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Sample records for genus anopheles diptera

  1. Anopheles (Anopheles) pseudopunctipennis Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae): Neotype Designation and Description

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    1020 (M*, F*, L*); Aitken 1945: 327 (M, F*, P*, L, E*, taxonomy, biology); Vargas and Martinez Palacios 1956: 83 (M*, F*, P*, L*). Anopheles...complex of western America. Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol. 7: 273Ð364. Alvarado , C. A., and R. L. Heredia. 1947. Observaciones sobre una nueva variedad...Cespedes, R. Vargas -Sagarnaga, and R. Rodriguez. 1992. Evidencia genética de un complejo de especie en Anopheles pseudopunctipennis pseudopunctipennis. Bol

  2. Morphological, Molecular, and Chromosomal Discrimination of Cryptic Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) (Diptera: Culicidae) from South America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    Morphological, Molecular , and Chromosomal Discrimination of Cryptic Anopheies (A?~ssorhynchus) (Diptera: Culicidae) from South America L. P...appraisal of molecular , chromosomal, and morphological characters, we conclude herein that the 2 taxa are specifically distinct and remove An. trinkae...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Morphological, Molecular , and Chromosomal Discrimination of Cryptic Anopheles( Nyssorhynchus) (Diptera: Culicidae) from South

  3. Species Composition and Distribution of Adult Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in Panama

    PubMed Central

    LOAIZA, J. R.; BERMINGHAM, E.; SCOTT, M. E.; ROVIRA, J. R.; CONN, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition and distribution were studied using human landing catch data over a 35-yr period in Panama. Mosquitoes were collected from 77 sites during 228 field trips carried out by members of the National Malaria Eradication Service. Fourteen Anopheles species were identified. The highest average human biting rates were recorded from Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albimanus (Wiedemann) (9.8 bites/person/night) and Anopheles (Anopheles) punctimacula (Dyar and Knab) (6.2 bites/person/night). These two species were also the most common, present in 99.1 and 74.9%, respectively, of the sites. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) aquasalis (Curry) was encountered mostly in the indigenous Kuna Yala Comarca along the eastern Atlantic coast, where malaria case history and average human biting rate (9.3 bites/person/night) suggest a local role in malaria transmission. An. albimanus, An. punctimacula, and Anopheles (Anopheles) vestitipennis (Dyar and Knab) were more abundant during the rainy season (May–December), whereas An. aquasalis was more abundant in the dry season (January–April). Other vector species collected in this study were Anopheles (Kerteszia) neivai (Howard, Dyar, and Knab) and Anopheles (Anopheles) pseudopunctipennis s.l. (Theobald). High diversity of Anopheles species and six confirmed malaria vectors in endemic areas of Panama emphasize the need for more detailed studies to better understand malaria transmission dynamics. PMID:18826025

  4. Evolution of an Epigenetic Gene Ensemble within the Genus Anopheles

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Adam M.; Muskavitch, Marc A.T.

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic control of gene expression has important implications for the regulation of developmental processes, for mediating homeostasis and responses to the external environment, and for transgenerational inheritance of gene expression patterns. Genes that mediate epigenetic control have been well-characterized in Drosophila melanogaster, and we have identified and analyzed an orthologous gene ensemble in Anopheles gambiae that comprises 169 orthologs related to a 215-member epigenetic gene ensemble in D. melanogaster. We find that this ensemble is highly conserved among anopheline mosquitoes, as we identify only seven gene family expansion/contraction events within the ensemble among 12 mosquito species we have studied within the genus Anopheles. Comparative analyses of the epigenetic gene expression across the genera Drosophila and Anopheles reveal distinct tissue-associated expression patterns in the two genera, but similar temporal expression patterns. The A. gambiae complex and D. melanogaster subgroup epigenetic gene ensembles exhibit similar evolutionary rates, as assessed by their respective dN/dS values. These differences in tissue-associated expression patterns, in contrast to similarities in evolutionary rates and temporal expression patterns, may imply that some members of the epigenetic gene ensemble have been redeployed within one or both genera, in comparison to the most recent common ancestor of these two clades. Members of this epigenetic gene ensemble may constitute another set of potential targets for vector control and enable further reductions in the burden of human malaria, by analogy to recent success in development of small molecule antagonists for mammalian epigenetic machinery. PMID:25724208

  5. Diversification of the Genus Anopheles and a Neotropical Clade from the Late Cretaceous

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Lucas A.; Russo, Claudia A. M.; Voloch, Carolina M.; Mutaquiha, Olívio C. F.; Marques, Lucas P.; Schrago, Carlos G.

    2015-01-01

    The Anopheles genus is a member of the Culicidae family and consists of approximately 460 recognized species. The genus is composed of 7 subgenera with diverse geographical distributions. Despite its huge medical importance, a consensus has not been reached on the phylogenetic relationships among Anopheles subgenera. We assembled a comprehensive dataset comprising the COI, COII and 5.8S rRNA genes and used maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference to estimate the phylogeny and divergence times of six out of the seven Anopheles subgenera. Our analysis reveals a monophyletic group composed of the three exclusively Neotropical subgenera, Stethomyia, Kerteszia and Nyssorhynchus, which began to diversify in the Late Cretaceous, at approximately 90 Ma. The inferred age of the last common ancestor of the Anopheles genus was ca. 110 Ma. The monophyly of all Anopheles subgenera was supported, although we failed to recover a significant level of statistical support for the monophyly of the Anopheles genus. The ages of the last common ancestors of the Neotropical clade and the Anopheles and Cellia subgenera were inferred to be at the Late Cretaceous (ca. 90 Ma). Our analysis failed to statistically support the monophyly of the Anopheles genus because of an unresolved polytomy between Bironella and A. squamifemur. PMID:26244561

  6. Morphological Analysis of Three Populations of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) Nuneztovari Gabaldon (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    populations of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) nuneztovari Gabaldón (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia Mayury Fajardo Ramos, Ranulfo González Obando/+, Marco...Fidel Suárez, David López, Richard Wilkerson1, Maria Anice Mureb Sallum2 Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas y Facultad de Salud , AA 25623...Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia 1Division of Entomology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, US 2Departamento de

  7. Fine structure of the eggs of Anopheles (Anopheles) apicimacula (Diptera:Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M H; Chávez, B; Orozco, A; Martínez-Palomo, A

    1996-09-01

    The eggs of Anopheles (Anopheles) apicimacula Dyar and Knab are described from scanning electron micrographs. The eggs are boat-shaped, with frills that extend ventrally along the length of the egg and surround the deck region. The ornamentation on the dorsal and lateral surfaces is formed by groups of smooth, round tubercles. The ventral surface is covered by irregularly jagged tubercles. Prominent lobed tubercles are present at the anterior and posterior ends of the deck.

  8. Parathelohania iranica sp. nov. (Microsporidia: Amblyosporidae) infecting malaria mosquito Anopheles superpictus (Diptera: Culicidae): Ultrastructure and molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Omrani, Seyed-Mohammad; Moosavi, Seyedeh-Fatemeh; Farrokhi, Effat

    2017-04-01

    Microsporidia are common pathogens of insects and sometimes are considered as a candidate in the biological control of mosquitoes. Recently a microsporidium infection was discovered in Anopheles superpictus (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, in Iran. The responsible agent belonged to the genus Parathelohania (Microsporidia: Amblyosporidae). This study has been carried out to identify its identity at the species level. Fresh infected larvae were collected from the type locality, Kiar district, in Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari province, at the central western of Iran. Superficial and the internal ultrastructure of the recovered spores were explored by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Molecular techniques were also employed to amplify parts of its ssu rDNA. The obtained data were compared with the available information of congener species and other closely related microsporidia to elucidate evolutionary relationship. A small apical depression and two posterolateral ridges extending backward from a pear shaped anterior body mass were notable under scanning electron microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy revealed 3 broad and 3-4 narrow coils in the either side of spores, respectively. The sequence of a 1062 nucleotide fragment of ssu rDNA was determined by means of PCR technique. This study indicates that the microsporidium infecting An. superpictus differs from other previously described species in the genus Parathelohania. It means that the microsporidium infecting An. superpictus is a new species and hereby it is called Parathelohania iranica. Further work is necessary to clarify its life cycle and probable value in the biological control of mosquitoes.

  9. Batkoa apiculata (Thaxter) Humber affecting Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in the municipality of Una, Southern Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveys for fungal pathogens affecting adult mosquitoes from the genus Anopheles were conducted in flooded and swamp-like natural breeding sites near residences in the center and suburbs of the city of Una as well as the nearby village of Outeiro in southern Bahia. Surveys of 54 mosquito breeding si...

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Anopheles minimus (Diptera: Culicidae) and the phylogenetics of known Anopheles mitogenomes.

    PubMed

    Hua, Ya-Qiong; Ding, Yi-Ran; Yan, Zhen-Tian; Si, Feng-Ling; Luo, Qian-Chun; Chen, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Anopheles minimus is an important vector of human malaria in southern China and Southeast Asia. The phylogenetics of mosquitoes has not been well resolved, and the mitochondrial genome (mtgenome) has proven to be an important marker in the study of evolutionary biology. In this study, the complete mtgenome of An. minimus was sequenced for the first time. It is 15 395 bp long and encodes 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and a non-coding region. The gene organization is consistent with those of known Anopheles mtgenomes. The mtgenome performs a clear bias in nucleotide composition with a positive AT-skew and a negative GC-skew. All 13 PCGs prefer to use the codon UUA (Leu), ATN as initiation codon but cytochrome-oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and ND5, with TCG and GTG, and TAA as termination codon, but COI, COII, COIII and ND4, all with the incomplete T. tRNAs have the typical clover-leaf structure, but tRNA(Ser(AGN)) is consistent with known Anopheles mtgenomes. The control region includes a conserved T-stretch and a (TA)n stretch, and has the highest A+T content at 93.1%. The phylogenetics of An. minimus with 18 other Anopheles species was constructed by maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, based on concatenated PCG sequences. The subgenera, Cellia and Anopheles, and Nyssorhynchus and Kerteszia have mutually close relationships, respectively. The Punctulatus group and Leucosphyrus group of Neomyzomyia Series, and the Albitarsis group of Albitarsis Series were suggested to be monophyletic. The monophyletic status of the subgenera, Cellia, Anopheles, Nyssorhynchus and Kerteszia need to be further elucidated.

  11. Studies on Anopheles (Kerteszia) homunculus Komp (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    ITS2) region of the nuclear rDNA cistron has been widely employed in molecular systematic studies of Anopheles at the species level (e.g. Li and... molecular characterization. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the nuclear rDNA cistron was sequenced for six individuals of An. homunculus...among the clones from Colombia needs further investigation by sequencing ITS2 from a larger sample size. Finally, morphological and molecular evidence

  12. Anopheles (Anopheles) Lesteri Biases and Hu (Diptera: Culicidae): Neotype Designation and Description

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-30

    Anopheles) anthropoplwglts: Ma 1981: 1I (key; distribution, China: Fukien. Kiangsi. Kiangsu. Kwangsi. Kweichow. Shanghai. provinces south of Yantze River ...lowing: Taina Litwak for her illustrations; Bel Rueda, Buddy Buenavista. Lerma Bue- navista. Benjie Puma. and Modesta Coro- nado-Puma for their help in

  13. Elevation of Anopheles Chiriquiensis from Synonymy with Anopheles Parapunctipennis and Designation of Name-bearing Types for Anopheles Parapunctipennis and Anopheles Parapunctipennis Guatemalensis (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Leon 1938: 4 16, (as An. (Ano.) chiriquiensis var. guatenzalensis) Cumbre de1 Aire, Department of Totonicapan, Guatemala (d*, ?*, L*). Lectotype 9...here designated, bearing the following data: “Sanidad Publica: Guatemala. - A.C.-/Anopheles (Anopheles) A. Chiriquiensis ( ?? Komp)/“ Cumbre de1

  14. Genetic Structure of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) marajoara (Diptera: Culicidae) in Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    587GENETIC STRUCTURE OF ANOPHELES MARAJOARA IN COLOMBIA were sampled ( Figure 2 ). These populations were from Cáceres, Antioquia Department, 07°34...M5-71 (9; Meta), M5-71 (7; Norte de Santander), M1-31 and M10-1 (7 each; Magdalena), and M5-71 , M6-8 , and M7-1 (6 each; Antioquia ). In...2.07) and Antioquia (n A = 4.89 ± 1.27); Norte de Santander (n A = 5.33 ± 1.32) and Magdalena (n A = 5.53 ± 1.07) yielded intermediate values, and

  15. Scanning electron microscopic observations of Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) eggs.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M H; Chavez, B; Orozco, A; Loyola, E G; Martinez-Palomo, A

    1992-05-01

    To investigate the existence of subspecies of Anopheles albimanus Wiedeman in southern Mexico, the egg morphology of specimens obtained from several field populations and from insectary-adapted colonies of uniform pupal phenotype was examined. Scanning electron microscopic observations have shown that the eggs of An. albimanus are polymorphic in respect to the size and shape of their floats, but not in their ornamentation. Four types of eggs were found. Differences in the proportion of the various morphological types were statistically significant, although proportions of egg types were variable among individuals within the same population. These observations are suggestive of distinctive populations and warrant further studies using more sensitive methods to investigate sibling species in An. albimanus sensu lato.

  16. Colombian Anopheles triannulatus (Diptera: Culicidae) Naturally Infected with Plasmodium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Rosero, Doris A.; Naranjo-Diaz, Nelson; Alvarez, Natalí; Cienfuegos, Astrid V.; Luckhart, Shirley

    2013-01-01

    The role of Anopheles triannulatus as a local vector has not yet been defined for malaria-endemic regions of Colombia. Therefore, the aim of this work was to detect An. triannulatus naturally infected with Plasmodium spp., as an approximation to determining its importance as malaria vector in the country. A total of 510 An. triannulatus were collected in six malaria-endemic localities of NW and SE Colombia from January 2009 to March 2011. In the NW, two specimens were naturally infected; one with Plasmodium vivax VK247, collected biting on humans and the other with Plasmodium falciparum, collected resting on cattle. In the SE, two specimens were positive for P. falciparum. Although these results show An. triannulatus naturally infected with Plasmodium, further studies are recommended to demonstrate the epidemiological importance of this species in malaria-endemic regions of Colombia. PMID:27335865

  17. Genetic Structure of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) marajoara (Diptera: Culicidae) in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Brochero, Helena; Li, Cong; Wilkerson, Richard; Conn, Jan E.; Ruiz-García, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Five Anopheles marajoara Galvão and Damasceno populations, representing diverse ecological conditions, were sampled throughout Colombia and analyzed using nine hypervariable DNA microsatellite loci. The overall genetic diversity (H = 0.58) was lower than that determined for some Brazilian populations using the same markers. The Caquetá population (Colombia) had the lowest gene diversity (H = 0.48), and it was the only population at Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Hardy–Weinberg disequilibrium in the remaining four populations was probably caused by the Wahlund effect. The assignment analyses showed two incompletely isolated gene pools separated by the Eastern Andean cordillera. However, other possible geographical barriers (rivers and other mountains) did not play any role in the moderate genetic heterogeneity found among these populations (FST = 0.069). These results are noteworthy, because this species is a putative malaria vector in Colombia. PMID:20810825

  18. Genetic structure of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) marajoara (Diptera: Culicidae) in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Brochero, Helena; Li, Cong; Wilkerson, Richard; Conn, Jan E; Ruiz-García, Manuel

    2010-09-01

    Five Anopheles marajoara Galvão and Damasceno populations, representing diverse ecological conditions, were sampled throughout Colombia and analyzed using nine hypervariable DNA microsatellite loci. The overall genetic diversity (H = 0.58) was lower than that determined for some Brazilian populations using the same markers. The Caquetá population (Colombia) had the lowest gene diversity (H = 0.48), and it was the only population at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium in the remaining four populations was probably caused by the Wahlund effect. The assignment analyses showed two incompletely isolated gene pools separated by the Eastern Andean cordillera. However, other possible geographical barriers (rivers and other mountains) did not play any role in the moderate genetic heterogeneity found among these populations (F(ST) = 0.069). These results are noteworthy, because this species is a putative malaria vector in Colombia.

  19. Laboratory colonization of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis (Diptera: Culicidae) without forced mating.

    PubMed

    Lardeux, Frédéric; Quispe, Vicente; Tejerina, Rosenka; Rodríguez, Roberto; Torrez, Libia; Bouchité, Bernard; Chávez, Tamara

    2007-08-01

    Anopheles pseudopunctipennis is one of the main malaria vectors in the Andean regions of South America. Few experimental data exist on this species because it is not very available in laboratories due to its eurygamic status that makes colony maintenance difficult. Indeed, individuals do not mate in the confined space of insectary cages. To avoid this problem, forced artificial mating can be used. However, this technique is time consuming, requires a well-trained technician, and is inadequate for easy mass production, which is sometimes necessary for certain experimental works. This study presents a technique based on exposure of adult mosquitoes to a blue stroboscopic light for 20 min during several nights, which encourages them to copulate naturally under laboratory conditions. After some generations, a self-free-mating strain was obtained. The technique is simple, inexpensive and is probably effective whatever the An. pseudopunctipennis strain considered.

  20. Bionomics of sympatric chromosomal forms of Anopheles funestus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Dia, Ibrahima; Sagnon, N'Fale; Guelbeogo, Moussa Wamdaogo; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2011-12-01

    Anopheles funestus is one of the major vectors of malaria in Africa. Cytogenetic studies conducted on populations from West Africa have shown variable degrees of polymorphism with a genetic structure leading to the description of two chromosomal forms called "Folonzo" and "Kiribina" that exhibit limited gene flow. Because studies on allopatric populations showed bionomical heterogeneities, the present study was undertaken during three consecutive years (2006, 2007, and 2008) in an area of sympatry in Senegal, in order to assess their bionomical characteristics and compare their epidemiologic role in malaria transmission. Overall, the two forms coexisted in the study area; the Kiribina form being more abundant and exhibiting higher biting rates. Based on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the anthropophilic rates were statistically comparable and were, respectively, 30.7% and 28.6% for Kiribina and Folonzo. Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite rates were also comparable and were 2.7% for Kiribina and 3.1% for Folonzo. Both forms were involved in malaria transmission; Kiribina being responsible for 68% of transmission. Thus, due to the limited gene flow between the two forms, the introduction of transgene for Plasmodium resistance in one of the two forms could be a disadvantage for the implementation of control strategies based on the use of Plasmodium-refractory genetically modified individuals. Nevertheless, it could represent an advantage limiting the insurgence of insecticide resistance gene spread between forms and should be taken into account for the implementation of control strategies.

  1. Resistance Mechanisms of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) to Temephos

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Aboozar; Vatandoost, Hassan; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Ravasan, Naseh Maleki; Enayati, Ahmad Ali; Asgarian, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anopheles stephensi is a sub-tropical species and has been considered as one of the most important vector of human malaria throughout the Middle East and South Asian region including the malarious areas of southern Iran. Current reports confirmed An. stephensi resistance to temephos in Oman and India. However, there is no comprehensive research on mechanisms of temephos resistance in An. stephensi in the literature. This study was designed in order to clarify the enzymatic and molecular mechanisms of temephos resistance in this species. Methods: Profile activities of α- and ß-esterases, mixed function oxidase (MFO), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), insensitive acetylcholinesterase, and para-nitrophenyl acetate (PNPA)-esterase enzymes were tested for An. stephensi strain with resistance ratio of 15.82 to temephos in comparison with susceptible strain. Results: Results showed that the mean activity of α-EST, GST and AChE enzymes were classified as altered indicating metabolic mechanisms have considerable role in resistance of An. stephensi to temephos. Molecular study using PCR-RFLP method to trace the G119S mutation in ACE-1 gene showed lack of the mutation responsible for organophosphate insecticide resistance in the temephos-selected strain of An. stephensi. Conclusion: This study showed that the altered enzymes but not targets site insensitivity of ACE-1 are responsible for temephos resistance in An. stephensi in south of Iran. PMID:26114145

  2. Molecular Confirmation of Anopheles (Anopheles) lesteri from the Republic of South Korea and its Genetic Identity with An. (Ano.) anthropophagus from China (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-08

    genus Anopheles (Beebe et al. 1999; Fritz 1998; Marinucci et al. 1999; Paskewitz et al. 1993; Wilkerson et al. In press). Morphological...Control Association, 16, 189- 198. Marinucci , M., Romi, R., Mancini, P., Di, L.M. & Severini, C. (1999) Phylogenetic relationships of seven

  3. Sampling outdoor, resting Anopheles gambiae and other mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in western Kenya with clay pots.

    PubMed

    Odiere, M; Bayoh, M N; Gimnig, J; Vulule, J; Irungu, L; Walker, E

    2007-01-01

    Clay pots were analyzed as devices for sampling the outdoor resting fraction of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquito species in a rural, western Kenya. Clay pots (Anopheles gambiae resting pots, herein AgREPOTs), outdoor pit shelters, indoor pyrethrum spray collections (PSC), and Colombian curtain exit traps were compared in collections done biweekly for nine intervals from April to June 2005 in 20 housing compounds. Of 10,517 mosquitoes sampled, 4,668 An. gambiae s.l. were sampled in total of which 63% were An. gambiae s.s. (46% female) and 37% were An. arabiensis (66% female). The clay pots were useful and practical for sampling both sexes of An. gambiae s.l. Additionally, 617 An. funestus (58% female) and 5,232 Culex spp. (males and females together) were collected. Temporal changes in abundance of An. gambiae s.l. were similarly revealed by all four sampling methods, indicating that the clay pots could be used as devices to quantify variation in mosquito population density. Dispersion patterns of the different species and sexes fit well the negative binomial distribution, indicating that the mosquitoes were aggregated in distribution. Aside from providing a useful sampling tool, the AgREPOT also may be useful as a delivery vehicle for insecticides or pathogens to males and females that enter and rest in them.

  4. Artificial activation of mature unfertilized eggs in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera, Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Daisuke S; Hatakeyama, Masatsugu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-01

    In the past decade, many transgenic lines of mosquitoes have been generated and analyzed, whereas the maintenance of a large number of transgenic lines requires a great deal of effort and cost. In vitro fertilization by an injection of cryopreserved sperm into eggs has been proven to be effective for the maintenance of strains in mammals. The technique of artificial egg activation is a prerequisite for the establishment of in vitro fertilization by sperm injection. We demonstrated that artificial egg activation is feasible in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera, Culicidae). Nearly 100% of eggs dissected from virgin females immersed in distilled water darkened, similar to normally oviposited fertilized eggs. It was revealed by the cytological examination of chromosomes that meiotic arrest was relieved in these eggs approximately 20 min after incubation in water. Biochemical examinations revealed that MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase) and MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase) were dephosphorylated similar to that in fertilized eggs. These results indicate that dissected unfertilized eggs were activated in distilled water and started development. Injection of distilled water into body cavity of the virgin blood-fed females also induced activation of a portion of eggs in the ovaries. The technique of artificial egg activation is expected to contribute to the success of in vitro fertilization in A. stephensi.

  5. 16S rRNA gene sequences from bacteria associated with adult Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Terenius, Olle; de Oliveira, Caroline Dantas; Pinheiro, Waleria Dasso; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; James, Anthony Amade; Marinotti, Osvaldo

    2008-01-01

    The microbial flora associated with Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae), a major Neotropical malaria vector, was investigated for the development of a paratransgenesis-based approach to control malaria transmission in Brazil. Female mosquitoes were collected using human land catches and captured insects provided a bloodmeal. The controlled blood feeding resulted in increased detection of mosquito bacterial population because it was possible to retrieve bacterial DNA from all blood-fed mosquitoes. The 16S sequences of bacteria recovered, include some closely related to those found in other vector mosquitoes, including Aeromonas, Pantoea and Pseudomonas species.

  6. Kerteszmyia, a new genus of Pachygastrinae from the Neotropical Region (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus and species, Kerteszmyia ecuadora gen. nov., sp. nov., (Diptera: Stratiomyidae, Pachygastrinae) is described from material from Ecuador (type locality), Venezuela, and Costa Rica. A key to the known Neotropical genera of Pachygastrinae with two or more scutellar spines is presented. ...

  7. First Record of Anopheles oryzalimnetes, Anopheles argyritarsis, and Anopheles sawyeri (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Caatinga Biome, Semiarid Scrubland of Sergipe State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marteis, L S; Sallum, M A M; Natal, D; Oliveira, T M P; Gama, R A; Dolabella, S S; Santos, R L C

    2015-09-01

    Caatinga is one of the least known biomes of Brazil in relation to biodiversity. The dry condition of semiarid areas has been associated in the past with low richness of fauna and flora, not encouraging studies in this region. There is a lack of mosquito records including anophelines. Thus, to investigate the biodiversity of Anopheles mosquitoes in the Caatinga biome, we collected immature mosquitoes in aquatic habitats in a conservation reserve located in the northwestern portion of Sergipe state. The captured specimens were initially identified as Anopheles albitarsis l.s. and Anopheles argyritarsis l.s. To confirm the morphological identification, sequences were generated by cytochrome oxidase subunit I mitocondrial gene. The results showed that the specimens belong to the species Anopheles oryzalimnetes, An. argyritarsis, and Anopheles sawyeri. These are the first records of these species in this region. The presence of Anopheles in the Caatinga biome, which is characterized by arid and semiarid climatic conditions, encourages the interest in the study of biological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations, selected over time, which allow these mosquito populations to survive through the long periods of drought that is characteristic of this region.

  8. Description of a new genus and species of Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea:Figitidae) parasitoid of Ephydridae (Diptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrelliaeucoila egeria, a new genus and species obtained from pupae of Hydrellia sp. nov. (Diptera: Ephydridae) mining in Egeria densa Planchon (Hydrocharitaceae), is described. Diagnostic photographs and data about the biology of this parasitoid are included. ...

  9. Bionomics of Anopheles spp. (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malaria endemic region of Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Stoops, Craig A; Rusmiarto, Saptoro; Susapto, Dwiko; Munif, Amurl; Andris, Heri; Barbara, Kathryn A; Sukowati, Supratman

    2009-12-01

    A 15-month bionomic study of Anopheles species was conducted in two ecologically distinct villages (coastal and upland) of Sukabumi District, West Java, Indonesia from June 2006 to September 2007. Mosquitoes were captured using human-landing collections at both sites. During the study, a total of 17,100 Anopheles mosquitoes comprising 13 Anopheles species were caught: 9,151 at the coastal site and 7,949 at the upland site. Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles maculatus, and Anopheles vagus were the predominant species caught at the coastal site, and Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles barbirostris, and An. maculatus predominated in the upland site. Overall, species were exophagic at both sites, but there was variation between species. Anopheles aconitus was endophagic at the coastal site, exophagic at the upland site, collected most often in April 2007 and had a peak landing time between 22:00 and 23:00. Anopheles sundaicus was only collected at the coastal site, exophagic, collected most often in October 2006, and had a peak landing time between 19:00 and 20:00. Potential malaria vector species such An. aconitus, An. maculatus, and An. sundaicus were present throughout the year. None of the 7,770 Anopheles tested using CSP-ELISA were positive for malaria, although the risk for malaria outbreaks in Sukabumi district remains high.

  10. Efficacy of indigenous plant extracts on the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Elango, G.; Zahir, A. Abduz; Bagavan, A.; Kamaraj, C.; Rajakumar, G.; Santhoshkumar, T.; Marimuthu, S.; Rahuman, A. Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of plant origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The purpose of the present study was to assess the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Eclipta prostrata and Tagetes erecta leaves tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal and repellent activities against malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: The dried leaves of the three plants were powdered mechanically and extracted with ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. One gram of crude extract was first dissolved in 100 ml of acetone (stock solution). From the stock solution, test solution concentrations of 31.21- 499.42 mg/l for oviposition- deterrence assay and repellency and 15.60 - 998.85 mg/l were used in ovicidal assay. The percentage oviposition- deterrence, hatching rate of eggs and protection time were calculated. One-way analysis of variance was used for the multiple concentration tests and for per cent mortality to determine significant treatment differences. Results: The percentage of effective oviposition repellency was highest at 499.42 mg/l and the lowest at 31.21 mg/l in ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta. The oviposition activity index (OAI) value of ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta at 499.42 mg/l were -0.91, -0.93, -0.84, -0.84, -0.87, -0.82, -0.87, -0.89 and -0.87, respectively. Mortality (no egg hatchability) was 100 per cent with ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta at 998.85 mg/l. The maximum adult repellent activity was observed at 499.42 mg/l in ethyl acetate extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and methanol extracts of T. erecta, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 150 min with

  11. A Qualitative Evidence of the Breeding Sites of Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) in and Around Kassala Town, Eastern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Asma Mahmoud; El Rayah, El Amin

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) is considered the most efficient malaria vector in eastern Sudan. This study aims to characterize the breeding sites of An. arabiensis throughout the year in and around Kassala town, eastern Sudan. Diverse larval habitat types were visited and characterized based on the habitat type and chemical composition. Mosquito larvae were found in many diverse habitats. During the rainy season, rain pools and water bodies created by the seasonal Gash River serve as the main breeding sites. In the dry season, irrigation canals, seepage from water pipes, neglected wells, artificial containers, and man-made ditches serve as the main breeding sites. Breeding water showed a pH of 7.9 and a low concentration of the total dissolved salts. The results of this study may be considered in planning and implementing larval control programs in the area.

  12. A Qualitative Evidence of the Breeding Sites of Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) in and Around Kassala Town, Eastern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Asma Mahmoud; El Rayah, El Amin

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) is considered the most efficient malaria vector in eastern Sudan. This study aims to characterize the breeding sites of An. arabiensis throughout the year in and around Kassala town, eastern Sudan. Diverse larval habitat types were visited and characterized based on the habitat type and chemical composition. Mosquito larvae were found in many diverse habitats. During the rainy season, rain pools and water bodies created by the seasonal Gash River serve as the main breeding sites. In the dry season, irrigation canals, seepage from water pipes, neglected wells, artificial containers, and man-made ditches serve as the main breeding sites. Breeding water showed a pH of 7.9 and a low concentration of the total dissolved salts. The results of this study may be considered in planning and implementing larval control programs in the area. PMID:27547039

  13. Field Responses of Anopheles gambiae Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Liberia using Yeast-Generated Carbon Dioxide and Synthetic Lure-Baited Light Traps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES, SURVEILLANCE, PREVENTION Field Responses of Anopheles gambiae Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Liberia using Yeast-Generated...and light, bed-net, tent, andodor-baited traps (Mboera 2005). TheCenters forDiseaseControl and Prevention (CDC) light trap with its typical 4Ð6 W...using paper- clips. Although primarily developed and used to attract day ßying Stegomyia ( Aedes ) mosquitoes, blends of this lureÕs primary ingredients

  14. Review of the genus Parerigone Brauer (Diptera: Tachinidae) with five new species from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Chuntian; Wang, Xinhua

    2015-02-18

    The genus Parerigone (Diptera, Tachinidae) is reviewed. Five new species from China, P. atrisetosa sp. nov., P. flava sp. nov., P. flavisquama sp. nov., P. laxifrons sp. nov. and P. wangi sp. nov., are described and illustrated. Parerigone flavihirta (Chao & Sun) is proposed as a new synonym of P. takanoi Mesnil. Diagnosis of species examined and a key to the 15 species of Parerigone are provided.

  15. PCR identification and distribution of Anopheles daciae (Diptera, Culicidae) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kronefeld, Mandy; Werner, Doreen; Kampen, Helge

    2014-06-01

    Based primarily on nucleotide polymorphisms in the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA, Anopheles daciae was recently described as an additional member of the Maculipennis Group of species, separate from Anopheles messeae with which it had previously been confused due to morphological and genetic similarity. Species differentiation between A. messeae and A. daciae was possible only by ITS2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification followed by DNA sequencing or RFLP analysis. In addition to its siblings, Anopheles maculipennis, Anopheles atroparvus and A. messeae, A. daciae has been shown to occur in Germany, although with limited distribution. We here describe additional collection sites for this species in Germany, showing concentrations in East Germany and the northern Upper Rhine Valley in Southwest Germany. A species-specific multiplex PCR assay is presented that is able to differentiate the four Maculipennis Group sibling species occurring in Germany plus Anopheles sacharovi, Anopheles melanoon and Anopheles labranchiae. The correct identification and detailed knowledge of the biology of A. daciae are of relevance since it might be a vector of disease agents, as suggested by the vector potential of its siblings and the recent finding of an A. daciae female infected with Dirofilaria repens in southern Germany.

  16. The Physical Genome Mapping of Anopheles albimanus Corrected Scaffold Misassemblies and Identified Interarm Rearrangements in Genus Anopheles

    PubMed Central

    Artemov, Gleb N.; Peery, Ashley N.; Jiang, Xiaofang; Tu, Zhijian; Stegniy, Vladimir N.; Sharakhova, Maria V.; Sharakhov, Igor V.

    2016-01-01

    The genome of the Neotropical malaria vector Anopheles albimanus was sequenced as part of the 16 Anopheles Genomes Project published in 2015. The draft assembly of this species consisted of 204 scaffolds with an N50 scaffold size of 18.1 Mb and a total assembly size of 170.5 Mb. It was among the smallest genomes with the longest scaffolds in the 16 Anopheles species cluster, making An. albimanus the logical choice for anchoring the genome assembly to chromosomes. In this study, we developed a high-resolution cytogenetic photomap with completely straightened polytene chromosomes from the salivary glands of the mosquito larvae. Based on this photomap, we constructed a chromosome-based genome assembly using fluorescent in situ hybridization of PCR-amplified DNA probes. Our physical mapping, assisted by an ortholog-based bioinformatics approach, identified and corrected nine misassemblies in five large genomic scaffolds. Misassemblies mostly occurred in junctions between contigs. Our comparative analysis of scaffolds with the An. gambiae genome detected multiple genetic exchanges between pericentromeric regions of chromosomal arms caused by partial-arm translocations. The final map consists of 40 ordered genomic scaffolds and corrected fragments of misassembled scaffolds. The An. albimanus physical map comprises 98.2% of the total genome assembly and represents the most complete genome map among mosquito species. This study demonstrates that physical mapping is a powerful tool for correcting errors in draft genome assemblies and for creating chromosome-anchored reference genomes. PMID:27821634

  17. Molecular comparison of topotypic specimens confirms Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) dunhami Causey (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Colombian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Freddy; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Ponsonby, David J; Conn, Jan E; Herrera, Manuela; Quiñones, Martha L; Vélez, Iván D; Wilkerson, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    The presence of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) dunhami Causey in Colombia (Department of Amazonas) is confirmed for the first time through direct comparison of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcodes and nuclear rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) sequences with topotypic specimens of An. dunhami from Tefé, Brazil. An. dunhami was identified through retrospective correlation of DNA sequences following misidentification as Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. using available morphological keys for Colombian mosquitoes. That An. dunhami occurs in Colombia and also possibly throughout the Amazon Basin, is of importance to vector control programs, as this non-vector species is morphologically similar to known malaria vectors including An. nuneztovari, Anopheles oswaldoi and Anopheles trinkae. Species identification of An. dunhami and differentiation from these closely related species are highly robust using either DNA ITS2 sequences or COI DNA barcode. DNA methods are advocated for future differentiation of these often sympatric taxa in South America. PMID:21120360

  18. Mosquitoes of Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera, Culicidae) Group: Species Diagnostic and Phylogenetic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Khrabrova, Natalia V.; Andreeva, Yulia V.; Sibataev, Anuarbek K.; Alekseeva, Svetlana S.; Esenbekova, Perizat A.

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report the results of study of Anopheles species in Primorsk and Khabarovsk regions of Russia. Three species of the Anopheles hyrcanus group: An. kleini, An. pullus, and An. lesteri were identified by molecular taxonomic diagnostics for the first time in Russia. Surprisingly, An. sinensis, which earlier was considered the only species of Anopheles in Russian Far East, was not observed. We analyzed nucleotide variation in the 610-bp fragment of the 5′ end of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) region. All species possessed a distinctive set of COI sequences. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was constructed for members of the hyrcanus group. The examined Anopheles hyrcanus group members could be divided into two major subgroups: subgroup 1 (An. hyrcanus and An. pullus) and subgroup 2 (An. sinensis, An. kleini, and An. lesteri), which were found to be monophyletic. PMID:26149867

  19. [Detection of Anopheles artemievi Gordeev et al. (Diptera, Culicidae) in Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    Zvantsov, A B; Rozyev, K; Gordeev, M I; Goriacheva, I I; Khemzaev, Kh; Ezhov, M N

    2010-01-01

    Anopheles artemievi (a member of An. maculipennis complex species) described from the Transfergana region (South Kyrgyzstan) in 2004 was first found in the Lebap veloyat (Eastern Turkmenistan). A single larva of this species was collected together with An. superpictus in the irrigation channel of a rice field. Species affiliation has been proven by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. This species is to be included into a list of Anopheles species of Turkmenistan.

  20. Viruses in the Anopheles A, Anopheles B, and Tete Serogroups in the Orthobunyavirus Genus (Family Bunyaviridae) Do Not Encode an NSs Protein▿

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Maizan; McLees, Angela; Elliott, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Viruses in the genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae, have a genome comprising three segments (called L, M, and S) of negative-sense RNA. Serological studies have classified the >170 named virus isolates into 18 serogroups, with a few additional as yet ungrouped viruses. Until now, molecular studies and full-length S-segment nucleotide sequences were available for representatives of eight serogroups; in all cases, the S segment encodes two proteins, N (nucleocapsid) and NSs (nonstructural), in overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) that are translated from the same mRNA. The NSs proteins of Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) and California serogroup viruses have been shown to play a role in inhibiting host cell mRNA and protein synthesis, thereby preventing induction of interferon (IFN). We have determined full-length sequences of the S segments of representative viruses in the Anopheles A, Anopheles B, and Tete serogroups, and we report here that these viruses do not show evidence of having an NSs ORF. In addition, these viruses have rather longer N proteins than those in the other serogroups. Most of the naturally occurring viruses that lack the NSs protein behaved like a recombinant BUNV with the NSs gene deleted in that they failed to prevent induction of IFN-β mRNA. However, Tacaiuma virus (TCMV) in the Anopheles A serogroup inhibited IFN induction in a manner similar to that of wild-type BUNV, suggesting that TCMV has evolved an alternative mechanism, not involving a typical NSs protein, to antagonize the host innate immune response. PMID:19439468

  1. Factors associated with distribution of Anopheles aquasalis and Anopheles oswaldoi (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malarious area, northeastern Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Grillet, M E

    2000-03-01

    Spatial and temporal abundance patterns of anopheline larvae and their relationships with wetland conditions were studied in an endemic malaria area in northeastern Venezuela, where Anopheles aquasalis Curry is the main vector. Larvae were sampled over a 2-yr period in 7 wetland types (brackish and freshwater herbaceous swamps, mangrove swamps, freshwater ponds, clear-cut marsh forests, small irrigation canals, and swamp forests), covering 3 environmental gradients (salinity, aquatic vegetation, and habitat permanence). Twelve variable were quantified to describe each habitat. Two species of anophelines were collected. An. aquasalis was the species with the widest distribution, and its highest abundance was in the seasonal brackish mangrove habitat during the rainy season. An. oswaldoi Peryassu was rarely encountered, but was mainly associated with the dry season and with the permanent fresh water wetlands (such as ponds). Principal components and correlation analyses revealed that the physicochemical (salinity, dissolved oxygen) variables of the wetland were associated most strongly with the spatial distribution of both species. Variations in salinity were strongly associated with the abundance of An. aquasalis. Both the occurrence and abundance of An. oswaldoi were most closely correlated with dissolved oxygen. Changes in seasonal abundance of both species were associated with rainfall. The relevance of these results to vector control in northern Venezuela is discussed.

  2. Revision of the genus Melanagromyza in California, with descriptions of three new species (Diptera: Agromyzidae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Li; Gaimari, Stephen D

    2015-08-20

    The 27 Californian species of the genus Melanagromyza Hendel (Diptera: Agromyzidae) are reviewed, including descriptions of three new species (Melanagromyza californiana sp. nov., M. chemsaki sp. nov. and M. gonzalesina sp. nov.) and the first record for one species (Melanagromyza martini Spencer) for California and the USA. All species in California are described or redescribed, with illustrations and photographs, and a key to the species is presented. Maps for the species in California, along with host distributions, are provided, with comments on biology and host plants.

  3. Mosquito larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent properties of botanical extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, M; Mathivanan, T; Elumalai, K; Krishnappa, K; Anandan, A

    2011-08-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as eggs, larvae, and adult. The larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent activities of crude benzene and ethyl acetate extracts of leaf of Ervatamia coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in benzene extract of E. coronaria against the larvae of Anopheles Stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus with the LC(50) and LC(90) values were 79.08, 89.59, and 96.15 ppm and 150.47, 166.04, and 174.10 ppm, respectively. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 48 h posttreatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. The leaf extract of E. coronaria was found to be most effective than Caesalpinia pulcherrima against eggs/egg rafts of three vector mosquitoes. For E. coronaria, the benzene extract exerted 300, 250, and 200 ppm against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of benzene and ethyl acetate extract of E. coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima plants at three different concentrations of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of fore arm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the

  4. Oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Elango, G; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Abduz Zahir, A; Abdul Rahuman, A

    2009-11-01

    Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The leaf acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees, and Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels were tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The percentage of effective oviposition repellency of 92.60 , 93.04, 95.20, 88.26, 92.80, 94.01, 95.77, 96.93, and 92.54 at 500 ppm and the lowest repellency of 47.14, 58.00, 56.52, 64.93, 71.09, 66.42, 50.62, 57.62, and 65.73 at 31.25 ppm in acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus, respectively. The oviposition activity index (OAI) value of acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus at 500 ppm were -0.86, -0.87, -0.90, -0.78, -0.87, -0.86, -0.91, -0.94, and -0.86 respectively. The OAI values revealed that the solvent plant extracts have deterrent effect, and they caused a remarkable negative response resulting in oviposition of very few eggs. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 24 h after treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Mortality of 100% with ethyl acetate extract of Aegle marmelos, methanol extracts Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus were exerted at 1,000 ppm. The maximum repellent activity was observed at 500 ppm in methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and ethyl acetate extract of Cocculus hirsutus, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 90 to 120 min with the different extracts tested. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly

  5. [Radiosensitivity curve of different stages of spermatogenesis of Anopheles atroparvus (Diptera:Nematocera)].

    PubMed

    Lecis, A R; Figus, V; Santarini, C

    1975-01-01

    In order to obtain a dose-hatchability curve for irradiated spermatogenetic stages of Anopheles atroparvus, we have irradiated with the same dose "4500 r" young fourth larval stages, old fourth larval stages, nymphae and adult males. Those different stages represent different phases of spermatogenesis. The peak of radiosensitivity for embryonic mortality, was found in spermatids, lowest appeared in spermatogonies.

  6. Molecular Comparison of Topotypic Specimens Confirms Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) dunhami Causey (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Colombian Amazon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    of Health, Albany, NY, USA 5Facultad de Medicina , Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia 6Programa de Estudio y Control de Enfermedades...Tropicales, Facultad de Medicina , Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia The presence of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) dunhami Causey in Colombia

  7. Gondwanamyia, a new empidoid (Diptera) genus of uncertain placement

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Bradley J.; Cumming, Jeffrey M.; Brooks, Scott E.; Plant, Adrian R.; Saigusa, Toyohei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new minute-size empidoid fly genus, Gondwanamyia gen. n. and two new species (Gondwanamyia chilensis Cumming & Saigusa, sp. n., Gondwanamyia zealandica Sinclair & Brooks, sp. n.) are described, illustrated, and their distributions mapped. The family and subfamily assignments remain uncertain, but features of the female terminalia potentially suggest Trichopezinae (Brachystomatidae). PMID:27833421

  8. A review of the genus Dudaia Hedicke, 1923 (Diptera, Sphaeroceridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species of the Afrotropical genus Dudaia Hedicke, 1923 of the subfamily Copromyzinae are revised. The status of Afroborborus Curran, 1931 as a junior synonym of Dudaia is corroborated. Twelve species have been described hitherto, two of them are proposed here to be junior synonyms: Copromyza (Dudaia...

  9. Vitilevumyia, an enigmatic new genus of Stratiomyidae from Fiji (Diptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus of Stratiomyidae, Vitilevumyia gen. nov. (type species, V. bobwoodleyi, sp. nov.) is described from the island of Viti Levu, Fiji. It exhibits an unusual combination of character states, but is tentatively placed in the tribe Prosopochrysini of the subfamily Stratiomyinae. ...

  10. Efficacy of pyriproxyfen-treated nets in sterilizing and shortening the longevity of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Kazunori; Nakada, Kazuhide; Ishiwatari, Takao; Miyaguchi, Jun'ichi; Shono, Yoshinori; Lucas, John R; Mito, Nobuaki

    2012-09-01

    Pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors have become a serious threat for malaria control, and bed nets that reduce the development of resistance are urgently needed. Here, we tested the effects of bed nets treated with the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen against adult female Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Noninsecticidal nets made of 195 denier monofilament polyethylene with a mesh size of 75 holes per square inch (equivalent to the Olyset Net) were dipped in a 0.1, 0.01, or 0.001% (wt:vol) alcohol solution of pyriproxyfen and dried overnight. Adult females of an insecticide-susceptible An. gambiae strain were exposed to treated and untreated nets before and after a bloodmeal. Bioassays showed that females were completely sterilized after exposure to 0.1% (35 mg [AI]/m2) and 0.01% pyriproxyfen-treated nets both before and after a bloodmeal. In addition, adult longevity decreased after exposure to the pyriproxyfen-treated nets in a concentration-dependent manner. The sterilizing and life-shortening effects of pyriproxyfen on the vector mosquito indicate that the combined use of pyriproxyfen and pyrethroids on bed nets has the potential to provide better malaria control and prevent the further development of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors.

  11. Revision of the genus Pseudeurybata Hennig (Diptera, Micropezidae, Taeniapterinae).

    PubMed

    Marshall, S A

    2016-06-29

    The previously monotypic genus Pseudeurybata Hennig is revised to include seven species from Central America and Mexico and one species from South America. Pseudeurybata rufilabris (Enderlein) and Pseudeurybata compeditus (Hennig) are given as new combinations and a lectotype is designated for P. rufilabris (Enderlein). Pseudeurybata browni and P. alces from Costa Rica, P. guatemalensis from Guatemala, P. dasypogon from Mexico, and P. zeta from Colombia and Ecuador are described as new. All species are keyed and illustrated.

  12. Cryptic Species in the Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis (Diptera: Culicidae) Complex: Incongruence Between Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction Identification and Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA COI Gene Sequences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    SYSTEMATICS Cryptic Species in the Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis (Diptera: Culicidae) Complex: Incongruence Between Random Amplified...J.M.,O.Pellmyr, J.N.Thompson, andR.G.Harrison. 1994. Phylogeny of Greya ( Lepidoptera : Prodoxidae), based on nucleotide sequence variation in

  13. A new genus and species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) from leaf blister galls on Ribes (Grosulariaceae)in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ribesia sarae Gagné, new genus, new species(Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is described from simple leaf blister galls on Ribes aureum(Grossulariaceae) from Montana. The female abdomen is superficially similar to that of CystiphoraKieffer and SackenomyiaFelt. The three genera are compared. Because of stro...

  14. Argyritarsis Section of the Subgenus Nyssorhynchus of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae). Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Am. Entomol. Inst. (Ann Arbor) 1(2):1-17. 1967. Estudios sobre mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae). Ia. Un proyecto para un estudio sistematico de los...subgenero Nyssorhynchus do Brasil. Arq. Hig. Saude Publica 8:141-162. 1950. Do diagnostico diferencial entre A (N) strodel e A (N) pessoai na fase larvaria...Mex. , D. F. , Secr. Salubr. Asist. 181 p. Vargas V. M. 1956. Clave numerica para identificacion de larvas en cuarta fase de Anophelini en Costa Rica

  15. A Revision of the Argyritarsis Section of the Subgenus Nyssorhynchus of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Middle America. Contrib. Am. Entomol. Inst. (Ann Arbor) 1(2):1-17. 1967. Estudios sobre mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae). Ia. Un proyecto para un estudio...N) pessoai na fase larvaria. Rev. Bras. Malariol. 2:38-48. Galvao, A. L. A. and F. A. D. Amaral 1938. Sobre urn novo anofelino de Campos do Jordao...Salubr. Taxonomia y distribution. Mex., D. F., P* identification de larvas en cuarta fase de Rev. Biol. Trop. 4:27-34. identification de larvas

  16. Scanning electron microscopy of egg hatching of Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M H; Orozco, A; Chavez, B; Martinez-Palomo, A

    1992-09-01

    Scanning electron and light microscopic observations showed that egg hatching in Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann is aided by a chisel-shaped spine. This hatching tooth is surrounded by a thin flexible membrane fixed to a groove in the head of the larvae. Increased intracranial pressure may force the spine against the egg shell until a fissure is produced. Further opening of the egg is achieved by movements of the head and the entire body of the larva.

  17. Localized breeding of the Anopheles gambiae complex (Diptera: Culicidae) along the River Gambia, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Bøgh, C; Bøgh, C; Clarke, S E; Jawara, M; Thomas, C J; Lindsay, S W

    2003-08-01

    A study was undertaken to identify the major larval habitats of the Anopheles gambiae (Giles) complex in rural Gambia. Mosquito larvae and pupae were sampled along transects and in specific habitats in the central region of the country during the rainy seasons of 1996 and 1997. The sampling showed that the major breeding sites were located on the flooded alluvial soils bordering the river. The largest numbers of larvae were found during September, one month after the peak rains. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of specimens showed that Anopheles melas (Theobald) was the dominant species in the flooded areas (81.5%), followed by A. gambiae sensu stricto (Giles) (18.0%) and A. arabiensis (Patton) (0.5%). By sampling in specific habitats it was evident that A. arabiensis was mainly breeding in rain-fed rice fields along the edge of the alluvial soils. Anopheles melas and A. gambiae s.s. often coexisted but whereas A. melas were found in water with a salinity of up to 72% sea water (25.2 g NaCl l(-1)), A. gambiae s.s. only occurred in water with up to 30% sea water (10.5 g NaCl l(-1)). Anopheles melas larvae were found in association with plant communities dominated by sedges and grasses (Eleocharis sp., Paspalum sp., Sporobolus sp.) and sea-purslane Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.) and the presence of cattle hoof prints, whereas A. gambiae s.s. larvae mainly occurred in association with Paspalum sp. and Eleocharis sp. The study showed that even during the peak rainy season, breeding of the A. gambiae complex is almost entirely restricted to the extensive alluvial areas along the river.

  18. Evaluation of leaf aqueous extract and synthesized silver nanoparticles using Nerium oleander against Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Roni, Mathath; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2013-03-01

    Green nanoparticle synthesis has been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract and ecofriendly reducing and capping agents. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using leaf extract of Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications. It was found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by the aqueous extract of the plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy analysis. The production of the AgNPs synthesized using leaf extract of N. oleander was evaluated through a UV-Vis spectrophotometer in a wavelength range of 200 to 700 nm. This revealed a peak at 440 nm in N. oleander leaf extracts, indicating the production of AgNPs. The FTIR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at 509.12 cm(-1) (C-H bend alkenes), 1,077.05 cm(-1) (C-O stretch alcohols), 1,600.63 cm(-1) (N-H bend amines), 2,736.49 and 2,479.04 cm(-1) (O-H stretch carboxylic acids), and 3,415.31 cm(-1) (N-H stretching due to amines group). An SEM micrograph showed 20-35-nm-size aggregates of spherical- and cubic-shaped nanoparticles. EDX showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized nanoparticles of silver. Larvicidal activity of aqueous leaf extract of N. oleander and synthesized AgNPs was carried out against Anopheles stephensi, and the results showed that the highest larval mortality was found in the synthesized AgNPs against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi with the following values: LC(50) of instar larvae 20.60, 24.90, 28.22, and 33.99 ppm; LC(90) of instar larvae 41.62, 50.33, 57.78, and 68.41

  19. Molecular species delimitation in the genus Eumerus (Diptera: Syrphidae).

    PubMed

    Chroni, A; Djan, M; Vidaković, D Obreht; Petanidou, T; Vujić, A

    2017-02-01

    Eumerus is one of the most diverse genera of hoverfly worldwide. Species delimitation within genus is considered to be difficult due to: (a) lack of an efficient key; (b) non-defined taxonomical status of a large number of species; and (c) blurred nomenclature. Here, we present the first molecular study to delimit species of the genus by using a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome-c oxidase subunit I gene (COI) gene. We assessed 75 specimens assigned to 28 taxa originating from two biogeographic zones: 22 from the western Palaearctic and six from the Afrotropical region. Two datasets were generated based on different sequence lengths to explore the significance of availability of more polymorphic sites for species delimitation; dataset A with a total length of 647 bp and dataset B with 746 bp. Various tree inference approaches and Poisson tree processes models were applied to evaluate the putative 'taxonomical' vs. 'molecular' taxa clusters. All analyses resulted in high taxonomic resolution and clear species delimitation for both the dataset lengths. Furthermore, we revealed a high number of mitochondrial haplotypes and high intraspecific variability. We report two major monophyletic clades, and seven 'molecular' groups of taxa formed, which are congruent with morphology-based taxonomy. Our results support the use of the mitochondrial COI gene in species diagnosis of Eumerus.

  20. Phylogeography of the neotropical Anopheles triannulatus complex (Diptera: Culicidae) supports deep structure and complex patterns

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The molecular phylogenetic relationships and population structure of the species of the Anopheles triannulatus complex: Anopheles triannulatus s.s., Anopheles halophylus and the putative species Anopheles triannulatus C were investigated. Methods The mitochondrial COI gene, the nuclear white gene and rDNA ITS2 of samples that include the known geographic distribution of these taxa were analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using Bayesian inference, Maximum parsimony and Maximum likelihood approaches. Results Each data set analyzed septely yielded a different topology but none provided evidence for the seption of An. halophylus and An. triannulatus C, consistent with the hypothesis that the two are undergoing incipient speciation. The phylogenetic analyses of the white gene found three main clades, whereas the statistical parsimony network detected only a single metapopulation of Anopheles triannulatus s.l. Seven COI lineages were detected by phylogenetic and network analysis. In contrast, the network, but not the phylogenetic analyses, strongly supported three ITS2 groups. Combined data analyses provided the best resolution of the trees, with two major clades, Amazonian (clade I) and trans-Andean + Amazon Delta (clade II). Clade I consists of multiple subclades: An. halophylus + An. triannulatus C; trans-Andean Venezuela; central Amazonia + central Bolivia; Atlantic coastal lowland; and Amazon delta. Clade II includes three subclades: Panama; cis-Andean Colombia; and cis-Venezuela. The Amazon delta specimens are in both clades, likely indicating local sympatry. Spatial and molecular variance analyses detected nine groups, corroborating some of subclades obtained in the combined data analysis. Conclusion Combination of the three molecular markers provided the best resolution for differentiation within An. triannulatus s.s. and An. halophylus and C. The latest two species seem to be very closely related and the analyses performed were

  1. Intragenomic rDNA ITS2 Variation in the Neotropical Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis Complex (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-07

    However, in Allopb,/er, there are examples of rONA intragenomic variation (\\X’ilkerson et al. 2004; Fairley et al. 2005), but its prevalence and...Anopheles species (Onyabe and Conn 1999; Wilkerson et al. 2004; Fairley et aI. 200S) and in other mos- quitoes in subfamily Culicinae (Black et a!. 1989...DNA 1TS2 sequences. J :-.led Entomo!’ 33:109-116. Dover GA. 1982. Molecular dri"e: a cnhesive mode of species evolution. Nature. 299:111-117. Fairley

  2. Geographic distribution, evolution, and disease importance of species within the Neotropical Anopheles albitarsis Group (Diptera, Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Ruiz-Lopez, J. Freddy; Conn, Jan E.; Sallum, Maria Anice M.; Póvoa, Marinete M.; Bergo, Eduardo S.; Oliveira, Tatiane M. P.; Sucupira, Izis; Wilkerson, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    The Anopheles albitarsis group of mosquitoes comprises eight recognized species and one mitochondrial lineage. Our knowledge of malaria vectorial importance and the distribution and evolution of these taxa is incomplete. We constructed ecological niche models (ENMs) for these taxa and used hypothesized phylogenetic relationships and ENMs to investigate environmental and ecological divergence associated with speciation events. Two major clades were identified, one north (Clade 1) and one south (Clade 2) of the Amazon River that likely is or was a barrier to mosquito movement. Clade 1 species occur more often in higher average temperature locations than Clade 2 species, and taxon splits within Clade 1 corresponded with a greater divergence of variables related to precipitation than was the case within Clade 2. Comparison of the ecological profiles of sympatric species and sister species support the idea that phylogenetic proximity is related to ecological similarity. Anopheles albitarsis I, An. janconnae, and An. marajoara ENMs had the highest percentage of their predicted suitable habitat overlapping distribution models of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, and warrant additional studies of the transmission potential of these species. Phylogenetic proximity may be related to malaria vectorial importance within the Albitarsis Group. PMID:24820570

  3. Characterization of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitats in Belize, Central America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manguin, S.; Roberts, D. R.; Andre, R. G.; Rejmankova, E.; Hakre, S.

    1996-01-01

    Surveys for larvae of Anopheles darlingi Root were conducted in April, May, and August 1994 in riverine habitats of central Belize (Cayo and Belize districts). An. darlingi was present during both the dry and wet seasons. Larvae were encountered most frequently in patches of floating debris along river margins. The floating mats were often formed by bamboo hanging over the banks and dense submersed bamboo roots. Larvae were found less frequently in lake margins, small lagoons, and ground pools with submersed roots and patches of floating leaves or vegetation. In addition to their association with floating debris, larvae of An. darlingi were associated positively with shade and submersed plants in riverine environments. Samples from river habitats showed the larvae of Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann to be strongly associated with sun-exposed sites containing green or blue-green algae. Unlike An. darlingi, An. albimanus was an ubiquitous mosquito, the immatures of which occurred in a wide variety of riverine and nonriverine aquatic habitats. Based on published reports and our experience, the association of An. darlingi with river systems was verified, and its distribution in Central America and Mexico was mapped.

  4. Mosquito biosurveillance on Kyushu Island, Japan, with emphasis on Anopheles Hyrcanus Group and related species (Diptera: culicidae).

    PubMed

    Rueda, Leopoldo M; Pagac, Benedict; Iwakami, Masashiro; Spring, Alexandra R; Motoki, Mayasa T; Pecor, James E; Higa, Yukiko; Futami, Kyoko; Imanishi, Nozomi; Long, Lewis S; Debboun, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    This report includes the distribution records of the Anopheles (Anopheles) Hyrcanus Group and associated species in Kyushu Island, Japan, based on our field collections from various localities of 4 prefectures (Fukuoka, Kumamoto, Nagasaki, Saga), primarily from 2002-2013. The status of common and potential mosquito vectors, particularly Anopheles species, in Japan are noted.

  5. Population genetic structure of malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Gakhar, S K; Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Arvind

    2013-04-01

    Malaria is a complex disease that afflicts human today. Malaria epidemiology is associated with drug resistance in parasite and differential distribution and insecticide resistance in vector. Efforts are being made to eradicate malaria but burden of malaria is still increasing. Vector control is essential for malaria prevention strategies. Knowledge of population genetic structure is pre-requisite for determining prevention strategies particularly using transgenic mosquitoes. Population genetic study can predict level of gene flow between different populations. Anopheles stephensi Liston is urban vector of malaria in Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. About 12% of malaria cases of malaria in India are contributed by A. stephensi. Studies conducted on population genetics of A. stephensi using various markers in different parts of the world are discussed in this communication.

  6. Measurement of flight tone differentiates among members of the Anopheles gambiae species complex (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Brogdon, W G

    1998-09-01

    Through digital sampling and resampling at 5,000 and 20,000 Hz of amplified mosquito flight sound, baseline separation was observed for flight tone frequency distributions of male and female Anopheles gambiae Giles, An. arabiensis Patton, An. merus Donitz, and An. melas Theobald. Males of the 4 species showed flight tones considerably higher than females. Up to 7 harmonics were measured for each species. Close correspondence for each individual mosquito of the means of the flight tone harmonics (corrected for harmonic number) demonstrated the accuracy and precision of the method. These data indicate that flight tone differences have been subjected to selection and may act as an isolating mechanism for mating or serve some other behavioral purpose in these mosquitoes. Individuals and swarms of sympatric species were distinguished from each other for both males and females, but the allopatric species, An. merus and An. melas, were indistinguishable.

  7. A newly recognized species in the Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis complex (Diptera: Culicidae) from Puerto Carreno, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Brochero, Helena H L; Li, Cong; Wilkerson, Richard C

    2007-06-01

    We report a previously unrecognized mosquito species from eastern Colombia belonging to the Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis complex. We provisionally name this taxon An. albitarsis species "F." Until now, the only members of the Albitarsis Complex recorded from north of the Amazon River have been An. marajoara and a putative phylogenetic species, An. albitarsis "E." As with the other largely monomorphic species in the complex, we were able to detect its presence using ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (rDNA ITS2) and partial white gene sequences. Unlike An. marajoara, but in common with other species in the complex, An. albitarsis F lacks the white gene fourth intron. This species is sympatric with An. marajoara in a malaria-endemic area in Puerto Carreño, Vichada Department, Colombia. It could be an important current and/or historical vector of human malaria parasites at this locality and, depending on its actual distribution, elsewhere in Colombia and Venezuela.

  8. Changes in Genetic Diversity from Field to Laboratory During Colonization of Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Lainhart, William; Bickersmith, Sara A; Moreno, Marta; Rios, Carlos Tong; Vinetz, Joseph M; Conn, Jan E

    2015-11-01

    The process of colonizing any arthropod species, including vector mosquitoes, necessarily involves adaptation to laboratory conditions. The adaptation and evolution of colonized mosquito populations needs consideration when such colonies are used as representative models for pathogen transmission dynamics. A recently established colony of Anopheles darlingi, the primary malaria vector in Amazonian South America, was tested for genetic diversity and bottleneck after 21 generations, using microsatellites. As expected, laboratory An. darlingi had fewer private and rare alleles (frequency < 0.05), decreased observed heterozygosity, and more common alleles (frequency > 0.50), but no significant evidence of a bottleneck, decrease in total alleles, or increase in inbreeding compared with field specimens (founder population). Low-moderate differentiation between field and laboratory populations was detected. With these findings, and the documented inherent differences between laboratory and field populations, results of pathogen transmission studies using this An. darlingi colony need to be interpreted cautiously.

  9. Changes in Genetic Diversity from Field to Laboratory during Colonization of Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lainhart, William; Bickersmith, Sara A.; Moreno, Marta; Rios, Carlos Tong; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Conn, Jan E.

    2015-01-01

    The process of colonizing any arthropod species, including vector mosquitoes, necessarily involves adaptation to laboratory conditions. The adaptation and evolution of colonized mosquito populations needs consideration when such colonies are used as representative models for pathogen transmission dynamics. A recently established colony of Anopheles darlingi, the primary malaria vector in Amazonian South America, was tested for genetic diversity and bottleneck after 21 generations, using microsatellites. As expected, laboratory An. darlingi had fewer private and rare alleles (frequency < 0.05), decreased observed heterozygosity, and more common alleles (frequency > 0.50), but no significant evidence of a bottleneck, decrease in total alleles, or increase in inbreeding compared with field specimens (founder population). Low-moderate differentiation between field and laboratory populations was detected. With these findings, and the documented inherent differences between laboratory and field populations, results of pathogen transmission studies using this An. darlingi colony need to be interpreted cautiously. PMID:26283742

  10. [The distribution of the mosquitoes of the Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera, Culicidae, Anophelinae) in Central Asia].

    PubMed

    Zvantsov, A B; Gordeev, M I; Goriacheva, I I; Ezhov, M N

    2014-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method, cytogenetic analysis, and investigation of egg exochorion have indicated that three representatives of the Anopheles maculipennis complex (subgenus Anopheles): An artemievi Gordeev et al., An. messeae Falleroni, and An. marinius Shingarev. An. messeae is a European-Siberian species that has extended the southern border of its habitat and has been distributed in the south of Kazakhstan and in the north of Kyrgyzstan. In, Kyrgyzstan, An. messeae inhabiting the plains of Europe and Siberia is encountered rather high up in the mountains: the highest point where this species is found is at 1,879 m above sea level. An. artemievi is present in the highland and piedmont regions of Central Asia (Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, southern Kazakhstan, and northern Tajikistan) and in the intermountain basins (Naryn and Fergana ones). The single finding of this species is in south-eastern Turkmenistan. On the contrary, An. martinius tends to be in the plains and occurs in north-eastern Turkmenistan, Karakalpakstan, and Kazakhstan (Kzyl-Orda). On the other hand, a population of this species is found in proximity to the foothills of the Gissar Range in the east of Uzbekistan. An.maculipennis s.str. is not seen in Central Asia. Early evidence for the presence of both An. maculipennis s.str. and An. martinius in Kopet Dag (Southern Turkmenistan) is rather questionable. It is not improbable that these data are appropriate for either the newly described species An.persiensis or the scientifically new representative of the An. maculipennis complex.

  11. Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) malaria vectors in the municipality of Puerto Carreno, Vichada, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Pilar; Conn, Jan E.; Wirtz, Robert; Brochero, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The study of the biological aspects of Anopheles spp., strengthens the entomological surveillance. Objective To determine biological aspects and behavior of adult Anopheles mosquitoes in the urban area of Puerto Carreño municipality, Vichada, Colombia. Materials and methods Wild anophelines were collected landing on humans both indoors and outdoors between 18:00h and 06:00h for 50 min/h during two consecutive nights/month for eight months in the urban area of Puerto Carreño. The biting rate activity, the natural infection by Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax VK247 and VK210 using ELISA, and the annual entomological inoculation rate were determined for each species. The members of the Albitarsis complex were determined by amplificacion of the white gene by polymerase chain reaction. Results In order of abundance the species found were An. darlingi (n=1,166), An. marajoara sensu stricto (n=152), An. braziliensis (n=59), An. albitarsis F (n=25), An. albitarsis sensu lato (n=16), An. argyritarsis (n=3) and An. oswaldoi sensu lato (n=2). An. darlingi showed two activity peaks between 21:00 to 22:00 and 05:00 to 06:00 hours outdoors and between 21:00 to 22:00 and 04:00 to 05:00 indoors. Natural infection of this species was found with P. vivax VK210 and its annual entomological inoculation rate was 2. Natural infection of An marajoara sensu stricto with P. falciparum was found, with an annual entomological inoculation rate of 5 and a peak biting activity between 18:00 to 19:00 hrs both indoors and outdoors. Conclusion Transmission of malaria in the urban area of Puerto Carreño, Vichada, can occur by An. darlingi and An. marajoara s. s. PMID:23235809

  12. Environmental factors associated with spatial and temporal distribution of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Stoops, Craig A; Gionar, Yoyo R; Shinta; Sismadi, Priyanto; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Bangs, Michael J; Sukowati, Supratman

    2007-07-01

    A 12-mo ecological study of the spatial-temporal distribution of immature stages of Anopheles species was conducted in Sukabumi District, West Java, Indonesia. The study characterized 1,600 sites from a contiguous coastal and hill zone (0-800-m elevation) of which 64% contained Anopheles larvae. Principal component and multiple logistic regression analyses identified ecological parameters associated with presence of nine [Anopheles aconitus Doenitz, Anopheles annularis Van de Wulp, Anopheles barbirostris Van der Wulp, Anopheles flavirostris (Ludlow), Anopheles insulaeflorum (Swellengrebel and Swellengrebel de Graaf), Anopheles kochi Doenitz, Anopheles maculatus Theobald, Anopheles sundaicus (Rodenwaldt), and Anopheles vagus Doenitz] of 15 Anopheles species collected. Combined data for all nine species showed increased Anopheles presence associated with wet season periods and higher elevation habitats exhibiting reduced tree canopy coverage, higher water temperatures, and shallower water depths. Habitat variables measured included topography (elevation), water conditions (temperature, pH, salinity depth, and velocity), habitat characteristics (substrate and canopy cover), density and type of aquatic vegetation coverage (riparian, floating, and emergent), and distance from nearest human habitation. Significant relationships were found for nine species when using all habitats in the analysis. Habitat characteristics for three species were refined. An. aconitus and An. barbirostris were associated with higher elevation rice, Oryza savita L., paddies with relatively shallow water depths, higher water temperatures, higher acidity and salinity concentrations, and a greater average distance from human habitation. An. vagus presence in rice paddies was associated with lower elevation fields, deeper and cooler water, less acidic and saline conditions, and habitats closer to human dwellings. Overall, the distribution of Anopheles species in Sukabumi was found to be nonrandom

  13. Fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from some localities of Paraguay: new records, checklist, and illustrated key.

