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Sample records for geoengineering symposium friday

  1. Friday Forums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Jill S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of Friday Forums (school assemblies and special classes) for students at Kellogg Middle School in Shoreline, Washington, to provide release time for teachers to engage in professional-development activities through the Critical Friends Groups. (PKP)

  2. Geoengineering on exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockley, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering can be used to deliberately alter the Earth's radiation budget, by reflecting sunlight to space. SRM has been suggested as a response to Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW), to partly or fully balance radiative forcing from AGW [1]. Approximately 22% of sun-like stars have Earth-like exoplanets[2]. Advanced civilisations may exist on these, and may use geoengineering for positive or negative radiative forcing. Additionally, terraforming projects [e.g. 3], may be used to expand alien habitable territory, or for resource management or military operations on non-home planets. Potential observations of alien geoengineering and terraforming may enable detection of technologically advanced alien civilisations, and may help identify widely-used and stable geoengineering technologies. This knowledge may assist the development of safe and stable geoengineering methods for Earth. The potential risks and benefits of possible alien detection of Earth-bound geoengineering schemes must be considered before deployment of terrestrial geoengineering schemes.

  3. Geoengineering as Collective Experimentation.

    PubMed

    Stilgoe, Jack

    2016-06-01

    Geoengineering is defined as the 'deliberate and large-scale intervention in the Earth's climatic system with the aim of reducing global warming'. The technological proposals for doing this are highly speculative. Research is at an early stage, but there is a strong consensus that technologies would, if realisable, have profound and surprising ramifications. Geoengineering would seem to be an archetype of technology as social experiment, blurring lines that separate research from deployment and scientific knowledge from technological artefacts. Looking into the experimental systems of geoengineering, we can see the negotiation of what is known and unknown. The paper argues that, in renegotiating such systems, we can approach a new mode of governance-collective experimentation. This has important ramifications not just for how we imagine future geoengineering technologies, but also for how we govern geoengineering experiments currently under discussion.

  4. Stratospheric aerosol geoengineering

    SciTech Connect

    Robock, Alan

    2015-03-30

    The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, conducting climate model experiments with standard stratospheric aerosol injection scenarios, has found that insolation reduction could keep the global average temperature constant, but global average precipitation would reduce, particularly in summer monsoon regions around the world. Temperature changes would also not be uniform; the tropics would cool, but high latitudes would warm, with continuing, but reduced sea ice and ice sheet melting. Temperature extremes would still increase, but not as much as without geoengineering. If geoengineering were halted all at once, there would be rapid temperature and precipitation increases at 5–10 times the rates from gradual global warming. The prospect of geoengineering working may reduce the current drive toward reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and there are concerns about commercial or military control. Because geoengineering cannot safely address climate change, global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt are crucial to address anthropogenic global warming.

  5. The Science of Geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, Ken; Bala, Govindasamy; Cao, Long

    2013-05-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions from the burning of coal, oil, and gas are increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. These increased concentrations cause additional energy to be retained in Earth's climate system, thus increasing Earth's temperature. Various methods have been proposed to prevent this temperature increase either by reflecting to space sunlight that would otherwise warm Earth or by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Such intentional alteration of planetary-scale processes has been termed geoengineering. The first category of geoengineering method, solar geoengineering (also known as solar radiation management, or SRM), raises novel global-scale governance and environmental issues. Some SRM approaches are thought to be low in cost, so the scale of SRM deployment will likely depend primarily on considerations of risk. The second category of geoengineering method, carbon dioxide removal (CDR), raises issues related primarily to scale, cost, effectiveness, and local environmental consequences. The scale of CDR deployment will likely depend primarily on cost.

  6. Geoengineering and Carbon Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marland, G.

    2002-05-01

    The term "geoengineering" was coined by Cesare Marchetti in the 1970's to describe a project that proposed to inject CO2 from electric generating plants into the deep ocean. The term has since been used to discuss a variety of projects that would involve purposeful, large-scale manipulation of the environment---primarily projects with the intent of mitigating anthropogenic changes in climate. Many activities that we now discuss under the title of "carbon management" have been previously identified as geoengineering. The term geoengineering is also used to describe possibilities for engineering the Earth's climate through large-scale manipulation of the energy balance, for example through manipulating the Earth's albedo. Studies are now showing more clearly that these two components, once treated separately under broad heading of "geoengineering", are linked. That is, for example, managing carbon through protecting or planting forests is also to manage the Earth's surface albedo and surface energy balance. Likewise, manipulating the albedo will alter the global carbon cycle. In this paper we discuss the evolution of the idea of geoengineering, summarizing the history of these technologies, and demonstrating how geoengineering includes, links, and melds with carbon management.

  7. Geoengineering and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, A.

    2010-12-01

    Geoengineering by carbon capture and storage (CCS) or solar radiation management (SRM) has been suggested as a possible solution to global warming. However, it is clear that mitigation should be the main response of society, quickly reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. While there is no concerted mitigation effort yet, even if the world moves quickly to reduce emissions, the gases that are already in the atmosphere will continue to warm the planet. CCS, if a system that is efficacious, safe, and not costly could be developed, would slowly remove CO2 from the atmosphere, but this will have a gradual effect on concentrations. SRM, if a system could be developed to produce stratospheric aerosols or brighten marine stratocumulus clouds, could be quickly effective in cooling, but could also have so many negative side effects that it would be better not do it at all. This means that, in spite of a concerted effort at mitigation and to develop CCS, there will be a certain amount of global warming in our future. Because CCS geoengineering will be too slow and SRM geoengineering is not a practical or safe solution to geoengineering, adaptation will be needed. Our current understanding of geoengineering makes it even more important to focus on adaptation responses to global warming.

  8. Lights, Camera, Action... It's "Science Friday"!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tugurian, Linda; Blanchard, Margaret R.

    2010-01-01

    "Science Friday's" motto "Making Science User-Friendly" was the authors' inspiration, as was its format for a segment on the morning broadcast at Forest View Elementary School. Patterned after National Public Radio's "Science Friday," this special feature was designed to provide an opportunity for budding scientists to communicate their…

  9. A Knack for Numbers: Paquita Friday

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Eleanor Lee

    2005-01-01

    Back in middle school Dr. Paquita Friday began helping keep books at her grandmother's pharmacy during inventory. It was no chore, she recalls. It was fun. By then, of course, she already knew she had a knack for numbers. Today Friday is gaining recognition for her research in accounting stock market disclosures and winning awards for her teaching…

  10. No fudging on geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Andy; Geden, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is preparing a report on keeping global warming below 1.5 °C. How the panel chooses to deal with the option of solar geoengineering will test the integrity of scientific climate policy advice.

  11. Standardizing experiments in geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, Alan; Kravitz, Ben; Boucher, Olivier

    2011-06-01

    GeoMIP Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering Workshop; New Brunswick, New Jersey, 10-12 February 2011 ; The term “geoengineering” refers to deliberate large-scale anthropogenic modification of the climate. The most frequently discussed type of geoengineering, using socalled solar radiation management (SRM) to counteract global warming, has been to try to create a stratospheric aerosol cloud to reflect solar radiation. Stratospheric aerosols have the potential to cool the planet within a few years, as demonstrated by large natural volcanic eruptions. If a stratospheric aerosol layer could be maintained artificially, it could reduce or reverse some of the impacts of climate change, such as ice sheet melting, sea level rise, and thawing of permafrost.

  12. Can we test geoengineering?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macmynowski, D. G.; Shin, H.; Caldeira, K.; Keith, D.

    2010-12-01

    Several geoengineering approaches have been suggested for solar radiation management (SRM) to offset some fraction of anthropogenic radiative forcing and thus reduce climate change risks. If at some future date, implementation were ever seriously considered, then smaller amplitude (but spatially large-scale) experiments could first be used to obtain sensitivity information to test models and reduce risk associated with SRM. Such sub-scale deployment could provide important tests of the climate's response to geoengineering within a decade. We use idealized simulations with the HadCM3L general circulation model (GCM) to estimate the sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio for SRM forcing experiments, and illustrate various trade-offs. Global climate sensitivities may be usefully bounded in a decade at 1/10th the radiative forcing perturbation of a CO2-doubling (e.g. 90% confidence that the true sensitivity is no more than 2 degrees C higher than the measured value). However, such experiments could require several decades or longer to obtain accurate sensitivity estimates, particularly to understand the response of regional hydrological fields which are critical uncertainties. E.g., a 1 W/m2 experiment would require about 20 years to estimate the global mean temperature sensitivity to ~25% accuracy, but ~50 years to estimate the precipitation sensitivity over India to 50% accuracy. Finally, note that some fields, like precipitation over land, have a larger response to short period forcing than to slowly-varying changes. This implies that the hydrological response to a sustained SRM deployment will differ from that of either a short-duration test or that which has been observed to result from large volcanic eruptions, requiring models to extrapolate to the expected steady-state response. Testing cannot eliminate uncertainty about the risks posed by geoengineering, but testing by modulation could improve understanding of the risks of geoengineering prior to deployment

  13. Geoengineering the climate

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, M.C.

    1991-06-18

    Although much can be done to limit greenhouse gas emissions by conservation, improvements in efficiency, and use of alternative technologies, the use of fossil fuels at rates even sharply reduced from US per capita values will lead to rapidly increasing global concentrations of greenhouse gases. The available alternatives then become adapting to the changes, switching to alternative energy sources (e.g., solar, nuclear), or actively taking control of atmospheric composition and/or the climate. This note reviews options for geoengineering the climate. 18 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Geoengineering the Earth's Climate

    ScienceCinema

    Google Tech Talks

    2016-07-12

    Emergency preparedness is generally considered to be a good thing, yet there is no plan regarding what we might do should we be faced with a climate emergency. Such an emergency could take the form of a rapid shift in precipitation patterns, a collapse of the great ice sheets, the imminent triggering of strong climate system feedbacks, or perhaps the loss of valuable ecosystems. Over the past decade, we have used climate models to investigate the potential to reverse some of the effects of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere by deflecting some incoming sunlight back to space. This would probably be most cost-effectively achieved with the placement of small particles in or above the stratosphere. Our model simulations indicate that such geoengineering approaches could potentially bring our climate closer to the state is was in prior to the introduction of greenhouse gases. This talk will present much of what is known about such geoengineering approaches, and raise a range of issues likely to stimulate lively discussion. Speaker: Ken Caldeira Ken Caldeira is a scientist at the Carnegie Institution Department of Global Ecology and a Professor (by courtesy) at the Stanford University Department of Environmental and Earth System Sciences. Previously, he worked for 12 years in the Energy and Environment Directorate at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Department of Energy). His research interests include the numerical simulation of Earth's climate, carbon, and biogeochemistry; ocean acidification; climate emergency response systems; evaluating approaches to supplying environmentally-friendly energy services; ocean carbon sequestration; long-term evolution of climate and geochemical cycles; and marine biogeochemical cycles. Caldeira has a B.A. in Philosophy from Rutgers College and an M.S. and Ph.D. in Atmospheric Sciences from New York University.

  15. Geoengineering the Earth's Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Google Tech Talks

    2008-01-08

    Emergency preparedness is generally considered to be a good thing, yet there is no plan regarding what we might do should we be faced with a climate emergency. Such an emergency could take the form of a rapid shift in precipitation patterns, a collapse of the great ice sheets, the imminent triggering of strong climate system feedbacks, or perhaps the loss of valuable ecosystems. Over the past decade, we have used climate models to investigate the potential to reverse some of the effects of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere by deflecting some incoming sunlight back to space. This would probably be most cost-effectively achieved with the placement of small particles in or above the stratosphere. Our model simulations indicate that such geoengineering approaches could potentially bring our climate closer to the state is was in prior to the introduction of greenhouse gases. This talk will present much of what is known about such geoengineering approaches, and raise a range of issues likely to stimulate lively discussion. Speaker: Ken Caldeira Ken Caldeira is a scientist at the Carnegie Institution Department of Global Ecology and a Professor (by courtesy) at the Stanford University Department of Environmental and Earth System Sciences. Previously, he worked for 12 years in the Energy and Environment Directorate at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Department of Energy). His research interests include the numerical simulation of Earth's climate, carbon, and biogeochemistry; ocean acidification; climate emergency response systems; evaluating approaches to supplying environmentally-friendly energy services; ocean carbon sequestration; long-term evolution of climate and geochemical cycles; and marine biogeochemical cycles. Caldeira has a B.A. in Philosophy from Rutgers College and an M.S. and Ph.D. in Atmospheric Sciences from New York University.

  16. Atlantic hurricane response to geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John; Grinsted, Aslak; Ji, Duoying; Yu, Xiaoyong; Guo, Xiaoran

    2015-04-01

    Devastating Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However their intensity and frequency in a warming world may rapidly increase - perhaps by a factor of 5 for a 2°C mean global warming. Geoengineering by sulphate aerosol injection preferentially cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane main development region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may be an effective method of controlling hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using 6 Earth System Model simulations of climate under the GeoMIP G3 and G4 schemes that use aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the RCP4.5 scenario. We find that although temperatures are ameliorated by geoengineering, the numbers of storm surge events as big as that caused the 2005 Katrina hurricane are only slightly reduced compared with no geoengineering. As higher levels of sulphate aerosol injection produce diminishing returns in terms of cooling, but cause undesirable effects in various regions, it seems that stratospheric aerosol geoengineering is not an effective method of controlling hurricane damage.

  17. Crafting a public for geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Rob; Lezaun, Javier

    2015-08-27

    In a short period of time, climate 'geoengineering' has been added to the list of technoscientific issues subject to deliberative public engagement. Here, we analyse this rapid trajectory of publicization and explore the particular manner in which the possibility of intentionally altering the Earth's climate system to curb global warming has been incorporated into the field of 'public engagement with science'. We describe the initial framing of geoengineering as a singular object of debate and subsequent attempts to 'unframe' the issue by placing it within broader discursive fields. The tension implicit in these processes of structured debate - how to turn geoengineering into a workable object of deliberation without implying a commitment to its reality as a policy option - raises significant questions about the role of 'public engagement with science' scholars and methods in facilitating public debate on speculative technological futures.

  18. Geoengineering treatment of methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockley, Andrew; Gardian, Alan

    2010-05-01

    Methane is a significant GHG, and substantial reservoirs are vulnerable to instability due to AGW. Excursions, from permafrost and clathrates especially, act a positive feedback to AGW. Existing concentrations of well-mixed atmospheric methane substantially exceed pre-industrial levels. Various geoengineering methods are herein proposed for containment of methane, and/or accelerated oxidation to CO2 (a gas with a lower GWP over all timescales). A basic qualitative analysis of each technique is undertaken, to direct further study. Consideration is also given to the potential capacity of each technique to treat the total likely excursions of methane expected as a result of AGW. Proposed techniques: Section 0 SRM (comparison option) Section 1 Pre-emptive treatment of methane reservoirs Soil heating (polytunnels, heat pumps); Soil aeration; Mining of clathrates; Burning of clathrates Section 2 Remediation of aquatic methane excursions Lake sealing; Mixing of aquatic strata; Bubble capture; Lake aeration; Biological oxidation in aquatic environments Section 3 Remediation of concentrated atmospheric methane Regenerative thermal oxidation; Electrical ignition; Thermal ignition; Using incendiary munitions Section 4 Remediation of diffuse atmospheric methane Thermal oxidation by concentrated solar power; Compression ignition; Chemical degradation Assessment criteria: Infrastructure/implementation cost; Energy cost; Expected efficacy; Complexity/development path; Environmental impacts; Potential for CCS

  19. Fractals for Geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleshko, Klaudia; de Jesús Correa López, María; Romero, Alejandro; Ramírez, Victor; Pérez, Olga

    2016-04-01

    The effectiveness of fractal toolbox to capture the scaling or fractal probability distribution, and simply fractal statistics of main hydrocarbon reservoir attributes, was highlighted by Mandelbrot (1995) and confirmed by several researchers (Zhao et al., 2015). Notwithstanding, after more than twenty years, it's still common the opinion that fractals are not useful for the petroleum engineers and especially for Geoengineering (Corbett, 2012). In spite of this negative background, we have successfully applied the fractal and multifractal techniques to our project entitled "Petroleum Reservoir as a Fractal Reactor" (2013 up to now). The distinguishable feature of Fractal Reservoir is the irregular shapes and rough pore/solid distributions (Siler, 2007), observed across a broad range of scales (from SEM to seismic). At the beginning, we have accomplished the detailed analysis of Nelson and Kibler (2003) Catalog of Porosity and Permeability, created for the core plugs of siliciclastic rocks (around ten thousand data were compared). We enriched this Catalog by more than two thousand data extracted from the last ten years publications on PoroPerm (Corbett, 2012) in carbonates deposits, as well as by our own data from one of the PEMEX, Mexico, oil fields. The strong power law scaling behavior was documented for the major part of these data from the geological deposits of contrasting genesis. Based on these results and taking into account the basic principles and models of the Physics of Fractals, introduced by Per Back and Kan Chen (1989), we have developed new software (Muukíl Kaab), useful to process the multiscale geological and geophysical information and to integrate the static geological and petrophysical reservoir models to dynamic ones. The new type of fractal numerical model with dynamical power law relations among the shapes and sizes of mesh' cells was designed and calibrated in the studied area. The statistically sound power law relations were established

  20. Future Directions in Simulating Solar Geoengineering

    SciTech Connect

    Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Robock, Alan; Boucher, Olivier

    2014-08-05

    Solar geoengineering is a proposed set of technologies to temporarily alleviate some of the consequences of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) created a framework of geoengineering simulations in climate models that have been performed by modeling centers throughout the world (B. Kravitz et al., The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP), Atmospheric Science Letters, 12(2), 162-167, doi:10.1002/asl.316, 2011). These experiments use state-of-the-art climate models to simulate solar geoengineering via uniform solar reduction, creation of stratospheric sulfate aerosol layers, or injecting sea spray into the marine boundary layer. GeoMIP has been quite successful in its mission of revealing robust features and key uncertainties of the modeled effects of solar geoengineering.

  1. On solar geoengineering and climate uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    MacMartin, Douglas; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Rasch, Philip J.

    2015-09-03

    Uncertainty in the climate system response has been raised as a concern regarding solar geoengineering. Here we show that model projections of regional climate change outcomes may have greater agreement under solar geoengineering than with CO2 alone. We explore the effects of geoengineering on one source of climate system uncertainty by evaluating the inter-model spread across 12 climate models participating in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison project (GeoMIP). The model spread in regional temperature and precipitation changes is reduced with CO2 and a solar reduction, in comparison to the case with increased CO2 alone. That is, the intermodel spread in predictions of climate change and the model spread in the response to solar geoengineering are not additive but rather partially cancel. Furthermore, differences in efficacy explain most of the differences between models in their temperature response to an increase in CO2 that is offset by a solar reduction. These conclusions are important for clarifying geoengineering risks.

  2. Geoengineering: An Idea Whose Time Has Come?

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Vallero, Daniel A

    2011-12-17

    Some engineers and scientists recently have suggested that it would be prudent to consider engaging in geoengineering to mitigate global warming. Geoengineering differs from other methods for mitigating global warming because it involves a deliberate effort to affect the climate at a global scale. Although geoengineering is not a new idea, it has taken on added significance as a result of difficulties with implementing other proposals to mitigate climate change. While proponents of geoengineering admit that it can have significant risks for the environment and public health, many maintain that it is worth pursuing, given the failure of other means of mitigating global warming. Some environmental groups have voiced strong opposition to all forms of geoengineering. In this article, we examine arguments for and against geoengineering and discuss some policy options. We argue that specific geoengineering proposals should not be implemented until there is good evidence concerning their safety, efficacy, and feasibility, as well as a plan for oversight. International cooperation and public input should also be sought. Other methods for mitigating global warming should be aggressively pursued while geoengineering is under consideration. The promise of an engineering solution to global warming should not be used as an excuse to abandon or cut back current, climate mitigation efforts.

  3. Geoengineering: An Idea Whose Time Has Come?

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Vallero, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Some engineers and scientists recently have suggested that it would be prudent to consider engaging in geoengineering to mitigate global warming. Geoengineering differs from other methods for mitigating global warming because it involves a deliberate effort to affect the climate at a global scale. Although geoengineering is not a new idea, it has taken on added significance as a result of difficulties with implementing other proposals to mitigate climate change. While proponents of geoengineering admit that it can have significant risks for the environment and public health, many maintain that it is worth pursuing, given the failure of other means of mitigating global warming. Some environmental groups have voiced strong opposition to all forms of geoengineering. In this article, we examine arguments for and against geoengineering and discuss some policy options. We argue that specific geoengineering proposals should not be implemented until there is good evidence concerning their safety, efficacy, and feasibility, as well as a plan for oversight. International cooperation and public input should also be sought. Other methods for mitigating global warming should be aggressively pursued while geoengineering is under consideration. The promise of an engineering solution to global warming should not be used as an excuse to abandon or cut back current, climate mitigation efforts. PMID:23502911

  4. Geo-Engineering through Internet Informatics (GEMINI)

    SciTech Connect

    Doveton, John H.; Watney, W. Lynn

    2003-03-06

    The program, for development and methodologies, was a 3-year interdisciplinary effort to develop an interactive, integrated Internet Website named GEMINI (Geo-Engineering Modeling through Internet Informatics) that would build real-time geo-engineering reservoir models for the Internet using the latest technology in Web applications.

  5. On solar geoengineering and climate uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMartin, Douglas G.; Kravitz, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.

    2015-09-01

    Uncertain climate system response has been raised as a concern regarding solar geoengineering. We explore the effects of geoengineering on one source of climate system uncertainty by evaluating the intermodel spread across 12 climate models participating in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison project. The model spread in simulations of climate change and the model spread in the response to solar geoengineering are not additive but rather partially cancel. That is, the model spread in regional temperature and precipitation changes is reduced with CO2 and a solar reduction, in comparison to the case with increased CO2 alone. Furthermore, differences between models in their efficacy (the relative global mean temperature effect of solar versus CO2 radiative forcing) explain most of the regional differences between models in their response to an increased CO2 concentration that is offset by a solar reduction. These conclusions are important for clarifying geoengineering risks regarding uncertainty.

  6. Is Friday the 13th bad for your health?

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, T J; Luben, R N; Scanlon, F L; Singleton, N

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the relation between health, behaviour, and superstition surrounding Friday 13th in the United Kingdom. DESIGN--Retrospective study of paired data comparing driving and shopping patterns and accidents. SUBJECTS--Drivers, shoppers, and residents. SETTING--South West Thames region. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Numbers of vehicles on motorways; numbers of shoppers in supermarkets; and hospital admissions due to accidents. RESULTS--There were consistently and significantly fewer vehicles on the southern section of the M25 on Friday the 13th compared with Friday the 6th. The numbers of shoppers were not significantly different on the two days. Admissions due to transport accidents were significantly increased on Friday 13th (total 65 v 45; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS--Friday 13th is unlucky for some. The risk of hospital admission as a result of a transport accident may be increased by as much as 52%. Staying at home is recommended. PMID:8292946

  7. Exploring early public responses to geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Pidgeon, Nick; Corner, Adam; Parkhill, Karen; Spence, Alexa; Butler, Catherine; Poortinga, Wouter

    2012-09-13

    Proposals for geoengineering the Earth's climate are prime examples of emerging or 'upstream' technologies, because many aspects of their effectiveness, cost and risks are yet to be researched, and in many cases are highly uncertain. This paper contributes to the emerging debate about the social acceptability of geoengineering technologies by presenting preliminary evidence on public responses to geoengineering from two of the very first UK studies of public perceptions and responses. The discussion draws upon two datasets: qualitative data (from an interview study conducted in 42 households in 2009), and quantitative data (from a subsequent nationwide survey (n=1822) of British public opinion). Unsurprisingly, baseline awareness of geoengineering was extremely low in both cases. The data from the survey indicate that, when briefly explained to people, carbon dioxide removal approaches were preferred to solar radiation management, while significant positive correlations were also found between concern about climate change and support for different geoengineering approaches. We discuss some of the wider considerations that are likely to shape public perceptions of geoengineering as it enters the media and public sphere, and conclude that, aside from technical considerations, public perceptions are likely to prove a key element influencing the debate over questions of the acceptability of geoengineering proposals.

  8. The risks and efficacy of solar geoengineering

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, David

    2012-12-05

    Solar geoengineering may enable a significant reduction in climate risks by partially offsetting climate change due to increasing greenhouse gases, however this emerging technology entails novel risks and uncertainties along with serious challenges to global governance. I will attempt a rough summary of the physics of solar geoengineering and present recent findings regarding (a) the climate's response to radiative forcing by stratospheric aerosols, (b) methods of producing appropriate aerosol distributions, and (c) risks. In closing I will discuss the trade-off between solar geoengineering, emissions reductions and adaptation in climate policy.

  9. Global change - Geoengineering and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Lyle M.

    1992-01-01

    Geoengineering options and alternatives are proposed for mitigating the effects of global climate change and depletion of the ozone layer. Geoengineering options were discussed by the National Academy of Science Panel on the Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. Several of the ideas conveyed in their published report are space-based or depend on space systems for implementation. Among the geoengineering options using space that are discussed include the use of space power systems as an alternative to fossil fuels for generating electricity, the use of lunar He-3 to aid in the development of fusion energy, and the establishment of a lunar power system for solar energy conversion and electric power beaming back to earth. Other geoengineering options are discussed. They include the space-based modulation of hurricane forces and two space-based approaches in dealing with ozone layer depletion. The engineering challenges and policy implementation issues are discussed for these geongineering options.

  10. Geoengineering the climate: an overview and update.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, J G

    2012-09-13

    The climate change that we are experiencing now is caused by an increase in greenhouse gases due to human activities, including burning fossil fuels, agriculture and deforestation. There is now widespread belief that a global warming of greater than 2(°)C above pre-industrial levels would be dangerous and should therefore be avoided. However, despite growing concerns over climate change and numerous international attempts to agree on reductions of global CO(2) emissions, these have continued to climb. This has led some commentators to suggest more radical 'geoengineering' alternatives to conventional mitigation by reductions in CO(2) emissions. Geoengineering is deliberate intervention in the climate system to counteract man-made global warming. There are two main classes of geoengineering: direct carbon dioxide removal and solar radiation management that aims to cool the planet by reflecting more sunlight back to space. The findings of the review of geoengineering carried out by the UK Royal Society in 2009 are summarized here, including the climate effects, costs, risks and research and governance needs for various approaches. The possible role of geoengineering in a portfolio of responses to climate change is discussed, and various recent initiatives to establish good governance of research activity are reviewed. Key findings include the following.- Geoengineering is not a magic bullet and not an alternative to emissions reductions. - Cutting global greenhouse gas emissions must remain our highest priority. (i) But this is proving to be difficult, and geoengineering may be useful to support it. - Geoengineering is very likely to be technically possible. (i) However, there are major uncertainties and potential risks concerning effectiveness, costs and social and environmental impacts. - Much more research is needed, as well as public engagement and a system of regulation (for both deployment and for possible large-scale field tests). - The acceptability of

  11. A geophysiologist's thoughts on geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Lovelock, James

    2008-11-13

    The Earth is now recognized as a self-regulating system that includes a reactive biosphere; the system maintains a long-term steady-state climate and surface chemical composition favourable for life. We are perturbing the steady state by changing the land surface from mainly forests to farm land and by adding greenhouse gases and aerosol pollutants to the air. We appear to have exceeded the natural capacity to counter our perturbation and consequently the system is changing to a new and as yet unknown but probably adverse state. I suggest here that we regard the Earth as a physiological system and consider amelioration techniques, geoengineering, as comparable to nineteenth century medicine.

  12. Irish Speakers in Northern Ireland, and the Good Friday Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craith, M. Nic

    1999-01-01

    Examines the Irish language community in Northern Ireland, and questions the validity of the census results of 1991. Particular focus is on the concept of a mother tongue and its relevance for speakers of Irish in the United Kingdom. Discusses measures to improve the status of Irish as a result of the Good Friday Agreement. (Author/VWL)

  13. Friday Letters: Connecting Students, Teachers, and Families through Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Terry H.; Bizzarri, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    An important part of student success in school is the involvement of families. However, the communication between students and families regarding school is often sparse at best and caregivers can feel left out as to what is happening. Friday letters improve communication between students and families and also provide a myriad of instructional…

  14. Atlantic hurricane surge response to geoengineering

    PubMed Central

    Moore, John C.; Grinsted, Aslak; Guo, Xiaoran; Yu, Xiaoyong; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Rinke, Annette; Cui, Xuefeng; Kravitz, Ben; Lenton, Andrew; Watanabe, Shingo; Ji, Duoying

    2015-01-01

    Devastating floods due to Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However, the frequency of the most intense storms is likely to increase with rises in sea surface temperatures. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane Main Development Region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may mitigate hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using eight earth system model simulations of climate under the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G3 and G4 schemes that use stratospheric aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 scenario. Global mean temperature increases are greatly ameliorated by geoengineering, and tropical temperature increases are at most half of those temperature increases in the RCP4.5. However, sulfate injection would have to double (to nearly 10 teragrams of SO2 per year) between 2020 and 2070 to balance the RCP4.5, approximately the equivalent of a 1991 Pinatubo eruption every 2 y, with consequent implications for stratospheric ozone. We project changes in storm frequencies using a temperature-dependent generalized extreme value statistical model calibrated by historical storm surges and observed temperatures since 1923. The number of storm surge events as big as the one caused by the 2005 Katrina hurricane are reduced by about 50% compared with no geoengineering, but this reduction is only marginally statistically significant. Nevertheless, when sea level rise differences in 2070 between the RCP4.5 and geoengineering are factored into coastal flood risk, we find that expected flood levels are reduced by about 40 cm for 5-y events and about halved for 50-y surges. PMID:26504210

  15. Atlantic hurricane surge response to geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Moore, John C; Grinsted, Aslak; Guo, Xiaoran; Yu, Xiaoyong; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Rinke, Annette; Cui, Xuefeng; Kravitz, Ben; Lenton, Andrew; Watanabe, Shingo; Ji, Duoying

    2015-11-10

    Devastating floods due to Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However, the frequency of the most intense storms is likely to increase with rises in sea surface temperatures. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane Main Development Region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may mitigate hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using eight earth system model simulations of climate under the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G3 and G4 schemes that use stratospheric aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 scenario. Global mean temperature increases are greatly ameliorated by geoengineering, and tropical temperature increases are at most half of those temperature increases in the RCP4.5. However, sulfate injection would have to double (to nearly 10 teragrams of SO2 per year) between 2020 and 2070 to balance the RCP4.5, approximately the equivalent of a 1991 Pinatubo eruption every 2 y, with consequent implications for stratospheric ozone. We project changes in storm frequencies using a temperature-dependent generalized extreme value statistical model calibrated by historical storm surges and observed temperatures since 1923. The number of storm surge events as big as the one caused by the 2005 Katrina hurricane are reduced by about 50% compared with no geoengineering, but this reduction is only marginally statistically significant. Nevertheless, when sea level rise differences in 2070 between the RCP4.5 and geoengineering are factored into coastal flood risk, we find that expected flood levels are reduced by about 40 cm for 5-y events and about halved for 50-y surges.

  16. Geoengineering as a design problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravitz, Ben; MacMartin, Douglas G.; Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the climate impacts of solar geoengineering is essential for evaluating its benefits and risks. Most previous simulations have prescribed a particular strategy and evaluated its modeled effects. Here we turn this approach around by first choosing example climate objectives and then designing a strategy to meet those objectives in climate models. There are four essential criteria for designing a strategy: (i) an explicit specification of the objectives, (ii) defining what climate forcing agents to modify so the objectives are met, (iii) a method for managing uncertainties, and (iv) independent verification of the strategy in an evaluation model. We demonstrate this design perspective through two multi-objective examples. First, changes in Arctic temperature and the position of tropical precipitation due to CO2 increases are offset by adjusting high-latitude insolation in each hemisphere independently. Second, three different latitude-dependent patterns of insolation are modified to offset CO2-induced changes in global mean temperature, interhemispheric temperature asymmetry, and the Equator-to-pole temperature gradient. In both examples, the "design" and "evaluation" models are state-of-the-art fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models.

  17. Geoengineering as a design problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravitz, B.; MacMartin, D. G.; Wang, H.; Rasch, P. J.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the climate impacts of solar geoengineering is essential for evaluating its benefits and risks. Most previous simulations have prescribed a particular strategy and evaluated its modeled effects. Here we turn this approach around by first choosing example climate objectives and then designing a strategy to meet those objectives in climate models. There are four essential criteria for designing a strategy: (i) an explicit specification of the objectives, (ii) defining what climate forcing agents to modify so the objectives are met, (iii) a method for managing uncertainties, and (iv) independent verification of the strategy in an evaluation model. We demonstrate this design perspective through two multi-objective examples. First, changes in Arctic temperature and the position of tropical precipitation due to CO2 increases are offset by adjusting high latitude insolation in each hemisphere independently. Second, three different latitude-dependent patterns of insolation are modified to offset CO2-induced changes in global mean temperature, interhemispheric temperature asymmetry, and the equator-to-pole temperature gradient. In both examples, the "design" and "evaluation" models are state-of-the-art fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models.

  18. Geoengineering as a design problem

    SciTech Connect

    Kravitz, Ben; MacMartin, Douglas G.; Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the climate impacts of solar geoengineering is essential for evaluating its benefits and risks. Most previous simulations have prescribed a particular strategy and evaluated its modeled effects. Here we turn this approach around by first choosing example climate objectives and then designing a strategy to meet those objectives in climate models.

    There are four essential criteria for designing a strategy: (i) an explicit specification of the objectives, (ii) defining what climate forcing agents to modify so the objectives are met, (iii) a method for managing uncertainties, and (iv) independent verification of the strategy in an evaluation model.

    We demonstrate this design perspective through two multi-objective examples. First, changes in Arctic temperature and the position of tropical precipitation due to CO2 increases are offset by adjusting high-latitude insolation in each hemisphere independently. Second, three different latitude-dependent patterns of insolation are modified to offset CO2-induced changes in global mean temperature, interhemispheric temperature asymmetry, and the Equator-to-pole temperature gradient. In both examples, the "design" and "evaluation" models are state-of-the-art fully coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation models.

  19. Reflecting on 50 years of geoengineering research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, Ken; Bala, Govindasamy

    2017-01-01

    Earth's Future invited "leading experts in the field of geoengineering research to contribute brief reflections (2-5 pages) on the development of the discussion over the past decade and to consider where it may be going in the next 10 years." Responding to this request, we offer the following text in the spirit of reflections that emphasize our personal roles and viewpoints. The primary focus of many of our comments is solar geoengineering and not carbon dioxide removal (CDR). Thus, this text is not intended to comprise a comprehensive review or set of carefully documented analyses. Our primary conclusion is that sustained progress in "geoengineering" research will depend on social and material support for experimental work that can provide the observational basis for improved modeling and analysis, and, potentially, development and deployment of systems that may help protect the environment and improve human well-being. Relevant issues, and potential future trajectories, for CDR technologies may differ dramatically from those for solar geoengineering technologies.

  20. Detecting sulphate aerosol geoengineering with different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Y. T. Eunice; Charlton-Perez, Andrew J.; Lott, Fraser C.; Highwood, Eleanor J.

    2016-12-01

    Sulphate aerosol injection has been widely discussed as a possible way to engineer future climate. Monitoring it would require detecting its effects amidst internal variability and in the presence of other external forcings. We investigate how the use of different detection methods and filtering techniques affects the detectability of sulphate aerosol geoengineering in annual-mean global-mean near-surface air temperature. This is done by assuming a future scenario that injects 5 Tg yr‑1 of sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere and cross-comparing simulations from 5 climate models. 64% of the studied comparisons would require 25 years or more for detection when no filter and the multi-variate method that has been extensively used for attributing climate change are used, while 66% of the same comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection using a trend-based filter. This highlights the high sensitivity of sulphate aerosol geoengineering detectability to the choice of filter. With the same trend-based filter but a non-stationary method, 80% of the comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection. This does not imply sulphate aerosol geoengineering should be deployed, but suggests that both detection methods could be used for monitoring geoengineering in global, annual mean temperature should it be needed.

  1. Detecting sulphate aerosol geoengineering with different methods.

    PubMed

    Lo, Y T Eunice; Charlton-Perez, Andrew J; Lott, Fraser C; Highwood, Eleanor J

    2016-12-15

    Sulphate aerosol injection has been widely discussed as a possible way to engineer future climate. Monitoring it would require detecting its effects amidst internal variability and in the presence of other external forcings. We investigate how the use of different detection methods and filtering techniques affects the detectability of sulphate aerosol geoengineering in annual-mean global-mean near-surface air temperature. This is done by assuming a future scenario that injects 5 Tg yr(-1) of sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere and cross-comparing simulations from 5 climate models. 64% of the studied comparisons would require 25 years or more for detection when no filter and the multi-variate method that has been extensively used for attributing climate change are used, while 66% of the same comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection using a trend-based filter. This highlights the high sensitivity of sulphate aerosol geoengineering detectability to the choice of filter. With the same trend-based filter but a non-stationary method, 80% of the comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection. This does not imply sulphate aerosol geoengineering should be deployed, but suggests that both detection methods could be used for monitoring geoengineering in global, annual mean temperature should it be needed.

  2. Detecting sulphate aerosol geoengineering with different methods

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Y. T. Eunice; Charlton-Perez, Andrew J.; Lott, Fraser C.; Highwood, Eleanor J.

    2016-01-01

    Sulphate aerosol injection has been widely discussed as a possible way to engineer future climate. Monitoring it would require detecting its effects amidst internal variability and in the presence of other external forcings. We investigate how the use of different detection methods and filtering techniques affects the detectability of sulphate aerosol geoengineering in annual-mean global-mean near-surface air temperature. This is done by assuming a future scenario that injects 5 Tg yr−1 of sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere and cross-comparing simulations from 5 climate models. 64% of the studied comparisons would require 25 years or more for detection when no filter and the multi-variate method that has been extensively used for attributing climate change are used, while 66% of the same comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection using a trend-based filter. This highlights the high sensitivity of sulphate aerosol geoengineering detectability to the choice of filter. With the same trend-based filter but a non-stationary method, 80% of the comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection. This does not imply sulphate aerosol geoengineering should be deployed, but suggests that both detection methods could be used for monitoring geoengineering in global, annual mean temperature should it be needed. PMID:27976697

  3. Stratospheric solar geoengineering without ozone loss.

    PubMed

    Keith, David W; Weisenstein, Debra K; Dykema, John A; Keutsch, Frank N

    2016-12-27

    Injecting sulfate aerosol into the stratosphere, the most frequently analyzed proposal for solar geoengineering, may reduce some climate risks, but it would also entail new risks, including ozone loss and heating of the lower tropical stratosphere, which, in turn, would increase water vapor concentration causing additional ozone loss and surface warming. We propose a method for stratospheric aerosol climate modification that uses a solid aerosol composed of alkaline metal salts that will convert hydrogen halides and nitric and sulfuric acids into stable salts to enable stratospheric geoengineering while reducing or reversing ozone depletion. Rather than minimizing reactive effects by reducing surface area using high refractive index materials, this method tailors the chemical reactivity. Specifically, we calculate that injection of calcite (CaCO3) aerosol particles might reduce net radiative forcing while simultaneously increasing column ozone toward its preanthropogenic baseline. A radiative forcing of -1 W⋅m(-2), for example, might be achieved with a simultaneous 3.8% increase in column ozone using 2.1 Tg⋅y(-1) of 275-nm radius calcite aerosol. Moreover, the radiative heating of the lower stratosphere would be roughly 10-fold less than if that same radiative forcing had been produced using sulfate aerosol. Although solar geoengineering cannot substitute for emissions cuts, it may supplement them by reducing some of the risks of climate change. Further research on this and similar methods could lead to reductions in risks and improved efficacy of solar geoengineering methods.

  4. Stratospheric solar geoengineering without ozone loss

    PubMed Central

    Weisenstein, Debra K.; Dykema, John A.; Keutsch, Frank N.

    2016-01-01

    Injecting sulfate aerosol into the stratosphere, the most frequently analyzed proposal for solar geoengineering, may reduce some climate risks, but it would also entail new risks, including ozone loss and heating of the lower tropical stratosphere, which, in turn, would increase water vapor concentration causing additional ozone loss and surface warming. We propose a method for stratospheric aerosol climate modification that uses a solid aerosol composed of alkaline metal salts that will convert hydrogen halides and nitric and sulfuric acids into stable salts to enable stratospheric geoengineering while reducing or reversing ozone depletion. Rather than minimizing reactive effects by reducing surface area using high refractive index materials, this method tailors the chemical reactivity. Specifically, we calculate that injection of calcite (CaCO3) aerosol particles might reduce net radiative forcing while simultaneously increasing column ozone toward its preanthropogenic baseline. A radiative forcing of −1 W⋅m−2, for example, might be achieved with a simultaneous 3.8% increase in column ozone using 2.1 Tg⋅y−1 of 275-nm radius calcite aerosol. Moreover, the radiative heating of the lower stratosphere would be roughly 10-fold less than if that same radiative forcing had been produced using sulfate aerosol. Although solar geoengineering cannot substitute for emissions cuts, it may supplement them by reducing some of the risks of climate change. Further research on this and similar methods could lead to reductions in risks and improved efficacy of solar geoengineering methods. PMID:27956628

  5. Stratospheric solar geoengineering without ozone loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, David W.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Dykema, John A.; Keutsch, Frank N.

    2016-12-01

    Injecting sulfate aerosol into the stratosphere, the most frequently analyzed proposal for solar geoengineering, may reduce some climate risks, but it would also entail new risks, including ozone loss and heating of the lower tropical stratosphere, which, in turn, would increase water vapor concentration causing additional ozone loss and surface warming. We propose a method for stratospheric aerosol climate modification that uses a solid aerosol composed of alkaline metal salts that will convert hydrogen halides and nitric and sulfuric acids into stable salts to enable stratospheric geoengineering while reducing or reversing ozone depletion. Rather than minimizing reactive effects by reducing surface area using high refractive index materials, this method tailors the chemical reactivity. Specifically, we calculate that injection of calcite (CaCO3) aerosol particles might reduce net radiative forcing while simultaneously increasing column ozone toward its preanthropogenic baseline. A radiative forcing of ‑1 Wṡm‑2, for example, might be achieved with a simultaneous 3.8% increase in column ozone using 2.1 Tgṡy‑1 of 275-nm radius calcite aerosol. Moreover, the radiative heating of the lower stratosphere would be roughly 10-fold less than if that same radiative forcing had been produced using sulfate aerosol. Although solar geoengineering cannot substitute for emissions cuts, it may supplement them by reducing some of the risks of climate change. Further research on this and similar methods could lead to reductions in risks and improved efficacy of solar geoengineering methods.

  6. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering impacts on global agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.; Lawrence, P.; Lombardozzi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering has been proposed to reduce the impacts of anthropogenic climate change. If it is ever used, it would change agricultural production, and so is one of the future climate scenarios for the third phase of the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison. As an example of those impacts, we use the Community Land Model (CLM-crop 4.5) to simulate how climate changes from the G4 geoengineering scenario from the Geoengineering Modeling Intercomparison Project. The G4 geoengineering scenario specifies, in combination with RCP4.5 forcing, starting in 2020 daily injections of a constant amount of SO2 at a rate of 5 Tg SO2 per year at one point on the Equator into the lower stratosphere. Eight climate modeling groups have completed G4 simulations. We use the crop model to simulate the impacts of climate change (temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation) on the global agriculture system for five crops - rice, maize, soybeans, cotton, and sugarcane. In general, without irrigation, compared with the reference run (RCP4.5), global production of cotton, rice and sugarcane would increase significantly due to the cooling effect. Maize and soybeans show different regional responses. In tropical regions, maize and soybean have a higher yield in G4 compared with RCP4.5, while in the temperate regions they have a lower yield under a geoengineered climate. Impacts on specific countries in terms of different crop production depend on their locations. For example, the United States and Argentina show soybean production reduction of about 15% under G4 compared to RCP4.5, while Brazil increases soybean production by about 10%.

  7. Atlantic hurricane surge response to geoengineering

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, John C.; Grinsted, Aslak; Guo, Xiaoran; Yu, Xiaoyong; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Rinke, Annette; Cui, Xuefeng; Kravitz, Ben; Lenton, Andrew; Watanabe, Shingo; Ji, Duoying

    2015-10-26

    Devastating Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However their intensity and frequency in a warming world may rapidly increase by a factor of 2-7 for each degree of increase in mean global temperature. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosol injection cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane main development region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may be an effective method of controlling hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using 8 Earth System Model simulations of climate under the GeoMIP G3 and G4 schemes that use stratospheric aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the RCP4.5 scenario. Global mean temperature increases are greatly ameliorated by geoengineering, and tropical temperature increases are at most half of those in RCP4.5, but sulphate injection would have to double between 2020 and 2070 to balance RCP 4.5 to nearly 10 Tg SO2 yr-1, with consequent implications for damage to stratospheric ozone. We project changes in storm frequencies using a temperature-dependent Generalized Extreme Value statistical model calibrated by historical storm surges from 1923 and observed temperatures. The numbers of storm surge events as big as the one that caused the 2005 Katrina hurricane are reduced by about 50% compared with no geoengineering, but this is only marginally statistically significant. However, when sea level rise differences at 2070 between RCP4.5 and geoengineering are factored in to coastal flood risk, we find that expected flood levels are reduced by about 40 cm for 5 year events and perhaps halved for 50 year surges.

  8. YouTube Fridays: Engaging the Net Generation in 5 Minutes a Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberatore, Matthew W.

    2010-01-01

    YouTube Fridays is a teaching tool that devotes the first five minutes of class each Friday to a YouTube video related to the course. Students select the videos, which expand the class's educational content in courses such as thermodynamics and material and energy balances. From assessments of two pilot studies using YouTube Fridays in Chemical…

  9. Scientists Debate Geoengineering at European Geosciences Union Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-05-01

    Recent reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and others have presented forecasts of a warmer world and cautioned that some forms of geoengineering might be necessary to deal with climate change in an emergency situation. A debate about geoengineering the climate, held at the European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly on 1 May, explored whether any geoengineering techniques should be considered; if so, which might be acceptable; and what circumstances could necessitate their use. Also discussed was whether potential unintended repercussions from geoengineering could be worse than the problem.

  10. Solar radiation management geoengineering and the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applegate, P. J.; Keller, K.

    2014-12-01

    Several authors have suggested that technologies for modifying the Earth's climate should be developed so that they can be deployed if a climate emergency seems imminent. These technologies are generally called geoengineering, or climate engineering. Solar radiation management is perhaps the most commonly discussed geoengineering technique. It involves lofting reflective particles into the upper atmosphere, in imitation of explosive volcanic eruptions that produce measurable cooling at the Earth's surface. Given that geoengineering is intended to reduce surface air temperatures, some authors suggest that it could be used to prevent sea level rise from ice sheet mass loss. The Greenland Ice Sheet is an obvious target for geoengineering-based efforts to avoid sea level rise, because it is large and vulnerable to surface air temperature increases. To evaluate this possibility, we use a three-dimensional, shallow-ice sheet model (SICOPOLIS; sicopolis.greveweb.net) to examine the ability of geoengineering to reduce sea level contributions from the Greenland Ice Sheet. Although this model is highly simplified, its speed of execution allows us to investigate many different potential geoengineering scenarios, covering tens of thousands of model years (excluding spinup). We examine stylized geoengineering scenarios, including both aggressive, sustained geoengineering and more moderate efforts. We comment on the implications of our model results for the ability of geoengineering to reduce future ice sheet-driven sea level change, and how our results might change if our experiments were repeated with a more sophisticated ice sheet model.

  11. Development of geopolitically relevant ranking criteria for geoengineering methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Philip W.

    2016-11-01

    A decade has passed since Paul Crutzen published his editorial essay on the potential for stratospheric geoengineering to cool the climate in the Anthropocene. He synthesized the effects of the 1991 Pinatubo eruption on the planet's radiative budget and used this large-scale event to broaden and deepen the debate on the challenges and opportunities of large-scale geoengineering. Pinatubo had pronounced effects, both in the short and longer term (months to years), on the ocean, land, and the atmosphere. This rich set of data on how a large-scale natural event influences many regional and global facets of the Earth System provides a comprehensive viewpoint to assess the wider ramifications of geoengineering. Here, I use the Pinatubo archives to develop a range of geopolitically relevant ranking criteria for a suite of different geoengineering approaches. The criteria focus on the spatial scales needed for geoengineering and whether large-scale dispersal is a necessary requirement for a technique to deliver significant cooling or carbon dioxide reductions. These categories in turn inform whether geoengineering approaches are amenable to participation (the "democracy of geoengineering") and whether they will lead to transboundary issues that could precipitate geopolitical conflicts. The criteria provide the requisite detail to demarcate different geoengineering approaches in the context of geopolitics. Hence, they offer another tool that can be used in the development of a more holistic approach to the debate on geoengineering.

  12. An overview of the Earth system science of solar geoengineering: Overview of the earth system science of solar geoengineering

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, Peter J.; Kravitz, Ben; Lawrence, Mark G.; Muri, Helene

    2016-07-14

    Solar geoengineering has been proposed as a means to cool the planet by increasing the reflection of sunlight back to space, for example by injecting reflective aerosol particles into the middle atmosphere. Such proposals are not able to physically substitute for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions as a response to the risks of climate change, but might eventually be applied as a complementary approach to reduce climate risks. Thus, the Earth system consequences of solar geoengineering are central to understanding its potentials and risks. Here we review the state-of-the-art knowledge about geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosol injection. We examine the common responses found in studies of an idealized form of solar geoengineering, in which the intensity of incoming sunlight is directly reduced in models. The studies reviewed are consistent in suggesting that solar geoengineering would generally reduce the differences in climate in comparison to future scenarios with elevated greenhouse gas concentrations and no solar geoengineering. However, it is clear that a solar geoengineered climate would be novel in some respects, for example a notable reduction in the intensity of the hydrological cycle. We provide an overview of the unique aspects of the response to stratospheric aerosol injection and the uncertainties around its consequences. We also consider the issues raised by the partial control over the climate that solar geoengineering would allow. Finally, this overview also highlights the key research gaps that will need to be resolved in order to effectively guide future decisions on the potential use of solar geoengineering.

  13. Modeled Changes to the Earth's Climate under a Simple Geoengineering Scheme and Following Geoengineering Failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumlich, Michael John

    Geoengineering is the intentional alteration of the Earth’s climate system. The international Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) seeks to identify the potential benefits and side effects of geoengineering on the Earth's climate. This thesis examines the first two experiments from the contribution of the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis to GeoMIP. In the first experiment (G1), atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are quadrupled and the solar constant is reduced to offset the increased greenhouse gas forcing. In the second experiment (G2), atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are increased at the rate of 1% per year and the solar constant is incrementally reduced to offset the greenhouse gas forcing. In concert with these experiments, results from two other experiments were analyzed, one in which the atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are quadrupled one in which they are increased at the rate of 1% per. The results obtained are in broad agreement with earlier work, showing that solar radiation management geoengineering schemes can prevent an increase in mean global surface temperature as atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase. Though the mean global temperature remains constant while geoengineering is employed, there are regional and zonal differences from the control climate, with high latitude warming and cooling in the tropical and subtropical regions. In particular, the meridional temperature gradient is reduced compared to that of the control climate. The G2 experiment was very similar to the G1 experiment in terms of the spatial surface temperature changes, though the changes seen in the G2 experiment were less pronounced and the regions of statistical significance were smaller. During the geoengineering period, seasonal changes and a statistically significant decrease in global precipitation, particularly over the ocean were apparent in the G1 run. As with temperature, the spatial pattern of

  14. Biochronometry; Proceedings of the Symposium, Friday Harbor, Wash., September 4-6, 1969.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menaker, M.

    1971-01-01

    Topics discussed include circadian activity rhythms in birds and man, variation of circadian rhythms in monkeys, resetting of circadian eclosion rhythm in fruitflies, the effectiveness of mathematical models of circadian rhythms, the influence of ac electric fields on circadian rhythms in man, the relation between changes in the metabolic rate and circadian periodicity of the resistance of pocket mice to ionizing radiation, the relation between circadian organization and the photoperiodic time measurement in moths, the circadian rhythm of optic nerve potentials in the isolated eye of the sea hare, phasing of circadian temperature rhythms in the pocket mouse by specific spectral regions, the phase-shifting effect of light on circadian rhymicity in the fruifly, hormonal control of circadian rhythms in the fruitfly, metabolically controlled temperature compensation in the circadian rhythm of algae, and circadian rhythms in the chloroplasts of algae. Individual items are abstracted in this issue.

