 and GC*1 frequencies were high, as usually observed in New Guinea. The Anga tribes are protected from malaria and represent a model of human isolates. The present study confirms this situation.

  11. Red cell enzyme polymorphisms in Papua New Guinea Eastern Highlands.

    PubMed

    Seger, J; Godelier, M; Halle, L; Lemonnier, P; Lory, J L; Rouger, P; Ruffie, J; Salmon, D

    1988-01-01

    Ten red cell enzyme polymorphisms, malic dehydrogenase (MDH1), adenylate kinase (AK), phosphohexose isomerase (PHI), adenosine deaminase (ADA), esterase D (ESD), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), acid phosphatase (ACP1), phosphoglucomutase 1 and 2 (PGM1, PGM2), phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD) were investigated in the Baruya tribe and several Anga tribes living high in the Wonenara and Marawaka valleys in Papua New Guinea Eastern Highlands (6.5S, 145.5E). Also a non-Anga tribe, the Aziana or Kenaze, was sampled. Variants were observed in ADA, PGM1 and PGM2. AK and PHI were monomorphic, all subjects being AK 1 and PHI 1; MDH1 was also monomorphic in Anga while variants were observed in Aziana. This latter tribe differed markedly in each system from the Anga peoples.

  12. Blood groups in Papua New Guinea Eastern Highlands.

    PubMed

    Salmon, D; Godelier, M; Halle, L; Lemonnier, P; Lory, J L; Rouger, P; Ruffie, J; Salmon, C

    1988-01-01

    Blood group polymorphisms were analysed in inhabitants of Papua New Guinea Eastern Highlands. The aim of the study was to assess the situation of the Baruya tribe among other Anga peoples: Youwarounatche, Andje, Usarumpia, Langimar. A non-Anga tribe, the Aziana, was also sampled. ABO, RH, MNS, P, KEL, FY and JK systems were tested in each group. ABO*O gene was predominant, ABO*Aint was relatively high, ABO*B was rare in all tribes and absent in the Usarumpia tested. The Ns haplotype was the most frequent in MNS system. All tested subjects were RH*D, KEL (-) and FY (a+b-), with very few exceptions. The presence of one CcdEe and 5 FY (a+b+) subjects may be due to foreign admixture. A noteworthy genetic microdifferentiation was observed between tribes. Geographical isolation and genetic drift has played an important role in the differentiation of the various groups.

  13. Venusian highlands - Geoid to topography ratios and their implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Phillips, Roger J.

    1991-01-01

    Geoid-to-topography ratios (GTRs) are estimated for 12 Venusian highland features to allow comparison with convection calculations and with terrestrial data of oceanic hot spots, swells, and plateaus. The geoid is estimated in the wavenumber domain from the isostatic formula, using the topography and the apparent depths isostatic compensation (ADC) for each region. In the space domain, the GTR is equal to the least squares slope of the linear fit of the geoid to the topograpy. The resulting GTR range is 7-31 m/km, which is much higher than terrestrial oceanic values (-1 to 5 m/km). The features fall into two distinct groups, one with a GTR range of 7-13 m/km, and one with a range of 19-25 m/km. A model for thermal thinning of a 100-km-thick lithosphere fits all values in the lower GTR group to within one standard deviation.

  14. Women in the central highlands of Irian Jaya, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Altena, M; Voorhoeve, H W

    1996-03-01

    The weight, height and mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) were measured in 159 women of reproductive age between June and November 1991 in four remote valleys in the Eastern Central Highlands of Irian Jaya, Indonesia. The average weight was 42.3 +/- 5.2 kg and 26% weighed less than 40 kg. The average height was 141.3 +/- 9.1 cm and 30% were shorter than 140 cm. By the MUAC measurement, the nutritional status was considered to be inadequate (MUAC less than 23 cm) in 58% of the women. 8% of the women were observed to be visibly pregnant and 43% were lactating. In the same period 112 women in the Yamil valley were visited at home. They had given birth to 331 children, of whom 83 had died before the age of five years, i.e. a child mortality rate of 251 per 1000 births. Nearly half of the mortality (45%) occurred shortly after birth.

  15. 2006 Toyota Highlander-6395 Hyrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Highlander hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTEDW21A160006395). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. Cytotoxicity screening of endemic plants from Guayana highlands.

    PubMed

    Guil-Guerrero, José Luis; Campra, Pablo

    2009-08-01

    A chemical-ecology approach has been used to screen plants growing in Guyana Highlands as an indicator of production of biologically active secondary metabolites. Extracts of leaves from 19 species, most of them endemic in this area, and collected at the top of Roraima Tepui (2,723 m) were screened in vitro at different concentrations for their potential cytotoxic activity against three tumour cell lines: HT29 (colon), A549 (lung) and MDA-MB-231 (breast). MTT (tetrazolium blue) colorimetric assay was employed as cytotoxicity test. Extracts of nine species caused less than 30% growth in at least one cell line. From these species, high cytotoxic activity was detected in Casearia sylvestris var. lingua and Ledotamnus sessiliflorus extracts; medium activity was found in Cyathea sp. Two other species, Cyrilla racemiflora and Heliamphora minor showed lower but significant cytotoxicity. Further cytotoxicity-directed fractionation of these extracts would be advisable to isolate and identify the active principles of these plants.

  17. The use of magical plants by curanderos in the Ecuador highlands.

    PubMed

    Cavender, Anthony P; Albán, Manuel

    2009-01-22

    Although the use of plants for treating supernaturally caused illnesses (e.g., soul loss, evil wind, witchcraft) has been documented in the Ecuador highlands, so-called magical plants have received much less focused attention than plants used for treating naturalistic disorders. Drawing on interviews done in 2002 and 2003 with 116 curanderos residing in the Ecuador highlands, this paper examines the characteristics of plants identified as magical, how they are used, and how the study of magical plants provides insights into the mindscape of residents of the highlands.

  18. The use of magical plants by curanderos in the Ecuador highlands

    PubMed Central

    Cavender, Anthony P; Albán, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Although the use of plants for treating supernaturally caused illnesses (e.g., soul loss, evil wind, witchcraft) has been documented in the Ecuador highlands, so-called magical plants have received much less focused attention than plants used for treating naturalistic disorders. Drawing on interviews done in 2002 and 2003 with 116 curanderos residing in the Ecuador highlands, this paper examines the characteristics of plants identified as magical, how they are used, and how the study of magical plants provides insights into the mindscape of residents of the highlands. PMID:19161618

  19. Radioisotope production and its utilization in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Yusof, A.b.A.

    1985-01-01

    The PUSPATI TRIGA MARK II research reactor in Malaysia was commissioned in 1982 and production of radioisotope commenced 2 years later. However, radioisotopes have been utilized in the country since 1960 with medical applications pioneering the field, and later followed by usage in industry and agricultural research. Currently, Malaysia spends more than M$1.5 million (US$0.65 million) annually on the import of radioisotopes and associated products. This paper briefly describes the present status of radioisotope utilization in Malaysia. Radioisotopes are being used in the fields of medicine, industry (NDT and quality control, nuclear gauging, radiotracer), agriculture (animal production, food irradiation, soil-plant relationship and mutation breeding studies) and also in environmental control and basic science research. The paper also gives an account of radioisotope production in Malaysia, its facilities and target handling technique.

  20. Malaysia: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Khin, J.A. )

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that the Malaysian government announced tax incentives for fiscal year 1991/92 by cutting export duties on crude oil to encourage companies to develop more oil fields. The export duty exemption on cost recovery oil was increased from the current 20% to 50% on April 1, 1991. Nearly 115,200 sq mi of shallow-water acreage off Malaysia has been awarded to PS contractors, leaving only about five blocks remaining. Therefore, Petronas plans to award deeper water blocks (water depths of 655 ft or more) in the second half of this year, once terms are finalized. It is understood that these areas will be offshore of Sarawak and Sabah, covering in excess of 38,000 sq mi. Petronas the that there would be some improvement in the PSC terms for the deep-water areas.

  1. Federation of Malaysia. Country profile.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, L

    1985-01-01

    The 1984 population of Malaysia has been estimated at 14.7 million and the population growth rate averaged 2.3% in 1970-80. Population growth is officially encouraged to form a substantial home market for economic development. Toward this end, the 1985 budget has increased tax deductions for families with 5 children. The capital city of Kuala Lumpur is the largest metropolitan area (1 million population) and the Federal Territory is the most densely populated region. Immigration is strictly controlled by the government, and the percentage of foreign-born citizens was 5% in 1980. China, India, and Pakistan are decreasing in importance as countries of origin. Internal mobility, however, is increasing. Rural-rural migration accounted for 45% of internal migration in 1970-80 and was largely motivated by family reasons. Only 7% of Malaysians are estimated to move in search of work. Racial tensions led the government to grant special economic privileges to native-born Islamic Malays. The greatest proportion of the population is centered in the lowest age groups. The percentage of females 15-29 years of age rose from 26% in 1970 to 30% in 1980 and is expected to continue to rise. Fertility is on the decline. The majority of households in the country involve nuclear families. There has been an increase in the number of men and women who delay marriage or remain single. Education is widely available for children aged 6-15 years and those who meet certain academic standards receive free education up to age 19 years. The current labor force is estimated at 5.4 million, with an annual growth rate of 3.1%. Malaysia's per capita income (US $1860 in 1982) is among the highest in Southeast Asia and the gross national product increased by an average annual rate of 8% in 1970-81. The government plans to move toward the development of heavier industries and more manufacturing concerns.

  2. Geolgical Structure Mapping of the Bentong-Raub Suture Zone, Peninsular Malaysia Using Palsar Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiranvand Pour, A.; Hashim, M.

    2015-10-01

    The Bentong-Raub Suture Zone (BRSZ) of peninsular Malaysia was selected as case study to evaluate the capability of the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) satellite remote sensing data for structural geology mapping in tropical environments. The structural elements in the BRSZ were enhanced using multi-polarization configuration of PALSAR data at a regional scale. Adaptive local sigma and directional filters were applied to PALSAR data for detailed structural mapping. Numerous tectonic lineaments with consistent variation in trend, length and density were detected in the study area. Structural analysis of the BRSZ reveals that two distinct parts can be defined, a western part affected mainly by ductile fabrics in the Cameron Highlands and an eastern part affected mainly by brittle deformation in the BRSZ. Ductile deformation indicates several generation of folding in the Cameron Highlands. Several faults, joints and fractures represent brittle deformation events in the BRSZ. The results of this study demonstrate the usefulness of PALSAR satellite remote sensing data for mapping geological structures in tropical environments.

  3. Composition of the Lunar Highland Crust and Mantle and Its Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtake, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Uemoto, K.

    2016-05-01

    Recent remote sensing data suggest that extremely pure anorthosite (PAN) layer is a main component of the lunar highland crust and presence of crustal material with higher Mg# on the farside than the nearside.

  4. IDENTIFICATION AND LOCATION OF FUNDAMENTAL FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To predict fish community response to environmental restoration in the Highlands Region one must first have information on fish abundance and diversity. We used data collected by the US Environmental Protection Agency's EMAP (Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program) to i...

  5. INTERACTIVE HABITAT SUITABILITY MODELS FOR STREAM FISHES IN THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Models that predict the presence of stream fish species based on habitat characteristics can be useful in watershed management. We developed such models for each of fourteen Mid-Atlantic Highlands stream fish species/groups.

  6. Classification and evaluation for forest sites on the Western Highland Rim and Pennyroyal

    Treesearch

    Glendon W. Smalley

    1980-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive forest site classification system for the Western Highland Rim and Western Pennyroyal-Limestone area in northwest Alabama, west-central Tennessee, and western Kentucky. The system is based on physiography, geology, soils, topography, and vegetation.

  7. Classification and evaluation for forest sites on the Eastern Highland Rim and Pennyroyal.

    Treesearch

    Glendon W. Smalley

    1983-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive forest site classification system for the Eastern Highland Rim and Pennyroyal in north Alabama, east-central Tennessee, and central Kentucky. The system is based on physiography, geology, soils, topography, and vegetation.

  8. Properties of Martian Highlands Drainage from THEMIS Images and MOLA Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Carriere, M.; Molloy, I.

    2006-03-01

    Valley networks are mapped from 100 m/pixel THEMIS mosaics for eight sites in Martian highlands. Drainage basins are delineated and terrain parameters are calculated for each basin. This higher resolution mapping does not reveal smaller scale valleys.

  9. IDENTIFICATION AND LOCATION OF FUNDAMENTAL FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To predict fish community response to environmental restoration in the Highlands Region one must first have information on fish abundance and diversity. We used data collected by the US Environmental Protection Agency's EMAP (Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program) to i...

  10. Connecticut Highlands Technical Report - Documentation of the Regional Rainfall-Runoff Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahearn, Elizabeth A.; Bjerklie, David M.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides the supporting data and describes the data sources, methodologies, and assumptions used in the assessment of existing and potential water resources of the Highlands of Connecticut and Pennsylvania (referred to herein as the “Highlands”). Included in this report are Highlands groundwater and surface-water use data and the methods of data compilation. Annual mean streamflow and annual mean base-flow estimates from selected U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gaging stations were computed using data for the period of record through water year 2005. The methods of watershed modeling are discussed and regional and sub-regional water budgets are provided. Information on Highlands surface-water-quality trends is presented. USGS web sites are provided as sources for additional information on groundwater levels, streamflow records, and ground- and surface-water-quality data. Interpretation of these data and the findings are summarized in the Highlands study report.

  11. The nature of rays and sources of highland material in Mare Crisium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, T. A.; El-Baz, F.

    1978-01-01

    Although highland fragments are rare in the Luna 24 core, they should provide an important source of information on the sequence of formation and lithology of lunar east-limb basins. The numerous rays that cross the Crisium basin suggest several sources of highland materials. Both deposition of primary ejecta and reworking of local material were most likely responsible for the formation of ray systems in Mare Crisium. In addition to the fact that Luna 24 landed near the uprange end of a Giordano Bruno ray, incomplete sampling of the uppermost layer and formation of the ray by reworking of in situ regolith suggest that its materials may be scarce or not present in the core. Highland fragments present are most likely to be representative of several highland sources.

  12. Using lunar sounder imagery to distinguish surface from subsurface reflectors in lunar highlands areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Bonnie L.; Carter, James L.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a method using the Apollo 17 Lunar Sounder imagery data which appears capable of filtering out off-nadir surface noise from highland area profiles, so that subsurface features may now be detected in highland areas as well as mare areas. Previously, this had been impossible because the rough topography in the highland areas created noise in the profiles which could not be distinguished from subsurface echoes. The new method is an image processing procedure involving the computerized selection of pixels which represent intermediate echo intensity values, then manually removing those pixels from the profile. Using this technique, a subsurface feature with a horizontal extent of about 150 km, at a calculated depth of approximately 3 km, has been detected beneath the crater Riccioli in the highlands near Oceanus Procellarum. This result shows that the ALSE data contain much useful information that remains to be extracted and used.

  13. Emergence or improved detection of Japanese encephalitis virus in the Himalayan highlands?

    PubMed Central

    Baylis, Matthew; Barker, Christopher M.; Caminade, Cyril; Joshi, Bhoj R.; Pant, Ganesh R.; Rayamajhi, Ajit; Reisen, William K.; Impoinvil, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in the Himalayan highlands is of significant veterinary and public health concern and may be related to climate warming and anthropogenic landscape change, or simply improved surveillance. To investigate this phenomenon, a One Health approach focusing on the phylogeography of JEV, the distribution and abundance of the mosquito vectors, and seroprevalence in humans and animal reservoirs would be useful to understand the epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in highland areas. PMID:26956778

  14. Determinants of child malnutrition in rural and urban Ecuadorian highlands.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Johana; Van Camp, John; Wijaya, Sylviana; Donoso, Silvana; Huybregts, Lieven

    2014-09-01

    To identify and compare the sociodemographic determinants of stunting, wasting and overweight among infants of urban and rural areas in the Ecuadorian highlands. Cross-sectional study. Nabon (rural) and Cuenca (urban) cantons, Azuay Province, Ecuador. A total of 703 children aged 0-24 months and their caregivers (227 rural and 476 urban) recruited during the period from June to September 2008. Stunting prevalence was significantly higher in the rural area (37·4 % v. 17·7 %; P < 0·001) while wasting (7·1 %) and overweight (17·1 %) prevalence were more similar between areas. Determinants of stunting for the pooled sample were male gender (OR = 1·43; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·92; P = 0·02), preterm delivery (OR = 1·65; 95 % CI 1·14, 2·38; P = 0·008), child's age (OR = 1·04; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·07; P = 0·011), maternal education (OR = 0·95; 95 % CI 0·92, 0·99; P = 0·025) and facility-based delivery (OR = 0·57; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·74; P < 0·001). The latter was also a determinant of overweight (OR = 0·39; 95 % CI 0·25, 0·62; P < 0·001). Rural determinants of stunting were maternal height (OR = 0·004; 95 % CI 0·00004, 0·39; P = 0·018), diarrhoea prevalence (OR = 2·18; 95 % CI 1·13, 4·21; P = 0·02), socio-economic status (OR = 0·79; 95 % CI 0·64, 0·98; P = 0·030) and child's age (OR = 1·07; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·11; P = 0·005). Urban determinants were: maternal BMI for stunting (OR = 0·91; 95 % CI 0·84, 0·99; P = 0·027), cough prevalence (OR = 0·57; 95 % CI 0·34, 0·96; P = 0·036) and facility-based delivery (OR = 0·25; 95 % CI 0·09, 0·73; P = 0·011) for overweight, and hygiene for wasting (OR = 0·57; 95 % CI 0·36, 0·89; P = 0·013). Infant malnutrition was associated with different sociodemographic determinants between urban and rural areas in the Ecuadorian highlands, a finding which contributes to prioritize the determinants to be assessed in nutritional interventions.

  15. Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program: Malaysia 1995. Participants' Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaysian-American Commission on Educational Exchange, Kuala Lumpur.

    These reports and lesson plans were developed by teachers and coordinators who traveled to Malaysia during the summer of 1995 as part of the U.S. Department of Education's Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program. Sections of the report include: (1) "Gender and Economics: Malaysia" (Mary C. Furlong); (2) "Malaysia: An Integrated,…

  16. Bangsa Malaysia and Recent Malaysian English Language Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge, Brian

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses Malaysia's English language policies, especially since the mid 1990s, in the light of more recent claims for a united Malaysian nation (under the banner of "bangsa Malaysia") and in the context of English language and its potential for Malaysia to forge more of an externalised identity. It examines the impact of…

  17. Regional air pollution over Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO

  18. Report on von Willebrand Disease in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Periayah, Mercy Halleluyah; Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Saad, Arman Zaharil Mat; Yaacob, Nik Soriani; Karim, Faraizah Abdul

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Von Willebrand disease (vWD) is an inherited hemostatic disorder that affects the hemostasis pathway. The worldwide prevalence of vWD is estimated to be 1% of the general population but only 0.002% in Malaysia. AIM: Our present paper has been written to disclose the statistical counts on the number of vWD cases reported from 2011 to 2013. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This article is based on sociodemographic data, diagnoses and laboratory findings of vWD in Malaysia. A total of 92 patients were reported to have vWD in Malaysia from 2011 to 2013. RESULTS: Sociodemographic-analysis revealed that 60% were females, 63% were of the Malay ethnicity, 41.3% were in the 19-44 year old age group and 15.2% were from Sabah, with the East region having the highest registered number of vWD cases. In Malaysia, most patients are predominately affected by vWD type 1 (77.2%). Factor 8, von Willebrand factor: Antigen and vWF: Collagen-Binding was the strongest determinants in the laboratory profiles of vWD. CONCLUSION: This report has been done with great interest to provide an immense contribution from Malaysia, by revealing the statistical counts on vWD from 2011-2013. PMID:27275342

  19. Pristine highland clasts in consortium breccia 14305 Petrology and geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Shervais, J.W.; Taylor, L.A.

    1984-11-15

    Data are presented on the petrography and mineral chemistry of six pristine highland clasts chipped from the polymict lunar breccia 14305. Major and trace elements in the clasts were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, and mineral analyses were performed by electron microprobe. Mg-suite clasts have eastern geochemical affinities, reaffirming the importance of local variations in geochemistry. These local variations are superimposed on the moon-wide, longitudinal variations noted by Warren and Wasson (1980). Alkali anorthosites and Mg-suite troctolites and anorthosites are not comagmatic, and cannot be related to a single parent magma by either fractional crystallization or variable assimilation of KREEP. Both magma suites may have assimilated varied amounts of KREEP into distinct parent magmas. Alternatively, alkali anorthosites may have crystallized directly from a KREEP-basalt parent magma. A thick crust of ferroan anorthosite probably never existed on the western lunar nearside, or was removed by basin-forming impacts prior to intrusion of later plutonic suites.

  20. Nomadic ecology shaped the highland geography of Asia's Silk Roads.

    PubMed

    Frachetti, Michael D; Smith, C Evan; Traub, Cynthia M; Williams, Tim

    2017-03-08

    There are many unanswered questions about the evolution of the ancient 'Silk Roads' across Asia. This is especially the case in their mountainous stretches, where harsh terrain is seen as an impediment to travel. Considering the ecology and mobility of inner Asian mountain pastoralists, we use 'flow accumulation' modelling to calculate the annual routes of nomadic societies (from 750 m to 4,000 m elevation). Aggregating 500 iterations of the model reveals a high-resolution flow network that simulates how centuries of seasonal nomadic herding could shape discrete routes of connectivity across the mountains of Asia. We then compare the locations of known high-elevation Silk Road sites with the geography of these optimized herding flows, and find a significant correspondence in mountainous regions. Thus, we argue that highland Silk Road networks (from 750 m to 4,000 m) emerged slowly in relation to long-established mobility patterns of nomadic herders in the mountains of inner Asia.

  1. Watershed morphology of highland and mountain ecoregions in eastern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Splinter, D.K.; Dauwalter, D.C.; Marston, R.A.; Fisher, W.L.

    2011-01-01

    The fluvial system represents a nested hierarchy that reflects the relationship among different spatial and temporal scales. Within the hierarchy, larger scale variables influence the characteristics of the next lower nested scale. Ecoregions represent one of the largest scales in the fluvial hierarchy and are defined by recurring patterns of geology, climate, land use, soils, and potential natural vegetation. Watersheds, the next largest scale, are often nested into a single ecoregion and therefore have properties that are indicative of a given ecoregion. Differences in watershed morphology (relief, drainage density, circularity ratio, relief ratio, and ruggedness number) were evaluated among three ecoregions in eastern Oklahoma: Ozark Highlands, Boston Mountains, and Ouachita Mountains. These ecoregions were selected because of their high-quality stream resources and diverse aquatic communities and are of special management interest to the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation. One hundred thirty-four watersheds in first-through fourth-order streams were compared. Using a nonparametric, two-factor analysis of variance (?? = 0.05) we concluded that the relief, drainage density, relief ratio, and ruggedness number all changed among ecoregion and stream order, whereas circularity ratio only changed with stream order. Our study shows that ecoregions can be used as a broad-scale framework for watershed management. ?? 2011 by Association of American Geographers.