    PubMed

    Arias, Osmar René; Fariña, Nelson Librado; Lopes, Gleidyane Novaes; Uramoto, Keiko; Zucchi, Roberto Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) collected in McPhail traps in the municipalities of Concepción, Belén, Horqueta, Loreto (state of Concepción) and Santa Rosa (state of Misiones), Paraguay. In total, 17 species were captured, 9 of which are new records for Paraguay. All morphological characters used for species identification are illustrated.

  14. Bionomics of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malaria endemic region of Sungai Nyamuk Village, Sebatik Island - North Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sugiarto; Hadi, Upik Kesumawati; Soviana, Susi; Hakim, Lukman

    2017-03-14

    The bionomics of Anopheles was investigated in coastal Sungai Nyamuk Village, Nunukan District, North Kalimantan Province from August 2010 to January 2012. Mosquitoes were captured using human landing collections. A total of 5,103 Anopheles mosquitoes comprising 11 species were caught and 2,259 adult parous females were tested by ELISA for Plasmodium antigen. Anopheles vagus, An. sundaicus and An. subpictus were the most abundant species caught. Overall, Anopheles vagus were zoophilic and exophagic, but there was variation between species. Anopheles sundaicus and An. subpictus were anthropophilic and endophagic. Anopheles peditaeniatus and An. sundaicus collected biting humans outdoors were positive for P. falciparum protein and were incriminated as the likely vectors of malaria in Sungai Nyamuk Village. This research also showed that malaria transmission in Sungai Nyamuk Village occurred outdoors. Residual house spraying therefore would not protect the human population from vector contact, so that combination use of long lasting nets and personel protection is needed.

  15. Cyanobacteria associated with Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitats in southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Martínez, M Guadalupe; Rodríguez, Mario H; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I; Méndez-Sanchez, José D; Bond-Compeán, J Guillermo; Cold-Morgan, Michelle

    2002-11-01

    Cyanobacteria associated with Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann larval habitats from southern Chiapas, Mexico, were isolated and identified from water samples and larval midguts using selective medium BG-11. Larval breeding sites were classified according to their hydrology and dominant vegetation. Cyanobacteria isolated in water samples were recorded and analyzed according to hydrological and vegetation habitat breeding types, and mosquito larval abundance. In total, 19 cyanobacteria species were isolated from water samples. Overall, the most frequently isolated cyanobacterial taxa were Phormidium sp., Oscillatoria sp., Aphanocapsa cf. littoralis, Lyngbya lutea, P. animalis, and Anabaena cf. spiroides. Cyanobacteria were especially abundant in estuaries, irrigation canals, river margins and mangrove lagoons, and more cyanobacteria were isolated from Brachiaria mutica, Ceratophyllum demersum, and Hymenachne amplexicaulis habitats. Cyanobacteria were found in habitats with low to high An. albimanus larval abundance, but Aphanocapsa cf. littoralis was associated with habitats of low larval abundance. No correlation was found between water chemistry parameters and the presence of cyanobacteria, however, water temperature (29.2-29.4 degrees C) and phosphate concentration (79.8-136.5 ppb) were associated with medium and high mosquito larvae abundance. In An. albimanus larval midguts, only six species of cyanobacteria were isolated, the majority being from the most abundant cyanobacteria in water samples.

  16. Landscape surrounding human settlements and Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) abundance in Southern Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, A D; Rodriguez, M H; Hernandez, J E; Dister, S W; Beck, L R; Rejmankova, E; Roberts, D R

    1996-01-01

    Landscape characteristics that may influence important components of the Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann life cycle, including potential breeding sites, suitable diurnal resting sites, and possible sources of blood meals, were analyzed at 14 villages in a malarious area of southern Mexico. An. albimanus adults were collected weekly in each village using UV-light traps between July 1991 and August 1992. Based on rainfall, the study was divided into 6 seasonal periods. Villages were considered to have high mosquito abundance when >5 mosquitoes per trap per night were collected during any 1 of the 6 seasonal periods. The extension and frequency of 11 land cover types surrounding villages were determined using aerial photographs and subsequently verified through field surveys. Elevation was the main landscape feature that separated villages with low and high mosquito abundance. All villages with high mosquito abundance were below 25 m. Transitional and mangrove land cover types were found only in the high mosquito abundance group. Flooded areas as potential breeding sites and potential adult resting sites in unmanaged pastures were significantly more frequent in areas surrounding villages with high mosquito abundance. No significant differences in density of cattle and horses were found among village groups. Overall, surrounding breeding sites located at low elevations in flooded unmanaged pastures seemed to be the most important determinants of An. albimanus adult abundance in the villages.

  17. Bionomics of adult Anopheles pseudopunctipennis (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Tapachula foothills area of southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Salas, I; Rodriguez, M H; Roberts, D R; Rodriguez, M C; Wirtz, R A

    1994-09-01

    Field studies on the bionomics of adult Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Theobald were conducted to assess its relative importance as a primary vector of vivax malaria in southern Mexico. In four malaria endemic villages in a foothill region near Tapachula, Mexico, population densities of A. pseudopunctipennis increased during the dry seasons of 1990 and 1991. The pattern of nocturnal host-seeking activity indoors was unimodal with a late night peak at 0100 hours enhancing its vectorial significance, because it occurred when most residents were asleep and fully exposed to the anophelines. Comparisons of trapping methods showed that a horse-baited trap was more effective than human landing catches or UV light traps. Pit shelters, on the other hand, were more effective than indoor and natural shelter resting collections. Results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays performed on wild-caught A. pseudopunctipennis specimens documented the presence of natural infections with the VK210 and new VK247 circumsporozoite polymorphs of P. vivax. These findings verify the importance of A. pseudopunctipennis as a major vector of vivax malaria at higher elevations and extend the geographical range of the VK247 P. vivax polymorph in Mexico.

  18. Gonotrophic cycle and survivorship of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Tapachula foothills of southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Salas, I; Rodriguez, M H; Roberts, D R

    1994-05-01

    Mark-release-recapture experiments were conducted to determine the length of the gonotrophic cycle and survivorship of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Theobald in the Tapachula foothills of southern Mexico. Separate trials with wild-caught females were conducted in the early and late dry season to examine intraseasonal differences. The gonotrophic cycle of insectary-reared, nulliparous females was estimated during the late dry season. A total of 5.4-5.7% of marked females was recaptured. A 3-d gonotrophic cycle was characteristic of wild-caught females, whereas a 4-d gonotrophic cycle was characteristic for insectary-reared females. Engorged, wild-caught females completed oogenesis in approximately 60 h under field conditions. Blood digestion in 23.5% of 2,221 and 21.9% of 1,195 engorged, wild-caught females held in the insectary was not accompanied by egg development. Dissections of these females showed that nearly 85% were nulliparous and presumably pregravid. These statistics plus other field data were used to determine that 60% of all nulliparous entered a pregravid condition. The body size and wing length of gravids was significantly larger than pregravids. Daily survival estimates of 0.875 and 0.884 were calculated for field-collected females during the early and late dry season, respectively.

  19. Population genetic structure of Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in a rice growing area of central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Baliraine, Frederick N; Musani, Solomon; Jacob, Benjamin; Githure, John; Novak, Robert J

    2010-03-01

    Studies were conducted to examine the population genetic structure of Anopheles arabiensis (Patton) in Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme and surrounding areas in Central Kenya, under different agricultural systems. This study was motivated by observed differences in malaria transmission indices of An. arabiensis within the scheme compared with adjacent nonirrigated areas. Agricultural practices can modify local microclimate and influence the number and diversity of larval habitats and in so doing may occasion subpopulation differentiation. Thirty samples from each of the three study sites were genotyped at eight microsatellite loci. Seven microsatellite loci showed high polymorphism but revealed no genetic differentiation (FST = 0.006, P = 0.312) and high gene flow (Nm = 29-101) among the three populations. Genetic bottleneck analysis showed no indication of excess heterozygosity in any of the populations. There was high frequency of rare alleles, suggesting that An. arabiensis in the study area has a high potential of responding to selective pressures from environmental changes and vector control efforts. These findings imply that An. arabiensis in the study area occurs as a single, continuous panmictic population with great ability to adapt to human-imposed selective pressures.

  20. Isoenzymatic analysis of four Anopheles (Kerteszia) bellator Dyar & Knab (Diptera: Culicidae) populations.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho-Pinto, Carlos José; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

    2003-12-01

    Anopheles bellator is a small silvatic bromelia-breeding mosquito and is a primary human malaria vector species in Southern Brazil. The bromelia-breeding habitat of the species should accompany the Atlantic forest coastal distribution, where bromeliads are abundant. Nonetheless, records on An. bellator collections show a gap in the species geographical distribution. An. bellator has been recorded in Southern Brazil and in the Brazilian states of Bahia and Paraíba. It appears again in the island of Trinidad, in Trinidad and Tobago. The aim of this work was to measure gene flow between different populations of An. bellator collected in the northern and southern extremes of the geographic distribution of this species. Mosquitoes were captured in forest borders in Santa Catarina, São Paulo, and Bahia states in Brazil and in the island of Trinidad in Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Genetic distances varied between 0.076 and 0.680, based on enzymatic profiles from 11 distinct isoenzymes. Results indicate the existence of low-level gene flow between Brazilian populations of An. bellator, and a gene flow was even lower between the Brazilian and the Trinidad populations. This finding lead us to hypothesize that An. bellator did not spread along the coast, but reached northeastern areas through inland routes.

  1. Brazilian Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae) Clusters by Major Biogeographical Region

    PubMed Central

    Bergo, Eduardo S.; Randel, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    The major drivers of the extensive biodiversity of the Neotropics are proposed to be geological and tectonic events together with Pliocene and Pleistocene environmental and climatic change. Geographical barriers represented by the rivers Amazonas/Solimões, the Andes and the coastal mountain ranges in eastern Brazil have been hypothesized to lead to diversification within the primary malaria vector, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi Root, which primarily inhabits rainforest. To test this biogeographical hypothesis, we analyzed 786 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 12 populations of An. darlingi from across the complex Brazilian landscape. Both model-based (STRUCTURE) and non-model-based (Principal Components and Discriminant Analysis) analysis of population structure detected three major genetic clusters that correspond with newly described Neotropical biogeographical regions: 1) Atlantic Forest province (= southeast population); 2) Parana Forest province (= West Atlantic forest population, with one Chacoan population - SP); and 3) Brazilian dominion population (= Amazonian population with one Chacoan population - TO). Significant levels of pairwise genetic divergences were found among the three clusters, allele sharing among clusters was negligible, and geographical distance did not contribute to differentiation. We infer that the Atlantic forest coastal mountain range limited dispersal between the Atlantic Forest province and the Parana Forest province populations, and that the large, diagonal open vegetation region of the Chacoan dominion dramatically reduced dispersal between the Parana and Brazilian dominion populations. We hypothesize that the three genetic clusters may represent three putative species. PMID:26172559

  2. Stable chromosomal inversion polymorphisms and insecticide resistance in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Brooke, B D; Hunt, R H; Chandre, F; Carnevale, P; Coetzee, M

    2002-07-01

    Anopheles gambiae Giles has been implicated as a major vector of malaria in Africa. A number of paracentric chromosomal inversions have been observed as polymorphisms in wild and laboratory populations of this species. These polymorphisms have been used to demonstrate the existence of five reproductive units in West African populations that are currently described as incipient species. They have also been correlated with various behavioral characteristics such as adaptation to aridity and feeding preference and have been associated with insecticide resistance. Two paracentric inversions namely 2La and 2Rb are highly ubiquitous in the wild and laboratory populations sampled. Both inversions are easily conserved during laboratory colonization of wild material and one shows significant positive heterosis with respect to Hardy-Weinberg proportions. Inversion 2La has previously been associated with dieldrin resistance and inversion 2Rb shows an association with DDT resistance based on this study. The stability and maintenance of these inversions as polymorphisms provides an explanation for the transmission and continued presence of DDT and dieldrin resistance in a laboratory strain of An. gambiae in the absence of insecticide selection pressure. This effect may also be operational in wild populations. Stable inversion polymorphism also provides a possible mechanism for the continual inheritance of suitable genetic factors that otherwise compromise the fitness of genetically modified malaria vector mosquitoes.

  3. Brazilian Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae) Clusters by Major Biogeographical Region.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Kevin J; Conn, Jan E; Bergo, Eduardo S; Randel, Melissa A; Sallum, Maria Anice M

    2015-01-01

    The major drivers of the extensive biodiversity of the Neotropics are proposed to be geological and tectonic events together with Pliocene and Pleistocene environmental and climatic change. Geographical barriers represented by the rivers Amazonas/Solimões, the Andes and the coastal mountain ranges in eastern Brazil have been hypothesized to lead to diversification within the primary malaria vector, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi Root, which primarily inhabits rainforest. To test this biogeographical hypothesis, we analyzed 786 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 12 populations of An. darlingi from across the complex Brazilian landscape. Both model-based (STRUCTURE) and non-model-based (Principal Components and Discriminant Analysis) analysis of population structure detected three major genetic clusters that correspond with newly described Neotropical biogeographical regions: 1) Atlantic Forest province (= southeast population); 2) Parana Forest province (= West Atlantic forest population, with one Chacoan population - SP); and 3) Brazilian dominion population (= Amazonian population with one Chacoan population - TO). Significant levels of pairwise genetic divergences were found among the three clusters, allele sharing among clusters was negligible, and geographical distance did not contribute to differentiation. We infer that the Atlantic forest coastal mountain range limited dispersal between the Atlantic Forest province and the Parana Forest province populations, and that the large, diagonal open vegetation region of the Chacoan dominion dramatically reduced dispersal between the Parana and Brazilian dominion populations. We hypothesize that the three genetic clusters may represent three putative species.

  4. THE SALIVARY TRANSCRIPTOME OF Anopheles gambiae (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) LARVAE: A MICROARRAY-BASED ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Neira Oviedo, M.; Ribeiro, J.M.C.; Heyland, A.; VanEkeris, L.; Moroz, T.; Linser, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    In spite of the many recent developments in the field of vector sialomics, the salivary glands of larval mosquitoes have been largely unexplored. We used whole-transcriptome microarray analysis to create a gene-expression profile of the salivary gland tissue of fourth-instar Anopheles gambiae larvae, and compare it to the gene-expression profile of a matching group of whole larvae. We identified a total of 221 probes with expression values that were (a) significantly enriched in the salivary glands, and (b) sufficiently annotated as to allow the prediction of the presence/absence of signal peptides in their corresponding gene products. Based on available annotation of the protein sequences associated with these probes, we propose that the main roles of larval salivary secretions include: (a) immune response, (b) mouthpart lubrication, (c) nutrient metabolism, and (d) xenobiotic detoxification. Other highlights of the study include the cloning of a transcript encoding a previously unknown salivary defensin (AgDef5), the confirmation of mucus secretion by the larval salivary glands, and the first report of salivary lipocalins in the Culicidae. PMID:19328852

  5. Induced immunity against the mosquito Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae): effects on mosquito survival and fecundity.

    PubMed

    Almeida, A P; Billingsley, P F

    1998-11-01

    Mice were immunised three to five times with extracts of Anopheles stephensi heads, midguts, ovaries or fat bodies. At each immunisation the effects of feeding An. stephensi on the mice was determined, and changes in mosquito longevity and fecundity examined as the immune response developed. Although variability was common between control cages, significant and consistent reductions in mosquito longevity were observed when midguts were used as immunogens. Other extracts caused transient reductions in mortality. Fecundity was reduced significantly in mosquitoes fed upon mice immunised with each extract in at least one experiment. Mosquitoes fed upon fat-body-immunised mice showed delayed egg-laying as well as overall reduction in fecundity. The results confirm the feasibility of targeting mosquito antigens for novel vaccine development, but the "shotgun" approach used probably fails to successfully hit a suitable target antigen with any consistency. The natural variation in mosquito mortality can be countered by rigorous statistical analysis which can identify subtle effects in a very "noisy" experimental system. The midgut is the obvious target organ for anti-mosquito vaccine development and future work will focus on targeting components of this tissue for further immunisations.

  6. DNA barcoding distinguishes pest species of the black fly genus Cnephia (Diptera: Simuliidae).

    PubMed

    Conflitti, I M; Pruess, K P; Cywinska, A; Powers, T O; Currie, D C

    2013-11-01

    Accurate species identification is essential for cost-effective pest control strategies. We tested the utility of COI barcodes for identifying members of the black fly genus Cnephia Enderlein (Diptera: Simuliidae). Our efforts focus on four Nearctic Cnephia species-Cnephia dacotensis (Dyar & Shannon), Cnephia eremities Shewell, Cnephia ornithophilia (Davies, Peterson & Wood), and Cnephia pecuarum (Riley)--the latter two being current or potential targets of biological control programs. We also analyzed one Palearctic species, Cnephia pallipes (Fries). Although Cnephia adults can be identified anatomically to species, control programs target the larval stage, which is difficult or impossible to distinguish morphologically. By using neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian methods, we found that COI barcodes successfully identified three Nearctic Cnephia species, but not C. pecuarum. The Palearctic C. pallipes was also successfully identified. Despite nonmonophyly of C. pecuarum, we show that data from COI barcoding, in combination with geographical and ecological information, can be used to distinguish all four Nearctic species. Finally, we discussed 1) possible reasons for paraphyly in C. pecuarum, 2) topological concordance to previously reported chromosomal dendrograms, and 3) evolution of diverse feeding strategies within the genus Cnephia.

  7. Larvicidal and repellent potential of Moringa oleifera against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, K; Murugan, K; Nareshkumar, A; Ramasubramanian, N; Bragadeeswaran, S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the larvicidal and pupicidal potential of the methanolic extracts from Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) plant seeds against malarial vector Anopheles stephensi (A. stephensi) mosquitoes at different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm). Methods M. oleifera was collected from the area of around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore. The dried plant materials were powdered by an electrical blender. From each sample, 100 g of the plant material were extracted with 300 mL of methanol for 8 h in a Soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator to yield 122 mg and 110 mg of dark greenish material (residue) from Arcang amara and Ocimum basilicum, respectively. One gram of the each plant residue was dissolved separately in 100 mL of acetone (stock solution) from which different concentrations, i.e., 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm were prepared. Results Larvicidal activity of M. oleifera exhibited in the first to fourth instar larvae of the A. stephensi, and the LC50 and LC90 values were 57.79 ppm and 125.93 ppm for the first instar, 63.90 ppm and 133.07 ppm for the second instar, 72.45 ppm and 139.82 ppm for the third instar, 78.93 ppm and 143.20 ppm for the fourth instar, respectively. During the pupal stage the methanolic extract of M. oleifera showed that the LC50 and LC90 values were 67.77 ppm and 141.00 ppm, respectively. Conclusions The present study indicates that the phytochemicals derived from M. oleifera seeds extracts are effective mosquito vector control agents and the plant extracts may be used for further integrated pest management programs. PMID:23569741

  8. Salivary gland proteome of the human malaria vector, Anopheles campestris-like (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Sor-Suwan, Sriwatapron; Jariyapan, Narissara; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Paemanee, Atchara; Saeung, Atiporn; Thongsahuan, Sorawat; Phattanawiboon, Benjarat; Bates, Paul A; Poovorawan, Yong; Choochote, Wej

    2013-03-01

    Anopheles campestris-like is proven to be a high-potential vector of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand. In this study, A. campestris-like salivary gland proteins were determined and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total amount of salivary gland proteins in the mosquitoes aged 3-5 days was approximately 0.1 ± 0.05 μg/male and 1.38 ± 0.01 μg/female. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed at least 12 major proteins found in the female salivary glands and each morphological region of the female glands contained different major proteins. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed approximately 20 major and several minor protein spots displaying relative molecular masses from 10 to 72 kDa with electric points ranging from 3.9 to 10. At least 15 glycoproteins were detected in the female glands. Similar electrophoretic protein profiles were detected comparing the male and proximal-lateral lobes of the female glands, suggesting that these lobes are responsible for sugar feeding. Blood-feeding proteins, i.e., putative 5'-nucleotidase/apyrase, anti-platelet protein, long-form D7 salivary protein, D7-related 1 protein, and gSG6, were detected in the distal-lateral lobes (DL) and/or medial lobes (ML) of the female glands. The major spots related to housekeeping proteins from other arthropod species including Culex quinquefasciatus serine/threonine-protein kinase rio3 expressed in both male and female glands, Ixodes scapularis putative sil1 expressed in DL and ML, and I. scapularis putative cyclophilin A expressed in DL. These results provide information for further study on the salivary gland proteins of A. campestris-like that are involved in hematophagy and disease transmission.

  9. Delayed egg hatching of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) pending water agitation.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Babak; Shakibi, Sanam; Foster, Woodbridge A

    2014-05-01

    Mosquito eggs laid on water surfaces typically hatch spontaneously soon after the embryos within them become fully formed first-instar larvae. However, we have found that Anopheles gambiae Giles, an important vector of malaria in Africa, exhibits delayed hatching until the water surface is agitated, a feature overlooked in most laboratory colonies. Agitation within 24 h postoviposition, before embryonation was complete, failed to stimulate delayed postembryonic hatching of isolated eggs on the following day (day 2), when < 1% had hatched spontaneously. However, 5 min of water agitation of these dormant pharate first-instar larvae on day 2 resulted in an almost immediate hatch of 63.3 versus 0% of nonagitated controls, plus another 3.9 versus 0.3%, respectively, during the following 24 h. With daily agitation, installment hatching occurred mainly during 2-6 d postoviposition. The mean cumulative hatch after 7 d of daily agitation was 83.1 versus 1.1% of nonagitated eggs. Experiments with eggs in groups demonstrated that egg density and activity of already-hatched larvae had no stimulatory effect. Eggs stored 1-4 wk at 25.5 or at 15.5 degrees C, and then agitated daily for 6 d at 25.5 degrees C, showed a gradual decline in viability. Viability was sustained longer at the lower temperature. Implications of agitation-induced egg hatching for rainy-season and dry-season ecology of An. gambiae are discussed. Suspended hatching and cool storage already are proving convenient for efficient mass rearing and accurate modeling of weather-based population dynamics.

  10. A multi-locus approach to barcoding in the Anopheles strodei subgroup (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ability to successfully identify and incriminate pathogen vectors is fundamental to effective pathogen control and management. This task is confounded by the existence of cryptic species complexes. Molecular markers can offer a highly effective means of species identification in such complexes and are routinely employed in the study of medical entomology. Here we evaluate a multi-locus system for the identification of potential malaria vectors in the Anopheles strodei subgroup. Methods Larvae, pupae and adult mosquitoes (n = 61) from the An. strodei subgroup were collected from 21 localities in nine Brazilian states and sequenced for the COI, ITS2 and white gene. A Bayesian phylogenetic approach was used to describe the relationships in the Strodei Subgroup and the utility of COI and ITS2 barcodes was assessed using the neighbor joining tree and “best close match” approaches. Results Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of the COI, ITS2 and white gene found support for seven clades in the An. strodei subgroup. The COI and ITS2 barcodes were individually unsuccessful at resolving and identifying some species in the Subgroup. The COI barcode failed to resolve An. albertoi and An. strodei but successfully identified approximately 92% of all species queries, while the ITS2 barcode failed to resolve An. arthuri and successfully identified approximately 60% of all species queries. A multi-locus COI-ITS2 barcode, however, resolved all species in a neighbor joining tree and successfully identified all species queries using the “best close match” approach. Conclusions Our study corroborates the existence of An. albertoi, An. CP Form and An. strodei in the An. strodei subgroup and identifies four species under An. arthuri informally named A-D herein. The use of a multi-locus barcode is proposed for species identification, which has potentially important utility for vector incrimination. Individuals previously found naturally infected with Plasmodium

  11. Population fluctuation of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in forest and forest edge habitats in Tucumán province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dantur Juri, M J; Almirón, W R; Claps, G L

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the possible effects of forest and forest edge habitats on the population fluctuation of the Anopheles species in northwestern Argentina, taking into consideration the relationship between this fluctuation and climatic variables. This study is one of the first that involves the Anopheles fauna in the country and its dynamics in two different habitats. Sampling was carried out from October, 2002 to October, 2003, in the forest and on the forest edge. Both habitats were compared for species diversity and abundance, and multiple regression analyses were performed to analyze the effects of environmental variables on the population dynamics. Five hundred and sixteen adult specimens of Anopheles species were collected, the most numerous group being Arribalzaga (52.1%), followed by Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) strodei (20.5%) and Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) evansae (6.4%). Mosquito abundance was greatest in the forest, the most productive habitat. Samples were collected throughout the sampling period, with a smaller peak in summer. Small numbers of Anopheles (Anopheles) pseudopunctipennis were found throughout the year. Relative humidity, with a 15-day delay, was the factor that most strongly contributed to the temporal sample fluctuation. We conclude that the best season for anopheline development in the study area is from spring to fall, although the period with the greatest transmission risk is the fall, with the greatest An. pseudopunctipennis abundance.

  12. Descriptions of three new species of the genus Cheilosia Meigen from China (Diptera, Syrphidae).

    PubMed

    Barkalov, Anatolij V; Ståhls, Gunilla

    2015-06-11

    Three species of genus Cheilosia (Diptera, Syrphidae: Eristalinae) from China are described as new to science, Cheilosia bullabucca Barkalov & Ståhls sp. n., C. lamproptera Barkalov & Ståhls sp. n. and C. yunnanensis Barkalov & Ståhls sp. n. We provide species descriptions and keys for their identification. The phylogenetic placements of the taxa was estimated based on their morphological characteristics and by analysing the taxa under parsimony using a mtDNA COI sequence dataset including a comprehensive set of Palaearctic previously generated Cheilosia spp. sequences representing all major subgenera. Based on both their morphological affinities and the molecular data. The Chinese taxa were placed in the subgenera Eucartosyrphus (C. bullabucca), Cheilosia s. str. (C. oblonga), Floccocheila (C. versicolor) while C. yunnanensis was not resolved as member of Cheilosia s. str. based on DNA despite sharing morphological characteristics with the subgenus. As the name Cheilosia (Nephocheila) prima Barkalov & Cheng from China is a junior homonym of Cheilosia (Cartosyrphus) prima Hunter, 1896 from the Nearctic region, for the Chinese species the new name Cheilosia (Nephocheila) primaria Barkalov & Ståhls nomen nov. is proposed.

  13. The development of Plasmodium falciparum in experimentally infected Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) under ambient microhabitat temperature in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Okech, Bernard A; Gouagna, Louis C; Walczak, Elizabeth; Kabiru, Ephantus W; Beier, John C; Yan, Guiyun; Githure, John I

    2004-10-01

    The effect of microhabitat temperature variation on the early development of Plasmodium falciparum in experimentally infected Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) was studied. Batches of mosquitoes were fed artificially on gametocyteamic blood obtained from human volunteers and then held in five environmental conditions described as: (1) incubator maintained at constant temperature of 28 +/- 1 degrees C as control; (2) temperature unregulated laboratory environment; (3) screen house; (4) grass thatched mud house and (5) corrugated iron roofed mud house. Both the grass and iron roofed mud houses were real houses found in the village communities around the ICIPE Research Centre in Mbita Point, Suba District south-western Kenya. The temperature and relative humidity of these holding environments were recorded over the study period. Mosquitoes were dissected after 24 h and 7 days to enumerate ookinetes and oocysts stages, respectively in their midguts. The mean temperature observed in the temperature-unregulated laboratory (28 degrees C) was significantly higher than the temperature of the screen house (24 degrees C) while the mean temperature observed in the iron roof mud house (27 degrees C) was comparable with that in the grass-thatched mud house (27 degrees C) although the iron roof house experienced more variation (coefficient of variation, C.V., = 9.6%) and higher peaking temperatures than the grass-thatch house. The mean relative humidity for the laboratory and screen house were 23% and 32.5%, respectively, much lower than relative humidity in the incubator (73%). Relative humidity of the grass thatch hut (42%) and Iron roof hut (51%) were also lower than those of the incubator. The ookinete intensities for mosquitoes in the screen house (10.11 +/- 1.79 ookinetes/midgut) were not statistically different (P = 0.41) from those held in the laboratory (7.50 +/- 1.19 ookinetes/midgut) or in the incubator (9.89 +/- 1.47 ookinetes/midgut). The holding

  14. Ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal properties of Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) (Family: Asparagaceae) root extracts against filariasis (Culex quinquefasciatus), dengue (Aedes aegypti) and malaria (Anopheles stephensi) vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2014-04-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The present investigation was undertaken to study the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extracts of root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of Asparagus racemosus against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi exerted 100% mortality (zero hatchability) at 375, 300 and 225 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed 99-100% hatchability. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of root of Asparagus racemosus against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi with the LC50 and LC90 values were 115.13, 97.71 and 90.97 ppm and 210.96, 179.92, and 168.82 ppm, respectively. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in

  15. Population structure and gene flow of Anopheles farauti s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) among ten sites on five islands of Vanuatu: implications for malaria control.

    PubMed

    Reiff, D M; Kaneko, A; Taleo, G; Amos, M; Lum, J K

    2007-07-01

    The Anopheles punctulatus (Diptera: Culicidae) group is the main vector for malaria and Bancroftian filariasis in Vanuatu. Anopheles larvae were collected from 10 localities on five islands of Vanuatu during the 2004 dry season for species identification as well as for estimating population structure and gene flow within and among islands. Species identification was determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 2 region. Population structure and gene flow were examined by sequencing a portion of the ND4/ND5 region of the mitochondrial genome. Only one species of the An. punctulatus group, An. farauti s.s., was identified, consistent with previous studies in Vanuatu. A nonrandom distribution of An. farauti s.s. lineages was observed with one cosmopolitan lineage shared by eight sites on all five islands and a preponderance of island-specific lineages (36/40), indicating the introduction of a single main lineage into Vanuatu followed by dispersal, diversification, and limited lineage exchange between islands. Network analysis suggests a possible second introduction of An. farauti s.s. into the northern islands of Gaua and Malekula. Gene flow was high on three of the five islands, whereas Tanna and Santo have significant population structure. Among islands, gene flow was limited, indicating active mosquito dispersal only over short distances and a paucity of passive human-mediated dispersal over long distances. Minimal risk of active dispersal among these islands indicates that vector control can be effectively initiated at the island level within the archipelago of Vanuatu.

  16. Characterization and detection of Anopheles vestitipennis and Anopheles punctimacula (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitats in Belize with field survey and SPOT satellite imagery.

    PubMed

    Rejmankova, E; Pope, K O; Roberts, D R; Lege, M G; Andre, R; Greico, J; Alonzo, Y

    1998-06-01

    Surveys of larval habitats of Anopheles vestitipennis and Anopheles punctimacula were conducted in Belize, Central America. Habitat analysis and classification resulted in delineation of eight habitat types defined by dominant life forms and hydrology. Percent cover of tall dense macrophytes, shrubs, open water, and pH were significantly different between sites with and without An. vestitipennis. For An. punctimacula, percent cover of tall dense macrophytes, trees, detritus, open water, and water depth were significantly different between larvae positive and negative sites. The discriminant function for An. vestitipennis correctly predicted the presence of larvae in 65% of sites and correctly predicted the absence of larvae in 88% of sites. The discriminant function for An. punctimacula correctly predicted 81% of sites for the presence of larvae and 45% for the absence of larvae. Canonical discriminant analysis of the three groups of habitats (An. vestitipennis positive; An. punctimacula positive; all negative) confirmed that while larval habitats of An. punctimacula are clustered in the tree dominated area, larval habitats of An. vestitipennis were found in both tree dominated and tall dense macrophyte dominated environments. The forest larval habitats of An. vestitipennis and An. punctimacula seem to be randomly distributed among different forest types. Both species tend to occur in denser forests with more detritus, shallower water, and slightly higher pH. Classification of dry season (February) SPOT multispectral satellite imagery produced 10 land cover types with the swamp forest and tall dense marsh classes being of particular interest. The accuracy assessment showed that commission errors for the tall, dense marsh and swamp forest appeared to be minor; but omission errors were significant, especially for the swamp forest (perhaps because no swamp forests are flooded in February). This means that where the classification indicates there are An. vestitipennis

  17. Characterization and detection of Anopheles vestitipennis and Anopheles punctimacula (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitats in Belize with field survey and SPOT satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rejmankova, E.; Pope, K. O.; Roberts, D. R.; Lege, M. G.; Andre, R.; Greico, J.; Alonzo, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Surveys of larval habitats of Anopheles vestitipennis and Anopheles punctimacula were conducted in Belize, Central America. Habitat analysis and classification resulted in delineation of eight habitat types defined by dominant life forms and hydrology. Percent cover of tall dense macrophytes, shrubs, open water, and pH were significantly different between sites with and without An. vestitipennis. For An. punctimacula, percent cover of tall dense macrophytes, trees, detritus, open water, and water depth were significantly different between larvae positive and negative sites. The discriminant function for An. vestitipennis correctly predicted the presence of larvae in 65% of sites and correctly predicted the absence of larvae in 88% of sites. The discriminant function for An. punctimacula correctly predicted 81% of sites for the presence of larvae and 45% for the absence of larvae. Canonical discriminant analysis of the three groups of habitats (An. vestitipennis positive; An. punctimacula positive; all negative) confirmed that while larval habitats of An. punctimacula are clustered in the tree dominated area, larval habitats of An. vestitipennis were found in both tree dominated and tall dense macrophyte dominated environments. The forest larval habitats of An. vestitipennis and An. punctimacula seem to be randomly distributed among different forest types. Both species tend to occur in denser forests with more detritus, shallower water, and slightly higher pH. Classification of dry season (February) SPOT multispectral satellite imagery produced 10 land cover types with the swamp forest and tall dense marsh classes being of particular interest. The accuracy assessment showed that commission errors for the tall, dense marsh and swamp forest appeared to be minor; but omission errors were significant, especially for the swamp forest (perhaps because no swamp forests are flooded in February). This means that where the classification indicates there are An. vestitipennis

  18. Notes and Redescriptions of Some Anopheles Series Arribalzagia Holotypes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the British Museum (Natural History)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-12

    Ev- ans La Cabrero Estado Carabobo 192 1 Dr. M Nunez Tovar”; “Holotype of Anopheles venezuelae Evans det. J . Chainey 1975.” Condition of specimen...Anophelines of the Amazon Med. Parasitol. 17: 101-l 11. Valley. Proc. Entomol. Sot. Wash. 35: 117-133. Reid, J . A. and K. L. Knight. 196 1. Classification

  19. Larvicidal and repellent activity of Vetiveria zizaniodes (Poaceae) essential oil against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Liston) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Essential oil extracted by steam distillation of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash (Poaceae) was evaluated for larvicidal and adult repellent activity against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Liston). Median lethal concentrations (LC50) at 24 h post treatment for instars 1-4 were, respectively,...

  20. Electrophysiological responses of gustatory receptor neurons on the labella of the common malaria mosquito Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We recorded electrical responses from sensory cells associated with gustatory sensilla on the labella of female Anopheles quadrimaculatus to salt, sucrose, quinine (a feeding deterrent) and the insect repellent, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). A salt-sensitive cell responded to increasing con...

  1. Brazilian mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna: I. Anopheles species from Porto Velho, Rondônia state, western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Morais, Sirlei Antunes; Urbinatti, Paulo Roberto; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Kuniy, Adriana Akemi; Moresco, Gilberto Gilmar; Fernandes, Aristides; Nagaki, Sandra Sayuri; Natal, Delsio

    2012-12-01

    This study contributes to knowledge of Anopheles species, including vectors of Plasmodium from the western Brazilian Amazon in Porto Velho, Rondônia State. The sampling area has undergone substantial environmental changes as a consequence of agricultural and hydroelectric projects, which have caused intensive deforestation and favored habitats for some mosquito species. The purpose of this study was to diagnose the occurrence of anopheline species from collections in three locations along an electric-power transmission line. Each locality was sampled three times from 2010 to 2011. The principal adult mosquitoes captured in Shannon trap were Anopheles darlingi, An. triannulatus, An. nuneztovari l.s., An.gilesi and An. costai. In addition, larvae were collected in ground breeding sites for Anopheles braziliensis, An. triannulatus, An. darlingi, An. deaneorum, An. marajoara, An. peryassui, An. nuneztovari l.s. and An. oswaldoi-konderi. Anopheles darlingi was the most common mosquito in the region. We discuss Culicidae systematics, fauna distribution, and aspects of malaria in altered habitats of the western Amazon.

  2. Chemical Compositions of the Peel Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium and Its Natural Larvicidal Activity against the Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) in Comparison with Citrus paradisi

    PubMed Central

    Sanei-Dehkordi, Alireza; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abai, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, essential oils and extracts derived from plants have received much interest as potential bio-active agents against mosquito vectors. Methods: The essential oils extract from fresh peel of ripe fruit of Citrus aurantium and Citrus paradisi were tested against mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory condition. Then chemical composition of the essential oil of C. aurantium was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Results: The essential oils obtained from C. aurantium, and C. paradisi showed good larviciding effect against An. stephensi with LC50 values 31.20 ppm and 35.71 ppm respectively. Clear dose response relationships were established with the highest dose of 80 ppm plant extract evoking almost 100% mortality. Twenty-one (98.62%) constituents in the leaf oil were identified. The main constituent of the leaf oil was Dl-limonene (94.81). Conclusion: The results obtained from this study suggest that the limonene of peel essential oil of C. aurantium is promising as larvicide against An. stephensi larvae and could be useful in the search for new natural larvicidal compounds. PMID:28032110

  3. Diving behavior in Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae): avoidance of a predacious wolf spider (Araneae: Lycosidae) in relation to life stage and water depth.

    PubMed

    Futami, Kyoko; Sonye, George; Akweywa, Peter; Kaneko, Satoshi; Minakawa, Noboru

    2008-11-01

    It has been suggested that mosquito larvae and pupae dive to avoid predators. We tested this predator-avoidance hypothesis by using immature Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and the wolf spider Pardosa messingerae (Stand) (Araneae: Lycosidae). Because previous studies have suggested that wolf spiders are poor predators of immature mosquitoes, we first examined the predatory ability of the wolf spider and found that the spider was effective at capturing all stages of larvae and pupae. The mortality from experimental cups containing deep water increased with the age of mosquitoes, with the exception of pupae. In contrast, this trend was not observed in shallow water. In particular, mortality was significantly lower in deep water during the second instar. During the third instar, the opposite trend was observed. When the effect of cannibalism was excluded by subtracting the number of missing mosquitoes for the treatment without spiders from those with spiders, the cannibalism corrected mortality was significantly lower in deep water during the second instar. The duration of diving by larvae and pupae decreased with age. With the exception of first instar, diving frequency also decreased with age. We postulate that this diving behavior allows An. gambiae to escape predation by wolf spiders, which supports the predator-avoidance hypothesis. This study indicates some important implications for vector control.

  4. Comparisons of life-history characteristics of a genetic sexing strain with laboratory strains of Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) from northern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Oliva, C F; Benedict, M Q; Soliban, S M; Lemperiere, G; Balestrino, F; Gilles, J R L

    2012-09-01

    A genetic sex separation strain (GSS) has been created for Anopheles arabiensis (Patton) (Diptera: Culicidae), one of the major African malaria vectors, for use in controlling wild populations of this species via the sterile insect technique (SIT). This GSS strain, "ANO IPCL1," allows sex separation by a translocation linking a dieldrin resistance allele and the Y chromosome. Differences between ANO IPCL1 relative to wild strains might reflect its field performance and therefore are of concern. Of more immediate interest is how differences might affect production during mass rearing. Life-history parameters were measured for the ANO IPCL1 strain and the two wild strains from which it originated. Although developmental rate differences were found among them, none were large. However, a major observed variation was the very low intrinsic fertility of ANO IPCL1 because of the translocation itself. This resulted in a much lower rate of increase: ANO IPCL1 was able to double its population size, in 7.8 +/- 0.4 d, whereas Dongola and Sennar strains could do so in 4.9 +/- 0.5 and 5.6 +/- 0.4 d. The presence of the Y-autosome translocation mainly affected the natural fertility of the males, and this will require amplification steps during mass rearing.

  5. Distribution, Abundance and Molecular Analysis of Genus Barbadocladius Cranston & Krosch (Diptera, Chironomidae) in Tropical, High Altitude Andean Streams and Rivers.

    PubMed

    Prat, N; Ribera, C; Rieradevall, M; Villamarín, C; Acosta, R

    2013-12-01

    The distribution of the genus Barbadocladius Cranston & Krosch (Diptera: Chironomidae), previously reported from Chile to Bolivia, has extended northwards. Larvae, pupae and pupal exuviae of this genus have been found in the high mountain tropical streams of Peru to 9°22'56″, but are restricted to very high altitude streams (altitudes over 3,278 m asl) compared to the lower altitude streams (below 1,100 m asl) in which the genus is reported in Chile and Argentina. Based on morphological studies, both described species in the genus, Barbadocladius andinus Cranston & Krosch and Barbadocladius limay Cranston & Krosch, have been found in Peru as pupae or pupal exuviae. Morphological analysis of the larvae and pupae revealed no differences between the two described species from Patagonia and Peru, which are of similar size and with a similar armament of hooklets and spines in pupal tergites and sternites. However, molecular analysis of larvae and pupae revealed that in Peru, there are at least two different evolutionary lines, one distributed widely and another restricted to one site. Phylogenetic analysis (using cox1 mitochondrial sequences) of all available sequences of Barbadocladius shows that the Chilean and Argentinean material differs from that of Peru. Therefore, a total of four molecular segregates are identified, although morphologically, neither larvae nor the pupae may be differentiated.

  6. Susceptibility of three laboratory strains of Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) to coindigenous Plasmodium vivax in southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Chan, A S; Rodríguez, M H; Torres, J A; Rodríguez, M del C; Villarreal, C

    1994-05-01

    Three morphologically different pupal phenotypes (green, striped, brown) were selected from a parent strain of Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann collected from the Suchiate region in the state of Chiapas, Mexico. Significant differences in susceptibility to coindigenous Plasmodium vivax Grassi & Feletti were observed when striped was compared with the parent colony as well as with brown and with green phenotypes. Differences in susceptibility were not significant between the other phenotypes and the parent colony.

  7. Remotely-sensed land use patterns and the presence of Anopheles larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Stoops, Craig A; Gionar, Yoyo R; Shinta; Sismadi, Priyanto; Rachmat, Agus; Elyazar, Iqbal F; Sukowati, Supratman

    2008-06-01

    Land use patterns and the occurrence of Anopheles species larvae were studied in Sukabumi District, West Java, Indonesia, from October 2004 to September 2005. Two land use maps derived using remote sensing were used. One map derived from Quickbird satellite images of 150 km2 of the Simpenan and Ciemas subdistricts (106 degrees 27' 53"-106 degrees 38' 38" E and 6 degrees 59' 59"-7 degrees 8' 46" S) in Sukabumi and one using ASTER images covering 4,000 km2 of Sukabumi District from 106 degrees 22' 15"-107 degrees 4' 1" E and 6 degrees 42' 50" - 7 degrees 26' 13" S. There was a total of 11 Anopheles spp. collected from 209 sampling locations in the area covered by the Quickbird image and a total of 15 Anopheles spp. collected from 1,600 sampling locations in the area covered by the ASTER map. For the area covered by the land use maps, ten species were found to have statistically positive relationships between land use class and species presence: Anopheles aconitus, An. annularis, An. barbirostris. An. flavirostris, An. insulaeflorum, An. kochi, An. maculatus, An. subpictus, An. sundaicus, and An. vagus. Quickbird and ASTER satellite images both produced land maps that were adequate for predicting species presence in an area. The land use classes associated with malaria vector breeding were rice paddy (An. aconitus, An. subpictus), plantation located near or adjacent to human settlements (An. maculatus), bush/shrub (An. aconitus, An. maculatus, An. sundaicus), bare land, and water body land use on the coast located < or = 250 m of the beach (An. sundaicus). Understanding the associations of habitat and species in one area, predictions of species presence or absence can be made prior to a ground survey allowing for accurate vector survey and control planning.

  8. Anopheles lindesayi japonicus Yamada (Diptera: Culicidae) in Korea: comprehensive review, new collection records, and description of larval habitats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    3North Carolina Department ofEnvironment and Natural Resources. 585 Waughtown St.• Winston-Salem. NC 27107, U.S.A. fKorea Center for Disease Control ...Seou~ Korea Received 13 September 2007; Accepted 29 December 2007 ABSTRACf: Anopheles lindesayi japonicus Yamada is an uncommonly collected mosquito ...in Korea. and its presence is based upon limited collection data and anecdotal reports in Korean mosquito literature: 45 specimens collected from 15

  9. Species composition and natural infectivity of anthropophilic Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in Córdoba and Antioquia states in northwestern Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Lina A; González, John J; Gómez, Giovan F; Castro, Martha I; Rosero, Doris A; Luckhart, Shirley; Conn, Jan E; Correa, Margarita M

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is a serious health problem in Córdoba and Antioquia states in northwestern Colombia, where 64.4% of the total Colombian cases were reported in 2007. Because little entomological information is available in this region, the aim of this work was to identify the Anopheles species composition and natural infectivity of mosquitoes distributed in seven localities with the highest malaria transmission. A total of 1,768 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches from March 2007 to July 2008. Ten species were identified; overall, An. nuneztovari s.l. was the most widespread (62%) and showed the highest average human biting rates. There were six other species of the Nyssorhynchus subgenus: An. albimanus (11.6%), An. darlingi (9.8%), An. braziliensis (6.6%), An. triannulatus s.l. (3.5%), An. albitarsis s.l. and An. oswaldoi s.l. at <1%; and three of the Anopheles subgenus: An. punctimacula, An. pseudopunctipennis s.l. and An. neomaculipalpus at <1% each. Two species from Córdoba, An. nuneztovari and An. darlingi, were detected naturally infected by Plasmodium vivax VK247 using ELISA and confirmed by nested PCR. All species were active indoors and outdoors. These results provide basic information for targeted vector control strategies in these localities. PMID:20140372

  10. Larvicidal potential of carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol from the essential oil of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles subpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. However, the use of synthetic insecticides to control Culicidae may lead to resistance, high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Nowadays, plant-borne mosquitocides may serve as suitable alternative in the fight against mosquito vectors. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) leaf essential oil (EO) and its major chemical constituents was evaluated against the malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi and An. subpictus, the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the essential oil of O. vulgare contained 17 compounds. The major chemical components were carvacrol (38.30%) and terpinen-4-ol (28.70%). EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, An. subpictus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 values of 67.00, 74.14, 80.35 and 84.93 μg/ml. The two major constituents extracted from the O. vulgare EO were tested individually for acute toxicity against larvae of the four mosquito vectors. Carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol appeared to be most effective against An. stephensi (LC50=21.15 and 43.27 μg/ml, respectively) followed by An. subpictus (LC50=24.06 and 47.73 μg/ml), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=26.08 and 52.19 μg/ml) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50=27.95 and 54.87 μg/ml). Overall, this research adds knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides against malaria, filariasis and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors.

  11. The Costa Rican Systenus Loew (Diptera: Dolichopodidae): rich local sympatry in an otherwise rare genus.

    PubMed

    Bickel, Daniel J

    2015-09-21

    The Costa Rican Systenus Loew (Diptera: Dolichopodidae: Medeterinae) are described, illustrated and keyed, and comprise nine new species: Systenus divericatus sp. nov., S. eboritibia sp. nov., S. emusorum sp. nov., S. flavifemoratus sp. nov., S. maculipennis sp. nov., S. naranjensis sp. nov., S. parkeri sp. nov., S. tenorio sp. nov., and S. zurqui sp. nov. Eight species are known only from Malaise traps at a locale in Guanacaste Province, in contrast to a single species collected as part of the long running INBio survey of the Costa Rican insect fauna. On a global scale, Systenus is uncommon in collections, possibly the result of its known larval tree hole habitat and adult arboreal associations, making the genus less likely to be captured by ground-level trapping. This makes the high level of sympatry at one site even more remarkable and suggesting that more cryptic species-rich arboreal faunas await discovery.

  12. Bush Blitz aids description of three new species and a new genus of Australian beeflies (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Exoprosopini).

    PubMed

    Lambkin, Christine L; Bartlett, Justin S

    2011-01-01

    Bush Blitz is a three-year multimillion dollar program to document the plants and animals in hundreds of properties across Australia's National Reserve System. The core focus is on nature discovery - identifying and describing new species of plants and animals. The Bush Blitz program has enabled the collection and description of beeflies (Diptera, Bombyliidae) from surveys in Western Australia and Queensland. Three new species of Australian beeflies belonging to the Exoprosopini are described; Palirika mackenziei Lambkin sp. n., Palirika culgoafloodplainensis Lambkin sp. n., and Larrpana bushblitz Lambkin sp. n. Phylogenetic analysis of 40 Australian exoprosopine species belonging to the Balaana generic-group Lambkin & Yeates 2003 supports the placement of the three new species into existing genera, and the erection and description of the new genus Ngalki Lambkin gen. n. for Ngalki trigonium (Lambkin & Yeates 2003) comb. n. Revised keys are provided for the genera of the Australian Balaana genus-group and the species of Palirika Lambkin & Yeates, 2003 and Larrpana Lambkin & Yeates 2003. With the description of the three new species and the transferral of Munjua trigona Lambkin & Yeates 2003 into the new genus Ngalki Lambkin gen. n., three genera are rediagnosed; Munjua Lambkin & Yeates 2003, Palirika and Larrpana.

  13. Species composition and natural infectivity of anthropophilic Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in the states of Córdoba and Antioquia, Northwestern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Lina A; González, John J; Gómez, Giovan F; Castro, Martha I; Rosero, Doris A; Luckhart, Shirley; Conn, Jan E; Correa, Margarita M

    2009-12-01

    Malaria is a serious health problem in the states of Córdoba and Antioquia, Northwestern Colombia, where 64.4% of total Colombian cases were reported in 2007. Because little entomological information is available in this region, the aim of this work was to identify the Anopheles species composition and natural infectivity of mosquitoes distributed in seven localities with highest malaria transmission. A total of 1,768 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches from March 2007-July 2008. Ten species were identified; overall, Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. was the most widespread (62%) and showed the highest average human biting rates. There were six other species of the Nyssorhynchus subgenus: Anopheles albimanus (11.6%), Anopheles darlingi (9.8%), Anopheles braziliensis (6.6%), Anopheles triannulatus s.l. (3.5%), Anopheles albitarsis s.l. and Anopheles oswaldoi s.l. at < 1%; and three of the Anopheles subgenus: Anopheles punctimacula, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis s.l. and Anopheles neomaculipalpusat < 1% each. Two species from Córdoba, An. nuneztovari and An. darlingi, were found to be naturally infected by Plasmodium vivax VK247, as determined by ELISA and confirmed by nested PCR. All species were active indoors and outdoors. These results provide basic information for targeted vector control strategies in these localities.

  14. PCR identification of five species from the Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in North-Eastern Romania.

    PubMed

    Ivanescu, Maria-Larisa; Acatrinei, Dumitru; Pavel, Ionuţ; Sulesco, Tatiana; Miron, Liviu

    2015-06-01

    The members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex have been incriminated for the transmission of the malaria in Europe, which was endemic until the middle of the century. The global warming and the intensification of the intercontinental travel constitute a risk of the re-emergence of the malaria in Europe, given the presence of the Anopheles vectors. The study has attempted the identification by using the PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) of the members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex from the North-eastern area of Romania from the city of Iaşi. In total there have been identified by using the PCR amplifying the ITS2 sequence of the ribosomal DNA, 217 specimens belonging to the complex of A. maculipennis among which: 58 A. atroparvus, 18 A. melanoon, 2 A. labranchiae, 52 A. maculipennis and 87 A. messeae. The ITS2 sequences of the ribosomal DNA have been compared to those of the species belonging to the A. maculipennis available in GenBank. The Species A. labranchiae is reported for the first time in Romania, being identified in the larval stage IV. The adaptation of a new species to the climatic conditions present in the North-eastern Romania, confirms the phenomenon of global warming and also the intensification of the travelling. As a result of the analysis of the A. labranchiae sequence, this one corresponds to the extent of 96% to the species from Italy, registered in GenBank, given the fact that a high number of the inhabitants of the municipality of Iaşi are working in this country.

  15. Laboratory evaluation of the aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) wood chippings on Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Howard, Annabel F V; Adongo, Elizabeth A; Hassanali, Ahmed; Omlin, Francois X; Wanjoya, Anthony; Zhou, Guofa; Vulule, John

    2009-01-01

    Azadirachta indica A. Juss (the neem tree), a source of limonoid insect growth regulatory (IGRs), grows well in many places in sub-Saharan Africa. We explored the potential of neem wood and bark chippings in malaria vector control by evaluating their aqueous extracts as a larvicide and growth disruptor of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Immature stages of the mosquito were tested using WHO guidelines. Fifty percent inhibition of adult emergence (IE50) of all larval instars was obtained with <0.4 g of neem chippings in 1 liter of distilled water. For pupae, significant mortality occurred at 5 g/liter. Inhibition of pupation was seen with some larvae staying as LIVs for 9 d before dying. In addition to growth retardation, reduced reaction by larvae to visual and mechanical stimuli observed at higher neem concentrations may make them more susceptible to natural predators. There were no significant differences in the sex ratio of emerged adults or wing length of females compared with the controls. High-performance liquid chromatography of aqueous extracts showed a series of constituents of varying polarity, including the limonoids nimbin and salannin, which were quantified. Azadirachtin was not detected and the observed activities are attributed to other constituents of the chippings. Such larvicides can be particularly effective where larval habitats are relatively large and readily identifiable. Aqueous extracts of neem wood chippings can be produced locally and their use has the potential to be a low-tech component of integrated malaria vector control schemes in sub-Saharan Africa.

  16. Salivary Gland Proteome during Adult Development and after Blood Feeding of Female Anopheles dissidens Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Phattanawiboon, Benjarat; Jariyapan, Narissara; Mano, Chonlada; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Paemanee, Atchara; Sor-Suwan, Sriwatapron; Sriwichai, Patchara; Saeung, Atiporn; Bates, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding changes in mosquito salivary proteins during the time that sporozoite maturation occurs and after blood feeding may give information regarding the roles of salivary proteins during the malarial transmission. Anopheles dissidens (formerly Anopheles barbirostris species A1) is a potential vector of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand. In this study, analyses of the proteomic profiles of female An. dissidens salivary glands during adult development and after blood feeding were carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed at least 17 major salivary gland proteins present from day one to day 21 post emergence at 8 different time points sampled. Although there was variation observed, the patterns of protein expression could be placed into one of four groups. Fifteen protein spots showed significant depletion after blood feeding with the percentages of the amount of depletion ranging from 8.5% to 68.11%. The overall results identified various proteins, including a putative mucin-like protein, an anti-platelet protein, a long form D7 salivary protein, a putative gVAG protein precursor, a D7-related 3.2 protein, gSG7 salivary proteins, and a gSG6 protein. These results allow better understanding of the changes of the salivary proteins during the adult mosquito development. They also provide candidate proteins to investigate any possible link or not between sporozoite maturation, or survival of skin stage sporozoites, and salivary proteins. PMID:27669021

  17. Morphology of the larvae, male genitalia and DNA sequences of Anopheles (Kerteszia) pholidotus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Escovar, Jesús Eduardo; González, Ranulfo; Quiñones, Martha L; Wilkerson, Richard C; Ruiz, Fredy; Harrison, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Since 1984, Anopheles (Kerteszia) lepidotus has been considered a mosquito species that is involved in the transmission of malaria in Colombia, after having been incriminated as such with epidemiological evidence from a malaria outbreak in Cunday-Villarrica, Tolima. Subsequent morphological analyses of females captured in the same place and at the time of the outbreak showed that the species responsible for the transmission was not An. lepidotus, but rather Anopheles pholidotus. However, the associated morphological stages and DNA sequences of An. pholidotus from the foci of Cunday-Villarrica had not been analysed. Using samples that were caught recently from the outbreak region, the purpose of this study was to provide updated and additional information by analysing the morphology of female mosquitoes, the genitalia of male mosquitoes and fourth instar larvae of An. pholidotus, which was confirmed with DNA sequences of cytochrome oxidase I and rDNA internal transcribed spacer. A total of 1,596 adult females were collected in addition to 37 larval collections in bromeliads. Furthermore, 141 adult females, which were captured from the same area in the years 1981-1982, were analysed morphologically. Ninety-five DNA sequences were analysed for this study. Morphological and molecular analyses showed that the species present in this region corresponds to An. pholidotus. Given the absence of An. lepidotus, even in recent years, we consider that the species of mosquitoes that was previously incriminated as the malaria vector during the outbreak was indeed An. pholidotus, thus ending the controversy. PMID:25075785

  18. Expression of metallothionein and α-tubulin in heavy metal-tolerant Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mireji, Paul O.; Keating, Joseph; Hassanali, Ahmed; Impoinvil, Daniel E.; Mbogo, Charles M.; Njeri, Martha; Nyambaka, Hudson; Kenya, Eucharia; Githure, John I; Beier, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Anopheles mosquitoes have been shown to adapt to heavy metals in their natural habitats. In this study we explored the possibility of using Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto as bio-reporters for environmental heavy metal pollution through expressions of their metal responsive metallothionein and α-tubulin genes. The study was undertaken with third instar larvae after selection by cadmium, copper, or lead at LC30 through five successive generations. Expression levels were determined in the fifth generation by semi quantitative RT-PCR on the experimental and control populations. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. The highest metallothionein (F3, 11= 4.574, P = 0.038) and α-tubulin (F3,11= 12.961, P = 0.002) responses were observed in cadmium-tolerant treatments. There was significantly higher expression of metallothionein in cadmium or copper treatments relative to the control (P = 0.012), and in cadmium than in lead treatments (P = 0.044). Expressions of α-tubulin were significantly higher in cadmium than in control treatments (P = 0.008). These results demonstrate capacity of An. gambiae s.s. to develop tolerance to increased levels of heavy metal challenge. The results also confirm the potential of heavy metal responsive genes in mosquitoes as possible bio-indicators of heavy metal environmental pollution. How the tolerance and expressions relate to An. gambiae s.s. fitness and vectorial capacity in the environment remains to be elucidated. PMID:19735939

  19. Contact irritancy and spatial repellency behaviors in Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in Orange Walk, Belize, C.A.

    PubMed

    Dusfour, Isabelle; Achee, Nicole L; Roberts, Donald R; Grieco, John P

    2009-12-01

    Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann is a vector of malaria in northern Belize. Previous studies have identified behavioral responses in this species when exposed to certain chemicals. We used a high throughput screening system to evaluate the contact irritant and spatial repellency responses exhibited by An. albimanus collected from Orange Walk, Belize, Central America. Anopheles albimanus behavior was significantly altered by a number of key public health insecticides. Significant irritant responses to alphacypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, DDT, and propoxur were recorded, while spatial repellency responses were only elicited by DDT. Malathion resulted in neither a contact irritant or spatial repellency response. These results are in congruence with behavioral patterns previously observed for An. albimanus and for Aedes aegypti in the same system. This study produced baseline data on the behaviors of An. albimanus and confirms that the majority of compounds used as indoor residual sprays may induce premature exiting by An. albimanus in addition to killing the mosquito. This effect would decrease contact with humans and thus disrupt malaria transmission.

  20. Current Susceptibility Status of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) to Different Imagicides in a Malarious Area, Southeastern of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Gorouhi, Mohammad Amin; Vatandoost, Hassan; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Raeisi, Ahmad; Enayati, Ahmad Ali; Mirhendi, Hossein; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Salim-Abadi, Yaser; Rafi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anopheles mosquitoes are an important group of arthropods due to their role in transmission of malaria. The present study was conducted for determination of susceptibility status of Anopheles stephensi to different imagicides collected from malarious area in Chabahar city, Iran. Methods: In the present study seven insecticides including: DDT 4%, lambdacyhalothrin 0.05%, deltamethrin 0.05%, permethrin 0.75%, cyfluthrin 0.15% and etofenprox 0.5% were tested based on WHO method. Regression line was plotted for each insecticide using mortality of different exposure times. Bioassay data were analyzed using Probit software and the lethal time for 50% and 90% mortality (LT50 and LT90) values were calculated. Results: The susceptibility levels of field strain of An. stephensi to the discriminative dose of different imagicides were determined 100, 98, 96, 89, 82 and 62% for etofenprox, permethrin, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, cyfluthrin and DDT, respectively. Our finding indicated that An. stephensi is resistant to DDT, lambdacyhalothrin and cyfluthrin, and susceptible to etofenprox and permethrin and candidate of resistant to deltamethrin based on WHO criteria. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that An. stephensi is resistant to DDT and some pyrethroid insecticides which can be developed due to application of insecticides in health and agriculture. These results can provide a clue for future chemical control program in the study area. PMID:28032101

  1. Behavioral heterogeneity of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) and malaria transmission dynamics along the Maroni River, Suriname, French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Hiwat, H; Issaly, J; Gaborit, P; Somai, A; Samjhawan, A; Sardjoe, P; Soekhoe, T; Girod, R

    2010-03-01

    The border area between Suriname and French Guiana is considered the most affected malaria area in South America. A one-year cooperative malaria vector study was performed by the two countries, between March 2004 and February 2005, in four villages. Anopheles darlingi proved to be the most abundant anopheline species. Human biting rates differed between villages. The differential effect of high rainfall on mosquito densities in the villages suggests variation in breeding sites. Overall parity rates were low, with means varying from 0.31 to 0.56 per study site. Of the 2045 A. darlingi mosquitoes collected, 13 were found to be infected with Plasmodium: ten P. falciparum, two P. malariae and one mixed P. malariae/P. vivax. The overall annual entomological inoculation rates in the villages ranged from 8.7 to 66.4. There was an apparent lack of relationship between number of malaria cases and periods of high mosquito density. The tendency of Anopheles darlingi to bite during sleeping hours provides opportunity for malaria control using impregnated bed nets, a strategy just introduced in Suriname that may also find its way into French Guiana.

  2. Afrotropical flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae). A new genus and species from Kenya, with a review of the melanostomine group of genera.

    PubMed

    Thompson, F Christian; Skevington, Jeffrey H

    2014-08-06

    A new genus and species of flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae: Syrphinae: Syrphini) are described from central Africa (Kenya & Uganda), Afrostoma quadripunctatum. A key to the Afrotropical genera of the subfamily Syrphinae is given. A review of the melanostomine [Bacchini] genera and subgenera is provided along with a key to them. Phylogenetic placement of Afrostoma is included based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) data.

  3. A revision of the genus Pelecocera Meigen with the description of the male of pelecocera persiana Kuznetzov from Iran (Diptera: Syrphidae).

    PubMed

    Mengual, Ximo; Kazerani, Farzaneh; Talebi, Ali Asghar; Gilasian, Ebrahim

    2015-04-14

    The genus Pelecocera Meigen (Diptera: Syrphidae) is revised. Type material of most species was studied to describe, illustrate and delimit the male of Pelecocera persiana Kuznetzov, recently discovered from Iran. This is the first known specimen of this species since 1914, when the type female was collected. The diagnostic characters of P. persiana are provided, along with an identification key for Pelecocera species. The lectotype of Pelecocera latifrons Loew is designated.

  4. Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) host selection patterns in three ecological areas of the coastal plains of Chiapas, southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Loyola, E G; González-Cerón, L; Rodríguez, M H; Arredondo-Jiménez, J I; Bennett, S; Bown, D N

    1993-05-01

    The host-feeding patterns of Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann were described and the effect of host availability on these patterns was assessed in three different ecological areas of coastal Chiapas, Mexico. Resting mosquitoes were collected indoors and outdoors during rainy seasons. A 20% sample of blood-fed mosquitoes was tested to determine the source of the blood meal using an ELISA. The unweighted human blood index (HBI) of An. albimanus in the three areas ranged from 0.11 to 0.21. This mosquito species fed more frequently on bovines than on any other host, but the forage ratio indicated that there was also a high preference for equines. Some females tended to rest or complete their gonotrophic cycle indoors after feeding on animals, but females also fed on man and rested outdoors. Host availability and ecological conditions appeared to be responsible for differences observed in the HBI among areas.

  5. Susceptibility of three laboratory strains of Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) to coindigenous Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein phenotypes in southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Ceron, L; Rodriguez, M H; Santillan, F V; Hernandez, J E; Wirtz, R A

    2000-05-01

    The susceptibility to two coindigenous Plasmodium vivax Grassi & Feletti phenotypes VK210 and VK247 of three colonized Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann strains (white-striped, green and brown) from southern Mexico was investigated. Mosquitoes of the three strains were simultaneously fed with P. vivax-infected patient blood and examined 1 wk later for the presence of oocysts. The circumsporozoite protein phenotype type (VK210 and VK247) was determined by immunoflorescence of salivary gland sporozoites using monoclonal antibodies. The proportions of specimens infected and the number of oocyst per mosquito indicated that all mosquito strains were more susceptible to the phenotype VK210 than to VK247, but the white-striped strain was more susceptible to both parasite phenotypes than the other two strains.

  6. Method for in situ hybridization to polytene chromosomes from ovarian nurse cells of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Graziosi, C; Sakai, R K; Romans, P; Miller, L H; Wellems, T E

    1990-09-01

    A procedure for in situ hybridization to polytene chromosomes from the ovarian nurse cells of Anopheles gambiae Giles has been developed. This procedure involves a modification of established methods for Drosophila larval salivary gland polytene chromosomes. Treatment of chromosome squashes with xylene followed by slow rehydration provides required resolution of chromosome banding patterns, possibly because fatty contaminants are removed from ovarian nurse cell preparations. Using this procedure, unique DNA sequences from a genomic library of An. gambiae have been mapped on adult mosquito polytene chromosomes. The ability to locate genetic markers on chromosomes will allow correlation of physical and genetic maps. Such maps will facilitate identification of genetic loci and expand our knowledge of the genomic organization of An. gambiae.

  7. Dichotomous electrophoretic taxonomic key for identification of sibling species A, B, and C of the Anopheles quadrimaculatus complex (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Narang, S K; Kaiser, P E; Seawright, J A

    1989-03-01

    Samples of 17 populations of Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say from Florida, Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, New York, and New Jersey were analyzed for genetic variability at 33 enzyme loci. Statistical analysis of electromorph frequency distributions indicated that sympatric sibling (morphologically indistinguishable) species occurred in about 59% of the populations tested. The association of polytene chromosome and electrophoretic patterns of individual field-collected females confirmed species-specific diagnostic allozymes, which were useful in identifying sibling species A, B, and C and in estimating the proportions of each species at the 17 collection sites. A dichotomous electrophoretic key is presented for the identification of sibling species of the An. quadrimaculatus complex. The electrophoretic method is better than the ovarian polytene chromosome method, because mosquitoes of both sexes and females irrespective of their gonotrophic condition can be identified.