  15. Atmospheric responses to stratospheric aerosol geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Angus; Highwood, Eleanor; Charlton-Perez, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Stratospheric aerosol geoengineering, also called solar radiation management (SRM), involves the injection of aerosol into the stratosphere to increase the planetary albedo. It has been conceieved as a policy option in response to human-induced global warming. It is well-established from modelling studies and observations following volcanic eruptions that stratospheric sulphate aerosols cause global cooling. Some aspects of the climate response, especially those involving large-scale dynamical changes, are more uncertain. This work attempts to identify the physical mechanisms operating in the climate response to stratospheric aerosol geoengineering using idealised model experiments. The radiative forcing produced by the aerosol depends on its type (species) and size. Aerosols absorb terrestrial and solar radiation, which drives stratospheric temperature change. The stratospheric temperature change also depends on aerosol type and size. We calculate the stratospheric temperature change due to geoengineering with sulphate, titania, limestone and soot in a fixed-dynamical-heating radiative model. Sulphate produces tropical heating of up to ~6 K. Titania produces much less heating, whereas soot produces much more. Most aerosols increase the meridional temperature gradient in the lower stratosphere which, by thermal wind balance, would be expected to intensify the zonal winds in the polar vortex. An intermediate-complexity general circulation model is used to investigate the dynamical response to geoengineering aerosols. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are quadrupled. The carbon dioxide forcing is then balanced using stratospheric sulphate aerosol. We assess dynamical changes in the stratosphere, for example, the frequency of stratospheric sudden warmings and the strength of the Brewer-Dobson overturning circulation. We also assess changes in the strength and position of the tropospheric jets. We compare results for sulphate with those for titania.

  16. Assessing the regional disparities in geoengineering impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Peter J.; Ridgwell, Andy; Lunt, Daniel J.

    2010-09-01

    Solar Radiation Management (SRM) Geoengineering may ameliorate many consequences of global warming but also has the potential to drive regional climates outside the envelope of greenhouse-gas induced warming, creating ‘novel’ conditions, and could affect precipitation in some regions disproportionably. Here, using a fully coupled climate model we explore some new methodologies for assessing regional disparities in geoengineering impacts. Taking a 4 × CO2 climate and an idealized ‘sunshade’ SRM strategy, we consider different fractions of the maximum theoretical, 4 × CO2-cancelling global mean cooling. Whilst regional predictions in particularly relatively low resolution global climate models must be treated with caution, our simulations indicate that it might be possible to identify a level of SRM geoengineering capable of meeting multiple targets, such as maintaining a stable mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet and cooling global climate, but without reducing global precipitation below pre-industrial or exposing significant fractions of the Earth to ‘novel’ climate conditions.

  17. Crop yields in a geoengineered climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongratz, J.; Lobell, D. B.; Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

    2012-02-01

    Crop models predict that recent and future climate change may have adverse effects on crop yields. Intentional deflection of sunlight away from the Earth could diminish the amount of climate change in a high-CO2 world. However, it has been suggested that this diminution would come at the cost of threatening the food and water supply for billions of people. Here, we carry out high-CO2, geoengineering and control simulations using two climate models to predict the effects on global crop yields. We find that in our models solar-radiation geoengineering in a high-CO2 climate generally causes crop yields to increase, largely because temperature stresses are diminished while the benefits of CO2 fertilization are retained. Nevertheless, possible yield losses on the local scale as well as known and unknown side effects and risks associated with geoengineering indicate that the most certain way to reduce climate risks to global food security is to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.

  18. Towards a comprehensive climate impacts assessment of solar geoengineering

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, Peter J.; Kravitz, Ben; Lawrence, Mark G.; Gerten, Dieter; Caminade, Cyril; Gosling, Simon N.; Hendy, Erica J.; Kassie, Belay T.; Kissling, W. Daniel; Muri, Helene; Oschlies, Andreas; Smith, Steven J.

    2016-11-23

    Despite a growing literature on the climate response to solar geoengineering—proposals to cool the planet by increasing the planetary albedo—there has been little published on the impacts of solar geoengineering on natural and human systems such as agriculture, health, water resources, and ecosystems. An understanding of the impacts of different scenarios of solar geoengineering deployment will be crucial for informing decisions on whether and how to deploy it. Here we review the current state of knowledge about impacts of a solar-geoengineered climate and identify the major research gaps. We suggest that a thorough assessment of the climate impacts of a range of scenarios of solar geoengineering deployment is needed and can be built upon existing frameworks. However, solar geoengineering poses a novel challenge for climate impacts research as the manner of deployment could be tailored to pursue different objectives making possible a wide range of climate outcomes. We present a number of ideas for approaches to extend the survey of climate impacts beyond standard scenarios of solar geoengineering deployment to address this challenge. Reducing the impacts of climate change is the fundamental motivator for emissions reductions and for considering whether and how to deploy solar geoengineering. This means that the active engagement of the climate impacts research community will be important for improving the overall understanding of the opportunities, challenges, and risks presented by solar geoengineering.

  19. Towards a comprehensive climate impacts assessment of solar geoengineering

    DOE PAGES

    Irvine, Peter J.; Kravitz, Ben; Lawrence, Mark G.; ...

    2016-11-23

    Despite a growing literature on the climate response to solar geoengineering—proposals to cool the planet by increasing the planetary albedo—there has been little published on the impacts of solar geoengineering on natural and human systems such as agriculture, health, water resources, and ecosystems. An understanding of the impacts of different scenarios of solar geoengineering deployment will be crucial for informing decisions on whether and how to deploy it. Here we review the current state of knowledge about impacts of a solar-geoengineered climate and identify the major research gaps. We suggest that a thorough assessment of the climate impacts of amore » range of scenarios of solar geoengineering deployment is needed and can be built upon existing frameworks. However, solar geoengineering poses a novel challenge for climate impacts research as the manner of deployment could be tailored to pursue different objectives making possible a wide range of climate outcomes. We present a number of ideas for approaches to extend the survey of climate impacts beyond standard scenarios of solar geoengineering deployment to address this challenge. Reducing the impacts of climate change is the fundamental motivator for emissions reductions and for considering whether and how to deploy solar geoengineering. This means that the active engagement of the climate impacts research community will be important for improving the overall understanding of the opportunities, challenges, and risks presented by solar geoengineering.« less

  20. Towards a comprehensive climate impacts assessment of solar geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Peter J.; Kravitz, Ben; Lawrence, Mark G.; Gerten, Dieter; Caminade, Cyril; Gosling, Simon N.; Hendy, Erica J.; Kassie, Belay T.; Kissling, W. Daniel; Muri, Helene; Oschlies, Andreas; Smith, Steven J.

    2017-01-01

    Despite a growing literature on the climate response to solar geoengineering—proposals to cool the planet by increasing the planetary albedo—there has been little published on the impacts of solar geoengineering on natural and human systems such as agriculture, health, water resources, and ecosystems. An understanding of the impacts of different scenarios of solar geoengineering deployment will be crucial for informing decisions on whether and how to deploy it. Here we review the current state of knowledge about impacts of a solar-geoengineered climate and identify the major research gaps. We suggest that a thorough assessment of the climate impacts of a range of scenarios of solar geoengineering deployment is needed and can be built upon existing frameworks. However, solar geoengineering poses a novel challenge for climate impacts research as the manner of deployment could be tailored to pursue different objectives making possible a wide range of climate outcomes. We present a number of ideas for approaches to extend the survey of climate impacts beyond standard scenarios of solar geoengineering deployment to address this challenge. Reducing the impacts of climate change is the fundamental motivator for emissions reductions and for considering whether and how to deploy solar geoengineering. This means that the active engagement of the climate impacts research community will be important for improving the overall understanding of the opportunities, challenges, and risks presented by solar geoengineering.

  1. A comparison of geoengineering methods: assessment of precipitation side effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, L. S.; Crook, J. A.; Osprey, S. M.; Forster, P.

    2014-12-01

    Intentional modification of Earth's climate by geoengineering can restore global mean temperature in climate model simulations but is expected to cause regional inequalities in temperature change and shifts in precipitation which may depend on the geoengineering method employed. In simulations of twenty-first century climate using the UKMO HadGEM2 climate model, we have assessed the effectiveness of two regional scale geoengineering methods (crop and desert albedo modification) and four large scale geoengineering methods (ocean albedo modification, marine cloud brightening by sea salt, cirrus cloud thinning and stratospheric sulphur). We projected anthropogenic emissions based on RCP4.5, applied geoengineering from 2020 to 2069 and quantified the impact on temperature and precipitation for 2040-2059 compared to a no-geoengineering control simulation. We found forcing for crop albedo modification was largely insignificant (-0.3 ± 0.3 Wm-2). Desert albedo modification had a catastrophic impact on tropical precipitation drying the Amazon, the Sahel, India and China. Of the large scale geoengineering simulations, only stratospheric sulphur and ocean albedo modification were potentially scalable to temporarily return global mean temperature to the late twentieth century climate. Cirrus cloud thinning was the only method that increased global mean precipitation (+0.7%) while in other respects the four methods were remarkable in the consistency of their precipitation response to geoengineering compared to the control simulation (Figure 1). Over land, precipitation reduced less (between -0.5% and +1.8%) than global precipitation (between -3.8% and +0.7%). A northward shift in tropical precipitation over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific was found for all four methods, likely driven by cloud rapid adjustments and changes in atmospheric circulation. After geoengineering, during 2080-2099, significant differences in maritime tropical precipitation persisted despite regional

  2. Assessing the Regional Disparities in Geoengineering impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, P. J.; Ridgwell, A. J.; Lunt, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    SRM geoengineering may ameliorate many of the impacts of greenhouse-induced global warming but also has the potential to drive regional climates outside the envelope of greenhouse-gas induced warming, creating ‘novel’ conditions, and could affect precipitation in some regions disproportionably. We use HadCM3L [Cox et al., 2000] a fully coupled climate model to analyse the regional impacts of different levels of a sunshade SRM intervention on a world with 4 times the pre-industrial CO2 level. We employ a number of new methods to analyse these results, looking at: the regional responses, global aggregation of ‘recipients’ of climate impacts and classifying ‘novel’ climate conditions [Irvine et al., 2010]. We find that the precipitation impacts of SRM differ strongly between regions, with most regions drying but with others becoming wetter with increased levels of SRM. We show that the ‘optimal’ level of SRM for each region would differ, for example in our simulations the USA becomes drier at higher levels of SRM, with pre-industrial precipitation conditions restored at ~50% SRM, whereas Australia starts much drier at 4xCO2 and gets wetter with increasing SRM, returning to pre-industrial precipitation conditions at 100% SRM. ‘Novel’ precipitation conditions, such as the drier-than-pre-industrial conditions in the USA, are experienced across a large fraction of the Earth for all but the lowest levels of SRM, whereas ‘novel’ (cooler) temperature conditions only occur at the highest levels of geoengineering in tropical regions [Govindasamy et al., 2003]. This work shows that the impacts of SRM differ strongly between regions and that a large fraction of the world would have to contend with a regional climate that is ‘novel’ in some way, i.e. with more extreme changes than due to global warming alone. However, we find that it may be possible to identify a level of SRM geoengineering capable of meeting multiple mitigation targets, such as

  3. Geoengineering to Avoid Overshoot: An Uncertainty Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K.

    2009-04-01

    Geoengineering (or climate engineering) using stratospheric sulfur injections (Crutzen, 2006) has been called for research in case of an urgent need for stopping global warming when other mitigation efforts were exhausted. Although there are a number of concerns over this idea (e.g. Robock, 2008), it is still useful to consider geoengineering as a possible method to limit warming caused by overshoot. Overshoot is a feature accompanied by low stabilizations scenarios aiming for a stringent target (Rao et al., 2008) in which total radiative forcing temporarily exceeds the target before reaching there. Scenarios achieving a 50% emission reduction by 2050 produces overshoot. Overshoot could cause sustained warming for decades due to the inertia of the climate system. If stratospheric sulfur injections were to be used as a "last resort" to avoid overshoot, what would be the suitable start-year and injection profile of such an intervention? Wigley (2006) examined climate response to combined mitigation/geoengineering scenarios with the intent to avert overshoot. Wigley's analysis demonstrated a basic potential of such a combined mitigation/geoengineering approach to avoid temperature overshoot - however it considered only simplistic sulfur injection profiles (all started in 2010), just one mitigation scenario, and did not examine the sensitivity of the climate response to any underlying uncertainties. This study builds upon Wigley's premise of the combined mitigation/geoengineering approach and brings associated uncertainty into the analysis. First, this study addresses the question as to how much geoengineering intervention would be needed to avoid overshoot by considering associated uncertainty? Then, would a geoengineering intervention of such a magnitude including uncertainty be permissible in considering all the other side effects? This study begins from the supposition that geoengineering could be employed to cap warming at 2.0°C since preindustrial. A few

  4. Solar geoengineering to limit the rate of temperature change.

    PubMed

    MacMartin, Douglas G; Caldeira, Ken; Keith, David W

    2014-12-28

    Solar geoengineering has been suggested as a tool that might reduce damage from anthropogenic climate change. Analysis often assumes that geoengineering would be used to maintain a constant global mean temperature. Under this scenario, geoengineering would be required either indefinitely (on societal time scales) or until atmospheric CO2 concentrations were sufficiently reduced. Impacts of climate change, however, are related to the rate of change as well as its magnitude. We thus describe an alternative scenario in which solar geoengineering is used only to constrain the rate of change of global mean temperature; this leads to a finite deployment period for any emissions pathway that stabilizes global mean temperature. The length of deployment and amount of geoengineering required depends on the emissions pathway and allowable rate of change, e.g. in our simulations, reducing the maximum approximately 0.3°C per decade rate of change in an RCP 4.5 pathway to 0.1°C per decade would require geoengineering for 160 years; under RCP 6.0, the required time nearly doubles. We demonstrate that feedback control can limit rates of change in a climate model. Finally, we note that a decision to terminate use of solar geoengineering does not automatically imply rapid temperature increases: feedback could be used to limit rates of change in a gradual phase-out.

  5. Modeling the Climatic Consequences of Geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerville, R. C.

    2005-12-01

    The last half-century has seen the development of physically comprehensive computer models of the climate system. These models are the primary tool for making predictions of climate change due to human activities, such as emitting greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Because scientific understanding of the climate system is incomplete, however, any climate model will necessarily have imperfections. The inevitable uncertainties associated with these models have sometimes been cited as reasons for not taking action to reduce such emissions. Climate models could certainly be employed to predict the results of various attempts at geoengineering, but many questions would arise. For example, in considering proposals to increase the planetary reflectivity by brightening parts of the land surface or by orbiting mirrors, can models be used to bound the results and to warm of unintended consequences? How could confidence limits be placed on such model results? How can climate changes due to proposed geoengineering be distinguished from natural variability? There are historical parallels on smaller scales, in which models have been employed to predict the results of attempts to alter the weather, such as the use of cloud seeding for precipitation enhancement, hail suppression and hurricane modification. However, there are also many lessons to be learned from the recent record of using models to simulate the effects of the great unintended geoengineering experiment involving greenhouse gases, now in progress. In this major research effort, the same types of questions have been studied at length. The best modern models have demonstrated an impressive ability to predict some aspects of climate change. A large body of evidence has already accumulated through comparing model predictions to many observed aspects of recent climate change, ranging from increases in ocean heat content to changes in atmospheric water vapor to reductions in glacier extent. The preponderance of expert

  6. A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachal, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Uses the framework of a symposium to present an imagined discussion by historical figures about whether and how knowledge might be acquired. Discussants include Democritus, Protagoras, Heraclitus, Socrates, Jesus, Gorgias, Nietzsche, Buddha, and Kierkegaard. (Contains 40 endnotes.) (SK)

  7. Geoengineering and the Risk of Rapid Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, A. J.; Matthews, D.

    2008-12-01

    Many scientists have proposed that geoengineering could be used to artificially cool the planet as a means of reducing CO2-induced climate warming. However, several recent studies have shown some of the potential risks of geoengineering, including negative impacts on stratospheric ozone, the hydrologic cycle and the possibility of rapid climate change in the case of abrupt failure, or rapid decommissioning of geoengineering technology. In this study, we have emulated a geoengineering scenario in the MAGICC climate model, by counteracting the radiative forcing from greenhouse gases. We have used a hypothetical scenario of business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions, in which geoengineering is implemented at the year 2020, and is removed abruptly after 40 years. By varying the climate sensitivity of the MAGICC model, and using previously published estimates of climate sensitivity likelihoods, we are able to derive a probabilistic prediction of the rate of temperature change following the removal of geoengineering. In a simulation without geoengineering (considering only the A1B AIM emissions scenario) the maximum annual rate of temperature change (in the highest climate sensitivity simulation) was 0.5° C per decade. In the geoengineering simulations the maximum annual rate of temperature change, occurring in the year after geoengineering was stopped, varied from 0.22° C per decade for a climate sensitivity of 0.5° C to nearly 8° C per decade for a climate sensitivity of 10° C. The most likely maximum rate of change (corresponding to a climate sensitivity of 2.5° C) was just over 5° C per decade. There is a 99.8 percent probability that the rate of temperature change following the stoppage of geoengineering in this scenario would exceed 3° C per decade. This risk of rapid climate change associated with the use of planetary-scale geoengineering is highly relevant to discussion of climate policies aimed at avoiding "dangerous anthropogenic interference" in the

  8. A combined mitigation/geoengineering approach to climate stabilization.

    PubMed

    Wigley, T M L

    2006-10-20

    Projected anthropogenic warming and increases in CO2 concentration present a twofold threat, both from climate changes and from CO2 directly through increasing the acidity of the oceans. Future climate change may be reduced through mitigation (reductions in greenhouse gas emissions) or through geoengineering. Most geoengineering approaches, however, do not address the problem of increasing ocean acidity. A combined mitigation/geoengineering strategy could remove this deficiency. Here we consider the deliberate injection of sulfate aerosol precursors into the stratosphere. This action could substantially offset future warming and provide additional time to reduce human dependence on fossil fuels and stabilize CO2 concentrations cost-effectively at an acceptable level.

  9. The economics (or lack thereof) of aerosol geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goes, M.; Keller, K.; Tuana, N.

    2009-04-01

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are changing the Earth's climate and impose substantial risks for current and future generations. What are scientifically sound, economically viable, and ethically defendable strategies to manage these climate risks? Ratified international agreements call for a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Recent proposals, however, call for the deployment of a different approach: to geoengineer climate by injecting aerosol precursors into the stratosphere. Published economic studies typically suggest that substituting aerosol geoengineering for abatement of carbon dioxide emissions results in large net monetary benefits. However, these studies neglect the risks of aerosol geoengineering due to (i) the potential for future geoengineering failures and (ii) the negative impacts associated with the aerosol forcing. Here we use a simple integrated assessment model of climate change to analyze potential economic impacts of aerosol geoengineering strategies over a wide range of uncertain parameters such as climate sensitivity, the economic damages due to climate change, and the economic damages due to aerosol geoengineering forcing. The simplicity of the model provides the advantages of parsimony and transparency, but it also imposes severe caveats on the interpretation of the results. For example, the analysis is based on a globally aggregated model and is hence silent on the question of intragenerational distribution of costs and benefits. In addition, the analysis neglects the effects of endogenous learning about the climate system. We show that the risks associated with a future geoengineering failure and negative impacts of aerosol forcings can cause geoenginering strategies to fail an economic cost-benefit test. One key to this finding is that a geoengineering failure would lead to dramatic and abrupt climatic changes. The monetary damages due to this failure can

  10. Geoengineering with stratospheric aerosols: What do we not know after a decade of research?: GEOENGINEERING: WHAT DO WE NOT KNOW?

    SciTech Connect

    MacMartin, Douglas G.; Kravitz, Ben; Long, Jane C. S.; Rasch, Philip J.

    2016-11-17

    Any well-informed future decision on whether and how to deploy solar geoengineering requires balancing the impacts (both intended and unintended) of intervening in the climate against the impacts of not doing so. In spite of the tremendous progress in the last decade, the current state of knowledge remains insufficient to support an assessment of this balance, even for stratospheric aerosol geoengineering (SAG), arguably the best understood (practical) geoengineering method. We then articulate key unknowns associated with SAG, including both climate-science and design questions, as an essential step toward developing a future strategic research program that could address outstanding uncertainties.

  11. Dynamic climate emulators for solar geoengineering

    SciTech Connect

    MacMartin, Douglas G.; Kravitz, Ben

    2016-12-22

    Climate emulators trained on existing simulations can be used to project project the climate effects that result from different possible future pathways of anthropogenic forcing, without further relying on general circulation model (GCM) simulations. We extend this idea to include different amounts of solar geoengineering in addition to different pathways of greenhouse gas concentrations, by training emulators from a multi-model ensemble of simulations from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). The emulator is trained on the abrupt 4 × CO2 and a compensating solar reduction simulation (G1), and evaluated by comparing predictions against a simulated 1 % per year CO2 increase and a similarly smaller solar reduction (G2). We find reasonable agreement in most models for predicting changes in temperature and precipitation (including regional effects), and annual-mean Northern Hemisphere sea ice extent, with the difference between simulation and prediction typically being smaller than natural variability. This verifies that the linearity assumption used in constructing the emulator is sufficient for these variables over the range of forcing considered. Annual-minimum Northern Hemisphere sea ice extent is less well predicted, indicating a limit to the linearity assumption.

  12. Benefits, risks, and costs of stratospheric geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, Alan; Marquardt, Allison; Kravitz, Ben; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2009-10-01

    Injecting sulfate aerosol precursors into the stratosphere has been suggested as a means of geoengineering to cool the planet and reduce global warming. The decision to implement such a scheme would require a comparison of its benefits, dangers, and costs to those of other responses to global warming, including doing nothing. Here we evaluate those factors for stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols. Using existing U.S. military fighter and tanker planes, the annual costs of injecting aerosol precursors into the lower stratosphere would be several billion dollars. Using artillery or balloons to loft the gas would be much more expensive. We do not have enough information to evaluate more exotic techniques, such as pumping the gas up through a hose attached to a tower or balloon system. Anthropogenic stratospheric aerosol injection would cool the planet, stop the melting of sea ice and land-based glaciers, slow sea level rise, and increase the terrestrial carbon sink, but produce regional drought, ozone depletion, less sunlight for solar power, and make skies less blue. Furthermore it would hamper Earth-based optical astronomy, do nothing to stop ocean acidification, and present many ethical and moral issues. Further work is needed to quantify many of these factors to allow informed decision-making.

  13. Dynamic climate emulators for solar geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMartin, Douglas G.; Kravitz, Ben

    2016-12-01

    Climate emulators trained on existing simulations can be used to project project the climate effects that result from different possible future pathways of anthropogenic forcing, without further relying on general circulation model (GCM) simulations. We extend this idea to include different amounts of solar geoengineering in addition to different pathways of greenhouse gas concentrations, by training emulators from a multi-model ensemble of simulations from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). The emulator is trained on the abrupt 4 × CO2 and a compensating solar reduction simulation (G1), and evaluated by comparing predictions against a simulated 1 % per year CO2 increase and a similarly smaller solar reduction (G2). We find reasonable agreement in most models for predicting changes in temperature and precipitation (including regional effects), and annual-mean Northern Hemisphere sea ice extent, with the difference between simulation and prediction typically being smaller than natural variability. This verifies that the linearity assumption used in constructing the emulator is sufficient for these variables over the range of forcing considered. Annual-minimum Northern Hemisphere sea ice extent is less well predicted, indicating a limit to the linearity assumption.

  14. Towards a comprehensive climate impacts assessment of solar geoengineering

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, Peter J.; Kravitz, Ben; Lawrence, Mark G.; Gerten, Dieter; Caminade, Cyril; Gosling, Simon N.; Hendy, Erica J.; Kassie, Belay T.; Kissling, W. Daniel; Muri, Helene; Oschlies, Andreas; Smith, Steven J.

    2016-11-23

    Here, despite a growing literature on the projected physical climate responses to solar geoengineering — i.e. proposals to cool the planet by increasing the planetary albedo — there is no clear picture of the subsequent impacts of such a modified climate on natural and human systems such as agriculture, health, water resources, and ecosystems. Here we argue that engaging the climate impacts research community is necessary to evaluate and communicate how solar geoengineering might reduce some risks, exacerbate others, and give rise to novel risks. We review the current state of knowledge on consequences of solar geoengineering and conclude that a thorough assessment of its impacts can proceed by building upon the frameworks developed for assessing impacts of climate change. However, the climate response to solar geoengineering will depend on the form under consideration and the manner in which it is deployed, presenting a novel challenge for the climate impacts research community.

  15. Towards a comprehensive climate impacts assessment of solar geoengineering

    DOE PAGES

    Irvine, Peter J.; Kravitz, Ben; Lawrence, Mark G.; ...

    2016-11-23

    Here, despite a growing literature on the projected physical climate responses to solar geoengineering — i.e. proposals to cool the planet by increasing the planetary albedo — there is no clear picture of the subsequent impacts of such a modified climate on natural and human systems such as agriculture, health, water resources, and ecosystems. Here we argue that engaging the climate impacts research community is necessary to evaluate and communicate how solar geoengineering might reduce some risks, exacerbate others, and give rise to novel risks. We review the current state of knowledge on consequences of solar geoengineering and conclude thatmore » a thorough assessment of its impacts can proceed by building upon the frameworks developed for assessing impacts of climate change. However, the climate response to solar geoengineering will depend on the form under consideration and the manner in which it is deployed, presenting a novel challenge for the climate impacts research community.« less

  16. Simulated long-term climate response to idealized solar geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Long; Duan, Lei; Bala, Govindasamy; Caldeira, Ken

    2016-03-01

    Solar geoengineering has been proposed as a potential means to counteract anthropogenic climate change, yet it is unknown how such climate intervention might affect the Earth's climate on the millennial time scale. Here we use the HadCM3L model to conduct a 1000 year sunshade geoengineering simulation in which solar irradiance is uniformly reduced by 4% to approximately offset global mean warming from an abrupt quadrupling of atmospheric CO2. During the 1000 year period, modeled global climate, including temperature, hydrological cycle, and ocean circulation of the high-CO2 simulation departs substantially from that of the control preindustrial simulation, whereas the climate of the geoengineering simulation remains much closer to that of the preindustrial state with little drift. The results of our study do not support the hypothesis that nonlinearities in the climate system would cause substantial drift in the climate system if solar geoengineering was to be deployed on the timescale of a millennium.

  17. Geoengineering, news media and metaphors: Framing the controversial.

    PubMed

    Luokkanen, Matti; Huttunen, Suvi; Hildén, Mikael

    2014-11-01

    We analyze how metaphors are used in presenting and debating novel technologies that could influence the climate and thereby also future climate change policies. We show that metaphors strengthen a policy-related storyline, while metaphors are rarer in purely descriptive accounts. The choice of metaphor frames the technologies. War metaphors are used equally in arguments that are for, against and neutral with respect to the further development of geoengineering, but differences arise in the use of metaphors related to controllability, health and mechanisms. Controllability metaphors are often used in justifying further research and development of good governance practices, whereas health metaphors tend to be used against the very idea of geoengineering by portraying technological interventions in the climate as an emblematic case of an unacceptable development. These findings suggest that metaphors are early indications of restrictions in the interpretative flexibility that influences future governance of geoengineering and geoengineering research.

  18. Transient climate–carbon simulations of planetary geoengineering

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, H. Damon; Caldeira, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Geoengineering (the intentional modification of Earth's climate) has been proposed as a means of reducing CO2-induced climate warming while greenhouse gas emissions continue. Most proposals involve managing incoming solar radiation such that future greenhouse gas forcing is counteracted by reduced solar forcing. In this study, we assess the transient climate response to geoengineering under a business-as-usual CO2 emissions scenario by using an intermediate-complexity global climate model that includes an interactive carbon cycle. We find that the climate system responds quickly to artificially reduced insolation; hence, there may be little cost to delaying the deployment of geoengineering strategies until such a time as “dangerous” climate change is imminent. Spatial temperature patterns in the geoengineered simulation are comparable with preindustrial temperatures, although this is not true for precipitation. Carbon sinks in the model increase in response to geoengineering. Because geoengineering acts to mask climate warming, there is a direct CO2-driven increase in carbon uptake without an offsetting temperature-driven suppression of carbon sinks. However, this strengthening of carbon sinks, combined with the potential for rapid climate adjustment to changes in solar forcing, leads to serious consequences should geoengineering fail or be stopped abruptly. Such a scenario could lead to very rapid climate change, with warming rates up to 20 times greater than present-day rates. This warming rebound would be larger and more sustained should climate sensitivity prove to be higher than expected. Thus, employing geoengineering schemes with continued carbon emissions could lead to severe risks for the global climate system. PMID:17548822

  19. Transient climate-carbon simulations of planetary geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Matthews, H Damon; Caldeira, Ken

    2007-06-12

    Geoengineering (the intentional modification of Earth's climate) has been proposed as a means of reducing CO2-induced climate warming while greenhouse gas emissions continue. Most proposals involve managing incoming solar radiation such that future greenhouse gas forcing is counteracted by reduced solar forcing. In this study, we assess the transient climate response to geoengineering under a business-as-usual CO2 emissions scenario by using an intermediate-complexity global climate model that includes an interactive carbon cycle. We find that the climate system responds quickly to artificially reduced insolation; hence, there may be little cost to delaying the deployment of geoengineering strategies until such a time as "dangerous" climate change is imminent. Spatial temperature patterns in the geoengineered simulation are comparable with preindustrial temperatures, although this is not true for precipitation. Carbon sinks in the model increase in response to geoengineering. Because geoengineering acts to mask climate warming, there is a direct CO2-driven increase in carbon uptake without an offsetting temperature-driven suppression of carbon sinks. However, this strengthening of carbon sinks, combined with the potential for rapid climate adjustment to changes in solar forcing, leads to serious consequences should geoengineering fail or be stopped abruptly. Such a scenario could lead to very rapid climate change, with warming rates up to 20 times greater than present-day rates. This warming rebound would be larger and more sustained should climate sensitivity prove to be higher than expected. Thus, employing geoengineering schemes with continued carbon emissions could lead to severe risks for the global climate system.

  20. Towards a comprehensive climate impacts assessment of solar geoengineering: TOWARDS A CLIMATE IMPACTS ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR GEOENGINEERING

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, Peter J.; Kravitz, Ben; Lawrence, Mark G.; Gerten, Dieter; Caminade, Cyril; Gosling, Simon N.; Hendy, Erica J.; Kassie, Belay T.; Kissling, W. Daniel; Muri, Helene; Oschlies, Andreas; Smith, Steven J.

    2017-01-01

    Despite a growing literature on the projected physical climate responses to solar geoengineering — i.e. proposals to cool the planet by increasing the planetary albedo — there is no clear picture of the subsequent impacts of such a modified climate on natural and human systems such as agriculture, health, water resources, and ecosystems. Here we argue that engaging the climate impacts research community is necessary to evaluate and communicate how solar geoengineering might reduce some risks, exacerbate others, and give rise to novel risks. We review the current state of knowledge on consequences of solar geoengineering and conclude that a thorough assessment of its impacts can proceed by building upon the frameworks developed for assessing impacts of climate change. However, the climate response to solar geoengineering will depend on the form under consideration and the manner in which it is deployed, presenting a novel challenge for the climate impacts research community.

  1. Effects of geoengineering on crop yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongratz, J.; Lobell, D. B.; Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

    2011-12-01

    The potential of "solar radiation management" (SRM) to reduce future climate change and associated risks has been receiving significant attention in scientific and policy circles. SRM schemes aim to reduce global warming despite increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations by diminishing the amount of solar insolation absorbed by the Earth, for example, by injecting scattering aerosols into the atmosphere. Climate models predict that SRM could fully compensate warming at the global mean in a high-CO2 world. While reduction of global warming may offset a part of the predicted negative effects of future climate change on crop yields, SRM schemes are expected to alter regional climate and to have substantial effects on climate variables other than temperature, such as precipitation. It has therefore been warned that, overall, SRM may pose a risk to food security. Assessments of benefits and risks of geoengineering are imperative, yet such assessments are only beginning to emerge; in particular, effects on global food security have not previously been assessed. Here, for the first time, we combine climate model simulations with models of crop yield responses to climate to assess large-scale changes in yields and food production under SRM. In most crop-growing regions, we find that yield losses caused by climate changes are substantially reduced under SRM as compared with a non-geoengineered doubling of atmospheric CO2. Substantial yield losses with SRM are only found for rice in high latitudes, where the limits of low temperatures are no longer alleviated. At the same time, the beneficial effect of CO2-fertilization on plant productivity remains active. Overall therefore, SRM in our models causes global crop yields to increase. We estimate the direct effects of climate and CO2 changes on crop production, and do not quantify effects of market dynamics and management changes. We note, however, that an SRM deployment would be unlikely to maintain the economic status quo, as

  2. The Hydrological Impact of Geoengineering in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    SciTech Connect

    Tilmes, S.; Fasullo, John; Lamarque, J.-F.; Marsh, D.; Mills, Mike; Alterskjaer, Kari; Muri, Helene O.; Kristjansson, Jon E.; Boucher, Olivier; Schulz, M.; Cole, Jason N.; Curry, Charles L.; Jones, A.; Haywood, J.; Irvine, Peter; Ji, Duoying; Moore, John; Bou Karam, Diana; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Rasch, Philip J.; Singh, Balwinder; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Niemeier, Ulrike; Schmidt, Hauke; Robock, Alan; Yang, Shuting; Watanabe, Shingo

    2013-10-14

    Abstract: The hydrologic impact of enhancing Earth’s albedo due to solar radiation management (SRM) is investigated using simulations from 12 models contributing to the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). An artificial experiment is investigated, where global mean temperature is preserved at pre-industrial conditions, while atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are quadrupled. The associated reduction of downwelling surface solar radiation in a high CO2 environment leads to a reduction of global evaporation of 10% and 4% and precipitation of 6.1% and 6.3% over land and ocean, respectively. An initial reduction of latent heat flux at the surface is largely driven by reduced evapotranspiration over land with instantly increasing CO2 concentrations in both experiments. A warming surface associated with the transient adjustment in the 4xCO2 experiment further generates an increase of global precipitation, with considerable regional changes, such as a significant precipitation reduction of 7% for the North American summer monsoon. Reduced global precipitation persists in the geoengineered experiment where temperatures are stabilized, with considerable regional rainfall deficits. Precipitation reductions that are consistent in sign across models are identified in the geoengineered experiment over monsoonal land regions of East Asia (6%), North America (7%), South America (6%) and South Africa (5%). In contrast to the 4xCO2 experiment, where the frequency of months with heavy precipitation intensity is increased by over 50%, it is reduced by up to 20% in the geoengineering scenario . The reduction in heavy precipitation is more pronounced over land than over the ocean, and accompanies a stronger reduction in evaporation over land. For northern mid-latitudes, maximum precipitation reduction over land ranges from 1 to 16% for individual models. For 45-65°N, the frequency of median to high intensity precipitation in summer is strongly reduced. These

  3. 10. Freiburger Symposium 2011 der SCG-Division Industrielle Chemie Technology Progress, Success Key for our Production Sites.

    PubMed

    Naef, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    This short paper presents the abstracts of the different presentations during 10. Freiburger Symposium 2011 der SCG-Division Industrielle Chemie: Technology Progress, Success key for our production sites held Thursday and Friday, September 29 and 30, 2011 at the Ecole d'ingénieurs et d'architectes de Fribourg (Switzerland).

  4. The economics and ethics of aerosol geoengineering strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goes, Marlos; Keller, Klaus; Tuana, Nancy

    2010-05-01

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are changing the Earth's climate and impose substantial risks for current and future generations. What are scientifically sound, economically viable, and ethically defendable strategies to manage these climate risks? Ratified international agreements call for a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Recent proposals, however, call for a different approach: geoengineering climate by injecting aerosol precursors into the stratosphere. Published economic studies typically neglect the risks of aerosol geoengineering due to (i) a potential failure to sustain the aerosol forcing and (ii) due to potential negative impacts associated with aerosol forcings. Here we use a simple integrated assessment model of climate change to analyze potential economic impacts of aerosol geoengineering strategies over a wide range of uncertain parameters such as climate sensitivity, the economic damages due to climate change, and the economic damages due to aerosol geoengineering forcings. The simplicity of the model provides the advantages of parsimony and transparency, but it also imposes considerable caveats. For example, the analysis is based on a globally aggregated model and is hence silent on intragenerational distribution of costs and benefits. In addition, the analysis neglects the effects of future learning and is based on a simple representation of climate change impacts. We use this integrated assessment model to show three main points. First, substituting aerosol geoengineering for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions can fail the test of economic efficiency. One key to this finding is that a failure to sustain the aerosol forcing can lead to sizeable and abrupt climatic changes. The monetary damages due to such a discontinuous aerosol geoengineering can dominate the cost-benefit analysis because the monetary damages of climate change are expected to increase with

  5. Impact of geoengineering on cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirisan, Ana; Spichtinger, Peter; Weisenstein, Debra; Lohmann, Ulrike; Wernli, Heini; Peter, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Inspite of the framework convention agreement, climate warming is still an actual and very important issue society has to deal with. This has motivated some scientist to start thinking about implementation of artificial methods that could change the climate and weather patterns in order to stop or reverse the global warming effects. Nowadays, there is a consortium of politicians, scientists and engineers interested in evaluating different geoengineering schemes as a way to mitigate global warming, discount rates, and risk aversion (Polborn S. and Tintelnot F., 2009). The geoengineering proposal attracting the most attention and having considerably lower expected deployment costs than conventional emissions abatement approaches (Nordhaus, 2007) is stratospheric aerosol injection. This method, proposed by Budyko (1977) and Crutzen (2006), relies on the fact that large amounts of sulphur aerosols injected into the lower stratosphere enhance the Earth's albedo and lead to cooling of the globe. This proposal is currently discussed in the climate community and possible side effects are investigated. However, the investigations concentrate almost exclusively on the impact on chemistry and stratospheric circulation, whereas the impact on cirrus clouds in the underlying tropopause and upper troposphere region was not taken into account up to now. In this contribution we investigated the impact of artificially produced sulphate aerosol concentrations, modeled with the AER 2D aerosol model (Weisenstein et al., 2007), on the formation and evolution of cirrus clouds in the mid-latitudes. For large injections of SO2 some sulphate aerosol particles grow to large sizes that they can sediment to lower altitudes and eventually reach the troposphere, where they can influence ice crystal formation. Investigations are carried out using a bulk microphysical box model (Spichtinger and Gierens, 2009, Spichtinger and Cziczo, 2009), concentrating on moderate constant updrafts with different

  6. The radiative forcing potential of different climate geoengineering options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenton, T. M.; Vaughan, N. E.

    2009-08-01

    Climate geoengineering proposals seek to rectify the Earth's current and potential future radiative imbalance, either by reducing the absorption of incoming solar (shortwave) radiation, or by removing CO2 from the atmosphere and transferring it to long-lived reservoirs, thus increasing outgoing longwave radiation. A fundamental criterion for evaluating geoengineering options is their climate cooling effectiveness, which we quantify here in terms of radiative forcing potential. We use a simple analytical approach, based on energy balance considerations and pulse response functions for the decay of CO2 perturbations. This aids transparency compared to calculations with complex numerical models, but is not intended to be definitive. It allows us to compare the relative effectiveness of a range of proposals. We consider geoengineering options as additional to large reductions in CO2 emissions. By 2050, some land carbon cycle geoengineering options could be of comparable magnitude to mitigation "wedges", but only stratospheric aerosol injections, albedo enhancement of marine stratocumulus clouds, or sunshades in space have the potential to cool the climate back toward its pre-industrial state. Strong mitigation, combined with global-scale air capture and storage, afforestation, and bio-char production, i.e. enhanced CO2 sinks, might be able to bring CO2 back to its pre-industrial level by 2100, thus removing the need for other geoengineering. Alternatively, strong mitigation stabilising CO2 at 500 ppm, combined with geoengineered increases in the albedo of marine stratiform clouds, grasslands, croplands and human settlements might achieve a patchy cancellation of radiative forcing. Ocean fertilisation options are only worthwhile if sustained on a millennial timescale and phosphorus addition may have greater long-term potential than iron or nitrogen fertilisation. Enhancing ocean upwelling or downwelling have trivial effects on any meaningful timescale. Our approach

  7. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could enhance the terrestrial photosynthesis rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.; Tilmes, S.; Neely, R. R., III

    2016-02-01

    Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr-1 injection of SO2 to produce a stratospheric aerosol cloud to balance anthropogenic radiative forcing from the Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0) scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model - the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem). During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible (300-700 nm) diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m-2 (11 %). The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 0.07 ± 0.02 µmol C m-2 s-1, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr-1 global gross primary productivity without explicit nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This potentially beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about the implementation of geoengineering.

  8. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering enhances terrestrial gross primary productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.; Tilmes, S.; Neely, R. R., III

    2015-09-01

    Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr-1 injection of SO2 to balance a Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0) scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model, with the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem). During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m-2 (11 %). The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 2.4 %, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr-1 global gross primary productivity without nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about implementation of geoengineering.

  9. Geoengineering: re-making climate for profit or humanitarian intervention?

    PubMed

    Buck, Holly Jean

    2012-01-01

    Climate engineering, or geoengineering, refers to large-scale climate interventions to lower the earth's temperature, either by blocking incoming sunlight or removing carbon dioxide from the biosphere. Regarded as ‘technofixes’ by critics, these strategies have evoked concern that they would extend the shelf life of fossil-fuel driven socio-ecological systems for far longer than they otherwise would, or should, endure. A critical reading views geoengineering as a class project that is designed to keep the climate system stable enough for existing production systems to continue operating. This article first examines these concerns, and then goes on to envision a regime driven by humanitarian agendas and concern for vulnerable populations, implemented through international development and aid institutions. The motivations of those who fund research and implement geoengineering techniques are important, as the rationale for developing geoengineering strategies will determine which techniques are pursued, and hence which ecologies are produced. The logic that shapes the geoengineering research process could potentially influence social ecologies centuries from now.

  10. Ethics as an Integral Component of Geoengineering Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haqq-Misra, J.; Tuana, N.; Keller, K.; Sriver, R. L.; Svoboda, T.; Tonkonojenkov, R.; Irvine, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Concerns about the risks of unmitigated greenhouse gas emissions are growing. At the same time, confidence is declining that international policy agreements will succeed in considerably lowering anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Perhaps as a result, various geoengineering solutions are gaining attention and credibility as a way to manage climate change. Serious consideration is currently being given to proposals to cool the planet through solar-radiation management (SRM). Here we analyze how the unique and nontrivial risks of geoengineering strategies pose fundamental questions at the interface between science and ethics. We define key open questions to analyze SRM geoengineering proposals, which include whether SRM can be tested, how quickly learning could occur, normative decisions embedded in how different climate trajectories are valued, and justice issues regarding distribution of the harms and benefits of geoengineering. To ensure that ethical analyses are coupled with scientific analyses of this form of geoengineering, we advocate that funding agencies recognize the essential nature of this coupled research by establishing an Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) program for SRM.

  11. FRIDAY: EPA Administrator Visiting Georgia Tech to Discuss Manufacturing Innovation and Environmental Sustainability

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - On Friday, EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will visit Georgia Tech to speak about the connection between manufacturing innovation and environmental sustainability. McCarthy will meet with more than 50 high school students and faculty parti

  12. Geoengineering with stratospheric aerosols: What do we not know after a decade of research?: GEOENGINEERING: WHAT DO WE NOT KNOW?

    SciTech Connect

    MacMartin, Douglas G.; Kravitz, Ben; Long, Jane C. S.; Rasch, Philip J.

    2016-11-01

    The U.S. Senate Appropriations committee, taking advice from the U.S. National Academy of Sciences1, recently recommended commencing government-funded research into solar geoengineering 2. We argue that any such research program should address key uncertainties strategically. In the future, governments may consider solar geoengineering as part of an overall strategy to respond to climate change. Any well informed future decision on whether and how to deploy solar geoengineering requires balancing the risks introduced by geoengineering against the risks posed by climate change. Strategic research to inform such risk assessment must involve systematic, continual identification of the important sources of uncertainty. Research should reduce those uncertainties where possible and develop strategies to manage irreducible uncertainties. The conduct of research in solar geoengineering should by design increase societal confidence in how well researchers understand the effectiveness and advisability of these techniques, including a possible outcome that these ideas are ineffective and inadvisable. Confidence building requires special efforts in communicating the purpose and meaning of research and regular updates of the state of knowledge.

  13. Geoengineering to Avoid Overshoot: An Analysis of Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Katsumasa; Cho, Cheolhung; Krey, Volker; Patt, Anthony; Rafaj, Peter; Rao-Skirbekk, Shilpa; Wagner, Fabian

    2010-05-01

    Even if a drastic 50% CO2-equivalent emissions reduction is achieved by year 2050, the chances of exceeding a 2°C warming are still substantial due to the uncertainty in the climate system (Meinshausen et al., 2009). Moreover, a strong mitigation is accompanied by overshoot, in which the global-mean temperature temporarily exceeds the target before arriving there. We are motivated by the question as to how much geoengineering would be considered if it were to be used to avoid overshoot even combined with a strong mitigation? How serious would the side effects be expected? This study focuses on stratospheric sulfur injections among other geoengineering proposals, the idea of which has been put forward by Crutzen (2006) and reviewed by Rasch et al. (2008). There are a number of concerns over geoengineering (e.g. Robock, 2008). But the concept of geoengineering requires further research (AMS, 2009). Studying geoengineering may be instructive to revisit the importance of mainstream mitigation strategies. The motivations above led to the following two closely linked studies: 1) Mitigation and Geoengineering The first study investigates the magnitude and start year of geoengineering intervention with the intent to avoid overshoot. This study explores the sensitivity of geoengineering profile to associated uncertainties in the climate system (climate sensitivity, tropospheric aerosol forcing, and ocean diffusivity) and in mitigation scenarios (target uncertainty (450ppm CO2-eq and 400ppm CO2-eq) and baseline uncertainty (A2, B1, and B2)). This study builds on Wigley's premise that demonstrated a basic potential of such a combined mitigation/geoengineering approach (Wigley, 2006) - however it did not examine the sensitivity of the climate response to any underlying uncertainties. This study uses a set of GGI low mitigation scenarios generated from the MESSAGE model (Riahi et al., 2007). The reduced-complexity climate and carbon cycle model ACC2 (Tanaka, 2008; Tanaka et al

  14. The radiative forcing potential of different climate geoengineering options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenton, T. M.; Vaughan, N. E.

    2009-01-01

    Climate geoengineering proposals seek to rectify the Earth's current radiative imbalance, either by reducing the absorption of incoming solar (shortwave) radiation, or by removing CO2 from the atmosphere and transferring it to long-lived reservoirs, thus increasing outgoing longwave radiation. A fundamental criterion for evaluating geoengineering options is their climate cooling effectiveness, which we quantify here in terms of radiative forcing potential. We use a simple analytical approach, based on the global energy balance and pulse response functions for the decay of CO2 perturbations. This aids transparency compared to calculations with complex numerical models, but is not intended to be definitive. Already it reveals some significant errors in existing calculations, and it allows us to compare the relative effectiveness of a range of proposals. By 2050, only stratospheric aerosol injections or sunshades in space have the potential to cool the climate back toward its pre-industrial state, but some land carbon cycle geoengineering options are of comparable magnitude to mitigation "wedges". Strong mitigation, i.e. large reductions in CO2 emissions, combined with global-scale air capture and storage, afforestation, and bio-char production, i.e. enhanced CO2 sinks, might be able to bring CO2 back to its pre-industrial level by 2100, thus removing the need for other geoengineering. Alternatively, strong mitigation stabilising CO2 at 500 ppm, combined with geoengineered increases in the albedo of marine stratiform clouds, grasslands, croplands and human settlements might achieve a patchy cancellation of radiative forcing. Ocean fertilisation options are only worthwhile if sustained on a millennial timescale and phosphorus addition probably has greater long-term potential than iron or nitrogen fertilisation. Enhancing ocean upwelling or downwelling have trivial effects on any meaningful timescale. Our approach provides a common framework for the evaluation of

  15. Regional Scale Analysis of Extremes in an SRM Geoengineering Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthyala, R.; Bala, G.

    2014-12-01

    Only a few studies in the past have investigated the statistics of extreme events under geoengineering. In this study, a global climate model is used to investigate the impact of solar radiation management on extreme precipitation events on regional scale. Solar constant was reduced by 2.25% to counteract the global mean surface temperature change caused by a doubling of CO2 (2XCO2) from its preindustrial control value. Using daily precipitation rates, extreme events are defined as those which exceed 99.9th percentile precipitation threshold. Extremes are substantially reduced in geoengineering simulation: the magnitude of change is much smaller than those that occur in a simulation with doubled CO2. Regional analysis over 22 Giorgi land regions is also performed. Doubling of CO2 leads to an increase in intensity of extreme (99.9th percentile) precipitation by 17.7% on global-mean basis with maximum increase in intensity over South Asian region by 37%. In the geoengineering simulation, there is a global-mean reduction in intensity of 3.8%, with a maximum reduction over Tropical Ocean by 8.9%. Further, we find that the doubled CO2 simulation shows an increase in the frequency of extremes (>50 mm/day) by 50-200% with a global mean increase of 80%. In contrast, in geo-engineering climate there is a decrease in frequency of extreme events by 20% globally with a larger decrease over Tropical Ocean by 30%. In both the climate states (2XCO2 and geo-engineering) change in "extremes" is always greater than change in "means" over large domains. We conclude that changes in precipitation extremes are larger in 2XCO2 scenario compared to preindustrial climate while extremes decline slightly in the geoengineered climate. We are also investigating the changes in extreme statistics for daily maximum and minimum temperature, evapotranspiration and vegetation productivity. Results will be presented at the meeting.

  16. Solar geoengineering, atmospheric water vapor transport, and land plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, Ken; Cao, Long

    2015-04-01

    This work, using the GeoMIP database supplemented by additional simulations, discusses how solar geoengineering, as projected by the climate models, affects temperature and the hydrological cycle, and how this in turn is related to projected changes in net primary productivity (NPP). Solar geoengineering simulations typically exhibit reduced precipitation. Solar geoengineering reduces precipitation because solar geoengineering reduces evaporation. Evaporation precedes precipitation, and, globally, evaporation equals precipitation. CO2 tends to reduce evaporation through two main mechanisms: (1) CO2 tends to stabilize the atmosphere especially over the ocean, leading to a moister atmospheric boundary layer over the ocean. This moistening of the boundary layer suppresses evaporation. (2) CO2 tends to diminish evapotranspiration, at least in most land-surface models, because higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations allow leaves to close their stomata and avoid water loss. In most high-CO2 simulations, these effects of CO2 which tend to suppress evaporation are masked by the tendency of CO2-warming effect to increase evaporation. In a geoengineering simulation, with the warming effect of CO2 largely offset by the solar geoengineering, the evaporation suppressing characteristics of CO2 are no longer masked and are clearly exhibited. Decreased precipitation in solar geoengineering simulations is a bit like ocean acidification - an effect of high CO2 concentrations that is not offset by solar geoengineering. Locally, precipitation ultimately either evaporates (much of that through the leaves of plants) or runs off through groundwater to streams and rivers. On long time scales, runoff equals precipitation minus evaporation, and thus, water runoff generated at a location is equal to the net atmospheric transport of water to that location. Runoff typically occurs where there is substantial soil moisture, at least seasonally. Locations where there is enough water to maintain

  17. Effects of Stratospheric Sulfate Geoengineering on Food Supply in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.

    2010-12-01

    Possible food supply change is one of the most important concerns in the discussion of stratospheric geoengineering. In regions with high population density, climate changes such as precipitation reduction spurred by stratospheric sulfate injection may cause drought, reduce crop yield, and affect the food supply for hundreds of millions of people. Therefore, as part of the research into the benefits and risks of stratospheric geoengineering, it is necessary to fully investigate its effects on the regional climate system and crop yields, which is the goal of this study. In particular, we focus on China, not only because of its high risk to experience severe regional climate change after stratospheric geoengineering, but also because of its high vulnerability due to a large share of its population living on agriculture. To examine the effects of climate changes induced by geoengineering on Chinese agriculture, we use the DSSAT and CLICROP agricultural simulation models. We first evaluate these models by forcing them with daily weather data and management practices for the period 1978-2008 for all the provinces in China, and compare the results to observations of the yields of major crops in China (early season paddy, double crop paddy, spring wheat, winter wheat, corn, sorghum and soybean). Overall, there is a strong upward trend in both yield and fertilizer use, but interannual variations can be associated with temperature and precipitation variations. Using climate model simulations with the NASA GISS general circulation model forced by both a standard global warming scenario (A1B) and A1B combined with stratospheric geoengineering, we then apply scenarios of changes of precipitation and temperature from these runs to examine their effects on Chinese agricultural production. Compared to global warming only, the geoengineering runs produced summer precipitation reductions in northeastern China but precipitation increases in the Yangtze River region. Without changes

  18. Additional risk of end-of-the-pipe geoengineering technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohle, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Humans are engineers, even the artists who engineer the surface of the globe. Should humans endeavour to engineer the Earth to counter climate change hazards? Striving towards 'global sustainability' will require to adjust the current production and consumption patterns. Contrary to an approach of global sustainability, 'geoengineering' deploys a 'technology fix' for the same purpose. Humans are much inclined to look for technological fixes for problems because well engineered technological methods have created modern societies. Thus, it seems obvious to apply an engineering solution to climate change issues too. In particular, as air pollution causing acid rains has been reduced by cleaner combustion processes or ozone destructing chemical coolants have been replaced by other substances. Common to these approaches was to reduce inputs into global or regional systems by withholding emission, replacing substances or limiting use cases for certain substances. Thus, the selected approach was a technological fix or regulatory measure targeting the 'start of the pipe'. However applying a 'start of the pipe' approach to climate change faces the issue that mankind should reduce inputs were its hurts, namely reducing radically energy that is produced from burning fossil fuels. Capping burning of fossil fuels would be disruptive for the economic structures or the consumption pattern of the developed and developing industrialised societies. Facing that dilemma, affordable geoengineering looks tempting for some. However geoengineering technologies, which counter climate change by other means than carbon capture at combustion, are of a different nature than the technological fixes and negotiated regulatory actions, which so far have been applied to limit threats to regional and global systems. Most of the proposed technologies target other parts of the climate system but the carbon-dioxide input into the atmosphere. Therefore, many geoengineering technologies differ

  19. Ocean acidification in a geoengineering context.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Phillip; Turley, Carol

    2012-09-13

    Fundamental changes to marine chemistry are occurring because of increasing carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in the atmosphere. Ocean acidity (H(+) concentration) and bicarbonate ion concentrations are increasing, whereas carbonate ion concentrations are decreasing. There has already been an average pH decrease of 0.1 in the upper ocean, and continued unconstrained carbon emissions would further reduce average upper ocean pH by approximately 0.3 by 2100. Laboratory experiments, observations and projections indicate that such ocean acidification may have ecological and biogeochemical impacts that last for many thousands of years. The future magnitude of such effects will be very closely linked to atmospheric CO(2); they will, therefore, depend on the success of emission reduction, and could also be constrained by geoengineering based on most carbon dioxide removal (CDR) techniques. However, some ocean-based CDR approaches would (if deployed on a climatically significant scale) re-locate acidification from the upper ocean to the seafloor or elsewhere in the ocean interior. If solar radiation management were to be the main policy response to counteract global warming, ocean acidification would continue to be driven by increases in atmospheric CO(2), although with additional temperature-related effects on CO(2) and CaCO(3) solubility and terrestrial carbon sequestration.