  2. Rural Income and Forest Reliance in Highland Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado Córdova, José Pablo; Wunder, Sven; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Börner, Jan

    2013-05-01

    This paper estimates rural household-level forest reliance in the western highlands of Guatemala using quantitative methods. Data were generated by the way of an in-depth household income survey, repeated quarterly between November 2005 and November 2006, in 11 villages ( n = 149 randomly selected households). The main sources of income proved to be small-scale agriculture (53 % of total household income), wages (19 %) and environmental resources (14 %). The latter came primarily from forests (11 % on average). In the poorest quintile the forest income share was as high as 28 %. All households harvest and consume environmental products. In absolute terms, environmental income in the top quintile was 24 times higher than in the lowest. Timber and poles, seeds, firewood and leaf litter were the most important forest products. Households can be described as `regular subsistence users': the share of subsistence income is high, with correspondingly weak integration into regional markets. Agricultural systems furthermore use important inputs from surrounding forests, although forests and agricultural uses compete in household specialization strategies. We find the main household determinants of forest income to be household size, education and asset values, as well as closeness to markets and agricultural productivity. Understanding these common but spatially differentiated patterns of environmental reliance may inform policies aimed at improving livelihoods and conserving forests.

  3. Rural income and forest reliance in highland Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Prado Córdova, José Pablo; Wunder, Sven; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Börner, Jan

    2013-05-01

    This paper estimates rural household-level forest reliance in the western highlands of Guatemala using quantitative methods. Data were generated by the way of an in-depth household income survey, repeated quarterly between November 2005 and November 2006, in 11 villages (n = 149 randomly selected households). The main sources of income proved to be small-scale agriculture (53 % of total household income), wages (19 %) and environmental resources (14 %). The latter came primarily from forests (11 % on average). In the poorest quintile the forest income share was as high as 28 %. All households harvest and consume environmental products. In absolute terms, environmental income in the top quintile was 24 times higher than in the lowest. Timber and poles, seeds, firewood and leaf litter were the most important forest products. Households can be described as 'regular subsistence users': the share of subsistence income is high, with correspondingly weak integration into regional markets. Agricultural systems furthermore use important inputs from surrounding forests, although forests and agricultural uses compete in household specialization strategies. We find the main household determinants of forest income to be household size, education and asset values, as well as closeness to markets and agricultural productivity. Understanding these common but spatially differentiated patterns of environmental reliance may inform policies aimed at improving livelihoods and conserving forests.

  4. Local biologies and HIV/AIDS in highlands Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Butt, Leslie

    2013-03-01

    The province of Papua, Indonesia has one of the fastest growing rates of HIV infection in Asia. Within volatile political conditions, HIV has reached generalized epidemic status for indigenous Papuans. This article explores the merits of using the concept of local biologies as an analytic tool to assess the range of factors which affect a local pattern of untreated HIV and rapid onset of AIDS. A research team conducted 32 in-depth interviews with HIV-positive indigenous persons and 15 interviews with health care workers in urban and peri-urban sites in the central highlands region. The results show fear of gossip and stigmatization, regional political conditions and gaps in care interweave to create local biological conditions of evasion of care and rapid onset of AIDS. The normative emphasis in contemporary scholarship on stigma as shaping subjective responses to HIV needs to be complemented by a full assessment of the physiological impact of health services, and the ways political conditions trickle down and mediate local biological patterns. The concept of local biologies is highly effective for explaining the full scope of possible factors affecting the intersection of social and physical realms for HIV-positive persons.

  5. Nail haemorrhages in native highlanders of the Peruvian Andes

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Donald; Harris, Peter; Williams, David; Krüger, Hever

    1981-01-01

    Nail haemorrhages are of interest to the chest physician and cardiologist. While the common type in the distal part of the nail is produced by the minor trauma of daily life, the rarer form—scattered through the nail substance—appears to be related to hypoxaemia brought about by heart and lung disease. We thought it would be of interest to study a population which was naturally hypoxaemic because of living at high altitude. Accordingly we have studied the frequency and types of nail haemorrhage in Quechua Indians who are permanently exposed to the hypobaric hypoxia of the Andes. We found the haemorrhages to be common both in mestizos living on the coastal plain and in the native highlanders. They appeared to increase in frequency with altitude but were of the distal type and would thus seem to be the result of minor trauma as at sea level. However, just as in cases of cyanotic congenital heart disease at low altitude, those with exaggerated hypoxaemia and pronounced elevation of haematocrit—namely, subjects with Monge's disease (chronic mountain sickness)—had scattered haemorrhages in the nail substance. Images

  6. Pristine highland clasts in consortium breccia 14305 Petrology and geochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shervais, J. W.; Taylor, L. A.; Laul, J. C.; Smith, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Data are presented on the petrography and mineral chemistry of six pristine highland clasts chipped from the polymict lunar breccia 14305. Major and trace elements in the clasts were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, and mineral analyses were performed by electron microprobe. Mg-suite clasts have 'eastern' geochemical affinities, reaffirming the importance of local variations in geochemistry. These local variations are superimposed on the moon-wide, longitudinal variations noted by Warren and Wasson (1980). Alkali anorthosites and Mg-suite troctolites and anorthosites are not comagmatic, and cannot be related to a single parent magma by either fractional crystallization or variable assimilation of KREEP. Both magma suites may have assimilated varied amounts of KREEP into distinct parent magmas. Alternatively, alkali anorthosites may have crystallized directly from a KREEP-basalt parent magma. A thick crust of ferroan anorthosite probably never existed on the western lunar nearside, or was removed by basin-forming impacts prior to intrusion of later plutonic suites.

  7. New Elemental Maps of the Nearside Lunar Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, J. A.; Grande, M.; Bisi, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    A set of elemental maps obtained by the Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS) and covering the Southern Nearside Lunar Highland region will be presented. This region broadly covers the area below 10 S latitude and between -10 to +30 E longitude. It has never been the subject of a sample return mission; the nearest ground truth measurements are Apollo 16 at 8.56 S, 15.3 E and Surveyor 7 at 41 S, -11 E - this is mainly due to the uneven, mountainous terrain which makes spacecraft landings hazardous. The region has very high relief, with large slopes and rough surface features - these characteristics complicate the analysis of X-ray fluorescence analysis. Chandrayaan-1 flew at a time coinciding with a predicted increase in solar activity. For an X-ray fluorescence instrument, which relies on incident solar X-rays to illuminate the surface, this increase in activity would be enough to guarantee ~100% surface coverage in Mg, Al and Si, and significant areas in Fe, Ti, and Ca. However, the solar cycle was delayed, and instead C1XS launched into the quietest solar conditions seen in 100 years. Regardless, the excellent stability and low noise level of the instrument meant that small flares (A and B class) were able to generate statistically significant findings. The elements mapped will include Magnesium, Silicon and Aluminium, as well as relevant elemental ratios. These will be compared to other datasets including Lunar Prospector, Clementine and M3 mineral maps.

  8. Figurines, flint clay sourcing, the Ozark Highlands, and Cahokian acquisition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, T.E.; Hughes, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    At the pinnacle of Eastern Woodlands' prehistoric cultural development, Cahokia has been interpreted as a political and economic power participating in prestige-goods exchanges and trade networks stretching from the Great Plains to the South Atlantic. Among the more spectacular of the Cahokian elite artifacts were stone pipes and figurines made from a distinctive red stone previously identified as Arkansas bauxite. In this research, we used a combination of X-ray diffraction, sequential acid dissolution, and inductively coupled plasma analyses to establish the source of the raw material used in the manufacture of the red figurines and pipes that epitomize the Cahokian-style. Our research demonstrates that these objects were made of locally available flint clays. This finding, in conjunction with other evidence, indicate Cahokian exploitation of many mineral and stone resources focuses on the northern Ozark Highlands to the exclusion of other areas. These findings indicate that we must reassess the direction, extent, and role of Cahokian external contacts and trade in elite goods. Copyright ?? 2000 by the Society for American Archaeology.

  9. Seroincidence of porcine T. solium infection in the Peruvian highlands.

    PubMed

    Garcia, H H; Gonzalez, A E; Gavidia, C; Falcon, N; Bernal, T; Verastegui, M; Rodriguez, S; Tsang, V C W; Gilman, R H

    2003-04-15

    We performed repeated serological sampling of pigs in an endemic area of the Peruvian highlands (eight villages) to assess the feasibility of detecting incident cases of Taenia solium infection as indicators of ongoing transmission of the parasite. A total of 2245 samples corresponding to 1548 pigs were collected in three sampling rounds (n=716, 926, and 603, respectively). Village-period specific seroprevalences of antibodies by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay varied from 39% (95% CI: 34, 44) to 76% (95% CI: 72, 79). The prevalence of cysticercosis increased with the age of the pigs (similarly for both sexes). Around 40% of pigs were re-sampled at the end of each 4-month period. Crude incidence risks were 48% (57/120, 95% CI: 43-52) and 58% (111/192, 95% CI: 54-61) for each period. A proportion of seropositive animals became seronegative at the end of each period (23 and 15%). Incidence varied by the village, and the exposure period, and was higher in males than females (but did not differ by age).

  10. Characterization and simulation of the quantity and quality of water in the Highland Lakes, Texas, 1983-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, Timothy H.; Rast, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Results from the simulations indicate that saline inflows to the Highland Lakes similar to those of the releases from Natural Dam Salt Lake during 1987–89 are unlikely to cause large increases in future concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate in the Highland Lakes. The results also indicate that high-salinity water will continue to be diluted as it is transported downstream through the Highland Lakes, even during extended dry periods.

  11. Antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mahdy, Zaleha Abdullah; Basri, Hashimah; Md Isa, Zaleha; Ahmad, Shuhaila; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Mohd Amin, Rahmah

    2014-04-01

    To determine the adequacy of antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia, and the influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among postnatal women who delivered in two tertiary hospitals. Data were collected from antenatal cards, hospital documents and diet recall on daily milk and calcium intake during pregnancy. SPSS version 19.0 was used for statistical analyses. A total of 150 women were studied. The total daily calcium intake was 834 ± 43 mg (mean ± standard error of the mean), but the calcium intake distribution curve was skewed to the right with a median intake of 725 mg daily. When calcium intake from milk and calcium supplements was excluded, the daily dietary calcium intake was only 478 ± 25 mg. Even with inclusion of milk and calcium supplements, more than a third (n=55 or 36.7%) of the women consumed less than 600 mg calcium in their daily diet. The adequacy of daily calcium intake was not influenced by maternal age, ethnicity, income or maternal job or educational status as well as parity. The daily dietary calcium intake of the Malaysian antenatal population is far from adequate without the addition of calcium supplements and milk. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Epidemiology of cryptococcosis in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tay, S T; Rohani, M Y; Hoo, T S Soo; Hamimah, H

    2010-11-01

    This study describes the isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii from patients with chronic meningitis who were admitted to 16 Malaysian hospitals, from 2003 to 2004. Of the 96 cryptococcal cases reported over the 2-year period, 74 (77.1%) patients were male and 45 (46.9%) patients were between 30 and 39 years old. Cryptococcosis was uncommon in children. A total of 57 (59.4%) and 23 (24.0%) patients were Malay and Chinese respectively. Human immunodeficiency virus infection was the major underlying disease reported in 36 (37.5%) patients. C. neoformans var. grubii (serotype A and molecular type VNI) was the predominant Cryptococcus species isolated from 88.5% of cryptococcal cases in this country. Cryptococcal cases due to C. neoformans var. grubii were reported from all the five regions in Malaysia, with the most number of cases reported from the central and northern regions. Cryptococcus gattii (all were serotype B and molecular types VGI/II) was isolated from all regions except the southern region. Compared with a study conducted prior to the AIDS era, our findings show substantial changes in the demographical characteristics of patients. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. National Suicide Registry Malaysia (NSRM).

    PubMed

    Hayati, A N; Kamarul, A K

    2008-09-01

    To create a nationwide system to capture data on completed suicide in Malaysia i.e. the morbidity, geographic and temporal trends and the population at high risk of suicide. Data from this registry can later be used to stimulate and facilitate further research on suicide. This paper describes the rationale and processes involved in developing a national suicide registry in 2007. The diagnosis of suicide is based on the ICD-10 codes for fatal intentional self-harm (X60-X84). A case report form with an accompanying instruction manual had been prepared to ensure systematic and uniform data collection. State Forensic Pathologist's offices are responsible for data collection in their respective states, and in turn will submit the data to a central data management unit. Data collection began in July 2007 and currently in data cleaning process. Training for source data producers is ongoing. In 2008, the NSRM plans to involve university hospitals into its network as currently only Ministry of Health hospitals are involved. The NSRM will be launching its online application for case registration this year while an overview of results will be available via its public domain at www.nsrm.gov.my beginning 20 April 2008. To efficiently capture the data on suicide, a concerted effort between various agencies is needed. A lot of conceptual work and data base development remains to be done in order to position preventive efforts on a more solid foundation.

  14. Overview of cancer in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Gerard Chin Chye

    2002-03-01

    The problem of cancer in Malaysia is a growing one. It is now the fourth leading cause of death among medically certified deaths. Cancer of the lung is the most common killer among malignancies. It is estimated that the annual incidence of cancer is 30 000. The majority of patients are found at a late stage of the disease. The National Cancer Control Program aims to reduce the incidence and mortality of cancer and to improve the quality of life of cancer patients. Policies encompass prevention, early diagnosis, treatment, palliative care and rehabilitation. The program for prevention includes an anti-smoking campaign and immunization of babies against hepatitis B. Papanicolaou's smear and breast self-examination are among efforts for the early detection of cancer. Public education and the promotion of healthy lifestyles have been actively carried out. Facilities for treatment and palliative care are being developed further. Networks between the public and private sectors and non-governmental organizations have been on-going. Apart from the establishment and upgrading of treatment facilities, the need for training of skilled staff in the treatment of cancer is highlighted.

  15. [Capabilities of the application of the perspective technique during the medical supply of the outfits in highlands].

    PubMed

    Belevitin, A B; Shelepov, A M; Soldatov, E A; Shurupov, D A

    2010-07-01

    During the organization of the medical evacuation of the outfits in highlands it is necessary to consider that the workability of the stretchermen in highland goes down to 50% and more; equipment of the aid man must corresponds to the conditions of the highlands (immobilize vacuum mattress--IVMv-01, collapsible immobilize pinion stretchers--IPS-01); application of the wheel-type machines and helicopters is difficult and dangerously. Application of the modern techniques of informational support, unmanned drones and others modern techniques requires the output of new organization principles of the system of the medical evacuation in highlands.

  16. EPAS1 variants in high altitude Tibetan wolves were selectively introgressed into highland dogs.

    PubMed

    vonHoldt, Bridgett; Fan, Zhenxin; Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Wayne, Robert K

    2017-01-01

    Admixture can facilitate adaptation. For example, black wolves have obtained the variant causing black coat color through past hybridization with domestic dogs and have higher fitness than gray colored wolves. Another recent example of the transfer of adaptive variation between the two species has been suggested by the similarity between high altitude Tibetan mastiffs and wolves at the EPAS1 gene, a transcription factor induced in low oxygen environments. Here, we investigate the directionality of admixture in EPAS1 between 28 reference highland gray wolves, 15 reference domestic dogs, and 21 putatively admixed highland wolves. This experimental design represents an expanded sample of Asian dogs and wolves from previous studies. Admixture was inferred using 17,709 publicly available SNP genotypes on canine chromosome 10. We additionally conducted a scan for positive selection in the highland dog genome. We find an excess of highland gray wolf ancestry at the EPAS1 locus in highland domestic dogs, suggesting adaptive introgression from wolves to dogs. The signal of admixture is limited in genomic extent to a small region on chromosome 10, indicating that it is the focus of selection in an oxygen-limited environment. Our results suggest that an adaptive variant of EPAS1 in highland wolves was transferred to highland dogs, carrying linked variants that potentially function in hypoxia response at high elevation. The intertwined history of dogs and wolves ensures a unique evolutionary dynamic where variants that have appeared in the history of either species can be tested for their effects on fitness under natural and artificial selection. Such coupled evolutionary histories may be key to the persistence of wild canines and their domesticated kin given the increasing anthropogenic modifications that characterize the future of both species.

  17. MtDNA analysis reveals enriched pathogenic mutations in Tibetan highlanders

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Longli; Zheng, Hong-Xiang; Zhang, Menghan; Yan, Shi; Li, Lei; Liu, Lijun; Liu, Kai; Hu, Kang; Chen, Feng; Ma, Lifeng; Qin, Zhendong; Wang, Yi; Wang, Xiaofeng; Jin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Tibetan highlanders, including Tibetans, Monpas, Lhobas, Dengs and Sherpas, are considered highly adaptive to severe hypoxic environments. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) might be important in hypoxia adaptation given its role in coding core subunits of oxidative phosphorylation. In this study, we employed 549 complete highlander mtDNA sequences (including 432 random samples) to obtain a comprehensive view of highlander mtDNA profile. In the phylogeny of a total of 36,914 sequences, we identified 21 major haplogroups representing founding events of highlanders, most of which were coalesced in 10 kya. Through founder analysis, we proposed a three-phase model of colonizing the plateau, i.e., pre-LGM Time (30 kya, 4.68%), post-LGM Paleolithic Time (16.8 kya, 29.31%) and Neolithic Time (after 8 kya, 66.01% in total). We observed that pathogenic mutations occurred far more frequently in 22 highlander-specific lineages (five lineages carrying two pathogenic mutations and six carrying one) than in the 6,857 haplogroups of all the 36,914 sequences (P = 4.87 × 10−8). Furthermore, the number of possible pathogenic mutations carried by highlanders (in average 3.18 ± 1.27) were significantly higher than that in controls (2.82 ± 1.40) (P = 1.89 × 10−4). Considering that function-altering and pathogenic mutations are enriched in highlanders, we therefore hypothesize that they may have played a role in hypoxia adaptation. PMID:27498855

  18. Formation of Australian continental margin highlands driven by plate-mantle interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, R. Dietmar; Flament, Nicolas; Matthews, Kara J.; Williams, Simon E.; Gurnis, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Passive margin highlands occur on most continents on Earth and play a critical role in the cycle of weathering, erosion, and atmospheric circulation. Yet, in contrast to the well-developed understanding of collisional mountain belts, such as the Alps and Himalayas, the origin of less elevated (1-2 km) passive margin highlands is still unknown. The eastern Australian highlands are a prime example of these plateaus, but compared to others they have a well-documented episodic uplift history spanning 120 million years. We use a series of mantle convection models to show that the time-dependent interaction of plate motion with mantle downwellings and upwellings accounts for the broad pattern of margin uplift phases. Initial dynamic uplift of 400-600 m from 120-80 Ma was driven by the eastward motion of eastern Australia's margin away from the sinking eastern Gondwana slab, followed by tectonic quiescence to about 60 Ma in the south (Snowy Mountains). Renewed uplift of ∼700 m in the Snowy Mountains is propelled by the gradual motion of the margin over the edge of the large Pacific mantle upwelling. In contrast the northernmost portion of the highlands records continuous uplift from 120 Ma to present-day totalling about 800 m. The northern highlands experienced a continuous history of dynamic uplift, first due to the end of subduction to the east of Australia, then due to moving over a large passive mantle upwelling. In contrast, the southern highlands started interacting with the edge of the large Pacific mantle upwelling ∼ 40- 50 million years later, resulting in a two-phase uplift history. Our results are in agreement with published uplift models derived from river profiles and the Cretaceous sediment influx into the Ceduna sub-basin offshore southeast Australia, reflecting the fundamental link between dynamic uplift, fluvial erosion and depositional pulses in basins distal to passive margin highlands.

  19. Modeling of gold production in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muda, Nora; Ainuddeen, Nasihah Rasyiqah; Ismail, Hamizun; Umor, Mohd Rozi

    2013-04-01

    This study was conducted to identify the main factors that contribute to the gold production and hence determine the factors that affect to the development of the mining industry in Malaysia. An econometric approach was used by performing the cointegration analysis among the factors to determine the existence of long term relationship between the gold prices, the number of gold mines, the number of workers in gold mines and the gold production. The study continued with the Granger analysis to determine the relationship between factors and gold production. Results have found that there are long term relationship between price, gold production and number of employees. Granger causality analysis shows that there is only one way relationship between the number of employees with gold production in Malaysia and the number of gold mines in Malaysia.

  20. Radiation exposure during travelling in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Omar, M; Hassan, A; Sulaiman, I

    2006-01-01

    Absorbed dose rates in vehicles during travelling by different modes of transport in Malaysia were measured. Radiation levels measured on roads in Peninsular Malaysia were within a broad range, i.e. between 36 and 1560 nGy h(-1). The highest reading, recorded while travelling near monazite and zircon mineral dumps, was 13 times the mean environmental radiation level of Malaysia. It is evident that radioactive material dumps on the roadsides can influence the radiation level on the road. The absorbed dose rates measured while travelling on an ordinary train were between 60 and 350 nGy h(-1). The highest reading was measured when the train passed a tunnel built through a granite rock hill. The measurement during sea travelling by ferries gave the lowest radiation level owing to merely cosmic radiation at the sea level.

  1. Exploring factors influencing smoking behaviour in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Naidu, Balkish Mahadir

    2012-01-01

    The objective of present study is to investigate the determinants of smoking behaviour among adults in Malaysia. Findings of the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-3) by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, were used. The sample consisted of 34,539 observations. A logistic regression model was thus applied to estimate the probability to participate in smoking. Age, income, gender, marital status, ethnicity, employment status, residential area, education, lifestyle and health status were statistically significant in affecting the likelihood of smoking. Specifically, youngsters, low income earners, males, unmarried individuals, Malays, employed individuals, rural residents and primary educated individuals were more likely to smoke. In conclusion, socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors have significant impacts on smoking participation in Malaysia. Based on these empirical findings, several policy implications are suggested.

  2. Gambling participation and policies in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Loo, Jasmine M Y; Phua, Kai Lit

    Regulatory policies for responsible gambling practices in Asia are constantly evolving as the gambling industry and technological landscape change over time. Malaysia makes an interesting case study for a commentary on gambling participation and policies, as this country has a unique dual justice system with religious and ethnic diversity that may impact on the way in which gambling activities are regulated. This regulatory ecosystem has important consequences on behaviour change, treatment approaches and recovery processes involved in gambling disorder. This commentary will discuss evidence for Malaysian gambling antecedents, public policy and socioeconomic impacts of gambling, possible costs and benefits of gambling legalization, and issues pertinent to regulating gambling activities in Malaysia.