  8. Effects of Andrographis paniculata Nees on growth, development and reproduction of malarial vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, C; Murugan, K

    2010-12-01

    The use of environment friendly and easily biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin has received progressively more attention as insecticide alternatives for the control of medically important mosquito vectors. The ethanol and methanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata Nees were evaluated for its effects on growth, development and reproduction of malarial vector Anopheles stephensi Liston. After 8 days of treatment, 88.60 and 85.25% of the larvae treated at 35p.p.m. failed to emerge in ethanol and methanol extracts respectively. In addition, the duration of larval instars and the total development time were prolonged, while female longevity and fecundity were markedly decreased. The suppression of pupation and adult emergence was probably due to juvenile hormone analog similarities in combination with growth regulators and toxicity, which reduced the overall performance of the malaria vector An. stephensi.

  9. [Larval seasonality of the mosquito Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae) and other insects associated to its habitat in Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Berti, Jesús; González, Julio; Navarro-Bueno, Edith; Zoppi, Evelin; Gordon, Elizabeth; Delgado, Laura

    2010-06-01

    Anopheles aquasalis Curry is considered the main vector of human malaria in Northern Venezuela. A longitudinal study was carried out in the coastal areas of the Paria Peninsula, Sucre state. The larval habitats of A. aquasalis were classified as: 1--Brackish mangrove, and 2--Freshwater herbaceous swamp. Field surveys of mosquito larvae and aquatic insects were carried out in the same breeding sites over a one-year period, between January and December 1999. At each site, 30 samples of Anopheles larvae and aquatic insects were taken monthly. Simultaneously with mosquito larvae sampling, five selected variables of water were measured: conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, temperature and pH. Seasonal and temporal variations of A. aquasalis larvae and aquatic insects were determined in the two larval habitats. For the entire study period, the abundance of larvae was higher in the mangrove. Correspondence analysis showed a strong relation between some chemical factors of water and larval abundance. The abundance of A. aquasalis larvae in both seasons, was positively correlated with water salinity, pH and conductivity, and negatively and with dissolved oxygen in the dry season. The presence of larvae was positively correlated with the presence of Avicenia germinans. In the mangrove there was a positive association between larvae abundance and Scirtidae family abundance and a negative correlation between larvae abundance and monthly precipitation (Spearman), as well as a significant negative correlation between Gerridae abundance and monthly precipitation. In the herbaceous swamp, there were not significant associations between A. aquasalis larvae abundance and abundance of others aquatic insects associated to habitat.

  10. Enhanced toxicity of binary mixtures of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and three essential oil major constituents to wild Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Chang, Kyu-Sik; Shin, E-Hyun; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2014-07-01

    An assessment was made of the toxicity of 12 insecticides and three essential oils as well as Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) alone or in combination with the oil major constituents (E)-anethole (AN), (E) -cinnamaldehyde (CA), and eugenol (EU; 1:1 ratio) to third instars of bamboo forest-collected Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and rice paddy field-collected Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann. An. sinensis larvae were resistant to various groups of the tested insecticides. Based on 24-h LC50 values, binary mixtures of Bti and CA, AN, or EU were significantly more toxic against Ae. albopictus larvae (0.0084, 0.0134, and 0.0237 mg/liter) and An. sinensis larvae (0.0159, 0.0388, and 0.0541 mg/liter) than either Bti (1.7884 and 2.1681 mg/liter) or CA (11.46 and 18.56 mg/liter), AN (16.66 and 25.11 mg/liter), or EU (24.60 and 31.09 mg/liter) alone. As judged by cotoxicity coefficient (CC) and synergistic factor (SF), the three binary mixtures operated in a synergy pattern (CC, 140.7-368.3 and SF, 0.0007-0.0010 for Ae. albopictus; CC, 75.1-245.3 and SF, 0.0008-0.0017 for An. sinensis). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the aquatic environment justify further studies on the binary mixtures of Bti and essential oil constituents described, in particular CA, as potential larvicides for the control of malaria vector mosquito populations.

  11. Taxonomic notes and new records of the genus Tabanus Linnaeus 1758 (Diptera: Tabanidae) from Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Talafha, Hazem; Yaakop, Salmah Binti; Ghani, Idris Bin Abd

    2016-11-01

    Horsefly (Diptera: Tabanidae) fauna of Malaysia consists currently of 120 species belonging to eight genera. The present study added four new records to this hematophagous family. The new records were Tabanus crassus (Walker, 1850), T. griseipalpis Schuurmans Stekhoven (1926), T. melanognathus (Bigot, 1890), and T. mesogaus Burton (1978). Tabanus auricircus Philip (1979) was recorded here for the first time from peninsular Malaysia, whereas T. perakiensis Ricardo (1911) was recorded from Sabah for the first time. Key characters for new records were illustrated based on the examined materials and range of distribution for each species was given.

  12. Three New Species of the Genus Tripteroides, Subgenus Tripteroides Giles (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-12-01

    Contract No. DA-49-193-MD-2672 from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, Office of the Sur- geon General. 2 Immediate publication...Tripteroides Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Southeast Asia Mosquito Project,Smithsonian Institution,Washington,DC,20560 8

  13. Revision of the southeast Asian soldier-fly genus Parastratiosphecomyia Brunetti, 1923 (Diptera, Stratiomyidae, Pachygastrinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Parastratiosphecomyia Brunetti is revised with the description of two new species: P. freidbergi Woodley, sp. n. from India and P. rozkosnyi Woodley, sp. n. from Laos and Thailand. All four species in the genus are illustrated and a key to species is provided. Type localities of previous...

  14. Brianmyia stuckenbergi, a new genus and species of Prosopochrysini from South Africa (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus and species of Stratiomyidae, Brianmyia stuckenbergi, gen. n., sp. n. is described from the Drakensberg Range, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The new genus is placed in the tribe Prosopochrysini of the subfamily Stratiomyinae, and is the first member of this tribe known from southern Afri...

  15. Potential mode of action of a novel plumbagin as a mosquito repellent against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi, (Culicidae: Diptera).

    PubMed

    Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Sathish-Narayanan, Subbiah; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Sakthi-Bagavathy, Muthiah; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2016-11-01

    Plumbagin was isolated and characterized from the roots of Plumbago zeylanica using chromatography: TLC, Column chromatogram, HPLC, FTIR and (1)H NMR. The isolated pure compounds were assayed for potency as inhibitors of: acetylcholine esterase (AchE), glutathione S-transferases (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), cytochrome P450 and α, β-esterase, and for repellency with Anopheles stephensi at four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100ppm). The enzyme assay against the pure compound reveals that the level of esterase and SOD was decreased significantly in contrast the level of GST and cytochrome P450 was increased significantly. Our results suggests that novel Plumbagin has significantly alters the level of enzyme comparable to the control. Evaluations resulted in Plumbagin producing maximum repellency scores against An. stephensi mosquitoes in dose dependent manner with highest repellence was observed in the 100ppm. Histological examination showed that the midgut, hindgut and muscles are the most affected tissues. These tissues affected with major changes including separation and collapse of epithelial layer and cellular vacuolization. The results support the utility of plant compound Plumbagin for vector control as an alternative to synthetic insecticides, however, more vigorous field trials are needed to determine viability under natural conditions.

  16. Gonotrophic cycle and survivorship of Anopheles vestitipennis (Diptera: Culicidae) in two different ecological areas of southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Arredondo-Jiménez, J I; Rodríguez, M H; Washino, R K

    1998-11-01

    The duration of the gonotrophic cycle and survivorship of Anopheles vestitipennis Dyar & Knab was estimated in 2 malarious areas of Chiapas, Mexico: the Lacandon Forest and the Pacific Ocean Coastal Plain. Blood-engorged females held in an outdoor cage required 2.75 d for egg maturation, and 3.75 d for the duration of the gonotrophic cycle. Duration of the gonotrophic cycle also was estimated by parous-nulliparous dynamics for 20 consecutive days and autocorrelation time-series analysis, and by mark-recapture techniques. These methods depicted differences between the Lacandon Forest (3-d cycle) and the Coastal Plain (2-3 d cycles). Daily survival rates were estimated vertically and were generally higher in the Lacandon Forest (0.68) than in the Coastal Plain (0.45-0.58). The probability of mosquitoes surviving the sporogonic cycle was 10-100 times greater in the Lacandon Forest. The pregravid rate was 8.2%, and 29.3% of females with primary follicles beyond Christophers' stage III had traces of red blood in the gut. The 1st statistic indicated that 8.2% of females required > 1 blood meal for initial egg development, the 2nd statistic indicated that 29.3% of females take > 1 blood meal during a gonotrophic cycle. In summary, the enhanced vectorial role of this species is explained partially by high longevity and multiple blood-feeding habits.

  17. Tests for the existence of genetic determination or conditioning in host selection by Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Arredondo-Jimenez, J I; Bown, D N; Rodriguez, M H; Villarreal, C; Loyola, E G; Frederickson, C E

    1992-09-01

    The existence of sympatric populations within Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann with specific host preferences and the question of whether host selection has a genetic basis or is a learned characteristic were investigated. Progeny of wild females collected from corrals or human bait were reared in an insectary. F1 females were fed on a cow or on a human host, allowed to oviposit, and then were released in an experimental hut divided into three compartments. The side rooms occupied by two human or one calf baits were connected by a "funnel-like" cone with the central room in which mosquitoes were released. Females were released at 2000 hours and recaptured the next morning at 0600 hours. A fixed proportion of mosquitoes selected either host (approximately 65% cow and 35% human), irrespective of their parental origin or source of the first blood meal. The data indicate that the existence of cryptic populations with anthropophilic habits is unlikely and that a "learned" host selection also may be ruled out.

  18. Choice of resting sites by Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culici) in Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme, Kirinyaga District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mutinga, M J; Odhiambo, T R; Kamau, C C; Odulaja, A; Amimo, F A; Wachira, D W

    1995-03-01

    Investigations on Anopheles gambiae were carried out in Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme, Kenya, to determine their preference for resting on various colours of fabrics and bare walls inside rural houses. The inside wall surface of each house was divided into upper, middle and lower sections and the section further partitioned into subsections measuring 0.6 x 0.3m. Two sets of experiments were conducted: one in which the walls were partly fitted with one colour of fabric at a time (double-choice situation), while in the other the walls were fitted with a combination of six colours (red, black, yellow, white, green and blue) of fabric at once, (multiple-choice situation). The number of mosquitoes resting on each of the pieces of cloth pinned to the walls and the uncovered subsections of the wall were recorded for each section of the wall after 24 hours. The results showed resting preference for cloth covered parts of the walls. The white colour was found to best attract mosquitoes followed by colours red, yellow, black, blue and green. The hanging strips in the middle of the houses had fewer mosquitoes resting on them than those on the wall.

  19. Ovicidal and repellent activities of botanical extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, M; Mathivanan, T; Elumalai, K; Krishnappa, K; Anandan, A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the ovicidal and repellent activities of methanol leaf extract of Ervatamia coronaria (E. coronaria) and Caesalpinia pulcherrima (C. pulcherrima) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). Methods The ovicidal activity was determined against three mosquito species at various concentrations ranging from 50-450 ppm under the laboratory conditions. The hatch rates were assessed 48 h after treatment. The repellent efficacy was determined against three mosquito species at three concentrations viz., 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/cm2 under the laboratory conditions. Results The crude extract of E. coronaria exerted zero hatchability (100% mortality) at 250, 200 and 150 ppm for Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively. The crude extract of C. pulcherrima exerted zero hatchability (100% mortality) at 375, 300 and 225 ppm for Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. Stephensi, respectively. The methanol extract of E. coronaria found to be more repellenct than C. pulcherrima extract. A higher concentration of 5.0 mg/cm2 provided 100% protection up to 150, 180 and 210 min against Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively. The results clearly showed that repellent activity was dose dependent. Conclusions From the results it can be concluded the crude extracts of E. coronaria and C. pulcherrima are an excellent potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi mosquitoes. PMID:23569723

  20. Toxicity of Boswellia dalzielii (Burseraceae) Leaf Fractions Against Immature Stages of Anopheles gambiae (Giles) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Younoussa, Lame; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors of several human pathogens, and great attention has recently been placed on insecticides from plant-derived products, in search for mosquito control agents. This study, thus, investigated the potency of Boswellia dalzielii methanol leaf extract and its four fractions as mosquito ovicide, larvicide, and pupicide against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. The plant products were tested at the following concentrations: 125, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 ppm on eggs and 312.5, 625, 1250, and 2500 ppm on the larvae and pupae of the mosquitoes. For results, hatchability of A. gambiae eggs was reduced to 5% with n-hexane fraction at 2000 ppm. Among the plant products tested, n-hexane fraction was most toxic against A. gambiae (LC50 = 385.9 ppm) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 3394.9 ppm). The n-hexane fraction of B. dalzielii might be used as a mosquitocidal agent in the breeding sites of A. gambiae and C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:27279752

  1. Production of a transgenic mosquito expressing circumsporozoite protein, a malarial protein, in the salivary gland of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Ikezawa, Tsunetaka; Hirai, Makoto

    2010-08-01

    We are producing a transgenic mosquito, a flying syringe, to deliver a vaccine protein to human beings via the saliva the mosquito deposits in the skin while biting. The mosquito produces a vaccine protein in the salivary gland (SG) and deposits the protein into the host's skin when it takes the host's blood. We chose circumsporozoite protein (CSP), currently the most promising malaria vaccine candidate, to be expressed in the SG of Anopheles stephensi. To transform the mosquitoes, plasmid containing the CSP gene under the promoter of female SG-specific gene, as well as the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene under the promoter of 3xP3 as a selection marker in the eyes, was injected into more than 400 eggs. As a result, five strains of GFP-expressing mosquitoes were established, and successful CSP expression in the SG was confirmed in one strain. The estimated amount of CSP in the SG of the strain was 40 ng per mosquito. We allowed the CSP-expressing mosquitoes to feed on mice to induce the production of anti-CSP antibody. However, the mice did not develop anti-CSP antibody even after transgenic mosquitoes had bitten them several times. We consider that CSP in the SG was not secreted properly into the saliva. Further techniques and trials are required in order to realize vaccine-delivering mosquitoes.

  2. Orientation of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) to Plant-Host Volatiles in a Novel Diffusion-Cage Olfactometer

    PubMed Central

    Otienoburu, Philip E.; Nikbakhtzadeh, Mahmood R.; Foster, Woodbridge A.

    2016-01-01

    A novel diffusion-cage olfactometer tested the responses of Anopheles gambiae Giles to plant volatiles. Green-leaf volatiles are often released from cut or injured plant tissue and may alter the headspace of plants used in olfactometer assays. The diffusion-cage olfactometer is designed for use with whole, intact plants, hence giving a more realistic behavioral assay. Its simple plastic construction, ease of assembly, and accommodation to whole plants makes it a useful tool for measuring mosquito orientation to plant volatiles within large enclosures. We compared its performance to that of the more commonly used T-tube wind-tunnel olfactometer, by testing the orientation of mosquitoes to volatiles of a few prevalent plants of eastern Africa reportedly utilized by An. gambiae for sugar: Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae), Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), Lantana camara (Verbenaceae), and Senna occidentalis (Fabaceae). Results indicate that the diffusion-cage olfactometer is an effective alternative to conventional wind-tunnel olfactometers, to test mosquito orientation to plant volatiles under seminatural conditions. PMID:26502752

  3. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal activity of puffer fish extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Samidurai, Kaliyaperumal; Mathew, Nisha

    2013-03-01

    The extracts of liver (LE), ovary (OE), skin (SE) and muscle (ME) tissues of four species of puffer fishes viz., Arothron hispidus, Lagocephalus inermis, Lagocephalus scleratus and Chelonodon patoca were evaluated against larvae and eggs of three mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The LC50 values were 1194.26, 1382.73 (LE); 1421.42, 1982.73 (OE); 7116.86, 15038.98 (ME) and 10817.8 ppm (SE) for An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus respectively for A. hispidus. In the case of L. inermis, the LC50 values were 1163.83, 1556.1 and 2426.38 (LE); 1653.53, 2734.74 (OE); 6067.47 (ME) and 10283.04 ppm (SE) for An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti respectively. The LC50 values were 1509.98, 1608.69 (LE) and 1414.9, 2278.69 ppm (OE) for An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus respectively for the extracts of L. scleratus. In the case C. patoca extracts the LC50 values were 1182.29, 1543.00, 2441.03 (LE) and 1076.13, 2582.11 ppm (OE) for An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti respectively. OE and LE of all puffer fishes exhibited zero percent egg hatchability from 600 to 1000 ppm against eggs of An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. This study shows that puffer toxins are effective in killing the larvae and eggs of mosquitoes.

  4. Larvicidal activity of catechin isolated from Leucas aspera against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Elumalai, Devan; Hemavathi, Maduraiveeran; Hemalatha, Periaswamy; Deepaa, Chandrasekar Vijayalakshmi; Kaleena, Patheri Kunyil

    2016-03-01

    Vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of plant origin my serve as an alternative biocontrol technique in the future. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of fractions and compounds from the whole-plant methanol extracts of Leucas aspera on the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The larvae were exposed to fractions with concentrations ranging from 1.25, 2.25, 5, 10, and 20 ppm and isolated compounds. After 24 h exposure, larval mortality was assessed. Among the eight fractions, four from hexane extractions showed potent larvicidal activity against tested mosquito species at 20 ppm concentration. The isolated compound catechin showed pronounced larvicidal activity at very low concentrations. The LC50 and LC90 values of catechin were 3.05 and 8.25 ppm against Ae. aegypti, 3.44 and 8.89 ppm against An. stephensi, and 3.76 and 9.79 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The isolated compound was subjected to spectral analyses (GC-MS, FTIR, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR) to elucidate the structure and to compare with spectral data literature.

  5. Green chemistry focus on optimization of silver nanoparticles using response surface methodology (RSM) and mosquitocidal activity: Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ondari Nyakundi, Erick; Padmanabhan, M Nalini

    2015-01-01

    There is an exigent necessity for development of environmental friendly bio-control agent(s) for elimination of mosquito due to increased resistance resurgence against synthetic control agents. Mosquito control strategy will lay a strong foundation to malaria exclusion or it can be curbed to certain level especially in the developing nations. In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by green chemistry approach using Tridax procumbens leaf extract as a reducing agent. The reaction medium involved in the synthesis process was optimized by statistical experimental design using response surface methodology to obtain better yield, uniform size, shape and stability. Further, these synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed through UV-Visible, FT-IR spectroscopy, PSA and SEM Subsequently, the bioefficacy of these particles were investigated on Anopheles stephensi for larvicidal and pupicidal activity. Interestingly, time period of 90 min, temperature of 76±2 °C, pH 7.2±2, 2 mM silver nitrate (AgNO3), 3mM PEG and 2mM PVP showed excellent parameters for bioprocess design for large scale production of stabilized nanoparticles. A concentration of 5 ppm of PVP stabilized nanoparticles exhibited 100% mortality. Thus, the obtained results clearly suggest that silver nanoparticles stabilized by PEG and PVP may have important function as stabilizers, dispersants as well as larvicides for mosquito control.

  6. Microgeographic genetic variation of the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi root (Diptera: Culicidae) from Cordoba and Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Lina A; Gómez, Giovan F; González, John J; Castro, Martha I; Luckhart, Shirley; Conn, Jan E; Correa, Margarita M

    2010-07-01

    Anopheles darlingi is an important vector of Plasmodium spp. in several malaria-endemic regions of Colombia. This study was conducted to test genetic variation of An. darlingi at a microgeographic scale (approximately 100 km) from localities in Córdoba and Antioquia states, in western Colombia, to better understand the potential contribution of population genetics to local malaria control programs. Microsatellite loci: nuclear white and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences were analyzed. The northern white gene lineage was exclusively distributed in Córdoba and Antioquia and shared COI haplotypes were highly represented in mosquitoes from both states. COI analyses showed these An. darlingi are genetically closer to Central American populations than southern South American populations. Overall microsatellites and COI analysis showed low to moderate genetic differentiation among populations in northwestern Colombia. Given the existence of high gene flow between An. darlingi populations of Córdoba and Antioquia, integrated vector control strategies could be developed in this region of Colombia.

  7. Comparison of the Insecticidal Characteristics of Commercially Available Plant Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Norris, Edmund J; Gross, Aaron D; Dunphy, Brendan M; Bessette, Steven; Bartholomay, Lyric; Coats, Joel R

    2015-09-01

    Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae are two mosquito species that represent significant threats to global public health as vectors of Dengue virus and malaria parasites, respectively. Although mosquito populations have been effectively controlled through the use of synthetic insecticides, the emergence of widespread insecticide-resistance in wild mosquito populations is a strong motivation to explore new insecticidal chemistries. For these studies, Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae were treated with commercially available plant essential oils via topical application. The relative toxicity of each essential oil was determined, as measured by the 24-h LD(50) and percentage knockdown at 1 h, as compared with a variety of synthetic pyrethroids. For Ae. aegypti, the most toxic essential oil (patchouli oil) was ∼1,700-times less toxic than the least toxic synthetic pyrethroid, bifenthrin. For An. gambiae, the most toxic essential oil (patchouli oil) was ∼685-times less toxic than the least toxic synthetic pyrethroid. A wide variety of toxicities were observed among the essential oils screened. Also, plant essential oils were analyzed via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify the major components in each of the samples screened in this study. While the toxicities of these plant essential oils were demonstrated to be lower than those of the synthetic pyrethroids tested, the large amount of GC/MS data and bioactivity data for each essential oil presented in this study will serve as a valuable resource for future studies exploring the insecticidal quality of plant essential oils.

  8. Effects of a neem extract on blood feeding, oviposition and oocyte ultrastructure in Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Lucantoni, L; Giusti, F; Cristofaro, M; Pasqualini, L; Esposito, F; Lupetti, P; Habluetzel, A

    2006-12-01

    Secondary metabolites of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae) exhibit a wide range of biological activities in insects. However, few studies have addressed the effects of neem extracts or compounds in arthropods of medical importance. In this study, a laboratory strain of Anopheles stephensi was used to assess the effects of a commercial formulation (Neem Azal) (NA)), containing azadirachtin A at 34%, on blood feeding, oviposition and oocyte ultrastructure. Oral administration of Neem Azal) to A. stephensi females through artificial blood meals did impair blood intake and oviposition in a concentration dependent manner. Similar results were obtained on females, which had consumed Neem Azal) in sucrose solution before taking a blood meal of plain blood. Neem treated females displayed a delay in oocyte development in both the phase of vitellogenesis and the phase of choriogenesis. The ultrastructural studies on ovaries from Neem Azal) treated females revealed distinct structural modifications indicative of: (i) a complete block of oogenesis, (ii) impairment of vitellogenesis and vitelline envelope formation, (iii) a severe degeneration of follicle cells. In agreement with results obtained in other insects, this study indicates that Neem Azal) impairs hormone control of oogenesis and exerts a cytotoxic effect on both follicular cells and oocytes of the Asian malaria vector A. stephensi.

  9. Chemical Composition, Larvicidal and Repellency Properties of Cionura erecta (L.) Griseb. Against Malaria Vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffari, Ehssan; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Vatandoost, Hassan; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Moridnia, Abbas; Saber-Navaei, Mahsa; Sanei-Dehkordi, Alireza; Rafi, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Application of plant derivatives have been suggested as alternative sources for mosquito control. Methods: The root essential oil and methanol extract of Cionura erecta (L.) Griseb was tested under laboratory conditions for larvicidal and skin repelleny activities against Anopheles stephensi. The chemical compositions of essential oils were analyzed using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry. Results: Among the five concentrations tested, the 320 ppm of essential oil and 1280 ppm of methanolic extract had the most toxic effects yielding 100% mortality. The LC50 values of C. erecta for both essential oil and methanolic extract were 77.30 and 250.38 ppm, respectively. A total of 19 compounds were identified in essential oil of root. The major components were detected in root essential oil including Cedren-9-one (7.89%), alpha cadinol (5.67%), eugenol (4.02%) and alpha muurolene (3.58%). The protection time of 50% solution of essential oil against bites of An. stephensi was 2.28 hour on white rabbit and the ED50 and ED90 values of the essential oil were 10.12 and 23.01 ppm respectively. Conclusion: The findings suggest that C. erecta oil has a potential source as larvicidal and repellency properties against An.stephensi. PMID:26114128

  10. Deforestation and Malaria on the Amazon Frontier: Larval Clustering of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) Determines Focal Distribution of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Fábio S. M.; Honório, Nildimar A.

    2015-01-01

    We performed bimonthly mosquito larval collections during 1 year, in an agricultural settlement in the Brazilian Amazon, as well as an analysis of malaria incidence in neighboring houses. Water collections located at forest fringes were more commonly positive for Anopheles darlingi larvae and Kulldorff spatial analysis pinpointed significant larval clusters at sites directly beneath forest fringes, which were called larval “hotspots.” Remote sensing identified 43 “potential” hotspots. Sampling of these areas revealed an 85.7% positivity rate for A. darlingi larvae. Malaria was correlated with shorter distances to potential hotpots and settlers living within 400 m of potential hotspots had a 2.60 higher risk of malaria. Recently arrived settlers, usually located closer to the tip of the triangularly shaped deforestation imprints of side roads, may be more exposed to malaria due to their proximity to the forest fringe. As deforestation progresses, transmission decreases. However, forest remnants inside deforested areas conferred an increased risk of malaria. We propose a model for explaining frontier malaria in the Amazon: because of adaptation of A. darlingi to the forest fringe ecotone, humans are exposed to an increased transmission risk when in proximity to these areas, especially when small dams are created on naturally running water collections. PMID:26416110

  11. Deforestation and Malaria on the Amazon Frontier: Larval Clustering of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) Determines Focal Distribution of Malaria.

    PubMed

    Barros, Fábio S M; Honório, Nildimar A

    2015-11-01

    We performed bimonthly mosquito larval collections during 1 year, in an agricultural settlement in the Brazilian Amazon, as well as an analysis of malaria incidence in neighboring houses. Water collections located at forest fringes were more commonly positive for Anopheles darlingi larvae and Kulldorff spatial analysis pinpointed significant larval clusters at sites directly beneath forest fringes, which were called larval "hotspots." Remote sensing identified 43 "potential" hotspots. Sampling of these areas revealed an 85.7% positivity rate for A. darlingi larvae. Malaria was correlated with shorter distances to potential hotpots and settlers living within 400 m of potential hotspots had a 2.60 higher risk of malaria. Recently arrived settlers, usually located closer to the tip of the triangularly shaped deforestation imprints of side roads, may be more exposed to malaria due to their proximity to the forest fringe. As deforestation progresses, transmission decreases. However, forest remnants inside deforested areas conferred an increased risk of malaria. We propose a model for explaining frontier malaria in the Amazon: because of adaptation of A. darlingi to the forest fringe ecotone, humans are exposed to an increased transmission risk when in proximity to these areas, especially when small dams are created on naturally running water collections.

  12. Blocking of malaria parasite development in mosquito and fecundity reduction by midgut antibodies in Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Suneja, Amita; Gulia, Monika; Gakhar, S K

    2003-02-01

    Rabbits were immunized three times with extracts of Anopheles stephensi midgut. Immunized rabbits showed a high titer of antibodies when characterized by ELISA. We investigated the effect of anti-mosquito midgut antibodies on mosquito fecundity, longevity, mortality, engorgement, and the development of the malaria parasite in mosquitoes. Fecundity was reduced significantly (38%) and similarly hatchability by about 43.5%. There was no statistically significant effect on mortality, longevity, and engorgement. When the mosquito blood meal contained anti-midgut antibodies, fewer oocysts of Plasmodium vivax developed in the mosquito midgut and the proportion of mosquitoes becoming infected was significantly reduced. We also found that the midgut antibodies inhibit the development and/or translocation of the sporozoites. Antisera raised against midgut of A. stephensi recognized eight polypeptides (110, 92, 70, 45, 38, 29, 15, 13 kDa) by Western blotting. Cross-reactive antigens/epitopes present in other tissues of A. stephensi were also examined both by Western blotting and in vivo ELISA. Together, these observations open an avenue for research toward the development of a vector-based malaria parasite transmission blocking vaccine and/or anti-mosquito vaccine.

  13. Using remote sensing to map larval and adult populations of Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera: Culicidae) a potential malaria vector in Southern France

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Annelise; Ponçon, Nicolas; Toty, Céline; Linard, Catherine; Guis, Hélène; Ferré, Jean-Baptiste; Lo Seen, Danny; Roger, François; de la Rocque, Stéphane; Fontenille, Didier; Baldet, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Background Although malaria disappeared from southern France more than 60 years ago, suspicions of recent autochthonous transmission in the French Mediterranean coast support the idea that the area could still be subject to malaria transmission. The main potential vector of malaria in the Camargue area, the largest river delta in southern France, is the mosquito Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera: Culicidae). In the context of recent climatic and landscape changes, the evaluation of the risk of emergence or re-emergence of such a major disease is of great importance in Europe. When assessing the risk of emergence of vector-borne diseases, it is crucial to be able to characterize the arthropod vector's spatial distribution. Given that remote sensing techniques can describe some of the environmental parameters which drive this distribution, satellite imagery or aerial photographs could be used for vector mapping. Results In this study, we propose a method to map larval and adult populations of An. hyrcanus based on environmental indices derived from high spatial resolution imagery. The analysis of the link between entomological field data on An. hyrcanus larvae and environmental indices (biotopes, distance to the nearest main productive breeding sites of this species i.e., rice fields) led to the definition of a larval index, defined as the probability of observing An. hyrcanus larvae in a given site at least once over a year. Independent accuracy assessments showed a good agreement between observed and predicted values (sensitivity and specificity of the logistic regression model being 0.76 and 0.78, respectively). An adult index was derived from the larval index by averaging the larval index within a buffer around the trap location. This index was highly correlated with observed adult abundance values (Pearson r = 0.97, p < 0.05). This allowed us to generate predictive maps of An. hyrcanus larval and adult populations from the landscape indices. Conclusion This work shows

  14. Larvicidal, ovicidal, and adulticidal efficacy of Erythrina indica (Lam.) (Family: Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2014-02-01

    Mosquitoes are the major vector for the transmission of malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, filariasis, schistosomiasis, and Japanese encephalitis. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal, ovicidal, and adulticidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Erythrina indica against the medically important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of E. indica against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values of 69.43, 75.13, and 91.41 ppm and 125.49, 134.31, and 167.14 ppm, respectively. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of E. indica against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus exerted 100 % mortality (zero hatchability) at 150, 200, and 250 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed above 99.3-100 % hatchability. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and

  15. Chlorfenapyr: a pyrrole insecticide for the control of pyrethroid or DDT resistant Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    N'Guessan, R; Boko, P; Odjo, A; Akogbéto, M; Yates, A; Rowland, M

    2007-04-01

    Owing to the development and spread of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae in Africa there is an urgent need to develop alternative insecticides to supplement the pyrethroids. Chlorfenapyr is a pyrrole insecticide first commercialized for the control of agricultural pests and termites. Performance against An. gambiae bearing kdr (pyrethroid and DDT resistance) or Ace-1(R) insensitive acetylcholinesterase (organophosphate and carbamate resistance) mechanisms was studied using a variety of adult bioassay tests including a simulated-experimental hut system (tunnel tests) that allows uninhibited mosquito behaviour/insecticide interactions. Strains resistant to pyrethroids and organophosphates showed no cross resistance to chlorfenapyr. In cone bioassays on treated netting the mortality of adult mosquitoes showed an unexpected curvilinear response, with highest mortality occurring at intermediate dosages. Adults expressed irritability to chlorfenapyr at higher dosages, which might explain the dosage-mortality trend. Toxic activity of chlorfenapyr was slow compared to conventional neurotoxic insecticides and additional mortality occurred between 24h and 72 h. In tunnel tests, the dosage-mortality trend showed a more typical sigmoid response and most mortality occurred during the first 24h. Mosquito penetration through the holed, treated netting showed only limited inhibition and blood-feeding was not inhibited. Mortality rates in the kdr strain exposed to chlorfenapyr treated netting in tunnel tests were much higher than with permethrin treated netting over the same 100-500 mg/m(2) dosage range. Chlorfenapyr has potential for malaria control in treated-net or residual spraying applications in areas where mosquitoes are pyrethroid resistant. For treated-net applications chlorfenapyr might be combined with pyrethroid as a mixture to provide personal protection as well as to give control of resistant mosquitoes.

  16. Amaranthus oleracea and Euphorbia hirta: natural potential larvicidal agents against the urban Indian malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Preeti; Mohan, Lalit; Srivastava, C N

    2009-12-01

    Malaria control in developing countries is based largely on vector eradication by the use of mosquito larvicides which is an ideal method for controlling mosquito and the related epidemics. On account of ecohazardous nature, nontarget specificity of chemical insecticides and evidences of developing resistance against them in the exposed species, currently, importance of secondary plant metabolites has been acknowledged. Insecticides of plant origin are environmentally safe, degradable, and target specific. In view of this fact, the present work highlights the larvicidal property of extracts of Amaranthus oleracea and Euphorbia hirta against the third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, the urban malaria vector. LC(50) values for the carbon tetrachloride fraction of A. oleracea against larvae are 17,768.00 and 13,780.00 ppm after 24 and 48 h of exposure accordingly. For the methanol extract of the same, LC(50) values are 15,541.00 and 10,174.00 ppm after 24 and 48 h of exposure. In the case of petroleum ether extract, LC(50) values after 24 and 48 h of exposure are 848.75 and 311.50 ppm. LC(50) values for carbon tetrachloride extracts of E. hirta against the larvae are 11,063.00 and 10,922.00 ppm after 24 and 48 h of exposure, respectively. For methanol extract of the same extract, the LC(50) values are 19,280.00 and 18,476.00 ppm after 24 and 48 h of exposure. In the case of petroleum ether extract, LC(50) values after a 24- and 48-h exposure period are 9,693.90 and 7,752.80 ppm. The results obtained for petroleum extracts of A. oleracea are encouraging and there are probabilities that the active principle contained in this extract may be more effective than its crude form and may serve as ecofriendly mosquito larvicide.

  17. Larvicidal efficacy of Ethiopian ethnomedicinal plant Juniperus procera essential oil against Afrotropical malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal; Girmay, Askual; Fekadu, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen the essential oil of Juniperus procera (J. procera) (Cupressaceae) for larvicidal activity against late third instar larvae of Anopheles arabiensis (An. arabiensis) Patton, the principle malaria vector in Ethiopia. Methods The essential oil of J. procera was evaluated against the larvae of An. arabiensis under the laboratory and semi-field conditions by adopting the World Health Organization standard protocols. The larval mortality was observed for 24 h of post exposure. Results The essential oil of J. procera has demonstrated varying degrees of larvicidal activity against An. arabiensis. The LC50 and LC90 values of J. procera were 14.42 and 24.65 mg/L, respectively under the laboratory conditions, and from this data, a Chi-square value 6.662 was observed to be significant at the P=0.05 level. However, under the semi-field conditions the LC50 and LC90 values of J. procera were 24.51 and 34.21 mg/L, respectively and a Chi-square value 4.615 was significant at the P=0.05 level. The observations clearly showed that larval mortality rate is completely time and dose-dependent as compared with the control. Conclusions This investigation indicates that J. procera could serve as a potential larvicidal agent against insect vector of diseases, particularly An. arabiensis. However further studies are strongly recommended for the identification of the chemical constituents and the mode of action towards the rational design of alternative promising insecticidal agents in the near future. PMID:25183156

  18. Baseline Susceptibility of Different Geographical Strains of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) to Temephos in Malarious Areas of Irana

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Aboozar; Vatandoost, Hassan; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Enayati, Ahmad Ali; Raeisi, Ahmad; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Soltan-Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Rafi, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Malaria still remains a public health problem in Iran. There are different vector control interventions such as insecticide spraying. The present study was carried out to determine the susceptibility status of Anopheles stephensi larvae to temephos as a national plan for monitoring and mapping of insecticide resistance Methods: Eight different localities in two main malarious provinces were determined as field collecting sites. Mosquitoes were collected from the field and reared in an insectray. Susceptibility assays were carried out according to the WHO method. The laboratory reared susceptible Beech-Lab strain was used for comparison. Data were analyzed using Probit analysis to determine LC50 and LC90 values. Results: Susceptibility of An. stephensi to temephos indicated that the LC50 ranged from 0.0022 mg/l to 0.0141 mg/l. Although all field strains were susceptible to temephos, considerable variations in temephos resistance ratios of field strains were noticed from all the localities studied in comparison with the susceptible strain. A low level of resistance ratio was noticed in An. stephensi populations except for the Chabahar strain (RR= 4.27 fold). All field-collected An. stephensi populations exhibited homogeneity to the larvicide except for Bandar Abbas and Hormoodar village strains (P> 0.05%). Conclusion: Due to intensive use of temephos in the neighboring countries and occurrence of resistant to this insecticide in the main malaria vector in the region, insecticide resistance gene may evolve in the populations of An. stephensi. If temephos be applied as a larvicide it should be used judiciously for resistance management, as rotation strategy. PMID:23785695

  19. Identification of salivary gland proteins depleted after blood feeding in the malaria vector Anopheles campestris-like mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Sor-suwan, Sriwatapron; Jariyapan, Narissara; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Paemanee, Atchara; Phumee, Atchara; Phattanawiboon, Benjarat; Intakhan, Nuchpicha; Chanmol, Wetpisit; Bates, Paul A; Saeung, Atiporn; Choochote, Wej

    2014-01-01

    Malaria sporozoites must invade the salivary glands of mosquitoes for maturation before transmission to vertebrate hosts. The duration of the sporogonic cycle within the mosquitoes ranges from 10 to 21 days depending on the parasite species and temperature. During blood feeding salivary gland proteins are injected into the vertebrate host, along with malaria sporozoites in the case of an infected mosquito. To identify salivary gland proteins depleted after blood feeding of female Anopheles campestris-like, a potential malaria vector of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques were used. Results showed that 19 major proteins were significantly depleted in three to four day-old mosquitoes fed on a first blood meal. For the mosquitoes fed the second blood meal on day 14 after the first blood meal, 14 major proteins were significantly decreased in amount. The significantly depleted proteins in both groups included apyrase, 5'-nucleotidase/apyrase, D7, D7-related 1, short form D7r1, gSG6, anti-platelet protein, serine/threonine-protein kinase rio3, putative sil1, cyclophilin A, hypothetical protein Phum_PHUM512530, AGAP007618-PA, and two non-significant hit proteins. To our knowledge, this study presents for the first time the salivary gland proteins that are involved in the second blood feeding on the day corresponding to the transmission period of the sporozoites to new mammalian hosts. This information serves as a basis for future work concerning the possible role of these proteins in the parasite transmission and the physiological processes that occur during the blood feeding.

  20. Laboratory evaluation of traditionally used plant-based insect repellent against the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal; Ilango, Kandan; Murugan, Kadarkarai

    2010-04-01

    A laboratory study was carried out to evaluate the repellent efficacy of a methanol-leaf extract of Ethiopian traditionally used insect repellent plant viz., Lomi sar [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. (Poaceae)] against Anopheles arabiensis at four different concentrations viz., 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mg/cm(2). The percentage protection in relation to the dose method was performed. C. citratus extract has shown various degrees of repellency impact against A. arabiensis. It provided the maximum total percentage protection of 78.83% at 2.5 mg/cm(2) and followed 68.06% at 2.0 mg/cm(2) for 12 h. All four tested concentrations of C. citratus extract offered significant protection and Student's t test results shows statistically significant (p value = 0.001) [1.0 mg/cm(2) (t = 22.89; df = 4); 1.5 mg/cm(2) (t = 24.03; df = 4); 2.0 mg/cm(2) (t = 36.92; df = 4); 2.5 mg/cm(2) (t = 22.31; df = 4)] difference between treated and control groups. The result suggests that it could serve as a potent insect repellent against vectors of disease. Globally, C. citratus is renowned for its therapeutic values. Above and beyond, due to its user- as well as environmental-friendly nature, it should be promoted among the marginalized populations in order to reduce man-vector contact. In addition, this appropriate strategy affords the opportunity to minimize chemical repellent usage and the risks associated with adverse side effects. At the end of the day, traditionally used plant-based insect repellents could be viable safer alternative sources for chemical insect repellents.

  1. Expression Profiles and RNAi Silencing of Inhibitor of Apoptosis Transcripts in Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Puglise, Jason M; Estep, Alden S; Becnel, James J

    2016-03-01

    Effective mosquito control is vital to curtail the devastating health effects of many vectored diseases. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated control of mosquitoes is an attractive alternative to conventional chemical pesticides. Previous studies have suggested that transcripts for inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) may be good RNAi targets. To revisit and extend previous reports, we examined the expression of Aedes aegypti (L.) IAPs (AaeIAPs) 1, 2, 5, 6, 9, and a viral IAP-associated factor (vIAF) as well as Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say and Culex quinquefasciatus Say IAP1 homologs (AquIAP1 and CquIAP1) in adult females. Expression profiles of IAPs suggested that some older female mosquitoes had significantly higher IAP mRNA levels when compared to the youngest ones. Minor differences in expression of AaeIAPs were observed in mosquitoes that imbibed a bloodmeal, but the majority of the time points (up to 48 h) were not significantly different. Although in vitro experiments with the Ae. aegypti Aag-2 cell line demonstrated that the various AaeIAPs could be effectively knocked down within one day after dsRNA treatment, only Aag-2 cells treated with dsIAP1 displayed apoptotic morphology. Gene silencing and mortality were also evaluated after topical application and microinjection of the same dsRNAs into female Ae. aegypti. In contrast to previous reports, topical administration of dsRNA against AaeIAP1 did not yield a significant reduction in gene expression or increased mortality. Knockdown of IAP1 and other IAPs by microinjection did not result in significant mortality. In toto, our findings suggest that IAPs may not be suitable RNAi targets for controlling adult mosquito populations.

  2. Chaudhuriomyia, a new tanypod genus of Macropelopiini (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae) from the Eastern Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Paul, Nilotpol; Mazumdar, Abhijit

    2015-05-06

    A new genus, Chaudhuriomyia in the tribe Macropelopiini belonging to subfamily Tanypodinae is described and illustrated in all life stages. The genus can be distinguished from all the other known Macropelopiini by the presence of a blunt claw on fore leg and a smooth surface of tibial spur in adult male, seminal capsules without proper neck in adult female, round anal lobe in pupa, and slightly inwardly bent inner tooth of ligula in larva. Generic diagnoses for larva, pupa and adult are provided. Taxonomic position and distribution of the genus are discussed along with a new adult key of tribe Macropelopiini. The specimens were collected from a stream in Indo-Bhutan border area of Eastern Himalaya in Indian Subcontinent. A note on the ecology and biology of the new genus is included.

  3. Environmental abundance of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitats on land cover change sites in Karima Village, Mwea Rice Scheme, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Benjamin G; Muturi, Ephantus; Halbig, Patrick; Mwangangi, Joseph; Wanjogu, R K; Mpanga, Enock; Funes, Jose; Shililu, Josephat; Githure, John; Regens, James L; Novak, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    A study was carried out at Karima Village in the Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme in Kenya to assess the impact of rice husbandry and associated land cover change for mosquito larval abundance. A multi-temporal, land use land cover (LULC) classification dataset incorporating distributions of Anopheles arabiensis aquatic larval habitats was produced in ERDAS Imagine version 8.7 using combined images from IKONOS at 4m spatial resolution from 2005 and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM)trade mark classification data at 30-meters spatial resolution from 1988 for Karima. Of 207 larval habitats sampled, most were either canals (53.4%) or paddies (45.9%), and only one habitat was classified as a seep (0.5%). The proportion of habitats that were poorly drained was 55.1% compared with 44.9% for the habitats that were well drained. An LULC base map was generated. A grid incorporating each rice paddy was overlaid over the LULC maps stratifying each cell based on levels of irrigation. Paddies/grid cells were classified as 1) well irrigated and 2) poorly irrigated. Early stages of rice growth showed peak larval production during the early part of the cropping cycle (rainy season). Total LULC change for Karima over 16 years was 59.8%. Of those areas in which change was detected, the LULC change for Karima was 4.30% for rice field to built environment, 8.74% for fallow to built environment, 7.19% for rice field to fallow, 19.03% built to fallow, 5.52% for fallow to rice field, and 8.35% for built environment to rice field. Of 207 aquatic habitats in Karima, 54.1 (n = 112) were located in LULC change sites and 45.9 (n = 95) were located in LULC non-change sites. Rice crop LULC maps derived from IKONOS and TM data in geographic information systems can be used to investigate the relationship between rice cultivation practices and higher anopheline larval habitat distribution.

  4. Biolarvicidal and pupicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Euphorbia hirta against Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Priyadarshini, Karthikeyan Agalya; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Ponarulselvam, Sekar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2012-09-01

    Vector control is a critical requirement in epidemic disease situations, as is an urgent need to develop new and improved mosquito control methods that are economical and effective yet safe for nontarget organisms and the environment. Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta) plant leaf extract against malarial vector Anopheles stephensi (A. stephensi) was determined. Range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, and 50 ppm) and methanol crude extract (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 ppm) were tested against larvae of A. stephensi. The synthesized AgNPs from E. hirta were highly toxic than methanolic crude extract against malarial vector, A. stephensi. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction. SEM analyses of the synthesized showed that AgNPs, measuring 30-60 nm in size, were clearly distinguishable. The synthesized AgNPs showed larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest larval mortality was found in the synthesized AgNPs against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of values LC(50) (10.14, 16.82, 21.51, and 27.89 ppm, respectively), LC(90) (31.98, 50.38, 60.09, and 69.94 ppm, respectively), and the LC(50) and LC(90) values of pupae of 34.52 and 79.76 ppm, respectively. Methanol extract exhibited the larval toxicity against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of values LC(50) (121.51, 145.40, 169.11, and 197.40 ppm, respectively), LC(90) (236.44, 293.75, 331.42, and 371.34 ppm, respectively), and the LC(50) and LC(90) values of

  5. Malaria transmission and insecticide resistance of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) in the French military camp of Port-Bouët, Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire): implications for vector control.

    PubMed

    Girod, Romain; Orlandi-Pradines, Eve; Rogier, Christophe; Pages, Frederic

    2006-09-01

    An important vector control program is ongoing to lower the risk of malaria transmission in the French military camp of Port-Bouët, Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire). However, some autochthonous malaria cases are regularly suspected. An entomological survey was conducted in June 2004 in the camp to assess malaria transmission and evaluate the pyrethroid and organophosphate resistance of the malaria vectors. The average mosquito biting rate was 178.0 bites per person per night. Mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) complex and the Anopheles funestus group were collected. An. gambiae s.s. molecular form M was the only species of the An. gambiae complex present. The average number of An. gambiae bites was approximately 44.3 per person per night. The circumsporozoite index was 0.38% and the entomological inoculation rate estimated to be 1.2 infective bites per week for the study period. The kdr and ace1 gene frequencies in the An. gambiae population were 0.70 and 0.15, respectively. Personnel living in the French barracks of Port-Bouët are thus at high risk of being bitten by parasite-infected mosquitoes. Such an entomological inoculation rate, usually found in African peri-urban environments, was unexpected considering the extensive effort deployed to control mosquitoes in the camp. Insecticide resistance could explain the inefficacy of the vector control program but the spraying strategy is also questionable.

  6. Nomenclatural Studies Toward a World List of Diptera Genus-Group Names. Part IV: Charles Henry Tyler Townsend.

    PubMed

    Evenhuis, Neal L; Pont, Adrian C; Whitmore, Daniel

    2015-06-25

    The Diptera genus-group names of Charles Henry Tyler Townsend are reviewed and annotated. A total of 1506 available genus-group names in 12 families of Diptera are listed alphabetically for each name, giving author, year and page of original publication, originally included species, type species and method of fixation, current status of the name, family placement, and a list of any emendations of it that have been found in the literature. Remarks are given to clarify nomenclatural and/or taxonomic information. In addition, an index to all the species-group names of Diptera proposed by Townsend (1595, of which 1574 are available names) is given with bibliographic reference (year and page) to each original citation. An appendix with a full bibliography of almost 650 papers written by Townsend is presented with accurate dates of publication.        Two new replacement names are proposed for preoccupied genus-group names and both are named to honor our good friend and colleague, James E. O'Hara, for his decades of work on tachinids: Oharamyia Evenhuis, Pont & Whitmore, n. name, for Lindigia Townsend, 1931 [Tachinidae] (preoccupied by Karsten, 1858); Jimimyia Evenhuis, Pont & Whitmore, n. name, for Siphonopsis Townsend, 1916 [Tachinidae] (preoccupied by Agassiz, 1846).        Earlier dates of availability are found for the following: Eucnephalia Townsend, 1892 [Tachinidae]; Gabanimyia Townsend, 1914 [Tachinidae]; Incamyia Townsend, 1912 [Tachinidae]; Muscopteryx Townsend, 1892 [Tachinidae]; Philippolophosia Townsend, 1927 [Tachinidae]; Pseudokea Townsend, 1927 [Tachinidae].        Corrected or clarified included species and/or corrected or clarified type-species and methods of typification are given for: Alitophasia Townsend, 1934 [Tachinidae]; Almugmyia Townsend, 1911 [Tachinidae]; Arachnidomyia Townsend, 1934 [Sarcophagidae]; Austenina Townsend, 1921 [Glossinidae]; Austrohartigia Townsend, 1937 [Sarcophagidae]; Awatia Townsend, 1921 [Muscidae

  7. A new genus and species of micro bee flies from Brazil (Diptera: Mythicomyiidae: Psiloderoidinae).

    PubMed

    Lamas, Carlos J E; Falaschi, Rafaela L; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2015-05-05

    A new genus of Mythicomyiidae, Amydrostylus triadicophallus gen. nov. et sp. nov., is described from the Chaco of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The type-series was collected by Malaise traps during the development of the SISBIOTA-Brasil project. Amydrostylus is closely related to the genus Acridophagus Evenhuis in the subfamily Psiloderoidinae, but it is distinguished by the minute apical stylus and the same length of br and bm cells. The species is described and illustrated in detail, including the male terminalia and female spermathecae. This is the first record of the subfamily Psiloderoidinae in South America.

  8. Two new species of the genus Timia and a redescription of Timia mongolica (Diptera, Ulidiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Galinskaya, Tatiana V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the genus Timia Wiedemann, 1824 are described and illustrated. Timia lazebnayae sp. n. from Uzbekistan has yellow body and is similar to Timia gobica Zaitzev, 1982, differing from it only by the entirely yellow flagellomere 1. Timia shatalkini sp. n. from Mongolia has dark body and differs from all other dark-colored representatives of the genus by the cell r4+5 being completely closed, forming petiole at the wing apex. Timia mongolica Zaitsev, 1982 is redescribed and an updated key for yellow-coloured Timia is provided. PMID:27667944

  9. A revision of the Neotropical genus Paraberismyia Woodley (Diptera, Stratiomyidae, Beridinae) with three new species

    PubMed Central

    Woodley, Norman E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Neotropical genus Paraberismyia Woodley, 1995, is revised. Three new species, P. chiapas sp. n., P. mathisi sp. n., and P. triunfo sp. n. are described, all having type localities in Chiapas, Mexico. A key to the four known species is provided. PMID:24294096

  10. Review of the genus Rhaphiocerina Lindner (Diptera: Stratiomyinae), with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhu; Yang, Ding; Zhang, Tingting

    2016-05-12

    Genus Rhaphiocerina is revised and discussed. The known species R. hakiensis (Matsumura, 1916) is redescribed and illustrated. A new species, Rhaphiocerina chinensis sp. nov., is described and illustrated. A key is presented to separate the known genera in Stratiomyinae from China.

  11. New genus and species of Neotropical robber flies (Diptera, Asilidae, Asilinae).

    PubMed

    Artigas, Jorge N; Vieira, Rodrigo

    2014-03-06

    A new genus and species of Papaverellus aureocingulatus from Brazil, belonging to the asilid subfamily, is described and illustrated. Photographs of the habitus of the male and female in lateral view, and male terminalia in ventral view are provided. The systematic position of Papaverellus gen. nov. is suggested and will be addressed in a future paper.

  12. A new genus and species of Xyphosiini (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Memari, Fatemeh; Namin, Saeed Mohamadzade; Hakimitabar, Masoud

    2016-06-17

    Valera, a monotypic new genus (Tephritidae, Tephritinae, Xyphosiini) and Valera ariana n. sp., the type and only known species, are described from Iran. Systematic relationships with other Xyphosiini are discussed and a key to the genera of the tribe Xyphosiini is presented.

  13. A redefinition of the genus Hemichaeta Steyskal, new status (Diptera; Micropezidae; Taeniapterinae).

    PubMed

    Marshall, Stephen A; Jackson, Morgan D

    2014-06-13

    We here reconsider the status of subgenus Hemichaeta Steyskal, concluding that there is no justification to keep it in the genus Poecilotylus Hennig. Hemichaeta is thus removed from Poecilotylus and elevated to generic status with Hemichaeta scutellata (Cresson) as the type and only included species. Hemichaeta scutellata is fully redescribed, including the previously undescribed male and female terminalia.

  14. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of the Neotropical genus Acrochaeta Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Sarginae).

    PubMed

    Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Amorim, Dalton De Souza

    2015-11-30

    The Neotropical genus Acrochaeta Wiedemann is revised and a cladistics analysis of the genus based on morphological characters is presented. This paper raises the total number of extant Acrochaeta species from 10 to 14 with the description of nine new species, the synonymy of one species, the transfer of five species to other genera and the transfer of one species of Merosargus to Acrochaeta. The new species described (of which eight are from Brazil and one from Bolivia and Peru) are Acrochaeta asapha nov. sp., A. balbii nov. sp., A. dichrostyla nov. sp., A. polychaeta nov. sp., A. pseudofasciata nov. sp., A. pseudopolychaeta nov. sp., A. rhombostyla nov. sp. A. ruschii nov. sp. and A. stigmata nov. sp. The primary types of all Acrochaeta species were studied at least from photos, when possible with the study of dissected male or female terminalia. A. mexicana Lindner is proposed as a junior synonym of A. flaveola Bigot. M. chalconota (Brauer) comb. nov., M. degenerata (Lindner) comb. nov., M. longiventris (Enderlein) comb. nov. and M. picta (Brauer) comb. nov. are herein transferred from Acrochaeta to Merosargus Loew, and Chrysochlorina elegans (Perty) comb. nov. is transferred from Acrochaeta to Chrysochlorina James. A. convexifrons (McFadden) comb. nov. is transferred from Merosargus to Acrochaeta. The limits of the genus and its insertion in the Sarginae are considered, and an updated generic diagnosis is provided. All species of the genus are redescribed and diagnosed, and illustrated with photos of the habitus, thorax, wing, and drawings of the antenna and male and female terminalia. Distribution maps are provided for the species, along with an identification key for adults of all species. Parsimony analyses were carried out under equal and implied weight. Our matrix includes 43 terminal taxa--of which 26 are outgroup species from four different sargine genera--and 59 adult morphological characters. The phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of

  15. Mosquito larvicidal properties of Orthisiphon thymiflorus (Roth) Sleesen. (Family: Labiatae) against mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To determine the larvicidal activity of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Orthosiphon thymiflorus leaves against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. Methods: Larvicidal activity was determined in laboratory bioassays using var...

  16. A new genus and species of Coenosiini from Costa Rica (Diptera, Muscidae, Coenosiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Couri, Márcia Souto; de Carvalho, Claudio José Barros

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Palpilongus gen. n. is herein described for one species – Palpilongus bifurcus sp. n., from Costa Rica, based on male and females. The striking morphological characters of the species – palpus very long, about as long as prementum; upper calypter truncate and very short and setae of male sternite 5 bifurcated, confirm that this new species is also a new genus in the tribe Coenosiini. Male and female terminalia were dissected and illustrated. PMID:23950688

  17. Review of the genus Harnischia Kieffer from China (Diptera, Chironomidae), with description of one new species

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chun-Cai; Guo, Qin; Liu, Ting; Guo, Wei; Wang, Xin-Hua; Pan, Bao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The genus Harnischia Kieffer, 1921 from China is reviewed and one new species, Harnischia parallela Yan & Wang, sp. n., is described and illustrated as adult male. Harnischia okilurida Sasa is recognized as a new synonym of Harnischia longispuria Wang & Zheng. The pupae of Harnischia fuscimana Kieffer and Harnischia curtilamellata Malloch are redescribed from material collected in China, and an unplaced pupa is described. Key to male adults and pupae of known species of Harnischia from China is given. PMID:27917051

  18. New species of the genus Phaonia R.-D., 1830 (Diptera, Muscidae) from Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Sorokina, Vera S

    2015-09-11

    A list of species of Phaonia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 of Central Asia is given, and four new species of Phaonia are described from Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan (P. babarabica sp. nov., P. juglans sp. nov., P. modesta sp. nov. and P. ninae sp. nov.). The male terminalia of all species and ovipositors of P. ninae sp. nov. and P. modesta sp. nov. are figured. Previous literature on the genus Phaonia in Central Asia is reviewed.

  19. Species of the genus Thressa Walker, 1860 from China (Diptera, Chloropidae)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Ding; Nartshuk, Emilia P.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A review of the species of the genus Thressa from China is provided. The following four species are described as new to science: Thressa bimaculata sp. n., Thressa daiyunshana sp. n., Thressa foliacea sp. n. and Thressa longimaculata sp. n. One species, Thressa flavior (Duda), is recorded from China for the first time. A key to the species of the Thressa from China is given. PMID:21998554

  20. Revision of the Nearctic species of Callomyia Meigen (Diptera: Platypezidae) and phylogeny of the genus.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Heather J; Wheeler, Terry A

    2016-05-18

    The Nearctic fauna of the genus Callomyia Meigen is revised and a phylogeny of the world species, based on morphological characters, is presented. Although morphological data are used primarily to delimit species, molecular sequence data (DNA barcodes) are used where possible, to help determine species boundaries and associate sexes. Species descriptions, diagnoses, and distribution maps are presented, along with illustrations of habitus, male terminalia, and additional important diagnostic characters. A key to the Nearctic species is provided. Ten species are recorded from the Nearctic Region including three new species: C. argentea Cumming sp. nov., C. arnaudi Cumming sp. nov., C. bertae Kessel, C. browni Cumming sp. nov., C. calla Kessel, C. corvina Kessel, C. gilloglyorum Kessel, C. proxima Johnson, C. velutina Johnson, and C. venusta Snow. The female of C. velutina is described, and three new synonyms are proposed: C. cleta Kessel is a junior synonym of C. calla syn. nov.; C. clara Kessel is a junior synonym of C. corvina syn. nov.; and C. liardia Kessel & Buegler is a junior synonym of C. proxima syn. nov. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus are reconstructed. The genus is monophyletic based primarily on the setulose R1 wing vein, female antennal size and three larval characters. The Nearctic species do not form a monophyletic group with respect to the Old World species.

  1. Haromyia, a new genus of long-legged flies from Dominica (Diptera: Dolichopodidae).

    PubMed

    Runyon, Justin B

    2015-06-05

    The new micro-dolichopodid genus Haromyia gen. nov. and the type species H. iviei sp. nov. are described from the island of Dominica in the Lesser Antilles. Males and females of Haromyia are distinguished by the large setae on a bulging clypeus, minute size, and wing veins that are nearly straight and evenly diverging from wing base. Haromyia does not fit readily into any contemporary dolichopodid subfamily, although it superficially resembles the Enliniinae and Achalcinae. Haromyia should be regarded as incertae sedis until the dolichopodid subfamilies can be refined, particularly to better incorporate the tropical diversity of this large family.

  2. Phoomyia, a new genus of Dolichopodinae from the Oriental Region (Diptera: Dolichopodidae).

    PubMed

    Naglis, Stefan; Grootaert, Patrick; Brooks, Scott E

    2013-01-01

    Phoomyia Naglis & Grootaert gen. nov. is described to include two new species of beach-dwelling dolichopodine flies from coastal Sri Lanka and Thailand: Phoontyia srilankensis Naglis & Brooks sp. nov. and Phoomnyia thailandensis Naglis & Grootaert sp. nov. The new genus is closely related to the genera Argyrochlamys Lamb and Pseudargyrochlamys Grichanov, and is distinguished based on characters of the hind leg, and features of the male and female terminalia. Adults of Phoomyia are found on sandy coastal beaches often near the burrows of ghost crabs.

  3. Revision of the genus Allometopon Kertész (Diptera: Clusiidae).

    PubMed

    Lonsdale, Owen

    2016-04-28

    The genus Allometopon Kertész is revised, recognizing 68 species, including 5 undescribed species known only from females. The genus is mostly known from the Australian (30 spp.) and Oriental Regions (33 spp.-only one unnamed female is found in both Australian and Oriental Regions), but also the Afrotropical (5 spp.) and Palaearctic Regions (1 sp.). Most Allometopon are new to science, with 40 new species described here: A. acum, A. asylum, A. atribatum, A. bharetum, A. bivittatum, A. cavernosium, A. cheiris, A. conopeum, A. eotoxon, A. fumihalteratum, A. fuscinum, A. gaimarii, A. giallo, A. glochis, A. gracile, A. hauseri, A. hesperotoxon, A. hirsutum, A. horridum, A. infernum, A. juxtum, A. kokodensis, A. lunatum, A. lux, A. macalpinei, A. machaeroges, A. magnum, A. monstrum, A. nyx, A. phenomena, A. philomela, A. platystylum, A. plicatum, A. procne, A. selenis, A. solare, A. suspirium, A. tenebrae, A. tetrathrix, and A. trilobellum. Calometopon Frey syn. nov. (subgenus of Allometopon with type species A. nobile Frey, by original designation) is included as a junior synonym of Allometopon. Sobarocephala geniculata Sasakawa is recombined as Allometopon geniculatum comb. nov. A key, illustrations and photographs are provided for species.

  4. Chromosomal organization of the ribosomal RNA genes in the genus Chironomus (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gunderina, Larisa; Golygina, Veronika; Broshkov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chromosomal localization of ribosomal RNA coding genes has been studied by using FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) in 21 species from the genus Chironomus Meigen, 1803. Analysis of the data has shown intra- and interspecific variation in number and location of 5.8S rDNA hybridization sites in 17 species from the subgenus Chironomus and 4 species from the subgenus Camptochironomus Kieffer, 1914. In the majority of studied species the location of rDNA sites coincided with the sites where active NORs (nucleolus organizer regions) were found. The number of hybridization sites in karyotypes of studied chironomids varied from 1 to 6. More than half of the species possessed only one NOR (12 out of 21). Two rDNA hybridization sites were found in karyotypes of five species, three – in two species, and five and six sites – in one species each. NORs were found in all chromosomal arms of species from the subgenus Chironomus with one of them always located on arm G. On the other hand, no hybridization sites were found on arm G in four studied species from the subgenus Camptochironomus. Two species from the subgenus Chironomus – Chironomus balatonicus Devai, Wuelker & Scholl, 1983 and Chironomus “annularius” sensu Strenzke, 1959 – showed intraspecific variability in the number of hybridization signals. Possible mechanisms of origin of variability in number and location of rRNA genes in the karyotypes of species from the genus Chironomus are discussed. PMID:26140162

  5. Review of the genus Namadytes Hesse, 1969 (Insecta: Diptera: Mydidae: Syllegomydinae).

    PubMed

    Dikow, Torsten; Leon, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The Mydidae genus Namadytes Hesse, 1969 is reviewed. It is known from five species, primarily occurring in Namibia. The study of newly available material from both Namibia and South Africa deposited in several natural history collections results in the recognition of three species and new synonymy of two, i.e., Namadytespallidus Hesse, 1972 is a new junior synonym of Namadytesmaculiventris (Hesse, 1969) and Namadytesprozeskyi Hesse, 1969: 282 is a new junior synonym of Namadytesvansoni Hesse, 1969: 280. All three species are re-described and comments on sexual dimorphism and intraspecific variation are made, a dichotomous key for their identification is presented, and illustrations and photographs are provided to support the descriptions and facilitate future identification. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots sensu Conservation International, and seasonal incidence with associated weather and climatic data are discussed for all species. A morphological structure ventral to the halter and posterior to the metathoracic spiracle, the infra-halter sclerite, is here newly termed.

