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Sample records for geological carbon sequestration

  1. Chapter 4: Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, J; Herzog, H

    2006-06-14

    Carbon sequestration is the long term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. The largest potential reservoirs for storing carbon are the deep oceans and geological reservoirs in the earth's upper crust. This chapter focuses on geological sequestration because it appears to be the most promising large-scale approach for the 2050 timeframe. It does not discuss ocean or terrestrial sequestration. In order to achieve substantial GHG reductions, geological storage needs to be deployed at a large scale. For example, 1 Gt C/yr (3.6 Gt CO{sub 2}/yr) abatement, requires carbon capture and storage (CCS) from 600 large pulverized coal plants ({approx}1000 MW each) or 3600 injection projects at the scale of Statoil's Sleipner project. At present, global carbon emissions from coal approximate 2.5 Gt C. However, given reasonable economic and demand growth projections in a business-as-usual context, global coal emissions could account for 9 Gt C. These volumes highlight the need to develop rapidly an understanding of typical crustal response to such large projects, and the magnitude of the effort prompts certain concerns regarding implementation, efficiency, and risk of the enterprise. The key questions of subsurface engineering and surface safety associated with carbon sequestration are: (1) Subsurface issues: (a) Is there enough capacity to store CO{sub 2} where needed? (b) Do we understand storage mechanisms well enough? (c) Could we establish a process to certify injection sites with our current level of understanding? (d) Once injected, can we monitor and verify the movement of subsurface CO{sub 2}? (2) Near surface issues: (a) How might the siting of new coal plants be influenced by the distribution of storage sites? (b) What is the probability of CO{sub 2} escaping from injection sites? What are the attendant risks? Can we detect leakage if it occurs? (3) Will surface leakage negate or reduce the

  2. Federal Control of Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Reitze, Arnold W.

    2011-04-01

    The United States has economically recoverable coal reserves of about 261 billion tons, which is in excess of a 250-­year supply based on 2009 consumption rates. However, in the near future the use of coal may be legally restricted because of concerns over the effects of its combustion on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy is making significant efforts to help develop and implement a commercial scale program of geologic carbon sequestration that involves capturing and storing carbon dioxide emitted from coal-burning electric power plants in deep underground formations. This article explores the technical and legal problems that must be resolved in order to have a viable carbon sequestration program. It covers the responsibilities of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Departments of Energy, Transportation and Interior. It discusses the use of the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, the Endangered Species Act, and other applicable federal laws. Finally, it discusses the provisions related to carbon sequestration that have been included in the major bills dealing with climate change that Congress has been considering in 2009 and 2010. The article concludes that the many legal issues that exist can be resolved, but whether carbon sequestration becomes a commercial reality will depend on reducing its costs or by imposing legal requirements on fossil-fired power plants that result in the costs of carbon emissions increasing to the point that carbon sequestration becomes a feasible option.

  3. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership MMV Technologies for Geologic Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, G.; Plodinec, J.

    2004-12-01

    Successful measuring, monitoring and verification (MMV) of carbon sequestration is a classic multi-attribute problem - highly constrained and without a uniquely correct answer. Constraints include costs; the type of formation; the expected mode of sequestration (physical vs. chemical); the desired precision and accuracy of the measured data; the capabilities of the workers making the measurements; and the ability to convert the measured data to meaningful information. Further, considerations relating to the safety of workers; public safety; environmental protection; detection of and response to physical changes in the sequestering formation may also act as constraints. The weight of these constraints will also vary depending on the specific location being considered. Thus, there will not be a uniquely optimal suite of measurement technologies; rather, almost always a trade-off will result. This implies that very dissimilar technologies may be employed even at similar geologic sites. The Southeastern Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership - SECARB - is being led by the Southern States Energy Board. As part of its program, SECARB is identifying appropriate suites of technologies for use in planned geologic sequestration projects. As part of this process, SECARB is identifying technologies for the characterization of the formation (prior to sequestration); for use during transport and delivery of carbon into the formation; and for monitoring the effectiveness of sequestration both short- and long-term. SECARB is considering both technologies that are field-ready today, and technologies that are in the later stages of development. We are also considering the unique characteristics of the possible sites in our region. In the following, we provide candidate suites of measurement technologies for use in three types of sequestration projects possible in our region: 1. Enhanced coalbed methane recovery 2. Enhanced oil recovery 3. Sequestration in brine formations

  4. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Challenges of Mitigation Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherson, B.; Thorne, D.

    2008-12-01

    We present results of our effort to developing meaningful mitigation plans for geologic carbon sequestration. The Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and managed by DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory, is assembling science and engineering plans for a commercial-scale geologic sequestration test that will include extensive monitoring and analysis of the fate of injected CO2. Among the principal objectives of the test are to develop effective monitoring methods and risk assessment frameworks for deep injection and sequestration. Effective mitigation plans are an absolutely critical component of commercial-scale geologic carbon sequestration. One fundamental aspect of mitigation engineering design is immediate reduction of reservoir pressure. We developed numerical models of multiphase injection and flow to evaluate pressure reduction as a primary mitigation tool. Model results forecast optimum density and placement of injection and observation wells. Simulation results also suggest that it may be best to engineer observation wells for quick conversion to production (pumping) wells to facilitate immediate pressure reduction, if needed. Results of our reservoir models suggest that immediate pressure reduction will stem geomechanical deformation, stem and/or close crack/fracture growths, shut down "piston-flow" displacement of brines into unintended reservoirs, slow leakage through wellbores, slow leakage of CO2 through faults, and even induce closure of faults. Much like injection wells, the distribution of such observation-pressure-reduction (OPR) wells is critical. Reservoir model results also suggest that OPR wells can be converted to injection wells to maximize capacity and control reservoir pressure. For example, as one portion of the reservoir "fills" and pressure control becomes problematic, the injection well can be converted to an OPR well, and the next well in the series (whether linear or

  5. Role of Biofilms in Geological Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, Robin; Mitchell, Andrew C.; Spangler, Lee H.; Cunningham, Al B.

    2010-05-01

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 involves injection into underground formations including oil beds, deep un-minable coal seams, and deep saline aquifers with temperature and pressure conditions such that CO2 will likely be in the supercritical state. Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is only slightly soluble in water (approximately 4%) and it is therefore likely that two fluid phases will develop in the subsurface, an aqueous and a supercritical phase. Supercritical CO2 is less dense and much less viscous than water therefore creating the potential for upward leakage of CO2 through fractures, disturbed rock, or cement lining near injection wells. Our research focuses on microbially-based strategies for controlling leakage of CO2 during geologic sequestration and enhancing the process of CO2 trapping. We have demonstrated that engineered microbial biofilms are capable of enhancing formation, mineral, and solubility trapping in carbon sequestration-relevant formation materials. Batch and flow experiments at atmospheric and high pressures (> 74 bar) have shown the ability of microbial biofilms to decrease the permeability of natural and artificial porous media, survive the exposure to scCO2, and facilitate the conversion of gaseous and supercritical CO2 into long-term stable carbonate phases as well as increase the solubility of CO2 in brines. Successful development of these biologically-based concepts could result in microbially enhanced carbon sequestration strategies as well as CO2 leakage mitigation technologies which can be applied either before CO2 injection or as a remedial measure. Acknowledgement: This work was funded by the Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) program (U.S. DOE Award No. DE-FC26-04NT42262). However any opinions, conclusions, findings or recommendations expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of DOE.

  6. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geologic Coal Formations

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-30

    BP Corporation North America, Inc. (BP) currently operates a nitrogen enhanced recovery project for coal bed methane at the Tiffany Field in the San Juan Basin, Colorado. The project is the largest and most significant of its kind wherein gas is injected into a coal seam to recover methane by competitive adsorption and stripping. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and BP both recognize that this process also holds significant promise for the sequestration of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, while economically enhancing the recovery of methane from coal. BP proposes to conduct a CO2 injection pilot at the tiffany Field to assess CO2 sequestration potential in coal. For its part the INEEL will analyze information from this pilot with the intent to define the Co2 sequestration capacity of coal and its ultimate role in ameliorating the adverse effects of global warming on the nation and the world.

  7. Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide: Socioeconomic Characteristics and Landowner Acceptance of Carbon Sequestration Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfomak, Elizabeth C.

    This study explores public acceptance of carbon dioxide sequestration sites through a mail survey of 4,001 landowners in central Illinois and Indiana, a region with high sequestration potential and recent siting proposals for FutureGen (an integrated power plant and sequestration demonstration project). The individuals sampled in this study include landowners both informed and uninformed about carbon sequestration, comparing groups based on ecological concern, economic conditions, views about the energy industry, environmental justice, familiarity with sequestration, and demographics. Of the survey respondents, 27% reported an understanding of carbon sequestration prior to receiving the survey, 2.5 times more than would be expected in the general U.S. population. Overall, 47% of survey respondents would oppose a local sequestration site while 30% would support one. The results suggest that greater familiarity with geologic sequestration has little influence on local site acceptance. Multivariate analysis found that landowner acceptance of sequestration sites derives primarily from gender, concern for the local environment, trust in government, experience with industrial activity, and belief in the potential of conservation/renewables. Because views on these issues are persistent, it may be difficult to overcome landowner opposition through education. Policy makers may, therefore, need to lower expectations for sequestration deployment in the United States and revisit other options for meeting the nation's CO2 emissions goals.

  8. An Overview of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential in California

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron Downey; John Clinkenbeard

    2005-10-01

    As part of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), the California Geological Survey (CGS) conducted an assessment of geologic carbon sequestration potential in California. An inventory of sedimentary basins was screened for preliminary suitability for carbon sequestration. Criteria included porous and permeable strata, seals, and depth sufficient for critical state carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection. Of 104 basins inventoried, 27 met the criteria for further assessment. Petrophysical and fluid data from oil and gas reservoirs was used to characterize both saline aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Where available, well log or geophysical information was used to prepare basin-wide maps showing depth-to-basement and gross sand distribution. California's Cenozoic marine basins were determined to possess the most potential for geologic sequestration. These basins contain thick sedimentary sections, multiple saline aquifers and oil and gas reservoirs, widespread shale seals, and significant petrophysical data from oil and gas operations. Potential sequestration areas include the San Joaquin, Sacramento, Ventura, Los Angeles, and Eel River basins, followed by the smaller Salinas, La Honda, Cuyama, Livermore, Orinda, and Sonoma marine basins. California's terrestrial basins are generally too shallow for carbon sequestration. However, the Salton Trough and several smaller basins may offer opportunities for localized carbon sequestration.

  9. U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Sequestration Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warwick, P. D.; Blondes, M. S.; Brennan, S.; Corum, M.; Merrill, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geological storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) in consultation with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and State geological surveys. To conduct the assessment, the USGS developed a probability-based assessment methodology that was extensively reviewed by experts from industry, government and university organizations (Brennan et al., 2010, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1127). The methodology is intended to be used at regional to sub-basinal scales and it identifies storage assessment units (SAUs) that are based on two depth categories below the surface (1) 3,000 to 13,000 ft (914 to 3,962 m), and (2) 13,000 ft (3,962 m) and greater. In the first category, the 3,000 ft (914 m) minimum depth of the storage reservoir ensures that CO2 is in a supercritical state to minimize the storage volume. The depth of 13,000 ft (3,962 m) represents maximum depths that are accessible with average injection pressures. The second category represents areas where a reservoir formation has potential storage at depths below 13,000 ft (3,962 m), although they are not accessible with average injection pressures; these are assessed as a separate SAU. SAUs are restricted to formation intervals that contain saline waters (total dissolved solids greater than 10,000 parts per million) to prevent contamination of protected ground water. Carbon dioxide sequestration capacity is estimated for buoyant and residual storage traps within the basins. For buoyant traps, CO2 is held in place in porous formations by top and lateral seals. For residual traps, CO2 is contained in porous formations as individual droplets held within pores by capillary forces. Preliminary geologic models have been developed to estimate CO2 storage capacity in approximately 40 major sedimentary basins within the United States. More than

  10. State and Regional Control of Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Reitze, Arnold; Durrant, Marie

    2011-03-01

    The United States has economically recoverable coal reserves of about 261 billion tons, which is in excess of a 250-­year supply based on 2009 consumption rates. However, in the near future the use of coal may be legally restricted because of concerns over the effects of its combustion on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Carbon capture and geologic sequestration offer one method to reduce carbon emissions from coal and other hydrocarbon energy production. While the federal government is providing increased funding for carbon capture and sequestration, recent congressional legislative efforts to create a framework for regulating carbon emissions have failed. However, regional and state bodies have taken significant actions both to regulate carbon and facilitate its capture and sequestration. This article explores how regional bodies and state government are addressing the technical and legal problems that must be resolved in order to have a viable carbon sequestration program. Several regional bodies have formed regulations and model laws that affect carbon capture and storage, and three bodies comprising twenty-three states—the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, the Midwest Regional Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord, and the Western Climate initiative—have cap-­and-trade programs in various stages of development. State property, land use and environmental laws affect the development and implementation of carbon capture and sequestration projects, and unless federal standards are imposed, state laws on torts and renewable portfolio requirements will directly affect the liability and viability of these projects. This paper examines current state laws and legislative efforts addressing carbon capture and sequestration.

  11. Applications of mineral carbonation to geological sequestration of CO2

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, William K.; Rush, G.E.

    2005-01-01

    Geological sequestration of CO2 is a promising near-term sequestration methodology. However, migration of the CO2 beyond the natural reservoir seals could become problematic, thus the identification of means to enhance the natural seals could prove beneficial. Injection of a mineral reactant slurry could provide a means to enhance the natural reservoir seals by supplying the necessary cations for precipitation of mineral carbonates. The subject study evaluates the merit of several mineral slurry injection strategies by conduct of a series of laboratory-scale CO2 flood tests on whole core samples of the Mt. Simon sandstone from the Illinois Basin.

  12. Carbon Trading Protocols for Geologic Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Hoversten, Shanna

    2008-08-07

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) could become an instrumental part of a future carbon trading system in the US. If the US starts operating an emissions trading scheme (ETS) similar to that of the European Union's then limits on CO{sub 2} emissions will be conservative in the beginning stages. The government will most likely start by distributing most credits for free; these free credits are called allowances. The US may follow the model of the EU ETS, which during the first five-year phase distributed 95% of the credits for free, bringing that level down to 90% for the second five-year phase. As the number of free allowances declines, companies will be forced to purchase an increasing number of credits at government auction, or else obtain them from companies selling surplus credits. In addition to reducing the number of credits allocated for free, with each subsequent trading period the number of overall credits released into the market will decline in an effort to gradually reduce overall emissions. Companies may face financial difficulty as the value of credits continues to rise due to the reduction of the number of credits available in the market each trading period. Governments operating emissions trading systems face the challenge of achieving CO{sub 2} emissions targets without placing such a financial burden on their companies that the country's economy is markedly affected.

  13. On leakage and seepage from geological carbon sequestration sites

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Unger, A.J.A.; Hepple, R.P.; Jordan, P.D.

    2002-07-18

    Geologic carbon sequestration is one strategy for reducing the rate of increase of global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2} ) concentrations (IEA, 1997; Reichle, 2000). As used here, the term geologic carbon sequestration refers to the direct injection of supercritical CO{sub 2} deep into subsurface target formations. These target formations will typically be either depleted oil and gas reservoirs, or brine-filled permeable formations referred to here as brine formations. Injected CO{sub 2} will tend to be trapped by one or more of the following mechanisms: (1) permeability trapping, for example when buoyant supercritical CO{sub 2} rises until trapped by a confining caprock; (2) solubility trapping, for example when CO{sub 2} dissolves into the aqueous phase in water-saturated formations, or (3) mineralogic trapping, such as occurs when CO{sub 2} reacts to produce stable carbonate minerals. When CO{sub 2} is trapped in the subsurface by any of these mechanisms, it is effectively sequestered away from the atmosphere where it would otherwise act as a greenhouse gas. The purpose of this report is to summarize our work aimed at quantifying potential CO{sub 2} seepage due to leakage from geologic carbon sequestration sites. The approach we take is to present first the relevant properties of CO{sub 2} over the range of conditions from the deep subsurface to the vadose zone (Section 2), and then discuss conceptual models for how leakage might occur (Section 3). The discussion includes consideration of gas reservoir and natural gas storage analogs, along with some simple estimates of seepage based on assumed leakage rates. The conceptual model discussion provides the background for the modeling approach wherein we focus on simulating transport in the vadose zone, the last potential barrier to CO{sub 2} seepage (Section 4). Because of the potentially wide range of possible properties of actual future geologic sequestration sites, we carry out sensitivity analyses by

  14. SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND SELECTION GUIDELINES FOR GEOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S J

    2007-08-31

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is a key technology pathway to substantial reduction of greenhouse gas emissions for the state of California and the western region. Current estimates suggest that the sequestration resource of the state is large, and could safely and effectively accept all of the emissions from large CO2 point sources for many decades and store them indefinitely. This process requires suitable sites to sequester large volumes of CO2 for long periods of time. Site characterization is the first step in this process, and the state will ultimately face regulatory, legal, and technical questions as commercial CCS projects develop and commence operations. The most important aspects of site characterizations are injectivity, capacity, and effectiveness. A site can accept at a high rate a large volume of CO2 and store it for a long time is likely to serve as a good site for geological carbon sequestration. At present, there are many conventional technologies and approaches that can be used to estimate, quantify, calculate, and assess the viability of a sequestration site. Any regulatory framework would need to rely on conventional, easily executed, repeatable methods to inform the site selection and permitting process. The most important targets for long-term storage are deep saline formations and depleted oil and gas fields. The primary CO2 storage mechanisms for these targets are well understood enough to plan operations and simulate injection and long-term fate of CO2. There is also a strong understanding of potential geological and engineering hazards for CCS. These hazards are potential pathway to CO2 leakage, which could conceivably result in negative consequences to health and the environmental. The risks of these effects are difficult to quantify; however, the hazards themselves are sufficiently well understood to identify, delineate, and manage those risks effectively. The primary hazard elements are wells and faults, but may include other

  15. Water Challenges for Geologic Carbon Capture and Sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Samuel J.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has been proposed as a means to dramatically reduce greenhouse gas emissions with the continued use of fossil fuels. For geologic sequestration, the carbon dioxide is captured from large point sources (e.g., power plants or other industrial sources), transported to the injection site and injected into deep geological formations for storage. This will produce new water challenges, such as the amount of water used in energy resource development and utilization and the “capture penalty” for water use. At depth, brine displacement within formations, storage reservoir pressure increases resulting from injection, and leakage are potential concerns. Potential impacts range from increasing water demand for capture to contamination of groundwater through leakage or brine displacement. Understanding these potential impacts and the conditions under which they arise informs the design and implementation of appropriate monitoring and controls, important both for assurance of environmental safety and for accounting purposes. Potential benefits also exist, such as co-production and treatment of water to both offset reservoir pressure increase and to provide local water for beneficial use. PMID:20127328

  16. The consequences of failure should be considered in siting geologic carbon sequestration projects

    SciTech Connect

    Price, P.N.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2009-02-23

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the injection of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} into deep geologic formations where the CO{sub 2} is intended to remain indefinitely. If successfully implemented, geologic carbon sequestration will have little or no impact on terrestrial ecosystems aside from the mitigation of climate change. However, failure of a geologic carbon sequestration site, such as large-scale leakage of CO{sub 2} into a potable groundwater aquifer, could cause impacts that would require costly remediation measures. Governments are attempting to develop regulations for permitting geologic carbon sequestration sites to ensure their safety and effectiveness. At present, these regulations focus largely on decreasing the probability of failure. In this paper we propose that regulations for the siting of early geologic carbon sequestration projects should emphasize limiting the consequences of failure because consequences are easier to quantify than failure probability.

  17. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Leakage Potential and Policy Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielicki, J. M.; Peters, C. A.; Fitts, J. P.; Wilson, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    The geologic reservoirs that could be used for long-term sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) may have natural or manmade pathways that allow injected CO2, or the brine it displaces, to leak into overlying formations. Using a basin-scale leakage estimation model, we investigated the geophysical parameters that govern this leakage, and the resulting accumulations of leaked fluids in overlying formations. The results are discussed in the context of two polices aimed at governing long-term sequestration and protecting groundwater: the U.S. DOE guideline for storage permanence and the U.S. EPA UIC Program Class VI Rule. For a case study of CO2 injection into the Mt. Simon sandstone in the Michigan sedimentary basin, we showed that (1) the U.S. DOE guideline would allow for more leakage from larger injection projects than for smaller ones; (2) leakage amounts are determined mostly by well leakage permeability rather than by variation in formation permeabilities; (3) numerous leaking wells with anomalously high leakage permeabilities are necessary in order to achieve substantial leakage rates; (4) leakage can reach potable groundwater but intervening stratigraphic traps reduce the amount to be multiple orders of magnitude less than the leakage out of the reservoir, and (5) this leakage can reduce the Area of Review that is defined by the U.S. EPA as the area within which leakage can threaten groundwater. In summary, leakage that exceeds the U.S. DOE storage permanence goal would occur only under extreme conditions, the amount that reaches shallow potable groundwater may be inconsequential from a pollution standpoint, and leakage may be beneficial. Future federal policies should be harmonized to achieve the dual goals of protecting groundwater while allowing for adaptive management that incorporates uncertainties and imperfections inherent in geologic reservoirs.

  18. Computational Modeling of the Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 is a component of C capture and storage (CCS), an emerging technology for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, and involves injection of captured CO2 into deep subsurface formations. Similar to the injection of hazardous wastes, before injection...

  19. Computational Modeling of the Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 is a component of C capture and storage (CCS), an emerging technology for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, and involves injection of captured CO2 into deep subsurface formations. Similar to the injection of hazardous wastes, before injection...

  20. Preliminary Feasibility Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential for TVA's John Sevier and Kingston Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Ellen D; Saulsbury, Bo

    2008-03-01

    This is a preliminary assessment of the potential for geologic carbon sequestration for the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) John Sevier and Kingston power plants. The purpose of this assessment is to make a 'first cut' determination of whether there is sufficient potential for geologic carbon sequestration within 200 miles of the plants for TVA and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to proceed with a joint proposal for a larger project with a strong carbon management element. This assessment does not consider alternative technologies for carbon capture, but assumes the existence of a segregated CO{sub 2} stream suitable for sequestration.

  1. Risk assessment framework for geologic carbon sequestration sites

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.; Jordan, P.; Zhang, Y.; Nicot, J.-P.; Bryant, S.L.

    2010-02-01

    We have developed a simple and transparent approach for assessing CO{sub 2} and brine leakage risk associated with CO{sub 2} injection at geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites. The approach, called the Certification Framework (CF), is based on the concept of effective trapping, which takes into account both the probability of leakage from the storage formation and impacts of leakage. The effective trapping concept acknowledges that GCS can be safe and effective even if some CO{sub 2} and brine were to escape from the storage formation provided the impact of such leakage is below agreed-upon limits. The CF uses deterministic process models to calculate expected well- and fault-related leakage fluxes and concentrations. These in turn quantify the impacts under a given leakage scenario to so-called 'compartments,' which comprise collections of vulnerable entities. The probabilistic part of the calculated risk comes from the likelihood of (1) the intersections of injected CO{sub 2} and related pressure perturbations with well or fault leakage pathways, and (2) intersections of leakage pathways with compartments. Two innovative approaches for predicting leakage likelihood, namely (1) fault statistics, and (2) fuzzy rules for fault and fracture intersection probability, are highlighted here.

  2. Certification Framework Based on Effective Trapping for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Bryant, Steven L.; Nicot, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-15

    We have developed a certification framework (CF) for certifying the safety and effectiveness of geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites. Safety and effectiveness are achieved if CO{sub 2} and displaced brine have no significant impact on humans, other living things, resources, or the environment. In the CF, we relate effective trapping to CO{sub 2} leakage risk which takes into account both the impact and probability of leakage. We achieve simplicity in the CF by using (1) wells and faults as the potential leakage pathways, (2) compartments to represent environmental resources that may be impacted by leakage, (3) CO{sub 2} fluxes and concentrations in the compartments as proxies for impact to vulnerable entities, (4) broad ranges of storage formation properties to generate a catalog of simulated plume movements, and (5) probabilities of intersection of the CO{sub 2} plume with the conduits and compartments. We demonstrate the approach on a hypothetical GCS site in a Texas Gulf Coast saline formation. Through its generality and flexibility, the CF can contribute to the assessment of risk of CO{sub 2} and brine leakage as part of the certification process for licensing and permitting of GCS sites around the world regardless of the specific regulations in place in any given country.

  3. Briefing on geological sequestration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geological sequestration (GS) is generally recognized as the injection and long-term (e.g., hundreds to thousands of years) trapping of gaseous, liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in subsurface media – primarily saline formations, depleted or nearly depleted oil and gas...

  4. Briefing on geological sequestration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geological sequestration (GS) is generally recognized as the injection and long-term (e.g., hundreds to thousands of years) trapping of gaseous, liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in subsurface media – primarily saline formations, depleted or nearly depleted oil and gas...

  5. Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Breunig, Hanna M.; Birkholzer, Jens T.; Borgia, Andrea; Price, Phillip N.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2013-06-13

    Geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) is the injection of carbon dioxide (CO2), typically captured from stationary emission sources, into deep geologic formations to prevent its entry into the atmosphere. Active pilot facilities run by regional United States (US) carbon sequestration partnerships inject on the order of one million metric tonnes (mt) CO2 annually while the US electric power sector emits over 2000 million mt-CO2 annually. GCS is likely to play an increasing role in US carbon mitigation initiatives, but scaling up GCS poses several challenges. Injecting CO2 into sedimentary basins raises fluid pressure in the pore space, which is typically already occupied by naturally occurring, or native, brine. The resulting elevated pore pressures increase the likelihood of induced seismicity, of brine or CO2 escaping into potable groundwater resources, and of CO2 escaping into the atmosphere. Brine extraction is one method for pressure management, in which brine in the injection formation is brought to the surface through extraction wells. Removal of the brine makes room for the CO2 and decreases pressurization. Although the technology required for brine extraction is mature, this form of pressure management will only be applicable if there are cost-­effective and sustainable methods of disposing of the extracted brine. Brine extraction, treatment, and disposal may increase the already substantial capital, energy, and water demands of Carbon dioxide Capture and Sequestration (CCS). But, regionally specific brine management strategies may be able to treat the extracted water as a source of revenue, energy, and water to subsidize CCS costs, while minimizing environmental impacts. By this approach, value from the extracted water would be recovered before disposing of any resulting byproducts. Until a price is placed on carbon, we expect that utilities and other CO2 sources will be

  6. Carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Lal, Rattan

    2008-02-27

    Developing technologies to reduce the rate of increase of atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) from annual emissions of 8.6PgCyr-1 from energy, process industry, land-use conversion and soil cultivation is an important issue of the twenty-first century. Of the three options of reducing the global energy use, developing low or no-carbon fuel and sequestering emissions, this manuscript describes processes for carbon (CO2) sequestration and discusses abiotic and biotic technologies. Carbon sequestration implies transfer of atmospheric CO2 into other long-lived global pools including oceanic, pedologic, biotic and geological strata to reduce the net rate of increase in atmospheric CO2. Engineering techniques of CO2 injection in deep ocean, geological strata, old coal mines and oil wells, and saline aquifers along with mineral carbonation of CO2 constitute abiotic techniques. These techniques have a large potential of thousands of Pg, are expensive, have leakage risks and may be available for routine use by 2025 and beyond. In comparison, biotic techniques are natural and cost-effective processes, have numerous ancillary benefits, are immediately applicable but have finite sink capacity. Biotic and abiotic C sequestration options have specific nitches, are complementary, and have potential to mitigate the climate change risks.

  7. Multiphase modeling of geologic carbon sequestration in saline aquifers.

    PubMed

    Bandilla, Karl W; Celia, Michael A; Birkholzer, Jens T; Cihan, Abdullah; Leister, Evan C

    2015-01-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) is being considered as a climate change mitigation option in many future energy scenarios. Mathematical modeling is routinely used to predict subsurface CO2 and resident brine migration for the design of injection operations, to demonstrate the permanence of CO2 storage, and to show that other subsurface resources will not be degraded. Many processes impact the migration of CO2 and brine, including multiphase flow dynamics, geochemistry, and geomechanics, along with the spatial distribution of parameters such as porosity and permeability. In this article, we review a set of multiphase modeling approaches with different levels of conceptual complexity that have been used to model GCS. Model complexity ranges from coupled multiprocess models to simplified vertical equilibrium (VE) models and macroscopic invasion percolation models. The goal of this article is to give a framework of conceptual model complexity, and to show the types of modeling approaches that have been used to address specific GCS questions. Application of the modeling approaches is shown using five ongoing or proposed CO2 injection sites. For the selected sites, the majority of GCS models follow a simplified multiphase approach, especially for questions related to injection and local-scale heterogeneity. Coupled multiprocess models are only applied in one case where geomechanics have a strong impact on the flow. Owing to their computational efficiency, VE models tend to be applied at large scales. A macroscopic invasion percolation approach was used to predict the CO2 migration at one site to examine details of CO2 migration under the caprock. © 2015, National Ground Water Association.

  8. A system model for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Philip H; Viswanathan, Hari S; Pawar, Rajesh J; Guthrie, George D

    2009-02-01

    In this paperwe describe CO2-PENS, a comprehensive system-level computational model for performance assessment of geologic sequestration of CO2. CO2-PENS is designed to perform probabilistic simulations of CO2 capture, transport, and injection in different geologic reservoirs. Additionally, the long-term fate of CO2 injected in geologic formations, including possible migration out of the target reservoir, is simulated. The simulations sample from probability distributions for each uncertain parameter, leading to estimates of global uncertainty that accumulate through coupling of processes as the simulation time advances. Each underlying process in the system-level model is built as a module that can be modified as the simulation tool evolves toward more complex problems. This approach is essential in coupling processes that are governed by different sets of equations operating at different time-scales. We first explain the basic formulation of the system level model, briefly discuss the suite of process-level modules that are linked to the system level, and finally give an in-depth example that describes the system level coupling between an injection module and an economic module. The example shows how physics-based calculations of the number of wells required to inject a given amount of CO2 and estimates of plume size can impact long-term sequestration costs.

  9. Geologic Carbon Sequestration and Biosequestration (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema

    DePaolo, Don [Director, LBNL Earth Sciences Division

    2016-07-12

    Don DePaolo, Director of LBNL's Earth Sciences Division, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  10. Large Scale Research and Demonstration Projects for Geological Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon management is becoming a broad national and international policy response to address climate change issues. Sequestration is believed to be the most direct carbon management strategy for long-term removal of CO2 from the atmosphere, and is likely to be needed for continuation of the fossil fuel-based economy and high standard of living. Sequestration of carbon dioxide in geologic formations is the immediate, low-cost sequestration option. China has had a late start in geological carbon sequestration but has recently had significant investments and rapid developments in terms of basic research and large-scale field demonstrations. I will discuss several Chinese research and demonstration projects, at the scale of 10,000 to 1,000,000 tons per year, as well as scientific and regulatory findings from these projects.

  11. Geological Carbon Sequestration in the Ohio River Valley: An Evaluation of Possible Target Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, T. A.; Daniels, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    The development of geological carbon sequestration within the Ohio River Valley is of major interest to the national electricity and coal industries because the Valley is home to a heavy concentration of coal-burning electricity generation plants and the infrastructure is impossible to eliminate in the short-term. It has been determined by Ohio's politicians and citizenry that the continued use of coal in this region until alternative energy supplies are available will be necessary over the next few years. Geologic sequestration is the only possible means of keeping the CO2 out of the atmosphere in the region. The cost of the sequestration effort greatly decreases CO2 emissions by sequestering CO2 directly on site of these plants, or by minimizing the distance between fossil-fueled generation and sequestration (i.e., by eliminating the cost of transportation of supercritical CO2 from plant to sequestration site). Thus, the practicality of CO2 geologic sequestration within the Ohio River Valley is central to the development of such a commercial effort. Though extensive work has been done by the Regional Partnerships of the DOE/NETL in the characterization of general areas for carbon sequestration throughout the nation, few projects have narrowed their focus into a single geologic region in order to evaluate the sites of greatest commercial potential. As an undergraduate of the Earth Sciences at Ohio State, I have engaged in thorough research to obtain a detailed understanding of the geology of the Ohio River Valley and its potential for commercial-scale carbon sequestration. Through this research, I have been able to offer an estimate of the areas of greatest interest for CO2 geologic sequestration. This research has involved petrological, mineralogical, geochemical, and geophysical analyses of four major reservoir formations within Ohio—the Rose Run, the Copper Ridge, the Clinton, and the Oriskany—along with an evaluation of the possible effects of injection

  12. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M

    2009-07-21

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  13. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    Oldenburg, Curtis M [LBNL Earth Sciences Division

    2016-07-12

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  14. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2009-07-30

    July 21, 2009 Berkeley Lab summer lecture: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  15. A Hydro-mechanical Model and Analytical Solutions for Geomechanical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Bonneville, Alain

    2012-05-15

    We present a hydro-mechanical model for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The model considers the poroelastic effects by taking into account the coupling between the geomechanical response and the fluid flow in greater detail. The simplified hydro-mechanical model includes the geomechanical part that relies on the linear elasticity, while the fluid flow is based on the Darcy’s law. Two parts were coupled using the standard linear poroelasticity. Analytical solutions for pressure field were obtained for a typical geological sequestration scenario. The model predicts the temporal and spatial variation of pressure field and effects of permeability and elastic modulus of formation on the fluid pressure distribution.

  16. Co2 geological sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu

    2004-11-18

    Human activities are increasingly altering the Earth's climate. A particular concern is that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) may be rising fast because of increased industrialization. CO{sub 2} is a so-called ''greenhouse gas'' that traps infrared radiation and may contribute to global warming. Scientists project that greenhouse gases such as CO{sub 2} will make the arctic warmer, which would melt glaciers and raise sea levels. Evidence suggests that climate change may already have begun to affect ecosystems and wildlife around the world. Some animal species are moving from one habitat to another to adapt to warmer temperatures. Future warming is likely to exceed the ability of many species to migrate or adjust. Human production of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuels (such as at coal-fired power plants) is not likely to slow down soon. It is urgent to find somewhere besides the atmosphere to put these increased levels of CO{sub 2}. Sequestration in the ocean and in soils and forests are possibilities, but another option, sequestration in geological formations, may also be an important solution. Such formations could include depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and deep saline aquifers. In many cases, injection of CO2 into a geological formation can enhance the recovery of hydrocarbons, providing value-added byproducts that can offset the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Before CO{sub 2} gas can be sequestered from power plants and other point sources, it must be captured. CO{sub 2} is also routinely separated and captured as a by-product from industrial processes such as synthetic ammonia production, H{sub 2} production, and limestone calcination. Then CO{sub 2} must be compressed into liquid form and transported to the geological sequestration site. Many power plants and other large emitters of CO{sub 2} are located near geological formations that are amenable to CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  17. GEO-SEQ Best Practices Manual. Geologic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration: Site Evaluation to Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Sally M.; Myer, Larry R.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Doughty, Christine A.; Pruess, Karsten; Lewicki, Jennifer; Hoversten, Mike; Gasperikova, Erica; Daley, Thomas; Majer, Ernie; Lippmann, Marcelo; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Knauss, Kevin; Johnson, James; Foxall, William; Ramirez, Abe; Newmark, Robin; Cole, David; Phelps, Tommy J.; Parker, J.; Palumbo, A.; Horita, J.; Fisher, S.; Moline, Gerry; Orr, Lynn; Kovscek, Tony; Jessen, K.; Wang, Y.; Zhu, J.; Cakici, M.; Hovorka, Susan; Holtz, Mark; Sakurai, Shinichi; Gunter, Bill; Law, David; van der Meer, Bert

    2004-10-23

    The first phase of the GEO-SEQ project was a multidisciplinary effort focused on investigating ways to lower the cost and risk of geologic carbon sequestration. Through our research in the GEO-SEQ project, we have produced results that may be of interest to the wider geologic carbon sequestration community. However, much of the knowledge developed in GEO-SEQ is not easily accessible because it is dispersed in the peer-reviewed literature and conference proceedings in individual papers on specific topics. The purpose of this report is to present key GEO-SEQ findings relevant to the practical implementation of geologic carbon sequestration in the form of a Best Practices Manual. Because our work in GEO-SEQ focused on the characterization and project development aspects, the scope of this report covers practices prior to injection, referred to as the design phase. The design phase encompasses activities such as selecting sites for which enhanced recovery may be possible, evaluating CO{sub 2} capacity and sequestration feasibility, and designing and evaluating monitoring approaches. Through this Best Practices Manual, we have endeavored to place our GEO-SEQ findings in a practical context and format that will be useful to readers interested in project implementation. The overall objective of this Manual is to facilitate putting the findings of the GEO-SEQ project into practice.

  18. A Survey of Measurement, Mitigation, and Verification Field Technologies for Carbon Sequestration Geologic Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, K. K.; Klara, S. M.; Srivastava, R. D.

    2004-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (U.S. DOE's) Carbon Sequestration Program is developing state-of-the-science technologies for measurement, mitigation, and verification (MM&V) in field operations of geologic sequestration. MM&V of geologic carbon sequestration operations will play an integral role in the pre-injection, injection, and post-injection phases of carbon capture and storage projects to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Effective MM&V is critical to the success of CO2 storage projects and will be used by operators, regulators, and stakeholders to ensure safe and permanent storage of CO2. In the U.S. DOE's Program, Carbon sequestration MM&V has numerous instrumental roles: Measurement of a site's characteristics and capability for sequestration; Monitoring of the site to ensure the storage integrity; Verification that the CO2 is safely stored; and Protection of ecosystems. Other drivers for MM&V technology development include cost-effectiveness, measurement precision, and frequency of measurements required. As sequestration operations are implemented in the future, it is anticipated that measurements over long time periods and at different scales will be required; this will present a significant challenge. MM&V sequestration technologies generally utilize one of the following approaches: below ground measurements; surface/near-surface measurements; aerial and satellite imagery; and modeling/simulations. Advanced subsurface geophysical technologies will play a primary role for MM&V. It is likely that successful MM&V programs will incorporate multiple technologies including but not limited to: reservoir modeling and simulations; geophysical techniques (a wide variety of seismic methods, microgravity, electrical, and electromagnetic techniques); subsurface fluid movement monitoring methods such as injection of tracers, borehole and wellhead pressure sensors, and tiltmeters; surface/near surface methods such as soil gas monitoring and infrared

  19. Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon Sequestration/Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorkin, Jack; Mavko, Gary

    2013-05-31

    This report covers the results of developing the rock physics theory of the effects of CO{sub 2} injection and storage in a host reservoir on the rock's elastic properties and the resulting seismic signatures (reflections) observed during sequestration and storage. Specific topics addressed are: (a) how the elastic properties and attenuation vary versus CO{sub 2} saturation in the reservoir during injection and subsequent distribution of CO{sub 2} in the reservoir; (b) what are the combined effects of saturation and pore pressure on the elastic properties; and (c) what are the combined effects of saturation and rock fabric alteration on the elastic properties. The main new results are (a) development and application of the capillary pressure equilibrium theory to forecasting the elastic properties as a function of CO{sub 2} saturation; (b) a new method of applying this theory to well data; and (c) combining this theory with other effects of CO{sub 2} injection on the rock frame, including the effects of pore pressure and rock fabric alteration. An important result is translating these elastic changes into synthetic seismic responses, specifically, the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) response depending on saturation as well as reservoir and seal type. As planned, three graduate students participated in this work and, as a result, received scientific and technical training required should they choose to work in the area of monitoring and quantifying CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  20. Utility of Biofilms and Biologically-Induced Mineralization in Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, R.; Mitchell, A. C.; Cunningham, A. B.; Spangler, L.

    2010-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration involves the injection of CO2 into underground formations including oil beds, deep un-minable coal seams, basaltic rocks, and deep saline aquifers with temperature and pressure conditions such that CO2 will often be in the supercritical state. Four trapping mechanisms are proposed to play significant roles in the deep geologic sequestration of CO2: formation trapping, capillary trapping, solubility trapping, and mineral trapping. Our research has shown that, independent of the host rock, microbial biofilms are capable of enhancing formation trapping, solubility trapping, and mineral trapping. i) We have demonstrated that engineered microbial biofilms are capable of reducing the permeability of rock cores at pressures and temperatures, which would be found in the presence of supercritical CO2. ii) The biofilms have been demonstrated to be resistant to supercritical CO2. iii) Biofilms precipitate CO2 in the form of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which resists dissolution by brine and scCO2. iv) Microbial activity can increase CO2 solubilization thus improving solubility trapping. Recent activities have begun to focus on practical aspects related to the implementation of biofilm-enhanced geologic carbon sequestration technologies in field situations.

  1. A fluid pressure and deformation analysis for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Bonneville, Alain

    2012-06-07

    We present a hydro-mechanical model and deformation analysis for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The model considers the poroelastic effects by taking into account the two-way coupling between the geomechanical response and the fluid flow process in greater detail. In order for analytical solutions, the simplified hydro-mechanical model includes the geomechanical part that relies on the theory of linear elasticity, while the fluid flow is based on the Darcy’s law. The model was derived through coupling the two parts using the standard linear poroelasticity theory. Analytical solutions for fluid pressure field were obtained for a typical geological sequestration scenario and the solutions for ground deformation were obtained using the method of Green’s function. Solutions predict the temporal and spatial variation of fluid pressure, the effect of permeability and elastic modulus on the fluid pressure, the ground surface uplift, and the radial deformation during the entire injection period.

  2. Geologic Sequestration Software Suite

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Gary; Bonneville, PNNL Alain; Sivaramakrishnan, PNNL Chandrika; Purohit, PNNL Sumit; White, PNNL Signe; Lansing, PNNL Carina; Gosink, PNNL Luke; Guillen, PNNL Zoe; Moeglein, PNNL William; Gorton, PNNL Ian; PNNL,

    2013-11-04

    GS3 is the bundling of the Geological Sequestration Software Suite domain tools with the Velo wiki user interface, rich client interface, and data store. Velo is an application domain independent collaborative user environment for modeling and simulation. Velo has a web browser based wiki interface integrated with a sophisticated content management system supporting data and knowledge management required for large-scale scientific modeling projects. GS3 adds tools and capability specifically in the area of modeling subsurface reservoirs for the purpose of carbon sequestration. Velo is a core software framework to create scientific domain user environments. Velo is not tied to a specific domain although it provides novel capability needed by many application areas. A well-defined Velo integration layer allows custom applications such as GS3 to leverage the core Velo components to reduce development cost/time and ultimately provide a more capable software product. Compared with previous efforts like ECCE and SALSSA, Velo is a major advancement being a web browser based interface, having a more comprehensive data management architecture, and having intrinsic support for collaboration through the wiki. GS3 adds specific domain tools for looking at site data, developing conceptual and numerical models, building simulation input files, launching and monitoring the progress of those simulations and being able to look at and interpret simulation output.

  3. Briefing on geological sequestration (Tulsa)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geological sequestration (GS) is generally recognized as the injection and long-term (e.g., hundreds to thousands of years) trapping of gaseous, liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in subsurface media – primarily saline formations, depleted or nearly depleted oil and gas...

  4. Briefing on geological sequestration (Tulsa)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geological sequestration (GS) is generally recognized as the injection and long-term (e.g., hundreds to thousands of years) trapping of gaseous, liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in subsurface media – primarily saline formations, depleted or nearly depleted oil and gas...

  5. Silicate Carbonation Processes in Water-Bearing Supercritical CO2 Fluids: Implications for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Q. R.; Schaef, T.; Thompson, C.; Loring, J. S.; Windisch, C. F.; Bowden, M. E.; Arey, B. W.; McGrail, P.

    2012-12-01

    Global climate change is viewed by many as an anthropogenic phenomenon that could be mitigated through a combination of conservation efforts, alternative energy sources, and the development of technologies capable of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Continued increases of atmospheric CO2 concentrations are projected over the next decade, due to developing nations and growing populations. One economically favorable option for managing CO2 involves subsurface storage in deep basalt formations. The silicate minerals and glassy mesostasis basalt components act as metal cation sources, reacting with the CO2 to form carbonate minerals. Most prior work on mineral reactivity in geologic carbon sequestration settings involves only aqueous dominated reactions. However, in most sequestration scenarios, injected CO2 will reside as a buoyant fluid in contact with the sealing formation (caprock) and slowly become water bearing. Comparatively little laboratory research has been conducted on reactions occurring between minerals in the host rock and the wet scCO2. In this work, we studied the carbonation of wollastonite [CaSiO3] exposed to variably wet supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at a range of temperatures (50, 55 and 70 °C) and pressures (90,120 and 160 bar) in order to gain insight into reaction processes. Mineral transformation reactions were followed by two novel in situ high pressure techniques, including x-ray diffraction that tracked the rate and extents of wollastonite conversion to calcite. Increased dissolved water concentrations in the scCO2 resulted in increased carbonation approaching ~50 wt. %. Development of thin water films on the mineral surface were directly observed with infrared (IR) spectroscopy and indirectly with 18O isotopic labeling techniques (Raman spectroscopy). The thin water films were determined to be critical for facilitating carbonation processes in wet scCO2. Even in extreme low water conditions, the IR technique detected the formation of

  6. Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide - an energy resource perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Burruss; Sean T. Brennan

    2003-03-15

    Most energy used to meet human needs is derived from the combustion of fossil fuels (natural gas, oil, and coal), which releases carbon to the atmosphere, primarily as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}, a greenhouse gas, is increasing, raising concerns that solar heat will be trapped and the average surficial temperature of the Earth will rise in response. Global warming studies predict that climate changes resulting from increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} will adversely affect life on Earth. In the 200 years since the industrial revolution, the world's population has grown from about 800 million to over 6 billion people and the CO{sub 2} content of the atmosphere has risen from about 280 to about 360 parts per million by volume, a 30 percent increase. International concern about potential global climate change has spurred discussions about limiting the amount of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  7. Geochemical Impacts to Groundwater from Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Controls on pH and Inorganic Carbon Concentrations from Reaction Path and Kinetic Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geologic carbon sequestration has the potential to cause long-term reductions in global emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Safe and effective application of carbon sequestration technology requires an understanding of the potential risks to the quality of underground...

  8. Geochemical Impacts to Groundwater from Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Controls on pH and Inorganic Carbon Concentrations from Reaction Path and Kinetic Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geologic carbon sequestration has the potential to cause long-term reductions in global emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Safe and effective application of carbon sequestration technology requires an understanding of the potential risks to the quality of underground...

  9. Influence of Shrinkage and Swelling Properties of Coal on Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, H.J.; Gondle, R.; Smith, D.H.

    2007-05-01

    The potential for enhanced methane production and geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide in coalbeds needs to be evaluated before large-scale sequestration projects are undertaken. Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide in deep unmineable coal seams with the potential for enhanced coalbed methane production has become a viable option to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The coal matrix is believed to shrink during methane production and swell during the injection of carbon dioxide, causing changes in tlie cleat porosity and permeability of the coal seam. However, the influence of swelling and shrinkage, and the geomechanical response during the process of carbon dioxide injection and methane recovery, are not well understood. A three-dimensional swelling and shrinkage model based on constitutive equations that account for the coupled fluid pressure-deformation behavior of a porous medium was developed and implemented in an existing reservoir model. Several reservoir simulations were performed at a field site located in the San Juan basin to investigate the influence of swelling and shrinkage, as well as other geomechanical parameters, using a modified compositional coalbed methane reservoir simulator (modified PSU-COALCOMP). The paper presents numerical results for interpretation of reservoir performance during injection of carbon dioxide at this site. Available measured data at the field site were compared with computed values. Results show that coal swelling and shrinkage during the process of enhanced coalbed methane recovery can have a significant influence on the reservoir performance. Results also show an increase in the gas production rate with an increase in the elastic modulus of the reservoir material and increase in cleat porosity. Further laboratory and field tests of the model are needed to furnish better estimates of petrophysical parameters, test the applicability of thee model, and determine the need for further refinements to the mathematical

  10. Wellbore cement fracture evolution at the cement–basalt caprock interface during geologic carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Hun Bok; Kabilan, Senthil; Carson, James P.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Um, Wooyong; Martin, Paul F.; Dahl, Michael E.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Varga, Tamas; Stephens, Sean A.; Arey, Bruce W.; Carroll, KC; Bonneville, Alain; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2014-08-07

    Composite Portland cement-basalt caprock cores with fractures, as well as neat Portland cement columns, were prepared to understand the geochemical and geomechanical effects on the integrity of wellbores with defects during geologic carbon sequestration. The samples were reacted with CO2-saturated groundwater at 50 ºC and 10 MPa for 3 months under static conditions, while one cement-basalt core was subjected to mechanical stress at 2.7 MPa before the CO2 reaction. Micro-XRD and SEM-EDS data collected along the cement-basalt interface after 3-month reaction with CO2-saturated groundwater indicate that carbonation of cement matrix was extensive with the precipitation of calcite, aragonite, and vaterite, whereas the alteration of basalt caprock was minor. X-ray microtomography (XMT) provided three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the opening and interconnection of cement fractures due to mechanical stress. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling further revealed that this stress led to the increase in fluid flow and hence permeability. After the CO2-reaction, XMT images displayed that calcium carbonate precipitation occurred extensively within the fractures in the cement matrix, but only partially along the fracture located at the cement-basalt interface. The 3-D visualization and CFD modeling also showed that the precipitation of calcium carbonate within the cement fractures after the CO2-reaction resulted in the disconnection of cement fractures and permeability decrease. The permeability calculated based on CFD modeling was in agreement with the experimentally determined permeability. This study demonstrates that XMT imaging coupled with CFD modeling represent a powerful tool to visualize and quantify fracture evolution and permeability change in geologic materials and to predict their behavior during geologic carbon sequestration or hydraulic fracturing for shale gas production and enhanced geothermal systems.

  11. Optimization of capillary trapping for application in geological carbon dioxide sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, E.; Wildenschild, D.; Armstrong, R. T.; Herring, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    Geological carbon sequestration, as a method of atmospheric greenhouse gas reduction, is at the technological forefront of the climate change movement. Sequestration is achieved by capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) gas effluent from coal fired power plants and injecting it into saline aquifers. In an effort to fully understand and optimize CO2 trapping efficiency, the capillary trapping mechanisms that immobilize subsurface CO2 were analyzed at the pore scale. Pairs of analogous fluids representing the range of in situ supercritical CO2 and brine conditions were used during experimentation. The two fluids (identified as wetting and non wetting) were imbibed and drained from a flow cell apparatus containing a sintered glass bead column. Experimental and fluid parameters, such as interfacial tension, non-wetting fluid viscosity and flow rate, were altered to characterize their impact on capillary trapping. Through the use of computed x-ray microtomography (CMT), we were able to quantify distinct differences between initial (post NW phase imbibition) and residual (post wetting fluid flood) non-wetting phase saturations. Observed trends will be used to identify optimal conditions for trapping CO2 during subsurface sequestration.

  12. Comprehensive review of caprock-sealing mechanisms for geologic carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Song, Juan; Zhang, Dongxiao

    2013-01-02

    CO(2) capture and geologic sequestration is one of the most promising options for reducing atmospheric emissions of CO(2). Its viability and long-term safety, which depends on the caprock's sealing capacity and integrity, is crucial for implementing CO(2) geologic storage on a commercial scale. In terms of risk, CO(2) leakage mechanisms are classified as follows: diffusive loss of dissolved gas through the caprock, leakage through the pore spaces after breakthrough pressure has been exceeded, leakage through faults or fractures, and well leakage. An overview is presented in which the problems relating to CO(2) leakage are defined, dominant factors are considered, and the main results are given for these mechanisms, with the exception of well leakage. The overview includes the properties of the CO(2)-water/brine system, and the hydromechanics, geophysics, and geochemistry of the caprock-fluid system. In regard to leakage processes, leakage through faults or fracture networks can be rapid and catastrophic, whereas diffusive loss is usually low. The review identifies major research gaps and areas in need of additional study in regard to the mechanisms for geologic carbon sequestration and the effects of complicated processes on sealing capacity of caprock under reservoir conditions.

  13. Relevance of underground natural gas storage to geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, Marcelo J.; Benson, Sally M.

    2002-07-01

    The practice of underground natural gas storage (UNGS), which started in the USA in 1916, provides useful insight into the geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide--the dominant anthropogenic greenhouse gas released into the atmosphere. In many ways, UNGS is directly relevant to geologic CO{sub 2} storage because, like CO{sub 2}, natural gas (essentially methane) is less dense than water. Consequently, it will tend to rise to the top of any subsurface storage structure located below the groundwater table. By the end of 2001 in the USA, about 142 million metric tons of natural gas were stored underground in depleted oil and gas reservoirs and brine aquifers. Based on their performance, UNGS projects have shown that there is a safe and effective way of storing large volumes of gases in the subsurface. In the small number of cases where failures did occur (i.e., leakage of the stored gas into neighboring permeable layers), they were mainly related to improper well design, construction, maintenance, and/or incorrect project operation. In spite of differences in the chemical and physical properties of the gases, the risk-assessment, risk-management, and risk-mitigation issues relevant to UNGS projects are also pertinent to geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  14. Relevance of Underground Natural Gas Storage to Geologic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippmann, M. J.

    2001-05-01

    Many of the experiences from storing natural gas in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, and groundwater aquifers are relevant to geologic carbon dioxide sequestration in spite of the different physical and chemical properties of the two gases. The first successful natural gas storage project in depleted reservoirs was in Canada in 1915, and in the US in 1916. Until about 1950, essentially all subsurface natural gas storage was in partially or fully depleted gas reservoirs. Presently there more than 450 underground storage sites in the US and Canada. According to 1998 figures, the gas is stored in 372 depleted reservoirs, 51 aquifers and 40 salt caverns. About 138 million metric tons (Mt) of natural gas were stored in subsurface formations in the US at the end of November 2000 (49 Mt as working or active gas and 89 Mt as base gas). The status of underground natural gas storage projects, as well as risk assessment, risk management, and risk mitigation issues pertinent to geologic carbon dioxide sequestration are reviewed.

  15. Sensitivity of injection costs to input petrophysical parameters in numerical geologic carbon sequestration models

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C. L.; Gragg, M. J.; Perfect, E.; White, Mark D.; Lemiszki, P. J.; McKay, L. D.

    2013-08-24

    Numerical simulations are widely used in feasibility studies for geologic carbon sequestration. Accurate estimates of petrophysical parameters are needed as inputs for these simulations. However, relatively few experimental values are available for CO2-brine systems. Hence, a sensitivity analysis was performed using the STOMP numerical code for supercritical CO2 injected into a model confined deep saline aquifer. The intrinsic permeability, porosity, pore compressibility, and capillary pressure-saturation/relative permeability parameters (residual liquid saturation, residual gas saturation, and van Genuchten alpha and m values) were varied independently. Their influence on CO2 injection rates and costs were determined and the parameters were ranked based on normalized coefficients of variation. The simulations resulted in differences of up to tens of millions of dollars over the life of the project (i.e., the time taken to inject 10.8 million metric tons of CO2). The two most influential parameters were the intrinsic permeability and the van Genuchten m value. Two other parameters, the residual gas saturation and the residual liquid saturation, ranked above the porosity. These results highlight the need for accurate estimates of capillary pressure-saturation/relative permeability parameters for geologic carbon sequestration simulations in addition to measurements of porosity and intrinsic permeability.

  16. Experimental study of potential wellbore cement carbonation by various phases of carbon dioxide during geologic carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong

    2013-08-16

    Hydrated Portland cement was reacted with carbon dioxide (CO2) in supercritical, gaseous, and aqueous phases to understand the potential cement alteration processes along the length of a wellbore, extending from deep CO2 storage reservoir to the shallow subsurface during geologic carbon sequestration. The 3-D X-ray microtomography (XMT) images displayed that the cement alteration was significantly more extensive by CO2-saturated synthetic groundwater than dry or wet supercritical CO2 at high P (10 MPa)-T (50°C) conditions. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analysis also exhibited a systematic Ca depletion and C enrichment in cement matrix exposed to CO2-saturated groundwater. Integrated XMT, XRD, and SEM-EDS analyses identified the formation of extensive carbonated zone filled with CaCO3(s), as well as the porous degradation front and the outermost silica-rich zone in cement after exposure to CO2-saturated groundwater. The cement alteration by CO2-saturated groundwater for 2-8 months overall decreased the porosity from 31% to 22% and the permeability by an order of magnitude. Cement alteration by dry or wet supercritical CO2 was slow and minor compared to CO2-saturated groundwater. A thin single carbonation zone was formed in cement after exposure to wet supercritical CO2 for 8 months or dry supercritical CO2 for 15 months. Extensive calcite coating was formed on the outside surface of a cement sample after exposure to wet gaseous CO2 for 1-3 months. The chemical-physical characterization of hydrated Portland cement after exposure to various phases of carbon dioxide indicates that the extent of cement carbonation can be significantly heterogeneous depending on CO2 phase present in the wellbore environment. Both experimental and geochemical modeling results suggest that wellbore cement exposure to supercritical, gaseous, and aqueous phases of CO2 during geologic carbon sequestration is unlikely to damage the wellbore

  17. DUSEL CO2: A deep underground laboratory for geologic carbon sequestration studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, C. A.; Dobson, P. F.; Oldenburg, C. M.; Scherer, G.; Onstott, T. C.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Freifeld, B. M.; Celia, M. A.; Wang, J. S.; Prevost, J.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas mitigation strategy is the long-term containment of CO2 in deep underground formations. To develop a sound understanding of geologic carbon sequestration, we will build a deep underground laboratory to study the processes of storing and trapping CO2, including the risks of unintended leakage. The laboratory will be part of the new DUSEL facility at the Homestake mine in South Dakota. In this presentation, we will highlight the features and capabilities of the planned facility, to be called “DUSEL CO2”. The experimental design exploits the nearly half-kilometer vertical extent of existing “sandline” borings at Homestake. Pipes will be installed within the sandlines to serve as long flow columns. These columns will contain the CO2 and allow experimentation at the same pressure and temperature conditions as in deep subsurface reservoirs. Fill materials will mimic sedimentary layering, as well as cements in plugged wells. Instrumentation will enable detailed monitoring of flow, pressure, temperature, brine composition, geomechanics, and microbial activity. As part of the initial suite of experiments, we plan to simulate a leak in which CO2 changes from a supercritical fluid to a subcritical gas as the pressure drops during upflow over tens to hundreds of meters. We will test for possible acceleration in CO2 flow due to increasing buoyancy. Also, we will examine the interactions of CO2 with caprocks and well cements, and determine whether CO2 will enlarge flow pathways or cause self-sealing. Finally, we will investigate the effects of anaerobic, thermophilic bacteria on CO2 conversion to methane and carbonate. The findings from these unique experiments will advance carbon management technology worldwide and help reduce global greenhouse gas emissions.

  18. Geologic Carbon Sequestration in a Lightly Explored Basin: the Puget-Willamette Lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    persists, then sequestration efforts will compete directly with the hydrocarbon industry for these services, leading to higher service company prices as well as delayed schedules. Carbon sequestration policy thus entails financial incentives that allow geologic sequestration projects to compete for exploration services.

  19. An Assessment of Geological Carbon Sequestration Options in the Illinois Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Finley

    2005-09-30

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) has investigated the options for geological carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in the 155,400-km{sup 2} (60,000-mi{sup 2}) Illinois Basin. Within the Basin, underlying most of Illinois, western Indiana, and western Kentucky, are relatively deeper and/or thinner coal resources, numerous mature oil fields, and deep salt-water-bearing reservoirs that are potentially capable of storing CO{sub 2}. The objective of this Assessment was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of using these geological sinks for long-term storage to avoid atmospheric release of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel combustion and thereby avoid the potential for adverse climate change. The MGSC is a consortium of the geological surveys of Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky joined by six private corporations, five professional business associations, one interstate compact, two university researchers, two Illinois state agencies, and two consultants. The purpose of the Consortium is to assess carbon capture, transportation, and storage processes and their costs and viability in the three-state Illinois Basin region. The Illinois State Geological Survey serves as Lead Technical Contractor for the Consortium. The Illinois Basin region has annual emissions from stationary anthropogenic sources exceeding 276 million metric tonnes (304 million tons) of CO{sub 2} (>70 million tonnes (77 million tons) carbon equivalent), primarily from coal-fired electric generation facilities, some of which burn almost 4.5 million tonnes (5 million tons) of coal per year. Assessing the options for capture, transportation, and storage of the CO{sub 2} emissions within the region has been a 12-task, 2-year process that has assessed 3,600 million tonnes (3,968 million tons) of storage capacity in coal seams, 140 to 440 million tonnes (154 to 485 million tons) of capacity in mature oil reservoirs, 7,800 million tonnes (8,598 million tons) of capacity in saline

  20. Recovery Act: Multi-Objective Optimization Approaches for the Design of Carbon Geological Sequestration Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bau, Domenico

    2013-05-31

    The main objective of this project is to provide training opportunities for two graduate students in order to improve the human capital and skills required for implementing and deploying carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies. The graduate student effort will be geared towards the formulation and implementation of an integrated simulation-optimization framework to provide a rigorous scientific support to the design CCS systems that, for any given site: (a) maximize the amount of carbon storage; (b) minimize the total cost associated with the CCS project; (c) minimize the risk of CO2 upward leakage from injected formations. The framework will stem from a combination of data obtained from geophysical investigations, a multiphase flow model, and a stochastic multi-objective optimization algorithm. The methodology will rely on a geostatistical approach to generate ensembles of scenarios of the parameters that are expected to have large sensitivities and uncertainties on the model response and thus on the risk assessment, in particular the permeability properties of the injected formation and its cap rock. The safety theme will be addressed quantitatively by including the risk of CO2 upward leakage from the injected formations as one the objectives that should be minimized in the optimization problem. The research performed under this grant is significant to academic researchers and professionals weighing the benefits, costs, and risks of CO2 sequestration. Project managers in initial planning stages of CCS projects will be able to generate optimal tradeoff surfaces and with corresponding injection plans for potential sequestration sites leading to cost efficient preliminary project planning. In addition, uncertainties concerning CCS have been researched. Uncertainty topics included Uncertainty Analysis of Continuity of Geological Confining Units using Categorical Indicator Kriging (CIK) and the Influence of Uncertain Parameters on the Leakage of CO2 to

  1. Model Components of the Certification Framework for Geologic Carbon Sequestration Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Bryant, Steven L.; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Kumar, Navanit; Zhang, Yingqi; Jordan, Preston; Pan, Lehua; Granvold, Patrick; Chow, Fotini K.

    2009-06-01

    We have developed a framework for assessing the leakage risk of geologic carbon sequestration sites. This framework, known as the Certification Framework (CF), emphasizes wells and faults as the primary potential leakage conduits. Vulnerable resources are grouped into compartments, and impacts due to leakage are quantified by the leakage flux or concentrations that could potentially occur in compartments under various scenarios. The CF utilizes several model components to simulate leakage scenarios. One model component is a catalog of results of reservoir simulations that can be queried to estimate plume travel distances and times, rather than requiring CF users to run new reservoir simulations for each case. Other model components developed for the CF and described here include fault characterization using fault-population statistics; fault connection probability using fuzzy rules; well-flow modeling with a drift-flux model implemented in TOUGH2; and atmospheric dense-gas dispersion using a mesoscale weather prediction code.

  2. Case studies of the application of the Certification Framework to two geologic carbon sequestration sites

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Nicot, J.-P.; Bryant, S.L.

    2008-11-01

    We have developed a certification framework (CF) for certifying that the risks of geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites are below agreed-upon thresholds. The CF is based on effective trapping of CO2, the proposed concept that takes into account both the probability and impact of CO2 leakage. The CF uses probability estimates of the intersection of conductive faults and wells with the CO2 plume along with modeled fluxes or concentrations of CO2 as proxies for impacts to compartments (such as potable groundwater) to calculate CO2 leakage risk. In order to test and refine the approach, we applied the CF to (1) a hypothetical large-scale GCS project in the Texas Gulf Coast, and (2) WESTCARB's Phase III GCS pilot in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California.

  3. CONSIDERATIONS FOR A REGULATORY FRAMEWORK FOR LARGE-SCALE GEOLOGIC SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE: A NORTH AMERICAN PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large scale geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide poses a novel set of challenges for regulators. This paper focuses on the unique needs of large scale GS projects in light of the existing regulatory regimes in the United States and Canada and identifies several differen...

  4. Coda-wave interferometry analysis of time-lapse VSP data for monitoring geological carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, R.; Huang, L.; Rutledge, J.T.; Fehler, M.; Daley, T.M.; Majer, E.L.

    2009-11-01

    Injection and movement/saturation of carbon dioxide (CO2) in a geological formation will cause changes in seismic velocities. We investigate the capability of coda-wave interferometry technique for estimating CO2-induced seismic velocity changes using time-lapse synthetic vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data and the field VSP datasets acquired for monitoring injected CO2 in a brine aquifer in Texas, USA. Synthetic VSP data are calculated using a finite-difference elastic-wave equation scheme and a layered model based on the elastic Marmousi model. A possible leakage scenario is simulated by introducing seismic velocity changes in a layer above the CO2 injection layer. We find that the leakage can be detected by the detection of a difference in seismograms recorded after the injection compared to those recorded before the injection at an earlier time in the seismogram than would be expected if there was no leakage. The absolute values of estimated mean velocity changes, from both synthetic and field VSP data, increase significantly for receiver positions approaching the top of a CO2 reservoir. Our results from field data suggest that the velocity changes caused by CO2 injection could be more than 10% and are consistent with results from a crosswell tomogram study. This study demonstrates that time-lapse VSP with coda-wave interferometry analysis can reliably and effectively monitor geological carbon sequestration.

  5. Microbial characterization of basalt formation waters targeted for geological carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Lavalleur, Heather J; Colwell, Frederick S

    2013-07-01

    Geological carbon sequestration in basalts is a promising solution to mitigate carbon emissions into the Earth's atmosphere. The Wallula pilot well in Eastern Washington State, USA provides an opportunity to investigate how native microbial communities in basalts are affected by the injection of supercritical carbon dioxide into deep, alkaline formation waters of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Our objective was to characterize the microbial communities at five depth intervals in the Wallula pilot well prior to CO2 injection to establish a baseline community for comparison after the CO2 is injected. Microbial communities were examined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction to enumerate bacterial cells and 454 pyrosequencing to compare and contrast the diversity of the native microbial communities. The deepest depth sampled contained the greatest amount of bacterial biomass, as well as the highest bacterial diversity. The shallowest depth sampled harbored the greatest archaeal diversity. Pyrosequencing revealed the well to be dominated by the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria, with microorganisms related to hydrogen oxidizers (Hydrogenophaga), methylotrophs (Methylotenera), methanotrophs (Methylomonas), iron reducers (Geoalkalibacter), sulfur oxidizers (Thiovirga), and methanogens (Methermicocccus). Thus, the Wallula pilot well is composed of a unique microbial community in which hydrogen and single-carbon compounds may play a significant role in sustaining the deep biosphere.

  6. Sandstone/Shale-Brine-CO2 interactions: Implications for Geological Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, P.; Liu, F.; Fu, Q.; Seyfried, W. E.; Hedges, S.; Griffith, C.; Soong, Y.; Zhu, C.

    2009-12-01

    The injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifers is presently being considered as an option for greenhouse gas mitigation. However, significant amount of CO2-water-rock interactions brings uncertainties to this potential option because these interactions may either enhance or decrease the potential storage capacity of the reservoirs by dissolution of primary minerals and precipitation of secondary clays. In addition, these reactions may enhance or compromise the mechanical properties of the seals or cap rocks. A series of Sandstone/Shale-Brine-CO2 hydrothermal experiments have been performed at 200 oC, with the addition of CO2 (PCO2 up to 300 bars). Navajo sandstone samples were collected from Black Mesa, Arizona. The Jurassic Navajo/Nugget Sandstone is identified as regionally extensive in the western U.S. and selected as the target for one of the large-volume injection tests by the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership. Shale chips were obtained from the basal Eau Claire Formation in Southwest of Indiana. Eau Claire Shale overlies Mt. Simon Sandstone which is recognized as a highly promising host reservoir targeted for carbon sequestration by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC). Experiments of Navajo sandstones show that silicate minerals in the sandstone display dissolution textures. The formation of carbonate minerals (mineral trapping) is thermodynamically favored and experimentally observed. The chemical reactions likely increase the porosity of the sandstone due to silicate dissolution. However, allophane and illite/smectite cements fill voids of sandstone grains. There is no evidence that suggests the removal of clay coating due to chemical reactions. It is uncertain whether the mechanical forces near in the injection well would mobilize the smectite and allophane and cause pore clogging. In contrast, for CO2-brine-shale system, only minor dissolution of K-feldspar and anhydrite was observed. However, precipitation of pore-filling and

  7. Dynamic Evolution of Cement Composition and Transport Properties under Conditions Relevant to Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Brunet, Jean-Patrick Leopold; Li, Li; Karpyn, Zuleima T; Strazisar, Brian; Grant, Bromhal

    2013-08-01

    Assessing the possibility of CO{sub 2} leakage is one of the major challenges for geological carbon sequestration. Injected CO{sub 2} can react with wellbore cement, which can potentially change cement composition and transport properties. In this work, we develop a reactive transport model based on experimental observations to understand and predict the property evolution of cement in direct contact with CO{sub 2}-saturated brine under diffusion-controlled conditions. The model reproduced the observed zones of portlandite depletion and calcite formation. Cement alteration is initially fast and slows down at later times. This work also quantified the role of initial cement properties, in particular the ratio of the initial portlandite content to porosity (defined here as φ), in determining the evolution of cement properties. Portlandite-rich cement with large φ values results in a localized “sharp” reactive diffusive front characterized by calcite precipitation, leading to significant porosity reduction, which eventually clogs the pore space and prevents further acid penetration. Severe degradation occurs at the cement–brine interface with large φ values. This alteration increases effective permeability by orders of magnitude for fluids that preferentially flow through the degraded zone. The significant porosity decrease in the calcite zone also leads to orders of magnitude decrease in effective permeability, where fluids flow through the low-permeability calcite zone. The developed reactive transport model provides a valuable tool to link cement–CO{sub 2} reactions with the evolution of porosity and permeability. It can be used to quantify and predict long-term wellbore cement behavior and can facilitate the risk assessment associated with geological CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  8. Using improved technology for widespread application of a geological carbon sequestration study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raney, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Kansas Geological Survey is part of an ongoing collaboration between DOE-NETL, academia, and the petroleum industry to investigate the feasibility of carbon utilization and storage in Kansas. Latest findings in the 25,000 mi2 study area in southern Kansas estimate CO2 storage capacity ranges from 8.8 to 75.5 billion metric tons in a deep Lower Orodovican-age Arbuckle saline aquifer. In addition, an estimated 100 million tonnes of CO2 could be used for extracting additional oil from Kansas' fields, making transitions to carbon management economic. This partnership has a rare opportunity to synchronize abundant, yet previously disseminated knowledge into a cohesive scientific process to optimize sequestration site selection and implementation strategies. Following a thorough characterization, a small-scale CO2 injection of 70,000 tonnes will be implemented in Wellington Field in Sumner County, including a five-plot miscible CO2-EOR flood of a Mississippian reservoir followed by the underlying Arbuckle saline aquifer. Best practices and lessons learned from the field study will improve estimates on CO2 storage capacity, plume migration models, and identify potential leakage pathways to pursue safe and effective geological carbon sequestration at commercial scales. A highly accessible and multifunctional online database is being developed throughout the study that integrates all acquired geological, physical, chemical, and hydrogeologic knowledge. This public database incorporates tens of thousands of data points into easily viewable formats for user downloads. An Interactive Project Map Viewer is a key mechanism to present the scientific research, and will delineate compartment candidates and reservoirs matching reference criteria or user defined attributes. This tool uses a familiar pan and zoom interface to filter regional project data or scale down to detailed digitized information from over 3,300 carefully selected preexisting Kansas wells. A Java-based log

  9. CO2-rich geothermal areas in Iceland as natural analogues for geologic carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, D.; Maher, K.; Bird, D. K.; Brown, G. E.; Arnorsson, S.

    2013-12-01

    Geologic CO2 sequestration into mafic rocks via silicate mineral dissolution and carbonate precipitation has been suggested as a way to mitigate industrial CO2 emissions by storing CO2 in a stable form. Experimental observations of irreversible reaction of basalt with supercritical or gaseous and aqueous CO2 have resulted in carbonate precipitation, but there are no universal trends linking the extent of mineralization and type of reaction products to the bulk rock composition, glass percentage or mineralogy of the starting material. Additionally, concern exists that CO2 leakage from injection sites and migration through the subsurface may induce mineral dissolution and desorption of trace elements, potentially contaminating groundwater. This study investigates low-temperature (≤180°C) basaltic geothermal areas in Iceland with an anomalously high input of magmatic CO2 as natural analogues of the geochemical processes associated with the injection of CO2 into mafic rocks and possible leakage. Fluids that contain >4 mmol/kg total CO2 are common along the divergent Snæfellsnes Volcanic Zone in western Iceland and within the South Iceland Seismic Zone in southwest Iceland. The meteorically derived waters contain up to 80 mmol/kg dissolved inorganic carbonate (DIC). The aqueous concentration of major cations and trace elements is greater than that in Icelandic surface and groundwater and increases with DIC and decreasing pH. Concentrations of As and Ni in some samples are several times the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for safe drinking water. Thermodynamic modeling indicates that waters approach saturation with respect to calcite and/or aragonite, kaolinite and amorphous silica, and are undersaturated with respect to plagioclase feldspar, clinozoisite and Ca-zeolites. Petrographic study of drill cuttings from wells that intersect the CO2-rich areas indicates that the sites have undergone at least two stages of hydrothermal alteration: initial high

  10. Geological carbon sequestration: a new approach for near-surface assurance monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wielopolski, Lucian

    2011-03-01

    There are two distinct objectives in monitoring geological carbon sequestration (GCS): Deep monitoring of the reservoir's integrity and plume movement and near-surface monitoring (NSM) to ensure public health and the safety of the environment. However, the minimum detection limits of the current instrumentation for NSM is too high for detecting weak signals that are embedded in the background levels of the natural variations, and the data obtained represents point measurements in space and time. A new approach for NSM, based on gamma-ray spectroscopy induced by inelastic neutron scatterings (INS), offers novel and unique characteristics providing the following: (1) High sensitivity with a reducible error of measurement and detection limits, and, (2) temporal- and spatial-integration of carbon in soil that results from underground CO(2) seepage. Preliminary field results validated this approach showing carbon suppression of 14% in the first year and 7% in the second year. In addition the temporal behavior of the error propagation is presented and it is shown that for a signal at the level of the minimum detection level the error asymptotically approaches 47%.

  11. Quantifying Conditions for Fault Self-Sealing in Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherson, B. J. O. L.; Patil, V.; Moore, J.; Trujillo, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Injecting anthropogenic CO2 into a subsurface reservoir for sequestration will impact the reservoir significantly, including its geochemistry, porosity and permeability. If a fault or fracture penetrates the reservoir, CO2-laden brine may migrate into that fault, eventually sealing it via precipitation or opening it up via dissolution. The goal of this study was to identify and quantify such conditions of fault self-sealing or self-enhancing. We found that the dimensionless Damköhler number (Da), the ratio of reaction rate to advection rate, provides a meaningful framework for characterizing the propensity of (fault) systems to seal or open up. We developed our own framework wherein Damköhler numbers evolve spatiotemporally as opposed to the traditional single Da value approach. Our approach enables us to use the Damköhler for characterization of complex multiphase and multimineral reactive transport problems. We applied this framework to 1D fault models with eight conditions derived from four geologic compositions and two reservoir conditions. The four­ geologic compositions were chosen such that three out of them were representative of distinct geologic end-members (sandstone, mudstone and dolomitic limestone) and one was a mixed composition based on an average of three end-member compositions. The two sets of P-T conditions chosen included one set corresponding to CO2 in a gaseous phase ("shallow conditions") and the other corresponding to supercritical phase CO2 ("deep conditions"). Simulation results suggest that fault sealing via carbonate precipitation was a possibility for shallow conditions within limestone and mixed composition settings. The concentration of cations in the water was found to be an important control on the carbonate precipitation. The deep conditions models did not forecast self-sealing via carbonates. Sealing via clay precipitation is a likely possibility, but the 1000 year time-frame may be short for such. Model results indicated a

  12. Predictive uncertainty analysis of plume distribution for geological carbon sequestration using sparse-grid Bayesian method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, X.; Zhang, G.

    2013-12-01

    Because of the extensive computational burden, parametric uncertainty analyses are rarely conducted for geological carbon sequestration (GCS) process based multi-phase models. The difficulty of predictive uncertainty analysis for the CO2 plume migration in realistic GCS models is not only due to the spatial distribution of the caprock and reservoir (i.e. heterogeneous model parameters), but also because the GCS optimization estimation problem has multiple local minima due to the complex nonlinear multi-phase (gas and aqueous), and multi-component (water, CO2, salt) transport equations. The geological model built by Doughty and Pruess (2004) for the Frio pilot site (Texas) was selected and assumed to represent the 'true' system, which was composed of seven different facies (geological units) distributed among 10 layers. We chose to calibrate the permeabilities of these facies. Pressure and gas saturation values from this true model were then extracted and used as observations for subsequent model calibration. Random noise was added to the observations to approximate realistic field conditions. Each simulation of the model lasts about 2 hours. In this study, we develop a new approach that improves computational efficiency of Bayesian inference by constructing a surrogate system based on an adaptive sparse-grid stochastic collocation method. This surrogate response surface global optimization algorithm is firstly used to calibrate the model parameters, then prediction uncertainty of the CO2 plume position is quantified due to the propagation from parametric uncertainty in the numerical experiments, which is also compared to the actual plume from the 'true' model. Results prove that the approach is computationally efficient for multi-modal optimization and prediction uncertainty quantification for computationally expensive simulation models. Both our inverse methodology and findings can be broadly applicable to GCS in heterogeneous storage formations.

  13. Physical and Chemical Processes Affecting Permeability during Geologic Carbon Sequestration in Arkose and Dolostone: Experimental Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, A. J.; Kong, X.; Tutolo, B. M.; Saar, M. O.; Seyfried, W. E.

    2012-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration in saline sedimentary basins provides a promising option to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We are conducting experiments using a novel flow system at elevated temperatures and pressures to better understand the physical and chemical processes that result from CO2 injection into these basins and the effects of these processes on system permeability. Here we present experimental results on arkose (primarily K-feldspar and quartz) and dolostone, focusing on CO2 exsolution and fluid-mineral reactions. Following heating-induced CO2 exsolution in an arkose sediment (90-125 μm) core, XRCT scans revealed abundant pores several times larger than the average grain size. The pores likely grew as exsolved CO2 accumulated in the pores and exerted outspread forces on the surrounding grains. These trapped CO2 accumulations blocked flow pathways, reducing measured permeability by 10,000 times. Another reported experiment on a solid arkose core and water with aqueous CO2 concentrations at 80% saturation dissolved K-feldspar, as evidenced by 3 to 1 ratios of Si to K in sampled fluids, and precipitated an Al-rich mineral, likely gibbsite. SEM images revealed extensive clay precipitation on K-feldspar mineral surfaces. Alteration reduced permeability from 5 × 10-14 m2 to 3 × 10-14 m2 during this 52-day experiment. The third reported experiment on a dolostone core and 1 molal NaCl brine with an aqueous CO2 concentration at 75% saturation caused extensive dissolution and a large increase in permeability. This three-day experiment produced a wormhole of 2 mm in diameter that penetrated the entire 2.6 cm long core with a diameter of 1.3 cm. High, initial Ca and Mg fluid concentrations that quickly receded imply early formation of the wormhole that grew in diameter with time. Our experimental results show that formation permeability can change dramatically from both physical and chemical processes, and these changes should be accounted for during

  14. Modeling the effects of topography and wind on atmospheric dispersion of CO2 surface leakage at geologic carbon sequestration sites

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Fotini K.; Granvold, Patrick W.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2008-11-01

    Understanding the potential impacts of unexpected surface releases of CO{sub 2} is an essential part of risk assessment for geologic carbon sequestration sites. We have extended a mesoscale atmospheric model to model dense gas dispersion of CO{sub 2} leakage. The hazard from CO{sub 2} leakage is greatest in regions with topographic depressions where the dense gas can pool. Simulation of dispersion in idealized topographies shows that CO{sub 2} can persist even under high winds. Simulation of a variety of topographies, winds, and release conditions allows the generation of a catalog of simulation results that can be queried to estimate potential impacts at actual geologic carbon sequestration sites.

  15. Probability Estimation of CO2 Leakage Through Faults at Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curt; Finsterle, Stefan; Jordan, Preston; Zhang, Keni

    2008-11-01

    Leakage of CO{sub 2} and brine along faults at geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites is a primary concern for storage integrity. The focus of this study is on the estimation of the probability of leakage along faults or fractures. This leakage probability is controlled by the probability of a connected network of conduits existing at a given site, the probability of this network encountering the CO{sub 2} plume, and the probability of this network intersecting environmental resources that may be impacted by leakage. This work is designed to fit into a risk assessment and certification framework that uses compartments to represent vulnerable resources such as potable groundwater, health and safety, and the near-surface environment. The method we propose includes using percolation theory to estimate the connectivity of the faults, and generating fuzzy rules from discrete fracture network simulations to estimate leakage probability. By this approach, the probability of CO{sub 2} escaping into a compartment for a given system can be inferred from the fuzzy rules. The proposed method provides a quick way of estimating the probability of CO{sub 2} or brine leaking into a compartment. In addition, it provides the uncertainty range of the estimated probability.

  16. Development of an Intelligent Monitoring System for Geological Carbon Sequestration (GCS) Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, A. Y.; Jeong, H.; Xu, W.; Hovorka, S. D.; Zhu, T.; Templeton, T.; Arctur, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    To provide stakeholders timely evidence that GCS repositories are operating safely and efficiently requires integrated monitoring to assess the performance of the storage reservoir as the CO2 plume moves within it. As a result, GCS projects can be data intensive, as a result of proliferation of digital instrumentation and smart-sensing technologies. GCS projects are also resource intensive, often requiring multidisciplinary teams performing different monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) tasks throughout the lifecycle of a project to ensure secure containment of injected CO2. How to correlate anomaly detected by a certain sensor to events observed by other devices to verify leakage incidents? How to optimally allocate resources for task-oriented monitoring if reservoir integrity is in question? These are issues that warrant further investigation before real integration can take place. In this work, we are building a web-based, data integration, assimilation, and learning framework for geologic carbon sequestration projects (DIAL-GCS). DIAL-GCS will be an intelligent monitoring system (IMS) for automating GCS closed-loop management by leveraging recent developments in high-throughput database, complex event processing, data assimilation, and machine learning technologies. Results will be demonstrated using realistic data and model derived from a GCS site.

  17. Analytical solution of geological carbon sequestration under constant pressure injection into a horizontal radial reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhang, R.; Liou, T.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is believed to be an economically feasible technology to mitigate global warming by capturing carbon dioxide (CO2), the major component of greenhouse gases, from the atmosphere and injecting it into deep geological formations.Several mechanisms can help trap CO2 in the pore space of a geological reservoir, stratigraphic and structural trapping, hydrodynamic trapping, and geochemical trapping.Besides these trapping mechanisms, another important issue that deserves careful attention is the risk of CO2 leakage. The common ';constant injection rate' scenario may induce high pressure buildup that will endanger the mechanical integrity as well as the sealing capability of the cap rock. Instead of injecting CO2 at a constant mass rate, CO2 can be injected into the reservoir by fixing the pressure (usually the bottom-hole pressure) in the injection borehole. By doing so, the inevitable pressure buildup associated with the constant injection scheme can be completely eliminated in the constant pressure injection scheme. In this paper, a semi-analytical solution for CO2 injection with constant pressure was developed. For simplicity, structural and geochemical trapping mechanisms were not considered. Therefore, a horizontal reservoir with infinite radial extent was considered. Prior to injection, the reservoir is fully saturated with the formation brine. It is assumed that CO2 does not mix with brine such that a sharp interface is formed once CO2 invades the brine-saturated pores. Because of the density difference between CO2 and brine, CO2 resides above the interface. Additional assumptions were also made when building up the brine and CO2 mass balance equations: (1) both of the fluids and the geological formations are incompressible, (2) capillary pressure is neglected, (3)there is no fluid flow in the vertical direction, and the horizontal flow satisfies the Darcy's law.In order to solve for the height of brine-CO2 interface, the two

  18. Optimal Timing of Oceanic, Geological and Biological Carbon Sequestration to Safeguard Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitz, V.; Ambrosi, P.; Ciais, P.; Orr, J.; Magne, B.; Hourcade, J.

    2005-12-01

    We address the issue of safeguarding climate in the presence of a cascade of uncertainties through a portfolio of mitigation options: emissions reductions (M), biological carbon sequestration (BCS), carbon capture and storage - both geological (GCS) and oceanic (OCS). Within a sequential decision framework (i.e. as uncertainties are progressively resolved with time), we use a global optimal control model, RESPONSE, to examine the relative advantages of the three sequestration options in lowering fossil fuel abatement expenditures. Moreover, we show to what extent these options offer additional flexibility for short- and long-term decision given uncertainties on climate sensitivity and ``safe'' climate targets. To do so, we compute the value of information regarding these uncertainties and assess the timeliness of learning (i.e. which uncertainty is more``urgent'' to resolve). Finally, we show to what extent short term optimal paths of fossil emissions abatement and carbon sequestration are robust to these uncertainties. We find that BCS, GCS and OCS are complementary both in alleviating the constraint on the energy sector and in tackling the uncertainties. BCS is used more in the short term as a brake whereas OCS and GCS are used more in the long term as a safety valve. In other words, a portfolio approach is preferable to an approach based solely on emissions reduction: with a fully- diversified mitigation portfolio, discounted global climate policy costs are up to 38% lower than with an abatement-only policy and discounted abatement costs decrease up to 54%. Short-term costs are lower, mainly (81%) thanks to BCS - a result relatively independent upon the emissions scenario. Long- term costs are mainly lower thanks to GCS or OCS, both options being concurrent. However, in the case of high-emissions scenarios (like A2), OCS proves highly helpful (up to 25% of A2 reference scenario cumulated emissions could be stored). Though marginal in duration given the

  19. Can the Carbonated Layer Protect Wellbore Cement During Geologic CO2 Sequestration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Jun, Y. S.; Steefel, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding and improving the integrity of wellbores are crucial to prevent CO2 leakage during geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS). With advanced knowledge, cement deterioration caused by injected CO2 can be minimized. We have experimentally analyzed the chemical and mechanical property changes of Portland cement paste samples after 10 days of exposure to 0.5 M NaCl brine saturated with 100 bar CO2 at 95 oC. After exposure, the 3 mm thick cement samples had a total CO2-attacked depth of 1220 μm from both sides, including a 960 μm thick portlandite-depleted region next to the intact core, a 100 μm thick carbonated layer, and a 170 μm surface layer. The portlandite-depleted zone developed abundant micro-cracks and showed a decreased hardness. A hard carbonated layer which developed near the sample surface could not protect the cement due to formation of this portlandite-depleted zone, where abundant micro-cracks accounted for a 90% decrease in strength of the bulk sample. Using the reactive transport code CrunchTope, we further investigated the mechanism of portlandite-depleted zone formation. The cement deterioration process was simulated with a 1-D continuum model that captured the dissolution of the portlandite and the formation of a calcite zone closer to the sample edge. Modeling results highlighted that the apparent bypass of CO2 through the carbonated layer is critical for the evolution of the portlandite-depleted zone, since otherwise the 1-D model predicts complete clogging of the porosity. Defects within the carbonated zone could be due to reaction-induced fractures or to the heterogeneity of the cement. We also incorporated nucleation kinetics for secondary calcite precipitation using previously obtained thermodynamic parameters. We found that the nucleation energy barrier does not suppress calcite formation and thus cannot explain the absence of calcite in the portlandite-depleted zone. The findings from our study help further our understanding of CO2

  20. A Risk-Based System Analysis Framework for Geological Carbon Sequestration.

    SciTech Connect

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Klotz, Richard

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this project was to characterize existing carbon capture and sequestration technologies at a high level, develop an analytical framework to help assess the technologies, and implement the framework in a system dynamics model. The first year of this project succeeded in characterizing existing technologies to help focus the analysis on power plants. The assessment also helped determine which technologies are largely accepted by the carbon capture research community as relatively proven technologies, discuss the salient performance metrics, and assess the associated economics. With this information, an analytical framework was developed to assess the technologies from a systems view perspective. With this framework, the Carbon Sequestration and Risk Model (CSR) was developed to assess performance and economic risk issues as they relate to global atmospheric CO2 concentration goals and single plant scale projects to characterize the economics of these systems.

  1. Mobilization and Transport of Organic Compounds from Reservoir Rock and Caprock in Geological Carbon Sequestration Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Lirong; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Shewell, Jesse L.

    2014-05-06

    Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is an excellent solvent for organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX), phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Monitoring results from geological carbon sequestration (GCS) field tests has shown that organic compounds are mobilized following CO2 injection. Such results have raised concerns regarding the potential for groundwater contamination by toxic organic compounds mobilized during GCS. Knowledge of the mobilization mechanism of organic compounds and their transport and fate in the subsurface is essential for assessing risks associated with GCS. Extraction tests using scCO2 and methylene chloride (CH2Cl2) were conducted to study the mobilization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, including BTEX), the PAH naphthalene, and n-alkanes (n-C20 – n-C30) by scCO2 from representative reservoir rock and caprock obtained from depleted oil reservoirs and coal from an enhanced coal-bed methane recovery site. More VOCs and naphthalene were extractable by scCO2 compared to the CH2Cl2 extractions, while scCO2 extractable alkane concentrations were much lower than concentrations extractable by CH2Cl2. In addition, dry scCO2 was found to extract more VOCs than water saturated scCO2, but water saturated scCO2 mobilized more naphthalene than dry scCO2. In sand column experiments, moisture content was found to have an important influence on the transport of the organic compounds. In dry sand columns the majority of the compounds were retained in the column except benzene and toluene. In wet sand columns the mobility of the BTEX was much higher than that of naphthalene. Based upon results determined for the reservoir rock, caprock, and coal samples studied here, the risk to aquifers from contamination by organic compounds appears to be relatively low; however, further work is necessary to fully evaluate risks from depleted oil reservoirs.

  2. Basin-scale Modeling of Geological Carbon Sequestration: Model Complexity, Injection Scenario and Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.; Bachu, S.

    2013-12-01

    Geological carbon sequestration can significantly contribute to climate-change mitigation only if it is deployed at a very large scale. This means that injection scenarios must occur, and be analyzed, at the basin scale. Various mathematical models of different complexity may be used to assess the fate of injected CO2 and/or resident brine. These models span the range from multi-dimensional, multi-phase numerical simulators to simple single-phase analytical solutions. In this study, we consider a range of models, all based on vertically-integrated governing equations, to predict the basin-scale pressure response to specific injection scenarios. The Canadian section of the Basal Aquifer is used as a test site to compare the different modeling approaches. The model domain covers an area of approximately 811,000 km2, and the total injection rate is 63 Mt/yr, corresponding to 9 locations where large point sources have been identified. Predicted areas of critical pressure exceedance are used as a comparison metric among the different modeling approaches. Comparison of the results shows that single-phase numerical models may be good enough to predict the pressure response over a large aquifer; however, a simple superposition of semi-analytical or analytical solutions is not sufficiently accurate because spatial variability of formation properties plays an important role in the problem, and these variations are not captured properly with simple superposition. We consider two different injection scenarios: injection at the source locations and injection at locations with more suitable aquifer properties. Results indicate that in formations with significant spatial variability of properties, strong variations in injectivity among the different source locations can be expected, leading to the need to transport the captured CO2 to suitable injection locations, thereby necessitating development of a pipeline network. We also consider the sensitivity of porosity and

  3. LUCI: A facility at DUSEL for large-scale experimental study of geologic carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, C. A.; Dobson, P.F.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Wang, J. S. Y.; Onstott, T.C.; Scherer, G.W.; Freifeld, B.M.; Ramakrishnan, T.S.; Stabinski, E.L.; Liang, K.; Verma, S.

    2010-10-01

    LUCI, the Laboratory for Underground CO{sub 2} Investigations, is an experimental facility being planned for the DUSEL underground laboratory in South Dakota, USA. It is designed to study vertical flow of CO{sub 2} in porous media over length scales representative of leakage scenarios in geologic carbon sequestration. The plan for LUCI is a set of three vertical column pressure vessels, each of which is {approx}500 m long and {approx}1 m in diameter. The vessels will be filled with brine and sand or sedimentary rock. Each vessel will have an inner column to simulate a well for deployment of down-hole logging tools. The experiments are configured to simulate CO{sub 2} leakage by releasing CO{sub 2} into the bottoms of the columns. The scale of the LUCI facility will permit measurements to study CO{sub 2} flow over pressure and temperature variations that span supercritical to subcritical gas conditions. It will enable observation or inference of a variety of relevant processes such as buoyancy-driven flow in porous media, Joule-Thomson cooling, thermal exchange, viscous fingering, residual trapping, and CO{sub 2} dissolution. Experiments are also planned for reactive flow of CO{sub 2} and acidified brines in caprock sediments and well cements, and for CO{sub 2}-enhanced methanogenesis in organic-rich shales. A comprehensive suite of geophysical logging instruments will be deployed to monitor experimental conditions as well as provide data to quantify vertical resolution of sensor technologies. The experimental observations from LUCI will generate fundamental new understanding of the processes governing CO{sub 2} trapping and vertical migration, and will provide valuable data to calibrate and validate large-scale model simulations.

  4. The Role of Optimality in Characterizing CO2 Seepage from Geological Carbon Sequestration Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortis, A.; Oldenburg, C. M.; Benson, S. M.

    2007-12-01

    Storage of large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) in deep geological formations for greenhouse-gas mitigation is gaining momentum and moving from its conceptual and testing stages towards widespread application. In this talk we explore various optimization strategies for characterizing surface leakage (seepage) using near-surface measurement approaches such as accumulation chambers and eddy covariance towers. Seepage characterization objectives and limitations need to be defined carefully from the outset especially in light of large natural background variations that can mask seepage. The cost and sensitivity of seepage detection are related to four critical length scales pertaining to the size of the: (1) region that needs to be monitored; (2) footprint of the measurement approach; (3) main seepage zone; and (4) region in which concentrations or fluxes are influenced by seepage. Seepage characterization objectives may include one or all of the tasks of detecting, locating, and quantifying seepage. Each of these tasks has its own optimal strategy. Detecting and locating seepage in a region in which there is no expected or preferred location for seepage nor existing evidence for seepage requires monitoring on a fixed grid, e.g., using eddy covariance towers. The fixed-grid approaches needed to detect seepage are expected to require large numbers of eddy covariance towers for large-scale geologic CO2 storage. Once seepage has been detected and roughly located, seepage zones and features can be optimally pinpointed through a dynamic search strategy, e.g., employing accumulation chambers and/or soil-gas sampling. Quantification of seepage rates can be done through measurements on a localized fixed grid once the seepage is pinpointed. Background measurements are essential for seepage detection in natural ecosystems. Artificial neural networks are considered as regression models useful for distinguishing natural system behavior from anomalous behavior suggestive of CO2

  5. Use of Anticlines in Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide in Sedimentary Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, T.; Lin, S.

    2012-12-01

    Anticline has been considered as a good geologic unit for trapping carbon dioxide (CO2) in deep saline aquifers. However, overoptimistic design of injection scheme may adversely overwhelm the sealing capability of the cap rock in the anticline. In this study, migration of CO2 in such aquifer under various injection schemes is numerically simulated using the ECO2N simulator. The hypothetical study site is selected at Taoyuan Plateau near the second largest coal-fired power plant, Datan, in Taiwan. Kueichulin sandstone and Chinshui shale, underlying Cholan sandstone, are considered as the storage formation and cap rock, respectively. A 15x15 km2 simulation domain containing sub-parallel east-northeast Hukou anticline and Pingzhen anticline is selected. Initial conditions are hydrostatic pressure distribution, constant salinity at 3%, and zero content of CO2. Isothermal simulations with 1 Mt/yr injection rate and 20 years of injection period are considered. All boundaries are assumed to be "open". van Genuchten type of capillary pressure and Corey relative permeability are assumed for all rock formations. The leakage scenario results if a single injection borehole is placed along the anticline axis. Due to elevated pressure buildup, CO2 ultimately reaches the top of Cholan formation and finally leaks out of the upper boundary. In this case, the amount of gas phase CO2 stored in the formation declines prominently in the post-injection period because of leakage. To some degree balancing the adverse leakage, the rate of liquid phase CO2 sequestrated increases during the post-injection period because of CO2 dissolving into brine. Besides pressure buildup, injectivity may be reduced because salt is precipitated near the injection borehole during formation dry-out. Better scenarios are those if the injection borehole is placed away from the anticline axis. In such scenarios, not only leakage is significantly reduced but both the decline rate and the increase rate become

  6. The Role of Water and Carbon Dioxide Intercalation on Na-Montmorillonite Swelling Behavior at Geological Carbon Sequestration Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makaremi, Meysam; Jordan, Kenneth; Guthrie, George; Myshakin, Evgeniy

    2015-03-01

    Swelling of Na-montmorillonite in the environment relevant to geological CO2 sequestration in deep underground formations is investigated by conducting classical Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. Both the binary (clay-water or clay- CO2) and the ternary (clay-water- CO2) systems containing the clay, water and carbon dioxide phases are simulated, and the free energy for clay swelling is calculated as a function of the interlayer distance. The calculations indicate that while water intercalates into the clay layer and forms stable monolayer and bilayer hydration states, in the absence of interlayer water adsorption of dry carbon dioxide is thermodynamically unfavorable. In the ternary system, two hydration states are observed with interlayer spacings corresponding closely to those of the pure water binary system. In addition, the simulations of the ternary system show that the incomplete first hydration state is more effective at adsorbing CO2 molecules than is the incomplete second hydration state. Work was performed in support of the NETL's ongoing research in Subtask 4000.4.641.061.002.254 under the RES Contract DE-FE0004000.

  7. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  8. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-06

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  9. An integrated experimental program to understanding leakage from geologic carbon sequestration sites across scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarens, A. F.; Wang, S.; Liang, B.; Peters, C. A.; Fitts, J. P.; Deng, H.; Ellis, B. R.

    2012-12-01

    Leakage from the deep saline aquifers targeted in geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) is difficult to study because of heterogeneities in the structure and chemical composition of the subsurface along with the characteristically large length scales and resulting phase changes that are involved. The chemical and physical processes that govern the buoyancy driven flow of CO2 are important to understand because leakage could undermine the nominal goal of GCS to keep CO2 out of the atmosphere. Here we report on a partnership between Princeton and the University of Virginia (UVa) to study these processes experimentally across multiple length scales in both porous media and fractured caprocks. Experiments span length scales from microns to meters, and the processes studied range from geochemical reactions to the physics of flow. In this presentation, we summarize the suite of experiments that are underway and present recent findings. We seek to demonstrate that this coordinated, multi-disciplinary, multi-scale research collaboration will lead to improved understanding of the fundamental processes that may control the permanence of stored CO2. At UVa, the aim has been to characterize the interfacial properties that will impact buoyancy driven flows in porous media. Contact angle experiments at the CO2-brine-mineral interface have been carried out on silica, carbonate and clay minerals. These results will be used to inform how mineral heterogeneity influences multiphase buoyant flow through sandstones in which pore surfaces are frequently coated by diagenetic clays. Although all minerals are water wetting, the pH point of zero charge was found to be a good predictor of maximum wetting for a solid surface. When the CO2 was not in equilibrium with the brine, hysteric effects were observed as CO2 dissolved into the bulk fluid. Some of this is associated with contact line pinning on certain surfaces that may be driven by salt precipitation near the phase interface. Contact

  10. Subsurface Monitor for Dissolved Inorganic Carbon at Geological Sequestration Site Phase 1 SBIR Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng Wu

    2012-08-03

    Phase I research of this SBIR contract has yielded anticipated results and enable us to develop a practical new instrument to measure the Dissolved Inorganic Carbons (DIC) as well as Supercritical (SC) CO2 in underground brine water at higher sensitivity, lower cost, higher frequency and longer period of time for the Monitoring, Verification & Accounting (MVA) of CO2 sequestration as well as Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). We show that reduced cost and improved performance are possible; both future and emerging market exist for the proposed new instrument.

  11. FY12 ARRA-NRAP Report – Studies to Support Risk Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Shao, Hongbo; Thompson, C. J.; Zhong, Lirong; Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong

    2011-09-27

    This report summarizes results of research conducted during FY2012 to support the assessment of environmental risks associated with geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and storage. Several research focus areas are ongoing as part of this project. This includes the quantification of the leachability of metals and organic compounds from representative CO2 storage reservoir and caprock materials, the fate of metals and organic compounds after release, and the development of a method to measure pH in situ under supercritical CO2 (scCO2) conditions. Metal leachability experiments were completed on 6 different rock samples in brine in equilibrium with scCO2 at representative geologic reservoir conditions. In general, the leaching of RCRA metals and other metals of concern was found to be limited and not likely to be a significant issue (at least, for the rocks tested). Metals leaching experiments were also completed on 1 rock sample with scCO2 containing oxygen at concentrations of 0, 1, 5, and 10% to simulate injection of CO2 originating from the oxy-fuel combustion process. Significant differences in the leaching behavior of certain metals were observed when oxygen is present in the CO2. These differences resulted from oxidation of sulfides, release of sulfate, ferric iron and other metals, and subsequent precipitation of iron oxides and some sulfates such as barite. Experiments to evaluate the potential for mobilization of organic compounds from representative reservoir materials and cap rock and their fate in porous media (quartz sand) have been conducted. Results with Fruitland coal and Gothic shale indicate that lighter organic compounds were more susceptible to mobilization by scCO2 compared to heavier compounds. Alkanes demonstrated very low extractability by scCO2. No significant differences were observed between the extractability of organic compounds by dry or water saturated scCO2. Reaction equilibrium appears to have been reached by 96 hours. When

  12. CO2-Brine Rheology Could Suppress Leakage From Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Clarens, A. F.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) in the deep subsurface is an attractive means for storing large volumes of CO2 over the long term. GCS is predicated on there being minimal leakage of CO2 to the surface since this would negate the climate change benefits and could also create a human health risk. Despite the importance of understanding leakage processes to GCS deployment, the phenomena remain especially difficult to characterize because CO2, driven by buoyant forces out of host formations, must travel over long length scales, encountering varied geologic formations and endogenous brines, and experiencing a wide range of shear, temperature and pressure conditions that result in complex phase behavior. This study explores the rheology of CO2-brine mixtures in an effort to better characterize the geophysics of a rising parcel of CO2 in the subsurface. Experimental work in this area to date has assumed that CO2-brine mixtures will exhibit simple Newtonian behavior. The hypothesis of this work is that CO2-brine mixtures will move through porous media generating high shear rates, caused by the small pore sizes, that could result in more complex flow phenomena. The rheological properties of single and multiphase CO2-brine mixtures were measured over a range of GCS-relevant temperature, pressure, ionic strength, and shear conditions using a rotational rheometer fitted with a high-pressure vessel and a low viscosity measurement unit. Under liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) conditions CO2-brine mixtures were found to exhibit consistently Newtonian behavior with the effective viscosity generally increasing with respect to CO2(aq) concentration. A small dip in viscosity occurs at the pressure corresponding to the transition of CO2 from liquid to gas but this minor effect is not likely to have an appreciable impact on leakage rates. More significantly, under vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) conditions, CO2-brine suspensions exhibit complex viscoelastic behavior that could

  13. Pilot Studies of Geologic and Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in the Big Sky Region, USA, and Opportunities for Commercial Scale Deployment of New Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waggoner, L. A.; Capalbo, S. M.; Talbott, J.

    2007-05-01

    Within the Big Sky region, including Montana, Idaho, South Dakota, Wyoming and the Pacific Northwest, industry is developing new coal-fired power plants using the abundant coal and other fossil-based resources. Of crucial importance to future development programs are robust carbon mitigation plans that include a technical and economic assessment of regional carbon sequestration opportunities. The objective of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP) is to promote the development of a regional framework and infrastructure required to validate and deploy carbon sequestration technologies. Initial work compiled sources and potential sinks for carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Big Sky Region and developed the online Carbon Atlas. Current efforts couple geologic and terrestrial field validation tests with market assessments, economic analysis and regulatory and public outreach. The primary geological efforts are in the demonstration of carbon storage in mafic/basalt formations, a geology not yet well characterized but with significant long-term storage potential in the region and other parts of the world; and in the Madison Formation, a large carbonate aquifer in Wyoming and Montana. Terrestrial sequestration relies on management practices and technologies to remove atmospheric CO2 to storage in trees, plants, and soil. This indirect sequestration method can be implemented today and is on the front-line of voluntary, market-based approaches to reduce CO2 emissions. Details of pilot projects are presented including: new technologies, challenges and successes of projects and potential for commercial-scale deployment.

  14. CO2-mineral Wettability and Implications for Understanding Leakage Processes from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarens, A. F.; Edwards, I.; Wang, S.

    2011-12-01

    In geological carbon sequestration (GCS), leakage events will be difficult to predict because parcels of CO2 will travel over long length scales and encounter a number of heterogeneous formations and endogenous brine in their rise to the surface. A constitutive model of a rising parcel of CO2 includes at least three main forces: 1) buoyant forces, 2) surface tension forces, and 3) shear drag forces. Of these, surface tension forces are of great significance, especially for predicting capillary and mineral trapping, and are affected by surface tension and the three-phase contact angle between CO2, brine, and the solid host mineral surfaces. Very limited experimental data on contact angles in GCS relevant systems has been reported in the academic literature. Here, the contact angle of several of the rock and clay species prevailing near GCS sites, e.g. quartz, feldspar, calcite, kaolinite, smectite and illite, were measured under a range of relevant temperature, pressure and ionic strength conditions. The measurements were made in a custom-built high-pressure view cell by introducing precisely controlled pendant CO2 droplets of constant volume to smooth and clean mineral surfaces after saturating the surrounding brine with CO2 and images were recorded using a high resolution digital camera. Images were processed and the contact angle measured using ImageJ software with a plug-in designed for this purpose. To measure the contact angle of CO2 on clay surfaces, ultra-pure microscope glass slides were coated with cleaned and particle-size-separated clay particles using hydrolyzed polyvinyl alcohol to ensure adhesion and a continuous coating on the surface. The uniform morphology of the surface was confirmed using electron microscopy. Preliminary results demonstrate differences in contact angle between the tested minerals, with calcite > quartz > feldspar. The absolute differences between the minerals were on the order of 3-7%. The

  15. Transport of Colloidal Silica in Fractured and Porous Media: Applications to Geothermal & Geological Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, S.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Bourcier, W. L.; Hunt, J. D.; Ryerson, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    Silica gels are abundant in various surface and subsurface applications, yet they have not been evaluated for geothermal and carbon sequestration reservoir management. For example, a) sustaining long term heat extraction from geothermal systems can be achieved by optimizing thermal sweeping of available conductive surface area; b) minimizing supercritical CO2 leaks through caprock can be insured by blocking any possible leakage pathways. Diverting and blocking agents have been effectively used in the petroleum industry to enhance recovery; however, these are often organic polymers that raise environmental concerns. Silicas are inorganic and environmentally friendly. In the current study we have developed a numerical model to simulate the flow mass and heat transport of silica gel in both geothermal and immiscible supercritical CO2 sequestration reservoirs. We illustrate the application of the model for a) maximizing thermal extraction and minimizing water loses for hydrothermal systems by using the gel as a diverter and blocking agent and b) minimizing CO2 leakages to the caprock by using the gel as blocking and coating agent. Several 2D and 3D examples in porous and fractured network will be presented and design criteria for both application will be discussed. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Addressing the Grand Challenge of atmospheric carbon dioxide: geologic sequestration vs. biological recycling.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Ben J

    2011-11-02

    On February 15, 2008, the National Academy of Engineering unveiled their list of 14 Grand Challenges for Engineering. Building off of tremendous advancements in the past century, these challenges were selected for their role in assuring a sustainable existence for the rapidly increasing global community. It is no accident that the first five Challenges on the list involve the development of sustainable energy sources and management of environmental resources. While the focus of this review is to address the single Grand Challenge of "develop carbon sequestration methods", is will soon be clear that several other Challenges are intrinsically tied to it through the principles of sustainability. How does the realm of biological engineering play a role in addressing these Grand Challenges?

  17. Addressing the Grand Challenge of atmospheric carbon dioxide: geologic sequestration vs. biological recycling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    On February 15, 2008, the National Academy of Engineering unveiled their list of 14 Grand Challenges for Engineering. Building off of tremendous advancements in the past century, these challenges were selected for their role in assuring a sustainable existence for the rapidly increasing global community. It is no accident that the first five Challenges on the list involve the development of sustainable energy sources and management of environmental resources. While the focus of this review is to address the single Grand Challenge of "develop carbon sequestration methods", is will soon be clear that several other Challenges are intrinsically tied to it through the principles of sustainability. How does the realm of biological engineering play a role in addressing these Grand Challenges? PMID:22047501

  18. Basin-Scale Leakage Risks from Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Impact on Carbon Capture and Storage Energy Market Competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Catherine; Fitts, Jeffrey; Wilson, Elizabeth; Pollak, Melisa; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Bhatt, Vatsal

    2013-03-13

    This three-year project, performed by Princeton University in partnership with the University of Minnesota and Brookhaven National Laboratory, examined geologic carbon sequestration in regard to CO{sub 2} leakage and potential subsurface liabilities. The research resulted in basin-scale analyses of CO{sub 2} and brine leakage in light of uncertainties in the characteristics of leakage processes, and generated frameworks to monetize the risks of leakage interference with competing subsurface resources. The geographic focus was the Michigan sedimentary basin, for which a 3D topographical model was constructed to represent the hydrostratigraphy. Specifically for Ottawa County, a statistical analysis of the hydraulic properties of underlying sedimentary formations was conducted. For plausible scenarios of injection into the Mt. Simon sandstone, leakage rates were estimated and fluxes into shallow drinking-water aquifers were found to be less than natural analogs of CO{sub 2} fluxes. We developed the Leakage Impact Valuation (LIV) model in which we identified stakeholders and estimated costs associated with leakage events. It was found that costs could be incurred even in the absence of legal action or other subsurface interference because there are substantial costs of finding and fixing the leak and from injection interruption. We developed a model framework called RISCS, which can be used to predict monetized risk of interference with subsurface resources by combining basin-scale leakage predictions with the LIV method. The project has also developed a cost calculator called the Economic and Policy Drivers Module (EPDM), which comprehensively calculates the costs of carbon sequestration and leakage, and can be used to examine major drivers for subsurface leakage liabilities in relation to specific injection scenarios and leakage events. Finally, we examined the competiveness of CCS in the energy market. This analysis, though qualitative, shows that financial

  19. Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    L.A. Davis; A.L. Graham; H.W. Parker; J.R. Abbott; M.S. Ingber; A.A. Mammoli; L.A. Mondy; Quanxin Guo; Ahmed Abou-Sayed

    2005-12-07

    Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Formations The U.S. and other countries may enter into an agreement that will require a significant reduction in CO2 emissions in the medium to long term. In order to achieve such goals without drastic reductions in fossil fuel usage, CO2 must be removed from the atmosphere and be stored in acceptable reservoirs. The research outlined in this proposal deals with developing a methodology to determine the suitability of a particular geologic formation for the long-term storage of CO2 and technologies for the economical transfer and storage of CO2 in these formations. A novel well-logging technique using nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) will be developed to characterize the geologic formation including the integrity and quality of the reservoir seal (cap rock). Well-logging using NMR does not require coring, and hence, can be performed much more quickly and efficiently. The key element in the economical transfer and storage of the CO2 is hydraulic fracturing the formation to achieve greater lateral spreads and higher throughputs of CO2. Transport, compression, and drilling represent the main costs in CO2 sequestration. The combination of well-logging and hydraulic fracturing has the potential of minimizing these costs. It is possible through hydraulic fracturing to reduce the number of injection wells by an order of magnitude. Many issues will be addressed as part of the proposed research to maximize the storage rate and capacity and insure the environmental integrity of CO2 sequestration in geological formations. First, correlations between formation properties and NMR relaxation times will be firmly established. A detailed experimental program will be conducted to determine these correlations. Second, improved hydraulic fracturing models will be developed which are suitable for CO2 sequestration as opposed to enhanced oil recovery (EOR

  20. Coupled Vadose Zone and Atmospheric Surface-Layer Transport of CO2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Unger, Andre J.A.

    2004-03-29

    Geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration is being considered as a way to offset fossil-fuel-related CO{sub 2} emissions to reduce the rate of increase of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. The accumulation of vast quantities of injected carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in geologic sequestration sites may entail health and environmental risks from potential leakage and seepage of CO{sub 2} into the near-surface environment. We are developing and applying a coupled subsurface and atmospheric surface-layer modeling capability built within the framework of the integral finite difference reservoir simulator TOUGH2. The overall purpose of modeling studies is to predict CO{sub 2} concentration distributions under a variety of seepage scenarios and geologic, hydrologic, and atmospheric conditions. These concentration distributions will provide the basis for determining above-ground and near-surface instrumentation needs for carbon sequestration monitoring and verification, as well as for assessing health, safety, and environmental risks. A key feature of CO{sub 2} is its large density ({rho} = 1.8 kg m{sup -3}) relative to air ({rho} = 1.2 kg m{sup -3}), a property that may allow small leaks to cause concentrations in air above the occupational exposure limit of 4 percent in low-lying and enclosed areas such as valleys and basements where dilution rates are low. The approach we take to coupled modeling involves development of T2CA, a TOUGH2 module for modeling the multicomponent transport of water, brine, CO{sub 2}, gas tracer, and air in the subsurface. For the atmospheric surface-layer advection and dispersion, we use a logarithmic vertical velocity profile to specify constant time-averaged ambient winds, and atmospheric dispersion approaches to model mixing due to eddies and turbulence. Initial simulations with the coupled model suggest that atmospheric dispersion quickly dilutes diffuse CO{sub 2} seepage fluxes to negligible concentrations, and that rainfall

  1. Simulating the Cranfield geological carbon sequestration project with high-resolution static models and an accurate equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Soltanian, Mohamad Reza; Amooie, Mohammad Amin; Cole, David R.; Graham, David E.; Hosseini, Seyyed Abolfazl; Hovorka, Susan; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Moortgat, Joachim

    2016-10-11

    In this study, a field-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection pilot project was conducted as part of the Southeast Regional Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) at Cranfield, Mississippi. We present higher-order finite element simulations of the compositional two-phase CO2-brine flow and transport during the experiment. High- resolution static models of the formation geology in the Detailed Area Study (DAS) located below the oil- water contact (brine saturated) are used to capture the impact of connected flow paths on breakthrough times in two observation wells. Phase behavior is described by the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state, which takes into account the polar nature of water molecules. Parameter studies are performed to investigate the importance of Fickian diffusion, permeability heterogeneity, relative permeabilities, and capillarity. Simulation results for the pressure response in the injection well and the CO2 breakthrough times at the observation wells show good agreement with the field data. For the high injection rates and short duration of the experiment, diffusion is relatively unimportant (high P clet numbers), while relative permeabilities have a profound impact on the pressure response. High-permeability pathways, created by fluvial deposits, strongly affect the CO2 transport and highlight the importance of properly characterizing the formation heterogeneity in future carbon sequestration projects.

  2. Simulating the Cranfield geological carbon sequestration project with high-resolution static models and an accurate equation of state

    DOE PAGES

    Soltanian, Mohamad Reza; Amooie, Mohammad Amin; Cole, David R.; ...

    2016-10-11

    In this study, a field-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection pilot project was conducted as part of the Southeast Regional Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) at Cranfield, Mississippi. We present higher-order finite element simulations of the compositional two-phase CO2-brine flow and transport during the experiment. High- resolution static models of the formation geology in the Detailed Area Study (DAS) located below the oil- water contact (brine saturated) are used to capture the impact of connected flow paths on breakthrough times in two observation wells. Phase behavior is described by the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state, which takes into account the polar nature ofmore » water molecules. Parameter studies are performed to investigate the importance of Fickian diffusion, permeability heterogeneity, relative permeabilities, and capillarity. Simulation results for the pressure response in the injection well and the CO2 breakthrough times at the observation wells show good agreement with the field data. For the high injection rates and short duration of the experiment, diffusion is relatively unimportant (high P clet numbers), while relative permeabilities have a profound impact on the pressure response. High-permeability pathways, created by fluvial deposits, strongly affect the CO2 transport and highlight the importance of properly characterizing the formation heterogeneity in future carbon sequestration projects.« less

  3. Simulating the Cranfield geological carbon sequestration project with high-resolution static models and an accurate equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Soltanian, Mohamad Reza; Amooie, Mohammad Amin; Cole, David R.; Graham, David E.; Hosseini, Seyyed Abolfazl; Hovorka, Susan; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Moortgat, Joachim

    2016-10-11

    In this study, a field-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection pilot project was conducted as part of the Southeast Regional Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) at Cranfield, Mississippi. We present higher-order finite element simulations of the compositional two-phase CO2-brine flow and transport during the experiment. High- resolution static models of the formation geology in the Detailed Area Study (DAS) located below the oil- water contact (brine saturated) are used to capture the impact of connected flow paths on breakthrough times in two observation wells. Phase behavior is described by the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state, which takes into account the polar nature of water molecules. Parameter studies are performed to investigate the importance of Fickian diffusion, permeability heterogeneity, relative permeabilities, and capillarity. Simulation results for the pressure response in the injection well and the CO2 breakthrough times at the observation wells show good agreement with the field data. For the high injection rates and short duration of the experiment, diffusion is relatively unimportant (high P clet numbers), while relative permeabilities have a profound impact on the pressure response. High-permeability pathways, created by fluvial deposits, strongly affect the CO2 transport and highlight the importance of properly characterizing the formation heterogeneity in future carbon sequestration projects.

  4. Geochemical impacts to groundwater from geologic carbon sequestration: controls on pH and inorganic carbon concentrations from reaction path and kinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Wilkin, Richard T; Digiulio, Dominic C

    2010-06-15

    Geologic carbon sequestration has the potential to cause long-term reductions in global emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Safe and effective application of carbon sequestration technology requires an understanding of the potential risks to the quality of underground sources of drinking water. In particular, concern is warranted regarding the potential for CO(2) leakage through geological features and abandoned wells that may result in detrimental perturbations to subsurface geochemistry. Reaction path and kinetic models indicate that geochemical shifts caused by CO(2) leakage are closely linked to mineralogical properties of the receiving aquifer. CO(2) gas dissolution into groundwater and subsequent reaction with aquifer minerals will control the evolution of pH-bicarbonate envelopes. These parameters provide geochemical context for predicting how regulated contaminants associated with aquifer solids will respond via various mineral-water reaction processes. The distribution and abundance of carbonate, silicate, oxide, and phyllosilicate minerals are identified as key variables in controlling changes in groundwater geochemistry. Site-specific risk assessments may require characterization of aquifer geology, mineralogy, and groundwater chemistry prior to CO(2) injection. Model results also provide a frame of reference for developing indicative measurement, monitoring, and verification (MMV) protocols for groundwater protection.

  5. Seismic Monitoring at the Decatur, IL, Geologic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, S. H.; Kaven, J. O.; McGarr, A.; Walter, S. R.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Svitek, J. F.; Burke, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    The viability of carbon capture and storage (CCS) depends on safely sequestering large quantities of carbon dioxide over geologic time scales. One concern is the potential for induced seismicity. We report on seismic monitoring by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at a CCS demonstration site in Decatur, IL. This is the first (and to date only) CCS project in the U.S. to inject large volumes of CO2 into an extensive undisturbed saline reservoir, and thus serves as an important test for future industrial-scale CCS projects. At Decatur, supercritical CO2 is injected at 2.1 km depth into the Mt. Simon Sandstone, which directly overlies granitic basement. The primary sealing cap is the Eau Claire Shale at a depth of about 1.5 km. The Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) manages the ongoing Illinois Basin - Decatur Project, a three-year project beginning in November 2011 during which CO2 is injected at an average rate of 1000 metric tons/day. Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) manages the nearby Illinois Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage project, which, pending permit approval, plans to inject 3000 metric tons/day for five years. The USGS seismic network was installed starting in July 2013 and consists of 12 stations, three of which include borehole sensors at depths of 150 m. The aperture of this network is roughly 8 km, centered on the injection well. A one-dimensional velocity model was derived from a vertical seismic profile survey acquired by ADM and the ISGS to a depth of 2.2 km, tied into acoustic logs from a deep observation well and the USGS borehole stations. This model was used together with absolute and double-difference techniques to locate seismic events. These events group into two clusters: 0.4 to 1.0 km NE and 1.8 to 2.6 km WNW from the injection well, with moment magnitudes ranging from -0.8 to 1.1. Most of these events are in the granitic basement, well below the cap rock, and are unlikely to have compromised the integrity of the seal.

  6. Preliminary Geologic Characterization of West Coast States for Geologic Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Myer

    2005-09-29

    Characterization of geological sinks for sequestration of CO{sub 2} in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington was carried out as part of Phase I of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) project. Results show that there are geologic storage opportunities in the region within each of the following major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. The work focused on sedimentary basins as the initial most-promising targets for geologic sequestration. Geographical Information System (GIS) layers showing sedimentary basins and oil, gas, and coal fields in those basins were developed. The GIS layers were attributed with information on the subsurface, including sediment thickness, presence and depth of porous and permeable sandstones, and, where available, reservoir properties. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery (EGR). The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, depending on assumptions about the fraction of the formations used and the fraction of the pore volume filled with separate-phase CO{sub 2}. Potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, based on a screening of reservoirs using depth, an API gravity cutoff, and cumulative oil produced. The cumulative production from gas reservoirs (screened by depth) suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. In Oregon and Washington, sedimentary basins along the coast also offer sequestration opportunities. Of particular interest is the Puget Trough Basin, which contains up to 1,130 m (3,700 ft) of unconsolidated sediments overlying up to 3,050 m (10,000 ft) of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The Puget Trough Basin also contains deep coal formations, which are sequestration targets and may have

  7. A U.S. Strategy for Regulating the Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, M. Granger; McCoy, Sean T.

    2011-03-01

    The United States produces more than 70% of its electricity from fossil fuels and nearly 50% from coal alone [U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2009]. Worldwide, the percentages are similar, making coal the single largest fuel source (42%) for electricity generation, followed by natural gas (21%) [International Energy Agency, 2009]. Dramatic improvements in the efficiency of electricity use and expanded use of renewable and nuclear energy can make important contributions to reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from electricity generation. However, we see no way to achieve an order of magnitude reduction in those emissions by the latter part of this century without some continued use of fossil fuels [Morgan et al., 2005]. This means that an essential part of any portfolio for emissions reduction will be technology to capture CO2 and permanently sequester it in suitable geologic formations.

  8. Imaging Wellbore Cement Degradation by Carbon Dioxide under Geologic Sequestration Conditions Using X-ray Computed Microtomography

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Hun Bok; Jansik, Danielle; Um, Wooyong

    2013-01-02

    ABSTRACT: X-ray microtomography (XMT), a nondestructive three-dimensional imaging technique, was applied to demonstrate its capability to visualize the mineralogical alteration and microstructure changes in hydrated Portland cement exposed to carbon dioxide under geologic sequestration conditions. Steel coupons and basalt fragments were added to the cement paste in order to simulate cement-steel and cement-rock interfaces. XMT image analysis showed the changes of material density and porosity in the degradation front (density: 1.98 g/cm3, porosity: 40%) and the carbonated zone (density: 2.27 g/cm3, porosity: 23%) after reaction with CO2- saturated water for 5 months compared to unaltered cement (density: 2.15 g/cm3, porosity: 30%). Three-dimensional XMT imaging was capable of displaying spatially heterogeneous alteration in cement pores, calcium carbonate precipitation in cement cracks, and preferential cement alteration along the cement-steel and cement-rock interfaces. This result also indicates that the interface between cement and host rock or steel casing is likely more vulnerable to a CO2 attack than the cement matrix in a wellbore environment. It is shown here that XMT imaging can potentially provide a new insight into the physical and chemical degradation of wellbore cement by CO2 leakage.

  9. The change in contact angle at unsaturated CO2-water conditions: Implication on geological carbon dioxide sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, Mohammad; Jung, Jongwon

    2016-10-01

    The performance of a geologic carbon storage site strongly depends on the capillary pressure of sealing rock and formations. While wettability of minerals is a key factor in capillary pressure, published contact angles are inconsistent. This study explores the discrepancy of published contact angles in order to reduce the uncertainty of measured laboratory contact angles, and understand the variation of contact angles at unsaturated CO2-water conditions. A ratio of droplet dimension and triple line (or contact line) are used to explain the observed wide range of contact angles and the variation of contact angle at unsaturated conditions. Results show that the shape factor has a good agreement with contact angle change during CO2 dissolution in water. Silica substrate has clear two pinned and slip stages of triple line during CO2 droplet dissolution, which cause contact angle on silica substrate to increase from 34.5° to 42.1°. However, mica substrate has the repeated pinned and slip stages due to the heterogeneity of mica surface, which cause contact angle to increase dramatically from 25.4° to 68.1°. Thus, both the impact of the unsaturated CO2-water conditions on the wide range of contact angle and the heterogeneity of mineral surface should be considered when one estimates capillary pressure based on contact angle in geological CO2 sequestration.

  10. Transport of Organic Contaminants Mobilized from Coal through Sandstone Overlying a Geological Carbon Sequestration Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Lirong; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Bacon, Diana H.; Shewell, Jesse L.

    2014-02-01

    Column experiments were conducted using a wetted sandstone rock installed in a tri-axial core holder to study the flow and transport of organic compounds mobilized by scCO2 under simulated geologic carbon storage (GCS) conditions. The sandstone rock was collected from a formation overlying a deep saline reservoir at a GCS demonstration site. Rock core effluent pressures were set at 0, 500, or 1000 psig and the core temperature was set at 20 or 50°C to simulate the transport to different subsurface depths. The concentrations of the organic compounds in the column effluent and their distribution within the sandstone core were monitored. Results indicate that the mobility though the core sample was much higher for BTEX compounds than for naphthalene. Retention of organic compounds from the vapor phase to the core appeared to be primarily controlled by partitioning from the vapor phase to the aqueous phase. Adsorption to the surfaces of the wetted sandstone was also significant for naphthalene. Reduced temperature and elevated pressure resulted in greater partitioning of the mobilized organic contaminants into the water phase.

  11. The role of optimality in characterizing CO2 seepage from geological carbon sequestration sites

    SciTech Connect

    Cortis, Andrea; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Benson, Sally M.

    2008-09-15

    Storage of large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in deep geological formations for greenhouse gas mitigation is gaining momentum and moving from its conceptual and testing stages towards widespread application. In this work we explore various optimization strategies for characterizing surface leakage (seepage) using near-surface measurement approaches such as accumulation chambers and eddy covariance towers. Seepage characterization objectives and limitations need to be defined carefully from the outset especially in light of large natural background variations that can mask seepage. The cost and sensitivity of seepage detection are related to four critical length scales pertaining to the size of the: (1) region that needs to be monitored; (2) footprint of the measurement approach, and (3) main seepage zone; and (4) region in which concentrations or fluxes are influenced by seepage. Seepage characterization objectives may include one or all of the tasks of detecting, locating, and quantifying seepage. Each of these tasks has its own optimal strategy. Detecting and locating seepage in a region in which there is no expected or preferred location for seepage nor existing evidence for seepage requires monitoring on a fixed grid, e.g., using eddy covariance towers. The fixed-grid approaches needed to detect seepage are expected to require large numbers of eddy covariance towers for large-scale geologic CO{sub 2} storage. Once seepage has been detected and roughly located, seepage zones and features can be optimally pinpointed through a dynamic search strategy, e.g., employing accumulation chambers and/or soil-gas sampling. Quantification of seepage rates can be done through measurements on a localized fixed grid once the seepage is pinpointed. Background measurements are essential for seepage detection in natural ecosystems. Artificial neural networks are considered as regression models useful for distinguishing natural system behavior from anomalous behavior

  12. Geological Carbon Sequestration: new insights from in-situ Synchrotron X-ray Microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voltolini, M.; Kwon, T.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    In a world with rapidly increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, a variety of scalable technologies are being considered to mitigate emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels; among these approaches, geological carbon storage (GCS) is being actively tested at a variety of subsurface sites. Despite these activities, a mechanistic understanding of multiphase flow in scCO2/brine systems at the pore scale is still being developed. The distribution of scCO2 in the pore space controls a variety of processes at the continuum scale including CO2 dissolution rate (by way of brine/CO2 contact area), capillary trapping, and residual brine fraction. Virtually no dynamic measurements of the pore-scale distribution of scCO2 in real geological samples have been made in three dimensions leaving models describing multi-phase fluid dynamics, reactive transport, and geophysical properties reliant on analog systems (often using fewer spatial dimensions, different fluids, or lower pressures) or theoretical models describing phase configurations. We present dynamic pore-scale imagery of scCO2 invasion dynamics in a 3D geological sample, in this case a quartz-rich sandstone core extracted from the Domengine Fm, a regionally extensive unit which is currently a target for future GCS operations in the Sacramento Basin. This dataset, acquired using synchrotron X-ray micro tomography (SXR-μCT) and high speed radiography, was made possible by development of a controlled P/T flow-through triaxial cell compatible with X-ray imaging in the 8-40 keV range. These experiments successfully resolved scCO2 and brine phases at a spatial resolution of 4.47 μm while the sample was kept at in situ conditions (45°C, 9 MPa pore pressure, 14 MPa hydrostatic confining stress) during drainage and imbibition cycles. Image volumes of the dry, brine saturated, and partially scCO2 saturated sample were captured and were used to correlate aspects of rock microstructure to development of the invasion front

  13. Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-04-01

    low-carbon energy is considered cheap enough to replace fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is one such bridging technology (1). CCS has been the focus of an increasing amount of research over the last 15-20 years and is the subject of a comprehensive IPCC report that thoroughly covers the subject (1). CCS is currently being carried out in several countries around the world in conjunction with natural gas extraction (e.g., 2, 3) and enhanced oil recovery (17). Despite this progress, widespread deployment of CCS remains the subject of research and future plans rather than present action on the scale needed to mitigate emissions from the perspective of climate change. The reasons for delay in deploying CCS more widely are concerns about cost (18), regulatory and legal uncertainty (19), and potential environmental impacts (21). This chapter discusses the long-term (decadal) sustainability and environmental hazards associated with the geologic CO{sub 2} storage (GCS) component of large-scale CCS (e.g., 20). Discussion here barely touches on capture and transport of CO{sub 2} which will occur above ground and which are similar to existing engineering, chemical processing, and pipeline transport activities and are therefore easier to evaluate with respect to risk assessment and feasibility. The focus of this chapter is on the more uncertain part of CCS, namely geologic storage. The primary concern for sustainability of GCS is whether there is sufficient capacity in sedimentary basins worldwide to contain the large of amounts of CO{sub 2} needed to address climate change. But there is also a link between sustainability and environmental impacts. Specifically, if GCS is found to cause unacceptable impacts that are considered worse than its climate-change mitigation benefits, the approach will not be widely adopted. Hence, GCS has elements of sustainability insofar as capacity of the subsurface for CO{sub 2} is concerned, and also in terms of whether the

  14. SUBSURFACE PROPERTY RIGHTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discusses subsurface property rights as they apply to geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2). GS projects inject captured CO2 into deep (greater than ~1 km) geologic formations for the explicit purpose of avoiding atmospheric emission of CO2. Because of t...

  15. SUBSURFACE PROPERTY RIGHTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CO2 SEQUESTRATION (PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses subsurface property rights as they apply to geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2). GS projects inject captured CO2 into deep (greater than ~1 km) geologic formations for the explicit purpose of avoiding atmospheric emission of CO2. Because of the...

  16. SUBSURFACE PROPERTY RIGHTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discusses subsurface property rights as they apply to geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2). GS projects inject captured CO2 into deep (greater than ~1 km) geologic formations for the explicit purpose of avoiding atmospheric emission of CO2. Because of t...

  17. SUBSURFACE PROPERTY RIGHTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CO2 SEQUESTRATION (PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses subsurface property rights as they apply to geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2). GS projects inject captured CO2 into deep (greater than ~1 km) geologic formations for the explicit purpose of avoiding atmospheric emission of CO2. Because of the...

  18. Time-windows-based filtering method for near-surface detection of leakage from geologic carbon sequestration sites

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, L.; Lewicki, J.L.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Fischer, M.L.

    2010-02-28

    We use process-based modeling techniques to characterize the temporal features of natural biologically controlled surface CO{sub 2} fluxes and the relationships between the assimilation and respiration fluxes. Based on these analyses, we develop a signal-enhancing technique that combines a novel time-window splitting scheme, a simple median filtering, and an appropriate scaling method to detect potential signals of leakage of CO{sub 2} from geologic carbon sequestration sites from within datasets of net near-surface CO{sub 2} flux measurements. The technique can be directly applied to measured data and does not require subjective gap filling or data-smoothing preprocessing. Preliminary application of the new method to flux measurements from a CO{sub 2} shallow-release experiment appears promising for detecting a leakage signal relative to background variability. The leakage index of ?2 was found to span the range of biological variability for various ecosystems as determined by observing CO{sub 2} flux data at various control sites for a number of years.

  19. Structure-dependent interactions between alkali feldspars and organic compounds: implications for reactions in geologic carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Min, Yujia; Jun, Young-Shin

    2013-01-02

    Organic compounds in deep saline aquifers may change supercritical CO(2) (scCO(2))-induced geochemical processes by attacking specific components in a mineral's crystal structure. Here we investigate effects of acetate and oxalate on alkali feldspar-brine interactions in a simulated geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) environment at 100 atm of CO(2) and 90 °C. We show that both organics enhance the net extent of feldspar's dissolution, with oxalate showing a more prominent effect than acetate. Further, we demonstrate that the increased reactivity of Al-O-Si linkages due to the presence of oxalate results in the promotion of both Al and Si release from feldspars. As a consequence, the degree of Al-Si order may affect the effect of oxalate on feldspar dissolution: a promotion of ~500% in terms of cumulative Si concentration was observed after 75 h of dissolution for sanidine (a highly disordered feldspar) owing to oxalate, while the corresponding increase for albite (a highly ordered feldspar) was ~90%. These results provide new insights into the dependence of feldspar dissolution kinetics on the crystallographic properties of the mineral under GCS conditions.

  20. Surface Modification Methods to Control Wettability in Immiscible Fluid Displacement Experimental Model Systems Relevant to Geological Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grate, J. W.; Warner, M. G.; Oostrom, M.; Zhang, C.; Wietsma, T. W.; Pittman, J. W.; Dehoff, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    Wettability is a critical parameter influencing immiscible fluid displacements relevant to geological carbon sequestration. Fully water-wet clean silica surfaces can be modified with silanes to alter the wettability, with the majority of such efforts to date related to conversions of water-wet to oil-wet systems. While a sizable literature exist on contact angles obtained on silanized surfaces, these are by and large air-water contact angle data, not the oil-water contact angles needed. We have investigated a large range of silanes to modify silica surfaces over a range of wettabilities, measuring both air-water and oil-water contact angles. We have identified surface modifications to produce intermediate wet surfaces. We have found a linear correlation between air-water contact angles and oil-water contact angles, enabling literature data on air-water contact angles to be interpreted in terms of likely oil-water contact angles. In addition, we have found that while glass and silica surfaces modified by the same chemistry give the same contact angles in terms of air water contact angles, the surfaces are not as similar in terms of oil-water contact angles. These studies are being carried out in conjunction with immiscible displacements of water by liquid and supercritical CO2 in microfabricated pore network micromodels in silicon with oxidized silica surfaces and glass cover plates.

  1. Laboratory Investigations in Support of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water Emulsions Stabilized by Fine Particles for Ocean and Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Golomb; David Ryan; Eugene Barry

    2007-01-08

    Since the submission of our last Semi-annual Report, dated September 2006, the research objectives of this Co-operative Agreement shifted toward geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. In the period September 2006-February 2007, experiments were conducted in a High-Pressure Batch Reactor (HPBR) for creating emulsions of liquid carbon dioxide (/CO{sub 2})-in-water stabilized by fine particles for geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. Also, emulsions were created in water of a binary mixture of liquid carbon dioxide and liquid hydrogen sulfide (/H{sub 2}S), called Acid Gas (AG). This leads to the possibility of safe disposal of AG in deep geologic formations, such as saline aquifers. The stabilizing particles included pulverized limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), unprocessed flyash, collected by an electrostatic precipitator at a local coal-fired power plant, and pulverized siderite (FeCO{sub 3}). Particle size ranged from submicron to a few micrometers. The first important finding is that /CO{sub 2} and /H{sub 2}S freely mix as a binary liquid without phase separation. The next finding is that the mixture of /CO{sub 2} and /H{sub 2}S can be emulsified in water using fine particles as emulsifying agents. Such emulsions are stable over prolonged periods, so it should not be a problem to inject an emulsion into subterranean formations. The advantage of injecting an emulsion into subterranean formations is that it is denser than the pure liquid, therefore it is likely to disperse in the bottom of the geologic formation, rather than buoying upward (called fingering). In such a fashion, the risk of the liquids escaping from the formation, and possibly re-emerging into the atmosphere, is minimized. This is especially important for H{sub 2}S, because it is a highly toxic gas. Furthermore, the emulsion may interact with the surrounding minerals, causing mineral trapping. This may lead to longer sequestration periods than injecting the pure liquids alone.

  2. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-30

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop (see attached agenda). The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement

  3. Characterizing Microbial Diversity and Function in Natural Subsurface CO2 Reservoir Systems for Applied Use in Geologic Carbon Sequestration Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, A.; Thompson, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    community analysis to test the hypothesis that a low but non-zero diversity that includes taxa from other subsurface environments will be present, reflecting the extreme ecological selective pressures of scCO2. A wide range of phylogenies have been identified, including genera that fall within the Proteobacteria, Bacilli, and Clostridial classes. Several species identified by 16S BLAST best hits are also known to inhabit deep subsurface environments, preliminarily confirming that a non-zero diversity has been able to survive, and possibly thrive, in the extreme scCO2-exposed deep subsurface environment at McElmo Dome. It thus appears that at least a subsection of native subsurface community biota may withstand the severe stresses associated with the injection of scCO2 for long-term geologic carbon sequestration efforts.

  4. Geological Sequestration of CO2 by Hydrous Carbonate Formation with Reclaimed Slag

    SciTech Connect

    Von L. Richards; Kent Peaslee; Jeffrey Smith

    2008-02-06

    The concept of this project is to develop a process that improves the kinetics of the hydrous carbonate formation reaction enabling steelmakers to directly remove CO2 from their furnace exhaust gas. It is proposed to bring the furnace exhaust stream containing CO2 in contact with reclaimed steelmaking slag in a reactor that has an environment near the unit activity of water resulting in the production of carbonates. The CO2 emissions from the plant would be reduced by the amount sequestered in the formation of carbonates. The main raw materials for the process are furnace exhaust gases and specially prepared slag.

  5. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Capalbo

    2005-12-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework; (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts) and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated

  6. Outcome-based Carbon Sequestration Resource Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundquist, E. T.; Jain, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Opportunities for carbon sequestration are an important consideration in developing policies to manage the mass balance of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Assessments of potential carbon sequestration, like other resource assessments, should be widely accepted within the scientific community and broadly applicable to public needs over a range of spatial and temporal scales. The essential public concern regarding all forms of carbon sequestration is their effectiveness in offsetting CO2 emissions. But the diverse forms and mechanisms of potential sequestration are reflected in diverse assessment methodologies that are very difficult for decision-makers to compare and apply to comprehensive carbon management. For example, assessments of potential geologic sequestration are focused on total capacities derived from probabilistic analyses of rock strata, while assessments of potential biologic sequestration are focused on annual rates calculated using biogeochemical models. Non-specialists cannot readily compare and apply such dissimilar estimates of carbon storage. To address these problems, assessment methodologies should not only tabulate rates and capacities of carbon storage, but also enable comparison of the time-dependent effects of various sequestration activities on the mitigation of increasing atmospheric CO2. This outcome-based approach requires consideration of the sustainability of the assessed carbon storage, as well as the response of carbon-cycle feedbacks. Global models can be used to compare atmospheric CO2 trajectories implied by alternative global sequestration strategies, but such simulations may not be accessible or useful in many decision settings. Simplified assessment metrics, such as ratios using impulse response functions, show some promise in providing comparisons of CO2 mitigation that are broadly useful while minimizing sensitivity to differences in global models and emissions scenarios. Continued improvements will require close

  7. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-01-04

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the first performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first Partnership meeting the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Complementary to the efforts on evaluation of sources and sinks is the development of the Big Sky Partnership Carbon Cyberinfrastructure (BSP-CC) and a GIS Road Map for the Partnership. These efforts will put in place a map-based integrated information management system for our Partnership, with transferability to the national carbon sequestration effort. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but other policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best

  8. Leakage and Sepage of CO2 from Geologic Carbon SequestrationSites: CO2 Migration into Surface Water

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curt M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2005-06-17

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and its storage in deep geologic formations. One of the concerns of geologic carbon sequestration is that injected CO{sub 2} may leak out of the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment, and seep out of the ground or into surface water. In this research, we investigate the process of CO{sub 2} leakage and seepage into saturated sediments and overlying surface water bodies such as rivers, lakes, wetlands, and continental shelf marine environments. Natural CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes are well studied and provide insight into the expected transport mechanisms and fate of seepage fluxes of similar magnitude. Also, natural CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes are pervasive in surface water environments at levels that may mask low-level carbon sequestration leakage and seepage. Extreme examples are the well known volcanic lakes in Cameroon where lake water supersaturated with respect to CO{sub 2} overturned and degassed with lethal effects. Standard bubble formation and hydrostatics are applicable to CO{sub 2} bubbles in surface water. Bubble-rise velocity in surface water is a function of bubble size and reaches a maximum of approximately 30 cm s{sup -1} at a bubble radius of 0.7 mm. Bubble rise in saturated porous media below surface water is affected by surface tension and buoyancy forces, along with the solid matrix pore structure. For medium and fine grain sizes, surface tension forces dominate and gas transport tends to occur as channel flow rather than bubble flow. For coarse porous media such as gravels and coarse sand, buoyancy dominates and the maximum bubble rise velocity is predicted to be approximately 18 cm s{sup -1}. Liquid CO{sub 2} bubbles rise slower in water than gaseous CO{sub 2} bubbles due to the smaller density contrast. A comparison of ebullition (i.e., bubble formation) and resulting bubble flow versus dispersive gas transport for CO

  9. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-11-01

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO2 utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other DOE regional partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the

  10. Simulating Geologic Co-sequestration of Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide in a Basalt Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, Diana H.; Ramanathan, Ramya; Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-01-15

    Co-sequestered CO2 with H2S impurities could affect geologic storage, causing changes in pH and oxidation state that affect mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions and the mobility of metals present in the reservoir rocks. We have developed a variable component, non-isothermal simulator, STOMP-COMP (Water, Multiple Components, Salt and Energy), which simulates multiphase flow gas mixtures in deep saline reservoirs, and the resulting reactions with reservoir minerals. We use this simulator to model the co-injection of CO2 and H2S into brecciated basalt flow top. A 1000 metric ton injection of these supercritical fluids, with 99% CO2 and 1% H2S, is sequestered rapidly by solubility and mineral trapping. CO2 is trapped mainly as calcite within a few decades and H2S is trapped as pyrite within several years.

  11. Uncertainty quantification for the impact of injection rate fluctuation on the geomechanical response of geological carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Jie; Chu, Yanjun; Xu, Zhijie; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Fang, Yilin

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the geomechanical effects of injection rate fluctuations for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). Initially, we present analytical solutions for the effects of injection rate fluctuations on CO2 fluid pressure spatial distribution and temporal evolution for a typical injection scenario. Numerical calculations are performed using a finite element method to investigate the effects of injection rate fluctuations on geomechanical deformation, stresses, and potential failure of the aquifer and caprock layers. The numerical method was first validated by the fluid pressure distribution’s good agreement with the analytical solution. It was shown that for any Gaussian fluctuations of injection rate Q with given mean Q and variance ε_Q, the coefficients of variance for fluid pressure (ϵ_p=ε_p ), deformation (ϵ_u=ε_u ), and stresses (ϵ_σ=ε_σ ) increase linearly with the coefficient of variance for injection rate (ϵ_Q=ε_Q ). The proportional constants are identified, and the fluctuations have the most pronounced effect on the geomechanical stresses, and, therefore, on the potential failure of the aquifer and caprock layers. Instead of expensive computational simulation, this study provides an efficient tool to estimate the geomechanical response variance to injection rate fluctuation. A failure analysis was presented based on the numerical results, where probability of failure was estimated for fluctuating injection rates with different mean and variance during the entire injection period. It was found that with increasing injection rate fluctuation, the failure probability increases significantly. Therefore, the risk associated with injection rate fluctuations should be carefully evaluated.

  12. Supercomputing with TOUGH2 family codes for coupled multi-physics simulations of geologic carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, H.; Nakajima, K.; Zhang, K.; Nanai, S.

    2015-12-01

    Powerful numerical codes that are capable of modeling complex coupled processes of physics and chemistry have been developed for predicting the fate of CO2 in reservoirs as well as its potential impacts on groundwater and subsurface environments. However, they are often computationally demanding for solving highly non-linear models in sufficient spatial and temporal resolutions. Geological heterogeneity and uncertainties further increase the challenges in modeling works. Two-phase flow simulations in heterogeneous media usually require much longer computational time than that in homogeneous media. Uncertainties in reservoir properties may necessitate stochastic simulations with multiple realizations. Recently, massively parallel supercomputers with more than thousands of processors become available in scientific and engineering communities. Such supercomputers may attract attentions from geoscientist and reservoir engineers for solving the large and non-linear models in higher resolutions within a reasonable time. However, for making it a useful tool, it is essential to tackle several practical obstacles to utilize large number of processors effectively for general-purpose reservoir simulators. We have implemented massively-parallel versions of two TOUGH2 family codes (a multi-phase flow simulator TOUGH2 and a chemically reactive transport simulator TOUGHREACT) on two different types (vector- and scalar-type) of supercomputers with a thousand to tens of thousands of processors. After completing implementation and extensive tune-up on the supercomputers, the computational performance was measured for three simulations with multi-million grid models, including a simulation of the dissolution-diffusion-convection process that requires high spatial and temporal resolutions to simulate the growth of small convective fingers of CO2-dissolved water to larger ones in a reservoir scale. The performance measurement confirmed that the both simulators exhibit excellent

  13. Site Development, Operations, and Closure Plan Topical Report 5 An Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Options in the Illinois Basin. Phase III

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, Robert; Payne, William; Kirksey, Jim

    2015-06-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) has partnered with Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) and Schlumberger Carbon Services to conduct a large-volume, saline reservoir storage project at ADM’s agricultural products processing complex in Decatur, Illinois. The Development Phase project, named the Illinois Basin Decatur Project (IBDP) involves the injection of 1 million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) into a deep saline formation of the Illinois Basin over a three-year period. This report focuses on objectives, execution, and lessons learned/unanticipated results from the site development (relating specifically to surface equipment), operations, and the site closure plan.

  14. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-01-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. Efforts are underway to showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is

  15. Effect of oxygen co-injected with carbon dioxide on Gothic shale caprock–CO2–brine interaction during geologic carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2013-09-01

    Co-injection of oxygen, a significant component in CO2 streams produced by the oxyfuel combustion process, can cause a significant alteration of the redox state in deep geologic formations during geologic carbon sequestration. The potential impact of co-injected oxygen on the interaction between synthetic CO2–brine (0.1 M NaCl) and shale caprock (Gothic shale from the Aneth Unit in Utah) and mobilization of trace metals was investigated at ~ 10 MPa and ~ 75 °C. A range of relative volume percentages of O2 to CO2 (0, 1, 4 and 8%) were used in these experiments to address the effect of oxygen on shale–CO2–brine interaction under various conditions. Major mineral phases in Gothic shale are quartz, calcite, dolomite, montmorillonite, and pyrite. During Gothic shale–CO2–brine interaction in the presence of oxygen, pyrite oxidation occurred extensively and caused enhanced dissolution of calcite and dolomite. Pyrite oxidation and calcite dissolution subsequently resulted in the precipitation of Fe(III) oxides and gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O). In the presence of oxygen, dissolved Mn and Ni were elevated because of oxidative dissolution of pyrite. The mobility of dissolved Ba was controlled by barite (BaSO4) precipitation in the presence of oxygen. Dissolved U in the experimental brines increased to ~ 8–14 μg/L, with concentrations being slightly higher in the absence of oxygen than in the presence of oxygen. Experimental and modeling results indicate the interaction between shale caprock and oxygen co-injected with CO2 during geologic carbon sequestration can exert significant impacts on brine pH, solubility of carbonate minerals, stability of sulfide minerals, and mobility of trace metals. The major impact of oxygen is most likely to occur in the zone near CO2 injection wells where impurity gases can accumulate. Finally, oxygen in CO2

  16. Fundamental Science Tools for Geologic Carbon Sequestration and Mineral Carbonation Chemistry: In Situ Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyt, D. W.; Turcu, R. V.; Sears, J. A.; Rosso, K. M.; Burton, S. D.; Kwak, J.; Felmy, A. R.; Hu, J.

    2010-12-01

    GCS is one of the most promising ways of mitigating atmospheric greenhouse gases. Mineral carbonation reactions are potentially important to the long-term sealing effectiveness of caprock but remain poorly predictable, particularly reactions occurring in low-water supercritical CO2(scCO2)-dominated environments where the chemistry has not been adequately explored. In situ probes that provide molecular-level information is desirable for investigating mechanisms and rates of GCS mineral carbonation reactions. MAS-NMR is a powerful tool for obtaining detailed molecular structure and dynamics information of a system regardless whether the system is in a solid, a liquid, a gaseous, or a supercritical state, or a mixture thereof. However, MAS NMR under scCO2 conditions has never been realized due to the tremendous technical difficulties of achieving and maintaining high pressure within a fast spinning MAS rotor. In this work, we report development of a unique high pressure MAS NMR capability, and its application to mineral carbonation chemistry in scCO2 under geologically relevant temperatures and pressures. Our high pressure MAS rotor has successfully maintained scCO2 conditions with minimal leakage over a period of 72 hours. Mineral carbonation reactions of a model magnesium silicate (forsterite) reacted with 96 bars scCO2 containing varying amounts of H2O (both below and above saturation of the scCO2) were investigated at 50○C. Figure 1 shows typical in situ 13C MAS NMR spectra demonstrating that the peaks corresponding to the reactants, intermediates, and the magnesium carbonation products are all observed in a single spectrum. For example, the scCO2 peak is located at 126.1 ppm. Reaction intermediates include the aqueous species HCO3-(160 ppm), partially hydrated/hydroxylated magnesium carbonates(166-168 ppm), and can easily be distinguished from final product magnesite(170 ppm). The new capability and this model mineral carbonation process will be overviewed in

  17. Carbon Sequestration via Wood Burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, N.

    2007-12-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which forest dead wood or old trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It was estimated that the carbon sequestration potential of forest wood harvest and burial is 10GtC y-1 with an uncertainty range of 5-15 GtC y-1. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost was crudely estimated at $50/tC, significantly lower than the cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage, a carbon sequestration technique currently under most serious consideration. The low cost is largely because the CO2 capture is achieved at little cost by the natural process of photosynthesis. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe and can be stopped or reversed at any time. The relatively low cost may soon be competitive enough for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon trading market. In tropical regions with ongoing deforestation, wood burial instead of burning will immediately reduce that portion of the anthropogenic CO2 emission.

  18. Supercritical carbon dioxide and sulfur in the Madison Limestone: A natural analog in southwest Wyoming for geologic carbon-sulfur co-sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaszuba, John P.; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis; Thyne, Geoffrey; Chopping, Curtis; Meuzelaar, Tom

    2011-09-01

    . Total dissolved solids increase with reaction progress, mostly due to dissolution of calcite with an accompanying increase in dissolved bicarbonate. The Madison Limestone is a natural example of the thermodynamic end point that similar fluid-rock systems will develop following emplacement of a supercritical CO 2-sulfur mixture and is a natural analog for geologic carbon-sulfur co-sequestration.

  19. Key factors for determining groundwater impacts due to leakage from geologic carbon sequestration reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Susan A.; Keating, Elizabeth; Mansoor, Kayyum; Dai, Zhenxue; Sun, Yunwei; Trainor-Guitton, Whitney; Brown, Chris; Bacon, Diana

    2014-09-07

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) is developing a science-based toolset for the analysis of potential impacts to groundwater chemistry from CO2 injection (www.netldoe.gov/nrap). The toolset adopts a stochastic approach in which predictions address uncertainties in shallow groundwater and leakage scenarios. It is derived from detailed physics and chemistry simulation results that are used to train more computationally efficient models, referred to here as reduced-order models (ROMs), for each component system. In particular, these tools can be used to help regulators and operators understand the expected sizes and longevity of plumes in pH, TDS, and dissolved metals that could result from a leakage of brine and/or CO2 from a storage reservoir into aquifers. This information can inform, for example, decisions on monitoring strategies that are both effective and efficient. We have used this approach to develop predictive reduced-order models for two common types of reservoirs, but the approach could be used to develop a model for a specific aquifer or other common types of aquifers. In this paper we describe potential impacts to groundwater quality due to CO2 and brine leakage, discuss an approach to calculate thresholds under which no impact to groundwater occurs, describe the time scale for impact on groundwater, and discuss the probability of detecting a groundwater plume should leakage occur. To facilitate this, multi-phase flow and reactive transport simulations and emulations were developed for two classes of aquifers, considering uncertainty in leakage source terms and aquifer hydrogeology. We targeted an unconfined fractured carbonate aquifer based on the Edwards aquifer in Texas and a confined alluvium aquifer based on the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas, which share characteristics typical of many drinking water aquifers in the United States. The hypothetical leakage scenarios centered on the notion that wellbores

  20. Key factors for determining groundwater impacts due to leakage from geologic carbon sequestration reservoirs

    DOE PAGES

    Carroll, Susan A.; Keating, Elizabeth; Mansoor, Kayyum; ...

    2014-09-07

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) is developing a science-based toolset for the analysis of potential impacts to groundwater chemistry from CO2 injection (www.netldoe.gov/nrap). The toolset adopts a stochastic approach in which predictions address uncertainties in shallow groundwater and leakage scenarios. It is derived from detailed physics and chemistry simulation results that are used to train more computationally efficient models, referred to here as reduced-order models (ROMs), for each component system. In particular, these tools can be used to help regulators and operators understand the expected sizes and longevity of plumes in pH, TDS, and dissolved metals that could resultmore » from a leakage of brine and/or CO2 from a storage reservoir into aquifers. This information can inform, for example, decisions on monitoring strategies that are both effective and efficient. We have used this approach to develop predictive reduced-order models for two common types of reservoirs, but the approach could be used to develop a model for a specific aquifer or other common types of aquifers. In this paper we describe potential impacts to groundwater quality due to CO2 and brine leakage, discuss an approach to calculate thresholds under which no impact to groundwater occurs, describe the time scale for impact on groundwater, and discuss the probability of detecting a groundwater plume should leakage occur. To facilitate this, multi-phase flow and reactive transport simulations and emulations were developed for two classes of aquifers, considering uncertainty in leakage source terms and aquifer hydrogeology. We targeted an unconfined fractured carbonate aquifer based on the Edwards aquifer in Texas and a confined alluvium aquifer based on the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas, which share characteristics typical of many drinking water aquifers in the United States. The hypothetical leakage scenarios centered on the notion that wellbores are the most likely

  1. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-10-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification

  2. Carbon sequestration and its role in the global carbon cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Brian J.; Sundquist, Eric T.

    2009-01-01

    For carbon sequestration the issues of monitoring, risk assessment, and verification of carbon content and storage efficacy are perhaps the most uncertain. Yet these issues are also the most critical challenges facing the broader context of carbon sequestration as a means for addressing climate change. In response to these challenges, Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle presents current perspectives and research that combine five major areas: • The global carbon cycle and verification and assessment of global carbon sources and sinks • Potential capacity and temporal/spatial scales of terrestrial, oceanic, and geologic carbon storage • Assessing risks and benefits associated with terrestrial, oceanic, and geologic carbon storage • Predicting, monitoring, and verifying effectiveness of different forms of carbon storage • Suggested new CO2 sequestration research and management paradigms for the future. The volume is based on a Chapman Conference and will appeal to the rapidly growing group of scientists and engineers examining methods for deliberate carbon sequestration through storage in plants, soils, the oceans, and geological repositories.

  3. Method for carbon dioxide sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yifeng; Bryan, Charles R.; Dewers, Thomas; Heath, Jason E.

    2015-09-22

    A method for geo-sequestration of a carbon dioxide includes selection of a target water-laden geological formation with low-permeability interbeds, providing an injection well into the formation and injecting supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) into the injection well under conditions of temperature, pressure and density selected to cause the fluid to enter the formation and splinter and/or form immobilized ganglia within the formation. This process allows for the immobilization of the injected SC--CO.sub.2 for very long times. The dispersal of scCO2 into small ganglia is accomplished by alternating injection of SC--CO.sub.2 and water. The injection rate is required to be high enough to ensure the SC--CO.sub.2 at the advancing front to be broken into pieces and small enough for immobilization through viscous instability.

  4. Comparison of optimization algorithms for parameter estimation of multi-phase flow models with application to geological carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinet, Antoine J.; Shoemaker, Christine A.

    2013-04-01

    Optimization of multi-phase transport models is important both for calibrating model parameters to observed data and for analyzing management options. We focus on examples of geological carbon sequestration (GCS) process-based multi-phase models. Realistic GCS models can be very computationally expensive not only due to the spatial distribution of the model but also because of the complex nonlinear multi-phase and multi-component transport equations to be solved. As a result we need to have optimization methods that get accurate answers with relatively few simulations. In this analysis we compare a variety of different types of optimization algorithms to understand the best type of algorithms to use for different types of problems. This includes an analysis of which characteristics of the problem are important in choice of algorithm. The goal of this paper is to evaluate which optimization algorithms are the most efficient in a given situation, taking into account shape of the optimization problem (e.g. uni- or multi-modal) and the number of simulations that can be done. The algorithms compared are the widely used derivative-based PEST optimization algorithm, the derivative-based iTOUGH2, the Kriging response surface algorithm EGO, the heuristics-based DDS (Dynamically Dimensioned Search), and the Radial Basis Function surrogate response surface based global optimization algorithms 'GORBIT' and 'Stochastic RBF'. We calibrate a simple homogeneous model '3hom' and two more realistic models '20layer' and '6het'. The latter takes 2 h per simulation. Using rigorous statistical tests, we show that while the derivative-based algorithms of PEST are efficient on the simple 3hom model, it does poorly in comparison to surrogate optimization methods Stochastic RBF and GORBIT on the more realistic models. We then identify the shapes of the optimization surface of the three models using enumerative simulations and discover that 3hom is smooth and unimodal and the more realistic

  5. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ning

    2008-01-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market. PMID:18173850

  6. Capillary pressure-saturation relations for supercritical CO2 and brine in limestone/dolomite sands: implications for geologic carbon sequestration in carbonate reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shibo; Tokunaga, Tetsu K

    2015-06-16

    In geologic carbon sequestration, capillary pressure (Pc)-saturation (Sw) relations are needed to predict reservoir processes. Capillarity and its hysteresis have been extensively studied in oil-water and gas-water systems, but few measurements have been reported for supercritical (sc) CO2-water. Here, Pc-Sw relations of scCO2 displacing brine (drainage), and brine rewetting (imbibition) were studied to understand CO2 transport and trapping behavior under reservoir conditions. Hysteretic drainage and imbibition Pc-Sw curves were measured in limestone sands at 45 °C under elevated pressures (8.5 and 12.0 MPa) for scCO2-brine, and in limestone and dolomite sands at 23 °C (0.1 MPa) for air-brine using a new computer programmed porous plate apparatus. scCO2-brine drainage and imbibition curves shifted to lower Pc relative to predictions based on interfacial tension, and therefore deviated from capillary scaling predictions for hydrophilic interactions. Fitting universal scaled drainage and imbibition curves show that wettability alteration resulted from scCO2 exposure over the course of months-long experiments. Residual trapping of the nonwetting phases was determined at Pc = 0 during imbibition. Amounts of trapped scCO2 were significantly larger than for those for air, and increased with pressure (depth), initial scCO2 saturation, and time. These results have important implications for scCO2 distribution, trapping, and leakage potential.

  7. Establishing MICHCARB, a geological carbon sequestration research and education center for Michigan, implemented through the Michigan Geological Repository for Research and Education, part of the Department of Geosciences at Western Michigan University

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, David A.; Harrison, William B.

    2014-01-28

    The Michigan Geological Repository for Research and Education (MGRRE), part of the Department of Geosciences at Western Michigan University (WMU) at Kalamazoo, Michigan, established MichCarb—a geological carbon sequestration resource center by: • Archiving and maintaining a current reference collection of carbon sequestration published literature • Developing statewide and site-specific digital research databases for Michigan’s deep geological formations relevant to CO2 storage, containment and potential for enhanced oil recovery • Producing maps and tables of physical properties as components of these databases • Compiling all information into a digital atlas • Conducting geologic and fluid flow modeling to address specific predictive uses of CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery, including compiling data for geological and fluid flow models, formulating models, integrating data, and running the models; applying models to specific predictive uses of CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery • Conducting technical research on CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery through basic and applied research of characterizing Michigan oil and gas and saline reservoirs for CO2 storage potential volume, injectivity and containment. Based on our research, we have concluded that the Michigan Basin has excellent saline aquifer (residual entrapment) and CO2/Enhanced oil recovery related (CO2/EOR; buoyant entrapment) geological carbon sequestration potential with substantial, associated incremental oil production potential. These storage reservoirs possess at least satisfactory injectivity and reliable, permanent containment resulting from associated, thick, low permeability confining layers. Saline aquifer storage resource estimates in the two major residual entrapment, reservoir target zones (Lower Paleozoic Sandstone and Middle Paleozoic carbonate and sandstone reservoirs) are in excess of 70-80 Gmt (at an overall 10% storage efficiency factor; an approximately

  8. Lineament Mapping using Remote Sensing Techniques and Structural Geology for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Site Characterization in Central New York State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelazny, Melissa Maria

    2011-12-01

    This study identified lineaments from satellite images and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) utilizing image processing techniques that enhance variations in spectral and spatial reflectivity and topography. In flat-lying sedimentary sequences Lineaments are commonly surface expressions of tectonic fractures and faults in the bedrock, emphasized on the surface by topography, drainage, and vegetation - many can be identified by remotely sensed data. Knowledge of fault locations can prevent unsuitable site selection for CO2 sequestration where CO2 could migrate up fault systems. Lineament patterns also give insight into the fracture fabric of the region- an important consideration for CO2 sequestration. Various data sets, including multispectral satellite imagery (Landsat and ASTER) and DEMs, as well as geological data describing fractures, faults, and hydrology, were used to map and validate the lineament distribution in the study area. Linear features were enhanced with tonal, topographic and textural changes by digital image processing of the satellite imagery and DEMs. Lineaments were then extracted manually using ArcMap (ArcGIS 9.2 -- ESRI). Lineaments longer than 1 km were identified, digitized and stored in a geo-database together with attributes describing their length, orientation and other characteristics. Lineament categories included vegetation, drainage, and topography. Rose diagrams and statistics of length and number of lineaments in each 100 orientation bin were used to characterize the lineament distribution in each remotely sensed data set. The primary lineament orientations from both ASTER imagery and topography trended northeast and northwest in the study area of central New York State. These trends agreed with some of the EarthSat (1997) lineament sets from Landsat images and also corresponded to some published fracture and fault systems but do not reflect the most abundant sets.

  9. Making carbon sequestration a paying proposition.

    PubMed

    Han, Fengxiang X; Lindner, Jeff S; Wang, Chuji

    2007-03-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) has increased from a preindustrial concentration of about 280 ppm to about 367 ppm at present. The increase has closely followed the increase in CO(2) emissions from the use of fossil fuels. Global warming caused by increasing amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is the major environmental challenge for the 21st century. Reducing worldwide emissions of CO(2) requires multiple mitigation pathways, including reductions in energy consumption, more efficient use of available energy, the application of renewable energy sources, and sequestration. Sequestration is a major tool for managing carbon emissions. In a majority of cases CO(2) is viewed as waste to be disposed; however, with advanced technology, carbon sequestration can become a value-added proposition. There are a number of potential opportunities that render sequestration economically viable. In this study, we review these most economically promising opportunities and pathways of carbon sequestration, including reforestation, best agricultural production, housing and furniture, enhanced oil recovery, coalbed methane (CBM), and CO(2) hydrates. Many of these terrestrial and geological sequestration opportunities are expected to provide a direct economic benefit over that obtained by merely reducing the atmospheric CO(2) loading. Sequestration opportunities in 11 states of the Southeast and South Central United States are discussed. Among the most promising methods for the region include reforestation and CBM. The annual forest carbon sink in this region is estimated to be 76 Tg C/year, which would amount to an expenditure of $11.1-13.9 billion/year. Best management practices could enhance carbon sequestration by 53.9 Tg C/year, accounting for 9.3% of current total annual regional greenhouse gas emission in the next 20 years. Annual carbon storage in housing, furniture, and other wood products in 1998 was estimated to be 13.9 Tg C in the region. Other sequestration

  10. Making carbon sequestration a paying proposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Fengxiang X.; Lindner, Jeff S.; Wang, Chuji

    2007-03-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has increased from a preindustrial concentration of about 280 ppm to about 367 ppm at present. The increase has closely followed the increase in CO2 emissions from the use of fossil fuels. Global warming caused by increasing amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is the major environmental challenge for the 21st century. Reducing worldwide emissions of CO2 requires multiple mitigation pathways, including reductions in energy consumption, more efficient use of available energy, the application of renewable energy sources, and sequestration. Sequestration is a major tool for managing carbon emissions. In a majority of cases CO2 is viewed as waste to be disposed; however, with advanced technology, carbon sequestration can become a value-added proposition. There are a number of potential opportunities that render sequestration economically viable. In this study, we review these most economically promising opportunities and pathways of carbon sequestration, including reforestation, best agricultural production, housing and furniture, enhanced oil recovery, coalbed methane (CBM), and CO2 hydrates. Many of these terrestrial and geological sequestration opportunities are expected to provide a direct economic benefit over that obtained by merely reducing the atmospheric CO2 loading. Sequestration opportunities in 11 states of the Southeast and South Central United States are discussed. Among the most promising methods for the region include reforestation and CBM. The annual forest carbon sink in this region is estimated to be 76 Tg C/year, which would amount to an expenditure of 11.1-13.9 billion/year. Best management practices could enhance carbon sequestration by 53.9 Tg C/year, accounting for 9.3% of current total annual regional greenhouse gas emission in the next 20 years. Annual carbon storage in housing, furniture, and other wood products in 1998 was estimated to be 13.9 Tg C in the region. Other sequestration options

  11. Drilling, Completion, and Data Collection Plans An Assessment of Geological Carbon Sequestration Options in the Illinois Basin: Phase III

    SciTech Connect

    Malkewicz, Nicholas; Kirksey, Jim; Finley, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Executive Summary The Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP) is managed by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) and is led by the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) at the University of Illinois. The project site is located on the Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) property in Decatur, Illinois, and is a fully integrated carbon capture and storage (CCS) project that uses CO₂ captured from the ethanol-producing fermentation process at the ADM corn-processing plant (Finley et. al., 2013). IBDP has a goal of injecting one million tonnes of CO₂ into the basal sands of the Mt. Simon Sandstone over a three-year period. This is a multifaceted project, and this report details the planning and results of the drilling, completions, well testing, log data acquisition, and the Health, Safety, and Environment (HSE) aspects of the project. Three deep wells were planned for the IBDP: • The injection well: Injection Well #1 (CCS1); • The monitoring well (both in-zone and above seal): Verification Well #1 (VW1); and • The geophone monitoring well: Geophysical Monitoring Well #1 (GM1). The detailed plans for these wells are attached to the appendices of this document. The wells were drilled successfully with little deviation from the original plans. The biggest change from the plan to execution was the need to adjust for larger-than-expected loss of circulation in the Potosi section of the Knox Formation. The completions reports also attached to this document detail the well constructions as they were actually built. Injectivity testing was carried out, and the perforating plans were adjusted based on the results. Additional perforations and acidizing were performed as a result of the injectivity testing. The testing plans are detailed in this report along with the actual testing results. The injectivity testing results were used in the modeling and simulation efforts. Detailed HSE plans were developed and implemented during the planning and

  12. Mobilization of metals from Eau Claire siltstone and the impact of oxygen under geological carbon dioxide sequestration conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Hongbo; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Krogstad, Eirik J.; Newburn, Matt K.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the impact of O2 as an impurity co-injected with CO2 on geochemical interactions, especially trace metal mobilization from a geological CO2 sequestration (GCS) reservoir rock, batch studies were conducted with Eau Claire siltstone collected from CO2 sequestration sites. The rock was reacted with synthetic brines in contact with either 100% CO2 or a mixture of 95 mol% CO2-5 mol% O2 at 10.1 MPa and 75 °C. Both microscopic and spectroscopic measurements, including 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy, Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and chemical extraction were combined in this study to investigate reaction mechanisms. The Eau Claire siltstone contains quartz (52 wt%), fluorapatite (40%), and aluminosilicate (5%) as major components, and dolomite (2%), pyrite (1%), and small-particle-/poorly-crystalline Fe-oxides as minor components. With the introduction of CO2 into the reaction vessel containing rock and brine, the leaching of small amounts of fluorapatite, aluminosilicate, and dolomite occurred. Trace metals of environmental concern, including Pb, As, Cd, and Cu were detected in the leachate with concentrations up to 400 ppb in the CO2-brine-rock reaction system within 30 days. In the presence of O2, the oxidation of Fe(II) and the consequent changes in the reaction system, including a reduction in pH, significantly enhanced the mobilization of Pb, Cd, and Cu, whereas As concentrations decreased, compared with the reaction system without O2. The presence of O2 resulted in the formation of secondary Fe-oxides which appear to be Fe(II)-substituted P-containing ferrihydrite. Although the rock contained only 1.04 wt% total Fe, oxidative dissolution of pyrite, leaching and oxidation of structural Fe(II) in fluorapatite, and precipitation of Fe-oxides significantly decreased the pH in brine with O2 (pH 3.3-3.7), compared with the reaction

  13. Mobilization of Metals from Eau Claire Siltstone and the Impact of Oxygen under Geological Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Hongbo; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Krogstad, Eirik J.; Newburn, Matthew K.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2014-09-01

    Geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS) has been proposed as a viable strategy to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emission; however, the increased cost that will be incurred by fossil energy production facilities is a deterrent to implementation of this technology. Allowing impurities in the effluent CO2 stream could result in significant financial and energy savings for CO2 capture and separation. However, impurities such as O2 have the potential to influence the redox state and alter the geochemical interactions that occur within GCS reservoirs, which increases the concern for CO2 and brine leakage from the storage reservoir as well as the overlying groundwater contamination. In this work, to investigate the impact of O2 co-injected with CO2 on the geochemical interactions, especially the trace metal mobilization from a GCS reservoir rock, batch studies were conducted with Eau Claire siltstone collected from CO2 sequestration sites. The rock was reacted with synthetic brines in contact with either 100% CO2 or a mixture of 95 mole% CO2-5 mole% O2 at 10.1 MPa and 75 °C. Both microscopic and spectroscopic measurements, including 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy, Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and chemical extraction were combined in this study to investigate reaction mechanisms. The Eau Claire siltstone contains quartz (52 wt%), fluorapatite (40%), and aluminosilicate (5%) as major components, and dolomite (2%), pyrite (1%), and small-particle-/poorly-crystalline Fe-oxides as minor components. With the introduction of CO2 into the reaction vessel containing rock and brine, the leaching of small amounts of fluorapatite, aluminosilicate, and dolomite occurred. Trace metals of environmental concern, including Pb, As, Cd, and Cu were detected in the leachate with concentrations up to 400 ppb in the CO2-brine-rock reaction system within 30 days. In the presence of O2

  14. Laboratory Investigations in Support of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water Emulsions Stabilized by Fine Particles for Ocean and Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Golomb; Eugene Barry; David Ryan

    2006-07-08

    C/W emulsion, the total cost of preparing the emulsion on site is about $8.5 per ton of liquid CO{sub 2}, not including the cost of the emulsion mixer. Currently, the cost estimates of capturing and liquefying CO{sub 2} at a coal-fired power plant range from $15 to 75/t CO{sub 2}. Thus, the preparation of C/W emulsions stabilized by pulverized limestone particles would add about 10 to 50% to the capture cost of CO{sub 2}. At this juncture the primary research objectives of this Co-operative Agreement are shifting toward geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. Experiments are underway to create micro-emulsions of CO{sub 2}-in-Water (C/W) and Water-in-CO{sub 2} (W/C) stabilized by ultrafine particles ranging from sub-micrometer to a few micrometer in size. Such microemulsions are expected to readily penetrate deep geologic formations, such as porous sedimentary layers, including saline aquifers and semi-depleted oil and gas fields. Injections of (C/W) and (W/C) type micro-emulsions may prove to be less prone to leakage from the formations compared to injections of neat liquid or supercritical CO{sub 2}.

  15. Recovery Act: Geologic Sequestration Training and Research

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Peter; Esposito, Richard; Theodorou, Konstantinos; Hannon, Michael; Lamplugh, Aaron; Ellison, Kirk

    2013-06-30

    Work under the project entitled "Geologic Sequestration Training and Research," was performed by the University of Alabama at Birmingham and Southern Company from December 1, 2009, to June 30, 2013. The emphasis was on training of students and faculty through research on topics central to further development, demonstration, and commercialization of carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS). The project had the following components: (1) establishment of a laboratory for measurement of rock properties, (2) evaluation of the sealing capacity of caprocks, (3) evaluation of porosity, permeability, and storage capacity of reservoirs, (4) simulation of CO{sub 2} migration and trapping in storage reservoirs and seepage through seal layers, (5) education and training of students through independent research on rock properties and reservoir simulation, and (6) development of an advanced undergraduate/graduate level course on coal combustion and gasification, climate change, and carbon sequestration. Four graduate students and one undergraduate student participated in the project. Two were awarded Ph.D. degrees for their work, the first in December 2010 and the second in August 2013. A third graduate student has proposed research on an advanced technique for measurement of porosity and permeability, and has been admitted to candidacy for the Ph.D. The fourth graduate student is preparing his proposal for research on CCUS and solid waste management. The undergraduate student performed experimental measurements on caprock and reservoir rock samples and received his B.S.M.E. degree in May 2012. The "Caprock Integrity Laboratory," established with support from the present project, is fully functional and equipped for measurement of porosity, permeability, minimum capillary displacement pressure, and effective permeability to gas in the presence of wetting phases. Measurements are made at ambient temperature and under reservoir conditions, including supercritical CO{sub 2

  16. Characterizing Microbial Diversity and Function in Natural Subsurface CO2 Reservoir Systems for Applied Use in Geologic Carbon Sequestration Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, A. J.; Thompson, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The injection of CO2 into geological formations at quantities necessary to significantly reduce CO2 emissions will represent an environmental perturbation on a continental scale. The extent to which biological processes may play a role in the fate and transport of CO2 injected into geological formations has remained an open question due to the fact that at temperatures and pressures associated with reservoirs targeted for sequestration CO2 exists as a supercritical fluid (scCO2), which has generally been regarded as a sterilizing agent. Natural subsurface accumulations of CO2 serve as an excellent analogue for studying the long-term effects, implications and benefits of CO2 capture and storage (CCS). While several geologic formations bearing significant volumes of nearly pure scCO2 phases have been identified in the western United States, no study has attempted to characterize the microbial community present in these systems. Because the CO2 in the region is thought to have first accumulated millions of years ago, it is reasonable to assume that native microbial populations have undergone extensive and unique physiological and behavioral adaptations to adjust to the exceedingly high scCO2 content. Our study focuses on the microbial communities associated with the dolomite limestone McElmo Dome scCO2 Field in the Colorado Plateau region, approximately 1,000 m below the surface. Fluid samples were collected from 10 wells at an industrial CO2 production facility outside Cortez, CO. Subsamples preserved on site in 3.7% formaldehyde were treated in the lab with Syto 9 green-fluorescent nucleic acid stain, revealing 3.2E6 to 1.4E8 microbial cells per liter of produced fluid and 8.0E9 cells per liter of local pond water used in well drilling fluids. Extracted DNAs from sterivex 0.22 um filters containing 20 L of sample biomass were used as templates for PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene. 16S rRNA amplicons from these samples were cloned, sequenced and subjected to microbial

  17. Dissolution of Columbia River Basalt Under Mildly Acidic Conditions as a Function of Temperature: Experimental Results Relevant to the Geological Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2009-05-01

    Increasing attention is being focused on the rapid rise of carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, which many believe to be the major contributing factor to global climate change. Sequestering CO2 in deep geological formations has been proposed as a long-term solution to help stabilize CO2 levels. However, before such technology can be developed and implemented, a basic understanding of H2O-CO2 systems and the chemical interactions of these fluids with the host formation must be obtained. Important issues concerning mineral stability, reaction rates, and carbonate formation are all controlled or at least significantly impacted by the kinetics of rock-water reactions in mildly acidic, CO2-saturated solutions. Basalt has recently been identified as a potentially important host formation for geological sequestration. Dissolution kinetics of the Columbia River Basalt (CRB) were measured for a range of temperatures (25° to 90°C) under mildly acidic to neutral pH conditions using the single-pass flow-through test method. Under anaerobic conditions, the normalized dissolution rates for CRB decrease with increasing pH (3≤pH≤7) with a slope, η, of -0.12 ± 0.02. An activation energy, Ea, has been estimated at 30.3 ± 2.4 kJ mol-1. Dissolution kinetics measurements like these are essential for modeling the rate at which the CO2 reacts with basalt and ultimately converted to carbonate minerals in situ.

  18. Training and Research on Probabilistic Hydro-Thermo-Mechanical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration in Fractured Porous Rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, Marte

    2013-05-31

    Colorado School of Mines conducted research and training in the development and validation of an advanced CO{sub 2} GS (Geological Sequestration) probabilistic simulation and risk assessment model. CO{sub 2} GS simulation and risk assessment is used to develop advanced numerical simulation models of the subsurface to forecast CO2 behavior and transport; optimize site operational practices; ensure site safety; and refine site monitoring, verification, and accounting efforts. As simulation models are refined with new data, the uncertainty surrounding the identified risks decrease, thereby providing more accurate risk assessment. The models considered the full coupling of multiple physical processes (geomechanical and fluid flow) and describe the effects of stochastic hydro-mechanical (H-M) parameters on the modeling of CO{sub 2} flow and transport in fractured porous rocks. Graduate students were involved in the development and validation of the model that can be used to predict the fate, movement, and storage of CO{sub 2} in subsurface formations, and to evaluate the risk of potential leakage to the atmosphere and underground aquifers. The main major contributions from the project include the development of: 1) an improved procedure to rigorously couple the simulations of hydro-thermomechanical (H-M) processes involved in CO{sub 2} GS; 2) models for the hydro-mechanical behavior of fractured porous rocks with random fracture patterns; and 3) probabilistic methods to account for the effects of stochastic fluid flow and geomechanical properties on flow, transport, storage and leakage associated with CO{sub 2} GS. The research project provided the means to educate and train graduate students in the science and technology of CO{sub 2} GS, with a focus on geologic storage. Specifically, the training included the investigation of an advanced CO{sub 2} GS simulation and risk assessment model that can be used to predict the fate, movement, and storage of CO{sub 2} in

  19. Natural analogs of geologic CO2 sequestration: Some general implications for engineered sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fessenden, Julianna E.; Stauffer, Philip H.; Viswanathan, Hari S.

    Carbon dioxide emissions from geologic systems occur primarily from geothermal release of carbon in rock or subsurface biologic reservoirs. These systems can be very useful natural analogs for evaluating the impact of carbon dioxide leaks from engineered geologic storage reservoirs used to sequester CO2. We describe three natural analog sites that illustrate very different leak scenarios that could occur at such engineered repositories. The Mammoth Mountain site, located in California, provides an example of diffuse CO2 seepage. Crystal Geyser, Utah, is an example of a highly focused, episodic leakage geyser. Bravo Dome, NM, is an example of a CO2 reservoir where no leakage has been observed. We discuss monitoring techniques, technology placement, and modeling approaches that can be used at these natural analog sites to gain further insight into the viability of geologic CO2 sequestration.

  20. Multiphase Sequestration Geochemistry: Model for Mineral Carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    White, Mark D.; McGrail, B. Peter; Schaef, Herbert T.; Hu, Jian Z.; Hoyt, David W.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Wurstner, Signe K.

    2011-04-01

    Carbonation of formation minerals converts low viscosity supercritical CO2 injected into deep saline reservoirs for geologic sequestration into an immobile form. Until recently the scientific focus of mineralization reactions with reservoir rocks has been those that follow an aqueous-mediated dissolution/precipitation mechanism, driven by the sharp reduction in pH that occurs with CO2 partitioning into the aqueous phase. For sedimentary basin formations the kinetics of aqueous-mediated dissolution/precipitation reactions are sufficiently slow to make the role of mineralization trapping insignificant over a century period. For basaltic saline formations aqueous-phase mineralization progresses at a substantially higher rate, making the role of mineralization trapping significant, if not dominant, over a century period. The overlooked mineralization reactions for both sedimentary and basaltic saline formations, however, are those that occur in liquid or supercritical CO2 phase; where, dissolved water appears to play a catalyst role in the formation of carbonate minerals. A model is proposed in this paper that describes mineral carbonation over sequestration reservoir conditions ranging from dissolved CO2 in aqueous brine to dissolved water in supercritical CO2. The model theory is based on a review of recent experiments directed at understanding the role of water in mineral carbonation reactions of interest in geologic sequestration systems occurring under low water contents.

  1. Capillary pressure - saturation relations for supercritical CO2 and brine: Implications for capillary/residual trapping in carbonate reservoirs during geologic carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Tokunaga, T. K.

    2014-12-01

    In geologic carbon sequestration (GCS), data on capillary pressure (Pc) - saturation (Sw) relations are routinely needed to appraise reservoir processes. Capillarity and its hysteresis have been often experimentally studied in oil-water, gas-water and three phase gas-oil-water systems, but fewer works have been reported on scCO2-water under in-situ reservoir conditions. Here, Pc-Sw relations of supercritical (sc) CO2 displacing brine, and brine rewetting the porous medium to trap scCO2 were studied to understand CO2 transport and trapping behavior in carbonate reservoirs under representative reservoir conditions. High-quality drainage and imbibition (and associated capillary pressure hysteresis) curves were measured under elevated temperature and pressure (45 ºC, 8.5 and 12 MPa) for scCO2-brine as well as at room temperature and pressure (23 ºC, 0.1 MPa) for air-brine in unconsolidated limestone and dolomite sand columns using newly developed semi-automated multistep outflow-inflow porous plate apparatus. Drainage and imbibition curves for scCO2-brine deviated from the universal scaling curves for hydrophilic interactions (with greater deviation under higher pressure) and shifted to lower Pc than predicted based on interfacial tension (IFT) changes. Augmented scaling incorporating differences in IFT and contact angle improved the scaling results but the scaled curves still did not converge onto the universal curves. Equilibrium residual trapping of the nonwetting phase was determined at Pc =0 during imbibition. The capillary-trapped amounts of scCO2 were significantly larger than for air. It is concluded that the deviations from the universal capillary scaling curves are caused by scCO2-induced wettability alteration, given the fact that pore geometry remained constant and IFT is well constrained. In-situ wettability alteration by reactive scCO2 is of critical importance and must be accounted for to achieve reliable predictions of CO2 behavior in GCS reservoirs.

  2. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-01

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the second performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for

  3. Roles of Nano- and Micro-Scale Subsurface Geochemical Reactions on Environmentally Sustainable Geologic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yandi

    Geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS) is a promising approach to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. At GCS sites, injected CO2 is kept in formation rock by an overlying low permeability caprock. During and after CO2 injection, geochemical reactions can affect the porosity, permeability, and pollutant transport in aquifers. Despite their importance, nano- and micro-scale subsurface geochemical reactions are far from well-understood. Clay mobilization has been reported to decrease aquifer permeability during water flooding, and clay minerals are abundant in caprock. Thus, we studied CO2-brine-clay interactions under varied conditions relevant to different GCS sites (at 35-95°C and under 35-120 atm CO2, in water, NaCl, MgCl2, or CaCl2 solutions). Biotite, Fe-bearing mica, was used as a model clay mineral. We observed numerous fibrous illite precipitates on mica after reaction for only 3 h, which had not been previously reported. A few hours later, the mica surface cracked and fibrous illite detached. The mobilization of fibrous illite can decrease the aquifer's permeability greatly and affect the safety and efficiency of GCS. Mechanisms related to ion exchange, mica swelling, and CO2 intercalation were explored. Oriented aggregation of illite nanoparticles forming the fibrous illite was directly observed, suggesting a new mechanism for fibrous illite formation. Interestingly, besides the pH effect, aqueous CO2 enhances mica cracking over N2. These findings can help to achieve safer subsurface operations. At GCS field sites, Fe concentration increased near the injection sites and originally adsorbed pollutants were released. As the brine flows, Fe re-precipitated because of pH increase. To better predict the fate and transport of aqueous pollutants, the nucleation and growth of Fe(III) (hydr)oxides were studied. New information about sizes and volumes of the Fe(III) (hydr)oxide nanoparticles precipitated in solution and on quartz, mica, and sapphire

  4. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB)

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2005-09-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is a diverse partnership covering eleven states involving the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) an interstate compact; regulatory agencies and/or geological surveys from member states; the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); academic institutions; a Native American enterprise; and multiple entities from the private sector. Figure 1 shows the team structure for the partnership. In addition to the Technical Team, the Technology Coalition, an alliance of auxiliary participants, in the project lends yet more strength and support to the project. The Technology Coalition, with its diverse representation of various sectors, is integral to the technical information transfer, outreach, and public perception activities of the partnership. The Technology Coalition members, shown in Figure 2, also provide a breadth of knowledge and capabilities in the multiplicity of technologies needed to assure a successful outcome to the project and serve as an extremely important asset to the partnership. The eleven states comprising the multi-state region are: Alabama; Arkansas; Florida; Georgia; Louisiana; Mississippi; North Carolina; South Carolina; Tennessee; Texas; and Virginia. The states making up the SECARB area are illustrated in Figure 3. The primary objectives of the SECARB project include: (1) Supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Sequestration Program by promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. This requires the development of relevant data to reduce the uncertainties and risks that are barriers to sequestration, especially for geologic storage in the SECARB region. Information and knowledge are the keys to establishing a regional carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage industry with public acceptance. (2) Supporting the President's Global Climate Change Initiative with the goal of reducing

  5. Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration: Research Needs and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2008-03-21

    Fossil fuel combustion, deforestation, and biomass burning are the dominant contributors to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations and global warming. Many approaches to mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions are being pursued, and among the most promising are terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. Recent advances in ecology and microbial biology offer promising new possibilities for enhancing terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. A workshop was held October 29, 2007, at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) on Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration (BECS). The workshop participants (approximately 30 scientists from California, Illinois, Oregon, Montana, and New Mexico) developed a prioritized list of research needed to make progress in the development of biological enhancements to improve terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. The workshop participants also identified a number of areas of supporting science that are critical to making progress in the fundamental research areas. The purpose of this position paper is to summarize and elaborate upon the findings of the workshop. The paper considers terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration separately. First, we present a summary in outline form of the research roadmaps for terrestrial and geologic BECS. This outline is elaborated upon in the narrative sections that follow. The narrative sections start with the focused research priorities in each area followed by critical supporting science for biological enhancements as prioritized during the workshop. Finally, Table 1 summarizes the potential significance or 'materiality' of advances in these areas for reducing net greenhouse gas emissions.

  6. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson

    2006-04-01

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed several more tasks during the period of April 1, 2005-September 30, 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to evaluate and demonstrate the means for achieving an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. While Phase 2 planning is well under way, the content of this report focuses exclusively on Phase 1 objectives completed during this reporting period. Progress during this period was focused in the three areas: geological carbon storage capacity in New Mexico, terrestrial sequestration capacity for the project area, and the Integrated Assessment Model efforts. The geologic storage capacity of New Mexico was analyzed and Blanco Mesaverde (which extends into Colorado) and Basin Dakota Pools were chosen as top two choices for the further analysis for CO{sub 2} sequestration in the system dynamics model preliminary analysis. Terrestrial sequestration capacity analysis showed that the four states analyzed thus far (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah) have relatively limited potential to sequester carbon in terrestrial systems, mainly due to the aridity of these areas, but the large land area offered could make up for the limited capacity per hectare. Best opportunities were thought to be in eastern Colorado/New Mexico. The Integrated Assessment team expanded the initial test case model to include all New Mexico sinks and sources in a new, revised prototype model in 2005. The allocation mechanism, or ''String of Pearls'' concept, utilizes potential pipeline routes as the links between all combinations of the source to various sinks. This technique lays the groundwork for future, additional ''String of Pearls'' analyses throughout the SW Partnership and other regions as well.

  7. WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Myer; Terry Surles; Kelly Birkinshaw

    2004-01-01

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct

  8. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson

    2006-03-31

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed its Phase I program in December 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership Phase I project was to evaluate and demonstrate the means for achieving an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. Many other goals were accomplished on the way to this objective, including (1) analysis of CO{sub 2} storage options in the region, including characterization of storage capacities and transportation options, (2) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} sources, (3) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} separation and capture technologies employed in the region, (4) evaluation and ranking of the most appropriate sequestration technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region, (5) dissemination of existing regulatory/permitting requirements, and (6) assessing and initiating public knowledge and acceptance of possible sequestration approaches. Results of the Southwest Partnership's Phase I evaluation suggested that the most convenient and practical ''first opportunities'' for sequestration would lie along existing CO{sub 2} pipelines in the region. Action plans for six Phase II validation tests in the region were developed, with a portfolio that includes four geologic pilot tests distributed among Utah, New Mexico, and Texas. The Partnership will also conduct a regional terrestrial sequestration pilot program focusing on improved terrestrial MMV methods and reporting approaches specific for the Southwest region. The sixth and final validation test consists of a local-scale terrestrial pilot involving restoration of riparian lands for sequestration purposes. The validation test will use desalinated waters produced from one of the geologic pilot tests. The Southwest Regional Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. These partners include 21 state

  9. Carbon sequestration in reclaimed minesoils

    SciTech Connect

    Ussiri, D.A.N.; Lal, R.

    2005-07-01

    Minesoils are drastically influenced by anthropogenic activities. They are characterized by low soil organic matter (SOM) content, low fertility, and poor physicochemical and biological properties, limiting their quality, capability, and functions. Reclamation of these soils has potential for resequestering some of the C lost and mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions. Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rates in minesoils are high in the first 20 to 30 years after reclamation in the top 15 cm soil depth. In general, higher rates of SOC sequestration are observed for minesoils under pasture and grassland management than under forest land use. Observed rates of SOC sequestration are 0.3 to 1.85 Mg C ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for pastures and rangelands, and 0.2 to 1.64 Mg C ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for forest land use. Proper reclamation and postreclamation management may enhance SOC sequestration and add to the economic value of the mined sites. Management practices that may enhance SOC sequestration include increasing vegetative cover by deep-rooted perennial vegetation and afforestation, improving soil fertility, and alleviation of physical, chemical and biological limitations by fertilizers and soil amendments such as biosolids, manure, coal combustion by-products, and mulches. Soil and water conservation are important to SOC sequestration. The potential of SOC sequestration in minesoils of the US is estimated to be 1.28 Tg C yr{sup -1}, compared to the emissions from coal combustion of 506 Tg C yr{sup -1}.

  10. Fundamental Studies of Clay and Clay-rich Mineral Reactions with H2O-CO2 Fluids: Application to Geological Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizmeshya, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    Geological sequestration is currently being actively developed as a near-term, large-scale carbon sequestration technology in which supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) is injected below-ground into saline aquifers, depleted and existing oil and gas reservoir. Implementation strongly depends on the specific geological profile of each candidate injection site. Caprock formations that contain swellable clay minerals are of particular concern, since interaction with injected CO2 may produce complex local structural effects related to shrinkage, desiccation, and plastic response leading to CO2 escape. The current knowledge-base on rock-brine-CO2 interactions often relies on semi-empirical geochemical modeling and autoclave experiments, which necessitate quenching (de-gassing) to ambient conditions for characterization. To avoid these effects we used a moissanite-based microreaction system (Diefenbacher, J et al Rev. Mod. Inst., 76 15103 (2005)) which enables in situ synchrotron characterization of interactions under constant CO2 activity. Synchrotron studies were performed at the GSECARS sector of the Argonne National Lab APS to systematically determine the response of representative Ca- and Na-montmorillonites (STx-1, SWy-1) clays to dry/wet scCO2 (H2O-rich) fluids at T and P encountered in typical aquifers. Our main findings for hydrated STx-1 are that desiccation occurs spontaneously on the scale of minutes-hours over a wide range of conditions in dry scCO2 via release of H2O with volume changes as large as 19% in relation to the initial volume. Desiccation was not observed in wet scCO2, or in corresponding saline solutions containing 1-3 M NaCl, but quenching to ambient conditions from low-pressures leads to re-hydration in STx-1 suggesting a pressure-dependent diffusion barrier for H2O from the clay into bulk scCO2. Similar desiccation transitions with smaller volume changes of 5-9% were also observed in SWy-1 at P 140 atm and T 40 C. At high pressures ( 200 atm

  11. Geological Carbon Sequestration Storage Resource Estimates for the Ordovician St. Peter Sandstone, Illinois and Michigan Basins, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, David; Ellett, Kevin; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    The Cambro-Ordovician strata of the Midwest of the United States is a primary target for potential geological storage of CO2 in deep saline formations. The objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive evaluation of the Cambro-Ordovician strata in the Illinois and Michigan Basins above the basal Mount Simon Sandstone since the Mount Simon is the subject of other investigations including a demonstration-scale injection at the Illinois Basin Decatur Project. The primary reservoir targets investigated in this study are the middle Ordovician St Peter Sandstone and the late Cambrian to early Ordovician Knox Group carbonates. The topic of this report is a regional-scale evaluation of the geologic storage resource potential of the St Peter Sandstone in both the Illinois and Michigan Basins. Multiple deterministic-based approaches were used in conjunction with the probabilistic-based storage efficiency factors published in the DOE methodology to estimate the carbon storage resource of the formation. Extensive data sets of core analyses and wireline logs were compiled to develop the necessary inputs for volumetric calculations. Results demonstrate how the range in uncertainty of storage resource estimates varies as a function of data availability and quality, and the underlying assumptions used in the different approaches. In the simplest approach, storage resource estimates were calculated from mapping the gross thickness of the formation and applying a single estimate of the effective mean porosity of the formation. Results from this approach led to storage resource estimates ranging from 3.3 to 35.1 Gt in the Michigan Basin, and 1.0 to 11.0 Gt in the Illinois Basin at the P10 and P90 probability level, respectively. The second approach involved consideration of the diagenetic history of the formation throughout the two basins and used depth-dependent functions of porosity to derive a more realistic spatially variable model of porosity rather than applying a

  12. Carbon sequestration in European croplands.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete; Falloon, Pete

    2005-01-01

    The Marrakech Accords allow biospheric carbon sinks and sources to be included in attempts to meet emission reduction targets for the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Forest management, cropland management, grazing land management, and re-vegetation are allowable activities under Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol. Soil carbon sinks (and sources) can, therefore, be included under these activities. Croplands are estimated to be the largest biospheric source of carbon lost to the atmosphere in Europe each year, but the cropland estimate is the most uncertain among all land-use types. It is estimated that European croplands (for Europe as far east as the Urals) lose 300 Tg (C) per year, with the mean figure for the European Union estimated to be 78 Tg (C) per year (with one SD=37). National estimates for EU countries are of a similar order of magnitude on a per-area basis. There is significant potential within Europe to decrease the flux of carbon to the atmosphere from cropland, and for cropland management to sequester soil carbon, relative to the amount of carbon stored in cropland soils at present. The biological potential for carbon storage in European (EU 15) cropland is of the order of 90-120 Tg (C) per year, with a range of options available that include reduced and zero tillage, set-aside, perennial crops, deep rooting crops, more efficient use of organic amendments (animal manure, sewage sludge, cereal straw, compost), improved rotations, irrigation, bioenergy crops, extensification, organic farming, and conversion of arable land to grassland or woodland. The sequestration potential, considering only constraints on land use, amounts of raw materials and available land, is up to 45 Tg (C) per year. The realistic potential and the conservative achievable potentials may be considerably lower than the biological potential because of socioeconomic and other constraints, with a realistically achievable potential estimated to be about 20% of the

  13. Use and Features of Basalt Formations for Geologic Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    McGrail, B. Peter; Ho, Anita M.; Reidel, Steve P.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2003-01-01

    Extrusive lava flows of basalt are a potential host medium for geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2. Flood basalts and other large igneous provinces occur worldwide near population and power-producing centers and could securely sequester a significant fraction of global CO2 emissions. We describe the location, extent, and general physical and chemical characteristics of large igneous provinces that satisfy requirements as a good host medium for CO2 sequestration. Most lava flows have vesicular flow tops and bottoms as well as interflow zones that are porous and permeable and serve as regional aquifers. Additionally, basalt is iron-rich, and, under the proper conditions of groundwater pH, temperature, and pressure, injected CO2 will react with iron released from dissolution of primary minerals in the basalt to form stable ferrous carbonate minerals. Conversion of CO2 gas into a solid form was confirmed in laboratory experiments with supercritical CO2 in contact with basalt samples from Washington state.

  14. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2005-06-22

    An area planted in 2004 on Bent Mountain in Pike County was shifted to the Department of Energy project to centralize an area to become a demonstration site. An additional 98.3 acres were planted on Peabody lands in western Kentucky and Bent Mountain to bring the total area under study by this project to 556.5 acres as indicated in Table 2. Major efforts this quarter include the implementation of new plots that will examine the influence of differing geologic material on tree growth and survival, water quality and quantity and carbon sequestration. Normal monitoring and maintenance was conducted and additional instrumentation was installed to monitor the new areas planted.

  15. A mechanistic understanding of plagioclase dissolution based on Al occupancy and T-O bond length: from geologic carbon sequestration to ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Min, Yujia; Jun, Young-Shin

    2013-11-14

    A quantitative description of how the bulk properties of aluminosilicates affect their dissolution kinetics is important in helping people understand the regulation of atmospheric CO2 concentration by silicate weathering and predict the fate and transport of geologically sequestered CO2 through brine-rock interactions. In this study, we employed a structure model based on the C1 space group to illustrate how differences in crystallographic properties of aluminosilicates, such as T-O (Tetrahedral site-Oxygen) bond length and Al/Si ordering, can result in quantifiable variations in mineral dissolution rates. The dissolution rates of plagioclases were measured under representative geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) conditions (90 °C, 100 atm of CO2, 1.0 M NaCl, and pH ∼ 3.1), and used to validate the model. We found that the logarithm of the characteristic time of the breakdown of Al-O-Si linkages in plagioclases follows a good linear relation with the mineral's aluminum content (nAl). The Si release rates of plagioclases can be calculated based on an assumption of dissolution congruency or on the regularity of Al/Si distribution in the constituent tetrahedra of the mineral. We further extended the application of our approach to scenarios where dissolution incongruency arises because of different linkage reactivities in the solid matrix, and compared the model predictions with published data. The application of our results enables a significant reduction of experimental work for determining the dissolution rates of structurally related aluminosilicates, given a reaction environment.

  16. Optimization geological sequestration of CO2 by capillary trapping mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildenschild, D.; Harper, E.; Herring, A. L.; Armstrong, R. T.

    2012-12-01

    Geological carbon sequestration, as a method of atmospheric greenhouse gas reduction, is at the technological forefront of the climate change movement. Sequestration is achieved by capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) gas effluent from coal fired power plants and injecting it into saline aquifers. In an effort to fully understand and optimize CO2 trapping efficiency, the capillary trapping mechanisms that immobilize subsurface CO2 were analyzed at the pore scale. Pairs of analogous fluids representing the range of in situ supercritical CO2 and brine conditions were used during experimentation. The two fluids (identified as wetting and non wetting) were imbibed and drained from a flow cell apparatus containing a sintered glass bead column. Experimental and fluid parameters, such as interfacial tension, non-wetting fluid viscosity, and flow rate, were altered to characterize their impact on capillary trapping. Through the use of computed x-ray microtomography (CMT), we were able to quantify distinct differences between initial (post NW phase imbibition) and residual (post wetting fluid flood) non-wetting phase saturations. Alterations to the viscosity of the non-wetting and wetting fluid phases were made during experimentation; results indicate that the viscosity of the non-wetting fluid is the parameter of interest as residual saturations increased with increasing viscosity. These observed trends will be used to identify optimal conditions for trapping CO2 during subsurface sequestration.

  17. Hurricane impacts on US forest carbon sequestration

    Treesearch

    Steven G. McNulty

    2002-01-01

    Recent focus has been given to US forests as a sink for increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Current estimates of US Forest carbon sequestration average approximately 20 Tg (i.e. 1012 g) year. However, predictions of forest carbon sequestration often do not include the influence of hurricanes on forest carbon storage. Intense hurricanes...

  18. Reactive Transport Modeling of the Enhancement of Density-Driven CO2 Convective Mixing in Carbonate Aquifers and its Potential Implication on Geological Carbon Sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Akand; Sun, Alexander Y.; Yang, Changbing

    2016-01-01

    We study the convection and mixing of CO2 in a brine aquifer, where the spread of dissolved CO2 is enhanced because of geochemical reactions with the host formations (calcite and dolomite), in addition to the extensively studied, buoyancy-driven mixing. The nonlinear convection is investigated under the assumptions of instantaneous chemical equilibrium, and that the dissipation of carbonate rocks solely depends on flow and transport and chemical speciation depends only on the equilibrium thermodynamics of the chemical system. The extent of convection is quantified in term of the CO2 saturation volume of the storage formation. Our results suggest that the density increase of resident species causes significant enhancement in CO2 dissolution, although no significant porosity and permeability alterations are observed. Early saturation of the reservoir can have negative impact on CO2 sequestration. PMID:27094448

  19. Reactive transport modeling of the enhancement of density-driven CO2 convective mixing in carbonate aquifers and its potential implication on geological carbon sequestration

    DOE PAGES

    Islam, Akand; Sun, Alexander Y.; Yang, Changbing

    2016-04-20

    We study the convection and mixing of CO2 in a brine aquifer, where the spread of dissolved CO2 is enhanced because of geochemical reactions with the host formations (calcite and dolomite), in addition to the extensively studied, buoyancy-driven mixing. The nonlinear convection is investigated under the assumptions of instantaneous chemical equilibrium, and that the dissipation of carbonate rocks solely depends on flow and transport and chemical speciation depends only on the equilibrium thermodynamics of the chemical system. The extent of convection is quantified in term of the CO2 saturation volume of the storage formation. Our results suggest that the densitymore » increase of resident species causes significant enhancement in CO2 dissolution, although no significant porosity and permeability alterations are observed. Furthermore, early saturation of the reservoir can have negative impact on CO2 sequestration.« less

  20. Reactive transport modeling of the enhancement of density-driven CO2 convective mixing in carbonate aquifers and its potential implication on geological carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, Akand; Sun, Alexander Y.; Yang, Changbing

    2016-04-20

    We study the convection and mixing of CO2 in a brine aquifer, where the spread of dissolved CO2 is enhanced because of geochemical reactions with the host formations (calcite and dolomite), in addition to the extensively studied, buoyancy-driven mixing. The nonlinear convection is investigated under the assumptions of instantaneous chemical equilibrium, and that the dissipation of carbonate rocks solely depends on flow and transport and chemical speciation depends only on the equilibrium thermodynamics of the chemical system. The extent of convection is quantified in term of the CO2 saturation volume of the storage formation. Our results suggest that the density increase of resident species causes significant enhancement in CO2 dissolution, although no significant porosity and permeability alterations are observed. Furthermore, early saturation of the reservoir can have negative impact on CO2 sequestration.

  1. Reactive Transport Modeling of the Enhancement of Density-Driven CO2 Convective Mixing in Carbonate Aquifers and its Potential Implication on Geological Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Akand; Sun, Alexander Y.; Yang, Changbing

    2016-04-01

    We study the convection and mixing of CO2 in a brine aquifer, where the spread of dissolved CO2 is enhanced because of geochemical reactions with the host formations (calcite and dolomite), in addition to the extensively studied, buoyancy-driven mixing. The nonlinear convection is investigated under the assumptions of instantaneous chemical equilibrium, and that the dissipation of carbonate rocks solely depends on flow and transport and chemical speciation depends only on the equilibrium thermodynamics of the chemical system. The extent of convection is quantified in term of the CO2 saturation volume of the storage formation. Our results suggest that the density increase of resident species causes significant enhancement in CO2 dissolution, although no significant porosity and permeability alterations are observed. Early saturation of the reservoir can have negative impact on CO2 sequestration.

  2. Reactive Transport Modeling of the Enhancement of Density-Driven CO2 Convective Mixing in Carbonate Aquifers and its Potential Implication on Geological Carbon Sequestration.

    PubMed

    Islam, Akand; Sun, Alexander Y; Yang, Changbing

    2016-04-20

    We study the convection and mixing of CO2 in a brine aquifer, where the spread of dissolved CO2 is enhanced because of geochemical reactions with the host formations (calcite and dolomite), in addition to the extensively studied, buoyancy-driven mixing. The nonlinear convection is investigated under the assumptions of instantaneous chemical equilibrium, and that the dissipation of carbonate rocks solely depends on flow and transport and chemical speciation depends only on the equilibrium thermodynamics of the chemical system. The extent of convection is quantified in term of the CO2 saturation volume of the storage formation. Our results suggest that the density increase of resident species causes significant enhancement in CO2 dissolution, although no significant porosity and permeability alterations are observed. Early saturation of the reservoir can have negative impact on CO2 sequestration.

  3. Tectono-Thermal History Modeling and Reservoir Simulation Study of the Nenana Basin, Central Alaska: Implications for Regional Tectonics and Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Nilesh C.

    Central Interior Alaska is an active tectonic deformation zone highlighted by the complex interactions of active strike-slip fault systems with thrust faults and folds of the Alaska Range fold-and-thrust belt. This region includes the Nenana basin and the adjacent Tanana basin, both of which have significant Tertiary coal-bearing formations and are also promising areas (particularly the Nenana basin) with respect to hydrocarbon exploration and geologic carbon sequestration. I investigate the modern-day crustal architecture of the Nenana and Tanana basins using seismic reflection, aeromagnetic and gravity anomaly data and demonstrate that the basement of both basins shows strong crustal heterogeneity. The Nenana basin is a deep (up to 8 km), narrow transtensional pull-apart basin that is deforming along the left-lateral Minto Flats fault zone. The Tanana basin has a fundamentally different geometry and is a relatively shallow (up to 2 km) asymmetrical foreland basin with its southern, deeper side controlled by the northern foothills of the central Alaska Range. NE-trending strike-slip faults within the Tanana basin are interpreted as a zone of clockwise crustal block rotation. Seismic refection data, well data, fracture data and apatite fission track data further constrain the tectonic evolution and thermal history of the Nenana basin. The Nenana basin experienced four distinct tectonic phases since Late Paleocene time. The basin initiated as a narrow half-graben structure in Late Paleocene with accumulation of greater than 6000 feet of sediments. The basin was then uplifted, resulting in the removal of up to 5000 feet of Late Paleocene sediments in Eocene to Oligocene time. During Middle to Late Miocene time, left lateral strike-slip faulting was superimposed on the existing half-graben system. Transtensional deformation of the basin began in the Pliocene. At present, Miocene and older strata are exposed to temperatures > 60°C in the deeper parts of the Nenana

  4. The Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP)

    SciTech Connect

    James J. Dooley; Robert Dahowski; Casie Davidson

    2005-12-01

    This final report summarizes the Phase I research conducted by the Midwest regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP). The Phase I effort began in October 2003 and the project period ended on September 31, 2005. The MRCSP is a public/private partnership led by Battelle with the mission of identifying the technical, economic, and social issues associated with implementation of carbon sequestration technologies in its seven state geographic region (Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia) and identifying viable pathways for their deployment. It is one of seven partnerships that together span most of the U.S. and parts of Canada that comprise the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Regional Carbon Sequestration Program led by DOE's national Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The MRCSP Phase I research was carried out under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41981. The total value of Phase I was $3,513,513 of which the DOE share was $2,410,967 or 68.62%. The remainder of the cost share was provided in varying amounts by the rest of the 38 members of MRCSP's Phase I project. The next largest cost sharing participant to DOE in Phase I was the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Air Quality Development Authority (OCDO). OCDO's contribution was $100,000 and was contributed under Grant Agreement No. CDO/D-02-17. In this report, the MRCSP's research shows that the seven state MRCSP region is a major contributor to the U. S. economy and also to total emissions of CO2, the most significant of the greenhouse gases thought to contribute to global climate change. But, the research has also shown that the region has substantial resources for sequestering carbon, both in deep geological reservoirs (geological sequestration) and through improved agricultural and land management practices (terrestrial sequestration). Geological reservoirs, especially deep saline reservoirs, offer the potential to permanently store CO2 for

  5. A Model To Estimate Carbon Dioxide Injectivity and Storage Capacity for Geological Sequestration in Shale Gas Wells.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ryan W J; Celia, Michael A; Bandilla, Karl W; Doster, Florian; Kanno, Cynthia M

    2015-08-04

    Recent studies suggest the possibility of CO2 sequestration in depleted shale gas formations, motivated by large storage capacity estimates in these formations. Questions remain regarding the dynamic response and practicality of injection of large amounts of CO2 into shale gas wells. A two-component (CO2 and CH4) model of gas flow in a shale gas formation including adsorption effects provides the basis to investigate the dynamics of CO2 injection. History-matching of gas production data allows for formation parameter estimation. Application to three shale gas-producing regions shows that CO2 can only be injected at low rates into individual wells and that individual well capacity is relatively small, despite significant capacity variation between shale plays. The estimated total capacity of an average Marcellus Shale well in Pennsylvania is 0.5 million metric tonnes (Mt) of CO2, compared with 0.15 Mt in an average Barnett Shale well. Applying the individual well estimates to the total number of existing and permitted planned wells (as of March, 2015) in each play yields a current estimated capacity of 7200-9600 Mt in the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania and 2100-3100 Mt in the Barnett Shale.

  6. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2006-08-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's (SECARB) Phase I program focused on promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and commercial deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The SECARB program, and its subsequent phases, directly support the Global Climate Change Initiative's goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by the year 2012. Work during the project's two-year period was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix''. The SECARB team was successful in accomplishing its tasks to define the geographic boundaries of the region; characterize the region; identify and address issues for technology deployment; develop public involvement and education mechanisms; identify the most promising capture, sequestration, and transport options; and prepare action plans for implementation and technology validation activity. Milestones accomplished during Phase I of the project are listed below: (1) Completed preliminary identification of geographic boundaries for the study (FY04, Quarter 1); (2) Completed initial inventory of major sources and sinks for the region (FY04, Quarter 2); (3) Completed initial development of plans for GIS (FY04, Quarter 3); (4) Completed preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues (FY04, Quarter 4); (5) Assessed safety, regulatory and permitting issues (FY05, Quarter 1); (6) Finalized inventory of major sources/sinks and refined GIS algorithms (FY05, Quarter 2); (7) Refined public involvement and education mechanisms in support of technology development options (FY05, Quarter 3); and (8) Identified the most promising capture, sequestration and transport options and prepared action plans (FY05, Quarter 4).

  7. How Computational Modeling of Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide will be used in the Underground Injection Control program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    The greenhouse gas mitigation technique of sequestering large volumes of carbon dioxide underground holds the promise of significantly reducing the amounts of carbon dioxide that the world contributes to the atmosphere. During the past few years, the United States Environmental Protection Agency evaluated the potential risks associated with the injection of large masses of carbon dioxide and determined that those risks would be best addressed through the development of a new well class under the Safe Drinking Water Act's Underground Injection Control (UIC) program. The large quantities of injected carbon dioxide, its mobile and buoyant nature, and its potential to alter the chemistry of formations it might leak into were part of this evaluation. The regulations under this new well class, Class VI, were built upon the existing requirements for Class I wells that dispose of industrial waste fluids. One of the key elements of the new regulations is the role of the computational modeling of the injected carbon dioxide and the associated pressure effects in the injection zone. A series of requirements and possible actions will cascade from the site characterization and computational modeling results. The requirements for ongoing subsurface monitoring and the reevaluation of carbon dioxide plume movement and pressure effects every five years will requite the regulators and the regulated to compare computational modeling results with observations frequently.

  8. Flow Through Cement Fracture Under Geological Carbon Sequestration Conditions: Critical Residence Time as a Unifying Parameter for Fracture Opening or Self-Sealing Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Brunet, J. P. L.; Karpyn, Z.; Huerta, N. J.

    2016-12-01

    During geological carbon sequestration (GCS) large quantities of CO2 are injected in underground formations. Cement fractures represent preferential leakage pathways in abandoned wells upon exposure to CO2-rich fluid. Contrasting self- healing and fracture opening behavior have been observed while a unifying framework is still missing. The modelling of this process is challenging as it involves complex chemical, mechanical and transport interactions. We developed a process-based reactive transport model that explicitly simulates flow and multi-component reactive transport in fractured cement by reproducing experimental observations of sharp flow rate reduction during exposure to carbonated water. Mechanical interactions have not been included. The simulation shows a similar reaction network as in diffusion-controlled systems without flow. That is, CO2-rich water induced portlandite dissolution, releasing calcium that further reacted with carbonate to form calcite. This created localized changes in porosity and permeability inducing large differences in the long term response of the system through a complex positive feedback loop (e.g., a decrease in local permeability induces a decrease in flow that in turn amplifies the precipitation of calcite through a reduced acidic brine flow). The calibrated model was used to generate 250 numerical experiments of CO2-flooding in cement fractures with varying initial hydraulic apertures (b) and residence times (τ) defined as the ratio of fracture volume over flow rate. A long τ leads to slow replenishment of carbonated water, calcite precipitation, and self-sealing. The opposite occurs when τ is small with short fractures and fast flow rates. Simulation results indicate that a critical residence time τc - the minimum τ required for self-sealing -divides the conditions that trigger the diverging opening and self-sealing behavior. The τc value depends on the initial aperture size (see figure). Among the 250 simulated

  9. Mechanisms of Soil Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Rattan

    2015-04-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration in soil is one of the several strategies of reducing the net emission of CO2 into the atmosphere. Of the two components, soil organic C (SOC) and soil inorganic C (SIC), SOC is an important control of edaphic properties and processes. In addition to off-setting part of the anthropogenic emissions, enhancing SOC concentration to above the threshold level (~1.5-2.0%) in the root zone has numerous ancillary benefits including food and nutritional security, biodiversity, water quality, among others. Because of its critical importance in human wellbeing and nature conservancy, scientific processes must be sufficiently understood with regards to: i) the potential attainable, and actual sink capacity of SOC and SIC, ii) permanence of the C sequestered its turnover and mean residence time, iii) the amount of biomass C needed (Mg/ha/yr) to maintain and enhance SOC pool, and to create a positive C budget, iv) factors governing the depth distribution of SOC, v) physical, chemical and biological mechanisms affecting the rate of decomposition by biotic and abiotic processes, vi) role of soil aggregation in sequestration and protection of SOC and SIC pool, vii) the importance of root system and its exudates in transfer of biomass-C into the SOC pools, viii) significance of biogenic processes in formation of secondary carbonates, ix) the role of dissolved organic C (DOC) in sequestration of SOC and SIC, and x) importance of weathering of alumino-silicates (e.g., powered olivine) in SIC sequestration. Lack of understanding of these and other basic processes leads to misunderstanding, inconsistencies in interpretation of empirical data, and futile debates. Identification of site-specific management practices is also facilitated by understanding of the basic processes of sequestration of SOC and SIC. Sustainable intensification of agroecosystems -- producing more from less by enhancing the use efficiency and reducing losses of inputs, necessitates thorough

  10. CARBON SEQUESTRATION SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2003-07-24

    Over 160 acres of tree seedlings were planted during the last quarter. This quarter marked the beginning of the installation of new instrumentation and the inspection and calibration of previously installed recording devices. Sampling systems were initiated to quantify initial seedling success as well as height measurements. Nursery seedlings have been inoculated to produce mycorrhizal treated stock for 2004 spring plantings to determine the effects on carbon sequestration. All planting areas in western Kentucky have been sampled with the recording cone penetrometer and the nuclear density gauge to measure soil density.

  11. Carbon sequestration and eruption hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.

    2007-12-01

    In order to reduce the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, proposals have been made to sequestrate carbon in ocean, or in coal mines and other underground formations. High gas concentration in ocean or underground formations has to potential to power gas-driven eruptions. In this presentation, possible eruption hazards are explored. Whenever carbon dioxide is sequestrated in the form of carbon dioxide gas, or dissolved and/or absorbed carbon dioxide, it is necessary to exercise caution to avoid gas-driven eruption hazard. It is long known that explosive volcanic eruptions are driven by H2O gas in magma. Lake eruptions powered by dissolved CO2 in lake bottom water were discovered in the 1980's (Kling et al., 1987; Zhang, 1996). Gas-driven ocean eruptions with mechanism similar to lake eruptions have been hypothesized (Zhang, 2003; Zhang and Kling, 2006) although not confirmed. Mud volcanos are commonly thought to be driven by methane-rich fluids in sediment (Milkov, 2000). Recently, Zhang et al. (2007) have proposed that coal outbursts in underground coal mines are driven by dissolved high CO2 concentration in coal, causing coal fragmentation and outburst. That is, coal outbursts may be regarded as a new type of gas-driven eruptions. Therefore, high concentrations of free gas or dissolved/absorbed gas may power eruptions of magma, lake water, ocean water, sediment, and coal. Gas- driven volcanic, lake and ocean eruptions are due to volume expansion from bubble growth, whereas gas-driven coal and sediment eruptions are due to high gas-pressure, leading to fragmentation of coal and sediment. (In explosive volcanism, magma fragmentation is also a critical point.) The threshold conditions for many of these eruptions are not known yet. In planning large (industrial) scale injection of CO2 into a natural reservoir, it is important to know the eruption threshold and design the injection scheme accordingly. More safe sequestration in terms of eruption hazards would

  12. The Modular Borehole Monitoring Program. A research program to optimize well-based monitoring for geologic carbon sequestration

    DOE PAGES

    Freifeld, Barry; Daley, Tom; Cook, Paul; ...

    2014-12-31

    Understanding the impacts caused by injection of large volumes of CO2 in the deep subsurface necessitates a comprehensive monitoring strategy. While surface-based and other remote geophysical methods can provide information on the general morphology of a CO2 plume, verification of the geochemical conditions and validation of the remote sensing data requires measurements from boreholes that penetrate the storage formation. Unfortunately, the high cost of drilling deep wellbores and deploying instrumentation systems constrains the number of dedicated monitoring borings as well as limits the technologies that can be incorporated in a borehole completion. The objective of the Modular Borehole Monitoring (MBM)more » Program was to develop a robust suite of well-based tools optimized for subsurface monitoring of CO2 that could meet the needs of a comprehensive well-based monitoring program. It should have enough flexibility to be easily reconfigured for various reservoir geometries and geologies. The MBM Program sought to provide storage operators with a turn-key fully engineered design that incorporated key technologies, function over the decades long time-span necessary for post-closure reservoir monitoring, and meet industry acceptable risk profiles for deep-well installations. While still within the conceptual design phase of the MBM program, the SECARB Anthropogenic Test in Citronelle, Alabama, USA was identified as a deployment site for our engineered monitoring systems. The initial step in designing the Citronelle MBM system was to down-select from the various monitoring tools available to include technologies that we considered essential to any program. Monitoring methods selected included U-tube geochemical sampling, discrete quartz pressure and temperature gauges, an integrated fibre-optic bundle consisting of distributed temperature and heat-pulse sensing, and a sparse string of conventional 3C-geophones. While not originally planned within the initial MBM

  13. The Modular Borehole Monitoring Program. A research program to optimize well-based monitoring for geologic carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Freifeld, Barry; Daley, Tom; Cook, Paul; Trautz, Robert; Dodds, Kevin

    2014-12-31

    Understanding the impacts caused by injection of large volumes of CO2 in the deep subsurface necessitates a comprehensive monitoring strategy. While surface-based and other remote geophysical methods can provide information on the general morphology of a CO2 plume, verification of the geochemical conditions and validation of the remote sensing data requires measurements from boreholes that penetrate the storage formation. Unfortunately, the high cost of drilling deep wellbores and deploying instrumentation systems constrains the number of dedicated monitoring borings as well as limits the technologies that can be incorporated in a borehole completion. The objective of the Modular Borehole Monitoring (MBM) Program was to develop a robust suite of well-based tools optimized for subsurface monitoring of CO2 that could meet the needs of a comprehensive well-based monitoring program. It should have enough flexibility to be easily reconfigured for various reservoir geometries and geologies. The MBM Program sought to provide storage operators with a turn-key fully engineered design that incorporated key technologies, function over the decades long time-span necessary for post-closure reservoir monitoring, and meet industry acceptable risk profiles for deep-well installations. While still within the conceptual design phase of the MBM program, the SECARB Anthropogenic Test in Citronelle, Alabama, USA was identified as a deployment site for our engineered monitoring systems. The initial step in designing the Citronelle MBM system was to down-select from the various monitoring tools available to include technologies that we considered essential to any program. Monitoring methods selected included U-tube geochemical sampling, discrete quartz pressure and temperature gauges, an integrated fibre-optic bundle consisting of distributed temperature and heat-pulse sensing, and a sparse string of conventional 3C-geophones. While not originally planned

  14. Carbon sequestration research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Reichle, Dave; Houghton, John; Kane, Bob; Ekmann, Jim; and others

    1999-12-31

    Predictions of global energy use in the next century suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere unless major changes are made in the way we produce and use energy--in particular, how we manage carbon. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts in its 1995 ''business as usual'' energy scenario that future global emissions of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere will increase from 7.4 billion tonnes of carbon (GtC) per year in 1997 to approximately 26 GtC/year by 2100. IPCC also projects a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration by the middle of next century and growing rates of increase beyond. Although the effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on global climate are uncertain, many scientists agree that a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations could have a variety of serious environmental consequences. The goal of this report is to identify key areas for research and development (R&D) that could lead to an understanding of the potential for future use of carbon sequestration as a major tool for managing carbon emissions. Under the leadership of DOE, researchers from universities, industry, other government agencies, and DOE national laboratories were brought together to develop the technical basis for conceiving a science and technology road map. That effort has resulted in this report, which develops much of the information needed for the road map.

  15. Issues of engineering and geochemistry in the sequestration of carbon dioxide in geological formations-saline aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Orrego, Gloria Stella

    Dynamic tests were conducted to evaluate the feasibility to sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) in carbonate dolomite reservoir. Two injection rates, 0.1613 cc/min (20 pore volumes) and 0.982 cc/min (120 pore volumes) were tested to observe changes in petrophysical parameters mainly permeability and porosity under these two conditions of flow rates. The low flow rate was allowed to evaluate the effect of the bulk of the reservoir and the high flow rate evaluated the effect of dissolution on the face of the formation. The testes were carried out at reservoir-simulated conditions (2000 psia and 150°F). San Andres dolomite formation cores from wells 744 and 745 drilled during pilot area evaluation in Levelland Field. The core samples used have a high content of anhydrite and they are cemented mainly by calcite. The formation water used is representative of the Permian basin brine which has sodium 18,000 mg/L, chlorine 46,200 mg/L, calcium 6000 mg/L, sulfate 4880 mg/L, magnesium 1820 mg/L and potassium 1510 mg/L. The injection of low pore volumes was found to reduce the permeability in about 50%, the pore volume and porosity in about 25%, and the total equilibrium magnetization (Mo) from NMR T2 distribution decreased in about 17% indicating substantial reduction in porosity and permeability. The small pore sizes (bulk volume irreducible-BVI) increased in average in about 70% and the large pore sized (free fluid index-FFI) decreased in about 24%. The injection of high pore volume showed slight increase of the petrophysical properties. The total equilibrium magnetization and BVI and FFI did not present remarkable change. At the onset of this research, it was still uncertain how the interaction between CO2 and formation brine affects the geochemistry of the reservoir. Therefore, several static tests at supercritical conditions (1070 psia and 88°F) and at reservoir conditions with and without rock samples were carried out. After running the static tests for seven days, a

  16. SOUTHEAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHP (SECARB)

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2005-04-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is on schedule and within budget projections for the work completed during the first 18-months of its two year program. Work during the semiannual period (fifth and sixth project quarters) of the project (October 1, 2004-March 31, 2005) was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix.'' Under Task 1.0 Define Geographic Boundaries of the Region, no changes occurred during the fifth or sixth quarters of the project. Under Task 2.0 Characterize the Region, refinements have been made to the general mapping and screening of sources and sinks. Integration and geographical information systems (GIS) mapping is ongoing. Characterization during this period was focused on smaller areas having high sequestration potential. Under Task 3.0 Identify and Address Issues for Technology Deployment, SECARB continues to expand upon its assessment of safety, regulatory, permitting, and accounting frameworks within the region to allow for wide-scale deployment of promising terrestrial and geologic sequestration approaches. Under Task 4.0 Develop Public Involvement and Education Mechanisms, SECARB has used results of a survey and focus group meeting to refine approaches that are being taken to educate and involve the public. Under Task 5.0 Identify the Most Promising Capture, Sequestration, and Transport Options, SECARB has evaluated findings from work performed during the first 18-months. The focus of the project team has shifted from region-wide mapping and characterization to a more detailed screening approach designed to identify the most promising opportunities. Under Task 6.0 Prepare Action Plans for Implementation and Technology Validation Activity, the SECARB team is developing an integrated approach to implementing the most promising opportunities and in setting up measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV) programs for the most promising opportunities. Milestones completed during the fifth and sixth project

  17. Regulating the geological sequestration of CO2.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Elizabeth J; Morgan, M Granger; Apt, Jay; Bonner, Mark; Bunting, Christopher; Gode, Jenny; Haszeldine, R Stuart; Jaeger, Carlo C; Keith, David W; Mccoy, Sean T; Pollak, Melisa F; Reiner, David M; Rubin, Edward S; Torvanger, Asbjørn; Ulardic, Christina; Vajjhala, Shalini P; Victor, David G; Wright, Iain W

    2008-04-15

    Governments worldwide should provide incentives for initial large-scale GS projects to help build the knowledge base for a mature, internationally harmonized GS regulatory framework. Health, safety, and environmental risks of these early projects can be managed through modifications of existing regulations in the EU, Australia, Canada, and the U.S. An institutional mechanism, such as the proposed Federal Carbon Sequestration Commission in the U.S., should gather data from these early projects and combine them with factors such as GS industrial organization and climate regime requirements to create an efficient and adaptive regulatory framework suited to large-scale deployment. Mechanisms to structure long-term liability and fund long-term postclosure care must be developed, most likely at the national level, to equitably balance the risks and benefits of this important climate change mitigation technology. We need to do this right. During the initial field experiences, a single major accident, resulting from inadequate regulatory oversight, anywhere in the world, could seriously endanger the future viability of GS. That, in turn, could make it next to impossible to achieve the needed dramatic global reductions in CO2 emissions over the next several decades. We also need to do it quickly. Emissions are going up, the climate is changing, and impacts are growing. The need for safe and effective CO2 capture with deep GS is urgent.

  18. Integrated Estimates of Global Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Allison M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar; Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.

    2008-02-01

    Assessing the contribution of terrestrial carbon sequestration to international climate change mitigation requires integration across scientific and disciplinary boundaries. As part of a scenario analysis for the US Climate Change Technology Program, measurements and geographic data were used to develop terrestrial carbon sequestration estimates for agricultural soil carbon, reforestation and pasture management. These estimates were then applied in the MiniCAM integrated assessment model to evaluate mitigation strategies within policy and technology scenarios aimed at achieving atmospheric CO2 stabilization by 2100. Adoption of terrestrial sequestration practices is based on competition for land and economic markets for carbon. Terrestrial sequestration reach a peak combined rate of 0.5 to 0.7 Gt carbon yr-1 in mid-century with contributions from agricultural soil (0.21 Gt carbon yr-1), reforestation (0.31 Gt carbon yr-1) and pasture (0.15 Gt carbon yr-1). Sequestration rates vary over time period and with different technology and policy scenarios. The combined contribution of terrestrial sequestration over the next century ranges from 31 to 41 GtC. The contribution of terrestrial sequestration to mitigation is highest early in the century, reaching up to 20% of total carbon mitigation. This analysis provides insight into the behavior of terrestrial carbon mitigation options in the presence and absence of climate change mitigation policies.

  19. Northeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, A. J.; Trautz, R. C.

    2008-12-01

    Geologic carbon storage is a viable option for the electric power industry in the "Northeast" region to meet regional and forthcoming federal CO2 cap-and-trade programs. Capturing CO2 emissions and storing the gas in underground geological formations could significantly reduce the amount of CO2 released to the atmosphere. However, before this can be implemented, site-specific geological research needs to be conducted to determine which formations are potentially capable of storing the quantity of CO2 emitted by power plants in the Northeast region. While the target geosequestration formations in the Northeast may have less storage capacity than those in the Midwest, Southeast or Southwest, the available capacities may be large enough to sequester a significant fraction of the CO2 produced by some regional power plants (which are also smaller, individually and in total, than those in the other regions). The study will also conduct baseline assessments of electric power producer plants and CO2 emission estimates and create first level screening on potential geologic structures for CO2 sequestration. The work will establish a general database of "Other Uses" (current industrial and technological innovations/options), characterize transport issues, both on land and offshore, and, provide general guidance on the physical and land-use constraint factors of "add-on" capture technologies at existing power plants.

  20. Natural CO2 Analogs for Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Scott H. Stevens; B. Scott Tye

    2005-07-31

    The report summarizes research conducted at three naturally occurring geologic CO{sub 2} fields in the US. The fields are natural analogs useful for the design of engineered long-term storage of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in geologic formations. Geologic, engineering, and operational databases were developed for McElmo Dome in Colorado; St. Johns Dome in Arizona and New Mexico; and Jackson Dome in Mississippi. The three study sites stored a total of 2.4 billion t (46 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} equivalent to 1.5 years of power plant emissions in the US and comparable in size with the largest proposed sequestration projects. The three CO{sub 2} fields offer a scientifically useful range of contrasting geologic settings (carbonate vs. sandstone reservoir; supercritical vs. free gas state; normally pressured vs. overpressured), as well as different stages of commercial development (mostly undeveloped to mature). The current study relied mainly on existing data provided by the CO{sub 2} field operator partners, augmented with new geochemical data. Additional study at these unique natural CO{sub 2} accumulations could further help guide the development of safe and cost-effective design and operation methods for engineered CO{sub 2} storage sites.

  1. A Hypothetical Scenario for Full-Scale Deployment of Geological Carbon Sequestration: Investigating the Interaction Between Multiple CO2 Storage Sites in a Sedimentary Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkholzer, J.; Zhou, Q.; Jordan, P.; Tsang, C.; Leetaru, H.; Mehnert, E.; Frailey, S.; Finley, R.

    2008-12-01

    Most ongoing projects of geological carbon sequestration (GCS) are relatively small in size, with annual injection rates from a few thousand to less than a million tonnes. These projects help build the GCS technology with respect to modeling, monitoring, risk assessment, and mitigation, and have been successful so far in terms of CO2 containment and caprock geomechanical integrity. In the future, GCS will be implemented at full-scale, multiple industrial-size CO2 storage sites in large sedimentary basins to make full use of the potential storage capacity. Simultaneous injection into multiple not-too-distant storage sites will lead to interference between the individual regions of pressure build-up and possible interference between the individual CO2 plumes. The Illinois Basin is used to model the future impact of multiple injection sites in the thick, extensive Mount Simon Formation. The basin-scale model domain of 241,000 km2 covers a core injection area of 24,000 km2, a larger near-field area where significant pressure buildup is expected, and an even larger far-field area for investigating environmental impacts on groundwater resources. The model assumes that there are twenty sequestration sites (spaced 30 km apart) within the core injection area. Three injection scenarios are considered, featuring annual injection rates of 5, 10, and 15 million tonnes of CO2 at each site, respectively. These scenarios correspond to 33%, 67% and 100% of the current single-point large CO2 sources in the relevant states (Illinois, Indiana and Kentucky). The model adequately captures the characteristics of the Mount Simon Formation in the core injection area, which include (1) an overall thickness of 300 to 680 m, (2) an upper unit of sandstone and shale tidally influenced and deposited, (3) a thick middle unit of clean sandstone of relatively high permeability, and (4) a lower arkosic unit of higher permeability (one Darcy) with an average thickness of 90 m. At each site, CO2 is

  2. Probability assessment of pressure and geochemical monitoring for CO2 leakage detection in the above zones at geological carbon sequestration sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C.; Meckel, T. A.; Hovorka, S. D.; Trevino, R.; Zou, Y.; Delgado, J.

    2015-12-01

    Above-zone monitoring of pressure has been proposed as one of means to quality a geological carbon sequestration site by detection of leakage. Advancements in chemical monitoring, such as fiber optic sensors, will make it possible to monitor geochemical chemical parameters needed for CO2 leakage detection in the same zones. The main objective of this study is to assess pressure and geochemical monitoring for CO2 leakage detection with Montecarlo simulations at a hypothetic site where CO2 is potentially leaked into an above zone through a flawed well. Configuration of the above-zone in the hypothetic site was taken from a real site where CO2 has been injected into the deep reservoir since 2008 because over three years of pressure data in the above zone has been recorded at this site. Because geochemical data in the above zone at this site is limited, we also extracted some geochemical data from the TWDB database. Threshold values (or background noises) were estimated (or characterized) from the pressure and geochemical data for identifying CO2 leakage signals in the above zone. In the model set-up, pressure, dissolved CO2, pH and salinity in the above zone caused by CO2 leakage from a flawed well were simulated with analytical approaches, depending on the parameters, such as CO2 leakage rate, permeability, porosity, thickness of the monitoring interval, distance of the monitoring well to the leakage location. More than one million set of the parameters, simulated with the Monte-Carlo method, were used to model responses of pressure, dissolved CO2, pH, and salinity which were further compared to the threshold values to estimate probability of CO2 leakage detection using the pressure and the geochemical parameters. Our study shows that pressure in the morning well has much shorter time to respond to the CO2 leakage from the flawed well than geochemical parameters. However, if the monitoring well was in a favorable location, the geochemical monitoring may have better

  3. Risk-Informed Monitoring, Verification and Accounting (RI-MVA). An NRAP White Paper Documenting Methods and a Demonstration Model for Risk-Informed MVA System Design and Operations in Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Sadovsky, Artyom; Sullivan, E. C.; Anderson, Richard M.

    2011-09-30

    This white paper accompanies a demonstration model that implements methods for the risk-informed design of monitoring, verification and accounting (RI-MVA) systems in geologic carbon sequestration projects. The intent is that this model will ultimately be integrated with, or interfaced with, the National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) integrated assessment model (IAM). The RI-MVA methods described here apply optimization techniques in the analytical environment of NRAP risk profiles to allow systematic identification and comparison of the risk and cost attributes of MVA design options.

  4. Shale caprock integrity under carbon sequestration conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olabode, Abiola; Bentley, Lauren; Radonjic, Mileva

    2012-05-01

    Carbon sequestration technology requires injection and storage of large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO2) in subsurface geological formations. Shale caprock which constitutes more than 60% of effective seals for geologic hydrocarbon bearing formations are therefore of considerable interest in underground CO2 storage into depleted oil and gas formations. This study investigated experimentally shale caprock's geophysical and geochemical behavior when in contact with aqueous CO2 over a long period of time. The primary concern is a potential increase in hydraulic conductivity of clay-rich rocks as a result of acidic brine-rock minerals geochemical interactions. Both, mineral reactivity and microstructural characteristics, such as presence and development of fracture networks, may lead to potential leakage of CO2 to the surface or underground water sources. Bulk XRD analysis and Transmitted Light Microscopic imaging results acquired on six shale samples showed some heterogeneity in the shale caprock but the mineralogy and particle orientation are similar reflecting the same depositional environment. The XRD analyses indicated the presence of quartz, feldspar, albite, and bulk clays (muscovite, chlorite, and kaolinite). Some micro-heterogeneity in the depositional distribution of the shale minerals was observed. Capillary entry pressure using CO2-brine fluid revealed high seal strength. Nano-pores constituted the controlling pore size but the presence of blind and unconnected micropores might degrade or improve seal capacity in the long term. The geochemical buffer strength of shale appears to be durable. Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy showed positive mineralogical alterations with slow reactive transport of dissolved CO2 as seal enhancing mechanism supporting predicted simulation studies. Useful geochemical and geophysical data on the regional shale caprock were obtained for coupled predictive modeling of seal integrity in CO2 sequestration.

  5. Understanding Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Leakage from Carbon Capture and Sequestration

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA held a technical Geochemical Impact Workshop in Washington, DC on July 10 and 11, 2007 to discuss geological considerations and Area of Review (AoR) issues related to geologic sequestration (GS) of Carbon Dioxide (CO2). Seventy=one (71) representatives of the electric uti...

  6. Understanding Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Leakage from Carbon Capture and Sequestration

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA held a technical Geochemical Impact Workshop in Washington, DC on July 10 and 11, 2007 to discuss geological considerations and Area of Review (AoR) issues related to geologic sequestration (GS) of Carbon Dioxide (CO2). Seventy=one (71) representatives of the electric uti...

  7. Surface Monitoring of Leakage From Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strazisar, B. R.; Klusman, R. W.; Wells, A. W.

    2003-12-01

    The capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from large point sources and long term storage in geological formations has received much recent attention as a potential green house gas mitigation option. Among the proposed storage locations are active and depleted oil and natural gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and deep saline aquifers. The success of any candidate storage location greatly depends on its ability to keep CO2 underground for a long period of time. In order to evaluate the success or failure of a CO2 storage operation, it is important to monitor injection sites to detect CO2 released at the surface. The U.S. Department of Energy has placed a high priority on the development of inexpensive, effective methods to measure, monitor, and verify long term sequestration of CO2 in geological sinks. Monitoring the leakage of CO2 is a challenging task, due to the small expected concentrations above a leaking reservoir as well as the relatively large background of CO2 present in the atmosphere. Another complication is the fact that CO2 continually diffuses from the soil into the atmosphere due to plant and microbial respiration. Any leak of CO2 from a reservoir would have to be differentiated from these other processes. In cooperation with the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology at the University of Texas, the National Energy Technology Laboratory is conducting a comprehensive surface monitoring effort at the site of a pilot scale injection project. In this project, approximately 4000 tons of CO2 will be injected into the Frio formation, a deep, non-petroleum bearing saline aquifer. Surface monitoring includes the detection of injected tracer molecules, direct measurement of CO2 soil flux, soil gas analysis, and carbon isotope analysis from soil gas CO2. These measurements, in conjunction with a parallel modeling effort and deep seismic surveys, will provide an accurate measure of the leak rate of CO2 to the surface (or an upper limit of leakage). Such an understanding

  8. Measuring Carbon Sequestration in Pasture Soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conversion of croplands to pasture can greatly increase sequestration of carbon in soil organic matter, removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and helping to reduce the impacts of climate change. The measurement of soil carbon, and its limitations, could impact future carbon credit programs. ...

  9. Simulating Geologic Co-sequestration of Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide using a Peng-Robinson Equation of State for Fluid Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, R.; Bacon, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    CO2 streams from coal-fired power plants may contain impurities, including H2S, SOx, NOx, O2, N2, Ar, CO, and Hg. Co-sequestered impurities could affect geologic storage, causing changes in pH and oxidation state which affect dissolution and precipitation reactions and the mobility of metals present in the reservoir rocks. Sequestration of CO2 in depleted natural gas reservoirs or in enhanced gas recovery requires the capability to simulate gas mixtures. To better simulate these conditions, we have developed a variable component, non-isothermal simulator, STOMP-WNSE (Water, N-component, Salt and Energy), which simulates multiphase flow gas mixtures in deep saline reservoirs, and the resulting reactions with reservoir minerals. The simulator is based on the Peng-Robinson cubic equation of state (EOS) with a flash equilibrium model where phase composition is defined through fugacity equilibria. The Peneloux volume correction is used to improve density predictions and the Friction Theory model improves our predictions of viscosity at high pressure. Equilibrium partitioning of components between the non-aqueous and aqueous phases is achieved using a successive substitution approach. Solubility of the components in various brine compositions is calculated accurately using binary interaction coefficients that are a function of temperature and salinity, which have been calibrated to match experimental data. We compare the fluid properties predicted by the Peng-Robinson EOS with more specialized empirical equations of state developed specifically for CO2, H2S and CH4. We validate the predictions of this new simulator using experimental results of co-sequestration of CO2 and H2S in sand. We compare the speed of execution of a field scale simulation of CO2 sequestration using the Peng-Robinson EOS and the more specialized Span & Wagner equation of state, and demonstrate the impact of adding H2S to the injected CO2.

  10. Sequestration of Martian CO2 by mineral carbonation.

    PubMed

    Tomkinson, Tim; Lee, Martin R; Mark, Darren F; Smith, Caroline L

    2013-01-01

    Carbonation is the water-mediated replacement of silicate minerals, such as olivine, by carbonate, and is commonplace in the Earth's crust. This reaction can remove significant quantities of CO2 from the atmosphere and store it over geological timescales. Here we present the first direct evidence for CO2 sequestration and storage on Mars by mineral carbonation. Electron beam imaging and analysis show that olivine and a plagioclase feldspar-rich mesostasis in the Lafayette meteorite have been replaced by carbonate. The susceptibility of olivine to replacement was enhanced by the presence of smectite veins along which CO2-rich fluids gained access to grain interiors. Lafayette was partially carbonated during the Amazonian, when liquid water was available intermittently and atmospheric CO2 concentrations were close to their present-day values. Earlier in Mars' history, when the planet had a much thicker atmosphere and an active hydrosphere, carbonation is likely to have been an effective mechanism for sequestration of CO2.

  11. The key to commercial-scale geological CO2 sequestration: Displaced fluid management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Surdam, R.C.; Jiao, Z.; Stauffer, P.; Miller, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Wyoming State Geological Survey has completed a thorough inventory and prioritization of all Wyoming stratigraphic units and geologic sites capable of sequestering commercial quantities of CO2 (5-15 Mt CO 2/year). This multi-year study identified the Paleozoic Tensleep/Weber Sandstone and Madison Limestone (and stratigraphic equivalent units) as the leading clastic and carbonate reservoir candidates for commercial-scale geological CO2 sequestration in Wyoming. This conclusion was based on unit thickness, overlying low permeability lithofacies, reservoir storage and continuity properties, regional distribution patterns, formation fluid chemistry characteristics, and preliminary fluid-flow modeling. This study also identified the Rock Springs Uplift in southwestern Wyoming as the most promising geological CO2 sequestration site in Wyoming and probably in any Rocky Mountain basin. The results of the WSGS CO2 geological sequestration inventory led the agency and colleagues at the UW School of Energy Resources Carbon Management Institute (CMI) to collect available geologic, petrophysical, geochemical, and geophysical data on the Rock Springs Uplift, and to build a regional 3-D geologic framework model of the Uplift. From the results of these tasks and using the FutureGen protocol, the WSGS showed that on the Rock Springs Uplift, the Weber Sandstone has sufficient pore space to sequester 18 billion tons (Gt) of CO2, and the Madison Limestone has sufficient pore space to sequester 8 Gt of CO2. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Shallow Carbon Sequestration Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pendergrass, Gary; Fraley, David; Alter, William; Bodenhamer, Steven

    2013-09-30

    The potential for carbon sequestration at relatively shallow depths was investigated at four power plant sites in Missouri. Exploratory boreholes were cored through the Davis Shale confining layer into the St. Francois aquifer (Lamotte Sandstone and Bonneterre Formation). Precambrian basement contact ranged from 654.4 meters at the John Twitty Energy Center in Southwest Missouri to over 1100 meters near the Sioux Power Plant in St. Charles County. Investigations at the John Twitty Energy Center included 3D seismic reflection surveys, downhole geophysical logging and pressure testing, and laboratory analysis of rock core and water samples. Plans to perform injectivity tests at the John Twitty Energy Center, using food grade CO{sub 2}, had to be abandoned when the isolated aquifer was found to have very low dissolved solids content. Investigations at the Sioux Plant and Thomas Hill Energy Center in Randolph County found suitably saline conditions in the St. Francois. A fourth borehole in Platte County was discontinued before reaching the aquifer. Laboratory analyses of rock core and water samples indicate that the St. Charles and Randolph County sites could have storage potentials worthy of further study. The report suggests additional Missouri areas for further investigation as well.

  13. Trade-based carbon sequestration accounting.

    PubMed

    King, Dennis M

    2004-04-01

    This article describes and illustrates an accounting method to assess and compare "early" carbon sequestration investments and trades on the basis of the number of standardized CO2 emission offset credits they will provide. The "gold standard" for such credits is assumed to be a relatively riskless credit based on a CO2 emission reduction that provides offsets against CO2 emissions on a one-for-one basis. The number of credits associated with carbon sequestration needs to account for time, risk, durability, permanence, additionality, and other factors that future trade regulators will most certainly use to assign "official" credits to sequestration projects. The method that is presented here uses established principles of natural resource accounting and conventional rules of asset valuation to "score" projects. A review of 20 "early" voluntary United States based CO2 offset trades that involve carbon sequestration reveals that the assumptions that buyers, sellers, brokers, and traders are using to characterize the economic potential of their investments and trades vary enormously. The article develops a "universal carbon sequestration credit scoring equation" and uses two of these trades to illustrate the sensitivity of trade outcomes to various assumptions about how future trade auditors are likely to "score" carbon sequestration projects in terms of their "equivalency" with CO2 emission reductions. The article emphasizes the importance of using a standard credit scoring method that accounts for time and risk to assess and compare even unofficial prototype carbon sequestration trades. The scoring method illustrated in this article is a tool that can protect the integrity of carbon sequestration credit trading and can assist buyers and sellers in evaluating the real economic potential of prospective trades.

  14. SOUTHEAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP (SECARB)

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2004-09-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is on schedule and within budget projections for the work completed during the first year of its two year program. Work during the semiannual period (third and fourth quarter) of the project (April 1--September 30, 2004) was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix.'' Under Task 1.0 Define Geographic Boundaries of the Region, Texas and Virginia were added during the second quarter of the project and no geographical changes occurred during the third or fourth quarter of the project. Under Task 2.0 Characterize the Region, general mapping and screening of sources and sinks has been completed, with integration and Geographical Information System (GIS) mapping ongoing. The first step focused on the macro level characterization of the region. Subsequent characterization will focus on smaller areas having high sequestration potential. Under Task 3.0 Identify and Address Issues for Technology Deployment, SECARB has completed a preliminary assessment of safety, regulatory, permitting, and accounting frameworks within the region to allow for wide-scale deployment of promising terrestrial and geologic sequestration approaches. Under Task 4.0 Develop Public Involvement and Education Mechanisms, SECARB has conducted a survey and focus group meeting to gain insight into approaches that will be taken to educate and involve the public. Task 5.0 and 6.0 will be implemented beginning October 1, 2004. Under Task 5.0 Identify the Most Promising Capture, Sequestration, and Transport Options, SECARB will evaluate findings from work performed during the first year and shift the focus of the project team from region-wide mapping and characterization to a more detailed screening approach designed to identify the most promising opportunities. Under Task 6.0 Prepare Action Plans for Implementation and Technology Validation Activity, the SECARB team will develop an integrated approach to implementing and setting up

  15. Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in deep saline aquifers and formations: Chapter 3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Thomas, Burt

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and sequestration in geologic media is one among many emerging strategies to reduce atmospheric emissions of anthropogenic CO2. This chapter looks at the potential of deep saline aquifers – based on their capacity and close proximity to large point sources of CO2 – as repositories for the geologic sequestration of CO2. The petrochemical characteristics which impact on the suitability of saline aquifers for CO2 sequestration and the role of coupled geochemical transport models and numerical tools in evaluating site feasibility are also examined. The full-scale commercial CO2 sequestration project at Sleipner is described together with ongoing pilot and demonstration projects.

  16. Sedimentary reservoir oxidation during geologic CO2 sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Laura N.; Brown, Gordon E.; Bird, Dennis K.; Thomas, Randal B.; Johnson, Natalie C.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Maher, Katharine

    2015-04-01

    Injection of carbon dioxide into subsurface geologic reservoirs during geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) introduces an oxidizing supercritical CO2 phase into a subsurface geologic environment that is typically reducing. The resulting redox disequilibrium provides the chemical potential for the reduction of CO2 to lower free energy organic species. However, redox reactions involving carbon typically require the presence of a catalyst. Iron oxide minerals, including magnetite, are known to catalyze oxidation and reduction reactions of C-bearing species. If the redox conditions in the reservoir are modified by redox transformations involving CO2, such changes could also affect mineral stability, leading to dissolution and precipitation reactions and alteration of the long-term fate of CO2 in GCS reservoirs. We present experimental evidence that reservoirs with reducing redox conditions are favorable environments for the relatively rapid abiotic reduction of CO2 to organic molecules. In these experiments, an aqueous suspension of magnetite nanoparticles was reacted with supercritical CO2 under pressure and temperature conditions relevant to GCS in sedimentary reservoirs (95-210 °C and ∼100 bars of CO2). Hydrogen production was observed in several experiments, likely caused by Fe(II) oxidation either at the surface of magnetite or in the aqueous phase. Heating of the Fe(II)-rich system resulted in elevated PH2 and conditions favorable for the reduction of CO2 to acetic acid. Implications of these results for the long-term fate of CO2 in field-scale systems were explored using reaction path modeling of CO2 injection into reservoirs containing Fe(II)-bearing primary silicate minerals, with kinetic parameters for CO2 reduction obtained experimentally. The results of these calculations suggest that the reaction of CO2 with reservoir constituents will occur in two primary stages (1) equilibration of CO2 with organic acids resulting in mineral-fluid disequilibrium, and

  17. Potential for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Flood Basalts

    SciTech Connect

    McGrail, B. PETER; Schaef, Herbert T.; Ho, Anita M.; Chien, Yi-Ju; Dooley, James J.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2006-12-01

    Flood basalts are a potentially important host medium for geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2. Most lava flows have flow tops that are porous, permeable, and have enormous capacity for storage of CO2. Interbedded sediment layers and dense low-permeability basalt rock overlying sequential flows may act as effective seals allowing time for mineralization reactions to occur. Laboratory experiments confirm relatively rapid chemical reaction of CO2-saturated pore water with basalts to form stable carbonate minerals. Calculations suggest a sufficiently short time frame for onset of carbonate precipitation after CO2 injection that verification of in situ mineralization rates appears feasible in field pilot studies. If proven viable, major flood basalts in the U.S. and India would provide significant additional CO2 storage capacity and additional geologic sequestration options in certain regions where more conventional storage options are limited.

  18. Hurricane impacts on US forest carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Steven G

    2002-01-01

    Recent focus has been given to US forests as a sink for increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Current estimates of US forest carbon sequestration average approximately 20 Tg (i.e. 10(12) g) year. However, predictions of forest carbon sequestration often do not include the influence of hurricanes on forest carbon storage. Intense hurricanes occur two out of three years across the eastern US. A single storm can convert the equivalent of 10% of the total annual carbon sequestrated by US forests into dead and downed biomass. Given that forests require at least 15 years to recover from a severe storm, a large amount of forest carbon is lost either directly (through biomass destruction) or indirectly (through lost carbon sequestration capacity) due to hurricanes. Only 15% of the total carbon in destroyed timber is salvaged following a major hurricane. The remainder of the carbon is left to decompose and eventually return to the atmosphere. Short-term increases in forest productivity due to increased nutrient inputs from detritus are not fully compensated by reduced stem stocking, and the recovery time needed to recover leaf area. Therefore, hurricanes are a significant factor in reducing short-term carbon storage in US forests.

  19. Phytolith carbon sequestration in global terrestrial biomes.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhaoliang; Liu, Hongyan; Strömberg, Caroline A E; Yang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-12-15

    Terrestrial biogeochemical carbon (C) sequestration is coupled with the biogeochemical silicon (Si) cycle through mechanisms such as phytolith C sequestration, but the size and distribution of the phytolith C sink remain unclear. Here, we estimate phytolith C sequestration in global terrestrial biomes. We used biome data including productivity, phytolith and silica contents, and the phytolith stability factor to preliminarily determine the size and distribution of the phytolith C sink in global terrestrial biomes. Total phytolith C sequestration in global terrestrial biomes is 156.7±91.6TgCO2yr(-1). Grassland (40%), cropland (35%), and forest (20%) biomes are the dominant producers of phytolith-based carbon; geographically, the main contributors are Asia (31%), Africa (24%), and South America (17%). Practices such as bamboo afforestation/reforestation and grassland recovery for economic and ecological purposes could theoretically double the above phytolith C sink. The potential terrestrial phytolith C sequestration during 2000-2099 under such practices would be 15.7-40.5PgCO2, equivalent in magnitude to the C sequestration of oceanic diatoms in sediments and through silicate weathering. Phytolith C sequestration contributes vitally to the global C cycle, hence, it is essential to incorporate plant-soil silica cycling in biogeochemical C cycle models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrogeologic Modeling for Monitoring, Reporting and Verification of Geologic Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolian, M.; De Figueiredo, M.; Lisa, B.

    2011-12-01

    In December 2010, EPA finalized Subpart RR of the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reporting Program, which requires facilities that conduct geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2) to report GHG data to EPA annually. The GHG Reporting Program requires reporting of GHGs and other relevant information from certain source categories in the United States, and information obtained through Subpart RR will inform Agency decisions under the Clean Air Act related to the use of carbon dioxide capture and sequestration for mitigating GHGs. This paper examines hydrogeologic modeling necessities and opportunities in the context of Subpart RR. Under Subpart RR, facilities that conduct GS by injecting CO2 for long-term containment in subsurface geologic formations are required to develop and implement an EPA-approved site-specific monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) plan; and report basic information on CO2 received for injection, annual monitoring activities and the amount of CO2 geologically sequestered using a mass balance approach. The major components of the MRV plan include: identification of potential surface leakage pathways for CO2 and the likelihood, magnitude, and timing, of surface leakage of CO2 through these pathways; delineation of the monitoring areas; strategy for detecting and quantifying any surface leakage of CO2; and the strategy for establishing the expected baselines for monitoring CO2 surface leakage. Hydrogeologic modeling is an integral aspect of the design of an MRV plan. In order to prepare an adequate monitoring program that addresses site specific risks over the full life of the project the MRV plan must reflect the full spatial extent of the free phase CO2 over time. Facilities delineate the maximum area that the CO2 plume is predicted to cover and how monitoring can be phased in over this area. The Maximum Monitoring Area (MMA) includes the extent of the free phase CO2 plume over the lifetime of the project plus a buffer zone of one

  1. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP ON CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson

    2005-08-01

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed several more tasks during the period of October 1, 2004--March 31, 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to achieve an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. Action plans for possible Phase 2 carbon sequestration pilot tests in the region are completed, and a proposal was developed and submitted describing how the Partnership may develop and carry out appropriate pilot tests. The content of this report focuses on Phase 1 objectives completed during this reporting period.

  2. Comparison of three options for geologic sequestration of CO2 - a case study for California

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.M.

    2000-09-01

    Options for sequestration of CO{sub 2} are best viewed in light of the regional distribution of CO{sub 2} sources and potential sequestration sites. This study examines the distribution of carbon emissions from fossil fuel power plants in California and their proximity to three types of reservoirs that may be suitable for sequestration: (1) active or depleted oil fields, (2) active or depleted gas fields, and (3) brine formations. This paper also presents a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of sequestering CO{sub 2} generated from large fossil-fuel fired power plants in California and discusses the comparative advantages of three different types of reservoirs for this purpose. Based on a volumetric analysis of sequestration capacity and current CO{sub 2} emission rates from oil/gas fired power plants, this analysis suggests that oil reservoirs, gas fields and brine formations can all contribute significantly to sequestration in California. Together they could offer the opportunity to meet both short and long term needs. In the near term, oil and gas reservoirs are the most promising because the trapping structures have already stood the test of time and opportunities for offsetting the cost of sequestration with revenues from enhanced oil and gas production. In the long term, if the trapping mechanisms are adequately understood and deemed adequate, brine formations may provide an even larger capacity for geologic sequestration over much of California.

  3. Solubility and dissolution kinetics of gypsum as a function of CO2 partial pressure: Implications for geological carbon sequestration William Wolfe, Philip Bennett The University of Texas at Austin, Jackson School of Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, W. W.; Bennett, P.

    2011-12-01

    dissolved CO2 conditions during sequestration will perturb the physical and chemical characteristics of an aquifer, including a decrease in porosity and permeability, which will influence the physics of transport of CO2. This represents a substantial subsurface process to be considered in geological carbon sequestration.

  4. Carbon sequestration in wood and paper products

    Treesearch

    Kenneth E. Skog; Geraldine A. Nicholson

    2000-01-01

    Recognition that increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere will affect the global climate has spurred research into reduction global carbon emissions and increasing carbon sequestration. The main nonhuman sources of atmospheric CO2 are animal respiration and decay of biomass. However, increases in atmospheric levels are...

  5. A Multi-Level Approach to Outreach for Geologic Sequestration Projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenberg, S.E.; Leetaru, H.E.; Krapac, I.G.; Hnottavange-Telleen, K.; Finley, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Public perception of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) projects represents a potential barrier to commercialization. Outreach to stakeholders at the local, regional, and national level is needed to create familiarity with and potential acceptance of CCS projects. This paper highlights the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) multi-level outreach approach which interacts with multiple stakeholders. The MGSC approach focuses on external and internal communication. External communication has resulted in building regional public understanding of CCS. Internal communication, through a project Risk Assessment process, has resulted in enhanced team communication and preparation of team members for outreach roles. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP ON CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson; Rick Allis; Barry Biediger; Joel Brown; Jim Cappa; George Guthrie; Richard Hughes; Eugene Kim; Robert Lee; Dennis Leppin; Charles Mankin; Orman Paananen; Rajesh Pawar; Tarla Peterson; Steve Rauzi; Jerry Stuth; Genevieve Young

    2004-11-01

    The Southwest Partnership Region includes six whole states, including Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Utah, roughly one-third of Texas, and significant portions of adjacent states. The Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to achieve an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. The Partnership made great progress in this first year. Action plans for possible Phase II carbon sequestration pilot tests in the region are almost finished, including both technical and non-technical aspects necessary for developing and carrying out these pilot tests. All partners in the Partnership are taking an active role in evaluating and ranking optimum sites and technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region. We are identifying potential gaps in all aspects of potential sequestration deployment issues.

  7. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration: An Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Oelkers, Dr. Eric; Cole, David R

    2008-01-01

    The success of human and industrial development over the past hundred years has lead to a huge increase in fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emission to the atmosphere leading to an unprecedented increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration. This increased CO2 content is believed to be responsible for a significant increase in global temperature over the past several decades. Global-scale climate modeling suggests that this temperature increase will continue at least over the next few hundred years leading to glacial melting, and raising seawater levels. In an attempt to attenuate this possibility, many have proposed the large scale sequestration of CO2 from our atmosphere. This introduction presents a summary of some of the evidence linking increasing atmosphere CO2 concentration to global warming and our efforts to stem this rise though CO2 sequestration.

  8. Permeability reduction produced by grain reorganization and accumulation of exsolved CO2 during geologic carbon sequestration: a new CO2 trapping mechanism.

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Andrew J; Kong, Xiang-Zhao; Tutolo, Benjamin M; Ding, Kang; Saar, Martin O; Seyfried, William E

    2013-01-02

    Carbon sequestration experiments were conducted on uncemented sediment and lithified rock from the Eau Claire Formation, which consisted primarily of K-feldspar and quartz. Cores were heated to accentuate reactivity between fluid and mineral grains and to force CO(2) exsolution. Measured permeability of one sediment core ultimately reduced by 4 orders of magnitude as it was incrementally heated from 21 to 150 °C. Water-rock interaction produced some alteration, yielding sub-μm clay precipitation on K-feldspar grains in the core's upstream end. Experimental results also revealed abundant newly formed pore space in regions of the core, and in some cases pores that were several times larger than the average grain size of the sediment. These large pores likely formed from elevated localized pressure caused by rapid CO(2) exsolution within the core and/or an accumulating CO(2) phase capable of pushing out surrounding sediment. CO(2) filled the pores and blocked flow pathways. Comparison with a similar experiment using a solid arkose core indicates that CO(2) accumulation and grain reorganization mainly contributed to permeability reduction during the heated sediment core experiment. This suggests that CO(2) injection into sediments may store more CO(2) and cause additional permeability reduction than is possible in lithified rock due to grain reorganization.

  9. Carbon Sequestration Within Northeast Pacific Seagrass Beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, B. C.; Hill, T. M.; Gaylord, B.; Kroeker, K.; Sanford, E.; Ward, M.; Ninokawa, A. T.; Susner, G. M.; Calhoun, H. W.

    2016-12-01

    There are clear knowledge gaps in understanding carbon sequestration of seagrass beds in temperate systems. Our ongoing research aims to understand the long and short-term storage of carbon within Zostera marina seagrass environments in Northern California. The objective of this sedimentological research is to quantify the storage of carbon (by weight percent and elemental mass) in seagrass sediments compared to adjacent (non-seagrass) sediments. Our project has targeted seagrass beds of various sizes and shoot densities, as well as seasonal differences, in two estuaries (Tomales Bay and Bodega Harbor, CA) by analysis of push cores. Cores were complemented by estuarine geochemical data from automated sensor deployments (for pH, pCO2, O2, temperature, salinity) and discrete water sampling (pH and alkalinity) with biomass investigations. Push core sediments were analyzed for grain size, carbonate content, total organic matter, and microfossil presence. Results from sedimentological data show that sediment grain size is closely related to carbon burial; seagrass beds that are dominated by fine, mud-sized particles are composed of 7-10% organic material, whereas coarser sediments dominated by sand range from 1-5% organic material. This study highlights the utility of including grain size analyses in all coastal vegetation carbon burial studies. Future work within this project will aim to explore the relationship between seasonal variability and rate of carbon sequestration to further the understanding of carbon sequestration of seagrass on the California Coast.

  10. Carbon sequestration, the precautionary approach and the responsibility of scientists.

    PubMed

    Buhl-Mortensen, L; Myhr, A; Welin, S

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews problems connected to the use of the deep-sea and sub-sea geological formations for carbon sequestration. We will focus on the risks and dangers involved in using this kind of large-scale engineering approach, which is not yet fully tested, to combat global warming. We will not provide a complete discussion on the technologies involved, but concentrate on a few principal questions, such as the responsibility of environmental scientists involved in this research. We will also discuss carbon sequestration in relation to the precautionary approach. We argue that there may be a place for large-scale engineering attempts, but this should be the last rather than the first option.

  11. Carbon sequestration and natural longleaf pine ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Ralph S. Meldahl; John S. Kush

    2006-01-01

    A fire-maintained longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem may offer the best option for carbon (C) sequestration among the southern pines. Longleaf is the longest living of the southern pines, and products from longleaf pine will sequester C longer than most since they are likely to be solid wood products such as structural lumber and poles....

  12. Temporal Considerations of Carbon Sequestration in LCA

    Treesearch

    James Salazar; Richard Bergman

    2013-01-01

    Accounting for carbon sequestration in LCA illustrates the limitations of a single global warming characterization factor. Typical cradle-to-grave LCA models all emissions from end-of-life processes and then characterizes these flows by IPCC GWP (100-yr) factors. A novel method estimates climate change impact by characterizing annual emissions with the IPCC GHG forcing...

  13. Growing cover crops to improve carbon sequestration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Different cover crops were grown and evaluated for improving carbon sequestration. The cover crops in the study include not only winter and summer types but also legumes and non-legumes, respectively. Winter legumes are white clover, bell beans, and purple vetch, and winter non-legumes are triticale...

  14. DOE Ocean Carbon Sequestration Research Workshop 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Chavez, Francisco; Maltrud, Matthew; Adams, Eric; Arrigo, Kevin; Barry, James; Carmen, Kevin; Bishop, James; Bleck, Rainer; Gruber, Niki; Erickson, David; Kennett, James; Tsouris, Costas; Tagliabue, Alessandro; Paytan, Adina; Repeta, Daniel; Yager, Patricia L.; Marshall, John; Gnanadesikan, Anand

    2007-01-11

    The purpose of this proposal was to fund a workshop to bring together the principal investigators of all the projects that were being funded under the DOE ocean carbon sequestration research program. The primary goal of the workshop was to interchange research results, to discuss ongoing research, and to identify future research priorities. In addition, we hoped to encourage the development of synergies and collaborations between the projects and to write an EOS article summarizing the results of the meeting. Appendix A summarizes the plan of the workshop as originally proposed, Appendix B lists all the principal investigators who were able to attend the workshop, Appendix C shows the meeting agenda, and Appendix D lists all the abstracts that were provided prior to the meeting. The primary outcome of the meeting was a decision to write two papers for the reviewed literature on carbon sequestration by iron fertilization, and on carbon sequestration by deep sea injection and to examine the possibility of an overview article in EOS on the topic of ocean carbon sequestration.

  15. Predicting and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Ocean Carbon Sequestration by Direct Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Caldeira, K; Herzog, H J; Wickett, M E

    2001-04-24

    Direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the ocean is a potentially effective carbon sequestration strategy. Therefore, we want to understand the effectiveness of oceanic injection and develop the appropriate analytic framework to allow us to compare the effectiveness of this strategy with other carbon management options. Here, after a brief review of direct oceanic injection, we estimate the effectiveness of ocean carbon sequestration using one dimensional and three dimensional ocean models. We discuss a new measure of effectiveness of carbon sequestration in a leaky reservoir, which we denote sequestration potential. The sequestration potential is the fraction of global warning cost avoided by sequestration in a reservoir. We show how these measures apply to permanent sequestration and sequestration in leaky reservoirs, such as the oceans, terrestrial biosphere, and some geologic formations. Under the assumptions of a constant cost of carbon emission and a 4% discount rate, injecting 900 m deep in the ocean avoids {approx}90% of the global warming cost associated with atmospheric emission; an injection 1700 m deep would avoid > 99 % of the global warming cost. Hence, for discount rates in the range commonly used by commercial enterprises, oceanic direct injection may be nearly as economically effective as permanent sequestration at avoiding global warming costs.

  16. Development of an assessment methodology for hydrocarbon recovery potential using carbon dioxide and associated carbon sequestration-Workshop findings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Warwick, Peter D.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (Public Law 110-140) authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) and requested that the USGS estimate the "potential volumes of oil and gas recoverable by injection and sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide in potential sequestration formations" (121 Stat. 1711). The USGS developed a noneconomic, probability-based methodology to assess the Nation's technically assessable geologic storage resources available for sequestration of CO2 (Brennan and others, 2010) and is currently using the methodology to assess the Nation's CO2 geologic storage resources. Because the USGS has not developed a methodology to assess the potential volumes of technically recoverable hydrocarbons that could be produced by injection and sequestration of CO2, the Geologic Carbon Sequestration project initiated an effort in 2010 to develop a methodology for the assessment of the technically recoverable hydrocarbon potential in the sedimentary basins of the United States using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques with CO2 (CO2-EOR). In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS hosted a 2-day CO2-EOR workshop in May 2011, attended by 28 experts from academia, natural resource agencies and laboratories of the Federal Government, State and international geologic surveys, and representatives from the oil and gas industry. The geologic and the reservoir engineering and operations working groups formed during the workshop discussed various aspects of geology, reservoir engineering, and operations to make recommendations for the methodology.

  17. LBNL deliverable to the Tricarb carbon sequestration partnership: Final report on experimental and numerical modeling activities for the Newark Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Spycher, Nicolas; Pester, Nick; Saldi, Giuseppe; Beyer, John; Houseworth, Jim; Knauss, Kevin

    2014-09-04

    This report presents findings for hydrological and chemical characteristics and processes relevant to large-scale geologic CO2 sequestration in the Newark Basin of southern New York and northern New Jersey. This work has been conducted in collaboration with the Tri-Carb Consortium for Carbon Sequestration — comprising Sandia Technologies, LLC; Conrad Geoscience; and Schlumberger Carbon Services.

  18. Sequestration of Soil Carbon as Secondary Carbonates (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, R.

    2013-12-01

    Rattan Lal Carbon Management and Sequestration Center The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 USA Abstract World soils, the major carbon (C) reservoir among the terrestrial pools, contain soil organic C (SOC) and soil inorganic C (SIC). The SIC pool is predominant in soils of arid and semi-arid regions. These regions cover a land area of about 4.9x109 ha. The SIC pool in soils containing calcic and petrocalcic horizons is estimated at about 695-748 Pg (Pg = 1015 g = 1 gigaton) to 1-m depth. There are two types of carbonates. Lithogenic or primary carbonates are formed from weathering of carbonaceous rocks. Pedogenic or secondary carbonates are formed by dissolution of CO2 in the soil air to form carbonic acid and precipitation as carbonates of Ca+2 or Mg+2. It is the availability of Ca+2 or Mg+2 from outside the ecosystem that is essential to sequester atmospheric CO2. Common among outside sources of Ca+2 or Mg+2 are irrigation water, aerial deposition, sea breeze, fertilizers, manure and other amendments. The decomposition of SOC and root respiration may increase the partial pressure of CO2 in the soil air and lead to the formation of HCO_3^- upon dissolution in H20. Precipitation of secondary carbonates may result from decreased partial pressure of CO2 in the sub-soil, increased concentration of Ca+2, Mg+2 and HCO_3^- in soil solution, and decreased soil moisture content by evapotranspiration. Transport of bicarbonates in irrigated soils and subsequent precipitation above the ground water (calcrete), activity of termites and other soil fauna, and management of urban soils lead to formation of secondary carbonates. On a geologic time scale, weathering of silicate minerals and transport of the by-products into the ocean is a geological process of sequestration of atmospheric CO2. Factors affecting formation of secondary carbonates include land use, and soil and crop management including application of biosolids, irrigation and the quality of irrigation water

  19. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    James Rutledge

    2011-02-01

    The Southwest Regional Partnership (SWP) on Carbon Sequestration designed and deployed a medium-scale field pilot test of geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in the Aneth oil field. Greater Aneth oil field, Utah's largest oil producer, was discovered in 1956 and has produced over 455 million barrels of oil (72 million m3). Located in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah, Greater Aneth is a stratigraphic trap producing from the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation. Because it represents an archetype oil field of the western U.S., Greater Aneth was selected as one of three geologic pilots to demonstrate combined enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO2 sequestration under the auspices of the SWP on Carbon Sequestration, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. The pilot demonstration focuced on the western portion of the Aneth Unit as this area of the field was converted from waterflood production to CO2 EOR starting in late 2007. The Aneth Unit is in the northwestern part of the field and has produced 149 million barrels (24 million m3) of the estimated 450 million barrels (71.5 million m3) of the original oil in place - a 33% recovery rate. The large amount of remaining oil makes the Aneth Unit ideal to demonstrate both CO2 storage capacity and EOR by CO2 flooding. This report summarizes the geologic characterization research, the various field monitoring tests, and the development of a geologic model and numerical simulations conducted for the Aneth demonstration project. The Utah Geological Survey (UGS), with contributions from other Partners, evaluated how the surface and subsurface geology of the Aneth Unit demonstration site will affect sequestration operations and engineering strategies. The UGS-research for the project are summarized in Chapters 1 through 7, and includes (1) mapping the surface geology including stratigraphy, faulting, fractures, and deformation bands, (2) describing the local Jurassic and Cretaceous stratigraphy, (3) mapping the Desert

  20. Response comment: Carbon sequestration on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Christopher; Ehlmann, Bethany L.

    2016-01-01

    Martian atmospheric pressure has important implications for the past and present habitability of the planet, including the timing and causes of environmental change. The ancient Martian surface is strewn with evidence for early water bound in minerals (e.g., Ehlmann and Edwards, 2014) and recorded in surface features such as large catastrophically created outflow channels (e.g., Carr, 1979), valley networks (Hynek et al., 2010; Irwin et al., 2005), and crater lakes (e.g., Fassett and Head, 2008). Using orbital spectral data sets coupled with geologic maps and a set of numerical spectral analysis models, Edwards and Ehlmann (2015) constrained the amount of atmospheric sequestration in early Martian rocks and found that the majority of this sequestration occurred prior to the formation of the early Hesperian/late Noachian valley networks (Fassett and Head, 2011; Hynek et al., 2010), thus implying the atmosphere was already thin by the time these surface-water-related features were formed.

  1. Cascade enzymatic reactions for efficient carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shunxiang; Zhao, Xueyan; Frigo-Vaz, Benjamin; Zheng, Wenyun; Kim, Jungbae; Wang, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Thermochemical processes developed for carbon capture and storage (CCS) offer high carbon capture capacities, but are generally hampered by low energy efficiency. Reversible cascade enzyme reactions are examined in this work for energy-efficient carbon sequestration. By integrating the reactions of two key enzymes of RTCA cycle, isocitrate dehydrogenase and aconitase, we demonstrate that intensified carbon capture can be realized through such cascade enzymatic reactions. Experiments show that enhanced thermodynamic driving force for carbon conversion can be attained via pH control under ambient conditions, and that the cascade reactions have the potential to capture 0.5 mol carbon at pH 6 for each mole of substrate applied. Overall it manifests that the carbon capture capacity of biocatalytic reactions, in addition to be energy efficient, can also be ultimately intensified to approach those realized with chemical absorbents such as MEA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrating Steel Production with Mineral Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Klaus Lackner; Paul Doby; Tuncel Yegulalp; Samuel Krevor; Christopher Graves

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of the project were (i) to develop a combination iron oxide production and carbon sequestration plant that will use serpentine ores as the source of iron and the extraction tailings as the storage element for CO2 disposal, (ii) the identification of locations within the US where this process may be implemented and (iii) to create a standardized process to characterize the serpentine deposits in terms of carbon disposal capacity and iron and steel production capacity. The first objective was not accomplished. The research failed to identify a technique to accelerate direct aqueous mineral carbonation, the limiting step in the integration of steel production and carbon sequestration. Objective (ii) was accomplished. It was found that the sequestration potential of the ultramafic resource surfaces in the US and Puerto Rico is approximately 4,647 Gt of CO2 or over 500 years of current US production of CO2. Lastly, a computer model was developed to investigate the impact of various system parameters (recoveries and efficiencies and capacities of different system components) and serpentinite quality as well as incorporation of CO2 from sources outside the steel industry.

  3. Climate Extremes and Forest Carbon Sequestration Capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, S.; Yi, C.; Hendrey, G. R.; Eaton, T. T.; Liu, H.; Rustic, G. T.; Krakauer, N.; Wang, S.

    2013-12-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the warming climate plays a vital role in driving certain types of extreme weather. How these extreme climates affect forest carbon sequestration capacity is unknown. This knowledge gap is critical in understanding positive feedbacks to global warming by changing the amount of carbon that forests can hold. Here, we used a perfect-deficit approach to identify forest canopy photosynthetic capacity (CPC) deficits and analyze how they correlate to climate extremes, based on data measured by the eddy covariance method at 26 forest sites with total of 146 site-years. We found that droughts severely alter the carbon sequestration capacities of evergreen broadleaf forest and deciduous broadleaf forest. In addition, the carbon sequestration capacities of Mediterranean forests are mostly sensitive to climate extremes while that of forests under marine climate are insensitive to climate extremes. Acknowledgements This research was financially supported by PSC-CUNY Award (PSC-CUNY-ENHC-44-83) and National Science Foundation (NSF-DEB-0949637).

  4. Implementation of Emission Trading in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Optimization Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Duncan, I.

    2013-12-01

    As an effective mid- and long- term solution for large-scale mitigation of industrial CO2 emissions, CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) has been paid more and more attention in the past decades. A general CCS management system has complex characteristics of multiple emission sources, multiple mitigation technologies, multiple sequestration sites, and multiple project periods. Trade-off exists among numerous environmental, economic, political, and technical factors, leading to varied system features. Sound decision alternatives are thus desired for provide decision supports for decision makers or managers for managing such a CCS system from capture to the final geologic storage phases. Carbon emission trading has been developed as a cost-effective tool for reducing the global greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, a carbon capture and sequestration optimization management model is proposed to address the above issues. The carbon emission trading is integrated into the model, and its impacts on the resulting management decisions are analyzed. A multi-source multi-period case study is provided to justify the applicability of the modeling approach, where uncertainties in modeling parameters are also dealt with.

  5. Mesoscale carbon sequestration site screening and CCS infrastructure analysis.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gordon N; Middleton, Richard S; Stauffer, Philip H; Viswanathan, Hari S; Letellier, Bruce C; Pasqualini, Donatella; Pawar, Rajesh J; Wolfsberg, Andrew V

    2011-01-01

    We explore carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) at the meso-scale, a level of study between regional carbon accounting and highly detailed reservoir models for individual sites. We develop an approach to CO(2) sequestration site screening for industries or energy development policies that involves identification of appropriate sequestration basin, analysis of geologic formations, definition of surface sites, design of infrastructure, and analysis of CO(2) transport and storage costs. Our case study involves carbon management for potential oil shale development in the Piceance-Uinta Basin, CO and UT. This study uses new capabilities of the CO(2)-PENS model for site screening, including reservoir capacity, injectivity, and cost calculations for simple reservoirs at multiple sites. We couple this with a model of optimized source-sink-network infrastructure (SimCCS) to design pipeline networks and minimize CCS cost for a given industry or region. The CLEAR(uff) dynamical assessment model calculates the CO(2) source term for various oil production levels. Nine sites in a 13,300 km(2) area have the capacity to store 6.5 GtCO(2), corresponding to shale-oil production of 1.3 Mbbl/day for 50 years (about 1/4 of U.S. crude oil production). Our results highlight the complex, nonlinear relationship between the spatial deployment of CCS infrastructure and the oil-shale production rate.

  6. Marine sequestration of carbon in bacterial metabolites.

    PubMed

    Lechtenfeld, Oliver J; Hertkorn, Norbert; Shen, Yuan; Witt, Matthias; Benner, Ronald

    2015-03-31

    Linking microbial metabolomics and carbon sequestration in the ocean via refractory organic molecules has been hampered by the chemical complexity of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Here, using bioassay experiments and ultra-high resolution metabolic profiling, we demonstrate that marine bacteria rapidly utilize simple organic molecules and produce exometabolites of remarkable molecular and structural diversity. Bacterial DOM is similar in chemical composition and structural complexity to naturally occurring DOM in sea water. An appreciable fraction of bacterial DOM has molecular and structural properties that are consistent with those of refractory molecules in the ocean, indicating a dominant role for bacteria in shaping the refractory nature of marine DOM. The rapid production of chemically complex and persistent molecules from simple biochemicals demonstrates a positive feedback between primary production and refractory DOM formation. It appears that carbon sequestration in diverse and structurally complex dissolved molecules that persist in the environment is largely driven by bacteria.

  7. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership--Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2006-01-01

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts); and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated

  8. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership--Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-10-01

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts); and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated

  9. MIDWEST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP (MRCSP)

    SciTech Connect

    David Ball; Judith Bradbury; Rattan Lal; Larry Wickstrom; Neeraj Gupta; Robert Burns; Bob Dahowski

    2004-04-30

    This is the first semiannual report for Phase I of the Midwest Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP). The project consists of nine tasks to be conducted over a two year period that started in October 2003. The makeup of the MRCSP and objectives are described. Progress on each of the active Tasks is also described and where possible, for those Tasks at some point of completion, a summary of results is presented.

  10. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2005-10-02

    During this quarter a general forest monitoring program was conducted to measure treatment effects on above ground and below ground carbon C and Nitrogen (N) pools for the tree planting areas. Detailed studies to address specific questions pertaining to Carbon cycling was initiated with the development of plots to examine the influence of mycorrhizae, spoil chemical and mineralogical properties, and use of amendment on forest establishment and carbon sequestration. Efforts continued during this period to examine decomposition and heterotrophic respiration on C cycling in the reforestation plots. Projected climate change resulting from elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide has given rise to various strategies to sequester carbon in various terrestrial ecosystems. Reclaimed surface mine soils present one such potential carbon sink where traditional reclamation objectives can complement carbon sequestration. New plantings required the modification and design and installation on monitoring equipment. Maintenance and data monitoring on past and present installations are a continuing operation. The Department of Mining Engineering continued the collection of penetration resistance, penetration depth, and bulk density on both old and new treatment areas. Data processing and analysis is in process for these variables. Project scientists and graduate students continue to present results at scientific meetings, tours and field days presentations of the research areas are being conducted on a request basis.

  11. Analysis and Comparison of Carbon Capture & Sequestration Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, E.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Reed, J.; Beyer, J. H.; Wagoner, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Several states and countries have adopted or are in the process of crafting policies to enable geologic carbon sequestration projects. These efforts reflect the recognition that existing statutory and regulatory frameworks leave ambiguities or gaps that elevate project risk for private companies considering carbon sequestration projects, and/or are insufficient to address a government’s mandate to protect the public interest. We have compared the various approaches that United States’ state and federal governments have taken to provide regulatory frameworks to address carbon sequestration. A major purpose of our work is to inform the development of any future legislation in California, should it be deemed necessary to meet the goals of Assembly Bill 1925 (2006) to accelerate the adoption of cost-effective geologic sequestration strategies for the long-term management of industrial carbon dioxide in the state. Our analysis shows a diverse issues are covered by adopted and proposed carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) legislation and that many of the new laws focus on defining regulatory frameworks for underground injection of CO2, ambiguities in property issues, or assigning legal liability. While these approaches may enable the progress of early projects, future legislation requires a longer term and broader view that includes a quantified integration of CCS into a government’s overall climate change mitigation strategy while considering potentially counterproductive impacts on CCS of other climate change mitigation strategies. Furthermore, legislation should be crafted in the context of a vision for CCS as an economically viable and widespread industry. While an important function of new CCS legislation is enabling early projects, it must be kept in mind that applying the same laws or protocols in the future to a widespread CCS industry may result in business disincentives and compromise of the public interest in mitigating GHG emissions. Protection of the

  12. Sequestration of Martian CO2 by mineral carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomkinson, Tim; Lee, Martin R.; Mark, Darren F.; Smith, Caroline L.

    2013-10-01

    Carbonation is the water-mediated replacement of silicate minerals, such as olivine, by carbonate, and is commonplace in the Earth’s crust. This reaction can remove significant quantities of CO2 from the atmosphere and store it over geological timescales. Here we present the first direct evidence for CO2 sequestration and storage on Mars by mineral carbonation. Electron beam imaging and analysis show that olivine and a plagioclase feldspar-rich mesostasis in the Lafayette meteorite have been replaced by carbonate. The susceptibility of olivine to replacement was enhanced by the presence of smectite veins along which CO2-rich fluids gained access to grain interiors. Lafayette was partially carbonated during the Amazonian, when liquid water was available intermittently and atmospheric CO2 concentrations were close to their present-day values. Earlier in Mars’ history, when the planet had a much thicker atmosphere and an active hydrosphere, carbonation is likely to have been an effective mechanism for sequestration of CO2.

  13. Sequestration of Martian CO2 by mineral carbonation

    PubMed Central

    Tomkinson, Tim; Lee, Martin R.; Mark, Darren F.; Smith, Caroline L.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonation is the water-mediated replacement of silicate minerals, such as olivine, by carbonate, and is commonplace in the Earth’s crust. This reaction can remove significant quantities of CO2 from the atmosphere and store it over geological timescales. Here we present the first direct evidence for CO2 sequestration and storage on Mars by mineral carbonation. Electron beam imaging and analysis show that olivine and a plagioclase feldspar-rich mesostasis in the Lafayette meteorite have been replaced by carbonate. The susceptibility of olivine to replacement was enhanced by the presence of smectite veins along which CO2-rich fluids gained access to grain interiors. Lafayette was partially carbonated during the Amazonian, when liquid water was available intermittently and atmospheric CO2 concentrations were close to their present-day values. Earlier in Mars’ history, when the planet had a much thicker atmosphere and an active hydrosphere, carbonation is likely to have been an effective mechanism for sequestration of CO2. PMID:24149494

  14. Comparison of Caprock Mineral Characteristics at Field Demonstration Sites for Saline Aquifer Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, C.A.; Lowry, G.; Dzombak, D.; Soong, Yee; Hedges, S.W.

    2008-10-01

    In 2003 the U.S Department of Energy initiated regional partnership programs to address the concern for rising atmospheric CO2. These partnerships were formed to explore regional and economical means for geologically sequestering CO2 across the United States and to set the stage for future commercial applications. Several options exist for geological sequestration and among these sequestering CO2 into deep saline aquifers is one of the most promising. This is due, in part, to the possibility of stabilized permanent storage through mineral precipitation from chemical interactions of the injected carbon dioxide with the brine and reservoir rock. There are nine field demonstration sites for saline sequestration among the regional partnerships in Phase II development to validate the overall commercial feasibility for CO2 geological sequestration. Of the nine sites considered for Phase II saline sequestration demonstration, seven are profiled in this study for their caprock lithologic and mineral characteristics.

  15. Carbon sequestration by Australian tidal marshes

    PubMed Central

    Macreadie, Peter I.; Ollivier, Q. R.; Kelleway, J. J.; Serrano, O.; Carnell, P. E.; Ewers Lewis, C. J.; Atwood, T. B.; Sanderman, J.; Baldock, J.; Connolly, R. M.; Duarte, C. M.; Lavery, P. S.; Steven, A.; Lovelock, C. E.

    2017-01-01

    Australia’s tidal marshes have suffered significant losses but their recently recognised importance in CO2 sequestration is creating opportunities for their protection and restoration. We compiled all available data on soil organic carbon (OC) storage in Australia’s tidal marshes (323 cores). OC stocks in the surface 1 m averaged 165.41 (SE 6.96) Mg OC ha−1 (range 14–963 Mg OC ha−1). The mean OC accumulation rate was 0.55 ± 0.02 Mg OC ha−1 yr−1. Geomorphology was the most important predictor of OC stocks, with fluvial sites having twice the stock of OC as seaward sites. Australia’s 1.4 million hectares of tidal marshes contain an estimated 212 million tonnes of OC in the surface 1 m, with a potential CO2-equivalent value of $USD7.19 billion. Annual sequestration is 0.75 Tg OC yr−1, with a CO2-equivalent value of $USD28.02 million per annum. This study provides the most comprehensive estimates of tidal marsh blue carbon in Australia, and illustrates their importance in climate change mitigation and adaptation, acting as CO2 sinks and buffering the impacts of rising sea level. We outline potential further development of carbon offset schemes to restore the sequestration capacity and other ecosystem services provided by Australia tidal marshes. PMID:28281574

  16. Carbon sequestration by Australian tidal marshes.

    PubMed

    Macreadie, Peter I; Ollivier, Q R; Kelleway, J J; Serrano, O; Carnell, P E; Ewers Lewis, C J; Atwood, T B; Sanderman, J; Baldock, J; Connolly, R M; Duarte, C M; Lavery, P S; Steven, A; Lovelock, C E

    2017-03-10

    Australia's tidal marshes have suffered significant losses but their recently recognised importance in CO2 sequestration is creating opportunities for their protection and restoration. We compiled all available data on soil organic carbon (OC) storage in Australia's tidal marshes (323 cores). OC stocks in the surface 1 m averaged 165.41 (SE 6.96) Mg OC ha(-1) (range 14-963 Mg OC ha(-1)). The mean OC accumulation rate was 0.55 ± 0.02 Mg OC ha(-1) yr(-1). Geomorphology was the most important predictor of OC stocks, with fluvial sites having twice the stock of OC as seaward sites. Australia's 1.4 million hectares of tidal marshes contain an estimated 212 million tonnes of OC in the surface 1 m, with a potential CO2-equivalent value of $USD7.19 billion. Annual sequestration is 0.75 Tg OC yr(-1), with a CO2-equivalent value of $USD28.02 million per annum. This study provides the most comprehensive estimates of tidal marsh blue carbon in Australia, and illustrates their importance in climate change mitigation and adaptation, acting as CO2 sinks and buffering the impacts of rising sea level. We outline potential further development of carbon offset schemes to restore the sequestration capacity and other ecosystem services provided by Australia tidal marshes.

  17. Carbon sequestration by Australian tidal marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macreadie, Peter I.; Ollivier, Q. R.; Kelleway, J. J.; Serrano, O.; Carnell, P. E.; Ewers Lewis, C. J.; Atwood, T. B.; Sanderman, J.; Baldock, J.; Connolly, R. M.; Duarte, C. M.; Lavery, P. S.; Steven, A.; Lovelock, C. E.

    2017-03-01

    Australia’s tidal marshes have suffered significant losses but their recently recognised importance in CO2 sequestration is creating opportunities for their protection and restoration. We compiled all available data on soil organic carbon (OC) storage in Australia’s tidal marshes (323 cores). OC stocks in the surface 1 m averaged 165.41 (SE 6.96) Mg OC ha-1 (range 14-963 Mg OC ha-1). The mean OC accumulation rate was 0.55 ± 0.02 Mg OC ha-1 yr-1. Geomorphology was the most important predictor of OC stocks, with fluvial sites having twice the stock of OC as seaward sites. Australia’s 1.4 million hectares of tidal marshes contain an estimated 212 million tonnes of OC in the surface 1 m, with a potential CO2-equivalent value of $USD7.19 billion. Annual sequestration is 0.75 Tg OC yr-1, with a CO2-equivalent value of $USD28.02 million per annum. This study provides the most comprehensive estimates of tidal marsh blue carbon in Australia, and illustrates their importance in climate change mitigation and adaptation, acting as CO2 sinks and buffering the impacts of rising sea level. We outline potential further development of carbon offset schemes to restore the sequestration capacity and other ecosystem services provided by Australia tidal marshes.

  18. 75 FR 33613 - Notice of the Carbon Sequestration-Geothermal Energy-Science Joint Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ...The DOE Geothermal Technologies Program, Office of Science- Geosciences Program and Office of Fossil Energy-Carbon Sequestration Program will be holding a joint workshop on Common Research Themes for Carbon Storage and Geothermal Energy, June 15-16, 2010. Experts from industry, academia, national labs, and State and Federal geological surveys will discuss geosciences research needs for......

  19. Comparison of Carbon Dioxide Solubility Models in Brine for Use in Carbon Sequestration Reservoir Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamalidis, A.; Wang, Z.; Small, M.; Dilmore, R. M.; Goodman, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon sequestration into deep geological formations, such as saline formations and oil and gas fields, is a promising method to mitigate global warming. Estimating carbon dioxide solubility (TPX) in brine under carbon sequestration conditions with high temperature, pressure and salinity is crucial in choosing suitable carbon sequestration reservoirs and determining the carbon dioxide storage capacity of each. Multiple mathematical models are available for predicting the solubility of CO2 in brine. Although comparisons of each model with a particular experimental data set collected under certain TPX conditions have been published by the model developers, few studies have been done to compare these models using a comprehensive experimental data set and rigorous statistical methods. In this study, available CO2 solubility experimental data and nine mathematical models for the prediction of CO2 solubility in brine were collected. Five of these predictive models are empirical or semi-empirical and the remainders are based on different equations of state. Statistical criteria, such as the AIC and BIC were employed to determine the goodness of fit of each mathematical model with the CO2 solubility experimental data set. Results of this analysis determine the best mathematical predictive model for the calculation of carbon dioxide solubility under carbon sequestration conditions. Preliminary analysis shows that simplified models with fewer variables perform equally well with those having more. The study also presents a quantitative approach to determine the best CO2 solubility predictive model through use of a regression tree.

  20. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Karamalidis, Athanasios K; Torres, Sharon G; Hakala, J Alexandra; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J; Carroll, Susan

    2012-02-05

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising, however, possible CO₂ or CO₂-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define trace metal source terms from the reaction of supercritical CO₂, storage reservoir brines, reservoir and cap rocks. Storage reservoir source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, basalts and cements from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin – Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution is tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g. pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments due to the presence of CO₂. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rock exceed the MCLs by an order of magnitude while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the reservoir and caprock source term to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  1. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Karamalidis, Athanasios; Torres, Sharon G.; Hakala, Jacqueline A.; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising; however, possible CO2 or CO2-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define to provide a range of concentrations that can be used as the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations. Storage source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from cements and sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, and basalts from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin, Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands, and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution was tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g., pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments because of the presence of CO2. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rocks exceed the MCLs byan order of magnitude, while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  2. Trace metal source terms in carbon sequestration environments.

    PubMed

    Karamalidis, Athanasios K; Torres, Sharon G; Hakala, J Alexandra; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J; Carroll, Susan

    2013-01-02

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising; however, possible CO(2) or CO(2)-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define a range of concentrations that can be used as the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations. Storage source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from cements and sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, and basalts from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin, Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands, and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution was tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g., pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments because of the presence of CO(2). Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rocks exceed the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  3. Soil Carbon Sequestration: Perspectives from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderman, J.; Macdonald, L.; Baldock, J.

    2011-12-01

    Australia is currently embarking upon an unparalleled program to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by engaging farmers and landholders to reduce emissions and store carbon in the soil. Currently, the magnitude of a potential soil carbon sink in Australian agricultural soils is largely unknown. The oft repeated rubric that adoption of recommended management practices (RMP) can raise soil carbon levels to 50-66% of pre-clearing levels has lead many to conclude that soil carbon sequestration can offset a large portion of Australia's current greenhouse gas emissions. Is there evidence in Australia (and abroad) to support these sequestration rates? In this presentation, we will present findings from both a retrospective analysis of existing field trial data and preliminary results from a national scale assessment of current soil carbon stocks under different agricultural management practices. A comprehensive review of field-trial data in Australia suggests that most management shifts within a given agricultural system (i.e. tillage, stubble management, fertilizer application, etc...) result in modest relative gains of 0.1 to 0.3 tC ha-1 yr-1. Importantly, whenever time series data was available, we found that the relative improvement in soil carbon stocks under RMPs was due to a reduction in the rate of loss of soil carbon and not in an actual increase in soil carbon. This finding has important repercussions for both how we think about soil carbon sequestration and how we can account for it in an accounting framework. Current research within the National Soil Carbon Research Program looks to assess the potential for agricultural management to influence soil carbon content and its distribution within various measurable carbon pools (particulate, humus, charcoal-like). For example, 200 randomly selected farms have been sampled in two major agricultural regions in South Australia based on a soil-type by rainfall stratification. In addition to measuring carbon content and

  4. Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-19

    for CCS activities, and would represent a substantial infusion of funding compared to current spending levels. It would also be a large and rapid...or feedstock value, into a synthesis gas (composed primarily of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) for direct use in the production of energy or for

  5. Fly Ash Characteristics and Carbon Sequestration Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Palumbo, Anthony V.; Amonette, James E.; Tarver, Jana R.; Fagan, Lisa A.; McNeilly, Meghan S.; Daniels, William L.

    2007-07-20

    Concerns for the effects of global warming have lead to an interest in the potential for inexpensive methods to sequester carbon dioxide (CO2). One of the proposed methods is the sequestration of carbon in soil though the growth of crops or forests.4,6 If there is an economic value placed on sequestration of carbon dioxide in soil there may be an an opportunity and funding to utilize fly ash in the reclamation of mine soils and other degraded lands. However, concerns associated with the use of fly ash must be addressed before this practice can be widely adopted. There is a vast extent of degraded lands across the world that has some degree of potential for use in carbon sequestration. Degraded lands comprise nearly 2 X 109 ha of land throughout the world.7 Although the potential is obviously smaller in the United States, there are still approximately 4 X 106 ha of degraded lands that previously resulted from mining operations14 and an additional 1.4 X 108 ha of poorly managed lands. Thus, according to Lal and others the potential is to sequester approximately 11 Pg of carbon over the next 50 years.1,10 The realization of this potential will likely be dependent on economic incentives and the use of soil amendments such as fly ash. There are many potential benefits documented for the use of fly ash as a soil amendment. For example, fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, HCO3-, Cl- and basic cations, although some effects are notably decreased in high-clay soils.8,13,9 The potential is that these effects will promote increased growth of plants (either trees or grasses) and result in greater carbon accumulation in the soil than in untreated degraded soils. This paper addresses the potential for carbon sequestration in soils amended with fly ash and examines some of the issues that should be considered in planning this option. We describe retrospective studies of soil carbon accumulation on

  6. Caprock Breach: A Threat to Secure Geologic Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvadurai, A. P.; Dong, W.

    2013-12-01

    The integrity of caprock in providing a reliable barrier is crucial to several environmental geosciences endeavours related to geologic sequestration of CO2, deep geologic disposal of hazardous wastes and contaminants. The integrity of geologic barriers can be compromised by several factors. The re-activation of dormant fractures and development of new fractures in the caprock during the injection process are regarded as effects that can pose a threat to storage security. Other poromechanical influences of pore structure collapse due to chemically induced erosion of the porous fabric resulting in worm-hole type features can also contribute to compromising storage security. The assessment of the rate of steady or transient seepage through defects in the caprock can allow geoscientists to make prudent evaluations of the effectiveness of a sequestration strategy. While complicated computational simulations can be used to calculate leakage through defects, it is useful to explore alternative analytical results that could be used in providing preliminary estimates of leakage rates through defects in the caprock in a storage setting. The relevance of such developments is underscored by the fact that the permeability characteristics of the storage formation, the fracture and the surficial rocks overlying the caprock can rarely be quantified with certainty. This paper presents the problem of a crack in a caprock that connects to a storage formation and an overburden rock or surficial soil formation. The geologic media are maintained at constant far-field flow potentials and leakage takes place at either steady or transient conditions. The paper develops an analytical result that can be used to estimate the steady seepage through the crack. The analytical result can also be used to estimate the leakage through hydraulically non-intersecting cracks and leakage from caprock-well casing interfaces. The analytical result is used to estimate the accuracy of a computational

  7. GEOLOGIC CARBON STORAGE: UNDERSTANDING THE RULES OF THE UNDERGROUND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2), an emerging option for carbon management. Few studies have explored the regulatory needs of GS or compared these needs with regulations governing underground injection on the U.S. mainland. Our treatment...

  8. Status and potential of terrestrial carbon sequestration in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Benktesh D. Sharma; Jingxin. Wang

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem management offers cost-effective ways to enhance carbon (C) sequestration. This study utilized C stock and C sequestration in forest and agricultural lands, abandoned mine lands, and harvested wood products to estimate the net current annual C sequestration in West Virginia. Several management options within these components were simulated using a...

  9. The NatCarb geoportal: Linking distributed data from the Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnerships

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, T.R.; Rich, P.M.; Bartley, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnerships are generating the data for a "carbon atlas" of key geospatial data (carbon sources, potential sinks, etc.) required for rapid implementation of carbon sequestration on a broad scale. The NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NatCarb) provides Web-based, nation-wide data access. Distributed computing solutions link partnerships and other publicly accessible repositories of geological, geophysical, natural resource, infrastructure, and environmental data. Data are maintained and enhanced locally, but assembled and accessed through a single geoportal. NatCarb, as a first attempt at a national carbon cyberinfrastructure (NCCI), assembles the data required to address technical and policy challenges of carbon capture and storage. We present a path forward to design and implement a comprehensive and successful NCCI. ?? 2007 The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Erosion of soil organic carbon: implications for carbon sequestration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Oost, Kristof; Van Hemelryck, Hendrik; Harden, Jennifer W.; McPherson, B.J.; Sundquist, E.T.

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural activities have substantially increased rates of soil erosion and deposition, and these processes have a significant impact on carbon (C) mineralization and burial. Here, we present a synthesis of erosion effects on carbon dynamics and discuss the implications of soil erosion for carbon sequestration strategies. We demonstrate that for a range of data-based parameters from the literature, soil erosion results in increased C storage onto land, an effect that is heterogeneous on the landscape and is variable on various timescales. We argue that the magnitude of the erosion term and soil carbon residence time, both strongly influenced by soil management, largely control the strength of the erosion-induced sink. In order to evaluate fully the effects of soil management strategies that promote carbon sequestration, a full carbon account must be made that considers the impact of erosion-enhanced disequilibrium between carbon inputs and decomposition, including effects on net primary productivity and decomposition rates.

  11. Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep-sea basalt

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, David S.; Takahashi, Taro; Slagle, Angela L.

    2008-01-01

    Developing a method for secure sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in geological formations is one of our most pressing global scientific problems. Injection into deep-sea basalt formations provides unique and significant advantages over other potential geological storage options, including (i) vast reservoir capacities sufficient to accommodate centuries-long U.S. production of fossil fuel CO2 at locations within pipeline distances to populated areas and CO2 sources along the U.S. west coast; (ii) sufficiently closed water-rock circulation pathways for the chemical reaction of CO2 with basalt to produce stable and nontoxic (Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+)CO3 infilling minerals, and (iii) significant risk reduction for post-injection leakage by geological, gravitational, and hydrate-trapping mechanisms. CO2 sequestration in established sediment-covered basalt aquifers on the Juan de Fuca plate offer promising locations to securely accommodate more than a century of future U.S. emissions, warranting energized scientific research, technological assessment, and economic evaluation to establish a viable pilot injection program in the future. PMID:18626013

  12. Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep-sea basalt.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, David S; Takahashi, Taro; Slagle, Angela L

    2008-07-22

    Developing a method for secure sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in geological formations is one of our most pressing global scientific problems. Injection into deep-sea basalt formations provides unique and significant advantages over other potential geological storage options, including (i) vast reservoir capacities sufficient to accommodate centuries-long U.S. production of fossil fuel CO2 at locations within pipeline distances to populated areas and CO2 sources along the U.S. west coast; (ii) sufficiently closed water-rock circulation pathways for the chemical reaction of CO2 with basalt to produce stable and nontoxic (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(2+))CO(3) infilling minerals, and (iii) significant risk reduction for post-injection leakage by geological, gravitational, and hydrate-trapping mechanisms. CO2 sequestration in established sediment-covered basalt aquifers on the Juan de Fuca plate offer promising locations to securely accommodate more than a century of future U.S. emissions, warranting energized scientific research, technological assessment, and economic evaluation to establish a viable pilot injection program in the future.

  13. Carbon Sequestration Atlas and Interactive Maps from the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration

    DOE Data Explorer

    McPherson, Brian

    In November of 2002, DOE announced a global climate change initiative involving joint government-industry partnerships working together to find sensible, low cost solutions for reducing GHG emissions. As a result, seven regional partnerships were formed; the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) is one of those. These groups are utilizing their expertise to assess sequestration technologies to capture carbon emissions, identify and evaluate appropriate storage locations, and engage a variety of stakeholders in order to increase awareness of carbon sequestration. Stakeholders in this project are made up of private industry, NGOs, the general public, and government entities. There are a total of 44 current organizations represented in the partnership including electric utilities, oil and gas companies, state governments, universities, NGOs, and tribal nations. The SWP is coordinated by New Mexico Tech and encompasses New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Oklahoma, Utah, and portions of Kansas, Nevada, Texas, and Wyoming. Field test sites for the region are located in New Mexico (San Juan Basin), Utah (Paradox Basin), and Texas (Permian Basin).[Taken from the SWP C02 Sequestration Atlas] The SWP makes available at this website their CO2 Sequestration Atlas and an interactive data map.

  14. Carbon Sequestration in Unconventional Reservoirs: Geophysical, Geochemical and Geomechanical Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, Natalia V.

    In the face of the environmental challenges presented by the acceleration of global warming, carbon capture and storage, also called carbon sequestration, may provide a vital option to reduce anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, while meeting the world's energy demands. To operate on a global scale, carbon sequestration would require thousands of geologic repositories that could accommodate billions of tons of carbon dioxide per year. In order to reach such capacity, various types of geologic reservoirs should be considered, including unconventional reservoirs such as volcanic rocks, fractured formations, and moderate-permeability aquifers. Unconventional reservoirs, however, are characterized by complex pore structure, high heterogeneity, and intricate feedbacks between physical, chemical and mechanical processes, and their capacity to securely store carbon emissions needs to be confirmed. In this dissertation, I present my contribution toward the understanding of geophysical, geochemical, hydraulic, and geomechanical properties of continental basalts and fractured sedimentary formations in the context of their carbon storage capacity. The data come from two characterization projects, in the Columbia River Flood Basalt in Washington and the Newark Rift Basin in New York, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy through Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnerships and TriCarb Consortium for Carbon Sequestration. My work focuses on in situ analysis using borehole geophysical measurements that allow for detailed characterization of formation properties on the reservoir scale and under nearly unaltered subsurface conditions. The immobilization of injected CO2 by mineralization in basaltic rocks offers a critical advantage over sedimentary reservoirs for long-term CO2 storage. Continental flood basalts, such as the Columbia River Basalt Group, possess a suitable structure for CO2 storage, with extensive reservoirs in the interflow zones separated by massive impermeable

  15. Genomic insights into growth and survival of supercritical-CO2 tolerant bacterium MIT0214 under conditions associated with geologic carbon dioxide sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peet, K. C.; Freedman, A. J.; Hernandez, H.; Thompson, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) of CO2 has the potential to significantly reduce the emissions of greenhouse gasses associated with fossil fuel combustion. The largest potential for storing captured CO2 in the United Sates is in deep geologic saline formations. Currently, little is known about the effects of CO2 storage on biologically active microbial communities found in the deep earth biosphere. Therefore, to investigate how deep earth microbial communities will be affected by the storage of CO2 we have enriched for a microbial consortium from the saline formation waters of the Frio 2 project site (Texas Gulf Coast) that is capable of growth in nutrient media under a supercritical CO2 headspace (Hernandez, et al). The cultivation of actively growing cells in an environment containing scCO2 is unexpected based on previous experimental evidence of microbial sterilization attributed to the acidic, desiccating, and solvent-like properties of scCO2. We have isolated strain MIT0214 from this supercritical CO2 based enrichment and have sequenced its genome using the Illumina platform followed by de novo assembly of reads and targeted Sanger sequencing to reduce gaps in the draft assembly. The genome of strain MIT0214 is approximately 5,551,062 base pairs with 35% GC-content and is most similar to nonpathogenic Bacillus cereus strain ATCC 14597. Annotation of the draft assembly of the MIT0214 genome by the Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST) server revealed 5538 coding sequences where 4145 of the coding sequences were assigned putative functions. These functions were enriched in cell wall and capsule formation, phage/prophage and plasmids, gene regulation and signaling, and nitrogen and sulfur metabolism relative to the genome of the most closely-related surface-isolated B. cereus reference (ATCC 14597) and in total 773,416 bp of the MIT0214 genome content was distinct from the B. cereus reference. Notably, this set of distinct sequences were most

  16. Risk Assessment of Geologic Formation Sequestration in The Rocky Mountain Region, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the outcome of a targeted risk assessment of a candidate geologic sequestration site in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. Specifically, a major goal of the probabilistic risk assessment was to quantify the possible spatiotemporal responses for Area of Review (AoR) and injection-induced pressure buildup associated with carbon dioxide (CO₂) injection into the subsurface. Because of the computational expense of a conventional Monte Carlo approach, especially given the likely uncertainties in model parameters, we applied a response surface method for probabilistic risk assessment of geologic CO₂ storage in the Permo-Penn Weber formation at a potential CCS site in Craig, Colorado. A site-specific aquifer model was built for the numerical simulation based on a regional geologic model.

  17. Geologic CO2 Sequestration: Predicting and Confirming Performance in Oil Reservoirs and Saline Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. W.; Nitao, J. J.; Newmark, R. L.; Kirkendall, B. A.; Nimz, G. J.; Knauss, K. G.; Ziagos, J. P.

    2002-05-01

    extending this capability to address CO2-flood EOR/sequestration in oil reservoirs. We have also developed a suite of innovative geophysical and geochemical techniques for monitoring sequestration performance in both settings. These include electromagnetic induction imaging and electrical resistance tomography for tracking migration of immiscible CO2, noble gas isotopes for assessing trace CO2 leakage through the cap rock, and integrated geochemical sampling, analytical, and experimental methods for determining sequestration partitioning among solubility and mineral trapping mechanisms. We have proposed to demonstrate feasibility of the co-optimized EOR/sequestration concept and utility of our modeling and monitoring technologies to design and evaluate its implementation by conducting a demonstration project in the Livermore Oil Field. This small, mature, shallow field, located less than a mile east of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is representative of many potential EOR/sequestration sites in California. In approach, this proposed demonstration is analogous to the Weyburn EOR/CO2 monitoring project, to which it will provide an important complement by virtue of its contrasting depth (immiscible versus Weyburn's miscible CO2 flood) and geologic setting (clay-capped sand versus Weyburn's anhydrite-capped carbonate reservoir).

  18. Geochemical Impacts of CO2 Intrusion into Ground Water due to Carbon Dioxide Release from Geologic Sequestration Projects: Overview of ORD Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Even with the large physical separation between storage reservoirs and surficial environments, there is concern that CO2 stored in reservoirs may eventually leak back to the surface through abandoned wells or along geological features such as faults. Leakage of CO2 into...

  19. Geochemical Impacts of CO2 Intrusion into Ground Water due to Carbon Dioxide Release from Geologic Sequestration Projects: Overview of ORD Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Even with the large physical separation between storage reservoirs and surficial environments, there is concern that CO2 stored in reservoirs may eventually leak back to the surface through abandoned wells or along geological features such as faults. Leakage of CO2 into...

  20. Geomechanical Response of Jointed Caprock During CO2 Geological Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, P.; Martinez, M. J.; Bishop, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Geological sequestration of CO2 refers to the injection of supercritical CO2 into deep reservoirs trapped beneath a low-permeability caprock formation. Maintaining caprock integrity during the injection process is the most important factor for a successful injection. In this work we evaluate the potential for jointed caprock during injection scenarios using coupled three-dimensional multiphase flow and geomechanics modeling. Evaluation of jointed/fractured caprock systems is of particular concern to CO2 sequestration because creation or reactivation of joints (mechanical damage) can lead to enhanced pathways for leakage. In this work, we use an equivalent continuum approach to account for the joints within the caprock. Joint's aperture and non-linear stiffness of the caprock will be updated dynamically based on the effective normal stress. Effective permeability field will be updated based on the joints' aperture creating an anisotropic permeability field throughout the caprock. This feature would add another coupling between the solid and fluid in addition to basic Terzaghi's effective stress concept. In this study, we evaluate the impact of the joint's orientation and geometry of caprock and reservoir layers on geomechanical response of the CO2 geological systems. This work is supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001114. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. Brines as Possible Cation Sources for Biomimetic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, G. M.; Abel, A.; McPherson, B. J.; Stringer, J.

    2002-12-01

    The utility industry is currently producing 2.1 x 109 tonnes of CO2 per year from burning coal. The amounts of CO2 produced by a single coal-burning station are typically around 0.1 tonnes/MW/h for a coal burn of 0.04 tonnes/MW/h. These large fixed sources of CO2 constitute an obvious target for carbon sequestration to minimize greenhouse-gas emissions. The generally favored approach in present sequestration research is to achieve a CO2 stream that is highly concentrated, compress it, and transport it to geologic sequestration sites, such as deep saline aquifers. The volume of the CO2 is of some interest here. Supercritical CO2, as supplied for example from natural wells to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) sites, has a density of approximately 0.9, and is relatively incompressible, which means that the volume of sequestered supercritical CO2 will be somewhat greater than that of the coal from which it was formed. The volume of water displaced by CO2 injection into aquifers would be closely comparable to the volume of the CO2 itself. An alternative path, which we have been following, would capture the gas as calcium carbonate, CaCO3, in a biomimetic approach that offers some obvious advantages. Sequestration, in this case, is in the form of a safe, stable, environmentally benign product. On a geologic timeframe, considerable amounts of CO2 have been sequestered as, for example, oolitic limestone deposits and dolomite deposits, suggesting that very long-lived or even permanent sequestration is possible in solid carbonate form. Not only would our approach remove the costly steps of concentrating and compressing the CO2, but also it is anticipated that it would remove the need for long-term monitoring to check for CO2 leakage. In a separate collaborative study detailed by Abel and others (this volume), ramifications of geologic sequestration of CO2 and/or bicarbonate-enriched brines are evaluated with laboratory flow experiments and computer model simulations. Porosity and

  2. Carbon dioxide sequestration in cement kiln dust through mineral carbonation.

    PubMed

    Huntzinger, Deborah N; Gierke, John S; Kawatra, S Komar; Eisele, Timothy C; Sutter, Lawrence L

    2009-03-15

    Carbon sequestration through the formation of carbonates is a potential means to reduce CO2 emissions. Alkaline industrial solid wastes typically have high mass fractions of reactive oxides that may not require preprocessing, making them an attractive source material for mineral carbonation The degree of mineral carbonation achievable in cement kiln dust (CKD) underambienttemperatures and pressures was examined through a series of batch and column experiments. The overall extent and potential mechanisms and rate behavior of the carbonation process were assessed through a complementary set of analytical and empirical methods, including mass change, thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The carbonation reactions were carried out primarily through the reaction of CO2 with Ca(OH)2, and CaCO3 was observed as the predominant carbonation product. A sequestration extent of over 60% was observed within 8 h of reaction without any modifications to the waste. Sequestration appears to follow unreacted core model theory where reaction kinetics are controlled by a first-order rate constant at early times; however, as carbonation progresses, the kinetics of the reaction are attenuated by the extent of the reaction due to diffusion control, with the extent of conversion never reaching completion.

  3. Carbon dioxide sequestration in cement kiln dust through mineral carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    Deborah N. Huntzinger; John S. Gierke; S. Komar Kawatra; Timothy C. Eisele; Lawrence L. Sutter

    2009-03-15

    Carbon sequestration through the formation of carbonates is a potential means to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Alkaline industrial solid wastes typically have high mass fractions of reactive oxides that may not require preprocessing, making them an attractive source material for mineral carbonation. The degree of mineral carbonation achievable in cement kiln dust (CKD) under ambient temperatures and pressures was examined through a series of batch and column experiments. The overall extent and potential mechanisms and rate behavior of the carbonation process were assessed through a complementary set of analytical and empirical methods, including mass change, thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The carbonation reactions were carried out primarily through the reaction of CO{sub 2} with Ca(OH){sub 2}, and CaCO{sub 3} was observed as the predominant carbonation product. A sequestration extent of over 60% was observed within 8 h of reaction without any modifications to the waste. Sequestration appears to follow unreacted core model theory where reaction kinetics are controlled by a first-order rate constant at early times; however, as carbonation progresses, the kinetics of the reaction are attenuated by the extent of the reaction due to diffusion control, with the extent of conversion never reaching completion. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. CO₂ sequestration through mineral carbonation of iron oxyhydroxides.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Kristin; Murphy, Riley; Riendeau, Amber; Smirnov, Alexander; Schoonen, Martin A A; Strongin, Daniel R

    2011-12-15

    Carbon dioxide sequestration via the use of sulfide reductants and mineral carbonation of the iron oxyhydroxide polymorphs lepidocrocite, goethite, and akaganeite with supercritical CO(2) (scCO(2)) was investigated using in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The exposure of the different iron oxyhydroxides to aqueous sulfide in contact with scCO(2) at ∼70-100 °C resulted in the partial transformation of the minerals to siderite (FeCO(3)) and sulfide phases such as pyrite (FeS(2)). The relative yield of siderite to iron sulfide bearing mineral product was a strong function of the initial sulfide concentration. The order of mineral reactivity with regard to the amount of siderite formation in the scCO(2)/sulfide environment for a specific reaction time was goethite < lepidocrocite ≤ akaganeite. Given the presence of goethite in sedimentary formations, this conversion reaction may have relevance to the subsurface sequestration and geologic storage of carbon dioxide.

  5. Carbon Sequestration in Olivine and Basalt Powder Packed Beds.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wei; Wells, Rachel K; Giammar, Daniel E

    2017-02-21

    Fractures and pores in basalt could provide substantial pore volume and surface area of reactive minerals for carbonate mineral formation in geologic carbon sequestration. In many fractures solute transport will be limited to diffusion, and opposing chemical gradients that form as a result of concentration differences can lead to spatial distribution of silicate mineral dissolution and carbonate mineral precipitation. Glass tubes packed with grains of olivine or basalt with different grain sizes and compositions were used to explore the identity and spatial distribution of carbonate minerals that form in dead-end one-dimensional diffusion-limited zones that are connected to a larger reservoir of water in equilibrium with 100 bar CO2 at 100 °C. Magnesite formed in experiments with olivine, and Mg- and Ca-bearing siderite formed in experiments with flood basalt. The spatial distribution of carbonates varied between powder packed beds with different powder sizes. Packed beds of basalt powder with large specific surface areas sequestered more carbon per unit basalt mass than powder with low surface area. The spatial location and extent of carbonate mineral formation can influence the overall ability of fractured basalt to sequester carbon.

  6. Anthropogenic Impacts on Biological Carbon Sequestration in the Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, N.

    2016-02-01

    The well-known biological mechanism for carbon sequestration in the ocean is the biological pump (BP) which is driven by primary production initially in the surface water and then dependent on particulate organic carbon sinking process in the water column. In contrast microbial carbon pump (MCP) depends on microbial transformation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to refractory DOC (RDOC).Although the BP and the MCP are distinct mechanisms, they are intertwined. Both mechanisms should be considered regarding maximum sequestration of carbon in the ocean. Recent studies have showed that excess nutrients could facilitate the uptake of DOC and enhance both bacterial production and respiration. Bacterial growth efficiency increases with increasing nitrogen concentration to certain levels and then decreases thereafter, while the remaining DOC in the water usually decreases with increasing nitrogen concentration, suggesting that excess nitrogen could simulate uptake of DOC in the environment and thus have negative impacts on the ocean DOC storage.This is somehow against the case of the BP which is known to increase with increasing availability of nutrients. Another responsible factor is the nature of algal products. If it is labile, the organic carbon cannot be preserved in the environment.On top of that, labile organic carbon has priming effects for river discharged semi-labile DOC for bacterial respiration.That is, labile organic matter will become the incubator for bacteria. While bacteria respire DOC into CO2, they consume oxygen, and finally result in hypoxia. Under anoxic condition, anaerobic bacteria successively work on the rest of the organic carbon and produce harmful gasses such as methane and H2S. Such story did have happened during geological events in the history of the earth. The above processes not only result in ecological disasters but also reduce the capacity of carbon sequestration in the ocean. To achieve maximum carbon sinks, both BP and MCP should

  7. A Finite Element Model for Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Jie; Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin

    2015-07-23

    We present a hydro-mechanical model, followed by stress, deformation, and shear-slip failure analysis for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). The model considers the poroelastic effects by taking into account of the two-way coupling between the geomechanical response and the fluid flow process. Analytical solutions for pressure and deformation fields were derived for a typical geological sequestration scenario in our previous work. A finite element approach is introduced here for numerically solving the hydro-mechanical model with arbitrary boundary conditions. The numerical approach was built on an open-source finite element code Elmer, and results were compared to the analytical solutions. The shear-slip failure analysis was presented based on the numerical results, where the potential failure zone is identified. Information is relevant to the prediction of the maximum sustainable injection rate or pressure. The effects of caprock permeability on the fluid pressure, deformation, stress, and the shear-slip failure zone were also quantitatively studied. It was shown that a larger permeability in caprock and base rock leads to a larger uplift but a smaller shear-slip failure zone.

  8. Carbon dynamics and sequestration in urban turfgrass ecosystems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Urbanization is a global trend. Turfgrass covers 1.9% of land in the continental US. Here we review existing literature associated with carbon (C) pools, sequestration, and nitrous oxide emission of urban turfgrass ecosystems. Turfgrasses exhibit significant carbon sequestration (0.34–1.4 Mg ha-1 ye...

  9. The United States Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Program Validation Phase.

    PubMed

    Litynski, John T; Plasynski, Sean; McIlvried, Howard G; Mahoney, Christopher; Srivastava, Rameshwar D

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the Validation Phase (Phase II) of the Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships initiative. In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy created a nationwide network of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSP) to help determine and implement the technology, infrastructure, and regulations most appropriate to promote carbon sequestration in different regions of the nation. The objectives of the Characterization Phase (Phase I) were to characterize the geologic and terrestrial opportunities for carbon sequestration; to identify CO(2) point sources within the territories of the individual partnerships; to assess the transportation infrastructure needed for future deployment; to evaluate CO(2) capture technologies for existing and future power plants; and to identify the most promising sequestration opportunities that would need to be validated through a series of field projects. The Characterization Phase was highly successful, with the following achievements: established a national network of companies and professionals working to support sequestration deployment; created regional and national carbon sequestration atlases for the United States and portions of Canada; evaluated available and developing technologies for the capture of CO(2) from point sources; developed an improved understanding of the permitting requirements that future sequestration activities will need to address as well as defined the gap in permitting requirements for large scale deployment of these technologies; created a raised awareness of, and support for, carbon sequestration as a greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation option, both within industry and among the general public; identified the most promising carbon sequestration opportunities for future field tests; and established protocols for project implementation, accounting, and management. Economic evaluation was started and is continuing and will be a factor in project selection. During the

  10. Geomechanical analysis applied to geological carbon dioxide sequestration, induced seismicity in deep mines, and detection of stress-induced velocity anisotropy in sub-salt environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucier, Amie Marie

    The role of geomechanical analysis in characterizing the feasibility of CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers is addressed in two investigations. The first investigation was completed as part of the Ohio River Valley CO2 Storage Project. We completed a geomechanical analysis of the Rose Run Sandstone, a potential injection zone, and its adjacent formations at the American Electric Power's 1.3 GW Mountaineer Power Plant in New Haven, West Virginia. The results of this analysis were then used to evaluate the feasibility of anthropogenic CO2 sequestration in the potential injection zone. First, we incorporated the results of the geomechanical analysis with a geostatistical aquifer model in CO2 injection flow simulations to test the effects of introducing a hydraulic fracture to increase injectivity. Then, we determined that horizontal injection wells at the Mountaineer site are feasible because the high rock strength ensures that such wells would be stable in the local stress state. Finally, we evaluated the potential for injection-induced seismicity. The second investigation concerning CO2 sequestration was motivated by the modeling and fluid flow simulation results from the first study. The geomechanics-based assessment workflow follows a bottom-up approach for evaluating regional deep saline aquifer CO2 injection and storage feasibility. The CO2 storage capacity of an aquifer is a function of its porous volume as well as its CO2 injectivity. For a saline aquifer to be considered feasible in this assessment it must be able to store a specified amount of CO2 at a reasonable cost per ton of CO 2. The proposed assessment workflow has seven steps. The workflow was applied to a case study of the Rose Run sandstone in the eastern Ohio River Valley. We found that it is feasible in this region to inject and store 113 Mt CO2/yr for 30 years at an associated well cost of less than 1.31 US$/t CO2, but only if injectivity enhancement techniques such as hydraulic fracturing

  11. Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration & Enhanced Oil Recovery Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson

    2010-08-31

    A consortium of research partners led by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration and industry partners, including CAP CO2 LLC, Blue Source LLC, Coffeyville Resources, Nitrogen Fertilizers LLC, Ash Grove Cement Company, Kansas Ethanol LLC, Headwaters Clean Carbon Services, Black & Veatch, and Schlumberger Carbon Services, conducted a feasibility study of a large-scale CCS commercialization project that included large-scale CO{sub 2} sources. The overall objective of this project, entitled the 'Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project' was to design an integrated system of US mid-continent industrial CO{sub 2} sources with CO{sub 2} capture, and geologic sequestration in deep saline formations and in oil field reservoirs with concomitant EOR. Findings of this project suggest that deep saline sequestration in the mid-continent region is not feasible without major financial incentives, such as tax credits or otherwise, that do not exist at this time. However, results of the analysis suggest that enhanced oil recovery with carbon sequestration is indeed feasible and practical for specific types of geologic settings in the Midwestern U.S.

  12. Physical and Economic Integration of Carbon Capture Methods with Sequestration Sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrell, G. R.; Thyne, G. D.

    2007-12-01

    Currently there are several different carbon capture technologies either available or in active development for coal- fired power plants. Each approach has different advantages, limitations and costs that must be integrated with the method of sequestration and the physiochemical properties of carbon dioxide to evaluate which approach is most cost effective. For large volume point sources such as coal-fired power stations, the only viable sequestration sinks are either oceanic or geological in nature. However, the carbon processes and systems under consideration produce carbon dioxide at a variety of pressure and temperature conditions that must be made compatible with the sinks. Integration of all these factors provides a basis for meaningful economic comparisons between the alternatives. The high degree of compatibility between carbon dioxide produced by integrated gasification combined cycle technology and geological sequestration conditions makes it apparent that this coupling currently holds the advantage. Using a basis that includes complete source-to-sink sequestration costs, the relative cost benefit of pre-combustion IGCC compared to other post-combustion methods is on the order of 30%. Additional economic benefits arising from enhanced oil recovery revenues and potential sequestration credits further improve this coupling.

  13. [Research methods of carbon sequestration by soil aggregates: a review].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Xia; Liang, Ai-Zhen; Zhang, Xiao-Ping

    2012-07-01

    To increase soil organic carbon content is critical for maintaining soil fertility and agricultural sustainable development and for mitigating increased greenhouse gases and the effects of global climate change. Soil aggregates are the main components of soil, and have significant effects on soil physical and chemical properties. The physical protection of soil organic carbon by soil aggregates is the important mechanism of soil carbon sequestration. This paper reviewed the organic carbon sequestration by soil aggregates, and introduced the classic and current methods in studying the mechanisms of carbon sequestration by soil aggregates. The main problems and further research trends in this study field were also discussed.

  14. Proposed roadmap for overcoming legal and financial obstacles to carbon capture and sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Wendy ); Chohen, Leah; Kostakidis-Lianos, Leah; Rundell, Sara )

    2009-03-01

    Many existing proposals either lack sufficient concreteness to make carbon capture and geological sequestration (CCGS) operational or fail to focus on a comprehensive, long term framework for its regulation, thus failing to account adequately for the urgency of the issue, the need to develop immediate experience with large scale demonstration projects, or the financial and other incentives required to launch early demonstration projects. We aim to help fill this void by proposing a roadmap to commercial deployment of CCGS in the United States.This roadmap focuses on the legal and financial incentives necessary for rapid demonstration of geological sequestration in the absence of national restrictions on CO2 emissions. It weaves together existing federal programs and financing opportunities into a set of recommendations for achieving commercial viability of geological sequestration.

  15. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin David C.; O'Connor William K.; Penner Larry R.

    2003-11-01

    Concerns about global warming caused by the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere have resulted in the need for research to reduce or eliminate emissions of these gases. Carbonation of magnesium and calcium silicate minerals is one possible method to achieve this reduction. It is possible to carry out these reactions either in situ (storage underground and subsequent reaction with the host rock to trap CO2 as carbonate minerals) or ex situ (above ground in a more traditional chemical processing plant). Research at the Department of Energy’s Albany Research Center has explored both of these routes. This paper will explore parameters that affect the direct carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4) and olivine (Mg2SiO4) to produce magnesite (MgCO3), as well as the calcium silicate mineral, wollastonite (CaSiO3), to form calcite (CaCO3). The Columbia River Basalt Group is a multi-layered basaltic lava plateau that has favorable mineralogy and structure for storage of CO2. Up to 25% combined concentration of Ca, Fe2+, and Mg cations could react to form carbonates and thus sequester large quantities of CO2. Core samples from the Columbia River Basalt Group were reacted in an autoclave for up to 2000 hours at temperatures and pressures to simulate in situ conditions. Changes in core porosity, secondary minerals, and solution chemistry were measured.

  16. Geologic CO2 Sequestration Potential of 42 California Power Plant Sites: A Status Report to WESTCARB

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Katherine B.L.; Wagoner, J. L.

    2011-06-15

    Forty-two California natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plant sites were evaluated for geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration potential. The following data were collected in order to gauge the sequestration potential of each power plant site: nearest potential CO2 sink, proximity to oil or gas fi elds, subsurface geology, surface expression of nearby faults, and subsurface water. The data for each site were compiled into a one-page, standalone profi le to serve as a quick reference for future decision-makers. A subset of these data was compiled into a summary table for easy comparison of all 42 sites. Decision-makers will consider the geologic CO2 sequestration potential of each power plant in concert with its CO2 capture potential and will select the most suitable sites for a future carbon capture and storage project. Once the most promising sites are selected, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will conduct additional geologic research in order to construct a detailed 3D geologic model for those sites.

  17. Investigations into Wetland Carbon Sequestration as Remediation for Global Warming

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Blanton, Susan L.; Borde, Amy B.; Williams, Greg D.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Huesemann, Michael H.; KW Nehring and SE Brauning

    2002-01-01

    Wetlands can potentially sequester vast amounts of carbon. However, over 50% of wetlands globally have been degraded or lost. Restoration of wetland systems may therefore result in increased sequestration of carbon. Preliminary results of our investigations into atmospheric carbon sequestration by restored coastal wetlands indicate that carbon can be sequestered in substantial quantities in the first 2-50 years after restoration of natural hydrology and sediment accretion processes.

  18. Microseismic Monitoring of a Carbon Sequestration Field Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbancic, T. I.; Daugherty, J.; Baig, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    Microseismic monitoring was implemented as part of a comprehensive carbon sequestration monitoring program at the Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's geologic field test site in Otsego County, Michigan. The field test itself consisted of the injection of ~10,000 tonnes of CO2 over 31 days. The intent of the microseismic monitoring program was to understand its potential for verifying cap rock integrity and for identifying the position of the CO2 plume. Microseismic monitoring was achieved using two downhole geophone arrays located in observation wells within 750m of the injection well. One event was recorded during a period of higher relative injection rate and located at the base of the cap rock within the permitted injection interval, suggesting a possible linkage with pressure change or fluid mobilization caused by the CO2 injection processes. The full seismic moment tensor was determined for the injection related event revealing a complex failure mechanism that is consistent with a fracture initiation. The orientation of the fracture is consistant with the maximum horizontal stress in the region. In this context, failure mechanism is taken to be the description of the movement of the rocks. Microseismic monitoring has proved to be a valuable tool for monitoring cap rock integrity.

  19. A feasibility study of geological CO2 sequestration in the Ordos Basin, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiao, Z.; Surdam, R.C.; Zhou, L.; Stauffer, P.H.; Luo, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Shaanxi Province/Wyoming CCS Partnership (supported by DOE NETL) aims to store commercial quantities of CO2 safely and permanently in the Ordovician Majiagou Formation in the northern Ordos Basin, Shaanxi Province, China. This objective is imperative because at present, six coal-to-liquid facilities in Shaanxi Province are capturing and venting significant quantities of CO2. The Wyoming State Geological Survey and the Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Energy Resource and Chemical Engineering conducted a feasibility study to determine the potential for geological CO2 sequestration in the northern Ordos Basin near Yulin. The Shaanbei Slope of the Ordos Basin is a huge monoclinal structure with a high-priority sequestration reservoir (Majiagou Formation) that lies beneath a 2,000+ meter-thick sequence of Mesozoic rocks containing a multitude of lowpermeability lithologies. The targeted Ordovician Majiagou Formation in the location of interest is more than 700 meters thick. The carbonate reservoir is located at depths where pressures and temperatures are well above the supercritical point of CO2. The targeted reservoir contains high-salinity brines (20,000-50,000 ppm) that have little or no economic value. The targeted reservoir is continuous as inferred from well logs, and cores show that porosity ranges from 1 to 15% with average measured porosity of 8%, and that permeability ranges from 1-35 md. This paper focuses on calculations that will help evaluate the capacity estimates through the use of high-resolution multiphase numerical simulation models, as well as a more simple volumetric approach. The preliminary simulation results show that the Ordovician Majiagou Formation in the Ordos Basin has excellent potential for geological CO2 sequestration and could store the CO2 currently emitted by coal-to-liquid facilities in Shaanxi Province for hundreds of years (i.e., 9 Mt/year CO2; 450 Mt over a 50-year period at one injection site). ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Mineralization strategies for carbon dioxide sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, Larry R.; O'Connor, William K.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.

    2003-01-01

    Progress is reported in three primary research areas--each concerned with sequestering carbon dioxide into mineral matrices. Direct mineral carbonation was pioneered at Albany Research Center. The method treats the reactant, olivine or serpentine in aqueous media with carbon dioxide at high temperature and pressure to form stable mineral carbonates. Recent results are introduced for pretreatment by high-intensity grinding to improve carbonation efficiency. To prove feasibility of the carbonation process, a new reactor was designed and operated to progress from batch tests to continuous operation. The new reactor is a prototype high-temperature, high-pressure flow loop reactor that will furnish information on flow, energy consumption, and wear and corrosion resulting from slurry flow and the carbonation reaction. A promising alternative mineralization approach is also described. New data are presented for long-term exposure of carbon dioxide to Colombia River Basalt to determine the extent of conversion of carbon dioxide to permanent mineral carbonates. Batch autoclave tests were conducted using drill-core samples of basalt and reacted under conditions that simulate in situ injection into basalt-containing geological formations.

  1. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Bon Jun Koo; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-11-30

    The first quarter of 2004 was dedicated to tree planting activities in two locations in Kentucky. During the first year of this project there was not available mine land to plant in the Hazard area, so 107 acres were planted in the Martin County mine location. This year 120 acres were planted in the Hazard area to compensate for the prior year and an additional 57 acres were planted on Peabody properties in western Kentucky. Additional sets of special plots were established on each of these areas that contained 4800 seedlings each for carbon sequestration demonstrations. Plantings were also conducted to continue compaction and water quality studies on the newly established areas as well as continual measurements of the first year's plantings. Total plantings on this project now amount to 357 acres containing 245,960 seedlings. During the second quarter of this year monitoring systems were established for all the new research areas. Weather data pertinent to the research as well as hydrology and water quality monitoring continues to be conducted on all areas. Studies established to assess specific questions pertaining to carbon flux and the invasion of the vegetation by small mammals are being quantified. Experimental practices initiated with this research project will eventually allow for the planting on long steep slopes with loose grading systems and allow mountain top removal areas to be constructed with loose spoil with no grading of the final layers of rooting material when establishing trees for the final land use designation. Monitoring systems have been installed to measure treatment effects on both above and below ground carbon and nitrogen pools in the planting areas. Soil and tissue samples were collected from both years planting and analyses were conducted in the laboratory. Examination of decomposition and heterotropic respiration on carbon cycling in the reforestation plots continued during the reporting period. Entire planted trees were extracted

  2. Carbon sequestration via aqueous olivine mineral carbonation: role of passivating layer formation.

    PubMed

    Béarat, Hamdallah; McKelvy, Michael J; Chizmeshya, Andrew V G; Gormley, Deirdre; Nunez, Ryan; Carpenter, R W; Squires, Kyle; Wolf, George H

    2006-08-01

    CO2 sequestration via carbonation of widely available low-cost minerals, such as olivine, can permanently dispose of CO2 in an environmentally benign and a geologically stable form. We report the results of studies of the mechanisms that limit aqueous olivine carbonation reactivity under the optimum sequestration reaction conditions observed to date: 1 M NaCl + 0.64 M NaHCO3 at Te 185 degrees C and P(CO2) approximately equal to 135 bar. A reaction limiting silica-rich passivating layer (PL) forms on the feedstock grains, slowing carbonate formation and raising process cost. The morphology and composition of the passivating layers are investigated using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and atomic level modeling. Postreaction analysis of feedstock particles, recovered from stirred autoclave experiments at 1500 rpm, provides unequivocal evidence of local mechanical removal (chipping) of PL material, suggesting particle abrasion. This is corroborated by our observation that carbonation increases dramatically with solid particle concentration in stirred experiments. Multiphase hydrodynamic calculations are combined with experimentto better understand the associated slurry-flow effects. Large-scale atomic-level simulations of the reaction zone suggest that the PL possesses a "glassy" but highly defective SiO2 structure that can permit diffusion of key reactants. Mitigating passivating layer effectiveness is critical to enhancing carbonation and lowering sequestration process cost.

  3. Carbon sequestration via aqueous olivine mineral carbonation: role of passivating layer formation

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdallah Bearat; Michael J. McKelvy; Andrew V.G. Chizmeshya; Deirdre Gormley; Ryan Nunez; R.W. Carpenter; Kyle Squires; George H. Wolf

    2006-08-01

    CO{sub 2} sequestration via carbonation of widely available low-cost minerals, such as olivine, can permanently dispose of CO{sub 2} in an environmentally benign and a geologically stable form. The paper reports the results of studies of the mechanisms that limit aqueous olivine carbonation reactivity under the optimum sequestration reaction conditions observed to date: 1 M NaCl + 0.64 M NaHCO{sub 3} at T {approx} 185{sup o}C and P{sub CO{sub 2}} {approx} 135 bar. A reaction limiting silica-rich passivating layer (PL) forms on the feedstock grains, slowing carbonate formation and raising process cost. The morphology and composition of the passivating layers are investigated using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and atomic level modeling. Postreaction analysis of feedstock particles, recovered from stirred autoclave experiments at 1500 rpm, provides unequivocal evidence of local mechanical removal (chipping) of PL material, suggesting particle abrasion. This is corroborated by the observation that carbonation increases dramatically with solid particle concentration in stirred experiments. Multiphase hydrodynamic calculations are combined with experiment to better understand the associated slurry-flow effects. Large-scale atomic-level simulations of the reaction zone suggest that the PL possesses a 'glassy' but highly defective SiO{sub 2} structure that can permit diffusion of key reactants. Mitigating passivating layer effectiveness is critical to enhancing carbonation and lowering sequestration process cost. 30 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Implications of compensating property owners for geologic sequestration of CO2.

    PubMed

    Gresham, R Lee; McCoy, Sean T; Apt, Jay; Morgan, M Granger

    2010-04-15

    Geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2) is contingent upon securing the legal right to use deep subsurface pore space. Under the assumption that compensation might be required to use pore space for GS, we examine the cost of acquiring the rights to sequester 160-million metric tons of CO2 (the 30-year emissions output for an 800 megawatt power plant operating with a 60% capacity factor and at 90% capture efficiency) using a probabilistic model to simulate the temporal-spatial distribution of subsurface CO2 plumes in several brine-filled sandstones in Pennsylvania and Ohio. For comparison, the Frio Sandstone in the Texas Gulf Coast and the Mt. Simon Sandstone in Illinois were also analyzed. The predicted median values of CO2 plume footprints range from 4500 km(2) to 11,000 km(2) for the Ohio and Pennsylvania sandstones compared to 320 km(2) and 300 km(2) for the thicker Frio and Mt. Simon Sandstones, respectively. We use these footprints to bound the cost to use pore space in Pennsylvania and Ohio and, alternatively, the cost of piping CO2 from Pennsylvania and Ohio to the Mt. Simon or Frio Sandstones for sequestration. The results suggest that pore space acquisition costs could be significant and that using thin local formations for sequestration may be more expensive than piping CO2 to thicker formations at distant sites.

  5. CARBON SEQUESTRATION OF SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-05-19

    The January-March 2004 Quarter was dedicated to tree planting activities in two locations in Kentucky. During year one of this project there was no available mine land to plant in the Hazard area so 107 acres were planted in the Martin county mine location. This year 120 acres was planted in the Hazard area to compensate for the prior year and an additional 57 acres was planted on Peabody properties in western Kentucky. An additional set of special plots were established on each of these areas that contained 4800 seedlings each for special carbon sequestration determinations. Plantings were also conducted to continue compaction and water quality studies on two newly established areas as well as confirmed measurements on the first years plantings. Total plantings on this project now amount to 357 acres containing 245,960 tree seedlings.

  6. Carbon Sequestration in San Francisco Bay Tidal Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaway, J.; Borgnis, E.; Turner, R. E.; Milan, C.

    2012-12-01

    Many tidal wetlands accumulate soil carbon at relatively rapid rates, in large part because they build soil to counteract increases in sea-level rise. There is growing policy interest in carbon sequestration within tidal wetlands as California and other states consider incorporating tidal wetland restoration activities into carbon trading programs or other emission-reduction policies. Our research was designed to establish a baseline for carbon credits for tidal wetland restoration in the San Francisco Bay Estuary. We measured sediment accretion and carbon sequestration rates at six natural tidal wetlands representing the salinity and geographical range of the Estuary. These sites serve as potential analogs for long-term carbon sequestration in restored wetlands. We collected six cores at each natural wetland (two transects with three stations each). This approach allowed us to identify spatial variation both within and among wetlands in the Estuary. Cores from natural wetlands were dated using 137Cs and 210Pb. Although accretion rates could not be measured at restored wetlands, cores were also collected from two restored wetlands for comparison of soil organic matter and bulk density. Most sites accreted 0.3-0.5 cm/yr, with slightly higher rates of accretion at low marsh stations. Carbon sequestration rates averaged approximately 80 g/m2/yr over the 100-year time span of 210Pb and were slightly higher for 137Cs-based rates. Variation in long-term carbon sequestration rates across sites and stations was much smaller than the variation in mineral inputs, and there was little difference in sequestration rates among sites, or across stations within sites, indicating that a single carbon sequestration rate could be used for crediting tidal wetland restoration projects within the Estuary. Surface soil organic matter and bulk density values were similar across natural and restored wetlands, supporting the use of carbon sequestration data from natural wetlands as a

  7. The Deep Carbon Cycle and CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipovitch, N. B.; Mao, W. L.; Chou, I.; Mu, K.

    2009-12-01

    Increased understanding of the Earth’s carbon cycle may provide insight for future carbon storage. Long term geologic sequestration of CO2 occurs in the earth via exothermic reactions between CO2 and silicate minerals to form carbonate minerals. It has been shown that while there is a large enough supply of ultra mafic igneous rock to sequester the CO2 [1], the kinetics of this natural process are too slow to effectively manage our CO2 output. Most studies have focused on studying reaction kinetics at relatively low temperatures and pressures [2,3], and have found that the reaction kinetics are either too slow or (in the case of serpentine) necessitate an uneconomical heat pretreatment [3,4]. Our experiments expand the pressures and temperatures (up to 500 bars and exceeding 200 °C) at which the CO2 + silicate reaction is studied using fused silica capillary cells and Raman and XRD analysis. By increasing our understanding of the kinetics of this process and providing a valuable input for reactive flow and transport models, these results may guide approaches for practical CO2 sequestration in carbonate minerals as a way to manage atmospheric CO2 levels. High pressure and temperature results on carbonates have implications for understanding the deep carbon cycle. Most of the previous high pressure studies on carbonates have concentrated on magnesite (MgCO3), calcite (CaCO3), or dolomite ((Ca,Mg)CO3) [5,6]. While the Mg and Ca carbonates are the most abundant, iron-rich siderite (FeCO3) may be a significant player at greater depths within the earth. We performed XRD and Raman spectroscopy experiments on siderite to lower mantle pressures (up to 40 GPa) and observed a possible phase change around 13 GPa. References 1. Lackner, Klaus S., Wendt, Christopher H., Butt, Darryl P., Joyce, Edward L., Sharp, David H., 1995, Carbon dioxide disposal in carbonate minerals, Energy, Vol.20, No. 11, pp. 1153-1170 2. Bearat, Hamdallah, McKelvy, Michael J., Chizmeshya, Andrew V

  8. Carbon Sequestration on Mars: Constraints from the Nili Fossae Carbonate Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, C. S.; Ehlmann, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    Martian carbonates have been observed telescopically, from orbit, in situ and in Martian meteorites; however, a long-postulated geologic reservoir that accounts for proposed thinning of a multi-bar early Mars atmosphere by CO2 sequestration has not yet been identified. One striking aspect of the Martian geologic record is the presence of valley networks and open basin lakes last active around the Noachian/Hesperian boundary, at ca. 3.5 Ga. If surface waters were supported by a thicker atmosphere, hundreds of millibars to bars of CO2 would need to be lost to space during the Hesperian/Amazonian, inconsistent with current atmospheric models. Was this late CO2 sequestered in the Martian crust? We consider the role of diffuse and localized CO2 sequestration and constrain the timing and explore implications for late Noachian atmospheric conditions via examination of the age and composition of the largest contiguous exposure of carbonate-bearing rock on Mars, the Nili Fossae carbonate plains (21.5°N, 78.5°E). Morphological, spectral and thermophysical data sets from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer, Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars, Thermal Emission Imaging System, and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment are considered in the context of past atmospheric drawdown. We find the olivine-enriched (~20%-25%) basalts of the Nili Fossae plains have been altered, by low-temperature, in-situ carbonation processes, to at most ~20% Fe-Mg carbonate, thus limiting carbon sequestration in the Nili Fossae region to ~0.25-12 mbar of CO2 during the late Noachian/early Hesperian, before or concurrent with valley network formation. While large compared to modern-day CO2 reservoirs, the lack of additional, comparable-sized post-Late Noachian carbonate-bearing deposits on Mars indicates ineffective carbon sequestration in rock units over the past ~3.7 Ga. This implies a thin atmosphere (≲500 mbar) during valley network formation, extensive post

  9. An Alternative Mechanism for Accelerated Carbon Sequestration in Concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Haselbach, Liv M.; Thomle, Jonathan N.

    2014-07-01

    The increased rate of carbon dioxide sequestration (carbonation) is desired in many primary and secondary life applications of concrete in order to make the life cycle of concrete structures more carbon neutral. Most carbonation rate studies have focused on concrete exposed to air under various conditions. An alternative mechanism for accelerated carbon sequestration in concrete was investigated in this research based on the pH change of waters in contact with pervious concrete which have been submerged in carbonate laden waters. The results indicate that the concrete exposed to high levels of carbonate species in water may carbonate faster than when exposed to ambient air, and that the rate is higher with higher concentrations. Validation of increased carbon dioxide sequestration was also performed via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It is theorized that the proposed alternative mechanism reduces a limiting rate effect of carbon dioxide dissolution in water in the micro pores of the concrete.

  10. Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Appalachian Basin Test Site: Developing a Sequestration Site from Concept through Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerst, J. L.; Place, M.; Sminchak, J.; Gupta, N.; Sullivan, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP) Appalachian Basin Field Test is located at the First Energy Generation Corp. RE Burger Power Plant in Belmont County, Ohio. The goal at this site is to injection up to 3000 tonnes of carbon dioxide in up to three separate geologic formations. We present the development of this injection plan as more data was collected and added to the system. In addition, we present initial injection results. Site characterization consisted of a regional geological assessment and a 2D seismic survey. A test injection well (FEGENCO 1) was completed in early 2007 and data collected from this well, included geophysical wireline logs and core samples, were used to develop an injection plan. Two previously identified injection targets were analyzed, the Devonian Oriskany Sandstone and the Silurian Clinton Sandstone. Both of these sandstones are regional sequestration targets across the Midwestern United States. In addition to these, a third injection target was identified after drilling. The Silurian Salina Group is regionally extensive throughout most of the Midwest and consists of carbonate and evaporate layers. In the FEGENCO 1 well, one of the subgroups was found to have higher porosity dolomitic stringers sandwiched between anhydrite layers. Wireline data and field samples were used to better understand the geologic model and predict the porosity and permeability distribution of the interval. Injection is expected to be completed by Fall 2008. This work was done as part of the Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP); DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-05NT42589

  11. Near Surface Leakage Monitoring for the Verification and Accounting of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Using a Field Ready {sup 14}C Isotopic Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, Bruno

    2014-04-14

    Results for the development of a field ready multi-isotopic analyzer for {sup 12}CO{sub 2}, {sup 13}CO{sub 2} and {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and applications for carbon capture and storage (CCS) containment performance are described. A design goal of the field platform was to provide isotopic data with a high data rate, a standardized reference baseline and acceptable precision (e.g., ~ ±50 per mil D{sup 14}CO{sub 2}) for detection and quantification of fossil-fuel CO{sub 2} CCS leakage scenarios. The instrument platform was not designed to replace high precision accelerator mass spectrometry. An additional goal was to combine project scale isotopic data and associated fluxes with unique financial instruments linking CCS containment performance to a publicly traded security providing project revenue to stakeholders. While the primary goals of the project were attained additional work is needed for the instrument platform and deployment within a full scale CCS site that was not available during the project timeframe.

  12. Efficient parallel simulation of CO2 geologic sequestration insaline aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Keni; Doughty, Christine; Wu, Yu-Shu; Pruess, Karsten

    2007-01-01

    An efficient parallel simulator for large-scale, long-termCO2 geologic sequestration in saline aquifers has been developed. Theparallel simulator is a three-dimensional, fully implicit model thatsolves large, sparse linear systems arising from discretization of thepartial differential equations for mass and energy balance in porous andfractured media. The simulator is based on the ECO2N module of the TOUGH2code and inherits all the process capabilities of the single-CPU TOUGH2code, including a comprehensive description of the thermodynamics andthermophysical properties of H2O-NaCl- CO2 mixtures, modeling singleand/or two-phase isothermal or non-isothermal flow processes, two-phasemixtures, fluid phases appearing or disappearing, as well as saltprecipitation or dissolution. The new parallel simulator uses MPI forparallel implementation, the METIS software package for simulation domainpartitioning, and the iterative parallel linear solver package Aztec forsolving linear equations by multiple processors. In addition, theparallel simulator has been implemented with an efficient communicationscheme. Test examples show that a linear or super-linear speedup can beobtained on Linux clusters as well as on supercomputers. Because of thesignificant improvement in both simulation time and memory requirement,the new simulator provides a powerful tool for tackling larger scale andmore complex problems than can be solved by single-CPU codes. Ahigh-resolution simulation example is presented that models buoyantconvection, induced by a small increase in brine density caused bydissolution of CO2.

  13. [Seagrass ecosystems: contributions to and mechanisms of carbon sequestration].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Guang-Long; Lin, Hsing-Juh; Li, Zong-Shan; Fan, Hang-Qing; Zhou, Hao-Lang; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2014-06-01

    The ocean's vegetated habitats, in particular seagrasses, mangroves and salt marshes, each capture and store a comparable amount of carbon per year, forming the Earth's blue carbon sinks, the most intense carbon sinks on the planet. Seagrass meadows, characterized by high primary productivity, efficient water column filtration and sediment stability, have a pronounced capacity for carbon sequestration. This is enhanced by low decomposition rates in anaerobic seagrass sediments. The carbon captured by seagrass meadows contributes significantly to the total blue carbon. At a global scale, seagrass ecosystems are carbon sink hot spots and have profound influences on the global carbon cycle. This importance combined with the many other functions of seagrass meadows places them among the most valuable ecosystems in the world. Unfortunately, seagrasses are declining globally at an alarming rate owing to anthropogenic disturbances and climate change, making them also among the most threatened ecosystems on the Earth. The role of coastal systems in carbon sequestration has received far too little attention and thus there are still many uncertainties in evaluating carbon sequestration of global seagrass meadows accurately. To better assess the carbon sequestration of global seagrass ecosystems, a number of scientific issues should be considered with high priorities: 1) more accurate measurements of seagrass coverage at national and global levels; 2) more comprehensive research into species- and location-specific carbon sequestration efficiencies; 3) in-depth exploration of the effects of human disturbance and global climate change on carbon capture and storage by seagrass ecosystems.

  14. Low-Probability High-Consequence (LPHC) Failure Events in Geologic Carbon Sequestration Pipelines and Wells: Framework for LPHC Risk Assessment Incorporating Spatial Variability of Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Budnitz, Robert J.

    2016-08-31

    If Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is to be effective in mitigating climate change, it will need to be carried out on a very large scale. This will involve many thousands of miles of dedicated high-pressure pipelines in order to transport many millions of tonnes of CO2 annually, with the CO2 delivered to many thousands of wells that will inject the CO2 underground. The new CCS infrastructure could rival in size the current U.S. upstream natural gas pipeline and well infrastructure. This new infrastructure entails hazards for life, health, animals, the environment, and natural resources. Pipelines are known to rupture due to corrosion, from external forces such as impacts by vehicles or digging equipment, by defects in construction, or from the failure of valves and seals. Similarly, wells are vulnerable to catastrophic failure due to corrosion, cement degradation, or operational mistakes. While most accidents involving pipelines and wells will be minor, there is the inevitable possibility of accidents with very high consequences, especially to public health. The most important consequence of concern is CO2 release to the environment in concentrations sufficient to cause death by asphyxiation to nearby populations. Such accidents are thought to be very unlikely, but of course they cannot be excluded, even if major engineering effort is devoted (as it will be) to keeping their probability low and their consequences minimized. This project has developed a methodology for analyzing the risks of these rare but high-consequence accidents, using a step-by-step probabilistic methodology. A key difference between risks for pipelines and wells is that the former are spatially distributed along the pipe whereas the latter are confined to the vicinity of the well. Otherwise, the methodology we develop for risk assessment of pipeline and well failures is similar and provides an analysis both of the annual probabilities of

  15. Microbes under pressure: A comparison of CO2 stress responses on three model organisms and their implications for geologic carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santillan, E. U.; Franks, M. A.; Omelon, C. R.; Bennett, P.

    2011-12-01

    When carbon dioxide is captured and stored in deep saline aquifers, many biogeochemical changes will occur in these reservoirs. High concentrations of aqueous CO2 itself can be toxic to microorganisms as the gas easily enters cell membranes and alters intracellular cell functions. Because of this, we expect CO2 to be a perturbation that will alter microbial community composition. Microbes that are capable of withstanding CO2 stress will be selected for and their subsequent growth and metabolism will further affect brine chemistry. For this study, we examined three organisms representing metabolic functions and cellular structures potentially found in deep saline aquifers: the Gram-negative dissimilatory iron reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, the aerobic Gram-positive hydrocarbon degrading Geobacillus stearothermophilus, and the methanogenic archaeon Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus. Organisms were grown in batch cultures and subsequently exposed to high PCO2 ranging from 25 atm to 60 atm for 2 to 24 hours. Cultures were then plated for viability or tested for metabolic activity such as methane production. Following CO2 stress, organisms were also examined for membrane changes through phospholipid fatty acid analysis and for morphological changes by transmission electron microscopy. After only 2 hours of incubation in 30 atm of CO2, no viable cells were found in planktonic cultures of Shewanella. In contrast, cultures of Geobacillus remained viable (less than a log 2 reduction from initial counts) even after exposure to double the CO2 pressure and for 17 hours. However, when grown in the presence of quartz sandstone, biofilm formation on the rock surface occurred in Shewanella cultures, resulting in survival times greater than 8 hours. Our results suggest that biofilm formation and cell wall thickness may be two very important factors in resisting CO2 toxicity as they create a reactive barrier that slows the diffusion of CO2 into

  16. Photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berberoglu, Halil

    Photobiological hydrogen production is an alternative to thermochemical and electrolytic technologies with the advantage of carbon dioxide sequestration. However, it suffers from low solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency due to limited light transfer, mass transfer, and nutrient medium composition. The present study aims at addressing these limitations and can be divided in three parts: (1) experimental measurements of the radiation characteristics of hydrogen producing and carbon dioxide consuming microorganisms, (2) solar radiation transfer modeling and simulation in photobioreactors, and (3) parametric experiments of photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration. First, solar radiation transfer in photobioreactors containing microorganisms and bubbles was modeled using the radiative transport equation (RTE) and solved using the modified method of characteristics. The study concluded that Beer-Lambert's law gives inaccurate results and anisotropic scattering must be accounted for to predict the local irradiance inside a photobioreactor. The need for accurate measurement of the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms was established. Then, experimental setup and analysis methods for measuring the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms have been developed and successfully validated experimentally. A database of the radiation characteristics of representative microorganisms have been created including the cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis, the purple non-sulfur bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides and the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii along with its three genetically engineered strains. This enabled, for the first time, quantitative assessment of the effect of genetic engineering on the radiation characteristics of microorganisms. In addition, a parametric experimental study has been performed to model the growth, CO2 consumption, and H 2 production of Anabaena variabilis as functions of

  17. IN SITU MAGIC ANGLE SPINNING NMR FOR STUDYING GEOLOGICAL CO(2) SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyt, David W.; Turcu, Romulus VF; Sears, Jesse A.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hu, Jian Z.

    2011-03-27

    Geological carbon sequestration (GCS) is one of the most promising ways of mitigating atmospheric greenhouse gases (1-3). Mineral carbonation reactions are potentially important to the long-term sealing effectiveness of caprock but remain poorly predictable, particularly in low-water supercritical CO2 (scCO2)-dominated environments where the chemistry has not been adequately explored. In situ probes that provide molecular-level information is desirable for investigating mechanisms and rates of GCS mineral carbonation reactions. MAS-NMR is a powerful tool for obtaining detailed molecular structure and dynamics information of a system regardless whether the system is in a solid, a liquid, a gaseous, or a supercritical state, or a mixture thereof (4,5). However, MAS NMR under scCO2 conditions has never been realized due to the tremendous technical difficulties of achieving and maintaining high pressure within a fast spinning MAS rotor (6,7), where non-metal materials must be used. In this work, we report development of a unique high pressure MAS NMR capability, and its application to mineral carbonation chemistry in scCO2 under geologically relevant temperatures and pressures.

  18. Carbon Capture and Sequestration- A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Akash; Vyas, Savita

    2017-08-01

    The Drastic increase of CO2 emission in the last 30 years is due to the combustion of fossil fuels and it causes a major change in the environment such as global warming. In India, the emission of fossil fuels is developed in the recent years. The alternate energy sources are not sufficient to meet the values of this emission reduction and the framework of climate change demands the emission reduction, the CCS technology can be used as a mitigation tool which evaluates the feasibility for implementation of this technology in India. CCS is a process to capture the carbon dioxide from large sources like fossil fuel station to avoid the entrance of CO2 in the atmosphere. IPCC accredited this technology and its path for mitigation for the developing countries. In this paper, we present the technologies of CCS with its development and external factors. The main goal of this process is to avoid the release the CO2 into the atmosphere and also investigates the sequestration and mitigation technologies of carbon.

  19. Enhanced Performance Assessment System (EPAS) for carbon sequestration.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yifeng; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; McNeish, Jerry A.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Hadgu, Teklu; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.

    2010-09-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is an option to mitigate impacts of atmospheric carbon emission. Numerous factors are important in determining the overall effectiveness of long-term geologic storage of carbon, including leakage rates, volume of storage available, and system costs. Recent efforts have been made to apply an existing probabilistic performance assessment (PA) methodology developed for deep nuclear waste geologic repositories to evaluate the effectiveness of subsurface carbon storage (Viswanathan et al., 2008; Stauffer et al., 2009). However, to address the most pressing management, regulatory, and scientific concerns with subsurface carbon storage (CS), the existing PA methodology and tools must be enhanced and upgraded. For example, in the evaluation of a nuclear waste repository, a PA model is essentially a forward model that samples input parameters and runs multiple realizations to estimate future consequences and determine important parameters driving the system performance. In the CS evaluation, however, a PA model must be able to run both forward and inverse calculations to support optimization of CO{sub 2} injection and real-time site monitoring as an integral part of the system design and operation. The monitoring data must be continually fused into the PA model through model inversion and parameter estimation. Model calculations will in turn guide the design of optimal monitoring and carbon-injection strategies (e.g., in terms of monitoring techniques, locations, and time intervals). Under the support of Laboratory-Directed Research & Development (LDRD), a late-start LDRD project was initiated in June of Fiscal Year 2010 to explore the concept of an enhanced performance assessment system (EPAS) for carbon sequestration and storage. In spite of the tight time constraints, significant progress has been made on the project: (1) Following the general PA methodology, a preliminary Feature, Event, and Process (FEP) analysis was performed for

  20. Soil carbon sequestration and forest management: challenges and opportunities

    Treesearch

    Coeli M. Hoover

    2003-01-01

    The subject of the effects of forest management activities on soil carbon is a difficult one to address, but ongoing discussions of carbon sequestration as an emissions offset and the emergence of carbon-credit-trading systems necessitate that we broaden and deepen our understanding of the response of forest-soil carbon pools to forest management. There have been...

  1. The nuts and bolts of carbon sequestration in forests

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading as an incentive for conserving private forest lands. The presentation addresses carbon sequestration in forests and its significance for global warming. Carbon inventories, specifically in the are...

  2. The nuts and bolts of carbon sequestration in forests

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading as an incentive for conserving private forest lands. The presentation addresses carbon sequestration in forests and its significance for global warming. Carbon inventories, specifically in the are...

  3. Development and Implementation of the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium CO2-Technology Transfer Center

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Sallie E.

    2015-06-30

    In 2009, the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), in collaboration with the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC), created a regional technology training center to disseminate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technology gained through leadership and participation in regional carbon sequestration projects. This technology training center was titled and branded as the Sequestration Training and Education Program (STEP). Over the last six years STEP has provided local, regional, national, and international education and training opportunities for engineers, geologists, service providers, regulators, executives, K-12 students, K-12 educators, undergraduate students, graduate students, university and community college faculty members, and participants of community programs and functions, community organizations, and others. The goal for STEP educational programs has been on knowledge sharing and capacity building to stimulate economic recovery and development by training personnel for commercial CCS projects. STEP has worked with local, national and international professional organizations and regional experts to leverage existing training opportunities and provide stand-alone training. This report gives detailed information on STEP activities during the grant period (2009-2015).

  4. The Potential for Triggered Seismicity Associated With Geologic Sequestration of CO2 in Saline Aquifers (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoback, M. D.

    2010-12-01

    It is well known that for geologic sequestration of CO2 to play a significant role in greenhouse gas reduction it must operate at enormous scale. (Pacala and Socolow, Science 2004) pointed to a number options that could lead, by mid-century, to stabilization of CO2 in the atmosphere at about 550 ppm (roughly twice pre-industrial levels). For geologic sequestration of CO2 to play a significant role in a global strategy for greenhouse gas reduction, it must account for about a billion tons of carbon per year - about the same mass as total annual global oil production. A number of reports have addressed the expense associated with such an undertaking. In addition to the high capital and operating costs associated with equipping thousands of industrial plants with CO2 separation and capture equipment (coal burning power plants, refineries, cement plants, etc.), the transport, injection and long-term monitoring costs associated with large scale CO2 sequestration are formidable. Beyond economics, there is a potentially serious geological issue that threatens the viability of large scale CO2 sequestration which may not be technically solvable, at any cost - the likelihood that injection of enormous volumes of CO2 into the subsurface will trigger intraplate earthquakes. A number of lines of evidence indicate that to first-order, the Earth's brittle crust, even in intraplate regions, is in a state of frictional failure equilibrium. Earthquakes occur almost everywhere in intraplate areas around the world in response to regional plate-driving forces. At any given intraplate site, expected natural earthquakes that might be small enough and infrequent enough that it is safe for critical facilities such as nuclear power plants to operate for periods on the order of 50-100 years. Because there have been so many documented cases where fluid injection has disturbed the frictional-equilibrium of the crust and triggered earthquakes almost always relatively small. While the seismic

  5. Degradation of Well Cement by CO2 under Geologic Sequestration Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kutchko, B.G.; Strazisar, B.R.; Dzombak, D.A.; Lowry, G.V.; Thaulow, N.

    2007-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the durability of cements in wells penetrating candidate formations for geologic sequestration of CO2. These experiments showed a significant variation in the initial degradation (9 days of exposure) based on the curing conditions. The hightemperature (50 °C) and high-pressure (30.3 MPa) curing environment increased the degree of hydration and caused a change in the microstructure and distribution of the Ca(OH)2(s) phase within the cement. Cement cured at 50 °C and 30.3 MPa (representing sequestration conditions) proved to be more resistant to carbonic acid attack than cement cured at 22 °C and 0.1 MPa. The cement cured at 50 °C and 30.3 MPa exhibited a shallower depth of degradation and displayed a well-defined carbonated zone as compared to cement cured under ambient conditions. This is likely due to smaller, more evenly distributed Ca(OH)2(s) crystals that provide a uniform and effective barrier to CO2 attack.

  6. Seismicity Characterization and Monitoring at WESTCARB's Proposed Montezuma Hills Geologic Sequestration Site

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, T.M.; Haught, R.; Peterson, J.E.; Boyle, K.; Beyer, J.H.; Hutchings, L.R.

    2010-09-15

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), in collaboration with Shell Oil Co. performed site characterization for a potential small-scale pilot test of geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). The site area, know as Montezuma Hills, is near the town of Rio Vista in northern California. During the process of injection at a CO2 storage site, there is a potential for seismic events due to slippage upon pre-existing discontinuities or due to creation of new fractures. Observations from many injection projects have shown that the energy from these events can be used for monitoring of processes in the reservoir. Typically, the events are of relatively high frequency and very low amplitude. However, there are also well documented (non-CO2-related) cases in which subsurface injection operations have resulted in ground motion felt by near-by communities. Because of the active tectonics in California (in particular the San Andreas Fault system), and the potential for public concern, WESTCARB developed and followed an induced seismicity protocol (Myer and Daley, 2010). This protocol called for assessing the natural seismicity in the area and deploying a monitoring array if necessary. In this report, we present the results of the natural seismicity assessment and the results of an initial temporary deployment of two seismometers at the Montezuma Hills site. Following the temporary array deployment, the project was suspended and the array removed in August of 2010.

  7. Mapping the Mineral Resource Base for Mineral Carbon-Dioxide Sequestration in the Conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krevor, S.C.; Graves, C.R.; Van Gosen, B. S.; McCafferty, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This database provides information on the occurrence of ultramafic rocks in the conterminous United States that are suitable for sequestering captured carbon dioxide in mineral form, also known as mineral carbon-dioxide sequestration. Mineral carbon-dioxide sequestration is a proposed greenhouse gas mitigation technology whereby carbon dioxide (CO2) is disposed of by reacting it with calcium or magnesium silicate minerals to form a solid magnesium or calcium carbonate product. The technology offers a large capacity to permanently store CO2 in an environmentally benign form via a process that takes little effort to verify or monitor after disposal. These characteristics are unique among its peers in greenhouse gas disposal technologies. The 2005 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage suggested that a major gap in mineral CO2 sequestration is locating the magnesium-silicate bedrock available to sequester the carbon dioxide. It is generally known that silicate minerals with high concentrations of magnesium are suitable for mineral carbonation. However, no assessment has been made in the United States that details their geographical distribution and extent, nor has anyone evaluated their potential for use in mineral carbonation. Researchers at Columbia University and the U.S. Geological Survey have developed a digital geologic database of ultramafic rocks in the conterminous United States. Data were compiled from varied-scale geologic maps of magnesium-silicate ultramafic rocks. The focus of our national-scale map is entirely on ultramafic rock types, which typically consist primarily of olivine- and serpentine-rich rocks. These rock types are potentially suitable as source material for mineral CO2 sequestration.

  8. Accelerated carbonation of brucite in mine tailings for carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Anna L; Power, Ian M; Dipple, Gregory M

    2013-01-02

    Atmospheric CO(2) is sequestered within ultramafic mine tailings via carbonation of Mg-bearing minerals. The rate of carbon sequestration at some mine sites appears to be limited by the rate of CO(2) supply. If carbonation of bulk tailings were accelerated, large mines may have the capacity to sequester millions of tonnes of CO(2) annually, offsetting mine emissions. The effect of supplying elevated partial pressures of CO(2) (pCO(2)) at 1 atm total pressure, on the carbonation rate of brucite [Mg(OH)(2)], a tailings mineral, was investigated experimentally with conditions emulating those at Mount Keith Nickel Mine (MKM), Western Australia. Brucite was carbonated to form nesquehonite [MgCO(3) · 3H(2)O] at a rate that increased linearly with pCO(2). Geochemical modeling indicated that HCO(3)(-) promoted dissolution accelerated brucite carbonation. Isotopic and aqueous chemistry data indicated that equilibrium between CO(2) in the gas and aqueous phases was not attained during carbonation, yet nesquehonite precipitation occurred at equilibrium. This implies CO(2) uptake into solution remains rate-limiting for brucite carbonation at elevated pCO(2), providing potential for further acceleration. Accelerated brucite carbonation at MKM offers the potential to offset annual mine emissions by ~22-57%. Recognition of mechanisms for brucite carbonation will guide ongoing work to accelerate Mg-silicate carbonation in tailings.

  9. The path to a successful one-million tonne demonstration of geological sequestration: Characterization, cooperation, and collaboration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finley, R.J.; Greenberg, S.E.; Frailey, S.M.; Krapac, I.G.; Leetaru, H.E.; Marsteller, S.

    2011-01-01

    The development of the Illinois Basin-Decatur USA test site for a 1 million tonne injection of CO2 into the Mount Simon Sandstone saline reservoir beginning in 2011 has been a multiphase process requiring a wide array of personnel and resources that began in 2003. The process of regional characterization took two years as part of a Phase I effort focused on the entire Illinois Basin, located in Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky, USA. Seeking the cooperation of an industrial source of CO2 and site selection within the Basin took place during Phase II while most of the concurrent research emphasis was on a set of small-scale tests of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and CO2 injection into a coal seam. Phase III began the commitment to the 1 million-tonne test site development through the collaboration of the Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) who is providing a site, the CO2, and developing a compression facility, of Schlumberger Carbon Services who is providing expertise for operations, drilling, geophysics, risk assessment, and reservoir modelling, and of the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) whose geologists and engineers lead the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC). Communications and outreach has been a collaborative effort of ADM, ISGS and Schlumberger Carbon Services. The Consortium is one of the seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships, a carbon sequestration research program supported by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Carbon Capture and Geologic Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myer, Larry R.

    2008-09-01

    This paper will briefly discuss carbon capture and storage options, mechanisms and costs. Risks from geologic storage risks will be addressed and the need for monitoring. Some current field studies will be described.

  11. NATIVE PLANTS FOR OPTIMIZING CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN RECLAIMED LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    P. UNKEFER; M. EBINGER; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    Carbon emissions and atmospheric concentrations are expected to continue to increase through the next century unless major changes are made in the way carbon is managed. Managing carbon has emerged as a pressing national energy and environmental need that will drive national policies and treaties through the coming decades. Addressing carbon management is now a major priority for DOE and the nation. One way to manage carbon is to use energy more efficiently to reduce our need for major energy and carbon source-fossil fuel combustion. Another way is to increase our use of low-carbon and carbon free fuels and technologies. A third way, and the focus of this proposal, is carbon sequestration, in which carbon is captured and stored thereby mitigating carbon emissions. Sequestration of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere has emerged as the principle means by which the US will meet its near-term international and economic requirements for reducing net carbon emissions (DOE Carbon Sequestration: State of the Science. 1999; IGBP 1998). Terrestrial carbon sequestration provides three major advantages. First, terrestrial carbon pools and fluxes are of sufficient magnitude to effectively mitigate national and even global carbon emissions. The terrestrial biosphere stores {approximately}2060 GigaTons of carbon and transfers approximately 120 GigaTons of carbon per year between the atmosphere and the earth's surface, whereas the current global annual emissions are about 6 GigaTons. Second, we can rapidly and readily modify existing management practices to increase carbon sequestration in our extensive forest, range, and croplands. Third, increasing soil carbon is without negative environment consequences and indeed positively impacts land productivity. The terrestrial carbon cycle is dependent on several interrelationships between plants and soils. Because the soil carbon pool ({approximately}1500 Giga Tons) is approximately three times that in terrestrial vegetation

  12. Water, Energy and Carbon Sequestration Model (WECSsim) v. 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-14

    The national Water, Energy and Carbon Sequestration Simulation Model (WECSsim) is an analysis tool that can be used at the local, regional and national scale to address a potentially combined system using a coal or natural gas-fired power plant, a geologic carbon sequestration system in saline formations, and water extraction and treatment. With this combined system for geologic storage of CO2 in saline formations, the treated saline formation water could be used as cooling water in the power plant. The key areas addressed in this tool include applying a data reduction process to existing NatCarb saline formation data to select the most viable formations for CO2 injection, water withdrawal and treatment metrics, and developing a national model to address the multiple combinations of power plants and saline formations. This model can be utilized by decision makers to understand the economic benefits and tradeoffs of this combined system. WECSsim allows for sensitivity analyses for capital costs, variables costs, CO2 sequestration and water treatment systems’ costs. The main goal of the WECSsim model is to allow interested individuals or groups the ability to run custom power plant, CO2 sequestration and water use scenarios for different regions of the country and understand the associated economics, longevity and potential of the CO2 sequestration and water extraction systems.

  13. Earthworms facilitate carbon sequestration through unequal amplification of carbon stabilization compared with mineralization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weixin; Hendrix, Paul F; Dame, Lauren E; Burke, Roger A; Wu, Jianping; Neher, Deborah A; Li, Jianxiong; Shao, Yuanhu; Fu, Shenglei

    2013-01-01

    A recent review concluded that earthworm presence increases CO₂ emissions by 33% but does not affect soil organic carbon stocks. However, the findings are controversial and raise new questions. Here we hypothesize that neither an increase in CO₂ emission nor in stabilized carbon would entirely reflect the earthworms' contribution to net carbon sequestration. We show how two widespread earthworm invaders affect net carbon sequestration through impacts on the balance of carbon mineralization and carbon stabilization. Earthworms accelerate carbon activation and induce unequal amplification of carbon stabilization compared with carbon mineralization, which generates an earthworm-mediated 'carbon trap'. We introduce the new concept of sequestration quotient to quantify the unequal processes. The patterns of CO₂ emission and net carbon sequestration are predictable by comparing sequestration quotient values between treatments with and without earthworms. This study clarifies an ecological mechanism by which earthworms may regulate the terrestrial carbon sink.

  14. Constraining the effects of permeability uncertainty for geologic CO2 sequestration in a basalt reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayne, R., Jr.; Pollyea, R.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) in geologic reservoirs is one strategy for reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions from large-scale point-source emitters. Recent developments at the CarbFix CCS pilot in Iceland have shown that basalt reservoirs are highly effective for permanent mineral trapping on the basis of CO2-water-rock interactions, which result in the formation of carbonates minerals. In order to advance our understanding of basalt sequestration in large igneous provinces, this research uses numerical simulation to evaluate the feasibility of industrial-scale CO2 injections in the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). Although bulk reservoir properties are well constrained on the basis of field and laboratory testing from the Wallula Basalt Sequestration Pilot Project, there remains significant uncertainty in the spatial distribution of permeability at the scale of individual basalt flows. Geostatistical analysis of hydrologic data from 540 wells illustrates that CRBG reservoirs are reasonably modeled as layered heterogeneous systems on the basis of basalt flow morphology; however, the regional dataset is insufficient to constrain permeability variability at the scale of an individual basalt flow. As a result, permeability distribution for this modeling study is established by centering the lognormal permeability distribution in the regional dataset over the bulk permeability measured at Wallula site, which results in a spatially random permeability distribution within the target reservoir. In order to quantify the effects of this permeability uncertainty, CO2 injections are simulated within 50 equally probable synthetic reservoir domains. Each model domain comprises three-dimensional geometry with 530,000 grid blocks, and fracture-matrix interaction is simulated as interacting continua for the two low permeability layers (flow interiors) bounding the injection zone. Results from this research illustrate that permeability uncertainty at the scale of

  15. Soil Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The net CO2 sequestration from land use and land-use change increased from ~738 Tg CO2 equivalence in 1990 to ~884 Tg CO2 equivalence in 2006. The C sequestration in mineral soils was largely due to the conversion of cropland to permanent pastures and hay production, reduction in summer fallow in se...

  16. Delineation of Magnesium-rich Ultramafic Rocks Available for Mineral Carbon Sequestration in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krevor, S.C.; Graves, C.R.; Van Gosen, B. S.; McCafferty, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    The 2005 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage suggested that a major gap in mineral carbon sequestration is locating the magnesium-silicate bedrock available to sequester CO2. It is generally known that silicate minerals with high concentrations of magnesium are suitable for mineral carbonation. However, no assessment has been made covering the entire United States detailing their geographical distribution and extent, or evaluating their potential for use in mineral carbonation. Researchers at Columbia University and the U.S. Geological Survey have developed a digital geologic database of ultramafic rocks in the continental United States. Data were compiled from varied-scale geologic maps of magnesium-silicate ultramafic rocks. These rock types are potentially suitable as source material for mineral carbon-dioxide sequestration. The focus of the national-scale map is entirely on suitable ultramafic rock types, which typically consist primarily of olivine and serpentine minerals. By combining the map with digital datasets that show non-mineable lands (such as urban areas and National Parks), estimates on potential depth of a surface mine, and the predicted reactivities of the mineral deposits, one can begin to estimate the capacity for CO2 mineral sequestration within the United States. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Using a Natural Analogue to Investigate Chemical Reactions Associated with Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarre-Sitchler, A.; Kaszuba, J.; Thyne, G.

    2008-12-01

    Capture and storage of carbon dioxide in deep underground geologic formations (geologic carbon sequestration) is currently the most advanced technology for reducing or mitigating anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. There are a number of scientific challenges associated with injection and storage of large amounts of CO2 in geologic formations. Understanding the chemical reactions that can occur among reservoir rocks, aqueous fluids, and supercritical carbon dioxide ± other gasses is one of these challenges. Natural analogues to CO2 sequestration are systems where carbon dioxide has been stored over geologic time scales. By studying these analogues we can determine important chemical reactions between the host rock and stored gases. The Moxa Arch is a structural feature located in the southern end of the greater Green River Basin, Wyoming. Carbon dioxide and methane were emplaced in Paleozoic rocks, including the 1000 feet thick Mississippian age Madison Limestone, of the Moxa Arch through natural processes. Concentrations of carbon dioxide in the emplaced gas in these formations vary in the region of the Moxa Arch from 70-95% and are as low as ~ 15% in gas producing areas outside of the Moxa Arch. Methane, hydrogen sulfide and helium comprise the balance of the gas compositons. Geochemical reaction path and reactive transport models based upon the mineralogy of 12 core samples collected from three wells completed in the Madison Limestone near the Moxa Arch will be presented. These models help identify potential geochemical reactions between reservoir minerals and stored gasses.

  18. Carbon capture and sequestration: identifying and managing risks - article no. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandra B. Klass; Elizabeth J. Wilson

    2009-07-01

    Carbon capture and geologic sequestration (CCS) technology promises to provide deep emissions cuts, particularly from coal power generation, but deploying CCS creates risks of its own. This article first considers the risks associated with CCS, which involves capturing CO{sub 2} emissions from industrial sources and power plants, transporting the CO{sub 2} by pipeline, and injecting it underground for permanent sequestration. The article then suggests ways in which these risks can be minimized and managed and considers more broadly when or if CCS should be deployed or whether its use should be limited or rejected in favor of other solutions.

  19. Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration: Analysis of Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration at Three Contaminated Sites Remediated and Revitalized with Soil Amendments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This paper provides EPA's analysis of the data to determine carbon sequestration rates at three diverse sites that differ in geography/location, weather, soil properties, type of contamination, and age.

  20. NATCARB Interactive Maps and the National Carbon Explorer: a National Look at Carbon Sequestration

    DOE Data Explorer

    NATCARB is a national look at carbon sequestration. The NATCARB home page, National Carbon Explorer (http://www.natcarb.org/) provides access to information and interactive maps on a national scale about climate change, DOE's carbon sequestration program and its partnerships, CO2 emissions, and sinks. This portal provides access to interactive maps based on the Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada.

  1. Carbon sequestration potential of extensive green roofs.

    PubMed

    Getter, Kristin L; Rowe, D Bradley; Robertson, G Philip; Cregg, Bert M; Andresen, Jeffrey A

    2009-10-01

    Two studies were conducted with the objective of quantifying the carbon storage potential of extensive green roofs. The first was performed on eight roofs in Michigan and four roofs in Maryland, ranging from 1 to 6 years in age. All 12 green roofs were composed primarily of Sedum species, and substrate depths ranged from 2.5 to 12.7 cm. Aboveground plant material was harvested in the fall of 2006. On average, these roofs stored 162 g C x m(-2) in aboveground biomass. The second study was conducted on a roof in East Lansing, MI. Twenty plots were established on 21 April 2007 with a substrate depth of 6.0 cm. In addition to a substrate only control, the other plots were sown with a single species of Sedum (S. acre, S. album, S. kamtshaticum, or S. spurium). Species and substrate depth represent typical extensive green roofs in the United States. Plant material and substrate were harvested seven times across two growing seasons. Results at the end of the second year showed that aboveground plant material storage varied by species, ranging from 64 g C x m(-2) (S. acre) to 239 g C x m(-2) (S. album), with an average of 168 g C x m(-2). Belowground biomass ranged from 37 g C x m(-2) (S. acre) to 185 g C x m(-2) (S. kamtschaticum) and averaged 107 g C x m(-2). Substrate carbon content averaged 913 g C x m(-2), with no species effect, which represents a sequestration rate of 100 g C x m(-2) over the 2 years of this study. The entire extensive green roof system sequestered 375 g C x m(-2) in above- and belowground biomass and substrate organic matter.

  2. 40 CFR 144.15 - Prohibition of non-experimental Class V wells for geologic sequestration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition of non-experimental Class V wells for geologic sequestration. 144.15 Section 144.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Program Requirements § 144.15 Prohibition of non-experimental Class V wells for geologic...

  3. Carbon sequestration by young Norway spruce monoculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorny, R.; Rajsnerova, P.; Kubásek, J.

    2012-04-01

    Many studies have been focused on allometry, wood-mass inventory, carbon (C) sequestration, and biomass expansion factors as the first step for the evaluation of C sinks of different plant ecosystems. To identify and quantify these terrestrial C sinks, and evaluate CO2 human-induced emissions on the other hand, information for C balance accounting (for impletion of commitment to Kyoto protocol) are currently highly needed. Temperate forest ecosystems have recently been identified as important C sink. Carbon sink might be associated with environmental changes (elevated [CO2], air temperature, N deposition etc.) and large areas of managed fast-growing young forests. Norway spruce (Pice abies L. Karst) is the dominant tree species (35%) in Central European forests. It covers 55 % of the total forested area in the Czech Republic, mostly at high altitudes. In this contribution we present C sequestration by young (30-35 year-old) Norway spruce monocultures in highland (650-700 m a.s.l., AT- mean annual temperature: 6.9 ° C; P- annual amount of precipitation: 700 mm; GL- growing season duration: 150 days) and mountain (850-900 m a.s.l.; AT of 5.5 ° C; P of 1300 mm; and GL of 120 days) areas and an effect of a different type of thinning. However, the similar stem diameter at the breast height and biomass proportions among above-ground tree organs were obtained in the both localities; the trees highly differ in their height, above-ground organ's biomass values and total above ground biomass, particularly in stem. On the total mean tree biomass needle, branch and stem biomass participated by 22 %, 24 % and 54 % in highland, and by 19 %, 23 % and 58 % in mountain area, respectively. Silvicultural management affects mainly structure, density, and tree species composition of the stand. Therefore, dendrometric parameters of a tree resulted from genotype, growth conditions and from management history as well. Low type of thinning (LT; common in highland) stimulates rather tree

  4. Trading Water for Carbon with Biological Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Robert B.; Jobbágy, Esteban G.; Avissar, Roni; Roy, Somnath Baidya; Barrett, Damian J.; Cook, Charles W.; Farley, Kathleen A.; le Maitre, David C.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Murray, Brian C.

    2005-12-01

    Carbon sequestration strategies highlight tree plantations without considering their full environmental consequences. We combined field research, synthesis of more than 600 observations, and climate and economic modeling to document substantial losses in stream flow, and increased soil salinization and acidification, with afforestation. Plantations decreased stream flow by 227 millimeters per year globally (52%), with 13% of streams drying completely for at least 1 year. Regional modeling of U.S. plantation scenarios suggests that climate feedbacks are unlikely to offset such water losses and could exacerbate them. Plantations can help control groundwater recharge and upwelling but reduce stream flow and salinize and acidify some soils.

  5. Trading water for carbon with biological carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Robert B; Jobbágy, Esteban G; Avissar, Roni; Roy, Somnath Baidya; Barrett, Damian J; Cook, Charles W; Farley, Kathleen A; le Maitre, David C; McCarl, Bruce A; Murray, Brian C

    2005-12-23

    Carbon sequestration strategies highlight tree plantations without considering their full environmental consequences. We combined field research, synthesis of more than 600 observations, and climate and economic modeling to document substantial losses in stream flow, and increased soil salinization and acidification, with afforestation. Plantations decreased stream flow by 227 millimeters per year globally (52%), with 13% of streams drying completely for at least 1 year. Regional modeling of U.S. plantation scenarios suggests that climate feedbacks are unlikely to offset such water losses and could exacerbate them. Plantations can help control groundwater recharge and upwelling but reduce stream flow and salinize and acidify some soils.

  6. Management of water extracted from carbon sequestration projects

    SciTech Connect

    Harto, C. B.; Veil, J. A.

    2011-03-11

    Throughout the past decade, frequent discussions and debates have centered on the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). For sequestration to have a reasonably positive impact on atmospheric carbon levels, the anticipated volume of CO{sub 2} that would need to be injected is very large (many millions of tons per year). Many stakeholders have expressed concern about elevated formation pressure following the extended injection of CO{sub 2}. The injected CO{sub 2} plume could potentially extend for many kilometers from the injection well. If not properly managed and monitored, the increased formation pressure could stimulate new fractures or enlarge existing natural cracks or faults, so the CO{sub 2} or the brine pushed ahead of the plume could migrate vertically. One possible tool for management of formation pressure would be to extract water already residing in the formation where CO{sub 2} is being stored. The concept is that by removing water from the receiving formations (referred to as 'extracted water' to distinguish it from 'oil and gas produced water'), the pressure gradients caused by injection could be reduced, and additional pore space could be freed up to sequester CO{sub 2}. Such water extraction would occur away from the CO{sub 2} plume to avoid extracting a portion of the sequestered CO{sub 2} along with the formation water. While water extraction would not be a mandatory component of large-scale carbon storage programs, it could provide many benefits, such as reduction of pressure, increased space for CO{sub 2} storage, and potentially, 'plume steering.' Argonne National Laboratory is developing information for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to evaluate management of extracted water. If water is extracted from geological formations designated to receive injected CO{sub 2} for sequestration, the project operator will need to identify methods for managing very large volumes of water

  7. CRADA Carbon Sequestration in Soils and Commercial Products

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, G.K.

    2002-01-31

    ORNL, through The Consortium for Research on Enhancing Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems (CSiTE), collaborated with The Village Botanica, Inc. (VB) on a project investigating carbon sequestration in soils and commercial products from a new sustainable crop developed from perennial Hibiscus spp. Over 500 pre-treated samples were analyzed for soil carbon content. ORNL helped design a sampling scheme for soils during the planting phase of the project. Samples were collected and prepared by VB and analyzed for carbon content by ORNL. The project did not progress to a Phase II proposal because VB declined to prepare the required proposal.

  8. Plant functional traits and soil carbon sequestration in contrasting biomes.

    PubMed

    De Deyn, Gerlinde B; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Bardgett, Richard D

    2008-05-01

    Plant functional traits control a variety of terrestrial ecosystem processes, including soil carbon storage which is a key component of the global carbon cycle. Plant traits regulate net soil carbon storage by controlling carbon assimilation, its transfer and storage in belowground biomass, and its release from soil through respiration, fire and leaching. However, our mechanistic understanding of these processes is incomplete. Here, we present a mechanistic framework, based on the plant traits that drive soil carbon inputs and outputs, for understanding how alteration of vegetation composition will affect soil carbon sequestration under global changes. First, we show direct and indirect plant trait effects on soil carbon input and output through autotrophs and heterotrophs, and through modification of abiotic conditions, which need to be considered to determine the local carbon sequestration potential. Second, we explore how the composition of key plant traits and soil biota related to carbon input, release and storage prevail in different biomes across the globe, and address the biome-specific mechanisms by which plant trait composition may impact on soil carbon sequestration. We propose that a trait-based approach will help to develop strategies to preserve and promote carbon sequestration.

  9. Calcium Carbonate Produced by Coccolithophorid Algae in Long Term, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry

    2007-06-30

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO2 through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids - single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate - to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  10. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry

    2004-04-26

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  11. Calcium Carbonate Production by Coccolithophorid Algae in Long Term, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry

    2005-04-29

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  12. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHAPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V. J.Fabry

    2004-01-30

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  13. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

    2003-04-15

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  14. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

    2001-12-15

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  15. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

    2002-04-05

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  16. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry

    2001-07-01

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  17. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

    2001-09-10

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  18. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

    2002-07-09

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  19. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V. J. Fabry

    2005-01-24

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids ? single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate ? to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  20. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V. J. Fabry

    2003-10-30

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds or bioreactors to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  1. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

    2002-09-30

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  2. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

    2002-12-15

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  3. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

    2003-07-15

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  4. Calcium Carbonate Production by Coccolithophorid Alge in Long Term Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    V. J. Fabry

    2006-09-30

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  5. Calcium Carbonate Production by Coccolithophorid Algae in Long Term, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    V. J. Fabry

    2006-06-30

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  6. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry

    2004-10-30

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds or bioreactors to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  7. Evaluating the impact of aquifer layer properties on geomechanical response during CO2 geological sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Jie; Xu, Zhijie; Lin, Guang; Fang, Yilin

    2013-04-01

    Numerical models play an essential role in understanding the facts of carbon dioxide (CO2) geological sequestration in the life cycle of a storage reservoir. We present a series of test cases that reflect a broad and realistic range of aquifer reservoir properties to systematically evaluate and compare the impacts on the geomechanical response to CO2 injection. In this study, a coupled hydro-mechanical model was introduced to simulate the sequestration process, and a quasi-Monte Carlo sampling method was introduced to efficiently sample the value of aquifer properties and geometry parameters. Aquifer permeability was found to be of significant importance to the geomechanical response to the injection. To study the influence of uncertainty of the permeability distribution in the aquifer, an additional series of tests is presented, based on a default permeability distribution site sample with various distribution deviations generated by the Monte Carlo sampling method. The results of the test series show that different permeability distributions significantly affect the displacement and possible failure zone.

  8. Calculation of hydrocarbon-in-place in gas and gas-condensate reservoirs - Carbon dioxide sequestration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.

    2012-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (Public Law 110-140) authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2), requiring estimation of hydrocarbon-in-place volumes and formation volume factors for all the oil, gas, and gas-condensate reservoirs within the U.S. sedimentary basins. The procedures to calculate in-place volumes for oil and gas reservoirs have already been presented by Verma and Bird (2005) to help with the USGS assessment of the undiscovered resources in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska, but there is no straightforward procedure available for calculating in-place volumes for gas-condensate reservoirs for the carbon sequestration project. The objective of the present study is to propose a simple procedure for calculating the hydrocarbon-in-place volume of a condensate reservoir to help estimate the hydrocarbon pore volume for potential CO2 sequestration.

  9. Carbon emissions and sequestration potential of Central African ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q; Justice, C O

    2001-09-01

    Joint Implementation under the Climate Change Convention and Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol require a scientific understanding of current carbon stocks, fluxes, and sequestration potential, especially in tropical ecosystems where there are large carbon reservoirs, significant carbon emissions, and large land areas available for reforestation. Central Africa contains 10% of the world's remaining tropical moist forests and has received little attention in carbon studies. In 1980, above-ground carbon stocks in the central African ecosystem were 28.92 Pg and were reduced to 24.79 Pg by 1990. Improved forest management aimed at increasing biomass density could sequester 18.32 Pg of carbon, and over 500,000 km2 formerly forested land will be available by 2050 for reforestation with a capacity to offset 10 Pg carbon. Understanding the spatial distribution of biomass carbon and sequestration potential will be essential for carbon trading initiatives through Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism.

  10. High resolution modeling of direct ocean carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Follows; John Marshall

    2004-04-22

    This work has followed two themes: (1) Developing and using the adjoint of the MIT ocean biogeochemistry model to examine the efficiency of carbon sequestration in a global configuration. We have demonstrated the power of the adjoint method for systematic ocean model sensitivity studies. We have shown that the relative efficiency of carbon sequestration in the Atlantic and Pacific basins changes with the period of interest. For decadal to centennial scales, the Pacific is more efficient. On longer timescales the Atlantic is more efficient . (2) We have developed and applied a high-resolution, North Atlantic circulation and tracer model to investigate the role of the mesoscale in controlling sequestration efficiency. We show that the mesoscale eddy field, and its explicit representation, significantly affects the estimated sequestration efficiency for local sources on the Eastern US seaboard.

  11. Thermodynamic Data for Geochemical Modeling of Carbonate Reactions Associated with CO2 Sequestration – Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2010-09-01

    Permanent storage of anthropogenic CO2 in deep geologic formations is being considered as a means to reduce the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and thus its contribution to global climate change. To ensure safe and effective geologic sequestration, numerous studies have been completed of the extent to which the CO2 migrates within geologic formations and what physical and geochemical changes occur in these formations when CO2 is injected. Sophisticated, computerized reservoir simulations are used as part of field site and laboratory CO2 sequestration studies. These simulations use coupled multiphase flow-reactive chemical transport models and/or standalone (i.e., no coupled fluid transport) geochemical models to calculate gas solubility, aqueous complexation, reduction/oxidation (redox), and/or mineral solubility reactions related to CO2 injection and sequestration. Thermodynamic data are critical inputs to modeling geochemical processes. The adequacy of thermodynamic data for carbonate compounds has been identified as an important data requirement for the successful application of these geochemical reaction models to CO2 sequestration. A review of thermodynamic data for CO2 gas and carbonate aqueous species and minerals present in published data compilations and databases used in geochemical reaction models was therefore completed. Published studies that describe mineralogical analyses from CO2 sequestration field and natural analogue sites and laboratory studies were also reviewed to identify specific carbonate minerals that are important to CO2 sequestration reactions and therefore require thermodynamic data. The results of the literature review indicated that an extensive thermodynamic database exists for CO2 and CH4 gases, carbonate aqueous species, and carbonate minerals. Values of ΔfG298° and/or log Kr,298° are available for essentially all of these compounds. However, log Kr,T° or heat capacity values at temperatures above 298 K exist for less than

  12. Formation and Geological Sequestration of Uranium Nanoparticles in Deep Granitic Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yohey; Mukai, Hiroki; Ishimura, Toyoho; Yokoyama, Takaomi D.; Sakata, Shuhei; Hirata, Takafumi; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Mizuno, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    The stimulation of bacterial activities that convert hexavalent uranium, U(VI), to tetravalent uranium, U(IV), appears to be feasible for cost-effective remediation of contaminated aquifers. However, U(VI) reduction typically results in the precipitation of U(IV) particles less than 5 nanometers in diameter, except for environmental conditions enriched with iron. Because these tiny particles are mobile and susceptible to oxidative dissolution after the termination of nutrient injection, in situ bioremediation remains to be impractical. Here we show that U(IV) nanoparticles of coffinite (U(SiO4)1‑x(OH)4x) formed in fracture-filling calcium carbonate in a granitic aquifer. In situ U-Pb isotope dating demonstrates that U(IV) nanoparticles have been sequestered in the calcium carbonate for at least 1 million years. As the microbiologically induced precipitation of calcium carbonate in aquifer systems worldwide is extremely common, we anticipate simultaneous stimulation of microbial activities for precipitation reactions of calcium carbonate and U(IV) nanoparticles, which leads to long-term sequestration of uranium and other radionuclides in contaminated aquifers and deep geological repositories.

  13. Formation and Geological Sequestration of Uranium Nanoparticles in Deep Granitic Aquifer

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yohey; Mukai, Hiroki; Ishimura, Toyoho; Yokoyama, Takaomi D.; Sakata, Shuhei; Hirata, Takafumi; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Mizuno, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The stimulation of bacterial activities that convert hexavalent uranium, U(VI), to tetravalent uranium, U(IV), appears to be feasible for cost-effective remediation of contaminated aquifers. However, U(VI) reduction typically results in the precipitation of U(IV) particles less than 5 nanometers in diameter, except for environmental conditions enriched with iron. Because these tiny particles are mobile and susceptible to oxidative dissolution after the termination of nutrient injection, in situ bioremediation remains to be impractical. Here we show that U(IV) nanoparticles of coffinite (U(SiO4)1−x(OH)4x) formed in fracture-filling calcium carbonate in a granitic aquifer. In situ U-Pb isotope dating demonstrates that U(IV) nanoparticles have been sequestered in the calcium carbonate for at least 1 million years. As the microbiologically induced precipitation of calcium carbonate in aquifer systems worldwide is extremely common, we anticipate simultaneous stimulation of microbial activities for precipitation reactions of calcium carbonate and U(IV) nanoparticles, which leads to long-term sequestration of uranium and other radionuclides in contaminated aquifers and deep geological repositories. PMID:26948389

  14. Carbon Sequestration: is Science Leading Policy or Will Policy Direct Science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, A. K.

    2007-12-01

    Climate-related policy is in its infancy on capital hill, as policy makers only recently started to converge on the acceptance that climate change is a credible, scientific reality. Until recently much of the debate and policy decisions have been related to whether or not climate change, or more specifically global warming, is occurring. The climate debate has shifted from discussing the science behind climate change to addressing how we can reduce carbon dioxide emissions. In the 110th Congress, policy makers have come to realize and accept that we, as a nation, are one of the largest global emitters of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Geologic carbon sequestration has gained significant congressional attention and is considered to be one of the most promising carbon mitigation tools. In the present Congress, scientific experts have testified before numerous committees about the various caveats of geologic carbon sequestration. As a result, policy has been and is currently being drafted to address the challenges facing large-scale commercial demonstration of geologic sequestration facilities. Policy has been passed through both the House and Senate that is aimed at increasing funding for basic and advanced research, development, and demonstration of small- to large-scale carbon dioxide injection projects. This legislation is only the beginning of a series of legislation that is under development. In the next year, policy will be introduced that will likely address issues related to pore space and mineral rights ownership, regulatory framework for carbon dioxide transport and injection, long-term injection site monitoring protocol, personal and environmental safety, and liability issues, to name a few. Policy is not limited to the technical aspects of carbon capture, transport, and storage, but is also being developed to help stimulate a market that will be operating under climate constraints. Financial incentives have been proposed that will assist industrial

  15. [Carbon sequestration of young Robinia pseudoacacia plantation in Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-qun; Su, Yin-quan; Kang, Yong-xiang; Xu, Xi-ming; Qin, Yue

    2009-12-01

    In order to understand the carbon sequestration of ecological forests in Loess Plateau, a comparative study was made on the organic carbon density (OCD) of soil, litter, and plant organs in an 8-year-old Robinia pseudoacacia plantation and nearby barren land. Comparing with the barren land, the young R. pseudoacacia plantation had a decrease (0.26 kg x m(-2)) of soil OCD, but the OCD in its litter, root system, and aboveground organs increased by 121.1%, 202.0%, and 656. 7%, respectively, with a total carbon sequestration increased by 3.3% annually, which illustrated that R. pseudoacacia afforestation on Loess Plateau had an obvious positive effect on carbon sequestration.

  16. Limits on carbon sequestration in arid blue carbon ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Schile, Lisa M; Kauffman, J Boone; Crooks, Stephen; Fourqurean, James W; Glavan, Jane; Megonigal, J Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Environmental Data Initiative. These carbon stock data supported two objectives: to quantify carbon stocks and infer sequestration capacity in arid blue carbon ecosystems, and to explore the potential to incorporate blue carbon science into national reporting and planning documents. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Measurement guidelines for the sequestration of forest carbon

    Treesearch

    Timothy R.H. Pearson; Sandra L. Brown; Richard A. Birdsey

    2007-01-01

    Measurement guidelines for forest carbon sequestration were developed to support reporting by public and private entities to greenhouse gas registries. These guidelines are intended to be a reference for designing a forest carbon inventory and monitoring system by professionals with a knowledge of sampling, statistical estimation, and forest measurements. This report...

  18. Biochar: A synthesis of its agronomic impact beyond carbon sequestration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biochar has been recently heralded as an amendment to revitalize degraded soils, improve soil carbon sequestration, increase agronomic productivity and enter into future carbon trading markets. However, scientific and economic technicalities may limit the ability of biochar to consistently deliver o...

  19. Carbon sequestration potential for forage and pasture systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grassland soils represent a large reservoir of organic and inorganic carbon. Regionally, grasslands are annual CO2 sources or sinks depending on crop and soil management, current soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration and climate. Land management changes (LMC) impact SOC sequestration rate, the du...

  20. Terrestrial biological carbon sequestration: science for enhancement and implementation

    Treesearch

    Wilfred M. Post; James E. Amonette; Richard Birdsey; Charles T. Jr. Garten; R. Cesar Izaurralde; Philip Jardine; Julie Jastrow; Rattan Lal; Gregg. Marland

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to review terrestrial biological carbon sequestration and evaluate the potential carbon storage capacity if present and new techniques are more aggressively utilized. Photosynthetic CO2 capture from the atmosphere and storage of the C in aboveground and belowground biomass and in soil organic and inorganic forms can...

  1. GEOLOGIC SCREENING CRITERIA FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN COAL: QUANTIFYING POTENTIAL OF THE BLACK WARRIOR COALBED METHANE FAIRWAY, ALABAMA

    SciTech Connect

    Jack C. Pashin; Richard E. Carroll; Richard H. Groshong Jr.; Dorothy E. Raymond; Marcella McIntyre; J. Wayne Payton

    2004-01-01

    Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in coal has potential benefits for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the highly industrialized Carboniferous coal basins of North America and Europe and for enhancing coalbed methane recovery. Hence, enhanced coalbed methane recovery operations provide a basis for a market-based environmental solution in which the cost of sequestration is offset by the production and sale of natural gas. The Black Warrior foreland basin of west-central Alabama contains the only mature coalbed methane production fairway in eastern North America, and data from this basin provide an excellent basis for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential of coal and for identifying the geologic screening criteria required to select sites for the demonstration and commercialization of carbon sequestration technology. Coalbed methane reservoirs in the upper Pottsville Formation of the Black Warrior basin are extremely heterogeneous, and this heterogeneity must be considered to screen areas for the application of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery technology. Major screening factors include stratigraphy, geologic structure, geothermics, hydrogeology, coal quality, sorption capacity, technology, and infrastructure. Applying the screening model to the Black Warrior basin indicates that geologic structure, water chemistry, and the distribution of coal mines and reserves are the principal determinants of where CO{sub 2} can be sequestered. By comparison, coal thickness, temperature-pressure conditions, and coal quality are the key determinants of sequestration capacity and unswept coalbed methane resources. Results of this investigation indicate that the potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in the Black Warrior basin is substantial and can result in significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions while increasing natural gas reserves. Coal-fired power plants serving the Black Warrior basin in

  2. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner; Carmen Agouridis

    2006-03-31

    reclamation practice. In addition, experiments were integrated within the reforestation effort to address specific questions pertaining to sequestration of carbon (C) on these sites.

  3. Characterization of the Helderberg Group as a geologic seal for CO 2 sequestration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, J.E.; McDowell, R.R.; Avary, K.L.; Carter, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership recognizes that both the Devonian Oriskany Sandstone and the Silurian Salina Group offer potential for subsurface carbon dioxide storage in northern West Virginia. The Silurian-Devonian Helderberg Group lies stratigraphically between these two units, and consequendy, its potential as a geologic seal must be evaluated. Predominantly a carbonate interval with minor interbedded siliciclastics and chert, the Helderberg Group was deposited in an ancient epeiric sea. Although most previous investigations of this unit have concentrated on outcrops in eastern West Virginia, new information is available from an injection well drilled along the Ohio River at First Energy's R. E. Burger electric power plant near Shadyside, Ohio. Geophysical, seismic, and core data from this well have been combined with existing outcrop information to evaluate the Helderberg Group's potential as a seal. The data collected suggest that only secondary porosity remains, and permeability, if it exists, most likely occurs along faults or within fractures. ?? 2009. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  4. Carbon dioxide sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.; O'Connor, William K.; Penner, Larry R.

    2003-01-01

    The dramatic increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide since the Industrial Revolution has caused concerns about global warming. Fossil-fuel-fired power plants contribute approximately one third of the total human-caused emissions of carbon dioxide. Increased efficiency of these power plants will have a large impact on carbon dioxide emissions, but additional measures will be needed to slow or stop the projected increase in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. By accelerating the naturally occurring carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals it is possible to sequester carbon dioxide in the geologically stable mineral magnesite (MgCO3). The carbonation of two classes of magnesium silicate minerals, olivine (Mg2SiO4) and serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4), was investigated in an aqueous process. The slow natural geologic process that converts both of these minerals to magnesite can be accelerated by increasing the surface area, increasing the activity of carbon dioxide in the solution, introducing imperfections into the crystal lattice by high-energy attrition grinding, and in the case of serpentine, by thermally activating the mineral by removing the chemically bound water. The effect of temperature is complex because it affects both the solubility of carbon dioxide and the rate of mineral dissolution in opposing fashions. Thus an optimum temperature for carbonation of olivine is approximately 185 degrees C and 155 degrees C for serpentine. This paper will elucidate the interaction of these variables and use kinetic studies to propose a process for the sequestration of the carbon dioxide.

  5. Carbon Sequestration Potential in Mangrove Wetlands of Southern of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chokkalingam, L.; Ponnambalam, K.; Ponnaiah, J. M.; Roy, P.; Sankar, S.

    2012-12-01

    Mangrove forest and the soil on which it grows are major sinks of atmospheric carbon. We present the results of a study on the carbon sequestration in the ground biomass of Avicennia marina including the organic carbon deposition, degradation and preservation in wetland sediments of Muthupet mangrove forest (southeast coast of India) in order to evaluate the influence of forests in the global carbon cycle. The inventory for estimating the ground biomass of Avicennia marina was carried out using random sampling technique (10 m × 10 m plot) with allometric regression equation. The carbon content in different vegetal parts (leaves, stem and root) of mangrove species and associated marshy vegetations was estimated using the combustion method. We observe that the organic carbon was higher (ca. 54.8%) recorded in the stems of Aegiceras corniculatum and Salicornia brachiata and lower (ca. 30.3%) in the Sesuvium portulacastrum leaves. The ground biomass and carbon sequestration of Avicennia marina are 58.56±12.65 t/ ha and 27.52±5.95 mg C/ha, respectively. The depth integrated organic carbon model profiles indicate an average accumulation rate of 149.75gC/m2.yr and an average remineralization rate of 32.89gC/m2.yr. We estimate an oxidation of ca. 21.85% of organic carbon and preservation of ca. 78.15% of organic carbon in the wetland sediments. Keywords: Above ground biomass, organic carbon, sequestration, mangrove, wetland sediments, Muthupet.

  6. GEOLOGIC SCREENING CRITERIA FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN COAL: QUANTIFYING POTENTIAL OF THE BLACK WARRIOR COALBED METHANE FAIRWAY, ALABAMA

    SciTech Connect

    Jack C. Pashin; Richard E. Carroll; Richard H. Groshong, Jr.; Dorothy E. Raymond; Marcella McIntyre; J. Wayne Payton

    2003-01-01

    Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in coal has potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired power plants while enhancing coalbed methane recovery. Data from more than 4,000 coalbed methane wells in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama provide an opportunity to quantify the carbon sequestration potential of coal and to develop a geologic screening model for the application of carbon sequestration technology. This report summarizes stratigraphy and sedimentation, structural geology, geothermics, hydrology, coal quality, gas capacity, and production characteristics of coal in the Black Warrior coalbed methane fairway and the implications of geology for carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. Coal in the Black Warrior basin is distributed among several fluvial-deltaic coal zones in the Lower Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation. Most coal zones contain one to three coal beds that are significant targets for coalbed methane production and carbon sequestration, and net coal thickness generally increases southeastward. Pottsville strata have effectively no matrix permeability to water, so virtually all flow is through natural fractures. Faults and folds influence the abundance and openness of fractures and, hence, the performance of coalbed methane wells. Water chemistry in the Pottsville Formation ranges from fresh to saline, and zones with TDS content lower than 10,000 mg/L can be classified as USDW. An aquifer exemption facilitating enhanced recovery in USDW can be obtained where TDS content is higher than 3,000 mg/L. Carbon dioxide becomes a supercritical fluid above a temperature of 88 F and a pressure of 1,074 psi. Reservoir temperature exceeds 88 F in much of the study area. Hydrostatic pressure gradients range from normal to extremely underpressured. A large area of underpressure is developed around closely spaced longwall coal mines, and areas of natural underpressure are distributed among the coalbed methane fields. The mobility and

  7. Potential Hydrogeomechanical Impacts of Geological CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherson, B. J.; Haerer, D.; Han, W.; Heath, J.; Morse, J.

    2006-12-01

    Long-term sequestration of anthropogenic "greenhouse gases" such as CO2 is a proposed approach to managing climate change. Deep brine reservoirs in sedimentary basins are possible sites for sequestration, given their ubiquitous nature. We used a mathematical sedimentary basin model, including coupling of multiphase CO2-groundwater flow and rock deformation, to evaluate residence times in possible brine reservoir storage sites, migration patterns and rates away from such sites, and effects of CO2 injection on fluid pressures and rock strain. Study areas include the Uinta and Paradox basins of Utah, the San Juan basin of New Mexico, and the Permian basin of west Texas. Regional-scale hydrologic and mechanical properties, including the presence of fracture zones, were calibrated using laboratory and field data. Our initial results suggest that, in general, long-term (~100 years or more) sequestration in deep brine reservoirs is possible, if guided by robust structural and hydrologic data. However, specific processes must be addressed to characterize and minimize risks. In addition to CO2 migration from target sequestration reservoirs into other reservoirs or to the land surface, another environmental issue is displacement of brines into freshwater aquifers. We evaluated the potential for such unintended aquifer contamination by displacement of brines out of adjacent sealing layers such as marine shales. Results suggest that sustained injection of CO2 may incur significant brine displacement out of adjacent sealing layers, depending on the injection history, initial brine composition, and hydrologic properties of both reservoirs and seals. Model simulations also suggest that as injection-induced overpressures migrate, effective stresses may follow this migration under some conditions, as will associated rock strain. Such "strain migration" may lead to induced or reactivated fractures or faults, but can be controlled through reservoir engineering.

  8. Assessment of Carbon Sequestration in German Alley Cropping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsonkova, P. B.; Quinkenstein, A.; Böhm, C.; Freese, D.

    2012-04-01

    Alley cropping systems (ACS) are agroforestry practices in which perennial trees or shrubs are grown in wide rows and arable crops are cultivated in the alleys between the tree rows. Recently, ACS which integrate stripes of short rotation coppices into conventional agricultural sites have gained interest in Germany. These systems can be used for simultaneous production of crops and woody biomass which enables farmers to diversify the provision of market goods. Adding trees into the agricultural landscape creates additional benefits for the farmer and society also known as ecosystem services. An ecosystem service provided by land use systems is carbon sequestration. The literature indicates that ACS are able to store more carbon compared to agriculture and their implementation may lead to greater benefits for the environment and society. Moreover, carbon sequestration in ACS could be included in carbon trading schemes and farmers rewarded additionally for the provision of this ecosystem service. However, methods are required which are easy to use and provide reliable information regarding change in carbon sequestration with change of the land use practice. In this context, our aim was to develop a methodology to assess carbon sequestration benefit provided by ACS in Germany. Therefore, the change of carbon in both soil and biomass had to be considered. To predict the change in soil carbon our methodology combined the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories and the soil organic carbon balance recommended by the Association of German Agricultural Investigation and Research Centers (VDLUFA). To reflect the change in biomass carbon average annual yields were adopted. The results showed that ACS established on agricultural sites can increase the carbon stored because in the new soil-plant system carbon content is higher compared to agriculture. ACS have been recommended as suitable land use systems for marginal sites, such as post-mining areas. In

  9. Peatland geoengineering: an alternative approach to terrestrial carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Christopher; Fenner, Nathalie; Shirsat, Anil H

    2012-09-13

    Terrestrial and oceanic ecosystems contribute almost equally to the sequestration of ca 50 per cent of anthropogenic CO(2) emissions, and already play a role in minimizing our impact on Earth's climate. On land, the majority of the sequestered carbon enters soil carbon stores. Almost one-third of that soil carbon can be found in peatlands, an area covering just 2-3% of the Earth's landmass. Peatlands are thus well established as powerful agents of carbon capture and storage; the preservation of archaeological artefacts, such as ancient bog bodies, further attest to their exceptional preservative properties. Peatlands have higher carbon storage densities per unit ecosystem area than either the oceans or dry terrestrial systems. However, despite attempts over a number of years at enhancing carbon capture in the oceans or in land-based afforestation schemes, no attempt has yet been made to optimize peatland carbon storage capacity or even to harness peatlands to store externally captured carbon. Recent studies suggest that peatland carbon sequestration is due to the inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds that create an 'enzymic latch' on decomposition. Here, we propose to harness that mechanism in a series of peatland geoengineering strategies whereby molecular, biogeochemical, agronomical and afforestation approaches increase carbon capture and long-term sequestration in peat-forming terrestrial ecosystems.

  10. Global patterns of aboveground carbon stock and sequestration in mangroves.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Gustavo C D; Soares, Mário L G

    2017-01-01

    In order to contribute to understand the factors that control the provisioning of the ecosystem service of carbon storage by mangroves, data on carbon stock and sequestration in the aboveground biomass (AGB) from 73 articles were averaged and tested for the dependence on latitude, climatic parameters, physiographic types and age. Global means of carbon stock (78.0 ± 64.5 tC.ha-1) and sequestration (2.9 ± 2.2 tC.ha-1.yr-1) showed that mangroves are among the forest ecosystems with greater capacity of carbon storage in AGB per area. On the global scale, carbon stock increases toward the equator (R²=0.22) and is dependent on 13 climatic parameters, which can be integrated in the following predictive equation: Carbon Stock in AGB = -16.342 + (8.341 x Isothermality) + (0.021 x Annual Precipitation) [R²=0.34; p < 0.05]. It was shown that almost 70% of carbon stock variability is explained by age. Carbon stock and sequestration also vary according to physiographic types, indicating the importance of hydroperiod and edaphic parameters to the local variability of carbon stock. By demonstrating the contribution of local and regional-global factors to carbon stock, this study provides information to the forecast of the effects of future climate changes and local anthropogenic forcings on this ecosystem service.

  11. Geophysical Delination of Mg-Rich Ultramafic Rocksfor Mineral Carbon Sequestration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCafferty, Anne E.; Van Gosen, Brad S.; Krevor, Sam C.; Graves, Chris R.

    2009-01-01

    A similar version of this slide presentation was given at the 2009 Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration (SME) annual meeting in Denver, Colorado, in February 2009. This presentation was part of the 'Industrial Minerals: Reducing Carbon Footprint in Industrial Minerals' session. Two other related talks were presented in the same session by Sam Krevor of Columbia University. The first talk provided a status report on mineral CO2 sequestration as an industrial process. The second talk presented a national-scale geologic compilation of rocks favorable for mineral CO2 sequestration in the United States. This presentation, an extension of the latter talk, shows how airborne geophysical data can be used to further refine the geologic mapping of ultramafic rocks.

  12. Simultaneous leaching and carbon sequestration in constrained aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, Tommy Joe; Moon, Ji Won; Roh, Yul; Cho, Kyu Seong

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of metal ions leaching and precipitated mineral phases of metal-rich fly ash (FA) was examined in order to evaluate microbial impacts on carbon sequestration and metal immobilization. The leaching solutions consisted of aerobic deionized water (DW) and artificial eutrophic water (AEW) that was anaerobic, organic- and mineral-rich, and higher salinity as is typical of bottom water in eutrophic algae ponds. The Fe- and Ca-rich FAs were predominantly composed of quartz, mullite, portlandite, calcite, hannebachite, maghemite, and hematite. After 86 days, only Fe and Ca contents exhibited a decrease in leaching solutions while other major and trace elements showed increasing or steady trends in preference to the type of FA and leaching solution. Ca-rich FA showed strong carbon sequestration efficiency ranging up to 32.3 g CO(2)/kg FA after 86 days, corresponding to almost 65% of biotic carbon sequestration potential under some conditions. Variations in the properties of FAs such as chemical compositions, mineral constituents as well as the type of leaching solution impacted CO(2) capture. Even though the relative amount of calcite increased sixfold in the AEW and the relative amount of mineral phase reached 37.3 wt% using Ca-rich FA for 86 days, chemical sequestration did not accomplish simultaneous precipitation and sequestration of several heavy metals.

  13. Simultaneous leaching and carbon sequestration in constrained aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Won; Cho, Kyu-Seong; Moberly, James G; Roh, Yul; Phelps, Tommy J

    2011-12-01

    The behavior of metal ions' leaching and precipitated mineral phases of metal-rich fly ash (FA) was examined in order to evaluate microbial impacts on carbon sequestration and metal immobilization. The leaching solutions consisted of aerobic deionized water (DW) and artificial eutrophic water (AEW) that was anaerobic, organic- and mineral-rich, and higher salinity as is typical of bottom water in eutrophic algae ponds. The Fe- and Ca-rich FAs were predominantly composed of quartz, mullite, portlandite, calcite, hannebachite, maghemite, and hematite. After 86 days, only Fe and Ca contents exhibited a decrease in leaching solutions while other major and trace elements showed increasing or steady trends in preference to the type of FA and leaching solution. Ca-rich FA showed strong carbon sequestration efficiency ranging up to 32.3 g CO(2)/kg FA after 86 days, corresponding to almost 65% of biotic carbon sequestration potential under some conditions. Variations in the properties of FAs such as chemical compositions, mineral constituents as well as the type of leaching solution impacted CO(2) capture. Even though the relative amount of calcite increased sixfold in the AEW and the relative amount of mineral phase reached 37.3 wt% using Ca-rich FA for 86 days, chemical sequestration did not accomplish simultaneous precipitation and sequestration of several heavy metals.

  14. Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the USA

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak; Daniel E. Crane

    2002-01-01

    Based on field data from 10 USA cities and national urban tree cover data, it is estimated that urban trees in the coterminous USA currently store 700 million tonnes of carbon ($14,300 million value) with a gross carbon sequestration rate of 22.8 million tC/yr ($460 rnillion/year). Carbon storage within cities ranges From 1.2 million tC in New York, NY, to 19,300 tC in...

  15. Reduced carbon sequestration potential of biochar in acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yaqi; Zhan, Yu; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-12-01

    Biochar application in soil has been proposed as a promising method for carbon sequestration. While factors affecting its carbon sequestration potential have been widely investigated, the number of studies on the effect of soil pH is limited. To investigate the carbon sequestration potential of biochar across a series of soil pH levels, the total carbon emission, CO2 release from inorganic carbon, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) of six soils with various pH levels were compared after the addition of straw biochar produced at different pyrolysis temperatures. The results show that the acidic soils released more CO2 (1.5-3.5 times higher than the control) after the application of biochar compared with neutral and alkaline soils. The degradation of both native soil organic carbon (SOC) and biochar were accelerated. More inorganic CO2 release in acidic soil contributed to the increased degradation of biochar. Higher proportion of gram-positive bacteria in acidic soil (25%-36%) was responsible for the enhanced biochar degradation and simultaneously co-metabolism of SOC. In addition, lower substrate limitation for bacteria, indicated by higher C-O stretching after the biochar application in the acidic soil, also caused more CO2 release. In addition to the soil pH, other factors such as clay contents and experimental duration also affected the phsico-chemical and biotic processes of SOC dynamics. Gram-negative/gram-positive bacteria ratio was found to be negatively related to priming effects, and suggested to serve as an indicator for priming effect. In general, the carbon sequestration potential of rice-straw biochar in soil reduced along with the decrease of soil pH especially in a short-term. Given wide spread of acidic soils in China, carbon sequestration potential of biochar may be overestimated without taking into account the impact of soil pH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct aqueous mineral carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Nilsen, David N.; Walters, Richard P.; Turner, Paul C.

    2000-01-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration by an ex-situ, direct aqueous mineral carbonation process has been investigated over the past two years. This process was conceived to minimize the steps in the conversion of gaseous CO2 to a stable solid. This meant combining two separate reactions, mineral dissolution and carbonate precipitation, into a single unit operation. It was recognized that the conditions favorable for one of these reactions could be detrimental to the other. However, the benefits for a combined aqueous process, in process efficiency and ultimately economics, justified the investigation. The process utilizes a slurry of water, dissolved CO2, and a magnesium silicate mineral, such as olivine [forsterite end member (Mg2SiO4)], or serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. These minerals were selected as the reactants of choice for two reasons: (1) significant abundance in nature; and (2) high molar ratio of the alkaline earth oxides (CaO, MgO) within the minerals. Because it is the alkaline earth oxide that combines with CO2 to form the solid carbonate, those minerals with the highest ratio of these oxides are most favored. Optimum results have been achieved using heat pretreated serpentine feed material, sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride additions to the solution, and high partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2). Specific conditions include: 155?C; PCO2=185 atm; 15% solids. Under these conditions, 78% conversion of the silicate to the carbonate was achieved in 30 minutes. Future studies are intended to investigate various mineral pretreatment options, the carbonation solution characteristics, alternative reactants, scale-up to a continuous process, geochemical modeling, and process economics.

  17. A Feasibility Study of Non-Seismic Geophysical Methods forMonitoring Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, Erika; Hoversten, G. Michael

    2006-07-01

    Because of their wide application within the petroleumindustry it is natural to consider geophysical techniques for monitoringof CO2 movement within hydrocarbon reservoirs, whether the CO2 isintroduced for enhanced oil/gas recovery or for geologic sequestration.Among the available approaches to monitoring, seismic methods are by farthe most highly developed and applied. Due to cost considerations, lessexpensive techniques have recently been considered. In this article, therelative merits of gravity and electromagnetic (EM) methods as monitoringtools for geological CO2 sequestration are examined for two syntheticmodeling scenarios. The first scenario represents combined CO2 enhancedoil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, theSchrader Bluff field on the north slope of Alaska, USA. The secondscenario is a simplified model of a brine formation at a depth of 1,900m.

  18. Carbon sequestration, optimum forest rotation and their environmental impact

    SciTech Connect

    Kula, Erhun; Gunalay, Yavuz

    2012-11-15

    Due to their large biomass forests assume an important role in the global carbon cycle by moderating the greenhouse effect of atmospheric pollution. The Kyoto Protocol recognises this contribution by allocating carbon credits to countries which are able to create new forest areas. Sequestrated carbon provides an environmental benefit thus must be taken into account in cost-benefit analysis of afforestation projects. Furthermore, like timber output carbon credits are now tradable assets in the carbon exchange. By using British data, this paper looks at the issue of identifying optimum felling age by considering carbon sequestration benefits simultaneously with timber yields. The results of this analysis show that the inclusion of carbon benefits prolongs the optimum cutting age by requiring trees to stand longer in order to soak up more CO{sub 2}. Consequently this finding must be considered in any carbon accounting calculations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon sequestration in forestry is an environmental benefit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It moderates the problem of global warming. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It prolongs the gestation period in harvesting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper uses British data in less favoured districts for growing Sitka spruce species.

  19. The United States Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships program: a collaborative approach to carbon management.

    PubMed

    Litynski, John T; Klara, Scott M; McIlvried, Howard G; Srivastava, Rameshwar D

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSP) concept, which is a first attempt to bring the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) carbon sequestration program activities into the "real world" by using a geographically-disposed-system type approach for the U.S. Each regional partnership is unique and covers a unique section of the U.S. and is tasked with determining how the research and development activities of DOE's carbon sequestration program can best be implemented in their region of the country. Although there is no universal agreement on the cause, it is generally understood that global warming is occurring, and many climate scientists believe that this is due, in part, to the buildup of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in the atmosphere. This is evident from the finding presented in the National Academy of Science Report to the President on Climate Change which stated "Greenhouse gases are accumulating in Earth's atmosphere as a result of human activities, causing surface air temperatures and subsurface ocean temperatures to rise. Temperatures are, in fact, rising. The changes observed over the last several decades are likely mostly due to human activities, ...". In the United States, emissions of CO(2) originate mainly from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production, transportation, and other industrial processes. Roughly one third of U.S. anthropogenic CO(2) emissions come from power plants. Reduction of CO(2) emissions through sequestration of carbon either in geologic formations or in terrestrial ecosystems can be part of the solution to the problem of global warming. However, a number of steps must be accomplished before sequestration can become a reality. Cost effective capture and separation technology must be developed, tested, and demonstrated; a database of potential sequestration sites must be established; and techniques must be developed to measure, monitor, and verify the sequestered CO(2). Geographical differences in

  20. Genome-enabled Discovery of Carbon Sequestration Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Tuskan, Gerald A; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Kalluri, Udaya C; Yin, Tongming; Yang, Xiaohan; Zhang, Xinye; Engle, Nancy L; Ranjan, Priya; Basu, Manojit M; Gunter, Lee E; Jawdy, Sara; Martin, Madhavi Z; Campbell, Alina S; DiFazio, Stephen P; Davis, John M; Hinchee, Maud; Pinnacchio, Christa; Meilan, R; Busov, V.; Strauss, S

    2009-01-01

    The fate of carbon below ground is likely to be a major factor determining the success of carbon sequestration strategies involving plants. Despite their importance, molecular processes controlling belowground C allocation and partitioning are poorly understood. This project is leveraging the Populus trichocarpa genome sequence to discover genes important to C sequestration in plants and soils. The focus is on the identification of genes that provide key control points for the flow and chemical transformations of carbon in roots, concentrating on genes that control the synthesis of chemical forms of carbon that result in slower turnover rates of soil organic matter (i.e., increased recalcitrance). We propose to enhance carbon allocation and partitioning to roots by 1) modifying the auxin signaling pathway, and the invertase family, which controls sucrose metabolism, and by 2) increasing root proliferation through transgenesis with genes known to control fine root proliferation (e.g., ANT), 3) increasing the production of recalcitrant C metabolites by identifying genes controlling secondary C metabolism by a major mQTL-based gene discovery effort, and 4) increasing aboveground productivity by enhancing drought tolerance to achieve maximum C sequestration. This broad, integrated approach is aimed at ultimately enhancing root biomass as well as root detritus longevity, providing the best prospects for significant enhancement of belowground C sequestration.

  1. Leaking And Non-leaking Systems: Study Of Natural CO2 Accumulations For Geological Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voltattorni, N.; Cantucci, B.; Cinti, D.

    2008-12-01

    The potential risks of geological CO2 storage must be understood and geologists are required to predict how CO2 may behave once stored underground. As natural geological accumulations of carbon dioxide occur in many basins in Italy and volcanic and seismically active areas allow CO2 rich fluids to migrate to the near surface, many of these areas have been investigated in order to study long-term geochemical processes that may occur following geological storage of anthropogenic CO2. A study representing an example of "leaking" system is the Solfatara crater (Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy) characterised by the presence of both CO2 rich-waters and fumarole. Soil gas flux measurements show that the entire area discharges between 1200 and 1500 tons of CO2 a day. Most part of analysed waters is the effect of a mixing between a shallow meteoric water and a deep thermal Na-Cl end-member and/or seawater, resulting in sodium-chloride waters. A high dissolved CO2 content (max value 566.28 cc/l) is also present. Furthermore, the Campi Flegrei frequently undergo bradyseism related to the elastic response of the shallow crust to increasing pressure within a shallow magma chamber. The study of this phenomenon could be useful to detect ground deformation linked to geomechanical changes in a geological CO2 reservoir. In contrast, an example of "non-leaking" system is the Pisticci oil and gas Field (Southern Italy) where a great variety of hydrocarbons traps are formed by horst and tilted blocks in the Mesozoic carbonate substratum covered by an almost continuous sequence of Lower Pliocene marls and Middle Pliocene-Pleistocene marly blue clays. Soil gas surveys were performed after a MD 4.5 earthquake and two years later to test the permanence of the gas distribution pattern. CO2 distribution in soil gas seems not to be affected by changes in stress, as suggested by the average values of both surveys. The principal aim of our research has been to evaluate and mitigate risks for

  2. Geological Sequestration of CO2 A Brief Overview and Potential for Application for Oklahoma

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 is a component of C capture and storage (CCS), an emerging technology for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, and involves injection of captured CO2 into deep subsurface formations. Similar to the injection of hazardous wastes, before injection...

  3. 40 CFR 144.15 - Prohibition of non-experimental Class V wells for geologic sequestration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibition of non-experimental Class V wells for geologic sequestration. 144.15 Section 144.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM...

  4. 40 CFR 144.15 - Prohibition of non-experimental Class V wells for geologic sequestration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibition of non-experimental Class V wells for geologic sequestration. 144.15 Section 144.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM...

  5. 40 CFR 144.15 - Prohibition of non-experimental Class V wells for geologic sequestration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibition of non-experimental Class V wells for geologic sequestration. 144.15 Section 144.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM...

  6. Geological Sequestration of CO2 A Brief Overview and Potential for Application for Oklahoma

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 is a component of C capture and storage (CCS), an emerging technology for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, and involves injection of captured CO2 into deep subsurface formations. Similar to the injection of hazardous wastes, before injection...

  7. Carbon sequestration in two alpine soils on the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu-Qiang; Xu, Xing-Liang; Song, Ming-Hua; Zhou, Cai-Ping; Gao, Qiong; Ouyang, Hua

    2009-09-01

    Soil carbon sequestration was estimated in a conifer forest and an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau using a carbon-14 radioactive label provided by thermonuclear weapon tests (known as bomb-(14)C). Soil organic matter was physically separated into light and heavy fractions. The concentration spike of bomb-(14)C occurred at a soil depth of 4 cm in both the forest soil and the alpine meadow soil. Based on the depth of the bomb-(14)C spike, the carbon sequestration rate was determined to be 38.5 g C/m(2) per year for the forest soil and 27.1 g C/m(2) per year for the alpine meadow soil. Considering that more than 60% of soil organic carbon (SOC) is stored in the heavy fraction and the large area of alpine forests and meadows on the Tibetan Plateau, these alpine ecosystems might partially contribute to "the missing carbon sink".

  8. Development and Deployment of a Compact Eye-Safe Scanning Differential absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Spatial Mapping of Carbon Dioxide for Monitoring/Verification/Accounting at Geologic Sequestration Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Repasky, Kevin

    2014-03-31

    A scanning differential absorption lidar (DIAL) instrument for monitoring carbon dioxide has been developed. The laser transmitter uses two tunable discrete mode laser diodes (DMLD) operating in the continuous wave (cw) mode with one locked to the online absorption wavelength and the other operating at the offline wavelength. Two in-line fiber optic switches are used to switch between online and offline operation. After the fiber optic switch, an acousto- optic modulator (AOM) is used to generate a pulse train used to injection seed an erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) to produce eye-safe laser pulses with maximum pulse energies of 66 {micro}J, a pulse repetition frequency of 15 kHz, and an operating wavelength of 1.571 {micro}m. The DIAL receiver uses a 28 cm diameter Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope to collect that backscattered light, which is then monitored using a photo-multiplier tube (PMT) module operating in the photon counting mode. The DIAL instrument has been operated from a laboratory environment on the campus of Montana State University, at the Zero Emission Research Technology (ZERT) field site located in the agricultural research area on the western end of the Montana State University campus, and at the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership site located in north-central Montana. DIAL data has been collected and profiles have been validated using a co-located Licor LI-820 Gas Analyzer point sensor.

  9. Climate change and carbon sequestration opportunities on national forests

    Treesearch

    R.L. Deal

    2010-01-01

    Deforestation globally accounts for about 20 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions. One of the major forestry challenges in the United States is reducing the loss of forest land from development. Foresters have a critical role to play in forest management and carbon sequestration to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and forestry can be part of the solution. A recent...

  10. A Sustainability Initiative to Quantify Carbon Sequestration by Campus Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    Over 3,900 trees on a university campus were inventoried by an instructor-led team of geography undergraduates in order to quantify the carbon sequestration associated with biomass growth. The setting of the project is described, together with its logistics, methodology, outcomes, and benefits. This hands-on project provided a team of students…

  11. Modeling carbon sequestration potential in Mollisols under climate change scenarios

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils, besides its importance in mitigating global climate change, impacts and will be impacted by provisioning, regulating and supporting agroecosystem services. The objectives of this study were to (1) provide an improved understanding of the role of projected ...

  12. Fire management and carbon sequestration in Pine Barren Forests

    Treesearch

    Kenneth L. Clark; Nicholas Skowronski; Michael. Gallagher

    2015-01-01

    Prescribed burning is the major viable option that land managers have for reducing hazardous fuels and ensuring the regeneration of fire-dependent species in a cost-effective manner in Pine Barren ecosystems. Fuels management activities are directly linked to carbon (C) storage and rates of C sequestration by forests. To evaluate the effects of prescribed burning on...

  13. Using Biomass to Improve Site Quality and Carbon Sequestration

    Treesearch

    Marilyn A. Buford; Bryce J. Stokes; Felipe G. Sanchez; Emily A. Carter

    1998-01-01

    The future demands on forest lands are a concern because of reduced productivity, especially on inherently poor sites, sites with long-depleted soils, or those soils that bear repeated, intensive short rotations. Forests are also an important carbon sink and, when well managed, can make even more significant contributions to sequestration and to reduction of greenhouse...

  14. A Sustainability Initiative to Quantify Carbon Sequestration by Campus Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    Over 3,900 trees on a university campus were inventoried by an instructor-led team of geography undergraduates in order to quantify the carbon sequestration associated with biomass growth. The setting of the project is described, together with its logistics, methodology, outcomes, and benefits. This hands-on project provided a team of students…

  15. Climate change and terrestrial carbon sequestration in Central Asia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The topic of terrestrial carbon sequestration in Central Asia is extremely relevant and timely due to the increasing problem of land degradation and desertification in this region. Serious problems of soil and environmental degradation in general and that in Central Asia in particular exacerbated b...

  16. The carbon-sequestration potential of municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Diego; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2008-02-01

    The lack of proper wastewater treatment results in production of CO(2) and CH(4) without the opportunity for carbon sequestration and energy recovery, with deleterious effects for global warming. Without extending wastewater treatment to all urban areas worldwide, CO(2) and CH(4) emissions associated with wastewater discharges could reach the equivalent of 1.91 x 10(5) t(CO2)d(-1) in 2025, with even more dramatic impact in the short-term. The carbon sequestration benefits of wastewater treatment have enormous potential, which adds an energy conservation incentive to upgrading existing facilities to complete wastewater treatment. The potential greenhouse gases discharges which can be converted to a net equivalent CO(2) credit can be as large as 1.91 x 10(5) t(CO2)d(-1) in 2025 by 2025. Biomass sequestration and biogas conversion energy recovery are the two main strategies for carbon sequestration and emission offset, respectively. The greatest potential for improvement is outside Europe and North America, which have largely completed treatment plant construction. Europe and North America can partially offset their CO(2) emissions and receive benefits through the carbon emission trading system, as established by the Kyoto protocol, by extending existing technologies or subsidizing wastewater treatment plant construction in urban areas lacking treatment. This strategy can help mitigate global warming, in addition to providing a sustainable solution for extending the health, environmental, and humanitarian benefits of proper sanitation.

  17. Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect (2nd Edition)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This volume is a second edition of the book “Soil Carbon Sequestration and The Greenhouse Effect”. The first edition was published in 2001 as SSSA Special Publ. #57. The present edition is an update of the concepts, processes, properties, practices and the supporting data. All chapters are new co...

  18. Microbial Contribution to Organic Carbon Sequestration in Mineral Soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil productivity and sustainability are dependent on soil organic matter (SOM). Our understanding on how organic inputs to soil from microbial processes become converted to SOM is still limited. This study aims to understand how microbes affect carbon (C) sequestration and the formation of recalcit...

  19. Integrate carbon dynamic models in analyzing carbon sequestration impact of forest biomass harvest.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan

    2017-10-05

    Biomass is an attractive natural energy resource for mitigating climate change. However, the loss of carbon sequestration as an ecosystem service due to biomass harvest has not been considered in previous studies. To assess the impact of biomass harvest on carbon sequestration, carbon dynamics in the forests and the atmosphere were integrated. The impact of forest biomass harvests on carbon sequestration was assessed based on the difference between carbon sequestration after harvest and carbon sequestration without harvest. A Chapman-Richards function and the forest vegetation simulator (FVS) were used to simulate the growth of a forest stand. The carbon dynamics in the atmosphere were simulated by the Bern2.5CC carbon cycle model. Characterization factors of the impact were calculated in three time horizons: 20-, 100- and 500-year. According to the simulations, postponement of harvest and low harvest intensity could prolong the compensation period. The annual impact on carbon sequestration was mostly negative over a short time and became positive in the end of compensation period. The highest characteristic factors of the impact on carbon sequestration were found in rotation length of 100years with the time horizon of 500-year in the Chapman-Richards simulation and in the lowest harvest intensity with the time horizon of 500-year in the FVS simulation. Based on the results, increasing growth rate, postponing harvest, reducing harvest intensity and increasing length of time horizon could reduce the impact of forest harvest on carbon sequestration. The method proposed in this study is more proper to assess the impact on carbon sequestration, and it has much wider applications in forest management practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION BY MECHANOCHEMICAL CARBONATION OF MINERAL SILICATES

    SciTech Connect

    Michael G. Nelson

    2004-04-01

    The University of Utah and the University of Idaho investigated the carbonation of silicate minerals by mechanochemical processing. This method uses intense grinding, and has the potential of being much less expensive than other methods of mineral sequestration. Tests were conducted in three types of grinding devices. In these tests, natural and synthetic silicate compounds were ground for varying times in the presence of gaseous CO{sub 2}. A significant change takes place in the lizardite variety of serpentine after 15 to 20 minutes of intense grinding in the presence of gaseous CO{sub 2}. The X-ray diffraction spectrum of lizardite thus treated was much different than that of the untreated mineral. This spectrum could not be identified as that of any natural or synthetic material. Laboratory analyses showed that small amounts of carbon are fixed by grinding lizardite, forsterite, and wollastonite (all naturally-occurring minerals), and synthetic magnesium silicate, in the presence of gaseous CO{sub 2}. It was thus concluded that further investigation was warranted, and a follow-up proposal was submitted to the Department of Energy under solicitation number.

  1. A Finite-Element Model for Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Jie; Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin

    2014-09-01

    Herein, we present a coupled thermal-hydro-mechanical model for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide followed by the stress, deformation, and shear-slip failure analysis. This fully coupled model considers the geomechanical response, fluid flow, and thermal transport relevant to geological sequestration. Both analytical solutions and numerical approach via finite element model are introduced for solving the thermal-hydro-mechanical model. Analytical solutions for pressure, temperature, deformation, and stress field were obtained for a simplified typical geological sequestration scenario. The finite element model is more general and can be used for arbitrary geometry. It was built on an open-source finite element code, Elmer, and was designed to simulate the entire period of CO2 injection (up to decades) both stably and accurately—even for large time steps. The shear-slip failure analysis was implemented based on the numerical results from the finite element model. The analysis reveals the potential failure zone caused by the fluid injection and thermal effect. From the simulation results, the thermal effect is shown to enhance well injectivity, especially at the early time of the injection. However, it also causes some side effects, such as the appearance of a small failure zone in the caprock. The coupled thermal-hydro-mechanical model improves prediction of displacement, stress distribution, and potential failure zone compared to the model that neglects non-isothermal effects, especially in an area with high geothermal gradient.

  2. Environmental Responses to Carbon Mitigation through Geological Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, Alfred; Bromenshenk, Jerry

    2013-08-30

    In summary, this DOE EPSCoR project is contributing to the study of carbon mitigation through geological storage. Both deep and shallow subsurface research needs are being addressed through research directed at improved understanding of environmental responses associated with large scale injection of CO{sub 2} into geologic formations. The research plan has two interrelated research objectives. Objective 1: Determine the influence of CO{sub 2}-related injection of fluids on pore structure, material properties, and microbial activity in rock cores from potential geological carbon sequestration sites. Objective 2: Determine the Effects of CO{sub 2} leakage on shallow subsurface ecosystems (microbial and plant) using field experiments from an outdoor field testing facility.

  3. Long-term carbon sequestration in North American peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, Eville; Lehman, Clarence; Dyke, Arthur; Clymo, Dicky; Janssens, Joannes

    2012-12-01

    Peatland ecosystems store about 500-600 Pg of organic carbon, largely accumulated since the last glaciation. Whether they continue to sequester carbon or release it as greenhouse gases, perhaps in large amounts, is important in Earth's temperature dynamics. Given both ages and depths of numerous dated sample peatlands, their rate of carbon sequestration can be estimated throughout the Holocene. Here we use average values for carbon content per unit volume, the geographical extent of peatlands, and ecological models of peatland establishment and growth, to reconstruct the time-trajectory of peatland carbon sequestration in North America and project it into the future. Peatlands there contain ˜163 Pg of carbon. Ignoring effects of climate change and other major anthropogenic disturbances, the rate of carbon accumulation is projected to decline slowly over millennia as reduced net carbon accumulation in existing peatlands is largely balanced by new peatland establishment. Peatlands are one of few long-term terrestrial carbon sinks, probably important for global carbon regulation in future generations. This study contributes to a better understanding of these ecosystems that will assist their inclusion in earth-system models, and therefore their management to maintain carbon storage during climate change.

  4. Mobilization of Trace Metals in an Experimental Carbon Sequestration Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcon, V.; Kaszuba, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Mobilizing trace metals with injection of supercritical CO2 into deep saline aquifers is a concern for geologic carbon sequestration. The potential for leakage from these systems requires an understanding of how injection reservoirs interact with the overlying potable aquifers. Hydrothermal experiments were performed to evaluate metal mobilization and mechanisms of release in a carbonate storage reservoir and at the caprock-reservoir boundary. Experiments react synthetic Desert Creek limestone and/or Gothic Shale, formations in the Paradox Basin, Utah, with brine that is close to equilibrium with these rocks. A reaction temperature of 1600C accelerates the reaction kinetics without changing in-situ water-rock reactions. The experiments were allowed to reach steady state before injecting CO2. Changes in major and trace element water chemistry, dissolved carbon and sulfide, and pH were tracked throughout the experiments. CO2 injection decreases the pH by 1 to 2 units; concomitant mineral dissolution produces elevated Ba, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the brine. Concentrations subsequently decrease to approximately steady state values after 120-330 hours, likely due to mineral precipitation as seen in SEM images and predicted by geochemical modeling. In experiments that emulate the caprock-reservoir boundary, final Fe (0.7ppb), an element of secondary concern for the EPA, and Pb (0.05ppb) concentrations exceed EPA limits, whereas Ba (0.140ppb), Cu (48ppb), and Zn (433ppb) values remain below EPA limits. In experiments that simulate deeper reservoir conditions, away from the caprock boundary, final Fe (3.5ppb) and Pb (0.017ppb) values indicate less mobilization than seen at the caprock-reservoir boundary, but values still exceed EPA limits. Barium concentrations always remain below the EPA limit of 2ppb, but are more readily mobilized in experiments replicating deeper reservoir conditions. In both systems, transition elements Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn behave in a

  5. Vegetation carbon sequestration in Chinese forests from 2010 to 2050.

    PubMed

    He, Nianpeng; Wen, Ding; Zhu, Jianxing; Tang, Xuli; Xu, Li; Zhang, Li; Hu, Huifeng; Huang, Mei; Yu, Guirui

    2017-04-01

    Forests store a large part of the terrestrial vegetation carbon (C) and have high C sequestration potential. Here, we developed a new forest C sequestration (FCS) model based on the secondary succession theory, to estimate vegetation C sequestration capacity in China's forest vegetation. The model used the field measurement data of 3161 forest plots and three future climate scenarios. The results showed that logistic equations provided a good fit for vegetation biomass with forest age in natural and planted forests. The FCS model has been verified with forest biomass data, and model uncertainty is discussed. The increment of vegetation C storage in China's forest vegetation from 2010 to 2050 was estimated as 13.92 Pg C, while the average vegetation C sequestration rate was 0.34 Pg C yr(-1) with a 95% confidence interval of 0.28-0.42 Pg C yr(-1) , which differed significantly between forest types. The largest contributor to the increment was deciduous broadleaf forest (37.8%), while the smallest was deciduous needleleaf forest (2.7%). The vegetation C sequestration rate might reach its maximum around 2020, although vegetation C storage increases continually. It is estimated that vegetation C sequestration might offset 6-8% of China's future emissions. Furthermore, there was a significant negative relationship between vegetation C sequestration rate and C emission rate in different provinces of China, suggesting that developed provinces might need to compensate for undeveloped provinces through C trade. Our findings will provide valuable guidelines to policymakers for designing afforestation strategies and forest C trade in China. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    DOEpatents

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  7. Land-use change and carbon sinks: Econometric estimation of the carbon sequestration supply function

    SciTech Connect

    Lubowski, Ruben N.; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Stavins, Robert N.

    2001-01-01

    Increased attention by policy makers to the threat of global climate change has brought with it considerable interest in the possibility of encouraging the expansion of forest area as a means of sequestering carbon dioxide. The marginal costs of carbon sequestration or, equivalently, the carbon sequestration supply function will determine the ultimate effects and desirability of policies aimed at enhancing carbon uptake. In particular, marginal sequestration costs are the critical statistic for identifying a cost-effective policy mix to mitigate net carbon dioxide emissions. We develop a framework for conducting an econometric analysis of land use for the forty-eight contiguous United States and employing it to estimate the carbon sequestration supply function. By estimating the opportunity costs of land on the basis of econometric evidence of landowners' actual behavior, we aim to circumvent many of the shortcomings of previous sequestration cost assessments. By conducting the first nationwide econometric estimation of sequestration costs, endogenizing prices for land-based commodities, and estimating land-use transition probabilities in a framework that explicitly considers the range of land-use alternatives, we hope to provide better estimates eventually of the true costs of large-scale carbon sequestration efforts. In this way, we seek to add to understanding of the costs and potential of this strategy for addressing the threat of global climate change.

  8. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I.

    2010-01-01

    Undisturbed grasslands can sequester significant quantities of organic carbon (OC) in soils. Irrigation and fertilization enhance CO2 sequestration in managed turfgrass ecosystems but can also increase emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs). To better understand the GHG balance of urban turf, we measured OC sequestration rates and emission of N2O (a GHG ˜ 300 times more effective than CO2) in Southern California, USA. We also estimated CO2 emissions generated by fuel combustion, fertilizer production, and irrigation. We show that turf emits significant quantities of N2O (0.1-0.3 g N m-2 yr-1) associated with frequent fertilization. In ornamental lawns this is offset by OC sequestration (140 g C m-2 yr-1), while in athletic fields, there is no OC sequestration because of frequent surface restoration. Large indirect emissions of CO2 associated with turfgrass management make it clear that OC sequestration by turfgrass cannot mitigate GHG emissions in cities.

  9. Agricultural Liming, Irrigation, and Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, B. M.; Hamilton, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Row crop farmers routinely add inorganic carbon to soils in the form of crushed lime (e.g., calcite or dolomite minerals) and/or inadvertently as bicarbonate alkalinity naturally dissolved in groundwater used for irrigation. In the soil these carbonates can act as either a source or sink of carbon dioxide, depending in large part on nitrogen fertilization and nitrification. The potentially variable fate of lime carbon is not accounted for in the IPCC greenhouse gas inventory model for lime emissions, which assumes that all lime carbon becomes carbon dioxide (irrigation additions are not accounted for). In a corn-soybean-wheat crop rotation at the Kellogg Biological Station Long Term Ecological Research site in southwest Michigan, we are collecting soil porewater from several depths in the vadose zone across a nitrogen fertilizer gradient with and without groundwater irrigation. The soil profile in this region is dominated by carbonate rich glacial outwash that lies 1.5 m below a carbonate-leached zone. We analyze the porewater stoichiometry of calcium, magnesium, and carbonate alkalinity in a conceptual model to reveal the source/sink fate of inorganic carbon. High nitrate porewater concentrations are associated with net carbon dioxide production in the carbonate-leached zone, according to our model. This suggests that the acidity associated with nitrification of the nitrogen fertilizer, which is evident from soil pH measurements, is driving the ultimate fate of lime carbon in the vadose zone. Irrigation is a significant source of both alkalinity and nitrate in drier years, compared to normal rates of liming and fertilization. We will also explore the observed dramatic changes in porewater chemistry and the relationship between irrigation and inorganic carbon fate above and within the native carbonate layer.

  10. Seagrass restoration enhances "blue carbon" sequestration in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Jill T; McGlathery, Karen J; Gunnell, John; McKee, Brent A

    2013-01-01

    Seagrass meadows are highly productive habitats that provide important ecosystem services in the coastal zone, including carbon and nutrient sequestration. Organic carbon in seagrass sediment, known as "blue carbon," accumulates from both in situ production and sedimentation of particulate carbon from the water column. Using a large-scale restoration (>1700 ha) in the Virginia coastal bays as a model system, we evaluated the role of seagrass, Zosteramarina, restoration in carbon storage in sediments of shallow coastal ecosystems. Sediments of replicate seagrass meadows representing different age treatments (as time since seeding: 0, 4, and 10 years), were analyzed for % carbon, % nitrogen, bulk density, organic matter content, and ²¹⁰Pb for dating at 1-cm increments to a depth of 10 cm. Sediment nutrient and organic content, and carbon accumulation rates were higher in 10-year seagrass meadows relative to 4-year and bare sediment. These differences were consistent with higher shoot density in the older meadow. Carbon accumulation rates determined for the 10-year restored seagrass meadows were 36.68 g C m⁻² yr⁻¹. Within 12 years of seeding, the restored seagrass meadows are expected to accumulate carbon at a rate that is comparable to measured ranges in natural seagrass meadows. This the first study to provide evidence of the potential of seagrass habitat restoration to enhance carbon sequestration in the coastal zone.

  11. Regulating geologic sequestration in the United States: early rules take divergent approaches.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Melisa F; Wilson, Elizabeth J

    2009-05-01

    Regulations for geological sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2) have been adopted in the state of Washington and proposed by the state of Kansas and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program. These three sets of rules take significantly different approaches to regulating GS of CO2. This paper compares these rules, focusing on elements where their differences highlight the choices that must be made to create a regulatory framework for GS in the United States. Consensus is emerging in some areas, but there is still substantial disagreement regarding the allowable composition of the CO2 stream, the size of the area of review, reservoir performance goals, and management of risks other than those to groundwater. Gaps include issues related to ownership of subsurface pore space, greenhouse gas accounting, and long-term stewardship. The divergent approaches of these rules raise two overarching questions: (1) Should policy makers create GS regulations by modifying and supplementing UIC rules or through new enabling legislation? (2) What should be the relative roles of state and federal governments in GS regulation? We outline trade-offs between the consistency and coordination that federal involvement could offer and the reality that states need to be heavily involved with implementation of GS regulations. We conclude that federal involvement above and beyond the proposed EPA Class VI rules is needed to create effective GS regulation in the United States.

  12. Rate of CO2 attack on hydrated Class H well cement under geologic sequestration conditions.

    PubMed

    Kutchko, Barbara G; Strazisar, Brian R; Lowry, Gregory V; Dzombak, David A; Thaulow, Niels

    2008-08-15

    Experiments were conducted to study the degradation of hardened cement paste due to exposure to CO2 and brine under geologic sequestration conditions (T = 50 degrees C and 30.3 MPa). The goal was to determine the rate of reaction of hydrated cement exposed to supercritical CO2 and to CO2-saturated brine to assess the potential impact of degradation in existing wells on CO2 storage integrity. Two different forms of chemical alteration were observed. The supercritical CO2 alteration of cement was similar in process to cement in contact with atmospheric CO2 (ordinary carbonation), while alteration of cement exposed to CO2-saturated brine was typical of acid attack on cement. Extrapolation of the hydrated cement alteration rate measured for 1 year indicates a penetration depth range of 1.00 +/- 0.07 mm for the CO2-saturated brine and 1.68 +/- 0.24 mm for the supercritical CO2 after 30 years. These penetration depths are consistent with observations of field samples from an enhanced oil recovery site after 30 years of exposure to CO2-saturated brine under similar temperature and pressure conditions. These results suggest that significant degradation due to matrix diffusion of CO2 in intact Class H neat hydrated cement is unlikely on time scales of decades.

  13. Underground reconnaissance and environmental monitoring related to geologic CO2 sequestration studies at the DUSEL Facility, Homestake Mine, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, Patrick F.; Salve, Rohit

    2009-11-20

    Underground field reconnaissance was carried out in the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) to identify potential locations for the planned geologic carbon sequestration experimental facility known as DUSEL CO{sub 2}. In addition, instrumentation for continuous environmental monitoring of temperature, pressure, and relative humidity was installed at various locations within the Homestake mine. The motivation for this work is the need to locate and design the DUSEL CO{sub 2} facility currently being planned to host CO{sub 2} and water flow and reaction experiments in long column pressure vessels over large vertical length scales. Review of existing geologic data and reconnaissance underground revealed numerous potential locations for vertical experimental flow columns, with limitations of existing vertical boreholes arising from limited vertical extent, poor continuity between drifts, and small diameter. Results from environmental monitoring over 46 days reveal spatial and temporal variations related to ventilation, weather, and ongoing dewatering of the mine.

  14. Soil carbon sequestration and biochar as negative emission technologies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete

    2016-03-01

    Despite 20 years of effort to curb emissions, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions grew faster during the 2000s than in the 1990s, which presents a major challenge for meeting the international goal of limiting warming to <2 °C relative to the preindustrial era. Most recent scenarios from integrated assessment models require large-scale deployment of negative emissions technologies (NETs) to reach the 2 °C target. A recent analysis of NETs, including direct air capture, enhanced weathering, bioenergy with carbon capture and storage and afforestation/deforestation, showed that all NETs have significant limits to implementation, including economic cost, energy requirements, land use, and water use. In this paper, I assess the potential for negative emissions from soil carbon sequestration and biochar addition to land, and also the potential global impacts on land use, water, nutrients, albedo, energy and cost. Results indicate that soil carbon sequestration and biochar have useful negative emission potential (each 0.7 GtCeq. yr(-1) ) and that they potentially have lower impact on land, water use, nutrients, albedo, energy requirement and cost, so have fewer disadvantages than many NETs. Limitations of soil carbon sequestration as a NET centre around issues of sink saturation and reversibility. Biochar could be implemented in combination with bioenergy with carbon capture and storage. Current integrated assessment models do not represent soil carbon sequestration or biochar. Given the negative emission potential of SCS and biochar and their potential advantages compared to other NETs, efforts should be made to include these options within IAMs, so that their potential can be explored further in comparison with other NETs for climate stabilization. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Application of Cutting-Edge 3D Seismic Attribute Technology to the Assessment of Geological Reservoirs for CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Liner; Jianjun Zeng; Po Geng Heather King Jintan Li; Jennifer Califf; John Seales

    2010-03-31

    The goals of this project were to develop innovative 3D seismic attribute technologies and workflows to assess the structural integrity and heterogeneity of subsurface reservoirs with potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration. Our specific objectives were to apply advanced seismic attributes to aide in quantifying reservoir properies and lateral continuity of CO{sub 2} sequestration targets. Our study area is the Dickman field in Ness County, Kansas, a type locality for the geology that will be encountered for CO{sub 2} sequestration projects from northern Oklahoma across the U.S. midcontent to Indiana and beyond. Since its discovery in 1962, the Dickman Field has produced about 1.7 million barrels of oil from porous Mississippian carbonates with a small structural closure at about 4400 ft drilling depth. Project data includes 3.3 square miles of 3D seismic data, 142 wells, with log, some core, and oil/water production data available. Only two wells penetrate the deep saline aquifer. Geological and seismic data were integrated to create a geological property model and a flow simulation grid. We systematically tested over a dozen seismic attributes, finding that curvature, SPICE, and ANT were particularly useful for mapping discontinuities in the data that likely indicated fracture trends. Our simulation results in the deep saline aquifer indicate two effective ways of reducing free CO{sub 2}: (a) injecting CO{sub 2} with brine water, and (b) horizontal well injection. A tuned combination of these methods can reduce the amount of free CO{sub 2} in the aquifer from over 50% to less than 10%.

  16. Offshore Extension of Deccan Traps in Kachchh, Central Western India: Implications for Geological Sequestration Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, D. K.; Pandey, A.; Rajan, S.

    2011-03-15

    The Deccan basalts in central western India are believed to occupy large onshore-offshore area. Using geophysical and geological observations, onshore sub-surface structural information has been widely reported. On the contrary, information about offshore structural variations has been inadequate due to scarcity of marine geophysical data and lack of onshore-offshore lithological correlations. Till date, merely a few geophysical studies are reported that gauge about the offshore extent of Deccan Traps and the Mesozoic sediments (pre-Deccan). To fill this gap in knowledge, in this article, we present new geophysical evidences to demonstrate offshore continuation of the Deccan volcanics and the Mesozoic sediments. The offshore multi-channel seismic and onshore-offshore lithological correlations presented here confirm that the Mesozoic sedimentary column in this region is overlain by 0.2-1.2-km-thick basaltic cover. Two separate phases of Mesozoic sedimentation, having very distinctive physical and lithological characteristics, are observed between overlying basaltic rocks and underlying Precambrian basement. Using onshore-offshore seismic and borehole data this study provides new insight into the extent of the Deccan basalts and the sub-basalt structures. This study brings out a much clearer picture than that was hitherto available about the offshore continuation of the Deccan Traps and the Mesozoic sediments of Kachchh. Further, its implications in identifying long-term storage of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} within sub-basalt targets are discussed. The carbon sequestration potential has been explored through the geological assessment in terms of the thickness of the strata as well as lithology.

  17. Ocean sequestration of crop residue carbon: recycling fossil fuel carbon back to deep sediments.

    PubMed

    Strand, Stuart E; Benford, Gregory

    2009-02-15

    For significant impact any method to remove CO2 from the atmosphere must process large amounts of carbon efficiently, be repeatable, sequester carbon for thousands of years, be practical, economical and be implemented soon. The only method that meets these criteria is removal of crop residues and burial in the deep ocean. We show here that this method is 92% efficient in sequestration of crop residue carbon while cellulosic ethanol production is only 32% and soil sequestration is about 14% efficient. Deep ocean sequestration can potentially capture 15% of the current global CO2 annual increase, returning that carbon backto deep sediments, confining the carbon for millennia, while using existing capital infrastructure and technology. Because of these clear advantages, we recommend enhanced research into permanent sequestration of crop residues in the deep ocean.

  18. Effect of Rehabilitation on Carbon Sequestration in Estuarine Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, A.; Rodriguez, J. F.; Saco, P. M.

    2008-12-01

    If left undisturbed, carbon in estuarine wetlands can be stored for millennia, whereas terrestrial stores are typically transient. If subject to reduction in tidal flows, estuarine wetland soils typically experience increased soil aeration and decomposition of soil organic matter, whereas reintroduction of tidal flows can increase the rate of carbon sequestration by increasing vertical accretion of the soil profile. Research at a wetland in the Hunter estuary, southeast Australia compared carbon sequestration rates in a rehabilitated and a natural estuarine wetland, both comprised of mangrove and saltmarsh. At the rehabilitated site, total carbon concentration ranged from 1.4-7.4% and bulk density from 0.56-1.37 Mg.m-3. Approximately 97% of soil carbon was present as organic carbon (range 94-100%). At the natural site, total carbon concentration ranged from 8.0-11.6% and bulk density from 0.50 0.85 Mg.m-3. These data were significantly different to rehabilitated site in terms of both higher total carbon (F(1,22)=90.14, p<0.001) and lower bulk density (F(1,22)=11.39, p=0.003). The suppressed carbon stores and elevated bulk density at the rehabilitated site are related to the substantial reduction in tidal flows that occurred in the 1960s, whereas the estuarine communities at the natural site have existed in a relatively undisturbed state since at least the 1850s and there are no artificial constraints to tidal flow. Carbon sequestration at the rehabilitated site (1.05 Mg C.ha-1.y-1 for mangrove and 1.37 Mg C.ha-1.y-1 for saltmarsh), however, was substantially higher than that at the natural site (0.89 Mg C.ha-1.y-1 for mangrove and 0.64 Mg C.ha-1.y-1 for saltmarsh). These results are consistent with a soil carbon rehabilitation trajectory where high vertical accretion rates in rehabilitated sites drive an asymptotic increase in soil carbon stores, and support the potential for substantial gains in carbon sequestration associated with reinstatement of tidal flows to

  19. On carbon sequestration in desert ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlesinger, W.H.; Belnap, J.; Marion, G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent reports of net ecosysytem production >100 g C m-2 yr-1 in deserts are incompatible with existing measurements of net primary production and carbon pools in deserts. The comparisions suggest that gas exchange measurements should be used with caution and better validation if they are expected to indicate the magnitude of carbon sink in these ecosysytems. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing.

  20. Reactor design considerations in mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ityokumbul, M.T.; Chander, S.; O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    One of the promising approaches to lowering the anthropogenic carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere is mineral sequestration. In this approach, the carbon dioxide reacts with alkaline earth containing silicate minerals forming magnesium and/or calcium carbonates. Mineral carbonation is a multiphase reaction process involving gas, liquid and solid phases. The effective design and scale-up of the slurry reactor for mineral carbonation will require careful delineation of the rate determining step and how it changes with the scale of the reactor. The shrinking core model was used to describe the mineral carbonation reaction. Analysis of laboratory data indicates that the transformations of olivine and serpentine are controlled by chemical reaction and diffusion through an ash layer respectively. Rate parameters for olivine and serpentine carbonation are estimated from the laboratory data.

  1. The value of carbon sequestration and storage in coastal habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumont, N. J.; Jones, L.; Garbutt, A.; Hansom, J. D.; Toberman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal margin habitats are globally significant in terms of their capacity to sequester and store carbon, but their continuing decline, due to environmental change and human land use decisions, is reducing their capacity to provide this ecosystem service. In this paper the UK is used as a case study area to develop methodologies to quantify and value the ecosystem service of blue carbon sequestration and storage in coastal margin habitats. Changes in UK coastal habitat area between 1900 and 2060 are documented, the long term stocks of carbon stored by these habitats are calculated, and the capacity of these habitats to sequester CO2 is detailed. Changes in value of the carbon sequestration service of coastal habitats are then projected for 2000-2060 under two scenarios, the maintenance of the current state of the habitat and the continuation of current trends of habitat loss. If coastal habitats are maintained at their current extent, their sequestration capacity over the period 2000-2060 is valued to be in the region of £1 billion UK sterling (3.5% discount rate). However, if current trends of habitat loss continue, the capaci