  3. Suicide and ethnicity in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Murty, Om Prakash; Cheh, Lo Boon; Bakit, Pangie Anak; Hui, Foo Jhi; Ibrahim, Zarina Binti; Jusoh, Nazirah Binti

    2008-03-01

    This article highlights methods of ending life in different ethnic groups. This inference is drawn from analysis of data from suicidal cases from the University Malaya Medical Centre mortuary. This study also looked at sex, age, social, and employment factors. Kuala Lumpur has sizeable populations of Muslims, Chinese, Indians and Indonesian, etc. This study is based on 251 cases of suicide that were reported at the University Malaya Medical Centre from 2000 to 2004. Malaysia has a population of 22,662,365 people with 3 major ethnic groups: Malay (58%), Chinese (24%), and Indians (8%) with a minority of "others" (10%), which includes foreigners, Sabahan, and Sarawakian. This research found suicides of 164 male (65%) and 87 female (35%) victims. Their age ranged from 15 to 80 years. The age group from 21 to 30 had the highest total cases of suicide (83 of 251; 33.1%). Among ethnic groups highest rate of suicide was among Chinese with a total of 120 cases (120 of 251; 47.8%). As far as lone method of suicide is concerned, hangings accounted for the highest proportion of cases (108 of 251; 43%). Among ethnic groups, jumping from height was the commonest method used by Chinese (49 of 120; 41%), Malay (9 of 16; 56%), and others (15 of 28; 53.4%); whereas, hanging was the commonest method of committing suicide by Indians (49 of 87); Muslims showed the lowest cases of suicide (18 of 251; 7.2%). In poisoning group Indian was the highest ethnic group who used this method (20 of 37; 54.1%).

  4. Landslide Prediction Study in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koay, Swee Peng; Lateh, Habibah; Murakami, Satoshi; Koyama, Tomofumi; Sakai, Naoki; Jamaludin, Suhaimi

    2014-05-01

    In Malaysia, landslides are occurring more often than before. The Malaysian Government allocates millions of Malaysian Ringgit for slope monitoring and slope failure measurement in the budget every year. In rural areas, local authorities also play a major role in monitoring the slope to prevent casualty. However, there are thousands of slopes which are classified as dangerous slopes. Implementing site monitoring system in these slopes, with extensometers, soil moisture probes, inclinometers and water gauges, to monitor the movement of the soil in the slopes and predict the occurrence of slopes failure, are too costly and almost impossible. Here, two snake curve methods, Accumulated Rainfall vs. Rainfall Intensity Method and Working Rainfall vs. Rainfall Intensity Method, for the slope failure prediction are proposed. In Accumulated Rainfall vs. Rainfall Intensity Method, Accumulated Rainfall is defined as RN = δΣ t=1Nrt, where RN is the accumulated rain from t = 1 to N , and will be reset to 0 if the rain stop period is longer than the period of water table drawdown to pre-rain level. Rainfall Intensity is hourly rainfall. The definition of Working Rainfall, in Working Rainfall vs. Rainfall Intensity Method, is Rw = rt + δΣ n=1Nαt-n · rt-n , where rt is the volume of rainfall in tth. hour, rt-n is the volume of rainfall in (t -n)th. hour and r0 = 0, at-n is the reduction factor defined as follows, αt-n = 0.5n/ T, where T is a half-life period (in hours), and N < t . If at-n

  5. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals.

  6. Temperature and population density determine reservoir regions of seasonal persistence in highland malaria.

    PubMed

    Siraj, Amir S; Bouma, Menno J; Santos-Vega, Mauricio; Yeshiwondim, Asnakew K; Rothman, Dale S; Yadeta, Damtew; Sutton, Paul C; Pascual, Mercedes

    2015-12-07

    A better understanding of malaria persistence in highly seasonal environments such as highlands and desert fringes requires identifying the factors behind the spatial reservoir of the pathogen in the low season. In these 'unstable' malaria regions, such reservoirs play a critical role by allowing persistence during the low transmission season and therefore, between seasonal outbreaks. In the highlands of East Africa, the most populated epidemic regions in Africa, temperature is expected to be intimately connected to where in space the disease is able to persist because of pronounced altitudinal gradients. Here, we explore other environmental and demographic factors that may contribute to malaria's highland reservoir. We use an extensive spatio-temporal dataset of confirmed monthly Plasmodium falciparum cases from 1995 to 2005 that finely resolves space in an Ethiopian highland. With a Bayesian approach for parameter estimation and a generalized linear mixed model that includes a spatially structured random effect, we demonstrate that population density is important to disease persistence during the low transmission season. This population effect is not accounted for in typical models for the transmission dynamics of the disease, but is consistent in part with a more complex functional form of the force of infection proposed by theory for vector-borne infections, only during the low season as we discuss. As malaria risk usually decreases in more urban environments with increased human densities, the opposite counterintuitive finding identifies novel control targets during the low transmission season in African highlands.

  7. Compositional Gradients Across Mare and Highlands Contacts: The Importance and Geological Implication of Lateral Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Mustard, J. F.

    1997-07-01

    Variation in mare abundance across mare-highland contact depends on the relative importance of vertical and lateral mass transport. Nonlinear spectral mixing analysis of Clementine VIS-NIR data of the Grimaldi basin indicates that the abundance of mare and highland are approximately equal to 50% at the geologic contact and the amount of mare materials transported to the highlands is approximately equal to the amount of highland materials to the mare. Thus, vertical mixing is relatively unimportant except near the contact. There are apparently two mixing zones, a steep mixing gradient near the mare and highland contact and a more diffuse zone that extends some distance from the contact. The net transfer of mare across the geologic contact can be approximated by a diffusion process since the transport is a random process driven by impact cratering. We have developed a diffusion model and the results indicate that a typical profile of mare abundance requires two superimposed diffusion curves to match this compositional gradients. A third curve is found to be statistically invalid. The two diffusion parameters can be related to the geologic processes of regolith reworking and development that created the variations. This suggests that there are at least two superimposed processes at work, the one is the reworking of the surface ejecta debris having a larger diffusion coefficient, the other is the development of new regolith from subsurface layers having smaller diffusion coefficient.

  8. Temperature and population density determine reservoir regions of seasonal persistence in highland malaria

    PubMed Central

    Siraj, Amir S.; Bouma, Menno J.; Santos-Vega, Mauricio; Yeshiwondim, Asnakew K.; Rothman, Dale S.; Yadeta, Damtew; Sutton, Paul C.; Pascual, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of malaria persistence in highly seasonal environments such as highlands and desert fringes requires identifying the factors behind the spatial reservoir of the pathogen in the low season. In these ‘unstable’ malaria regions, such reservoirs play a critical role by allowing persistence during the low transmission season and therefore, between seasonal outbreaks. In the highlands of East Africa, the most populated epidemic regions in Africa, temperature is expected to be intimately connected to where in space the disease is able to persist because of pronounced altitudinal gradients. Here, we explore other environmental and demographic factors that may contribute to malaria's highland reservoir. We use an extensive spatio-temporal dataset of confirmed monthly Plasmodium falciparum cases from 1995 to 2005 that finely resolves space in an Ethiopian highland. With a Bayesian approach for parameter estimation and a generalized linear mixed model that includes a spatially structured random effect, we demonstrate that population density is important to disease persistence during the low transmission season. This population effect is not accounted for in typical models for the transmission dynamics of the disease, but is consistent in part with a more complex functional form of the force of infection proposed by theory for vector-borne infections, only during the low season as we discuss. As malaria risk usually decreases in more urban environments with increased human densities, the opposite counterintuitive finding identifies novel control targets during the low transmission season in African highlands. PMID:26631558

  9. Ranking Malaria Risk Factors to Guide Malaria Control Efforts in African Highlands

    PubMed Central

    Protopopoff, Natacha; Van Bortel, Wim; Speybroeck, Niko; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Baza, Dismas; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Coosemans, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Malaria is re-emerging in most of the African highlands exposing the non immune population to deadly epidemics. A better understanding of the factors impacting transmission in the highlands is crucial to improve well targeted malaria control strategies. Methods and Findings A conceptual model of potential malaria risk factors in the highlands was built based on the available literature. Furthermore, the relative importance of these factors on malaria can be estimated through “classification and regression trees”, an unexploited statistical method in the malaria field. This CART method was used to analyse the malaria risk factors in the Burundi highlands. The results showed that Anopheles density was the best predictor for high malaria prevalence. Then lower rainfall, no vector control, higher minimum temperature and houses near breeding sites were associated by order of importance to higher Anopheles density. Conclusions In Burundi highlands monitoring Anopheles densities when rainfall is low may be able to predict epidemics. The conceptual model combined with the CART analysis is a decision support tool that could provide an important contribution toward the prevention and control of malaria by identifying major risk factors. PMID:19946627

  10. Highland cattle and Radix labiata, the hosts of Fascioloides magna

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fascioloides magna is a pathogenic fluke introduced to Europe ca 140 years ago. As it is spreading over the continent, new intermediate and definitive hosts might be involved in transmission of the parasite. In Europe, several studies reported potential new intermediate snail hosts (Radix spp.) for F. magna, and also several cases of fascioloidosis of wild and domestic animals were published. However, the data based on molecular and histological analyses confirming these findings remained unreported. This study aims to refer to unique findings of F. magna in European snails and domestic animals (the first observation in the Czech Republic in the last 30 years) and demonstrate the use of molecular techniques in determination of F. magna. Results Two snails of R. labiata naturally infected with F. magna were found; mature cercariae and daughter rediae were observed. Maturity of cercariae was checked by histological methods, however, their ability to encyst was not confirmed. Co-infection of F. magna and Fasciola hepatica in the liver of two highland cattle bulls was proved. Adult fasciolid flukes producing eggs were found in the liver pseudocysts (F. magna) and the bile ducts (F. hepatica). Identification of intermediate hosts, intramolluscan stages, adult flukes and eggs was performed by sequencing the ITS2 region. Connection of F. magna pseudocysts with the gut (via the bile ducts) was not confirmed by means of histological and coprological examinations. Conclusions For the first time, Radix labiata was confirmed as the snail host for F. magna under natural conditions and, together with the finding of F. magna infection in cattle, we can expect further transmission of F. magna from wildlife to livestock in localities shared by these hosts. PMID:24517409

  11. Arthritis in the highlands of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Pile, K D; Richens, J E; Laurent, R M; Bhatia, K; Prasad, M L; Lupiwa, T; Hudson, B J; Tapsall, J; McPetrie, R

    1993-01-01

    Acute polyarthritis is an important cause of morbidity in many tropical countries. Classification has often been difficult, with the term tropical polyarthritis used for those in whom a diagnosis could not be made. The implication that this is a distinct entity is probably incorrect, with likely causes being septic arthritis or post-infective reactive arthritis. This study aimed to determine the types of arthritis found in 43 patients (30 men) presenting consecutively to the Goroka Base Hospital in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Gonococcal arthritis was diagnosed in eight patients (six men) on the basis of isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from the joint aspirate. In all cases the N gonorrhoeae was identified by the closed culture system on chocolate agar, but not always by routine plating. There were no specific clinical features that identified patients with a gonococcal septic arthritis. The remaining 34 patients had an undifferentiated oligoarthritis. The pattern of arthritis in men and women was of a lower limb pauciarticular arthritis with a predilection for the knee and ankle joints. A total of 30% of male patients had a history of urethral discharge and 44% of all patients had preceding diarrhoea. Arthritis was the only feature in 59% of patients and in 32% there was an associated enthesitis. In this study most patients had an oligoarthritis consistent with a reactive arthritis or a septic arthritis due to N gonorrhoeae. Broth inoculation of synovial fluid was the best method to isolate N gonorrhoeae, with standard methods for gonococcal isolation failing in some patients. It is recommended that the term 'tropical polyarthritis' is no longer used as it does not refer to a specific entity but consists of several known arthritides.

  12. The LHT (Lunar Highlands Type) Regolith Simulant Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeser, Douglas; Wilson, Steve; Weinstein, Michael; Rickman, Douglas; Lowers, Heather; Meeker, Gregory; Schrader, Christian; McLemore, Carole; Fikes, John

    2008-01-01

    Three NU-LHT (NASA/USGS-Lunar Highlands Type) regolith simulants have been produced to date: NU-LHT-1M, -ID, and -2M. A fourth simulant is currently in production: NU-LHT-3C. The "M" (medium) designation indicates a simulant with a grain size of <1 mm, "D" (dust) a simulant with a grain size of <36 microns, and "C" (coarse) a simulant with a 10 cm maximum particle size. The composition of these simulants is based on a NASA average Apollo 16 regolith chemical composition, However, the mixing model used to create our simulants is based on cationic nonnative mineral proportions derived from the target chemical composition to approximate lunar modal mineralogy rather than chemical composition per se. Accordingly, the amount of plagioclase, pyroxenes, olivine, and trace minerals in the simulant crystalline fraction approximates that of the lunar regolith. We also added synthetic agglutinate in amounts approximate for low-medium regolith maturity. A pure glass fraction was also added to simulate other types of lunar glasses present in the regolith. In addition, the 3C simulant will include synthetic impact melt breccia clasts for the >1 cm particles. The bulk raw materials used to create these simulants include clinopyroxene-norite, anorthosite, hartzburgite and noritic mill waste from the Stillwater Mine, Nye, MT, and olivine from the Twin Sisters dunite, WA. Added trace minerals include beach sand ilmenite, chromite, synthetic p-tricaicium phosphate (whitiockite), gem grade fluor-apatite, and pyrite. The agglutinate, glasses, and synthetic breccia were designed and prepared at an industrial plasma melting facility in Boulder, CO, using Stillwater mill waste feedstock for the melt. These simulants do not include nanophase-feO. The M and C simulant grain size distribution (down to 0.4 microns) approximates that of Apollo 16 regolith and the regolith in general.

  13. An economic evaluation of the Highlands and Islands teledentistry project.

    PubMed

    Scuffham, P A; Steed, M

    2002-01-01

    A 12-month trial of teledentistry was conducted in two general dental practices (one in the Orkney Islands and one in the Scottish Highlands at Kingussie). The dental practices had a PC-based videoconferencing link, connected by ISDN at 128 kbit/s, to a restorative specialist at a hospital in Aberdeen. Twenty-five patients were recruited into the trial. A cost-minimization analysis was undertaken by comparing the costs of teledentistry with two alternatives: outreach visits, where the specialist regularly visited the remote communities, and hospital visits, where patients in remote communities travelled to hospital for consultation. For Orkney patients, dental teleconsultations cost the National Health Service (NHS) an additional 36 per patient compared with outreach visits, but cost-savings of 270 per patient could be achieved compared with hospital visits. For Kingussie patients, teleconsultations cost the NHS an additional 44 and there were cost-savings of 1.54 compared with outreach visits and hospitals visits, respectively. However, patients incurred additional costs for radiographs and photographs, and the general dental practitioner incurred additional preparation time costs. When the value of patient time was included, there were cost-savings of around 900 per Orkney patient compared with hospital visits, but compared with outreach visits teledentistry cost an additional 180 per patient. Based on the trial data, there were no cost-savings from teledentistry for Kingussie patients, even when the value of time was included. These results were relatively robust in a sensitivity analysis. However, we estimated that the cost-effectiveness of teledentistry would improve with greater familiarity and use of equipment. Benefits and cost-savings would be greatest in island or remote communities, where patients have to travel long distances to hospital for specialist consultations.

  14. Gallstone disease in Peruvian coastal natives and highland migrants

    PubMed Central

    Moro, P; Checkley, W; Gilman, R; Cabrera, L; Lescano, A; Bonilla, J; Silva, B

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—In a previous study, we found that gallstones were a common occurrence in the high altitude villages of the Peruvian Andes.
AIMS—To determine if high altitude (⩾ 1500 m) is a contributing risk factor for gallstone disease.
METHODS—We conducted a cross sectional study in a periurban community in Lima, Peru, and compared the prevalence of gallstone disease between coastal natives, highland (Sierra) natives and Sierra natives who had migrated to the coast. We also compared the prevalence rates from this study with those from a previous study conducted at high altitude. We examined 1534 subjects >15 years of age for gallstone disease. Subjects were interviewed for the presence or absence of risk factors.
RESULTS—Gallstone disease was more common in females (16.1 cases per 100, 95% CI 13.8-18.2) than in males (10.7 per 100, 95% CI 8.0-13.4). Females had a greater risk of gallstone disease, especially if they had used oral contraception and/or had four or more children. The age adjusted prevalence was not significantly different between coastal natives, Sierra migrants, and Andean villagers. The prevalence of gallstone disease was not associated with time since migration or with having native Sierra parents. After adjusting for other risk factors, Sierra natives who migrated to the coast had a lower prevalence of gallstone disease than coastal natives (odds ratio 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.94).
CONCLUSIONS—This study indicates that high altitude is not a positive risk factor for gallstone disease and confirms that this disease is common in Peruvians, which may be attributable to Peruvian-Indian ethnicity.


Keywords: gallstone disease; cholelithiasis; high altitude; risk factors; epidemiology; Peru PMID:10716689

  15. Modern diseases, seen from a Highland practice. An ecological approach.

    PubMed

    Yellowlees, W W

    1983-01-01

    There is no agreement among scientists on which particular aspects of civilisation are most to blame for the emergence and undoubted increase in Western nations during this century of common degenerative diseases. Duodenal ulcer, coronary thrombosis, hypertension and other degenerations appear to be as common in quiet rural communities as in the cities. The frequency of these conditions in the Scottish Highlands where the tempo of life remains slow would seem to rule out stress or psychological factors as important. Changes in diet are now thought by many scientists to be the most likely cause for the increase in diseases of civilisation. The work of McCarrison, Cleave and Burkitt suggests that of all dietary developments in advanced nations during the last two centuries the refining of carbohydrates is the most damaging. A high intake of sugar tends to displace protective vitamin-rich foods and adds to the fibre depletion of refined white flour, with the inevitable consequences--widespread constipation and the serious complications of that distressing condition. Cleave has published strong evidence incriminating 'over-consumption' from dependence on refined carbohydrates, rather than traditional animal fats, as the main cause of coronary thrombosis. The high mortality and morbidity of degenerative diseases with all the attendant human suffering can truly be termed an ecological disaster. The cause is the failure of the food and drink industry to give overall priority to the needs of human health. Increasing demand from consumers for unprocessed fresh whole food would reverse modern trends and would have far-reaching effects on agriculture and industry.

  16. Systematics and natural history of Southeast Asian Rock Geckos (genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887) with descriptions of eight new species from Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Grismer, L Lee; Wood, Perry L; Anuar, Shahrul; Riyanto, Awal; Ahmad, Norhayati; Muin, Mohd A; Sumontha, Montri; Grismer, Jesse L; Onn, Chan Kin; Quah, Evan S H; Pauwels, Olivier S A

    2014-10-31

    A well-supported and well-resolved phylogeny based on a concatenated data set from one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes, six morphological characters, and nine color pattern characters for 44 of the 50 species of the Southeast Asian Rock Geckos (genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887) is consistent with the previous taxonomy of Cnemaspis based solely on morphology and color pattern. Cnemaspis is partitioned into four major clades that collectively contain six species groups. The monophyly of all clades and species groups is strongly supported and they are parapatrically distributed across well-established, biogeographical regions ranging from southern Vietnam westward through southern Indochina, southward through the Thai-Malay Peninsula, then eastward to Borneo. Eight new species (Cnemaspis omari sp. nov. from the Thai-Malaysian border; C. temiah sp. nov. from Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia; C. stongensis sp. nov. from Gunung Stong, Kelantan, Malaysia; C. hangus sp. nov. from Bukit Hangus, Pahang, Malaysia; C. sundagekko sp. nov. from Pulau Siantan, Indonesia; C. peninsularis sp. nov. from southern Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, and C. mumpuniae sp. nov. and C. sundainsula sp. nov. from Pulau Natuna Besar, Indonesia) are described based on morphology and color pattern and all but C. sundagekko sp. nov. are included in the phylogenetic analyses. Cnemaspis kendallii is polyphyletic and a composite of six species. An updated taxonomy consistent with the phylogeny is proposed for all 50 species and is based on 25 morphological and 53 color pattern characters scored across 594 specimens. Cladogenetic events and biogeographical relationships within Cnemaspis were likely influenced by this group's low vagility and the cyclical patterns of geographical and environmental changes in Sundaland over the last 25 million years and especially within the last 2.5 million years. The phylogeny indicates that nocturnality, diurnality, substrate preferences, and the presence of

  17. Burnout among Female Teachers in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukundan, Jayakaran; Ahour, Touran

    2011-01-01

    This study is an attempt to survey the burnout level of female teachers in Malaysia and determine the likely factors that are associated with this phenomenon. The subjects of the study were 437 female teachers from primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. A demographic questionnaire was used to collect the data regarding the individual…

  18. Burnout among English Language Teachers in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukundan, Jayakaran; Khandehroo, Koroush

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of burnout has always been under scrutiny, especially with reference to the teachers and their demographics. This study has deliberately focused on the English teachers' burnout and its relation with their demographics of age and workload in Malaysia. The findings showed that burnout is evident at high levels in all dimensions. In…

  19. LEPTOSPIROSIS INCIDENCE AND MORTALITY IN MALAYSIA.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei Leong; Soelar, Shahrul Aiman; Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri; Hussin, Narwani; Cheah, Wee Kooi; Verasahib, Khebir; Goh, Pik Pin

    2016-05-01

    Leptospirosis is endemic in Southeast Asia, Central and South America, the Caribbean, and Oceania. Malaysia was categorized as a probable endemic country without any available data. Thus, this study was conducted to determine incidence, case fatality rate and mortality rate of leptospirosis. Leptospirosis is a notifiable disease in Malaysia since 2010 whereby probable or confirmed cases must be notified to relevant health district office. There were 3,665 and 4,457 probable and laboratory confirmed leptospirosis cases notified in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In the 2-year period, the most common age group of patients was 19 years old or less (23.3%) with male:female ratio of 2.61:1. Students consisted about 16.9% of patients, followed by agriculture-based or plantation workers (14.7%). Overall age-standardized incidence rate of leptospirosis in Malaysia for 2012 and 2013 was 29.02 per 100,000. Overall case fatality rate was 1.47% for 2-year period and overall age-standardized mortality rate was 0.45 per 100,000. Leptospirosis is an emerging public health concern in Malaysia and may pose a significant health impact and burden to the nation in the coming years if not well controlled.

  20. Bilingualism and National Development in Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozog, A. Conrad K.

    1993-01-01

    Malaysia's long tradition of English medium instruction and bilingualism officially ended in 1970. This paper reviews the role of bilingualism in the development of the country, including the role of a bilingual population in national development and the possible effects of the abandonment of bilingual education. (Contains 38 references.)…

  1. Human Capital and Technology Development in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awang, Halimah

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and its relation to the development of human capital in Malaysia as a country undergoing transformation into an ICT-driven and knowledge-based society. Education and training, being the key variable of human capital, is examined in terms of the government…

  2. OUTLINE OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN MALAYSIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Perth.