  6. A revision of the shore-fly genus Lamproclasiopa Hendel (Diptera, Ephydridae)

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Daniel N. R.; Mathis, Wayne N.; Marinoni, Luciane

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The species of the genus Lamproclasiopa Hendel are revised, including 13 new species (type locality in parenthesis): Lamproclasiopa aliceae (United States. New Mexico. Grant: Silver City (Big Ditch; 32°46.4'N, 108°16.5'W; 1790 m)), Lamproclasiopa argentipicta (Costa Rica. San José. Zurquí de Moravia (10°2.8'N, 84°0.6'W)), Lamproclasiopa auritunica (Bolívia. Oruro: Paznã (S. of the town; 18°36.2'S, 66°54.7'W, 3750 m).), Lamproclasiopa brunnea (Costa Rica. San José. Zurquí de Moravia (10°2.8'N, 84°0.6'W)), Lamproclasiopa caligosa (Chile. Osorno: Anticura (1 km W; 40°39'S, 72°10'W; 430 m)), Lamproclasiopa curva (Chile. Los Lagos: Chiloé Island, Chepu (on seashore; 42°5'S, 73°59.65'W)), Lamproclasiopa ecuadoriensis (Ecuador. Orellana: Río Tiputini Biodiversity Station (0°38.2'S, 76°8.9'W)), Lamproclasiopa furvitibia (Costa Rica. San José. Zurquí de Moravia (10°2.8'N, 84°0.6'W)), Lamproclasiopa lapaz (Bolívia. La Paz: La Paz (6 km NE; 16°25.7'S, 68°04.3'W; 4130m)), Lamproclasiopa mancha (Brazil. Paraná: Curitiba, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Reserva Biológica (25°26.9'S, 49°14'W; 915 m)), Lamproclasiopa triangularis (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Pakitza (11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m)), Lamproclasiopa xanthocera (Brazil. Paraná. Curitiba, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Reserva Biológica (25°26.9'S, 49°14'W; 915 m)), Lamproclasiopa zerafael (Brazil. Amazonas: Reserva Ducke (02°55.8'S, 59°58.5'W; 40 m)). All known species are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for all species are provided. For perspective and to facilitate genus-group and species-group recognition, the tribe Discocerinini is diagnosed and a key to genera in the New World is provided. PMID:27917044

  7. Revision of the New World genus Peckia Roniveau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).

    PubMed

    Buenaventura, Eliana; Pape, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The New World and largely Neotropical genus Peckia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 is revised with a key to all species. Peckia is considered a senior synonym of Guanoxipha Lehrer, 2012, n. syn. and of Sarcodexia Townsend, 1892, n. syn., the first one under Squamatodes Curran and the latter maintained as a valid subgenus, which here is redefined giving the new generic combinations Peckia (Sarcodexia) lambens (Wiedemann, 1830), n. comb. and P. (S.) notata (Lopes, 1935), n. comb.; and the new subgeneric affiliations P. (S.) aequata (Wulp, 1895), P. (S.) chirotheca (Hall, 1933), P. (S.) dominicana (Lopes, 1982), P. (S.) florencioi (Prado & Fonseca, 1932), P. (S.) roppai (Lopes & Tibana, 1982) and P. (S.) tridentata (Hall, 1937). Peckia virgo (Pape, 1994) is transferred from subgenus Euboettcheria Townsend, 1927 to subgenus Squamatodes Curran, 1927. Sarcophaga adolenda Lopes, 1935 is transferred from its current position in Peckia to the genus Retrocitomyia Lopes, 1982, n. comb. A total of 67 species are recognized and grouped in the subgenera Euboettcheria, Pattonella Enderlein, 1928, Peckia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (sensu stricto), Sarcodexia and Squamatodes. Nine new species are described, viz., Peckia (Euboettcheria) santamariae n. sp. (Colombia), Peckia (Euboettcheria) cacao n. sp. (Costa Rica), Peckia (Euboettcheria) calixtoi n. sp. (Puerto Rico), Peckia (Euboettcheria) hernandosi n. sp. (Ecuador), Peckia (Pattonella) kladosoides n. sp. (Colombia), Peckia (Peckia) cocopex n. sp. (Costa Rica: Cocos Island), Peckia (Peckia) sarmientoi n. sp. (Ecuador), Peckia (Peckia) rosalbae n. sp. (Colombia) and Peckia (Sarcodexia) cocos n. sp. (Costa Rica: Cocos Island). The following new synonymies are proposed as junior synonyms under their respective species: under Peckia (Euboettcheria) tridentata (Hall, 1937) is Euboettcheria alvarengai Lopes & Tibana, 1982, n. syn.; under Peckia (Peckia) chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830) is Paraphrissopoda hugolopesiana Lehrer, 2006, n. syn.; under

  8. A review of the genus Drymeia Meigen, 1826 (Diptera: Muscidae) in Russia.

    PubMed

    Sorokina, Vera S; Pont, Adrian C

    2015-08-14

    A key is provided to the 26 species of the genus Drymeia Meigen, 1826 known from Russia and four additional species that may be found in Russia (D. brumalis (Rondani, 1866), D. cantabrigensis (Huckett, 1965), D. gymnophthalma (Hennig, 1963), D. similis (Malloch, 1918)). The key includes the 10 new species here described from the mountains of South Siberia (D. acrostichalis sp. nov., D. aristata sp. nov., D. cilitarsis sp. nov., D. glabra sp. nov., D. grandis sp. nov., D. grisea sp. nov., D. longiseta sp. nov., D. phaonina sp. nov., D. puchokana sp. nov., D. triseta sp. nov.,) and other two new species from the Russian Arctic (D. cristata sp. nov., D. taymirensis sp. nov.). Five species (D. fasciculata (Stein, 1916), D. firthiana (Huckett, 1965), D. groenlandica (Lundbeck, 1901), D. quadrisetosa (Malloch, 1919), D. neoborealis (Snyder, 1949)) are newly recorded from Russia. Three new synonymies are proposed: D. pribilofensis (Malloch, 1921) (syn: D. inaequalis (Malloch, 1922)), D. setibasis (Huckett, 1965) (syn: D. gymnophthalma sibirica (Lavčiev, 1971, unavailable junior secondary homonym) and D. quadrisetosa (Malloch, 1919) (syn: D. amurensis (Lavčiev, 1971)). The male terminalia and the female ovipositors of the new species are illustrated. New faunistic data are given for some previously described species of Russian Drymeia.

  9. New data on the genus Hybos Meigen (Diptera: Hybotidae) from the Palaearctic Region.

    PubMed

    Shamshev, Igor; Grootaert, Patrick; Kustov, Semen

    2015-03-23

    The taxonomy and distribution of the genus Hybos Meigen in the Palaearctic Region is reviewed with a special reference to the European fauna. Twenty-three species have been recorded from the Palaearctic, of which only four species are known from Europe. We describe two new species, H. andradei sp. nov. (Portugal) and H. mediasiaticus sp. nov. (Middle Asia). The status of two previously considered doubtful species of Hybos are validated: H. striatellus Villeneuve, 1913 (Algeria) and H. vagans Loew, 1874 (the Caucasus). Both species are re-described, and the lectotype of H. striatellus is designated. A key to species of Hybos from the western Palaearctic is compiled. Numerous new data on distributions of H. culiciformis (Fabricius, 1775), H. femoratus (Müller, 1776), H. grossipes (Linné, 1767) and H. vagans are given. Hybos culiciformis is recorded for the first time from Algeria, Byelorussia, Croatia, Cyprus, Lebanon, and Portugal; H. femoratus-from Estonia, Georgia (including Abkhazia), Kazakhstan, Mongolia and Ukraine; H. grossipes-from Byelorussia, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Mongolia, Ukraine; H. vagans-from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia (including Abkhazia), Russia, Turkey. The variation of some characters in H. culiciformis is discussed and is confirmed for Portugese specimens by COI barcoding. Female postabdominal structures are examined and described for H. andradei sp. nov., H. culiciformis, H. femoratus, H. grossipes, H. mediasiaticus sp. nov., and H. striatellus. Possible relationships of the West-Palaearctic species are discussed. A check-list of Hybos from the Palaearctic Realm is provided.

  10. Revision of the genus Epimesoplecia Zhang, 2007 (Diptera, Nematocera, Protopleciidae) with five new species

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiuqin; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The genus Epimesoplecia Zhang, 2007 of Protopleciidae is revised based on five new species, Epimesoplecia plethora sp. n., Epimesoplecia prosoneura sp. n., Epimesoplecia stana sp. n., Epimesoplecia macrostrena sp. n., and Epimesoplecia ambloneura sp. n., described and illustrated from the Jiulongshan Formation of China. These new species, with clearly preserved characters of (1) compound eyes connected in males; (2) antennae, filiform or moniliform, with 16 segments; (3) r-m reaching the middle of the wing; (4) R4+5 ending very close to wing apex; (5) ratio of bRs/dRs ranging from 1.6 to 10.5; (6) M2 more than 3 times as long as dM1+2; (7) legs thin and long, femur slender, almost equal to tibia; (8) tibial spurs minute; and (9) male genitalia (previously unknown), enable us to emend the diagnosis of Epimesoplecia Zhang, 2007. In addition, all described species of Epimesoplecia are characterized, their features summarized, and a key to Epimesoplecia species is given. PMID:25878544

  11. Revision of the Genus Physiphora Fallén 1810 (Diptera: Ulidiidae: Ulidiinae).

    PubMed

    Kameneva, Elena P; Korneyev, Valery A

    2016-03-06

    The genus Physiphora includes at least 29 species, most of them occurring predominantly in the Afrotropical Region and a few species native to the other regions of the Old World. At least P. alceae (Preyssler 1791) and P. clausa (Macquart 1843) are subcosmopolitan species unintentionally introduced into the Australasian, Nearctic, and Neotropical Regions. Twelve new species from the Afrotropical Region are described: P. hendeli sp. n., P. igniceps sp. n., P. kirki sp. n., P. maraisi sp. n., P. meyi sp. n., P. opalizana sp. n., P. orinigra sp. n., P. polita sp. n., P. rugosa sp. n., P. spriggsi sp. n., P. steyskali sp. n., and P. virens sp. n. Detailed illustrated descriptions and a key for identification are provided for all the species of Physiphora. Analysis of the new and previously known biological data shows that larvae of most Physiphora species are saprophagous associated with rotting tissues of palms (apparently infested by the palm weevils), giant Euphorbia, and even baobabs and poplars. Some species are attracted to (and as larvae possibly can develop in) the dung of ungulates. The following synonymy is established: Physiphora clausa (Macquart 1843) = Physiphora hainanensis Chen in Chen & Kameneva 2007: 24, syn. n.; Physiphora flavipes (Karsch 1888) = Chrysomyza africana Hendel 1909, syn. n., = Cliochloria senegalensis Enderlein 1927, syn. n.

  12. Revision of the genus Epimesoplecia Zhang, 2007 (Diptera, Nematocera, Protopleciidae) with five new species.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiuqin; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong

    2015-01-01

    The genus Epimesoplecia Zhang, 2007 of Protopleciidae is revised based on five new species, Epimesopleciaplethora sp. n., Epimesopleciaprosoneura sp. n., Epimesopleciastana sp. n., Epimesopleciamacrostrena sp. n., and Epimesopleciaambloneura sp. n., described and illustrated from the Jiulongshan Formation of China. These new species, with clearly preserved characters of (1) compound eyes connected in males; (2) antennae, filiform or moniliform, with 16 segments; (3) r-m reaching the middle of the wing; (4) R4+5 ending very close to wing apex; (5) ratio of bRs/dRs ranging from 1.6 to 10.5; (6) M2 more than 3 times as long as dM1+2; (7) legs thin and long, femur slender, almost equal to tibia; (8) tibial spurs minute; and (9) male genitalia (previously unknown), enable us to emend the diagnosis of Epimesoplecia Zhang, 2007. In addition, all described species of Epimesoplecia are characterized, their features summarized, and a key to Epimesoplecia species is given.

  13. Taxonomic revision of the Neotropical genus Pityocera Giglio-Tos, 1896 (Diptera: Tabanidae: Scionini).

    PubMed

    Krolow, Tiago Kütter; Henriques, Augusto Loureiro; Gorayeb, Inocêncio De Sousa; Limeira-de-Oliveira, Francisco; Buestán, Jaime

    2015-01-07

    The genus Pityocera Giglio-Tos is revised based on examination of external morphology and genitalia of type material and specimens from Brazilian and foreign institutions. Five currently valid species in three subgenera are recognized: P. (Elaphella) cervus (Wiedemann, 1828); P. (Pityocera) festai Giglio-Tos, 1896; P. (Pseudelaphella) nana (Walker, 1850); P. (Pseudelaphella) nigribasis Fairchild, 1964; P. (Pseudelaphella) patellicornis (Kröber, 1930). Five new species are described: P. (Pseudelaphella) barrosi Gorayeb & Krolow sp. nov. (Brazil: Mato Grosso do Sul); P. (Pseudelaphella) gorayebi Limeira-de-Oliveira & Krolow sp. nov. (Brazil: Maranhão, Tocantins and Bahia); P. (Pseudelaphella) pernaquila Gorayeb & Krolow sp. nov. (Brazil: Pará and Rondônia); P. (Pseudelaphella) rhinolissa Krolow & Henriques sp. nov. (Brazil: Pará, Maranhão, Tocantins, Rondônia, Mato Grosso, Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul; Bolivia: Santa Cruz); P. (Pseudelaphella) ecuadorensis Buestán & Krolow sp. nov. (Ecuador: Manabí, Guayas, Santa Elena and Loja). We provide diagnosis, descriptions, redescriptions, distribution records, illustrations and discussion for all species, as well as a key for identification of species. 

  14. Review of the genus Namadytes Hesse, 1969 (Insecta: Diptera: Mydidae: Syllegomydinae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Mydidae genus Namadytes Hesse, 1969 is reviewed. It is known from five species, primarily occurring in Namibia. The study of newly available material from both Namibia and South Africa deposited in several natural history collections results in the recognition of three species and new synonymy of two, i.e., Namadytes pallidus Hesse, 1972 is a new junior synonym of Namadytes maculiventris (Hesse, 1969) and Namadytes prozeskyi Hesse, 1969: 282 is a new junior synonym of Namadytes vansoni Hesse, 1969: 280. All three species are re-described and comments on sexual dimorphism and intraspecific variation are made, a dichotomous key for their identification is presented, and illustrations and photographs are provided to support the descriptions and facilitate future identification. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots sensu Conservation International, and seasonal incidence with associated weather and climatic data are discussed for all species. A morphological structure ventral to the halter and posterior to the metathoracic spiracle, the infra-halter sclerite, is here newly termed. PMID:24891827

  15. A revision of the genus Planinasus Cresson (Diptera, Periscelididae).

    PubMed

    Mathis, Wayne N; Rung, Alessandra; Kotrba, Marion

    2012-01-01

    The genus Planinasus Cresson is revised and includes 18 extant and one fossil species. We clarify the status of the three previously described species and describe 15 new species as follows (type locality in parenthesis): Planinasus aenigmaticus (Colombia. Bogota: Bogota (04°35.8'N, 74°08.8'W)), Planinasus neotropicus (Panama. Canal Zone: Barro Colorado Island (09°09.1'N, 79°50.8'W)), Planinasus kotrbae (Ecuador. Orellana: Rio Tiputini Biodiversity Station (0°38.2'S, 76°08.9'W)), Planinasus miradorus (Brazil. Maranhão: Parque Estadual Mirador, Base da Geraldina (06°22.2'S, 44°21.8'W)), Planinasus tobagoensis (Trinidad and Tobago. Tobago. St. John: Parlatuvier (11°17.9'N, 60°39'W)), Planinasus xanthops (Ecuador. Orellana: Rio Tiputini Biodiversity Station (0°38.2'S, 76°8.9'W)), Planinasus argentifacies (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Pakitza (11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m)), Planinasus insulanus (Dominican Republic. La Vega: near Jarabacoa, Salto Guasara (19°04.4'N, 70°42.1'W, 680 m)), Planinasus nigritarsus (Guyana. Conservation of Ecological Interactions and Biotic Associations (CEIBA; ca. 40 km S Georgetown; 06°29.9'N, 58°13.1'W)), Planinasus atriclypeus (Brazil. Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro, Floresta da Tijuca (22°57.6'S, 43°16.4'W)), Planinasus atrifrons (Bolivia. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista (4-6 km SSE; Hotel Flora y Fauna; 17°29.95'S, 63°33.15'W; 4-500 m)), P. flavicoxalis (West Indies. Dominica. St. David: 1.6 km N of junction of roads to Rosalie and Castle Bruce (15°23.8'N, 61°18.6'W)), Planinasus mcalpineorum (Mexico. Chiapas: Cacahoatan (7 km N; 15°04.1'N, 92°07.4'W)), Planinasus nigrifacies (Brazil. São Paulo: Mogi das Cruzes, Serra do Itapeti (23°31.5'S, 46°11.2'W)), Planinasus obscuripennis (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Erika (near Salvación; 12°50.7'S, 71°23.3'W; 550 m)). In addition to external characters, we also describe and illustrate structures of the male terminalia and for Planinasus kotrbaesp. n., the

  16. A revision of the genus Planinasus Cresson (Diptera, Periscelididae)

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Wayne N.; Rung, Alessandra; Kotrba, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The genus Planinasus Cresson is revised and includes 18 extant and one fossil species. We clarify the status of the three previously described species and describe 15 new species as follows (type locality in parenthesis): Planinasus aenigmaticus (Colombia. Bogota: Bogota (04°35.8'N, 74°08.8'W)), Planinasus neotropicus (Panama. Canal Zone: Barro Colorado Island (09°09.1'N, 79°50.8'W)), Planinasus kotrbae (Ecuador. Orellana: Rio Tiputini Biodiversity Station (0°38.2'S, 76°08.9'W)), Planinasus miradorus (Brazil. Maranhão: Parque Estadual Mirador, Base da Geraldina (06°22.2'S, 44°21.8'W)), Planinasus tobagoensis (Trinidad and Tobago. Tobago. St. John: Parlatuvier (11°17.9'N, 60°39'W)), Planinasus xanthops (Ecuador. Orellana: Rio Tiputini Biodiversity Station (0°38.2'S, 76°8.9'W)), Planinasus argentifacies (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Pakitza (11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m)), Planinasus insulanus (Dominican Republic. La Vega: near Jarabacoa, Salto Guasara (19°04.4'N, 70°42.1'W, 680 m)), Planinasus nigritarsus (Guyana. Conservation of Ecological Interactions and Biotic Associations (CEIBA; ca. 40 km S Georgetown; 06°29.9'N, 58°13.1'W)), Planinasus atriclypeus (Brazil. Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro, Floresta da Tijuca (22°57.6'S, 43°16.4'W)), Planinasus atrifrons (Bolivia. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista (4-6 km SSE; Hotel Flora y Fauna; 17°29.95'S, 63°33.15'W; 4-500 m)), P. flavicoxalis (West Indies. Dominica. St. David: 1.6 km N of junction of roads to Rosalie and Castle Bruce (15°23.8'N, 61°18.6'W)), Planinasus mcalpineorum (Mexico. Chiapas: Cacahoatan (7 km N; 15°04.1'N, 92°07.4'W)), Planinasus nigrifacies (Brazil. São Paulo: Mogi das Cruzes, Serra do Itapeti (23°31.5'S, 46°11.2'W)), Planinasus obscuripennis (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Erika (near Salvación; 12°50.7'S, 71°23.3'W; 550 m)). In addition to external characters, we also describe and illustrate structures of the male terminalia and for Planinasus kotrbae sp

  17. A revision of the shore-fly genus Hydrochasma Hendel (Diptera, Ephydridae)

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Wayne N.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A revision of the shore-fly genus Hydrochasma Hendel. The species of the genus Hydrochasma Hendel are revised, including 27 new species (type locality in parenthesis): H. andeum (Ecuador. Guayas: Boliche (02°07.7'S, 79°35.5'W)), H. annae (United States. Utah. Grand: Swasey Beach (15.3 km N Green River; 39°07'N, 110°06.6'W; Green River; 1255 m)), H. capsum (Ecuador. Orellana: RíoTiputini (0°38.2'S, 76°8.9'W)), H. castilloi (Ecuador. Loja: Catamayo (03°59'S, 79°21'W)), H. crenulum (Peru. Cuzco: Paucartambo, Atalaya (Río Alto Madre de Dios; 12°53.3'S, 71°21.6'W; 600 m)), H. denticum (Ecuador. Orellana: Río Tiputini (0°38.2'S, 76°8.9'W)), H. digitatum (Peru. Madre de Dios: Diamante (Río Alto Madre de Dios; 12°19.9'S, 70°57.5'W; 400 m)), H. distinctum (Costa Rica. Limón: Parque Nacional Barbilla, Sector Casas Negras, (10°0.8'N, 83°28.1'W; 300 m)), H. dolabrutum (Dominican Republic. Barahona: Barahona (18°12'N, 71°5.3'W)), H. edmistoni (Dominican Republic. Azua: near Pueblo Viejo (18°24.8'N, 70°44.7'W)), H. falcatum (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Erika (near Salvación; 12°50.7'S, 71°23.3'W; 550 m)), H. glochium (Dominican Republic. Peravia: San José Ocoa (10 km NE; 18°35'N, 70°25.6'W)), H. kaieteur (Guyana. Kaieteur Falls (05°10.5'N, 59°26.9'W)), H. lineatum (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. George: Filette (1 km SE; 10°47'N, 61°21'W)), H. miguelito (Honduras. Cortés: San Pedro Sula (8 km S; 15°25.7'N, 88°01.4'W)), H. octogonum (Ecuador. Manabí: Pichincha (01°02.7'S, 79°49.2'W)), H. parallelum (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla (16 km S; 10°22'N, 61°01'W)), H. peniculum (Dominican Republic. Pedernales: Pedernales (18°01.8'N, 71°44.7'W)), H. rictum (Honduras. Cortés: San Pedro Sula (8 km S; 15°25.7'N, 88°01.4'W)), H. robustum (Brazil. São Paulo. Ubatuba, Praia Puruba (23°21'S, 44°55.6'W; beach)), H. sagittarium (Trinidad and Tobago. Tobago: St. John: Parlatuvier (creek; 11°17.9'N

  18. A revision of the shore-fly genus Hydrochasma Hendel (Diptera, Ephydridae).

    PubMed

    Mathis, Wayne N; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz

    2013-01-01

    A revision of the shore-fly genus Hydrochasma Hendel. The species of the genus Hydrochasma Hendel are revised, including 27 new species (type locality in parenthesis): H. andeum (Ecuador. Guayas: Boliche (02°07.7'S, 79°35.5'W)), H. annae (United States. Utah. Grand: Swasey Beach (15.3 km N Green River; 39°07'N, 110°06.6'W; Green River; 1255 m)), H. capsum (Ecuador. Orellana: RíoTiputini (0°38.2'S, 76°8.9'W)), H. castilloi (Ecuador. Loja: Catamayo (03°59'S, 79°21'W)), H. crenulum (Peru. Cuzco: Paucartambo, Atalaya (Río Alto Madre de Dios; 12°53.3'S, 71°21.6'W; 600 m)), H. denticum (Ecuador. Orellana: Río Tiputini (0°38.2'S, 76°8.9'W)), H. digitatum (Peru. Madre de Dios: Diamante (Río Alto Madre de Dios; 12°19.9'S, 70°57.5'W; 400 m)), H. distinctum (Costa Rica. Limón: Parque Nacional Barbilla, Sector Casas Negras, (10°0.8'N, 83°28.1'W; 300 m)), H. dolabrutum (Dominican Republic. Barahona: Barahona (18°12'N, 71°5.3'W)), H. edmistoni (Dominican Republic. Azua: near Pueblo Viejo (18°24.8'N, 70°44.7'W)), H. falcatum (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Erika (near Salvación; 12°50.7'S, 71°23.3'W; 550 m)), H. glochium (Dominican Republic. Peravia: San José Ocoa (10 km NE; 18°35'N, 70°25.6'W)), H. kaieteur (Guyana. Kaieteur Falls (05°10.5'N, 59°26.9'W)), H. lineatum (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. George: Filette (1 km SE; 10°47'N, 61°21'W)), H. miguelito (Honduras. Cortés: San Pedro Sula (8 km S; 15°25.7'N, 88°01.4'W)), H. octogonum (Ecuador. Manabí: Pichincha (01°02.7'S, 79°49.2'W)), H. parallelum (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla (16 km S; 10°22'N, 61°01'W)), H. peniculum (Dominican Republic. Pedernales: Pedernales (18°01.8'N, 71°44.7'W)), H. rictum (Honduras. Cortés: San Pedro Sula (8 km S; 15°25.7'N, 88°01.4'W)), H. robustum (Brazil. São Paulo. Ubatuba, Praia Puruba (23°21'S, 44°55.6'W; beach)), H. sagittarium (Trinidad and Tobago. Tobago: St. John: Parlatuvier (creek; 11°17.9'N, 60°35'W

  19. Mosquitocidal and repellent activity of the leaf extract of Citrullus vulgaris (cucurbitaceae) against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi liston (diptera culicidae).

    PubMed

    Mullai, K; Jebanesan, A; Pushpanathan, T

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of the Cucurbitaceous plant Citrullus vulgaris against the Anopheles stephensi was assessed in the present study. The leaf extract of Citrullus vulgaris with different solvents viz, benzene, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol were tested for larvicidial, ovicidal, repellent and insect growth regulatory activities against Anopheles stephensi. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. The LC50 values are 18.56, 48.51, 49.57 and 50.32 ppm respectively. The mean percent hatchability of the egg of Anopheles stephensi were observed after 48 h. 100 per cent mortality was exerted at 250 ppm with benzene extract and the other extracts exerted 100 percent mortality at 300 ppm. Skin repellent test at 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg per cm2 concentration gave the mean complete protection time ranged from 119.17 to 387.83 minutes with the four different extracts tested. The Citrullus vulgaris plant extract have shown insect growth regulatory activity against Anopheles stephensi at five different test concentrations ranging from 10 to 150 ppm with different solvents and they exhibit the following EI50 values 28.99, 70.02, 106.33 and 84.25 ppm respectively.

  20. Studies on larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Leucas aspera Willd. (Lamiaceae) and bacterial insecticide, Bacillus sphaericus, against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of whole plant ethanolic extracts of Leucas aspera and of Bacillus sphaericus was determined for larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi. When larvae were exposed to one of five concentrations of plant extract (6%, 8%, 10%, 12%, and 14%) for 24 h, mortality in 4th instars ranged from 1...

  1. Preliminary Biological Studies on Larvae and Adult Anopheles Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Miraflores, a Malaria Endemic Locality in Guaviare Department, Amazonian Colombia

    PubMed Central

    JIMÉNEZ, IRENE P.; CONN, JAN E.; BROCHERO, HELENA

    2015-01-01

    In the malaria endemic municipality of Miraflores in southeastern Amazonian Colombia, several aspects of the biology of local Anopheles species were investigated to supplement the limited entomological surveillance information available and to provide baseline data for malaria prevention and vector control. Anopheles darlingi Root, 1926 was the most abundant species (95.6%), followed by Anopheles braziliensis (Chagas) (3.6%) and Anopheles oswaldoi s.l. (Peryassu) (0.7%). During the dry season, exophagic activity was prevalent only between 1800–2100 hours; after this (2100–0600 hours) only endophagy was encountered. In contrast, during the rainy season, both endophagy and exophagy occurred throughout the collection period. The human biting rate for An. darlingi was 8.6. This species was positive for Plasmodium vivax VK210 with a sporozoite rate = 0.13 (1/788). Breeding sites corresponded to stream (n = 7), flooded excavations (n = 4), flooded forest (n = 1), wetlands (n = 2), and an abandoned water reservoir (n = 1). An. darlingi predominated in these sites in both seasons. Based on these data, An. darlingi is the main local malaria vector, and we recommend that local prevention and control efforts focus on strengthening entomological surveillance to determine potential changes of species biting behavior and time to reduce human–vector interactions. PMID:25276930

  2. Spatial clustering and longitudinal variation of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in a river of the Amazon: the importance of the forest fringe and of obstructions to flow in frontier malaria.

    PubMed

    Barros, F S M; Arruda, M E; Gurgel, H C; Honório, N A

    2011-12-01

    Deforestation has been linked to a rise in malaria prevalence. In this paper, we studied longitudinally 20 spots, including forested and deforested portions of a temporary river in a malarigenous frontier zone. Larval habitat parameters influencing distribution of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae were studied. We observed that larvae were clustered in forested-deforested transitions. For the first time in the literature, it was verified that parameters determining larval distribution varied from deforested to forested areas. The proximity to human dwellings was also a significant factor determining distribution, but larvae was most importantly associated with a previously undescribed parameter, the presence of small obstructions to river flow, such as tree trunks within the river channel, which caused pooling of water during the dry season ('microdams'). In deforested areas, the most important factor determining distribution of larvae was shade (reduced luminance). Larvae were absent in the entire studied area during the wet season and present in most sites during the dry season. During the wet-dry transition, larvae were found sooner in areas with microdams, than in other areas, suggesting that flow obstruction prolongs the breeding season of An. darlingi. Adult mosquito densities and malaria incidence were higher during the dry season. Our data correlate well with the published literature, including the distribution of malaria cases near the forest fringes, and has permitted the creation of a model of An. darlingi breeding, where preference for sites with reduced luminance, human presence and microdams would interact to determine larval distribution.

  3. Ecological Suitability and Spatial Distribution of Five Anopheles Species in Amazonian Brazil

    PubMed Central

    McKeon, Sascha N.; Schlichting, Carl D.; Povoa, Marinete M.; Conn, Jan E.

    2013-01-01

    Seventy-six sites characterized in Amazonian Brazil revealed distinct habitat diversification by examining the environmental factors associated with the distribution and abundance of five anopheline species (Diptera: Culicidae) in the subgenus Nyssorhynchus. These included three members of the Albitarsis Complex, Anopheles oryzalimnetes, Anopheles marajoara, Anopheles janconnae; Anopheles triannulatus, and Anopheles goeldii. Anopheles janconnae abundance had a positive correlation to water flow and a negative relationship to sun exposure. Abundance of An. oryzalimentes was associated with water chemistry. Anopheles goeldii larvae were abundant in shaded, more saline waters. Anopheles marajoara and An. triannulatus were negatively associated with available resources, although An. marajoara also showed several local correlations. These analyses suggest An. triannulatus is a habitat generalist, An. oryzalimentes and An. janconnae are specialists, and An. marajoara and An. goeldii could not be easily classified either way. Correlations described herein provide testable hypotheses for future research and identifying habitats for vector control. PMID:23546804

  4. Larval Habitat Associations with Human Land Uses, Roads, Rivers, and Land Cover for Anopheles albimanus, A. pseudopunctipennis, and A. punctimacula (Diptera: Culicidae) in Coastal and Highland Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Pinault, Lauren L.; Hunter, Fiona F.

    2012-01-01

    Larval habitat for three highland Anopheles species: Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Theobald, and Anopheles punctimacula Dyar and Knab was related to human land uses, rivers, roads, and remotely sensed land cover classifications in the western Ecuadorian Andes. Of the five commonly observed human land uses, cattle pasture (n = 30) provided potentially suitable habitat for A. punctimacula and A. albimanus in less than 14% of sites, and was related in a principal components analysis (PCA) to the presence of macrophyte vegetation, greater surface area, clarity, and algae cover. Empty lots (n = 30) were related in the PCA to incident sunlight and provided potential habitat for A. pseudopunctipennis and A. albimanus in less than 14% of sites. The other land uses surveyed (banana, sugarcane, and mixed tree plantations; n = 28, 21, 25, respectively) provided very little standing water that could potentially be used for larval habitat. River edges and eddies (n = 41) were associated with greater clarity, depth, temperature, and algae cover, which provide potentially suitable habitat for A. albimanus in 58% of sites and A. pseudopunctipennis in 29% of sites. Road-associated water bodies (n = 38) provided potential habitat for A. punctimacula in 44% of sites and A. albimanus in 26% of sites surveyed. Species collection localities were compared to land cover classifications using Geographic Information Systems software. All three mosquito species were associated more often with the category “closed/open broadleaved evergreen and/or semi-deciduous forests” than expected (P ≤ 0.01 in all cases), given such a habitat’s abundance. This study provides evidence that specific human land uses create habitat for potential malaria vectors in highland regions of the Andes. PMID:22454623

  5. The mosquito Anopheles (Cellia) oreios sp. n., formerly species 6 of the Australasian Anopheles farauti complex, and a critical review of its biology and relation to disease.

    PubMed

    Bangs, M J; Taai, K; Howard, T M; Cook, S; Harbach, R E

    2015-03-01

    Species 6 of the Australasian Anopheles farauti sibling species complex (Diptera: Culicidae) is described and formally named Anopheles oreios Bangs & Harbach, sp. n. Adult, pupal and fourth-instar larval specimens collected in the Baliem Valley, Papua Province, Indonesia, are characterized and compared with those of Anopheles farauti, Anopheles hinesorum, Anopheles irenicus and Anopheles torresiensis (formerly informally denoted as species 1, 2, 7 and 3, respectively). The variable wings of adult females, the male genitalia, the pupa and the fourth-instar larva of An. oreios are illustrated and DNA sequence data are included for regions coding for sections of the mitochondrial COI and COII genes. The biology of An. oreios and its relation to malaria transmission are discussed in detail and contrasted with the biology and disease relations of some members of the An. farauti and Anopheles punctulatus sibling species complexes.

  6. A review of the genus Minthodes Brauer & Bergenstamm (Diptera: Tachinidae) in Iran, with the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Gilasian, Ebrahim; Ziegler, Joachim; Parchami-Araghi, Mehrdad

    2016-10-04

    Minthodes susae Gilasian & Ziegler sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae), from southwestern Iran, is described and illustrated, and compared with M. brevipennis (Brauer & Bergenstamm) from Turkey. A lectotype is recognised for Pseudomintho brevipennis Brauer & Bergenstamm (currently a species of Minthodes) and its designation is attributed to Mesnil. Minthodes pictipennis Brauer & Bergenstamm is newly recorded from Iran and Turkey, and M. latifacies Herting is reported from Iran for the first time. An identification key to the four Minthodes Brauer & Bergenstamm species known to occur in Iran is provided. Finally, new data are given on the intraspecific variation of Minthodes atra (Kugler).

  7. Revision of the southeast Asian soldier-fly genus Parastratiosphecomyia Brunetti, 1923 (Diptera, Stratiomyidae, Pachygastrinae)

    PubMed Central

    Woodley, Norman E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The genus Parastratiosphecomyia Brunetti is revised with the description of two new species: Parastratiosphecomyia freidbergi sp. n. from India and Parastratiosphecomyia rozkosnyi sp. n. from Laos and Thailand. All four species in the genus are illustrated and a key to species is provided. Type localities of previously described taxa are briefly discussed. PMID:23226704

  8. Contribution of different aquatic habitats to adult Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) production in a rice agroecosystem in Mwea, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mwangangi, Joseph M; Muturi, Ephantus J; Shililu, Josephat; Muriu, Simon M; Jacob, Benjamin; Kabiru, Ephantus W; Mbogo, Charles M; Githure, John; Novak, Robert

    2008-06-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the contribution of diverse larval habitats to adult Anopheles arabiensis Patton and Culex quinquefasciatus Say production in a rice land agro-ecosystem in Mwea, Kenya. Two sizes of cages were placed in different habitat types to investigate the influence of non-mosquito invertebrates on larval mortalities and the contribution of each habitat type to mosquito productivities, respectively. These emergence traps had fine netting material covers to prevent adult mosquitoes from ovipositing in the area covered by the trap and immature mosquitoes from entering the cages. The emergence of Anopheles arabiensis in seeps, tire tracks, temporary pools, and paddies was 10.53%, 17.31%, 12.50%, and 2.14%, respectively, while the corresponding values for Cx. quinquefasciatus were 16.85% in tire tracks, 8.39% in temporary pools, and 5.65% in the paddies from 0.125 m3 cages during the study. Cages measuring 1 m3 were placed in different habitat types which included paddy, swamp, marsh, ditch, pool, and seep to determine larval habitat productivity. An. arabiensis was the predominant anopheline species (98.0%, n = 232), although a few Anopheles coustani Laveran (2.0%, n = 5) emerged from the habitats. The productivity for An. arabiensis larvae was 6.0 mosquitoes per m2 for the temporary pools, 5.5 for paddy, 5.4 for marsh, 2.7 for ditch, and 0.6 for seep. The Cx. quinquefasciatus larval habitat productivity was 47.8 mosquitoes per m2 for paddies, 35.7 for ditches, 11.1 for marshes, 4.2 for seeps, 2.4 for swamps, and 1.0 for temporary pools. Pools, paddy, and marsh habitat types were the most productive larval habitats for An. arabiensis while paddy, ditch, and marsh were the most productive larval habitats for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The most common non-mosquito invertebrate composition in the cages included Dytiscidae, Notonectidae, Belostomatidae, and Ephemerellidae, and their presence negatively affected the number of emergent mosquitoes from

  9. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Ocimum basilicum (L.) against Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus and Anopheles subpictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, M; Sivakumar, R; Rajeswary, M; Yogalakshmi, K

    2013-05-01

    The toxicity of mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil and their major chemical constituents from Ocimum basilicum were evaluated against Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus and Anopheles subpictus. The chemical composition of the leaf essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the essential oil of O. basilicum contained 20 compounds. The major chemical components identified were linalool (52.42%), methyl eugenol (18.74%) and 1, 8-cineol (5.61%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against late third-stage larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Ae. albopictus and An. subpictus with an LC(50) values of 14.01, 11.97 and 9.75 ppm and an LC(90) values of 23.44, 21.17 and 18.56 ppm, respectively. The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural larvicidal agents against Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Ae. albopictus and An. subpictus.

  10. Laboratory study on the effect of deltamethrin WG and WP formulations against Anopheles maculatus Theobald (Diptera:Culicidae) on rough and smooth surfaces of bamboo wall.

    PubMed

    Rohani, A; Saadiyah, I; Walgun, A; Lee, H L

    2007-12-01

    Adults of Anopheles maculatus were tested for their residual activity to wettable powders (WP) and water dispersible granule (WG) formulations of deltamethrin. The residual effectiveness and lifespan of deltamethrin WG and WP were also assessed against the mosquitoes using rough and smooth surfaces of bamboo. Tests were conducted once a month up to 14 months after spraying using WHO standard method for the bioassay of insecticidal deposits on wall surfaces. Mortality data revealed that both deltamethrin WG and WP were effective against An. maculatus up to 14 months post-spraying. Efficacy and residual activity of deltamethrin WG at 25mg/m2 had proved to be the longest on both rough and smooth surfaces of bamboo.

  11. Ipomoea batatas (Convolvulaceae)-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles for controlling mosquito vectors of Aedes albopictus, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera:Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Pavithra Bharathi, V; Ragavendran, C; Murugan, N; Natarajan, D

    2016-12-08

    We proposed an effective and eco-friendly control of dengue, malaria, and filariasis-causing vectors. We tested Ipomoea batatas leaves-mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against first to fourth instar larvae and adults of Aedes albopictus, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus at different concentrations. The synthesized AgNPs showed broad spectrum of larvicidal and adulticidal effects after 48 h of exposure. The characterization of synthesized AgNPs was done using various spectral and microscopy analyses. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs against the adult of Ae. albopictus with the LC50 and LC90 values were 10.069 and 15.657 μg/mL, respectively, followed by others.

  12. Susceptibility of Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Diptera: Culicidae) to subperiodic Brugia malayi and Brugia pahangi (Nematoda: Filarioidea) adapted to nude mice and jirds.

    PubMed

    Nayar, J K; Knight, J W; Vickery, A C

    1990-05-01

    Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Aedes aegypti (Black-eyed Liverpool strain) were fed on jirds and nude mice (jird-jird infection, jird-mouse infection, and mouse-jird infection) infected with subperiodic Brugia malayi and B. pahangi. Microfilariae of B. malayi from jird-mouse and mouse-jird infections developed normally in An. quadrimaculatus, whereas those from jird-jird infections did not develop. Microfilariae of both species from jirds and nude mice developed normally in Ae. aegypti and those of B. pahangi developed normally in An. quadrimaculatus. It is suggested that microfilariae from nude mice are modified physiologically, immunologically, or both so that they can develop in refractory An. quadrimaculatus, thus indicating that susceptibility and refractoriness of An. quadrimaculatus to B. malayi also is influenced by factors relating to the vertebrate host in addition to mosquito genetic factors.

  13. Dynamics of immature stages of Anopheles arabiensis and other mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to rice cropping in a rice agro-ecosystem in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mwangangi, Joseph; Shililu, Josephat; Muturi, Ephantus; Gu, Weidong; Mbogo, Charles; Kabiru, Ephantus; Jacob, Benjamin; Githure, John; Novak, Robert

    2006-12-01

    We determined changes in species composition and densities of immature stages of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in relation to rice growth cycle in order to generate data for developing larval control strategies in rice ecosystems. Experimental rice paddies (6.3m x 3.15m) exposed to natural colonization of mosquitoes were sampled weekly for two rice growing cycles between February 2004 and March 2005. Overall, 21,325 Anopheles larvae were collected, of which 91.9% were 1st and 2nd instars and 8.1% were 3rd and 4th instars. An. arabiensis was the predominant species (84.1%) with other species, An. pharoensis (13.5%), An. funestus (2.1%), An. coustani (0.3%), and An. maculipalpis (0.1%) accounting for only a small proportion of the anophelines collected. Culex quinquefasciatus (65.7%) was the predominant species among the non-anopheline species. Others species collected included: C. annulioris (9.9%), C. poicilipes (7.3%), C. tigripes (7.2%), C. duttoni (0.6%), Aedes aegypti (5.3%), Ae. cumminsii (3.5%), and Ae. vittatus (0.7%). The densities of the major anopheline species were closely related to rice stage and condition of the rice field. An. arabiensis, the predominant species, was most abundant over a three-week period after transplanting. Low densities of larvae were collected during the late vegetative, reproductive, and ripening phases of rice. An increase in larval density ten days post-transplanting was found to correlate with the application of fertilizer (sulphate of ammonia). Culicine and aedine species densities were significantly higher during the post-harvesting period. Our results suggest that the transplanting stage is favorable for the growth of immature stages of An. arabiensis and provides a narrow window for targeted larval intervention in rice.

  14. Unravelling the relationships between Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) densities, environmental factors and malaria incidence: understanding the variable patterns of malarial transmission in French Guiana (South America)

    PubMed Central

    Girod, R; Roux, E; Berger, F; Stefani, A; GAborit, P; Carinci, R; Issaly, J; Carme, B; Dusfour, I

    2011-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi, one of the main malaria vectors in the Neotropics, is widely distributed in French Guiana, where malaria remains a major public-health problem. Elucidation of the relationships between the population dynamics of An. darlingi and local environmental factors would appear to be an essential factor in the epidemiology of human malaria in French Guiana and the design of effective vector-control strategies. In a recent investigation, longitudinal entomological surveys were carried out for 2–4 years in one village in each of three distinct endemic areas of French Guiana. Anopheles darlingi was always the anopheline mosquito that was most frequently caught on human bait, although its relative abundance (as a proportion of all the anophelines collected) and human biting rate (in bites/person-year) differed with the study site. Seasonality in the abundance of human-landing An. darlingi (with peaks at the end of the rainy season) was observed in only two of the three study sites. Just three An. darlingi were found positive for Plasmodium (either P. falciparum or P. vivax) circumsporozoite protein, giving entomological inoculation rates of 0·0–8·7 infectious bites/person-year. Curiously, no infected An. darlingi were collected in the village with the highest incidence of human malaria. Relationships between malaria incidence, An. darlingi densities, rainfall and water levels in the nearest rivers were found to be variable and apparently dependent on land-cover specificities that reflected the diversity and availability of habitats suitable for the development and reproduction of An. darlingi. PMID:21396247

  15. Differential Responses of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) to Skin Emanations of a Man, a Cow, and a Guinea Pig in the Olfactometer

    PubMed Central

    Omrani, S -M; Vatandoost, H; Oshaghi, MA; Shokri, F; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, MR; Rassi, Y; Tirgari, S

    2010-01-01

    Background: Biting habit of mosquitoes plays an important role in the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquitoes use a set of elaborate sensory modalities to find their preferred hosts by exploiting cues emanating from a nearby host. It has been suggested that the chemical profile of skin can provide further support for anthropophilic mosquito species to find their suitable hosts. This study aimed at revealing the value of skin emanation for a zoophilic species like Anopheles stephensi as a model. Methods: Skin emanations of a man, a cow and a Guinea pig were collected by ethanol soaked cottons. Upwind responses of mosquitoes to 100 and 200 μl of filtered skin materials were non-competitively explored in a dual-choice olfactometer. L-lactic acid and other chemical content of the skin samples were identified by an enzymatic kit and GC-MS, respectively. Results: Unexpectedly, only human skin emanation was resulted in the statistically significant activation and attraction responses of An. stephensi in the wind tunnel. L-lactic acid content of this skin sample was 10 and 29 times more than the cow and the Guinea pig, respectively. The possible role of lactic acid and a few other identified compounds have been discussed here. Conclusion: Anopheles stephensi showed higher and more specific upwind responses to human skin emanation in the olfactometer. Undoubtedly, the thorough explanation of this unexpected finding needs further investigation. But, if new data verify this result, then, it may be necessary to reconsider the role of skin emanation and thence the human blood index and vectorial capacity of this zoophilic mosquito. PMID:22808383

  16. Review of the Oriental and Palaearctic bee fly genus Euchariomyia Bigot (Diptera: Bombyliidae: Bombyliinae).

    PubMed

    Evenhuis, Neal L; Gang, Yao

    2016-12-06

    The bee fly genus Euchariomyia Bigot is reviewed and new records from the Oriental Region are given. Five names (for four species-level taxa) have been associated with species in the genus. Examinations of types, as well as homotypic and topotypic specimens, shows all five names to belong to a highly variable single species, Euchariomyia dives Bigot. The following species are here shown to be the same as Euchariomyia dives Bigot: Bombylius pulchellus Wulp, 1880, Bombylius scintillans Brunetti, 1909, and Bombylius brunettii Senior-White, 1922, n. syn. The genus is known primarily from the southern and eastern Oriental Region and ranges into the Palaearctic in eastern China. We extend the distribution of the genus with new records in the southeastern Oriental Region [Indonesia (Sumatra), Laos, Peninsular Malaysia, and Vietnam].

  17. Eight new species of Australian stiletto flies in the genus Anabarhynchus Macquart (Diptera: Therevidae) from South East Queensland.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, David J; Lambkin, Christine L; Yeates, David K

    2014-05-28

    We describe, diagnose and illustrate eight new species in the genus Anabarhynchus Macquart, 1848 as follows: Anabarhynchus cretatus sp. n., Anabarhynchus darembal sp. n., Anabarhynchus iancommoni sp. n., Anabarhynchus longiseta sp. n. Anabarhynchus lyncurium sp. n., Anabarhynchus moretonensis sp. n., Anabarhynchus neboensis sp. n. and Anabarhynchus wintertoni sp. n. These represent all new species in collections from south east Queensland. These new species bring the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 112.

  18. A new species of the genus Ctenophora Meigen (Diptera: Tipuloidea: Tipulidae) from China, with a key to the world species.

    PubMed

    Men, Qiu-Lei; Huang, Min-Yi

    2014-07-29

    One new species of the genus Ctenophora Meigen, 1803, C. fumosa Men, sp. nov. (southern China: Anhui) is described and illustrated. A key to known species along with a checklist of known species of the genus Ctenophora are provided. The type specimens of the new species are deposited in the animal specimen room, School of Life Science, Anqing Normal University, Anqing, Anhui Province, China. 

  19. Mosquito larvicidal properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Heliotropium indicum (Boraginaceae) against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan

    2014-06-01

    Mosquitoes transmit dreadful diseases to human beings wherein biological control of these vectors using plant-derived molecules would be an alternative to reduce mosquito population. In the present study activity of aqueous leaf extract and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Helitropium indicum plant leaves against late third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. The range of varying concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 μg/mL) and aqueous leaf extract (30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 μg/mL) were tested against the larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The synthesized AgNPs from H. indicum were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract in three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and histogram. The synthesized AgNPs showed larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of H. indicum for all three important vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 values of H. indicum aqueous leaf extract appeared to be effective against A. stephensi (LC50, 68.73 μg/mL; LC90, 121.07 μg/mL) followed by A. aegypti (LC50, 72.72 μg/mL; LC90, 126.86 μg/mL) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50, 78.74 μg/mL; LC90, 134.39 μg/mL). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus had the following LC50 and LC90 values: A. stephensi had LC50 and LC90 values of 18.40 and 32.45 μg/mL, A. aegypti had LC50 and LC90 values of 20.10 and 35.97 μg/mL, and C. quinquefasciatus had LC50 and LC90 values of 21.84 and 38.10 μg/mL. No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the leaf aqueous extracts of H. indicum and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles have the

  20. Efficacy of agnique (mmf) monomolecular surface film against immature stages of Anopheles arabiensis patton and Culex spp (diptera: culicidae) in Khartoum, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Al; Hassan, A Abu; Salmah, M R Che; Rahman, W A

    2008-03-01

    The efficacy of the larvicidal and pupicidal agent (Agnique) MMF was evaluated against larvae of An. arabiensis and Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) under field conditions in Bahary Locality, Khartoum, Sudan. At an applied dosage of 0.25 ml/m2, MMF resulted in 89.4, 79.8 and 88.2% reductions in L3-L4 instars An. arabiensis and 63.5% in Culex larvae (all stages) 24 to 72 hours post-treatment. Pupae were completely eliminated (100%) within 24 hours posttreatment. The earlier instars (L1-L2) of An. arabiensis were more tolerant with a 62.5% reduction at 72 hours post-treatment compared to (L3-L4) instars and pupae. At 7-days post-treatment Agnique gave a 57.5% reduction in L1-L2 and 92.6% in L3-L4 instar larvae of An. arabiensis and 57.3% and 86.4% in Culex larvae and pupae, respectively. We conclude that Agnique can perform effectively against L3-L4 instars and pupae of An. arabiensis for only 1 week, and 3 to 4 days against L1-L2 instars of Culex spp.

  1. Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) Dynamics in Relation to Meteorological Data in a Cattle Farm Located in the Coastal Region of French Guiana: Advantage of Mosquito Magnet Trap.

    PubMed

    Vezenegho, Samuel B; Carinci, Romuald; Gaborit, Pascal; Issaly, Jean; Dusfour, Isabelle; Briolant, Sebastien; Girod, Romain

    2015-06-01

    Information on dynamics of anopheline mosquitoes is limited in the coastal zone of French Guiana compared with inland endemic areas. Importantly, improvement of surveillance techniques for assessing malaria transmission indicators and comprehension of impact of meteorological factors on Anopheles darlingi Root, the main malaria vector, are necessary. Anopheline mosquitoes were collected continuously during 2012 and 2013 using Mosquito Magnet traps baited with octenol and human landing catches. The two methods were compared based on trends in abundance and parity rate of An. darlingi. Impact of meteorological factors on An. darlingi density estimates was investigated using Spearman's correlation and by binomial negative regression analysis. In all, 11,928 anopheline mosquitoes were collected, and 90.7% (n = 10,815) were identified consisting of four species, with An. darlingi making up 94.9% (n = 10,264). An. darlingi specimens collected by the two methods were significantly correlated, and no difference in parity rate was observed. The abundance of this species peaked in September (dry season) and variations along the years were influenced by relative humidity, temperature, rainfall, and wind speed. Number of mosquitoes collected during peak aggression period was influenced by wind speed and rainfall. Data gathered in this study provide fundamental information about An. darlingi, which can facilitate the design of vector control strategies and construction of models for predicting malaria risk.

  2. Influence of Substrate Color on Oviposition Behavior, Egg Hatchability, and Substance of Egg Origin in the Mosquito Anopheles sinensis (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Y L; Zhai, X Z; Oluwafemi, A R; Zhang, H Y

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the factors that influence the choice of substrate for oviposition by the malaria mosquito is critical to efforts directed to the management of the disease and vector control measures aimed at modifications of larval habitat. The influence of black and white substrates on Anopheles sinensis (Wiedemann) (Culicidae: Anophelinae) female oviposition behavior and egg-hatching rate and the presence of substances associated with egg laying were studied. Results from the no-choice tests showed that the number of eggs laid on black substrate was significantly greater than that laid on white substrate. Results from the dual-choice tests revealed that gravid females showed stronger preference for the black substrate than that for the white substrate. Furthermore, the egg-hatching rate on white substrate was significantly lower than that observed on black substrate. Results from the three-choice tests showed that substance of egg origin was associated with the black substrates (UBS) that were attractive for and stimulated oviposition. The results of this study suggest that there might be some compounds in the black substrates which play a positive role in the oviposition behavior of female mosquitoes and in the development of eggs and that eggs might produce and release active substances that attract females and stimulate oviposition. These results could be important as regards to the optimization of mosquitoes raised for experimental purposes and the control of malaria mosquitoes by altering the oviposition behavior of gravid females.

  3. Effect of Ageratum houstonianum Mill. (Asteraceae) leaf extracts on the oviposition activity of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Tennyson, Samuel; Ravindran, K John; Eapen, Alex; William, S John

    2012-12-01

    Plant extracts have been studied extensively for their insecticidal activity against immature stages and adult mosquitoes. They have also been reported to influence the habitat preference of ovipositing mosquitoes. Ageratum houstonianum, a medicinal plant belonging to the family Asteraceae, has been reported to possess insecticidal activity, and in the present study, the ovipositional attractant/deterrent activity was studied. The effect of Ageratum houstonianum crude leaf extracts on the oviposition of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus was studied at 0.1 % concentration in laboratory. Among hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol crude leaf extracts, methanol showed an effective deterrent activity against all the three vector species with an oviposition active index of -0.8, -0.8 and -0.9, respectively. Field trials carried out to study the effect of 0.1 % methanol extract on oviposition of Aedes species indicated effective deterrence ranging from 79.0 to 100.0 % in indoor and 74.6 to 100.0 % in outdoor ovitraps. The potential oviposition deterrent property of Ageratum houstonianum crude leaf extracts observed in both laboratory and field studies indicates the presence of phytocompounds that act as effective contact deterrent. Further, isolation, identification and preparation of suitable formulation of the effective phytocompounds of Ageratum houstonianum that act as a contact deterrent are required.

  4. Intragenomic heterogeneity of a ribosomal DNA spacer (ITS2) varies regionally in the neotropical malaria vector Anopheles nuneztovari (Diptera:Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Onyabe, D Y; Conn, J E

    1999-11-01

    We investigated intragenomic heterogeneity of ITS2 within twenty individual Anopheles nuneztovari (subgenus Nyssorhynchus) from five geographical localities in the neotropics (three from Brazil and one each from Colombia and Venezuela) by cloning and sequencing PCR-amplified copies of this spacer. Intragenomic heterogeneity was observed in thirteen of twenty mosquitoes of both sexes from all localities. As estimated by uncorrected P, however, mean sequence divergence was greater in mosquitoes from Brazil (PR = 0.0100, BL = 0.0196, AB = 0.0182) than in those from Venezuela (SO = 0.0026) or Colombia (SI = 0.0078). Sequence divergence per genome was significantly higher in mosquitoes from Brazil than in those from SO and SI. In fact, divergence among ITS2 variants within single mosquitoes from the Brazilian localities was often as great as that between localities. Similarly, the number of variants per mosquito was significantly greater in Brazil (maximum of six variants) than in both SO and SI (maximum of two variants). These results indicate that homogenization of ITS2 has proceeded to a greater extent in SO and SI than in the localities in Brazil. The differences in intragenomic heterogeneity between both SO and SI versus the Brazilian localities probably reflect either differences in population-level processes such as gene flow and genetic drift, or the fact that these localities may represent two or more cryptic species, as suggested by other studies.

  5. A population genetics study of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia based on random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction and amplified fragment lenght polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    González, Ranulfo; Wilkerson, Richard; Suárez, Marco Fidel; García, Felipe; Gallego, Gerardo; Cárdenas, Heiber; Posso, Carmen Elisa; Duque, Myriam Cristina

    2007-06-01

    The genetic variation and population structure of three populations of Anopheles darlingi from Colombia were studied using random amplified polymorphic markers (RAPDs) and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers (AFLPs). Six RAPD primers produced 46 polymorphic fragments, while two AFLP primer combinations produced 197 polymorphic fragments from 71 DNA samples. Both of the evaluated genetic markers showed the presence of gene flow, suggesting that Colombian An. darlingi populations are in panmixia. Average genetic diversity, estimated from observed heterozygosity, was 0.374 (RAPD) and 0.309 (AFLP). RAPD and AFLP markers showed little evidence of geographic separation between eastern and western populations; however, the F ST values showed high gene flow between the two western populations (RAPD: F ST = 0.029; Nm: 8.5; AFLP: F ST = 0.051; Nm: 4.7). According to molecular variance analysis (AMOVA), the genetic distance between populations was significant (RAPD:phiST = 0.084; AFLP:phiST = 0.229, P < 0.001). The F ST distances and AMOVAs using AFLP loci support the differentiation of the Guyana biogeographic province population from those of the Chocó-Magdalena. In this last region, Chocó and Córdoba populations showed the highest genetic flow.

  6. Geometric morphometric analysis of Colombian Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) reveals significant effect of environmental factors on wing traits and presence of a metapopulation.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Giovan F; Márquez, Edna J; Gutiérrez, Lina A; Conn, Jan E; Correa, Margarita M

    2014-07-01

    Anopheles albimanus is a major malaria mosquito vector in Colombia. In the present study, wing variability (size and shape) in An. albimanus populations from Colombian Maracaibo and Chocó bio-geographical eco-regions and the relationship of these phenotypic traits with environmental factors were evaluated. Microsatellite and morphometric data facilitated a comparison of the genetic and phenetic structure of this species. Wing size was influenced by elevation and relative humidity, whereas wing shape was affected by these two variables and also by rainfall, latitude, temperature and eco-region. Significant differences in mean shape between populations and eco-regions were detected, but they were smaller than those at the intra-population level. Correct assignment based on wing shape was low at the population level (<58%) and only slightly higher (>70%) at the eco-regional level, supporting the low population structure inferred from microsatellite data. Wing size was similar among populations with no significant differences between eco-regions. Population relationships in the genetic tree did not agree with those from the morphometric data; however, both datasets consistently reinforced a panmictic population of An. albimanus. Overall, site-specific population differentiation is not strongly supported by wing traits or genotypic data. We hypothesize that the metapopulation structure of An. albimanus throughout these Colombian eco-regions is favoring plasticity in wing traits, a relevant characteristic of species living under variable environmental conditions and colonizing new habitats.

  7. Swarming and mating behavior of male Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) in an area of the Sterile Insect Technique Project in Dongola, northern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mo'awia M; Zain, Hussam M; Basheer, Mohammed A; Elhaj, Hassab-Elrasoul F; El-Sayed, Badria B

    2014-04-01

    The problems facing the conventional mosquito control methods including resistance to insecticides have led to the development of alternative methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) to suppress populations of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan. This method entails the release of large numbers of irradiated males to compete against wild conspecifics for mating with virgin females in the field. The swarming and mating behaviors of this species were conducted at two field sites during the period 2009-2012 in Dongola, northern Sudan. Observations were made in the field sites and in a contained semi-field enclosure. In addition, participation of released irradiated-marked males in the swarms of wild mosquito was investigated. Swarms were observed on sunset in the vicinity of larval habitats around irrigation channel and stopped with the onset of the darkness about 21-25 min after the start. Swarms were observed above visual markers such as palm trees, bare ground, and manure. Several couples were observed leaving the swarms in copula in the direction of the sunlight. The majority of copulations were observed within 12-15 min of the start of swarming. Relatively low insemination rates (28%) of females collected from coupling pairs were observed. Irradiated-marked males were observed to join the natural swarms regularly, indicating their probable competitiveness with the other wild males. These findings enhance the feasibility of staging an SIT campaign against malaria vector in Northern State-Sudan.

  8. Ectopic expression of a cecropin transgene in the human malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae): effects on susceptibility to Plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won; Koo, Hyeyoung; Richman, Adam M; Seeley, Douglas; Vizioli, Jacopo; Klocko, Andrew D; O'Brochta, David A

    2004-05-01

    Genetically altering the disease vector status of insects using recombinant DNA technologies is being considered as an alternative to eradication efforts. Manipulating the endogenous immune response of mosquitoes such as the temporal and special expression of antimicrobial peptides like cecropin may result in a refractory phenotype. Using transgenic technology a unique pattern of expression of cecropin A (cecA) in Anopheles gambiae was created such that cecA was expressed beginning 24 h after a blood meal in the posterior midgut. Two independent lines of transgenic An. gambiae were created using a piggyBac gene vector containing the An. gambiae cecA cDNA under the regulatory control of the Aedes aegypti carboxypeptidase promoter. Infection with Plasmodium berghei resulted in a 60% reduction in the number of oocysts in transgenic mosquitoes compared with nontransgenic mosquitoes. Manipulating the innate immune system of mosquitoes can negatively affect their capacity to serve as hosts for the development of disease-causing microbes.

  9. High throughput multiplex assay for species identification of Papua New Guinea malaria vectors: members of the Anopheles punctulatus (Diptera: Culicidae) species group.

    PubMed

    Henry-Halldin, Cara N; Reimer, Lisa; Thomsen, Edward; Koimbu, Gussy; Zimmerman, Allison; Keven, John B; Dagoro, Henry; Hetzel, Manuel W; Mueller, Ivo; Siba, Peter; Zimmerman, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    Malaria and filariasis are transmitted in the Southwest Pacific region by Anopheles punctulatus sibling species including An. punctulatus, An. koliensis, the An. farauti complex 1-8 (includes An. hinesorum [An. farauti 2], An. torresiensis [An. farauti 3]). Distinguishing these species from each other requires molecular diagnostic methods. We developed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay specific for known species-specific nucleotide differences in the internal transcribed spacer 2 region and identified the five species most frequently implicated in transmitting disease (An. punctulatus, An. koliensis, An. farauti 1, An. hinesorum, and An. farauti 4). A set of 340 individual mosquitoes obtained from seven Papua New Guinea provinces representing a variety of habitats were analyzed by using this multiplex assay. Concordance between molecular and morphological diagnosis was 56.4% for An. punctulatus, 85.3% for An. koliensis, and 88.9% for An. farauti. Among 158 mosquitoes morphologically designated as An. farauti, 33 were re-classified by PCR as An. punctulatus, 4 as An. koliensis, 26 as An. farauti 1, 49 as An. hinesorum, and 46 as An. farauti 4. Misclassification results from variable coloration of the proboscis and overlap of An. punctulatus, An. koliensis, the An. farauti 4. This multiplex technology enables further mosquito strain identification and simultaneous detection of microbial pathogens.

  10. Intraspecific concerted evolution of the rDNA ITS1 in Anopheles farauti sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) reveals recent patterns of population structure.

    PubMed

    Bower, James E; Dowton, Mark; Cooper, Robert D; Beebe, Nigel W

    2008-10-01

    We examined the intraindividual variation present in the first ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) of Anopheles farauti to determine the level of divergence among populations for this important malarial vector. We isolated 187 clones from 70 individuals and found regional variation among four internal tandem repeats. The data were partitioned prior to analysis given the presence of a paralogous ITS2 sequence, called the 5'-subrepeat, inserted in the ITS1 of most clones. A high level of homogenization and population differentiation was observed for this repeat, which indicates a higher rate of turnover relative to the adjacent 'core' region. Bayesian analysis was performed using several substitutional models on both a combined and a partitioned data set. On the whole, the ITS1 phylogeny and geographic origin of the samples appear to be congruent. Some interesting exceptions indicate the spread of variant repeats between populations and the retention of ancestral polymorphism. Our data clearly demonstrate concerted evolution at the intraspecific level despite intraindividual variation and a complex internal repeat structure from a species that occupies a continuous coastal distribution. A high rate of genomic turnover in combination with a high level of sequence divergence appears to be a major factor leading to its concerted evolution within these populations.

  11. Does Cattle Milieu Provide a Potential Point to Target Wild Exophilic Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) with Entomopathogenic Fungus? A Bioinsecticide Zooprophylaxis Strategy for Vector Control.

    PubMed

    Lyimo, Issa N; Ng'habi, Kija R; Mpingwa, Monica W; Daraja, Ally A; Mwasheshe, Dickson D; Nchimbi, Nuru S; Lwetoijera, Dickson W; Mnyone, Ladslaus L

    2012-01-01

    Background. Anopheles arabiensis is increasingly dominating malaria transmission in Africa. The exophagy in mosquitoes threatens the effectiveness of indoor vector control strategies. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of fungus against An. arabiensis when applied on cattle and their environments. Methods. Experiments were conducted under semi-field and small-scale field conditions within Kilombero valley. The semi-field reared females of 5-7 days old An. arabiensis were exposed to fungus-treated and untreated calf. Further, wild An. arabiensis were exposed to fungus-treated calves, mud-huts, and their controls. Mosquitoes were recaptured the next morning and proportion fed, infected, and survived were evaluated. Experiments were replicated three times using different individuals of calves. Results. A high proportion of An. arabiensis was fed on calves (>0.90) and become infected (0.94) while resting on fungus-treated mud walls than on other surfaces. However, fungus treatments reduced fecundity and survival of mosquitoes. Conclusion. This study demonstrates for the first time the potential of cattle and their milieu for controlling An. arabiensis. Most of An. arabiensis were fed and infected while resting on fungus-treated mud walls than on other surfaces. Fungus treatments reduced fecundity and survival of mosquitoes. These results suggest deployment of bioinsecticide zooprophylaxis against exophilic An. arabiensis.

  12. Neem cake as a promising larvicide and adulticide against the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae): a HPTLC fingerprinting approach.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Dinesh, Devakumar; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Higuchi, Akon; Toniolo, Chiara; Canale, Angelo; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2017-05-01

    Mosquitoes are insects of huge public health importance, since they act as vectors for important pathogens and parasites. Here, we focused on the possibility of using the neem cake in the fight against mosquito vectors. The neem cake chemical composition significantly changes among producers, as evidenced by our HPTLC (High performance thin layer chromatography) analyses of different marketed products. Neem cake extracts were tested to evaluate the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activity against the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies. Ovicidal activity of both types of extracts was statistically significant, and 150 ppm completely inhibited egg hatching. LC50 values were extremely low against fourth instar larvae, ranging from 1.321 (NM1) to 1.818 ppm (NA2). Adulticidal activity was also high, with LC50 ranging from 3.015 (NM1) to 3.637 ppm (NM2). This study pointed out the utility of neem cake as a source of eco-friendly mosquitocides in Anopheline vector control programmes.

  13. Potential use of neem leaf slurry as a sustainable dry season management strategy to control the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) in west African villages.

    PubMed

    Luong, Kyphuong; Dunkel, Florence V; Coulibaly, Keriba; Beckage, Nancy E

    2012-11-01

    Larval management of the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s., has been successful in reducing disease transmission. However, pesticides are not affordable to farmers in remote villages in Mali, and in other material resource poor countries. Insect resistance to insecticides and nontarget toxicity pose additional problems. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is a tree with many beneficial, insect bioactive compounds, such as azadirachtin. We tested the hypothesis that neem leaf slurry is a sustainable, natural product, anopheline larvicide. A field study conducted in Sanambele (Mali) in 2010 demonstrated neem leaf slurry can work with only the available tools and resources in the village. Laboratory bioassays were conducted with third instar An. gambiae and village methods were used to prepare the leaf slurry. Experimental concentration ranges were 1,061-21,224 mg/L pulverized neem leaves in distilled water. The 50 and 90% lethal concentrations at 72 h were 8,825 mg/L and 15,212 mg/L, respectively. LC concentrations were higher than for other parts of the neem tree when compared with previous published studies because leaf slurry preparation was simplified by omitting removal of fibrous plant tissue. Using storytelling as a medium of knowledge transfer, villagers combined available resources to manage anopheline larvae. Preparation of neem leaf slurries is a sustainable approach which allows villagers to proactively reduce mosquito larval density within their community as part of an integrated management system.

  14. Does Cattle Milieu Provide a Potential Point to Target Wild Exophilic Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) with Entomopathogenic Fungus? A Bioinsecticide Zooprophylaxis Strategy for Vector Control

    PubMed Central

    Lyimo, Issa N.; Ng'habi, Kija R.; Mpingwa, Monica W.; Daraja, Ally A.; Mwasheshe, Dickson D.; Nchimbi, Nuru S.; Lwetoijera, Dickson W.; Mnyone, Ladslaus L.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Anopheles arabiensis is increasingly dominating malaria transmission in Africa. The exophagy in mosquitoes threatens the effectiveness of indoor vector control strategies. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of fungus against An. arabiensis when applied on cattle and their environments. Methods. Experiments were conducted under semi-field and small-scale field conditions within Kilombero valley. The semi-field reared females of 5–7 days old An. arabiensis were exposed to fungus-treated and untreated calf. Further, wild An. arabiensis were exposed to fungus-treated calves, mud-huts, and their controls. Mosquitoes were recaptured the next morning and proportion fed, infected, and survived were evaluated. Experiments were replicated three times using different individuals of calves. Results. A high proportion of An. arabiensis was fed on calves (>0.90) and become infected (0.94) while resting on fungus-treated mud walls than on other surfaces. However, fungus treatments reduced fecundity and survival of mosquitoes. Conclusion. This study demonstrates for the first time the potential of cattle and their milieu for controlling An. arabiensis. Most of An. arabiensis were fed and infected while resting on fungus-treated mud walls than on other surfaces. Fungus treatments reduced fecundity and survival of mosquitoes. These results suggest deployment of bioinsecticide zooprophylaxis against exophilic An. arabiensis. PMID:22934152

  15. Geometric morphometric analysis of Colombian Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) reveals significant effect of environmental factors on wing traits and presence of a metapopulation

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Giovan F.; Márquez, Edna J.; Gutiérrez, Lina A.; Conn, Jan E.; Correa, Margarita M.