  20. Ocean acidification in a geoengineering context

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Phillip; Turley, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Fundamental changes to marine chemistry are occurring because of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Ocean acidity (H+ concentration) and bicarbonate ion concentrations are increasing, whereas carbonate ion concentrations are decreasing. There has already been an average pH decrease of 0.1 in the upper ocean, and continued unconstrained carbon emissions would further reduce average upper ocean pH by approximately 0.3 by 2100. Laboratory experiments, observations and projections indicate that such ocean acidification may have ecological and biogeochemical impacts that last for many thousands of years. The future magnitude of such effects will be very closely linked to atmospheric CO2; they will, therefore, depend on the success of emission reduction, and could also be constrained by geoengineering based on most carbon dioxide removal (CDR) techniques. However, some ocean-based CDR approaches would (if deployed on a climatically significant scale) re-locate acidification from the upper ocean to the seafloor or elsewhere in the ocean interior. If solar radiation management were to be the main policy response to counteract global warming, ocean acidification would continue to be driven by increases in atmospheric CO2, although with additional temperature-related effects on CO2 and CaCO3 solubility and terrestrial carbon sequestration. PMID:22869801

  1. The International Politics of Geoengineering Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackstock, Jason

    2010-05-01

    As concerns about the state of our global climate mount, solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering schemes that might be able to rapidly moderate GHG-induced climate change are receiving increased scientific, public and political attention. In principle, such SRM schemes could be of considerable utility for insuring global public welfare against at least the worst potential outcomes of highly uncertain climate change. In practice, however, the coupling of significant scientific uncertainty about these schemes, with familiar roadblocks to international cooperation on global climate issues, could easily prevent this global utility from being realized. Moreover, serious national-level efforts to develop SRM technologies could spark international tensions that further obstruct global progress toward urgently needed carbon emission reductions. This talk will begin with an overview of the latest science underlying prominent SRM proposals, including the latest scientific proposals for SRM research, and then explore the variety of international coordination and political challenges likely to be associated with developing large-scale national and/or international SRM research programs.

  2. Impact of Geoengineering Schemes on the Terrestrial Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindasamy, B.; Thompson, S. L.; Duffy, P. B.; Caldeira, K. G.; Delire, C.

    2002-12-01

    Climate stabilization via "Geoengineering" schemes seek to mitigate climate change due to increased greenhouse gases by compensating reduction in solar radiation incident on earth's surface. Though the spatial and temporal pattern of radiative forcing from greenhouse gases differs from that of sunlight, it was shown in recent studies that these schemes would largely mitigate regional or seasonal climate change for a doubling and quadrupling of the atmospheric CO2 content. In this study, we address the impact of these climate stabilization schemes on terrestrial biosphere using equilibrium simulations from a coupled atmosphere-terrestrial biosphere model (CCM3-IBIS). Geoengineering schemes would tend to limit changes in vegetation distribution brought on by climate change, but would not prevent CO2 -induced changes in NPP or biomass; indeed, if CO2 fertilization is significant, then a climate-stabilized world could have higher NPP than our current world. Nevertheless, there are many reasons why geoengineering is not a preferred option for climate stabilization.Impact of Geoengineering Schemes on the Terrestrial Biosphere

  3. Impact of geoengineered aerosols on the troposphere and stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Tilmes, S.; Garcia, Rolando R.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Gettelman, A.; Rasch, Philip J.

    2009-06-27

    A coupled chemistry climate model, the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model was used to perform a transient climate simulation to quantify the impact of geoengineered aerosols on atmospheric processes. In contrast to previous model studies, the impact on stratospheric chemistry, including heterogeneous chemistry in the polar regions, is considered in this simulation. In the geoengineering simulation, a constant stratospheric distribution of volcanic-sized, liquid sulfate aerosols is imposed in the period 2020–2050, corresponding to an injection of 2 Tg S/a. The aerosol cools the troposphere compared to a baseline simulation. Assuming an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B emission scenario, global warming is delayed by about 40 years in the troposphere with respect to the baseline scenario. Large local changes of precipitation and temperatures may occur as a result of geoengineering. Comparison with simulations carried out with the Community Atmosphere Model indicates the importance of stratospheric processes for estimating the impact of stratospheric aerosols on the Earth’s climate. Changes in stratospheric dynamics and chemistry, especially faster heterogeneous reactions, reduce the recovery of the ozone layer in middle and high latitudes for the Southern Hemisphere. In the geoengineering case, the recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole is delayed by about 30 years on the basis of this model simulation. For the Northern Hemisphere, a onefold to twofold increase of the chemical ozone depletion occurs owing to a simulated stronger polar vortex and colder temperatures compared to the baseline simulation, in agreement with observational estimates.

  4. Geoengineering, Climate Harm, and Business as Usual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankunis, F. J.; Peacock, K.

    2014-12-01

    We define geoengineering (GE) as the intentional use of technology to change the planet's climate. Many people believe GE is different in kind rather than degree from any other organized activity in human history. In fact, humans caused changes in the planet's climate long before the industrial age, and all organisms engineer their environments directly or indirectly. The relevant difference between this cumulative and generally inadvertent activity and GE is the presence of intention. Now that science has revealed the extent to which humans can change the climate, however, even the continuance of Business as Usual (BAU) is, in effect, a form of intentional GE, albeit one that will cause significant climate harm, defined as effects such as sea level rise that will impact human well-being. But as with all forms of engineering, the devil is in the details: what forms of GE should be tried first? Some methods, such as large-scale afforestation, are low risk but have long-term payoffs; others, such as aerosol injection into the stratosphere, could help buy time in a warming crisis but have unknown side-effects and little long-term future. Climate change is a world-wide, inter-generational tragedy of the commons. Rational choice theory, the spatial and temporal extension of the problem, poorly fitted moral frameworks, and political maneuvering are all factors that inhibit solutions to the climate tragedy of the commons. The longer that such factors are allowed to dominate decision-making (or the lack thereof) the more likely it is that humanity will be forced to resort to riskier and more drastic forms of GE. We argue that this fact brings an additional measure of urgency to the search for ways to engineer the climate differently so as to avoid climate harm in the most lasting and least risky way.

  5. Impacts of Stratospheric Sulfate Geoengineering on Chinese Agricultural Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.

    2012-12-01

    Possible food supply change is one of the most important concerns in the discussion of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering. In China, the high population density and strong summer monsoon influence on agriculture make this region sensitive to climate changes, such as reductions of precipitation, temperature, and solar radiation spurred by stratospheric sulfate injection. We used results from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project G2 scenario to force the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop model to predict crop yield changes from rice, maize, and winter wheat. We first evaluated the DSSAT model by forcing it with daily observed weather data and management practices for the period 1978-2008 for all the provinces in China, and compared the results to observations of the yields of the three major crops in China. We then created two 50-year sets of climate anomalies using the results from eight climate models, for 1%/year increase of CO2 and for G2 (1%/year increase of CO2 balanced by insolation reduction), and compared the resulting agricultural responses. Considering that geoengineering could happen in the future, we used two geoengineering starting years, 2020 and 2060. For 2020, we increased the mean temperature by 1°C and started the CO2 concentration at 410 ppm. For 2060, we increased temperature by 2°C and started the CO2 concentration at 550 ppm. Without changing agriculture technology, we find that compared to the control run, geoengineering with the G2 scenario starting in 2020 or 2060 would both moderately increase rice and winter wheat production due to the CO2 fertilization effect, but the increasing rates are different. However, as a C4 crop, without a significant CO2 fertilization effect, maize production would decrease slightly because of regional drought. Compared to the reference run, the three crops all have less heat stress in southern China and their yields increase, but in northern China cooler

  6. The hydrological impact of geoengineering in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmes, Simone; Fasullo, John; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Marsh, Daniel R.; Mills, Michael; Alterskjær, Kari; Muri, Helene; Kristjánsson, Jón E.; Boucher, Olivier; Schulz, Michael; Cole, Jason N. S.; Curry, Charles L.; Jones, Andy; Haywood, Jim; Irvine, Peter J.; Ji, Duoying; Moore, John C.; Karam, Diana B.; Kravitz, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.; Singh, Balwinder; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Niemeier, Ulrike; Schmidt, Hauke; Robock, Alan; Yang, Shuting; Watanabe, Shingo

    2013-10-01

    The hydrological impact of enhancing Earth's albedo by solar radiation management is investigated using simulations from 12 Earth System models contributing to the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). We contrast an idealized experiment, G1, where the global mean radiative forcing is kept at preindustrial conditions by reducing insolation while the CO2 concentration is quadrupled to a 4×CO2 experiment. The reduction of evapotranspiration over land with instantaneously increasing CO2 concentrations in both experiments largely contributes to an initial reduction in evaporation. A warming surface associated with the transient adjustment in 4×CO2 generates an increase of global precipitation by around 6.9% with large zonal and regional changes in both directions, including a precipitation increase of 10% over Asia and a reduction of 7% for the North American summer monsoon. Reduced global evaporation persists in G1 with temperatures close to preindustrial conditions. Global precipitation is reduced by around 4.5%, and significant reductions occur over monsoonal land regions: East Asia (6%), South Africa (5%), North America (7%), and South America (6%). The general precipitation performance in models is discussed in comparison to observations. In contrast to the 4×CO2 experiment, where the frequency of months with heavy precipitation intensity is increased by over 50% in comparison to the control, a reduction of up to 20% is simulated in G1. These changes in precipitation in both total amount and frequency of extremes point to a considerable weakening of the hydrological cycle in a geoengineered world.

  7. We Don't Need a "Geoengineering" Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, K.

    2011-12-01

    Most approaches commonly labeled as 'geoengineering' can be divided into two categories: approaches that attempt to reduce the change in atmospheric composition caused by anthropogenic emissions (commonly labeled CDR, for Carbon Dioxide Removal), and approaches that attempt to reduce the change in climate caused by changes in atmospheric composition (commonly labeled SRM, for Sunlight Reflection Methods or Solar Radiation Management). CDR is relatively uncontroversial (apart from ocean fertilization), and the primary issues are typically cost, effectiveness, local environmental consequences, and verification. In contrast, SRM has provoked much controversy, because large-scale SRM deployments necessarily would affect everyone on this planet. Several proposals have been tabled for SRM-specific or geoengineering-specific research and governance structures, treating SRM or geoengineering research as a thing apart. We should instead view CDR and SRM research as part of a broader continuum of activities aimed at understanding Earth system dynamics and reducing risks associated with climate change. The scope of existing research efforts should be broadened so that CDR and SRM approaches are, at this stage in development, treated as an extension of what we are already doing. What is 'geoengineering research'? A primary need at this time is for expansion of scope of and funding for existing climate-related research efforts. For examples: Scientists studying the role of aerosols in clouds or stratospheric processes can expand the domain of concern to consider effects of intentionally introduced aerosols (and not just natural aerosols and aerosols we introduce as a byproduct of civilization's normal functioning). Scientists studying effects of land-surface change on global and regional climates can expand the domain of concern beyond inadvertent effects to consider effects of land-surface changes undertaken with the intent to affect these climates. Research programs aimed at

  8. Education in Northern Ireland since the Good Friday Agreement: Kabuki Theatre Meets "Danse Macabre"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John

    2016-01-01

    The Good Friday Agreement (1998) between the UK and Irish governments, and most of the political parties in Northern Ireland, heralded a significant step forward in securing peace and stability for this troubled region of the British Isles. From the new-found stability, the previous fits and starts of education reform were replaced by a…

  9. FRIDAY: EPA Administrator Visiting Notre Dame to Discuss Moral Obligation for Climate Action

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - On Friday, EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will visit Notre Dame to speak about the need for action on behalf of those who bear the brunt of the effects of climate change and the steps the U.S. is taking to meet that challenge. McCarthy

  10. YouTube Fridays: Student Led Development of Engineering Estimate Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberatore, Matthew W.; Vestal, Charles R.; Herring, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    YouTube Fridays devotes a small fraction of class time to student-selected videos related to the course topic, e.g., thermodynamics. The students then write and solve a homework-like problem based on the events in the video. Three recent pilots involving over 300 students have developed a database of videos and questions that reinforce important…

  11. 78 FR 43882 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Open Commission Meeting; Friday, July 19, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... to expand digital learning in K-12 education. Dr. John Word, principal of Kenmore Middle School in... COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting; Open Commission Meeting; Friday, July 19, 2013 July 12, 2013. The Federal... the Delivery of Video Programming (MB Docket No. 12-203). SUMMARY: The Commission will consider...

  12. Impacts of Geoengineering and Nuclear War on Chinese Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.

    2011-12-01

    Climate is one of the most important factors determining crop yields and world food supplies. To be well prepared for possible futures, it is necessary to study yield changes of major crops under different climate scenarios. Here we consider two situations: stratospheric sulfate geoengineering and nuclear war. Although we certainly do not advocate either scenario, we cannot exclude the possibilities: if global warming is getting worse, we might have to deliberately manipulate global temperature; if nuclear weapons still exist, we might face a nuclear war catastrophe. Since in both scenarios there would be reductions of temperature, precipitation, and insolation, which are three controlling factors on crop growth, it is important to study food supply changes under the two cases. We conducted our simulations for China, because it has the highest population and crop production in the world and it is under the strong influence of the summer monsoon, which would be altered in geoengineering and nuclear war scenarios. To examine the effects of climate changes induced by geoengineering and nuclear war on Chinese agriculture, we use the DSSAT crop model. We first evaluate the model by forcing it with daily weather data and management practices for the period 1978-2008 for all the provinces in China, and compare the results to observations of the yields of major crops in China (middle season rice, winter wheat, and maize). Then we perturbed observed weather data using climate anomalies for geoengineering and nuclear war simulations using NASA GISS ModelE. For stratospheric geoengineering, we consider the injection of 5 Tg SO2 per year into the tropical lower stratosphere. For the nuclear war scenario, we consider the effects of 5 Tg of soot that could be injected into the upper troposphere by a war between India and Pakistan using only 100 Hiroshima-size atomic bombs dropped on cities. We perturbed each year of the 31-year climate record with anomalies from each year of

  13. Impact of geoengineering schemes on the terrestrial biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindasamy, B.; Thompson, S.; Duffy, P. B.; Caldeira, K.; Delire, C.

    2002-11-01

    Climate stabilization via ``Geoengineering'' schemes seek to mitigate climate change due to increased greenhouse gases by compensating reduction in solar radiation incident on earth's surface. In this paper, we address the impact of these climate stabilization schemes on terrestrial biosphere using equilibrium simulations from a coupled atmosphere-terrestrial biosphere model. Climate stabilization would tend to limit changes in vegetation distribution brought on by climate change, but would not prevent CO2-induced changes in Net Primary Productivity (NPP) or biomass; indeed, if CO2 fertilization is significant, then a climate-stabilized world could have higher NPP than our current world. Nevertheless, there are many reasons why geoengineering is not a preferred option for climate stabilization.

  14. Geoengineering with seagrasses: is credit due where credit is given?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannessen, Sophia C.; Macdonald, Robie W.

    2016-11-01

    Blue carbon, the carbon fixed by vegetated coastal ecosystems including seagrasses, is reported to have a large potential to sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide. Planting, expanding or protecting seagrass meadows has, accordingly, been proposed as a form of geoengineering. Seagrasses are reported to account for up to 18% of the carbon burial in the world’s oceans, which is on the same order of magnitude as other proposed geoengineering techniques, including iron fertilization. International protocols have been developed to quantify carbon sequestration in seagrass meadows, with a view to awarding carbon credits under the Verified Carbon Standard. Unfortunately, because these protocols do not adequately account for post-depositional processes in marine sediment, they significantly overestimate carbon capture by seagrass beds and give an incorrect view of its distribution. Specifically, neglecting biomixing and remineralization of carbon in surface sediments biases burial rates high, while using sediment carbon inventory (soil carbon stock) over the top 1 m as a proxy for burial rate incorrectly identifies areas of high carbon burial. Seagrass beds likely provide a limited setting for geoengineering, because they generally comprise slowly-accumulating, fine to medium sand, which captures organic carbon less efficiently than fine-grained sediments or rapidly-accumulating delta deposits. While there is no question that seagrass meadows provide valuable habitat, nor that they are disappearing rapidly, their contribution to the global burial of carbon has not yet been established. The danger of geoengineering with seagrasses before reliable assessment methods have been established is that overestimated carbon offsets could lead to a net increase in emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.

  15. Climate Curriculum Modules on Volcanic Eruptions, Geoengineering, and Nuclear Winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, A.

    2014-12-01

    To support a climate dynamics multidisciplinary curriculum for graduate and senior university students, I will describe on-line modules on volcanic eruptions and climate, geoengineering, and nuclear winter. Each of these topics involves aerosols in the stratosphere and the response of the climate system, but each is distinct, and each is evolving as more research becomes available. As reported for the first time in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, volcanic eruptions are a natural analog for the climate impacts of potential anthropogenic aerosol injections into the stratosphere, either sulfates from potential attempts to cool the climate to counteract global warming, or smoke that would be produced from fires in cities and industrial targets in a nuclear war. The volcanic eruptions module would stand alone, and would also serve as a prerequisite for each of the other two modules, which could be taught independently of each other. Each module includes consideration of the physical climate system as well as impacts of the resulting climate change. Geoengineering includes both solar radiation management and carbon dioxide reduction. The geoengineering and nuclear winter modules also include consideration of policy and governance issues. Each module includes a slide set for use in lecturing, links to related resources, and student exercises. The modules will be regularly updated.

  16. Tackling regional climate change by leaf albedo bio-geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Ridgwell, Andy; Singarayer, Joy S; Hetherington, Alistair M; Valdes, Paul J

    2009-01-27

    The likelihood that continuing greenhouse-gas emissions will lead to an unmanageable degree of climate change has stimulated the search for planetary-scale technological solutions for reducing global warming ("geoengineering"), typically characterized by the necessity for costly new infrastructures and industries. We suggest that the existing global infrastructure associated with arable agriculture can help, given that crop plants exert an important influence over the climatic energy budget because of differences in their albedo (solar reflectivity) compared to soils and to natural vegetation. Specifically, we propose a "bio-geoengineering" approach to mitigate surface warming, in which crop varieties having specific leaf glossiness and/or canopy morphological traits are specifically chosen to maximize solar reflectivity. We quantify this by modifying the canopy albedo of vegetation in prescribed cropland areas in a global-climate model, and thereby estimate the near-term potential for bio-geoengineering to be a summertime cooling of more than 1 degrees C throughout much of central North America and midlatitude Eurasia, equivalent to seasonally offsetting approximately one-fifth of regional warming due to doubling of atmospheric CO(2). Ultimately, genetic modification of plant leaf waxes or canopy structure could achieve greater temperature reductions, although better characterization of existing intraspecies variability is needed first.

  17. Geoengineering: could we or should we make it work?

    PubMed

    Schneider, Stephen H

    2008-11-13

    Schemes to modify large-scale environment systems or control climate have been proposed for over 50 years to (i) increase temperatures in high latitudes, (ii) increase precipitation, (iii) decrease sea ice, (iv) create irrigation opportunities, or (v) offset potential global warming by injecting iron in the oceans or sea-salt aerosol in the marine boundary layer or spreading dust in the stratosphere to reflect away an amount of solar energy equivalent to the amount of heat trapped by increased greenhouse gases from human activities. These and other proposed geoengineering schemes are briefly reviewed. Recent schemes to intentionally modify climate have been proposed as either cheaper methods to counteract inadvertent climatic modifications than conventional mitigation techniques such as carbon taxes or pollutant emissions regulations or as a counter to rising emissions as governments delay policy action. Whereas proponents argue cost-effectiveness or the need to be prepared if mitigation and adaptation policies are not strong enough or enacted quickly enough to avoid the worst widespread impacts, critics point to the uncertainty that (i) any geoengineering scheme would work as planned or (ii) that the many centuries of international political stability and cooperation needed for the continuous maintenance of such schemes to offset century-long inadvertent effects is socially feasible. Moreover, the potential exists for transboundary conflicts should negative climatic events occur during geoengineering activities.

  18. A possible field test for marine cloud brightening geoengineering. A possible field test for marine cloud brightening geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadian, A.; Wood, R.; Coe, H.; Latham, J.

    2011-12-01

    A possible field test for marine cloud brightening geoengineering. Abstract: The Marine Cloud Brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique (Latham et al 2008) hypothesizes that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre seawater particles can enhance the cloud droplet number concentration and increase cloud albedo. Here, we propose a set of field tests to critically assess the efficacy of the MCB geoengineering proposal over a limited area. The tests are de minimus with respect to their climate effects. The tests involve three phases, with increasing logistical complexity, each of which is designed to test one or more important components of the cloud brightening scheme. Each involves the introduction and monitoring of controlled aerosol perturbations from one or more ship-based seeding platforms up to a limited area of 100x100 km2. A suite of observational platforms of increasing number and complexity, including aircraft, ships and satellites, will observe the aerosol plume and in the later experiments the cloud and albedo responses to the aerosol perturbations. These responses must include the necessary cloud physical and chemical processes which determine the efficacy of the cloud brightening scheme. Since these processes are also central to the broader problem of aerosol-cloud-climate interactions, such field tests would have significant benefits for climate science in addition to providing a critical test of the MCB hypothesis. Such field experiments should be designed and conducted in an objective manner within the framework of emerging geoengineering research governance structures. Reference: Latham J. et al.. (2008) Global temperature stabilization via controlled albedo enhancement of low-level maritime clouds. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A doi:10.1098/rsta.2008.0137

  19. Potential negative consequences of geoengineering on crop production: A study of Indian groundnut

    PubMed Central

    Dobbie, Steven; Ramirez‐Villegas, Julian; Feng, Kuishuang; Challinor, Andrew J.; Chen, Bing; Gao, Yao; Lee, Lindsay; Yin, Yan; Sun, Laixiang; Watson, James; Koehler, Ann‐Kristin; Fan, Tingting; Ghosh, Sat

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Geoengineering has been proposed to stabilize global temperature, but its impacts on crop production and stability are not fully understood. A few case studies suggest that certain crops are likely to benefit from solar dimming geoengineering, yet we show that geoengineering is projected to have detrimental effects for groundnut. Using an ensemble of crop‐climate model simulations, we illustrate that groundnut yields in India undergo a statistically significant decrease of up to 20% as a result of solar dimming geoengineering relative to RCP4.5. It is somewhat reassuring, however, to find that after a sustained period of 50 years of geoengineering crop yields return to the nongeoengineered values within a few years once the intervention is ceased. PMID:28190903

  20. Potential negative consequences of geoengineering on crop production: A study of Indian groundnut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huiyi; Dobbie, Steven; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Feng, Kuishuang; Challinor, Andrew J.; Chen, Bing; Gao, Yao; Lee, Lindsay; Yin, Yan; Sun, Laixiang; Watson, James; Koehler, Ann-Kristin; Fan, Tingting; Ghosh, Sat

    2016-11-01

    Geoengineering has been proposed to stabilize global temperature, but its impacts on crop production and stability are not fully understood. A few case studies suggest that certain crops are likely to benefit from solar dimming geoengineering, yet we show that geoengineering is projected to have detrimental effects for groundnut. Using an ensemble of crop-climate model simulations, we illustrate that groundnut yields in India undergo a statistically significant decrease of up to 20% as a result of solar dimming geoengineering relative to RCP4.5. It is somewhat reassuring, however, to find that after a sustained period of 50 years of geoengineering crop yields return to the nongeoengineered values within a few years once the intervention is ceased.

  1. Potential negative consequences of geoengineering on crop production: A study of Indian groundnut.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huiyi; Dobbie, Steven; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Feng, Kuishuang; Challinor, Andrew J; Chen, Bing; Gao, Yao; Lee, Lindsay; Yin, Yan; Sun, Laixiang; Watson, James; Koehler, Ann-Kristin; Fan, Tingting; Ghosh, Sat

    2016-11-28

    Geoengineering has been proposed to stabilize global temperature, but its impacts on crop production and stability are not fully understood. A few case studies suggest that certain crops are likely to benefit from solar dimming geoengineering, yet we show that geoengineering is projected to have detrimental effects for groundnut. Using an ensemble of crop-climate model simulations, we illustrate that groundnut yields in India undergo a statistically significant decrease of up to 20% as a result of solar dimming geoengineering relative to RCP4.5. It is somewhat reassuring, however, to find that after a sustained period of 50 years of geoengineering crop yields return to the nongeoengineered values within a few years once the intervention is ceased.

  2. An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Rasch, Philip J.; Tilmes, S.; Turco, Richard P.; Robock, Alan; Oman, Luke; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Garcia, Rolando R.

    2010-01-01

    We provide an overview of geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosols. The state of understanding about this topic as of early 2008 is reviewed, summarizing the past 30 years of work in the area, highlighting some very recent studies using climate models, and discussing methods used to deliver sulphur species to the stratosphere. The studies reviewed here suggest that sulphate aerosols can counteract the globally averaged temperature increase associated with increasing greenhouse gases, and reduce changes to some other components of the Earth system. There are likely to be remaining regional climate changes after geoengineering, with some regions experiencing significant changes in temperature or precipitation. The aerosols also serve as surfaces for heterogeneous chemistry resulting in increased ozone depletion. The delivery of sulphur species to the stratosphere in a way that will produce particles of the right size is shown to be a complex and potentially very difficult task. Two simple delivery scenarios are explored, but similar exercises will be needed for other suggested delivery mechanisms. While the introduction of the geoengineering source of sulphate aerosol will perturb the sulphur cycle of the stratosphere signicantly, it is a small perturbation to the total (stratosphere and troposphere) sulphur cycle. The geoengineering source would thus be a small contributor to the total global source of ‘acid rain’ that could be compensated for through improved pollution control of anthropogenic tropospheric sources. Some areas of research remain unexplored. Although ozone may be depleted, with a consequent increase to solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) energy reaching the surface and a potential impact on health and biological populations, the aerosols will also scatter and attenuate this part of the energy spectrum, and this may compensate the UVB enhancement associated with ozone depletion. The aerosol will also change the ratio of diffuse to direct energy

  3. Monitoring of Geoengineering Effects and their Natural and Anthropogenic Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duren, R. M.; Robock, A.; Stephens, G. L.; MacMynowski, D. G.

    2011-12-01

    A number of climate intervention concepts, referred to as "geoengineering," are being considered as an alternative approach to managing climate change. However, before we go down the path of deliberate climate intervention including precursor field-experiments, it is essential that we take the necessary steps to validate our understanding that underpins any of the proposed intervention concepts in order to understand all likely consequences and put in place the necessary strategies for monitoring the expected and unintended consequences of such intervention. The Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) is undertaking a project to identify specific priorities for improved scientific understanding and focused efforts to address selected priorities. The KISS project does not advocate the deployment of geoengineering or monitoring systems for potential field experiments but is rather a precautionary study with the following goals: 1) enumeration of where major gaps in our understanding exist in solar radiation management (SRM) approaches, 2) identification of the research that would be required to improve understanding of such impacts including modeling and observation of natural and anthropogenic analogues to geoengineering, and 3) a preliminary assessment of where gaps exist in observations of relevance to SRMs and what is needed to fill such gaps. This study focuses primarily on SRM rather than other proposed geoengineering techniques such as carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere because there exist a number of analogues to the SRMs that currently operate on Earth that provide a unique opportunity to assess our understanding of the response of the climate system to associated changes in solar radiation. Additionally, the processes related to these analogues are also fundamental to understanding climate change itself being of central relevance to how climate is forced by aerosol and respond through clouds, among other influences (e.g., such research has potential

  4. An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols.

    PubMed

    Rasch, Philip J; Tilmes, Simone; Turco, Richard P; Robock, Alan; Oman, Luke; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Stenchikov, Georgiy L; Garcia, Rolando R

    2008-11-13

    We provide an overview of geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosols. The state of understanding about this topic as of early 2008 is reviewed, summarizing the past 30 years of work in the area, highlighting some very recent studies using climate models, and discussing methods used to deliver sulphur species to the stratosphere. The studies reviewed here suggest that sulphate aerosols can counteract the globally averaged temperature increase associated with increasing greenhouse gases, and reduce changes to some other components of the Earth system. There are likely to be remaining regional climate changes after geoengineering, with some regions experiencing significant changes in temperature or precipitation. The aerosols also serve as surfaces for heterogeneous chemistry resulting in increased ozone depletion. The delivery of sulphur species to the stratosphere in a way that will produce particles of the right size is shown to be a complex and potentially very difficult task. Two simple delivery scenarios are explored, but similar exercises will be needed for other suggested delivery mechanisms. While the introduction of the geoengineering source of sulphate aerosol will perturb the sulphur cycle of the stratosphere signicantly, it is a small perturbation to the total (stratosphere and troposphere) sulphur cycle. The geoengineering source would thus be a small contributor to the total global source of 'acid rain' that could be compensated for through improved pollution control of anthropogenic tropospheric sources. Some areas of research remain unexplored. Although ozone may be depleted, with a consequent increase to solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) energy reaching the surface and a potential impact on health and biological populations, the aerosols will also scatter and attenuate this part of the energy spectrum, and this may compensate the UVB enhancement associated with ozone depletion. The aerosol will also change the ratio of diffuse to direct energy

  5. The impact of geoengineering on vegetation in experiment G1 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Peter; Glienke, Susanne; Lawrence, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Solar Radiation Management (SRM) has been proposed as a means to partly counteract global warming. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) simulated the climate consequences of a number of SRM techniques, but the effects on vegetation have not yet been thoroughly studied. Here, the vegetation response to the idealized GeoMIP G1 experiment is analyzed, in which a reduction of the solar constant counterbalances the radiative effects of quadrupled atmospheric CO2 concentrations; the results from eight fully coupled earth system models (ESMs) are included. For most models and regions, changes in net primary productivity (NPP) are dominated by the increase in CO2, via the CO2 fertilization effect. As SRM will lower temperatures, in high latitudes this will reverse gains in NPP from the lifting of temperature limitations. In low latitudes this cooling relative to the 4xCO2 simulation decreases plant respiration whilst having little effect on gross primary productivity, increasing NPP. Despite reductions in precipitation in most regions in response to SRM, runoff and NPP increase in many regions including those previously highlighted as potentially being at risk of drought under SRM. This is due to simultaneous reductions in evaporation and increases in water use efficiency by plants due to higher CO2 concentrations. The relative differences between models in the vegetation response are substantially larger than the differences in their climate responses. The largest differences between models are for those with and without a nitrogen-cycle, with a much smaller CO2 fertilization effect for the former. These results suggest that until key vegetation processes are integrated into ESM predictions, the vegetation response to SRM will remain highly uncertain.

  6. Alteration and fluid flow around a sulfide-carbonate-quartz vein, Lucky Friday mine, Northern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Gitlin, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    Wall rocks at the Lucky Friday mine, Coeur d'Alene district, Idaho, contain a >500m wide zone about a steeply dipping Pb-Zn-Ag vein. This zone has experienced local conditions distinct from the regional metamorphism of the quartzite + argillite host rock. Within the district, the host rock (Precambrian Revett Formation) has undergone low grade metamorphism and contains varying proportions of quartz, phengitic muscovite, detrital alkali feldspar, magnetite, hematite, ilmenite, rutile, zircon, tourmaline, +/- calcite, +/- ankeritic dolomite. In contrast, the Lucky Friday wall rocks lack feldspar and Fe-bearing oxides, and contain Fe-poor muscovite and up to 40% carbonate: siderite, ankerite, and/or calcite. A comparison of district-wide Revett rocks with Lucky Friday wall rocks suggests that the wall rocks have undergone localized dephengitization with concomitant Fe-enrichment in the carbonates and Fe-depletion of the oxides. Pertinent metamorphic reactions consume CO/sub 2/ and liberate H/sub 2/O. Fluid inclusions from the vein and wall rock stringers have homogenization temperatures from approx. =200/sup 0/ to <375/sup 0/C, but they define no temperature gradient. With few exceptions, compositions of the carbonates are identical throughout the altered wall rock. These observations suggest that the carbonate subzone contacts are not isograds but isofluxes: the loci of equivalent fluid/reactant mineral ratio. The disposition of isofluxes around a dominant fluid channelway, i.e. the vein, affords an opportunity to interpret fluid flow pathways during low temperatures metamorphism.

  7. Geoengineering, climate change scepticism and the 'moral hazard' argument: an experimental study of UK public perceptions.

    PubMed

    Corner, Adam; Pidgeon, Nick

    2014-12-28

    Many commentators have expressed concerns that researching and/or developing geoengineering technologies may undermine support for existing climate policies-the so-called moral hazard argument. This argument plays a central role in policy debates about geoengineering. However, there has not yet been a systematic investigation of how members of the public view the moral hazard argument, or whether it impacts on people's beliefs about geoengineering and climate change. In this paper, we describe an online experiment with a representative sample of the UK public, in which participants read one of two arguments (either endorsing or rejecting the idea that geoengineering poses a moral hazard). The argument endorsing the idea of geoengineering as a moral hazard was perceived as more convincing overall. However, people with more sceptical views and those who endorsed 'self-enhancing' values were more likely to agree that the prospect of geoengineering would reduce their motivation to make changes in their own behaviour in response to climate change. The findings suggest that geoengineering is likely to pose a moral hazard for some people more than others, and the implications for engaging the public are discussed.

  8. The geoengineering potential of artificially enhanced silicate weathering of olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, Peter; Hartmann, Jens; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A.

    2010-05-01

    Geoengineering is a proposed action to manipulate Earth's climate in order to counteract global warming from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. We investigate in more detail the potential of a specific geoengineering technique, the carbon sequestration by artificially enhanced silicate weathering via the dissolution of olivine. This approach would not only operate against rising temperatures but would also oppose ocean acidification, because it influences the global climate via the carbon cycle. We here show the consequences of this technique for the chemistry of the surface ocean at rates necessary for geoengineering. We calculate that olivine dissolution has the potential to sequestrate up to one Pg C yr-1 directly, if olivine is distributed as fine powder over land areas of the humid tropics. The carbon sequestration potential is limited by the saturation concentration of silicic acid. In our calculations for the Amazon and Congo river catchments a maximum annual dissolution of 1.8 and 0.4 Pg of olivine seems possible, corresponding to the sequestration of 0.5 and 0.1 Pg C yr-1. Open water dissolution of fine grained olivine and an enhancement of the biological pump by the rising riverine input of silicic acid might increase our estimate of the carbon sequestration, but additional research is needed here. We finally calculate with a carbon cycle model the consequences of sequestration rates of 1 to 5 Pg C yr-1 for the 21st century by this technique. At maximum this technique would reduce global warming by 1 K and counteract ocean acidification by a rise in surface ocean pH by 0.1 in the year 2100.

  9. Applied high resolution geophysical methods: Offshore geoengineering hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Trabant, P.K.

    1984-01-01

    This book is an examination of the purpose, methodology, equipment, and data interpretation of high-resolution geophysical methods, which are used to assess geological and manmade engineering hazards at offshore construction locations. It is a state-of-the-art review. Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Maring geophysics, an overview. 3. Marine geotechnique, an overview. 4. Echo sounders. 5. Side scan sonar. 6. Subbottom profilers. 7. Seismic sources. 8. Single-channel seismic reflection systems. 9. Multifold acquisition and digital processing. 10. Marine magnetometers. 11. Marine geoengineering hazards. 12. Survey organization, navigation, and future developments. Appendix. Glossary. References. Index.

  10. Impacts of volcanic eruptions and geoengineering on Arctic climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdahl, Mira

    Stratospheric aerosols can produce large radiative forcing and climate response, often amplified in the Arctic. Here I study the Arctic response to natural (volcanic eruptions) and potential anthropogenic (geoengineering) stratospheric sulfate aerosols. I use a regional climate model and global climate model output from two modeling intercomparison projects. First, I investigate the relative impacts of changes in radiation and advection on snow extent over Baffin Island with the Weather Research and Forecasting model. Model results show it is possible to suddenly lower the snowline by amounts comparable to those seen during the Little Ice Age with an average temperature decrease of --3.9 +/- 1.1 K from present. Further, sea ice expansion following large volcanic eruptions would have significant affects on inland temperatures, especially in the fall. Next, I analyze Last Millennium simulations from the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project 3 to assess whether state-of-the-art global climate models produce sudden changes and persistence of cold conditions after large volcanic eruptions as inferred by geological records and previous climate modeling. North Atlantic sea ice and Baffin Island snow cover showed large-scale expansion in the simulations, but none of the models produced significant centennial-scale effects. Warm Baffin Island summer climates stunt snow expansion in some models completely, and model topography misses the critical elevations that could sustain snow on the island. This has critical consequences for ice and snow formation and persistence in regions such as the Arctic where temperatures are near freezing and small temperature changes affect the state of water. Finally, I analyze output from the Geoengineering Modeling Intercomparison Project to examine whether geoengineering by injection of sulfate aerosols into the lower stratosphere prevents the demise of minimum annual sea ice extent, or slows spring snow cover loss. Despite

  11. Geoengineering with stratospheric aerosols: What do we not know after a decade of research?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMartin, Douglas G.; Kravitz, Ben; Long, Jane C. S.; Rasch, Philip J.

    2016-11-01

    Any well-informed future decision on whether and how to deploy solar geoengineering requires balancing the impacts (both intended and unintended) of intervening in the climate against the impacts of not doing so. Despite tremendous progress in the last decade, the current state of knowledge remains insufficient to support an assessment of this balance, even for stratospheric aerosol geoengineering (SAG), arguably the best understood (practical) geoengineering method. We articulate key unknowns associated with SAG, including both climate-science and design questions, as an essential step toward developing a future strategic research program that could address outstanding uncertainties.

  12. Sea spray geoengineering can reduce ocean net primary productivity and carbon uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Keller, David; Korhonen, Hannele; Matthews, Damon

    2016-04-01

    Sea spray geoengineering or marine cloud brightening is one of the proposed methods to deliberately increase planetary albedo and thus counteract climate change. Previous studies have shown that it has potential to significantly alter the global energy balance and reduce impacts on temperature and precipitation. However, its effects on ecosystems have received considerably less attention. Our goal is to assess the effects of sea spray geoengineering on marine biological productivity and global carbon cycle. We use the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM) to simulate the effects of prescribed aerosol forcing from previous simulations with the aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ. In our baseline simulation (GEO), forcing from geoengineering was applied over three persistent stratocumulus regions off the coasts of North America, South America, and South Africa. The global mean forcing was -1 W m-2. Other forcings and emissions were set according to the RCP4.5 scenario. The control run (CTRL) was identical to GEO except that no geoengineering was present. As a more extreme case, we simulated a scenario where forcing from geoengineering was applied over all ocean area (GEO-ALL) giving a global mean forcing of -4.9 W m-2. Geoengineering decreased the global total ocean net primary productivity (NPP) during the first decades, but the effect was insignificant by the end of the 21st century. The decrease was caused by decreased temperature of the ocean and climate system in general, not by the decrease in available sunlight as might have been expected. This was demonstrated by two sensitivity simulations where geoengineering was affecting only either temperature or the light available to marine ecosystems. The simulation GEO-ALL behaves in a different way than GEO: ocean NPP was lower than that in CTRL for the first three decades of geoengineering as in GEO, but then NPP increased over the level in CTRL for the remaining of the simulation. In

  13. Flight Mechanics Symposium 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, Donna M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium. This symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  14. Geoengineering Vision-Application for Space Solar Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastlund, B. J.; Jenkins, L. M.

    2004-12-01

    The continued extreme use of fossil fuels to meet world energy needs is putting the Earth at risk for significant climate change. In an uncontrolled experiment, the buildup of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases is apparently affecting the Earth's climate. The global climate is warming and severe storms such as hurricanes and tornadoes are getting worse. Alternatives to fossil fuels may reduce the addition of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Space Solar Power, from orbiting satellites, provides an option for clean, renewable energy that will reduce the pressure on the Earth's environmental system. Uncertainty in the cost of commercial power from space has been the principal issue inhibiting investment support by the power companies. Geoengineering is defined as the use of technology to interact with the global environment. A Solar Power Satellite represents a capability for considering geoengineering concepts. The Thunderstorm Solar Power Satellite (TSPS) is a concept for interacting with thunderstorms to prevent formation of tornadoes. Before weather modification can be safely attempted, the fine structure of thunderstorms must be computer simulated and related to tornadogenesis. TSPS benefits are saving lives and reducing property. These benefits are not as sensitive to the system economics as the commercial solar power satellite and can be used to justify government investment in space solar power. The TSPS can develop and demonstrate the technology and operations critical to understanding the cost of space solar power. Consequently, there is no direct competition with fossil fuel based power supplies until SSP technology and operations have been demonstrated.

  15. Solar geoengineering using solid aerosol in the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisenstein, D. K.; Keith, D. W.; Dykema, J. A.

    2015-10-01

    Solid aerosol particles have long been proposed as an alternative to sulfate aerosols for solar geoengineering. Any solid aerosol introduced into the stratosphere would be subject to coagulation with itself, producing fractal aggregates, and with the natural sulfate aerosol, producing liquid-coated solids. Solid aerosols that are coated with sulfate and/or have formed aggregates may have very different scattering properties and chemical behavior than uncoated non-aggregated monomers do. We use a two-dimensional (2-D) chemistry-transport-aerosol model to capture the dynamics of interacting solid and liquid aerosols in the stratosphere. As an example, we apply the model to the possible use of alumina and diamond particles for solar geoengineering. For 240 nm radius alumina particles, for example, an injection rate of 4 Tg yr-1 produces a global-average shortwave radiative forcing of -1.2 W m-2 and minimal self-coagulation of alumina although almost all alumina outside the tropics is coated with sulfate. For the same radiative forcing, these solid aerosols can produce less ozone loss, less stratospheric heating, and less forward scattering than sulfate aerosols do. Our results suggest that appropriately sized alumina, diamond or similar high-index particles may have less severe technology-specific risks than sulfate aerosols do. These results, particularly the ozone response, are subject to large uncertainties due to the limited data on the rate constants of reactions on the dry surfaces.

  16. Geoengineering characterization of welded tuffs from laboratory and field investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.M.; Nimick, F.B.; Board, M.P.

    1984-12-31

    Welded tuff beneath Yucca Mountain adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is being considered for development as a high-level radioactive waste repository by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. Because access into Yucca Mountain has been limited to borehole explorations, early geoengineering materials characterizations have been derived from laboratory tests on cores from Yucca Mountain and from laboratory and field tests on welded tuffs located in G-Tunnel on the NTS. G-Tunnel contains welded tuffs that have similar properties and stress states to those at Yucca Mountain and has been the location for in situ rock mechanics testing. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the geoengineering material property data obtained to date and to compare appropriate laboratory and field data from G-Tunnel to findings from Yucca Mountain. Geomechanical and thermal data are provided and are augmented by limited geological and hydrological data. A comparison of results of laboratory measurements on tuffs from Yucca Mountain and G-Tunnel indicates good agreement between the bulk densities, saturations, moduli of elasticity, Poisson`s ratios, and P-wave velocities. The G-Tunnel tuff has slightly lower thermal conductivity, tensile strength, compressive strength and slightly higher matrix permeability than does the welded tuff near the proposed repository horizon at Yucca Mountain. From a laboratory-to-field scaling perspective, the modulus of deformation shows the most sensitivity to field conditions because of the presence of the joints found in the field. 14 references, 1 table.

  17. Geoengineering characterization of welded tuffs from laboratory and field investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.M.; Nimick, F.B.; Board, M.P.

    1984-12-31

    Welded tuff beneath Yucca Mountain adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is being considered for development as a high-level radioactive waste repository by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. Because access into Yucca Mountain has been limited to borehole explorations, early geoengineering materials characterizations have been derived from laboratory tests on cores from Yucca Mountain and from laboratory and field tests on welded tuffs located in G-Tunnel on the NTS. G-Tunnel contains welded tuffs that have similar properties and stress states to those at Yucca Mountain and has been the location for in situ rock mechanics testing. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the geoengineering material property data obtained to date and to compare appropriate laboratory and field data from G-Tunnel to findings from Yucca Mountain. Geomechanical and thermal data are provided and are augmented by limited geological and hydrological data. A comparison of results of laboratory measurements on tuffs from Yucca Mountain and G-Tunnel indicates good agreement between the bulk densities, saturations, moduli of elasticity, Poisson`s ratios, and P-wave velocities. The G-Tunnel tuff has slightly lower thermal conductivity, tensile strength, compressive strength and slightly higher matrix permeability than does the welded tuff near the proposed repository horizon at Yucca Mountain. From a laboratory-to-field scaling perspective, the modulus of deformation shows the most sensitivity to field conditions because of the presence of joints found in the field. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Monday, Wednesday, and Friday dosing of rosuvastatin in patients previously intolerant to statin therapy.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Benjamin D; Satija, Sameer; Nell, Christine; Miller, Joseph; Sperling, Laurence S

    2007-01-15

    Statins are normally administered for the treatment of dyslipidemia on a daily basis. This standard dosing regimen is well tolerated by most patients. Occasionally, patients discontinue therapy secondary to side effects, most commonly myalgias. We describe 2 patients who were unable to tolerate daily atorvastatin therapy secondary to myalgias and were subsequently treated with rosuvastatin administered on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, with resolution of adverse effects. Significant reductions in serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were observed in the 2 patients despite the alternate-day dosing regimen. Rosuvastatin was chosen because of its long half-life (19 hours) and very high potency.

  19. Deliberative Mapping of options for tackling climate change: Citizens and specialists 'open up' appraisal of geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Rob; Chilvers, Jason; Vaughan, Naomi E

    2016-04-01

    Appraisals of deliberate, large-scale interventions in the earth's climate system, known collectively as 'geoengineering', have largely taken the form of narrowly framed and exclusive expert analyses that prematurely 'close down' upon particular proposals. Here, we present the findings from the first 'upstream' appraisal of geoengineering to deliberately 'open up' to a broader diversity of framings, knowledges and future pathways. We report on the citizen strand of an innovative analytic-deliberative participatory appraisal process called Deliberative Mapping. A select but diverse group of sociodemographically representative citizens from Norfolk (United Kingdom) were engaged in a deliberative multi-criteria appraisal of geoengineering proposals relative to other options for tackling climate change, in parallel to symmetrical appraisals by diverse experts and stakeholders. Despite seeking to map divergent perspectives, a remarkably consistent view of option performance emerged across both the citizens' and the specialists' deliberations, where geoengineering proposals were outperformed by mitigation alternatives.

  20. On the Possible Influence of Small Impact on Geoengineering Properties of Subsoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smaga, A.; Radaszewski, R.; Wierzbicki, J.

    2016-08-01

    The main aim of the study was to investigate the changes in geoengineering properties of non lithified deposits below the craters in comparison to genetically the similar types of sediments unaffected by impact.

  1. Space Symposium/76

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A symposium dealing with career opportunities in the aerospace program for minorities was conducted and evaluated. The symposium was attended by students from eleven predominantly minority colleges and universities in and around Washington, D. C. and the eastern region, and from high schools in five jurisdictions of the Washington metropolitan area. Speakers included representatives of Howard University, NASA, and private industry. On display during the symposium was a NASA exhibit of moon rocks, space shuttles, a lunar module, command module, pacemaker, LANDSAT, and other items of interest.

  2. A risk-based framework for assessing the effectiveness of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Angus J; Charlton-Perez, Andrew J; Highwood, Eleanor J

    2014-01-01

    Geoengineering by stratospheric aerosol injection has been proposed as a policy response to warming from human emissions of greenhouse gases, but it may produce unequal regional impacts. We present a simple, intuitive risk-based framework for classifying these impacts according to whether geoengineering increases or decreases the risk of substantial climate change, with further classification by the level of existing risk from climate change from increasing carbon dioxide concentrations. This framework is applied to two climate model simulations of geoengineering counterbalancing the surface warming produced by a quadrupling of carbon dioxide concentrations, with one using a layer of sulphate aerosol in the lower stratosphere, and the other a reduction in total solar irradiance. The solar dimming model simulation shows less regional inequality of impacts compared with the aerosol geoengineering simulation. In the solar dimming simulation, 10% of the Earth's surface area, containing 10% of its population and 11% of its gross domestic product, experiences greater risk of substantial precipitation changes under geoengineering than under enhanced carbon dioxide concentrations. In the aerosol geoengineering simulation the increased risk of substantial precipitation change is experienced by 42% of Earth's surface area, containing 36% of its population and 60% of its gross domestic product.

  3. A Risk-Based Framework for Assessing the Effectiveness of Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Angus J.; Charlton-Perez, Andrew J.; Highwood, Eleanor J.

    2014-01-01

    Geoengineering by stratospheric aerosol injection has been proposed as a policy response to warming from human emissions of greenhouse gases, but it may produce unequal regional impacts. We present a simple, intuitive risk-based framework for classifying these impacts according to whether geoengineering increases or decreases the risk of substantial climate change, with further classification by the level of existing risk from climate change from increasing carbon dioxide concentrations. This framework is applied to two climate model simulations of geoengineering counterbalancing the surface warming produced by a quadrupling of carbon dioxide concentrations, with one using a layer of sulphate aerosol in the lower stratosphere, and the other a reduction in total solar irradiance. The solar dimming model simulation shows less regional inequality of impacts compared with the aerosol geoengineering simulation. In the solar dimming simulation, 10% of the Earth's surface area, containing 10% of its population and 11% of its gross domestic product, experiences greater risk of substantial precipitation changes under geoengineering than under enhanced carbon dioxide concentrations. In the aerosol geoengineering simulation the increased risk of substantial precipitation change is experienced by 42% of Earth's surface area, containing 36% of its population and 60% of its gross domestic product. PMID:24533155

  4. Overview of the Integrated Assessment of Geoengineering Proposals (IAGP), UK research project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, P.

    2014-12-01

    Integrated Assessment of Geoengineering Proposals (IAGP, www.iagp.ac.uk ) is a multidisciplinary research project involving seven UK institutions. This four year research project (completing in Feb 2015) has bought together a broad range of expertise, from climate modelling to philosophy and engineering to public perceptions to conduct an objective, policy-relevant assessment of geoengineering. This paper will present an overview of our major research findings, concentrating on aspects related to solar radiation management. Findings of our five inter-linked programmes will be presented:1. Framework development - developing a methodology for comparing across different technologies. 2. Engaging with publics and stakeholders - illustrating how public and stakeholder views have informed the development of the framework and the way we assess geoengineering. 3. Using climate modelling to evaluate geoengineering technologies - experiments for several different SRM techniques are compared within the HadGEM2 climate model. These include aerosol injection into the stratosphere as well as ocean and land albedo changes. 4. Earth climate controllability - examining how techniques from control engineering can be applied to geoengineering and the implications for decision and policy-making. 5. Critical reflection on the development of our research agenda and views. These five strands of research will be bought together to illustrate responsible innovation of geoengineering research.

  5. Ninteenth Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings of the 19th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Technological areas covered include space lubrication, bearings, aerodynamic devices, spacecraft/Shuttle latches, deployment, positioning, and pointing. Devices for spacecraft docking and manipulator and teleoperator mechanisms are also described.

  6. Symposium on thermal anemometry

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers given at a symposium on thermal anemometry. Topics include: wind turbines x-probe measurements in turbine wakes, air flow metering, fluid flow, and hot-film and hot-wire anemometers.

  7. 1999 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on May 18-20, 1999. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  8. Climate impacts of geoengineering in a delayed mitigation scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmes, S.; Sanderson, B. M.; O'Neill, B. C.