    THE FEDERATION OF MALAYSIA HAD A 1964 POPULATION OF 9,000,000. SPECIALIZATION IN A FEW EXPORT PRODUCTS, NOTABLY RUBBER AND TIN, HAS BEEN THE BASIS OF THE ECONOMY. EDUCATION IS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND EFFORT IS BEING MADE TO ESTABLISH MALAY AS THE NATIONAL LANGUAGE. ELEMENTARY EDUCATION EXTENDS FOR 6 YEARS TO THE LOWER…

  3. Education in Malaysia: Towards Vision 2020.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Molly N. N.

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship between educational development and Malaysia's sociopolitical and economic context. Under the Vision 2020 rubric, liberalized educational policies are leading to a more democratic, privatized, and decentralized educational system. Curricular revisions stressing basic skills, moral values, and individual development are…

  4. Inclusive Education in Malaysia: Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelas, Zalizan M.; Ali, Manisah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia's move towards inclusion was given impetus by its participation in workshops and conferences set up under the auspices of the United Nations (UNESCO 1990; UN 1993; UNESCO 1994). Inclusive education was introduced in the Education Act 1996 as part of the continuum of services available for children with special needs. The purpose of this…

  5. English Teaching Profile: Sabah--Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Sabah, Malaysia, provides an overview of the role of English in the society in general and outlines the status of English use and instruction in both the Chinese and government educational systems at all levels. Topics covered are: the characteristics and training of English language…

  6. Father Involvement among Malay Muslims in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhari, Rumaya; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Talib, Mansor Abu

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a study of 989 fathers of school-going children aged 10 through 16 from intact families in rural and urban areas in Selangor, Malaysia. The study aims to explore the factors that affect father involvement among Malay Muslims. Results indicate that fathers' education, marital quality, and number of children are…

  7. International Reports on Literacy Research: Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Maya K.; Amer, Aly Anwar

    2004-01-01

    Maya K. David reports an interesting view of reading in Malaysia through the eyes of graduate student Mohd Nazri bin Hamid (2003), who conducted an exploratory study about the culture of reading in an academy of Islamic studies. The purposes of Nazri's investigation were (a) to examine undergraduate students' reading habits, (b) to offer a…

  8. Privatization of Higher Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivalingam, G.

    2007-01-01

    The study will trace the external factors influencing the liberalization, deregulation and privatization of higher education in Malaysia from 1970 to the present and to analyze the effects of liberalization, deregulation and privatization on the modes of privatization and the internal restructuring of institutions of higher learning to increase…

  9. The Teachers' Activity Centres of Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Diljit

    This paper describes the development of the Teachers' Activity Centers (TACs) in Malaysia. The TACs evolved from Local Resource Centers and District Resource Centers of the 1970s and 1980s. The 350 TACs in the country were initially supplied with basic tools for the production of teaching-learning resources. With administrative reorganization, the…

  10. Burnout among Female Teachers in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukundan, Jayakaran; Ahour, Touran

    2011-01-01

    This study is an attempt to survey the burnout level of female teachers in Malaysia and determine the likely factors that are associated with this phenomenon. The subjects of the study were 437 female teachers from primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. A demographic questionnaire was used to collect the data regarding the individual…

  11. Moral Education in a Plural Society: Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukherjee, Hena

    1983-01-01

    Designed for non-Muslim pupils, moral education is being phased into the state-approved curriculum in Malaysia. The objective is the development of a morally mature person who will be able to make independent judgments in a moral conflict situation. The moral education program development is described. (Author/RM)

  12. Education in Malaysia: Towards Vision 2020.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Molly N. N.

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship between educational development and Malaysia's sociopolitical and economic context. Under the Vision 2020 rubric, liberalized educational policies are leading to a more democratic, privatized, and decentralized educational system. Curricular revisions stressing basic skills, moral values, and individual development are…

  13. The biotechnology and bioeconomy landscape in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Arujanan, Mahaletchumy; Singaram, Muthu

    2017-06-28

    Since 1990s Malaysia aspired to make biotechnology and bioeconomy as her engines of economic growth to utlise the abundance of natural resources and biodiversity. The public sector plays an integral role in developing the sector and various incentives are in place for the private sector to be actively involved and to forge collaboration with the public sector. The country launched its National Biotechnology Policy in 2005 and later launched its National Bioeconomy Programme in 2010 to become the first country in South East Asia and second in Asia after China to have such an initiative. Malaysia is also very proactive in its biosafety law and regulations and has most of the related legal instrument in place. A lot of success has been recorded since the inception of the National Biotechnology Policy in terms of job creation, contribution to GDP through biobusinesses and investment from foreign companies, but the sector is not spared from challenges too. Due to the nature of the discipline that is multidisciplinary and that requires huge amount of investment, expertise and political will, there are a lot of barriers before the country emerges as a bioeconomy player. This paper discusses the public policies, initiatives and funding mechanisms in place in Malaysia that drive its research, development and commercialisation in the area of biotechnology and bioeconomy. The authors also discuss the challenges faced in Malaysia in implementing the policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Malaysia: population issues remain high on agenda.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    The government of Malaysia takes population issues seriously despite the country's relatively small population of 20.7 million in 1995. Malaysia has signaled its commitment to implementing the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development by initiating changes in policies, programs, and institutional frameworks to reflect a concern for reproductive health, adolescent reproductive health, the family, and women. For 1995-2000, declines in overall fertility will reduce Malaysia's population growth to 2% per year from 2.6% during the 1980s. The population is expected to increase to 22.8 million by 2000, 27.8 million by 2010, and 33.4 million by 2020. During this period, the proportion will drop of those younger than 15 years old. Malaysia's commitment to women is reflected in its low maternal mortality rate (20/100,000 live births/year) and in the fact that life expectancy for women is 74 years compared to 70 years for men. Primary education is nearly universal, and the female literacy rate is 84.6%.

  15. Father Involvement among Malay Muslims in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhari, Rumaya; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Talib, Mansor Abu

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a study of 989 fathers of school-going children aged 10 through 16 from intact families in rural and urban areas in Selangor, Malaysia. The study aims to explore the factors that affect father involvement among Malay Muslims. Results indicate that fathers' education, marital quality, and number of children are…

  16. Ethnicity, Communal Relations, and Education in Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, C. L.

    Communal life in Malaysia is characterized by discords, tensions, and strife, especially between the Malays and Chinese. By and large, Malays are educationally and economically backward in comparison to non-Malays. Malays seek to redress what they consider racial imbalances through use of their political power. Constitutionally, certain privileges…

  17. Cultural Construction of Psychiatric Illness in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Razak, Asrenee Ab

    2017-03-01

    The concept of the cultural construction of illness is important in terms of understanding people's behaviour. In this article, this idea is applied to psychiatric illness in Malaysia to explore how it is informed by sociocultural elements, a process that will help us understand the psychiatric expression and help-seeking behaviour of the country's population.

  18. Bilingualism and National Development in Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozog, A. Conrad K.

    1993-01-01

    Malaysia's long tradition of English medium instruction and bilingualism officially ended in 1970. This paper reviews the role of bilingualism in the development of the country, including the role of a bilingual population in national development and the possible effects of the abandonment of bilingual education. (Contains 38 references.)…

  19. Inclusive Education in Malaysia: Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelas, Zalizan M.; Ali, Manisah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia's move towards inclusion was given impetus by its participation in workshops and conferences set up under the auspices of the United Nations (UNESCO 1990; UN 1993; UNESCO 1994). Inclusive education was introduced in the Education Act 1996 as part of the continuum of services available for children with special needs. The purpose of this…

  20. Teacher Preparation in Malaysia: Needed Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Pauline Swee Choo; Blake, Damian

    2015-01-01

    The article attempts to present personal views of some changes that are needed to be made within teacher education in Malaysia. It uses one teacher education university as a point of reference to forward concerns. The university remains anonymous as it is not the intent of the article to critique the university but rather to highlight the more…

  1. Mass Communication in Malaysia: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tee, Lim Huck, Comp; Sarachandran, V.V., Comp.

    This bibliography lists published and unpublished material relating to mass communications in Malaysia, 1945 to 1973. Most of the items listed are written in English and Malay, and a limited number are in Chinese. The bibliography is divided into 21 sections: bibliography and reference material; communication theory, research methods;…

  2. International Reports on Literacy Research: Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Maya K.; Amer, Aly Anwar

    2004-01-01

    Maya K. David reports an interesting view of reading in Malaysia through the eyes of graduate student Mohd Nazri bin Hamid (2003), who conducted an exploratory study about the culture of reading in an academy of Islamic studies. The purposes of Nazri's investigation were (a) to examine undergraduate students' reading habits, (b) to offer a…

  3. Young thrust-fault scarps in the highlands - Evidence for an initially totally molten moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, A. B.; Gunga, H.-C.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to thermoelastic stress calculations implying that if only the outer few hundreds of km of a moon with a cool interior were initially molten, the lunar highlands should not have young compressional tectonic features. Extrapolations from Apollo panoramic images showing young thrust faults in the highlands suggest that about 2000 thrust fault scarps exist on the highlands, generally occurring in series or complexes of four or five scarps that are on average 5 km long. The ages of the scarps range from 60 + or - 30 to 680 + or - 250 my, with a possible factor bias of +2 to -4. The scarps are the youngest endogenic features on the moon, and indicate that the moon was initially molten.

  4. Procrustean science - Indigenous siderophiles in the lunar highlands, according to Delano and Ringwood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, E.

    1978-01-01

    Several objections are raised to the contention of Delano and Ringwood (1978) that the siderophiles in the lunar highlands are mainly of indigenous rather than meteoritic origin. It is argued that the rejection of 29 pristine lunar rocks characterized by low siderophilic abundances, plutonic textures and high age on the supposition that they are impact melts is unjustified by petrographic evidence. It is further contended that the approach used by Delano and Ringwood leads to spurious excesses of Au, Ni and volatiles, which disappear when the highland composition is based on pristine lunar rocks rather than undercorrected breccias. Large, systematic depletions relative to terrestrial oceanic tholeiites are revealed by other derivations of abundances in lunar highland materials.

  5. Travel to the coast by highlanders and its implications for malaria control.

    PubMed

    Bashford, G; Richens, J

    1992-12-01

    Three groups of highland subjects were questioned about malaria and their visits to coastal areas: patients admitted to Goroka Base Hospital with malaria, patients admitted with diagnoses other than malaria who had visited the coast within the previous six months, and health staff working in Goroka. Nearly a third in all groups reported having had two or three attacks of malaria. 82% of malaria patients had visited the coast in the previous 4 weeks compared to 26% of patients without malaria. Most malaria seen in Goroka is imported from the coast. Most patients in the survey came from rural areas and were uneducated. However, health workers also failed in most cases to take adequate precautions when they visited the coast. It is suggested that a malaria prophylaxis station should be set up at the gateway to the highlands on the Highlands Highway, where malaria education and the means for chemoprophylaxis and protection from mosquitoes could be made available for all travellers.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of the Highland Rim aquifer system in Tennessee for receiving injected wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    The EPA has authority under the Safe Drinking Water Act to protect underground sources of drinking water from contamination by deep well injection. An aquifer, however, may be exempted from protection and used for injected wastes where the aquifer meets criteria established in the Agency 's Underground Injection Control program. The Highland Rim aquifer system in Tennessee consists of Mississippian age carbonate rocks and occurs from the Valley and Ridge of East Tennessee to west of the Tennessee River. This aquifer contains potable water and is an important source of drinking water for municipal and domestic supplies on the Highland Rim. The Highland Rim aquifer system under parts of the Cumberland Plateau is not currently used as a source of drinking water and is not expected to be used in the future. These areas meet parts of the EPA 's Underground Injection Control criteria for exempting aquifers to receive injected waste. (Author 's abstract)

  7. Performance of forecasting, warning and detection of malaria epidemics in the highlands of western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Simon; Renshaw, Melanie; Ochola, Sam A.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; Snow, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    On the 4th July 2002 a leading national newspaper in Kenya, the Daily Nation, ran the headline ‘Minister sounds alert on malaria’ in an article declaring the onset of epidemics in the highlands of western Kenya. There followed frequent media coverage with quotes from district leaders on the numbers of deaths, and editorials on the failure of the national malaria control strategy. The Ministry of Health made immediate and radical changes to national policy on treatment costs in the highlands by suspending cost-sharing. Development partners and non-governmental organisations also responded with a large increase in the distribution of commodities (approximately US$ 500 000) to support preventative strategies across the western highland region. What was conspicuous by its absence was any obvious effort to predict the epidemics in advance of press coverage. PMID:12957515

  8. Procrustean science - Indigenous siderophiles in the lunar highlands, according to Delano and Ringwood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, E.

    1978-01-01

    Several objections are raised to the contention of Delano and Ringwood (1978) that the siderophiles in the lunar highlands are mainly of indigenous rather than meteoritic origin. It is argued that the rejection of 29 pristine lunar rocks characterized by low siderophilic abundances, plutonic textures and high age on the supposition that they are impact melts is unjustified by petrographic evidence. It is further contended that the approach used by Delano and Ringwood leads to spurious excesses of Au, Ni and volatiles, which disappear when the highland composition is based on pristine lunar rocks rather than undercorrected breccias. Large, systematic depletions relative to terrestrial oceanic tholeiites are revealed by other derivations of abundances in lunar highland materials.

  9. Performance of forecasting, warning and detection of malaria epidemics in the highlands of western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Hay, Simon; Renshaw, Melanie; Ochola, Sam A; Noor, Abdisalan M; Snow, Robert W

    2003-09-01

    On the 4th July 2002 a leading national newspaper in Kenya, the Daily Nation, ran the headline 'Minister sounds alert on malaria' in an article declaring the onset of epidemics in the highlands of western Kenya. There followed frequent media coverage with quotes from district leaders on the numbers of deaths, and editorials on the failure of the national malaria control strategy. The Ministry of Health made immediate and radical changes to national policy on treatment costs in the highlands by suspending cost-sharing. Development partners and non-governmental organisations also responded with a large increase in the distribution of commodities (approximately 500,000 US dollars) to support preventative strategies across the western highland region. What was conspicuous by its absence was any obvious effort to predict the epidemics in advance of press coverage.

  10. Female spirit cults as a window on gender relations in the highlands of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Stewart, P J; Strathern, A

    1999-09-01

    Early writings on male cults in the highlands of Papua New Guinea tended to stress the exclusion of women and the collective agency of men. Looking at a subset of these cults from the Western and Southern Highlands Provinces, centering on Female Spirit figures, the authors argue that in these cases the cults are better understood as expressions of a collaborative model, in which gendered cooperation, both in practice and in terms of ritual symbolism, is activated in order to produce fertility and wealth. Positive collaboration is involved as well as structural complementarity. The collaborative model is therefore suggested as an alternative to the model of "male exclusivity" in the analysis of certain cult practices in these parts of the New Guinea highlands region.

  11. The early Martian environment: Clues from the cratered highlands and the Precambrian Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craddock, R. A.; Maxwell, T. A.

    1993-01-01

    There is abundant geomorphic evidence to suggest that Mars once had a much denser and warmer atmosphere than present today. Outflow channel, ancient valley networks, and degraded impact craters in the highlands all suggest that ancient Martian atmospheric conditions supported liquid water on the surface. The pressure, composition, and duration of this atmosphere is largely unknown. However, we have attempted to place some constraints on the nature of the early Martian atmosphere by analyzing morphologic variations of highland impact crater populations, synthesizing results of other investigators, and incorporating what is know about the geologic history of the early Earth. This is important for understanding the climatic evolution of Mars, the relative abundance of martian volatiles, and the nature of highland surface materials.

  12. Altitudinal changes in malaria incidence in highlands of Ethiopia and Colombia.

    PubMed

    Siraj, A S; Santos-Vega, M; Bouma, M J; Yadeta, D; Ruiz Carrascal, D; Pascual, M

    2014-03-07

    The impact of global warming on insect-borne diseases and on highland malaria in particular remains controversial. Temperature is known to influence transmission intensity through its effects on the population growth of the mosquito vector and on pathogen development within the vector. Spatiotemporal data at a regional scale in highlands of Colombia and Ethiopia supplied an opportunity to examine how the spatial distribution of the disease changes with the interannual variability of temperature. We provide evidence for an increase in the altitude of malaria distribution in warmer years, which implies that climate change will, without mitigation, result in an increase of the malaria burden in the densely populated highlands of Africa and South America.

  13. Tracing the climate and anthropogenic influence on the central Kenya highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omuombo, Christine; Olago, Daniel; Williamson, David; Huguet, Arnaud

    2013-04-01

    Soil and sediment samples were collected from Lakes Rutundu (2500m), Sacred (2200m) and Nkunga (1800m) located on the eastern slopes of Mount Kenya. The samples were mainly composed of silty clay and clay fractions. A suite of geochemical and mineralogical analyses was carried out in order to reconstruct the climatic and anthropogenic influence on the highland ecosystem using modern and palaeodata. These analyses included total carbon (TC), Total Nitrogen (TN), Stable carbon and Nitrogen isotopes, elemental composition and organic chemistry. Indications are that the central Kenya highland ecotones have distinct responses to definite triggers of wet and dry climatic phases, which are marked alongside wide spread anthropogenic influence on a climate gradient. The changes observed provide insight into the collective influence of the biogeochemical cycle during the late Holocene in the east Africa highland where not much information has been published earlier.

  14. Pervasive Layering in the Lunar Highland Crust: Evidence from Apollos 15, 16,and 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.; Yang, Tiffany

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results of a photogeologic reconnaissance of 70 mm photographs taken on the lunar surface during the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions, whose primary objective was to investigate the lunar highland crust. Photographs at all three sites, notably the Apennine Front, show pervasive layered structure. These layers are easily distinguished from lighting artifacts, and are considered genuine crustal structures. Their number, thickness, and extent implies that they are lava flows, not ejecta blankets or intrusive features. They appear to be the upper part of the earliest lunar crust, possibly forming a layer tens of kilometers thick. Remote sensing studies (X-ray fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy), indicate that the highland crust is dominantly a feldspathic basalt. It is concluded that the highland layers represent a global crust formed by eruptions of high-alumina basalt in the first few hundred million years of the Moon's history.

  15. GPS Constraints on the Spatial Distribution of Extension in the Ethiopian Highlands and Main Ethiopian Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amere, Y. B.; Bendick, R. O.; Fisseha, S.; Lewi, E.; Reilinger, R. E.; King, R. W.; Kianji, G.

    2014-12-01

    27 campaign and 17 continuous GPS sites spanning the Ethiopian Highlands, Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), and Somali Platform in Ethiopia and Eritrea were measured for varying durations between 1995 and 2014. Velocities at these sites show that present day strain in NE Africa is not localized only in the Afar depression and MER system. Rather, velocities as high as 6 mm/yr relative to stable Nubia occur in the central Ethiopian highlands west of the rift bounding faults; the northern and southern Ethiopian highlands host velocities as high as 3 mm/yr. These approach the magnitude of Nubia-Somalia spreading accommodated within the rift itself of 6 + 1 mm/yr with an azimuth of N770E. The combination of distributed low strain rate deformation contiguous with higher strain rate plate boundary deformation is similar to that expressed in other tectonically active continental settings like Basin and Range and Tibetan Plateau.Keywords: deformation, localized, distributed, strain, stable Nubia.

  16. Highlander Folk School and the Labor Movement, 1932-1953. The Relationship between Education and Social Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharakis-Jutz, Jeff

    The mission of the Highlander Folk School (Tennessee), which flourished between 1932 and 1961, was intimately intertwined with the labor movement of the 1930s and 1940s and the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s. Highlander began as an Appalachian community school seeking to understand the issues and problems of the community it served.…

  17. Another novel subgenotype of hepatitis B virus genotype C from papuans of Highland origin.

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Takako; Nugrahaputra, Victor Eka; Amin, Mochamad; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Hotta, Hak; Lusida, Maria Inge

    2011-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes and subtypes have been identified worldwide. As HBV genotypes/subtypes, the HBV subgenotypes seem to be associated with their geographical distribution and ethnic origin. A previous study showed the novel HBV subgenotype C6 based on the complete genome sequences of isolates in Papua, Indonesia. In the present study, further characterization of HBV in Jayapura (capital of Papua Province), particularly from native people of Papua originating from the highland (highland Papuans) and those from the lowland (lowland Papuans) were examined. Of 32 HBV isolates from both highland and lowland Papuan blood donors with HBsAg positive, part of the S gene and the core gene sequences were analyzed. Analyses of some isolates from highland Papuans were confirmed by the complete genome sequences. Most HBV isolates were classified into genotype C (78.1%), followed by genotype B (18.8%), and genotype D (3.1%). The subtype adr was predominant (71.9%), followed by adw2 (25.1%), and ayw2 (3.1%). As with previous findings, phylogenetic analyses revealed that most HBV isolates from Papuans, C/adr, belonged to subgenotype C6. Interestingly, some C/adr isolates from highland Papuans formed a distinct cluster from all reported subgenotypes of HBV/C, and they differed from HBV/C1-C10 by 4.2-7.2% over the complete genome. SimPlot analysis showed no evidence of recombination with HBV/C1-C10. The isolated life and closed social systems of highland Papuans, even though some have been moving to Jayapura, likely contribute to the formation of this unique cluster of infection with a novel subgenotype of HBV, named C11.

  18. The genetic history of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Norhalifah, Hanim Kamis; Syaza, Fatnin Hisham; Chambers, Geoffrey Keith; Edinur, Hisham Atan

    2016-07-15

    This article explores the genetic history of the various sub-populations currently living in Peninsular Malaysia. This region has received multiple waves of migrants like the Orang Asli in prehistoric times and the Chinese, Indians, Europeans and Arabs during historic times. There are three highly distinct lineages that make up the Orang Asli; Semang, Senoi and Proto-Malays. The Semang, who have 'Negrito' characteristics, represent the first human settlers in Peninsular Malaysia arriving from about 50,000ya. The Senoi later migrated from Indochina and are a mix between an Asian Neolithic population and the Semang. These Asian genomes probably came in before Austroasiatic languages arrived between 5000 and 4000years ago. Semang and Senoi both now speak Austro-Asiatic languages indicative of cultural diffusion from Senoi to Semang. In contrast, the Proto-Malays who came last to the southern part of this region speak Austronesian language and are Austronesians with some Negrito admixture. It is from this group that the contemporary Malays emerged. Here we provide an overview of the best available genetic evidences (single nucleotide polymorphisms, mitochondrial DNA, Y-chromosome, blood groups, human platelet antigen, human leukocyte antigen, human neutrophil antigen and killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor) supporting the complex genetic history of Peninsular Malaysia. Large scale sampling and high throughput genetic screening programmes such as those using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism analyses have provided insights into various ancestral and admixture genetic fractions in this region. Given the now extensive admixture present in the contemporary descendants of ancient sub-populations in Peninsular Malaysia, improved reconstruction of human migration history in this region will require new evidence from ancient DNA in well-preserved skeletons. All other aspects of the highly diverse and complex genetic makeup in Peninsular Malaysia should be

  19. Climate variability and malaria epidemics in the highlands of East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Simon I.; Shanks, G. Dennis; Stern, David I.; Snow, Robert W.; Randolph, Sarah E.; Rogers, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Malaria epidemics in the highlands of East Africa garner significant research attention, due, in part, to their proposed sensitivity to climate change. In a recent article, Zhou et al. claim that increases in climate variance, rather than simple increases in climate mean values, have had an important role in the resurgence of malaria epidemics in the East African highlands since the early 1980s. If proven, this would be an interesting result but we believe that the methods used do not test the hypothesis suggested. PMID:15664524

  20. Geochemistry and stratigraphic relations of middle Proterozoic rocks of the New Jersey Highlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Volkert, Richard A.; Drake, Avery Ala

    1999-01-01

    Middle Proterozoic rocks of the New Jersey Highlands consist of a basement of dacitic, tonalitic, trondhjemitic, and charnockitic rocks that constitute the Losee metamorphic suite. These rocks are unconformably overlain by a layered supracrustal sequence of quartzo-feldspathic and calcareous rocks. Abundant sheets of hornblende- and biotite-bearing rocks of the Byram intrusive suite and clinopyroxene-bearing rocks of the Lake Hopatcong intrusive suite were synkinematically emplaced at about 1,090 Ma. These intrusive suites constitute the Vernon Supersuite. The postorogenic Mount Eve Granite has been dated at 1,020?4 Ma and is confined to the extreme northern Highlands.