    2015-01-01

    Anopheles albimanus is a major malaria mosquito vector in Colombia. In the present study, wing variability (size and shape) in An. albimanus populations from Colombian Maracaibo and Chocó bio-geographical eco-regions and the relationship of these phenotypic traits with environmental factors were evaluated. Microsatellite and morphometric data facilitated a comparison of the genetic and phenetic structure of this species. Wing size was influenced by elevation and relative humidity, whereas wing shape was affected by these two variables and also by rainfall, latitude, temperature and eco-region. Significant differences in mean shape between populations and eco-regions were detected, but they were smaller than those at the intra-population level. Correct assignment based on wing shape was low at the population level (<58%) and only slightly higher (>70%) at the eco-regional level, supporting the low population structure inferred from microsatellite data. Wing size was similar among populations with no significant differences between eco-regions. Population relationships in the genetic tree did not agree with those from the morphometric data; however, both datasets consistently reinforced a panmictic population of An. albimanus. Overall, site-specific population differentiation is not strongly supported by wing traits or genotypic data. We hypothesize that the metapopulation structure of An. albimanus throughout these Colombian eco-regions is favoring plasticity in wing traits, a relevant characteristic of species living under variable environmental conditions and colonizing new habitats. PMID:24704285

  16. Effect of anti-mosquito midgut antibodies on development of malaria parasite, Plasmodium vivax and fecundity in vector mosquito Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: culicidae).

    PubMed

    Chugh, Manoj; Adak, T; Sehrawat, Neelam; Gakhar, S K

    2011-04-01

    The effect of anti-mosquito-midgut antibodies on the development of the malaria parasite, P. vivax was studied by feeding the vector mosquito, An. culicifacies with infected blood supplemented with serum from immunized rabbits. In order to get antisera, rabbits were immunized with midgut proteins of three siblings species of Anopheles culicifacies, reported to exhibit differential vectorial capacity. The mosquitoes that ingested anti-midgut antibodies along with infectious parasites had significantly fewer oocysts compared to the control group of mosquitoes. The immunized rabbits generated high titer of antibodies. Their cross reactivity amongst various tissues of the same species and with other sibling species was also determined. Immunogenic polypeptides expressed in the midgut of glucose or blood fed An. culicifacies sibling species were identified by Western blotting. One immunogenic polypeptide of 62 kDa was exclusively present in the midgut of species A. Similarly, three polypeptides of 97, 94 and 58 kDa and one polypeptide of 23 kDa were present exclusively in species B and C respectively. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed the localization of these antigens on baso-lateral membrane and microvilli. The effects of anti-mosquito midgut antibodies on fecundity, longevity, mortality and engorgement of mosquitoes were studied. Fecundity was also reduced significantly. These observations open an avenue for research toward the development of a vector-based malaria parasite transmission-blocking vaccine.

  17. Larvicidal and ovicidal properties of leaf and seed extracts of Delonix elata (L.) Gamble (family: Fabaceae) against malaria (Anopheles stephensi Liston) and dengue (Aedes aegypti Linn.) (Diptera: Culicidae) vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Marimuthu, Govindarajan; Rajamohan, Sivakumar; Mohan, Rajeswari; Krishnamoorthy, Yogalakshmi

    2012-07-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases with an economic impact create loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Extracts from plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents because they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are biodegradable into nontoxic products and potentially suitable for use to control mosquitoes. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Delonix elata against the medically important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of D. elata against the larvae of A. stephensi and A. aegypti with the LC(50) and LC(90) values being 93.59 and 111.83, and 163.69 and 202.77 ppm, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seeds have low potency against two mosquitoes with the LC(50) and LC(90) values being 115.28 and 139.04, and 225.07 and 273.03 ppm, respectively. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 300 ppm for leaf methanol extract and 500 ppm for seed

  18. Parisognoriste, a new genus of Lygistorrhinidae (Diptera: Sciaroidea) from the Oise amber with redescription of Palaeognoriste Meunier

    PubMed Central

    Blagoderov, Vladimir; Hippa, Heikki; Nel, André

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and a new species of Lygistorrhinidae, Parisognoriste eocenica is described from the Eocene Oise amber of the Paris Basin. Parisognoriste sciariforme Meunier, 1904 and Parisognoriste affine Meunier, 1912 are re-described. Lectotypes are designated for both species of Palaeognoriste. The phylogenetic positions of the new genus and Palaeognoriste Meunier are discussed. The paper is an example demonstrating a new approach in cybertaxonomy including automatic generation of manuscript within Virtual Research Environment (Scratchpads), semantic enhancements, and parallel release of the publication on paper and on-line accompanied with registration of new taxa with ZooBank. PMID:21594116

  19. Adaptive Radiation in the Larval Feeding Habits of the Snail-Killing Fly Genus Tetanocera (Diptera: Sciomyzidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, B. A.

    2005-05-01

    The genus Tetanocera consists of 29 species in North America. The genus is unusual in that its larvae occupy five of the 17 feeding groups recognized in the family, as most other genera of the family occupy only one or two trophic guilds. Seven species have larvae that attack pulmonate aquatic snails, three species attack pulmonate snails stranded on shorelines, four species attack amber snails of the family Succineidae, three species attack slugs, and two species are predators of terrestrial snails. The larval feeding behavior of representative species of each of the five trophic guilds will be described and illustrated.

  20. Caloparyphus palaearcticus sp. n. (Diptera, Stratiomyidae), the first record for the soldier fly genus in the Palaearctic

    PubMed Central

    Rozkošný, Rudolf; Hauser, Martin; Gelhaus, Jon K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Caloparyphus palaearcticus sp. n. is described from Russia and two localities in Mongolia and is the first representative of this genus in the Palaearctic and the only species found outside the New World. The morphological characters of the species are described and illustrated, and relationships to related species of Caloparyphus are discussed. PMID:27408561

  1. Neothalassius, a new genus of Parathalassiinae (Diptera: Dolichopodidae s.lat.) from the Pacific coast of South America.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Scott E; Cumming, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-15

    A new genus, Neothalassius gen. nov., and two new species, Neothalassius triton sp. nov. and Neothalassius villosus sp. nov., are described from rocky shorelines along the Pacific seacoast of South America. The phylogenetic placement of Neothalassius within the subfamily Parathalassiinae is discussed.

  2. A new species of the genus Baeoura from Morocco, with a key to the West Palaearctic species (Diptera, Tipuloidea, Limoniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Driauach, Ouafaa; Belqat, Boutaïna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The genus Baeoura is represented in Morocco by two species, Baeoura ebenina Starý, 1981, and Baeoura staryi sp. n. The new species is described and illustrated, and a key to the West Palaearctic species of Baeoura is presented. PMID:26692808

  3. Field investigation on the repellent activity of some aromatic plants by traditional means against Anopheles arabiensis and An. pharoensis (Diptera: Culicidae) around Koka, central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dugassa, Sisay; Medhin, Girmay; Balkew, Meshesha; Seyoum, Aklilu; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2009-10-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of traditional application methods of mosquito repellent plants in the reduction of the human-vector contact of malaria vectors in central Ethiopia. The plants (Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Ocimum suave and Ocimum basilicum) were tested by thermal expulsion and direct burning on traditional stoves in the field against two important malaria vectors in Ethiopia (Anopheles arabiensis and An. pharoensis). A Latin-square design was applied for randomly assigning the treatment plants and control to experimental houses over different nights. The percentage repellency of each candidate plant by both application methods was estimated from the catches of mosquitoes in the treatment and control houses. On direct burning of the plants, O. basilicum showed the highest percentage repellency (73.11%, P<0.001) and E. camaldulensis the least repellency (65.29%, P<0.001) against An. arabiensis. By the same method of application, C. citriodora on the other hand gave the highest repellency (72.87%, P<0.001) while E. camaldulensis was still the least repellent plant (66.60%, P<0.001) against An. pharoensis. On thermal expulsion, C. citriodora exhibited the highest repellency (78.69%, P<0.001) while E. camaldulensis was the lowest repellent plant (71.91%, P<0.001) against An. arabiensis. Against An. pharoensis, C. citriodora gave the highest repellency (72.9%, P<0.001) while E. camaldulensis still gave the least repellency (72.2%, P<0.001) on the same method of application. All the tested plants by both methods of application gave partial but significant protection (>65%) against the house-entry and biting of two important malaria vectors in Ethiopia, and thus have a potential to be used at least as supplements to other control methods. However, feasibility and actual impact on disease transmission need to be known on these and other potentially useful plants.

  4. Transstadial and horizontal transfer of bacteria within a colony of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) and oviposition response to bacteria-containing water.

    PubMed

    Lindh, J M; Borg-Karlson, A-K; Faye, I

    2008-09-01

    In a paratransgenic approach, genetically modified bacteria are utilized to kill the parasite in the vector gut. A critical component for paratransgenics against malaria is how transgenic bacteria can be introduced and then kept in a mosquito population. Here, we investigated transstadial and horizontal transfer of bacteria within an Anopheles gambiae mosquito colony with the focus on spiked breeding sites as a possible means of introducing bacteria to mosquitoes. A Pantoea stewartii strain, previously isolated from An. gambiae, marked with a green fluorescent protein (GFP), was introduced to mosquitoes in different life stages. The following life stages or older mosquitoes in the case of adults were screened for bacteria in their guts. In addition to P. stewartii other bacteria were isolated from the guts: these were identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis and temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE). Bacteria were transferred from larvae to pupae but not from pupae to adults. The mosquitoes were able to take up bacteria from the water they emerged from and transfer the same bacteria to the water they laid eggs in. Elizabethkingia meningoseptica was more often isolated from adult mosquitoes than P. stewartii. A bioassay was used to examine An. gambiae oviposition responses towards bacteria-containing solutions. The volatiles emitted from the solutions were sampled by headspace-solid phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. P. stewartii but not E. meningoseptica mediated a positive oviposition response. The volatiles emitted by P. stewartii include indole and 3-methyl-1-butanol, which previously have been shown to affect An. gambiae mosquito behaviour. E. meningoseptica emitted indole but not 3-methyl-1-butanol, when suspended in saline. Taken together, this indicates that it may be possible to create attractive breeding sites for distribution of genetically modified bacteria in the

  5. Excito-Repellency of Citrus hystrix DC Leaf and Peel Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles minimus (Diptera: Culicidae), Vectors of Human Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Nararak, Jirod; Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; Kongmee, Monthathip; Bangs, Michael J; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2017-01-01

    The essential oils of kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.) at four different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0% v/v) were studied for their repellency, excitation, and knockdown properties against laboratory strains of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles minimus Theobald using an excito-repellency test system. Both contact and noncontact escape responses to leaf- and peel-derived kaffir lime oils were observed. Comparing unadjusted escape responses for An. minimus, leaf oil had strong combined irritant and repellent activity responses at 1-5% concentrations (90.0-96.4% escape) and the strongest spatial repellent activity at 1% and 2% (85.9% and 87.2% escape, respectively). The peel oil exhibited good excitation with repellency at concentrations of 2.5% (89.8% escape) and 5% (96.28% escape), while concentrations 1-5% showed more moderate repellent activity against An. minimus. For Ae. aegypti, 2.5% leaf oil produced the greatest response for both contact (56.1% escape) and noncontact (63.3% escape) trials, while 2.5% produced the strongest response among all concentrations of peel oil, with 46.5% escape. However, after adjusting the contact trial escape (a measure of combined excitation and repellency), the estimated escape due to contact alone was a much weaker response than spatial repellency for both species. Knockdown responses above 50% were only observed in Ae. aegypti exposed to 5% leaf oil. Kaffir lime oils were more active against An. minimus than Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. There were statistically significant differences between leaf (more active) and peel oils at each concentration against An. minimus in contact and noncontact trials, except at the highest (5%) concentration.

  6. Evaluation of methods for sampling the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi (Diptera, Culicidae) in Suriname and the relation with its biting behavior.

    PubMed

    Hiwat, H; De Rijk, M; Andriessen, R; Koenraadt, C J M; Takken, W

    2011-09-01

    The effectiveness of CO2-baited and human-baited mosquito traps for the sampling of Anopheles darlingi Root was evaluated and compared with human landing collections in Suriname. Biting preferences of this mosquito on a human host were studied and related to trapping data. Traps used were the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Miniature Light trap, the BG Sentinel mosquito trap, the Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus mosquito trap (MM-Plus), and a custom-designed trap. Carbon dioxide and humans protected by a bed net were used as bait in the studies. The number of An. darlingi collected was greater with human landing collections than with all other collection methods. An. darlingi did not show a preference for protected humans over CO2 bait. The BG Sentinel mosquito trap with CO2 or human odor as bait and the MM-Plus proved the best alternative sampling tools for An. darlingi. The BG Sentinel mosquito trap with CO2 or human odor as bait was also very efficient at collecting Culex spp. In a field study on biting preferences of wild An. darlingi, the females showed directional biting behavior (P < 0.001), with a majority of females (93.3%) biting the lower legs and feet when approaching a seated human host. Higher efficiency of the closer-to-the-ground collecting MM-Plus and BG Sentinel mosquito trap when compared with the other trapping methods may be a result of a possible preference of this mosquito species for low-level biting. It is concluded that odor-baited sampling systems can reliably collect An. darlingi, but the odor bait needs to be improved, for instance, by including host-specific volatiles, to match live human baits.

  7. Assessment of Ficam VC (Bendiocarb) Residual Activity on Different Wall Surfaces for Control of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) in Northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kirunda, James; Okello-Onen, Joseph; Opiyo, Elizabeth A; Rwakimari, J B; de Alwis, Ranjith; Okia, Michael; Ambayo, Denis; Abola, Benard; Hoel, David F

    2017-03-24

    Insecticide decay rate on different wall surfaces is of importance to indoor residual spray (IRS) programs used as a malaria control intervention. Past IRS operations showed increasing populations of endophilic malaria vectors resting on indoor surfaces from various sites in Uganda following use of Ficam VC (bendiocarb) insecticide; variability of insecticide life was believed to be primarily due to wall surface type. Bendiocarb longevity was tested in the northern Uganda districts of Amuru, Apac, and Pader to assess its residual efficacy on three commonly encountered wall surfaces. Wall types included mud and wattle, plain brick, and painted plaster. A susceptible mosquito strain (Anopheles gambiae Kisumu) was used in all trials. Nine houses in each of the three districts were set with three test cones and one control cone per house, divided evenly among the three wall surfaces. Bioassays were run monthly through 6 mo. Painted plastered surfaces produced 100% mortality (at 24 h) through 6 mo. Plain brick surfaces killed 100% of test mosquitoes through 4 mo, while mud and wattle wall surfaces produced a 98% mortality rate at 3 mo post spray. The KD60 (knockdown at 60 min) for painted plastered surfaces was 100% for 6 mo, plain brick surface KD60 was 80% at 6 mo, and the mud and wattle surface KD60 was >80% at 3 mo. There was a significant effect on Ficam VC longevity by wall type and evidence of a relationship between test period and wall type on the KD60.

  8. Internal repetition and intraindividual variation in the rDNA ITS1 of the anopheles punctulatus group (Diptera: Culicidae): multiple units and rates of turnover.

    PubMed

    Bower, James E; Cooper, Robert D; Beebe, Nigel W

    2009-01-01

    The rapid divergence of repetitive sequences makes them desirable markers for phylogenetic studies of closely related groups, provided that a high level of sequence homogeneity has been maintained within species. Intraspecific polymorphisms are found in an increasing number of studies now, and this highlights the need to determine why these occur. In this study we examined intraindividual variation present in the first ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) from a group of cryptic mosquito species. Individuals of the Anopheles punctulatus group contained multiple ITS1 length variants that ranged from 1.2 to 8.0 kb. Nucleotide and copy number variation for several homologous internal repeats is common, yet the intraspecific sequence divergence of cloned PCR isolates is comparable to that of other mosquito species (~0.2-1.5%). Most of the length variation is comprised of a 5'-ITS1 repeat that was identified as a duplication of a conserved ITS2 region. Secondary structure conservation for this repeat is pronounced and several repeat types that are highly homogenized have formed. Significant interspecific divergence indicates a high rate of evolutionary change for this spacer. A maximum likelihood tree constructed here was congruent with previous phylogenetic hypotheses and suggests that concerted evolution is also accompanied by interpopulation divergence. The lack of interindividual differences and the presence of homogenized internal repeats suggest that a high rate of turnover has reduced the overall level of variation. However, the intraindividual variation also appears to be maintained by the absence of a single turnover rate and the complex dynamics of ongoing recombination within the spacer.

  9. Excito-Repellency of Citrus hystrix DC Leaf and Peel Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles minimus (Diptera: Culicidae), Vectors of Human Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Nararak, Jirod; Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; Kongmee, Monthathip; Bangs, Michael J; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2016-09-30

    The essential oils of kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.) at four different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0% v/v) were studied for their repellency, excitation, and knockdown properties against laboratory strains of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles minimus Theobald using an excito-repellency test system. Both contact and noncontact escape responses to leaf- and peel-derived kaffir lime oils were observed. Comparing unadjusted escape responses for An. minimus, leaf oil had strong combined irritant and repellent activity responses at 1-5% concentrations (90.0-96.4% escape) and the strongest spatial repellent activity at 1% and 2% (85.9% and 87.2% escape, respectively). The peel oil exhibited good excitation with repellency at concentrations of 2.5% (89.8% escape) and 5% (96.28% escape), while concentrations 1-5% showed more moderate repellent activity against An. minimus. For Ae. aegypti, 2.5% leaf oil produced the greatest response for both contact (56.1% escape) and noncontact (63.3% escape) trials, while 2.5% produced the strongest response among all concentrations of peel oil, with 46.5% escape. However, after adjusting the contact trial escape (a measure of combined excitation and repellency), the estimated escape due to contact alone was a much weaker response than spatial repellency for both species. Knockdown responses above 50% were only observed in Ae. aegypti exposed to 5% leaf oil. Kaffir lime oils were more active against An. minimus than Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. There were statistically significant differences between leaf (more active) and peel oils at each concentration against An. minimus in contact and noncontact trials, except at the highest (5%) concentration.

  10. Larvicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using fungus Cochliobolus lunatus against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) and Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera; Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Salunkhe, Rahul B; Patil, Satish V; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Salunke, Bipinchandra K

    2011-09-01

    Larvicides play a vital role in controlling mosquitoes in their breeding sites. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal activities of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against vectors: Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi responsible for diseases of public health importance. The AgNPs synthesized by filamentous fungus Cochliobolus lunatus, characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The characterization studies confirmed the spherical shape and size (3-21 nm) of silver nanoparticles. The efficacy of mycosynthesized AgNPs at all the tested concentrations (10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625, and 0.3125 ppm) against second, third, and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti (LC(50) 1.29, 1.48, and 1.58; LC(90) 3.08, 3.33, and 3.41 ppm) and against A. stephensi (LC(50) 1.17, 1.30, and 1.41; LC(90) 2.99, 3.13, and 3.29 ppm) were observed, respectively. The mortality rates were positively correlated with the concentration of AgNPs. Significant (P < 0.05) changes in the larval mortality was also recorded between the period of exposure against fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti and A. stephensi. The possible larvicidal activity may be due to penetration of nanoparticles through membrane. Toxicity studies carried out against non-target fish species Poecilia reticulata, the most common organism in the habitats of A. aegypti and A. stephensi showed no toxicity at LC50 and LC90 doses of the AgNPs. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of mycosynthesized nanoparticles. Thus, the use of fungus C. lunatus to synthesize silver nanoparticles is a rapid, eco-friendly, and a single-step approach and the AgNps formed can be potential mosquito larvicidal agents.

  11. Genetic variations of ND5 gene of mtDNA in populations of Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) malaria vector in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anopheles sinensis is a principal vector for Plasmodium vivax malaria in most parts of China. Understanding of genetic structure and genetic differentiation of the mosquito should contribute to the vector control and malaria elimination in China. Methods The present study investigated the genetic structure of An. sinensis populations using a 729 bp fragment of mtDNA ND5 among 10 populations collected from seven provinces in China. Results ND5 was polymorphic by single mutations within three groups of An. sinensis that were collected from 10 different geographic populations in China. Out of 140 specimens collected from 10 representative sites, 84 haplotypes and 71 variable positions were determined. The overall level of genetic differentiation of An. sinensis varied from low to moderate across China and with a FST range of 0.00065 – 0.341. Genealogy analysis clustered the populations of An. sinensis into three main clusters. Each cluster shared one main haplotype. Pairwise variations within populations were higher (68.68%) than among populations (31.32%) and with high fixation index (FST = 0.313). The results of the present study support population growth and expansion in the An. sinensis populations from China. Three clusters of An. sinensis populations were detected in this study with each displaying different proportion patterns over seven Chinese provinces. No correlation between genetic and geographic distance was detected in overall populations of An. sinensis (R2 = 0.058; P = 0.301). Conclusions The results indicate that the ND5 gene of mtDNA is highly polymorphic in An. sinensis and has moderate genetic variability in the populations of this mosquito in China. Demographic and spatial results support evidence of expansion in An. sinensis populations. PMID:24192424

  12. Effect of different larval rearing temperatures on the productivity (R o) and morphology of the malaria vector Anopheles superpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae) using geometric morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Aytekin, Secil; Aytekin, A Murat; Alten, Bulent

    2009-06-01

    Temperature affects both the biology and morphology of mosquito vectors. Geometric morphometrics is a useful new tool for capturing and analyzing differences in shape and size in many morphological parameters, including wings. We have used this technique for capturing the differences in the wings of the malaria vector Anopheles superpictus, using cohorts reared at six different constant temperatures (15°, 20°, 25°, 27°, 30°, and 35° C) and also searched for potential correlations with the life tables of the species. We studied wing shape in both male and female adults, using 22 landmarks on the wing in relation to ecological parameters, including the development rate. The ecological zero was calculated as 9.93° C and the thermal constant as 296.34 day-degrees. The rearing temperature affects egg, larval, and pupal development and also the total time from egg to adult. As rearing temperatures increased, longevity decreased in both sexes. In An. superpictus, R(o) value and productivity correlated with the statistically significant gradual deformations in the wing shape related to size in both sexes. These deformations directly linked to differences in immature rearing temperatures. Analysis using PCA and UPGMA phenograms showed that although wings of females became narrower dorsoventrally as the temperature increased, they became broader in males. Comparisons of the wing landmarks indicated the medial part of the wing was most affected by larval rearing temperatures, showing relatively more deformations. Algorithmic values of the life tables were determined in correlation with the results of geometric morphometrics. Comparisons of centroid sizes in the cohorts showed that overall wing size became smaller in both sexes in response to higher rearing temperatures.

  13. Sugar digestion in mosquitoes: identification and characterization of three midgut alpha-glucosidases of the neo-tropical malaria vector Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Souza-Neto, Jayme A; Machado, Fábio P; Lima, José B; Valle, Denise; Ribolla, Paulo E M

    2007-08-01

    Dietary carbohydrates provide an important source of energy for flight, and contribute to longevity and fecundity of mosquitoes. The most common sugar mosquitoes ingest is sucrose, and digestion of this substance is carried out mainly by alpha-glucosidases. In the current work, we tested the efficiency of sucrose on Anopheles aquasalis female diet. The best longevity (days) was reached when sugar was available in the diet, whereas most only blood fed females were dead 6 days after emergence. Three alpha-glucosidase isoforms were detected in the adult female midgut, named alphaGlu1, alphaGlu2 and alphaGlu3. These are acidic alpha-glucosidases with optima pH around pH 5.5. alphaGlu1 and alphaGlu2 are present in both secreted and membrane-bound forms, whereas alpha-Glu3 only in anchored to membranes. The alpha-glucosidase activity is concentrated mainly in the posterior midgut (70%), both in non-fed or 10% sucrose fed females. The single form of these alpha-glucosidases seemed to be approximately 70 kDa polypeptides, although alphaGlu2 is presented in >or=600 kDa self-aggregates. Km values of alphaGlu1, alphaGlu2 and alphaGlu3 differed significantly from each other, supporting the statement that three alpha-glucosidases are produced in the female midgut. Together, all data suggest that sugar is an essential component of A. aquasalis female diet. In addition, alpha-glucosidases are synthesized in the same place where sucrose is digested and absorbed, the midgut.

  14. A New Classification for the Leucosphyrus Group of Anopheles (Cellia)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    some modification in Knight and Marks (1952) for the subgenus Finlaya of Aedes and were standardized for the genus Anopheles, subgenus Anopheles by...Zool. 32: 321-329. Knight, K.L. and E.N. Marks. 1952. An annotated checklist of the mosquitoes of the subgenus Finlaya, genus Aedes . Proc. U.S. Nat... Mosquito Systematics Vol. 21(3) 1989 197 A New Classification for the Leucosphyrus Group of Anopheles (Cellia)’ E.L. Peyton”*” ABSTRACT. The

  15. Taxonomy of the genus Peyerimhoffia Kieffer from Mainland China, with a description of seven new species (Diptera, Sciaridae)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Kai; Huang, Junhao; Zhang, Sujiong; Wu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The taxonomy of the genus Peyerimhoffia Kieffer in China was studied. Eight species were recognized, including seven new species that are herein described and illustrated: P. hamata sp. n., P. obesa sp. n., P. sparsula sp. n., P. longiprojecta sp. n., P. brachypodua sp. n., P. yunnana sp. n., and P. shennongjiana sp. n. In addition, P. vagabunda (Winnertz, 1867) is reported for the first time from China. A key to these Chinese species is provided. PMID:24624020

  16. A review of the genus Toxorhina Loew from China, with descriptions of three new species (Diptera, Limoniidae, Limoniinae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao; Li, Yan; Yang, Ding

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The genus Toxorhina Loew from China is reviewed. Seven species belonging to the subgenus Ceratocheilus Wesche are recognized, of which three species, Toxorhina (Ceratocheilus) huanglica sp. n., Toxorhina (Ceratocheilus) omnifusca sp. n. and Toxorhina (Ceratocheilus) univirgata sp. n., are described as new to science, Toxorhina (Ceratocheilus) fuscolimbata Alexander is recorded from China for the first time, and three known species are redescribed and illustrated. PMID:25685024

  17. The sequoia-loving sprite, a new genus and species of fungus gnat (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) from California.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    California is one of the most biologically diverse regions of the world, yet the diversity of fungus gnats (Mycetophilidae) remains largely undocumented within the state. A modest survey of these flies has led to the discovery of a new genus and species of gnat that lives alongside one of the most iconic trees in the world, the giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum). Spritella sequoiaphila gen. et sp. n. is described and illustrated and its status among other mycetophilid genera is analyzed and discussed.

  18. Ecology of larval mosquitoes, with special reference to Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culcidae) in market-garden wells in urban Dakar, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Robert, V; Awono-Ambene, H P; Thioulouse, J

    1998-11-01

    The urban area of Dakar, Senegal, contains > 5,000 market-garden wells that provide permanent sites for mosquito larvae, in particular Anopheles arabiensis Patton, the major vector of malaria. A study of the bioecology of mosquito larvae was conducted over 1 yr with a monthly visit to 48 of these wells. Overall, 9,589 larvae were collected of which 80.1% were Culicinae and 11.9% Anophelinae. Larvae from stages III and IV (n = 853) were identified to 10 species. An. arabiensis represented 86% of the anophelines collected and An. ziemanni Grunberg 14%. The most common Culicinae species included Aedeomyia africana Neveu-Lemaire, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Mimomyia splendens Theobald. Maximum anopheline abundance was observed at the end of the dry season in June, whereas maximum Culicinae abundance was observed at the end of the rainy season in September. Most wells (67%) did not harbor any An. arabiensis larvae and in the remaining 33% the larval abundance was low, averaging 0.54 larvae in stages III-IV per tray sample. To identify factors that determine the abundance of larvae in these wells, a co-inertia (multivariate) analysis was carried out to account for physicochemical variables (depth, turbidity, temperature, pH, conductivity, Na+, Cl-, HCO3-, CO3--, and NO3- concentrations) and biological variables (abundance of mosquito species, predators [e.g., fish, Dytiscidae, Notonectidae, odonates], molluscs [Bulinus and Biomphalaria], and surface plants [water lettuce, Lemna, and filamentous algae]). The co-inertia analysis indicated that the abundance of An. arabiensis was associated with Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. decens for the physiochemical data but was not associated with other mosquito species for floro-faunistic data. The conditions associated with abundant An. arabiensis were warm temperature (28-30 degrees C), clear and not too deep water (< 0.5 m), elevated concentrations of HCO3- and CO3--, low concentrations of NO3- and NaCl, low populations of

  19. Insecticide resistance in Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) could compromise the sustainability of malaria vector control strategies in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Gnankiné, Olivier; Bassolé, Imael H N; Chandre, Fabrice; Glitho, Isabelle; Akogbeto, Martin; Dabiré, Roch K; Martin, Thibaud

    2013-10-01

    Insecticides from the organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid (PY) chemical families, have respectively, been in use for 50 and 30 years in West Africa, mainly against agricultural pests, but also against vectors of human disease. The selection pressure, with practically the same molecules year after year (mainly on cotton), has caused insecticide resistance in pest populations such as Bemisia tabaci, vector of harmful phytoviruses on vegetables. The evolution toward insecticide resistance in malaria vectors such as Anopheles gambiae sensus lato (s.l.) is probably related to the current use of these insecticides in agriculture. Thus, successful pest and vector control in West Africa requires an investigation of insect susceptibility, in relation to the identification of species and sub species, such as molecular forms or biotypes. Identification of knock down resistance (kdr) and acetylcholinesterase gene (Ace1) mutations modifying insecticide targets in individual insects and measure of enzymes activity typically involved in insecticide metabolism (oxidase, esterase and glutathion-S-transferase) are indispensable in understanding the mechanisms of resistance. Insecticide resistance is a good example in which genotype-phenotype links have been made successfully. Insecticides used in agriculture continue to select new resistant populations of B. tabaci that could be from different biotype vectors of plant viruses. As well, the evolution of insecticide resistance in An. gambiae threatens the management of malaria vectors in West Africa. It raises the question of priority in the use of insecticides in health and/or agriculture, and more generally, the question of sustainability of crop protection and vector control strategies in the region. Here, we review the susceptibility tests, biochemical and molecular assays data for B. tabaci, a major pest in cotton and vegetable crops, and An. gambiae, main vector of malaria. The data reviewed was collected in Benin and Burkina

  20. Larvicidal, pupicidal, repellent and adulticidal activity of Citrus sinensis orange peel extract against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Amerasan, Duraisamy; Subrmaniam, Jayapal; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2012-10-01

    Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikunguniya fever, West Nile virus and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The present study explored the effects of orange peel ethanol extract of Citrus sinensis on larvicidal, pupicidal, repellent and adulticidal activity against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The orange peel material was shade dried at room temperature and powdered coarsely. From orange peel, 300 g powdered was macerated with 1 L of ethanol sequentially for a period of 72 h each and filtered. The yields of the orange peel ethanol crude extract of C. sinensis 13.86 g, respectively. The extracts were concentrated at reduced temperature on a rotary vacuum evaporator and stored at a temperature of 4 °C. The larvicidal, pupicidal and adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure; no mortality was observed in the control group. For C. sinensis, the median lethal concentration values (LC(50)) observed for the larvicidal and pupicidal activities against mosquito vector species A. stephensi first to fourth larval instars and pupae were 182.24, 227.93, 291.69, 398.00 and 490.84 ppm; A. aegypti values were 92.27, 106.60, 204.87, 264.26, 342.45, 436.93 and 497.41 ppm; and C. quinquefasciatus values were 244.70, 324.04, 385.32, 452.78 and 530.97 ppm, respectively. The results of maximum repellent activity were observed at 450 ppm in ethanol extracts of C. sinensis and the mean complete protection time ranged from 150 to 180 min was tested. The ethanol extract of C. sinensis showed 100% repellency in 150 min and showed complete protection in 90 min at 350 ppm against A. stephensi, A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The adult mortality was found in ethanol extract of C. sinensis with the LC(50) and LC(90) values of 272.19 and 457.14 ppm, A. stephensi; 289.62 and

  1. Low-cost and eco-friendly green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Feronia elephantum (Rutaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan

    2014-05-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, the larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Feronia elephantum plant leaf extract against late third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was determined. The range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 μg mL(-1)) and aqueous leaf extract (25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 μg mL(-1)) were tested against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous crude extract and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of F. elephantum for all three important vector mosquitoes. The synthesized AgNPs from F. elephantum were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract to three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus had the following LC50 and LC90 values: A. stephensi had LC50 and LC90 values of 11.56 and 20.56 μg mL(-1); A. aegypti had LC50 and LC90 values of 13.13 and 23.12 μg mL(-1); and C. quinquefasciatus had LC50 and LC90 values of 14.19 and 24.30 μg mL(-1). No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using F. elephantum has the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C

  2. Larvicidal and Biting Deterrent Activity of Essential Oils of Curcuma longa, Ar-turmerone, and Curcuminoids Against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Culicidae: Diptera).

    PubMed

    Ali, Abbas; Wang, Yan-Hong; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-09-01

    Essential oils and extract of Curcuma longa, ar-turmerone, and curcuminoids were evaluated for their larvicidal and deterrent activity against mosquitoes. Ar-turmerone and curcuminoids constituted 36.9, 24.9 and 50.6% of rhizome oil, leaf oil, and rhizome extract, respectively. Ar-turmerone was the major compound of the rhizome oil (36.9%) and leaf oil (24.9%). The ethanolic extract had 15.4% ar-turmerone with 6.6% bisdesmethoxycurcumin, 6.1% desmethoxycurcumin, and 22.6% curcumin. In in vitro studies, essential oils of the leaf (biting deterrence index [BDI] = 0.98), rhizome (BDI = 0.98), and rhizome ethanolic extract (BDI = 0.96) at 10 µg/cm(2) showed biting deterrent activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2) against Aedes aegypti L. Among the pure compounds, ar-turmerone (BDI = 1.15) showed the biting deterrent activity higher than DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2) whereas the activity of other compounds was lower than DEET. In Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, only ar-turmerone showed deterrent activity similar to DEET. In dose-response bioassay, ar-turmerone showed significantly higher biting deterrence than DEET at all the dosages. Ar-turmerone, at 15 nmol/cm(2), showed activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2) and activity at 5 nmol/cm(2) was similar to DEET at 20 and 15 nmol/cm(2). Leaf essential oil with LC(50) values of 1.8 and 8.9 ppm against larvae of An. quadrimaculatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively, showed highest toxicity followed by rhizome oil and ethanolic extract. Among the pure compounds, ar-turmerone with LC(50) values of 2.8 and 2.5 ppm against larvae of An. quadrimaculatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively, was most toxic followed by bisdesmethoxycurcumin, curcumin, and desmethoxycurcumin.

  3. Taxonomic revision of the genus Neopleurophora Brown (Diptera: Phoridae), with the description of thirty seven new species.

    PubMed

    Ament, Danilo Cesar; De Souza Amorim, Dalton

    2013-01-01

    Thirty seven new Neotropical species of the phorid genus Neopleurophora are described— N. acrensis, sp. nov., N. acrochaetopyga,sp. nov., N. atlantica, sp. nov., N. balbii, sp. nov., N. boliviana, sp. nov., N. brachypyga, sp. nov., N.brachytarsus, sp. nov., N. browni, sp. nov., N. carcharopyga, sp. nov., N. cauca, sp. nov., N. ceratopyga, sp. nov., N. chocoensis, sp. nov., N. colobopyga, sp. nov., N. costaricana, sp. nov., N. dichaeta, sp. nov., N. dicrodrilus, sp. nov., N. diffusa,sp. nov., N. dolichopyga, sp. nov., N. dorsimaculata, sp. nov., N. hymenodrilus, sp. nov., N. kleini, sp. nov., N. kungi, sp.nov., N. lamasi, sp. nov., N. manauara, sp. nov., N. marquesi, sp. nov., N. megalopyga, sp. nov., N. microssoma, sp. nov.,N. odontopyga, sp. nov., N. platypyga, sp. nov., N. polychaetopoda, sp. nov., N. prionotopyga, sp. nov., N. ptychodrilus,sp. nov., N. reginensis, sp. nov., N. scleropyga, sp. nov., N. setiventris, sp. nov., N. synaptodrilus, sp. nov., N. tanytarsus,sp. nov. The female holotypes of N. scutellata and N. scutellata var. jamaicensis could not be associated to any male specimen and there is no sufficient morphological evidence to consider either as different species. Neopleurophora setipes is redescribed and illustrated. The hypopygial morphology is studied in detail and the first illustrations of the phallus of the genus are presented. An identification key for the species of the genus is provided and groups of species are proposed.

  4. Mosquito larvicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Chomelia asiatica (Rubiaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2015-03-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Mosquito control is to enhance the health and quality of life of county residents and visitors through the reduction of mosquito populations. Mosquito control is a serious concern in developing countries like India due to the lack of general awareness, development of resistance, and socioeconomic reasons. Today, nanotechnology is a promising research domain which has a wide ranging application in vector control programs. These are nontoxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable, and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In the present study, larvicidal activity of aqueous leaf extract and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using C. asiatica plant leaves against late third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The range of varying concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 μg/mL) and aqueous leaf extract (40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 μg/mL) were tested against the larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The synthesized AgNPs from C. asiatica were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract in three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX). Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of C. asiatica for all three important vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 values of C. asiatica aqueous leaf extract appeared to be effective against An. stephensi (LC50, 90.17 μg/mL; LC90, 165.18 μg/mL) followed by Ae. aegypti (LC50, 96.59 μg/mL; LC90, 173.83 μg/mL) and Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50, 103.08 μg/mL; LC90, 183.16 μg/mL). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus had the following LC50 and LC90

  5. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Sida acuta (Malvaceae) leaf extract against Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2013-12-01

    Mosquitoes act as a vector for most of the life-threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, filariasis, encephalitis, West Nile Virus infection, etc. Under the Integrated Mosquito Management, emphasis was given on the application of alternative strategies in mosquito control. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain, and adverse effects on environmental quality and nontarget organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are nontoxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable, and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In the present study, the larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Sida acuta plant leaf extract against late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti was determined. Range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 μg/mL) and aqueous leaf extract (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 μg/mL) were tested against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, A. stephensi and A. aegypti. The synthesized AgNPs from S. acuta leaf were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract in three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous crude extract and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of S. acuta for all three important vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 values of S. acuta aqueous leaf extract appeared to be most effective

  6. New data on poorly known species of the genus Leia Meigen (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) from the Palaearctic region.

    PubMed

    Polevoi, Alexei; Salmela, Jukka

    2016-04-15

    New data on four poorly known species of the genus Leia Meigen (L. nigricornis van Duzee, L. flavipennis Laštovka & Matile, L. iturupensis Zaitzev and L. rufiptera Ostroverkhova) are presented. Detailed redescriptions and terminalia figures are provided. Leia nigricornis is reported for the first time from the Palaearctic region and L. automnala Ostroverkhova & Grishina is found to be a junior synonym of L. flavipennis. A variation in the male terminalia of L. bimaculata Meigen is illustrated, based on specimens from several European countries.

  7. The sequoia-loving sprite, a new genus and species of fungus gnat (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) from California

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract California is one of the most biologically diverse regions of the world, yet the diversity of fungus gnats (Mycetophilidae) remains largely undocumented within the state. A modest survey of these flies has led to the discovery of a new genus and species of gnat that lives alongside one of the most iconic trees in the world, the giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum). Spritella sequoiaphila gen. et sp. n. is described and illustrated and its status among other mycetophilid genera is analyzed and discussed. PMID:25197214

  8. Five new species and new records of biting midges of the genus Dasyhelea Kieffer from the Near East (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Dominiak, Patrycja; Alwin, Alicja

    2013-01-01

    As a result of the entomological surveys in the Near East, seventeen species of biting midges of the genus Dasyhelea Kieffer are reported. Five new species are described and illustrated from adult males: D. (Dicryptoscena) antonii sp. nov., D. (Pseudoculicoides) avia sp. nov., D. (Ps.) libanensis sp. nov., D. (Ps.) nauta sp. nov. and D. (Ps.) sandrageorgei sp. nov. Among the remaining species, four are recorded for the first time from this region. Furthermore, new country records for Iran (1 sp.), Israel (2 spp.), Lebanon (9 spp.) and Yemen (1 sp.) are given. Four species described by Kieffer in 1918, namely D. distalis, D. flaviscapula, D. scutellaris and D. trifasciata, are treated as doubtful names (nomina dubia) and excluded from the Turkish fauna. In addition, an updated checklist of Dasyhelea of the Near East is presented. Dasyhelea labinoda Mazumdar & Chaudhuri, 2009 is proposed as a new junior synonym of D. deemingi Boorman & Harten, 2002. New synonymy.

  9. A new genus and species of micro bee fly from the Earliest Eocene French amber (Diptera: Mythicomyiidae: Psiloderoidinae).

    PubMed

    Myskowiak, Justine; Garrouste, Romain; Nel, Andre

    2016-05-26

    Mythicomyiidae, or micro bee flies, are tiny flies (0.5-5.0 mm) that are found throughout most parts of the world except the highest altitudes and latitudes (Greathead & Evenhuis 2001). Including all extinct and extant taxa, the Mythicomyiidae currently comprise more than 380 valid taxonomic species distributed among 30 genera. The subfamily Psiloderoidinae is especially well represented among the fossil Mythicomyiidae by seven Cretaceous or Cenozoic genera. We here describe a new genus and a new species of this subfamily based on fossils from the Earliest Eocene of Oise (France). A Psiloderoidinae, Proplatypygus matilei Nel & DePloëg, 2004, is already described in this amber. Another mythicomyiid, Eurodoliopteryx inexpectatus Nel, 2006, is the most frequent bombylioid in this amber (Nel & DePloëg, 2004; Nel, 2006).

  10. Morphology and histology of secretory setae in terrestrial larvae of biting midges of the genus Forcipomyia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Urbanek, Aleksandra; Richert, Malwina; Giłka, Wojciech; Szadziewski, Ryszard

    2011-11-01

    Apneustic larvae of the genus Forcipomyia possess unique secretory setae located on the dorsal surface along the body in two rows, one pair on each thoracic and abdominal segment and two pairs on the head. Morphological and histological studies of secretory setae in fourth instar larvae of Forcipomyia nigra (Winnertz) and Forcipomyia nigrans Remm indicate they are modified mechanoreceptors (sensilla trichodea) in which the trichogen cell is a glandular cell producing a hygroscopic secretion. The cytoplasm of the glandular trichogen cell fills the lumen of a secretory seta, which shows one or more pores on the apex. The cytoplasm contains numerous microtubules responsible for transportation of proteinaceous vesicles, and an extremely large polyploid nucleus typical of gland cells. The main role of the hygroscopic secretion is to moist the body and thus facilitate cuticular respiration.

  11. Studies on the impact of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in relation to malaria and filariasis vector control against Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Subarani, Selladurai; Sabhanayakam, Selvi; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal

    2013-02-01

    Biosynthesized nanoparticles have been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract and eco-friendly reducing and capping agents. The present study was based on assessments of the larvicidal activities to determine the efficacies of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Vinca rosea (L.) (Apocynaceae) against the larvae of malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of V. rosea and synthesized AgNPs for 24, 48, and 72 h. AgNPs were rapidly synthesized using the leaf extract of V. rosea, and the formation of nanoparticles was observed within 15 min. The results recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The formation of the AgNPs synthesized from the XRD spectrum compared with the Bragg reflections at 2θ = 29.36, 38.26, 44.51, 63.54, and 77.13° which can be indexed to the (121), (111), (200), (220), and (311) orientations, respectively, confirmed the presence of AgNPs. The FTIR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at the spectra showed sharp and strong absorption band at 3,406.71 to 3,431.90 cm(-1) double in case of NH(2) group of a primary amine (N-H stretch). The presence of the sharp peak at 2,926.54 to 2,925.80 cm(-1) very broad often looks like distorted baseline (O-H carboxylic acids). The band 1,633.26 to 1,625.81 cm(-1) was assigned to C = C alkenes, aromatic ring stretching vibration, respectively. SEM analysis of the synthesized AgNPs clearly showed the clustered and irregular shapes, mostly aggregated and having the size of 120 nm. TEM reveals spherical shape of synthesized AgNPs. Particle size analysis revealed that the size of particles ranges from 25 to 47 nm with average size of 34.61 nm

  12. Adaptation through chromosomal inversions in Anopheles

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Diego; Ullastres, Anna; González, Josefa

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal inversions have been repeatedly involved in local adaptation in a large number of animals and plants. The ecological and behavioral plasticity of Anopheles species—human malaria vectors—is mirrored by high amounts of polymorphic inversions. The adaptive significance of chromosomal inversions has been consistently attested by strong and significant correlations between their frequencies and a number of phenotypic traits. Here, we provide an extensive literature review of the different adaptive traits associated with chromosomal inversions in the genus Anopheles. Traits having important consequences for the success of present and future vector control measures, such as insecticide resistance and behavioral changes, are discussed. PMID:24904633

  13. Host range and community structure of avian nest parasites in the genus Philornis (Diptera: Muscidae) on the island of Trinidad

    PubMed Central

    Bulgarella, Mariana; Heimpel, George E

    2015-01-01

    Parasite host range can be influenced by physiological, behavioral, and ecological factors. Combining data sets on host–parasite associations with phylogenetic information of the hosts and the parasites involved can generate evolutionary hypotheses about the selective forces shaping host range. Here, we analyzed associations between the nest-parasitic flies in the genus Philornis and their host birds on Trinidad. Four of ten Philornis species were only reared from one species of bird. Of the parasite species with more than one host bird species, P. falsificus was the least specific and P. deceptivus the most specific attacking only Passeriformes. Philornis flies in Trinidad thus include both specialists and generalists, with varying degrees of specificity within the generalists. We used three quantities to more formally compare the host range of Philornis flies: the number of bird species attacked by each species of Philornis, a phylogenetically informed host specificity index (Poulin and Mouillot's STD), and a branch length-based STD. We then assessed the phylogenetic signal of these measures of host range for 29 bird species. None of these measures showed significant phylogenetic signal, suggesting that clades of Philornis did not differ significantly in their ability to exploit hosts. We also calculated two quantities of parasite species load for the birds – the parasite species richness, and a variant of the STD index based on nodes rather than on taxonomic levels – and assessed the signal of these measures on the bird phylogeny. We did not find significant phylogenetic signal for the parasite species load or the node-based STD index. Finally, we calculated the parasite associations for all bird pairs using the Jaccard index and regressed these similarity values against the number of nodes in the phylogeny separating bird pairs. This analysis showed that Philornis on Trinidad tend to feed on closely related bird species more often than expected by

  14. A revision of the new world species of Polytrichophora Cresson and Facitrichophora, new genus (Diptera, Ephydridae)

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Wayne N.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The New World species of Polytrichophora Cresson and Facitrichophora new genus, are revised. Fifteen new species are described (type locality in parenthesis): Facitrichophora atrella sp. n. (Costa Rica. Guanacaste: Murciélago [10°56.9'N, 85°42.5'W; sandy mud flats around mangrove inlet]), Facitrichophora carvalhorum sp. n. (Brazil. São Paulo: Praia Puruba [23°21'S, 44°55.6'W; beach]), Facitrichophora manza sp. n. (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla (12 km S; 10°24.5'N, 61°01.5'W), bridge over Nariva River), Facitrichophora panama sp. n. (Panama. Darien: Garachine [8°04'N, 78°22'W]), Polytrichophora adarca sp. n. (Barbados. Christ Church: Graeme Hall Nature Sanctuary [13°04.2'N, 59°34.7'W; swamp]), Polytrichophora arnaudorum sp. n. (Mexico. Baja California. San Felipe [31°01.5'N, 114°50.4'W]), Polytrichophora barba sp. n. (Cuba. Sancti Spiritus: Topes de Collantes [21°54.4'N, 80°01.4'W, 670 m]), Polytrichophora flavella sp. n. (Peru. Madre de Dios: Rio Manu, Pakitza [11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m]), Polytrichophora marinoniorum sp. n. (Brazil. Paraná: Antonina [25°28.4'S, 48°40.9'W; mangal]), Polytrichophora rostra sp. n. (Peru. Madre de Dios: Rio Manu, Pakitza [11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m]), Polytrichophora sinuosa sp. n. (Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad. St. Andrew: Lower Manzanilla [12 km S; 10°24'N, 61°02'W]), Polytrichophora mimbres sp. n. (United States. New Mexico. Grant: Mimbres River [New Mexico Highway 61 & Royal John Mine Road; 32°43.8'N, 107°52'W; 1665 m]), Polytrichophora salix sp. n. (United States. Alaska. Matanuska-Susitna: Willow Creek [61°46.1'N, 150°04.2'W; 50 m]), Polytrichophora sturtevantorum sp. n. (United States. Tennessee. Shelby: Meeman Shelby State Park [Mississippi River; 35°20.4'N, 90°2.1'W; 98 m]), Polytrichophora prolata sp. n. (Belize. Stann Creek: Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary [16°45'N, 88°30'W]). All known New World species of both genera are described with an

  15. Change of name for the Oriental robber fly Nyssomyia Hull, 1962 (Diptera: Asilidae, Asilinae), nec Nyssomyia Barretto, 1962 (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae).

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Fisher, Eric

    2015-08-14

    A new name for the Oriental genus Nyssomyia Hull, 1962 (Diptera: Asilidae) is proposed. Homonymy exists between this Oriental robber fly genus and the more senior Neotropical phlebotomine sand fly genus Nyssomyia Barretto, 1962 (sensu Galati 2003) (Diptera: Psychodidae), and the following replacement name is proposed: Ekkentronomyia nom. nov. for Nyssomyia Hull (nec Barretto 1962). Accordingly, a new combination is herein proposed for the only species currently included in this genus: Ekkentronomyia ochracea (Hull, 1962) comb. nov.

  16. Evidence for selection of insecticide resistance due to insensitive acetylcholinesterase by carbamate-treated nets in Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) from Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Corbel, Vincent; Hougard, Jean-Marc; N'Guessan, Raphael; Chandre, Fabrice

    2003-11-01

    Pyrethroid-treated nets are an efficient tool for reducing malaria transmission and morbidity. The recent evolution of pyrethroid resistance in several Anopheles species represents a major threat for the future success of roll back malaria in Africa. The possible use of nonpyrethroid insecticides, such as carbamates, on nets is a promising alternative solution because these insecticides are effective against susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant populations of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes. Unfortunately, carbamate resistance as a result of insensitive acetylcholinesterase has recently been detected in Anopheles gambiae s.s. populations from Côte d'Ivoire. Using biochemical assays on surviving Anopheles mosquitoes from an experimental hut trial, we showed evidence for selection for an insensitive acetylcholinesterase mechanism by carbamate impregnated bednets. However, no such selection has been found with nets treated with pyrethroid alone or pyrethroid/carbamate "two-in-one" -treated nets. Because pyrethroid-impregnated nets were suspected to select for the Kdr mutation in An. gambiae, we propose that use of two-in-one nets could be a promising alternative strategy for the management of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors.

  17. Comparative anatomy of female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XX. Genus Rampamyia Reinert, Harbach and Kitching.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of the genus Rampamyia was conducted. The female genitalia of the genus are characterized and a comparison with other taxa is provided. The type species of the genus, Ra. notoscripta (Skuse), is illustrated. Treatment of the genital mo...

  18. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXVIII. Genus Luius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A morphological analysis of the female genitalia of the species included in genus Luius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted. The genitalia of the type species of the genus, Lu. fengi (Edwards), are illustrated for the first time. Treatment of the genital morphology of the genus includes a ...

  19. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXX. Genus Gilesius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Gilesius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted. The genitalia of the type species of the genus, Gi. pulchriventer (Giles), are illustrated for the first time. Treatment of the genital morphology of the genus includ...

  20. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXXVII. Genus Bifidistylus Reinert, Harbach and Kitching

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Bifidistylus Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted. Treatment of the genital morphology of the genus includes a composite description of the genus, a detailed description and illustration of the type sp...

  1. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXXIII. Genus Lewnielsenius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A morphological analysis of the female genitalia of the species included in genus Lewnielsenius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted. The genitalia of the type species of the genus, Ln. muelleri (Dyar), are illustrated. Treatment of the genital morphology of the genus includes a detailed de...

  2. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXXIV. Genus Catageiomyia Theobald

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Catageiomyia Theobald was conducted. Treatment of the genital morphology of the genus includes a composite description of the genus, a detailed description and illustration of the type species (Cg. irritans (...

  3. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXXVI. Genus Polyleptiomyia Theobald

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Polyleptiomyia Theobald was conducted. Treatment of the genital morphology of the genus includes a description of the genus, a detailed description and illustration of the type species, Po. albocephala (Theobald), a list ...

  4. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXXI. Genus Sallumia Reinert, Harbach and Kitching

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Sallumia Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted. The genitalia of the type species of the genus, Sl. hortator (Dyar and Knab), are illustrated. Treatment of the genital morphology of the genus includes a description...

  5. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXXII. Genus Jarnellius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Jarnellius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted. The female genitalia of the genus are characterized and a comparison with other taxa is provided. The type species of the genus, Ja. varipalpus (Coquil...

  6. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in the tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XIX. Genus Danielsia Theobald

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Danielsia Theobald was conducted. The female genitalia of the genus are characterized and a comparison with other taxa is provided. The type species of the genus, Dn. albotaeniata Leicester, is illustrated. ...

  7. Discovery of the genus Claraeola Aczél in Iran with the description of two new species (Diptera: Pipunculidae).

    PubMed

    Motamedinia, Behnam; Kehlmaier, Christian; Mokhtari, Azizollah; Rakhshani, Ehsan; Gilasian, Ebrahim

    2017-02-06

    The genus Claraeola Aczél is recorded from Iran for the first time. Two new species, Claraeola parnianae Motamedinia & Kehlmaier sp. nov. and Claraeola khorshidae Motamedinia & Kehlmaier sp. nov., are described and illustrated. An updated identification key to the Western Palaearctic species of the genus Claraeola is provided. Both species were characterized morphologically and by DNA barcoding of the mitochondrial COI gene.

  8. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXVI. Genus Collessius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Collessius was conducted and a composite description is provided. The genitalia of the type species of the genus, Co. macfarlanei (Edwards), are illustrated. Collessius is divided into two subgenera, Alloeom...

  9. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXXV. Genus Elpeytonius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Elpeytonius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted. The genitalia of the two species included in the genus, El. apicoannulatus (Edwards) and El. simulans (Newstead and Carter), are illustrated. Treatmen...

  10. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXVII. Genus Hopkinsius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of the genus Hopkinsius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted and a composite description is provided. The genitalia of the type species of the genus, Hk. ingrami (Edwards), are illustrated for the first time. Hopkinsius is divide...

  11. Iranotrichia gen. n., a new genus of Scenopinidae (Diptera) from Iran, with a key to window fly genera of the world.

    PubMed

    Winterton, Shaun L; Gharali, Babak

    2011-01-01

    An unusual new genus of Scenopinidae, Iranotrichia gen. n., comprising two newly discovered species (Iranotrichia insolitasp. n. and Iranotrichia nigrasp. n.), is described from Iran. Iranotrichiagen. n. are scenopinine window flies with a habitus reminiscent of certain bee fly genera (Bombyliidae), based on colouration and elongate mouthparts and antennae. The phylogenetic placement of this distinctive new genus is discussed and a dichotomous key to world genera is presented. The genus name Kelseyananom. n. is proposed to replace Caenoneura Kröber, 1924, which was found to be preoccupied by Thomson (1870: 270) (Hymenoptera) and Kirby (1890: 136) (Odonata).

  12. A new species of spider fly in the genus Sabroskya Schlinger from Malawi, with a key to Acrocerinae world genera (Diptera, Acroceridae).

    PubMed

    Winterton, Shaun L; Gillung, Jéssica P

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we diagnose the genus Sabroskya Schlinger, 1960 and describe Sabroskya schlingerisp. n. from Malawi. We also provide dichotomous keys to species of Sabroskya and to world genera of the subfamily Acrocerinae, both extant and extinct.

  13. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXXVIII. Genus Petermattinglyius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species of the genus Petermattinglyius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted and a composite description is provided. Petermattinglyius is divided into two subgenera, Petermattinglyius and Aglaonotus Reinert, Harbach and Kitchin...

  14. Morphological redescription and DNA barcoding of Linevitshia prima Makarchenko, 1987 (Diptera: Chironomidae: Diamesinae) from Amur River basin (Russian Far East), with notes on systematics of the genus.

    PubMed

    Makarchenko, Eugenyi A; Semenchenko, Alexander A

    2014-10-10

    Additions and corrections to the diagnosis of the genus Linevitshia for male adult, pupa and larva are given, and systematic position of the genus is discussed. Illustrated redescription of adult male and first description of 4th instar larva of L. prima Makarchenko from Amur River basin are provided. Comparison of data based on a new material with those of L. yezoensis Endo showed that the latter name is a junior synonym of L. prima. The species-specificity of L. prima COI sequences is analyzed and the sequences are presented as diagnostic characters-molecular markers of L. prima.

  15. L1014F-kdr Mutation in Indian Anopheles subpictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Arising From Two Alternative Transversions in the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel and a Single PIRA-PCR for Their Detection.

    PubMed

    Singh, O P; Dykes, C L; Sharma, G; Das, M K

    2015-01-01

    Leucine-to-phenylalanine substitution at residue L1014 in the voltage-gated sodium channel, target site of action for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and pyrethroids, is the most common knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation reported in several insects conferring resistance against DDT and pyrethroids. Here, we report presence of two coexisting alternative transversions, A>T and A>C, on the third codon position of L1014 residue in malaria vector Anopheles subpictus Grassi (species A) from Jamshedpur (India), both leading to the same amino acid substitution of Leu-to-Phe with allelic frequencies of 19 and 67%, respectively. A single primer-introduced restriction analysis-polymerase chain reaction (PIRA-PCR) was devised for the identification of L1014F-kdr mutation in An. subpictus resulting from either type of point mutation. Genotyping of samples with PIRA-PCR revealed high frequency (82%) of L1014F-kdr mutation in the study area.

  16. Cryptic Species in the Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis (Diptera: Culicidae) Complex: Incongruence Between Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction Identification and Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA COI Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    LEHR, M. A.; KILPATRICK, C. W.; WILKERSON, R. C.; CONN, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) diagnostic bands are one tool used to differentiate cryptic mosquito species in the Anopheles albitarsis Complex. Monophyly of four species (A. albitarsis Lynch-Arribálzaga, A. albitarsis B, A. deaneorum Rosa-Freitas, and A. marajoara Galvão & Damasceno) currently identified with the RAPD technique was assessed using sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses support monophyly for A. albitarsis s.s., A. albitarsis B, and A. deaneorum. Anopheles marajoara, as identified by RAPD banding patterns, was either polyphyletic or paraphyletic in all phylogenetic analyses. The phylogenetic pattern and within-species genetic distances observed in A. marajoara suggest the existence of a previously unidentified species (species E) in northern Brazil and Venezuela. Diagnostic RAPD bands were unable to distinguish between A. marajoara and species E, probably because of the low number of correlated bands used to identify species and weaknesses of the RAPD technique, in particular, violations of the untested assumption of homology of comigrating bands. A. marajoara (even without species E) is paraphyletic with respect to A. deaneorum; if A. deaneorum is a separate species from A. marajoara, then A. marajoara may consist of two or more species in Amazonian Brazil. Based on mtDNA COI sequences, there are at least four phylogenetic species within the Albitarsis Complex: A. albitarsis s.s., A. albitarsis B, A. marajoara, and species E; the species status of A. deaneorum is ambiguous. PMID:17082822

  17. A new species of spider fly in the genus Sabroskya Schlinger from Malawi, with a key to Acrocerinae world genera (Diptera, Acroceridae)

    PubMed Central

    Winterton, Shaun L.; Gillung, Jéssica P.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In this paper we diagnose the genus Sabroskya Schlinger, 1960 and describe Sabroskya schlingeri sp. n. from Malawi. We also provide dichotomous keys to species of Sabroskya and to world genera of the subfamily Acrocerinae, both extant and extinct. PMID:22423193

  18. The spruce shoot gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae): Piceacecis, a new genus for a non-native pest of Norway spruce from Europe and its native American relative

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dasineura abietiperda (Henschel), a European pest of Norway spruce, Picea abies (Pinaceae), is reported as new to North America. Damage symptoms are illustrated and an outline of its biology is given. A new genus, Piceacecis Gagné is described to include it and its North American relative, Phytophag...

  19. Six new species of Microdon Meigen from Madagascar (Diptera: Syrphidae).

    PubMed

    Reemer, Menno; Bot, Sander

    2015-10-28

    Six new species of the myrmecophilous hoverfly genus Microdon Meigen (Diptera: Syrphidae) are described from Madagascar. Redescriptions are given for the three other Madagascan species of this genus. Keys are presented to the Madagascan genera of the subfamily Microdontinae and to the Madagascan species of Microdon.

  20. Millipede Defensive Compounds Are a Double-Edged Sword: Natural History of the Millipede-Parasitic Genus Myriophora Brown (Diptera: Phoridae).

    PubMed

    Hash, John M; Millar, Jocelyn G; Heraty, John M; Harwood, James F; Brown, Brian V

    2017-02-01

    Toxic defensive secretions produced by millipedes in the orders Julida, Spirobolida, Spirostreptida, and Polydesmida are highly repellent to most vertebrate and invertebrate natural enemies, but a few insects have evolved mechanisms to overcome these defenses. We demonstrate that highly specialized parasitic phorid flies in the species-rich genus Myriophora use volatile millipede defensive compounds as kairomones for host location. Of the two predominant quinone components in the defensive blend of juliform millipedes, 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone alone was sufficient to attract adult flies of both sexes; however, a combination of 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone and 2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone increased attractiveness nearly threefold. We further discuss oviposition behavior, adult and larval feeding habits, life history parameters, and the potential competitive interactions between phorid flies in the genus Myriophora and other millipede-associated insects.

  1. A new species of Heterangaeus Alexander, 1925 crane flies (Diptera: Pediciidae) from north-central Mongolia with first description of the larva for the genus.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Podeniene, Virginija; Gelhaus, Jon

    2014-06-09

    A new species of Pediciidae, Heterangaeus mongolicus is described from specimens collected during the fieldwork of the Mongolian Aquatic Insect Survey Project in north-central Mongolia, Tov Aimag (district). Descriptions and illustrations of the distinguishing morphological features are provided. Habitat information is presented. Female ovipositor and larvae of Heterangaeus are described and illustrated for the first time. This discovery of Heterangaeus in Mongolia represents a 1700 kilometer extension of the known distribution for the genus.

  2. Chromosomal and morphological taxonomy of a new species of black fly in the genus Metacnephia (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Western Anatolia, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Şirin, Umit D; Adler, Peter H

    2015-11-25

    A new species of black fly collected in April from streams 950-1000 m above sea level in Western Anatolia, Turkey, is described on the basis of females, males, pupae, larvae, and polytene chromosomes. Metacnephia phrygiensis new species is structurally and chromosomally distinct from all other known species of the genus, particularly in having unique fixed inversions in chromosomal arms IL and IIIL and a fenestrated cocoon.

  3. Morphological and Molecular Revision of the Genus Ozirhincus (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)—Long-Snouted Seed-Feeding Gall Midges on Asteraceae

    PubMed Central

    Dorchin, Netta; Astrin, Jonas J.; Bodner, Levona; Harris, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    The Palaearctic gall-midge genus Ozirhincus is unique among the Cecidomyiidae for its morphology and biology. Unlike most other phytophagous gall midges, species in this genus do not induce galls but develop inside achenes of Asteraceae plants. The heads of adults are characterized by an unusually elongate proboscis, the function of which is unclear. Despite a lot of attention from taxonomists in the 19th and early 20th century, a proper revision of the genus has been hindered by complex host associations, the loss of most relevant type material, and the lack of a thorough comparative study of all life stages. The present revision integrated morphological, molecular, and life-history data to clearly define species boundaries within Ozirhincus, and delimit host-plant ranges for each of them. A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes confirmed the validity of four distinct species but did not resolve the relationships among them. All species are oligophages, and some may occur together on the same host plant. Species with wider host-plant ranges have wider European and circum-Mediterranean distribution ranges, whereas species with narrower host ranges are limited to Europe and the Russian Far East. As part of the present work, O. hungaricus is reinstated from synonymy, O. tanaceti is synonymized under O. longicollis, neotypes are designated for O. longicollis and O. millefolii, and a lectotype is designated for O. anthemidis. PMID:26134526

  4. Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) IN PERIDOMICILIARY AREA DURING ASYMPTOMATIC MALARIA TRANSMISSION IN THE ATLANTIC FOREST: MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF BLOOD-MEAL SOURCES INDICATES HUMANS AS PRIMARY INTERMEDIATE HOSTS

    PubMed Central

    Kirchgatter, Karin; Tubaki, Rosa Maria; Malafronte, Rosely dos Santos; Alves, Isabel Cristina; Lima, Giselle Fernandes Maciel de Castro; Guimarães, Lilian de Oliveira; Zampaulo, Robson de Almeida; Wunderlich, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii has been implicated as the primary vector of human and simian malarias out of the Brazilian Amazon and specifically in the Atlantic Forest regions. The presence of asymptomatic human cases, parasite-positive wild monkeys and the similarity between the parasites infecting them support the discussion whether these infections can be considered as a zoonosis. Although many aspects of the biology of An. cruzii have already been addressed, studies conducted during outbreaks of malaria transmission, aiming at the analysis of blood feeding and infectivity, are missing in the Atlantic Forest. This study was conducted in the location of Palestina, Juquitiba, where annually the majority of autochthonous human cases are notified in the Atlantic Forest of the state of São Paulo. Peridomiciliary sites were selected for collection of mosquitoes in a perimeter of up to 100 m around the residences of human malaria cases. The mosquitoes were analyzed with the purpose of molecular identification of blood-meal sources and to examine the prevalence of Plasmodium. A total of 13,441 females of An. (Ker.) cruzii were collected. The minimum infection rate was calculated at 0.03% and 0.01%, respectively, for P. vivax and P. malariae and only human blood was detected in the blood-fed mosquitoes analyzed. This data reinforce the hypothesis that asymptomatic human carriers are the main source of anopheline infection in the peridomiciliary area, making the probability of zoonotic transmission less likely to happen. PMID:25229220

  5. A metagenomic assessment of the bacteria associated with Lucilia sericata and Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a blow fly genus of forensic, medical, veterinary, and agricultural importance. Both species of this genus causes myiasis and are vectors of disease causing bacteria. This genus is also famous because of its beneficial uses in maggot therapy. ...

  6. Paenalcaligenes hermetiae sp. nov., isolated from the larval gut of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), and emended description of the genus Paenalcaligenes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youn Yeop; Lee, Jae Kook; Park, Kwan Ho; Kim, Seo-Yeon; Roh, Seong Woon; Lee, Sang-Beom; Choi, Youngcheol; Lee, Sung-Jae

    2013-11-01

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile and short rod-shaped bacterium, strain KBL009(T), was isolated from the larval gut of Hermetia illucens. Strain KBL009(T) grew optimally at 37 °C, at pH 6.0 and with 1-2 % (w/v) NaCl. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain KBL009(T) showed 97.6 % similarity to that of Paenalcaligenes hominis CCUG 53761A(T) indicating its classification with the genus Paenalcaligenes. The major fatty acids were cyclo-C17 : 0, C16 : 0 and summed feature 2 (comprising C14 : 0 3-OH/iso-C16 : 1). The respiratory quinones were ubiquinone-8 (Q-8), predominating, and a minor amount of Q-7. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, one unknown aminolipid and five unknown polar lipids. The polyamine pattern contained predominantly putrescine and relatively high amounts of spermidine. The betaproteobacterial-specific 2-hydroxyputrescine could only be detected in trace amounts. The G+C content of genomic DNA was 56.1 mol%. Results from DNA-DNA hybridization with P. hominis KCTC 23583(T) unambiguously demonstrated that strain KBL009(T) represents a novel species in the genus Paenalcaligenes. Based on phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic characterization, the novel species Paenalcaligenes hermetiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KBL009(T) ( = KACC 16840(T) = JCM 18423(T)). An emended description of the genus Paenalcaligenes is also provided.