    2016-08-01

    Decarbonization in the immediate future is required to limit global mean temperature (GMT) increase to 2°C relative to preindustrial conditions, if geoengineering is not considered. Here we use the Community Earth System Model (CESM) to investigate climate outcomes if no mitigation is undertaken until GMT has reached 2°C. We find that late decarbonization in CESM without applying stratospheric sulfur injection (SSI) leads to a peak temperature increase of 3°C and GMT remains above 2° for 160 years. An additional gradual increase and then decrease of SSI over this period reaching about 1.5 times the aerosol burden resulting from the Mount Pinatubo eruption in 1992 would limit the increase in GMT to 2.0° for the specific pathway and model. SSI produces mean and extreme temperatures in CESM comparable to an early decarbonization pathway, but aridity is not mitigated to the same extent.

  9. The sensitivity of polar ozone depletion to proposed geoengineering schemes.

    PubMed

    Tilmes, Simone; Müller, Rolf; Salawitch, Ross

    2008-05-30

    The large burden of sulfate aerosols injected into the stratosphere by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 cooled Earth and enhanced the destruction of polar ozone in the subsequent few years. The continuous injection of sulfur into the stratosphere has been suggested as a "geoengineering" scheme to counteract global warming. We use an empirical relationship between ozone depletion and chlorine activation to estimate how this approach might influence polar ozone. An injection of sulfur large enough to compensate for surface warming caused by the doubling of atmospheric CO2 would strongly increase the extent of Arctic ozone depletion during the present century for cold winters and would cause a considerable delay, between 30 and 70 years, in the expected recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole.

  10. Why Geoengineering and Climate Don't GO Together

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsonis, Anastasios A.

    2014-07-01

    This paper is an extension of my letter to the Editor in the journal Physics Today, which was recently accepted for publication. The scientists who want to geoengineer climate propose to throw material in the atmosphere that will make the clouds whiter, meaning that their albedo (the amount of radiation they reflect back into space) will increase, thereabout cooling the planet. They propose this in order to stop the, observed in the last century or so, overall positive trend in global temperature, some of which is attributed to human activity. In addition, they have devised a "plan" to dissipate hurricanes, claiming that this way they are going to save lives. Unfortunately, these people want to solve a problem by introducing other problems potentially more dangerous than global warming. Let me explain...

  11. Impacts of sea spray geoengineering on ocean biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Keller, David P.; Korhonen, Hannele; Matthews, H. Damon

    2016-07-01

    We used an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to study the effects of Solar Radiation Management (SRM) by sea spray geoengineering on ocean biogeochemistry. SRM slightly decreased global ocean net primary productivity (NPP) relative to the control run. The lower temperatures in the SRM run decreased NPP directly but also indirectly increased NPP in some regions due to changes in nutrient availability resulting from changes in ocean stratification and circulation. Reduced light availability had a minor effect on global total NPP but a major regional effect near the nutrient-rich upwelling region off the coast of Peru, where light availability is the main limiting factor for phytoplankton growth in our model. Unused nutrients from regions with decreased NPP also fueled NPP elsewhere. In the context of RCP4.5 simulation used here, SRM decreased ocean carbon uptake due to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, seawater chemistry, NPP, temperature, and ocean circulation.

  12. 'Geoengineering'--taking control of our planet's climate.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Peter; Ridgwell, Andy

    2009-01-01

    There is international consensus that 'dangerous' climate change must be avoided. Yet without radical changes in energy sources and usage and global economies, changes that so far society has been unable or unwilling to make, it seems highly likely that we will start to experience unacceptably damaging and/or societally disruptive global environmental change later this century. What actions can be taken to safeguard future environmental quality, ecosystems, agriculture, economy, and society? A new science--'geoengineering'--that until recently would have seemed pure science fiction, promises an alternative way of temporarily regaining control of climate. Colossal engineering schemes to shade the sun, make the atmosphere hazier, modify clouds, even throw iron into the ocean, are all being promoted as possible ways out of our dilemma. This article considers the state of this new science, and its implications for society.

  13. A temporary, moderate and responsive scenario for solar geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, David W.; MacMartin, Douglas G.

    2015-03-01

    The risks and benefits of solar geoengineering, or solar radiation management (SRM), depend on assumptions about its implementation. Claims that SRM will reduce precipitation, increase ocean acidification or deplete stratospheric ozone, or that it must be continued forever once started, are not inherent features of SRM; rather, they are features of common scenarios for its implementation. Most analyses assume, for example, that SRM would be used to stop the increase in global temperature or restore temperature to pre-industrial values. We argue that these are poor scenario choices on which to base policy-relevant judgements about SRM. As a basis for further analysis, we provide a scenario that is temporary in that its end point is zero SRM, is moderate in that it offsets only half of the growth in anthropogenic climate forcing and is responsive in that it recognizes that the amount of SRM will be adjusted in light of new information.

  14. Deliberating stratospheric aerosols for climate geoengineering and the SPICE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pidgeon, Nick; Parkhill, Karen; Corner, Adam; Vaughan, Naomi

    2013-05-01

    Increasing concerns about the narrowing window for averting dangerous climate change have prompted calls for research into geoengineering, alongside dialogue with the public regarding this as a possible response. We report results of the first public engagement study to explore the ethics and acceptability of stratospheric aerosol technology and a proposed field trial (the Stratospheric Particle Injection for Climate Engineering (SPICE) 'pipe and balloon' test bed) of components for an aerosol deployment mechanism. Although almost all of our participants were willing to allow the field trial to proceed, very few were comfortable with using stratospheric aerosols. This Perspective also discusses how these findings were used in a responsible innovation process for the SPICE project initiated by the UK's research councils.

  15. Dyson Dots & Geoengineering: The Killer App Ad Astra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, R. G.; Hughes, Eric; Roy, Kenneth I.; Fields, David E.

    No study of coping with climate change is complete without considering geoengineering. A "Dyson Dot" is one or more large (area ~700 K km2, >200 megatonne) lightsail(s) in a radiation-levitated non-Keplerian orbit(s) just sunward of the Sun-Earth Lagrange-1 point. The purpose of this syncretic concept is twofold: (I) As a parasol, it would reduce insolation on Earth by at least one-quarter of a percent (-3.4 W m-2), same as what caused 1.5°C drop during the "Little Ice Age" (~1550-1850) and same as the IPCC Third Report's mid-range value for global warming by 2050. The parasol transforms the "solar constant" to a controlled solar variable. (II) Hosting a ~50K km2 photovoltaic power station on its sunny side and relaying beamed power via maser to rectennas on a circumpolar Dymaxion grid, the system could displace over 300 EJ/a (~100 trillion kWh/yr) of fossil-fired power (total global demand for electricity forecast by 2050), while providing USD trillions in revenue from cheap clean energy sales (@1-3¢/kWh) to amortize the scheme. Total system efficiency compares favorably to automobiles; total system power density is comparable to nuclear power. This approach -- self-funding, "pay-as-you-go", minimally intrusive, scalable, complementary with a portfolio of other measures and above all reversible is not precluded by international treaty. Indeed geoengineering may be the best "killer app" to bootstrap orbital industry and humanity ad astra, because the terawattscale product is comparable to the power required for interstellar travel. If Tellurian spacefaring civilization bootstraps its exponential growth with multi-terawatt maser beams from such lightsails, there might eventually be enough of them to have a detectable effect on Sol's apparent luminosity at certain wavelengths, as seen from far away, similar to the eponymous Dyson Sphere, hence the moniker.

  16. Geoengineering potential of artificially enhanced silicate weathering of olivine.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Peter; Hartmann, Jens; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A

    2010-11-23

    Geoengineering is a proposed action to manipulate Earth's climate in order to counteract global warming from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. We investigate the potential of a specific geoengineering technique, carbon sequestration by artificially enhanced silicate weathering via the dissolution of olivine. This approach would not only operate against rising temperatures but would also oppose ocean acidification, because it influences the global climate via the carbon cycle. If important details of the marine chemistry are taken into consideration, a new mass ratio of CO(2) sequestration per olivine dissolution of about 1 is achieved, 20% smaller than previously assumed. We calculate that this approach has the potential to sequestrate up to 1 Pg of C per year directly, if olivine is distributed as fine powder over land areas of the humid tropics, but this rate is limited by the saturation concentration of silicic acid. In our calculations for the Amazon and Congo river catchments, a maximum annual dissolution of 1.8 and 0.4 Pg of olivine seems possible, corresponding to the sequestration of 0.5 and 0.1 Pg of C per year, but these upper limit sequestration rates come at the environmental cost of pH values in the rivers rising to 8.2. Open water dissolution of fine-grained olivine and an enhancement of the biological pump by the rising riverine input of silicic acid might increase our estimate of the carbon sequestration, but additional research is needed here. We finally calculate with a carbon cycle model the consequences of sequestration rates of 1-5 Pg of C per year for the 21st century by this technique.

  17. Geoengineering potential of artificially enhanced silicate weathering of olivine

    PubMed Central

    Köhler, Peter; Hartmann, Jens; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A.

    2010-01-01

    Geoengineering is a proposed action to manipulate Earth’s climate in order to counteract global warming from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. We investigate the potential of a specific geoengineering technique, carbon sequestration by artificially enhanced silicate weathering via the dissolution of olivine. This approach would not only operate against rising temperatures but would also oppose ocean acidification, because it influences the global climate via the carbon cycle. If important details of the marine chemistry are taken into consideration, a new mass ratio of CO2 sequestration per olivine dissolution of about 1 is achieved, 20% smaller than previously assumed. We calculate that this approach has the potential to sequestrate up to 1 Pg of C per year directly, if olivine is distributed as fine powder over land areas of the humid tropics, but this rate is limited by the saturation concentration of silicic acid. In our calculations for the Amazon and Congo river catchments, a maximum annual dissolution of 1.8 and 0.4 Pg of olivine seems possible, corresponding to the sequestration of 0.5 and 0.1 Pg of C per year, but these upper limit sequestration rates come at the environmental cost of pH values in the rivers rising to 8.2. Open water dissolution of fine-grained olivine and an enhancement of the biological pump by the rising riverine input of silicic acid might increase our estimate of the carbon sequestration, but additional research is needed here. We finally calculate with a carbon cycle model the consequences of sequestration rates of 1–5 Pg of C per year for the 21st century by this technique. PMID:21059941

  18. An Amazonia Symposium: Mixed Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta, Gloria; Shand, Hope

    1978-01-01

    Reporting on the second symposium on "Amazonia: Extinction or Survival" (Madison, Wisconsin, 1978), this article summarizes papers presented on colonization, health, education, law, etc., and presents the symposium's six resolutions. (JC)

  19. 32nd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, S. W. (Compiler); Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    The proceedings of the 32nd Aerospace Mechanism Symposium are reported. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) hosted the symposium that was held at the Hilton Oceanfront Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida on May 13-15, 1998. The symposium was cosponsored by Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space and the Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium Committee. During these days, 28 papers were presented. Topics included robotics, deployment mechanisms, bearing, actuators, scanners, boom and antenna release, and test equipment.

  20. A Combined Energy and Geoengineering Optimization Model (CEAGOM) for Climate Policy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anasis, John George

    One of the greatest challenges that will face humanity in the 21 st century is the issue of climate change brought about by emissions of greenhouse gases. Energy use is one of the primary sources of greenhouse gas emissions. However, it is also one of the most important contributors to improved human welfare over the past two centuries and will continue to be so for years to come. This quandary has led a number of researchers to suggest that geoengineering may be required in order to allow for continued use of fossil fuels while at the same time mitigating the effects of the associated greenhouse gas emissions on the global climate. The goal of this research was to develop a model that would allow decision-makers and policy analysts to assess the optimal mix of energy and geoengineering resources needed to meet global or regional energy demand at the lowest cost while accounting for appropriate emissions, greenhouse gas concentration, or temperature rise constraints. The resulting software model is called the Combined Energy and Geoengineering Optimization Model (CEAGOM). CEAGOM was then used to analyze the recently announced U.S.-China emissions agreement and to assess what the optimal global energy resource mix might be over the course of the 21 st century, including the associated potential need for geoengineering. These analyses yielded optimal mixes of energy and geoengineering resources that could be used to inform regional and global energy and climate management strategies.

  1. Stratospheric changes caused by geoengineering applications: potential repercussions and uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenzelmann, P.; Weisenstein, D.; Peter, T.; Luo, B. P.; Rozanov, E.; Fueglistaler, S.; Thomason, L. W.

    2009-04-01

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions tend to warm the global climate, calling for significant rapid emission reductions. As potential support measures various ideas for geoengineering are currently being discussed. The assessment of the possible manifold and as yet substantially unexplored repercussions of implementing geoengineering ideas to ameliorate climate change poses enormous challenges not least in the realm of aerosol-cloud-climate interactions. Sulphur aerosols cool the Earth's surface by reflecting short wave radiation. By increasing the amount of sulphur aerosols in the stratosphere, for example by sulphur dioxide injections, part of the anthropogenic climate warming might be compensated due to enhanced albedo. However, we are only at the beginning of understanding possible side effects. One such effect that such aerosol might have is the warming of the tropical tropopause and consequently the increase of the amount of stratospheric water vapour. Using the 2D AER Aerosol Model we calculated the aerosol distributions for yearly injections of 1, 2, 5 and 10 Mt sulphur into the lower tropical stratosphere. The results serve as input for the 3D chemistry-climate model SOCOL, which allows calculating the aerosol effect on stratospheric temperatures and chemistry. In the injection region the continuously formed sulphuric acid condensates rapidly on sulphate aerosol, which eventually grow to such extent that they sediment down to the tropical tropopause region. The growth of the aerosol particles depends on non-linear processes: the more sulphur is emitted the faster the particles grow. As a consequence for the scenario with continuous sulphur injection of totally 10 Mt per year, only 6 Mt sulphur are in the stratosphere if equilibrium is reached. According to our model calculations this amount of sulphate aerosols leads to a net surface forcing of -3.4 W/m2, which is less then expected radiative forcing by doubling of carbon dioxide concentration. Hence

  2. 76 FR 22899 - Federal Health IT Strategic Plan: 2011-2015 Open Comment Period Extended Until Friday, May 6

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Federal Health IT Strategic Plan: 2011-2015 Open Comment Period Extended Until Friday...: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Health IT Strategic Plan: 2011-2015 (``the Plan'') ] was posted on the ONC... considered, you must submit your comment via the Federal Health IT Buzz Blog:...

  3. Risk Communication and Public Education in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada on the 10th Anniversary of the "Black Friday" Tornado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard-Boehm, R. Denise; Cook, M. Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    In July 1997, on the 10th anniversary of the great "Black Friday" Tornado, city officials of Edmonton, the print and broadcast media, agencies dealing in emergency management, and the national weather organisation recounted stories of the 1987, F5 tornado that struck Edmonton on a holiday weekend. The information campaign also presented…

  4. 2001 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on June 19-21, 2001. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to attitude/orbit determination, prediction and control; attitude simulation; attitude sensor calibration; theoretical foundation of attitude computation; dynamics model improvements; autonomous navigation; constellation design and formation flying; estimation theory and computational techniques; Earth environment mission analysis and design; and, spacecraft re-entry mission design and operations.

  5. Optimizing stratospheric sulfur geoengineering by seasonally changing sulfur injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Anton; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Kokkola, Harri; Lehtinen, Kari; Korhonen, Hannele

    2015-04-01

    Solar radiation management (SRM) by stratospheric sulfur injection has been shown to have potential in counteracting global warming if reducing of greenhouse gases has not been achieved fast enough and if climate warming will continue. Injecting large amounts of sulfate particles to the stratosphere would increase the reflectivity of the atmosphere and less sunlight would reach the surface. However, the effectivity (per injected sulphur mass unit) of this kind of geoengineering would decrease when amount of injected sulfur is increased. When sulfur concentration increases, stratospheric particles would grow to larger sizes which have larger gravitational settling velocity and which do not reflect radiation as efficiently as smaller particles. In many previous studies, sulfur has been assumed to be injected along the equator where yearly mean solar intensity is the highest and from where sulfur is spread equally to both hemispheres. However, the solar intensity will change locally during the year and sulfate has been assumed to be injected and spread to the hemisphere also during winter time, when the solar intensity is low. Thus sulfate injection could be expected to be more effective, if sulfur injection area is changed seasonally. Here we study effects of the different SRM injection scenarios by using two versions of the MPI climate models. First, aerosol spatial and temporal distributions as well as the resulting radiative properties from the SRM are defined by using the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM6.1-HAM2.2-SALSA. After that, the global and regional climate effects from different injection scenarios are predicted by using the Max Planck Institute's Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). We carried out simulations, where 8 Tg of sulfur is injected as SO2 to the stratosphere at height of 20-22 km in an area ranging over a 20 degree wide latitude band. Results show that changing the sulfur injection area seasonally would lead to similar global mean shortwave

  6. Microbially mediated carbon mineralization: Geoengineering a carbon-neutral mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, I. M.; McCutcheon, J.; Harrison, A. L.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2013-12-01

    Ultramafic and mafic mine tailings are a potentially valuable feedstock for carbon mineralization, affording the mining industry an opportunity to completely offset their carbon emissions. Passive carbon mineralization has previously been documented at the abandoned Clinton Creek asbestos mine, and the active Diavik diamond mine and Mount Keith nickel mine, yet the majority of tailings remain unreacted. Examples of microbe-carbonate interactions at each mine suggest that biological pathways could be harnessed to promote carbon mineralization. In suitable environmental conditions, microbes can mediate geochemical processes to accelerate mineral dissolution, increase the supply of carbon dioxide (CO2), and induce carbonate precipitation, all of which may accelerate carbon mineralization. Tailings mineralogy and the availability of a CO2 point source are key considerations in designing tailings storage facilities (TSF) for optimizing carbon mineralization. We evaluate the efficacy of acceleration strategies including bioleaching, biologically induced carbonate precipitation, and heterotrophic oxidation of waste organics, as well as abiotic strategies including enhancing passive carbonation through modifying tailings management practices and use of CO2 point sources (Fig. 1). With the aim of developing carbon-neutral mines, implementation of carbon mineralization strategies into TSF design will be driven by economic incentives and public pressure for environmental sustainability in the mining industry. Figure 1. Schematic illustrating geoengineered scenarios for carbon mineralization of ultramafic mine tailings. Scenarios A and B are based on non-point and point sources of CO2, respectively.

  7. Impact of geoengineering schemes on the global hydrological cycle.

    PubMed

    Bala, G; Duffy, P B; Taylor, K E

    2008-06-03

    The rapidly rising CO(2) level in the atmosphere has led to proposals of climate stabilization by "geoengineering" schemes that would mitigate climate change by intentionally reducing solar radiation incident on Earth's surface. In this article we address the impact of these climate stabilization schemes on the global hydrological cycle. By using equilibrium climate simulations, we show that insolation reductions sufficient to offset global-scale temperature increases lead to a decrease in global mean precipitation. This occurs because solar forcing is more effective in driving changes in global mean evaporation than is CO(2) forcing of a similar magnitude. In the model used here, the hydrological sensitivity, defined as the percentage change in global mean precipitation per degree warming, is 2.4% K(-1) for solar forcing, but only 1.5% K(-1) for CO(2) forcing. Although other models and the climate system itself may differ quantitatively from this result, the conclusion can be understood based on simple considerations of the surface energy budget and thus is likely to be robust. For the same surface temperature change, insolation changes result in relatively larger changes in net radiative fluxes at the surface; these are compensated by larger changes in the sum of latent and sensible heat fluxes. Hence, the hydrological cycle is more sensitive to temperature adjustment by changes in insolation than by changes in greenhouse gases. This implies that an alteration in solar forcing might offset temperature changes or hydrological changes from greenhouse warming, but could not cancel both at once.

  8. Geo-Engineering Climate Change with Sulfate Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasch, P. J.; Crutzen, P. J.

    2006-12-01

    We explore the impact of injecting a precursor of sulfate aerosols into the middle atmosphere where they would act to increase the planetary albedo and thus counter some of the effects of greenhouse gase forcing. We use an atmospheric general circulation model (CAM, the Community Atmosphere Model) coupled to a slab ocean model for this study. Only physical effects are examined, that is we ignore the biogeochemical and chemical implications of changes to greenhouse gases and aerosols, and do not explore the important ethical, legal, and moral issues that are associated with deliberate geo-engineering efforts. The simulations suggest that the sulfate aerosol produced from the SO2 source in the stratosphere is sufficient to counterbalance most of the warming associated with the greenhouse gas forcing. Surface temperatures return to within a few tenths of a degree(K) of present day levels. Sea ice and precipitation distributions are also much closer to their present day values. The polar region surface temperatures remain 1-3 degrees warm in the winter hemisphere than present day values. This study is very preliminary. Only a subset of the relevant effects have been explored. The effect of such an injection of aerosols on middle atmospheric chemistry, and the effect on cirrus clouds are obvious missing components that merit scrutiny. There are probably others that should be considered. The injection of such aerosols cannot help in ameliorating the effects of CO2 changes on ocean PH, or other effects on the biogeochemistry of the earth system.

  9. Peatland geoengineering: an alternative approach to terrestrial carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Christopher; Fenner, Nathalie; Shirsat, Anil H

    2012-09-13

    Terrestrial and oceanic ecosystems contribute almost equally to the sequestration of ca 50 per cent of anthropogenic CO(2) emissions, and already play a role in minimizing our impact on Earth's climate. On land, the majority of the sequestered carbon enters soil carbon stores. Almost one-third of that soil carbon can be found in peatlands, an area covering just 2-3% of the Earth's landmass. Peatlands are thus well established as powerful agents of carbon capture and storage; the preservation of archaeological artefacts, such as ancient bog bodies, further attest to their exceptional preservative properties. Peatlands have higher carbon storage densities per unit ecosystem area than either the oceans or dry terrestrial systems. However, despite attempts over a number of years at enhancing carbon capture in the oceans or in land-based afforestation schemes, no attempt has yet been made to optimize peatland carbon storage capacity or even to harness peatlands to store externally captured carbon. Recent studies suggest that peatland carbon sequestration is due to the inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds that create an 'enzymic latch' on decomposition. Here, we propose to harness that mechanism in a series of peatland geoengineering strategies whereby molecular, biogeochemical, agronomical and afforestation approaches increase carbon capture and long-term sequestration in peat-forming terrestrial ecosystems.

  10. Governing solar geoengineering research as it leaves the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Parker, Andy

    2014-12-28

    One of the greatest controversies in geoengineering policy concerns the next stages of solar radiation management research, and when and how it leaves the laboratory. Citing numerous risks and concerns, a range of prominent commentators have called for field experiments to be delayed until there is formalized research governance, such as an international agreement. As a piece of pragmatic policy analysis, this paper explores the practicalities and implications of demands for 'governance before research'. It concludes that 'governance before research' is a desirable goal, but that a delay in experimentation-a moratorium-would probably be an ineffective and counterproductive way to achieve it. Firstly, it is very unlikely that a moratorium could be imposed. Secondly, even if it were practicable it seems that a temporary ban on field experiments would have at best a mixed effect addressing the main risks and concerns, while blocking and stigmatizing safe research and delaying the development of good governance practices from learning by doing. The paper suggests a number of steps to ensure 'governance before research' that can be taken in the absence of an international agreement or national legislation, emphasizing the roles of researchers and research funders in developing and implementing good practices.

  11. A New Approach to Geoengineering: Manna From Heaven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellery, Alex

    2015-04-01

    Geo-engineering, although controversial, has become an emerging factor in coping with climate change. Although most are terrestrial-based technologies, I focus on a space-based approach implemented through a solar shield system. I present several new elements that essentially render the high-cost criticism moot. Of special relevance are two seemingly unrelated technologies - the Resource Prospector Mission (RPM) to the Moon in 2018 that shall implement a technology demonstration of simple material resource extraction from lunar regolith, and the emergence of multi-material 3D printing technology that promises unprecedented robotic manufacturing capabilities. My research group has begun theoretical and experimentation work in developing the concept of a 3D printed electric motor system from lunar-type resources. The electric motor underlies every universal mechanical machine. Together with 3D printed electronics, I submit that this would enable self-replicating machines to be realised. A detailed exposition on how this may be achieved will be outlined. Such self-replicating machines could construct the spacecraft required to implement a solar shield and solar power satellites in large numbers from lunar resources with the same underlying technologies at extremely low cost.

  12. Dim waters: side effects of geoengineering using ocean albedo modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskozub, J.; Neumann, T.

    2012-04-01

    We use a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code to check how the recently proposed geoengineering by injection of clean or coated microbubbles into the ocean mixed layer would impact in-water light fields. We show that due to massive multiscattering inside a bubble cloud, coating the bubbles with surfactant, needed to stabilize them, would not increase their albedo change effectiveness as much as expected basing on their backscattering coefficients. However, the bubble effect on reflectance is larger than estimated previously using a discrete ordinate method of solving the radiative transfer problem. We show significant side effects of ocean albedo change needed to counter global warming expected in this century and beyond (reduction of euphotic zone depth by respectively 20% and 50% in the case of global ocean albedo change corresponding to -1.25 K and -6 K global surface temperature change and irradiance decrease at 10 m depth by respectively 40% and over 80%) even if all ocean surface was "brightened". We discuss the possible negative side effect of such in-water light dimming on marine life. We conclude that the proposed "ocean brightening" is in fact "ocean dimming" as concerns the marine environment, on a scale that in any other circumstances would be called catastrophic. Finally, we briefly discuss other possible side effect of making the surface ocean waters turbid (both optically and acoustically), of adding large amounts of surfactants to the surface ocean layers and of surface cooling of the ocean, especially within the tropics.

  13. The Impact of Geoengineering Aerosols on Stratospheric Temperature and Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckendorn, P.; Weisenstein, D.; Fueglistaler, S.; Luo, B. P.; Rozanov, E.; Schraner, M.; Thomason, L. W.; Peter, T.

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are warming the global climate at an unprecedented rate. Significant emission reductions will be required soon to avoid a rapid temperature rise. As a potential interim measure to avoid extreme temperature increase, it has been suggested that Earth's albedo be increased by artificially enhancing stratospheric sulfate aerosols. We use a 3D chemistry climate model, fed by aerosol size distributions from a zonal mean aerosol model. to simulate continuous injection of 1-10 Mt/a into the lower tropical stratosphere. In contrast to the case for all previous work, the particles are predicted to grow to larger sizes than are observed after volcanic eruptions. The reason is the continuous supply of sulfuric acid and hence freshly formed small aerosol particles, which enhance the formation of large aerosol particles by coagulation and, to a lesser extent, by condensation. Owing to their large size, these particles have a reduced albedo. Furthermore, their sedimentation results in a non-linear relationship between stratospheric aerosol burden and annual injection, leading to a reduction of the targeted cooling. More importantly, the sedimenting particles heat the tropical cold point tropopause and, hence, the stratospheric entry mixing ratio of H2O increases. Therefore, geoengineering by means of sulfate aerosols is predicted to accelerate the hydroxyl catalyzed ozone destruction cycles and cause a significant depletion of the ozone layer even though future halogen concentrations will he significantly reduced.

  14. The Impact of Geoengineering Aerosols on Stratospheric Temperature and Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckendorn, P.; Weisenstein, D.; Fueglistaler, S.; Luo, B. P.; Rozanov, E.; Schraner, M.; Peter, T.; Thomason, L. W.

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are warming the global climate at an unprecedented rate. Significant emission reductions will be required soon to avoid a rapid temperature rise. As a potential interim measure to avoid extreme temperature increase, it has been suggested that Earth's albedo be increased by artificially enhancing stratospheric sulfate aerosols. We use a 3D chemistry climate model, fed by aerosol size distributions from a zonal mean aerosol model, to simulate continuous injection of 1-10 Mt/a into the lower tropical stratosphere. In contrast to the case for all previous work, the particles are predicted to grow to larger sizes than are observed after volcanic eruptions. The reason is the continuous supply of sulfuric acid and hence freshly formed small aerosol particles, which enhance the formation of large aerosol particles by coagulation and, to a lesser extent, by condensation. Owing to their large size, these particles have a reduced albedo. Furthermore, their sedimentation results in a non-linear relationship between stratospheric aerosol burden and annual injection, leading to a reduction of the targeted cooling. More importantly, the sedimenting particles heat the tropical cold point tropopause and, hence, the stratospheric entry mixing ratio of H2O increases. Therefore, geoengineering by means of sulfate aerosols is predicted to accelerate the hydroxyl catalyzed ozone destruction cycles and cause a significant depletion of the ozone layer even though future halogen concentrations will be significantly reduced.

  15. Technical Entrepreneurship: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Arnold C., Ed.; Komives, John L., Ed.

    Contained in this document are papers presented at the Symposium on Technical Entrepreneurship at Purdue University by researchers who were then or had previously been engaged in research in the area. Because formal research in this area was in its infancy, there was a particular need to afford investigators in the field opportunities to compare…

  16. Fifth Cooley's anemia symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, A.; Anderson, W.F.; Zaino, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses the topics presented at the symposium on the subject of 'Thalassemia'. Sickle cell anemia is also briefly discussed. The aspects discussed are chromosomal defects of anemias particularly globin synthesis, and the role of messenger RNA and other chromosomes.

  17. Quality of Life Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces. New Mexico Environmental Inst.

    Comments, speeches, and questions delivered at the Quality of Life Symposium are compiled in these proceedings. As an exploratory session, the conference objectives were to (1) become better informed about New Mexico--its resource base, the economy, social and cultural base, and the environment; and (2) to evaluate and discuss the role of New…

  18. Values: A Symposium Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, T. A., Ed.

    This publication brings together a set of four papers prepared for a symposium on values at the 1972 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. The first paper, by Fred N. Kerlinger, establishes a rationale for values research. The discussion focuses on the definition of values, relationship between values and attitudes,…

  19. Team Based Work. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on team-based work in human resource development (HRD). "Toward Transformational Learning in Organizations: Effects of Model-II Governing Variables on Perceived Learning in Teams" (Blair K. Carruth) summarizes a study that indicated that, regardless of which Model-II variable (valid…

  20. Online Learning. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on online learning that was conducted as part of a conference on human resource development (HRD). "An Instructional Strategy Framework for Online Learning Environments" (Scott D. Johnson, Steven R. Aragon) discusses the pitfalls of modeling online courses after traditional instruction…

  1. Standards and Certification. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on standards and certification in human resource development (HRD). "Implementing Management Standards in the UK" (Jonathan Winterton, Ruth Winterton) reports on a study that explored the implementation of management standards in 16 organizations and identified 36 key themes and…

  2. Research Symposium I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The proceedings of this symposium consist of abstracts of talks presented by interns at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The interns assisted researchers at GRC in projects which primarily address the following topics: aircraft engines and propulsion, spacecraft propulsion, fuel cells, thin film photovoltaic cells, aerospace materials, computational fluid dynamics, aircraft icing, management, and computerized simulation.

  3. Tools in HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on tools in human resource development (HRD). "Game Theory Methodology in HRD" (Thomas J. Chermack, Richard A. Swanson) explores the utility of game theory in helping the HRD profession address the complexity of integrating multiple theories for disciplinary understanding and…

  4. Recruitment and Training. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on recruitment and training. "College Choice: The State of Marketing and Effective Student Recruitment Strategies" (Fredrick Muyia Nafukho, Michael F. Burnett) reports on a study of the recruitment strategies used by Louisiana State University's admissions office and College of…

  5. European Cosmic Ray Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-01

    13me Symposium qui se déroule du 27 au 31 juillet pour la première fois au Cern. Brian Pattison ouvre la cérémonie et donne la parole à Dr.Ugland (qui représente le DG C.Rubbia excusé) et d'autres intervenants

  6. Issues of HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on issues of human resource development (HRD). "The Complex Roots of Human Resource Development" (Monica Lee) discusses the roots of HRD within the framework of the following views of management: (1) classic (the view that managers must be able to create appropriate rules and…

  7. ASSA Symposium 2012 Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-10-01

    of papers presented at the ASSA Symposium held in Cape Town 12-14 October 2012. Videos are available on You tube. See http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL8odLrzpzMkHS-cSEfPFIr3YLPAq4d5MU for a playlist.

  8. University HRD Programs. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This symposium is comprised of four papers on university human resource development (HRD) programs. "Passions for Excellence: HRD Graduate Programs at United States Universities" (K. Peter Kuchinke) presents an analysis of case studies that reveals convergent and divergent themes related to the genesis of programs and subsequent…

  9. Competencies in HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This symposium is comprised of three papers on competencies in human resource development (HRD). "The Development of a Competency Model and Assessment Instrument for Public Sector Leadership and Management Development" (Sharon S. Naquin, Elwood F. Holton III) reports on a streamlined methodology and process used to develop a competency…

  10. AERA Symposium Papers 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coldeway, Dan O.; And Others

    Five American Educational Research Association symposium papers (1979) are provided. "The Program Analysis Phase of Instructional Systems Design: Details of Phase II" (E. Curtis) describes the program analysis subsystem within the context of a systematic approach to instructional design, and reviews the process of carrying out such an…

  11. Geoengineering, climate change scepticism and the ‘moral hazard’ argument: an experimental study of UK public perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Corner, Adam; Pidgeon, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Many commentators have expressed concerns that researching and/or developing geoengineering technologies may undermine support for existing climate policies—the so-called moral hazard argument. This argument plays a central role in policy debates about geoengineering. However, there has not yet been a systematic investigation of how members of the public view the moral hazard argument, or whether it impacts on people's beliefs about geoengineering and climate change. In this paper, we describe an online experiment with a representative sample of the UK public, in which participants read one of two arguments (either endorsing or rejecting the idea that geoengineering poses a moral hazard). The argument endorsing the idea of geoengineering as a moral hazard was perceived as more convincing overall. However, people with more sceptical views and those who endorsed ‘self-enhancing’ values were more likely to agree that the prospect of geoengineering would reduce their motivation to make changes in their own behaviour in response to climate change. The findings suggest that geoengineering is likely to pose a moral hazard for some people more than others, and the implications for engaging the public are discussed. PMID:25404680

  12. Effects of concurrent stratospheric sulfur geoengineering and a large volcanic eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Anton; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Kokkola, Harri; Lehtinen, Kari; Korhonen, Hannele

    2013-04-01

    Solar radiation management by stratospheric sulfur injection is one of the most discussed geoengineering methods. Injecting sulfur to the stratosphere could be seen as an analogy of large volcanic eruptions, where a large amount of sulfate particles is formed in the stratosphere. These particles reflect solar radiation back to space and thus cool the climate. Effects of stratospheric sulfur injection and large volcanic eruption are both widely studied cases. However effects of large volcanic eruption in case where stratospheric sulfur geoengineering is used has not studied before. This could lead to temporary extra cooling effect when there would be strong radiative forcing from a volcanic eruption and geoengineering. In this study we use the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-SALSA to investigate effects from a case where there is an increased amount of sulfate particles in the stratosphere from both a volcanic eruption and geoengineering. The ECHAM5-SALSA describes aerosol distribution by 10 size bins and calculates the microphysical processes of nucleation, condensation, coagulation and hydration. As a baseline, we have studied a case where 8 Tg of sulfur is injected to 20 km height to the equator for geoengineering purposes. On top of that, we have studied volcanic eruptions corresponding in magnitude to the Pinatubo eruption in 1991, where about 8.5 Tg of sulfur was released to the stratosphere. Preliminary results shows that when the eruption takes place in the tropics, the total global radiative forcing from concurrent geoengineering and volcanic eruption is clearly smaller than if the forcing is calculated as the sum of separate cases. Results also show that recovery of the global forcing from volcanic eruption is 2.6 times faster if the eruption takes place in a situation where geoengineering is used. Thus, simultaneous geoengineering and volcanic eruption do not lead to long-lasting extra cooling. If the volcanic eruption takes place in the Arctic, the

  13. Impacts on Chinese Agriculture of Geoengineering and Smoke from Fires Ignited by Nuclear War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    Climate is one of the most important factors determining crop yields and world food supplies. To be well prepared for possible futures, it is necessary to study yield changes of major crops under different climate scenarios. Here we consider two situations: stratospheric sulfate geoengineering and nuclear war. Although we certainly do not advocate either scenario, we cannot exclude the possibilities: if global warming is getting worse, society might consider deliberately manipulating global temperature; if nuclear weapons still exist, we might face a nuclear war catastrophe. Since in both scenarios there would be reductions of temperature, precipitation, and insolation, which are three controlling factors on crop growth, it is important to study food supply changes under the two cases. We conducted our simulations for China, because it has the highest population and crop production in the world and it is under the strong influence of the summer monsoon, which would be altered in geoengineering and nuclear war scenarios. To examine the effects of climate changes induced by geoengineering and nuclear war on Chinese agriculture, we use the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop model. We first evaluated the model by forcing it with daily weather data and management practices for the period 1978-2008 for 24 provinces in China, and compared the results to observations of the yields of major crops in China (middle season rice, winter wheat, and maize). Then we perturbed observed weather data using climate anomalies for geoengineering and nuclear war simulations. For geoengineering, we consider the G2 scenario of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP), which prescribes an insolation reduction to balance a 1% per year increase in CO2 concentration (1pctCO2). We used results from ten climate models participating in G2. For the nuclear war scenario, we consider the effects of 5 Tg of soot that could be injected into the upper

  14. Limited effectiveness of solar radiation management geoengineering in preventing sea-level rise from the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applegate, Patrick; Keller, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) is an important contributor to present-day sea level rise, and the ice sheet's importance for sea level rise will likely increase with Arctic temperatures. Some scientists have recently suggested that geoengineering, the deliberate management of Earth's climate, could prevent sea level rise from the ice sheets. Previous efforts to assess geoengineering's effects on the GIS and sea level rise have broken important new ground, but neglect key feedbacks and/or are silent on the short-term effects of geoengineering that are perhaps most important for decision-making. Here, we use a simplified, three-dimensional model of the GIS (SICOPOLIS by Ralf Greve) to examine the response of the Greenland Ice Sheet under plausible geoengineering scenarios. We find that i) the GIS generally continues to melt over the first 100 yr after geoengineering initiation; ii) reductions in GIS sea level contributions over these first 100 yr are small; and iii) there is a delay of decades to centuries between the initiation of aggressive geoengineering and any regrowth of the ice sheet, and the rate of this regrowth is slow. However, geoengineering produces appreciable reductions in the rate of sea level rise contributions from the GIS within the first few decades. Our results suggest that past studies have overestimated the effectiveness of geoengineering in preventing mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet and in reversing sea level rise once it has occurred. We comment on the importance of feedbacks in the ice sheet system in assessing geoengineering's effectiveness in reducing sea level rise from the GIS.

  15. Friday Harbor Marina Expansion Study--San Juan Island, Washington: Final Detailed Project Report and Environmental Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    containing many histori- cal attractions. Access is by air (seaplane or light landplane) or by water. The existing marina has 190 permanent and 97...404 of the Clean Water Act of 1977 (Public Law 92-500), as amended. o Maintain existing air quality in the study area. d. Regional Development (RD...o Existing air quality in the study area would not be changed. o Alternative is consistent with Friday Harbor land use plan. o There would be no

  16. Crop failure rates in a geoengineered climate: impact of climate change and marine cloud brightening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, B.; Challinor, A.; Nicklin, K.

    2015-08-01

    The impact of geoengineering on crops has to date been studied by examining mean yields. We present the first work focusing on the rate of crop failures under a geoengineered climate. We investigate the impact of a future climate and a potential geoengineering scheme on the number of crop failures in two regions, Northeastern China and West Africa. Climate change associated with a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide increases the number of crop failures in Northeastern China while reducing the number of crop failures in West Africa. In both regions marine cloud brightening is likely to reduce the number crop failures, although it is more effective at reducing mild crop failure than severe crop failure. We find that water stress, rather than heat stress, is the main cause of crop failure in current, future and geoengineered climates. This demonstrates the importance of irrigation and breeding for tolerance to water stress as adaptation methods in all futures. Analysis of global rainfall under marine cloud brightening has the potential to significantly reduce the impact of climate change on global wheat and groundnut production.

  17. A new Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) experiment designed for climate and chemistry models

    SciTech Connect

    Tilmes, S.; Mills, Mike; Niemeier, Ulrike; Schmidt, Hauke; Robock, Alan; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Lamarque, J. F.; Pitari, G.; English, J. M.

    2015-01-15

    A new Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) experiment "G4 specified stratospheric aerosols" (short name: G4SSA) is proposed to investigate the impact of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering on atmosphere, chemistry, dynamics, climate, and the environment. In contrast to the earlier G4 GeoMIP experiment, which requires an emission of sulfur dioxide (SO₂) into the model, a prescribed aerosol forcing file is provided to the community, to be consistently applied to future model experiments between 2020 and 2100. This stratospheric aerosol distribution, with a total burden of about 2 Tg S has been derived using the ECHAM5-HAM microphysical model, based on a continuous annual tropical emission of 8 Tg SO₂ yr⁻¹. A ramp-up of geoengineering in 2020 and a ramp-down in 2070 over a period of 2 years are included in the distribution, while a background aerosol burden should be used for the last 3 decades of the experiment. The performance of this experiment using climate and chemistry models in a multi-model comparison framework will allow us to better understand the impact of geoengineering and its abrupt termination after 50 years in a changing environment. The zonal and monthly mean stratospheric aerosol input data set is available at https://www2.acd.ucar.edu/gcm/geomip-g4-specified-stratospheric-aerosol-data-set.

  18. A new Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) experiment designed for climate and chemistry models

    DOE PAGES

    Tilmes, S.; Mills, Mike; Niemeier, Ulrike; ...

    2015-01-15

    A new Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) experiment "G4 specified stratospheric aerosols" (short name: G4SSA) is proposed to investigate the impact of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering on atmosphere, chemistry, dynamics, climate, and the environment. In contrast to the earlier G4 GeoMIP experiment, which requires an emission of sulfur dioxide (SO₂) into the model, a prescribed aerosol forcing file is provided to the community, to be consistently applied to future model experiments between 2020 and 2100. This stratospheric aerosol distribution, with a total burden of about 2 Tg S has been derived using the ECHAM5-HAM microphysical model, based on a continuous annualmore » tropical emission of 8 Tg SO₂ yr⁻¹. A ramp-up of geoengineering in 2020 and a ramp-down in 2070 over a period of 2 years are included in the distribution, while a background aerosol burden should be used for the last 3 decades of the experiment. The performance of this experiment using climate and chemistry models in a multi-model comparison framework will allow us to better understand the impact of geoengineering and its abrupt termination after 50 years in a changing environment. The zonal and monthly mean stratospheric aerosol input data set is available at https://www2.acd.ucar.edu/gcm/geomip-g4-specified-stratospheric-aerosol-data-set.« less

  19. Impact of Geoengineering Schemes on the Global Hydrological Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bala, G; Duffy, P; Taylor, K

    2007-12-07

    The rapidly rising CO{sub 2} level in the atmosphere has led to proposals of climate stabilization via 'Geoengineering' schemes that would mitigate climate change by intentionally reducing the solar radiation incident on earth's surface. In this paper, we address the impact of these climate stabilization schemes on the global hydrological cycle, using equilibrium simulations from an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab ocean model. We show that insolation reductions sufficient to offset global-scale temperature increases lead to a decrease in the intensity of the global hydrologic cycle. This occurs because solar forcing is more effective in driving changes in global mean evaporation than is CO{sub 2} forcing of a similar magnitude. In the model used here, the hydrologic sensitivity, defined as the percentage change in global mean precipitation per degree warming, is 2.4% for solar forcing, but only 1.5% for CO{sub 2} forcing. Although other models and the climate system itself may differ quantitatively from this result, the conclusion can be understood based on simple considerations of the surface energy budget and thus is likely to be robust. Compared to changing temperature by altering greenhouse gas concentrations, changing temperature by varying insolation results in larger changes in net radiative fluxes at the surface; these are compensated by larger changes in latent and sensible heat fluxes. Hence the hydrological cycle is more sensitive to temperature adjustment via changes in insolation than changes in greenhouse gases. This implies that an alteration in solar forcing might offset temperature changes or hydrological changes from greenhouse warming, but could not cancel both at once.

  20. Rock index properties for geoengineering in the Paradox Basin

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, J.E.; Rey, P.H.; Alviti, E.; Capps, C.C.

    1986-02-01

    Previous researchers have investigated the use of a number of rapid index tests that can be used on core samples, or in situ, to determine rock properties needed for geoengineering design, or to predict construction performance in these rock types. Selected research is reviewed, and the correlations of index tests with laboratory tests of rock properties found by the earlier investigators are discussed. The selection and testing of rock core samples from the Gibson Dome No. 1 borehole in Paradox Basin are described. The samples consist primarily of non-salt rock above salt cycle 6, but include some samples of anhydrite and salt cycle 6. The index tests included the point load test, Schmidt hammer rebound test, and abrasion hardness test. Statistical methods were used to analyze the correlations of index test data with laboratory test data of rock properties for the same core. Complete statistical results and computer-generated graphics are presented; these results are discussed in relation to the work of earlier investigations for index testing of similar rock types. Generally, fair to good correlations were obtained for predicting unconfined compressive strength and Young's modulus for sandstone and siltstone, while poorer correlations were found for limestone. This may be due to the large variability of limestone properties compared to the small number of samples. Overall, the use of index tests to assess rock properties at Paradox Basin appears to be practial for some conceptual and preliminary design needs, and the technique should prove useful at any salt repository site. However, it is likely that specific correlations should be demonstrated separately for each site, and the data base for establishing the correlations should probably include at least several hundred data points for each type.

  1. GEO-ENGINEERING MODELING THROUGH INTERNET INFORMATICS (GEMINI)

    SciTech Connect

    W. Lynn Watney; John H. Doveton

    2004-05-13

    GEMINI (Geo-Engineering Modeling through Internet Informatics) is a public-domain web application focused on analysis and modeling of petroleum reservoirs and plays (http://www.kgs.ukans.edu/Gemini/index.html). GEMINI creates a virtual project by ''on-the-fly'' assembly and analysis of on-line data either from the Kansas Geological Survey or uploaded from the user. GEMINI's suite of geological and engineering web applications for reservoir analysis include: (1) petrofacies-based core and log modeling using an interactive relational rock catalog and log analysis modules; (2) a well profile module; (3) interactive cross sections to display ''marked'' wireline logs; (4) deterministic gridding and mapping of petrophysical data; (5) calculation and mapping of layer volumetrics; (6) material balance calculations; (7) PVT calculator; (8) DST analyst, (9) automated hydrocarbon association navigator (KHAN) for database mining, and (10) tutorial and help functions. The Kansas Hydrocarbon Association Navigator (KHAN) utilizes petrophysical databases to estimate hydrocarbon pay or other constituent at a play- or field-scale. Databases analyzed and displayed include digital logs, core analysis and photos, DST, and production data. GEMINI accommodates distant collaborations using secure password protection and authorized access. Assembled data, analyses, charts, and maps can readily be moved to other applications. GEMINI's target audience includes small independents and consultants seeking to find, quantitatively characterize, and develop subtle and bypassed pays by leveraging the growing base of digital data resources. Participating companies involved in the testing and evaluation of GEMINI included Anadarko, BP, Conoco-Phillips, Lario, Mull, Murfin, and Pioneer Resources.

  2. Unconventional gas recovery symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the SPE and DOE in organizing this symposium has been to bring together in a single annual meeting the best of the professional community engaged in unconventional gas recovery technology. The first venture will focus on discussions of the realities and potentials of unconventional gas sources and an exchange of technology developments. Unconventional gas sources are expected to have an important impact on new gas supplies as technological developments rapidly emerge and become mature technologies in the recovery of natural gas from coal, tight formations, Devonian shale geopressured reservoirs and other alternative high-cost gas sources. It is hoped that this symposium will provide a state-of-art perspective on geology, exploration and production research, recovery technology and field test results. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual articles for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  3. Microgravity Fluid Management Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Fluid Management Symposium, held at the NASA Lewis Research Center, September 9 to 10, 1986, focused on future research in the microgravity fluid management field. The symposium allowed researchers and managers to review space applications that require fluid management technology, to present the current status of technology development, and to identify the technology developments required for future missions. The 19 papers covered three major categories: (1) fluid storage, acquisition, and transfer; (2) fluid management applications, i.e., space power and thermal management systems, and environmental control and life support systems; (3) project activities and insights including two descriptions of previous flight experiments and a summary of typical activities required during development of a shuttle flight experiment.

  4. The fate of the Greenland Ice Sheet in a geoengineered, high CO2 world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Peter J.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Stone, Emma J.; Ridgwell, Andy

    2009-10-01

    Solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering has been proposed as one means of helping avoid the occurrence of dangerous climate change and undesirable state transitions ('tipping points') in the Earth system. The irreversible melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet is a case in point—a state transition that could occur as a result of CO2-driven elevated global temperatures, and one leading to potentially catastrophic sea-level rise. SRM schemes such as the creation of a 'sunshade' or injection of sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere could reduce incoming solar radiation, and in theory balance, in a global mean, the greenhouse warming resulting from elevated concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere. Previous work has highlighted that a geoengineered world would have: warming towards the poles, cooling in the tropics, and a reduction in the global hydrological cycle, which may have important implications for the Greenland Ice Sheet. Using a fully coupled global climate model in conjunction with an ice sheet model, we assess the consequences for the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet of the reorganization of climate patterns by the combination of high CO2 and geoengineering. We find that Greenland surface temperature and precipitation anomalies, compared to the pre-industrial situation, decrease almost linearly with increasing levels of SRM geoengineering, but that these combine to create a highly non-linear response of the ice sheet. The substantial melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet predicted for four times pre-industrial CO2 levels is prevented in our model with only a partial application of SRM, and hence without having to fully restore the global average temperature back to pre-industrial levels. This suggests that the degree of SRM geoengineering required to mitigate the worst impacts of greenhouse warming, such as sea-level rise, need not be as extensive as generally assumed.

  5. SPICE Work Package 3: Modelling the Effects of Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, Simon

    2015-04-01

    This talk presents the results of the SPICE Work Package 3. There is an obvious need for methods to verify the accuracy of geoengineering given no observations of a geoengineering programme. Accordingly, model ability in reproducing the observed dynamical response to volcanic eruptions is discussed using analysis of CMIP5 data and different configurations of the HadGEM2 model. With the HadGEM2-L60 model shown to be substantially better in reproducing the observed dynamical response to volcanic eruptions, simulations of GeoMIP's G4 scenario are performed. Simulated impacts of geoengineering are described, and asymmetries between the immediate onset and immediate cessation ('termination') of geoengineering are analysed. Whilst a rapid large increase in stratospheric sulphate aerosols (such as from volcanic eruptions) can cause substantial damage, most volcanic eruptions in general are not catastrophic. One may therefore suspect that an 'equal but opposite' change in radiative forcing from termination may therefore not be catastrophic, if the climatic response is simulated to be symmetric. HadGEM2 simulations reveal a substantially more rapid change in variables such as near-surface temperature and precipitation following termination than the onset, indicating that termination may be substantially more damaging and even catastrophic. Some suggestions for hemispherically asymmetric geoengineering have been proposed as a way to reduce Northern Hemisphere sea ice, for example, with lesser impacts on the rest of the climate. However, HadGEM2 simulations are performed and observations analysed following volcanic eruptions. Both indicate substantial averse consequences from hemispherically asymmetric loading of stratospheric loading on precipitation in the Sahelian region - a vulnerable region where drought has caused hundreds of thousands of deaths and created millions of refugees in the past.

  6. European Cosmic Ray Symposium

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    13me Symposium qui se déroule du 27 au 31 juillet pour la première fois au Cern. Brian Pattison ouvre la cérémonie et donne la parole à Dr.Ugland (qui représente le DG C.Rubbia excusé) et d'autres intervenants

  7. Simulation 󈨔 Symposium.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-21

    on the methodological and technological sessions. The report is divided into four topical areas: (1) methodological issues, (2) computing hardware, (3...SYMPOSIUM S[Ar Cn Richard E. Nance* 21 November 1980BRANCH OFFICE *Department of Management Science, Imperial College LONDON of Science and Technology ...nimber) 𔃻Bond graphs Language comparison Computer aided modeling Methodology fDistributed systems Software * Ha~dware 20. V~tRACT (Continue an rovers

  8. 1979 DOE statistical symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, D.A.; Truett T.

    1980-09-01

    The 1979 DOE Statistical Symposium was the fifth in the series of annual symposia designed to bring together statisticians and other interested parties who are actively engaged in helping to solve the nation's energy problems. The program included presentations of technical papers centered around exploration and disposal of nuclear fuel, general energy-related topics, and health-related issues, and workshops on model evaluation, risk analysis, analysis of large data sets, and resource estimation.