  1. Emergence or improved detection of Japanese encephalitis virus in the Himalayan highlands?

    PubMed

    Baylis, Matthew; Barker, Christopher M; Caminade, Cyril; Joshi, Bhoj R; Pant, Ganesh R; Rayamajhi, Ajit; Reisen, William K; Impoinvil, Daniel E

    2016-04-01

    The emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in the Himalayan highlands is of significant veterinary and public health concern and may be related to climate warming and anthropogenic landscape change, or simply improved surveillance. To investigate this phenomenon, a One Health approach focusing on the phylogeography of JEV, the distribution and abundance of the mosquito vectors, and seroprevalence in humans and animal reservoirs would be useful to understand the epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in highland areas. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Workshop on Pristine Highlands Rocks and the early History of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhi, J. (Editor); Ryder, G. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Oxide composition of the Moon, evidence for an initially totally molten Moon, geophysical contraints on lunar composition, random sampling of a layered intrusion, lunar highland rocks, early evolution of the Moon, mineralogy and petrology of the pristine rocks, relationship of the pristine nonmore rocks to the highlands soils and breccias, ferroan anorthositic norite, early lunar igneous history, compositional variation in ferroan anosthosites, a lunar magma ocean, deposits of lunar pristine rocks, lunar and planetary compositions and early fractionation in the solar nebula, Moon composition models, petrogenesis in a Moon with a chondritic refractory lithophile pattern, a terrestrial analog of lunar ilmenite bearing camulates, and the lunar magma ocean are summarized.

  3. Impact of Highland Topography Changes on Exposure to Malaria Vectors and Immunity in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Wanjala, Christine Ludwin; Kweka, Eliningaya J

    2016-01-01

    It is almost an axiom that in the African highlands (above 1,500 m) transmission of Plasmodium falciparum is limited primarily by low ambient temperature and that small changes in temperature could result in temporary favorable conditions for unstable transmission within populations that have acquired little functional immunity. The pattern of malaria transmission in the highland plateau ecosystems is less distinct due to the flat topography and diffuse hydrology resulting from numerous streams. The non-homogeneous distribution of larval breeding habitats in east African highlands obviously affects Anopheles spatial distribution which, consequently, leads to heterogeneous human exposure to malaria. Another delicate parameter in the fragile transmission risk of malaria in the highlands is the rapid loss of primary forest due to subsistence agriculture. The implication of this change in land cover on malaria transmission is that deforestation can lead to changes in microclimate of both adult and larval habitats hence increase larvae survival, population density, and gametocytes development in adult mosquitoes. Deforestation has been documented to enhancing vectorial capacity of Anopheles gambiae by nearly 100% compared to forested areas. The study was conducted in five different ecosystems in the western Kenya highlands, two U-shaped valleys (Iguhu, Emutete), two V-shaped valleys (Marani, Fort Ternan), and one plateau (Shikondi) for 16 months among 6- to 15-year-old children. Exposure to malaria was tested using circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and merozoite surface protein immunochromatographic antibody tests. Malaria parasite was examined using different tools, which include microscopy based on blood smears, rapid diagnostic test based on HRP 2 proteins, and serology based on human immune response to parasite and vector antigens have been also examined in the highlands in comparison with different topographical systems of western Kenya. The results suggested that

  4. 78 FR 50381 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Malaysia: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ...) Sdn. Bhd., and Charoen Pokphand Foods (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd., (collectively, the Asia Aquaculture... Aquaculture), Star 10.80 Feedmills (M) Sdn. Bhd. (Star Feedmills), and Charoen Pokphand Foods (Malaysia) Sdn... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Malaysia: Final...

  5. Gravity and topography of Venusian highlands: Implications for formation mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smrekar, Suzanne Elizabeth

    Gravity and topography data are used to determine the apparent compensation depths (ADC's) of thirteen venusian regions. The depths are interpreted in terms of the likely tectonic origins of each area. First, three geologically distinct regions are studied in detail by inverting Pioneer Venus line of sight gravity data to obtain a model of vertical gravity over Bell Regio (possible hot spot), Tellus Regio (tessera terrain), and Leda Planitia (plains). The admittance spectra, the geoid to topography ratio (GTR), and the ADC for each region are found. Each area has a distinct gravity signature. The shallow ADC at Tellus Regio (approximately 25 km) indicates that crustal compensation, possibly with some thermal compensation, is most likely. The large ADC (approximately 175 km) and GTR (20 m/km) along with an unusual admittance spectra at Bell Regio indicate that some dynamic compensation is necessary; crustal or thermal compensation may also be present. Leda Planitia has an intermediate ADC (approximately 65 km), which indicates either thermal or crustal compensation. Second, ADC's and GTR's for 12 venusian highland regions are estimated directly from the topography and line of sight gravity data. These features are: Asteria, Atla, Bell, Beta, Ovda, Phoebe, Tellus, Thetis, and Ulfrun Regiones; Nokomis, Gula, and Sappho Montes. The ADC's range is 50-270 km; the GTR's range is 7-31 m/km. Two distinct GTR groups are apparent. The lower GTR group is best modeled by compensation due to thermal thinning of the lithosphere; some minor component of dynamic or crustal compensation may also be present. A fit to the upper GTR group requires dynamic compensation; a lesser contribution from thermal or crustal compensation may also be present. Upper mantle convection without a low viscosity zone can fit the data. Although the convection parameters are not well constrained, the best fit occurs for a conductive lid thickness of 105 km and a Rayleigh number of 105. These results

  6. The Proposed U.S.-Malaysia Free Trade Agreement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-26

    while Malaysia was the United States’ tenth largest trading partner. The United States was Malaysia’s top export market and its second largest supplier... market access for U.S. exports of automobiles and agricultural crops. During a media roundtable discussion in December 2008, U.S. Ambassador to Malaysia ...discussions over opening up Malaysia’s financial markets to U.S. companies. Also, various interest groups in Malaysia – including an organization representing

  7. Review of the Burden of Esophageal Cancer in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Siti-Azrin, Ab Hamid; Wan-Nor-Asyikeen, Wan Adnan; Norsa'adah, Bachok

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the top leading causes of cancer-related deaths in Malaysia. To date, neither the prevalence nor incidence of esophageal cancer nationally have been recorded. Esophageal cancer remains a major and lethal health problem even if it is not common in Malaysia. The late presentation of esophageal cancer makes it a difficult and challenging medical problem. Therefore, more governmental and non-governmental organizations of Malaysia should emphasize primary and secondary prevention strategies.

  8. Geographical distribution of Musa gracilis Holttum in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norfazlina, B.; Wickneswari, R.; Choong, C. Y.

    2016-11-01

    Musa gracilis (Musaceae) is placed under section Callimusa and was considered endemic to Peninsular Malaysia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current occurrence of Musa gracilis in Peninsular Malaysia. The coordinates of each population was recorded using the Global Positioning System (GPS) and mapped to show the geographical distribution of Musa gracilis. This study revealed that Musa gracilis exhibits specific pattern of distribution, which exists only in a lowland areas on the eastern and southern part of Peninsular Malaysia.

  9. Nipah virus infection in bats (order Chiroptera) in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed Central

    Yob, J. M.; Field, H.; Rashdi, A. M.; Morrissy, C.; van der Heide, B.; Rota, P.; bin Adzhar, A.; White, J.; Daniels, P.; Jamaluddin, A.; Ksiazek, T.

    2001-01-01

    Nipah virus, family Paramyxoviridae, caused disease in pigs and humans in peninsular Malaysia in 1998-99. Because Nipah virus appears closely related to Hendra virus, wildlife surveillance focused primarily on pteropid bats (suborder Megachiroptera), a natural host of Hendra virus in Australia. We collected 324 bats from 14 species on peninsular Malaysia. Neutralizing antibodies to Nipah virus were demonstrated in five species, suggesting widespread infection in bat populations in peninsular Malaysia. PMID:11384522

  10. Malaysia: Political Transition and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-21

    Office, 2003), p.45. 3 “Mahathir’s Unity-Through Oil Proposal Underscores OIC Weakness ,” Stratfor, October 3, 2002. Malaysia : Political Transition and...Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RL32129 Malaysia : Political...REPORT DATE 21 OCT 2003 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Malaysia : Political Transition and Implications for U.S

  11. Sprouting Buds of Zebrafish Research in Malaysia: First Malaysia Zebrafish Disease Model Workshop.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Kazuhide Shaun; Tan, Pei Jean; Patel, Vyomesh

    2016-04-01

    Zebrafish is gaining prominence as an important vertebrate model for investigating various human diseases. Zebrafish provides unique advantages such as optical clarity of embryos, high fecundity rate, and low cost of maintenance, making it a perfect complement to the murine model equivalent in biomedical research. Due to these advantages, researchers in Malaysia are starting to take notice and incorporate the zebrafish model into their research activities. However, zebrafish research in Malaysia is still in its infancy stage and many researchers still remain unaware of the full potential of the zebrafish model or have limited access to related tools and techniques that are widely utilized in many zebrafish laboratories worldwide. To overcome this, we organized the First Malaysia Zebrafish Disease Model Workshop in Malaysia that took place on 11th and 12th of November 2015. In this workshop, we showcased how the zebrafish model is being utilized in the biomedical field in international settings as well as in Malaysia. For this, notable international speakers and those from local universities known to be carrying out impactful research using zebrafish were invited to share some of the cutting edge techniques that are used in their laboratories that may one day be incorporated in the Malaysian scientific community.

  12. Mitochondrial DNA Markers Reveal High Genetic Diversity but Low Genetic Differentiation in the Black Fly Simulium tani Takaoka & Davies along an Elevational Gradient in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Low, Van Lun; Adler, Peter H.; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Ya’cob, Zubaidah; Lim, Phaik Eem; Tan, Tiong Kai; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Chen, Chee Dhang; Norma-Rashid, Yusoff; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2014-01-01

    The population genetic structure of Simulium tani was inferred from mitochondria-encoded sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunits I (COI) and II (COII) along an elevational gradient in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. A statistical parsimony network of 71 individuals revealed 71 haplotypes in the COI gene and 43 haplotypes in the COII gene; the concatenated sequences of the COI and COII genes revealed 71 haplotypes. High levels of genetic diversity but low levels of genetic differentiation were observed among populations of S. tani at five elevations. The degree of genetic diversity, however, was not in accordance with an altitudinal gradient, and a Mantel test indicated that elevation did not have a limiting effect on gene flow. No ancestral haplotype of S. tani was found among the populations. Pupae with unique structural characters at the highest elevation showed a tendency to form their own haplotype cluster, as revealed by the COII gene. Tajima’s D, Fu’s Fs, and mismatch distribution tests revealed population expansion of S. tani in Cameron Highlands. A strong correlation was found between nucleotide diversity and the levels of dissolved oxygen in the streams where S. tani was collected. PMID:24941043

  13. Mitochondrial DNA markers reveal high genetic diversity but low genetic differentiation in the black fly Simulium tani Takaoka & Davies along an elevational gradient in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Low, Van Lun; Adler, Peter H; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Lim, Phaik Eem; Tan, Tiong Kai; Lim, Yvonne A L; Chen, Chee Dhang; Norma-Rashid, Yusoff; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2014-01-01

    The population genetic structure of Simulium tani was inferred from mitochondria-encoded sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunits I (COI) and II (COII) along an elevational gradient in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. A statistical parsimony network of 71 individuals revealed 71 haplotypes in the COI gene and 43 haplotypes in the COII gene; the concatenated sequences of the COI and COII genes revealed 71 haplotypes. High levels of genetic diversity but low levels of genetic differentiation were observed among populations of S. tani at five elevations. The degree of genetic diversity, however, was not in accordance with an altitudinal gradient, and a Mantel test indicated that elevation did not have a limiting effect on gene flow. No ancestral haplotype of S. tani was found among the populations. Pupae with unique structural characters at the highest elevation showed a tendency to form their own haplotype cluster, as revealed by the COII gene. Tajima's D, Fu's Fs, and mismatch distribution tests revealed population expansion of S. tani in Cameron Highlands. A strong correlation was found between nucleotide diversity and the levels of dissolved oxygen in the streams where S. tani was collected.

  14. Spatial patterns of seaweed distribution in Malaysia using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Du Hai; Sim, Jillian Ooi Lean; Fauzi, Rosmadi; Moi, Phang Siew

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this article is to represent spatial patterns of seaweed distribution in Malaysia. Seaweeds have been collected since 1984 along coastlines of 4675 km of peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak. However, there is no seaweed database and they cannot be displayed in a geographic view. Therefore, a database with 805 georeferenced observations was setup and GIS is used to analyze seaweed diversity based on this database. The highest number of observations is 94 which occur along east coastline of peninsular Malaysia. The highest number of species richness is 82 which are also along east coastline of peninsular Malaysia. Rhodophyta has the highest species richness while Chlorophyta has the least species richness.

  15. Improving efficacy of landscape interventions in the (semi) humid Ethiopian Highlands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite millions of dollars invested in soil and water conservation practices and other landscape interventions in Ethiopian highlands and billions of hours of food-for-work farm labor, sediment concentration in rivers is increasing. Possible ways to reverse the current trend has been investigated b...

  16. Building Climate Resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay Highlands: A Role for Earth System Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Simane, Belay; Habib, Shahid; Anderson, Martha C.; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Foltz, Jeremy D.

    2012-01-01

    The Blue Nile (Abay) Highlands of Ethiopia are characterized by significant interannual climate variability, complex topography and associated local climate contrasts, erosive rains and erodible soils, and intense land pressure due to an increasing population and an economy that is almost entirely dependent on smallholder, low-input agriculture. As a result, these highland zones are highly vulnerable to negative impacts of climate variability. As patterns of variability and precipitation intensity alter under anthropogenic climate change, there is concern that this vulnerability will increase, threatening economic development and food security in the region. In order to overcome these challenges and to enhance sustainable development in the context of climate change, it is necessary to establish climate resilient development strategies that are informed by best-available Earth System Science (ESS) information. This requirement is complicated by the fact that climate projections for the Abay Highlands contain significant and perhaps irreducible uncertainties. A critical challenge for ESS, then, is to generate and to communicate meaningful information for climate resilient development in the context of a highly uncertain climate forecast. Here we report on a framework for applying ESS to climate resilient development in the Abay Highlands, with a focus on the challenge of reducing land degradation. PMID:22470302

  17. Fluvial Degradation of the Highlands: The Terra Tyrrhena Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mest, S. C.; Crown, D. A.; Harbert, W.

    2002-01-01

    Geologic and geomorphic analyses of highland terrains reveal the effects of fluvial erosion by well-integrated valley networks. Hydrologic modeling using 128 pix/deg Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) gridded topography is being done to quantitatively characterize these systems. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR DETERMINATION AND PREDICTION OF FUNDAMENTAL FISH ASSEMBLAGES OF THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A statistical software tool, Stream Fish Community Predictor (SFCP), based on EMAP stream sampling in the mid-Atlantic Highlands, was developed to predict stream fish communities using stream and watershed characteristics. Step one in the tool development was a cluster analysis t...

  19. PREDICTION OF FUNDAMENTAL ASSEMBLAGES OF MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLAND STREAM FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A statistical software tool, the Stream Fish Assemblage Predictor (SFAP), based on stream sampling data collected by the EPA in the mid-Atlantic Highlands, was developed to predict potential stream fish communities using characteristics of the stream and its watershed.
    Step o...

  20. Changes in body melanisation and desiccation resistance in highland vs. lowland populations of D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Parkash, Ravi; Rajpurohit, Subhash; Ramniwas, Seema

    2008-06-01

    Wild caught samples of Drosophila melanogaster from five highland localities showed parallel changes in melanisation and desiccation resistance in darker versus lighter phenotypes, i.e. darker flies (>45% melanisation) showed significantly higher desiccation resistance than lighter flies (<30% melanisation). In order to find an association between body melanisation and desiccation resistance, highland and lowland populations from tropical and subtropical regions (11.15-31.06 degrees N) of the Indian subcontinent were raised and investigated at 21 degrees C for four physiological traits, i.e. per cent body melanisation, desiccation resistance, rate of water loss and rate of water absorption. On the basis of mother-offspring regression, body melanisation and desiccation resistance showed higher heritability (0.58-0.68) and thus these traits are suitable for laboratory analyses. Significantly higher melanisation as well as desiccation resistance were observed in highland populations as compared with lowland populations. The rates of water loss as well as absorption were negatively correlated with body melanisation, i.e. darker flies from highlands showed a reduced rate of water loss as well as a lower rate of water absorption while the reverse trend was observed in lighter flies from lowlands. On the basis of multiple regressions, significant effects due to combined altitude and latitude were observed for all the four physiological traits. Local climatic conditions (i.e. annual average temperature and relative humidity) helped in explaining parallel changes in body melanisation and desiccation resistance in D. melanogaster.

  1. Geochronology and petrogenesis of the western highlands alkali suite: Radiogenic isotopic evidence from Apollo 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Halliday, Alex N.

    1993-01-01

    Several rocks of alkalic affinity, from the western highlands of the Moon, have been analyzed for their Nd and Sr isotopic compositions. One sample yields a Sm-Nd mineral isochron of 4110 = 41 Ma. This age, in conjunction with U-Pb zircon ages on two other alkalic rocks from the Apollo 14 landing site suggests a distinct western highlands 'event' which was approximately 100 Ma in duration. Since the last dregs of the lunar magma ocean likely crystallized prior to 4.3 Ga, this alkalic 'event' may have included the re-melting of evolved plutons or the remobilization of urKREEP trapped liquid from upper mantle cumulates. Alkalic lithologies such as granites and felsites have been known from the Moon since the earliest days of the Apollo lunar sample returns. However, not until 1977 were alkali-rich rocks recognized from typical highlands suites such as ferroan anorthosites (FAN) and norites and Mg-suite rocks. In the intervening years, several other alkali suite samples have been discovered and characterized, mostly through labor-intesive breccia pull-apart studies of clasts and analyses of coarse-fine fractions of soils. We will speculate on the origins of this suite of lunar highlands rocks.

  2. Profiles of the Highland Lao Communities in the United States. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Doua; North, David

    This collection of statistical data on the 90 Highland Lao communities in the United States is designed to help members of those communities and people working in refugee-serving agencies to better assist this refugee group. Information was provided by community leaders, state refugee coordinators, and county human resource officials in 1988.…

  3. GPS constraints on broad scale extension in the Ethiopian Highlands and Main Ethiopian Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birhanu, Yelebe; Bendick, Rebecca; Fisseha, Shimeles; Lewi, Elias; Floyd, Michael; King, Robert; Reilinger, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Measurements from GPS sites spanning the Ethiopian Highlands, Main Ethiopian Rift, and Somali Platform in Ethiopia and Eritrea show that present-day finite strain rates throughout NE Africa can be approximated at the continent scale by opening on the MER. Most sites in the Ethiopian Highlands are consistent with the motion of the Nubian plate at the level of 1 mm/yr with 95% confidence. However, sites at least as far as 60 km west of the rift show higher velocities relative to the stable Nubian frame of 1-2 mm/yr, requiring a combination of localized and distributed deformation to accommodate the African extensional domain. Off-rift velocities are consistent with ongoing strain related to either high gravitational potential energy or intrusive magmatism away from midrift magmatic segments either on the western rift margin or within the Ethiopian Highlands, especially when combined with likely rheological differences between the Ethiopian Rift and Highlands. Velocities from the Somali Platform are less well determined with uncertainties and residuals from a Somali frame definition at the level of 2-3 mm/yr but without spatially correlated residuals.

  4. 78 FR 41891 - Proposed Establishment of the Upper Hiwassee Highlands Viticultural Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... consumer with adequate information as to the identity and quality of the product. The Alcohol and Tobacco... the Blue Ridge Mountain region, including the annual Taste of the Southern Highlands event in... terrain. The petition also states that the soil in these regions is likely to contain more...

  5. Response of soil respiration to experimental warming in a highland barley of the Tibet.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhi-Ming; Shen, Zhen-Xi; Fu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Highland barley is an important dominant crop in the Tibet and the croplands of the Tibet are experiencing obvious climatic warming. However, information about how soil respiration will respond to climatic warming in the highland barley system is still lacking. A field warming experiment using infrared heaters with two warming magnitudes was conducted in a highland barley system of the Tibet in May 2014. Five daily cycles of soil respiration was measured using a CO2 flux system (Li-8100, Li-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, NE, USA) during the period from early June to early September in 2014. The high and low experimental warming significantly increased soil temperature by 1.98 and 1.52 °C over the whole study period, respectively. The high experimental warming significantly decreased soil moisture. Soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity did not significantly change under both the high and low experimental warming. The response of soil respiration to experimental warming did not linearly correlate with warming magnitudes because a greater experimental warming resulted in a higher soil drying. Our findings suggested that clarifying the response of soil CO2 production and its temperature sensitivity to climatic warming need consider water availability in the highland barley system of the Tibet.

  6. The Highland Park Environmental Health Plan: Evaluation and Recommendations for Improving the Urban Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Commerce, Lansing. Community Planning Div.

    The Highland Park environmental health plan includes the following components: Legal and administrative and programmatic relationships, planning studies, residential environment, disease vector control, water and sewage systems, sanitation, air pollution, food protection, industrial and radiological health, and solid waste facilities. (JR)

  7. Participatory community-based gully rehabilitation on the Ethiopian Highlands: the case of Birr watershed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the last fifty years, sediment concentrations in the Ethiopian highlands have increased two- to three-fold. The current severity of gully erosion is a major cause of increased sediment loads, but gully rehabilitation has proven to be challenging as success rates have been small. This paper descri...

  8. Biophysical and economic assessment of a community-based rehabilitated gully in the Ethiopian highlands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the last fifty years, sediment concentrations in the Ethiopian highlands have increased two- to three-fold. The current severity of gully erosion is a major cause of increased sediment loads, but gully rehabilitation has proven to be challenging, with limited success. This paper describes gully r...