  7. Revision of New World Species of the Shore-fly Subgenus Allotrichoma Becker of the Genus Allotrichoma with Description of the Subgenus Neotrichoma (Diptera, Ephydridae, Hecamedini)

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Wayne N.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The New World species of the subgenera Allotrichoma Becker and Neotrichoma (new subgenus) are revised, including a phylogenetic analysis of the species groups and subgenera within the genus Allotrichoma. For phylogenetic perspective and to document the monophyly of the genus Allotrichoma and its included subgenera and species groups, we also provide a cladistic analysis of genera within the tribe Hecamedini. The ingroup included seven exemplar congeners from within Allotrichoma. Outgroup sampling included exemplars of other genera within Hecamedini and from the putative sister group, Lipochaetini, and to root the analysis, we used an exemplar of the tribe Discocerinini. Analyses with successive weighting and implied weighting recovered a monophyletic Allotrichoma and indicated clades within the genus. Eight new species are described (type locality in parenthesis): Allotrichoma bifurcatum (Utah. Utah: Lake Shore (40°06.9'N, 111°41.8'W; 1370 m)), Allotrichoma dynatum (Oregon. Benton: Finley National Wildlife Refuge (44°24.6'N, 123°19.5'W)), Allotrichoma occidentale (Oregon. Lake: Lakeview (44 km E; Drake Creek; 42°11'N, 119°59.3'W)), Allotrichoma robustum (California. Kern: Kern River (35°16.1'N, 119°18.4'W)), Allotrichoma sabroskyi (New Mexico. Sandoval: La Cueva (Junction of Highways 126 and 4; 35°52'N, 106°38.4'W; 2342 m)), Allotrichoma wallowa (Oregon Baker: Goose Creek (35 km E Baker City; 44°49.2'N, 117°27.79'W; 825 m)), Allotrichoma baliops (Florida. Monroe: Key West (Willie Ward Park; 24°32.9'N, 81°47.9'W)), and Allotrichoma insulare (Dominica. Cabrits Swamp (15°35'N, 61°29'W)). Within Allotrichoma, we recognize three subgenera of which one, Neotrichoma (type species: Allotrichoma atrilabre), is newly described. All known species from the New World are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for the New World species are provided. A

  8. A new species of the genus Polyodaspis Duda, 1933 (Diptera: Acalyptratae: Chloropidae) from Central Asia with a key to the Palaearctic species.

    PubMed

    Nartshuk, E P

    2016-01-28

    A new species, Polyodaspis ferulae n. sp., from Central Asia (Uzbekistan) is described. The species was collected on inflorescences of Ferula foetida (Apiaceae). Siphonella levicola Becker in Becker and Stein, 1913 described from Iran is synonymized with Polyodaspis sulcicollis (Meigen, 1838) based on investigation of the holotype. A key to 9 species of the genus Polyodaspis Duda, 1933 is proposed with illustrations of male genitalia. Polyodaspis and Anacamptoneurum Becker, 1903 are treated as separate genera. New localities of P. sulcicollis (Meigen, 1838) from Kazakhstan and Central Asia are given.

  9. A new species of the genus Rhinoleucophenga (Diptera: Drosophilidae) and redescription of five species from Neotropical region.

    PubMed

    Poppe, Jean Lucas; Valente, Vera Lúcia DA Silva; Dos Santos, João Pedro Junges; Gottschalk, Marco Silva

    2016-12-16

    The genus Rhinoleucophenga Hendel comprises 29 nominal species with New World distribution. In the present study five species are redescribed: R. angustifrons Malogolowkin; R. lopesi Malogolowkin; R. matogrossensis Malogolowkin; R. nigrescens Malogolowkin and Rhinoleucophenga personata Malogolowkin. R. capixabensis Culik & Ventura is proposed as a new junior synonymy of R. lopesi. Other species, R. jacareacanga sp. nov., is described from the specimens deposited at CEIOC/Fiocruz. The description of new species and review of some former descriptions of Rhinoleucophenga is indispensable since the distribution records of some species are doubtful.

  10. Review of the little-known western Nearctic fly genus Philetus Melander (Diptera: Empididae), with a discussion of its phylogenetic assignment.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Jeffrey M; Brooks, Scott E; Sinclair, Bradley J

    2016-03-21

    The western North American empidid genus Philetus Melander is reviewed, including redescription of the two included species, P. memorandus Melander and P. schizophorus Melander. A lectotype is designated for P. schizophorus. The        distributions of both species are mapped and the male terminalia are illustrated. The female of P. schizophorus is discovered for the first time through comparison of COI mitochondrial DNA barcode sequences. The phylogenetic assignment of  Philetus within the Empididae is discussed based on a reinterpretation of male terminalia homologies.

  11. A survey of biting midges of the genus Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in NE Bulgaria, with respect to transmission of avian haemosporidians.

    PubMed

    Bobeva, Aneliya; Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Bensch, Staffan; Radrova, Jana

    2013-12-01

    This study presents data from a molecular survey of the species of the genus Culicoides from the region of Kalimok Field Station (NE Bulgaria) and haemosporidian parasites occurring in them in order to investigate the host-parasite specificity of haemosporidians to their dipteran vectors. The identification of Culicoides spp. was carried out by morphological and molecular-genetic methods. We collected and analysed 230 individuals of the genus Culicoides. Nine species were found. Eight species were identified morphologically; Culicoides obsoletus, C. riethi, C. newsteadi, C. circumscriptus, C. festivipennis, C. punctatus, C. pictipennis and C. puncticollis. The ninth species might be classified as either of C. nubeculosus or C. riethi and its identification needs additional investigations. The total prevalence of Haemoproteus in the examined biting midges was 2.17%. Three individuals of C. pictipennis were infected with the Haemoproteus lineage TURDUS2 (prevalence 16.67%), a common parasite of thrushes (Turdidae). Two individuals of C. circumscriptus contained Haemoproteus lineages (prevalence 2.78%); these were the lineage HAWF2 (previously reported from Coccothraustes coccothraustes) and a new lineage CULCIR1 not previously reported in the literature.

  12. Immature development of the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae S.L. (Diptera: Culicidae), in relation to soil-substrate organic matter content of larval habitats in northcentral Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olayemi, I K; Ojo, V O

    2013-02-01

    This study elucidated the relationships between larval habitat soil-substrate Organic Matter Content (OMC) and immature development of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae S.L. Day-old larvae of the mosquito were reared in media substrated with typical soil samples (i.e., sandy, silt, clayey and loamy soils), from established anopheline breeding sites, to provide a gradient in soil-substrate OMC. The OMC of the soil samples were determined by ignition to a constant weight; while the developing A. gambiae mosquitoes in the culture media were monitored daily for survivorship and duration of immature life stages. The results indicated significant (p < 0.05) variation in OMC of the soil types (range = 11.21 +/- 2.91% in sandy to 29.83 +/- 2.96% in loamy soils). However, though Daily Larval Survival Rates (DLSR) were relatively high (range = 95.21 +/- 2.96 to 96.70 +/- 1.44%), as influenced by OMC, such values were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among the soil-substrate types; results contrary to those of Larval Success Rates (LSR) (i.e., range = 52.07 +/- 13.64 to 74.39 +/- 6.60%). Daily Pupation Rate (DPR) of the mosquitoes varied significantly among the soil-substrates, ranging from 13.87 +/- 2.39% in clayey to 25.00 +/- 4.30% in loamy substrates. Soil-substrate OMC significantly extended the Duration of Immature Life Stages (DILS) of the mosquitoes only in the sandy soil type (range = 12.76 +/- 1.74 to 15.81 +/- 2.40 days). On the whole, DILS was inversely related to soil-substrate OMC. Cross-correlational analysis revealed significant positive association among most of the variables tested. The findings of this study should serve as baseline information for the development of effective environmental management strategies for malaria larval-vector control.

  13. Neoethilla, a new genus for the first record of the Ethillini from the New World (Diptera, Tachinidae, Exoristinae)

    PubMed Central

    Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Wood, D. Monty; O’Hara, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract New genus Neoethilla gen. n., is described to include two New World nominal species formerly recognized as valid species in Winthemia Robineau-Desvoidy: Exorista ignobilis van der Wulp and Winthemia antennalis Coquillett. Winthemia antennalis is proposed as a junior synonym of Exorista ignobilis syn. n. Neoethilla ignobilis comb. n. is removed from the Winthemiini and placed in the tribe Ethillini (Exoristinae) based on a study of the external features of adults, male terminalia, female reproductive system, and egg morphology. The small tribe Ethillini, not hitherto known from the New World, currently comprises fourteen genera worldwide. The phylogeny and systematics of the Ethillini and their relationships with related tribes are discussed and documented by descriptions and illustrations of relevant character states. PMID:23378795

  14. Revision of the frog fly genus Caiusa Surcouf, 1920 (Diptera, Calliphoridae), with a note on the identity of Plinthomyia emimelania Rondani, 1875.

    PubMed

    Rognes, Knut

    2015-04-30

    The Oriental, Australasian and Oceanian genus Caiusa Surcouf, 1920 is revised, species concepts being based on male and female genitalia. A key to males for all known species, and a key to females for all except one are given. All relevant types still in existence have been studied, complete synonymies given and the geographical distribution reconsidered. The eight species included in the genus are: Caiusa borneoensis sp. nov. (Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam); Caiusa coomani Séguy, 1948 (China, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam); Caiusa indica Surcouf, 1920 (Australia, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam); Caiusa karrakerae sp. nov. (Malaysia, Thailand); Caiusa kurahashii sp. nov. (Indonesia, Japan, Philippines); Caiusa pooae sp. nov. (Thailand); Caiusa testacea Senior-White, 1923 (India, Nepal, Sri Lanka) and Caiusa violacea Séguy, 1925, stat. rev. (Cambodia, China, Laos, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam). A lectotype is designated for Caiusa indica to fix the interpretation of the name. Caiusa nigronitens Senior-White, 1923, syn. nov. and Caiusa surcoufi Bezzi, 1927, syn. nov. are established as junior synonyms of Caiusa indica. Caiusa violacea is correctly diagnosed and errors in the original description of the female holotype are pointed out. Caiusa dubiosa Villeneuve, 1927 is established as a junior synonym of C. violacea, syn. nov. Seven Caiusa species have been reared from the egg mass of various species of frogs. The reproductive mode of the eighth species, i.e., C. indica, is unknown. Five species, i.e., C. borneoensis, C. coomani, C. karrakerae, C. kurahashii and C. violacea have been reared from one or more of the foam nesting frog species Chiromantis nongkhorensis (Cochran, 1927), Polypedates leucomystax (Gravenhorst, 1927), Polypedates megacephalus Hallowell, 1861, Rhacophorus annamensis Smith, 1924, Rhacophorus dulitensis Boulenger, 1892, Rhacophorus kio

  15. Contribution of Anopheles funestus, An. gambiae and An. nili (Diptera: Culicidae) to the perennial malaria transmission in the southern and western forest areas of Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Adja, A M; N’goran, E K; Koudou, B G; Dia, I; Kengne, P; Fontenille, D; Chandre, F

    2011-01-01

    The involvement of members of the Anopheles gambiae complex Giles and An. funestus Giles and An. nili Theobald groups in the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum was recently investigated in the villages of Gbatta and Kpéhiri, which lie, respectively, in forest areas in the west and south of Côte d’Ivoire. Adult female mosquitoes were collected, using human landing catches, inside and outside dwellings. After identification and dissection, the heads and thoraces of all the anopheline mosquitoes were tested, in an ELISA, for circumsporozoite protein (CSP). All the female anopheline mosquitoes collected and identified to species using PCR were found to be An. gambiae s.s., An. nili s.s. or An. funestus s.s., with An. gambiae s.s. and An. funestus s.s. predominant in Gbatta but An. nili s.s. the most common species in Kpéhiri. In Gbatta, 3.1% of the female An. gambiae collected, 5.0% of the female An. funestus and 1.8% of the female An. nili were found CSP-positive. The corresponding values in Kpéhiri were even higher, at 5.9%, 6.2% and 2.4%, respectively. The estimated entomological inoculation rates (EIR) were very high: 302 infected bites (139 from An. gambiae, 146 from An. funestus and 17 from An. nili)/person-year in Gbatta and 484 infected bites (204 from An. gambiae, 70 from An. funestus and 210 from An. nili)/person-year in Kpéhiri. In Gbatta, An. gambiae s.s. was responsible for most of the rainy-season transmission while An. funestus became the main malaria vector in the dry seasons. In Kpéhiri, however, An. nili appeared to be the main vector throughout the year, with An. gambiae of secondary importance and An. funestus only becoming a significant vector during the rainy season. Although, in both study sites, intense transmission was therefore occurring and the same three species of anopheline mosquito were present, the relative importance of each mosquito species in the epidemiology of the human malaria at each site differed markedly. PMID

  16. Evaluation of the efficacy of DDT indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticidal nets against insecticide resistant populations of Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) from Ethiopia using experimental huts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) and Long-Lasting Insecticidal nets (LLINs) are major malaria vector control tools in Ethiopia. However, recent reports from different parts of the country showed that populations of Anopheles arabiensis, the principal malaria vector, have developed resistance to most families of insecticides recommended for public health use which may compromise the efficacy of both of these key vector control interventions. Thus, this study evaluated the efficacy of DDT IRS and LLINs against resistant populations of An. arabiensis using experimental huts in Asendabo area, southwestern Ethiopia. Methods The susceptibility status of populations of An. arabiensis was assessed using WHO test kits to DDT, deltamethrin, malathion, lambda-cyhalothrin, fenitrothion and bendiocarb. The efficacy of LLIN (PermaNet® 2.0), was evaluated using the WHO cone bioassay. Moreover, the effect of the observed resistance against malaria vector control interventions (DDT IRS and LLINs) were assessed using experimental huts. Results The findings of this study revealed that populations of An. arabiensis were resistant to DDT, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and malathion with mortality rates of 1.3%, 18.8%, 36.3% and 72.5%, respectively but susceptible to fenitrothion and bendiocarb with mortality rates of 98.81% and 97.5%, respectively. The bio-efficacy test of LLIN (PermaNet® 2.0) against An. arabiensis revealed that the mosquito population showed moderate knockdown (64%) and mortality (78%). Moreover, mosquito mortalities in DDT sprayed huts and in huts with LLINs were not significantly different (p > 0.05) from their respective controls. Conclusion The evaluation of the efficacy of DDT IRS and LLINs using experimental huts showed that both vector control tools had only low to moderate efficacy against An. arabiensis populations from Ethiopia. Despite DDT being replaced by carbamates for IRS, the low efficacy of LLINs against the resistant population of An

  17. α-Humulene and β-elemene from Syzygium zeylanicum (Myrtaceae) essential oil: highly effective and eco-friendly larvicides against Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious pathogens and parasites to humans and animals, including malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis and filariasis. The extensive use of chemical pesticides leads to the development of resistance in mosquito vector populations and serious non-target effects on human health and the environment. Myrtaceae plants can be a useful reservoir of natural products effective against Culicidae young instars. In this research, we evaluated the mosquitocidal potential of the essential oil (EO) from Syzygium zeylanicum leaves against larvae of three mosquitoes of medical and veterinary importance, the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus, and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the S. zeylanicum EO contained at least 18 compounds. The major chemical components were α-humulene (37.8.5 %) and β-elemene (10.7 %). The EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 values of 83.11, 90.45, and 97.96 μg/ml, respectively. The two major constituents extracted from the S. zeylanicum EO were tested individually for acute toxicity against larvae of the three mosquito vectors. α-Humulene and β-elemene appeared highly effective against An. subpictus (LC50 = 6.19 and 10.26 μg/ml, respectively), followed by Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 6.86 and 11.15 μg/ml) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 = 7.39 and 12.05 μg/ml). Furthermore, the EO and its major components was safe towards the non-target fish Gambusia affinis; LC50 values were 20374.26, 1024.95, and 2073.18 μg/ml, respectively for EO, α-humulene and β-elemene. Overall, this study highlighted that the acute toxicity of S. zeylanicum EO towards mosquito larvae was mainly due to the presence of α-humulene and β-elemene. Furthermore, we pointed

  18. Mermithid nematodes found in adult Anopheles from southeastern Senegal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over two dozen mermithid nematodes have been described parasitizing mosquitoes worldwide, however, only two species were found in Africa. Mermithid nematodes kill their mosquito host upon emergence, which suggests that they could be developed as biological control agents of mosquitoes. Both Romanomermis culicivorax and Romanomermis iyengari have been reared for mass release to control numerous Anopheles species vector populations, and in one instance this may have led to reduced malaria prevalence in a human population. Methods Anopheles mosquitoes were collected during a malaria study in southeastern Senegal. Two different adult blood fed mosquitoes had a single mermithid nematode emerge from their anus while they were being held post-capture. Primers from the 18 S rDNA were developed to sequence nematode DNA and screen mosquitoes for mermithid DNA. 18 S rDNA from the Senegalese mermithid and other mermithid entries in GenBank were used to create a Maximum Parsimony tree of the Mermithidae family. Results The mermithid was present in 1.8% (10/551) of the sampled adult Anopheles species in our study area. The mermithid was found in An. gambiae s.s., An. funestus, and An. rufipes from the villages of Ndebou, Boundoucondi, and Damboucoye. Maximum parsimony analysis confirmed that the nematode parasites found in Anopheles were indeed mermithid parasites, and of the mermithid sequences available in GenBank, they are most closely related to Strelkovimermis spiculatus. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of mermithids from adult Anopheles mosquitoes in Senegal. The mermithid appears to infect Anopheles mosquitoes that develop in diverse larval habitats. Although maximum parsimony analysis determined the mermithid was closely related to Strelkovimermis spiculatus, several characteristics of the mermithid were more similar to the Empidomermis genus. Future mermithid isolations will hopefully allow: formal taxonomic identification

  19. Mites (Acari: Trombidiformes) parasitizing mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in an Atlantic Forest area in southern Brazil with a new mite genus country record.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Emili Bortolon; Favretto, Mario Arthur; Dos Santos Costa, Samuel Geremias; Navarro-Silva, Mario Antonio

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a total of 4146 culicids collected in an Atlantic Forest area in Paraná state, southern Brazil were examined for the presence of mites. Forty larval Parasitengone mites (Arrenurus spp., Arrenuridae; Durenia spp., Trombellidae; Microtrombidium spp., Microtrombidiidae) parasitized 25 specimens of mosquitoes, with the intensity varying from one to nine mites attached. Most mites were found on Aedes serratus/nubilus, Culex vomerifer, Cx. pedroi and Cx. sacchettae. The overall percentage of parasitized mosquitoes was 0.6 %. The highest intensity of mites encountered was in an individual of Cx. pedroi with nine attached mites. Regarding the attachment site, most mite specimens were attached to the abdomen (n = 25), whereas 15 were located on the thorax. Specimens of Arrenurus spp. were only found on the abdomen of mosquitoes, and the same was observed for Microtrombidium spp., while Durenia spp. attached to both the thorax (n = 15) and abdomen (n = 4). This is the first record for the genus Durenia in Brazil. Additionally, some species of mosquitoes were, for the first time, reported as being parasitized by mites.

  20. The genus Manota Williston (Diptera: Mycetophilidae) in Peruvian Amazonia, with description of sixteen new species and notes on local species richness.

    PubMed

    Hippa, Heikki; Kurina, Olavi; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2017-02-21

    A comprehensive study of material of the worldwide fungus gnat genus Manota Williston, sampled from the Allpahuayo-Mishana National Reserve in Peruvian Amazonia, was conducted. The following 16 species are described as new: M. aligera sp. n., M. aristoseta sp. n., M. calva sp. n., M. ciliata sp. n., M. exigua sp. n., M. digitata sp. n., M. flabellata sp. n., M. iquitosensis sp. n., M. limulata sp. n., M. micella sp. n., M. minutula sp. n., M. nuda sp. n., M. parvula sp. n., M. pauloides sp. n., M. pustulosa sp. n. and M. serrulata sp. n. In addition, the following 16 species are recorded: M. acuminata Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005, M. acutistylus Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005, M. anfracta Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. appendiculata Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. aristata Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. bisulca Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. diversiseta Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005, M. iota Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. micula Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. papillosa Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. paula Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. penicillata Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005, M. pisinna Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. quantula Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. spinosa Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 and M. virgata Hippa & Kurina, 2013. Altogether 67 species of Manota are now known from the Neotropical region.

  1. Resistance Status of the Malaria Vector Mosquitoes, Anopheles stephensi and Anopheles subpictus Towards Adulticides and Larvicides in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas of India

    PubMed Central

    Tikar, S. N.; Mendki, M.J.; Sharma, A. K.; Sukumaran, D.; Veer, Vijay; Prakash, Shri; Parashar, B. D.

    2011-01-01

    Susceptibility studies of malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae) and An. subpictus Grassi collected during 2004–2007 from various locations of Arid and Semi-Arid Zone of India were conducted by adulticide bioassay of DDT, malathion, deltamethrin and larvicide bioassay of fenthion, temephos, chlorpyriphos and malathion using diagnostic doses. Both species from all locations exhibited variable resistance to DDT and malathion from majority of location. Adults of both the species were susceptible to Deltamethrin. Larvae of both the Anopheline species showed some evidence of resistance to chlorpyriphos followed by fenthion whereas susceptible to temephos and malathion. PMID:21870971

  2. Species Diversity in the Parasitoid Genus Asobara (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from the Native Area of the Fruit Fly Pest Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Guerrieri, Emilio; Giorgini, Massimo; Cascone, Pasquale; Carpenito, Simona; van Achterberg, Cees

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), commonly known as Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD), is a worldwide serious economic threat to the production of berries and stone fruits. The chemical control widely used against this pest is often not able to preventing yield losses because wild flora offers an abundance of fruits to D. suzukii where the pest is able to reproduce and from where it recolonizes neighbouring cultivated fields. Alternatively, within Integrated Pest Management protocols for D. suzukii, biological control could play a key role by reducing its populations particularly in non-cultivated habitats, thus increasing the effectiveness and reducing the side negative effects of other management strategies. Because of the scarcity and of the low efficiency of autochthonous parasitoids in the new invaded territories, in the last few years, a number of surveys started in the native area of D. suzukii to find parasitoid species to be evaluated in quarantine structures and eventually released in the field, following a classical biological control approach. This paper reports the results of these surveys carried out in South Korea and for the first time in China. Among the parasitoids collected, those belonging to the genus Asobara Foerster resulted dominant both by number and species diversity. By combining morphological characters and the mitochondrial COI gene as a molecular marker, we identified seven species of Asobara, of which two associated with D. suzukii, namely A. japonica and A leveri, and five new to science, namely Asobara brevicauda, A. elongata, A mesocauda, A unicolorata, A. triangulata. Our findings offer new opportunity to find effective parasitoids to be introduced in classical biological control programmes in the territories recently invaded by D. suzukii. PMID:26840953

  3. [Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae) in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Del Ventura, Fabiola; Zorrilla, Adriana; Liria, Jonathan

    2010-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants) and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9,607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3,133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles--subgenera Kerteszia--with the upper limit of 2,680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis and Culex daumastocampa at 2,550 m were the highest records in the Central-Coastal cordillera, while the highest record in Pantepui was Wyeomyia zinzala at 2,252 m. The species associated with phytothelmata (Bromeliaceae and Sarraceniaceae) represent 60% of the records. The upper limits of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles (Kerteszia) species could represent the theoretical limit for transmission of filariasis or arboviruses, by Culex, and malaria by Anopheles (Kerteszia) in Venezuela. Similarly, a vector of Dengue, Aedes aegypti, has not been not recorded above 2,000 m.

  4. Discovery of flavivirus-derived endogenous viral elements in Anopheles mosquito genomes supports the existence of Anopheles-associated insect-specific flaviviruses.

    PubMed

    Lequime, Sebastian; Lambrechts, Louis

    2017-01-01

    The Flavivirus genus encompasses several arboviruses of public health significance such as dengue, yellow fever, and Zika viruses. It also includes insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) that are only capable of infecting insect hosts. The vast majority of mosquito-infecting flaviviruses have been associated with mosquito species of the Aedes and Culex genera in the Culicinae subfamily, which also includes most arbovirus vectors. Mosquitoes of the Anophelinae subfamily are not considered significant arbovirus vectors; however, flaviviruses have occasionally been detected in field-caught Anopheles specimens. Whether such observations reflect occasional spillover or laboratory contamination or whether Anopheles mosquitoes are natural hosts of flaviviruses is unknown. Here, we provide in silico and in vivo evidence of transcriptionally active, flavivirus-derived endogenous viral elements (EVEs) in the genome of Anopheles minimus and Anopheles sinensis. Such non-retroviral endogenization of RNA viruses is consistent with a shared evolutionary history between flaviviruses and Anopheles mosquitoes. Phylogenetic analyses of the two newly described EVEs support the existence of a distinct clade of Anopheles-associated ISFs.

  5. Discovery of flavivirus-derived endogenous viral elements in Anopheles mosquito genomes supports the existence of Anopheles-associated insect-specific flaviviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lequime, Sebastian; Lambrechts, Louis

    2017-01-01

    The Flavivirus genus encompasses several arboviruses of public health significance such as dengue, yellow fever, and Zika viruses. It also includes insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) that are only capable of infecting insect hosts. The vast majority of mosquito-infecting flaviviruses have been associated with mosquito species of the Aedes and Culex genera in the Culicinae subfamily, which also includes most arbovirus vectors. Mosquitoes of the Anophelinae subfamily are not considered significant arbovirus vectors; however, flaviviruses have occasionally been detected in field-caught Anopheles specimens. Whether such observations reflect occasional spillover or laboratory contamination or whether Anopheles mosquitoes are natural hosts of flaviviruses is unknown. Here, we provide in silico and in vivo evidence of transcriptionally active, flavivirus-derived endogenous viral elements (EVEs) in the genome of Anopheles minimus and Anopheles sinensis. Such non-retroviral endogenization of RNA viruses is consistent with a shared evolutionary history between flaviviruses and Anopheles mosquitoes. Phylogenetic analyses of the two newly described EVEs support the existence of a distinct clade of Anopheles-associated ISFs. PMID:28078104

  6. Habitats and Distribution of Anopheles Sinensis and Associated Anopheles Hyrcanus Group in Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    SCIENTIFIC NOTE HABITATS AND DISTRffiUTION OF ANOPHELES SINENSIS AND ASSOCIATED ANOPHELES HYRCANUS GROUP IN JAPAN LEOPOLDO M. RUEDA.’ MASASHIRO IWAKAMI.2.b...collections were carried out in August 2002 and July 2003 in Japan . Anopheles sinensis of the Hyrcanus Group. Myzomyia Series of Anopheles. was the...Anopheles sinensis. Hyrcanus Group, Aedes, Clllex, Uranotaenia. Japan . Culicidae The Anopheles Hyrcanus Group consists of sev- eral species that are vectors

  7. An emerging example of tritrophic coevolution between flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae) on Myrtaceae host plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique obligate mutualism occurs between species of Fergusonina Malloch flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes of the genus Fergusobia Currie (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae). These mutualists together form different types of galls on Myrtaceae, mainly in Australia. The galling association appear...

  8. Metalimnobia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2016-06-30

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Metalimnobia Matsumura, 1911 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Metalimnobia (Metalimnobia) channpayna new species, is described and figured, M. (M.) bifasciata (Schrank, 1781), M. (M.) quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818) and M. (M.) zetterstedti (Tjeder, 1968) are listed for the first time in Korea, new information for previously known species, M. (M.) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus, 1760) is added. Identification key for all Korean Metalimnobia species is given. Wings, male and female terminalia are illustrated for all species.

  9. Haematophageous vector monitoring in Djibouti city from 2008 to 2009: first records of Culex pipiens ssp. torridus (IGLISCH), and Anopheles sergentii (theobald).

    PubMed

    Faulde, Michael K; Ahmed, Ammar A

    2010-08-01

    The Horn of Africa represents a region formerly known to be highly susceptible to mosquito-borne infectious diseases. In order to monitor and analyze the current presence and threat of vector mosquitoes, continuous and standardized trapping using CDC light traps without an additional CO2-generator has been carried out at six selected monitoring sites located in Djibouti City, from August 2008 until December 2009. An overall of 620 haematophageous Diptera were trapped, 603 (97.3%) were mosquitoes, 10 (1.6%) were sand flies, and 7 (1.1%) were biting midges, respectively. Genus distribution of mosquitoes revealed that 600 (99.5%) were Culex spp., 2 (0.3%) were Anopheles sergentii, and 1 (0.2%) was Aedes aegypti. Culex species were represented by Cx. quinquefasciatus (78.5%), and Cx. pipiens ssp. torridus (21.5%). The later species was first detected focally in early December 2009 showing a strongly increasing population density resulting in a maximum trap rate of 25 mosquitoes per trap night. Sand flies were all Sergentomyia antennata, and biting midges of the genus Culicoides were represented by C. nubeculosus (71.4%) and C. vexans (28.6 %). The findings included the first records for Cx. pipiens ssp. torridus and An. sergentii in Djibouti. However, none of the captured female Culex spp, the known vector for West Nile Virus, showed positive results for viral nucleic acids using WNV RT-real time PCR system. Also, females An. sergentii were Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax circumsporozoite protein negative.

  10. Second Supplement to "A Catalog of the Mosquitoes of the World" (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Faran 1979:27 (d*, ?*, P*, L*). Type-lot: 1.5 km S of Puyo, Pastaza, Ecuador (USNM). Name Rejected Anopheles subpictus var. vadakadiensis...25. Type Depositories AMC. Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Academy of Medical Science, P.L.A., People’s Republic of China. BMC...YeZanoconion) from Bolivia and Ecuador (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq. Syst. 11:135-138. Sirivanakarn, S. 1982 (1983). A review of the systematics and

  11. Heterangaeus Alexander, 1925 crane flies (Diptera: Pediciidae) of Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Podeniene, Virginija; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2015-08-25

    The Korean crane fly species of the genus Heterangaeus Alexander, 1925 (Diptera: Pediciidae) is taxonomically revised. H. gloriosus gloriosus (Alexander, 1924) is redescribed. A new species Heterangaeus koreanus n. sp., which is the first species of Pediciidae from South Korea, is described and illustrated.

  12. A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Vietnam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), C. lingafelteri Woodley, new species, is described from northern Vietnam. It is diagnosed relative to other species using the recent revision of the genus by Rozkošný and Kozánek (2007). This is the first species of Culcua reported from Viet...

  13. Nigeria Anopheles Vector Database: An Overview of 100 Years' Research

    PubMed Central

    Okorie, Patricia Nkem; McKenzie, F. Ellis; Ademowo, Olusegun George; Bockarie, Moses; Kelly-Hope, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Anopheles mosquitoes are important vectors of malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF), which are major public health diseases in Nigeria. Malaria is caused by infection with a protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium and LF by the parasitic worm Wuchereria bancrofti. Updating our knowledge of the Anopheles species is vital in planning and implementing evidence based vector control programs. To present a comprehensive report on the spatial distribution and composition of these vectors, all published data available were collated into a database. Details recorded for each source were the locality, latitude/longitude, time/period of study, species, abundance, sampling/collection methods, morphological and molecular species identification methods, insecticide resistance status, including evidence of the kdr allele, and P. falciparum sporozoite rate and W. bancrofti microfilaria prevalence. This collation resulted in a total of 110 publications, encompassing 484,747 Anopheles mosquitoes in 632 spatially unique descriptions at 142 georeferenced locations being identified across Nigeria from 1900 to 2010. Overall, the highest number of vector species reported included An. gambiae complex (65.2%), An. funestus complex (17.3%), An. gambiae s.s. (6.5%). An. arabiensis (5.0%) and An. funestus s.s. (2.5%), with the molecular forms An. gambiae M and S identified at 120 locations. A variety of sampling/collection and species identification methods were used with an increase in molecular techniques in recent decades. Insecticide resistance to pyrethroids and organochlorines was found in the main Anopheles species across 45 locations. Presence of P. falciparum and W. bancrofti varied between species with the highest sporozoite rates found in An. gambiae s.s, An. funestus s.s. and An. moucheti, and the highest microfilaria prevalence in An. gambiae s.l., An. arabiensis, and An. gambiae s.s. This comprehensive geo-referenced database provides an essential baseline on Anopheles

  14. The ecology and larval habitats characteristics of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Aligudarz County (Luristan province, western Iran)

    PubMed Central

    Amani, Hamid; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Kassiri, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine ecology and characteristics of the larval habitats of the genus Anopheles (Dipetra: Culicidae) in Aligudarz County, western Iran. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional research was carried out to study the anopheline larvae ecology in seven rural districts, Aligudarz County, from late April to late November 1997. Larvae were captured using the dipping method. Larval breeding places characteristics were noted according to water situation (turbid or clean, stagnant or running), substrate type, site type (man-made or natural), sunlight situation, site situation (transient or permanent, with or without vegetation). Results A total of 9 620 3rd and 4th instar larvae of Anopheles from 115 breeding places in 22 villages were captured, which belonged to the following species: Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles d'thali, Anopheles apoci, Anopheles superpictus (forms A and B), Anopheles marterii sogdianus, Anopheles turkhodi, Anopheles maculipennis S.L and Anopheles claviger. Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles maculipennis S.L and Anopheles apoci were collected for the first time in this county. Anopheles superpictus (93.18%) was the most prevailed one and dispersed over the entire region. Larval habitats consisted of nine natural and three artificial larval habitats. The most important larval habitats were river edges (54.8%), rice fields (12.2%), and grassland (8.7%) with permanent or transient, stagnant or running and clean water, with or without vegetation, sand or mud substrate in full sunlight area. Conclusions Regarding this research, river edges and rice fields are the most important breeding places of malaria vectors in Aligudarz County. It is worthy of note in larvicidal programs. PMID:25183088

  15. Descriptions of Danielsia Theobald, a genus recently resurrected from synonymy (Diptera: Culicidae: Aedini), and its type species Dn. Albotaeniata Leicester. Published: M4367 entered ARIS 01/13/2008.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genus Danielsia and its type species, Dn. albotaeniata, are described in detail. An extensive list of previous literature pertaining to the genus is provided. Species of Danielsia include Dn. albotaeniata, Dn. harperi and Dn. lepchana. Information on the distribution and bionomics of the genus is...

  16. Bionomic Aspects of the Anopheles subpictus Species Complex in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Jude, Pavillupillai J.; Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby N.

    2014-01-01

    Anopheles subpictus Grassi s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) functions as a secondary malaria vector to Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) in Sri Lanka. The taxon A. subpictus is reported to exist as a species complex comprising four sibling species (A–D) that can be differentiated through polytene chromosome banding patterns and stage-specific morphometric traits in India. Based on the morphological characteristics described for the Indian Subpictus Complex, the presence of all four sibling species has been described in Sri Lanka. As sibling species show distinct bio-ecological characteristics that are important for devising appropriate vector control measures, a study was carried out in six districts in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The results confirm the presence of all four sibling species, with species C predominating in inland areas and species B in coastal areas. Species C and D were indoor-resting and indoor-feeding, while species B was outdoor-resting with no significant preference for indoor- or outdoor-resting. Species B showed distinct morphological variation in the ornamentation of wings and palpi. Blood meal analysis revealed that species B, C, and D can feed on humans as well as cattle. The differential bio-ecological traits shown by the members of the Subpictus Complex are important for developing appropriate vector control measures in Sri Lanka. PMID:25205254

  17. A new Mapinguari Papavero & Wilcox (Diptera, Mydidae, Mydinae) from Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Calhau, Julia; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo

    2016-10-31

    Mapinguari Papavero & Wilcox, 1974 (Diptera, Mydidae, Mydinae) is a very rare monotypic genus, with the type-species, M. politus (Wiedemann, 1828), occurring exclusively in Amazonia. With the description of Mapinguari uai sp. nov. from a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, the distribution of the genus is greatly expanded. In addition, an updated diagnosis for the genus and its type-species is provided.

  18. Revision of the Leucosphyrus Group of Anopheles (Cellia) (Diptera, Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    P = proboscis - Fe-I = forefemur - Plp = maxillary palpus - R = range - MR = mean range - MG = mean subgroup R MR M G R MR M G R MR M G P length mm...1.06 1,01 0.88-1.18 0.97-1.11 1,03 0.81-0.97 0.85-0.90 0,87 Table 2.1. Proboscis, forefemur, maxillary palpus lengths and rations for subgroups of the...The placement of An. baisasi within the Leucosphyrus Subgroup was based on the ratio of the length of the maxillary palpus and the length of the

  19. Male motion coordination in swarming Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Anopheles gambiae species complex comprises the primary vectors of malaria in much of sub-Saharan Africa; most of the mating in these species occurs in swarms composed almost entirely of males. Intermittent, parallel flight patterns in such swarms have been observed, but a detailed description o...

  20. Anopheles (Anopheles) forattinii: a New Species in Series Arribalzagia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-01

    a large area of South America. An. mediopunctatus s. 1 . is commonly re- ported in lowland tropical South America (Deane et al. 1948; Forattini 1962...specimen num- ber (e.g., BR 279 - 1 is an individual from collection 279 from Brazil), Specimen numbers l-99 are used if there are associated larval...parentheses [e.g., BR 279 (12) - 1 is an individual from female number 121. Taxonomic Treatment. Anupheh (Anopheh) fi- rattinii n. sp. Female (Fig. 1G

  1. The Anopheles (Anopheles) Crucians Subgroup in the United States (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    been extensively used in publications by the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Mosquito Fauna of the Papuan Subregion, the Mosquitoes of Middle America ...Entomol. Circ. 40:4-7. Coquillett, D. W. 1906. A classification of the mosquitoes of North and Middle America . U. S. Dep. Agric. Entomol. Tech. Serv...Ross, E. S. and H. R. Roberts. 194%. Mosquito atlas : Part I. The nearctic Anophe Zes , important malaria vectors of the Americas and Aedes aegypti

  2. Updated Distribution Records of the Anopheles (Anopheles) Hyrcanus Species-Group (Diptera: Culicidae) in China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Co., 28 Ju12005 2M,IL 33.01 N 118.49 W FC Xu Chen Zheng sinensis Jiangsu: Xuzhou Jul196O: 19Jul IM;6F 34.27 N 117.19 W 1M 1970 sinensis Jianxi... Zhongwei 8 Aug 1972 IF 37.52 N 105.18 W 1M sinensis Shaanxi: Danfcng No date 2F 33.75 N 110.30 W CA sinensis Shaanxi: Danfeng 20 Aug 1996 4F, 1M 33.75 N...of the Jiangsu Communicable Disease Cen- ters at Sinho, Xu Yi and Liu He counties, especially Xu Song, Yuansou Guo, You Benyong, and Chen Xiaojian

  3. Effect of fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) feeding on subsequent Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dark-winged fungus gnats in the genus Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) and root rot pathogens in the genus Pythium (Oomycetes) are important pests of greenhouse floriculture. Observations have pointed to a possible correlation between Pythium root rot disease and fungus gnat infestations; however, inte...

  4. Rubidium marking of Anopheles mosquitoes detectable by field-capable X-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, E E; Smith, S C; Roberts, J M; Benedict, M

    2007-06-01

    We present a mosquito marking technique suitable for mark-release-recapture that can be used with a hand-held, portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer, which is practical for field measurements. Third instar Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles stephensi Liston larvae were cultured to pupation in water containing rubidium (Rb) Cl at concentrations up to 1000 p.p.m. Rb. Anopheles gambiae larvae survived to adulthood at concentrations as high as 1000 p.p.m. Rb but suffered pupal mortality and reduced adult longevity at high concentrations. We were able to culture An. stephensi at Rb concentrations as high as 300 p.p.m. The presence of Rb in adults was evaluated using a portable XRF analyser, and we were able to reliably detect Rb above background levels in 10-day-old females and 4-day-old males at concentrations causing minimal pupal or adult mortality. We observed that Rb marking was not permanent, and the concentration declined significantly as adults aged. The low cost of labelling with RbCl and the field portability of the spectrometer provide a useful means for labelling mosquitoes via breeding sites or in the laboratory for mark-release-recapture experiments.

  5. Rhipidia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu

    2016-07-07

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Rhipidia Meigen, 1818 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Rhipidia (Rhipidia) serena, new species, is described and figured. Rhipidia (R.) longa Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014, R. (R.) maculata Meigen, 1818 and R. (R.) sejuga Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014 are recorded for the first time in Korea. Previously known species, Rhipidia (R.) septentrionis Alexander, 1913 is redescribed and illustrated. Identification key for all Korean Rhipidia species is given. Most antennae, wings, male and female terminalia of all species are illustrated for the first time.

  6. Revision of the family Nothybidae (Diptera: Schizophora).

    PubMed

    Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S A

    2016-04-05

    The family Nothybidae (Diptera: Schizophora) is revised. The family consists of 11 species in the single genus Nothybus Rondani, which occurs in Papua New Guinea, Nepal and much of the Oriental Region. Three species are described as new: N. absens spec. nov. (China), N. cataractus spec. nov. (Laos, Thailand) and N. procerus spec. nov. (India). Nothybus longithorax Rondani, 1875 is treated as a junior synonym of N. longicollis (Walker, 1856). Nothybus decorus Meijere, 1924 syn. nov. is included as a junior synonym of N. lineifer Enderlein, 1922.

  7. Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Brazil, a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; Nunez, Enio

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the New World genus Lespesia, Lespesia melloi SP NOV: (Diptera: Tachinidae), is described from southeastern Brazil. The species is reported here as a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Cramer, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The caterpillars of this noctuid feed on leaves and bulbs of amaryllis (Amaryllidaceae) in Brazil.

  8. Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Brazil, a Parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R.; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; Nunez, Enio

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the New World genus Lespesia, Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae), is described from southeastern Brazil. The species is reported here as a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Cramer, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The caterpillars of this noctuid feed on leaves and bulbs of amaryllis (Amaryllidaceae) in Brazil. PMID:25368065

  9. Species and populations of the Anopheles gambiae complex in Cameroon with special emphasis on chromosomal and molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae s.s.

    PubMed

    Wondji, Charles; Frédéric, Simard; Petrarca, Vincenzo; Etang, Josiane; Santolamazza, Federica; Della Torre, Alessandra; Fontenille, Didier

    2005-11-01

    We studied the geographical distribution of species, chromosomal, and molecular forms of the Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) complex in 23 sites in Cameroon, Central Africa. Almost all the specimens collected in the four northern-most arid sites were Anopheles arabiensis. Anopheles melas was found in a rural locality surrounded by mangrove swamps, on the Atlantic Coast. In total, 1,525 An. gambiae s.s. females were identified down to their molecular form, and inversion polymorphisms on polytene chromosomes were scored from 186 half-gravid females. The Forest chromosomal form, with standard arrangements almost fixed on both arms of chromosome-2, was the only one observed in the southern, more humid localities. Karyotypes typical of Savanna and Mopti were recorded northwards, in the humid savannas of the Adamawa Province. The molecular forms M and S were widespread throughout Cameroon, and assort independently from the chromosomal forms. S-form populations were characterized by karyotypes typical of Forest and Savanna chromosomal forms, and M-form populations were characterized by karyotypes typical of Forest, Savanna, and Mopti. No M/S hybrid patterns were detected, although M and S mosquitoes were sympatric in 15 sites, providing further evidence for positive assortative mating within molecular forms. The observed ecogeographical distribution of M and S was peculiar: the ecological parameters involved in this distribution still need to be clarified as well as the possible role of competitive exclusion between chromosomally homosequential molecular forms. No difference was observed in host preference or in Plasmodium falciparum infection rates between sympatric M and S populations.

  10. Conservation of capa peptide-induced nitric oxide signalling in Diptera.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Valerie P; McGettigan, James; Cabrero, Pablo; Maudlin, Ian M; Dow, Julian A T; Davies, Shireen-A

    2004-11-01

    In D. melanogaster Malpighian (renal) tubules, the capa peptides stimulate production of nitric oxide (NO) and guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), resulting in increased fluid transport. The roles of NO synthase (NOS), NO and cGMP in capa peptide signalling were tested in several other insect species of medical relevance within the Diptera (Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Glossina morsitans) and in one orthopteran out-group, Schistocerca gregaria. NOS immunoreactivity was detectable by immunocytochemistry in tubules from all species studied. D. melanogaster, A. aegypti and A. stephensi express NOS in only principal cells, whereas G. morsitans and S. gregaria show more general NOS expression in the tubule. Measurement of associated NOS activity (NADPH diaphorase) shows that both D. melanogaster capa-1 and the two capa peptides encoded in the A. gambiae genome, QGLVPFPRVamide (AngCAPA-QGL) and GPTVGLFAFPRVamide (AngCAPA-GPT), all stimulate NOS activity in D. melanogaster, A. aegypti, A. stephensi and G. morsitans tubules but not in S. gregaria. Furthermore, capa-stimulated NOS activity in all the Diptera was inhibited by the NOS inhibitor l-NAME. All capa peptides stimulate an increase in cGMP content across the dipteran species, but not in the orthopteran S. gregaria. Similarly, all capa peptides tested stimulate fluid secretion in D. melanogaster, A. aegypti, A. stephensi and G. morsitans tubules but are either without effect or are inhibitory on S. gregaria. Consistent with these results, the Drosophila capa receptor was shown to be expressed in Drosophila tubules, and its closest Anopheles homologue was shown to be expressed in Anopheles tubules. Thus, we provide the first demonstration of physiological roles for two putative A. gambiae neuropeptides. We also demonstrate neuropeptide modulation of fluid secretion in tsetse tubule for the first time. Finally, we show the generality of capa peptide action, to stimulate NO/cGMP signalling and

  11. Tyrosine Hydroxylase is crucial for maintaining pupal tanning and immunity in Anopheles sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Liang; Du, Minghui; Liang, Xin; Hao, Youjin; He, Xiu; Si, Fengling; Mei, Ting; Chen, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the initial enzyme in the melanin pathway, catalyzes tyrosine conversion into Dopa. Although expression and regulation of TH have been shown to affect cuticle pigmentation in insects, no direct functional studies to date have focused on the specific physiological processes involving the enzyme during mosquito development. In the current study, silencing of AsTH during the time period of continuous high expression in Anopheles sinensis pupae led to significant impairment of cuticle tanning and thickness, imposing a severe obstacle to eclosion in adults. Meanwhile, deficiency of melanin in interference individuals led to suppression of melanization, compared to control individuals. Consequently, the ability to defend exogenous microorganisms declined sharply. Accompanying down-regulation of the basal expression of five antimicrobial peptide genes resulted in further significant weakening of immunity. TH homologs as well as the composition of upstream transcription factor binding sites at the pupal stage are highly conserved in the Anopheles genus, implying that the TH-mediated functions are crucial in Anopheles. The collective evidence strongly suggests that TH is essential for Anopheles pupae tanning and immunity and provides a reference for further studies to validate the utility of the key genes involved in the melanization pathway in controlling mosquito development. PMID:27416870

  12. Repellency effect of forty-one essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Amer, Abdelkrim; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2006-09-01

    Since ancient times, plant products were used in various aspects. However, their use against pests decreased when chemical products became developed. Recently, concerns increased with respect to public health and environmental security requiring detection of natural products that may be used against insect pests. In this study, 41 plant extracts and 11 oil mixtures were evaluated against the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus), the malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (Liston), and the filariasis and encephalitis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) using the skin of human volunteers to find out the protection time and repellency. The five most effective oils were those of Litsea (Litsea cubeba), Cajeput (Melaleuca leucadendron), Niaouli (Melaleuca quinquenervia), Violet (Viola odorata), and Catnip (Nepeta cataria), which induced a protection time of 8 h at the maximum and a 100% repellency against all three species. This effect needs, however, a peculiar formulation to fix them on the human skin.

  13. Distribution of Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles vestitipennis, and Anopheles crucians associated with land use in northern Belize.

    PubMed

    Grieco, John P; Johnson, Sarah; Achee, Nicole L; Masuoka, Penny; Pope, Kevin; Rejmánková, Eliska; Vanzie, Errol; Andre, Richard; Roberts, Donald

    2006-05-01

    Anthropogenic land use changes often alter natural patterns of disease transmission. The goal of this study was to determine whether phosphorus input from sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum L., cultivation in northern Belize could pose a significant environmental impact on malaria transmission by changing vegetation structure and composition of wetlands and associated larval habitats. Our primary focus was on the increased dominance of cattail, Typha domingensis Pers., a favored habitat for Anopheles vestitipennis Dyar & Knab. A land cover classification based on satellite imagery was used to select 20 marshes impacted by agricultural runoff and 20 marshes surrounded by forest (nonimpacted). A 100-m transect was established into each of the 40 marshes. Water, vegetation, and larval sampling were conducted at the 0-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-m locations along the transect. Analyses of larval density data indicated that Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann was negatively correlated with percentage of cover of Typha (R2 = 0.39, P < 0.001) but positively correlated with sparse Eleocharis cellulosa Torr. (rush) cover (R2 = 0.19, P < 0.05) and presence of cyanobacterial mats (CBM) (R2 = 0.33, P < 0.0001). An. vestitipennis was found to be positively correlated with percentage of cover of Typha (R2 = 0.19, P < 0.001). Canonical correspondence analysis identified CBM and light as the variables associated with the presence of An. albimanuts larvae, Typha cover with An. vestitipennis larvae, and Eleocharis and absence of light with Anopheles crucians (Wiedemann). A positive correlation also existed between marshes adjacent to agricultural activities and presence of An. vestitipennis (R2 = 0.37, P < 0.05). These results indicate that marshes in proximity to agricultural fields are conducive for Typha growth, thereby providing habitat for the more efficient malaria vector

  14. Essential oils enhance the toxicity of permethrin against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Gross, A D; Norris, E J; Kimber, M J; Bartholomay, L C; Coats, J R

    2017-03-01

    Insecticide resistance and growing public concern over the safety and environmental impacts of some conventional insecticides have resulted in the need to discover alternative control tools. Naturally occurring botanically-based compounds are of increased interest to aid in the management of mosquitoes. Susceptible strains of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles gambiae (Meigen) (Diptera: Culicidae) were treated with permethrin, a common type-I synthetic pyrethroid, using a discriminate dose that resulted in less than 50% mortality. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and 35 essential oils were co-delivered with permethrin at two doses (2 and 10 µg) to determine if they could enhance the 1-h knockdown and the 24-h mortality of permethrin. Several of the tested essential oils enhanced the efficacy of permethrin equally and more effectively than piperonyl butoxide PBO, which is the commercial standard to synergize chemical insecticide like pyrethroids. PBO had a strikingly negative effect on the 1-h knockdown of permethrin against Ae. aegypti, which was not observed in An. gambiae. Botanical essential oils have the capability of increasing the efficacy of permethrin allowing for a natural alternative to classic chemical synergists, like PBO.

  15. Complete Dosage Compensation in Anopheles stephensi and the Evolution of Sex-Biased Genes in Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaofang; Biedler, James K.; Qi, Yumin; Hall, Andrew Brantley; Tu, Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    Complete dosage compensation refers to hyperexpression of the entire X or Z chromosome in organisms with heterogametic sex chromosomes (XY male or ZW female) in order to compensate for having only one copy of the X or Z chromosome. Recent analyses suggest that complete dosage compensation, as in Drosophila melanogaster, may not be the norm. There has been no systematic study focusing on dosage compensation in mosquitoes. However, analysis of dosage compensation in Anopheles mosquitoes provides opportunities for evolutionary insights, as the X chromosome of Anopheles and that of its Dipteran relative, D. melanogaster formed independently from the same ancestral chromosome. Furthermore, Culicinae mosquitoes, including the Aedes genus, have homomorphic sex-determining chromosomes, negating the need for dosage compensation. Thus, Culicinae genes provide a rare phylogenetic context to investigate dosage compensation in Anopheles mosquitoes. Here, we performed RNA-seq analysis of male and female samples of the Asian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Autosomal and X-linked genes in An. stephensi showed very similar levels of expression in both males and females, indicating complete dosage compensation. The uniformity of average expression levels of autosomal and X-linked genes remained when An. stephensi gene expression was normalized by that of their Ae. aegypti orthologs, strengthening the finding of complete dosage compensation in Anopheles. In addition, we comparatively analyzed the differentially expressed genes between adult males and adult females in both species, investigated sex-biased gene chromosomal distribution patterns in An. stephensi and provided three examples where gene duplications may have enabled the acquisition of sex-specific expression during mosquito evolution. PMID:26078263

  16. Biological cost of tolerance to heavy metals in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Mireji, P O; Keating, J; Hassanali, A; Mbogo, C M; Muturi, M N; Githure, J I; Beier, J C

    2010-06-01

    The global rate of heavy metal pollution is rapidly increasing in various habitats. Anopheles malaria vector species (Diptera: Culicidae) appear to tolerate many aquatic habitats with metal pollutants, despite their normal proclivity for 'clean' water (i.e. low levels of organic matter). Investigations were conducted to establish whether there are biological costs for tolerance to heavy metals in Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto and to assess the potential impact of heavy metal pollution on mosquito ecology. Anopheles gambiae s.s. were selected for cadmium, copper or lead tolerance through chronic exposure of immature stages to solutions of the metals for three successive generations. Biological costs were assessed in the fourth generation by horizontal life table analysis. Tolerance in larvae to cadmium (as cadmium chloride, CdCl(2)), copper [as copper II nitrate hydrate, Cu(NO(3))(2) 2.5 H(2)O] and lead [as lead II nitrate, Pb(NO(3))(2)], monitored by changes in LC(50) concentrations of the metals, changed from 6.07 microg/L, 12.42 microg/L and 493.32 microg/L to 4.45 microg/L, 25.02 microg/L and 516.69 microg/L, respectively, after three generations of exposure. The metal-selected strains had a significantly lower magnitude of egg viability, larval and pupal survivorship, adult emergence, fecundity and net reproductive rate than the control strain. The population doubling times were significantly longer and the instantaneous birth rates lower in most metal-selected strains relative to the control strain. Our results suggest that although An. gambiae s.s. displays the potential to develop tolerance to heavy metals, particularly copper, this may occur at a significant biological cost, which can adversely affect its ecological fitness.

  17. Identification of Belgian mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) by DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Versteirt, V; Nagy, Z T; Roelants, P; Denis, L; Breman, F C; Damiens, D; Dekoninck, W; Backeljau, T; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W

    2015-03-01

    Since its introduction in 2003, DNA barcoding has proven to be a promising method for the identification of many taxa, including mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Many mosquito species are potential vectors of pathogens, and correct identification in all life stages is essential for effective mosquito monitoring and control. To use DNA barcoding for species identification, a reliable and comprehensive reference database of verified DNA sequences is required. Hence, DNA sequence diversity of mosquitoes in Belgium was assessed using a 658 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, and a reference data set was established. Most species appeared as well-supported clusters. Intraspecific Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distances averaged 0.7%, and the maximum observed K2P distance was 6.2% for Aedes koreicus. A small overlap between intra- and interspecific K2P distances for congeneric sequences was observed. Overall, the identification success using best match and the best close match criteria were high, that is above 98%. No clear genetic division was found between the closely related species Aedes annulipes and Aedes cantans, which can be confused using morphological identification only. The members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex, that is Anopheles maculipennis s.s. and An. messeae, were weakly supported as monophyletic taxa. This study showed that DNA barcoding offers a reliable framework for mosquito species identification in Belgium except for some closely related species.

  18. Phytomyza omlandi spec. nov. – the first species of Agromyzidae (Diptera: Schizophora) reared from the family Gelsemiaceae (Asteridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of leafmining fly in the genus Phytomyza Fallén (Diptera: Agromyzidae) is described from Gelsemium Juss, representing the first known instance of an agromyzid feeding on Gelsemiaceae (Asteridae). The host plant, G. sempervirens (L.) (the “evening trumpetflower”), and possibly also G. r...

  19. Radiosensitivity of cultured insect cells: II. Diptera

    SciTech Connect

    Koval, T.M.

    1983-10-01

    The radiosensitivity of five dipteran cell lines representing three mosquito genera and one fruit fly genus were examined. These lines are: (1) ATC-10, Aedes aegypti; (2) RU-TAE-14, Toxorhynchites amboinensis; (3) RU-ASE-2A, Anopheles stephensi; (4) WR69-DM-1, Drosophila melanogaster; and (5) WR69-DM-2, Drosophila melanogaster. Population doubling times for these lines range from approximately 16 to 48 hr. Diploid chromosome numbers are six for the mosquito cells and eight for the fruit fly cells D/sub 0/ values are 5.1 and 6.5 Gy for the Drosophila cell lines and 3.6, 6.2, and 10.2 Gy for the mosquito cell lines. The results of this study demonstrate that dipteran insect cells are a few times more resistant to radiation than mammalian cells, but not nearly as radioresistant as lepidopteran cells.

  20. Fauna europaea: Diptera - brachycera.

    PubMed

    Pape, Thomas; Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I; Ozerov, Andrey L; Woźnica, Andrzej J; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C D; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L; Chandler, Peter J; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N; Mathis, Wayne N; Hubenov, Zdravko; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera-Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera-Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger number of small

  1. New species and records of Pseudacteon Coquillett, 1907 (Diptera, Phoridae), parasitoids of the fire ant Solenopsis geminata group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Thalles Platiny Lavinscky; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; Bravo, Freddy

    2015-09-29

    The genus Pseudacteon Coquillett (Diptera, Phoridae) has a worldwide distribution and comprises parasitic myrmecophilous species that decapitate host ants. Seventy one species are known in the genus, 41 of them occur in the Neotropical Region and are 25 from Brazil. In northeastern Brazil, there are only records for two species, Pseudacteon dentiger Borgmeier and Pseudacteon antiguensis Malloch. In this paper, two new species of the genus are described from female specimens, Pseudacteon pesqueroi new spec. and Pseudacteon plowesi new spec., and also, new records of three Pseudacteon species for the Brazilian Northeast are given.

  2. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) konderi Galvao and Damasceno: Neotype Designation and Resurrection from Synonymy with Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) oswaldoi (Peryassu) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-07

    WILKERSON, AND RICARDO LOUREN•O DE OLIVEIRA (CFM) U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru , APO AA 34031; (ELP) (deceased); (RCW...Nyssorhynchus) konderi Galvfio and Damasceno 1942 is rede - scribed with illustrations of the male and female genitalia and the larval and pupal stages...An. oswaldoi were conducted to distinguish these species and to rede - scribe the former. MATERIALS AND METHODS Progenies of females and immature

  3. Anopheles (Anopheles) Calderoni n.sp., A Malaria Vector of the Arribalzagia Series from Peru (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    ountered only at elevations below 250 m. The larvae are found in small streams, small ir- rigation canals and swamps, mostly in dense emergent...tions. REFERENCES CITED Calderon, G., A. Curaca, J. Llancari, M. Napan and F. Sipan. 1974. Distribucion geografica de los vectores de malaria en el

  4. A Guide to Basic Taxonomic Literature for the Genera of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) - Adults, Pupae, and Larvae. Bulletin No. 447.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Karl W.

    A generic list of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) is presented to help aquatic biologists quickly locate important taxonomic references for the adults, larvae, and pupae of each genus. The list (in chart format) includes literature published through 1981. When recent literature is available, older references are omitted, since the purpose of…

  5. Abundance patterns of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis and Anopheles argyritarsis in northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dantur Juri, María Julia; Claps, Guillermo Luis; Santana, Mirta; Zaidenberg, Mario; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

    2010-09-01

    Anopheles pseudopunctipennis is an important malaria vector in Argentina but the role of Anopheles argyritarsis in the transmission of the parasite is still unknown. Abundance patterns of both species and their relationship to climatic variables were studied in the subtropical mountainous forest in northwestern Argentina. Adults were collected with CDC light traps from September 2002 to November 2005 in Salta (northern area) and Tucumán (southern area) provinces, from 3 localities in each province. The abundance of both species in localities was compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and their changes in abundance in relation to climatic variables were analyzed by Multilevel Poisson Regression. Anopheles argyritarsis was more abundant than A. pseudopunctipennis, and both reached a peak during the spring. There were significant differences in abundance in the northern localities for A. pseudopunctipennis, and between northern and southern localities for A. argyritarsis. Temperature, rainfall and relative humidity were significant predictors of the abundance of these two species.

  6. Molecular phylogeny of the forensically important genus Cochliomyia (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Yusseff-Vanegas, Sohath; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cochliomyia Townsend includes several abundant and one of the most broadly distributed, blow flies in the Americas, and is of significant economic and forensic importance. For decades, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) and Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) have received attention as livestock parasites and primary indicator species in forensic entomology. However, Cochliomyia minima Shannon and Cochliomyia aldrichi Del Ponte have only been subject to basic taxonomy and faunistic studies. Here we present the first complete phylogeny of Cochliomyia including numerous specimens per species, collected from 13 localities in the Caribbean. Four genes, the mitochondrial COI and the nuclear EF-1α, 28S rRNA, and ITS2, were analyzed. While we found some differences among gene trees, a concatenated gene matrix recovered a robustly supported monophyletic Cochliomyia with Compsomyiops Townsend as its sister group and recovered the monophyly of Cochliomyia hominivorax, Cochliomyia macellaria and Cochliomyia minima. Our results support a close relationship between Cochliomyia minima and Cochliomyia aldrichi. However, we found Cochliomyia aldrichi containing Cochliomyia minima, indicating recent speciation, or issues with the taxonomy of the group. We provide basic information on habitat preference, distribution and feeding habits of Cochliomyia minima and Cochliomyia aldrichi that will be useful for future forensic studies in the Caribbean. PMID:27563274

  7. Vegetation-derived cues for the selection of oviposition substrates by Anopheles albimanus under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Torres-Estrada, José Luis; Meza-Alvarez, R Amanda; Cibrián-Tovar, Juan; Rodríguez-López, Mario H; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Rojas-Leon, Julio C

    2005-12-01

    Oviposition response of gravid Anopheles albimanus Wiedemman (Diptera: Culicidae) females to water containing Brachiaria mutica, Cynodon dactylon, Jouvea straminea, Fimbristylis spadicea, and Ceratophyllum demersum was investigated. Gravid An. albimanus females deposited similar egg numbers in cups containing natural plants in water from natural breeding sites and in cups containing natural plants in distilled water. Gravid mosquitoes deposited significantly more eggs in cups containing natural plants in water from natural breeding sites than in cups containing artificial plants in water from the corresponding natural breeding sites. These results were confirmed in experiments conducted in a wind tunnel, indicating that female response is mediated by chemical cues from plants. Bioassays with organic extracts of all 5 plant species indicated that these extracts at 100%, 10%, and 1% concentrations had an oviposition repellent effect, while attractiveness was observed at 0.1%, 0.01%, and 0.001%. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis of the organic extracts found in all 5 plants showed a mixture of terpenoid and alcohol compounds, among them: guaiacol, phenol, isoeugenol, longifolene, caryophyllene, phenyl ethyl alcohol, and p-cresol. These results suggest that middle-range volatiles from plants may function as chemical cues for the female's oviposition response in this mosquito species.

  8. Species abundance and insecticide resistance of Anopheles gambiae in selected areas of Ghana and Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Yawson, A E; McCall, P J; Wilson, M D; Donnelly, M J

    2004-12-01

    The Ghanaian National Malaria Control Programme has prioritized insecticide-treated materials as a key strategy for malaria control. We report on a survey of the distribution of the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and insecticide resistance (the kdr mutation), carried out by sampling mosquitoes from 11 locations in Ghana and one additional site in Burkina Faso. The molecular M and S forms of An. gambiae were found to occur in sympatry in southern Ghana. The S form predominated throughout its distribution in the coastal savannah, except at one location in the strand and mangrove zone where rice was cultivated. The M form was the only form collected in northern Ghana and was the predominant form (97.5%) in Burkina Faso. No M/S hybrids were detected. The kdr mutation was observed at very high frequencies (98-100%) within the S form but reached a maximum of only 3.38% in the M form in one population at an irrigation scheme in the Ghanaian coastal savannah zone.

  9. Isozyme evidence for three sibling species in the Anopheles sundaicus complex from Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sukowati, S; Baimai, V; Harun, S; Dasuki, Y; Andris, H; Efriwati, M

    1999-10-01

    Electrophoretic studies of isoenzymes in three chromosomally distinct forms (A, B and C) of the mosquito Anopheles sundaicus Theobald (Diptera: Culiciae) were undertaken on wild samples collected from six geographically isolated populations in Indonesia. Analyses of 12 enzyme systems comprising 15 loci revealed significant allelic variations, genetic polymorphism, within and among the populations of the An. sundaicus complex. Phylogenetic dendrograms produced by analysis using the Biosys-1 program based on UPGMA methods show that all the populations of form A fall into one cluster, which is closely related to the form C cluster, whereas the populations of form B belong to a more distinct cluster. Allelic frequency and Wright's F statistics of Mpi (mannose phosphate isomerase) are sufficient to identify individuals of each cytological form. This isozyme data correlates with our previous cytological evidence for the existence of three isomorphic species within the taxon An. sundaicus in Indonesia. These three species of the An. sundaicus complex were found together sympatrically at one locality, Asahan in North Sumatra.

  10. Comparative Genome and Proteome Analysis of Anopheles gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; von Mering, Christian; Letunic, Ivica; Torrents, David; Suyama, Mikita; Copley, Richard R.; Christophides, George K.; Thomasova, Dana; Holt, Robert A.; Subramanian, G. Mani; Mueller, Hans-Michael; Dimopoulos, George; Law, John H.; Wells, Michael A.; Birney, Ewan; Charlab, Rosane; Halpern, Aaron L.; Kokoza, Elena; Kraft, Cheryl L.; Lai, Zhongwu; Lewis, Suzanna; Louis, Christos; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Nusskern, Deborah; Rubin, Gerald M.; Salzberg, Steven L.; Sutton, Granger G.; Topalis, Pantelis; Wides, Ron; Wincker, Patrick; Yandell, Mark; Collins, Frank H.; Ribeiro, Jose; Gelbart, William M.; Kafatos, Fotis C.; Bork, Peer

    2002-10-01

    Comparison of the genomes and proteomes of the two diptera Anopheles gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster, which diverged about 250 million years ago, reveals considerable similarities. However, numerous differences are also observed; some of these must reflect the selection and subsequent adaptation associated with different ecologies and life strategies. Almost half of the genes in both genomes are interpreted as orthologs and show an average sequence identity of about 56%, which is slightly lower than that observed between the orthologs of the pufferfish and human (diverged about 450 million years ago). This indicates that these two insects diverged considerably faster than vertebrates. Aligned sequences reveal that orthologous genes have retained only half of their intron/exon structure, indicating that intron gains or losses have occurred at a rate of about one per gene per 125 million years. Chromosomal arms exhibit significant remnants of homology between the two species, although only 34% of the genes colocalize in small ``microsyntenic'' clusters, and major interarm transfers as well as intra-arm shuffling of gene order are detected.