  9. Space 2000 Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Space 2000 Symposium is to present the creativity and achievements of key figures of the 20th century. It offers a retrospective discussion on space exploration. It considers the future of the enterprise, and the legacy that will be left for future generations. The symposium includes panel discussions, smaller session meetings with some panelists, exhibits, and displays. The first session entitled "From Science Fiction to Science Facts" commences after a brief overview of the symposium. The panel discussions include talks on space exploration over many decades, and the missions of the millennium to search for life on Mars. The second session, "Risks and Rewards of Human Space Exploration," focuses on the training and health risks that astronauts face on their exploratory mission to space. Session three, "Messages and Messengers Informing and Inspire Space Exploration and the Public," focuses on the use of TV medium by educators and actors to inform and inspire a wide variety of audiences with adventures of space exploration. Session four, "The Legacy of Carl Sagan," discusses the influences made by Sagan to scientific research and the general public. In session five, "Space Exploration for a new Generation," two student speakers and the NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin address the group. Session six, "Destiny or Delusion? -- Humankind's Place in the Cosmos," ends the symposium with issues of space exploration and some thought provoking questions. Some of these issues and questions are: what will be the societal implications if we discover the origin of the universe, stars, or life; what will be the impact if scientists find clear evidence of life outside the domains of the Earth; should there be limits to what humans can or should learn; and what visionary steps should space-faring people take now for future generations.

  10. Trinations aging symposium.

    PubMed

    Kaeberlein, Matt; Kennedy, Brian K; Liu, Xinguang; Suh, Yousin; Zhou, Zhongjun

    2011-01-01

    The "Trinations Aging Symposium" was held on the campus of Guangdong Medical College in Dongguan, China from April 28 to 30, 2011. The goal was to promote interaction, collaboration, and exchange of ideas between scientists in the field of aging research from Japan, South Korea, and China. Aging research is on the rise in Asia. This represents an important development, since Korea and Japan are the two longest-lived countries in the world, and life expectancy is increasing rapidly in China and other Asian countries. The world will see a greater percentage of people over age 65 in coming years than any period in human history. Developing therapeutic approaches to increase healthspan has the potential not only to enhance quality of life, but would also help stem the looming economic crisis associated with a high percentage of elderly. The focus of the Trinations Aging Symposium was on the basic biology of aging, and topics discussed included genome maintenance, metabolism and aging, longevity genes and interventions, and new therapies for age-related diseases. The meeting finished with a commitment for another symposium next year that will include additional Asian countries and the formation of a new scientific organization, the Asian Association for Aging Research.

  11. LHC Nobel Symposium Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekelöf, Tord

    2013-12-01

    In the summer of 2012, a great discovery emerged at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva. A plethora of new precision data had already by then been collected by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at LHC, providing further extensive support for the validity of the Standard Model of particle physics. But what now appeared was the first evidence for what was not only the last unverified prediction of the Standard Model, but also perhaps the most decisive one: the prediction made already in 1964 of a unique scalar boson required by the theory of François Englert and Peter Higgs on how fundamental particles acquire mass. At that moment in 2012, it seemed particularly appropriate to start planning a gathering of world experts in particle physics to take stock of the situation and try to answer the challenging question: what next? By May 2013, when the LHC Nobel Symposium was held at the Krusenberg Mansion outside Uppsala in Sweden, the first signs of a great discovery had already turned into fully convincing experimental evidence for the existence of a scalar boson of mass about 125 GeV, having properties compatible with the 50-year-old prediction. And in October 2013, the evidence was deemed so convincing that the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics to Englert and Higgs for their pioneering work. At the same time the search at the LHC for other particles, beyond those predicted by the Standard Model, with heavier masses up to—and in some cases beyond—1 TeV, had provided no positive result. The triumph of the Standard Model seems resounding, in particular because the mass of the discovered scalar boson is such that, when identified with the Higgs boson, the Standard Model is able to provide predictions at energies as high as the Planck mass, although at the price of accepting that the vacuum would be metastable. However, even if there were some feelings of triumph, the ambience at the LHC Nobel Symposium was more one of

  12. Expert systems in government symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Karna, K.N.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on various applications of expert systems. Topics considered at the symposium included knowledge-based reasoning, new directions in knowledge acquisition, software, programming languages, systems engineering, intelligent information retrieval, reactor safety assessment, medical applications, uncertainty management, algorithms, parallel processing, and artificial intelligence.

  13. 33rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler); Litty, Edward C. (Compiler); Sevilla, Donald R. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The proceedings of the 33rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. JPL hosted the conference, which was held at the Pasadena Conference and Exhibition Center, Pasadena, California, on May 19-21, 1999. Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space cosponsored the symposium. Technology areas covered include bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array and deployment mechanisms; orbiter/space station; and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  14. 35th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler); Doty, Laura W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The proceedings of the 35th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Ames Research Center hosted the conference, which was held at the Four Points Sheraton, Sunnyvale, California, on May 9-11, 2001. The symposium was sponsored by the Mechanisms Education Association. Technology areas covered included bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array, and deployment mechanisms; and other mechanisms for spacecraft and large space structures.

  15. 41st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    The proceedings of the 41st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. JPL hosted the conference, which was held in Pasadena Hilton, Pasadena, California on May 16-18, 2012. Lockheed Martin Space Systems cosponsored the symposium. Technology areas covered include gimbals and positioning mechanisms, components such as hinges and motors, CubeSats, tribology, and Mars Science Laboratory mechanisms.

  16. FRIDAY: EPA Administrator and Chicago Archbishop to Visit Old St. Marys School in Chicago, Discuss Moral Obligation to Act on Climate

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CHICAGO - Friday, July 24, EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy and Archbishop Blase Cupich, Archbishop of Chicago, will visit Old St. Mary's School in Chicago and hold a media availability to discuss the environmental initiatives of the Ch

  17. Developing a test-bed for robust research governance of geoengineering: the contribution of ocean iron biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Philip W.; Bressac, Matthieu

    2016-11-01

    Geoengineering to mitigate climate change has long been proposed, but remains nebulous. Exploration of the feasibility of geoengineering first requires the development of research governance to move beyond the conceptual towards scientifically designed pilot studies. Fortuitously, 12 mesoscale (approx. 1000 km2) iron enrichments, funded to investigate how ocean iron biogeochemistry altered Earth's carbon cycle in the geological past, provide proxies to better understand the benefits and drawbacks of geoengineering. The utility of these iron enrichments in the geoengineering debate is enhanced by the GEOTRACES global survey. Here, we outline how GEOTRACES surveys and process studies can provide invaluable insights into geoengineering. Surveys inform key unknowns including the regional influence and magnitude of modes of iron supply, and stimulate iron biogeochemical modelling. These advances will enable quantification of interannual variability of iron supply to assess whether any future purposeful multi-year iron-fertilization meets the principle of `additionality' (sensu Kyoto protocol). Process studies address issues including upscaling of geoengineering, and how differing iron-enrichment strategies could stimulate wide-ranging biogeochemical outcomes. In summary, the availability of databases on both mesoscale iron-enrichment studies and the GEOTRACES survey, along with modelling, policy initiatives and legislation have positioned the iron-enrichment approach as a robust multifaceted test-bed to assess proposed research into climate intervention. This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'.

  18. IAU Symposium 317 Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratton, Raffaele G.

    2016-08-01

    The assembly of the halo yields fundamental information on the formation and evolution of galaxies: this was quite exhaustively discussed at this very important symposium. I present a brief personal summary of the meeting, outlining those points that I found more exciting and suggestive. I also remarked a few areas that were possibly not enough expanded. I found this research field extremely interesting and I think there are great expectations for new developments in the next few years, thanks to the new large spectroscopic surveys and the ESA GAIA satellite.

  19. RICIS Symposium 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Integrated Environments for Large, Complex Systems is the theme for the RICIS symposium of 1988. Distinguished professionals from industry, government, and academia have been invited to participate and present their views and experiences regarding research, education, and future directions related to this topic. Within RICIS, more than half of the research being conducted is in the area of Computer Systems and Software Engineering. The focus of this research is on the software development life-cycle for large, complex, distributed systems. Within the education and training component of RICIS, the primary emphasis has been to provide education and training for software professionals.

  20. The first Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Anjos Candeiro, Carlos Roberto; da Silva Marinho, Thiago

    2015-08-01

    The 1st Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium gathered paleontologists, geologists, and paleoartists in the city of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from April 21st to 24th, 2013. The Dinosaur Symposium in the Pontal Campus of the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil provided an opportunity to share many new results of dinosaur research being conducted around the world. The symposium coincided with a new dawn of scientific advances in dinosaur paleontology further expanding its importance, interest and credibility worldwide.

  1. Women's technical and professional symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Budil, K; Mack, L

    1999-10-01

    This is the fourth LLNL-sponsored Women's Technical and Professional Symposium. This year's theme: ''Excellence through the Millennium,'' focuses on the cutting edge work being done at LLNL and the many contributions of women to our science and technology mission. We hope this Symposium gives each person attending a better idea of the broad scope of the Laboratory's mission and their place within the organization. It is easy to lose sight of the fact that we all work in support of science and technology despite the diversity of our experience. This Symposium provides an opportunity to reflect on our past and to begin to plan our future.

  2. ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS OF GEOENGINEERING: A Review for Developing a Science Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Lynn M.; Rasch, Philip J.; Mace, Georgina; Jackson, Robert B.; Shepherd, John; Liss, Peter; Leinen, Margaret; Schimel, David; Vaughan, Naomi E.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Boyd, Philip W.; Norby, Richard J.; Caldeira, Ken; Merikanto, Joonas; Artaxo, Paulo; Melillo, Jerry; Morgan, M. Granger

    2012-06-01

    Geoengineering methods are intended to reduce the magnitude of climate change. Climate change in some regions is already having demonstrable effects on ecosystem structure and functioning. Two different types of geoengineering activities have been proposed: carbon dioxide removal (CDR), which includes a range of engineered and biological processes to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, and solar radiation management (SRM, or sunlight reflection methods), whereby a small percentage of sunlight is reflected back into space to offset warming from greenhouse gases. In this review, we evaluate some of the possible impacts of CDR and SRM on the physical climate and their subsequent influence on ecosystems, including the risks and uncertainties associated with new kinds of purposeful perturbations to Earth. Specifically, we find evidence that, if implemented successfully, some CDR methods and continue use of some SRM methods) could alleviate some of the deleterious ecosystem impacts associated with climate changes that might occur in the foreseeable future.

  3. Ecosystem impacts of geoengineering: a review for developing a science plan.

    PubMed

    Russell, Lynn M; Rasch, Philip J; Mace, Georgina M; Jackson, Robert B; Shepherd, John; Liss, Peter; Leinen, Margaret; Schimel, David; Vaughan, Naomi E; Janetos, Anthony C; Boyd, Philip W; Norby, Richard J; Caldeira, Ken; Merikanto, Joonas; Artaxo, Paulo; Melillo, Jerry; Morgan, M Granger

    2012-06-01

    Geoengineering methods are intended to reduce climate change, which is already having demonstrable effects on ecosystem structure and functioning in some regions. Two types of geoengineering activities that have been proposed are: carbon dioxide (CO(2)) removal (CDR), which removes CO(2) from the atmosphere, and solar radiation management (SRM, or sunlight reflection methods), which reflects a small percentage of sunlight back into space to offset warming from greenhouse gases (GHGs). Current research suggests that SRM or CDR might diminish the impacts of climate change on ecosystems by reducing changes in temperature and precipitation. However, sudden cessation of SRM would exacerbate the climate effects on ecosystems, and some CDR might interfere with oceanic and terrestrial ecosystem processes. The many risks and uncertainties associated with these new kinds of purposeful perturbations to the Earth system are not well understood and require cautious and comprehensive research.

  4. How well could existing sensors detect the deployment of a solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering effort?

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, Alan J.

    2016-04-29

    While the stated reason for asking this question is “to understand better our ability to warn policy makers in the unlikely event of an unanticipated SRM geoengineering deployment or large-scale field experiment”, my colleagues and I felt that motives would be important context because the scale of any meaningful SRM deployment would be so large that covert deployment seems impossible. However, several motives emerged that suggest a less-than-global effort might be important.

  5. Microphysical and radiative changes in cirrus clouds by geoengineering the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirisan, A.; Spichtinger, P.; Luo, B. P.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Wernli, H.; Lohmann, U.; Peter, T.

    2013-05-01

    In the absence of tangible progress in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the implementation of solar radiation management has been suggested as measure to stop global warming. Here we investigate the impacts on northern midlatitude cirrus from continuous SO2emissions of 2-10 Mt/a in the tropical stratosphere. Transport of geoengineering aerosols into the troposphere was calculated along trajectories based on ERA Interim reanalyses using ozone concentrations to quantify the degree of mixing of stratospheric and tropospheric air termed "troposphericity". Modeled size distributions of the geoengineered H2SO4-H2O droplets have been fed into a cirrus box model with spectral microphysics. The geoengineering is predicted to cause changes in ice number density by up to 50%, depending on troposphericity and cooling rate. We estimate the resulting cloud radiative effects from a radiation transfer model. Complex interplay between the few large stratospheric and many small tropospheric H2SO4-H2O droplets gives rise to partly counteracting radiative effects: local increases in cloud radiative forcing up to +2 W/m2for low troposphericities and slow cooling rates, and decreases up to -7.5 W/m2for high troposphericities and fast cooling rates. The resulting mean impact on the northern midlatitudes by changes in cirrus is predicted to be low, namely <1% of the intended radiative forcing by the stratospheric aerosols. This suggests that stratospheric sulphate geoengineering is unlikely to have large microphysical effects on the mean cirrus radiative forcing. However, this study disregards feedbacks, such as temperature and humidity changes in the upper troposphere, which must be examined separately.

  6. Efficacy of geoengineering to limit 21st century sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Moore, J C; Jevrejeva, S; Grinsted, A

    2010-09-07

    Geoengineering has been proposed as a feasible way of mitigating anthropogenic climate change, especially increasing global temperatures in the 21st century. The two main geoengineering options are limiting incoming solar radiation, or modifying the carbon cycle. Here we examine the impact of five geoengineering approaches on sea level; SO(2) aerosol injection into the stratosphere, mirrors in space, afforestation, biochar, and bioenergy with carbon sequestration. Sea level responds mainly at centennial time scales to temperature change, and has been largely driven by anthropogenic forcing since 1850. Making use a model of sea-level rise as a function of time-varying climate forcing factors (solar radiation, volcanism, and greenhouse gas emissions) we find that sea-level rise by 2100 will likely be 30 cm higher than 2000 levels despite all but the most aggressive geoengineering under all except the most stringent greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. The least risky and most desirable way of limiting sea-level rise is bioenergy with carbon sequestration. However aerosol injection or a space mirror system reducing insolation at an accelerating rate of 1 W m(-2) per decade from now to 2100 could limit or reduce sea levels. Aerosol injection delivering a constant 4 W m(-2) reduction in radiative forcing (similar to a 1991 Pinatubo eruption every 18 months) could delay sea-level rise by 40-80 years. Aerosol injection appears to fail cost-benefit analysis unless it can be maintained continuously, and damage caused by the climate response to the aerosols is less than about 0.6% Global World Product.

  7. A Consideration of the Health and Environmental Risks/Effects of Geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemming, B. L.; Felgenhauer, T. N.; Miller, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The views expressed in this abstract are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views or policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A number of geoengineering strategies have been proposed and, to date, a few are being seriously investigated as possible approaches to reducing the degree of climate change. Whether under the broad rubrics of solar radiation management (SRM) or carbon dioxide removal (CDR), these projects would involve major, intentional intervention in the world's climate. Even if successful in off-setting the global radiative imbalance induced by human activities, it is not at all clear how well humans and the ecosystems upon which they depend will weather the climate system perturbations induced by the implementation of a large-scale geoengineering program. It is reasonable to expect that such perturbations could exacerbate the existing health and environmental consequences of anthropogenic climate change at large and small scales, or create entirely new ones. An accounting of the derivative physical and biological effects of consequence to human health and ecosystems welfare that may result from the use of geoengineering is a necessary part of any policy-relevant analysis. However, the scientific understanding required to quantitatively assess these potential impacts is absent in most cases, and still nascent in others. Furthermore, current discussions and existing literature lack the fully integrated "systems" approach required for adequately assessing the short- and long-term impacts of geoengineering strategies on ecosystems and human populations. We present an overview of critical science questions, including broad questions concerning the potential response of the complex earth system to further human interference and those concerning potential impacts to local environmental metrics such as air and water quality and ecosystem viability.

  8. Efficacy of geoengineering to limit 21st century sea-level rise

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J. C.; Jevrejeva, S.; Grinsted, A.

    2010-01-01

    Geoengineering has been proposed as a feasible way of mitigating anthropogenic climate change, especially increasing global temperatures in the 21st century. The two main geoengineering options are limiting incoming solar radiation, or modifying the carbon cycle. Here we examine the impact of five geoengineering approaches on sea level; SO2 aerosol injection into the stratosphere, mirrors in space, afforestation, biochar, and bioenergy with carbon sequestration. Sea level responds mainly at centennial time scales to temperature change, and has been largely driven by anthropogenic forcing since 1850. Making use a model of sea-level rise as a function of time-varying climate forcing factors (solar radiation, volcanism, and greenhouse gas emissions) we find that sea-level rise by 2100 will likely be 30 cm higher than 2000 levels despite all but the most aggressive geoengineering under all except the most stringent greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. The least risky and most desirable way of limiting sea-level rise is bioenergy with carbon sequestration. However aerosol injection or a space mirror system reducing insolation at an accelerating rate of 1 W m-2 per decade from now to 2100 could limit or reduce sea levels. Aerosol injection delivering a constant 4 W m-2 reduction in radiative forcing (similar to a 1991 Pinatubo eruption every 18 months) could delay sea-level rise by 40–80 years. Aerosol injection appears to fail cost-benefit analysis unless it can be maintained continuously, and damage caused by the climate response to the aerosols is less than about 0.6% Global World Product. PMID:20798055

  9. Systemic effects of geoengineering by terrestrial carbon dioxide removal on carbon related planetary boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, Vera; Donges, Jonathan; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    The planetary boundaries framework as proposed by Rockström et al. (2009) provides guidelines for ecological boundaries, the transgression of which is likely to result in a shift of Earth system functioning away from the relatively stable Holocene state. As the climate change boundary is already close to be transgressed, several geoengineering (GE) methods are discussed, aiming at a reduction of atmospheric carbon concentrations to control the Earth's energy balance. One of the proposed GE methods is carbon extraction from the atmosphere via biological carbon sequestration. In case mitigation efforts fail to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions, this form of GE could act as potential measure to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We here study the possible influences of human interactions in the Earth system on carbon related planetary boundaries in the form of geoengineering (terrestrial carbon dioxide removal). We use a conceptual model specifically designed to investigate fundamental carbon feedbacks between land, ocean and atmosphere (Anderies et al., 2013) and modify it to include an additional geoengineering component. With that we analyze the existence and stability of a safe operating space for humanity, which is here conceptualized in three of the 9 proposed dimensions, namely climate change, ocean acidification and land-use. References: J. M. Anderies et al., The topology of non-linear global carbon dynamics: from tipping points to planetary boundaries. Environ. Res. Lett., 8(4):044048 (2013) J. Rockström et al., A safe operating space for humanity. Nature 461 (7263), 472-475 (2009)

  10. Climate model response from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravitz, Ben; Caldeira, Ken; Boucher, Olivier; Robock, Alan; Rasch, Philip J.; AlterskjæR, Kari; Karam, Diana Bou; Cole, Jason N. S.; Curry, Charles L.; Haywood, James M.; Irvine, Peter J.; Ji, Duoying; Jones, Andy; KristjáNsson, Jón Egill; Lunt, Daniel J.; Moore, John C.; Niemeier, Ulrike; Schmidt, Hauke; Schulz, Michael; Singh, Balwinder; Tilmes, Simone; Watanabe, Shingo; Yang, Shuting; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2013-08-01

    geoengineering—deliberate reduction in the amount of solar radiation retained by the Earth—has been proposed as a means of counteracting some of the climatic effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. We present results from Experiment G1 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, in which 12 climate models have simulated the climate response to an abrupt quadrupling of CO2 from preindustrial concentrations brought into radiative balance via a globally uniform reduction in insolation. Models show this reduction largely offsets global mean surface temperature increases due to quadrupled CO2 concentrations and prevents 97% of the Arctic sea ice loss that would otherwise occur under high CO2 levels but, compared to the preindustrial climate, leaves the tropics cooler (-0.3 K) and the poles warmer (+0.8 K). Annual mean precipitation minus evaporation anomalies for G1 are less than 0.2 mm day-1 in magnitude over 92% of the globe, but some tropical regions receive less precipitation, in part due to increased moist static stability and suppression of convection. Global average net primary productivity increases by 120% in G1 over simulated preindustrial levels, primarily from CO2 fertilization, but also in part due to reduced plant heat stress compared to a high CO2 world with no geoengineering. All models show that uniform solar geoengineering in G1 cannot simultaneously return regional and global temperature and hydrologic cycle intensity to preindustrial levels.

  11. Climate Model Response from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    SciTech Connect

    Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Caldeira, Ken; Boucher, Olivier; Robock, Alan; Rasch, Philip J.; Alterskjaer, Kari; Bou Karam, Diana; Cole, Jason N.; Curry, Charles L.; Haywood, J.; Irvine, Peter; Ji, Duoying; Jones, A.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Lunt, Daniel; Moore, John; Niemeier, Ulrike; Schmidt, Hauke; Schulz, M.; Singh, Balwinder; Tilmes, S.; Watanabe, Shingo; Yang, Shuting; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2013-08-09

    Solar geoengineering—deliberate reduction in the amount of solar radiation retained by the Earth—has been proposed as a means of counteracting some of the climatic effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. We present results from Experiment G1 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, in which 12 climate models have simulated the climate response to an abrupt quadrupling of CO2 from preindustrial concentrations brought into radiative balance via a globally uniform reduction in insolation. Models show this reduction largely offsets global mean surface temperature increases due to quadrupled CO2 concentrations and prevents 97% of the Arctic sea ice loss that would otherwise occur under high CO2 levels but, compared to the preindustrial climate, leaves the tropics cooler (-0.3 K) and the poles warmer (+0.8 K). Annual mean precipitation minus evaporation anomalies for G1 are less than 0.2mmday-1 in magnitude over 92% of the globe, but some tropical regions receive less precipitation, in part due to increased moist static stability and suppression of convection. Global average net primary productivity increases by 120% in G1 over simulated preindustrial levels, primarily from CO2 fertilization, but also in part due to reduced plant heat stress compared to a high CO2 world with no geoengineering. All models show that uniform solar geoengineering in G1 cannot simultaneously return regional and global temperature and hydrologic cycle intensity to preindustrial levels.

  12. Effects of Mount Pinatubo Volcanic Eruption on the Hydrological Cycle as an Analog of Geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, K. E.

    2007-05-01

    Much of my work in recent years has been devoted to understanding the hydrological and energy cycles. The incoming radiant energy from the sun is transformed into various forms (internal heat, potential energy, latent energy, and kinetic energy) moved around in various ways primarily by the atmosphere and oceans, stored and sequestered in the ocean, land, and ice components of the climate system, and ultimately radiated back to space as infrared radiation. The requirement for an equilibrium climate mandates a balance between the incoming and outgoing radiation and further mandates that the flows of energy are systematic. The imbalance at top of atmosphere from increasing greenhouse gases from human activities creates warming. The central concern with geoengineering fixes to global warming is that the cure could be worse than the disease. The problem of global warming arises from the buildup of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide from burning of fossil fuels and other human activities that change the composition of the atmosphere. However, the solution proposed is to reduce the incoming sunshine by emulating a volcanic eruption. In between the incoming solar radiation and the outgoing longwave radiation is the entire weather and climate system and the operation of the hydrological cycle. The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 is used as an analog for the geoengineering and show that there was a substantial decrease in precipitation over land and a record decrease in runoff and streamflow in 1992, suggesting that major adverse effects, such as drought, could arise from such geoengineering solutions.

  13. Research symposium proceedings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    THE research symposium was organized to present the cutting edge research for PET by individuals from leading institutions throughout the world. The Institute for Clinical PET (ICP) has focused its annual meeting on the clinical applications of PET.

  14. Fourth symposium on macrocyclic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, J. J.; Izatt, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Both theoretical and experimental aspects of the properties and behavior of synthetic and naturally occurring macrocyclic compounds are covered in this symposium. This document contains abstracts of the papers. (DLC)

  15. 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, O.H. Jr.; Rogers, J.F.

    1996-05-01

    The proceedings of the 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. NASA Langley Research Center hosted the proceedings held at the Radisson Hotel in Hampton, Virginia on May 15-17, 1996, and Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space Company, Inc. co-sponsored the symposium. Technological areas covered include bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array, and deployment mechanisms; orbiter/space station; and other mechanisms for spacecraft. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for some articles from this proceedings.

  16. 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Obie H., Jr. (Compiler); Rogers, John F. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The proceedings of the 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. NASA Langley Research Center hosted the proceedings held at the Radisson Hotel in Hampton, Virginia on May 15-17, 1996, and Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space Company, Inc. co-sponsored the symposium. Technological areas covered include bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array, and deployment mechanisms; orbiter/space station; and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  17. The 1986 Get Away Special Experimenter's Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Lawrence R. (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The 1986 Get Away Special (GAS) Experimenter's Symposium will provide a formal opportunity for GAS Experimenter's to share the results of their projects. The focus of this symposium is on payloads that will be flown in the future.

  18. Action Theory, Control and Motivation: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckensberger, L. H.; Meacham, J. A., Eds.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the symposium on action theory presented at the 1983 meeting of the International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development in Munich. The symposium included reactions to action theory from a variety of theoretical perspectives. (Author/RH)

  19. Niobium - Proceedings of the international symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, H.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on niobium. Topics considered at the symposium included niobium mining, ore processing, uses, fabrication, microstructure, mechanical properties, physical properties, corrosion, physical radiation effects, and marketing.

  20. The Schoolwide Symposium: A Model for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottingham, Walt

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the first schoolwide symposium at Hendersonville High School (North Carolina) in which, for one week, students and faculty were immersed in the culture and history of the Vietnam War era. Explains that because this first symposium was so successful in gaining student enthusiasm, the school organized three more symposiums. (CMK)

  1. The effectiveness of tap water iontophoresis for palmoplantar hyperhidrosis using a Monday, Wednesday, and Friday treatment regime.

    PubMed

    Siah, Tee Wei; Hampton, Philip J

    2013-03-15

    Primary focal hyperhidrosis is a benign condition of unknown etiology. Tap water iontophoresis has long been known to inhibit sweat production. The mechanism of reduced hyperhidrosis by iontophoresis is not completely clear. For operational convenience, our patients received their treatments at different intervals to those recommended by the manufacturer of the iontophoresis unit. We performed a retrospective audit to evaluate the effectiveness of tap water iontophoresis using this regimen. This new treatment regimen was effective at controlling palmoplantar hyperhidrosis. Minimal undesirable effects such as mild skin irritation and erythema were noted but none were severe enough to necessitate discontinuation of treatment. In conclusion, tap water iontophoresis is a safe and effective treatment of palmar and plantar hyperhidrosis when used on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday for 4 weeks. Continued treatment is needed to maintain the effect and many patients go on to purchase their own machines. This technique should be considered prior to systemic or aggressive surgical intervention.

  2. Arctic Cryosphere Response in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G3 and G4 scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdahl, M.; Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    Geoengineering has been proposed in recent literature as a way to curb global warming and reduce some of the risks associated therein. It is of paramount interest to assess the effects of geoengineering on the Arctic, given its high sensitivity to increases in greenhouse gases and the weighty consequences of continued warming. We ask whether geoengineering by injection of sulfate aerosols into the lower stratosphere from the years 2020 to 2070 is able to prevent the demise of minimum annual sea ice, or slow spring snow cover loss. We used results from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) for the two most 'realistic' scenarios, which use the Representative Concentration Pathway of 4.5 Wm-2 by 2100 (RCP4.5) as the control run and inject sulfate aerosol precursors into the stratosphere. The first experiment, G3, aims to balance radiative forcing of RCP4.5 at 2020 levels by injection of sulfate aerosols, and the second, G4, injects 5 Tg SO2 per year. We show that in all available models, despite geoengineering efforts, September sea ice extents still decrease from 2020 to 2070, although not as quickly as in RCP4.5. In two of five models, total September ice loss occurs before 2060. Spring snow extent is increased from 2020 to 2070 compared to RCP4.5 although there is still a decreasing trend in 3 of 4 models. Because of the climate system lag in responding to the existing radiative forcing, to stop Arctic sea ice and snow from continuing to melt, the imposed forcing would have to be large enough to also counteract the existing radiative imbalance. After the cessation of sulfate aerosol injection in 2070, the climate system rebounds to the warmer RCP4.5 state quickly, and thus any sea ice or snow retention as a result of geoengineering is lost within a decade.

  3. Radiative and climate impacts of a large volcanic eruption during stratospheric sulfur geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, A.; Kokkola, H.; Partanen, A.-I.; Niemeier, U.; Timmreck, C.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Hakkarainen, H.; Korhonen, H.

    2015-08-01

    Both explosive volcanic eruptions, which emit sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere, and stratospheric geoengineering via sulfur injections can potentially cool the climate by increasing the amount of scattering particles in the atmosphere. Here we employ a global aerosol-climate model and an earth system model to study the radiative and climate impacts of an erupting volcano during solar radiation management (SRM). According to our simulations, the radiative impacts of an eruption and SRM are not additive: in the simulated case of concurrent eruption and SRM, the peak increase in global forcing is about 40 % lower compared to a corresponding eruption into a clean background atmosphere. In addition, the recovery of the stratospheric sulfate burden and forcing was significantly faster in the concurrent case since the sulfate particles grew larger and thus sedimented faster from the stratosphere. In our simulation where we assumed that SRM would be stopped immediately after a volcano eruption, stopping SRM decreased the overall stratospheric aerosol load. For the same reasons, a volcanic eruption during SRM lead to only about 1/3 of the peak global ensemble-mean cooling compared to an eruption under unperturbed atmospheric conditions. Furthermore, the global cooling signal was seen only for 12 months after the eruption in the former scenario compared to over 40 months in the latter. In terms of the global precipitation rate, we obtain a 36 % smaller decrease in the first year after the eruption and again a clearly faster recovery in the concurrent eruption and SRM scenario. We also found that an explosive eruption could lead to significantly different regional climate responses depending on whether it takes place during geoengineering or into an unperturbed background atmosphere. Our results imply that observations from previous large eruptions, such as Mt Pinatubo in 1991, are not directly applicable when estimating the potential consequences of a volcanic eruption

  4. A comparison of temperature and precipitation responses to different Earth radiation management geoengineering schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crook, J. A.; Jackson, L. S.; Osprey, S. M.; Forster, P. M.

    2015-09-01

    Earth radiation management has been suggested as a way to rapidly counteract global warming in the face of a lack of mitigation efforts, buying time and avoiding potentially catastrophic warming. We compare six different radiation management schemes that use surface, troposphere, and stratosphere interventions in a single climate model in which we projected future climate from 2020 to 2099 based on RCP4.5. We analyze the surface air temperature responses to determine how effective the schemes are at returning temperature to its 1986-2005 climatology and analyze precipitation responses to compare side effects. We find crop albedo enhancement is largely ineffective at returning temperature to its 1986-2005 climatology. Desert albedo enhancement causes excessive cooling in the deserts and severe shifts in tropical precipitation. Ocean albedo enhancement, sea-spray geoengineering, cirrus cloud thinning, and stratospheric SO2 injection have the potential to cool more uniformly, but cirrus cloud thinning may not be able to cool by much more than 1 K globally. We find that of the schemes potentially able to return surface air temperature to 1986-2005 climatology under future greenhouse gas warming, none has significantly less severe precipitation side effects than other schemes. Despite different forcing patterns, ocean albedo enhancement, sea-spray geoengineering, cirrus cloud thinning, and stratospheric SO2 injection all result in large scale tropical precipitation responses caused by Hadley cell changes and land precipitation changes largely driven by thermodynamic changes. Widespread regional scale changes in precipitation over land are significantly different from the 1986-2005 climatology and would likely necessitate significant adaptation despite geoengineering.

  5. Stratospheric geoengineering impacts on El Niño/Southern Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, C. J.; Robock, A.

    2015-10-01

    To examine the impact of proposed stratospheric geoengineering schemes on the amplitude and frequency of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variations we examine climate model simulations from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G1-G4 experiments. Here we compare tropical Pacific behavior under anthropogenic global warming (AGW) using several scenarios: an instantaneous quadrupling of the atmosphere's CO2 concentration, a 1 % annual increase in CO2 concentration, and the representative concentration pathway resulting in 4.5 W m-2 radiative forcing at the end of the 21st century, the Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 scenario, with that under G1-G4 and under historical model simulations. Climate models under AGW project relatively uniform warming across the tropical Pacific over the next several decades. We find no statistically significant change in ENSO frequency or amplitude under stratospheric geoengineering as compared with those that would occur under ongoing AGW, although the relative brevity of the G1-G4 simulations may have limited detectability of such changes. We also find that the amplitude and frequency of ENSO events do not vary significantly under either AGW scenarios or G1-G4 from the variability found within historical simulations or observations going back to the mid-19th century. Finally, while warming of the Niño3.4 region in the tropical Pacific is fully offset in G1 and G2 during the 40-year simulations, the region continues to warm significantly in G3 and G4, which both start from a present-day climate.

  6. Editorial - A critical perspective on geo-engineering for eutrophication management in lakes.

    PubMed

    Lürling, Miquel; Mackay, Eleanor; Reitzel, Kasper; Spears, Bryan M

    2016-06-15

    Eutrophication is the primary worldwide water quality issue. Reducing excessive external nutrient loading is the most straightforward action in mitigating eutrophication, but lakes, ponds and reservoirs often show little, if any, signs of recovery in the years following external load reduction. This is due to internal cycling of phosphorus (P). Geo-engineering, which we can here define as activities intervening with biogeochemical cycles to control eutrophication in inland waters, represents a promising approach, under appropriate conditions, to reduce P release from bed sediments and cyanobacteria accumulation in surface waters, thereby speeding up recovery. In this overview, we draw on evidence from this special issue Geoengineering in Lakes, and on supporting literature to provide a critical perspective on the approach. We demonstrate that many of the strong P sorbents in the literature will not be applicable in the field because of costs and other constraints. Aluminium and lanthanum modified compounds are among the most effective compounds for targeting P. Flocculants and ballast compounds can be used to sink cyanobacteria, in the short term. We emphasize that the first step in managing eutrophication is a system analysis that will reveal the main water and P flows and the biological structure of the waterbody. These site specific traits can be significant confounding factors dictating successful eutrophication management. Geo-engineering techniques, considered collectively, as part of a tool kit, may ensure successful management of eutrophication through a range of target effects. In addition, novel developments in modified zeolites offer simultaneous P and nitrogen control. To facilitate research and reduce the delay from concept to market a multi-national centre of excellence is required.

  7. 43rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Sponsored and organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, responsibility for hosting the AMS is shared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC). Now in its 43rd symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 43rd AMS was held in Santa Clara, California on May 4, 5 and 6, 2016. During these three days, 42 papers were presented. Topics included payload and positioning mechanisms, components such as hinges and motors, CubeSats, tribology, and mechanism testing. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components. The high quality of this symposium is a result of the work of many people, and their efforts are gratefully acknowledged. This extends to the voluntary members of the symposium organizing committee representing the eight NASA field centers, LMSSC, and the European Space Agency. Appreciation is also extended to the session chairs, the authors, and particularly the personnel at ARC responsible for the symposium arrangements and the publication of these proceedings. A sincere thank you also goes to the symposium executive committee who is responsible for the year-to-year management of the AMS, including paper processing and preparation of the program. The use of trade names of manufacturers in this publication does not constitute an official endorsement of such products or manufacturers, either expressed or implied, by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  8. 1992 STEP Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, Tony

    The year 1992 marks the quincentenary jubilee of the famous voyage of Christopher Columbus to the New World, a trip which initiated sustained contact between Europe and the American continent. Courageous explorations often lead to advancement of mankind, be they in uncharted territory or science. As much as Columbus was unaware of what lay in store for his voyage, we were just as poorly informed about what lay beyond our home planet when we began space exploration about three decades ago. There is much similarity among the pioneering spirits characteristic of both endeavors. It is thus fitting to celebrate this quincentenary occasion by declaring 1992 International Space Year (ISY).In conjunction with the COSPAR Meeting and the International Convention of the World Space Congress to be held in Washington, D.C., from August to September 1992, a 4-day symposium on the initial results from the Solar-Terrestrial Energy Program (STEP) Facilities and Theory Campaigns will be held at Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., August 24-27. 1992.

  9. Shortwave radiative forcing, rapid adjustment, and feedback to the surface by sulfate geoengineering: analysis of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project G4 scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashimura, Hiroki; Abe, Manabu; Watanabe, Shingo; Sekiya, Takashi; Ji, Duoying; Moore, John C.; Cole, Jason N. S.; Kravitz, Ben

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluates the forcing, rapid adjustment, and feedback of net shortwave radiation at the surface in the G4 experiment of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project by analysing outputs from six participating models. G4 involves injection of 5 Tg yr-1 of SO2, a sulfate aerosol precursor, into the lower stratosphere from year 2020 to 2069 against a background scenario of RCP4.5. A single-layer atmospheric model for shortwave radiative transfer is used to estimate the direct forcing of solar radiation management (SRM), and rapid adjustment and feedbacks from changes in the water vapour amount, cloud amount, and surface albedo (compared with RCP4.5). The analysis shows that the globally and temporally averaged SRM forcing ranges from -3.6 to -1.6 W m-2, depending on the model. The sum of the rapid adjustments and feedback effects due to changes in the water vapour and cloud amounts increase the downwelling shortwave radiation at the surface by approximately 0.4 to 1.5 W m-2 and hence weaken the effect of SRM by around 50 %. The surface albedo changes decrease the net shortwave radiation at the surface; it is locally strong (˜ -4 W m-2) in snow and sea ice melting regions, but minor for the global average. The analyses show that the results of the G4 experiment, which simulates sulfate geoengineering, include large inter-model variability both in the direct SRM forcing and the shortwave rapid adjustment from change in the cloud amount, and imply a high uncertainty in modelled processes of sulfate aerosols and clouds.

  10. LHC Symposium 2003: Summary Talk

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey A. Appel

    2003-08-12

    This summary talk reviews the LHC 2003 Symposium, focusing on expectations as we prepare to leap over the current energy frontier into new territory. We may learn from what happened in the two most recent examples of leaping into new energy territory. Quite different scenarios appeared in those two cases. In addition, they review the status of the machine and experiments as reported at the Symposium. Finally, I suggest an attitude which may be most appropriate as they look forward to the opportunities anticipated for the first data from the LHC.

  11. Mining and Reclamation Technology Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    None Available

    1999-06-24

    The Mining and Reclamation Technology Symposium was commissioned by the Mountaintop Removal Mining/Valley Fill Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Interagency Steering Committee as an educational forum for the members of the regulatory community who will participate in the development of the EIS. The Steering Committee sought a balanced audience to ensure the input to the regulatory community reflected the range of perspectives on this complicated and emotional issue. The focus of this symposium is on mining and reclamation technology alternatives, which is one of eleven topics scheduled for review to support development of the EIS. Others include hydrologic, environmental, ecological, and socio-economic issues.

  12. The Ninth National Space Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipskin, Beth Ann; Patterson, Sara; Brescia, David A.; Burk, Donna; Flannery, Jack; St. John, Pat; Zimkas, Chuck

    Proceedings of the Ninth National Space Symposium held 13-16 April 1993 by the United States Space Foundation are presented. Presentations made at the symposium are included. Topics discussed include: Change, Challenge and Opportunity; Washington Insiders: National Space Policy and Budget Issues; Civil Space: a Vision for the Future; Space Power for an Expanded Vision; Unparalled Launch Vehicle Propulsion Capabilities; National Security Space Issues; Perspectives on the Air Force in Space; Future Technology: Space Propulsion, Earth Observation and International Cooperation; Achieving Efficient Space Transportation; the Future in Space Exploration; Kids, Parents and Teachers are into Space; and Public Congressional Forum on Space - International Space Issues.

  13. Geoengineering by cloud seeding: influence on sea ice and climate system

    SciTech Connect

    Rasch, Philip J.; Latham, John; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2009-12-18

    GCM computations using a fully coupled ocean atmosphere model indicate that increasing cloud reflectivity by seeding maritime boundary layer clouds with particles made from seawater may compensate for some of the effects on climate of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. The chosen seeding strategy (one of many possible scenarios) can restore global averages of temperature, precipitation and sea ice to present day values, but not simultaneously. The response varies nonlinearly with extent of the seeding, and geoengineering generates local changes to important climatic features. The global tradeoffs of restoring ice cover and cooling the planet must be assessed alongside the local changes to climate features.

  14. Global and Regional Climate Responses Solar Radiation Management: Results from a climateprediction.net Geoengineering Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricke, Katharine; Allen, Myles; Ingram, William; Keith, David; Granger Morgan, M.

    2010-05-01

    To date modeling studies suggest that, while significant hydrological anomalies could result from the artificial addition of reflecting aerosols in the stratosphere for the purpose of solar radiation management (SRM), even at the regional level such a geoengineered world would bear a much closer resemblance to a low CO2 world, than to an unmodified high CO2 world. These previous modeling studies have generally compared one or two SRM forcing scenarios to various business-as-usual controls. However, such approaches cannot provide much information about regional sensitivities to the levels of SRM that might realistically result. Should engaging in SRM every be seriously contemplated, such regional analysis of a range of realistic scenarios will be an essential input to any process of geopolitical decision-making. Here we present the results from a large-ensemble experiment that used the HadCM3L GCM, implemented through climateprediction.net. The analysis examines 135 globally-uniform stratospheric optical depth modification scenarios designed to stabilize global temperatures under SRES A1B. Scenarios were tested using ten-member subensembles which made small perturbations to initial conditions. All simulations use identical standard settings of model physics parameters and are initiated from historically-forced runs from 1920-2005. A total of 7,331 simulations of the years 2000-2080 were performed for this experiment using computing resources donated by the general public. Our analysis of regional temperature and precipitation anomalies, normalized to account for variability, shows that SRM compensations for anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing do generally return regional climates closer to their baseline climate states than the no-geoengineering, business-as-usual scenarios. However, we find that the magnitudes and sensitivities of regional responses to this type of activity, as modeled in HadCM3L, are highly variable. As the amount of SRM increases to compensate

  15. "Why We Don't Go to School on Fridays": On Youth Participation through Photo Voice in Rural KwaZulu-Natal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Claudia; Stuart, Jean; Moletsane, Relebohile; Nkwanyana, Callistus Bheka

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we draw on the example of the Friday Absenteeism Project, a photo voice project with sixth grade learners in a rural KwaZulu-Natal school, to interrogate the nature of participatory process and cultural production. In so doing, we explore a number of critical issues related to youth participation, including ethics, citizenship and…

  16. A Bundle of Silences: Examining the Racial Representation of Black Founding Fathers of the United States through Glenn Beck's "Founders' Fridays"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, LaGarrett J.; Womac, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the discourse on Black Founding Fathers through Glenn Beck's television show, "Founders' Fridays". According to Beck, this 2010 summer television special was an opportunity to present Black American history in a more nuanced and truthful way. The theoretical framework, silencing the past, is used to…

  17. The Third International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology: Symposium proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Papers from the symposium are presented that are relevant to the generation, detection, and use of the terahertz spectral region for space astronomy and remote sensing of the Earth's upper atmosphere. The program included thirteen sessions covering a wide variety of topics including solid-state oscillators, power-combining techniques, mixers, harmonic multipliers, antennas and antenna arrays, submillimeter receivers, and measurement techniques.

  18. Impact of the GeoMIP G1 sunshade geoengineering experiment on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yu; Moore, John C.; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Ji, Duoying; Phipps, Steven J.; Lenton, Andrew; Tilmes, Simone; Watanabe, Shingo; Zhao, Liyun

    2017-03-01

    We analyze the multi-earth system model responses of ocean temperatures and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) under an idealized solar radiation management scenario (G1) from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project. All models simulate warming of the northern North Atlantic relative to no geoengineering, despite geoengineering substantially offsetting the increases in mean global ocean temperatures. Increases in the temperature of the North Atlantic Ocean at the surface (∼0.25 K) and at a depth of 500 m (∼0.10 K) are mainly due to a 10 Wm‑2 reduction of total heat flux from ocean to atmosphere. Although the AMOC is slightly reduced under the solar dimming scenario, G1, relative to piControl, it is about 37% stronger than under abrupt4 × CO2 . The reduction of the AMOC under G1 is mainly a response to the heat flux change at the northern North Atlantic rather than to changes in the water flux and the wind stress. The AMOC transfers heat from tropics to high latitudes, helping to warm the high latitudes, and its strength is maintained under solar dimming rather than weakened by greenhouse gas forcing acting alone. Hence the relative reduction in high latitude ocean temperatures provided by solar radiation geoengineering, would tend to be counteracted by the correspondingly active AMOC circulation which furthermore transports warm surface waters towards the Greenland ice sheet, warming Arctic sea ice and permafrost.

  19. Impacts of light shading and nutrient enrichment geo-engineering approaches on the productivity of a stratified, oligotrophic ocean ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Hardman-Mountford, Nick J.; Polimene, Luca; Hirata, Takafumi; Brewin, Robert J. W.; Aiken, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Geo-engineering proposals to mitigate global warming have focused either on methods of carbon dioxide removal, particularly nutrient fertilization of plant growth, or on cooling the Earth's surface by reducing incoming solar radiation (shading). Marine phytoplankton contribute half the Earth's biological carbon fixation and carbon export in the ocean is modulated by the actions of microbes and grazing communities in recycling nutrients. Both nutrients and light are essential for photosynthesis, so understanding the relative influence of both these geo-engineering approaches on ocean ecosystem production and processes is critical to the evaluation of their effectiveness. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between light and nutrient availability on productivity in a stratified, oligotrophic subtropical ocean ecosystem using a one-dimensional water column model coupled to a multi-plankton ecosystem model, with the goal of elucidating potential impacts of these geo-engineering approaches on ecosystem production. We find that solar shading approaches can redistribute productivity in the water column but do not change total production. Macronutrient enrichment is able to enhance the export of carbon, although heterotrophic recycling reduces the efficiency of carbon export substantially over time. Our results highlight the requirement for a fuller consideration of marine ecosystem interactions and feedbacks, beyond simply the stimulation of surface blooms, in the evaluation of putative geo-engineering approaches. PMID:24132201

  20. Impacts of light shading and nutrient enrichment geo-engineering approaches on the productivity of a stratified, oligotrophic ocean ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Hardman-Mountford, Nick J; Polimene, Luca; Hirata, Takafumi; Brewin, Robert J W; Aiken, Jim

    2013-12-06

    Geo-engineering proposals to mitigate global warming have focused either on methods of carbon dioxide removal, particularly nutrient fertilization of plant growth, or on cooling the Earth's surface by reducing incoming solar radiation (shading). Marine phytoplankton contribute half the Earth's biological carbon fixation and carbon export in the ocean is modulated by the actions of microbes and grazing communities in recycling nutrients. Both nutrients and light are essential for photosynthesis, so understanding the relative influence of both these geo-engineering approaches on ocean ecosystem production and processes is critical to the evaluation of their effectiveness. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between light and nutrient availability on productivity in a stratified, oligotrophic subtropical ocean ecosystem using a one-dimensional water column model coupled to a multi-plankton ecosystem model, with the goal of elucidating potential impacts of these geo-engineering approaches on ecosystem production. We find that solar shading approaches can redistribute productivity in the water column but do not change total production. Macronutrient enrichment is able to enhance the export of carbon, although heterotrophic recycling reduces the efficiency of carbon export substantially over time. Our results highlight the requirement for a fuller consideration of marine ecosystem interactions and feedbacks, beyond simply the stimulation of surface blooms, in the evaluation of putative geo-engineering approaches.

  1. 1999 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daelemans, Gerard (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The 1999 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a combined symposia of the Get Away Special (GAS), Space Experiment Module (SEM), and Hitchhiker programs, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts.

  2. SYMPOSIUM ON PLANT PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION

    SciTech Connect

    JOHN C WALKER

    2011-11-01

    Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation play key roles in many aspects of plant biology, including control of cell division, pathways of carbon and nitrogen metabolism, pattern formation, hormonal responses, and abiotic and biotic responses to environmental signals. A Symposium on Plant Protein Phosphorylation was hosted on the Columbia campus of the University of Missouri from May 26-28, 2010. The symposium provided an interdisciplinary venue at which scholars studying protein modification, as it relates to a broad range of biological questions and using a variety of plant species, presented their research. It also provided a forum where current international challenges in studies related to protein phosphorylation could be examined. The symposium also stimulated research collaborations through interactions and networking among those in the research community and engaged students and early career investigators in studying issues in plant biology from an interdisciplinary perspective. The proposed symposium, which drew 165 researchers from 13 countries and 21 States, facilitated a rapid dissemination of acquired knowledge and technical expertise regarding protein phosphorylation in plants to a broad range of plant biologists worldwide.

  3. The Symposium on Integration Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Mary, Ed.

    This symposium of the ad hoc committee on integration of the Ontario (Canada) Teachers of English as a Second Language (TESL) reports educators' concerns with providing adequate support for immigrant and refugee students, maintaining the integrity, voice, and visibility of ESL education in school boards, and advocating and providing guidelines for…

  4. Learning and Job Satisfaction. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This symposium is comprised of three papers on learning and job satisfaction. "The Relationship Between Workplace Learning and Job Satisfaction in United States Small to Mid-Sized Businesses" (Robert W. Rowden) reports findings that revealed sufficient evidence to conclude that learning is pervasive in the small to mid-sized businesses…

  5. Symposium: What Is College English?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Lynn Z.; White, Edward M.; Enoch, Jessica; Hawk, Byron

    2013-01-01

    This symposium explores the role(s) College English has (or has not) had in the scholarly work of four scholars. Lynn Bloom explores the many ways College English influenced her work and the work of others throughout their scholarly lives. Edward M. White examines four articles he has published in College English and draws connections between…

  6. Women and Career Development. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Three papers comprise this symposium on women and career development. "Enhancing the Career Success of Women Faculty: Mentoring as a Human Resource Development (HRD) Initiative in Higher Education" (Sharon K. Gibson) explores mentoring of women faculty, focusing on the key dimensions of roles and functions, outcomes, gender, and formal…

  7. Adult Learning and HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This symposium on adult learning and human resource development consists of three presentations. "Adult Learning Principles and Concepts in the Workplace: Implications for Training in HRD" (Margot B. Weinstein) reports on findings from interviews with restaurant employees who reported that training practices using adult learning…

  8. Creative Literature in Canada Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, Grace, Ed.; McDonough, Irma, Ed.

    The contents of this booklet were presented at a symposium on Canadian creative literature at the University of Toronto in March 1974. Included are five papers, summaries of two talks (one by Bill Sault on the oral tradition of Canada's native peoples and one by Robert Weaver on discovering and encouraging Canadian writers) and of a panel…

  9. Learning on the Job. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains two papers from a symposium on learning on the job. "Professional Crisis Workers: Impact of Repeated Exposure to Human Pain and Destructiveness" (Lynn Atkinson-Tovar) examines the following topics: (1) the secondary and vicarious traumatic stress disorder that affects many professional crisis workers who are…

  10. Black Women in Film Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Describes a symposium sponsored in April of last year by the Afro-American and American Studies Departments at Boston University on "Black Image in Films, Stereotyping and Self-Perception"; participants included Susan Batson, Cynthia Belgrave, Ruby Dee, Beah Richards, and Cicely Tyson. (Author/JM)

  11. Consumer and Homemaking Education Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Anza Coll., Cupertino, CA.

    Six contributions from the Consumer and Homemaking Education Symposium (March 1, 1974) are included. Elaine Shudlick discussed the role of the consumer education teacher, particularly in relation to a management of personal and family finance course, illustrated by a course outline including course description, prerequisities, text and references,…

  12. Technological Change and HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on technological change and human resource development. "New Technologies, Cognitive Demands, and the Implications for Learning Theory" (Richard J. Torraco) identifies four specific characteristics of the tasks involved in using new technologies (contingent versus deterministic tasks,…

  13. Unconventional gas recovery symposium. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This conference contains 51 papers and 4 abstracts of papers presented at the symposium on unconventional gas recovery. Some of the topics covered are: coalbed methane; methane recovery; gas hydrates; hydraulic fracturing treatments; geopressured systems; foam fracturing; evaluation of Devonian shales; tight gas sands; propping agents; and economics of natural gas production. All papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.

  14. Cross-Cultural HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    The first of three papers from this symposium on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD), "Determinants of Supply of Technical Training Opportunities for Human Capital Development in Kenya" (Moses Waithanji Ngware, Fredrick Muyia Nafukho) reports findings from interviews of technical training institute department heads in Kenya…

  15. Climatic impacts of stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate, black carbon and titania injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Anthony C.; Haywood, James M.; Jones, Andy

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we examine the potential climatic effects of geoengineering by sulfate, black carbon and titania injection against a baseline RCP8.5 scenario. We use the HadGEM2-CCS model to simulate scenarios in which the top-of-the-atmosphere radiative imbalance due to rising greenhouse gas concentrations is offset by sufficient aerosol injection throughout the 2020-2100 period. We find that the global-mean temperature is effectively maintained at historical levels for the entirety of the period for all three aerosol-injection scenarios, though there is a wide range of side-effects which are discussed in detail. The most prominent conclusion is that although the BC injection rate necessary to produce an equivalent global mean temperature response is much lower, the severity of stratospheric temperature changes (> +70 °C) and precipitation impacts effectively exclude BC from being a viable option for geoengineering. Additionally, while it has been suggested that titania would be an effective particle because of its high scattering efficiency, it also efficiently absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation producing a significant stratospheric warming (> +20 °C). As injection rates and climatic impacts for titania are close to those for sulfate, there appears to be little benefit in terms of climatic influence of using titania when compared to the injection of sulfur dioxide, which has the added benefit of being well-modeled through extensive research that has been carried out on naturally occurring explosive volcanic eruptions.

  16. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (GeoMIP6): simulation design and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravitz, B.; Robock, A.; Tilmes, S.; Boucher, O.; English, J. M.; Irvine, P. J.; Jones, A.; Lawrence, M. G.; MacCracken, M.; Muri, H.; Moore, J. C.; Niemeier, U.; Phipps, S. J.; Sillmann, J.; Storelvmo, T.; Wang, H.; Watanabe, S.

    2015-06-01

    We present a suite of new climate model experiment designs for the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). This set of experiments, named GeoMIP6 (to be consistent with the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6), builds on the previous GeoMIP simulations, and has been expanded to address several further important topics, including key uncertainties in extreme events, the use of geoengineering as part of a portfolio of responses to climate change, and the relatively new idea of cirrus cloud thinning to allow more longwave radiation to escape to space. We discuss experiment designs, as well as the rationale for those designs, showing preliminary results from individual models when available. We also introduce a new feature, called the GeoMIP Testbed, which provides a platform for simulations that will be performed with a few models and subsequently assessed to determine whether the proposed experiment designs will be adopted as core (Tier 1) GeoMIP experiments. This is meant to encourage various stakeholders to propose new targeted experiments that address their key open science questions, with the goal of making GeoMIP more relevant to a broader set of communities.

  17. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (GeoMIP6): simulation design and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravitz, B.; Robock, A.; Tilmes, S.; Boucher, O.; English, J. M.; Irvine, P. J.; Jones, A.; Lawrence, M. G.; MacCracken, M.; Muri, H.; Moore, J. C.; Niemeier, U.; Phipps, S. J.; Sillmann, J.; Storelvmo, T.; Wang, H.; Watanabe, S.

    2015-10-01

    We present a suite of new climate model experiment designs for the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). This set of experiments, named GeoMIP6 (to be consistent with the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6), builds on the previous GeoMIP project simulations, and has been expanded to address several further important topics, including key uncertainties in extreme events, the use of geoengineering as part of a portfolio of responses to climate change, and the relatively new idea of cirrus cloud thinning to allow more longwave radiation to escape to space. We discuss experiment designs, as well as the rationale for those designs, showing preliminary results from individual models when available. We also introduce a new feature, called the GeoMIP Testbed, which provides a platform for simulations that will be performed with a few models and subsequently assessed to determine whether the proposed experiment designs will be adopted as core (Tier 1) GeoMIP experiments. This is meant to encourage various stakeholders to propose new targeted experiments that address their key open science questions, with the goal of making GeoMIP more relevant to a broader set of communities.

  18. Geoengineering properties of potential repository units at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Tillerson, J.R.; Nimick, F.B.

    1984-12-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project is currently evaluating volcanic tuffs at the Yucca Mountain site, located on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site, for possible use as a host rock for a radioactive waste repository. The behavior of tuff as an engineering material must be understood to design, license, construct, and operate a repository. Geoengineering evaluations and measurements are being made to develop confidence in both the analysis techniques for thermal, mechanical, and hydrothermal effects and the supporting data base of rock properties. The analysis techniques and the data base are currently used for repository design, waste package design, and performance assessment analyses. This report documents the data base of geoengineering properties used in the analyses that aided the selection of the waste emplacement horizon and in analyses synopsized in the Environmental Assessment Report prepared for the Yucca Mountain site. The strategy used for the development of the data base relies primarily on data obtained in laboratory tests that are then confirmed in field tests. Average thermal and mechanical properties (and their anticipated variations) are presented. Based upon these data, analyses completed to date, and previous excavation experience in tuff, it is anticipated that existing mining technology can be used to develop stable underground openings and that repository operations can be carried out safely.

  19. Climatic impacts of stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate, black carbon and titania injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. C.; Haywood, J. M.; Jones, A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we examine the potential climatic effects of geoengineering by sulfate, black carbon and titania injection against a baseline RCP8.5 scenario. We use the HadGEM2-CCS model to simulate scenarios in which the top-of-the-atmosphere radiative imbalance due to rising greenhouse gas concentrations is offset by sufficient aerosol injection throughout the 2020-2100 period. We find that the global-mean temperature is effectively maintained at historical levels for the entirety of the period for all 3 aerosol-injection scenarios, though there are a wide range of side-effects which are discussed in detail. The most prominent conclusion is that although the BC injection rate necessary to produce an equivalent global mean temperature-response is much lower, the severity of stratospheric temperature changes (> +70 °C) and precipitation impacts effectively exclude BC from being a viable option for geoengineering. Additionally, while it has been suggested that titania would be an effective particle because of its high scattering efficiency, it also efficiently absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation producing a significant stratospheric warming (> +20 °C). As injection rates for titania are close to those for sulfate, there appears little benefit of using titania when compared to injection of sulfur dioxide, which has the added benefit of being well modelled through extensive research that has been carried out on naturally occurring explosive volcanic eruptions.

  20. Sensitivity of simulated climate to latitudinal distribution of solar insolation reduction in SRM geoengineering methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modak, A.; Bala, G.

    2013-10-01

    Solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering has been proposed as a potential option to counteract climate change. We perform a set of idealized geoengineering simulations to understand the global hydrological implications of varying the latitudinal distribution of solar insolation reduction in SRM methods. We find that for a fixed total mass of sulfate aerosols (12.6 Mt of SO4), relative to a uniform distribution which mitigates changes in global mean temperature, global mean radiative forcing is larger when aerosol concentration is maximum at the poles leading to a warmer global mean climate and consequently an intensified hydrological cycle. Opposite changes are simulated when aerosol concentration is maximized in the tropics. We obtain a range of 1 K in global mean temperature and 3% in precipitation changes by varying the distribution pattern: this range is about 50% of the climate change from a doubling of CO2. Hence, our study demonstrates that a range of global mean climate states, determined by the global mean radiative forcing, are possible for a fixed total amount of aerosols but with differing latitudinal distribution, highlighting the need for a careful evaluation of SRM proposals.

  1. Sensitivity of Stratospheric Geoengineering with Black Carbon to Aerosol Size and Altitude of Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kravitz, Ben; Robock, Alan; Shindell, Drew T.; Miller, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Simulations of stratospheric geoengineering with black carbon (BC) aerosols using a general circulation model with fixed sea surface temperatures show that the climate effects strongly depend on aerosol size and altitude of injection. 1 Tg BC/a injected into the lower stratosphere would cause little surface cooling for large radii but a large amount of surface cooling for small radii and stratospheric warming of over 60 C. With the exception of small particles, increasing the altitude of injection increases surface cooling and stratospheric warming. Stratospheric warming causes global ozone loss by up to 50% in the small radius case. The Antarctic shows less ozone loss due to reduction of polar stratospheric clouds, but strong circumpolar winds would enhance the Arctic ozone hole. Using diesel fuel to produce the aerosols is likely prohibitively expensive and infeasible. Although studying an absorbing aerosol is a useful counterpart to previous studies involving sulfate aerosols, black carbon geoengineering likely carries too many risks to make it a viable option for deployment.

  2. Stratospheric dynamics and midlatitude jets under geoengineering with space mirrors and sulfate and titania aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, A. J.; Charlton-Perez, A. J.; Highwood, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    The impact on the dynamics of the stratosphere of three approaches to geoengineering by solar radiation management is investigated using idealized simulations of a global climate model. The approaches are geoengineering with sulfate aerosols, titania aerosols, and reduction in total solar irradiance (representing mirrors placed in space). If it were possible to use stratospheric aerosols to counterbalance the surface warming produced by a quadrupling of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, tropical lower stratospheric radiative heating would drive a thermal wind response which would intensify the stratospheric polar vortices. In the Northern Hemisphere this intensification results in strong dynamical cooling of the polar stratosphere. Northern Hemisphere stratospheric sudden warming events become rare (one and two in 65 years for sulfate and titania, respectively). The intensification of the polar vortices results in a poleward shift of the tropospheric midlatitude jets in winter. The aerosol radiative heating enhances the tropical upwelling in the lower stratosphere, influencing the strength of the Brewer-Dobson circulation. In contrast, solar dimming does not produce heating of the tropical lower stratosphere, and so there is little intensification of the polar vortex and no enhanced tropical upwelling. The dynamical response to titania aerosol is qualitatively similar to the response to sulfate.

  3. Sulfate geoengineering: a review of the factors controlling the needed injection of sulfur dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visioni, Daniele; Pitari, Giovanni; Aquila, Valentina

    2017-03-01

    Sulfate geoengineering has been proposed as an affordable and climate-effective means to temporarily offset the warming produced by the increase of well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHGs). This technique would likely have to be applied while and after global intergovernmental measures on emissions of WMGHGs are implemented in order to achieve surface temperature stabilization. The direct radiative effects of sulfur injection in the tropical lower stratosphere can be summarized as increasing shortwave scattering with consequent tropospheric cooling and increasing longwave absorption with stratospheric warming. Indirect radiative effects are related to induced changes in the ozone distribution; stratospheric water vapor abundance,;formation and size of upper-tropospheric cirrus ice particles; and lifetime of long-lived species, namely CH4 in connection with OH changes through several photochemical mechanisms. Direct and indirect effects of sulfate geoengineering both concur to determine the atmospheric response. A review of previous studies on these effects is presented here, with an outline of the important factors that control the amount of sulfur dioxide to be injected in an eventual realization of the experiment. However, we need to take into account that atmospheric models used for these studies have shown a wide range of climate sensitivity and differences in the response to stratospheric volcanic aerosols. In addition, large uncertainties exist in the estimate of some of these aerosol effects.

  4. Tropical coral reef habitat in a geoengineered, high-CO2 world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couce, E.; Irvine, P. J.; Gregorie, L. J.; Ridgwell, A.; Hendy, E. J.

    2013-05-01

    Continued anthropogenic CO2 emissions are expected to impact tropical coral reefs by further raising sea surface temperatures (SST) and intensifying ocean acidification (OA). Although geoengineering by means of solar radiation management (SRM) may mitigate temperature increases, OA will persist, raising important questions regarding the impact of different stressor combinations. We apply statistical Bioclimatic Envelope Models to project changes in shallow water tropical coral reef habitat as a single niche (without resolving biodiversity or community composition) under various representative concentration pathway and SRM scenarios, until 2070. We predict substantial reductions in habitat suitability centered on the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool under net anthropogenic radiative forcing of ≥3.0 W/m2. The near-term dominant risk to coral reefs is increasing SSTs; below 3 W/m2 reasonably favorable conditions are maintained, even when achieved by SRM with persisting OA. "Optimal" mitigation occurs at 1.5 W/m2 because tropical SSTs overcool in a fully geoengineered (i.e., preindustrial global mean temperature) world.

  5. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (GeoMIP6): Simulation design and preliminary results

    DOE PAGES

    Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Robock, Alan; Tilmes, S.; ...

    2015-10-27

    We present a suite of new climate model experiment designs for the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). This set of experiments, named GeoMIP6 (to be consistent with the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6), builds on the previous GeoMIP project simulations, and has been expanded to address several further important topics, including key uncertainties in extreme events, the use of geoengineering as part of a portfolio of responses to climate change, and the relatively new idea of cirrus cloud thinning to allow more long wave radiation to escape to space. We discuss experiment designs, as well as the rationale formore » those designs, showing preliminary results from individual models when available. We also introduce a new feature, called the GeoMIP Testbed, which provides a platform for simulations that will be performed with a few models and subsequently assessed to determine whether the proposed experiment designs will be adopted as core (Tier 1) GeoMIP experiments. In conclusion, this is meant to encourage various stakeholders to propose new targeted experiments that address their key open science questions, with the goal of making GeoMIP more relevant to a broader set of communities.« less

  6. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (GeoMIP6): Simulation design and preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Robock, Alan; Tilmes, S.; Boucher, Olivier; English, J. M.; Irvine, Peter J.; Jones, Andrew; Lawrence, M. G.; MacCracken, Michael C.; Muri, Helene O.; Moore, John C.; Niemeier, Ulrike; Phipps, Steven J.; Sillmann, Jana; Storelvmo, Trude; Wang, Hailong; Watanabe, Shingo

    2015-10-27

    We present a suite of new climate model experiment designs for the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). This set of experiments, named GeoMIP6 (to be consistent with the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6), builds on the previous GeoMIP project simulations, and has been expanded to address several further important topics, including key uncertainties in extreme events, the use of geoengineering as part of a portfolio of responses to climate change, and the relatively new idea of cirrus cloud thinning to allow more long wave radiation to escape to space. We discuss experiment designs, as well as the rationale for those designs, showing preliminary results from individual models when available. We also introduce a new feature, called the GeoMIP Testbed, which provides a platform for simulations that will be performed with a few models and subsequently assessed to determine whether the proposed experiment designs will be adopted as core (Tier 1) GeoMIP experiments. In conclusion, this is meant to encourage various stakeholders to propose new targeted experiments that address their key open science questions, with the goal of making GeoMIP more relevant to a broader set of communities.

  7. The VLT Opening Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-02-01

    Scientists Meet in Antofagasta to Discuss Front-Line Astrophysics To mark the beginning of the VLT era, the European Southern Observatory is organizing a VLT Opening Symposium which will take place in Antofagasta (Chile) on 1-4 March 1999, just before the start of regular observations with the ESO Very Large Telescope on April 1, 1999. The Symposium occupies four full days and is held on the campus of the Universidad Catolica del Norte. It consists of plenary sessions on "Science in the VLT Era and Beyond" and three parallel Workshops on "Clusters of Galaxies at High Redshift" , "Star-way to the Universe" and "From Extrasolar Planets to Brown Dwarfs" . There will be many presentations of recent work at the major astronomical facilities in the world. The meeting provides a very useful forum to discuss the latest developments and, in this sense, contributes to the planning of future research with the VLT and other large telescopes. The symposium will be opened with a talk by the ESO Director General, Prof. Riccardo Giacconi , on "Paranal - an observatory for the 21st century". It will be followed by reports about the first scientific results from the main astronomical instruments on VLT UT1, FORS1 and ISAAC. The Symposium participants will see the VLT in operation during special visits to the Paranal Observatory. Press conferences are being arranged each afternoon to inform about the highlights of the conference. After the Symposium, there will be an Official Inauguration Ceremony at Paranal on 5 March Contributions from ESO ESO scientists will make several presentations at the Symposium. They include general reviews of various research fields as well as important new data and results from the VLT that show the great potential of this new astronomical facility. Some of the recent work is described in this Press Release, together with images and spectra of a large variety of objects. Note that all of these data will soon become publicly available via the VLT Archive

  8. Changes in population evacuation potential for tsunami hazards in Seward, Alaska, since the 1964 Good Friday earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Nathan J.; Schmidtlein, Mathew C.; Peters, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrian evacuation modeling for tsunami hazards typically focuses on current land-cover conditions and population distributions. To examine how post-disaster redevelopment may influence the evacuation potential of at-risk populations to future threats, we modeled pedestrian travel times to safety in Seward, Alaska, based on conditions before the 1964 Good Friday earthquake and tsunami disaster and on modern conditions. Anisotropic, path distance modeling is conducted to estimate travel times to safety during the 1964 event and in modern Seward, and results are merged with various population data, including the location and number of residents, employees, public venues, and dependent care facilities. Results suggest that modeled travel time estimates conform well to the fatality patterns of the 1964 event and that evacuation travel times have increased in modern Seward due to the relocation and expansion of port and harbor facilities after the disaster. The majority of individuals threatened by tsunamis today in Seward are employee, customer, and tourist populations, rather than residents in their homes. Modern evacuation travel times to safety for the majority of the region are less than wave arrival times for future tectonic tsunamis but greater than arrival times for landslide-related tsunamis. Evacuation travel times will likely be higher in the winter time, when the presence of snow may constrain evacuations to roads.

  9. What do people think when they think about solar geoengineering? A review of empirical social science literature, and prospects for future research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Elizabeth T.; Flegal, Jane A.; Keith, David W.; Mahajan, Aseem; Tingley, Dustin; Wagner, Gernot

    2016-11-01

    Public views and values about solar geoengineering should be incorporated in science-policy decisions, if decision makers want to act in the public interest. In reflecting on the past decade of research, we review around 30 studies investigating public familiarity with, and views about, solar geoengineering. A number of recurring patterns emerge: (1) general unfamiliarity with geoengineering among publics; (2) the importance of artifice versus naturalness; (3) some conditional support for certain kinds of research; and (4) nuanced findings on the "moral hazard" and "reverse moral hazard" hypotheses, with empirical support for each appearing under different circumstances and populations. We argue that in the coming decade, empirical social science research on solar geoengineering will be crucial, and should be integrated with physical scientific research.

  10. Report on the 2009 ESO Fellows Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emsellem, Eric; West, Michael; Leibundgut, Bruno

    2009-09-01

    The fourth ESO Fellows Symposium took place in Garching from 8-10 June 2009. This year's symposium brought together 28 ESO Fellows from Chile and Germany to meet their colleagues from across the ocean, discuss their research and provide feedback on ESO's Fellowship programme. This year's symposium also included training workshops to enhance the practical skills of ESO Fellows in today's competitive job market.

  11. Radiative and climate impacts of a large volcanic eruption during stratospheric sulfur geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, A.; Kokkola, H.; Partanen, A.-I.; Niemeier, U.; Timmreck, C.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Hakkarainen, H.; Korhonen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Both explosive volcanic eruptions, which emit sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere, and stratospheric geoengineering via sulfur injections can potentially cool the climate by increasing the amount of scattering particles in the atmosphere. Here we employ a global aerosol-climate model and an Earth system model to study the radiative and climate changes occurring after an erupting volcano during solar radiation management (SRM). According to our simulations the radiative impacts of the eruption and SRM are not additive and the radiative effects and climate changes occurring after the eruption depend strongly on whether SRM is continued or suspended after the eruption. In the former case, the peak burden of the additional stratospheric sulfate as well as changes in global mean precipitation are fairly similar regardless of whether the eruption takes place in a SRM or non-SRM world. However, the maximum increase in the global mean radiative forcing caused by the eruption is approximately 21 % lower compared to a case when the eruption occurs in an unperturbed atmosphere. In addition, the recovery of the stratospheric sulfur burden and radiative forcing is significantly faster after the eruption, because the eruption during the SRM leads to a smaller number and larger sulfate particles compared to the eruption in a non-SRM world. On the other hand, if SRM is suspended immediately after the eruption, the peak increase in global forcing caused by the eruption is about 32 % lower compared to a corresponding eruption into a clean background atmosphere. In this simulation, only about one-third of the global ensemble-mean cooling occurs after the eruption, compared to that occurring after an eruption under unperturbed atmospheric conditions. Furthermore, the global cooling signal is seen only for the 12 months after the eruption in the former scenario compared to over 40 months in the latter. In terms of global precipitation rate, we obtain a 36 % smaller decrease in the

  12. Impact of geoengineering with olivine dissolution on the carbon cycle and marine biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, P.; Abrams, J.; Völker, C.; Wolf-Gladrow, D. A.; Hartmann, J.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the potential of a specific geoengineering technique: the carbon sequestration by artificially enhanced silicate weathering via the dissolution of olivine. This approach would not only operate against rising temperatures but would also oppose ocean acidification. If details of the marine chemistry are taken into consideration, a new mass ratio of CO2 sequestration per olivine dissolution of about 1 is achieved, 20% smaller than previously assumed. We calculate that this approach has the potential to sequestrate up to 1 Pg of C per year directly, if olivine is distributed as fine powder over land areas of the humid tropics, but this rate is limited by the saturation concentration of silicic acid. These upper limit sequestration rates come at the environmental cost of pH values in the rivers rising to 8.2 in examples for the rivers Amazon and Congo (Köhler et al., 2010). The secondary effects of the input of silicic acid connected with this approach leads in an ecosystem model (ReCOM2.0 in MITgcm) to species shifts aways from the calcifying species towards diatoms, thus altering the biological carbon pumps. Open ocean dissolution of olivine would sequestrate about 1 Pg CO2 per Pg olivine from which about 8% are caused by changes in the biological pumps (increase export of organic matter, decreased export of CaCO3). The chemical impact of open ocean dissolution of olivine (the increased alkalinity input) is therefore less efficient than dissolution on land, but leads due to different chemical impacts to a higher surface ocean pH enhancement to counteract ocean acidification. We finally investigate open ocean dissolution rates of up to 10 Pg olivine per year corresponding to geoengineering rates which might be of interest in the light of expected future emission (e.g. A2 scenario with emissions rising to 30 PgC/yr in 2100 AD). Those rates would still sequestrate only less than 20% of the emission until 2100, but would require that the nowadays available

  13. The 1975 Ride Quality Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation is presented of papers reported at the 1975 Ride Quality Symposium held in Williamsburg, Virginia, August 11-12, 1975. The symposium, jointly sponsored by NASA and the United States Department of Transportation, was held to provide a forum for determining the current state of the art relative to the technology base of ride quality information applicable to current and proposed transportation systems. Emphasis focused on passenger reactions to ride environment and on implications of these reactions to the design and operation of air, land, and water transportation systems acceptable to the traveling public. Papers are grouped in the following five categories: needs and uses for ride quality technology, vehicle environments and dynamics, investigative approaches and testing procedures, experimental ride quality studies, and ride quality modeling and criteria.

  14. Ninth international symposium on radiopharmacology

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this Symposium is to provide a forum for those international scientists involved in applying the principles of pharmacology and radiation biology to the development of agents for the diagnosis and treatment of disease. The program will highlight state-of-the-art progress in the development of those agents used in conjunction with some form of radiation such as radiopharmaceuticals, radiopaques, photo- and radiosensitizing drugs, and neutron capture agents. An underlying pharmacokinetic parameter associated with all these agents is the need for site-specific delivery to an organ or tumor. Therefore, a major goal of the symposium will be to address those pharmacologic principles for targeting molecules to specific tissue sites. Accordingly, session themes will include receptor-mediated processes, membrane transporters, antibody interactions, metabolic trapping, and oligonucleotide-antisense mechanisms.

  15. 38th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    2006-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for hosting the AMS. Now in its 38th symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 38th AMs, hosted by the NASA Langley Research Center in Williamsburg, Virginia, was held May 17-19, 2006. During these three days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included gimbals, tribology, actuators, aircraft mechanisms, deployment mechanisms, release mechanisms, and test equipment. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  16. 39th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, E. A. (Compiler)

    2008-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production, and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for hosting the AMS. Now in its 39th symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the United States and abroad. The 39th AMS was held in Huntsville, Alabama, May 7-9, 2008. During these 3 days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included gimbals and positioning mechanisms, tribology, actuators, deployment mechanisms, release mechanisms, and sensors. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  17. 37th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    2004-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is reporting problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, NASA and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for hosting the AMS. Now in its 37th symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 37th AMS, hosted by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Galveston, Texas, was held May 19, 20 and 21, 2004. During these three days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included deployment mechanisms, tribology, actuators, pointing and optical mechanisms, Space Station and Mars Rover mechanisms, release mechanisms, and test equipment. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  18. Climate Science and Technology Symposium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-06

    Following the Symposium, there was a student lecture by former Vice President Al Gore, the recipient of the inaugural Roger Revelle Prize. To...set of physical features and social landscapes such as those in California will require that the climate service is distributed, rather than...agencies to understand changes and possible future impacts of climate change on California’s physical climate, associated ecosystems, and social-economic

  19. Microwaves and Thermoregulation: A Symposium.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    realization that body -a~rtne Increase Ip an experimental animl exposed to microwaves lirplies a breakdown of thenirulatory mechanisms. On the other hand, low...febrile states, cardiovascular adjustments, behavioral mechanisms, and models of human thermoregulation participated in the Symposium program. Their...refinement of simulation models of human ther- moregulation on the one hand and of the deposition of microwave energy in humans on the other hand. Recent

  20. Solar radiation management impacts on agriculture in China: A case study in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Lili; Robock, Alan; Cole, Jason; Curry, Charles L.; Ji, Duoying; Jones, Andy; Kravitz, Ben; Moore, John C.; Muri, Helene; Niemeier, Ulrike; Singh, Balwinder; Tilmes, Simone; Watanabe, Shingo; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2014-07-01

    Geoengineering via solar radiation management could affect agricultural productivity due to changes in temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation. To study rice and maize production changes in China, we used results from 10 climate models participating in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G2 scenario to force the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop model. G2 prescribes an insolation reduction to balance a 1% a-1 increase in CO2 concentration (1pctCO2) for 50 years. We first evaluated the DSSAT model using 30 years (1978-2007) of daily observed weather records and agriculture practices for 25 major agriculture provinces in China and compared the results to observations of yield. We then created three sets of climate forcing for 42 locations in China for DSSAT from each climate model experiment: (1) 1pctCO2, (2) G2, and (3) G2 with constant CO2 concentration (409 ppm) and compared the resulting agricultural responses. In the DSSAT simulations: (1) Without changing management practices, the combined effect of simulated climate changes due to geoengineering and CO2 fertilization during the last 15 years of solar reduction would change rice production in China by -3.0 ± 4.0 megaton (Mt) (2.4 ± 4.0%) as compared with 1pctCO2 and increase Chinese maize production by 18.1 ± 6.0 Mt (13.9 ± 5.9%). (2) The termination of geoengineering shows negligible impacts on rice production but a 19.6 Mt (11.9%) reduction of maize production as compared to the last 15 years of geoengineering. (3) The CO2 fertilization effect compensates for the deleterious impacts of changes in temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation due to geoengineering on rice production, increasing rice production by 8.6 Mt. The elevated CO2 concentration enhances maize production in G2, contributing 7.7 Mt (42.4%) to the total increase. Using the DSSAT crop model, virtually all of the climate models agree on the sign of the responses, even though

  1. Ozone changes under solar geoengineering: implications for UV exposure and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowack, P. J.; Abraham, N. L.; Braesicke, P.; Pyle, J. A.

    2015-11-01

    Various forms of geoengineering have been proposed to counter anthropogenic climate change. Methods which aim to modify the Earth's energy balance by reducing insolation are often subsumed under the term Solar Radiation Management (SRM). Here, we present results of a standard SRM modelling experiment in which the incoming solar irradiance is reduced to offset the global mean warming induced by a quadrupling of atmospheric carbon dioxide. For the first time in an atmosphere-ocean coupled climate model, we include atmospheric composition feedbacks such as ozone changes under this scenario. Including the composition changes, we find large reductions in surface UV-B irradiance, with implications for vitamin D production, and increases in surface ozone concentrations, both of which could be important for human health. We highlight that both tropospheric and stratospheric ozone changes should be considered in the assessment of any SRM scheme, due to their important roles in regulating UV exposure and air quality.

  2. The Hydrological Sensitivity to Global Warming and Solar Geoengineering Derived from Thermodynamic Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Kleidon, Alex; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Renner, Maik

    2015-01-16

    We derive analytic expressions of the transient response of the hydrological cycle to surface warming from an extremely simple energy balance model in which turbulent heat fluxes are constrained by the thermodynamic limit of maximum power. For a given magnitude of steady-state temperature change, this approach predicts the transient response as well as the steady-state change in surface energy partitioning and the hydrologic cycle. We show that the transient behavior of the simple model as well as the steady state hydrological sensitivities to greenhouse warming and solar geoengineering are comparable to results from simulations using highly complex models. Many of the global-scale hydrological cycle changes can be understood from a surface energy balance perspective, and our thermodynamically-constrained approach provides a physically robust way of estimating global hydrological changes in response to altered radiative forcing.

  3. Modifications of the Quasi-biennial Oscillation by a Geoengineering Perturbation of the Stratospheric Aerosol Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aquila, V.; Garfinkel, C. I.; Newman, P. A.; Oman, L. D.; Waugh, D. W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of geoengineering via stratospheric sulfate aerosol on the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Chemistry Climate Model. We performed four 30-year simulations with a continuous injection of sulfur dioxide on the equator at 0 degree longitude. The four simulations differ by the amount of sulfur dioxide injected (5Tg per year and 2.5 Tg per year) and the altitude of the injection (16km-25km and 22km-25km). We find that such an injection dramatically alters the quasi-biennial oscillation, prolonging the phase of easterly shear with respect to the control simulation. In the case of maximum perturbation, i.e. highest stratospheric aerosol burden, the lower tropical stratosphere is locked into a permanent westerly QBO phase. This locked QBO westerly phase is caused by the increased aerosol heating and associated warming in the tropical lower stratosphere.

  4. The Second Spaceborne Imaging Radar Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Summaries of the papers presented at the Second Spaceborne Imaging Radar Symposium are presented. The purpose of the symposium was to present an overwiew of recent developments in the different scientific and technological fields related to spaceborne imaging radars and to present future international plans.

  5. The 21st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    During the symposium technical topics addressed included deployable structures, electromagnetic devices, tribology, actuators, latching devices, positioning mechanisms, robotic manipulators, and automated mechanisms synthesis. A summary of the 20th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium panel discussions is included as an appendix. However, panel discussions on robotics for space and large space structures which were held are not presented herein.

  6. Proceedings of the pipeline engineering symposium - 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Seiders, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on the transport of petroleum and natural gas through pipelines. Topics considered at the symposium included explosion welding, flash-butt welding, computerized welding, flow improvers, carbon dioxide pipelines, submarine pipelines, computer-aided design, repair, reinforced concrete, monitoring, storage, waste processing, and gas condensate pipelines.

  7. The 1992 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Lawrence R. (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a continuation of the Get Away Special Symposium convened from 1984 through 1988, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts.

  8. The 1987 Get Away Special Experimenter's Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelme, Neal (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The 1987 Get Away Special (GAS) Experimenter's symposium provides a formal opportunity for GAS Experimenter's to share the results of their projects. The focus of this symposium was on payloads that were flown on Shuttle missions, and on GAS payloads that will be flown in the future.

  9. Proceedings of the Symposium on Cable Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, Inc., New York, NY.

    The papers given at a symposium on cable television (CATV) are collected in this volume. The chairman of the symposium notes that "the phrase 'cable television' is not totally pertinent since we are talking about a wired-city concept that may encompass many services other than television." He prefers the term "broadband communications network,"…

  10. The 1988 Get Away Special Experimenter's Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Lawrence R. (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The Get Away Special (GAS) Experimenter's Symposium was held to provide a formal opportunity for GAS experimenters to share the results of their projects. The focus of this symposium is on payloads that have been flown on shuttle missions and on GAS payloads that will be flown in the future. Experiment design and payload integration issues are also examined.

  11. First Annual Symposium. Volume 1: Plenary Session

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Presentations from the symposium are presented. The progress of the Center for Space Construction is reviewed to promote technology transfer from the University of Colorado at Boulder to the national aerospace community. This symposium was heavily weighted toward plans and methodology.

  12. On the possible use of geoengineering to moderate specific climate change impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac Cracken, Michael C.

    2009-10-01

    With significant reductions in emissions likely to require decades and the impacts of projected climate change likely to become more and more severe, proposals for taking deliberate action to counterbalance global warming have been proposed as an important complement to reducing emissions. While a number of geoengineering approaches have been proposed, each introduces uncertainties, complications and unintended consequences that have only begun to be explored. For limiting and reversing global climate change over periods of years to decades, solar radiation management, particularly injection of sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere, has emerged as the leading approach, with mesospheric reflectors and satellite deflectors also receiving attention. For a number of reasons, tropospheric approaches to solar radiation management present greater challenges if the objective is to reduce the increase in global average temperature. However, such approaches have a number of advantages if the objective is to alleviate specific consequences of climate change expected to cause significant impacts for the environment and society. Among the most damaging aspects of the climate that might be countered are: the warming of low-latitude oceans that observations suggest contribute to more intense tropical cyclones and coral bleaching; the amplified warming of high latitudes and the associated melting of ice that has been accelerating sea level rise and altering mid-latitude weather; and the projected reduction in the loading and cooling influence of sulfate aerosols, which has the potential to augment warming sufficient to trigger methane and carbon feedbacks. For each of these impacts, suitable scientific, technological, socioeconomic, and governance research has the potential to lead to tropospheric geoengineering approaches that, with a well-funded research program, could begin playing a moderating role for some aspects of climate change within a decade.

  13. The impact of geoengineering on vegetation in experiment G1 of the GeoMIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glienke, Susanne; Irvine, Peter J.; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2015-10-01

    Solar Radiation Management (SRM) has been proposed as a mean to partly counteract global warming. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) has simulated the climate consequences of a number of SRM techniques. Thus far, the effects on vegetation have not yet been thoroughly analyzed. Here the vegetation response to the idealized GeoMIP G1 experiment from eight fully coupled Earth system models (ESMs) is analyzed, in which a reduction of the solar constant counterbalances the radiative effects of quadrupled atmospheric CO2 concentrations (abrupt4 × CO2). For most models and regions, changes in net primary productivity (NPP) are dominated by the increase in CO2, via the CO2 fertilization effect. As SRM will reduce temperatures relative to abrupt4 × CO2, in high latitudes this will offset increases in NPP. In low latitudes, this cooling relative to the abrupt4 × CO2 simulation decreases plant respiration while having little effect on gross primary productivity, thus increasing NPP. In Central America and the Mediterranean, generally dry regions which are expected to experience increased water stress with global warming, NPP is highest in the G1 experiment for all models due to the easing of water limitations from increased water use efficiency at high-CO2 concentrations and the reduced evaporative demand in a geoengineered climate. The largest differences in the vegetation response are between models with and without a nitrogen cycle, with a much smaller CO2 fertilization effect for the former. These results suggest that until key vegetation processes are integrated into ESM predictions, the vegetation response to SRM will remain highly uncertain.

  14. Lifting options for stratospheric aerosol geoengineering: advantages of tethered balloon systems.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Peter; Burgoyne, Chris; Hunt, Hugh; Causier, Matt

    2012-09-13

    The Royal Society report 'Geoengineering the Climate' identified solar radiation management using albedo-enhancing aerosols injected into the stratosphere as the most affordable and effective option for geoengineering, but did not consider in any detail the options for delivery. This paper provides outline engineering analyses of the options, both for batch-delivery processes, following up on previous work for artillery shells, missiles, aircraft and free-flying balloons, as well as a more lengthy analysis of continuous-delivery systems that require a pipe connected to the ground and supported at a height of 20 km, either by a tower or by a tethered balloon. Towers are shown not to be practical, but a tethered balloon delivery system, with high-pressure pumping, appears to have much lower operating and capital costs than all other delivery options. Instead of transporting sulphuric acid mist precursors, such a system could also be used to transport slurries of high refractive index particles such as coated titanium dioxide. The use of such particles would allow useful experiments on opacity, coagulation and atmospheric chemistry at modest rates so as not to perturb regional or global climatic conditions, thus reducing scale-up risks. Criteria for particle choice are discussed, including the need to minimize or prevent ozone destruction. The paper estimates the time scales and relatively modest costs required if a tethered balloon system were to be introduced in a measured way with testing and development work proceeding over three decades, rather than in an emergency. The manufacture of a tether capable of sustaining the high tensions and internal pressures needed, as well as strong winds, is a significant challenge, as is the development of the necessary pumping and dispersion technologies. The greatest challenge may be the manufacture and launch of very large balloons, but means have been identified to significantly reduce the size of such balloons or aerostats.

  15. ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS OF GEOENGINEERING: A Review for Developing a Science Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Lynn M; Jackson, Robert B; Norby, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Geoengineering methods are intended to reduce the magnitude of climate change, which is already having demonstrable effects on ecosystem structure and functioning. Two different types of activities have been proposed: solar radiation management (SRM), or sunlight reflection methods, which involves reflecting a small percentage of solar light back into space to offset the warming due to greenhouse gases, and carbon dioxide removal (CDR), which includes a range of engineered and biological processes to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. This report evaluates some of the possible impacts of CDR and SRM on the physical climate and their subsequent influence on ecosystems, which include the risks and uncertainties associated with new kinds of purposeful perturbations to the Earth. Therefore, the question considered in this review is whether CDR and SRM methods would exacerbate or alleviate the deleterious impacts on ecosystems associated with climate changes that might occur in the foreseeable future.Geoengineering methods are intended to reduce the magnitude of climate change, which is already having demonstrable effects on ecosystem structure and functioning. Two different types of activities have been proposed: solar radiation management (SRM), or sunlight reflection methods, which involves reflecting a small percentage of solar light back into space to offset the warming due to greenhouse gases, and carbon dioxide removal (CDR), which includes a range of engineered and biological processes to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. This report evaluates some of the possible impacts of CDR and SRM on the physical climate and their subsequent influence on ecosystems, which include the risks and uncertainties associated with new kinds of purposeful perturbations to the Earth. Therefore, the question considered in this review is whether CDR and SRM methods would exacerbate or alleviate the deleterious impacts on ecosystems associated with climate

  16. Antarctic Pumpdown---a New Geoengineering Concept for Capturing and Storing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beget, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Growing concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are increasing global temperatures. This is projected to impact human society in negative ways. Multiple geoengineering approaches have been suggested that might counteract problems created by greenhouse warming, but geoengineering itself can be problematic as some proposed methods would pose environmental risks to the oceans, atmosphere, and biosphere. I propose a new approach that would remove CO2 from the atmosphere and store it in the cryosphere. Carbon dioxide would be captured by seeding the atmosphere over a designated small region of central Antarctica with monoethanolamine (MEA), a well known compound commonly used for CO2 capture in submarines and industrial processes. Monoethanolamine captures and retains carbon dioxide until it encounters water. Because MEA crystals are stable when dry, they would fall from the atmosphere just in the local area where the seeding is done, and they would be naturally buried by snowfalls and preserved in the upper parts of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, where thawing does not occur. The carbon dioxide removed from the atmosphere by this process could reside safely in this geologic reservoir for thousands of years, based on known flow characteristic of the ice sheet. Also, carbon dioxide stored in this way could be recovered in the future by drilling into the ice sheet to the frozen storage zone. The CO2 Antarctic Pumpdown (CAP) concept could potentially be used to stabilize or reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and then to store the carbon dioxide safely and inexpensively in a stable geologic reservoir

  17. Conservation and Ecology of Marine Forage Fishes--Proceedings of a Research Symposium, September 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liedtke, Theresa; Gibson, Caroline; Lowry, Dayv; Fagergren, Duane

    2013-01-01

    Locally and globally, there is growing recognition of the critical roles that herring, smelt, sand lance, eulachon, and other forage fishes play in marine ecosystems. Scientific and resource management entities throughout the Salish Sea, agree that extensive information gaps exist, both in basic biological knowledge and parameters critical to fishery management. Communication and collaboration among researchers also is inadequate. Building on the interest and enthusiasm generated by recent forage fish workshops and symposia around the region, the 2012 Research Symposium on the Conservation and Ecology of Marine Forage Fishes was designed to elucidate practical recommendations for science and policy needs and actions, and spur further collaboration in support for the precautionary management of forage fish. This dynamic and productive event was a joint venture of the Northwest Straits Commission Forage Fish Program, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and The Puget Sound Partnership. The symposium was held on September 12–14, 2012, at the University of Washington, Friday Harbor Laboratories campus. Sixty scientists, graduate students, and fisheries policy experts convened; showcasing ongoing research, conservation, and management efforts targeting forage fish from regional and national perspectives. The primary objectives of this event were to: (1) review current research and management related to marine forage fish species; and (2) identify priority science and policy needs and actions for Washington, British Columbia, and the entire West Coast. Given the diversity of knowledge, interests, and disciplines surrounding forage fish on both sides of the international border, the organizing committee made a concerted effort to contact many additional experts who, although unable to attend, provided valuable insights and ideas to the symposium structure and discussions. The value of the symposium format was highlighted in

  18. Improvements in mining induced microseismic source locations at the Lucky Friday mine using an automated whole-waveform analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, Douglas A.; Sprenke, Kenneth F.

    1992-09-01

    For years, severe rockburst problems at the Lucky Friday mine in northern Idaho have been a persistent safety hazard and an impediment to production. An MP250 based microseismic monitoring system, which uses simple voltage threshold picking of first arrivals, has been used in this mine since 1973 to provide source locations and energy estimates of seismic events. Recently, interest has been expressed in developing a whole waveform microseismic monitoring system for the mine to provide more accurate source locations and information about source characteristics. For this study, we have developed a prototype whole-waveform microseismic monitoring system based on a 80386 computer equipped with a 50 kHz analog-digital convertor board. The software developed includes a data collection program, a data analysis program, and an event detection program. Whole-waveform data collected and analyzed using this system during a three-day test have been employed to investigate sources of error in the hypocenter location process and to develop an automatic phase picker appropriate for microseismic events. Comparison of hypocenter estimates produced by the MP250 system to those produced by the whole-waveform system shows that significant timing errors are common in the MP250 system and that these errors caused a large part of the scatter evident in the daily activity plots produced at the mine. Simulations and analysis of blast data show that analytical control over the solutions is strongly influenced by the array geometry. Within the geophone array, large errors in the velocity model or moderate timing errors may result in small changes in the solution, but outside the array, the solution is very sensitive to small changes in the data. Our whole-waveform detection program picks event onset times and determines event durations by analysis of a segmented envelope function (SEF) derived from the microseismic signal. The detection program has been tested by comparing its arrival time

  19. Abstracts of the 24th international isotope society (UK group) symposium: synthesis and applications of labelled compounds 2015.

    PubMed

    Aigbirhio, F I; Allwein, S; Anwar, A; Atzrodt, J; Audisio, D; Badman, G; Bakale, R; Berthon, F; Bragg, R; Brindle, K M; Bushby, N; Campos, S; Cant, A A; Chan, M Y T; Colbon, P; Cornelissen, B; Czarny, B; Derdau, V; Dive, V; Dunscombe, M; Eggleston, I; Ellis-Sawyer, K; Elmore, C S; Engstrom, P; Ericsson, C; Fairlamb, I J S; Georgin, D; Godfrey, S P; He, L; Hickey, M J; Huscroft, I T; Kerr, W J; Lashford, A; Lenz, E; Lewinton, S; L'Hermite, M M; Lindelöf, Å; Little, G; Lockley, W J S; Loreau, O; Maddocks, S; Marguerit, M; Mirabello, V; Mudd, R J; Nilsson, G N; Owens, P K; Pascu, S I; Patriarche, G; Pimlott, S L; Pinault, M; Plastow, G; Racys, D T; Reif, J; Rossi, J; Ruan, J; Sarpaki, S; Sephton, S M; Simonsson, R; Speed, D J; Sumal, K; Sutherland, A; Taran, F; Thuleau, A; Wang, Y; Waring, M; Watters, W H; Wu, J; Xiao, J

    2016-04-01

    The 24th annual symposium of the International Isotope Society's United Kingdom Group took place at the Møller Centre, Churchill College, Cambridge, UK on Friday 6th November 2015. The meeting was attended by 77 delegates from academia and industry, the life sciences, chemical, radiochemical and scientific instrument suppliers. Delegates were welcomed by Dr Ken Lawrie (GlaxoSmithKline, UK, chair of the IIS UK group). The subsequent scientific programme consisted of oral presentations, short 'flash' presentations in association with particular posters and poster presentations. The scientific areas covered included isotopic synthesis, regulatory issues, applications of labelled compounds in imaging, isotopic separation and novel chemistry with potential implications for isotopic synthesis. Both short-lived and long-lived isotopes were represented, as were stable isotopes. The symposium was divided into a morning session chaired by Dr Rebekka Hueting (University of Oxford, UK) and afternoon sessions chaired by Dr Sofia Pascu (University of Bath, UK) and by Dr Alan Dowling (Syngenta, UK). The UK meeting concluded with remarks from Dr Ken Lawrie (GlaxoSmithKline, UK).

  20. Space Transportation Propulsion Technology Symposium. Volume 2: Symposium proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Space Transportation Propulsion Symposium was held to provide a forum for communication within the propulsion technology developer and user communities. Emphasis was placed on propulsion requirements and initiatives to support current, next generation, and future space transportation systems, with the primary objectives of discerning whether proposed designs truly meet future transportation needs and identifying possible technology gaps, overlaps, and other programmatic deficiencies. Key space transportation propulsion issues were addressed through four panels with government, industry, and academia membership. The panels focused on systems engineering and integration; development, manufacturing and certification; operational efficiency; and program development and cultural issues.

  1. The feasibility of using an L1 positioned dust cloud as a method of space-based geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bewick, R.; Sanchez, J. P.; McInnes, C. R.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper a method of geoengineering is proposed involving clouds of dust placed in the vicinity of the L1 point as an alternative to the use of thin film reflectors. The aim of this scheme is to reduce the manufacturing requirement for space-based geoengineering. It has been concluded that the mass requirement for a cloud placed at the classical L1 point, to create an average solar insolation reduction of 1.7%, is 7.60 × 1010 kg yr-1 whilst a cloud placed at a displaced equilibrium point created by the inclusion of the effect of solar radiation pressure is 1.87 × 1010 kg yr-1. These mass ejection rates are considerably less than the mass required in other unprocessed dust cloud methods proposed and are comparable to thin film reflector geoengineering requirements. Importantly, unprocessed dust sourced in-situ is seen as an attractive scheme compared to highly engineered thin film reflectors. It is envisaged that the required mass of dust can be extracted from captured near Earth asteroids, whilst stabilised in the required position using the impulse provided by solar collectors or mass drivers used to eject material from the asteroid surface.

  2. Deliberative Mapping of options for tackling climate change: Citizens and specialists ‘open up’ appraisal of geoengineering

    PubMed Central

    Bellamy, Rob; Chilvers, Jason; Vaughan, Naomi E.

    2014-01-01

    Appraisals of deliberate, large-scale interventions in the earth’s climate system, known collectively as ‘geoengineering’, have largely taken the form of narrowly framed and exclusive expert analyses that prematurely ‘close down’ upon particular proposals. Here, we present the findings from the first ‘upstream’ appraisal of geoengineering to deliberately ‘open up’ to a broader diversity of framings, knowledges and future pathways. We report on the citizen strand of an innovative analytic–deliberative participatory appraisal process called Deliberative Mapping. A select but diverse group of sociodemographically representative citizens from Norfolk (United Kingdom) were engaged in a deliberative multi-criteria appraisal of geoengineering proposals relative to other options for tackling climate change, in parallel to symmetrical appraisals by diverse experts and stakeholders. Despite seeking to map divergent perspectives, a remarkably consistent view of option performance emerged across both the citizens’ and the specialists’ deliberations, where geoengineering proposals were outperformed by mitigation alternatives. PMID:25224904

  3. Identifying the changes of geo-engineering properties of dunites due to weathering utilizing electrical resistivity tomography (ERT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ündül, Ömer; Tuğrul, Atiye; Özyalın, Şenol; Halil Zarif, İ.

    2015-04-01

    Weathering phenomena have an important role in many construction facilities with varying depths and grades. Due to the anisotropic and heterogeneous nature of weathering profiles of some rocks, uncertainities exist in determining the geo-engineering properties. Geo-electrical studies have been utilized to overcome such uncertainities for various subsurface conditions including the determination of boundaries between weathered and unweathered parts of different rock types. In this study, the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) results were correlated with conventional methods in determining the effects of weathering on the geo-engineering properties of dunites. During the research, weathering grades were determined by field studies including discontinuity spacings, aperture and properties of fill materials. The detailed petrographical studies, determination of petrophysical properties (e.g. water absorption and effective porosity) and mechanical properties (e.g. unconfined compressive strength (UCS)) constitute the laboratory studies. ERT studies were carried out in a row of sixty electrodes with electrode spacings of 0.5 m utilizing a Wenner-Schlumberger configuration. According to the comparison of the inversion model sections with the weathering profiles obtained by field and laboratory studies it is concluded that the use of ERT with a Wenner-Schlumberger configuration supplies comparable data for wider subsurface areas from the view of weathering and its effect on geo-engineering properties of dunites. In addition, ERT techniques are very useful where conventional techniques are inadequate in determining the full weathering profile.

  4. Symposium: "Oncology Leadership in Asia".

    PubMed

    Noh, Dong-Young; Roh, Jae Kyung; Kim, Yeul Hong; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Baba, Hideo; Samson-Fernando, Marie Cherry Lynn; Misra, Sanjeev; Aziz, Zeba; Umbas, Rainy; P Singh, Yogendra; Shu Kam Mok, Tony; Yang, Han-Kwang; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2017-03-09

    The Symposium on "Oncology Leadership in Asia" was held as part of the official program of the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Korean Cancer Association. Given the increasing incidence of cancer in all countries and regions of Asia, regardless of developmental stage, and also in light of the recognized need for Asian countries to enhance collaboration in cancer prevention, research, treatment and follow-up, the symposium was held with the aim of bringing together oncology specialists from eight countries and regions in Asia to present the status in their own national context and discuss the key challenges and requirements in order to establish a greater Asian presence in the area of cancer control and research. The task of bringing together diverse countries and regions is made all the more urgent in that while Asia now accounts for more than half of all new cancer cases globally, clinical guidelines are based predominantly on practices adopted in western countries, which may not be optimized for unique ethnic, pharmacogenomic and cultural characteristics in Asia. Recognizing the need for Asia to better gather information and data for the compilation of Asia-specific clinical guidelines, the participants discussed the current status in Asia in the national and regional contexts and identified future steps towards integrated and collaborative initiatives in Asia. A key outcome of the symposium was a proposal to combine and integrate the activities of existing pan-Asian societies, including the Asia Pacific Federation of Organizations for Cancer Research and Control (APFOCC) and Asian Clinical Oncology Society (ACOS). Further proposals included the expansion of pan-Asian society membership to include individuals and the essential need to encourage the participation of young researchers in order to ensure self-sustainability of cancer control efforts in the future.

  5. Space Station Freedom Evolution Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Richard H.

    1991-01-01

    Information on the Space Station Freedom Evolution Symposium is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include industry development needs and the Office of Commercial Programs strategy, the three-phase program to develop commercial space, Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS), key provisions of the Joint Endeavor agreement, current commercial flight experiment requirements, the CCDS expendable launch vehicle program, the Commercial Experiment Transporter (COMET) program, commercial launch dates, payload sponsors, the commercial roles of the Space Station Freedom, and a listing of the Office of Commercial Programs Space Station Freedom payloads.

  6. 2009 Santa Fe Bone symposium.

    PubMed

    Lewiecki, E Michael; Bilezikian, John P; Laster, Andrew J; Miller, Paul D; Recker, Robert R; Russell, R Graham G; Whyte, Michael P

    2010-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disease with serious clinical consequences because of fractures. Despite the availability of clinical tools to diagnose osteoporosis and assess fracture risk, and drugs proven to reduce fracture risk, it remains a disease that is underdiagnosed and undertreated. When treatment is started, it is commonly not taken correctly or long enough to be effective. Recent advances in understanding of the regulators and mediators of bone remodeling have led to new therapeutic targets and the development of drugs that may offer advantages over current agents in reducing the burden of osteoporotic fractures. Many genetic factors that play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis and metabolic bone disease have now been identified. At the 2009 Santa Fe Bone Symposium, held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA, the links between advances in genetics, basic bone science, recent clinical trials, and new and emerging therapeutic agents were presented and explored. Socioeconomic challenges and opportunities in the care of osteoporosis were discussed. This is a collection of medical essays based on key presentations at the 2009 Santa Fe Bone Symposium.

  7. New Results from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, A.; Kravitz, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) was designed to determine robust climate system model responses to Solar Radiation Management (SRM). While mitigation (reducing greenhouse gases emissions) is the most effective way of reducing future climate change, SRM (the deliberate modification of incoming solar radiation) has been proposed as a means of temporarily alleviating some of the effects of global warming. For society to make informed decisions as to whether SRM should ever be implemented, information is needed on the benefits, risks, and side effects, and GeoMIP seeks to aid in that endeavor. GeoMIP has organized four standardized climate model simulations involving reduction of insolation or increased amounts of stratospheric sulfate aerosols to counteract increasing greenhouse gases. Thirteen comprehensive atmosphere-ocean general circulation models have participated in the project so far. GeoMIP is a 'CMIP Coordinated Experiment' as part of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) and has been endorsed by SPARC (Stratosphere-troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate). GeoMIP has held three international workshops and has produced a number of recent journal articles. GeoMIP has found that if increasing greenhouse gases could be counteracted with insolation reduction, the global average temperature could be kept constant, but global average precipitation would reduce, particularly in summer monsoon regions around the world. Temperature changes would also not be uniform. The tropics would cool, but high latitudes would warm, with continuing, but reduced sea ice and ice sheet melting. Temperature extremes would still increase, but not as much as without SRM. If SRM were halted all at once, there would be rapid temperature and precipitation increases at 5-10 times the rates from gradual global warming. SRM combined with CO2 fertilization would have small impacts on rice production in China, but would increase maize production

  8. Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The third Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS) was held 12-16 Jul. 1993, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California. More than 800 presentations were made, and those abstracts are included in this publication.

  9. Bolden Speaks at the URC Virtual Symposium

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden delivered a welcome address via video to support the NASA University Research Centers inaugural Virtual Poster Session and Symposium event November 8, 2012. A dive...

  10. The 24th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The proceedings of the symposium are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, latches, connectors, and other mechanisms for large space structures.

  11. Symposium on unsaturated flow and transport modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, E.M.; Gee, G.W.; Nelson, R.W.

    1982-09-01

    This document records the proceedings of a symposium on flow and transport processes in partially saturated groundwater systems, conducted at the Battelle Seattle Research Center on March 22-24, 1982. The symposium was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of assessing the state-of-the-art of flow and transport modeling for use in licensing low-level nuclear waste repositories in partially saturated zones. The first day of the symposium centered around research in flow through partially saturated systems. Papers were presented with the opportunity for questions following each presentation. In addition, after all the talks, a formal panel discussion was held during which written questions were addressed to the panel of the days speakers. The second day of the Symposium was devoted to solute and contaminant transport in partially saturated media in an identical format. Individual papers are abstracted.

  12. Performance, Productivity and Continuous Improvement. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on performance, productivity, and continuous improvement. "Investigating the Association between Productivity and Quality Performance in Two Manufacturing Settings" (Constantine Kontoghiorghes, Robert Gudgel) summarizes a study that identified the following quality management variables…

  13. Symposium on Recent Results in Infrared Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Abstracts of papers presented at a symposium titled Recent Results in Infrared Astrophysics are set forth. The abstracts emphasize photometric, spectroscopic, polarization, and theoretical results on a broad range of current topics in infrared astrophysics.

  14. The Fifth NASA Symposium on VLSI Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The fifth annual NASA Symposium on VLSI Design had 13 sessions including Radiation Effects, Architectures, Mixed Signal, Design Techniques, Fault Testing, Synthesis, Signal Processing, and other Featured Presentations. The symposium provides insights into developments in VLSI and digital systems which can be used to increase data systems performance. The presentations share insights into next generation advances that will serve as a basis for future VLSI design.

  15. Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greatorex, Scott (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This conference publication includes 34 papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics/ Estimation Theory Symposium on May 14-16, 1996. Sponsored by the Flight Dynamics Division of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  16. The 1992 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, L.R.; Mosier, F.L.

    1992-10-01

    The 1992 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a continuation of the Get Away Special Symposium convened from 1984 through 1988, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts. Separate abstracts have been prepared for papers in this report.

  17. International Symposium on Fast Glacier Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingle, Craig S.

    1990-01-01

    Cryospheric Sciences Program "International Symposium on Fast Glacier Flow" (PI, C. Lingle) provided partial support for publication of Annals of Glaciology 36 by the International Glaciological Society. Annals of Glaciology is a peer-reviewed journal. Annals 36, which was published in 2003, contains 39 peer-reviewed and edited papers from the International Symposium on Fast Glacier Flow, which was held in Yakutat, Alaska, 10-14 June 2002.

  18. Proceedings of the third international pump symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on centrifugal pumps. Topics considered at the symposium included power recovery turbines for the process industry, gas-liquid flow through centrifugal pumps, the development of an advanced gas turbine driven high-speed centrifugal pump for injection services at oil fields, cavitation, structural resonance problems, electric motors, nozzles, and rotodynamic developments for high speed multistage pumps.

  19. Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Kathy R. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This conference publication includes 41 papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics/ Estimation Theory Symposium on May 16-18, 1995. Sponsored by the Flight Dynamics Division of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  20. Proceedings of the TOUGH Symposium 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, George J.; Doughty, Christine; Finsterle, Stefan; Sonnenthal, Eric

    2009-10-01

    Welcome to the TOUGH Symposium 2009. Within this volume are the Symposium Program for eighty-nine papers to be presented in both oral and poster formats. The full papers are available as pdfs linked from the Symposium Program posted on the TOUGH Symposium 2009 website http://esd.lbl.gov/newsandevents/events/toughsymposium09/program.html Additional updated information including any changes to the Program will also be available at the website. The papers cover a wide range of application areas and reflect the continuing trend toward increased sophistication of the TOUGH codes. A CD containing the proceedings papers will be published immediately following the Symposium and sent to all participants. As in the prior Symposium, selected papers will be invited for submission to a number of journals for inclusion in Special Issues focused on applications and developments of the TOUGH codes. These journals include, Transport in Porous Media, Geothermics, Energy Conversion and Management, Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, and the Vadose Zone Journal.

  1. Sixth BHD Symposium and First International Upstate Kidney Cancer Symposium: latest scientific and clinical discoveries.

    PubMed

    Bratslavsky, Gennady; Woodford, Mark R; Daneshvar, Michael; Mollapour, Mehdi

    2016-03-29

    The Sixth BHD Symposium and First International Upstate Kidney Cancer Symposium concluded in September 2015, in Syracuse, NY, USA. The program highlighted recent findings in a variety of areas, including drug development, therapeutics and surgical management of patients with BHD and multi-focal renal tumors, as well as multidisciplinary approaches for patients with localized, locally advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

  2. Symposium on "Space and education"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of the symposium is to encourage agencies, businessmen and teachers from all countries to share their ideas, programmes and strategies to meet the needs of primary and secondary school pupils and university students and provide in-service training for professionals in the space industry. States are constantly required to meet the challenge of ensuring that educational methods keep pace with a changing world. The new technologies loom ever larger in our daily lives and we must all be given an opportunity to familiarise ourselves with this aspect of the modern world and extend the boundaries of our knowledge by taking part in the rapid advances in this area. Space applications too play an increasing part in our lives, pointing the way to the future. Space can be an excellent adjunct to education, contributing to a better understanding of the world around us and providing young people with the basic knowledge that is an essential part of their training. Space activities play a key role in prompting explorers, pioneers and inventors to press forward, to provide a source of innovation at the service of mankind and improve our quality of life. The space industry and space agencies can contribute to national education by providing and maintaining programmes at all levels and using the most effective teaching methods to foster enthusiasm for space among the young and encourage them to work in that sector later. The symposium will open with an official ceremony at 9.30 on Monday 3 April, and end with a formal dinner on Wednesday 5 April. The programme will include plenary sessions and workshops, starting with four plenary sessions: two on Monday, at which representatives of space firms and agencies will speak, and two on Tuesday morning, at which teachers, students and pupils, will have their say. These will be followed by five workshops, to be held on Tuesday afternoon and Wednesday morning. Media representatives wishing to attend the Symposium are asked to

  3. The Impact of Abrupt Suspension of Solar Radiation Management (Termination Effect) in Experiment G2 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Andrew; Haywood, J.; Alterskjaer, Kari; Boucher, Olivier; Cole, Jason N.; Curry, Charles L.; Irvine, Peter; Ji, Duoying; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Kristjansson, Jon E.; Moore, John; Niemeier, Ulrike; Robock, Alan; Schmidt, Hauke; Singh, Balwinder; Tilmes, S.; Watanabe, Shingo; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2013-09-11

    We have examined changes in climate which result from the sudden termination of geoengineering after 50 years of offsetting a 1% per annum increase in CO2 concentra- tions as simulated by 11 different climate models in experiment G2 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project. The models agree on a rapid rate of global-mean warming following termination, accompanied by increases in global-mean precipitation rate and in plant net primary productivity, and decreases in sea-ice cover. While there is a considerable degree of consensus for the geographical distribution of warming, there is much less of an agreement regarding the patterns of change in the other quantities.

  4. Geomechanical Evaluation of Derinkuyu Antique Underground City and its Implications in Geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydan, Ömer; Ulusay, Reşat

    2013-07-01

    Derinkuyu Underground City, located in the Cappadocia Region of Turkey, is an important structure not only for its antique and archaeological characteristics, but also as a structure in terms of the long-term stability of underground rock structures excavated by mankind. The authors carried out some observational, experimental and theoretical rock mechanics studies in the region from 1996 in the context of a research project supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan for the assessment of the long-term behaviour of Derinkuyu Underground City, and these studies are still continuing. In addition to the monitoring of the environmental conditions such as temperature, moisture and air pressure, they also installed acoustic emission (AE) and electrical potential (EP) measurement systems to monitor the behaviour and response of the surrounding rock at the fifth and seventh floors of the underground city. In this article, the geology, seismicity and state of stress of the Cappadocia Region, climatic conditions in the underground city and its vicinity, short- and long-term behaviours of the surrounding rock, its index and mechanical properties, and effects of water content and freezing-thawing processes were investigated. The stability of Derinkuyu Underground City was also evaluated using theoretical and numerical methods, and the results were presented. Furthermore, its implications in modern geoengineering are also discussed.

  5. Simulation of the climate effects of a geoengineered stratospheric sulfate cloud with the NASA GEOSCCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, L.; Aquila, V.; Colarco, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Suggested solar radiation management (SRM) methods to mitigate global warming include the injection of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) in the stratosphere. We present the results from SRM simulation ensemble performed with the NASA GEOS-5 Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM). We focus on the response of the stratosphere to a stratospheric SO2 injection. In particular, we investigate the changes of the stratospheric dynamics and composition, and the impact of an increased aerosol layer on ozone recovery. As prescribed for experiment G4 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP), we inject 5 Tg/year of SO2 from 2020 to 2070. The location of the injection is the equator at 0° longitude between 16 km and 25 km altitude. After 2070, we interrupt the SO2 injection and simulate the readjustment until 2090. The emissions scenario is RCP4.5, which predicts a radiative forcing of about 4.5 W/m2 by 2100. This is considered a "medium-low" scenario in terms of radiative forcing. GEOSCCM does not include an interactive ocean model, therefore we use the sea surface temperatures forecasted by the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) for RCP4.5.

  6. Ecosystem Impacts of Geoengineering: A Review for Developing a Science Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinen, M.; Russell, L. M.; Rasch, P.; Mace, G.; Jackson, R. B.; Shepherd, J.; Liss, P. S.; Schimel, D.; Vaughan, N.; Janetos, A. C.; Boyd, P. W.; Norby, R.; Caldeira, K.; Merikanto, J.; Artaxo, P.; Melillo, J. M.; Morgan, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    Geoengineering methods are intended to reduce the magnitude of climate change, which is already having demonstrable effects on ecosystem structure and functioning. A recent workshop sponsored by the International Geosphere Biosphere Program evaluated the possible impacts of the two different types of activities that have been proposed: carbon dioxide removal (CDR) and sunlight reflection methods (SRM). SRM involves reflecting a small percentage of solar light back into space to offset the warming due to greenhouse gases, and CDR includes a range of engineered and biological processes to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. We looked at their impact on the physical climate and their subsequent influence on ecosystems, which include the risks and uncertainties associated with these proposed purposeful perturbations to the Earth. The question considered in our review is whether CDR and SRM methods would exacerbate or alleviate the deleterious impacts on ecosystems associated with climate changes that might occur in the foreseeable future. Because research on this topic is just beginning, our report summarizes what is known, but also suggests the type of research that will be necessary to answer the question we posed.

  7. Evidence of Coal-Fly-Ash Toxic Chemical Geoengineering in the Troposphere: Consequences for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Herndon, J. Marvin

    2015-01-01

    The widespread, intentional and increasingly frequent chemical emplacement in the troposphere has gone unidentified and unremarked in the scientific literature for years. The author presents evidence that toxic coal combustion fly ash is the most likely aerosolized particulate sprayed by tanker-jets for geoengineering, weather-modification and climate-modification purposes and describes some of the multifold consequences on public health. Two methods are employed: (1) Comparison of 8 elements analyzed in rainwater, leached from aerosolized particulates, with corresponding elements leached into water from coal fly ash in published laboratory experiments, and (2) Comparison of 14 elements analyzed in dust collected outdoors on a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter with corresponding elements analyzed in un-leached coal fly ash material. The results show: (1) the assemblage of elements in rainwater and in the corresponding experimental leachate are essentially identical. At a 99% confidence interval, they have identical means (T-test) and identical variances (F-test); and (2) the assemblage of elements in the HEPA dust and in the corresponding average un-leached coal fly ash are likewise essentially identical. The consequences on public health are profound, including exposure to a variety of toxic heavy metals, radioactive elements, and neurologically-implicated chemically mobile aluminum released by body moisture in situ after inhalation or through transdermal induction. PMID:26270671

  8. Solar geoengineering could substantially reduce climate risks—A research hypothesis for the next decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, David W.; Irvine, Peter J.

    2016-11-01

    We offer a hypothesis that if solar geoengineering (SG) were deployed to offset half of the increase in global-mean temperature from the date of deployment using a technology and deployment method chosen to approximate a reduction in the solar constant then, over the 21st century, it would (a) substantially reduce the global aggregate risks of climate change, (b) without making any country worse off, and (c) with the aggregate risks from side-effects being small in comparison to the reduction in climate risks. We do not set out to demonstrate this hypothesis; rather we propose it with the goal of stimulating a strategic engagement of the SG research community with policy-relevant questions. We elaborate seven sub-hypotheses on the effects of our scenario for key risks of climate change that could be assessed in future modeling work. As an example, we provide a defence of one of our sub-hypotheses, that our scenario of SG would reduce the risk of drought in dry regions, but also identify issues that may undermine this sub-hypothesis and how future work could resolve this question. SG cannot substitute for emissions mitigation but it may be a useful supplement. It is our hope that scientific and technical research over the next decade focuses more closely on well-articulated variants of the key policy-relevant question: could SG be designed and deployed in such a way that it could substantially and equitably reduce climate risks?

  9. Stratospheric ozone changes under solar geoengineering: implications for UV exposure and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowack, Peer Johannes; Abraham, Nathan Luke; Braesicke, Peter; Pyle, John Adrian

    2016-03-01

    Various forms of geoengineering have been proposed to counter anthropogenic climate change. Methods which aim to modify the Earth's energy balance by reducing insolation are often subsumed under the term solar radiation management (SRM). Here, we present results of a standard SRM modelling experiment in which the incoming solar irradiance is reduced to offset the global mean warming induced by a quadrupling of atmospheric carbon dioxide. For the first time in an atmosphere-ocean coupled climate model, we include atmospheric composition feedbacks for this experiment. While the SRM scheme considered here could offset greenhouse gas induced global mean surface warming, it leads to important changes in atmospheric composition. We find large stratospheric ozone increases that induce significant reductions in surface UV-B irradiance, which would have implications for vitamin D production. In addition, the higher stratospheric ozone levels lead to decreased ozone photolysis in the troposphere. In combination with lower atmospheric specific humidity under SRM, this results in overall surface ozone concentration increases in the idealized G1 experiment. Both UV-B and surface ozone changes are important for human health. We therefore highlight that both stratospheric and tropospheric ozone changes must be considered in the assessment of any SRM scheme, due to their important roles in regulating UV exposure and air quality.

  10. Evidence of Coal-Fly-Ash Toxic Chemical Geoengineering in the Troposphere: Consequences for Public Health.

    PubMed

    Herndon, J Marvin

    2015-08-11

    The widespread, intentional and increasingly frequent chemical emplacement in the troposphere has gone unidentified and unremarked in the scientific literature for years. The author presents evidence that toxic coal combustion fly ash is the most likely aerosolized particulate sprayed by tanker-jets for geoengineering, weather-modification and climate-modification purposes and describes some of the multifold consequences on public health. Two methods are employed: (1) Comparison of 8 elements analyzed in rainwater, leached from aerosolized particulates, with corresponding elements leached into water from coal fly ash in published laboratory experiments, and (2) Comparison of 14 elements analyzed in dust collected outdoors on a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter with corresponding elements analyzed in un-leached coal fly ash material. The results show: (1) the assemblage of elements in rainwater and in the corresponding experimental leachate are essentially identical. At a 99% confidence interval, they have identical means (T-test) and identical variances (F-test); and (2) the assemblage of elements in the HEPA dust and in the corresponding average un-leached coal fly ash are likewise essentially identical. The consequences on public health are profound, including exposure to a variety of toxic heavy metals, radioactive elements, and neurologically-implicated chemically mobile aluminum released by body moisture in situ after inhalation or through transdermal induction.

  11. Proceedings: 1987 Symposium on Chemistry in High-Temperature Water

    SciTech Connect

    1990-03-01

    This report summarizes each symposium session and includes complete papers or abstracts. Attracting an international audience, the symposium created the opportunity for presentations and discussions on the latest laboratory and field developments.

  12. 76 FR 17137 - Pregnancy and Prescription Medication Use Symposium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pregnancy and Prescription Medication Use Symposium AGENCY... announcing the following meeting: Pregnancy and Prescription Medication Use Symposium. The topic to...

  13. 77 FR 21785 - Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science Symposium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science... Administration (FDA) is announcing the following meeting: Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science Symposium. The symposium is intended to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas for medical...

  14. Symposium on accelerator mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    The area of accelerator mass spectrometry has expanded considerably over the past few years and established itself as an independent and interdisciplinary research field. Three years have passed since the first meeting was held at Rochester. A Symposium on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry was held at Argonne on May 11-13, 1981. In attendance were 96 scientists of whom 26 were from outside the United States. The present proceedings document the program and excitement of the field. Papers are arranged according to the original program. A few papers not presented at the meeting have been added to complete the information on the status of accelerator mass spectrometry. Individual papers were prepared separately for the data base.

  15. NASA Space Sciences Symposium-1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The primary objective of the symposium was to motivate American Indians and other minority youths and women to select science and engineering as viable career choices, thereby making them available to the technical work force. Other objectives were: (1) to determine how aerospace technology careers and aerospace activities can be made more relevant to minorities and women; (2) to provide an opportunity for key NASA officials to interact with teachers and counselors of the participating schools; (3) to stimulate a greater interest among American Indian organizations and students in NASA's research and development programs; (4) to help NASA's efforts in the recruiting of minorities and women into its work force; and (5) to provide opportunities for minority aerospace scientists and engineers to interact with the minority community, particularly with youths at the junior high school and high school levels.

  16. 34th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) share the responsibility for organizing the AMS. Now in its 34th year, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 34th AMS, hosted by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland, was held May 10, 11 and 12, 2000. During these three days, 34 papers were presented. Topics included deployment mechanisms, bearings, actuators, pointing and optical mechanisms, Space Station mechanisms, release mechanisms, and test equipment. Hardware displays during the vendor fair gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components.

  17. Literacy on Our Minds: A Student-Inspired Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albers, Peggy; Cowan, Kay

    2006-01-01

    In the context of an imagined symposium, this article addresses the literacy practices of elementary students ranging from first through sixth grade. The arguments the students make throughout the symposium, as well as the practices they relate, are drawn from arts-based literacy research conducted by the two authors. The imagined symposium begins…

  18. Regional Climate Responses To Planetary-Scale Geoengineering Activities, as Modeled Using climateprediction.net/HadCM3L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricke, K.

    2009-12-01

    Concerns that climate mitigation is occurring too slowly, or that there may be a rapid "climate surprise," have lead to renewed dialogue within the scientific community about cooling the planet through geoengineering, specifically stratospheric albedo modification (SAM). There is little consensus about regional hydrological effects of such activities despite a recent spate of climate modeling studies looking at its potential impacts. Here we present the results from one large-ensemble experiment that used Hadley Centre Coupled Model, version 3 with reduced resolution over the ocean (HadCM3L), implemented through climateprediction.net. The analysis examines 54 globally-uniform stratospheric optical depth modification scenarios designed to stabilize global temperatures under SRES A1B. We present normalized regional temperature anomalies versus normalized regional precipitation and subsurface runoff anomalies (for example, see Figure 1) and the results of regression analyses to quantify the relationships between level of stratospheric optical property modification (i.e., geoengineering) and regional hydrology. Results show that while such shortwave compensations for longwave anthropogenic forcings does generally return regional climates to closer to their baseline climate states than the no-geoengineering, business-as-usual scenarios, the magnitudes and sensitivities of regional responses to this type of activity, as modeled in HadCM3L, are highly variable. Regions, such as Eastern China and India, migrate away from their baseline climate states in different ways, illustrating the impossibility of simultaneous stabilization of regional climates. The linearity of the effect of incrementally increasing stratospheric optical depth also varies regionally. Figure 1: Normalized regional temperature and precipitation anomalies (<2020s>-<1990s> and <2070s>-<1990s>) in units of baseline standard deviations for each region). Each grayscale point in-series near the origin

  19. Quantifying the temperature-independent effect of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering on global-mean precipitation in a multi-model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Angus J.; Griffiths, Hannah G.

    2016-03-01

    The reduction in global-mean precipitation when stratospheric aerosol geoengineering is used to counterbalance global warming from increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations has been mainly attributed to the temperature-independent effect of CO2 on atmospheric radiative cooling. We demonstrate here that stratospheric sulphate aerosol itself also acts to reduce global-mean precipitation independent of its effects on temperature. The temperature-independent effect of stratospheric aerosol geoenginering on global-mean precipitation is calculated by removing temperature-dependent effects from climate model simulations of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). When sulphate aerosol is injected into the stratosphere at a rate of 5 Tg SO2 per year the aerosol reduces global-mean precipitation by approximately 0.2 %, though multiple ensemble members are required to separate this effect from internal variability. For comparison, the precipitation reduction from the temperature-independent effect of increasing CO2 concentrations under the RCP4.5 scenario of the future is approximately 0.5 %. The temperature-independent effect of stratospheric sulphate aerosol arises from the aerosol’s effect on tropospheric radiative cooling. Radiative transfer calculations show this is mainly due to increasing downward emission of infrared radiation by the aerosol, but there is also a contribution from the stratospheric warming the aerosol causes. Our results suggest climate model simulations of solar dimming can capture the main features of the global-mean precipitation response to stratospheric aerosol geoengineering.

  20. Optimal Sunshade Configurations for Space-Based Geoengineering near the Sun-Earth L1 Point

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Joan-Pau; McInnes, Colin R.

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of anthropogenic climate change, but also considering the Earth’s natural climate variability, this paper explores the speculative possibility of large-scale active control of the Earth’s radiative forcing. In particular, the paper revisits the concept of deploying a large sunshade or occulting disk at a static position near the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange equilibrium point. Among the solar radiation management methods that have been proposed thus far, space-based concepts are generally seen as the least timely, albeit also as one of the most efficient. Large occulting structures could potentially offset all of the global mean temperature increase due to greenhouse gas emissions. This paper investigates optimal configurations of orbiting occulting disks that not only offset a global temperature increase, but also mitigate regional differences such as latitudinal and seasonal difference of monthly mean temperature. A globally resolved energy balance model is used to provide insights into the coupling between the motion of the occulting disks and the Earth’s climate. This allows us to revise previous studies, but also, for the first time, to search for families of orbits that improve the efficiency of occulting disks at offsetting climate change on both global and regional scales. Although natural orbits exist near the L1 equilibrium point, their period does not match that required for geoengineering purposes, thus forced orbits were designed that require small changes to the disk attitude in order to control its motion. Finally, configurations of two occulting disks are presented which provide the same shading area as previously published studies, but achieve reductions of residual latitudinal and seasonal temperature changes. PMID:26309047

  1. The runaway greenhouse: implications for future climate change, geoengineering and planetary atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Goldblatt, Colin; Watson, Andrew J

    2012-09-13

    The ultimate climate emergency is a 'runaway greenhouse': a hot and water-vapour-rich atmosphere limits the emission of thermal radiation to space, causing runaway warming. Warming ceases only after the surface reaches approximately 1400 K and emits radiation in the near-infrared, where water is not a good greenhouse gas. This would evaporate the entire ocean and exterminate all planetary life. Venus experienced a runaway greenhouse in the past, and we expect that the Earth will in around 2 billion years as solar luminosity increases. But could we bring on such a catastrophe prematurely, by our current climate-altering activities? Here, we review what is known about the runaway greenhouse to answer this question, describing the various limits on outgoing radiation and how climate will evolve between these. The good news is that almost all lines of evidence lead us to believe that is unlikely to be possible, even in principle, to trigger full a runaway greenhouse by addition of non-condensible greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. However, our understanding of the dynamics, thermodynamics, radiative transfer and cloud physics of hot and steamy atmospheres is weak. We cannot therefore completely rule out the possibility that human actions might cause a transition, if not to full runaway, then at least to a much warmer climate state than the present one. High climate sensitivity might provide a warning. If we, or more likely our remote descendants, are threatened with a runaway greenhouse, then geoengineering to reflect sunlight might be life's only hope. Injecting reflective aerosols into the stratosphere would be too short-lived, and even sunshades in space might require excessive maintenance. In the distant future, modifying Earth's orbit might provide a sustainable solution. The runaway greenhouse also remains relevant in planetary sciences and astrobiology: as extrasolar planets smaller and nearer to their stars are detected, some will be in

  2. Optimal Sunshade Configurations for Space-Based Geoengineering near the Sun-Earth L1 Point.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Joan-Pau; McInnes, Colin R

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of anthropogenic climate change, but also considering the Earth's natural climate variability, this paper explores the speculative possibility of large-scale active control of the Earth's radiative forcing. In particular, the paper revisits the concept of deploying a large sunshade or occulting disk at a static position near the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange equilibrium point. Among the solar radiation management methods that have been proposed thus far, space-based concepts are generally seen as the least timely, albeit also as one of the most efficient. Large occulting structures could potentially offset all of the global mean temperature increase due to greenhouse gas emissions. This paper investigates optimal configurations of orbiting occulting disks that not only offset a global temperature increase, but also mitigate regional differences such as latitudinal and seasonal difference of monthly mean temperature. A globally resolved energy balance model is used to provide insights into the coupling between the motion of the occulting disks and the Earth's climate. This allows us to revise previous studies, but also, for the first time, to search for families of orbits that improve the efficiency of occulting disks at offsetting climate change on both global and regional scales. Although natural orbits exist near the L1 equilibrium point, their period does not match that required for geoengineering purposes, thus forced orbits were designed that require small changes to the disk attitude in order to control its motion. Finally, configurations of two occulting disks are presented which provide the same shading area as previously published studies, but achieve reductions of residual latitudinal and seasonal temperature changes.

  3. Geoengineering impact of open ocean dissolution of olivine on atmospheric CO2, surface ocean pH and marine biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, Peter; Abrams, Jesse F.; Völker, Christoph; Hauck, Judith; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A.

    2013-03-01

    Ongoing global warming induced by anthropogenic emissions has opened the debate as to whether geoengineering is a ‘quick fix’ option. Here we analyse the intended and unintended effects of one specific geoengineering approach, which is enhanced weathering via the open ocean dissolution of the silicate-containing mineral olivine. This approach would not only reduce atmospheric CO2 and oppose surface ocean acidification, but would also impact on marine biology. If dissolved in the surface ocean, olivine sequesters 0.28 g carbon per g of olivine dissolved, similar to land-based enhanced weathering. Silicic acid input, a byproduct of the olivine dissolution, alters marine biology because silicate is in certain areas the limiting nutrient for diatoms. As a consequence, our model predicts a shift in phytoplankton species composition towards diatoms, altering the biological carbon pumps. Enhanced olivine dissolution, both on land and in the ocean, therefore needs to be considered as ocean fertilization. From dissolution kinetics we calculate that only olivine particles with a grain size of the order of 1 μm sink slowly enough to enable a nearly complete dissolution. The energy consumption for grinding to this small size might reduce the carbon sequestration efficiency by ˜30%.

  4. Modelling effects of geoengineering options in response to climate change and global warming: implications for coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Crabbe, M J C

    2009-12-01

    Climate change will have serious effects on the planet and on its ecosystems. Currently, mitigation efforts are proving ineffectual in reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Coral reefs are the most sensitive ecosystems on the planet to climate change, and here we review modelling a number of geoengineering options, and their potential influence on coral reefs. There are two categories of geoengineering, shortwave solar radiation management and longwave carbon dioxide removal. The first set of techniques only reduce some, but not all, effects of climate change, while possibly creating other problems. They also do not affect CO2 levels and therefore fail to address the wider effects of rising CO2, including ocean acidification, important for coral reefs. Solar radiation is important to coral growth and survival, and solar radiation management is not in general appropriate for this ecosystem. Longwave carbon dioxide removal techniques address the root cause of climate change, rising CO2 concentrations, they have relatively low uncertainties and risks. They are worthy of further research and potential implementation, particularly carbon capture and storage, biochar, and afforestation methods, alongside increased mitigation of atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  5. IDEAL Symposium on the East African Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T. C.; Kelts, K.; Lehman, J. T.; Wuest, A.

    A vast array of interdisciplinary problems presented by the African Great Lakes were highlighted at the International Symposium on the Limnology, Climatology and Paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes, organized by the International Decade for the East African Lakes (IDEAL) February 17-21 in Jinja, Uganda. Approximately 125 scientists attended from North America, Europe, Africa, and New Zealand. Jinja is located on the northern shore of Lake Victoria at the head-waters of the Nile and is the site of the host institution for the symposium, the Uganda Freshwater Fisheries Research Organization (UFFRO). The conveners of the symposium were Tom Johnson of Duke University, George Kitaka of UNESCO-ROSTA, and Eric Odada of the University of Nairobi.

  6. A Haptics Symposium Retrospective: 20 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colgate, J. Edward; Adelstein, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The very first "Haptics Symposium" actually went by the name "Issues in the Development of Kinesthetic Displays of Teleoperation and Virtual environments." The word "Haptic" didn't make it into the name until the next year. Not only was the most important word absent but so were RFPs, journals and commercial markets. And yet, as we prepare for the 2012 symposium, haptics is a thriving and amazingly diverse field of endeavor. In this talk we'll reflect on the origins of this field and on its evolution over the past twenty years, as well as the evolution of the Haptics Symposium itself. We hope to share with you some of the excitement we've felt along the way, and that we continue to feel as we look toward the future of our field.

  7. Influence of sediment resuspension on the efficacy of geoengineering materials in the control of internal phosphorous loading from shallow eutrophic lakes.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hongbin; Kong, Ming; Han, Meixiang; Fan, Chengxin

    2016-12-01

    Modified clay-based solid-phase phosphorous (P) sorbents are increasingly used as lake geoengineering materials for lake eutrophication control. However, some still dispute the feasibility of using these materials to control internal P loading from shallow eutrophic lakes. The lack of information about P behavior while undergoing frequent sediment resuspension greatly inhibits the modified minerals' use. In this study, a sediment resuspension generating system was used to simulate the effect of both moderate winds (5.1 m/s) and strong winds (8.7 m/s) on the stability of sediment treated by two geoengineering materials, Phoslock(®) (a lanthanum modified bentonite) and thermally-treated calcium-rich attapulgite. This study also presents an analysis of the P dynamics across the sediment-water interface of two shallow eutrophic lakes. In addition, the effect of wind velocity on P forms and P supply from the treated sediment were studied using chemical extraction and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique, respectively. Results showed that adding geoengineering materials can enhance the stability of surface sediment and reduce the erosion depth caused by wind accordingly. All treatments can effectively reduce soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentration in overlying water when sediment is capped with thermally-treated calcium-rich attapulgite, which performs better than sediment mixed with modified attapulgite but not as well as sediment treated with Phoslock(®). However, their efficiency decreased with the increase in occurrences of sediment resuspension. The addition of the selected geoengineering materials effectively reduced the P fluxes across sediment-water interface and lowered P supply ability from the treated sediment during sediment resuspension. The reduction of mobile P and enhancement of calcium bound P and residual P fraction in the treated sediment was beneficial to the long-term lake internal P loading management. All of the results

  8. 2016 AMS Mario J. Molina Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Renyi

    2016-11-29

    A named symposium to honor Dr. Mario J. Molina was held 10–14 January 2016, as part of the 96th American Meteorological Society (AMS) Annual Meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana. Dr. Molina first demonstrated that industrially produced chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) decompose in the stratosphere and release chlorine atoms, leading to catalytic ozone destruction. His research in stratospheric chemistry was instrumental to the establishment of the 1987 United Nations Montreal Protocol to ban ozone-depleting substances worldwide. Dr. Molina’s contributions to preserving the planet Earth not only save the atmospheric ozone layer, but also protect the climate by reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases. He was awarded the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his pioneering research in understanding the stratospheric ozone loss mechanism. In 2013, President Barack Obama announced Dr. Molina as a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. The 2016 AMS Molina Symposium honored Dr. Molina’s distinguished contributions to research related to atmospheric chemistry. The symposium contained an integrated theme related to atmospheric chemistry, climate, and policy. Dr. Molina delivered a keynote speech at the Symposium. The conference included invited keynote speeches and invited and contributed oral and poster sessions, and a banquet was held on Tuesday January 12, 2016. The symposium covered all aspects of atmospheric chemistry, with topics including (1) Stratospheric chemistry, (2) Tropospheric chemistry, (3) Aerosol nucleation, growth, and transformation, (4) Aerosol properties, (5) Megacity air pollution, and (6) Atmospheric chemistry laboratory, field, and modeling studies. This DOE project supported 14 scientists, including graduate students, post docs, junior research scientists, and non-tenured assistant professors to attend this symposium.

  9. International Symposium on Advanced Materials (ISAM 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-06-01

    This proceeding is a compilation of peer reviewed papers presented at the 13th International Symposium on Advanced Materials (ISAM 2013) held from September 23-27, 2013, at Islamabad, Pakistan. In my capacity as ISAM-2013 Secretary, I feel honoured that the symposium has ended on a positive note. The ever increasing changes and intricacies that characterize modern industry necessitate a growing demand for technical information on advanced materials. ISAM and other similar forums serve to fulfill this need. The five day deliberations of ISAM 2013, consisted of 19 technical sessions and 2 poster sessions. In all, 277 papers were presented, inclusive of 80 contributory, invited and oral presentations. The symposium also hosted panel discussions led by renowned scientists and eminent researchers from foreign as well as local institutes. The ultimate aim of this proceeding is to record in writing the new findings in the field of advanced materials. I hope that the technical data available in this publication proves valuable to young scientists and researchers working in this area of science. At the same time, I wish to acknowledge Institute of Physics (IOP) Publishing UK, for accepting the research papers from ISAM-2013 for publication in the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. The proceeding will be available on the IOP website as an online open access document. I am profoundly thankful to the Symposium Chairman for his steadfast support and valuable guidance without which ISAM 2013 could not have been the mega event that it turned out to be. My gratitude to all our distinguished participants, session chairs/co-chairs, and reviewers for their active role in the symposium. I appreciate the entire organizing committee for the zest and ardor with which each committee fulfilled its obligations to ISAM. Last yet not the least, my thankfulness goes to all our sponsors for wilfully financing the event. Dr. Sara Qaisar Symposium Secretary Further

  10. Nonpetroleum vehicular fuels: symposium papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A three day symposium on Nonpetroleum Vehicular Fuels was held in Arlington, Virginia, February 11 to 13, 1980. The central theme of the conference was the exchange of information on the successful use of nonpetroleum vehicular fuels and the identification of problems which might hinder the acceptance of these alternative fuels. Presentations and discussions included: current domestic and foreign activities to develop nonconventional vehicular energy; research and development efforts to provide new engines, vehicles and on-board hardware for economical, safe, and environmentally acceptable operation; programs to produce, market, and utilize such fuels; institutional constraints such as tax laws, environmental and safety regulations which may slow acceptance; programs needed to speed growth of the nongasoline alternative and increase customer acceptance; and commercial applications. In attendance were experts on fuels, engines, electric vehicles, energy delivery systems, government regulations, and environmental regulations. The papers presented are reproduced in full in this volume. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  11. Fourth international radiopharmaceutical dosimetry symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Schlafke-Stelson, A.T.; Watson, E.E.

    1986-04-01

    The focus of the Fourth International Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry Symposium was to explore the impact of current developments in nuclear medicine on absorbed dose calculations. This book contains the proceedings of the meeting including the edited discussion that followed the presentations. Topics that were addressed included the dosimetry associated with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and blood elements, ultrashort-lived radionuclides, and positron emitters. Some specific areas of discussion were variations in absorbed dose as a result of alterations in the kinetics, the influence of radioactive contaminants on dose, dose in children and in the fetus, available instrumentation and techniques for collecting the kinetic data needed for dose calculation, dosimetry requirements for the review and approval of new radiopharmaceuticals, and a comparison of the effect on the thyroid of internal versus external irradiation. New models for the urinary blader, skeleton including the active marrow, and the blood were presented. Several papers dealt with the validity of traditional ''average-organ'' dose estimates to express the dose from particulate radiation that has a short range in tissue. These problems are particularly important in the use of monoclonal antibodies and agents used to measure intracellular functions. These proceedings have been published to provide a resource volume for anyone interested in the calculation of absorbed radiation dose.

  12. Fourth International Symposium on Magnetic Suspension Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    In order to examine the state of technology of all areas of magnetic suspension and to review recent developments in sensors, controls, superconducting magnet technology, and design/implementation practices, the Fourth International Symposium on Magnetic Suspension Technology was held at The Nagaragawa Convention Center in Gifu, Japan, on October 30 - November 1, 1997. The symposium included 13 sessions in which a total of 35 papers were presented. The technical sessions covered the areas of maglev, controls, high critical temperature (T(sub c)) superconductivity, bearings, magnetic suspension and balance systems (MSBS), levitation, modeling, and applications. A list of attendees is included in the document.

  13. Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Thomas (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    This conference publication includes 32 papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium on May 22-25, 1990. Sponsored by the Flight Dynamics Division of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium features technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  14. Third International Symposium on Magnetic Suspension Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    In order to examine the state of technology of all areas of magnetic suspension and to review recent developments in sensors, controls, superconducting magnet technology, and design/implementation practices, the Third International Symposium on Magnetic Suspension Technology was held at the Holiday Inn Capital Plaza in Tallahassee, Florida on 13-15 Dec. 1995. The symposium included 19 sessions in which a total of 55 papers were presented. The technical sessions covered the areas of bearings, superconductivity, vibration isolation, maglev, controls, space applications, general applications, bearing/actuator design, modeling, precision applications, electromagnetic launch and hypersonic maglev, applications of superconductivity, and sensors.

  15. Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Thomas H. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This conference publication includes 40 papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium on May 5-7, 1992. Sponsored by the Flight Dynamics Division of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  16. Symposium on Information Processing in Organizations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    P ADOAL13 658 CARNE69-iELLON UNIV PITTSBURGH PA DEPT OF SOCIAL SCENE F/0S/ SYMPOSIUM ON INFORNATZON PROCESSING IN ORGANIZATIONS.(U) APR 82 L S ... S . TYPE OF REPORT & PImO COVEREC*October 81 - April 82 SYMPOSIUM ON INFORMATION PROCESSING IN ’Fitlbert -A ORGANIZATIONS Final Report - . PERFORMING...OG. REPORT MUMBER L JTNOR(q) I. CONTRACT ON GRANT NUME1ERO) Lee S . Sproull Patrick D. Larkey N00014-82-G-0004 OERFOMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADORESS

  17. Symposium on high temperature and materials chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    This volume contains the written proceedings of the Symposium on High Temperature and Materials Chemistry held in Berkeley, California on October 24--25, 1989. The Symposium was sponsored by the Materials and Chemical Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and by the College of Chemistry of the University of California at Berkeley to discuss directions, trends, and accomplishments in the field of high temperature and materials chemistry. Its purpose was to provide a snapshot of high temperature and materials chemistry and, in so doing, to define status and directions.

  18. Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium, 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Kathy R. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This conference publication includes 41 papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium on May 17-19, 1994. Sponsored by the Flight Dynamics Division of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  19. Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Thomas (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This conference publication includes 28 papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium on May 10 to 11, 1988. Sponsored by the Flight Dynamics Division of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium features technical papers on a wide range of issue related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  20. Fifth International Symposium on Magnetic Suspension Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P.

    2000-01-01

    In order to examine the state of technology of all areas of magnetic suspension and to review recent developments in sensors, controls, superconducting magnet technology, and design/implementation practices, the Fifth International Symposium on Magnetic Suspension Technology was held at the Radisson Hotel Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, on December 1-3, 1999. The symposium included 18 sessions in which a total of 53 papers were presented. The technical sessions covered the areas of bearings, controls, modeling, electromagnetic launch, magnetic suspension in wind tunnels, applications flywheel energy storage, rotating machinery, vibration isolation, and maglev. A list of attendees is included in the document.

  1. The 31st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, C. L. (Compiler); Boesiger, E. A. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    The proceedings of the 31st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Topics covered include: robotics, deployment mechanisms, bearings, actuators, scanners, boom and antenna release, and test equipment. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms.

  2. Fifth International Symposium on Liquid Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, R. (Compiler)

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the fiollowing: Theme: Life-life Combustion Devices Technology. Technical Sessions: International Perspectives. System Level Effects. Component Level Processes. Material Considerations. Design Environments -- Predictions. Injector Design Technology. Design Environments -- Measurements. Panel Discussion: Views on future research and development needs and Symposium observations. Aquarium Welcome and Southern Belle Riverboat Recognition Banquet evening events.

  3. University Programs. Symposium 20. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This symposium on university programs consists of three presentations. "Institutional and Curricular Characteristics of Leading Graduate Human Resource Development (HRD) Programs in the United States" (K. Peter Kuchinke) reports a study on institutional arrangements, student enrollments, and core curriculum content and found a large…

  4. The ninth international veterinary immunology symposium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This Introduction to the special issue of Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology summarizes the Proceedings of the 9th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (9th IVIS) held August, 2010, in Tokyo, Japan. Over 340 delegates from 30 countries discussed research progress analyzing the immune...

  5. Expanding Perspectives on HRD Research. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on expanding perspectives in human resource development (HRD) research. "The Concept of Culture in International and Comparative HRD Research: Methodological Problems and Possible Solutions" (Alexander Ardichvili, K. Peter Kuchinke) discusses the following topics: (1) alternative…

  6. The 1985 Get Away Special Experimenter's Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, L. R. (Editor); Mosier, F. L. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The 1985 Get Away Special (GAS) Experimenter's Symposium provided a formal opportunity for GAS experimenters to share the results of their projects. The focus is on payloads that have been flown on Shuttle missions, and on GAS payloads that will be flown in the near future.

  7. Third LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of abstracts submitted to the Third Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Post-Retrieval Symposium. The abstracts represent the data analysis of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF. The experiments include materials, coatings, thermal systems, power and propulsion, science (cosmic ray, interstellar gas, heavy ions, micrometeoroid, etc.), electronics, optics, and life science.

  8. The 17th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The proceedings of the Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Technological areas covered include space lubrication, aerodynamic devices, spacecraft/Shuttle latches, deployment, positioning, and pointing. Devices for spacecraft tether, magnetic bearing suspension, explosive welding, and a deployable/retractable mast are also described.

  9. Symposium on Massive Open Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Steven D.; Rice, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    In this Symposium focused on MOOCs, this journal carries forward a tradition of attending to the technologies associated with composing and the teaching of composing. In the May 1983 issue of "College Composition and Communication," for example, most of the articles focus on composing and include a mix of inquiries, from Jack Selzer's on the…

  10. Proceedings of Plenary Session: The LACIE Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A technology assessment of the LACIE data processing and information systems was discussed during the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment Symposium. Crop inventories of wheat yield in the United States as well as several other nations (such as the U.S.S.R., Canada, etc.) were discussed, along with the methodology involved in acquiring this data.

  11. Approaches to Measuring Library Effectiveness. A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershfield, Allan F., Ed.; Boone, Morell D., Ed.

    A symposium was held in 1971 at Syracuse University on the topic of measuring library effectiveness. The first speaker, Allen Hershfield, introduced the topic with emphasis on the importance and critical need for measurements of library effectiveness. The next speaker, Ernest DeProspo, was concerned with methodological problems and the relation…

  12. Computer Simulation in Undergraduate Instruction: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Warren R.; And Others

    These symposium papers discuss the instructional use of computers in psychology, with emphasis on computer-produced simulations. The first, by Rich Edwards, briefly outlines LABSIM, a general purpose system of FORTRAN programs which simulate data collection in more than a dozen experimental models in psychology and are designed to train students…

  13. Board of Regents Symposium on Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    As discussed in several addresses at a New York State Board of Regents symposium, the task of continuing education in New York State includes adult basic education, job training, and other forms of involvement by educators and other segments of society in efforts to enable individuals, communities, and organizations to function effectively in a…

  14. Ethics Scenarios: A Critical Theory Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jane; And Others

    This symposium chaired by John C. Belland addressed the ethical position of educational communications and technology in society. Presenters created ethics scenarios and applied critical theory to provide insight. Intended to stimulate questions, the approach was philosophical, literary, and sociopolitical, and reflected Derrida, Foucault, and…

  15. Movement Studies. AAHPER Research Consortium Symposium Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B., Ed.

    This collection of symposium papers provides current synthesis of research in the field of physical education and health. The importance of movement, body coordination, and physical activity in promoting better understanding and relationships between different ethnic groups is discussed. The hopeful possibilities provided by motor activities for…

  16. Job Demands and Worker Health. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, John R., Jr.; And Others

    Seventeen years ago a group of researchers at the University of Michigan became interested in the possibility that occupational health may be determined by psychological as well as physical hazards in the work environment. This symposium reports on current work in testing a unified theory of the effects of psychosocial stresses on mental and…

  17. Emotional and Personality Development: Symposium III C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durrani, Naeem; And Others

    This symposium reports an investigation of correlates of self-disclosure among Indian college students, by Sarla Jawa, and provides abstracts of both a Pakistani perspective on personality and moral development, by Naeem Durrani, and a study of Indian students' attitudes toward sex, by Premala S. Kale. Findings of the study of correlates of…

  18. The 28th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohn, Douglas A. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The proceedings of the 28th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was hosted by the NASA Lewis Research Center and held at the Cleveland Marriott Society Center on May 18, 19, and 20, 1994, are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, pointing mechanisms joints, bearings, release devices, booms, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  19. Cognition and Written Language: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Alan, Ed.

    Originally presented at a symposium on cognition and written language, the 14 papers in this collection discuss research findings regarding reading and writing processes, ways that the development of effective reading and writing can be abetted by instruction, and research needs in the area of cognition and written language. The papers focus on…

  20. Leadership Development. Symposium 13. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This symposium on leadership development consists of three presentations. "Organizational Performance: The Future Focus of Leadership Development Programs" (Doris B. Collins) reports research that analyzed 54 leadership studies from 1984-2000 and confirmed that organizations have begun to take a more systemic approach to leadership…

  1. The 1995 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, Frann (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The 1995 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a combined symposia of the Get Away Special (GAS) and Hitchhiker programs, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts.

  2. Intergas `95: International unconventional gas symposium. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The International Unconventional Gas Symposium was held on May 14--20, 1995 in Tuscaloosa, Alabama where 52 reports were presented. These reports are grouped in this proceedings under: geology and resources; mine degasification and safety; international developments; reservoir characterization/coal science; and environmental/legal and regulatory. Each report has been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. HRD Effectiveness and Transfer of Learning. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on human resource development (HRD) effectiveness and transfer of learning. "Factors Affecting Transfer of Training in Thailand" (Siriporn Yamnill, Gary N. McLean) discusses how the Learning Transfer System Inventory was validated in Thailand by administering it to 1,029 employers and…

  4. Center for Space Construction Third Annual Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs from presentations given at the symposium are presented. The topics covered include the following: orbital assembly, large space structures, space stations, expert systems, lunar regolith and structure mechanics, lunar shelter construction from lunar resources, telerobotic rovers, lunar construction equipment, lunar based equipment, and lunar construction.

  5. Highlights of the heavy ion fusion symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    The current status and prospects for inertial confinement fusion based on the use of intense beams of heavy ions will be described in the light of results presented at the International Symposium on Heavy Ion Fusion, (Washington, DC, May 27-29, 1986).

  6. Organizational Learning, Change and Socialization. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This symposium is comprised of three papers on organizational learning, change, and socialization. "A Study of the Organizational Learning Profile (OLP)" (Rae Dorai, Adela J. McMurray) reports findings that show the OLP (Pace et al. 1998) is a reliable instrument for measuring organizational learning and its content validity is high.…

  7. Income Tax Reform and Agriculture: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Five papers are provided from a symposium organized to present several economic studies relating to income tax structure and reform in agriculture. "Toward an Optimal Income Tax Policy for Southern and U.S. Agriculture" (Harold F. Breimyer) is a structured argument for comprehensive tax reform that increases the equity of the income tax…

  8. Learning Organization. Symposium 36. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This symposium on learning organization consists of three presentations. "Perception of Learning Culture and Concerns About the Innovation on Use of Innovation: A Question of Level of Analysis" (Rebecca Fatima Sta. Maria, Karen E. Watkins) reports a study of the relationship between organizational members' perception of learning culture…

  9. Organization Development. Symposium 16. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This symposium on organization development (OD) consists of three presentations. "A Study of Gender Management Preferences as Related to Predicted Organizational Management Paradigms for the Twenty-First Century" (Cathy Bolton McCullough) reports a study that found that access to diverse management preferences and the manner in which the…

  10. Eighth international symposium on radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Eckelman, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Eighth International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry was held on June 25--29, in Princeton, New Jersey. Topics covered in the meeting include: Technetium Chemistry; Perfusion Agents; Radionuclide Production; Synthetic Precursors; Analysis/Automation; Antibodies; Receptors; Metabolism, DOPA FDG; Receptors, D2 D1; Metabolism; and Metabolism, Cancer. Individual papers in each of these areas are abstracted separately. (MHB)

  11. The 27th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancini, Ron (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    The proceedings of the 27th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was held at ARC, Moffett Field, California, on 12-14 May 1993, are reported. Technological areas covered include the following: actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, latches, connectors, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for large space structures.

  12. The 22nd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The proceedings of the symposium, which was held at the NASA Langley Research Center, on May 4 to 6, 1988, are reported. Technological areas covered include space lubrication, bearings, aerodynamic devices, spacecraft latches, deployment, positioning, and pointing. Devices for space station docking and manipulator and teleoperator mechanisms are also described.

  13. Achievement and Its Correlates: Symposium III A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Maznah; And Others

    This symposium contains a report of a study which (1) examined the relationship between Malaysian children's perception of control and their academic achievement, by Maznah Ismail and Choo Piang Foong, and two abstracts of studies which (2) investigated achievement motivation and attribution of success in rural and urban Malaysian ethnic groups,…

  14. Self Directed Learning and Self Management. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on self-directed learning and self-management. "Validating a More-Dimensional Conception of Self-Directed Learning" (Gerald A. Straka, Cornelia Schaefer) discusses the development and validation of a conception of self-directed learning as a dynamic interplay between behavior,…

  15. The 29th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, William C. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the 29th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was hosted by NASA Johnson Space Center and held at the South Shore Harbour Conference Facility on May 17-19, 1995, are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, pointing mechanisms joints, bearings, release devices, booms, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  16. Theory Building. Symposium 21. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This symposium on theory building consists of three presentations. "A Multilevel Theory of Organizational Performance: Seeing the Forest and the Trees" (Susan Reynolds Fisher) presents the process used to develop this theory and analyzes emergent insights. It discusses how the theory succeeds in mapping relationships across aspects and…

  17. Competencies: Fuzzy Concepts to Context. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium titled "Competence: Fuzzy Concepts to Context.""Sales Superstars: Defining Competencies Needed for Sales Performance" (Darlene Russ-Eft, Edward Del Gaizo, Jeannie Moulton, Ruth Pangilinan) discusses a study in which an analysis of 1,688 critical incidents revealed 16…

  18. Organizational Change. Symposium 19. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This symposium on organizational change consists of three presentations. "Institutionalizing Organizational Change Through Cascade Training: Implications for Human Resource Development (HRD) Research" (Ronald L. Jacobs, Darlene Russ-Eft, Suhail Zidan) proposes the institutionalization of change should be addressed as a major part of the…

  19. Approaches to Research in HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on approaches to research in human resource development (HRD). "HRD, Feminism, and Adult Education: A Foundation for Collaborative Approaches to Research and Practice" (Yvonne M. Johnson) identifies common interests among HRD professionals, feminists, and practitioners in the field of…

  20. The 26th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The proceedings of the 26th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was held at the Goddard Space Flight Center on May 13, 14, and 15, 1992 are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, latches, connectors and other mechanisms for large space structures.

  1. Aircraft Piston Engine Exhaust Emission Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A 2-day symposium on the reduction of exhaust emissions from aircraft piston engines was held on September 14 and 15, 1976, at the Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Papers were presented by both government organizations and the general aviation industry on the status of government contracts, emission measurement problems, data reduction procedures, flight testing, and emission reduction techniques.

  2. Counselling and Career Planning: Symposium V A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awang, Amir; And Others

    Focusing generally on counseling and career planning, this symposium provides (1) a review and critique of guidance and counseling in Malaysian schools, by Amir Awang and Latiff Mirasa; (2) a discussion of the needs of Malaysian youth, by Mohd. Yunus Mohd. Noor; and (3) an abstract of the findings of a study of some aspects of student development…

  3. 1989 SYMPOSIUM ON STATIONARY COMBUSTION NOX CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes information and results presented at the 1989 Symposium on Stationary Combustion NOX Control, held March 6-9, 1989 in San Francisco. Cosponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the symposiu...

  4. Training Retail Managers--A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, F. G., Ed.

    This symposium focuses on training programs for managers of department stores, multiple shops, supermarkets and self-service stores, and small independent shops. The authors of each of the four sections in the publication have had experience in training managers in the retail trade. For conceptual and managerial aspects of the manager's job,…

  5. The Second International Symposium on Plant Cryopreservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Second International Symposium on Plant Cryopreservation was held in Fort Collins, Colorado, USA, from August 11-14, 2013, under the auspices of the International Society for Horticultural Science. The town of Fort Collins is home to the USDA-ARS, National Center for Genetic Resources Preservati...

  6. Life Affirming Work and Social Justice. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on life-affirming work and social justice that was conducted as part of a conference on human resource development (HRD). "Doing Good or Doing Well? A Counter-story of Continuing Professional Education (CPE)" (Laurel Jeris, Linda Armacost) reports on an exploratory study in which a…

  7. Abstracts, Third Space Processing Symposium, Skylab results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Skylab experiments results are reported in abstracts of papers presented at the Third Space Processing Symposium. Specific areas of interest include: exothermic brazing, metals melting, crystals, reinforced composites, glasses, eutectics; physics of the low-g processes; electrophoresis, heat flow, and convection demonstrations flown on Apollo missions; and apparatus for containerless processing, heating, cooling, and containing materials.

  8. Characteristics Orientation, Needs and Expectations. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on characteristics orientation, needs, and expectations. "Characteristics Orientation of Emerging Professions: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice of Continuing Professional Education" (William H. Young, Margot B. Weinstein) reports on a qualitative study that examined…

  9. Symposium: Aesthetic Education in Japan Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okazaki, Ako; Masuda, Kingo; Kaneda, Takuya; Hino, Yoko; Okamoto, Yasuaki; Fukumoto, Kinichi; Nagamori, Motoki; Yamada, Kazumi; Motomura, Kenta; Ishizaki, Kazhiro; Okada, Masashi; Kaneko, Yoshimasa; Naoe, Toshio; Fujie, Mitsuru; Iwano, Masako

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium is to provide readers with a general understanding of Japanese art and aesthetics education and its interaction with other cultures. The essays cover a variety of topics, including historical, cross-cultural, theoretical, and practical perspectives. Following an introduction by Ako Okazaki, the following papers are…

  10. PROCEEDINGS OF "THE LEAD REMEDIATION EFFECTIVENESS SYMPOSIUM"

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Symposium on Lead Remediation Effectiveness, sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency, was held at Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, USA from 22-25 May, 2000. International participants from various levels of government, educational institutions, industry, and community represen...

  11. Symposium: A Beginning in the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Peter; Fry, Paul H.; Carnochan, W. B.; Culler, Jonathan; Lerer, Seth; Marshall, Donald G.; Johnson, Barbara; Steiner, Wendy; Haack, Susan; Nussbaum, Martha C.

    2002-01-01

    2001 marked Yale's 300th birthday. It seemed an opportunity for reflection on the evolution of the institution, and particularly on the vicissitudes of the humanities over those three centuries. This article presents essays which represent a selection from the symposium, "Beginning With the Humanities," held at the Whitney Humanities Center on…

  12. Work Ethic and Values in HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on work ethic and values in human resource development (HRD). "Value Priorities of HRD Scholars and Practitioners" (Reid Bates, Hsin Chih Chen, Tim Hatcher) presents the results of a study that identified and analyzed six HRD values reflecting two value facets (locus of HRD influence…

  13. The 42nd Aerospace Mechanism Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Editor); Hakun, Claef (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production, and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development, and flight certification of new mechanisms.

  14. The 1993 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Lawrence R. (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The 1993 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a combined symposia of the Get Away Special (GAS), Hitchhiker, and Complex Autonomous Payloads (CAP) programs, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts.

  15. "On the Possibilities of Climate Control" in 1962: Harry Wexler on Geoengineering and Ozone Destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, J. R.

    2007-12-01

    In 1962, in the early days of GCMs and satellites, Harry Wexler, Chief of the Scientific Services Division of the U.S. Weather Bureau and one of the most influential meteorologists of the 20th century, turned his attention to techniques that could raise or lower the overall temperature of the planet or rearrange its thermal structure. He also investigated possible inadvertent and purposeful damage to the ozone layer involving catalytic reactions of chorine and bromine. This work pre-dated the Nobel Prize-winning work on ozone depletion of P. Crutzen, M. Molina, and S. Rowland by about a decade. Wexler revealed his concerns about geoengineering and ozone destruction in a series of lectures "On the Possibilities of Climate Control" presented to technical audiences in Boston, Hartford, and Los Angeles in 1962. Using newly available results from GCMs and satellite heat budget experiments, Wexler pointed out that strategic manipulations of the Earth's shortwave and longwave radiation budgets could result in rather large-scale effects on general circulation patterns in short or longer periods, even approaching that of climatic change. These techniques, included increasing world temperature by several degrees by detonating up to ten H-bombs in the Arctic Ocean; decreasing world temperature by launching powder into an equatorial orbit to shade the Earth and make it look somewhat like Saturn and its rings; warming the lower atmosphere and cooling the stratosphere by artificial injections of water vapor or other substances; and notably, destroying all stratospheric ozone above the Arctic circle or near the equator using a relatively small amount of a catalytic agent such as chlorine or bromine. Wexler was preparing a new lecture in the summer of 1962 on "The Climate of Earth and Its Modifications," and might, under normal circumstances, have prepared his ideas for publication, as he had done earlier. However, he was cut down in his prime by a sudden heart attack on August 11

  16. Stratospheric Ozone Response in Experiments G3 and G4 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitari, Giovanni; Aquila, Valentina; Kravitz, Ben; Watanabe, Shingo; Tilmes, Simone; Mancini, Eva; DeLuca, Natalia; DiGenova, Glauco

    2013-01-01

    Geoengineering with stratospheric sulfate aerosols has been proposed as a means of temporarily cooling the planet, alleviating some of the side effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. However, one of the known side effects of stratospheric injections of sulfate aerosols is a decrease in stratospheric ozone. Here we show results from two general circulation models and two coupled chemistry climate models that have simulated stratospheric sulfate aerosol geoengineering as part of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). Changes in photolysis rates and upwelling of ozone-poor air in the tropics reduce stratospheric ozone, suppression of the NOx cycle increases stratospheric ozone, and an increase in available surfaces for heterogeneous chemistry modulates reductions in ozone. On average, the models show a factor 20-40 increase of the sulfate aerosol surface area density (SAD) at 50 hPa in the tropics with respect to unperturbed background conditions and a factor 3-10 increase at mid-high latitudes. The net effect for a tropical injection rate of 5 Tg SO2 per year is a decrease in globally averaged ozone by 1.1-2.1 DU in the years 2040-2050 for three models which include heterogeneous chemistry on the sulfate aerosol surfaces. GISS-E2-R, a fully coupled general circulation model, performed simulations with no heterogeneous chemistry and a smaller aerosol size; it showed a decrease in ozone by 9.7 DU. After the year 2050, suppression of the NOx cycle becomes more important than destruction of ozone by ClOx, causing an increase in total stratospheric ozone. Contribution of ozone changes in this experiment to radiative forcing is 0.23 W m-2 in GISS-E2-R and less than 0.1 W m-2 in the other three models. Polar ozone depletion, due to enhanced formation of both sulfate aerosol SAD and polar stratospheric clouds, results in an average 5 percent increase in calculated surface UV-B.

  17. PREFACE: Third International Symposium on Atomic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasumori, Atsuo

    2009-09-01

    The International Symposium on Atomic Technology (ISAT) is held every year. The Third Symposium (ISAT-3) was held on 5-6 March 2009 at the Tokyo International Exchange Center, Tokyo, Japan jointed with the Third Polyscale Technology Workshop (PTW-3). The ISAT-3 symposium was intended to offer a forum for the discussion of the latest progress in atomic technologies, which was successively held after ISAT-1 at Tsukuba and ISAT-2 at Awaji in 2007. The symposium was attended by 136 participants. There were 12 invited and 4 oral presentations. The number of poster presentations was 101. From all the contributions, 32 papers selected through review process are contained in this volume. The 'Atomic Technology Project' and the 'Polyscale Technology Project' were started in 2006 as the joint project of three institutions; (1) Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (CAMT), (2) Tsukuba Research Center for Interdisciplinary Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba (TIMS) and (3) Polyscale Technology Research Center, Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science (PTRC), each of which were independently pursuing atomic and polyscale technologies. The project is funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. The goal of these projects is to contribute to the development of atomic and polyscale science and technologies. In this symposium, four research fields were focused on: Biomedical Applications, Fabrication for Advanced Materials and Devices, Magnetic Applications, and Quantum and Molecular Engineering for Advanced Technologies. Atsuo Yasumori Conference Chair Polyscale Technology Research Center, Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510, Japan.

  18. Proceedings of the Symposium on Lead and Copper Azides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-10-26

    AD-AO11 026 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SYMPOSIUM ON LEAD AND COPPER AZIDES HELD ON 25TH-26TH OCTOBER 1966 Explosives Research and Developmernt Establishment...79/o26 U"’Jmft S• c9. (ofj -m MINISTRY OF TECHNOLOGY SEXPLOSIVES RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENt Proceedings of the L/" Symposium on Lead and...345 ... WALTHAM ABBEY ESSEX z󈨓/0216 MINISTRY OP TECENOLOY EXPLOSIVES RESEARCH AN’D DEVELOPMENT ESTABLTSHIV¶ET Proceedings of the Symposium on Lead

  19. PREFACE: XV Chilean Physics Symposium, 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Moreno, José; Ávila, Ricardo; Cubillos, Karla

    2008-02-01

    The Chilean Physics Symposium is the main gathering of Physics in Chile, and its organization is one of the central activities of the Chilean Physical Society (Sociedad Chilena de Física, SOCHIFI). The Symposium assembles the largest number of Chilean and foreign physicists resident in the country. Recent advances in the various research areas in Physics are presented, by researchers from Universities and national research centres. At the same time this is an occasion for the participation of Physics students from both the pre- and post-graduate programs. The Symposium has gathered continuously every two years, since 1978. The organization of the XV symposium was in charge of the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, and it took place on 15-17 November 2006, at La Reina Nuclear Studies Centre, in the city of Santiago, Chile. During this symposium the relation of research in Physics with education and with the productive sector in the country was also analysed. During the Symposium, 121 abstracts were submitted, from 255 authors. All authors were invited to submit articles for publication in the Symposium Proceedings. The articles received were reviewed by the Symposium Scientific Committee and by invited peers. The criteria for review focussed on the demand for a consistent piece of research, and a clear statement of results. Most of the articles received report the work of research groups where advanced students and young investigators are prominent. Thanks to their enthusiasm, 52 articles are presented in this issue. We would like to express our appreciation to their authors. Finally, my personal apology is in order regarding my delay in publishing these proceedings. A sequence of personal and professional highly demanding circumstances have been in the way. I would like to thank Journal of Physics: Conference Series for providing very fast publication of the proceedings, having published them online less than 4 weeks after my

  20. Impact of Very Short-live Halogens on Stratospheric Ozone Abundance (and UV radiation) in a Geo-engineered Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmes, Simone; Kinnison, Doug; Garcia, Rolando; Salawitch, Ross; Lee-Taylor, Julia

    2010-05-01

    In this study we used the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) to explore the impact of very short-lived (VSL) bromocarbons on stratospheric ozone abundance and surface UV radiation under the influence of geoengineered aerosols. VSL bromocarbons have by definition a chemical lifetime of less than 0.5 years (WMO, 2006). In contrast to long-lived bromocarbons (e.g., CH3Br plus halons), these VSL bromocarbons have natural sources (e.g., oceanic emissions) and their abundance will therefore not decrease in the future due to international protocols. They are eventually oxidized via reactions with OH and photolysis to form inorganic bromine product gases and get transported into the stratosphere. Observations suggest that VSL bromocarbons add an additional 4-10 pptv volume mixing ratios to the total stratospheric inorganic bromine abundance. Since inorganic bromine is ~60 times more efficient (relative to inorganic chlorine) at catalytic destroying ozone, this additional inorganic bromine loading could significantly affect stratospheric ozone. This is especially true in the Arctic, where the coupled BrO/ClO catalytic ozone loss cycle is as important as the ClO dimer ozone loss cycle. The chemical activation of chlorine is highly dependent on the amount of sulfate aerosol and VSL bromine provides a reaction partner for activated chlorine, resulting in a significant increase of ozone depletion in a geo-engineered aerosol environment in high latitudes. An additional impact of short-lived bromocarbons on the ozone abundance is expected and was not considered in earlier studies.

  1. Space Geoengineering: James A. Van Allen's Role in Detecting and Disrupting the Magnetosphere, 1958-1962 (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    James A. Van Allen’s celebrated discovery of Earth’s radiation belts in 1958 using Explorer 1 and 3 satellites was immediately followed by his agreement to monitor tests of nuclear weapons in space aimed at disrupting the magnetosphere. This is “space geoengineering” on a planetary scale. “Space is radioactive,” noted Van Allen’s colleague Eric Ray, and the military wanted to make it even more radioactive by nuclear detonations that, in time of war might disrupt enemy radio communications from half a world away and damage or destroy enemy intercontinental ballistic missiles. This study of Van Allen’s participation in Project Argus (1958) and Project Starfish (1962) is based on new posthumous accessions to the Van Allen Papers. At the time radio astronomers protested that, “No government has the right to change the environment in any significant way without prior international study and agreement.” Van Allen later regretted his participation in experiments that disrupted the natural magnetosphere. In a larger policy framework, the history of these space interventions and the protests they generated serve as a cautionary tale for today’s geoengineers who are proposing heavy-handed manipulation of the planetary environment as a response to future climate warming. Anyone claiming that geoengineering has not yet been attempted should be reminded of the planetary-scale engineering of these nukes in space. N. Christofilos describing the intended effect of the Argus nuclear explosions on the magnetosphere, which would direct a stream of radioactive particles along magnetic lines of force half a world away.

  2. Insights Into French Emergency Planning, Response, and Resilience Procedures From a Hospital Managerial Perspective Following the Paris Terrorist Attacks of Friday, November 13, 2015.

    PubMed

    Ghanchi, Ali

    2016-10-01

    On Friday, November 13, 2015, Paris was subjected to a multiple terrorist attack that caused widespread carnage. Although French emergency planning, response, and resilience procedures (Plan Blanc) anticipated crisis management of a major incident, these had to be adapted to the local context of Pitié-Salpêtrière University Teaching Hospital. Health care workers had undergone Plan Blanc training and exercises and it was fortunate that such a drill had occurred on the morning of the attack. The procedures were observed to work well because this type of eventuality had been fully anticipated, and staff performance exceeded expectations owing to prior in-depth training and preparations. Staff performance was also facilitated by overwhelming staff solidarity and professionalism, ensuring the smooth running of crisis management and improving victim survival rates. Although lessons learned are ongoing, an initial debriefing of managers found organizational improvements to be made. These included improvements to the activation of Plan Blanc and how staff were alerted, bed management, emergency morgue facilities, and public relations. In conclusion, our preparations for an eventual terrorist attack on this unprecedented scale ensured a successful medical response. Even though anticipating the unthinkable is difficult, contingency plans are being made to face other possible terrorist threats including chemical or biological agents. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 6).

  3. Proceedings of the Third Spaceborne Imaging Radar Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This publication contains summaries of the papers presented at the Third Spaceborne Imaging Radar Symposium held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, in Pasadena, California, on 18-21 Jan. 1993. The purpose of the symposium was to present an overview of recent developments in the different scientific and technological fields related to spaceborne imaging radars and to present future international plans. This symposium is the third in a series of 'Spaceborne Imaging Radar' symposia held at JPL. The first symposium was held in Jan. 1983 and the second in 1986.

  4. Proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehdi, Imran (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The Twelfth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology was held February 14-16, 2001 in San Diego, California, USA. This symposium was jointly sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. The symposium featured sixty nine presentations covering a wide variety of technical topics relevant to Terahertz Technology. The presentations can be divided into five broad technology areas: Hot Electron Bolometers, superconductor insulator superconductor (SIS) technology, local oscillator (LO) technology, Antennas and Measurements, and Direct Detectors. The symposium provides scientists, engineers, and researchers working in the terahertz technology and science fields to engineers their work and exchange ideas with colleagues.

  5. Key factors governing uncertainty in the response to sunshade geoengineering from a comparison of the GeoMIP ensemble and a perturbed parameter ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Peter J.; Boucher, Olivier; Kravitz, Ben; Alterskjær, Kari; Cole, Jason N. S.; Ji, Duoying; Jones, Andy; Lunt, Daniel J.; Moore, John C.; Muri, Helene; Niemeier, Ulrike; Robock, Alan; Singh, Balwinder; Tilmes, Simone; Watanabe, Shingo; Yang, Shuting; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2014-07-01

    Climate model studies of the consequences of solar geoengineering are central to evaluating whether such approaches may help to reduce the harmful impacts of global warming. In this study we compare the sunshade solar geoengineering response of a perturbed parameter ensemble (PPE) of the Hadley Centre Coupled Model version 3 (HadCM3) with a multimodel ensemble (MME) by analyzing the G1 experiment from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). The PPE only perturbed a small number of parameters and shares a common structure with the unperturbed HadCM3 model, and so the additional weight the PPE adds to the robustness of the common climate response features in the MME is minor. However, analysis of the PPE indicates some of the factors that drive the spread within the MME. We isolate the role of global mean temperature biases for both ensembles and find that these biases have little effect on the ensemble spread in the hydrological response but do reduce the spread in surface air temperature response, particularly at high latitudes. We investigate the role of the preindustrial climatology and find that biases here are likely a key source of ensemble spread at the zonal and grid cell level. The role of vegetation, and its response to elevated CO2 concentrations through the CO2 physiological effect and changes in plant productivity, is also investigated and proves to have a substantial effect on the terrestrial hydrological response to solar geoengineering and to be a major source of variation within the GeoMIP ensemble.

  6. Sensitivity of radiative forcing and surface temperature to sulfate injection area in stratospheric geoengineering.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Anton; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Kokkola, Harri; Lehtinen, Kari; Korhonen, Hannele

    2014-05-01

    Geoengineering by injecting sulfur to the stratosphere has been shown to have a potential to counteract global warming. In the future, such a method may be considered as an option in slowing down global warming, if reducing of greenhouse gases has not been achieved fast and effectively enough. In the stratosphere sulfate particles reflect solar radiation back to space and thus cool the climate. Cooling effect would last 1-2 years because of the stability of the stratosphere combined with lack of effective removal processes. Usually sulfur is assumed to be injected as SO2 which oxidizes and forms sulfate particles after injections. However, if the amount of injected sulfur is increased, its effect can be saturated and the increase in the stratospheric sulfate burden and global radiative forcing becomes smaller. When sulfur concentration increases, stratospheric particles would grow to larger sizes, which have a shorter lifetime in the atmosphere and do not reflect radiation as efficiently as smaller particles. In many previous studies, sulfur has been assumed to be injected along the equator where yearly mean solar intensity is the highest and where sulfur is spread more or less equally to both hemispheres. Because of this, sulfate has been assumed to be injected and spread to the hemisphere also during winter time, when solar intensity is low. Thus sulfate injection would be more effective, if sulfur injection area is changed seasonally. In this study we use global aerosol-climate model ECHAM6.1-HAM2.2-SALSA to investigate radiative forcing from the different injection areas and to study if a more effective injection strategy would be varying the injection area seasonally. The model describes aerosol size distribution by 10 size sections and calculates the microphysical processes of nucleation, condensation, coagulation and hydration. Thus the formation from gaseous SO2 to sulfate particles, particle growth and also how sulfate is distributed in the atmosphere

  7. Geoengineering Research for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory in Sedimentary Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauldon, M.

    2004-12-01

    A process to identify world-class research for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) in the USA has been initiated by NSF. While allowing physicists to study, inter alia, dark matter and dark energy, this laboratory will create unprecedented opportunities for biologists to study deep life, geoscientists to study crustal processes and geoengineers to study the behavior of rock, fluids and underground cavities at depth, on time scales of decades. A substantial portion of the nation's future infrastructure is likely to be sited underground because of energy costs, urban crowding and vulnerability of critical surface facilities. Economic and safe development of subsurface space will require an improved ability to engineer the geologic environment. Because of the prevalence of sedimentary rock in the upper continental crust, much of this subterranean infrastructure will be hosted in sedimentary rock. Sedimentary rocks are fundamentally anisotropic due to lithology and bedding, and to discontinuities ranging from microcracks to faults. Fractures, faults and bedding planes create structural defects and hydraulic pathways over a wide range of scales. Through experimentation, observation and monitoring in a sedimentary rock DUSEL, in conjunction with high performance computational models and visualization tools, we will explore the mechanical and hydraulic characteristics of layered rock. DUSEL will permit long-term experiments on 100 m blocks of rock in situ, accessed via peripheral tunnels. Rock volumes will be loaded to failure and monitored for post-peak behavior. The response of large rock bodies to stress relief-driven, time-dependent strain will be monitored over decades. Large block experiments will be aimed at measurement of fluid flow and particle/colloid transport, in situ mining (incl. mining with microbes), remediation technologies, fracture enhancement for resource extraction and large scale long-term rock mass response to induced

  8. PREFACE: XXXV Symposium on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla-Rodal, E.; Bijker, R.

    2012-09-01

    Conference logo The XXXV Symposium on Nuclear Physics was held at Hotel Hacienda Cocoyoc, Morelos, Mexico from January 3-6 2012. Conceived in 1978 as a small meeting, over the years and thanks to the efforts of various organizing committees, the symposium has become a well known international conference on nuclear physics. To the best of our knowledge, the Mexican Symposium on Nuclear Physics represents the conference series with longest tradition in Latin America and one of the longest-running annual nuclear physics conferences in the world. The Symposium brings together leading scientists from all around the world, working in the fields of nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, physics with radioactive ion beams, hadronic physics, nuclear astrophysics, neutron physics and relativistic heavy-ion physics. Its main goal is to provide a relaxed environment where the exchange of ideas, discussion of new results and consolidation of scientific collaboration are encouraged. To celebrate the 35th edition of the symposium 53 colleagues attended from diverse countries including: Argentina, Australia, Canada, Japan, Saudi Arabia and USA. We were happy to have the active participation of Eli F Aguilera, Eduardo Andrade, Octavio Castaños, Alfonso Mondragón, Stuart Pittel and Andrés Sandoval who also participated in the first edition of the Symposium back in 1978. We were joined by old friends of Cocoyoc (Stuart Pittel, Osvaldo Civitarese, Piet Van Isacker, Jerry Draayer and Alfredo Galindo-Uribarri) as well as several first time visitors that we hope will come back to this scientific meeting in the forthcoming years. The scientific program consisted of 33 invited talks, proposed by the international advisory committee, which nicely covered the topics of the Symposium giving a balanced perspective between the experimental and the theoretical work that is currently underway in each line of research. Fifteen posters complemented the scientific sessions giving the opportunity

  9. FINDINGS OF A SYMPOSIUM ON COAL QUALITY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweinfurth, Stanley P.; Garbini, Susan

    1985-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been doing research on coal quality for almost a century. Most of the work of the USGS regarding coal went into efforts to assess the quantity of coal in the United States, not the quality. On April 9-11, 1985, the U. S. Geological Survey, along with cosponsors - the Association of American State Geologists, the U. S. Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency - convened a symposium on coal quality at the headquarters of the USGS in Reston, Virginia. The coal-quality symposium provided a forum for the discussion of a wide variety of topics with regard to coal-quality research and related activities. The coal community took advantage of that opportunity to recommend a large agenda of coal-research needs, not only for the USGS but for the entire spectrum of organizations that either actively pursue or fund research on coal quality.

  10. Future high energy colliders symposium. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z. |

    1996-12-31

    A `Future High Energy Colliders` Symposium was held October 21-25, 1996 at the Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITP) in Santa Barbara. This was one of the 3 symposia hosted by the ITP and supported by its sponsor, the National Science Foundation, as part of a 5 month program on `New Ideas for Particle Accelerators`. The long term program and symposia were organized and coordinated by Dr. Zohreh Parsa of Brookhaven National Laboratory/ITP. The purpose of the symposium was to discuss the future direction of high energy physics by bringing together leaders from the theoretical, experimental and accelerator physics communities. Their talks provided personal perspectives on the physics objectives and the technology demands of future high energy colliders. Collectively, they formed a vision for where the field should be heading and how it might best reach its objectives.

  11. Tenth international symposium on environmental biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, H.L.

    1992-01-01

    The primary task of this Symposium on Environmental Biogeochemistry was to examine our current understanding of GLOBAL CHANGE AND THE BIOGEOCHEMISTRY OF RADIATIVE TRACE GASES. The symposium was divided into 12 non-overlapping sessions: Paleoatmospheres and paleoclimates; Global distributions and atmospheric reactions; Poster presentations on the topics of sessions 1, 2, 4, 5, and 7; Terrestrial systems and land use change - 1; Terrestrial and land use change - 11; Fluxes and cycling in aquatic systems; Metals, organics, and depositional environments; Poster presentations on the topics of sessions 6, 9, 10 and 12; Biological Mechanisms of formation and destruction - 1; Biological mechanisms of formation and destruction - 11; High latitude systems; and Global sources, sinks, and feedbacks.

  12. Preface: The Ninth International Flatfish Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loher, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The papers contained in this volume of the Journal of Sea Research, and in a second issue to be published subsequently, represent research findings that were presented in whole or in part at the Ninth International Flatfish Symposium (IFS), convened in Cle Elum, Washington, USA, in November of 2014. This conference represented the most recent in a series that was begun nearly three decades ago (see Berghahn, this issue), and established to bring together the world's leading flatfish scientists, as well as students and researchers just beginning to embark upon flatfish research, to share emerging results, exchange ideas, and foster greater international collaboration and understanding of this taxon. For each symposium, an overarching theme is chosen and papers are presented within a series of Topic Sessions that both encompass the general theme while allowing unfettered presentation of research that may lie outside of that primary focus.

  13. First LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    The LDE facility was designed to better understand the environments of space and the effects of prolonged exposure in these environments on future spacecraft. The symposium abstracts presented here are organized according to the symposium agenda into five sessions. The first session provides an overview of the LDEF, the experiments, the mission, and the natural and induced environments the spacecraft and experiments encountered during the mission. The second session presents results to date from studies to better define the environments of near-Earth space. The third session addresses studies of the effects of the space environments on spacecraft materials. The fourth session addresses studies of the effects of the space environments on spacecraft systems. And the fifth session addresses other subjects such as results of the LDEF life science and crystal growth experiments.

  14. John B. Little Center Annual Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Demple, Bruce F.

    2007-11-02

    The Annual Symposium of the John B. Little Center for Radiation Sciences and Environmental Health at the Harvard School of Public Health seeks to educate radiobiologists and biomedical scientists in related areas on the leading research related to the effects of ionizing radiation and related environmental agents in biological systems. This effort seeks to further the training of individuals in this field, and to foment productive interactions and collaborations among scientists at Harvard and with other institutions. The Symposium attracts world-class scientists as speakers, and a broad cross-section of attendees from academic, government, and industrial research centers, as well as editorial staff from leading scientific publications. In order to maintain this quality, funding to support the travel and local expenses of invited speakers is sought, along with funds to allow use of appropriate conference facilities.

  15. IAHS/AGU symposium on groundwater contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abriola, Linda M.; Bahr, Jean M.

    1991-05-01

    Papers presented at a two-day jointly sponsored IAHS/AGU symposium on groundwater contamination are briefly summarized. This international symposium was held 11 12 May, 1989, in Baltimore, Maryland. Presentations encompassed recent research developments in three general areas: abiotic and biotic processes governing contaminant transport; aquifer rehabilitation; and the influence of agricultural practices and nonpoint sources on aquifer quality. Contributions offered an interesting mixture of theoretical, mathematical, laboratory, and field studies. In the first session, transport processes explored ranged from dispersion and fingering to nonequilibrium sorption, metals complexation, and bacteria migration. The use of optimization modeling in the design of remediation strategies was the focus of another session. Here theoretical studies were presented alongside case histories of aquifer rehabilitation. In a final session, a number of models for agricultural management were described. These presentations were complemented by case studies of actual aquifer degradation resulting from land-use and management practices.

  16. The impact of abrupt suspension of solar radiation management (termination effect) in experiment G2 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Andy; Haywood, Jim M.; Alterskjær, Kari; Boucher, Olivier; Cole, Jason N. S.; Curry, Charles L.; Irvine, Peter J.; Ji, Duoying; Kravitz, Ben; Egill-Kristjánsson, Jón; Moore, John C.; Niemeier, Ulrike; Robock, Alan; Schmidt, Hauke; Singh, Balwinder; Tilmes, Simone; Watanabe, Shingo; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2013-09-01

    We have examined changes in climate which result from the sudden termination of geoengineering after 50 years of offsetting a 1% per annum increase in CO2 concentrations by a reduction of solar radiation, as simulated by 11 different climate models in experiment G2 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project. The models agree on a rapid increase in global-mean temperature following termination accompanied by increases in global-mean precipitation rate and decreases in sea-ice cover. There is no agreement on the impact of geoengineering termination on the rate of change of global-mean plant net primary productivity. There is a considerable degree of consensus for the geographical distribution of temperature change following termination, with faster warming at high latitudes and over land. There is also considerable agreement regarding the distribution of reductions in Arctic sea-ice, but less so for the Antarctic. There is much less agreement regarding the patterns of change in precipitation and net primary productivity, with a greater degree of consensus at higher latitudes.

  17. Introduction to the Paper Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, D. K.

    1996-05-01

    Most students of physical chemistry, as well as their teachers, regard equilibrium chemical thermodynamics as an impressive, useful, and stable subject that was "finished" long ago. As part of their education, students in physical chemistry have been taught the importance and the usefulness of the Gibbs function (formerly called the Gibbs free energy function). The antiquity of the subject and the presumed mastery of its basics by physical chemistry teachers are taken for granted as given parts of the educational and scientific scene in chemical education. It comes as a surprise to occasionally discover that even those who teach this venerable subject sometimes disagree, not merely in matters of style or organization of the subject, or in matters of mathematical elegance, but in matters of real substance. The following four papers are examples of this. My role here is simply to introduce this set of papers and to provide some orientation regarding their contents. The authors have been in private communication with each other for a period of over four years about the use and the proper definition of the Gibbs function. The lengthy period of correspondence has not resulted in any significant agreement. The Editor of this Journal was unable to settle the resulting controversy by normal review procedures. In an attempt to break the deadlock he asked me, as an impartial outsider to the situation, for assistance in deciding an appropriate literary form in which the authors could present their own points of view as well as comments on the views of the other authors. The original hope was that agreement could eventually be reached on disputed points by the give and take of the interchange of further correspondence, and that the outcome would be published in the form of a "paper symposium" on the subject, with me as the "chairman" of the symposium. It must be said at the outset that the prolonged correspondence has not produced much agreement among the authors. This is

  18. PREFACE: Fourth International Symposium on Atomic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Shigefumi

    2010-04-01

    The International Symposium on Atomic Technology (ISAT) is held every year. The 4th Symposium (ISAT-4) was held on November 18-19, 2009 at the Seaside Hotel MAIKO VILLA KOBE, Kobe City, Japan presided by the "Atomic Technology Project". The ISAT-4 symposium was intended to offer a forum for the discussion on the latest progress in the atomic technologies. The symposium was attended by 107 delegates. There were 10 invited and 6 oral presentations. The number of poster presentations was 69. From all the contributions, 22 papers selected through review process are contained in this volume. The "Atomic Technology Project" was started in 2006 as a joint project of three institutions; (1) the Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (CAMT), (2) the Tsukuba Research Center for Interdisciplinary Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba (TIMS) and (3) the Polyscale Technology Research Center, Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science (PTRC), each of which were independently pursuing nano-technologies and was developing atomic scale operation and diagnostics, functional materials, micro processing and device. The project is funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. The goal of the project is to contribute to the development of atomic-scale science and technologies such as functional molecules, biomaterials, and quantum functions of atomic-scale structures. Shigefumi Okada Conference Chair Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita-city, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. Conference photograph Kobe photograph

  19. PREFACE: The International Symposium on Atomic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Yasuharu

    2008-03-01

    The International Symposium on Atomic Technology (ISAT) is held every year. The Second Symposium (ISAT-2) was held on 1-2 October 2007 at the Awaji Yumebutai Conference Center, Awaji City, Japan presided by the `Atomic Technology Project'. The ISAT-2 symposium was intended to offer a forum for the discussion of the latest progress in atomic technologies. The symposium was attended by 106 delegates. There were 9 invited and 5 oral presentations. The number of poster presentations was 73. From all the contributions, 24 papers selected through review process are contained in this volume. The `Atomic Technology Project' was started in 2006 as a joint project of three institutions; (1) Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (CAMT), (2) Tsukuba Research Center for Interdisciplinary Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba (TIMS) and (3) Polyscale Technology Research Center, Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science (PTRC), each of which were independently pursuing nano-technologies and were developing atomic scale operation and diagnostics, functional materials, micro processing and devices. The project is funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. The goal of the project is to contribute to the development of atomic-scale science and technologies such as functional molecules, biomaterials, and quantum functions of atomic-scale structures. Yasuharu Shirai Conference Chair Center for Atomic Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita-city, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. Conference photograph

  20. Climate Symposium 2014: Findings and Recommendations

    DOE PAGES

    Asrar, Ghassem; Bony, Sandrine; Boucher, Olivier; ...

    2015-10-05

    Here, the Climate Symposium 2014, organized by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), with support from the European Commission (EC), European Space Agency (ESA), and other agencies, took place in Darmstadt, Germany, from 13 to 17 October 2014. Around 500 participants from 49 countries attended the event and represented over 200 organizations. Another 500 individuals participated remotely via “live streaming.”

  1. Eleventh international symposium on radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This document contains abstracts of papers which were presented at the Eleventh International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry. Sessions included: radiopharmaceuticals for the dopaminergic system, strategies for the production and use of labelled reactive small molecules, radiopharmaceuticals for measuring metabolism, radiopharmaceuticals for the serotonin and sigma receptor systems, labelled probes for molecular biology applications, radiopharmaceuticals for receptor systems, radiopharmaceuticals utilizing coordination chemistry, radiolabelled antibodies, radiolabelling methods for small molecules, analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry.

  2. Assessing a Science Graduate School Recruitment Symposium.

    PubMed

    González-Espada, Wilson; Díaz-Muñoz, Greetchen; Feliú-Mójer, Mónica; Flores-Otero, Jacqueline; Fortis-Santiago, Yaihara; Guerrero-Medina, Giovanna; López-Casillas, Marcos; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A; Fernández-Repollet, Emma

    2015-12-01

    Ciencia Puerto Rico, a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting science, research and scientific education among Latinos, organized an educational symposium to provide college science majors the tools, opportunities and advice to pursue graduate degrees and succeed in the STEM disciplines. In this article we share our experiences and lessons learned, for others interested in developing large-scale events to recruit underrepresented minorities to STEM and in evaluating the effectiveness of these efforts.

  3. The 1993 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, L.R.; Mosier, F.L.

    1993-10-01

    The 1993 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a combined symposia of the Get Away Special (GAS), Hitchhiker, and Complex Autonomous Payloads (CAP) programs, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  4. The 1995 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, F.; Mosier, F.L.

    1995-09-01

    The 1995 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a combined symposia of the Get Away Special (GAS) and Hitchhiker programs, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts. Separate abstracts have been submitted for contributions to this report.

  5. Assessing a Science Graduate School Recruitment Symposium

    PubMed Central

    González-Espada, Wilson; Díaz-Muñoz, Greetchen; Feliú-Mójer, Mónica; Flores-Otero, Jacqueline; Fortis-Santiago, Yaihara; Guerrero-Medina, Giovanna; López-Casillas, Marcos; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A.; Fernández-Repollet, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Ciencia Puerto Rico, a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting science, research and scientific education among Latinos, organized an educational symposium to provide college science majors the tools, opportunities and advice to pursue graduate degrees and succeed in the STEM disciplines. In this article we share our experiences and lessons learned, for others interested in developing large-scale events to recruit underrepresented minorities to STEM and in evaluating the effectiveness of these efforts. PMID:26770074

  6. PREFACE: XXXIV Symposium on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrón-Palos, Libertad; Bijker, Roelof

    2011-10-01

    In the present volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series we publish the proceedings of the 'XXXIV Symposium on Nuclear Physics', which was held from 4-7 January 2011 at the Hacienda Cocoyoc, Morelos, Mexico. The proceedings consist of 19 contributions that were presented as invited talks at the meeting. The abstracts of all contributions, plenary talks and posters were published in the Conference Handbook. The Symposium on Nuclear Physics has a long and distinguished history. From the beginning it was intended to be a relatively small meeting designed to bring together some of the leading nuclear scientists in the field. Its most distinctive feature is to provide a forum for specialists in different areas of nuclear physics, both theorists and experimentalists, students, postdocs and senior scientists, in a relaxed and informal environment providing them with a unique opportunity to exchange ideas. From the first meeting in Oaxtepec in 1978, the Symposium has been organized every year without interruption, which makes the present Symposium the 34th in a row. The scientific program consisted of 27 invited talks and 17 posters on a wide variety of hot topics in contemporary nuclear physics, ranging from the traditional fields of nuclear structure (Draayer, Pittel, Van Isacker, Fraser, Lerma, Cejnar, Hirsch, Stránský and Rath) and nuclear reactions (Aguilera, Gómez-Camacho, Scheid, Navrátil and Yennello) to radioactive beams (Padilla-Rodal and Galindo-Uribarri), nuclear astrophysics (Aprahamian, Civitarese and Escher), hadronic physics (Bijker, Valcarce and Hess), fundamental symmetries (Liu, Barrón-Palos and Baessler) and LHC physics (Menchaca-Rocha and Paic). The high quality of the talks, the prestige of the speakers and the broad spectrum of subjects covered in the meeting, shows that nuclear physics is a very active area at the frontier of scientific research which establishes bridges between many different disciplines. Libertad Barr

  7. Sixth underground coal-conversion symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The sixth annual underground coal conversion symposium was held at Shangri-la near Afton, Oklahoma, July 13 to 17, 1980. Sessions were developed to: Doe Field Programs, Major Industry Activity, Mathematical Modeling, Laboratory Studies, Environmental Studies, Economics, Instruments and Controls, and General Topics. Fifty-two papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Thirteen papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  8. Final report, International Symposium on Environmental Biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Donald L.

    2000-03-20

    This meeting included technical presentations of state-of-the-art research which were integrated with tutorials and workshops by practicing technologies in the broad field of environmental biotechnology. This meeting was designed to be, in every respect, truly global. Over 150 excellent abstracts from around the world were accepted. For example, presentations were heard from technical workers in Southeast Asia, Russia, China, Europe, North Africa, India, and the US. By having these selected presenters, as well as identified experienced tutors with focused workshops, all participants benefited from this interactive symposium. A number of social events further promoted informal exchange of ideas, discussions of technical problems, and exploration of new applications. This international symposium on environmental biotechnology was on the campus of Northeastern University but all Boston area universities were included and participated using designed conference Co-Chairs. This symposium, with an attendance of several hundred people, was considered a major success. Workers with experience in one area of environmental biotechnology learned from the wealth of established backgrounds of those in other areas of environmental biotechnology. To formally disseminate conference results, it was pre-arranged that all technical presentations were reviewed for formal publications.

  9. What scientists can learn from Plato's Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Emmerik, Tim

    2015-04-01

    Conferences and scientific meetings are as old as science itself. The ancient Greeks where (in)famous for organizing so-called symposiums. During a symposium (from Greek, drinking together), attendees followed a program that contained both social and scientific aspects, focused around a certain topic. Whilst drinking and eating, all participants were expected to share their vision on the topic of interest by giving an oral presentation. The goal of these meetings was to arrive at a new common understanding and to come closer to the truth. Plato et al. knew very well how to organize an effective scientific conference, which should make use overthink the way we are organizing present-day conferences. Scientific meetings aim to connect researchers, share research and unravel the truth. The question is now: how do we get this done effectively? Plato knew that discussing science with strangers is difficult and he believed that talking about heavy matter could be done best when combined with social events. What if we try to go back to the times of Plato and model our conferences after the ancient symposiums? We might drop laying on couches and covering ourselves in ivy and flowers. However, a mix of social and scientific events will contribute to achieving the ultimate goal of why scientists go to conferences: to connect, to share and to unravel the truth.

  10. Land Subsidence International Symposium held in Venice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Third International Symposium on Land Subsidence was held March 18-25, 1984, in Venice, Italy. Sponsors were the Ground-Water Commission of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS), the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Italian National Research Council (CNR), the Italian Regions of Veneto and Emilia-Romagna, the Italian Municipalities of Venice, Ravenna, and Modena, the Venice Province, and the European Research Office. Cosponsors included the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH), the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (ISSMFE), and the Association of Geoscientists for International Development (AGID).Organized within the framework of UNESCO's International Hydrological Program, the symposium brought together over 200 international interdisciplinary specialists in the problems of land subsidence due to fluid and mineral withdrawal. Because man's continuing heavy development of groundwater, gas, oil, and minerals is changing the natural regime and thus causing more and more subsiding areas in the world, there had been sufficient new land subsidence occurrence, problems, research, and remedial measures since the 1976 Second International Symposium held in Anaheim, California, to develop a most interesting program of nearly 100 papers from about 30 countries. The program consisted of papers covering case histories of fluid and mineral withdrawal, engineering theory and analysis, karst “sink-hole”-type subsidence, subsidence due to dewatering of organic deposits or due to application of water (hydrocompaction), instrumentation, legal, socioeconomic, and environmental effects of land subsidence, and remedial works.

  11. Reduced liquid movement subject of Denver Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reduction of subsurface movement of liquids was the subject of a 1-day symposium sponsored by Committee D-18 on Soil and Rock of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and cosponsored by the U.S. Committee on Large Dams (USCOLD) of the International Commission on Large Dams. The Symposium on Impermeable Barriers for Soil and Rock, the first specialized symposium of its kind, was held in Denver, Colorado, on June 25, 1984. The program emphasized the interaction of the environmental system of soil and rock containment, impermeable barriers, and enclosed liquids. The theory, testing, and design considerations of such interactive systems was explored in relation to slurry walls and clay and earth additive linings as applied to geotechnical engineering projects such as tailings and waste containment ponds, landfills, solar and biomass ponds, ditches, canals, and reservoirs. A number of papers presented research results on the interaction of various chemical and hazardous wastes with the soil and rock materials and lining or slurry materials.

  12. CPTAC Scientific Symposium Highlights - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The first CPTAC Public Scientific Symposium was recently held on November 13, 2013 at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, MD. The symposium brought together a record number of registrants, 450 scientists, who shared and discussed novel biological discoveries, analytical methods, and translational approaches using CPTAC data.

  13. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium. Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium on “Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, July 10 to 14, 2011. The objective of the symposium w...

  14. Laser induced damage in optical materials: 8th ASTM symposium.

    PubMed

    Glass, A J; Guenther, A H

    1977-05-01

    The Eighth Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Boulder Damage Symposium) was hosted by the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado, from 13 to 15 July 1976. The Symposium was held under the auspices of ASTM Committee F-1, Subcommittee on Laser Standards, with the joint sponsorship of NBS, the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency, the Energy Research and Development Administration, and the Office of Naval Research. About 160 scientists attended the Symposium, including representatives of the United Kingdom, France, Canada, and Brazil. The Symposium was divided into five half-day sessions concerning Bulk Material Properties and Thermal Behavior, Mirrors and Surfaces, Thin Film Properties, Thin Film Damage, and Scaling Laws and Fundamental Mechanisms. As in previous years, the emphasis of the papers presented at the Symposium was directed toward new frontiers and new developments. Particular emphasis was given to new materials for use at 10.6 microm in mirror substrates, windo s, and coatings. New techniques in film deposition and advances in diamond-turning of optics were described. The scaling of damage thresholds with pulse duration, focal area, and wavelength were discussed. Alexander J. Glass of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and Arthur H. Guenther of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory were co-chairpersons of the Symposium. The Ninth Annual Symposium is scheduled for 4-6 October 1977 at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado.

  15. 78 FR 10180 - Annual Computational Science Symposium; Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Annual Computational Science Symposium; Conference AGENCY... public conference entitled ``The FDA/PhUSE Annual Computational Science Symposium.'' The purpose of the conference is to help the broader community align and share experiences to advance computational science....

  16. Proceedings of the materials processing symposium. Volume 38

    SciTech Connect

    Metzbower, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on materials working using lasers. Topics considered at the symposium included preionization techniques, beam profiles of carbon dioxide lasers, beam focusing, laser welding, porosity decrease in laser welds of stainless steel, underwater welding, laser surface treatments, and laser hardening of carbon steels.

  17. The 16th James L. Waters Annual Symposium: Electrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Adrian C.

    2007-04-01

    The 16th Annual James L. Waters Symposium focused on electrochemistry, with emphasis on methods involving the flow of current. The speakers in this year's symposium are uniquely qualified to review the history of electroanalytical chemistry starting with Heyrovsky's initial studies and culminating with the present state of the art. Each has contributed significantly to the scientific, technical, and commercial development of the field.

  18. PROCEEDINGS: THE 1992 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND MITIGATION RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the 1992 Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Research Symposium held in Washington, DC, August 18-20, 1992. The symposium provided a forum for exchange of technical information on global change emissions and potential mitigation technologies. The primary ...

  19. Programming, Managing, and Judging Science Symposium Poster Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    The Pacific Region Junior Science and Humanities Symposium has operated for 14 years as a region of the National Junior Science and Humanities Symposium. In response to the trend among professional science and science education societies to include both formal research report presentations and informal poster presentations, the Pacific Region…

  20. A Symposium on Career Information Systems: Issues for Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gerald C.; And Others

    The document consists of three symposium addresses, pertaining to the provision and use of career information systems. Gerald C. Smith, Department of Labor, opened the symposium with an address on "Occupational Information systems: Uses, Developments, and Issues", which focused on career information systems currently being developed by the…

  1. Go Tell Alcibiades: Tragedy, Comedy, and Rhetoric in Plato's "Symposium"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crick, Nathan; Poulakos, John

    2008-01-01

    Plato's "Symposium" is a significant but neglected part of his elaborate and complex attitude toward rhetoric. Unlike the intellectual discussion of the "Gorgias" or the unscripted conversation of the "Phaedrus," the "Symposium" stages a feast celebrating and driven by the forces of "Eros." A luxuriously stylish performance rather than a rational…

  2. Proceedings of the SPE unconventional gas technology symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on the recovery of natural gas from unconventional sources. Topics considered at the symposium included tight sandstones, Devonian shales, hydraulic fracturing, coalbed methane, gas hydrates, interference testing, naturally fractured reservoirs, gas condensate wells, formation damage, hydraulic fracture mechanics, and computerized simulation.

  3. STATIONARY COMBUSTION NOX CONTROL: A SUMMARY OF THE 1991 SYMPOSIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1991 Symposium on Stationary Combustion NOX Control was held March 25-28,1991 in Washington, DC. The sixth meeting in a biennial series, the Symposium was cosponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Approxima...

  4. Symposium on Population and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    1981-06-01

    The objectives of the Symposium on Population and Human Rights, held at the Vienna International Center during June 1981, included the following: to review the progress or lack thereof in the observance of human rights in the context of demographic, economic and social conditions and changes since the Amsterdam Symposium of 1974; to review leading population trends and policy changes since 1974 and also examine some possible implications of recent development in the field of medicine, biology, and genetic engineering; and to identify which conceptions of human rights relating to demographic phenomenon are appropriate for today's population problems and to formulate guidelines and standards suitable for these problems. The agenda for the Symposium, attended by about 27 distinguished jurists and demographers, covered the following items: human rights and population trends and policies; morbidity/mortality and human rights; fertility and human rights; internal migration and human rights; status of women, population, and human rights; and new institutional functions in the area of human rights and population. The following were among the main themes and recommendations of the Symposium: 1) the problems of human rights should be contextually handled in such a way as to take adequate account of prevailing socioeconomic and cultural conditions; 2) the realization of a positive right to individual and social development is often impeded, particularly in developing areas, by the prevalence of high mortality, malnutrition, and inadequate health services; 3) policies designed to influence fertility should, within the framework of general population policies, be part of the national strategy for general development; 4) the Symposium recognized the problems of monitoring and appraising the observance or violation of human rights as they relate to the rights of the individual to free movement and residence and the rights to work and decent living; 5) considering the significant

  5. Organizations in Transition. Symposium 41. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on organizations in transition that was conducted as part of a conference on human resource development (HRD). "Human Resource Development in an Industry in Transition: The Case of the Russian Banking Sector" (Alexander Ardichvili, Alexander Gasparishvili) reports on a study…

  6. Developing Employee Competence. Symposium 25. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This packet contains three papers from a symposium on developing employee competence. The first paper, "Coaching in Organizations: Self-Assessment of Competence" (Gary N. McLean, Min-Hsun [Christine] Kuo), reports on development and pilot-testing of an instrument to identify the developmental needs of managers and peers to function more…

  7. Assessing the Learning Organization. Symposium 10. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This packet contains three papers from a symposium on assessing the learning organization. The first paper, "Relationship between Learning Organization Strategies and Performance Driver Outcomes" (Elwood F. Holton III, Sandra M. Kaiser), reports on a study of a new learning organization assessment instrument that was administered to 440…

  8. Knowledge and Intellectual Capital. Symposium 13. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Three presentations are provided from Symposium 13, Knowledge and Intellectual Capital, of the Academy of Human Resource Development (HRD) 2000 Conference proceedings. "Human Capital Measurement" (Joanne Provo) begins with a literature review that provides a context for understanding how investments in human capital add value to the…

  9. Core Directions in HRD. Symposium 32. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Three presentations are provided from Symposium 32, Core Directions in HRD (Human Resource Development), of the Academy of HRD 2000 Conference Proceedings. "Exploring the Convergence of Political and Managerial Cultures in the Dominican Republic: Implications for Management Development and Training" (Max U. Montesino) reports a survey of…

  10. Career Development. Symposium 34. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Three presentations are provided from Symposium 34, Career Development, of the Academy of Human Resource Development (HRD) 2000 Conference Proceedings. "Emerging Career Development Needs as Reported by Adult Students at Four Ohio Institutions of Higher Education: A Qualitative Study" (Kathryn S. Hoff) reports 4 major themes emerged from…

  11. Advances in Distance Learning. Symposium 38. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Three presentations are provided from Symposium 38, Advances in Distance Learning, of the Academy of Human Resource Development 2000 Conference Proceedings. "Teaching Strategies in a Synchronous Learning Environment for Adult Students" (Luis A. C. Lima, Kathryn S. Hoff) reports the responses of intact cohort groups enrolled in spring semester 1999…

  12. Individual Learning Issues. Symposium 44. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on individual learning issues that was conducted as part of a conference on human resource development (HRD). "Communication in the Workplace: Using Myers-Briggs To Build Communication Effectiveness" (Patrice M. Scanlon, Judy K. Schmitz, Tracey Murray, Lisa M. Hooper) reports on a…

  13. Cross-Cultural Issues in HRD. Symposium 29. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This packet contains three papers from a symposium on cross-cultural issues in human resource development (HRD). The first paper, "The Perceptions of Physical Therapy Students Regarding the Provision of Transcultural Care" (Theresa J. Kraemer), examines the perceptions of 12 entry-level master's degree program physical therapy (PT)…

  14. Assessing University Programs. Symposium 9. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This packet contains three papers from a symposium on evaluating university human resource development (HRD) programs. The first paper, "Where Have All the Young Ones Gone? An Analysis of the Graduates of an Human Resource Development Program" (Douglas H. Smith, Jo D. Gallagher), reports the results of a survey of graduates between 1998…

  15. Images of HRD. Symposium 4. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on images of human resource development (HRD) that was conducted as part of a conference on HRD. "Analyzing HRD through Metaphor: Why, How, and Some Likely Findings" (Darren C. Short) examines the question of what the uses of metaphor in HRD say about how those in the field view the…

  16. Identity, Influence, and Politics. Symposium 7. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This packet contains three papers on gender identity; power and influence styles in program planning; and white male backlash from a symposium on human resource development (HRD). The first paper, "Identification of Power and Influence Styles in Program Planning Practice" (Baiyin Yang), explores the relationship between HRD practitioners…

  17. Ethics and Integrity. Symposium 27. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This packet contains three papers on ethics and integrity from a symposium on human resource development (HRD). The first paper, "Factors Influencing Ethical Resolution Efficacy: A Model for HRD Practitioners" (Kimberly S. McDonald), proposes a model of ethical resolution efficacy for HRD practitioners. The model suggests that factors related to…

  18. New Perspectives in Evaluation. Symposium 6. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on new perspectives in education that was conducted as part of a conference on human resource development (HRD). "A Systems Model for Evaluating Learning and Performance" (Hallie Preskill, Darlene Russ-Eft) describes a model for HRD developers to use in evaluating learning and performance that…

  19. Emotion and Behavior in the Workplace. Symposium 20. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on emotion and behavior in the workplace that was conducted as part of a conference on human resource development (HRD). "Emotion Work, and Perceptions of Affective Culture in a Military Nonprofit Organization" (Jamie L. Callahan, David R. Schwandt) reports on a study of the emotion…

  20. HRD and Employee Outcomes. Symposium 42. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on human resource development (HRD) and employee outcomes that was conducted as part of a HRD conference. "The Impact of Participating in Human Resource Development Activities on Individuals' Job Level and Income" (Tim de Jong, Bob Witziers, Martin Mulder) presents the results of a…