  9. Stability of diameter distributions in a managed uneven-aged oak forest in the Ozark Highlands

    Treesearch

    Zhiming Wang; Paul S. Johnson; H. E. Garrett; Stephen R. Shifley

    1997-01-01

    We studied a privately owned 156,000-acre oak-dominated forest in the Ozark Highlands of southern Missouri. The forest has been managed by the single-tree selection method since 1952. Using 40 years of continuous forest inventory records, we analyzed the stability of the shape of tree diameter distributions at the forest-wide scale. Results show that for trees ...

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDEX OF BIOTIC INTEGRITY FOR THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 1993 to 1996, fish assemblage data were collected from 309 wadeable streams in the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Highlands region as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program. Stream sites were selected with a probabilistic sampl...

  11. Geochronology and petrogenesis of the western highlands alkali suite: Radiogenic isotopic evidence from Apollo 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Halliday, Alex N.

    1993-01-01

    Several rocks of alkalic affinity, from the western highlands of the Moon, have been analyzed for their Nd and Sr isotopic compositions. One sample yields a Sm-Nd mineral isochron of 4110 = 41 Ma. This age, in conjunction with U-Pb zircon ages on two other alkalic rocks from the Apollo 14 landing site suggests a distinct western highlands 'event' which was approximately 100 Ma in duration. Since the last dregs of the lunar magma ocean likely crystallized prior to 4.3 Ga, this alkalic 'event' may have included the re-melting of evolved plutons or the remobilization of urKREEP trapped liquid from upper mantle cumulates. Alkalic lithologies such as granites and felsites have been known from the Moon since the earliest days of the Apollo lunar sample returns. However, not until 1977 were alkali-rich rocks recognized from typical highlands suites such as ferroan anorthosites (FAN) and norites and Mg-suite rocks. In the intervening years, several other alkali suite samples have been discovered and characterized, mostly through labor-intesive breccia pull-apart studies of clasts and analyses of coarse-fine fractions of soils. We will speculate on the origins of this suite of lunar highlands rocks.

  12. DECISION TOOL FOR RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEM MANAGMENT IN THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Canaan Valley Highlands of the Mid-Atlantic, riparian zone restoration has been identified as a critical watershed management practice not only for the ecosystem services provided but also for the potential socioeconomic growth from environmental investment and job creatio...

  13. Forest fuels and landscape-level fire risk assessment of the ozark highlands, Missouri

    Treesearch

    Michael C. Stambaugh; Richard P. Guyette; Daniel C. Dey

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe a fire risk assessment of the Ozark Highlands. Fire risk is rated using information on ignition potential and fuel hazard. Fuel loading, a component of the fire hazard module, is weakly predicted (r2 = 0.19) by site- and landscape-level attributes. Fuel loading does not significantly differ between Ozark ecological...

  14. 77 FR 68854 - Highland Associates, Inc. and Financial Investors Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... COMMISSION Highland Associates, Inc. and Financial Investors Trust; Notice of Application November 9, 2012... Investors Trust (the ``Trust''), on behalf of the Redmont Resolute Fund I and Redmont Resolute Fund II (the... appropriate in the public interest and consistent with the protection of investors and the purposes...

  15. Incorporating Scottish Highland Games and Activities into Your Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Steven L.; Hannon, James C.; Brusseau, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce a potentially new and exciting group of activities that can be taught in physical education. Activities based on Scottish Highland Games can be an interesting way to incorporate history and literature into the curriculum, as well as introduce students to a variety of unique physical activities. This…

  16. Constraints on Sources of Strong Crustal Magnetism in the Southern Highlands of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, C. A.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic models, guided by results of gravity-topography admittance studies, suggest that the anomaly pattern in the central southern highlands of Mars results from large blocks of coherently magnetized crust separated by 'non-magnetic' areas. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Building climate resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay Highlands: a role for Earth system sciences.

    PubMed

    Zaitchik, Benjamin F; Simane, Belay; Habib, Shahid; Anderson, Martha C; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Foltz, Jeremy D

    2012-02-01

    The Blue Nile (Abay) Highlands of Ethiopia are characterized by significant interannual climate variability, complex topography and associated local climate contrasts, erosive rains and erodible soils, and intense land pressure due to an increasing population and an economy that is almost entirely dependent on smallholder, low-input agriculture. As a result, these highland zones are highly vulnerable to negative impacts of climate variability. As patterns of variability and precipitation intensity alter under anthropogenic climate change, there is concern that this vulnerability will increase, threatening economic development and food security in the region. In order to overcome these challenges and to enhance sustainable development in the context of climate change, it is necessary to establish climate resilient development strategies that are informed by best-available Earth System Science (ESS) information. This requirement is complicated by the fact that climate projections for the Abay Highlands contain significant and perhaps irreducible uncertainties. A critical challenge for ESS, then, is to generate and to communicate meaningful information for climate resilient development in the context of a highly uncertain climate forecast. Here we report on a framework for applying ESS to climate resilient development in the Abay Highlands, with a focus on the challenge of reducing land degradation.

  18. An assessment of the spatial extent and condition of grasslands in the Apache Highlands ecoregion

    Treesearch

    Carolyn A. F. Enquist; David F. Gori

    2005-01-01

    Grasslands in the Apache Highlands ecoregion have experienced dramatic changes. To assess and identify remaining native grasslands for conservation planning and management, we used a combination of expert consultation and field verification. Over two-thirds of native grasslands have experienced shrub encroachment. More than 30% of these may be restorable with...

  19. Morphological dynamics of gully systems in the subhumid Ethiopian Highlands: The Debre Mawi watershed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gully expansion in the Ethiopian highlands dissects vital agricultural lands with the eroded materials adversely impacting downstream resources, for example as they accumulate in reservoirs. While gully expansion and rehabilitation have been more extensively researched in the semi-arid region of Eth...

  20. Making Hope and History Rhyme: Reflections on Popular Education and Leadership Following a Visit to Highlander

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Bríd; Finnegan, Fergal

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on our backgrounds as adult educators in Ireland and our experience at Highlander in 2014. We review our development as critical educators, exposed to deep inequalities in Irish society. We explore role of popular education in fostering social change, beginning with the commitment to equality and freedom, whereby, we produce…

  1. Gully head retreat in the sub humid northwestern Ethiopian highlands: the Ene-Chilala catchment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the northern highlands of Ethiopia, gully erosion is severe. Despite many efforts to implement gully prevention measures, controlling gully erosion remains a challenge. The objective is to better understand the regional gully erosion processes and to prevent gully head retreat. The study was cond...

  2. Impacts of Second Home Development on Housing Prices in the Southern Appalachian Highlands

    Treesearch

    Seong-Hoon Cho; David H. Newman; David N. Wear

    2003-01-01

    This study estimates the value of socioeconomic, spatial and environmental attributes on housing prices of both urban and rural communities in the primary and second home areas of the Southern Appalachian Highlands, using the hedonic property price model. Distance and environmental attributes are valued more heavily in the rural communities of the second home area than...

  3. Competing for Coffee Space: Development-Induced Displacement in the Central Highlands of Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doutriaux, Sylvie; Geisler, Charles; Shively, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam has emerged as the world's second largest producer of coffee. The benefits of this expanding coffee economy are substantial but not universal; their distribution follows ethnic lines despite government commitment to equalize welfare. Focusing on Dak Lak Province in Vietnam's Central Highlands, we investigate this commercial transformation…

  4. Interaction of MC1R and PMEL alleles on solid coat colors in Highland cattle.

    PubMed

    Schmutz, Sheila M; Dreger, Dayna L

    2013-02-01

    Six solid colors occur in Highland cattle: black, dun, silver dun and red, yellow, and white. These six coat colors are explained by a non-epistatic interaction of the genotypes at the MC1R and PMEL genes. A three base pair deletion in the PMEL gene leading to the deletion of a leucine from the signal peptide is observed in dilute-colored Highland cattle (c.50_52delTTC, p.Leu18del). The mutant PMEL allele acts in a semi-dominant manner. Dun Galloway cattle also have one copy of the deletion allele, and silver dun Galloway cattle have two copies. The presence of two adjacent leucine residues at the site of this deletion is highly conserved in human, horse, mouse and chicken as well as in cattle with undiluted coat colors. Highland and Galloway cattle thus exhibit a similar dose-dependent dilution effect based on the number of PMEL :c.50_51delTTC alleles, as Charolais cattle with PMEL :c.64G>A alleles. The PMEL :c.64G>A allele was not found in Highland or Galloway cattle.

  5. Four Pine Species Grown at Four Spacings on the Eastern Highland Rim, Tennessee, After 30 Years

    Treesearch

    Martin R. Schubert; John C. Rennie; Scott E. Schlarbaum

    2004-01-01

    In 1966, four pine species [loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), Virginia pine (P. virginiana Mill.), shortleaf pine (P. echinata Mill.) and eastern white pine (P. strobus L.)] were planted at four spacings (6 x 6 foot 9 x 9 foot 12 x 12 feet and 15 x 15 feet) on the eastern Highland Rim near...

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDEX OF BIOTIC INTEGRITY FOR THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 1993 to 1996, fish assemblage data were collected from 309 wadeable streams in the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Highlands region as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program. Stream sites were selected with a probabilistic sampl...

  7. Highland Children's Education Project: A Pilot Project on Bilingual Education in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleborg, Jorn

    2005-01-01

    The report was produced by UNESCO in partnership with CARE International in Cambodia for the "Highland Children's Education Project" (HCEP) to show how bilingual primary education has been implemented among the Tampuen and Kreung ethnic minority groups in six remote villages in the northeastern province of Ratanakiri, Cambodia. Central…

  8. Geochronology and petrogenesis of the western highlands alkali suite: Radiogenic isotopic evidence from Apollo 14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Halliday, Alex N.

    1993-03-01

    Several rocks of alkalic affinity, from the western highlands of the Moon, have been analyzed for their Nd and Sr isotopic compositions. One sample yields a Sm-Nd mineral isochron of 4110 = 41 Ma. This age, in conjunction with U-Pb zircon ages on two other alkalic rocks from the Apollo 14 landing site suggests a distinct western highlands 'event' which was approximately 100 Ma in duration. Since the last dregs of the lunar magma ocean likely crystallized prior to 4.3 Ga, this alkalic 'event' may have included the re-melting of evolved plutons or the remobilization of urKREEP trapped liquid from upper mantle cumulates. Alkalic lithologies such as granites and felsites have been known from the Moon since the earliest days of the Apollo lunar sample returns. However, not until 1977 were alkali-rich rocks recognized from typical highlands suites such as ferroan anorthosites (FAN) and norites and Mg-suite rocks. In the intervening years, several other alkali suite samples have been discovered and characterized, mostly through labor-intesive breccia pull-apart studies of clasts and analyses of coarse-fine fractions of soils. We will speculate on the origins of this suite of lunar highlands rocks.

  9. Compositional gradients across mare-highland contacts - The importance of lateral mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Mustard, J. F.; He, G.

    1997-03-01

    The relative importance of vertical vs lateral mass transport on the moon has been the object of much debate. With the new multispectral observations provided by the Clementine spacecraft, we can now quantitatively analyze the magnitude of transport and assess the processes contributing to the observed distributions. We are currently analyzing a number of mare-highland boundaries but most analyzed thus far exhibit similar systematics to that observed in the Grimaldi Basin. On the basis of these results of observation, we seek to interpret and model the observed variation of mare/highland abundance through the use of a mathematical model that can quantitatively reproduce spatial distributions and the absolute concentrations of 'exotic' components on the mare or highland side. In this analysis, we use a nonlinear model, which is more accurate for the intimate mixing expected in lunar surface. On the basis of nonlinear spectral mixing analysis, two critical issues are clarified: (1) there are apparently two distinct mixing zones, one near the contact that is very steep (5-15 percent/km) the other far from the contact that is very gentle (below 2 percent/km); (2) the distribution of mare and highland across the contact is remarkably symmetric.

  10. Constraints on Sources of Strong Crustal Magnetism in the Southern Highlands of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, C. A.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic models, guided by results of gravity-topography admittance studies, suggest that the anomaly pattern in the central southern highlands of Mars results from large blocks of coherently magnetized crust separated by 'non-magnetic' areas. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Citizens Advisory Committees for Virginia Highlands Community College. A Handbook of Information, Policies, and Procedures. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Highlands Community Coll., Abingdon.

    At Virginia Highlands Community College (VHCC), citizens advisory committees (CACs) were instrumental in the initiation of the first programs and services at the college and have continued to suggest needed additions, deletions, and modifications of offerings as the college has grown. This handbook outlines basic guidelines and procedures for…

  12. PREDICTION OF FUNDAMENTAL ASSEMBLAGES OF MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLAND STREAM FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A statistical software tool, the Stream Fish Assemblage Predictor (SFAP), based on stream sampling data collected by the EPA in the mid-Atlantic Highlands, was developed to predict potential stream fish communities using characteristics of the stream and its watershed.
    Step o...

  13. Differences in Optimal Growth Equations For White Oak in the Interior Highlands

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg; James M. Guldin

    2003-01-01

    Optimal growth equations are fundamental to many ecological simulators, but few have been critically examined. This paper reviews some of the behavior of the Potential Relative Increment (PRI) approach. Models for white oak were compared for Arkansas River Valley (ARV), Boston Mountains (BoM), Ouachita Mountains (OM), and Ozark Highlands (OH) ecological sections of the...

  14. Economic Determinants of Academic Failure and School Desertion in the Guatemala Highlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvajal, Manuel J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Explores, from an economic perspective, elementary school system adequacy in the rural, indigenous Guatemalan highlands. Estimates least-squares coefficients and elasticities separately for academic failure and school abandonment for each of four indigenous groups. The model explains academic failure better than school desertion. A national policy…

  15. Gypsy Moth Defoliation Potential in the Ouachita/Ozark Highlands Region

    Treesearch

    Andrew M. Liebhold; Kurt W. Gottschalk; James M. Guldin; Rose-Marie Muzika

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - The gypsy moth is expanding its range in North America and is likely to invade the Ouachita/ Ozark Highlands region sometime during this century. A previous analysis indicated that forests in this area are among the most susceptible in North America to defoliation by this insect. We used USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis...

  16. Embodying Authentic Leadership through Popular Education at Highlander Research and Education Center: A Qualitative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Griswold, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 and 2014, workshops were held at Highlander Research and Education Center that explored the topics of authentic leadership and popular education. The participants shared their experiences through reflective writing upon completion of the workshops and approximately a year following. These reflections were developed into a case study. This…

  17. Balsam fir conservation and red spruce ecosystem restoration initiatives in the West Virginia highlands

    Treesearch

    Corey A. Bonasso; David W. Saville

    2010-01-01

    The West Virginia Highlands Conservancy has been working for more than a decade to protect, conserve, and restore the spruce-fir forests in West Virginia. Beginning in the mid 1990s an effort was initiated to conserve balsam fir in West Virginia where it reaches its southern most extent in North America. This work led to further efforts which have focused on the...

  18. STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR DETERMINATION AND PREDICTION OF FUNDAMENTAL FISH ASSEMBLAGES OF THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A statistical software tool, Stream Fish Community Predictor (SFCP), based on EMAP stream sampling in the mid-Atlantic Highlands, was developed to predict stream fish communities using stream and watershed characteristics. Step one in the tool development was a cluster analysis t...

  19. The Nature and Role of Urban Places in the Southern Highlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiman, Robert E.; Lovingood, Paul E., Jr.

    The major towns and cities of the Southern Highlands are sometimes not categorized as "Appalachian," yet they have considerable impact on the character of the region. This study examines the distribution of selected human activities and quality of life variables in 156 counties in West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, North…

  20. Isostasy Models and Correlations of Geoid and Topography Data for Characteristic Highlands on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucinskas, A.; Turcotte, D.

    1994-01-01

    We have used the newest solution for the Venus geopotential, incorporating tracking data from the circularized orbit of Magellan, along with global Venus topography data to study correlations of geoid and topography variations in several regions characteristic of the principal classes of highlands found on Venus.

  1. Cross-Sectional Comparison of Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Native Peruvian Highlanders and Lowlanders.

    PubMed

    Pham, Luu V; Meinzen, Christopher; Arias, Rafael S; Schwartz, Noah G; Rattner, Adi; Miele, Catherine H; Smith, Philip L; Schneider, Hartmut; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y; Checkley, William; Schwartz, Alan R

    2017-03-01

    Pham, Luu V., Christopher Meinzen, Rafael S. Arias, Noah G. Schwartz, Adi Rattner, Catherine H. Miele, Philip L. Smith, Hartmut Schneider, J. Jaime Miranda, Robert H. Gilman, Vsevolod Y. Polotsky, William Checkley, and Alan R. Schwartz. Cross-sectional comparison of sleep-disordered breathing in native Peruvian highlanders and lowlanders. High Alt Med Biol. 18:11-19, 2017.

  2. Persistence of Allegheny woodrats Neotoma magister across the mid-Atlantic Appalachian Highlands landscape, USA

    Treesearch

    W. Mark Ford; Steven B. Castleberry; Michael T. Mengak; Jane L. Rodrigue; Daniel J. Feller; Kevin R. Russell

    2006-01-01

    We examined a suite of macro-habitat and landscape variables around active and inactive Allegheny woodrat Neotoma magister colony sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the mid-Atlantic Highlands of Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia using an information-theoretic modeling approach. Logistic regression analyses suggested that Allegheny woodrat presence was related...

  3. Site factors influencing oak decline in the interior highlands of Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma

    Treesearch

    Edward A. Poole; Eric Heitzman; James M. Guldin

    2006-01-01

    Oak decline is affecting the forests in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. In 2002 and 2003, field plots were established throughout the region to evaluate the influence of topographic position and aspect on oak decline. Density and basal area of dead and dying oaks did not significantly differ by either topographic position or aspect. Lack of...

  4. Competing for Coffee Space: Development-Induced Displacement in the Central Highlands of Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doutriaux, Sylvie; Geisler, Charles; Shively, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam has emerged as the world's second largest producer of coffee. The benefits of this expanding coffee economy are substantial but not universal; their distribution follows ethnic lines despite government commitment to equalize welfare. Focusing on Dak Lak Province in Vietnam's Central Highlands, we investigate this commercial transformation…

  5. Constraints on the Impact-Accreted Carapace Hypothesis for the Lunar Farside Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, P. H.

    2012-03-01

    The recent proposal that the an impact-accreted carapace accounts for the greater thickness of the Moon's farside highlands crust is not plausible. The carapace would not have appropriately low density, nor the appropriate Al_2O_3-rich composition.

  6. Impacts of shortleaf pine-hardwood forest management on soils in the Ouachita Highlands: A review

    Treesearch

    Hal O. Liechty; Michael G. Shelton; Kenneth R. Luckow; Donald J. Turton

    2002-01-01

    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) is the most ecologically and economically important tree species in the Ouachita Highlands of the southcentral United States. This species can occur in relatively pure stands but most frequently exists in mixed stands with various hardwood species. Because of the diversity of land ownership, public concerns about...

  7. Oak mortality associated with crown dieback and oak borer attack in the Ozark Highlands

    Treesearch

    Zhaofei Fan; John M. Kabrick; Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; Randy G. Jensen

    2008-01-01

    Oak decline and related mortality have periodically plagued upland oak–hickory forests, particularly oak species in the red oak group, across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma since the late 1970s. Advanced tree age and periodic drought, as well as Armillaria root fungi and oak borer attack are believed to contribute to oak decline and mortality....

  8. Oak mortality associated with crown dieback and oak borer attack in the Ozark Highlands

    Treesearch

    Zhaofei Fan; John M. Kabrick; Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; Randy G. Jensen

    2008-01-01

    Oak decline and related mortality have periodically plagued upland oak-hickory forests, particularly oak species in the red oak group, across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma since the late 1970s. Advanced tree age and periodic drought, as well as Armillaria root fungi and oak borer attack are believed to contribute to oak decline and mortality....

  9. Returning fire to Ozark Highland forest ecosystems: Effects on advance regeneration

    Treesearch

    Daniel C. Dey; George Hartman

    2005-01-01

    In mature forests of the Ozark Highlands, MO, USA, we evaluated fire effects on the survival and growth of tree seedlings and saplings (i.e., advance regeneration), and used this information to develop species-specific models that predict the probability of survival based on initial tree size and number of times burned. A 1000 ha forest area was divided into five units...

  10. Modeling the regeneration of oak stands in the Missouri Ozark Highlands

    Treesearch

    Daniel C. Dey; Paul S. Johnson; H.E. Garrett

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a method for modeling the regeneration of even-aged oak stands in the Ozark Highlands of southern Missouri. The approach is based on (i) a growth model that is applicable to both oak sprouts and advance reproduction and (ii) a method for probabilistically estimating future size distributions of trees. The...

  11. Making Hope and History Rhyme: Reflections on Popular Education and Leadership Following a Visit to Highlander

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Bríd; Finnegan, Fergal

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on our backgrounds as adult educators in Ireland and our experience at Highlander in 2014. We review our development as critical educators, exposed to deep inequalities in Irish society. We explore role of popular education in fostering social change, beginning with the commitment to equality and freedom, whereby, we produce…

  12. Rural Health Care Delivery and Nutrition Program Implementation: A Case Study from Highland Guatemala.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodeheaver, Daniel G.; Rodeheaver, Denise P.

    Between 1978 and 1980, qualitative and numerical data were collected in a health post facility located in Patzite, a rural village in highland Guatemala, in order to determine the effectiveness of rural health service delivery, including nutrition programs. Data were collected by: (1) interviews as to purposes and goals of general health care; (2)…

  13. An unusual case of urinary incontinence in an intersex West Highland white terrier.

    PubMed

    Connery, Neil A; Spotswood, Tim

    2012-11-01

    A 5-year-old neutered female West Highland white terrier dog was presented with a history of congenital urinary incontinence that had become refractory to medical management. Complex urogenital anomalies including urethrovestibular and vestibuloperineal fistulae with low vulvar position along with a penoclitoris were present. Vaginectomy with perineal urethral reconstruction resolved the incontinence.

  14. DECISION TOOL FOR RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEM MANAGMENT IN THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Canaan Valley Highlands of the Mid-Atlantic, riparian zone restoration has been identified as a critical watershed management practice not only for the ecosystem services provided but also for the potential socioeconomic growth from environmental investment and job creatio...

  15. A Study of Service-Learning at Virginia Highlands Community College and Mountain Empire Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Alice

    This qualitative study was conducted to explore student perceptions of service learning as well as the importance of service learning to community college students. Data were collected through interviews with 24 community college participants from Virginia Highlands Community College and Mountain Empire Community College, both in southwest…

  16. Highland High School Vocational Television; a Salt Lake Schools Exemplary Vocational Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, LaMar C.