  11. Evaluation of four sampling techniques for surveillance of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquitoes in African rice agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Mwangangi, Joseph; Shililu, Josephat; Muriu, Simon; Jacob, Benjamin; Mbogo, Charles M; John, Githure; Novak, Robert

    2007-05-01

    Field studies were conducted in a rice, Oryza sativa L., agroecosystem in Mwea Kenya to compare the efficiency of CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps against nonbaited CDC light traps and gravid traps against oviposition traps in outdoor collection of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquitoes. Collectively, 21 mosquito species from the genera Culex, Anopheles, Mansonia, Ficalbia, and Aedes were captured during the 10-wk study period. Cx. quinquefasciatus was the predominant species in all trap types with proportions ranging from 57% in the nonbaited CDC light traps to 95% in the gravid traps. Significantly higher numbers of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Culex annulioris Theobald were collected in the CO2-baited CDC light traps than in the nonbaited CDC light traps, but the numbers of other mosquito species, including malaria vectors Anopheles arabiensis Patton and Anopheles funestus Giles did not differ significantly between the two trap types. More Cx. quinquefasciatus females were collected in grass infusion-baited gravid traps than egg rafts of this species in oviposition traps containing the same infusion. Although most mosquitoes captured in CO,-baited and nonbaited CDC light traps were unfed, most of those collected in gravid traps were gravid. From these findings, it is concluded that at least in the rice-growing area of Mwea Kenya, CO2-baited CDC light traps in conjunction with gravid traps can be used in monitoring of Cx. quinquefasciatus both for control and disease surveillance.

  12. The genus Bipolaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on ...

  13. Updated list of the mosquitoes of Colombia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mengual, Ximo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised list of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) known to occur in Colombia is presented. A total of 324 species from 28 genera of Culicidae are included. The species names are organized in alphabetical order according to the current generic and subgeneric classification, along with their authorship. The list is compiled in order to support mosquito research in Colombia. New information Our systematic review and literature survey found, by 16 February 2015, 13 records of culicid species previously overlooked by mosquito catalogs for Colombia: Anopheles costai da Fonseca & da Silva Ramos, 1939, An. fluminensis Root, 1927, An. malefactor Dyar & Knab, 1907, An. shannoni Davis, 1931, An. vargasi Galbadón, Cova García & Lopez, 1941, Culex mesodenticulatus Galindo & Mendez, 1961, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz, 1904, Isostomyia espini (Martini, 1914), Johnbelkinia leucopus (Dyar & Knab, 1906), Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon, 1925, Psorophora saeva Dyar & Knab, 1906, Sabethes glaucodaemon (Dyar & Shannon, 1925), and Wyeomyia intonca Dyar & Knab, 1909. Moreover, Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) luteoventralis Theobald, 1901 is recorded for Colombia for the first time. This work provides important insights into mosquito diversity in Colombia, using the current nomenclature and phylogenetic rankings. PMID:25829860

  14. Taxonomic revision of the Carpathian endemic Pedicia (Crunobia) staryi species–group (Diptera, Pediciidae) based on morphology and molecular data

    PubMed Central

    Dénes, Avar-Lehel; Kolcsár, Levente-Péter; Török, Edina; Keresztes, Lujza

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of the genus Pedicia, subgenus Crunobia (Diptera: Pediciidae) belonging to the staryi group are described on the basis of a combination of molecular and morphology datasets, and a key to discriminate between species of the subgenus Crunobia is added. Geographic projection of the identified taxa suggests insular-like distribution and shows the importance of the Carpathians as a genetic center which is home to an exceptionally high aquatic diversity in Europe. PMID:27110152

  15. An illustrated catalogue of the types of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) in the collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Couri, Márcia Souto; De Mello-Patiu, Cátia Antunes

    2016-02-26

    A catalogue of the type specimens of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) held in the collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (MNRJ) is presented. A total number of 50 type specimens of 18 valid Neotropical species were recognized and are listed in alphabetical order of subfamily, genus and specific epithet. Photos of 12 primary types of the species and bibliographical data of the original descriptions, labels and condition of all type specimens are also provided.

  16. Neuropeptides and Peptide Hormones in Anopheles gambiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riehle, Michael A.; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Crim, Joe W.; Hill, Catherine A.; Brown, Mark R.

    2002-10-01

    The African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, is specialized for rapid completion of development and reproduction. A vertebrate blood meal is required for egg production, and multiple feedings subsequently allow transmission of malaria parasites, Plasmodium spp. Regulatory peptides from 35 genes annotated from the A. gambiae genome likely coordinate these and other physiological processes. Plasmodium parasites may affect actions of newly identified insulin-like peptides, which coordinate growth and reproduction of its vector, A. gambiae, as in Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and mammals. This genomic information provides a basis to expand understanding of hematophagy and pathogen transmission in this mosquito.

  17. Vector competence of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes for Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Brittany L; Rasgon, Jason L

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus is a newly emergent mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused recent large outbreaks in the new world, leading to dramatic increases in serious disease pathology including Guillain-Barre syndrome, newborn microcephaly, and infant brain damage. Although Aedes mosquitoes are thought to be the primary mosquito species driving infection, the virus has been isolated from dozens of mosquito species, including Culex and Anopheles species, and we lack a thorough understanding of which mosquito species to target for vector control. We exposed Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes to blood meals supplemented with two Zika virus strains. Mosquito bodies, legs, and saliva were collected five, seven, and 14 days post blood meal and tested for infectious virus by plaque assay. Regardless of titer, virus strain, or timepoint, Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were refractory to Zika virus infection. We conclude that Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes likely do not contribute significantly to Zika virus transmission to humans. However, future studies should continue to explore the potential for other novel potential vectors to transmit the virus.

  18. Vector competence of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes for Zika virus

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Brittany L.

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus is a newly emergent mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused recent large outbreaks in the new world, leading to dramatic increases in serious disease pathology including Guillain-Barre syndrome, newborn microcephaly, and infant brain damage. Although Aedes mosquitoes are thought to be the primary mosquito species driving infection, the virus has been isolated from dozens of mosquito species, including Culex and Anopheles species, and we lack a thorough understanding of which mosquito species to target for vector control. We exposed Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes to blood meals supplemented with two Zika virus strains. Mosquito bodies, legs, and saliva were collected five, seven, and 14 days post blood meal and tested for infectious virus by plaque assay. Regardless of titer, virus strain, or timepoint, Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were refractory to Zika virus infection. We conclude that Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes likely do not contribute significantly to Zika virus transmission to humans. However, future studies should continue to explore the potential for other novel potential vectors to transmit the virus. PMID:28316896

  19. Prey-predator relationship between the cyclopoids Mesocyclops longisetus and Mesocyclops meridianus with Anopheles aquasalis larvae.

    PubMed

    Pernía, Javier; de Zoppi, Roa Evelyn; Palacios-Cáceres, Mario

    2007-06-01

    Copepods from the genus Mesocyclops are considered predators and potential biological control for mosquito larvae. Two copepod species M. meridianus and M. longisetus were found in natural developmental habitat for malaria vector Anopheles aquasalis in Paria, Venezuela. Predatory potential on 1st-stage mosquito larvae An. aquasalis was evaluated under laboratory conditions for the 2 species of copepod. Further records of both copepod life cycle and body size were taken. A 2 x 3 factorial design was used, consisting of 1:1 and 10:1 prey-predator ratios with and without interspecific interactions. Despite significant body-size differences, M. longisetus and M. meridianus reached maturity 17 days after hatching with no significant differences. Life cycle span of both copepod species are described for the first time. The 2 species showed the same predatory potential despite larval (prey) abundance variation.

  20. New spider flies from the Neotropical Region (Diptera, Acroceridae) with a key to New World genera

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Evert I.; Gillung, Jessica P.; Borkent, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new genera and five new species of spider flies (Diptera: Acroceridae) are described from the Neotropical Region. A new genus of Philopotinae (Neophilopota brevirostris Schlinger gen. et sp. n.) is described from Mexico, while an unusual new species of Sphaerops Philippi, 1865 (Acrocerinae: Sphaerops micella Schlinger sp. n.) is described from Chile. A new Panopinae genus near Lasia Wiedemann, 1824 (Coquena stangei Schlinger gen. et sp. n.), is described from Argentina and two new species of Pialea Erichson, 1840 (Pialea brunea Schlinger sp. n. and Pialea corbiculata Schlinger sp. n.)are described from Venezuela. Each genus is diagnosed and figured, and a key to species provided. The Neotropical fauna presently includes 19 genera, containing approximately 100 species. A key to New World genera is also included. PMID:23730188

  1. Species diversity of Fergusonina Malloch gall flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) forming leaf bud galls on snow gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. complex), with a description of a new species from Tasmania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Fergusonina (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) fly is described from terminal leaf bud galls (TLBGs) from the Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. (snow gum) species complex. Fergusonina tasmaniensis Nelson sp.n. is the first species from the genus Fergusonina to be described from Tasmania...

  2. Toward understanding Anophelinae (Diptera, Culicidae) phylogeny: insights from nuclear single-copy genes and the weight of evidence.

    PubMed

    Krzywinski, J; Wilkerson, R C; Besansky, N J

    2001-08-01

    A phylogeny of the mosquito subfamily Anophelinae was inferred from fragments of two protein-coding nuclear genes, G6pd (462 bp) and white (801 bp), and from a combined data set (2,136 bp) that included a portion of the mitochondrial gene ND5 and the D2 region of the ribosomal 28S gene. Sixteen species from all three anopheline genera and six Anopheles subgenera were sampled, along with six species of other mosquitoes used as an outgroup. Each of four genes analyzed individually recovered the same well-supported clades; topological incongruence was limited to unsupported or poorly supported nodes. As assessed by the incongruence length difference test, most of the conflicting signal was contributed by third codon positions. Strong structural constraints, as observed in white and G6pd, apparently had little impact on phylogenetic inference. Compared with the other genes, white provided a superior source of phylogenetic information. However, white appears to have experienced accelerated rates of evolution in few lineages, the affinities of which are therefore suspect. In combined analyses, most of the inferred relationship were well-supported and in agreement with previous studies: monophyly of Anophelinae, basal position of Chagasia, monophyly of Anopheles subgenera, and subgenera Nyssorhynchus + Kerteszia as sister taxa. The results suggested also monophyletic origin of subgenera Cellia + Anopheles, and the white gene analysis supported genus Bironella as a sister taxon to Anopheles. The present data and other available evidence suggest a South American origin of Anophelinae, probably in the Mesozoic; a rapid diversification of Bironella and basal subgeneric lineages of Anopheles, potentially associated with the breakup of Gondwanaland; and a relatively recent and rapid dispersion of subgenus Anopheles.

  3. Effect of Novaluron (Rimon 10 EC) on the mosquitoes Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus from Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Arredondo-Jiménez, J I; Valdez-Delgado, K M

    2006-12-01

    Dengue fever is a serious problem in Mexico and vector control has not been effective enough at preventing outbreaks. Malaria is largely under control, but it is important that new control measures continue to be developed. Novaluron, a novel host-specific insect growth regulator and chitin synthesis inhibitor, has proved to be effective against agricultural pests, but its efficacy against larval mosquito vectors under field conditions remains unknown. In accordance with the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme, phase I, II and III studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and residual effect of Novaluron (Rimon 10 EC, Makhteshim, Beer-Sheva, Israel) on the malaria vectors Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Theobald, the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti (L) and Aedes albopictus Skuse and the nuisance mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Laboratory susceptibility tests yielded diagnostic concentrations for all five target species. Field trials to identify the optimum field dosage of Novaluron against Anopheles mosquitoes were carried out under semi-natural conditions in artificial plots and in vessels with wild mosquitoes. Efficacy was measured by monitoring mortality of larvae and pupae and the percentage of inhibition of emergence from floating cages. Dosages of Novaluron for field tests were based on pupal LC(99) (lethal concentration 99%) of An. pseudopunctipennis (0.166 mg/L) in plots and average pupal LC(99) of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus (0.55 mg/L). At all dosages tested, Novaluron significantly reduced larval populations of An. albimanus, Culex coronator Dyar & Knab, Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus by approximately 90%, inhibited adult emergence of An. albimanus and An. pseudopunctipennis by approximately 97% for almost 4 months in experimental plots, and inhibited adult emergence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus by approximately 97% for up to 14 weeks. Recommended dosages of

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of Dixella aestivalis (Diptera: Nematocera: Dixidae).

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Andrew G; Sivell, Duncan; Harbach, Ralph E

    2017-01-01

    Dixidae, meniscus midges, belong to the suborder Nematocera of the order Diptera. The family includes 197 known species classified in nine genera. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Dixella aestivalis (Meigen) from the United Kingdom is reported here, along with its annotation and comparison with the genome of an unidentified species of Dixella from China. The circular genome consists of 16 465 bp and has a gene content consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and a non-coding, A + T-rich, control region. The mitochondrial genome of D. aestivalis can be used to identify genetic markers for species identification, and will be valuable for resolving phylogenetic relationships within the genus, family Dixidae and suborder Nematocera.

  5. Distinct population structure for co-occurring Anopheles goeldii and Anopheles triannulatus in Amazonian Brazil

    PubMed Central

    McKeon, Sascha Naomi; Moreno, Marta; Sallum, Maria Anise; Povoa, Marinete Marins; Conn, Jan Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether environmental heterogeneity contributes to the genetic heterogeneity in Anopheles triannulatus, larval habitat characteristics across the Brazilian states of Roraima and Pará and genetic sequences were examined. A comparison with Anopheles goeldii was utilised to determine whether high genetic diversity was unique to An. triannulatus. Student t test and analysis of variance found no differences in habitat characteristics between the species. Analysis of population structure of An. triannulatus and An. goeldii revealed distinct demographic histories in a largely overlapping geographic range. Cytochrome oxidase I sequence parsimony networks found geographic clustering for both species; however nuclear marker networks depicted An. triannulatus with a more complex history of fragmentation, secondary contact and recent divergence. Evidence of Pleistocene expansions suggests both species are more likely to be genetically structured by geographic and ecological barriers than demography. We hypothesise that niche partitioning is a driving force for diversity, particularly in An. triannulatus. PMID:23903977

  6. Nearctic Diptera: Twenty years later

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview of our knowledge of the Diptera of Nearctic America is presented. About two-thirds of all the flies estimated to occur in Nearctic America have been named and documented. Unfortunately, less than one percent of these flies are treated comprehensively in monographs and less than a quart...

  7. Efficacy of adulticidal and larvicidal properties of botanical extracts against Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Hippobosca maculata, and Anopheles subpictus.

    PubMed

    Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Elango, Gandhi; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Velayutham, Kanayairam

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the adulticidal and larvicidal activity of dried leaf hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Nelumbo nucifera, Manilkara zapota, Ipomoea staphylina, and Acalypha indica against the adults of Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acarina: Ixodidae), hematophagous fly Hippobosca maculata (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), and fourth instar larvae of malaria vector Anopheles subpictus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasites were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts for 24 h. All extracts showed moderate parasitic effects; however, the percent parasitic mortality observed in the crude leaf hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of N. nucifera and M. zapota against H. bispinosa were 80, 74, 72, and 100 and 100, 83, 74, and 91, respectively, and the activity for I. staphylina and A. indica against Hip. maculata were 100, 93, 87, and 66 and 78, 90, 87, and 100 at 2,000 ppm, respectively; the larvicidal activity for the same extracts of I. staphylina against A. subpictus were 76, 82, 84, and 100 at 100 ppm, respectively. The maximum efficacy was observed in the leaf methanol extract of N. nucifera, hexane extract of M. zapota and leaf hexane extract of I. staphylina, and methanol extract of A. indica against the adults of H. bispinosa and Hip. maculata with LC(50) and LC(90) values of 437.14 and 200.81, and 415.14 and 280.72 ppm, 1,927.57 and 703.52 ppm, and 1,647.70 and 829.39 ppm, respectively. The effective larvicidal activity was observed in leaf methanol extract of I. staphylina against A. subpictus with LC(50) and LC(90) values of 10.39 and 37.71 ppm, respectively. Therefore, this study provides the first report on the adulticidal and larvicidal activity of crude solvent extracts. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of H. bispinosa, Hip. maculata, and the medically important vector A. subpictus.

  8. Odorant reception in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Carey, Allison F; Wang, Guirong; Su, Chih-Ying; Zwiebel, Laurence J; Carlson, John R

    2010-03-04

    The mosquito Anopheles gambiae is the major vector of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. It locates its human hosts primarily through olfaction, but little is known about the molecular basis of this process. Here we functionally characterize the Anopheles gambiae odorant receptor (AgOr) repertoire. We identify receptors that respond strongly to components of human odour and that may act in the process of human recognition. Some of these receptors are narrowly tuned, and some salient odorants elicit strong responses from only one or a few receptors, suggesting a central role for specific transmission channels in human host-seeking behaviour. This analysis of the Anopheles gambiae receptors permits a comparison with the corresponding Drosophila melanogaster odorant receptor repertoire. We find that odorants are differentially encoded by the two species in ways consistent with their ecological needs. Our analysis of the Anopheles gambiae repertoire identifies receptors that may be useful targets for controlling the transmission of malaria.

  9. Blood-feeding behavior of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles melas in Ghana, western Africa.

    PubMed

    Tuno, Nobuko; Kjaerandsen, Jostein; Badu, Kingsley; Kruppa, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae is the predominant malaria vector species in Ghana, western Africa, with a strong local presence of Anopheles melas Theobald along the southern coast. We studied the biting behavior of these two species of the Anopheles gambiae complex inland and at the coast in Ghana, with special attention to the local peoples' preference for outdoor sleeping. We collected mosquitoes at two sites in 2007, representing the moist semideciduous forest zone and the strand and mangrove zone, and the sampling was repeated in the dry and rainy seasons. Sampled mosquitoes were examined for species, parity and size (wing length), and we identified the hosts of their bloodmeals. We interviewed 288 of the village people to determine where and when they slept outdoors. Our study confirmed that An. gambiae is the only species of the An. gambiae complex in the Ashanti region and revealed that An. melas is highly dominant on the western coast of Ghana. Both species showed high human blood rates in indoor resting mosquito samples. More people sleep outside on the coast than inland. An. melas demonstrated high exophily. An. gambiae bit people more frequently indoors and did so more often during the dry season than in the rainy season. We suggest that the degree of exophily in An. melas may be affected by humidity and the availability of human as well as by the mosquitoes' innate habits.

  10. Environmental and Regional Determinants of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) Larval Distribution in Belize, Central America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    A. pseudopunctipen- nis larvae to dominant aquatic plants and envi- ronmental factors in southern Chiapas , Mexico, have been reported by Savage et...Functions. The discriminant functions for presence of A. albimanus and A. pseudopunctipennis using data from southern Chiapas , Mexico, were published by...phytoplankton in Mexico. This may be because waters in southern Chiapas contained generally Z-3 times higher concentrations of major nutrients

  11. Taxonomic Study of Species Formerly Identified as Anopheles mediopunctatus and Resurrection of An. costai (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-01

    Amazonas region of Brazil. Mem. Inst. Oswald0 Cruz 84: 501-514. Navarro, C.J.C. 1996. Actualization taxonomica de la tribu Anophelini de Venezuela...con nueva clave para la iden- tiiicacidn de larvas de 4to estadio. Bol. Dir. Malariol. Saneamiento Ambiental 36: 25-43. Garcia, M., and R. A

  12. Description of the Immature Stages of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) rondoni (Neiva & Pinto) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-05-01

    length of 2-C; setae 1,2-P rarely sharing a common tubercle; seta 1 -P with narrow leaflets. The pupal stage is distinguished from other Nyssorhynchus...by having setae 1 -IV-VII and 5-V-VII branched. Only minor variation was found in setal counts between specimens from Peixoto de Azevedo, State of Mato...described. Peyton (1993) considered An. trinkae Partial support was provided by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) (grant no. 95

  13. The Brazilian Malaria Vector Anopheles (Kerteszia) Cruzii: Life Stages and Biology (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    of the humans in Casa Grande, Sao Paulo State, as well as in many domestic and wild animals . Three other viruses, whose relation to human disease...Publishing, Inc., Marlton, NJ. Comportamento das especies vetoras de Harbach, R.E. and K.L. Knight. 1982. Correc- malaria. Rev. Brasil. Malariol. Doenw

  14. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Markers Readily Distinguish Cryptic Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae: Anopheles)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Paskewitz & Collins. 1990; approaches to overcome these are suggested. J. Scott , W. Brogden and F. Collins, pers. comm.). Even though this is an...characterized, yet morphologically cryptic, mosquito Bowditch et al (1993). Total reaction volumes of 25 11l were used species portend that RAPD analysis...Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Mary- Acknowledgements land, USA. The identities of the species were confirmed using PCR primers supplied by J. Scott , W

  15. Ovicidal efficacy of Ageratina adenophora (Family: Asteraceae) against Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the...

  16. Phylogeny of the Leucosphyrus Group of Anopheles (Cellia) (Diptera: Culicidae) Based on Mitochondrial Gene Sequences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    balabacensis was not distinct from An. dints. Similarly, Yong et a1. (198.𔃽) used 15 gene-enzyme systems to compa.re genetic diversity in An. cIim~, An...Cu- licidae) in Bangladesh :md its I’elation to malaria. Bung- ladesh J. Zool. 5: 1-23. Reid. J. A. IIl68. AII01111eu’S mosquitoes of Malaya and Bomeo

  17. A Study on the Bionomics of Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae) in Belize, Central America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    Plantation (Figure 11). An observational census of terrestrial animals includes: coral and fer-de-lance snakes; iguana; koatomundi; deer; tapir ...terrestrial animals includes: coral and fer-de-lance snakes; iguana; koatomundi; deer; tapir ; porcupine; opossum; gibnut; yellow-headed parrots; toucans...each distance buffer zone, other wildlife (i.e., tapir , monkey, porcupine, gibnut, armadillos, koatamundi, etc.) abounded in this area and

  18. Lineage Divergence Detected in the Malaria Vector Anopheles marajoara (Diptera: Culicidae) in Amazonian Brazil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-07

    with an estimated 14% of all plant and animal species within its boundaries [2]. Because speciation is not always accompanied by mor- phological change...this region. Clearing of forest, in combination with an increase in human and domestic animal host abundance, may have led to an A. marajoara...USA. 4Department of Epidemiology, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 715 - Cerqueira Cesar 01246-904 Sao Paulo, Brazil. 5Laboratório de Fisiologia e Controle de

  19. Identification and Location of the Holotype and Paratypes of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) nuneztovari Gabaldon (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    nuneztovari ( Tipo de la especie). The holotype slide still bears the original 349-6 label; however, I have added a red holotype label with a...126:1-5. Gabaldon, A. 1940. Estudios sobre anofelinos. Serie I. 1. Description de Anophe7es (Nyssorhynchus) nunez-tovari n. sp. y consideraciones

  20. Ribosomal DNA ITS2 Sequences Differentiate Six Species in the Anopheles crucians Complex (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-01

    Carlsbad, CA). Two microliters of the ligation reaction mixture was transformed into com- petentOne Shot cells (TOPOTACloningKit; Invitro - gen...M. V. Meisch. 1991. Evalua- tion of 1-octen-3-ol and carbon dioxide as attractants for mosquitoes associated with irrigated rice Þelds in Arkan- sas

  1. Intron Retention Identifies a Malaria Vector within the Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) Albitaris Complex (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-09

    example, Anophe- les (Nyssorhynchus) marajoara Galvg, o and Damasceno (Linthicum, 1988) is the principal malaria vector in northeastern Amazonia ... Amazonia , from other members of the An. albitarsis complex. Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the

  2. Potential Distribution of Two Species in the Medically Important Anopheles minimus Complex (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    digital geospa- tial data layers summarizing environmental variation . Georeferenced mosquito point occurrence data are available from the literature or...and Harbach et al. (2007) named An. mini- mus C as An. harrisoni Harbach and Manguin. Differ- ences in phenology between An. minimus and An. harrisoni...ation in fewer, independent dimensions. The Þrst 15 PCs explained 95% of the overall variation in the 59 original environmental parameters (Peterson

  3. The genus Bipolaris

    PubMed Central

    Manamgoda, D.S.; Rossman, A.Y.; Castlebury, L.A.; Crous, P.W.; Madrid, H.; Chukeatirote, E.; Hyde, K.D.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on DNA sequence data derived from living cultures of fresh isolates, available ex-type cultures from worldwide collections and observation of type and additional specimens. Combined analyses of ITS, GPDH and TEF gene sequences were used to reconstruct the molecular phylogeny of the genus Bipolaris for species with living cultures. The GPDH gene is determined to be the best single marker for species of Bipolaris. Generic boundaries between Bipolaris and Curvularia are revised and presented in an updated combined ITS and GPDH phylogenetic tree. We accept 47 species in the genus Bipolaris and clarify the taxonomy, host associations, geographic distributions and species’ synonymies. Modern descriptions and illustrations are provided for 38 species in the genus with notes provided for the other taxa when recent descriptions are available. Bipolaris cynodontis, B. oryzae, B. victoriae, B. yamadae and B. zeicola are epi- or neotypified and a lectotype is designated for B. stenospila. Excluded and doubtful species are listed with notes on taxonomy and phylogeny. Seven new combinations are introduced in the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Bipolaris transferred based on the phylogenetic analysis. A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus. PMID:25492990

  4. Colonization of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, C; Arredondo-Jiménez, J I; Rodriguez, M H; Ulloa, A

    1998-12-01

    Two colonies of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Tapachula and Abasolo strains, were established under laboratory conditions with a thermoperiod (29 degrees C during the day; 24 degrees C during the night) and artificial dusk. To stimulate mating, a light beam from a flashlight was shone on the cage shortly after lights off. This procedure was repeated for the first 6 mosquito generations (parental to F6) and thereafter light stimulation was unnecessary for mating. The Tapachula colony has been maintained for 24 generations in 24 months, with insemination rates in females > 80% since the F3, and a monthly production of 30,000 pupae since the F7. Using the same procedure, the Abasolo colony from northeastern Mexico has been maintained for 13 generations in 14 months, with insemination rates of 26-52%.

  5. Preservation of iridescent colours in Phorinia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Diptera: Tachinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Downes, Stephen; Simonis, Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Iridescent blue-green colours are exhibited by various organisms including several taxa in the Tachinidae (Diptera) with notable examples within the Afrotropical members of the genus Phorinia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830. The vivid colouration observed in life quickly fades to a dull golden-yellow when a specimen is dried. Although well known, no published explanation has been given for this phenomenon. New information We illustrate the mechanism associated with this colour change. We also test and propose technical alternatives to retain the living colours in dried specimens. PMID:26929707

  6. A new species, new immature stages, and new synonymy in Australian Dasybasis flies (Diptera: Tabanidae: Diachlorini).

    PubMed

    Ferguson, David J; Yeates, David K

    2015-04-09

    Australian beach sand is a productive habitat for lower brachyceran fly larvae but often overlooked by collectors. We collected two species of tabanid larvae from coastal beach sand in southern New South Wales in August 2013. Both species belong to the Dasybasis macrophthalma species-group of Mackerras (1959), one a new species, and the other D. exulans (Erichson, 1842). We describe both new immature stages and the new species adult as Dasybasis rieki sp. nov. (Diptera: Tabanidae: Diachlorini). Trojan (1994b) elevated the D. macrophthalma species group to the genus Sznablius. We review the evidence for the generic status of Sznablius, and synonymize it with Dasybasis.

  7. A review of the New World Coproica (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae) with a description of 8 new species.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Matthew D; Marshall, Stephen A; Swann, John E

    2015-04-30

    The New World species of Coproica Rondani, 1861 (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae) are reviewed on the basis of over 17,000 examined specimens. The genus is divided into three major clades: the C. acutangula, C. vagans, and C. urbana species groups. Eight new species (C. bifurcata, C. bispatha, C. brachystyla, C. diabolica, C. emarginata, C. galapagosensis, C. novacula, and C. testudinea) are described, and redescriptions are provided for eleven additional species. Included are two keys (one for the twenty New World species only and one for all described species), updated New World distribution records, and illustrations of male and female genitalic structures.

  8. Discriminative feeding behaviour of Anopheles gambiae s.s. on endemic plants in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Manda, H.; Gouagna, L. C.; Nyandat, E.; Kabiru, E. W.; Jackson, R. R.; Foster, W. A.; Githure, J. I.; Beier, J. C.; Hassanali, A.

    2009-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) is known to feed on plant sugars, but this is the first experimental study to consider whether it discriminates between plant species. Thirteen perennial plant species were selected on the basis of their local availability within the vicinity of human dwellings and larval habitats of An. gambiae s.s. in western Kenya. Groups of 100 or 200 mosquitoes were released into cages either with a cutting of one plant type at a time (single-plant assay) or with cuttings of all 13 plants simultaneously (choice assay), respectively, and left overnight. In the choice assay, direct observations of the percentages of mosquitoes perching or feeding on each plant were recorded over four 1-h periods each night. For both types of assay, mosquitoes were recaptured and the percentage that had fed on plants was assessed by testing them individually for the presence of fructose. To identify which plants the choice-assay mosquitoes had fed on, gas chromatography (GC) profiles of samples of mosquito homogenates were compared with GC profiles of extracts from relevant parts of each plant. Four of the plants that were observed to have been fed on most frequently in the choice assay (Parthenium hysterophorus L., Tecoma stans L., Ricinus communis L., and Senna didymobotrya Fresen) were also shown to have been ingested most often by mosquitoes in both types of assay, suggesting that An. gambiae is differentially responsive to this range of plants, regardless of whether the plants were presented singly or mixed together. Significantly more females than males fed on plants, with the exception of P. hysterophorus L., one of the plants most frequently fed on. For most plant species (ten of 13), GC profiles indicated that An. gambiae obtained sugars primarily from flowers. The exceptions were P. hysterophorus L., Lantana camara L. and R. communis L., on which An. gambiae fed more often from leaves and stems than from flowers. PMID:17373953

  9. Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus & Culex tritaeniorhynchus

    PubMed Central

    Kamaraj, C.; Bagavan, A.; Elango, G.; Zahir, A. Abduz; Rajakumar, G.; Marimuthu, S.; Santhoshkumar, T.; Rahuman, A. Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and the development of resistance to chemical insecticides resulting in rebounding vectorial capacity. Plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the role of larvicidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and bark extracts of Annona squamosa L., Chrysanthemum indicum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against the fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activities of three medicinal plant extracts were studied in the range of 4.69 to 1000 mg/l in the laboratory bioassays against early 4th instar larvae of An. subpictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The mortality data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) to kill 50 and 90 per cent of the treated larvae of the respective species. Results: All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest toxic effect of bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate extract of C. indicum and leaf acetone extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of An. subpictus (LC50 = 93.80, 39.98 and 51.57 mg/l) and bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf methanol extract of C. indicum and leaf ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 =104.94, 42.29 and 69.16 mg/l) respectively. Interpretation & Conclusions: Our data suggest that the bark ethyl acetate and methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. indicum, acetone and ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens have the potential to be used as an ecofriendly approach for the control of the An. subpictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. PMID:21808141

  10. Evidence for X-linked introgression between molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae from Angola.

    PubMed

    Choi, K S; Townson, H

    2012-06-01

    The M and S molecular forms of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) are morphologically identical incipient species in which reproductive isolation is incomplete, enabling low-level gene flow between forms. In an attempt to find differences between the M and S forms, sequence variation was studied at loci along the X chromosome in adult female An. gambiae from Angola. A high proportion of M form specimens from Angola (79% of the 456 X chromosomes sampled) were found to contain a 16-bp insertion in intron 4 of the X-linked GPRCCK1 locus, relative to the AgamP3 release of the An. gambiae PEST genome sequence. The insertion was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in Angolan M form populations. The same insertion was found in all S form specimens examined, regardless of where in Africa they were sampled, but was absent from a sample of M form specimens collected in Ghana, Bioko and Mali. In M form specimens from Angola, there was an association between alleles at the GPRCCK1 locus and those at a microsatellite locus, AGXH678, close to the centromere of the X chromosome, with significant linkage disequilibrium between loci separated by 0.472 Mbp (P < 0.033). We show that the insertion results from introgression from the S form into the M form, rather than from the retention of an ancestral character. Gene flow from the S to M form could allow genes of adaptive value to be transferred, including those conferring insecticide resistance and others influencing ecology and behaviour, and thus malaria transmission and control. We discuss factors that may have led to this introgression event.

  11. Comparison of transmission parameters between Anopheles argyritarsis and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis in two ecologically different localities of Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anopheles (Anopheles) pseudopunctipennis is a recognized malaria vector in the slopes of the Andes of Bolivia. There, other species might be involved in malaria transmission and one candidate could be Anopheles argyritarsis. Although it is generally admitted that this species is not a malaria vector in the neotropical region, its potential role in transmission is still controversial and this situation has to be cleared, at least for Bolivia. Comparing the vectorial efficiency of An. pseudopunctipennis with that of An. argyritarsis could solve the question. Methods The two species were sampled throughout Bolivia to estimate their degree of co-existence in their distribution range. Vectorial efficiencies of the two species were compared in two ecologically different localities where the species were sympatric by analysing their vectorial capacities and components (i e, human biting rates, human biting index, survival, durations of the gonotrophic cycle and extrinsic cycle), and the entomological inoculation rates (EIR). Mosquitoes were sampled monthly during more than one year in the two localities. A monthly sample consisted in hourly captures in four houses (inside and outside) in each locality, during four consecutive nights. Climatic variables (temperature, humidity, potential evapo-transpiration and precipitations) were recorded to better understand variability in the entomological parameters. Relationships were analysed using multivariate methods. Results Anopheles pseudopunctipennis and An. argyritarsis are “altitude” species, sharing the same geographical distribution range in the Andes of Bolivia. No Plasmodium parasite was identified in An. argyritarsis and estimates of the vectorial capacity indicated that it is not a malaria vector in the two studied localities, unlike An. pseudopunctipennis which showed positive EIRs. This latter species, although not a very good malaria vector, exhibited better life traits values and better behavioural

  12. Investigations on the role of a lysozyme from the malaria vector Anopheles dirus during malaria parasite development.

    PubMed

    Lapcharoen, Parichat; Komalamisra, Narumon; Rongsriyam, Yupha; Wangsuphachart, Voranuch; Dekumyoy, Paron; Prachumsri, Jetsumon; Kajla, Mayur K; Paskewitz, Susan M

    2012-01-01

    A cDNA encoding a lysozyme was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR) from females of the malaria vector Anopheles dirus A (Diptera: Culicidae). The 623 bp lysozyme (AdLys c-1) cDNA encodes the 120 amino acid mature protein with a predicted molecular mass of 13.4 kDa and theoretical pI of 8.45. Six cysteine residues and a potential calcium binding motif that are present in AdLys c-1 are highly conserved relative to those of c-type lysozymes found in other insects. RT-PCR analysis of the AdLys c-1 transcript revealed its presence at high levels in the salivary glands both in larval and adult stages and in the larval caecum. dsRNA mediated gene knockdown experiments were conducted to examine the potential role of this lysozyme during Plasmodium berghei infection. Silencing of AdLys c-1 resulted in a significant reduction in the number of oocysts as compared to control dsGFP injected mosquitoes.

  13. Molecular differentiation of three closely related members of the mosquito species complex, Anopheles moucheti, by mitochondrial and ribosomal DNA polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Kengne, P; Antonio-Nkondjio, C; Awono-Ambene, H P; Simard, F; Awolola, T S; Fontenille, D

    2007-06-01

    Distinction between members of the equatorial Africa malaria vector Anopheles moucheti (Evans) s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) has been based mainly on doubtful morphological features. To determine the level of genetic differentiation between the three morphological forms of this complex, we investigated molecular polymorphism in the gene encoding for mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase b (CytB) and in the ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2). The three genomic regions revealed sequence differences between the three morphological forms similar in degree to the differences shown previously for members of other anopheline species groups or complexes (genetic distance d = 0.047-0.05 for CytB, 0.084-0.166 for ITS1 and 0.03-0.05 for ITS2). Using sequence variation in the ITS1 region, we set up a diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for rapid and reliable identification of each subspecies within the An. moucheti complex. Specimens of An. moucheti s.l. collected in Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Uganda and Nigeria were successfully identified, demonstrating the general applicability of this technique.

  14. Mark-recapture studies of host selection by Anopheles (Anopheles) vestitipennis.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Armando; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I; Rodriguez, Mario H; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso

    2002-03-01

    We present herein the results of a series of mark-recapture experiments with female Anopheles vestitipennis. Theses experiments used human and animal hosts to assess the degree of anthropophily of field-caught specimens, originally collected on either host, and of their offspring. Fidelity of mosquitoes to particular hosts was estimated by recapturing marked host-seeking mosquitoes returning for a 2nd blood meal. Results indicated that mosquitoes seeking animal hosts were more faithful (80.48%; 33 of 41) in returning to their original host than were those seeking human hosts (63%; 49 of 78).

  15. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density), fungus (species and concentration) and environmental effects (exposure duration and food availability) influence larval mortality caused by fungus, was studied. Methods Laboratory bioassays were performed on the larval stages of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi with spores of two fungus species, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. For various larval and fungal characteristics and environmental effects the time to death was determined and survival curves established. These curves were compared by Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analyses. Results Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae caused high mortality of An. gambiae and An. stephensi larvae. However, Beauveria bassiana was less effective (Hazard ratio (HR) <1) compared to Metarhizium anisopliae. Anopheles stephensi and An. gambiae were equally susceptible to each fungus. Older larvae were less likely to die than young larvae (HR < 1). The effect of increase in fungus concentration on larval mortality was influenced by spore clumping. One day exposure to fungal spores was found to be equally effective as seven days exposure. In different exposure time treatments 0 - 4.9% of the total larvae, exposed to fungus, showed infection at either the pupal or adult stage. Mortality rate increased with increasing larval density and amount of available food. Conclusions This study shows that both fungus species have potential to kill mosquitoes in the larval stage, and that mortality rate depends on fungus species itself, larval stage targeted, larval density and amount of nutrients available to the larvae. Increasing the concentration of fungal spores or reducing the exposure time to spores did not show a proportional

  16. Biting Midges of the Genus Culicoides in South Carolina Zoos

    PubMed Central

    Nelder, Mark P.; Swanson, Dustin A.; Adler, Peter H.; Grogan, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected during the summer of 2007 at the Greenville and Riverbanks Zoos in South Carolina with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps equipped with ultraviolet or incandescent lights and baited with carbon dioxide. Sixteen species of Culicoides were collected, four of which represented more than 80%. They were Culicoides guttipennis (Coquillett), Culicoides mulrenanni Beck, Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen), and Culicoides sanguisuga (Coquillett). C. guttipennis was found on a dead colobus monkey and a dead golden-headed lion tamarin; Culicoides husseyi Wirth & Blanton was collected from an unidentified, abandoned bird's nest. Ultraviolet light-equipped traps captured significantly more Culicoides specimens than traps with incandescent light. Half of the collected species previously have been associated with vertebrate pathogens, indicating a potential risk to captive animals. PMID:20569132

  17. Functional characterisation of the Anopheles leucokinins and their cognate G-protein coupled receptor.

    PubMed

    Radford, Jonathan C; Terhzaz, Selim; Cabrero, Pablo; Davies, Shireen-A; Dow, Julian A T

    2004-12-01

    Identification of the Anopheles gambiae leucokinin gene from the completed A. gambiae genome revealed that this insect species contains three leucokinin peptides, named Anopheles leucokinin I-III. These peptides are similar to those identified in two other mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Culex salinarius. Additionally, Anopheles leucokinin I displays sequence similarity to Drosophila melanogaster leucokinin. Using a combination of computational and molecular approaches, a full-length cDNA for a candidate leucokinin-like receptor was isolated from A. stephensi, a close relative of A. gambiae. Alignment of the known leucokinin receptors--all G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)--with this receptor, identified some key conserved regions within the receptors, notably transmembrane (TM) domains I, II, III, VI and VII. The Anopheles leucokinins and receptor were shown to be a functional receptor-ligand pair. All three Anopheles leucokinins caused a dose-dependent rise in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) when applied to S2 cells co-expressing the receptor and an aequorin transgene, with a potency order of I>II>III. Drosophila leucokinin was also found to activate the Anopheles receptor with a similar EC50 value to Anopheles leucokinin I. However, when the Anopheles peptides were applied to the Drosophila receptor, only Anopheles leucokinin I and II elicited a rise in [Ca2+]i. This suggests that the Anopheles receptor has a broader specificity for leucokinin ligands than the Drosophila receptor. Antisera raised against the Anopheles receptor identified a doublet of approx. 65 and 72 kDa on western blots, consistent with the presence of four N-glycosylation sites within the receptor sequence, and the known glycosylation of the receptor in Drosophila. In Anopheles tubules, as in Drosophila, the receptor was localised to the stellate cells. Thus we provide the first identification of Anopheles mosquito leucokinins (Anopheles leucokinins) and a cognate leucokinin receptor

  18. Scanning Electron Microscopy Investigations of Third-Instar Larva of Cordylobia rodhaini (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an Agent of Furuncular Myiasis.

    PubMed

    Pezzi, M; Cultrera, R; Chicca, M; Leis, M

    2015-05-01

    A scanning electron microscopy study of the third larval instar of Cordylobia rodhaini Gedoelst (Diptera: Calliphoridae), causing obligatory furuncular myiasis, is presented here for the first time. The larvae were collected from a patient exposed to them in the tropical rainforest of Kibale National Park (Uganda). Distinctive features are described in sequence from the anterior region to the posterior region, highlighting the morphological features of antennae, maxillary palps, structures related to mouth opening, sensory structures, thoracic and abdominal spines, and anterior and posterior spiracles. The results are compared with those of other Calyptrata flies, mainly from the family Calliphoridae and, when possible, with Cordylobia anthropophaga Blanchard (Diptera: Calliphoridae), the only other species of genus Cordylobia investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

  19. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto."

  20. Composition of Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles gambiae microbiota from larval to adult stages.

    PubMed

    Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Tchioffo, Majoline T; Abate, Luc; Boissière, Anne; Awono-Ambéné, Parfait H; Nsango, Sandrine E; Christen, Richard; Morlais, Isabelle

    2014-12-01

    During their immature life stages, malaria mosquitoes are exposed to a wide array of microbes and contaminants from the aquatic habitats. Although prior studies have suggested that environmental exposure shapes the microbial community structure in the adult mosquito, most reports have focused on laboratory-based experiments and on a single mosquito epithelium, the gut. In this study, we investigated the influence of the breeding site on the development of the Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles gambiae microbiota in natural conditions. We characterized bacterial communities from aquatic habitats, at surface microlayer and subsurface water levels, to freshly emerge adult mosquitoes using multiplexed 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and we separately analyzed the microbiota associated with the different epithelia of adult individual, midguts, ovaries and salivary glands. We found that the distribution of bacterial communities in the aquatic habitats differed according to the depth of water collections. Inter-individual variation of bacterial composition was large in larvae guts but adult mosquitoes from a same breeding site shared quite similar microbiota. Although some differences in bacterial abundances were highlighted between the different epithelia of freshly emerged An. coluzzii and An. gambiae, an intriguing feature from our study is the particular similarity of the overall bacterial communities. Our results call for further investigations on the bacterial population dynamics in the different tissues to determine the distinctive characteristics of each microbiota during the mosquito lifespan and to identify specific interactions between certain key phyla or species and the insect life history traits.

  1. Review of Australasian spider flies (Diptera, Acroceridae) with a revision of Panops Lamarck

    PubMed Central

    Winterton, Shaun L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Australasian spider flies (Diptera: Acroceridae) are reviewed, with all eight currently recognized genera diagnosed and figured. The panopine genus Panops Lamarck, 1804 from Australia and Indonesia is revised with four new species described, increasing the total number of species in the genus to nine: Panops aurum sp. n., Panops danielsi sp. n., Panops jade sp. n. and Panops schlingeri sp. n. Five species of Panops are redescribed: Panops austrae Neboiss, 1971, Panops baudini Lamarck, 1804, Panops boharti (Schlinger, 1959), comb. n., Panops conspicuus (Brunetti, 1926) and Panops grossi (Neboiss, 1971), comb. n. The monotypic genera Neopanops Schlinger, 1959 and Panocalda Neboiss, 1971 are synonymized with Panops. Keys to genera of Australasian Acroceridae and species of Panops, Helle Osten Sacken, 1896 and Australasian Pterodontia Gray, 1832 are included. PMID:22448114

  2. Laser induced mortality of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Matthew D.; Leahy, David J.; Norton, Bryan J.; Johanson, Threeric; Mullen, Emma R.; Marvit, Maclen; Makagon, Arty

    2016-01-01

    Small, flying insects continue to pose great risks to both human health and agricultural production throughout the world, so there remains a compelling need to develop new vector and pest control approaches. Here, we examined the use of short (<25 ms) laser pulses to kill or disable anesthetized female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, which were chosen as a representative species. The mortality of mosquitoes exposed to laser pulses of various wavelength, power, pulse duration, and spot size combinations was assessed 24 hours after exposure. For otherwise comparable conditions, green and far-infrared wavelengths were found to be more effective than near- and mid-infrared wavelengths. Pulses with larger laser spot sizes required lower lethal energy densities, or fluence, but more pulse energy than for smaller spot sizes with greater fluence. Pulse duration had to be reduced by several orders of magnitude to significantly lower the lethal pulse energy or fluence required. These results identified the most promising candidates for the lethal laser component in a system being designed to identify, track, and shoot down flying insects in the wild. PMID:26887786

  3. Metabolic Pathways in Anopheles stephensi mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Giulivi, Cecilia; Ross-Inta, Catherine; Horton, Ashley A.; Luckhart, Shirley

    2017-01-01

    No studies have been performed on mitochondria of malaria vector mosquitoes. This information would be valuable in understanding mosquito aging and detoxification of insecticides, two parameters that significantly impact malaria parasite transmission in endemic regions. Here, we report the analyses of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria of cultured cells (ASE line) from Anopheles stephensi, a major vector of malaria in India, Southeast Asia and parts of the Middle East. ASE cell mitochondria shared many features in common with mammalian muscle mitochondria, despite the fact that these cells have a larval origin. However, two major differences with mammalian mitochondria were apparent. One, the glycerol-phosphate shuttle plays a major role in NADH oxidation in ASE cell mitochondria as it does in insect muscle mitochondria. In contrast, mammalian white muscle mitochondria depend primarily on lactate dehydrogenase, whereas red muscle mitochondria depend on the malate-oxaloacetate shuttle. Two, ASE mitochondria were able to oxidize Pro at a rate comparable with that of α-glycerophosphate. However, the Pro pathway appeared to differ from the currently accepted pathway, in that ketoglutarate could be catabolyzed completely by the Krebs cycle or via transamination depending on the ATP need. PMID:18588503

  4. Laser induced mortality of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Matthew D.; Leahy, David J.; Norton, Bryan J.; Johanson, Threeric; Mullen, Emma R.; Marvit, Maclen; Makagon, Arty

    2016-02-01

    Small, flying insects continue to pose great risks to both human health and agricultural production throughout the world, so there remains a compelling need to develop new vector and pest control approaches. Here, we examined the use of short (<25 ms) laser pulses to kill or disable anesthetized female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, which were chosen as a representative species. The mortality of mosquitoes exposed to laser pulses of various wavelength, power, pulse duration, and spot size combinations was assessed 24 hours after exposure. For otherwise comparable conditions, green and far-infrared wavelengths were found to be more effective than near- and mid-infrared wavelengths. Pulses with larger laser spot sizes required lower lethal energy densities, or fluence, but more pulse energy than for smaller spot sizes with greater fluence. Pulse duration had to be reduced by several orders of magnitude to significantly lower the lethal pulse energy or fluence required. These results identified the most promising candidates for the lethal laser component in a system being designed to identify, track, and shoot down flying insects in the wild.

  5. RNAi Trigger Delivery into Anopheles gambiae Pupae.

    PubMed

    Regna, Kimberly; Harrison, Rachel M; Heyse, Shannon A; Chiles, Thomas C; Michel, Kristin; Muskavitch, Marc A T

    2016-03-08

    RNA interference (RNAi), a naturally occurring phenomenon in eukaryotic organisms, is an extremely valuable tool that can be utilized in the laboratory for functional genomic studies. The ability to knockdown individual genes selectively via this reverse genetic technique has allowed many researchers to rapidly uncover the biological roles of numerous genes within many organisms, by evaluation of loss-of-function phenotypes. In the major human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, the predominant method used to reduce the function of targeted genes involves injection of double-stranded (dsRNA) into the hemocoel of the adult mosquito. While this method has been successful, gene knockdown in adults excludes the functional assessment of genes that are expressed and potentially play roles during pre-adult stages, as well as genes that are expressed in limited numbers of cells in adult mosquitoes. We describe a method for the injection of Serine Protease Inhibitor 2 (SRPN2) dsRNA during the early pupal stage and validate SRPN2 protein knockdown by observing decreased target protein levels and the formation of melanotic pseudo-tumors in SRPN2 knockdown adult mosquitoes. This evident phenotype has been described previously for adult stage knockdown of SRPN2 function, and we have recapitulated this adult phenotype by SRPN2 knockdown initiated during pupal development. When used in conjunction with a dye-labeled dsRNA solution, this technique enables easy visualization by simple light microscopy of injection quality and distribution of dsRNA in the hemocoel.

  6. Behavioral Cost & Overdominance in Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Diop, Malal M.; Moiroux, Nicolas; Chandre, Fabrice; Martin-Herrou, Hadrien; Milesi, Pascal; Boussari, Olayidé; Porciani, Angélique; Duchon, Stéphane; Labbé, Pierrick; Pennetier, Cédric

    2015-01-01

    In response to the widespread use of control strategies such as Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN), Anopheles mosquitoes have evolved various resistance mechanisms. Kdr is a mutation that provides physiological resistance to the pyrethroid insecticides family (PYR). In the present study, we investigated the effect of the Kdr mutation on the ability of female An. gambiae to locate and penetrate a 1cm-diameter hole in a piece of netting, either treated with insecticide or untreated, to reach a bait in a wind tunnel. Kdr homozygous, PYR-resistant mosquitoes were the least efficient at penetrating an untreated damaged net, with about 51% [39-63] success rate compared to 80% [70-90] and 78% [65-91] for homozygous susceptible and heterozygous respectively. This reduced efficiency, likely due to reduced host-seeking activity, as revealed by mosquito video-tracking, is evidence of a recessive behavioral cost of the mutation. Kdr heterozygous mosquitoes were the most efficient at penetrating nets treated with PYR insecticide, thus providing evidence for overdominance, the rarely-described case of heterozygote advantage conveyed by a single locus. The study also highlights the remarkable capacity of female mosquitoes, whether PYR-resistant or not, to locate holes in bed-nets. PMID:25831058

  7. Anopheles Midgut FREP1 Mediates Plasmodium Invasion*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Genwei; Niu, Guodong; Franca, Caio M.; Dong, Yuemei; Wang, Xiaohong; Butler, Noah S.; Dimopoulos, George; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Malaria transmission depends on sexual stage Plasmodium parasites successfully invading Anopheline mosquito midguts following a blood meal. However, the molecular mechanisms of Plasmodium invasion of mosquito midguts have not been fully elucidated. Previously, we showed that genetic polymorphisms in the fibrinogen-related protein 1 (FREP1) gene are significantly associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection in Anopheles gambiae, and FREP1 is important for Plasmodium berghei infection of mosquitoes. Here we identify that the FREP1 protein is secreted from the mosquito midgut epithelium and integrated as tetramers into the peritrophic matrix, a chitinous matrix formed inside the midgut lumen after a blood meal feeding. Moreover, we show that the FREP1 can directly bind Plasmodia sexual stage gametocytes and ookinetes. Notably, ablating FREP1 expression or targeting FREP1 with antibodies significantly decreases P. falciparum infection in mosquito midguts. Our data support that the mosquito-expressed FREP1 mediates mosquito midgut invasion by multiple species of Plasmodium parasites via anchoring ookinetes to the peritrophic matrix and enabling parasites to penetrate the peritrophic matrix and the epithelium. Thus, targeting FREP1 can limit malaria transmission. PMID:25991725

  8. [Identification of anopheles breeding sites in the residual foci of low malaria transmission «hotspots» in Central and Western Senegal].

    PubMed

    Sy, O; Konaté, L; Ndiaye, A; Dia, I; Diallo, A; Taïrou, F; Bâ, E L; Gomis, J F; Ndiaye, J L; Cissé, B; Gaye, O; Faye, O

    2016-02-01

    Malaria incidence has markedly declined in the Mbour, Fatick, Niakhar and Bambey districts (central and western Senegal) thanks to a scaling up of effective control measures namely LLINs (Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Net), ACTs (Artesunate Combination Therapy) and promoting care seeking. However malaria cases are now maintained by foci of transmission called hotspots. We evaluate the role of anopheles breeding sites in the identification of malaria hotspots in the health districts of Mbour, Fatick, Niakhar and Bambey. Surveys of breeding sites were made in 6 hotspot villages and 4 non-hotspot villages. A sample was taken in each water point with mosquito larvae by dipping method and the collected specimens were identified to the genus level. Additional parameters as name of the village and breeding sites, type of collection, original water turbidity, presence of vegetation, proximity to dwellings, geographic coordinates, sizes were also collected. Sixty-two water collections were surveyed and monitored between 2013 and 2014. Temporary natural breeding sites were predominant regardless of the epidemiological status of the village. Among the 31 breeding sites located within 500 meters of dwellings in hotspots villages, 70% carried Anopheles larvae during the rainy season while 43% of the 21 breeding sites located at similar distances in non-hotspot villages carried Anopheles larvae during the same period (P = 0.042). At the end of the rainy season, the trend is the same with 27% of positive breeding sites in hotspots and 14% in non-hotspots villages. The breeding sites encountered in hotspots villages are mostly small to medium size and are more productive by Anopheles larvae than those found in non-hotspot area. This study showed that the high frequency of smallest and productive breeding sites around and inside the villages can create conditions of residual transmission.

  9. Biology & control of Anopheles culicifacies Giles 1901

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, V.P.; Dev, V.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria epidemiology is complex due to multiplicity of disease vectors, sibling species complex and variations in bionomical characteristics, vast varied terrain, various ecological determinants. There are six major mosquito vector taxa in India, viz. Anopheles culicifacies, An. fluviatilis, An. stephensi, An. minimus, An. dirus and An. sundaicus. Among these, An. culicifacies is widely distributed and considered the most important vector throughout the plains and forests of India for generating bulk of malaria cases (>60% annually). Major malaria epidemics are caused by An. culicifaices. It is also the vector of tribal malaria except parts of Odisha and Northeastern States of India. An. culicifacies has been the cause of perennial malaria transmission in forests, and over the years penetrated the deforested areas of Northeast. An. culicifacies participates in malaria transmission either alone or along with An. stephensi or An. fluviatilis. The National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) spends about 80 per cent malaria control budget annually in the control of An. culicifacies, yet it remains one of the most formidable challenges in India. With recent advances in molecular biology there has been a significant added knowledge in understanding the biology, ecology, genetics and response to interventions, requiring stratification for cost-effective and sustainable malaria control. Research leading to newer interventions that are evidence-based, community oriented and sustainable would be useful in tackling the emerging challenges in malaria control. Current priority areas of research should include in-depth vector biology and control in problem pockets, preparation of malaria-risk maps for focused and selective interventions, monitoring insecticide resistance, cross-border initiative and data sharing, and coordinated control efforts for achieving transmission reduction, and control of drug-resistant malaria. The present review on An. culicifacies

  10. Fauna Europaea: Diptera – Brachycera

    PubMed Central

    Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I.; Ozerov, Andrey L.; Woźnica, Andrzej J.; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K.; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T.; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C. D.; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L.; Chandler, Peter J.; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A.; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N.; Mathis, Wayne N.; Hubenov, Zdravko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera–Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera–Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger

  11. Anthropophilic Anopheles species composition and malaria in Tierradentro, Córdoba, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Schiemann, David Joachim; Pinzón, Martha Lucía Quiñones; Hankeln, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is still a primary health problem in Colombia. The locality of Tierradentro is situated in the municipality of Montelíbano, Córdoba, in the northwest of Colombia, and has one of the highest annual parasite index of malaria nationwide. However, the vectors involved in malaria transmission in this locality have not yet been identified. In this study, the local anthropophilic Anopheles composition and natural infectivity with Plasmodium were investigated. In August 2009, 927 female Anopheles mosquitoes were collected in eight localities using the human landing catch method and identified based on their morphology. Cryptic species were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism-internal transcribed spacer (ITS)2 molecular analysis. Eight species [Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. (92.8%), Anopheles darlingi (5.1%), Anopheles triannulatus s.l. (1.8%), Anopheles pseudopunctipennis s.l. (0.2%), Anopheles punctimacula s.l. (0.2%), Anopheles apicimacula (0.1%), Anopheles albimanus (0.1%) and Anopheles rangeli (0.1%)] were identified and species identity was confirmed by ITS2 sequencing. This is the first report of An. albimanus, An. rangeli and An. apicimacula in Tierradentro. Natural infectivity with Plasmodium was determined by ELISA. None of the mosquitoes was infectious for Plasmodium. An. nuneztovari s.l. was the predominant species and is considered the primary malaria vector; An. darlingi and An. triannulatus s.l. could serve as secondary vectors.

  12. The genome of Anopheles darlingi, the main neotropical malaria vector.

    PubMed

    Marinotti, Osvaldo; Cerqueira, Gustavo C; de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula; Ferro, Maria Inês Tiraboschi; Loreto, Elgion Lucio da Silva; Zaha, Arnaldo; Teixeira, Santuza M R; Wespiser, Adam R; Almeida E Silva, Alexandre; Schlindwein, Aline Daiane; Pacheco, Ana Carolina Landim; Silva, Artur Luiz da Costa da; Graveley, Brenton R; Walenz, Brian P; Lima, Bruna de Araujo; Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre Gomes; Nunes-Silva, Carlos Gustavo; de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; de Menezes, Claudia Beatriz Afonso; Matiolli, Cleverson; Caffrey, Daniel; Araújo, Demetrius Antonio M; de Oliveira, Diana Magalhães; Golenbock, Douglas; Grisard, Edmundo Carlos; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; de Carvalho, Fabíola Marques; Barcellos, Fernando Gomes; Prosdocimi, Francisco; May, Gemma; Azevedo Junior, Gilson Martins de; Guimarães, Giselle Moura; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Padilha, Itácio Q M; Batista, Jacqueline da Silva; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; Ribeiro, José M C; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel; Dabbas, Karina Maia; Cerdeira, Louise; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; Brocchi, Marcelo; de Carvalho, Marcos Oliveira; Teixeira, Marcus de Melo; Diniz Maia, Maria de Mascena; Goldman, Maria Helena S; Cruz Schneider, Maria Paula; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; Hungria, Mariangela; Nicolás, Marisa Fabiana; Pereira, Maristela; Montes, Martín Alejandro; Cantão, Maurício E; Vincentz, Michel; Rafael, Miriam Silva; Silverman, Neal; Stoco, Patrícia Hermes; Souza, Rangel Celso; Vicentini, Renato; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Neves, Rogério de Oliveira; Silva, Rosane; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Maciel, Talles Eduardo Ferreira; Urményi, Turán P; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Camargo, Erney Plessmann; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro

    2013-08-01

    Anopheles darlingi is the principal neotropical malaria vector, responsible for more than a million cases of malaria per year on the American continent. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors ∼100 million years ago (mya) and successfully adapted to the New World environment. Here we present an annotated reference A. darlingi genome, sequenced from a wild population of males and females collected in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 10 481 predicted protein-coding genes were annotated, 72% of which have their closest counterpart in Anopheles gambiae and 21% have highest similarity with other mosquito species. In spite of a long period of divergent evolution, conserved gene synteny was observed between A. darlingi and A. gambiae. More than 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and short indels with potential use as genetic markers were identified. Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome. Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector-human and vector-parasite interactions, were identified and discussed. This study represents the first effort to sequence the genome of a neotropical malaria vector, and opens a new window through which we can contemplate the evolutionary history of anopheline mosquitoes. It also provides valuable information that may lead to novel strategies to reduce malaria transmission on the South American continent. The A. darlingi genome is accessible at www.labinfo.lncc.br/index.php/anopheles-darlingi.

  13. The dance of male Anopheles gambiae in mating swarms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mating behavior of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae is of great interest from a fundamental and applied perspective. One of the most important elements of mating in this species is the crepuscular mating aggregation (swarm) composed almost entirely of males, where most coupling and inseminat...

  14. Workbook on the Identification of Anopheles Adults. Preliminary Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Harry D.; Stojanovich, Chester J.

    This self-instructional workbook is designed to enable malaria control workers to identify adults of "Anopheles" species that are important malaria vectors. The morphological features of the adults are illustrated in a programed booklet, which also contains an illustrated taxonomic key to adult females of 29 anopheline species. A glossary and a…

  15. Workbook on the Identification of Anopheles Larvae. Preliminary Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Harry D.; Stojanovich, Chester J.

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable malarial control workers to identify the larvae of "Anopheles" species that are important malaria vectors. The morphological features of the larvae are illustrated in a programed booklet, which also contains an illustrated taxonomic key to 25 species of anopheline larvae. A glossary and a short…

  16. The Genome of Anopheles darlingi, the main neotropical malaria vector

    PubMed Central

    Marinotti, Osvaldo; Cerqueira, Gustavo C.; de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula; Ferro, Maria Inês Tiraboschi; Loreto, Elgion Lucio da Silva; Zaha, Arnaldo; Teixeira, Santuza M. R.; Wespiser, Adam R.; Almeida e Silva, Alexandre; Schlindwein, Aline Daiane; Pacheco, Ana Carolina Landim; da Silva, Artur Luiz da Costa; Graveley, Brenton R.; Walenz, Brian P.; Lima, Bruna de Araujo; Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre Gomes; Nunes-Silva, Carlos Gustavo; de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; de Menezes, Claudia Beatriz Afonso; Matiolli, Cleverson; Caffrey, Daniel; Araújo, Demetrius Antonio M.; de Oliveira, Diana Magalhães; Golenbock, Douglas; Grisard, Edmundo Carlos; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; de Carvalho, Fabíola Marques; Barcellos, Fernando Gomes; Prosdocimi, Francisco; May, Gemma; de Azevedo Junior, Gilson Martins; Guimarães, Giselle Moura; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Padilha, Itácio Q. M.; Batista, Jacqueline da Silva; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel; Dabbas, Karina Maia; Cerdeira, Louise; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; Brocchi, Marcelo; de Carvalho, Marcos Oliveira; Teixeira, Marcus de Melo; Diniz Maia, Maria de Mascena; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Cruz Schneider, Maria Paula; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; Hungria, Mariangela; Nicolás, Marisa Fabiana; Pereira, Maristela; Montes, Martín Alejandro; Cantão, Maurício E.; Vincentz, Michel; Rafael, Miriam Silva; Silverman, Neal; Stoco, Patrícia Hermes; Souza, Rangel Celso; Vicentini, Renato; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Neves, Rogério de Oliveira; Silva, Rosane; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Maciel, Talles Eduardo Ferreira; Ürményi, Turán P.; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Camargo, Erney Plessmann; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi is the principal neotropical malaria vector, responsible for more than a million cases of malaria per year on the American continent. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors ∼100 million years ago (mya) and successfully adapted to the New World environment. Here we present an annotated reference A. darlingi genome, sequenced from a wild population of males and females collected in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 10 481 predicted protein-coding genes were annotated, 72% of which have their closest counterpart in Anopheles gambiae and 21% have highest similarity with other mosquito species. In spite of a long period of divergent evolution, conserved gene synteny was observed between A. darlingi and A. gambiae. More than 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and short indels with potential use as genetic markers were identified. Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome. Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector–human and vector–parasite interactions, were identified and discussed. This study represents the first effort to sequence the genome of a neotropical malaria vector, and opens a new window through which we can contemplate the evolutionary history of anopheline mosquitoes. It also provides valuable information that may lead to novel strategies to reduce malaria transmission on the South American continent. The A. darlingi genome is accessible at www.labinfo.lncc.br/index.php/anopheles-darlingi. PMID:23761445

  17. Genus I. Leptospira

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leptospira comprise a diverse group of bacteria. Some species cause serious infections in animals and humans. These bacteria are aerobes that consume long-chain fatty acids and alcohols as carbon and energy sources. This genus is distinguished from Leptonema or Turneriella by lack of similarity u...

  18. Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Gosoniu, Laura; Drescher, Axel W; Fillinger, Ulrike; Tanner, Marcel; Killeen, Gerry F; Castro, Marcia C

    2009-05-01

    A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate logistic regression with independent random effects. It was found that more than 5% of the study area (total size 16.8 km2) was used for farming in backyard gardens and larger open spaces. The proportion of habitats containing Anopheles larvae was 1.7 times higher in agricultural areas compared to other areas (95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.92). Significant geographic predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in gardens included location in lowland areas, proximity to river, and relatively impermeable soils. Agriculture-related predictors comprised specific seedbed types, mid-sized gardens, irrigation by wells, as well as cultivation of sugar cane or leafy vegetables. Negative predictors included small garden size, irrigation by tap water, rainfed production and cultivation of leguminous crops or fruit trees. Although there was an increased chance of finding Anopheles larvae in agricultural sites, it was found that breeding sites originated by urban agriculture account for less than a fifth of all breeding sites of malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam. It is suggested that strategies comprising an integrated malaria control effort in malaria-endemic African cities include participatory involvement of farmers by planting shade trees near larval habitats.

  19. Mechanical transmission of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus by Simulium vittatum (Diptera: Simuliidae) to domestic swine (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Smith, Paul F; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Carter, Deborah; Gray, Elmer W; Noblet, Raymond; Mead, Daniel G

    2009-11-01

    Biting flies have been suggested as mechanical vectors of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey Virus (family Rhabdoviridae, genus Vesiculovirus, VSNJV) in livestock populations during epidemic outbreaks in the western United States. We conducted a proof-of-concept study to determine whether biting flies could mechanically transmit VSNJV to livestock by using a black fly, Simulium vittatum Zetterstedt (Diptera: Simuliidae), domestic swine, Sus scrofa L., model. Black flies mechanically transmitted VSNJV to a naive host after interrupted feeding on a vesicular lesion on a previously infected host. Transmission resulted in clinical disease in the naïve host. This is the first demonstration of mechanical transmission of VSNJV to livestock by insects.

  20. Linnaeomyia hortensis gen. et spec. nov. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, Porricondylinae) from a backyard site in Öland, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Jaschhof, Mathias; Jaschhof, Catrin

    2015-09-15

    A new genus containing a single new species of Porricondylinae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is described and named Linnaeomyia hortensis gen. nov., spec. nov. The sole known specimen of L. hortensis, a male, was Malaise trapped in a backyard site on the Baltic island of Öland, southeast Sweden, in summer 2014. Morphological evidence supports our hypothesis that Linnaeomyia is most closely related to Neurepidosis Spungis, 1987. Several male genital characters, notably the spine-bearing gonostyli and the vestigial ejaculatory apodeme, substantiate the generic distinctiveness of L. hortensis. Although a backyard discovery, L. hortensis is unlikely to be a synanthropic species.

  1. Unravelling the Evolution of the Allatostatin-Type A, KISS and Galanin Peptide-Receptor Gene Families in Bilaterians: Insights from Anopheles Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Rute C.; Trindade, Marlene; Pires, Isa R. P.; Fonseca, Vera G.; Martins, Rute S.; Silveira, Henrique; Power, Deborah M.; Cardoso, João C. R.