    The Highland High School (Salt Lake City, Utah) vocational television production program was designed to provide students with marketable skills in color television studio operation. Among the skills covered in the program were camera set-up and operation, video engineering, production switching, directing, television lighting, audio engineering,…

  17. Educational and Occupational Attainment of Migrants and Nonmigrants from a Colombian Highland Community. Research Paper 63.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Wava G.

    This research report focuses on the educational, migrational, and occupational characteristics of the rural-born people from various class origins in a highland minifundia community near Bogota, Colombia. Three main objectives are to describe the nature of growth and adjustment in the labor force under conditions of rapid population growth and…

  18. Cofiring biomass with coal: Opportunities for Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, A. A.; Shamsuddin, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Malaysia generated 108,175 GWh of electricity in 2010 where 39.51 % was sourced from coal. Coal power generation is also planned to overtake natural gas as the main fuel for electricity generation within the next two decades. Malaysia also has a vast biomass resource that is currently under-utilised for electricity generation. This paper studies the option of cofiring biomass in existing Malaysian coal power plants to increase the nation's renewable energy mix as well as to reduce its power sector carbon dioxide emission. Benefits of cofiring to the nation were discussed and agricultural residues from palm oil and paddy was identified as a potential source of biomass for cofiring. It was also found that there is a willingness for cofiring by stakeholders but barriers existed in the form of technical issues and lack of clear direction and mechanism.

  19. The Bulk Density of the Tyrrhena Patera Highland Volcano, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grott, M.; Wieczorek, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Tyrrhena Patera is a low-relief, central-vent volcano located in the southern highlands of Mars, northeast of the Hellas impact basin. The main edifice contains few primary lave flow features and the flanks of the volcano are heavily eroded, indicating that they are composed of friable material which could have been formed by pyroclastic flows. The volcano itself was emplaced in the Noachian, but was subsequently modified during the Hesperian period, with episodes of resurfacing - probably driven by erosion - stretching well into the Amazonian period. Resurfacing of the caldera rille floor and upper shield probably mark the cessation of volcanic activity at Tyrrhena Patera around 800 Ma ago, and the geological evidence suggests that activity at Tyrrhena Patera transitioned from dominantly explosive to dominantly effusive eruptions. In summary, Tyrrhena Patera is generally thought to be predominantly composed of multi-layered, compacted ignimbrite deposits. The Tyrrhena Patera volcano is associated with a well localized positive free-air gravity anomaly and a good correlation exists with the features topography. We have used the latest gravity field model for Mars expanded up to degree and order 110 to model the localized admittance spectrum at Tyrrhena Patera considering surface as well as subsurface loading. We use a spherical cap localization window with a cap diameter of 7 degrees and a spherical harmonic bandwidth of 37. Ignoring the lowest degree terms that may be influenced by the Tharsis signal, we analyze the localized admittance in the degree range 42 to 57. The observed admittance is then compared to a forward model which is localized in the same manner as the data. In this way, we have quantified the range of admissible load densities as well as the admissible magnitude of a potentially present subsurface load. Modelling suggests that load densities need to be between 3290 and 3450 kg/m3 if no subsurface loads are present. If subsurface loads in the form

  20. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development.

  1. Maritime Security: Malaysia’s Persistent Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Malaysian Maritime Zone is safe and peaceful to maritime communities. To minimize loss of lives and properties at sea based on a set standard. To...navies, and air forces of the littoral states.”20 In his keynote address at the 2011 Shangri-La Dialogue, Prime Minister Dato ’ Sri Najib Tun Razak...Monitor, Vol. 4 No. 3, 2006. Razak, Dato ’ Sri Najib Tun, Prime Minister Malaysia. Keynote Address. Shangri-La Dialogue. Singapore, June 3, 2011

  2. Occupational rehabilitation in Singapore and Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kay-Fei; Tan, Charlie W C; Yeo, Doreen S C; Tan, Heidi S K; Tan, F L; Tan, E W; Szeto, Grace P Y; Cheng, Andy S K

    2011-03-01

    Asia is the new and favored magnet of economic attention and foreign investments after it made an almost uneventful rebound from the depths of financial crisis of 2008/2009. Not many Western observers fully understand the diversity that is Asia other than perhaps its 2 growing economic giants of China and India. Indeed many smaller countries like Singapore and Malaysia in South East Asia along with Australia and Hong Kong (a Special Administrative Region within China) look to symbiotic relationships with these two economic giants. The purpose of this discussion paper is to examine the current issues related to the development and provision of occupational rehabilitation services in Singapore and Malaysia with a forward-looking view of how Asia's different developing societies could potentially benefit from better alignment of occupational rehabilitation practices and sharing of expertise through international collaboration and dialogue platforms. Seven therapists and one physician who are frequently involved in occupational rehabilitation services in their home countries critically reviewed the current issues in Singapore and Malaysia which included analysis of the prevalence and cost of occupational injury; overview of workers' compensation system; current practices, obstacles, and challenges in providing occupational rehabilitation and return to work practices. They also offered opinions about how to improve the occupational rehabilitation programs of their two home countries. Even though Malaysia and Singapore are two different countries, in many ways their current provision of occupational rehabilitation services and the problems they face with are very similar. There is a lot of room for systemic improvements that require government support and action. Most prominently, the training of more healthcare professionals in the assessment and rehabilitation of the injured worker should be encouraged. There could be better liaison between the many stakeholders and

  3. Impact of epilepsy on employment in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kheng Seang; Wo, Su Woan; Wong, Mee Hoo; Tan, Chong Tin

    2013-04-01

    Studies on the impact of epilepsy on employment have been extensively performed in European and some Asian countries but not in Southeast Asia such as Malaysia, a country with a robust economy, low unemployment rate, and minimal social security benefits for the unemployed. This study aims to determine the impact of epilepsy on employment in Malaysia. Two hundred fifty subjects (52.4% male) with a mean age of 35.2 years were recruited from a tertiary neurology clinic in Malaysia. Of the 250 subjects, 69.6% were employed full-time, 10.4% employed part-time, and 20.0% unemployed. Furthermore, 42.8% had a monthly income below poverty line, i.e., RM1000 (USD 320). Unemployment was associated with female gender, lower education level, younger age of seizure onset, less responsiveness to first antiepileptic drug (AED), higher seizure frequency and less seizure freedom, and higher total score in seizure severity scale. The age of onset (p=0.017), total score in the seizure severity scale (p=0.018), and the responsiveness to first AED (p=0.045) were the significant predictors of unemployment. Patients with part-time employment had similar education level with those who were unemployed, but they are more likely to be male and married, with intermediate age of seizure onset and seizure severity but with higher seizure frequency. As compared to their age-matched siblings, the patients were more likely to be unemployed (OR 13.1), to be single, and to have lower education level and lower monthly income. Patients with epilepsy have high unemployment rate in Malaysia despite a robust economy and minimal social security. Besides those who were unemployed, many were in part-time or low-income employment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Politics of Meritocracy in Malaysia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    emphasizing personal contributions rather than privileges should be investigated . This paper weighs the merits of affirmative action policies and meritocracy...be investigated . This paper weighs the merits of affirmative action policies and meritocracy as approaches to national integration in Malaysia, and...ways of life and is segregated, to some extent, by their place of residence, education and occupation. This imbalance of economic development has not

  5. Labor markets and economic development in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Smith, J P

    1991-01-01

    A researcher analyzed data on male workers from 1262 households from Peninsular Malaysia (1976-1977 Malaysian Family Life Survey) to identify the leading effects of economic development for earnings and employment patterns within labor markets. All 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia profited from the increasing levels of real income over time. The relative income of ethnic Malays, the poorest socioeconomic class, increased more so than the Chinese and Indians. Yet the income of Chinese was 108% higher than Malays and that of Indians was 60%. The difference between Malays and Chinese grew considerably as men aged. Further economic growth resulted in higher earnings for young men than for older men. In addition, the more educated men were the higher their earnings. In fact, education was the most significant determinant of time related growth in incomes. Further, income of men who participated in job training programs grew 2 times as fast than that of men who did not participate in job training programs. Lastly, economic growth increased earnings of men in urban areas more so than those in rural areas. Malaysia had put a lot of time and resources in research and development in rubber and rice production which has resulted in continual introduction of new varieties of rubber trees and rice. These new varieties have increased production considerably. In conclusion, Malaysia was able to experience economic growth because it invested in education and job training for male workers and in research and development to advance production of its 2 most important commodities--rubber and rice.

  6. [Hemorrhagic dengue fever after trip to Malaysia].

    PubMed

    Hafner, C; Koellner, K; Vogt, T; Landthaler, M; Szeimies, R-M

    2006-08-01

    A 39-year-old patient developed a disseminated rash with scattered petechiae, fever, malaise and arthralgia after a trip to Malaysia. The patient displayed increasing dengue IgG titers and borderline dengue IgM titers. Dengue fever with a hemorrhagic course is a rare condition in adult patients. Patients who have previously had dengue fever and retained non-neutralizing heterotypic antibodies are more likely to develop this complication via the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement.

  7. Human infection with Dirofilaria repens in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, K C; Pathmanathan, R; Krishnan, R

    1996-09-01

    Human dirofilariasis is a rare infection in Malaysia. Thus far, only two human cases have been reported viz. Dirofilaria immitis and D. (Nochtiella) repens and in both instances, adult worms were recovered from infected patients. The two cases reported in the present study, one from Melaka and the other from Penang, were diagnosed histologically. Based on the diagnostic criteria for identifying Dirofilaria in tissue sections, the parasites were identified as D. (Nochtiella) repens.

  8. Improving cancer pain management in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Within Malaysia's otherwise highly accessible public healthcare system, palliative medicine is still an underdeveloped discipline. Government surveys have shown that opioid consumption in Malaysia is dramatically lower than the global average, indicating a failure to meet the need for adequate pain control in terminally ill patients. Indeed, based on daily defined doses, only 24% of patients suffering from cancer pain receive regular opioid analgesia. The main barriers to effective pain control in Malaysia relate to physicians' and patients' attitudes towards the use of opioids. In one survey of physicians, 46% felt they lacked knowledge to manage patients with severe cancer pain, and 64% feared effects such as respiratory depression. Fear of addiction is common amongst patients, as is confusion regarding the legality of opioids. Additional barriers include the fact that no training in palliative care is given to medical students, and that smaller clinics often lack facilities to prepare and stock cheap oral morphine. A number of initiatives aim to improve the situation, including the establishment of palliative care departments in hospitals and implementation of post-graduate training programmes. Campaigns to raise public awareness are expected to increase patient demand for adequate cancer pain relief as part of good care. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Micronutrient status and intervention programs in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Khor, Geok Lin

    2005-06-01

    Approximately 70% of the world's malnourished children live in Asia, giving that region the highest concentration of childhood malnutrition worldwide. Prevalence of stunting and underweight are high especially in south Asia where one in every two preschool children is stunted. Iron-deficiency anemia affects 40%-50% of preschool and primary schoolchildren. Nearly half of all vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia in the world occurs in south and southeast Asia. Iodine deficiency disorders have resulted in high goiter rates in India, Pakistan, and parts of Indonesia. Compared with other developing countries in Asia, the nutrition situation in Malaysia is considerably better, owing to rapid economic and socioeconomic development that has occurred since Malaysia gained its independence in 1957. Prevalence of undernutrition and micronutrient deficiency is markedly lower in Malaysian children. Nonetheless, undernutrition in the form of underweight, stunting, and anemia can be found in poor communities throughout the country. A prevalence of 25% underweight and 35% stunting is reported among young children from poor rural households. Anemia and subclinical forms of vitamin A deficiency were reported in children under 5 years old. Typical of a country in nutrition transition, Malaysia faces the dual burden of malnutrition in children, with the persistence of under-nutrition problems especially among the poor and the emerging overweight problem especially in urban areas. Since 1996, nutrition programs of the government sector are coordinated under the National Plan of Action for Nutrition. These activities and other nutrition intervention efforts by other agencies are discussed in this paper.

  10. Rethinking health care commercialization: evidence from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nwagbara, Vitalis Chukwudi; Rasiah, Rajah

    2015-11-19

    Against the backdrop of systemic inefficiency in the public health care system and the theoretical claims that markets result in performance and efficiency improvement, developing countries' governments have been rapidly commercializing health care delivery. This paper seeks to determine whether commercialization through an expansion in private hospitals has led to performance improvements in public hospitals. Inpatient utilization records of all public hospitals in Peninsular Malaysia over the period 2006-2010 were used in this study. These records were obtained from the Ministry of Health. The study relied on utilization ratios, bed occupancy rates (BOR), bed turnover rates (BTR) and average length of stay (ALOS). The data were analyzed using SPSS 22 Statistical Software and the Pabon Lasso technique. Over 60 % of public hospitals in Malaysia are inefficient and perform sub-optimally. Average BOR among the public hospitals was 56 % in 2006 and 61 % in 2010. There was excessive BTR of 65 and 73 times within the period. Overall, the ALOS was low, falling from 3.4 days in 2006 to 3.1 days in 2010. This study demonstrates that commercialization has not led to performance improvements in the public health care sector in Malaysia. The evidence suggests that efforts to improve performance will require a focus directly on public hospitals.

  11. Heroin dependence and HIV infection in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chawarski, Marek C; Mazlan, Mahmud; Schottenfeld, Richard S

    2006-04-01

    Malaysia is experiencing severe problems with heroin dependence and HIV infection. This, study evaluated drug use and other HIV risk behaviors and their association with HIV and other infectious diseases in heroin-dependent subjects enrolled in a clinical trial of drug abuse treatment in Muar, Malaysia. Baseline assessment of treatment-seeking subjects (n=177) included the Addiction Severity Index; AIDS Risk Inventory; serological tests for HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C; and chest X-ray. All of the subjects were male; 67.8% were Malays, 28.8% Chinese, and 2.3%. Indian. Subjects had a mean (SD) age of 37.2 (9.1) years and 14.4 (8.5) years of using heroin; 76.3% reported lifetime injection drug use (IDU), and 41.5% reported current IDU; 30 of 156 (19.2%) tested HIV positive, 143 of 159 (89.9%) tested hepatitis C positive, and 25 of 159 (15.7%) had radiological evidence of pulmonary tuberbulosis. Malay subjects had a significantly higher prevalence of current IDU, needle sharing (p<0.01), and HIV infection (p<0.05) compared with Chinese subjects. Lifetime IDU, needle sharing, lack of consistent condom use, and Malay ethnicity were significantly associated with HIV infection. The high prevalence of HIV infection among heroin-dependent individuals, in Malaysia supports the important of interventions to reduce the major risk factors for HIV, including IDU, needle sharing, and unprotected sex.

  12. Demand analysis of tobacco consumption in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ross, Hana; Al-Sadat, Nabilla A M

    2007-11-01

    We estimated the price and income elasticity of cigarette demand and the impact of cigarette taxes on cigarette demand and cigarette tax revenue in Malaysia. The data on cigarette consumption, cigarette prices, and public policies between 1990 and 2004 were subjected to a time-series regression analysis applying the error-correction model. The preferred cigarette demand model specification resulted in long-run and short-run price elasticities estimates of -0.57 and -0.08, respectively. Income was positively related to cigarette consumption: A 1% increase in real income increased cigarette consumption by 1.46%. The model predicted that an increase in cigarette excise tax from Malaysian ringgit (RM) 1.60 to RM2.00 per pack would reduce cigarette consumption in Malaysia by 3.37%, or by 806,468,873 cigarettes. This reduction would translate to almost 165 fewer tobacco-related lung cancer deaths per year and a 20.8% increase in the government excise tax revenue. We conclude that taxation is an effective method of reducing cigarette consumption and tobacco-related deaths while increasing revenue for the government of Malaysia.

  13. Retention among ART patients in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea: evaluating the PAPUA model.

    PubMed

    Das, Sarthak; Carmone, Andy; Franke, Molly F; Frank, Dale; Kiromat, Hannelly; Kaima, Petronia; Kiromat, Mobumo

    2014-02-01

    Despite more than 10,000 patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), there remains a dearth of operational research in Papua New Guinea related to HIV service delivery. This study examined the effectiveness of a locally developed model of HIV service delivery called PAPUA (Patient and Provider Unified Approach) in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea. The model emphasizes coordinated patient and provider support along with decentralized services to rural districts in the Highlands. We conducted a chart review among HIV-infected adults on ART at clinics in Eastern Highlands Province, where the PAPUA model was implemented in addition to the standard of care, and in Western Highlands Province, where the standard of care was implemented. We calculated yearly retention rates and used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses to compare retention rates across the provinces. Data for 2457 patients from the 2 provinces were analyzed. Among patients receiving ART under the PAPUA model in Eastern Highlands, the 12-, 24-, 36-, and 48-month retention proportions were 0.79, 0.73, 0.68, and 0.63, respectively. When we compared retention probabilities across the 2 provinces, patients receiving care under the PAPUA model had a 15% lower rate of attrition from care during the first 4 years of ART (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% confidence interval: 0.74 to 0.99; P = 0.03), after adjusting for age, gender, and year of enrollment. The PAPUA model seems to be a promising intervention although it is inextricably linked to the limitations posed by a resource-constrained health system.

  14. Detailed mapping of detached plateaus and knobby terrain across the highland/lowland boundary on Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, H.; Semeniuk, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The present-day boundary between the cratered highlands and northern lowland plains on Mars represent a major physiographic landform. In some regions there is clear evidence of a southward migration of this boundary. The authors have mapped features which may be relict pieces of highlands; flat-topped, angular mesas which we call detached plateaus, knobby terrain and partial craters to determine where ancient cratered terrain may have been in the past. Most of the detached plateaus and knobby terrain lie along or slightly north of the present-day highland boundary, but significant occurrences are also found at high northern latitudes in several locations. They have also identified, mapped and measured all symmetric knobs visible on the 1:2,000,000 controlled photomosaics with the long dimension greater than or equal to 10 km and classified them by shape. Between +65/sup 0/ and -45/sup 0/ there are 1634 such features, many of which are concentrated along the highland/lowland boundary or around the rims of major impact basins such as Isidis, Argyre and Hellas. The most common shape is elliptical (79%) followed by circular (11%) and triangular or wedge-shaped (6%). Globally, all types share a similar decrease in number with increasing size. Regionally, there are significant differences in the size-frequency distributions that seem to be related to their locations; whether the knobs are associated with impact basin rims, the highland/lowland boundary or volcanic plains. There are similar variations in the shape-size characteristics of the elliptical knobs.

  15. The meteorology of the Western Indian Ocean, and the influence of the East African Highlands.

    PubMed

    Slingo, Julia; Spencer, Hilary; Hoskins, Brian; Berrisford, Paul; Black, Emily

    2005-01-15

    This paper reviews the meteorology of the Western Indian Ocean and uses a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model to investigate the influence of the East African Highlands on the climate of the Indian Ocean and its surrounding regions. The new 44-year re-analysis produced by the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) has been used to construct a new climatology of the Western Indian Ocean. A brief overview of the seasonal cycle of the Western Indian Ocean is presented which emphasizes the importance of the geography of the Indian Ocean basin for controlling the meteorology of the Western Indian Ocean. The principal modes of inter-annual variability are described, associated with El Nino and the Indian Ocean Dipole or Zonal Mode, and the basic characteristics of the subseasonal weather over the Western Indian Ocean are presented, including new statistics on cyclone tracks derived from the ECMWF re-analyses. Sensitivity experiments, in which the orographic effects of East Africa are removed, have shown that the East African Highlands, although not very high, play a significant role in the climate of Africa, India and Southeast Asia, and in the heat, salinity and momentum forcing of the Western Indian Ocean. The hydrological cycle over Africa is systematically enhanced in all seasons by the presence of the East African Highlands, and during the Asian summer monsoon there is a major redistribution of the rainfall across India and Southeast Asia. The implied impact of the East African Highlands on the ocean is substantial. The East African Highlands systematically freshen the tropical Indian Ocean, and act to focus the monsoon winds along the coast, leading to greater upwelling and cooler sea-surface temperatures.

  16. Bulk hydrogen abundances in the lunar highlands: Measurements from orbital neutron data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, David J.; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Plescia, Jeffrey B.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Maurice, Sylvestre; Prettyman, Thomas H.

    2015-07-01

    The first map of bulk hydrogen concentrations in the lunar highlands region is reported. This map is derived using data from the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer (LP-NS). We resolve prior ambiguities in the interpretation of LP-NS data with respect to non-polar hydrogen concentrations by comparing the LP-NS data with maps of the 750 nm albedo reflectance, optical maturity, and the wavelength position of the thermal infrared Christiansen Feature. The best explanation for the variations of LP-NS epithermal neutron data in the lunar highlands is variable amounts of solar-wind-implanted hydrogen. The average hydrogen concentration across the lunar highlands and away from the lunar poles is 65 ppm. The highest hydrogen values range from 120 ppm to just over 150 ppm. These values are consistent with the range of hydrogen concentrations from soils and regolith breccias at the Apollo 16 highlands landing site. Based on a moderate-to-strong correlation of epithermal neutrons and orbit-based measures of surface maturity, the map of highlands hydrogen concentration represents a new global maturity index that can be used for studies of the lunar soil maturation process. We interpret these hydrogen concentrations to represent a bulk soil property related to the long-term impact of the space environment on the lunar surface. Consequently, the derived hydrogen concentrations are not likely related to the surficial enhancements (top tens to hundreds of microns) or local time variations of OH/H2O measured with spectral reflectance data.

  17. Outbreak of Human Infection with Sarcocystis nesbitti, Malaysia, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Teoh, Boon-Teong; Sam, Sing-Sin; Chang, Li-Yen; Johari, Jefree; Hooi, Poh-Sim; Lakhbeer-Singh, Harvinder-Kaur; Italiano, Claire M.; Omar, Sharifah F. Syed; Wong, Kum-Thong; Ramli, Norlisah; Tan, Chong-Tin

    2013-01-01

    An outbreak of fever associated with myalgia and myositis occurred in 2012 among 89 of 92 college students and teachers who visited Pangkor Island, Malaysia. The Sarcocystis nesbitti 18S rRNA gene and sarcocysts were obtained from muscle tissues of 2 students. Our findings indicate emergence of S. nesbitti infections in humans in Malaysia. PMID:24274071

  18. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murugasu, V.

    Work oriented education has been tied to national development in Malaysia since the 1960's. Increasing population, unemployment, and shortages of skilled manpower led the government to relate education more closely to work and develop technical and vocational education. Malaysia extended basic education to lower secondary manpower needs; and…

  19. A new flavone from Malaysia Borneo Marsdenia tinctoria.

    PubMed

    Mohd Nasuha, Nur Atiqah; Choo, Yeun-Mun

    2016-07-01

    Marsdenia tinctoria is an indigo producing plant commonly found in Borneo, Malaysia. In this present study, one new flavone kapitone (1) and three known compounds, that is 3,2'-dihydroxyflavone (2), 1-methylcyclobutene (3) and dimethyl isatoate (4) were isolated from the Malaysia Borneo M. tinctoria R. Br. (Apocynaceae). These compounds were isolated and characterised using extensive chromatographic and spectroscopic methods.

  20. Human Rights and Internal Security in Malaysia: Rhetoric and Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Sarawak occupy the northeast part of the island of Borneo. The total Malaysian population, based on 2002 statistics , is approximately 24 million.45...1999,” (Budget Speech, House of Representatives, Kuala Lumpur, 21 October 1998). 45 Malaysia Department of Statistics , Malaysia: Monthly Statistical

  1. Trade in Higher Education Services in Malaysia: Key Policy Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tham, Siew Yean

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, Malaysia has emerged as an unexpected contender in the world market for international students in higher education. Recognizing this sector as a potential new source of growth and export revenue, Malaysia aims to become a regional hub for higher education. In view of this, the objectives of this paper are to profile the pattern of…

  2. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murugasu, V.

    Work oriented education has been tied to national development in Malaysia since the 1960's. Increasing population, unemployment, and shortages of skilled manpower led the government to relate education more closely to work and develop technical and vocational education. Malaysia extended basic education to lower secondary manpower needs; and…

  3. Trade in Higher Education Services in Malaysia: Key Policy Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tham, Siew Yean

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, Malaysia has emerged as an unexpected contender in the world market for international students in higher education. Recognizing this sector as a potential new source of growth and export revenue, Malaysia aims to become a regional hub for higher education. In view of this, the objectives of this paper are to profile the pattern of…

  4. Not Plain Sailing: Malaysia's Language Choice in Policy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Azirah

    2009-01-01

    This paper focusses on language and education issues in Malaysia as they have unfolded in the context of nation building, societal multilingualism and globalization from independence to the present day. The paper first examines the origin and nature of language and medium-of-instruction policies in Malaysia and the rationale for them. Secondly, it…

  5. Students' Biotechnology Literacy: The Pillars of STEM Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahri, Nurnadiah Mohamed; Suryawati, Evi; Osman, Kamisah

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnology has been widely applied in various products throughout the 21st century. Malaysia selected the biotechnology sector as one of the key strategic technologies that would enable Malaysia to transform into a fully developed nation by the year 2020. However, to date, there has been very little research on the level of biotechnology…

  6. Malaysia's Multimedia Super Corridor and Roles of Information Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Edna

    In Malaysia, the government is supporting the diffusion of the Internet and is spearheading a project to bring Malaysia into the information age, by helping to design a smart city called the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC). The MSC is being planned as a high-technology center where world-class multimedia companies can develop state-of-the-art…

  7. Italian in the Linguistic Landscape of Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coluzzi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    This article looks at the presence of Italian in the linguistic landscape (LL) of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Rather surprisingly, Italian is quite visible, and it might even be the most used European language after English. After a general introduction on the Italian language and Malaysia, including the latter's LL, the article goes on to outline the…

  8. Students' Biotechnology Literacy: The Pillars of STEM Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahri, Nurnadiah Mohamed; Suryawati, Evi; Osman, Kamisah

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnology has been widely applied in various products throughout the 21st century. Malaysia selected the biotechnology sector as one of the key strategic technologies that would enable Malaysia to transform into a fully developed nation by the year 2020. However, to date, there has been very little research on the level of biotechnology…

  9. A Visual Analysis of Festive Television Commercials in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Lean Mei

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia is a multiracial country with a diverse range of religions, leading to a broad range of religious festivals throughout the year. In recent years, corporate giants such as Petronas, Telekom Malaysia (TM), Tenaga and Astro have taken to airing television commercials (TVCs) that contain a local touch when greeting their customers. Perhaps…

  10. Counseling in Malaysia: History, Current Status, and Future Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    See, Ching Mey; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the history of counseling in Malaysia, provides an update of its current status, and discusses some anticipated future trends for the profession in light of recent developments in the country. Counseling in Malaysia began with school guidance in the 1960s and has now achieved recognition as a profession in…

  11. A Visual Analysis of Festive Television Commercials in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Lean Mei

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia is a multiracial country with a diverse range of religions, leading to a broad range of religious festivals throughout the year. In recent years, corporate giants such as Petronas, Telekom Malaysia (TM), Tenaga and Astro have taken to airing television commercials (TVCs) that contain a local touch when greeting their customers. Perhaps…

  12. Counseling in Malaysia: History, Current Status, and Future Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    See, Ching Mey; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the history of counseling in Malaysia, provides an update of its current status, and discusses some anticipated future trends for the profession in light of recent developments in the country. Counseling in Malaysia began with school guidance in the 1960s and has now achieved recognition as a profession in…

  13. Household Expenditures on Private Tutoring: Emerging Evidence from Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenayathulla, Husaina Banu

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring has been a burgeoning phenomenon in Malaysia for decades. This study examines the determinants of private tutoring expenditures in Malaysia using the 2004/2005 Household Expenditures Survey and applies hurdle regression models to the data. The results indicate that total household expenditures, household head's level of education,…

  14. Innovation Management and Performance Framework for Research University in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowang, Tan Owee; Long, Choi Sang; Rasli, Amran

    2015-01-01

    Institutions of Higher Learning (IHL) in Malaysia are recognized as the core of new innovation development. This paper empirically studies one of IHLs in Malaysia with the objectives to gauge the perceived important level of success factors for innovation management, and to examine the relationship between innovation management success factors…

  15. A Model of Homeschooling Based on Technology in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alias, Norlidah; Rahman, Mohd. Nazri Abdul; Siraj, Saedah; Ibrahim, Ruslina

    2013-01-01

    Homeschooling in Malaysia is a form of alternative education that emphasizes quality education based on moral values and belief in strengthening family ties. The purpose of this study is to produce a model of homeschooling technology-based learning activities in Malaysia as a guideline to improve the quality of education, curriculum and organize…

  16. Multicultural Early Childhood Education: Practices and Challenges in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phoon, Hooi San; Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee Yen; Abdullah, Anna Christina

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural early childhood education is necessary in a culturally diverse country like Malaysia. Preschool teachers play an important role in implementing multicultural education in the classroom. This paper reports the findings of a self-report questionnaire involving 854 preschool teachers in Malaysia. The preschool teachers disclosed their…

  17. The Development of Teacher Education in Malaysia: Problems and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Molly N. N.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews patterns of teacher education in Malaysia, highlighting current problems and challenges, discussing recent reforms and policy initiatives in the domain of teacher education, and introducing three articles that focus on: teacher education for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages in Malaysia, training of school counselors in…

  18. Household Expenditures on Private Tutoring: Emerging Evidence from Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenayathulla, Husaina Banu

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring has been a burgeoning phenomenon in Malaysia for decades. This study examines the determinants of private tutoring expenditures in Malaysia using the 2004/2005 Household Expenditures Survey and applies hurdle regression models to the data. The results indicate that total household expenditures, household head's level of education,…

  19. Contemporary Challenges and Changes: Principals' Leadership Practices in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michelle; Adams, Donnie; Joo, Mabel Tan Hwee; Muniandy, Vasu; Perera, Corinne Jaqueline; Harris, Alma

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the findings from a contemporary study of principals' leadership practices in Malaysia as part of the 7 System Leadership Study. Recent policy developments within Malaysia have increased principals' accountability and have underlined the importance of the role of the principals in transforming school performance and student…

  20. Beginning Teachers as Policy Workers in Malaysia and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Vivienne Ruth; Young, Sharon; Blanch, Keely; Smith, Lee

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the Malaysia government initiated twinned primary teacher education arrangements with five Southern Hemisphere higher education institutions (HEIs). Participating students completed their teacher education in both Malaysia and a partner HEI. In this paper, we consider the preliminary findings of a comparative study tracking the beginning…

  1. Satisfaction from Academic Activities among Medical Students in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan A.; Bobryshev, Yuri V.

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of data about the levels of satisfaction among medical students in regards to their academic activities in Malaysia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to fill the gap in the existing knowledge. A cross sectional study was carried out at the International medical school, the Management and Science University of Malaysia,…

  2. Contemporary Challenges and Changes: Principals' Leadership Practices in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michelle; Adams, Donnie; Joo, Mabel Tan Hwee; Muniandy, Vasu; Perera, Corinne Jaqueline; Harris, Alma

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the findings from a contemporary study of principals' leadership practices in Malaysia as part of the 7 System Leadership Study. Recent policy developments within Malaysia have increased principals' accountability and have underlined the importance of the role of the principals in transforming school performance and student…

  3. 78 FR 57620 - Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia AGENCY: International Trade... FR 22237, April 15, 2013, regarding the education industry trade mission to Manila, Philippines and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia scheduled for October 23-October 30, 2013, to revise the mission description from...

  4. An Analysis of Globalization and Higher Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arokiasamy, Anantha Raj A.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of globalization on private higher education in Malaysia. The impact of globalization and the development of knowledge-based economy have caused much dramatic change to the character and functions of higher education in Malaysia. The major trend is the reforming and restructuring of private higher education in…

  5. Thinking Skill Education and Transformational Progress in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Othman, Nooraini; Mohamad, Khairul Azmi

    2014-01-01

    This paper intends to highlight the issues in thinking skills development and efforts made in addressing these issues in Malaysia. The education system in Malaysia has undergone a huge transformational progress particularly in the field related to the development of thinking skill. Traditionally, thinking skill was not specifically cultivated in…

  6. Beginning Teachers as Policy Workers in Malaysia and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Vivienne Ruth; Young, Sharon; Blanch, Keely; Smith, Lee

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the Malaysia government initiated twinned primary teacher education arrangements with five Southern Hemisphere higher education institutions (HEIs). Participating students completed their teacher education in both Malaysia and a partner HEI. In this paper, we consider the preliminary findings of a comparative study tracking the beginning…

  7. The Lunar Highland Crust: The Origin of the MG Suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S. R.; Norman, M. D.; Esat, T.

    1993-07-01

    Norites, troctolites, dunites, spinel troctolites and gabbronorites form the Mg suite, which constitutes perhaps 20% of the highland crust. Their ages range from about 4.43 b.y. down to about 4.17 b.y. The Mg suite does not appear to be related to crystallization from the magma ocean. These rock types commonly have Mg# > 90 and so are "primitive," but also contain high concentrations of incompatible elements, typical of highly "evolved" igneous rocks. An origin by mixing of these two distinct components, one "primitive" to account for the major elements (particularly the high Mg#), and the other "evolved" to account for the high trace-element abundances, is suggested by these contradictory petrochemical characteristics. The source of the highly evolved trace-element component is clearly KREEP. The source of the "primitive" Mg-rich component is less clear. Many theories propose that the Mg-suite rocks are derived from different plutons that intruded the crust as separate igneous intrusions. However, all Mg-suite rocks have REE patterns parallel to those of KREEP and the ferroan anorthosites. This characteristic is compatible with mixing, but should not be expected to be duplicated in many separate igneous intrusions. The Mg suite also contains Mg-rich orthopyroxene, a mineral lacking in most mare basalts, so that the source regions of the mare basalts were distinct from those of the Mg suite. During crystallization of the lunar magma ocean, Mg-rich minerals accumulate on the bottom of the magma chamber at depths probably exceeding 400 km. It has been suggested that massive overturning of the crystal pile has occurred to bring these Mg-rich minerals close to the surface. The source regions of the mare basalts were solid by 4400 m.y. with only the minor KREEP component remaining liquid until about 4360 m.y. Thus the lunar interior was effectively solid, although still hot, at the time of the formation of the Mg suite. It thus seems difficult to envisage a massive

  8. A Study of Quality Assurance Practices in the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Helen Khoo Chooi; Idrus, Rozhan M.

    2004-01-01

    This article looks at the quality assurance practices amongst three (3) groups of staff in the School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, i.e. lecturers, resident tutors and support staff. 9 dimensions of the Quality Assurance Practices i.e. Staff Development, Planning, Work Process, Team Work, Prioritise Customers, Performance…

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A MACROINVERTEBRATE BIOTIC INTEGRITY INDEX (MBII) FOR REGIONALLY ASSESSING MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The multimetric Macroinvertebrate Biotic Integrity Index (MBII) was developed from data collected at 574 wadeable stream reaches in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands region (MAHR) by the USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). Over 100 candidate metrics were eval...

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A MACROINVERTEBRATE BIOTIC INTEGRITY INDEX (MBII) FOR REGIONALLY ASSESSING MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The multimetric Macroinvertebrate Biotic Integrity Index (MBII) was developed from data collected at 574 wadeable stream reaches in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands region (MAHR) by the USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). Over 100 candidate metrics were eval...

  11. West Meets East in Malaysia and Singapore. Participants' Papers. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program 1999 (Malaysia and Singapore).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaysian-American Commission on Educational Exchange, Kuala Lumpur.

    These projects were completed by participants in the Fulbright-Hays summer seminar in Malaysia and Singapore in 1999. The participants represented various regions of the U.S. and different grade levels and subject areas. The seminar offered a comprehensive overview of how the people of Malaysia and Singapore live, work, and strive towards their…

  12. Highland populations of Lymnaea truncatula infected with Fasciola hepatica survive longer under experimental conditions than lowland ones.

    PubMed

    Vignoles, P; Favennec, L; Dreyfuss, G; Rondelaud, D

    2002-04-01

    A retrospective study was carried out on the experimental infections of Lymnaea truncatula with Fasciola hepatica performed over the last 20 years to determine if the populations of snails living in highland or lowland countries had the same ability to sustain trematode larval development. The six highland populations originated from the Peruvian Altiplano (altitude 2,800 m), the French Alps (2,300 m), and the Massif Central (900-1,400 m), whereas the 13 lowland populations came from different sites located in central France (90-250 m). Bimiracidial infections of 4-mm-high snails were performed to study cercarial shedding and to quantify their redial burden. Compared to lowland populations, snail survival at day 30 post-exposure was significantly higher in the highland L. truncatula (57-75% compared to 31-45%) and their lifespan was greater (a mean of 87-96 days for cercaria-shedding snails compared to 64-77 days). The prevalences of F. hepatica infections, the numbers of free rediae within snail bodies, and the numbers of cercariae did not show any significant differences between highland and lowland snails although the numbers of cercariae were clearly higher in the Peruvian and three French highland populations of L. truncatula. The long survival times of highland snails under laboratory conditions might be an adaptation of these L. truncatula to the more extreme highland climate. The better ability of highland snails to sustain parasite larval development suggests that they would be better intermediate hosts in the life cycle of F. hepatica than lowland populations.

  13. Aging in Multi-ethnic Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tey, Nai Peng; Siraj, Saedah Binti; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah Binti; Chin, Ai Vyrn; Tan, Maw Pin; Sinnappan, Glaret Shirley; Müller, Andre Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Multiethnic Malaysia provides a unique case study of divergence in population aging of different sociocultural subgroups within a country. Malaysia represents 3 major ethnicities in Asia-the Malay, Chinese, and Indian. The 3 ethnic groups are at different stages of population aging, as they have undergone demographic transition at different pace amidst rapid social and economic changes. Between 1991 and 2010, the Malaysian population aged 60 and over has more than doubled from about 1 million to 2.2 million, and this is projected to rise to about 7 million or 17.6% of the projected population of 40 million by 2040. In 2010, the aging index ranged from 22.8% among the Bumiputera (Malays and other indigenous groups), to 31.4% among the Indians and 55.0% among the Chinese. Population aging provides great challenges for Malaysia's social and economic development. The increasing prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in older adults, coupled with the erosion of the traditional family support system has increased demands on health care services with an overwhelming need for multidisciplinary and specialized geriatric care. Following the adoption of the National Policy for the Elderly in 1995, issues of population aging have gained increasing attention, especially among researchers. There is an urgent need to increase public awareness, develop infrastructure, as well as support action oriented research that will directly translate to comprehensive and cohesive social strategies, policies, and legislation to protect not just the current older Malaysians but the future of all Malaysians. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The economic burden of schizophrenia in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Siew Li; Chong, Huey Yi; Abdul Aziz, Salina; Chemi, Norliza; Othman, Abdul Razak; Md Zaki, Nurzuriana; Vanichkulpitak, Possatorn; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a highly debilitating disease despite its low prevalence. The economic burden associated with SCZ is substantial and mainly attributed to productivity loss. To improve the understanding of economic burden of SCZ in the low- and middle-income country regions, we aimed to determine the economic burden of SCZ in Malaysia. A retrospective study was conducted using a prevalence-based approach from a societal perspective in Malaysia with a 1 year period from 2013. We used micro-costing technique with bottom-up method and included direct medical cost, direct non-medical cost, and indirect cost. The main data source was medical chart review which was conducted in Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL). The medical charts were identified electronically by matching the unique patient's identification number registered under the National Mental Health Schizophrenia Registry and the list of patients in HKL in 2013. Other data sources were government documents, literatures, and local websites. To ensure robustness of result, probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted. The total estimated number of treated SCZ cases in Malaysia in 2015 was 15,104 with the total economic burden of USD 100 million (M) which was equivalent to 0.04% of the national gross domestic product. On average, the mean cost per patient was USD 6,594. Of the total economic burden of SCZ, 72% was attributed to indirect cost, costing at USD 72M, followed by direct medical cost (26%), costing at USD 26M, and direct non-medical cost (2%), costing at USD 1.7M. This study highlights the magnitude of economic burden of SCZ and informs the policy-makers that there is an inadequate support for SCZ patients. More resources should be allocated to improve the condition of SCZ patients and to reduce the economic burden.

  15. The economic burden of schizophrenia in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Teoh, Siew Li; Chong, Huey Yi; Abdul Aziz, Salina; Chemi, Norliza; Othman, Abdul Razak; Md Zaki, Nurzuriana; Vanichkulpitak, Possatorn; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a highly debilitating disease despite its low prevalence. The economic burden associated with SCZ is substantial and mainly attributed to productivity loss. To improve the understanding of economic burden of SCZ in the low- and middle-income country regions, we aimed to determine the economic burden of SCZ in Malaysia. Methods A retrospective study was conducted using a prevalence-based approach from a societal perspective in Malaysia with a 1 year period from 2013. We used micro-costing technique with bottom-up method and included direct medical cost, direct non-medical cost, and indirect cost. The main data source was medical chart review which was conducted in Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL). The medical charts were identified electronically by matching the unique patient’s identification number registered under the National Mental Health Schizophrenia Registry and the list of patients in HKL in 2013. Other data sources were government documents, literatures, and local websites. To ensure robustness of result, probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted. Results The total estimated number of treated SCZ cases in Malaysia in 2015 was 15,104 with the total economic burden of USD 100 million (M) which was equivalent to 0.04% of the national gross domestic product. On average, the mean cost per patient was USD 6,594. Of the total economic burden of SCZ, 72% was attributed to indirect cost, costing at USD 72M, followed by direct medical cost (26%), costing at USD 26M, and direct non-medical cost (2%), costing at USD 1.7M. Conclusion This study highlights the magnitude of economic burden of SCZ and informs the policy-makers that there is an inadequate support for SCZ patients. More resources should be allocated to improve the condition of SCZ patients and to reduce the economic burden. PMID:28814869

  16. Who are the Poor in Malaysia? Sensitivity to Measurement of Income,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    Malaysia . This paper uses 1976-77 data on over 1000 households in Peninsular Malaysia to show that estimates of the extent of income inequality and of the... Malaysia are biased toward easily measured monetary income. For example, the 1967/68 Socioeconomic Survey, which provided the 1966/67 income data above... Malaysia ?" EMPIRICAL METHODOLOGY The study uses 1976-77 data on a sample of 1,064 households in Peninsular Malaysia , provided by the Malaysian Family

  17. Defining and Detecting Malaria Epidemics in the Highlands of Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Simba, Milka; Busolo, Millie; Noor, Abdisalan M.; Guyatt, Helen L.; Ochola, Sam A.; Snow, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Epidemic detection algorithms are being increasingly recommended for malaria surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa. We present the results of applying three simple epidemic detection techniques to routinely collected longitudinal pediatric malaria admissions data from three health facilities in the highlands of western Kenya in the late 1980s and 1990s. The algorithms tested were chosen because they could be feasibly implemented at the health facility level in sub-Saharan Africa. Assumptions of these techniques about the normal distribution of admissions data and the confidence intervals used to define normal years were also investigated. All techniques identified two “epidemic” years in one of the sites. The untransformed Cullen method with standard confidence intervals detected the two “epidemic” years in the remaining two sites but also triggered many false alarms. The performance of these methods is discussed and comments made about their appropriateness for the highlands of western Kenya PMID:12023909

  18. Mineralogy, petrology and chemistry of ANT-suite rocks from the lunar highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinz, M.; Keil, K.

    1977-01-01

    Anorthositic-noritic-troctolitic (ANT) rocks are the oldest and most abundant rocks of the lunar surface, and comprise about 90% of the suite of the lunar highlands. Consideration is given to the mineralogy, petrology, bulk chemistry, and origin of ANT-suite rocks. Problems associated in classifying and labeling lunar highland rocks because of textural complexities occurring from impact modifications are discussed. The mineralogy of ANT-suite rocks, dominated by plagioclase, olivine and pyrozene, and containing various minor minerals, is outlined. The petrology of ANT-suite rocks is reviewed along with the major element bulk composition of these rocks, noting that they are extremely depleted in K2O and P2O5. Various models describing the origin of ANT-suite rocks are summarized, and it is suggested that this origin involves a parental liquid of high-alumina basalt with low Fe/Fe+Mg.

  19. Magnetic beneficiation of highland and hi-Ti mare soils - Rock, mineral, and glassy components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Oder, Robin R.

    1990-01-01

    The exploitation of lunar soil can provide valuable raw materials for in situ resource utilization at a lunar base. A study of magnetic characterization was undertaken of three mare and two highland soils obtained from NASA. Beneficiation of mare and highland soils by sizing and magnetic separation can effectively concentrate the important components of the soils (e.g., ilmenite, native Fe, plagioclase, and aggluminates). As a soil matures and the impact melts consume additional minerals and rocks, the modal percentage of the minerals will decrease. The 'normative' percentage will become much greater than the modal percentage. Therefore, greater efficiency of separation can be realized with the proper selection of maturity of the soil, as well as by secondary grinding to further liberate specific minerals from lithic fragments (e.g., ilmenite and plagioclase).

  20. Fieldpath Lunar Meteorite Graves Nunataks 06157, a Magnesian Piece of the Lunar Highlands Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.; Korotev, R. L.; Korotev, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    To date, 49 feldspathic lunar meteorites (FLMs) have been recovered, likely representing a minimum of 35 different sample locations in the lunar highlands. The compositional variability among FLMs far exceeds the variability observed among highland samples in the Apollo and Luna sample suites. Here we will discuss in detail one of the compositional end members of the FLM suite, Graves Nunataks (GRA) 06157, which was collected by the 2006-2007 ANSMET field team. At 0.79 g, GRA 06157 is the smallest lunar meteorite so far recovered. Despite its small size, its highly feldspathic and highly magnesian composition are intriguing. Although preliminary bulk compositions have been reported, thus far no petrographic descriptions are in the literature. Here we expand upon the bulk compositional data, including major-element compositions, and provide a detailed petrographic description of GRA 06157.