    2015-01-01

    Allatostatin type A receptors (AST-ARs) are a group of G-protein coupled receptors activated by members of the FGL-amide (AST-A) peptide family that inhibit food intake and development in arthropods. Despite their physiological importance the evolution of the AST-A system is poorly described and relatively few receptors have been isolated and functionally characterised in insects. The present study provides a comprehensive analysis of the origin and comparative evolution of the AST-A system. To determine how evolution and feeding modified the function of AST-AR the duplicate receptors in Anopheles mosquitoes, were characterised. Phylogeny and gene synteny suggested that invertebrate AST-A receptors and peptide genes shared a common evolutionary origin with KISS/GAL receptors and ligands. AST-ARs and KISSR emerged from a common gene ancestor after the divergence of GALRs in the bilaterian genome. In arthropods, the AST-A system evolved through lineage-specific events and the maintenance of two receptors in the flies and mosquitoes (Diptera) was the result of a gene duplication event. Speciation of Anopheles mosquitoes affected receptor gene organisation and characterisation of AST-AR duplicates (GPRALS1 and 2) revealed that in common with other insects, the mosquito receptors were activated by insect AST-A peptides and the iCa2+-signalling pathway was stimulated. GPRALS1 and 2 were expressed mainly in mosquito midgut and ovaries and transcript abundance of both receptors was modified by feeding. A blood meal strongly up-regulated expression of both GPRALS in the midgut (p < 0.05) compared to glucose fed females. Based on the results we hypothesise that the AST-A system in insects shared a common origin with the vertebrate KISS system and may also share a common function as an integrator of metabolism and reproduction. Highlights: AST-A and KISS/GAL receptors and ligands shared common ancestry prior to the protostome-deuterostome divergence. Phylogeny and gene

  2. Distribution and larval habitat characterization of Anopheles moucheti, Anopheles nili, and other malaria vectors in river networks of southern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe; Ndo, Cyrille; Costantini, Carlo; Awono-Ambene, Parfait; Fontenille, Didier; Simard, Frédéric

    2009-12-01

    Despite their importance as malaria vectors, little is known of the bionomic of Anopheles nili and Anopheles moucheti. Larval collections from 24 sites situated along the dense hydrographic network of south Cameroon were examined to assess key ecological factors associated with these mosquitoes distribution in river networks. Morphological identification of the III and IV instar larvae by the use of microscopy revealed that 47.6% of the larvae belong to An. nili and 22.6% to An. moucheti. Five variables were significantly involved with species distribution, the pace of flow of the river (lotic, or lentic), the light exposure (sunny or shady), vegetation (presence or absence of vegetation) the temperature and the presence or absence of debris. Using canonical correspondence analysis, it appeared that lotic rivers, exposed to light, with vegetation or debris were the best predictors of An. nili larval abundance. Whereas, An. moucheti and An. ovengensis were highly associated with lentic rivers, low temperature, having Pistia. An. nili and An. moucheti distribution along river systems across south Cameroon was highly correlated with environmental variables. The distribution of An. nili conforms to that of a generalist species which is adapted to exploiting a variety of environmental conditions, Whereas, An. moucheti, Anopheles ovengensis and Anopheles carnevalei appeared as specialist forest mosquitoes.

  3. Genomic Islands of Speciation in Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Matthew W; Nuzhdin, Sergey V

    2005-01-01

    The African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (A. gambiae), provides a unique opportunity to study the evolution of reproductive isolation because it is divided into two sympatric, partially isolated subtaxa known as M form and S form. With the annotated genome of this species now available, high-throughput techniques can be applied to locate and characterize the genomic regions contributing to reproductive isolation. In order to quantify patterns of differentiation within A. gambiae, we hybridized population samples of genomic DNA from each form to Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays. We found that three regions, together encompassing less than 2.8 Mb, are the only locations where the M and S forms are significantly differentiated. Two of these regions are adjacent to centromeres, on Chromosomes 2L and X, and contain 50 and 12 predicted genes, respectively. Sequenced loci in these regions contain fixed differences between forms and no shared polymorphisms, while no fixed differences were found at nearby control loci. The third region, on Chromosome 2R, contains only five predicted genes; fixed differences in this region were also verified by direct sequencing. These “speciation islands” remain differentiated despite considerable gene flow, and are therefore expected to contain the genes responsible for reproductive isolation. Much effort has recently been applied to locating the genes and genetic changes responsible for reproductive isolation between species. Though much can be inferred about speciation by studying taxa that have diverged for millions of years, studying differentiation between taxa that are in the early stages of isolation will lead to a clearer view of the number and size of regions involved in the genetics of speciation. Despite appreciable levels of gene flow between the M and S forms of A. gambiae, we were able to isolate three small regions of differentiation where genes responsible for ecological and behavioral isolation are

  4. Thorsellia anophelis is the dominant bacterium in a Kenyan population of adult Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Briones, Aurelio M; Shililu, Josephat; Githure, John; Novak, Robert; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2008-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes are not known to harbor endosymbiotic bacteria. Here we show, using nucleic acid-based methods, that 16S rRNA gene sequences specific to a recently described mosquito midgut bacterium, Thorsellia anophelis, is predominant in the midgut of adult An. gambiae s.l. mosquitoes captured in residences in central Kenya, and also occurs in the aquatic rice paddy environment nearby. PCR consistently detected T. anophelis in the surface microlayer of rice paddies, which is also consistent with the surface-feeding behavior of A. gambiae s.l. larvae. Phylogenetic analysis of cloned environmental 16S rRNA genes identified four major Thorsellia lineages, which are closely affiliated to an insect endosymbiont of the genus Arsenophonus. Physiological characterizations support the hypothesis that T. anophelis is well adapted to the female anopheline midgut by utilizing blood and tolerating the alkaline conditions in this environment. The results suggest that aquatically derived bacteria such as T. anophelis can persist through mosquito metamorphosis and become well-established in the adult mosquito midgut.

  5. Delayed larval development in Anopheles mosquitoes deprived of Asaia bacterial symbionts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years, acetic acid bacteria have been shown to be frequently associated with insects, but knowledge on their biological role in the arthropod host is limited. The discovery that acetic acid bacteria of the genus Asaia are a main component of the microbiota of Anopheles stephensi makes this mosquito a useful model for studies on this novel group of symbionts. Here we present experimental results that provide a first evidence for a beneficial role of Asaia in An. stephensi. Results Larvae of An. stephensi at different stages were treated with rifampicin, an antibiotic effective on wild-type Asaia spp., and the effects on the larval development were evaluated. Larvae treated with the antibiotic showed a delay in the development and an asynchrony in the appearance of later instars. In larvae treated with rifampicin, but supplemented with a rifampicin-resistant mutant strain of Asaia, larval development was comparable to that of control larvae not exposed to the antibiotic. Analysis of the bacterial diversity of the three mosquito populations confirmed that the level of Asaia was strongly decreased in the antibiotic-treated larvae, since the symbiont was not detectable by PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), while Asaia was consistently found in insects supplemented with rifampicin plus the antibiotic-resistant mutant in the diet, and in those not exposed to the antibiotic. Conclusions The results here reported indicate that Asaia symbionts play a beneficial role in the normal development of An. stephensi larvae. PMID:22375964

  6. Six new species of the Anopheles leucosphyrus group, reinterpretation of An. elegans and vector implications.

    PubMed

    Sallum, M A M; Peyton, E L; Wilkerson, R C

    2005-06-01

    Among Oriental anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), several major vectors of forest malaria belong to the group of Anopheles (Cellia) leucosphyrus Dönitz. We have morphologically examined representative material (> 8000 specimens from seven countries) for taxonomic revision of the Leucosphyrus Group. Six new species are here described from adult, pupal and larval stages (with illustrations of immature stages) and formally named as follows: An. latens n. sp. (= An. leucosphyrus species A of Baimai et al., 1988b), An. cracens n. sp., An. scanloni n. sp., An. baimaii n. sp. (formerly An. dirus species B, C, D, respectively), An. mirans n. sp. and An. recens n. sp. Additionally, An. elegans (James) is redescribed and placed in the complex of An. dirus Peyton & Harrison (comprising An. baimaii, An. cracens, An. dirus, An. elegans, An. nemophilous Peyton and Ramalingam, An. scanloni and An. takasagoensis Morishita) of the Leucosphyrus Subgroup, together with An. baisasi Colless and the An. leucosphyrus complex (comprising An. balabacensis Baisas, An. introlatus Baisas, An. latens and An. leucosphyrus). Hence, the former Elegans Subgroup is renamed the Hackeri Subgroup (comprising An. hackeri Edwards, An. pujutensis Colless, An. recens and An. sulawesi Waktoedi). Distribution data and bionomics of the newly defined species are given, based on new material and published records, with discussion of morphological characters for species distinction and implications for ecology and vector roles of such species. Now these and other members of the Leucosphyrus Group are identifiable, it should be possible to clarify the medical importance and distribution of each species. Those already regarded as vectors of human malaria are: An. baimaii[Bangladesh, China (Yunnan), India (Andamans, Assam, Meghalaya, West Bengal), Myanmar, Thailand]; An. latens[Borneo (where it also transmits Bancroftian filariasis), peninsular Malaysia, Thailand]; probably An. cracens (Sumatra

  7. The Susceptibility and Behavioral Response of Anopheles Albimanus Weidemann and Anopheles Vestitipennis Dyar and Knab (Diptera: Culicidae) to Insecticides in Northern Belize, Central America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    given to molecular and genetic approaches for understanding and controlling malaria. Support for vector studies, particularly fieldwork on mosquito...nerves and on the central nervous system affecting nerve transmission. These insecticides interact at the molecular level with sodium ion channels by...Soc. Am. 27:198-201. 52 Brown., TM. and W. Brogdon. 1987. Improved detection ofinsecticide resistance through conventional and molecular techniques

  8. Confirmation of Anopheles (Anopheles) calderoni Wilkerson, 1991 (Diptera: Culicidae) in Colombia and Ecuador Through Molecular and Morphological Correlation with Topotypic Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    of the Entomology Museum of the Universidad del Valle, Colombia Department Municipality Locality Elevation (m) Collection date Collector Antioquia ...Gómez Plata El Brasil 244 10 May1984 SEM Puerto Nare El Pescado 270 4 Oct 1983 SEM Santafe de Antioquia Paso Real 666 17 Mar 1984 SEM Bolívar Achí

  9. Exploring the diversity of blood-sucking Diptera in caves of Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Obame-Nkoghe, Judicaël; Rahola, Nil; Ayala, Diego; Yangari, Patrick; Jiolle, Davy; Allene, Xavier; Bourgarel, Mathieu; Maganga, Gael Darren; Berthet, Nicolas; Leroy, Eric-Maurice; Paupy, Christophe

    2017-03-21

    Caves house pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are transmitted by blood-sucking arthropods. In Africa, previous studies identified mosquitoes, sand flies and biting midges as the main potential vectors of cave-dwelling pathogens. However, to understand their involvement in pathogen spillover, it is crucial to characterize their diversity, community composition and dynamics. Using CDC light traps, we collected hematophagous Diptera in six caves of Gabon during one-shot or longitudinal sampling, and investigated their species diversity and dynamics in relation with external rainfall. Overall, we identified 68 species of mosquitoes, sand flies and biting midges, including 45 new records for Gabon. The dominant species were: Uranotaenia nigromaculata, Anopheles smithii s.l., Culex. rima group and Culex quasiguiarti for mosquitoes, Spelaeophlebotomus gigas and Spelaeomyia emilii for sand flies and the Culicoides trifasciellus group and Culicoides fulvithorax for biting midges. The survey revealed that species assemblages were cave-specific and included mainly troglophilous and trogloxenous species. Both diversity and abundance varied according to the cave and sampling time, and were significantly associated with rainfall. These associations were modulated by the cave specific environmental conditions. Moreover, the presence of trogloxenous and troglophilous species could be of high significance for pathogen transfers between cave and epigeous hosts, including humans.

  10. A supervised land cover classification of a western Kenya lowland endemic for human malaria: associations of land cover with larval Anopheles habitats

    PubMed Central

    Mutuku, FM; Bayoh, MN; Hightower, AW; Vulule, JM; Gimnig, JE; Mueke, JM; Amimo, FA; Walker, ED

    2009-01-01

    Background A supervised land cover classification was developed from very high resolution IKONOS satellite data and extensive ground truth sampling of a ca. 10 sq km malaria-endemic lowland in western Kenya. The classification was then applied to an investigation of distribution of larval Anopheles habitats. The hypothesis was that the distribution and abundance of aquatic habitats of larvae of various species of mosquitoes in the genus Anopheles is associated with identifiable landscape features. Results and discussion The classification resulted in 7 distinguishable land cover types, each with a distinguishable vegetation pattern, was highly accurate (89%, Kappa statistic = 0.86), and had a low rate of omission and commission errors. A total of 1,198 habitats and 19,776 Anopheles larvae of 9 species were quantified in samples from a rainy season, and 184 habitats and 582 larvae from a dry season. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was the dominant species complex (51% of total) and A. arabiensis the dominant species. Agricultural land covers (mature maize fields, newly cultivated fields, and pastured grasslands) were positively associated with presence of larval habitats, and were located relatively close to stream channels; whilst nonagricultural land covers (short shrubs, medium shrubs, tall shrubs, and bare soil around residences) were negatively associated with presence of larval habitats and were more distant from stream channels. Number of larval habitats declined exponentially with distance from streams. IKONOS imagery was not useful in direct detection of larval habitats because they were small and turbid (resembling bare soil), but was useful in localization of them through statistical associations with specific land covers. Conclusion A supervised classification of land cover types in rural, lowland, western Kenya revealed a largely human-modified and fragmented landscape consisting of agricultural and domestic land uses. Within it, larval habitats of Anopheles

  11. Pteridine concentrations differ between insectary-reared and field-collected Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes of the same physiological age.

    PubMed

    Penilla, R P; Rodríguez, M H; López, A D; Viader-Salvadó, J M; Sánchez, C N

    2002-09-01

    Biopterin, isoxanthopterin and 6-pterincarboxylic acid were identified in the head of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles albimanus Weidemann (Diptera: Culicidae) by HPLC. Total pteridine concentrations (TPC) were estimated in heads, body parts (BP: abdomen, legs and wings) and whole bodies of insectary-reared and field-collected females, by spectrofluorometry, to investigate whether they could be used for age determination. Pteridine concentrations diminished with age in both mosquito groups. TPC correlated with chronological age in insectary-reared sugar-fed females (heads: r2 = 0.35, BP: r2 = 0.34, P < 0.001), but lower correlation occurred in blood-fed females (heads: r2 = 0.22, BP: r2 = 0.27). TPC differed among females of the same age fed with blood at different times (P < 0.05), indicating that bloodmeals modify the diminution rate of pteridines with age. Nevertheless, a polynomial significant correlation was documented for TPC and the number of ovipositions (heads: r2 = 0.24, BP: r2 = 0.27, whole body: r2 = 0.52, P < 0.001) in insectary-reared mosquitoes. This correlation was lower in field-collected mosquitoes (heads: r2 = 0.14, BP: r2 = 0.10, P < 0.05), which showed a remarkable pteridine increase in one-parous females. The correlation of TPC in whole body with physiological age was much less (r2 = 0.03). These observations indicate that TPC determination by spectrofluorometry is not a reliable method to estimate the age of An. albimanus females from the feral population.

  12. Rice volatiles lure gravid malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles arabiensis.

    PubMed

    Wondwosen, Betelehem; Birgersson, Göran; Seyoum, Emiru; Tekie, Habte; Torto, Baldwyn; Fillinger, Ulrike; Hill, Sharon R; Ignell, Rickard

    2016-11-30

    Mosquito oviposition site selection is essential for vector population dynamics and malaria epidemiology. Irrigated rice cultivations provide ideal larval habitats for malaria mosquitoes, which has resulted in increased prevalence of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis, in sub-Saharan Africa. The nature and origin of the cues regulating this behaviour are only now being elucidated. We show that gravid Anopheles arabiensis are attracted and oviposit in response to the odour present in the air surrounding rice. Furthermore, we identify a synthetic rice odour blend, using electrophysiological and chemical analyses, which elicits attraction and oviposition in laboratory assays, as well as attraction of free-flying gravid mosquitoes under semi-field conditions. This research highlights the intimate link between malaria vectors and agriculture. The identified volatile cues provide important substrates for the development of novel and cost-effective control measures that target female malaria mosquitoes, irrespective of indoor or outdoor feeding and resting patterns.

  13. Rice volatiles lure gravid malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles arabiensis

    PubMed Central

    Wondwosen, Betelehem; Birgersson, Göran; Seyoum, Emiru; Tekie, Habte; Torto, Baldwyn; Fillinger, Ulrike; Hill, Sharon R.; Ignell, Rickard

    2016-01-01

    Mosquito oviposition site selection is essential for vector population dynamics and malaria epidemiology. Irrigated rice cultivations provide ideal larval habitats for malaria mosquitoes, which has resulted in increased prevalence of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis, in sub-Saharan Africa. The nature and origin of the cues regulating this behaviour are only now being elucidated. We show that gravid Anopheles arabiensis are attracted and oviposit in response to the odour present in the air surrounding rice. Furthermore, we identify a synthetic rice odour blend, using electrophysiological and chemical analyses, which elicits attraction and oviposition in laboratory assays, as well as attraction of free-flying gravid mosquitoes under semi-field conditions. This research highlights the intimate link between malaria vectors and agriculture. The identified volatile cues provide important substrates for the development of novel and cost-effective control measures that target female malaria mosquitoes, irrespective of indoor or outdoor feeding and resting patterns. PMID:27901056

  14. The salivary gland chromosomes of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis pseudopunctipennis*

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Richard H.; Kitzmiller, J. B.; Chowdaiah, B. N.

    1965-01-01

    The authors present a salivary chromosome map of Anopheles p. pseudopunctipennis, an important malaria vector in the Americas. The salivary chromosomes appear as a short metacentric X and two metacentric autosomes. The arms of chromosome 2 are of almost equal length, but the right arm of chromosome 3 is almost twice as long as the left. The metacentric X is the first to be described in the subgenus Anopheles. The banding patterns of the autosomes show many similarities to those of the North American maculipennis complex and to those of the Central American A. vestitipennis and A. neomaculipalpus. Three chromosomal aberrations, one in the X and two in the right arm of chromosome 3, occur commonly in several different populations. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:5295407

  15. Seasonality and Locality Affect the Diversity of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii Midgut Microbiota from Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Gendrin, Mathilde; Pels, Nana Adjoa P.; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Christophides, George K.; Wilson, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria can have important implications in the development and competence of disease vectors. In Anopheles mosquitoes, the composition of the midgut microbiota is largely influenced by the larval breeding site, but the exact factors shaping this composition are currently unknown. Here, we examined whether the proximity to urban areas and seasons have an impact on the midgut microbial community of the two major malaria vectors in Africa, An. coluzzii and An. gambiae. Larvae and pupae were collected from selected habitats in two districts of Ghana during the dry and rainy season periods. The midgut microbiota of adults that emerged from these collections was determined by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA. We show that in both mosquito species, Shewanellaceae constituted on average of 54% and 73% of the midgut microbiota from each site in the dry and rainy season, respectively. Enterobacteriaceae was found in comparatively low abundance below 1% in 22/30 samples in the dry season, and in 25/38 samples in the rainy season. Our data indicate that seasonality and locality significantly affect both the diversity of microbiota and the relative abundance of bacterial families with a positive impact of dry season and peri-urban settings. PMID:27322614

  16. Multimodal Pyrethroid Resistance in Malaria Vectors, Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles funestus s.s. in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Dida, Gabriel O.; Ohashi, Kazunori; Komagata, Osamu; Kasai, Shinji; Tomita, Takashi; Sonye, George; Maekawa, Yoshihide; Mwatele, Cassian; Njenga, Sammy M.; Mwandawiro, Charles; Minakawa, Noboru; Takagi, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles funestus s.s. are the most important species for malaria transmission. Pyrethroid resistance of these vector mosquitoes is one of the main obstacles against effective vector control. The objective of the present study was to monitor the pyrethroid susceptibility in the 3 major malaria vectors in a highly malaria endemic area in western Kenya and to elucidate the mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance in these species. Gembe East and West, Mbita Division, and 4 main western islands in the Suba district of the Nyanza province in western Kenya were used as the study area. Larval and adult collection and bioassay were conducted, as well as the detection of point mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel (1014L) by using direct DNA sequencing. A high level of pyrethroid resistance caused by the high frequency of point mutations (L1014S) was detected in An. gambiae s.s. In contrast, P450-related pyrethroid resistance seemed to be widespread in both An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. Not a single L1014S mutation was detected in these 2 species. A lack of cross-resistance between DDT and permethrin was also found in An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s., while An. gambiae s.s. was resistant to both insecticides. It is noteworthy that the above species in the same area are found to be resistant to pyrethroids by their unique resistance mechanisms. Furthermore, it is interesting that 2 different resistance mechanisms have developed in the 2 sibling species in the same area individually. The cross resistance between permethrin and DDT in An. gambiae s.s. may be attributed to the high frequency of kdr mutation, which might be selected by the frequent exposure to ITNs. Similarly, the metabolic pyrethroid resistance in An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. is thought to develop without strong selection by DDT. PMID:21853038

  17. Diversity of the Bacterial Microbiota of Anopheles Mosquitoes from Binh Phuoc Province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Chung T; Romano-Bertrand, Sara; Manguin, Sylvie; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle

    2016-01-01

    The naturally acquired microbiota of Anopheles can influence vector's susceptibility to Plasmodium and its capacity to transmit them. Microbiota modification is a new challenge to limit disease transmission but it still needs advanced knowledges on bacterial community in Anopheles, especially in wild and infected specimens from diverse origin and species. Bacterial culture and 16S rRNA gene-PCR associated to Temporal Temperature Gradient Electrophoresis (TTGE) were applied to explore the bacterial diversity in the abdomen of 100 wild specimens (eight Anopheles species) collected in the Binh Phuoc Province, Vietnam. Culture and PCR-TTGE were complementary. The bacterial richness of the mosquito collection encompassed 105 genera belonging to seven phyla, mostly Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Staphylococcus, Clostridium, and Bacillus in Firmicutes were the most prevalent genera. However, Proteobacteria represented by 57 genera was the most diversified phylum in Anopheles microbiota. The high overall of Anopheles-associated bacteria is confirmed with, to our knowledge, 51 genera described for the first time in Anopheles microbiota. However, the diversity per specimen was low with average diversity index and the average Shannon-Wiener score (H) of 4.843 and 5.569, respectively. The most represented bacterial genera were present in <30% of the specimens. Consequently, the core microbiota share by Anopheles from Binh Phuoc was very narrow, suggesting that Anopheles microbiota was greatly influenced by local environments. The repertory of bacterial genera in two specimens of An. dirus and An. pampanai naturally infected by Plasmodium vivax was also described as preliminary results. Finally, this study completed the repertory of bacteria associated to wild Anopheles. Anopheles associated-bacteria appeared specimen-dependent rather than mosquitoe species- or group-dependent. Their origin and the existence of Anopheles-specific bacterial taxa are discussed.

  18. Diversity of the Bacterial Microbiota of Anopheles Mosquitoes from Binh Phuoc Province, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Chung T.; Romano-Bertrand, Sara; Manguin, Sylvie; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle

    2016-01-01

    The naturally acquired microbiota of Anopheles can influence vector’s susceptibility to Plasmodium and its capacity to transmit them. Microbiota modification is a new challenge to limit disease transmission but it still needs advanced knowledges on bacterial community in Anopheles, especially in wild and infected specimens from diverse origin and species. Bacterial culture and 16S rRNA gene-PCR associated to Temporal Temperature Gradient Electrophoresis (TTGE) were applied to explore the bacterial diversity in the abdomen of 100 wild specimens (eight Anopheles species) collected in the Binh Phuoc Province, Vietnam. Culture and PCR-TTGE were complementary. The bacterial richness of the mosquito collection encompassed 105 genera belonging to seven phyla, mostly Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Staphylococcus, Clostridium, and Bacillus in Firmicutes were the most prevalent genera. However, Proteobacteria represented by 57 genera was the most diversified phylum in Anopheles microbiota. The high overall of Anopheles-associated bacteria is confirmed with, to our knowledge, 51 genera described for the first time in Anopheles microbiota. However, the diversity per specimen was low with average diversity index and the average Shannon–Wiener score (H) of 4.843 and 5.569, respectively. The most represented bacterial genera were present in <30% of the specimens. Consequently, the core microbiota share by Anopheles from Binh Phuoc was very narrow, suggesting that Anopheles microbiota was greatly influenced by local environments. The repertory of bacterial genera in two specimens of An. dirus and An. pampanai naturally infected by Plasmodium vivax was also described as preliminary results. Finally, this study completed the repertory of bacteria associated to wild Anopheles. Anopheles associated-bacteria appeared specimen-dependent rather than mosquitoe species- or group-dependent. Their origin and the existence of Anopheles-specific bacterial taxa are

  19. Developing transgenic Anopheles mosquitoes for the sterile insect technique.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Tony; Papathanos, Philippos; Windbichler, Nikolai; Magnusson, Kalle; Benton, Jason; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Crisanti, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    In the last 10 years the availability of the genome sequence of Anopheles gambiae and the development of a transgenic technology for several species of Anopheles mosquitoes have, in combination, helped in enabling us to gain several insights into the biology of these mosquitoes that is relevant to their capacity as vectors of the malaria parasite. While this information is anticipated to inform many novel vector control strategies, the technique most likely to benefit in the near future from the availability of a reliable transgenic technology is the sterile insect technique (SIT), which relies on releasing large numbers of sterile insects to compete for mates in the wild, leading to population suppression. Although SIT has been proven to work reliably for many insects, the construction of suitable strains, and induction of sterility, has until now been a laborious process, combining classical genetics with radiation-induced sterility. Using transgenesis to create strains of Anopheles suitable for SIT could potentially offer several advantages over current approaches, in that the basic design of transgenic constructs designed for other insects should be rapidly transferable to mosquitoes, and induction of sterility as a product of the transgenic modification could obviate the requirement for radiation and its associated deleterious effects. In this paper the progress of different transgenic approaches in constructing tools for SIT will be reviewed.

  20. New Agromyza Fallén (Diptera, Agromyzidae) from Brazil and a key for the Neotropical species.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Viviane R DE; Couri, Márcia S

    2016-01-01

    Agromyza Fallén (Diptera, Agromyzidae) is a genus of leaf mining flies, including species with high economic importance. The knowledge of this genus is very poor in the neotropics, with 12 known species, only six of them recorded from Brazil. This paper describes two new Agromyza species from "Cerrado" and "Pantanal" biomes and records three other species represented only by females that could not be identified to species level. We also present a taxonomic key to segregate the 14 Neotropical species. The specimens were collected in Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul states and are deposited at Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo (São Paulo, Brazil) and Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) collections. The adults were photographed and the male terminalia were dissected and illustrated.

  1. Anopheles culicifacies sibling species B and E in Sri Lanka differ in longevity and in their susceptibility to malaria parasite infection and common insecticides.

    PubMed

    Surendran, S N; Ramasamy, M S; De Silva, B G D N K; Ramasamy, R

    2006-03-01

    Members of the Anopheles culicifacies Giles complex (Diptera: Culicidae) are well established as the predominant vectors of malaria in Sri Lanka. Until recently, only sibling species B was reported to be present in Sri Lanka, which was surprising as species B is a poor vector of malaria in India. This was clarified by the identification through Y-chromosome morphology that what was reported as B on the island is really a mixture of B and E. The fecundity, longevity and insecticide resistance of B and E are of relevance to malaria transmission and its control and are reported in this study. The mean egg production of these two sibling species did not differ significantly. The mean age of wild mosquitoes was assessed by the Polovodova technique of observing ovarian dilatations. More of species E than B had three or more dilatations, i.e. had reached an age at which sporozoites could have developed to maturity, although the difference between the species was of borderline significance. Following feeding on Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium falciparum infected blood, some females of species E developed oocysts but none of species B did so. Both sibling species were found fully susceptible in laboratory tests to lambdacyhalothrin and deltamethrin, but resistant to DDT and partially resistant to malathion.

  2. Five additions to the list of Sepsidae Diptera for Vietnam: Perochaeta cuirassa sp. n., Perochaeta lobo sp. n., Sepsis spura sp. n., Sepsis sepsi Ozerov, 2003 and Sepsis monostigma Thompson, 1869

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Yuchen; Meier, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A recent collecting trip to Vietnam yielded three new species and two new records of Sepsidae (Diptera) for the country. Here we describe two new species in the species-poor genus Perochaeta (Perochaeta cuirassa sp. n. andPerochaeta lobo sp. n.) and one to the largest sepsid genus Sepsis (Sepsis spura sp. n.) which is also found in Sumatra and Sulawesi. Two additional Sepsis species are new records for Vietnam (Sepsis sepsi Ozerov, 2003; Sepsis monostigma Thompson, 1869). We conclude with a discussion of the distribution of Perochaeta and the three Sepsis species. PMID:21594042

  3. Vetufebrus ovatus n. gen., n. sp. (Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae) vectored by a streblid bat fly (Diptera: Streblidae) in Dominican amber

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Both sexes of bat flies in the families Nycteribiidae and Streblidae (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea) reside in the hair or on the wing membranes of bats and feed on blood. Members of the Nycteribiidae transmit bat malaria globally however extant streblids have never been implemented as vectors of bat malaria. The present study shows that during the Tertiary, streblids also were vectors of bat malaria. Results A new haemospororidan, Vetufebrus ovatus, n. gen., n. sp., (Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae) is described from two oocysts attached to the midgut wall and sporozoites in salivary glands and ducts of a fossil bat fly (Diptera: Streblidae) in Dominican amber. The new genus is characterized by ovoid oocysts, short, stubby sporozoites with rounded ends and its occurrence in a fossil streblid. This is the first haemosporidian reported from a streblid bat fly and shows that representatives of the Hippoboscoidea were vectoring bat malaria in the New World by the mid-Tertiary. Conclusions This report is the first evidence of an extant or extinct streblid bat fly transmitting malaria. Discovering a mid-tertiary malarial parasite in a fossil streblid that closely resembles members of a malarial genus found in nycteribiid bat flies today shows how little we know about the vector associations of streblids. While no malaria parasites have been found in extant streblids, they probably occur and it is possible that streblids were the earliest lineage of flies that transmitted bat malaria to Chiroptera. PMID:22152687

  4. Monooxygenase Levels and Knockdown Resistance (kdr) Allele Frequencies in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Githeko, Andrew K; Githure, John I; Mutunga, James; Zhou, Guofa; Yan, Guiyun

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid-treated bed nets and indoor spray are important components of malaria control strategies in Kenya. Information on resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis populations is essential to the selection of appropriate insecticides and the management of insecticide resistance. Monooxygenase activity and knockdown resistance (kdr) allele frequency are biochemical and molecular indicators of mosquito resistance to pyrethroids. This study determined baseline information on monooxygenase activity and kdr allele frequency in anopheline mosquitoes in the western region, the Great Rift Valley-central province region, and the coastal region of Kenya. A total of 1990 field-collected individuals, representing 12 An. gambiae and 22 An. arabiensis populations was analyzed. We found significant among-population variation in monooxygenase activity in An. gambiae and An. arabiensis and substantial variability among individuals within populations. Nine out of 12 An. gambiae populations exhibited significantly higher average monooxygenase activity than the susceptible Kisumu reference strain. The kdr alleles (L1014S) were detected in three An. gambiae populations, and one An. arabiensis population in western Kenya, but not in the Rift Valley-central region and the coastal Kenya region. All genotypes with the kdr alleles were heterozygous, and the conservative estimation of kdr allele frequency was below 1% in these four populations. Information on monooxygenase activity and kdr allele frequency reported in this study provided baseline data for monitoring insecticide resistance changes in Kenya during the era when large-scale insecticide-treated bednet and indoor residual spray campaigns were being implemented. PMID:18402140

  5. ANOSPEX: A Stochastic, Spatially Explicit Model for Studying Anopheles Metapopulation Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga O.; Fornadel, Christen M.; Adebiyi, Ezekiel F.; Norris, Douglas E.; Rasgon, Jason L.

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles mosquitoes transmit malaria, a major public health problem among many African countries. One of the most effective methods to control malaria is by controlling the Anopheles mosquito vectors that transmit the parasites. Mathematical models have both predictive and explorative utility to investigate the pros and cons of different malaria control strategies. We have developed a C++ based, stochastic spatially explicit model (ANOSPEX; AnophelesSpatially-Explicit) to simulate Anopheles metapopulation dynamics. The model is biologically rich, parameterized by field data, and driven by field-collected weather data from Macha, Zambia. To preliminarily validate ANOSPEX, simulation results were compared to field mosquito collection data from Macha; simulated and observed dynamics were similar. The ANOSPEX model will be useful in a predictive and exploratory manner to develop, evaluate and implement traditional and novel strategies to control malaria, and for understanding the environmental forces driving Anopheles population dynamics. PMID:23861847

  6. The black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Thua Thien Hue and Lam Dong Provinces, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lau, Koon Weng; Pham, Xuan Da

    2015-05-21

    Surveys of pupae and larvae of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) were carried out in Thua Thien Hue Province of central Vietnam, and Lam Dong Province of southern Vietnam in 2014. A total of 26 species belonging to the genus Simulium were collected, consisting of eight known species, one newly recorded species, and 17 new species (of which three species of the subgenus Nevermannia were described in 2014). The remaining 14 new species (nine of the subgenus Gomphostilbia and five of the subgenus Simulium) are described here based on females, males, pupae and mature larvae. The total number of species of black flies in Vietnam is now 46. Keys to identify all 26 species recorded from the two provinces of Vietnam are given for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.

  7. Two new species of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Hashim, Rosli; Yacob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee-Dhang

    2012-07-01

    Two new species of black flies, Simulium (Comphostilbia) terengganuense sp. nov. and Simulium (Gomphostilbia) aziruni sp. nov. (Diptera: Simuliidae), are described on the basis of reared adult, pupal, and larval specimens collected from Peninsular Malaysia. Both species are placed in the batoense species-group within the subgenus Gomphostilbia, one of two dominant subgenera of the genus Simulium in Peninsular Malaysia as well as in the Oriental Region. Strikingly, three morphological characteristics that rarely occur in the subgenus Gomphostilbia are found in these two new species: the very narrow female frons and the mushroom-like pupal terminal hooks in S. (G.) terengganuense sp. nov. and the pupal gill composed of an inflated horn-like structure and eight slender filaments in S. (G.) aziruni sp. nov.

  8. Differential emergence of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from on-farm breeding substrates in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Geoffrey M; Jess, Stephen; Murchie, Archie K

    2013-05-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of a number of viral diseases worldwide. Following the unforeseen outbreak of bluetongue in northern Europe (2006–2009) there was a need to clarify on-farm breeding substrates utilized by temperate Culicoides spp. Six substrates (cow dung, cow slurry, horse dung, sheep dung, maize silage and soil) were investigated for Culicoides spp. emergence over a 31-week period. Overall, most Obsoletus group Culicoides emerged from the cow dung and the most Pulicaris group Culicoides emerged from the sheep dung. Furthermore, Culicoides of the Obsoletus group were found to be abundant in cow slurry and sheep dung. Temperature played a significant role in the emergence times of adult Culicoides. The Obsoletus group appear to have undergone 3 generations during the experimental period. The sex ratio of emergent Obsoletus group Culicoides was affected by substrate type, with a greater proportion of males emerging from cow dung and slurry compared with the other substrates.

  9. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks

    PubMed Central

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S.; Dhafer, Hathal M. Al

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Five bee-fly species (Bombyliidae, Diptera) have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyia discoidea (Fabricius, 1794), Spogostylum candidum (Sack, 1909), Exoprosopa linearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopa minos (Meigen, 1804), while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of the Kingdom. One of the four identified species, Exoprosopa linearis, has an Afrotropical affinity, and another two, Spogostylum candidum and Bombomyia discoidea, have considerable Afrotropical distributions, and this result agrees to some extent with studies considering these parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha and Asir Provinces, having Afrotropical influences and may be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic zone. PMID:25878533

  10. Diversification in Hawaiian long-legged flies (Diptera: Dolichopodidae: Campsicnemus): biogeographic isolation and ecological adaptation.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Kari Roesch; Evenhuis, Neal L; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; O'Grady, Patrick M

    2014-12-01

    Flies in the genus Campsicnemus have diversified into the second-largest adaptive radiation of Diptera in the Hawaiian Islands, with 179 Hawaiian endemic species currently described. Here we present the first phylogenetic analysis of Campsicnemus, with a focus on the Hawaiian fauna. We analyzed a combination of two nuclear (CAD, EF1α) and five mitochondrial (COI, COII, 12S, 16S, ND2) loci using Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to generate a phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus Campsicnemus. Our sampling included a total of 84 species (6 species from Europe, 1 from North America, 7 species from French Polynesia and 70 species from the Hawaiian Islands). The phylogenies were used to estimate divergence times, reconstruct biogeographic history, and infer ancestral ecological associations within this large genus. We found strong support for a South Pacific+Hawaiian clade, as well as for a monophyletic Hawaiian lineage. Divergence time estimates suggest that Hawaiian Islands were colonized approximately 4.6 million years ago, suggesting that most of the diversity within Campsicnemus evolved since the current high islands began forming ∼5 million years ago. We also observe a novel ecotype within the Pacific Campsicnemus; a widespread obligate water-skating form that has arisen multiple times across the Pacific Islands. Together, these analyses suggest that a combination of ecological, biogeographic and temporal factors have led to the impressive diversity of long-legged flies in Hawaii and elsewhere in the Pacific.

  11. Trapping systems for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    62nd Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America 16-19 November 2014; Portland, OR Title: Trapping systems for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Nancy D. Epsky, Micah A. Gill, C. Teri Allen, Dong H. Cha, and Peter J. Landolt Nancy D. Epsky USDA-ARS, Subtropical Horticulture...

  12. Evaluation of traps for monitoring higher Diptera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The two main members of the higher Diptera for which monitoring traps have been developed (at least in countries where tsetse does not exist) are the house fly, Musca domestica, and the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans. Both flies are major pest species in the US and elsewhere and the development of ...

  13. Biting patterns and seasonality of anopheles gambiae sensu lato and anopheles funestus mosquitoes in Kamuli District, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We investigated the biting patterns and seasonal abundances of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus mosquitoes in Kamuli District, Uganda. Methods Hourly indoor and outdoor catches of human biting mosquitoes were sampled from 19.00 to 07.00 hours for four consecutive nights each month using bed net traps in forty-eight houses randomly selected from Bugabula county where insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) had been used for at least five years and Budiope county where ITNs had not been used. The indoor and outdoor human-biting fractions, time of biting of the anophelines and climatic data were recorded from January to December 2010. Data were analysed using Multi-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-wallis rank sum test and Pearson correlation. The number of mosquitoes caught biting humans and resting indoors, the indoor and outdoor human biting densities and biting rates during different hours of the night, and mosquito abundances for a twelve-month sampling period in both zones are reported. Results Approximately four times more Anopheles mosquitoes were caught biting humans in Budiope County than in the Bugabula zone, with An. gambiae s. l. catches exceeding those of An. funestus. In both zones, peak night biting occurred between 23.00 and 05.00 hours. The majority of bites occurred between 03.00 and 06.00 hours for both Anopheles gambiae s. l. and funestus group. Outdoor biting densities of Anopheles gambiae s. l. exceeded the indoor biting densities throughout the night in both zones, while the indoor and outdoor human biting densities of An. funestus group were apparently equal. The outdoor and indoor human biting rates were similar in both zones. In Bugabula county, the abundance of An. gambiae s.l. was rainfall-dependent, while the An. funestus group could thrive with or without rain fall. In Budiope county, both An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus mosquitoes thrived all year round regardless of the amount of rainfall. Conclusion Considering the

  14. Differential susceptibilities of Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis to infections with coindigenous Plasmodium vivax variants VK210 and VK247 in southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Ceron, L; Rodriguez, M H; Nettel, J C; Villarreal, C; Kain, K C; Hernandez, J E

    1999-01-01

    The susceptibilities to coindigenous Plasmodium vivax of colonized Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis from southern Mexico were investigated by simultaneous feeding with infected blood obtained from patients. The genes encoding circumsporozoite protein variant types (VK210 and VK247) in blood samples were determined by PCR and oligonucleotide probe hybridization. A. albimanus was more susceptible to VK210, and A. pseudopunctipennis was more susceptible to VK247.

  15. Attractiveness of MM-X traps baited with human or synthetic odor to mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in The Gambia.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yu Tong; Smallegange, Renate C; Ter, Braak Cajo J F; Spitzen, Jeroen; Van Loon, Joop J A; Jawara, Musa; Milligan, Paul; Galimard, Agnes M; Van Beek, Teris A; Knols, Bart G J; Takken, Willem

    2007-11-01

    Chemical cues play an important role in the host-seeking behavior of blood-feeding mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). A field study was carried out in The Gambia to investigate the effects of human odor or synthetic odor blends on the attraction of mosquitoes. MM-X traps baited with 16 odor blends to which carbon dioxide (CO2) was added were tested in four sets of experiments. In a second series of experiments, MM-X traps with 14 odor blends without CO2 were tested. A blend of ammonia and L-lactic acid with or without CO2 was used as control odor in series 1 and 2, respectively. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps were placed in a traditional house and an experimental house to monitor mosquito densities during the experiments. The MM-X traps caught a total number of 196,756 mosquitoes, with the most abundant species belonging to the genera Mansonia (70.6%), Anopheles (17.5%), and Culex (11.5%). The most abundant mosquito species caught by the CDC traps (56,290 in total) belonged to the genera Mansonia (59.4%), Anopheles (16.0% An. gambiae s.l. Giles, and 11.3% An. ziemanni Grünberg), and Culex (11.6%). MM-X traps baited with synthetic blends were in many cases more attractive than MM-X traps baited with human odors. Addition of CO2 to synthetic odors substantially increased the catch of all mosquito species in the MM-X traps. A blend of ammonia + L-lactic acid + CO, + 3-methylbutanoic acid was the most attractive odor for most mosquito species. The candidate odor blend shows the potential to enhance trap collections so that traps will provide better surveillance and possible control.

  16. Population Genetics of Anopheles coluzzii Immune Pathways and Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rottschaefer, Susan M.; Crawford, Jacob E.; Riehle, Michelle M.; Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M.; Gneme, Awa; Sagnon, N’Fale; Vernick, Kenneth D.; Lazzaro, Brian P.

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection is expected to drive adaptive evolution in genes involved in host–pathogen interactions. In this study, we use molecular population genetic analyses to understand how natural selection operates on the immune system of Anopheles coluzzii (formerly A. gambiae “M form”). We analyzed patterns of intraspecific and interspecific genetic variation in 20 immune-related genes and 17 nonimmune genes from a wild population of A. coluzzii and asked if patterns of genetic variation in the immune genes are consistent with pathogen-driven selection shaping the evolution of defense. We found evidence of a balanced polymorphism in CTLMA2, which encodes a C-type lectin involved in regulation of the melanization response. The two CTLMA2 haplotypes, which are distinguished by fixed amino acid differences near the predicted peptide cleavage site, are also segregating in the sister species A. gambiae (“S form”) and A. arabiensis. Comparison of the two haplotypes between species indicates that they were not shared among the species through introgression, but rather that they arose before the species divergence and have been adaptively maintained as a balanced polymorphism in all three species. We additionally found that STAT-B, a retroduplicate of STAT-A, shows strong evidence of adaptive evolution that is consistent with neofunctionalization after duplication. In contrast to the striking patterns of adaptive evolution observed in these Anopheles-specific immune genes, we found no evidence of adaptive evolution in the Toll and Imd innate immune pathways that are orthologously conserved throughout insects. Genes encoding the Imd pathway exhibit high rates of amino acid divergence between Anopheles species but also display elevated amino acid diversity that is consistent with relaxed purifying selection. These results indicate that adaptive coevolution between A. coluzzii and its pathogens is more likely to involve novel or lineage-specific molecular mechanisms

  17. Low rates of multiple fertilization in parous Anopheles albimanus.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, C; Fuentes-Maldonado, G; Rodriguez, M H; Yuval, B

    1994-03-01

    We determined how frequently parous female Anopheles albimanus fertilize their eggs with sperm from more than one male. To establish paternity we relied on 2 phenotypically distinct laboratory strains. Nulliparous females were allowed to mate freely with males from one strain, and after oviposition they were offered a 2nd mating with males of the other strain. Fertilization patterns were determined by the phenotypes of offspring. Only 0.6% of females ovipositing for a 2nd time (n = 312) used sperm from the 2nd male, as did 4% of females completing a 3rd gonotrophic cycle (n = 25). In this species receptivity is not routinely renewed following oviposition.

  18. G Protein-Coupled Receptors in Anopheles gambiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Catherine A.; Fox, A. Nicole; Pitts, R. Jason; Kent, Lauren B.; Tan, Perciliz L.; Chrystal, Mathew A.; Cravchik, Anibal; Collins, Frank H.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2002-10-01

    We used bioinformatic approaches to identify a total of 276 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) from the Anopheles gambiae genome. These include GPCRs that are likely to play roles in pathways affecting almost every aspect of the mosquito's life cycle. Seventy-nine candidate odorant receptors were characterized for tissue expression and, along with 76 putative gustatory receptors, for their molecular evolution relative to Drosophila melanogaster. Examples of lineage-specific gene expansions were observed as well as a single instance of unusually high sequence conservation.

  19. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Chiapas collected near the Guatemala border, with additions to the fauna of Mexico and a new subgenus name.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Muñoz, José; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Pech-May, Agelica; Marina, Carlos F

    2015-07-31

    Collections from four localities, two of the High Plateau and two of the Eastern Mountains Municipality of Chiapas, near the border with Guatemala, included 26 species with four new species records for Mexico: Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) hartmanni (Fairchild & Hertig, 1957), Dampfomyia (Coromyia) disneyi (Williams, 1987), Psychodopygus bispinosus (Fairchild & Hertig, 1951), and Psychodopygus corossoniensis (LePont & Pajot, 1978). These records represent an updated total of 50 species in Mexico, 48 of which are extant species and the remaining two fossils. The name Xiphopsathyromyia n. n. is proposed in substitution of Xiphomyia Artemiev, 1991, a homonym of Xiphomyia Townsend, 1917, a genus of Tachinidae (Diptera).

  20. Two new species of Acrocephalomyia Ibáñez-Bernal & Hernández-Ortiz, 2012 from Brazil (Diptera: Ropalomeridae) and a key to known species.

    PubMed

    Alvim, Edgar; Ale-Rocha, Rosaly

    2016-01-20

    Two new species of Acrocephalomyia Ibáñez-Bernal & Hernández-Ortiz (Diptera, Ropalomeridae) are described. The genus currently includes three species, the type species from Costa Rica, Acrocephalomyia zumbadoi Ibáñez-Bernal & Hernández-Ortiz, and two new species from Brazil herein described, A. torulosa sp. nov., (State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Midwest) and A. pulchra sp. nov. (State of Amazonas, North). A key for the known species of Acrocephalomyia is given and characters of the male terminalia are described and discussed for the first time, with special attention to the "epiphallus".

  1. Genetic and Phylogenetic Characterization of Tataguine and Witwatersrand Viruses and Other Orthobunyaviruses of the Anopheles A, Capim, Guamá, Koongol, Mapputta, Tete, and Turlock Serogroups

    PubMed Central

    Shchetinin, Alexey M.; Lvov, Dmitry K.; Deriabin, Petr G.; Botikov, Andrey G.; Gitelman, Asya K.; Kuhn, Jens H.; Alkhovsky, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    The family Bunyaviridae has more than 530 members that are distributed among five genera or remain to be classified. The genus Orthobunyavirus is the most diverse bunyaviral genus with more than 220 viruses that have been assigned to more than 18 serogroups based on serological cross-reactions and limited molecular-biological characterization. Sequence information for all three orthobunyaviral genome segments is only available for viruses belonging to the Bunyamwera, Bwamba/Pongola, California encephalitis, Gamboa, Group C, Mapputta, Nyando, and Simbu serogroups. Here we present coding-complete sequences for all three genome segments of 15 orthobunyaviruses belonging to the Anopheles A, Capim, Guamá, Kongool, Tete, and Turlock serogroups, and of two unclassified bunyaviruses previously not known to be orthobunyaviruses (Tataguine and Witwatersrand viruses). Using those sequence data, we established the most comprehensive phylogeny of the Orthobunyavirus genus to date, now covering 15 serogroups. Our results emphasize the high genetic diversity of orthobunyaviruses and reveal that the presence of the small nonstructural protein (NSs)-encoding open reading frame is not as common in orthobunyavirus genomes as previously thought. PMID:26610546

  2. Genetic and Phylogenetic Characterization of Tataguine and Witwatersrand Viruses and Other Orthobunyaviruses of the Anopheles A, Capim, Guamá, Koongol, Mapputta, Tete, and Turlock Serogroups.

    PubMed

    Shchetinin, Alexey M; Lvov, Dmitry K; Deriabin, Petr G; Botikov, Andrey G; Gitelman, Asya K; Kuhn, Jens H; Alkhovsky, Sergey V

    2015-11-23

    The family Bunyaviridae has more than 530 members that are distributed among five genera or remain to be classified. The genus Orthobunyavirus is the most diverse bunyaviral genus with more than 220 viruses that have been assigned to more than 18 serogroups based on serological cross-reactions and limited molecular-biological characterization. Sequence information for all three orthobunyaviral genome segments is only available for viruses belonging to the Bunyamwera, Bwamba/Pongola, California encephalitis, Gamboa, Group C, Mapputta, Nyando, and Simbu serogroups. Here we present coding-complete sequences for all three genome segments of 15 orthobunyaviruses belonging to the Anopheles A, Capim, Guamá, Kongool, Tete, and Turlock serogroups, and of two unclassified bunyaviruses previously not known to be orthobunyaviruses (Tataguine and Witwatersrand viruses). Using those sequence data, we established the most comprehensive phylogeny of the Orthobunyavirus genus to date, now covering 15 serogroups. Our results emphasize the high genetic diversity of orthobunyaviruses and reveal that the presence of the small nonstructural protein (NSs)-encoding open reading frame is not as common in orthobunyavirus genomes as previously thought.

  3. New Records of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Bolívar State in South Eastern Venezuela, with 27 New Species for the State and 5 of Them New in the Country

    PubMed Central

    Berti, Jesús; Guzmán, Hernán; Estrada, Yarys; Ramírez, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    This is the first part of a series of studies related to mosquito ecological and biogeographic aspects. A total of 69 mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) was collected in 16 localities sampled in the Gran Sabana Municipality, Canaima National Park, and Venezuela. Twenty-seven mosquito species are recorded for the first time from Bolívar State, Venezuela. Five of them species are reported for the first time in Venezuela: Anopheles malefactor Dyar and Knab (1907); Chagasia bonneae Root (1927); Chagasia ablusa Harbach (2009); Culex anduzei Lane (1944), and Uranotaenia leucoptera Theobald (1907). Their medical importance is commented, and ecological and epidemiological aspects are discussed. A checklist of the mosquito species reported in the Gran Sabana County is given. PMID:25853113

  4. Biting patterns and seasonal densities of Anopheles mosquitoes in the Cayo District, Belize, Central America with emphasis on Anopheles darlingi.

    PubMed

    Achee, Nicole L; Grieco, John P; Rejmankova, Eliska; Andre, Richard G; Vanzie, Errol; Polanco, Jorge; Briceno, Ireneo; King, Russell; Roberts, Donald R

    2006-06-01

    The present study utilized an experimental hut to conduct human-baited landing collections for characterizing the all-night biting patterns and seasonal densities of adult Anopheles darlingi in the centrally located Cayo District of Belize, Central America. A total of 25 all-night collections (i.e., sunset to sunrise) were conducted from January 2002 to May 2003, capturing a total of 18,878 An. darlingi females. Anopheles darlingi exhibited a bimodal nightly biting pattern with one predominate peak occurring three h after sunset and a smaller peak occurring one h prior to sunrise. Biting females were collected throughout the night in higher densities indoors (9,611) than outside (9,267) the experimental hut (O:I=1.00:1.04). Seasonal adult collections show An. darlingi densities were highest during the transitional months between the end of the wet and beginning of the dry season (January) and the end of the dry season and beginning of the wet season (May). A total of 2,010 An. darlingi females was captured in 31 two-h, human-baited landing collections performed from January to October 2002. Anopheles darlingi monthly population densities were found to have no significant associations with high or low temperatures, precipitation, or river level. However, qualitative data examination indicates an inverse relationship between river level and An. darlingi adult collections suggesting a disturbance of larval habitats. All-night biting and seasonal distribution patterns for other anopheline species are also described. None of the adult specimens collected throughout the entire study tested positive for Plasmodium spp. infection using the VecTest rapid diagnostic kit.

  5. Stable and fluctuating temperature effects on the development rate and survival of two malaria vectors, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the biology of malaria vector mosquitoes is crucial to understanding many aspects of the disease, including control and future outcomes. The development rates and survival of two Afrotropical malaria vectors, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus, are investigated here under conditions of constant and fluctuating temperatures. These data can provide a good starting point for modelling population level consequences of temperature change associated with climate change. For comparative purposes, these data were considered explicitly in the context of those available for the third African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae. Methods Twenty five replicates of 20–30 eggs were placed at nine constant and two fluctuating temperatures for development rate experiments and survival estimates. Various developmental parameters were estimated from the data, using standard approaches. Results Lower development threshold (LDT) for both species was estimated at 13-14°C. Anopheles arabiensis developed consistently faster than An. funestus. Optimum temperature (Topt) and development rate at this temperature (μmax) differed significantly between species for overall development and larval development. However, Topt and μmax for pupal development did not differ significantly between species. Development rate and survival of An. funestus was negatively influenced by fluctuating temperatures. By contrast, development rate of An. arabiensis at fluctuating temperatures either did not differ from constant temperatures or was significantly faster. Survival of this species declined by c. 10% at the 15°C to 35°C fluctuating temperature regime, but was not significantly different between the constant 25°C and the fluctuating 20°C to 30°C treatment. By comparison, previous data for An. gambiae indicated fastest development at a constant temperature of 28°C and highest survival at 24°C. Conclusions The three most important African malaria vectors all differ

  6. Experimental Plasmodium vivax infection of key Anopheles species from the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anopheles darlingi is the major malaria vector in countries located in the Amazon region. Anopheles aquasalis and Anopheles albitarsis s.l. are also proven vectors in this region. Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. and Anopheles triannulatus s.l. were found infected with Plasmodium vivax; however, their status as vectors is not yet well defined. Knowledge of susceptibility of Amazon anopheline populations to Plasmodium infection is necessary to better understand their vector capacity. Laboratory colonization of An. darlingi, the main Amazon vector, has proven to be difficult and presently An. aquasalis is the only available autonomous colony. Methods Larvae of An. darlingi, An. albitarsis s.l., An. nuneztovari s.l. and An. triannulatus s.l. were collected in the field and reared until adult stage. Adults of An. aquasalis were obtained from a well-established colony. Mosquitoes were blood-fed using a membrane-feeding device containing infected blood from malarial patients. The infection of the distinct Anopheles species was evaluated by the impact variance of the following parameters: (a) parasitaemia density; (b) blood serum inactivation of the infective bloodmeal; (c) influence of gametocyte number on infection rates and number of oocysts. The goal of this work was to compare the susceptibility to P. vivax of four field-collected Anopheles species with colonized An. aquasalis. Results All Anopheles species tested were susceptible to P. vivax infection, nevertheless the proportion of infected mosquitoes and the infection intensity measured by oocyst number varied significantly among species. Inactivation of the blood serum prior to mosquito feeding increased infection rates in An. darlingi and An. triannulatus s.l., but was diminished in An. albitarsis s.l. and An. aquasalis. There was a positive correlation between gametocyte density and the infection rate in all tests (Z = −8.37; p < 0.001) but varied among the mosquito species. Anopheles albitarsis

  7. Gene Expression-Based Biomarkers for Anopheles gambiae Age Grading

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mei-Hui; Marinotti, Osvaldo; Zhong, Daibin; James, Anthony A.; Walker, Edward; Guda, Tom; Kweka, Eliningaya J.; Githure, John; Yan, Guiyun

    2013-01-01

    Information on population age structure of mosquitoes under natural conditions is fundamental to the understanding of vectorial capacity and crucial for assessing the impact of vector control measures on malaria transmission. Transcriptional profiling has been proposed as a method for predicting mosquito age for Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes, however, whether this new method is adequate for natural conditions is unknown. This study tests the applicability of transcriptional profiling for age-grading of Anopheles gambiae, the most important malaria vector in Africa. The transcript abundance of two An. gambiae genes, AGAP009551 and AGAP011615, was measured during aging under laboratory and field conditions in three mosquito strains. Age-dependent monotonic changes in transcript levels were observed in all strains evaluated. These genes were validated as age-grading biomarkers using the mark, release and recapture (MRR) method. The MRR method determined a good correspondence between actual and predicted age, and thus demonstrated the value of age classifications derived from the transcriptional profiling of these two genes. The technique was used to establish the age structure of mosquito populations from two malaria-endemic areas in western Kenya. The population age structure determined by the transcriptional profiling method was consistent with that based on mosquito parity. This study demonstrates that the transcription profiling method based on two genes is valuable for age determination of natural mosquitoes, providing a new approach for determining a key life history trait of malaria vectors. PMID:23936017

  8. Anophelism in a Former Malaria Area of Northeastern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Bueno-Marí, Rubén; Jiménez-Peydró, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Background: A field study on diversity and distribution of anophelines currently present in a past endemic malaria area of Spain was carried out in order to identify possible risk areas of local disease transmission. Methods: Multiple larval sites were sampled from June to October of 2011 in the Region of Somontano de Barbastro (Northeastern Spain). The sampling effort was fixed at 10 minutes which included the active search for larvae in each biotope visited. Results: A total of 237 larval specimens belonging to four Anopheles species (Anopheles atroparvus, An. claviger, An. maculipennis and An. petragnani) were collected and identified. Conclusions: Malaria receptivity in the study area is high, especially in the area of Cinca river valley, due to the abundance of breeding sites of An. atroparvus very close to human settlements. Although current socio-economic conditions in Spain reduce possibilities of re-emergence of malaria transmission, it is evident that certain entomological and epidemiological vigilance must be maintained and even increased in the context of current processes of climate change and globalization. PMID:24409440

  9. Dosage Compensation in the African Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Graham; Krzywinska, Elzbieta; Kim, Jan; Revuelta, Loic; Ferretti, Luca; Krzywinski, Jaroslaw

    2016-01-01

    Dosage compensation is the fundamental process by which gene expression from the male monosomic X chromosome and from the diploid set of autosomes is equalized. Various molecular mechanisms have evolved in different organisms to achieve this task. In Drosophila, genes on the male X chromosome are upregulated to the levels of expression from the two X chromosomes in females. To test whether a similar mechanism is operating in immature stages of Anopheles mosquitoes, we analyzed global gene expression in the Anopheles gambiae fourth instar larvae and pupae using high-coverage RNA-seq data. In pupae of both sexes, the median expression ratios of X-linked to autosomal genes (X:A) were close to 1.0, and within the ranges of expression ratios between the autosomal pairs, consistent with complete compensation. Gene-by-gene comparisons of expression in males and females revealed mild female bias, likely attributable to a deficit of male-biased X-linked genes. In larvae, male to female ratios of the X chromosome expression levels were more female biased than in pupae, suggesting that compensation may not be complete. No compensation mechanism appears to operate in male germline of early pupae. Confirmation of the existence of dosage compensation in A. gambiae lays the foundation for research into the components of dosage compensation machinery in this important vector species. PMID:26782933

  10. Molecular identification of chromosomal forms of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Favia, G; Louis, C

    1999-09-01

    The Afrotropical malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and An. arabiensis, responsible for more than 3/4 of the world Plasmodium falciparum inoculations, are members of the Anopheles gambiae complex, a group consisting of six sibling species. The nominal species (An. gambiae s.s.) is by far the most anthropophilic vector and its adaptation to man and his environment involves further ongoing speciation processes. This fact is shown by the existence of a number of incipient taxonomic units characterised by different chromosomal arrangements derived from the presence of polymorphic paracentric inversions. This speciation process is centered in West Africa, where five so-called 'chromosomal forms' have been described, designated with a non-Linnean nomenclature: Forest, Bissau, Savanna, Bamako, and Mopti. Studies on the distribution and the ecology of these incipient species have highlighted specific adaptations to eco-ethological parameters, which might reflect on their relative efficiency as malaria vectors. Cytogenetic analysis, in spite of some inherent difficulties, has proved to be a powerful tool for the identification of An. gambiae sibling species and the individual chromosomal forms. Yet, modern molecular tools are now available, providing alternative faster low-cost technologies, and we discuss here their relative merits.

  11. The Anopheles gambiae transcriptome - a turning point for malaria control.

    PubMed

    Domingos, A; Pinheiro-Silva, R; Couto, J; do Rosário, V; de la Fuente, J

    2017-04-01

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of several pathogens and thereby contribute to the spread of diseases, with social, economic and public health impacts. Amongst the approximately 450 species of Anopheles, about 60 are recognized as vectors of human malaria, the most important parasitic disease. In Africa, Anopheles gambiae is the main malaria vector mosquito. Current malaria control strategies are largely focused on drugs and vector control measures such as insecticides and bed-nets. Improvement of current, and the development of new, mosquito-targeted malaria control methods rely on a better understanding of mosquito vector biology. An organism's transcriptome is a reflection of its physiological state and transcriptomic analyses of different conditions that are relevant to mosquito vector competence can therefore yield important information. Transcriptomic analyses have contributed significant information on processes such as blood-feeding parasite-vector interaction, insecticide resistance, and tissue- and stage-specific gene regulation, thereby facilitating the path towards the development of new malaria control methods. Here, we discuss the main applications of transcriptomic analyses in An. gambiae that have led to a better understanding of mosquito vector competence.

  12. An Annotated Checklist of the Anopheles of Thailand (Diptera : Culicidae) (Thai National Scientific Papers, Fauna Series Number 2)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-08-01

    8217clopmcnt Corn;Yi,md, Offiee of the Surgeon General . -:-S<Hlihc’.l’il ,\\sia \\[()~qllito Pr<)jcct. Smit!lst)nian In’otilllti<lll, W;lShingl()fl. D,C...Thailand. The appropriate references have been listed for each in- cluded species. Several works of general interest (e.y. Brug and Bonne-Wepster...hodgkzhi from “La-Mar” ! Lan~o) in Tr:r!\\s Province. He indicated that in Malaya larvae Lvere generally found in hea\\ il>t shadsd situations along

  13. A Molecular Phylogeny of Anopheles Annulipes (Diptera: Culicidae) sensu lato: The Most Species-Rich Anopheline Complex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-27

    Gallipoli Barracks, Enoggera, Queensland 4051, Australia c Tropical Health Program and Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Queensland ...James, 1973). Using the same methodology, Booth and Bryan (1986) named three new species (species E–G) from locations in eastern Australia and suggested...DQ420491 Annulipes Complex 1 Basalt R.b 145°46E 19°37S H-11,I-12,Q-21[2] H-11(132) DQ420388 DQ420580 DQ420452 DQ420516 Q-21(136) DQ420420 DQ420612

  14. Species-richness of the Anopheles annulipes Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) Revealed by Tree and Model-Based Allozyme Clustering Analyses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    International and Tropical Health and Nutrition, The University of Queensland , Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia Received 24 January 2006; accepted for...s.l. in Australia t.:l 0 0 ’"’l Number Locality name* Longitude Latitude OTU (N) 15% Cluster Kl5fj1 K20 K25 "’i :r., C 1 Basalt R.t 145°46’E 19°37𔄂...groups is given according to separate Bayesian analyses at K = 15, 20 and 25. ~ *Locations by State and Territory are: 1-20 ( Queensland ), 21-39 (New

  15. Identification of Species Related to Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-11-01

    of dif- ferences between whiteflies using RAPD-PCR. Insect Mol Biol2: 33-38. Hadrys H, Balick M, Schierwater B 1992. Apphca- tions of random...Bellows TS 1993. Identification of a whitefly spe- cies by genomic and behavioral studies. Science 259: 74-77. Peyton EL, Wilkerson RC, Harbach RE

  16. Effects of Different Pyrethroids on Landing Behavior of Female Aedes aegypti, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, and Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    insecticides in the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae): an experimental reevaluation. J. Econ. Entomol. 87: 885Ð893. Hougard, J. M., S...New Jersey Mosquito Extermina- tion Association and the 19th Annual Meeting of the American Mosquito Control Association, 12 March 1963, Atlantic City

  17. Correlation of Survival Rates of Anopheles dirus A (Diptera: Culicidae) with Different Infection Densities of Plasmodium cynomolgi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    Jones (2), and Molineaux (3) assumed that the longevity and daily survival rates of infected mosquitos are unaffected by malarial parasites. However...significantly higher for infected than for non-infected mosquitos . Also, Hacker (5) reported a significant reduction in the fecundity of mosquitos infected... longevity * Fig. 1. Schematic representation of the events for each replicate of mosquitos . sequence of a 5% solution of multivitamin syrup for the

  18. The genus Vitex: A review

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    The review includes 161 references on the genus Vitex, and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies, and toxicology of the prominent species of Vitex. Essential oils, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides, diterpenoides and ligans constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these, leaves and fruits of V. agnus-castus Linn. (Verbenaceae) has been traditionally used in treatment of women complaints. V. agnus-castus has also been included in herbal remedies, which are in clinical use to regulate the menstrual cycle, reduce premenstrual symptom tension and anxiety, treat some menopausal symptoms as well as to treat hormonally induced acne. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Vitex species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action. PMID:24347927

  19. Characterization and localization of Rickettsia sp. in water beetles of genus Deronectes (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).

    PubMed

    Küchler, Stefan Martin; Kehl, Siegfried; Dettner, Konrad

    2009-05-01

    In the present study, Rickettsia sp. was detected in four water beetles of the genus Deronectes (Dytiscidae) for the first time. Rickettsiae were found in 100% of examined specimens of Deronectes platynotus (45/45), 39.4% of Deronectes aubei (28/71), 40% of Deronectes delarouzei (2/5) and 33.3% of Deronectes semirufus (1/3). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a phylogenetic relationship with rickettsial isolates of Limonia chorea (Diptera), tentatively classified as members of the basal ancestral group. Phylogenetic analysis of the gltA (citrate synthase) gene sequences showed that Deronectes symbionts were closest to bacterial symbionts from spiders. Ultrastructural examinations revealed typical morphological features and intracellular arrangements of rickettsiae. The distribution, transmission and localization of Rickettsia sp. in D. platynotus were studied using a diagnostic PCR assay and FISH. Eggs from infected females of D. platynotus were all Rickettsia-positive, indicative of a vertical transmission.

  20. The genus Cladosporium

    PubMed Central

    Bensch, K.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Davidiella), are characterised by having coronate conidiogenous loci and conidial hila, i.e., with a convex central dome surrounded by a raised periclinal rim. Recognised species are treated and illustrated with line drawings and photomicrographs (light as well as scanning electron microscopy). Species known from culture are described in vivo as well as in vitro on standardised media and under controlled conditions. Details on host range/substrates and the geographic distribution are given based on published accounts, and a re-examination of numerous herbarium specimens. Various keys are provided to support the identification of Cladosporium species in vivo and in vitro. Morphological datasets are supplemented by DNA barcodes (nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences) diagnostic for individual species. In total 993 names assigned to Cladosporium s. lat., including Heterosporium (854 in Cladosporium and 139 in Heterosporium), are treated, of which 169 are recognized in Cladosporium s. str. The other taxa are doubtful, insufficiently known or have been excluded from Cladosporium in its current circumscription and re-allocated to other genera by the authors of this monograph or previous authors. Taxonomic novelties: Cladosporium allicinum (Fr.: Fr.) Bensch, U. Braun & Crous, comb. nov., C. astroideum var. catalinense U. Braun, var. nov., Fusicladium tectonicola (Yong H. He & Z.Y. Zhang) U. Braun & Bensch, comb. nov., Septoidium uleanum (Henn.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium adeniae (Hansf.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium