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Sample records for geological granite disposal

  1. Applying 3D Full Waveform Inversion in resolving fracture damage zones around a modelled geological disposal facility in granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentham, H. L. M.; Morgan, J. V.; Angus, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    The UK has a large volume of high level and intermediate level radioactive waste and government policy is to dispose of this waste in a Geological Disposal Facility (GDF). This will be a highly-engineered facility capable of isolating radioactive waste within multiple protective barriers, deep underground, to ensure that no harmful quantities of radioactivity ever reach the surface environment. Although no specific GDF site in the UK has been chosen, granite is one of the candidate host rocks due to its strength, in engineering terms, and because of its low permeability in consideration of groundwater movement. We design time-lapse seismic surveys to characterise geological models of naturally fractured granite with GDF-related tunnel damage zones at a potential disposal depth of 1000 m (the UK GDF might be shallower). Additionally, we use effective medium models to calculate the velocity change when the fracture density is increased in the damage zones, and find a reduction of 60 m/s in P-wave velocity when the fracture density is doubled. Next, we simulate seismic surveys and apply 3D Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) to see how well we can recover the low-velocity damage zones. Furthermore we evaluate the effectiveness of using a survey design consisting of surface and tunnel receivers (a combined array) to resolve the target. After applying FWI we find the velocity anomaly within the damage zone can be resolved to within 2 m/s (3%) and the shape of the damage zone is resolved to 12.5 m (within a single grid cell). Using the combined array we are able to resolve the anomaly strength and shape more completely. When we add further complexity to the model by including tunnel infrastructure, we conclude the combined array is essential in recovering the tunnel damage zone. Our findings show that it is beneficial to use 3D FWI and novel survey designs for characterising subtle variations as may be present in granite, information that could assist in the GDF site selection

  2. Geological considerations in hazardouswaste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartwright, K.; Gilkeson, R.H.; Johnson, T.M.

    1981-01-01

    Present regulations assume that long-term isolation of hazardous wastes - including toxic chemical, biological, radioactive, flammable and explosive wastes - may be effected by disposal in landfills that have liners of very low hydraulic conductivity. In reality, total isolation of wastes in humid areas is not possible; some migration of leachate from wastes buried in the gound will always occur. Regulations should provide performance standards applicable on a site-by-site basis rather than rigid criteria for site selection and design. The performance standards should take into account several factors: (1) the categories, segregation, degradation and toxicity of the wastes; (2) the site hydrogeology, which governs the direction and rate of contaminant transport; (3) the attenuation of contaminants by geochemical interactions with geologic materials; and (4) the release rate of unattenuated pollutants to surface or groundwater. An adequate monitoring system is essential. The system should both test the extent to which the operation of the site meets performance standards and provide sufficient warning of pollution problems to allow implementation of remedial measures. In recent years there has been a trend away from numerous, small disposal sites toward fewer and larger sites. The size of a disposal site should be based on the attenuation capacity of the geologic material, which has a finite, though generally not well-defined, limit. For slowly degradable wastes, engineered sites with leachate-collection systems appear to be only a temporary solution since the leachate collected will also require final disposal. ?? 1981.

  3. Geology of the Andover Granite and surrounding rocks, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castle, Robert O.

    1964-01-01

    Field and petrographic studies of the Andover Granite and surrounding rocks have afforded an opportunity for an explanation of its emplacement and crystallization. The investigation has contributed secondarily to an understanding of the geologic history of southeastern New England, particularly as it is revealed in the Lawrence, Wilmington, South Groveland, and Reading quadrangles of Massachusetts. The Andover Granite and Sharpners Pond Tonalite together comprise up to 90 percent of the Acadian(?) subalkaline intrusive series cropping out within the area of study. The subalkaline series locally invades a sequence of early to middle Paleozoic and possibly Precambrian metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. Much of the subalkaline series and most of the Andover Granite is confined between two prominent east-northeast trending faults or fault systems. The northern fault separates the mildly metamorphosed Middle Silurian(?) Merrimack Group on the north from a highly metamorphosed and thoroughly intruded Ordovician(?) sequence on the south. The southern 'boundary '' fault is a major structural discontinuity characterized by penetrative, diffuse shearing over a zone one-half mile or more in width. The magmatic nature of the Andover Granite is demonstrated by: (1) sharply crosscutting relationships with surrounding rocks; (2) the occurrence of tabular-shaped xenoliths whose long directions parallel the foliation within the granite and whose internal foliation trends at a high angle to that of the granite; (3) continuity with the clearly intrusive Sharpners Pond Tonalite; (4) the compositional uniformity of the granite as contrasted with the compositional diversity of the rocks it invades; (5) its modal and normative correspondence with (a) calculated norms of salic extrusives and (b) that of the ternary (granite) minimum for the system NaAlSi3O8-KAlSi3O8-SiO2. Orogenic granites, as represented by the Andover, contrast with post-orogenic granites, represented locally by

  4. Advances in Geologic Disposal System Modeling and Application to Crystalline Rock

    SciTech Connect

    Mariner, Paul E.; Stein, Emily R.; Frederick, Jennifer M.; Sevougian, S. David; Hammond, Glenn Edward; Fascitelli, D. G.

    2016-09-22

    The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology (OFCT) is conducting research and development (R&D) on geologic disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW). Two of the high priorities for UFDC disposal R&D are design concept development and disposal system modeling (DOE 2011). These priorities are directly addressed in the UFDC Generic Disposal Systems Analysis (GDSA) work package, which is charged with developing a disposal system modeling and analysis capability for evaluating disposal system performance for nuclear waste in geologic media (e.g., salt, granite, clay, and deep borehole disposal). This report describes specific GDSA activities in fiscal year 2016 (FY 2016) toward the development of the enhanced disposal system modeling and analysis capability for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The GDSA framework employs the PFLOTRAN thermal-hydrologic-chemical multi-physics code and the Dakota uncertainty sampling and propagation code. Each code is designed for massively-parallel processing in a high-performance computing (HPC) environment. Multi-physics representations in PFLOTRAN are used to simulate various coupled processes including heat flow, fluid flow, waste dissolution, radionuclide release, radionuclide decay and ingrowth, precipitation and dissolution of secondary phases, and radionuclide transport through engineered barriers and natural geologic barriers to the biosphere. Dakota is used to generate sets of representative realizations and to analyze parameter sensitivity.

  5. Qualifying radioactive waste forms for geologic disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L.J.; Laidler, J.J.; McPheeters, C.C.

    1994-09-01

    We have developed a phased strategy that defines specific program-management activities and critical documentation for producing radioactive waste forms, from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, that will be acceptable for geologic disposal by the US Department of Energy. The documentation of these waste forms begins with the decision to develop the pyroprocessing technology for spent fuel conditioning and ends with production of the last waste form for disposal. The need for this strategy is underscored by the fact that existing written guidance for establishing the acceptability for disposal of radioactive waste is largely limited to borosilicate glass forms generated from the treatment of aqueous reprocessing wastes. The existing guidance documents do not provide specific requirements and criteria for nonstandard waste forms such as those generated from pyrochemical processing operations.

  6. Experimental investigations on the thermal conductivity characteristics of Beishan granitic rocks for China's HLW disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X. G.; Wang, J.; Chen, F.; Li, P. F.; Ma, L. K.; Xie, J. L.; Liu, Y. M.

    2016-06-01

    Crystalline rocks are potential host rock types for the construction of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repositories. A better understanding of thermal conductivity of rocks is essential to safe evaluation and engineering optimization of a HLW disposal system in the rock at depth. In the present study, experimental investigations on the thermal conductivity characteristics of 47 pairs of granitic rock specimens were conducted using the Transient Plane Source (TPS) method. The specimens were collected from borehole cores in the Beishan area, which is being considered as the most potential candidate area for China's HLW repository. To evaluate geological nature of the rocks, mineralogical compositions of the rocks were identified, and porosity of the specimens was measured. The thermal conductivities of the specimens under dry and water-saturated conditions were determined, and the effect of water saturation on the thermal conductivity was investigated. In addition, the influence of temperature and axial compression stress on the thermal conductivity of dry specimens was studied. The results revealed that the thermal conductivity of tested rocks was dependent on water saturation, temperature and compression stress. Based on the obtained data, some models considering porosity were established for describing the thermal conductivity characteristics of the tested rocks. Furthermore, when the rocks have a similar porosity, the quartz content dominates the thermal conductivity, and there exists an obvious increase of the thermal conductivity with increasing quartz content. The test results constitute the first systematic measurements on the Beishan granitic rocks and can further be used for the development of thermal models for predicting thermal response near the underground excavations for HLW disposal.

  7. Mined Geologic Disposal System Concept of Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Heidt, R.M.

    1995-06-08

    A Concept of Operations has been developed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The Concept of Operations has been developed to document a cormion understanding of how the repository is to be operated. It is based on the repository architecture identified in the Initial Summary Report for Repository/Waste Package Advanced Conceptual Design and describes the operation of the repository from the initial receipt of waste through repository closure. Also described are operations for waste retrieval.

  8. Granite disposal of U.S. high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Mariner, Paul E.; Lee, Joon H.; Hardin, Ernest L.; Goldstein, Barry; Hansen, Francis D.; Price, Ronald H.; Lord, Anna Snider

    2011-08-01

    This report evaluates the feasibility of disposing U.S. high-level radioactive waste in granite several hundred meters below the surface of the earth. The U.S. has many granite formations with positive attributes for permanent disposal. Similar crystalline formations have been extensively studied by international programs, two of which, in Sweden and Finland, are the host rocks of submitted or imminent repository license applications. This report is enabled by the advanced work of the international community to establish functional and operational requirements for disposal of a range of waste forms in granite media. In this report we develop scoping performance analyses, based on the applicable features, events, and processes (FEPs) identified by international investigators, to support generic conclusions regarding post-closure safety. Unlike the safety analyses for disposal in salt, shale/clay, or deep boreholes, the safety analysis for a mined granite repository depends largely on waste package preservation. In crystalline rock, waste packages are preserved by the high mechanical stability of the excavations, the diffusive barrier of the buffer, and favorable chemical conditions. The buffer is preserved by low groundwater fluxes, favorable chemical conditions, backfill, and the rigid confines of the host rock. An added advantage of a mined granite repository is that waste packages would be fairly easy to retrieve, should retrievability be an important objective. The results of the safety analyses performed in this study are consistent with the results of comprehensive safety assessments performed for sites in Sweden, Finland, and Canada. They indicate that a granite repository would satisfy established safety criteria and suggest that a small number of FEPs would largely control the release and transport of radionuclides. In the event the U.S. decides to pursue a potential repository in granite, a detailed evaluation of these FEPs would be needed to inform site

  9. The geology and petrogenesis of the southern closepet granite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayananda, M.; Mahabaleswar, B.; Oak, K. A.; Friend, C. R. L.

    1988-01-01

    The Archaean Closepet Granite is a polyphase body intruding the Peninsular Gneiss Complex and the associated supracrustal rocks. The granite out-crop runs for nearly 500 km with an approximate width of 20 to 25 km and cut across the regional metamorphic structure passing from granulite facies in the South and green schist facies in the north. In the amphibolite-granulite facies transition zone the granite is intimately mixed with migmatites and charnockite. Field observations suggests that anatexis of Peninsular gneisses led to the formation of granite melt, and there is a space relationship between migmatite formation, charnockite development and production and emplacement of granite magma. Based on texture and cross cutting relationships four major granite phases are recognized: (1) Pyroxene bearing dark grey granite; (2) Porphyritec granite; (3) Equigranular grey granite; and (4) Equigranular pink granite. The granite is medium to coarse grained and exhibit hypidiomorphic granular to porphyritic texture. The modal composition varies from granite granodiorite to quartz monzonite. Geochemical variation of the granite suite is consistent with either fractional crystallization or partial melting, but in both the cases biotite plus feldspar must be involved as fractionating or residual phases during melting to account trace element chemistry. The trace element data has been plotted on discriminant diagrams, where majority of samples plot in volcanic arc and within plate, tectonic environments. The granite show distinct REE patterns with variable total REE content. The REE patterns and overall abundances suggests that the granite suite represents a product of partial melting of crustal source in which fractional crystallization operated in a limited number of cases.

  10. Geology of the Integrated Disposal Facility Trench

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve P.; Fecht, Karl R.

    2005-07-01

    This report describes the geology of the integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Trench. The stratigraphy consists of some of the youngest sediments of the Missoula floods (younger than 770 ka). The lithology is dominated sands with minor silts and gravels that are largely unconsolidated. The stratigraphy can be subdivided into five geologic units that can be mapped throughout the trench. Four of the units were deposited by the Missoula floods and the youngest consists of windblown sand and silt. The sediment has little moisture and is consistent with that observed in the characterization boreholes. The sedimentary layers are flat lying and there are no faults or folds present. Two clastic dikes were encountered, one along the west wall and one that can be traced from the north to the southwall. The north-south clastic dike nearly bifurcates the trench but the west wall clastic dike can not be traced very far east into the trench. The classic dikes consist mainly of sand with clay-lined walls. The sediment in the dikes is compacted to partly cemented and are more resistant than the layered sediments.

  11. Geological aspects of the nuclear waste disposal problem

    SciTech Connect

    Laverov, N.P.; Omelianenko, B.L.; Velichkin, V.I.

    1994-06-01

    For the successful solution of the high-level waste (HLW) problem in Russia one must take into account such factors as the existence of the great volume of accumulated HLW, the large size and variety of geological conditions in the country, and the difficult economic conditions. The most efficient method of HLW disposal consists in the maximum use of protective capacities of the geological environment and in using inexpensive natural minerals for engineered barrier construction. In this paper, the principal trends of geological investigation directed toward the solution of HLW disposal are considered. One urgent practical aim is the selection of sites in deep wells in regions where the HLW is now held in temporary storage. The aim of long-term investigations into HLW disposal is to evaluate geological prerequisites for regional HLW repositories.

  12. True Triaxial Failure of Granite: Implications for Deep Borehole Waste Disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M.; Ingraham, M. D.; Cheung, C.; Haimson, B. C.

    2016-12-01

    A series of tests have been completed to determine the failure of Sierra White Granite under a range of true triaxial stress conditions ranging from axisymmetric compression to axisymmetric extension. Tests were performed under constant mean stress conditions. Results show a significant difference in failure due to the intermediate principal stress. Borehole breakout, a significant issue for deep borehole disposal, occurs in line with the least principal stress, which in the United States at great depth is almost certainly a horizontal stress. This means that any attempt to dispose of waste in deep boreholes will have to overcome this phenomenon. This work seeks to determine the full 3D failure surface for granite such that it can be applied to determining the likelihood of borehole breakout occurring under different stress conditions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. Evaluation of CO2 Sorption Capacity of Granite for CO2 Geological Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, T.; Sato, Y.; Lin, H.; Sasaki, K.; Takahashi, T.; Inomata, H.; Hashida, T.

    2007-03-01

    Anthropogenic effects on climate can be mitigated through various measures. Among them being CO2 sequestration into geological reservoirs including deep saline aquifers, depleted oil/gas reservoirs and coal seams are interested in a powerful means for drastically reducing emissions of CO2. When CO2 would be injected into geological reservoir, it should be necessary to know the potential of CO2 storing into the reservoir. In this study, amount of CO2 sorption of granite was to evaluate experimentally at temperatures 50, 70, 100 and 200°C and pressure up to 20 MPa using a magnetic suspension balance (MSB), which allows to measure under supercritical condition. As a result, we confirmed that the granite have the potential of CO2 sorption. Sorption isotherms obtained from the MSB experiment showed that amount of CO2 sorption increased with the increasing pressure and decreased with the increasing temperature for all experimental conditions. Especially, amount of CO2 sorption at 50°C compared with that at other temperatures (70, 100 and 200°C) increased rapidly in the vicinity of the critical state. In addition, the granite showed a maximum of CO2 sorption into granite could reach up to about 1.0% by weight at 50°C and 14.4MPa. The present results may provide a fundamental knowledge for the development of CO2 geological sequestration technology.

  14. International Collaboration Activities in Different Geologic Disposal Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Birkholzer, Jens

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the current status of international collaboration regarding geologic disposal research in the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign. Since 2012, in an effort coordinated by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, UFD has advanced active collaboration with several international geologic disposal programs in Europe and Asia. Such collaboration allows the UFD Campaign to benefit from a deep knowledge base with regards to alternative repository environments developed over decades, and to utilize international investments in research facilities (such as underground research laboratories), saving millions of R&D dollars that have been and are being provided by other countries. To date, UFD’s International Disposal R&D Program has established formal collaboration agreements with five international initiatives and several international partners, and national lab scientists associated with UFD have conducted specific collaborative R&D activities that align well with its R&D priorities.

  15. Draft Geologic Disposal Requirements Basis for STAD Specification

    SciTech Connect

    Ilgen, Anastasia G.; Bryan, Charles R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-03-25

    This document provides the basis for requirements in the current version of Performance Specification for Standardized Transportation, Aging, and Disposal Canister Systems, (FCRD-NFST-2014-0000579) that are driven by storage and geologic disposal considerations. Performance requirements for the Standardized Transportation, Aging, and Disposal (STAD) canister are given in Section 3.1 of that report. Here, the requirements are reviewed and the rationale for each provided. Note that, while FCRD-NFST-2014-0000579 provides performance specifications for other components of the STAD storage system (e.g. storage overpack, transfer and transportation casks, and others), these have no impact on the canister performance during disposal, and are not discussed here.

  16. Reconnaissance geology and geochronology of the Precambrian of the Granite Mountains, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterman, Zell E.; Hildreth, Robert A.

    1978-01-01

    The Precambrian of the western part of the Granite Mountains, Wyoming, contains a metamorphic complex of gneisses, schists, and amphibolites that were derived through amphibolite-grade metamorphism from a sedimentary-volcanic sequence perhaps similar to that exposed in the southeastern Wind River Mountains. Whole-rock Rb-Sr dating places the time of metamorphism at 2,860?80 million years. A high initial 87Sr/ 86 S r ratio of 0.7048 suggests that either the protoliths or the source terrane of the sedimentary component is several hundred million years older than the time of metamorphism. Following an interval of 300:t100 million years for which the geologic record is lacking or still undeciphered, the metamorphic complex was intruded by a batholith and satellite bodies of medium- to coarse-grained, generally massive biotite granite and related pegmatite and aplite. The main body of granite is dated at 2,550?60 million years by the Rb-Sr method. Limited data suggest that diabase dikes were emplaced and nephrite veins were formed only shortly after intrusion of the granite. Emplacement of the granite at about 2,550 million years ago appears to be related to a major period of regional granitic plutonism in the Precambrian of southern and western Wyoming. Granites, in the strict sense, that are dated between 2,450 and 2,600 million years occur in the Teton Range, the Sierra Madre, the Medicine Bow Mountains and the Laramie Range. This episode of granitic plutonism occured some 50 to 100 million years later than the major tonalitic to granitic plutonism in the Superior province of northern Minnesota and adjacent Ontario-the nearest exposed Precambrian W terrane that is analogous to the Wyoming province. Initial 87Sr / 86Sr ratios of some of the Wyoming granites are higher than expected if the rocks had been derived from juvenile magmas and it is likely that older crustal rocks were involved to some degree in the generation of these granites. Slightly to highly disturbed

  17. Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document (MGDS-RD) describes the functions to be performed by, and the requirements for, a Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) (including SNF loaded in multi-purpose canisters (MPCs)) and commercial and defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in support of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The purpose of the MGDS-RD is to define the program-level requirements for the design of the Repository, the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), and Surface Based Testing Facilities (SBTF). These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MGDS. The document also presents an overall description of the MGDS, its functions (derived using the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) documents as a starting point), its segments as described in Section 3.1.3, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the program-level interfaces of the MGDS are identified. As such, the MGDS-RD provides the technical baseline for the design of the MGDS.

  18. Geology of Nicholson's point granite, Natal Metamorphic Province, South Africa: the chemistry of charnockitic alteration and origin of the granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, G. H.; Allen, A. R.; Cornell, D. H.; Harris, C.

    1996-10-01

    In the Port Edward area of southern Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa, charnockitic aureoles up to ˜4 m in width are developed adjacent to contacts with Port Edward enderbite and pegmatites intruded into the normally garnetiferous Nicholson's Point granite. Other mineralogical differences between the aureoles and the granite include increased myrmekite and significantly less biotite in the former and the replacement of pyrite by pyrrhotite in the charnockitic rocks. No significant differences in major element chemistry between the garnet-biotite Nicholson's Point granite and charnockitic Nicholson's Point granite are seen, except possibly for higher CaO and TiO 2 in the charnockite. Higher Rb, Th, Nb and Y contents in the garnet-biotite granite suggest that these elements have been locally depleted from garnet-biotite granite during char nockitisation. This depletion is considered to be related to the reduction in biotite. Strontium and Ba contents are significantly higher in the charnockite. Generally higher S contents in the charnockite suggest S metasomatism, with S possibly being added from the enderbite. No differences in δ18O isotope data are seen between the garnetiferous and hypersthene bearing granite. In the charnockite the LREEs are weakly depleted whereas the HREEs show greater depletion compared to the garnetiferous granite. The depletions in REEs are thought to be related to the breakdown of garnet. Europium is marginally enriched or unchanged in the charnockite relative to the garnetiferous granite. Two-pyroxene thermometry on the Port Edward enderbite suggests that it was intruded at temperatures of ˜1000-1100°C. The replacement of pyrite by pyrrhotite is also consistent with a thermal auroele. Consequently the charnockitic zones developed around the intrusions of Port Edward enderbite may result from the thermally driven dehydration of biotite. The aureoles developed adjacent to pegmatites are not considered to have resulted from heat but probably

  19. Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Cranwell, R.M.; Campbell, J.E.; Ortiz, N.R. ); Guzowski, R.V. )

    1990-04-01

    This report contains the description of a procedure for selecting scenarios that are potentially important to the isolation of high- level radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations. In this report, the term scenario is used to represent a set of naturally occurring and/or human-induced conditions that represent realistic future states of the repository, geologic systems, and ground-water flow systems that might affect the release and transport of radionuclides from the repository to humans. The scenario selection procedure discussed in this report is demonstrated by applying it to the analysis of a hypothetical waste disposal site containing a bedded-salt formation as the host medium for the repository. A final set of 12 scenarios is selected for this site. 52 refs., 48 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Geologic map of the Granite 7.5' quadrangle, Lake and Chaffee Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shroba, Ralph R.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2014-01-01

    The geologic map of the Granite 7.5' quadrangle, Lake and Chaffee Counties, Colorado, portrays the geology in the upper Arkansas valley and along the lower flanks of the Sawatch Range and Mosquito Range near the town of Granite. The oldest rocks, exposed in the southern and eastern parts of the quadrangle, include gneiss and plutonic rocks of Paleoproterozoic age. These rocks are intruded by younger plutonic rocks of Mesoproterozoic age. Felsic hypabyssal dikes, plugs, and plutons, ranging in age from Late Cretaceous or Paleocene to late Oligocene, locally intruded Proterozoic rocks. A small andesite lava flow of upper Oligocene age overlies Paleoproterozoic rock, just south of the Twin Lakes Reservoir. Gravelly fluvial and fan deposits of the Miocene and lower Pliocene(?) Dry Union Formation are preserved in the post-30 Ma upper Arkansas valley graben, a northern extension of the Rio Grande rift. Mostly north-northwest-trending faults displace deposits of the Dry Union Formation and older rock units. Light detection and ranging (lidar) imagery suggests that two short faults, near the Arkansas River, may displace surficial deposits as young as middle Pleistocene. Surficial deposits of middle Pleistocene to Holocene age are widespread in the Granite quadrangle, particularly in the major valleys and on slopes underlain by the Dry Union Formation. The main deposits are glacial outwash and post-glacial alluvium; mass-movement deposits transported by creep, debris flow, landsliding, and rockfall; till deposited during the Pinedale, Bull Lake, and pre-Bull Lake glaciations; rock-glacier deposits; and placer-tailings deposits formed by hydraulic mining and other mining methods used to concentrate native gold. Hydrologic and geologic processes locally affect use of the land and locally may be of concern regarding the stability of buildings and infrastructure, chiefly in low-lying areas along and near stream channels and locally in areas of moderate to steep slopes. Low

  1. Cement-based grouts in geological disposal of radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Onofrei, M.

    1996-04-01

    The behavior and performance of a specially developed high-performance cement-based grout has been studied through a combined laboratory and in situ research program conducted under the auspices of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP). A new class of cement-based grouts - high-performance grouts-with the ability to penetrate and seal fine fractures was developed and investigated. These high-performance grouts, which were injected into fractures in the granitic rock at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Canada, are shown to successfully reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass from <10{sup -7} m s{sup -1} to 10{sup -9} m s{sup -1} and to penetrate fissures in the rock with apertures as small as 10 {mu}m. Furthermore, the laboratory studies have shown that this high - performance grout has very low hydraulic conductivity and is highly leach resistant under repository conditions. Microcracks generated in this materials from shrinkage, overstressing or thermal loads are likely to self-seal. The results of these studies suggest that the high-performance grouts can be considered as viable materials in disposal-vault sealing applications. Further work is needed to fully justify extrapolation of the results of the laboratory studies to time scales relevant to performance assessment.

  2. Quaternary geology and waste disposal in South Norfolk, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, J. M.

    South Norfolk is dominated by the till plain of the Anglian Glaciation in eastern England, and therefore there are very few disused gravel pits and quarries suitable for the landfilling of municipal waste. Consequently, in May 1991, Norfolk County Council applied for planning permission to develop an above ground or 'landraise' waste disposal site at a disused U.S. World War II Airfield at Hardwick in South Norfolk. The proposal involved excavating a pit 2-4 m deep into the Lowestoft Till and overfilling it to create a hill of waste up to 10 m above the existing till plain. In general, leachate containment was to be achieved by utilising the relatively low permeability till on the floor of the site, but with reworking of the till around the site perimeter because of sand lenses in the upper part of the till. This paper examines three aspects of the proposal and the wider issues relating to Quaternary geology and waste disposal planning in South Norfolk: (i) the suitability of the till as a natural leachate containment system; (ii) the appropriateness of the landraise landform; and (iii) alternative sites. A Public Inquiry into the proposals was held in January/February 1993 and notification of refusal of planning permission was published in August 1993. Among the grounds for refusal were an inadequate knowledge of the site's geology and hydrogeology and the availability of alternative sites. The paper concludes by stressing that a knowledge of Quaternary geology is crucial to both the planning and design of landfill sites in areas of glacial/Quaternary sediments.

  3. Deep Geologic Nuclear Waste Disposal - No New Taxes - 12469

    SciTech Connect

    Conca, James; Wright, Judith

    2012-07-01

    To some, the perceived inability of the United States to dispose of high-level nuclear waste justifies a moratorium on expansion of nuclear power in this country. Instead, it is more an example of how science yields to social pressure, even on a subject as technical as nuclear waste. Most of the problems, however, stem from confusion on the part of the public and their elected officials, not from a lack of scientific knowledge. We know where to put nuclear waste, how to put it there, how much it will cost, and how well it will work. And it's all about the geology. The President's Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future has drafted a number of recommendations addressing nuclear energy and waste issues (BRC 2011) and three recommendations, in particular, have set the stage for a new strategy to dispose of high-level nuclear waste and to manage spent nuclear fuel in the United States: 1) interim storage for spent nuclear fuel, 2) resumption of the site selection process for a second repository, and 3) a quasi-government entity to execute the program and take control of the Nuclear Waste Fund in order to do so. The first two recommendations allow removal and storage of spent fuel from reactor sites to be used in the future, and allows permanent disposal of actual waste, while the third controls cost and administration. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NPWA 1982) provides the second repository different waste criteria, retrievability, and schedule, so massive salt returns as the candidate formation of choice. The cost (in 2007 dollars) of disposing of 83,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) high-level waste (HLW) is about $ 83 billion (b) in volcanic tuff, $ 29 b in massive salt, and $ 77 b in crystalline rock. Only in salt is the annual revenue stream from the Nuclear Waste Fund more than sufficient to accomplish this program without additional taxes or rate hikes. The cost is determined primarily by the suitability of the geologic formation, i.e., how

  4. Nuclear Waste Disposal in Deep Geological Formations: What are the Major Remaining Scientific Issues?

    SciTech Connect

    Toulhoat, Pierre

    2007-07-01

    For more than thirty years, considerable efforts have been carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of disposing of high level wastes in deep geological formations. Different rock types have been examined, such as water-under-saturated tuffs (USA), granites or crystalline rocks (Canada, Sweden, and Finland), clays (France, Belgium, and Switzerland), rock-salt (Germany). Deep clays and granites, (provided that the most fractured zones are avoided in the second case) are considered to fulfill most allocated functions, either on short term (reversibility) or long term. Chemically reducing conditions favor the immobilization of actinides and most fission products by precipitation, co-precipitation and sorption. If oxidizing conditions prevail, the safety demonstration will mostly rely on the performance of artificial confinement systems. Rock-salt offers limited performance considering the issue of reversibility, which is now perceived as essential, mostly for ethical and sociological reasons. However, several issues would deserve additional research programs, and as a first priority, a clear description of time/space succession of processes during the evolution of the repository. This will allow a better representation of coupled processes in performance assessment, such as the influence of gases (H{sub 2}) generated by corrosion, on the long term dynamics of the re-saturation. Geochemical interactions between the host formation and the engineered systems (packages + barriers) are still insufficiently described. Additional gains in performance could be obtained when taking into account processes such as isotopic exchange. Imaginative solutions, employing ceramic- carbon composite materials could be proposed to replace heavy and gas-generating overpacks, or to accommodate the small but probably significant amount of 'ultimate' wastes that will be inevitably produced by Generation IV reactor systems. (author)

  5. Structural geology and geophysics as a support to build a hydrogeologic model of granite rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Landa, Lurdes; Carrera, Jesús; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Gómez, Paloma; Bajos, Carmen

    2016-06-01

    A method developed for low-permeability fractured media was applied to understand the hydrogeology of a mine excavated in a granitic pluton. This method includes (1) identifying the main groundwater-conducting features of the medium, such as the mine, dykes, and large fractures, (2) implementing this factors as discrete elements into a three-dimensional numerical model, and (3) calibrating these factors against hydraulic data . A key question is how to identify preferential flow paths in the first step. Here, we propose a combination of several techniques. Structural geology, together with borehole sampling, geophysics, hydrogeochemistry, and local hydraulic tests aided in locating all structures. Integration of these data yielded a conceptual model of the site. A preliminary calibration of the model was performed against short-term (< 1 day) pumping tests, which facilitated the characterization of some of the fractures. The hydraulic properties were then used for other fractures that, according to geophysics and structural geology, belonged to the same families. Model validity was tested by blind prediction of a long-term (4 months) large-scale (1 km) pumping test from the mine, which yielded excellent agreement with the observations. Model results confirmed the sparsely fractured nature of the pluton, which has not been subjected to glacial loading-unloading cycles and whose waters are of Na-HCO3 type.

  6. US Geological Survey research in radioactive waste disposal, fiscal year 1979

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, R.; Roseboom, E. H., Jr.; Robertson, J. B.; Stevens, P. R.

    Geologic and hydrologic research related to the disposal of radioactive wastes is reported. The categories are described as they relate most directly to: (1) high level and transuranic wastes; (2) low level wastes; or (3) uranium mill tailings. The identification and geohydrologic characterization of waste disposal sites, investigations of specific sites where wastes have been stored, and regions or environments where waste disposal sites might be located are studied. Techniques and methods for characterizing disposal sites and studies of geologic and hydrologic processes related to the transport and (or) retention of waste radionuclides are presented.

  7. Workshop on the role of natural analogs in geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, W.M.; Kovach, L.A.

    1995-09-01

    A workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste (HLW) was held in San Antonio, Texas, on July 22-25, 1991. It was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA). Invitations to the workshop were extended to a large number of individuals with a variety of technical and professional interests related to geologic disposal of nuclear waste and natural analog studies. The objective of the workshop was to examine the role of natural analog studies in performance assessment, site characterization, and prioritization of research related to geologic disposal of HLW.

  8. Status of LLNL granite projects

    SciTech Connect

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1980-12-31

    The status of LLNL Projects dealing with nuclear waste disposal in granitic rocks is reviewed. This review covers work done subsequent to the June 1979 Workshop on Thermomechanical Modeling for a Hardrock Waste Repository and is prepared for the July 1980 Workshop on Thermomechanical-Hydrochemical Modeling for a Hardrock Waste Repository. Topics reviewed include laboratory determination of thermal, mechanical, and transport properties of rocks at conditions simulating a deep geologic repository, and field testing at the Climax granitic stock at the USDOE Nevada Test Site.

  9. Formation and Geological Sequestration of Uranium Nanoparticles in Deep Granitic Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yohey; Mukai, Hiroki; Ishimura, Toyoho; Yokoyama, Takaomi D.; Sakata, Shuhei; Hirata, Takafumi; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Mizuno, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    The stimulation of bacterial activities that convert hexavalent uranium, U(VI), to tetravalent uranium, U(IV), appears to be feasible for cost-effective remediation of contaminated aquifers. However, U(VI) reduction typically results in the precipitation of U(IV) particles less than 5 nanometers in diameter, except for environmental conditions enriched with iron. Because these tiny particles are mobile and susceptible to oxidative dissolution after the termination of nutrient injection, in situ bioremediation remains to be impractical. Here we show that U(IV) nanoparticles of coffinite (U(SiO4)1‑x(OH)4x) formed in fracture-filling calcium carbonate in a granitic aquifer. In situ U-Pb isotope dating demonstrates that U(IV) nanoparticles have been sequestered in the calcium carbonate for at least 1 million years. As the microbiologically induced precipitation of calcium carbonate in aquifer systems worldwide is extremely common, we anticipate simultaneous stimulation of microbial activities for precipitation reactions of calcium carbonate and U(IV) nanoparticles, which leads to long-term sequestration of uranium and other radionuclides in contaminated aquifers and deep geological repositories.

  10. Formation and Geological Sequestration of Uranium Nanoparticles in Deep Granitic Aquifer

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yohey; Mukai, Hiroki; Ishimura, Toyoho; Yokoyama, Takaomi D.; Sakata, Shuhei; Hirata, Takafumi; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Mizuno, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The stimulation of bacterial activities that convert hexavalent uranium, U(VI), to tetravalent uranium, U(IV), appears to be feasible for cost-effective remediation of contaminated aquifers. However, U(VI) reduction typically results in the precipitation of U(IV) particles less than 5 nanometers in diameter, except for environmental conditions enriched with iron. Because these tiny particles are mobile and susceptible to oxidative dissolution after the termination of nutrient injection, in situ bioremediation remains to be impractical. Here we show that U(IV) nanoparticles of coffinite (U(SiO4)1−x(OH)4x) formed in fracture-filling calcium carbonate in a granitic aquifer. In situ U-Pb isotope dating demonstrates that U(IV) nanoparticles have been sequestered in the calcium carbonate for at least 1 million years. As the microbiologically induced precipitation of calcium carbonate in aquifer systems worldwide is extremely common, we anticipate simultaneous stimulation of microbial activities for precipitation reactions of calcium carbonate and U(IV) nanoparticles, which leads to long-term sequestration of uranium and other radionuclides in contaminated aquifers and deep geological repositories. PMID:26948389

  11. Underground mining and deep geologic disposal - Two compatible and complementary activities

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, N.T.

    1995-12-31

    Active and mature underground mining districts offer conditions favorable to deep geologic disposal because their geology is known in more detail, the feasibility of underground excavations has already been demonstrated, mining leaves distinctive footprints and records that alert subsequent generations to the anthropogenic alterations of the underground environment, and subsequent exploration and production proceeds with great care and accuracy to locate and generally to avoid old mine workings. Compatibility of mining with deep geologic waste disposal has been proven by decades of experience with safe storage and disposal in former mines and in the mined-out areas of still active mining operations. Mineral extraction around an intended repository reduces the incentive for future disturbance. Incidental features of mineral exploration and extraction such as lost circulation zones, allochthonous backfill, and permanent surface markers can deter future intrusion into a repository. Thus exploration and production of mineral resources should be compatible with, and complementary to, deep geologic waste disposal.

  12. Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: A Long-Term Socio-Technical Experiment.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Jantine

    2016-06-01

    In this article we investigate whether long-term radioactive waste management by means of geological disposal can be understood as a social experiment. Geological disposal is a rather particular technology in the way it deals with the analytical and ethical complexities implied by the idea of technological innovation as social experimentation, because it is presented as a technology that ultimately functions without human involvement. We argue that, even when the long term function of the 'social' is foreseen to be restricted to safeguarding the functioning of the 'technical', geological disposal is still a social experiment. In order to better understand this argument and explore how it could be addressed, we elaborate the idea of social experimentation with the notion of co-production and the analytical tools of delegation, prescription and network as developed by actor-network theory. In doing so we emphasize that geological disposal inherently involves relations between surface and subsurface, between humans and nonhumans, between the social, material and natural realm, and that these relations require recognition and further elaboration. In other words, we argue that geological disposal concurrently is a social and a technical experiment, or better, a long-term socio-technical experiment. We end with proposing the idea of 'actor-networking' as a sensitizing concept for future research into what geological disposal as a socio-technical experiment could look like.

  13. Modelling iron clay interactions in deep geological disposal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bildstein, O.; Trotignon, L.; Perronnet, M.; Jullien, M.

    In the context of deep geological disposal of high level radioactive wastes, the interactions between iron and clay-rich materials may lead to adverse transformations of clay minerals with a potential loss of confining properties such as swelling and capacity to exchange cations. Such transformations have been experimentally observed at temperatures starting at ca. 80 °C, where smectites contained in a mixture of bentonite and iron powder are transformed into iron-rich serpentine-type minerals. The reaction-transport code CRUNCH is used to investigate the iron-clay interactions at 50 °C over a period of 10,000 years, which are the conditions considered here to represent the mean temperature value and the expected timescale for the corrosion stage. The aim is to predict the nature and quantity of corrosion product, calculate the chemistry of water (essentially the pH) and the mineralogical transformation in the system containing the canister, an optional engineered barrier (bentonite) and the host-rock (argillite). The results of the calculations show that at the interface with the canister, where steel corrosion occurs, the iron is partly immobilized by the precipitation of iron oxides (essentially magnetite) and small amounts of siderite. The pH stabilizes at high values, between 10 and 11, at this location. In the bentonite or the argillite in contact with the container, the primary clay minerals are destabilized and iron-rich serpentine-like minerals precipitate as observed in the experiments (cronstedtite and berthierine). These minerals show low cation exchange and swelling capacities. The results also show that the interactions between iron and clay may lead to significant porosity changes in the system. A reduction of the porosity is predicted at the surface of the steel canister, due to the precipitation of iron oxides. Porosity increase is predicted in the clay material due to the dissolution of the primary clay minerals. The effect of these porosity

  14. Systems engineering programs for geologic nuclear waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, R. D.; Hertel, Jr., E. S.; Ellis, M. A.

    1980-06-01

    The design sequence and system programs presented begin with general approximate solutions that permit inexpensive analysis of a multitude of possible wastes, disposal media, and disposal process properties and configurations. It then continues through progressively more precise solutions as parts of the design become fixed, and ends with repository and waste form optimization studies. The programs cover both solid and gaseous waste forms. The analytical development, a program listing, a users guide, and examples are presented for each program. Sensitivity studies showing the effects of disposal media and waste form thermophysical properties and repository layouts are presented as examples.

  15. Integrated Numerical Simulation of Thermo-Hydro-Chemical Phenomena Associated with Geologic Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Uk; Kim, Jun-Mo; Kihm, Jung-Hwi

    2014-05-01

    A series of numerical simulations was performed using a multiphase thermo-hydro-chemical numerical model to predict integratedly and evaluate quantitatively thermo-hydro-chemical phenomena due to heat generation associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The average mineralogical composition of the fifteen unweathered igneous rock bodies, which were classified as granite, in Republic of Korea was adopted as an initial (primary) mineralogical composition of the host rock of the repository of high-level radioactive waste in the numerical simulations. The numerical simulation results show that temperature rises and thus convective groundwater flow occurs near the repository due to heat generation associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Under these circumstances, a series of water-rock interactions take place. As a result, among the primary minerals, quartz, plagioclase (albite), biotite (annite), and muscovite are dissolved. However, orthoclase is initially precipitated and is then dissolved, whereas microcline is initially dissolved and is then precipitated. On the other hand, the secondary minerals such as kaolinite, Na-smectite, chlorite, and hematite are precipitated and are then partly dissolved. In addition, such dissolution and precipitation of the primary and secondary minerals change groundwater chemistry (quality) and induce reactive chemical transport. As a result, in groundwater, Na+, Fe2+, and HCO3- concentrations initially decrease, whereas K+, AlO2-, and aqueous SiO2 concentrations initially increase. On the other hand, H+ concentration initially increases and thus pH initially decreases due to dissociation of groundwater in order to provide OH-, which is essential in precipitation of Na-smectite and chlorite. Thus, the above-mentioned numerical simulation results suggest that thermo-hydro-chemical numerical simulation can provide a better understanding of heat transport, groundwater flow, and reactive

  16. Modeling Biogeochemical Reactive Transport in Fractured Granites: Implications for the Performance of a Deep Geological Repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinero, J.; Samper, J.; Pedersen, K.; Puigdomenech, I.

    2003-12-01

    Several countries around the world are considering deep repositories in fractured granitic formations for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Evaluating the long term safety of such repositories requires sound conceptual and numerical models which are being developed from data and knowledge gained from in situ experiments carried out at deep underground laboratories such as that of Žsp” in Sweden. One of the key aspects for performance assessment concerns to groundwater redox conditions because: (a) the presence of oxygen will affect to the corrosion of canisters, (b) possible production of hydrogen sulphide from sulphate reduction will also have a negative effect on these metallic containers, and (c) several long-lived radionuclides are much more soluble and mobile under oxidizing conditions. Several projects have been performed at Žsp” to investigate different aspects of the groundwater redox evolution. The vast amount of in situ-generated information has been used in this work to set up coupled hydrobiogeochemical models. Numerical models account for saturated groundwater flow, solute transport by advection, dispersion and molecular diffusion, geochemical reactions involving both the liquid and solid phases, and microbially-catallyzed processes. For the Žsp” site, modelling results provide quantitative support for the following conclusions. (A) At the operational phase of the repository, shallow fresh groundwater could reach the depth of the underground facility. Shallow groundwaters loose dissolved oxygen during the infiltration through soil layers and then, respiration of dissolved organic matter is induced along the flow paths through the reduction of Fe(III)-bearing minerals of the fracture zones. Microbial anaerobic respiration of DOC provides additional reducing capacity at the depth of the tunnel. (B) After repository closure, atmospheric oxygen will remain trapped within the tunnel. Abiotic consumption of this oxygen has been

  17. 3D surface roughness recreation and data processing of granitic rocks and claystones, potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buocz, Ildikó; Török, Ákos; Rozgonyi-Boissinot, Nikoletta

    2015-04-01

    The determination and modelling of the stability of rock slopes, tunnels, or underground spaces, i.e. radioactive waste disposal facilities, is an important task in engineering. The appropriate estimation of the mechanical parameters for a realistic description of the behaviour of rocks results in higher safety and more economic design. The failure of stability is primarily due to the shear failure of the rock masses along fractures and joints: therefore the correct determination of the shear strength is crucial. One of the most important parameters influencing the shear strength along rock joints is their surface roughness. Although the quantification of surface roughness has been an open question during the past century, several attempts have been made, starting with 2D and continuing with 3D measurements, to provide engineers with a method for determining shear strength numerically. As technology evolved, the 3D methods became more popular and several scientists started to investigate the surface properties through laser scanning and different photogrammetrical methods. This paper shows a photogrammetric method for the 3D digital recreation of joint surfaces of granitic rock and claystone, both potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal. The rocks derived from Bátaapáti (South Hungary) and Mont Terri (North Switzerland) respectively. The samples are laboratory scaled specimens with an areal size of 50x50 mm. The software used is called ShapeMetrix3D, developed by 3GSM GmbH in Austria. The major steps of the creation of the 3D picture are presented, as well as the following data processing which leads to the quantification of the 3D surface roughness.

  18. Map Showing Quaternary Geology and Geomorphology of the Granite Park Area, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hereford, Richard; Burke, Kelly J.; Thompson, Kathryn S.

    2000-01-01

    View to west-northwest showing map area and setting of Granite Park; Grand Canyon, Arizona. The Colorado River flows from right to left. Granite Park Wash is the light-colored area in foreground of photograph. The debris fan of 209 Mile Canyon is at left center. Pleistocene gravel is exposed in the steep, light-colored bank above 209 Mile Rapids at left edge of photograph. The black-colored ledge that forms the dark cliff at upper right of photograph is the basalt flow of Hamblin (1994). Sand dunes, debris fans, and terraces of the Colorado River cover the lower half of this area shown in this photograph.

  19. U.S. Geological Survey research in radioactive waste disposal; fiscal year 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert; Roseboom, E.H.; Robertson, J.B.; Stevens, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    The report summarizes progress on geologic and hydrologic research related to the disposal of radioactive wastes. The research is described according to whether it is related most directly to: (1) high-level and transuranic wastes; (2) low-level wastes, or (3) uranium mill tailings. Included is research applicable to the identification and geohydrologic characterization of waste-disposal sites, investigations of specific sites where wastes have been stored, and studies of regions or environments where waste-disposal sites might be located. A significant part of the activity is concerned with techniques and methods for characterizing disposal sites and studies of geologic and hydrologic processes related to the transport and(or) retention of waste radionuclides. (USGS)

  20. U.S. Geological Survey research in radioactive waste disposal; fiscal year 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert; Trask, N.J.

    1982-01-01

    The report summarizes progress on geologic and hydrologic research related to the disposal of radioactive wastes. The research is described according to whether it is related most directly to: (1) High-level and transuranic wastes; (2) Low-level wastes, or (3) Uranium mill tailings. Included is research applicable to the identification and geohydrologic characterization of waste-disposal sites, to investigations of specific sites where wastes have been stored, and to studies of regions or environments where waste-disposal sites might be located. A significant part of the activity is concerned with techniques and methods for characterizing disposal sites and studies of geologic and hydrologic processes related to the transport and (or) retention of waste radionuclides.

  1. Geology and mineralogy of the Alakha spodumene granite porphyry deposit, Gorny Altai, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annikova, I. Yu.; Vladimirov, A. G.; Smirnov, S. Z.; Gavryushkina, O. A.

    2016-09-01

    The Alakha lithium-tantalum deposit in the southern Altai, Russia, is represented by a stock of spodumene-bearing granite porphyry localized in the Kalba-Narym-Koktogai lithium-tantalum rare-metal granitic belt, unique in extent (more than 1000 km). This belt is a part of the Altai accretionary-collisional system. Judging from forecasting, the Alakha deposit can be regarded as an uneroded proxy of a pegmatite body both in dimensions and mean Li2O and Ta2O5 contents (0.98 wt % and 114 ppm, respectively); however, the oregenerating potential of this deposit remains insufficiently studied and had not yet been claimed. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap with a detailed mineralogical study, which allows us to provide insights into the crystallization of Li-bearing high-silicic magma and redistribution of components during magmatic and postmagmatic processes. Accessory mineral assemblages in muscovite-spodumene-K-feldspar granite porphyry and muscovite albitite—the main petrographic rock varieties of the Alakha stock—turned out to be almost identical. A significant similarity in the chemistry of major rock-forming minerals is established for spodumene granite porphyry of the Alakha stock and spodumene pegmatites from large deposits, which makes it possible to suggest that they are close in the petrogenetic mechanism of their formation. The mineral assemblages of muscovite albitite in the apical portion of the Alakha stock are connected by gradual transition with those of spodumene granite porphyry. Such a transition is caused by postmagmatic metasomatic alteration of the latter.

  2. Criticality safety considerations in the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gore, B. F.; McNair, G. W.; Heaberlin, S. W.

    1980-05-01

    Features of geologic disposal which hamper the demonstration that criticality cannot occur therein include possible changes of shape and form, intrusion of water as a neutron moderator, and selective leaching of spent fuel constituents. If the criticality safety of spent fuels disposal depends on burnup, independent measurements verifying the burnup should be performed prior to disposal. The status of nondestructive analysis method which might provide such verification is discussed. Calculations were performed to assess the potential for increasing the allowed size of a spent fuel disposal canister if potential water intrusion were limited by close packing the enclosed rods. Several factors were identified which severely limited the potential of this application. The theoretical limit of hexagonal close packing cannot be achieved due to fuel rod bowing. It is concluded the disposal canisters should be sized on the basis of assumed optimum moderation.

  3. Geology

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Stephen P.

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms in the context of the region’s geologic history. This chapter is based on the information in the geology data package for the SST waste management areas and SST RFI Appendix E, which builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  4. International safeguards relevant to geologic disposal of high-level wastes and spent fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.; Picard, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Spent fuels from once-through fuel cycles placed in underground repositories have the potential to become attractive targets for diversion and/or theft because of their valuable material content and decreasing radioactivity. The first geologic repository in the US, as currently designed, will contain approximately 500 Mt of plutonium, 60,000 Mt of uranium and a host of other fissile and strategically important elements. This paper identifies some of the international safeguards issues relevant to the various proposed scenarios for disposing of the spent fuel. In the context of the US program for geologic disposal of spent fuels, this paper highlights several issues that should be addressed in the near term by US industries, the Department of Energy, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission before the geologic repositories for spent fuels become a reality. Based on US spent fuel discharges, an example is presented to illustrate the enormity of the problem of verifying spent fuel inventories. The geologic disposal scenario for high-level wastes originating from defense facilities produced a practicably irrecoverable'' waste form. Therefore, safeguards issues for geologic disposal of high-level waste now in the US are less pressing. 56 refs. , 2 figs.

  5. A conceptual hydrodynamic model of a geological discontinuity in hard rock aquifers: Example of a quartz reef in granitic terrain in South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewandel, Benoît; Lachassagne, Patrick; Zaidi, Faisal K.; Chandra, Subash

    2011-08-01

    SummaryThe structure and hydrodynamic properties of geological discontinuities and of a deeply weathered granite aquifer near these structures are described on the basis of geological, geophysical and hydrodynamic investigations in two sites of South India located along a 20-40-m-wide quartz reef intruding a weathered Archean biotite granite. One of the two sites also comprises a metre-wide dolerite dyke. Weathering processes appear to be at the origin of fissures development and of a related enhanced local hydraulic conductivity, both in the quartz reef and in the surrounding granite. The weathering profile in the granite (saprolite and fissured layer) is characterized by an abrupt deepening of the weathered layers in the granite near the contact and in the quartz reef itself. Therefore, the weathering profile shows a 'U'-shape geometry with, among others, the verticalization of the granite's fissured layer. The hydraulic conductivity of this verticalized layer is on average 5 × 10 -6 m/s and storativity about 10 -3 (-). The hydraulic conductivity of the fissured quartz is 4-6 × 10 -6 m/s and its storativity about 3-5 × 10 -4 (-). Both media are also characterized by a matrix hydraulic conductivity (10 -7-10 -9 m/s) and by a significant heterogeneity in hydrodynamic properties that generates preferential flow paths along the sub-vertical fissures parallel to the reef axis. A special attention has been paid for characterizing this heterogeneity. The weathering of the dolerite dyke, however, results in a local low hydraulic conductivity, which consequently does not enhance either the thickness of weathered granite layers or its hydraulic conductivity. The obtained results complete the conceptual hydrogeological model developed for weathered granite aquifers in characterizing the relationships between weathering processes and hydrodynamic properties near geological discontinuities.

  6. Geological, fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies of Mo mineralization, Galway Granite, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, V.; Feely, M.; Högelsberger, H.; Jenkin, G. R. T.; Fallick, A. E.

    1992-09-01

    Mo mineralization within the Galway Granite at Mace Head and Murvey, Connemara, western Ireland, has many features of classic porphyry Mo deposits including a chemically evolved I-type granite host, associated K- and Si-rich alteration, quartz vein(Mace Head) and granite-hosted (Murvey) molybdenite, chalcopyrite, pyrite and magnetite mineralization and a gangue assemblage which includes quartz, muscovite and K-feldspar. Most fluid inclusions in quartz veins homogenize in the range 100 350°C and have a salinity of 1 13 eq. wt.% NaCl. They display Th-salinity covariation consistent with a hypothesis of dilution of magmatic water by influx of meteoric water. CO2-bearing inclusions in an intensely mineralized vein at Mace Head provide an estimated minimum trapping temperature and pressure for the mineralizing fluid of 355°C and 1.2 kb and are interpreted to represent a H2O-CO2 fluid, weakly enriched in Mo, produced in a magma chamber by decompression-activated unmixing from a dense Mo-bearing NaCl-H2O-CO2 fluid. δ34S values of most sulphides range from c. 0‰ at Murvey to 3 4‰ at Mace Head and are consistent with a magmatic origin. Most quartz vein samples have δ18O of 9 10.3‰ and were precipitated from a hydrothermal fluid with δ18O of 4.6 6.7‰. Some have δ18O of 6 7‰ and reflect introduction of meteoric water along vein margins. Quartz-muscovite oxygen isotope geothermometry combined with fluid inclusion data indicate precipitation of mineralized veins in the temperature range 360 450°C and between 1 and 2 kb. Whole rock granite samples display a clear δ18O-δD trend towards the composition of Connemara meteoric waters. The mineralization is interpreted as having been produced by highlyfractionated granite magma; meteoric water interaction postdates the main mineralizing event. The differences between the Mace Head and Murvey mineralizations reflect trapping of migrating mineralizing fluid in structural traps at Mace Head and precipitation of

  7. Rapakivi granites in the geological history of the earth. Part 1, magmatic associations with rapakivi granites: Age, geochemistry, and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, A. M.

    2009-06-01

    Rapakivi granites characteristic practically of all old platforms are greatly variable in age and irregularly distributed over the globe. Four types of magmatic associations, which include rapakivi granites, are represented by anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-rapakivi granite, anorthosite-mangerite-rapakivi-peralkaline granite, gabbro-rapakivi granite-foidite, and rapakivi granite-shoshonite rock series. Granitoids of these associations used to be divided into the following three groups: (1) classical rapakivi granites from magmatic associations of the first three types, which correspond to subalkaline high-K and high-Fe reduced A2-type granites exemplifying the plumasitic trend of evolution; (2) peralkaline granites of the second magmatic association representing the highly differentiated A1-type reduced granites of Na-series, which are extremely enriched in incompatible elements and show the agpaitic trend of evolution; and (3) subalkaline oxidized granites of the fourth magmatic association ranging in composition from potassic A2-type granites to S-granites. Magmatic complexes including rapakivi granites originated during the geochronological interval that spanned three supercontinental cycles 2.7-1.8, 1.8-1.0 and 1.0-0.55 Ga ago. The onset and end of each cycle constrained the assembly periods of supercontinents and the formation epochs of predominantly anorthosite-charnockite complexes of the anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-rapakivi granite magmatic association. Peak of the respective magmatism at the time of Grenvillian Orogeny signified the transition from the tectonics of small lithospheric plates to the subsequent plate tectonics of the current type. The outburst of rapakivi granite magmatism was typical of the second cycle exclusively. The anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-rapakivi granite magmatic series associated with this magmatism originated in back-arc settings, if we consider the latter in a broad sense as corresponding to the rear parts of

  8. Tectonic and climatic considerations for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste: A UK perspective.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, F M; Schofield, D I; Shaw, R P; Norris, S

    2016-11-15

    Identifying and evaluating the factors that might impact on the long-term integrity of a deep Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) and its surrounding geological and surface environment is central to developing a safety case for underground disposal of radioactive waste. The geological environment should be relatively stable and its behaviour adequately predictable so that scientifically sound evaluations of the long-term radiological safety of a GDF can be made. In considering this, it is necessary to take into account natural processes that could affect a GDF or modify its geological environment up to 1millionyears into the future. Key processes considered in this paper include those which result from plate tectonics, such as seismicity and volcanism, as well as climate-related processes, such as erosion, uplift and the effects of glaciation. Understanding the inherent variability of process rates, critical thresholds and likely potential influence of unpredictable perturbations represent significant challenges to predicting the natural environment. From a plate-tectonic perspective, a one million year time frame represents a very short segment of geological time and is largely below the current resolution of observation of past processes. Similarly, predicting climate system evolution on such time-scales, particularly beyond 200ka AP is highly uncertain, relying on estimating the extremes within which climate and related processes may vary with reasonable confidence. The paper highlights some of the challenges facing a deep geological disposal program in the UK to review understanding of the natural changes that may affect siting and design of a GDF.

  9. Southern complex: geology, geochemistry, mineralogy, and mineral chemistry of selected uranium- and thorium-rich granites

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Four major rock groups are defined in the Southern Complex: the Bell Creek Granite (BCG), the Clotted Granitoids (CGR), the Albite Granite (AGR), and the Migmatite Complex. Metatexites of the Migmatite Complex are the oldest rocks and include paleosome of a metasedimentary and metavolcanic protolith represented by Banded Iron Formation, Banded Amphibolite, and Banded Gneisses, and interlayered or crosscutting leucogranites. The CGR span the range from metatexite to diatexite and represent in-situ partial melting of metapelitic layers in the protolith during intrusion of the BCG. The BCG cuts the migmatites, is locally cut by the CGR, and was derived by partial melting of a dominantly metasedimentary protolith at some depth below the presently exposed migmatites during a regional tectonothermal event. The Albite Granite is a 2km diameter, muscovite-fluorite-columbite-bearing intrusive stock that cuts all other major units. The thorium history of the BCG is a function of the history of monazite. The thorium history of the CGR is also dominated by monazite but the thorium content of this unit cannot be entirely accounted for by original restite monazite. The uranium history of the BCG and CGR was dominated by magmatic differentiation and post magmatic, metamorphic and supergene redistributions and is largely independent of the thorium history. The thorium and uranium history of the AGR was dominated by magmatic/deuteric processes unlike the BCG and CGR.

  10. Technical framework to facilitate foreign spent fuel storage and geologic disposal in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Halsey, W G; Cmith, C F

    2000-01-31

    The option of storage and eventual geologic disposal in Russia of spent fuel of US origin used in Taiwan provides a unique opportunity that can benefit many parties. Taiwan has a near term need for a spent fuel storage and geologic disposal solution, available financial resources, but limited prospect for a timely domestic solution. Russia has significant spent fuel storage and transportation management experience, candidate storage and repository sites, but limited financial resources available for their development. The US has interest in Taiwan energy security, national security and nonproliferation interests in Russian spent fuel storage and disposal and interest in the US origin fuel. While it is understood that such a project includes complex policy and international political issues as well as technical issues, the goal of this paper is to begin the discussion by presenting a technical path forward to establish the feasibility of this concept for Russia.

  11. International Approaches for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Geological Formations: Report on Fifth Worldwide Review

    SciTech Connect

    Faybishenko, Boris; Birkholzer, Jens; Persoff, Peter; Sassani, David; Swift, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the Fifth Worldwide Review is to document evolution in the state-of-the-art of approaches for nuclear waste disposal in geological formations since the Fourth Worldwide Review that was released in 2006. The last ten years since the previous Worldwide Review has seen major developments in a number of nations throughout the world pursuing geological disposal programs, both in preparing and reviewing safety cases for the operational and long-term safety of proposed and operating repositories. The countries that are approaching implementation of geological disposal will increasingly focus on the feasibility of safely constructing and operating their repositories in short- and long terms on the basis existing regulations. The WWR-5 will also address a number of specific technical issues in safety case development along with the interplay among stakeholder concerns, technical feasibility, engineering design issues, and operational and post-closure safety. Preparation and publication of the Fifth Worldwide Review on nuclear waste disposal facilitates assessing the lessons learned and developing future cooperation between the countries. The Report provides scientific and technical experiences on preparing for and developing scientific and technical bases for nuclear waste disposal in deep geologic repositories in terms of requirements, societal expectations and the adequacy of cases for long-term repository safety. The Chapters include potential issues that may arise as repository programs mature, and identify techniques that demonstrate the safety cases and aid in promoting and gaining societal confidence. The report will also be used to exchange experience with other fields of industry and technology, in which concepts similar to the design and safety cases are applied, as well to facilitate the public perception and understanding of the safety of the disposal approaches relative to risks that may increase over long times frames in the absence of a successful

  12. Study on Potential Changes in Geological and Disposal Environment Caused by 'Natural Phenomena' on a HLW Disposal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, M.; Umeda, K.; Ohi, T.; Ishimaru, T.; Niizato, T.; Yasue, K.; Makino, H.

    2007-12-01

    We have developed a formal evaluation method to assess the potential impact of natural phenomena (earthquakes and faulting; volcanism; uplift, subsidence, denudation and sedimentation; climatic and sea-level changes) on a High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Disposal System. In 2000, we had developed perturbation scenarios in a generic and conservative sense and illustrated the potential impact on a HLW disposal system. As results of the development of perturbation scenarios, two points were highlighted for consideration in subsequent work: improvement of the scenarios from the viewpoints of reality, transparency, traceability and consistency and avoiding extreme conservatism. Subsequently, we have thus developed a new procedure for describing such perturbation scenarios based on further studies of the characteristics of these natural perturbation phenomena in Japan. The approach to describing the perturbation scenario is effectively developed in five steps: Step 1: Description of potential process of phenomena and their impacts on the geological environment. Step 2: Characterization of potential changes of geological environment in terms of T-H-M-C (Thermal - Hydrological - Mechanical - Chemical) processes. The focus is on specific T-H-M-C parameters that influence geological barrier performance, utilizing the input from Step 1. Step 3: Classification of potential influences, based on similarity of T-H-M-C perturbations. This leads to development of perturbation scenarios to serve as a basis for consequence analysis. Step 4: Establishing models and parameters for performance assessment. Step 5: Calculation and assessment. This study focuses on identifying key T-H-M-C process associated with perturbations at Step 2. This framework has two advantages. First one is assuring maintenance of traceability during the scenario construction processes, facilitating the production and structuring of suitable records. The second is providing effective elicitation and

  13. Geology and tin-greisen mineralization of the Akash granite, northern Arabian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Smith, Charles W.

    The western margin of the postorogenic Akash granite, 30 km E of Ha'il in the northern Arabian Shield, is greisenized and contains anomalous concentrations of Sn. The pluton intrudes metamorphic and intrusive rocks, and crops out as a 10 by 15 km elliptical body with its long axis oriented N. It consists predominantly of metaluminous alkali-feldspar granite or syenogranite, with accessory biotite and muscovite, and traces of fluorite. Greisenization extends discontinuously in a zone at least 3 km long parallel to the western contact, and along E-trending hematitic quartz veins for more than 2 km from the contact. The veins occupy fractures that were probably conduits for ascending mineralizing fluids. Within about 20 m of the contact, they are enclosed in quartz—white mica greisen containing hematite, fluorite, and locally, topaz and cassiterite. Composite chip samples from the greisenized zone have an average Sn content of 710 ppm, and a maximum of 1600 ppm. Anomalous values for Zn, Fe, Mn, Mo, Bi and Cu also occur, but none of the samples contain detectable W. Three samples of hematitic quartz averaged 126 ppm Sn, and one contained 200 ppm W.

  14. Geology and tin-greisen mineralization of the Akash granite, northern Arabian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, K.S.; Smith, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    The western margin of the postorogenic Akash granite, 30 km E of Ha'il in the northern Arabian Shield, is greisenized and contains anomalous concentrations of Sn. The pluton intrudes metamorphic and intrusive rocks, and crops out as a 10 by 15 km elliptical body with its long axis oriented N. It consists predominantly of metaluminous alkali-feldspar granite or syenogranite, with accessory biotite and muscovite, and traces of fluorite. Greisenization extends discontinuously in a zone at least 3 km long parallel to the western contact, and along E-trending hematitic quartz veins for more than 2 km from the contact. The veins occupy fractures that were probably conduits for ascending mineralizing fluids. Within about 20 m of the contact, they are enclosed in quartz-white mica greisen containing hematite, fluorite, and locally, topaz and cassiterite. Composite chip samples from the greisenized zone have an average Sn content of 710 ppm, and a maximum of 1600 ppm. Anomalous values for Zn, Fe, Mn, Mo, Bi and Cu also occur, but none of the samples contain detectable W. Three samples of hematitic quartz averaged 126 ppm Sn, and one contained 200 ppm W. ?? 1986.

  15. Development of an Environmental Safety Case for a Geological Disposal Facility in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, L.; Clark, H.; Wellstead, M.

    2012-04-01

    Geological disposal is the UK policy for the long-term management of higher activity radioactive waste. The Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (RWMD) of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has been given the responsibility for implementing geological disposal. The implementation process is founded on the principles of voluntarism and partnership and the UK Government has set in place a process that encourages communities to participate in the siting process. Developing an environmental safety case (ESC) that gives confidence that a geological disposal facility (GDF) for higher activity radioactive wastes will remain passively safe for hundreds of thousands of years after the facility has been closed, and is no longer actively maintained, is an important and challenging part of the programme to implement geological disposal. Our approach for building confidence in long-term safety is to use multiple barriers to isolate and contain the wastes and to explain our confidence in the performance of these barriers by developing a multi-factor safety case. We will develop a safety case based on varied and different lines of reasoning, including both quantitative aspects and qualitative arguments. We will use a range of safety arguments to support the ESC, drawing on underpinning science and engineering. We have published a generic ESC (that is not specific to any site or disposal facility design) that considers the long-term safety of illustrative generic disposal facility design examples in stylised geological environments. This generic ESC explains how engineered and natural barriers can work together to isolate and contain the radioactivity in the wastes. The safety arguments in the generic ESC are supported by calculations using a simple model that is illustrative of a broad range of disposal facility designs and geological environments. The generic ESC provides a benchmark enabling us to undertake disposability assessments for waste packages, without

  16. Heat transfer analysis of the geologic disposal of spent fuel and high level waste storage canisters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, G. K.

    1980-08-01

    Near-field temperatures resulting from the storage of high-level waste canisters and spent unreprocessed fuel assembly canisters in geologic formations were determined. Preliminary design of the repository was modeled for a heat transfer computer code, HEATING5, which used the finite difference method to evaluate transient heat transfer. The heat transfer system was evaluated with several two and three dimensional models which transfer heat by a combination of conduction, natural convention, and radiation. Physical properties of the materials in the model were based upon experimental values for the various geologic formations. The effects of canister spacing, fuel age, and use of an overpack were studied for the analysis of the spent fuel canisters; salt, granite, and basalt were considered as the storage media. The effects of canister diameter and use of an overpack were studied for the analysis of the high-level waste canisters; salt was considered as the only storage media for high-level waste canisters.

  17. Lessons from Natural Analog Studies for Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, W. M.

    2009-12-01

    For over fifty years natural analog studies have provided lessons addressing scientific, technical, and social problems concerning geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Idealized concepts for permanent disposal environments evolved from an understanding of the geological, geochemical and hydrological characteristics of analogous rocks including natural salt deposits (as advocated by the US National Academy of Sciences in 1957), ancient cratonic rocks (as investigated at Lac du Bonnet, Canada, Aspö, Sweden, and Vienne, France), and marine sedimentary rock formations (as studied at Mol, Belgium, and Bure, France). Additional multidisciplinary studies have been conducted at natural sites that bear characteristics analogous to potential repository systems, notably at natural uranium (and thorium) deposits including Poços de Caldas, Brazil, Alligator Rivers, Australia, Peña Blanca, Mexico, and Oklo, Gabon. Researchers of natural analogs for geologic disposal have addressed technical uncertainties regarding processes that have transpired over large time and space scales, which are generally inaccessible to laboratory studies. Principal questions for nuclear waste disposal include the geochemical stability and alteration rates of radionuclide bearing minerals and the mechanisms and rates of transport of radionuclides in groundwater. In their most direct applications, natural analogs studies have been devoted to testing specific models for repository performance and the experimental data that support those models. Parameters used in predictive performance assessment modeling have been compared to natural system data, including mineral solubilities, sorption coefficients, diffusion rates, and colloid transport properties. For example, the rate of uraninite oxidation and the natural paragenesis of uranium mineral alteration at Peña Blanca have been compared favorably to results of experimental studies of spent fuel alteration related to the proposed repository

  18. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear wasite: site performance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1981-02-01

    This report states ten criteria governing the suitability of sites for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Department of Energy will use these criteria in its search for sites and will reevaluate their use when the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules. These criteria encompass site geometry, geohydrology, geochemistry, geologic characteristics, tectonic environment, human intrusion, surface characteristics, environment, and potential socioeconomic impacts. The contents of this document include background discussion, site performance criteria, and appendices. The background section describes the waste disposal system, the application of the site criteria, and applicable criteria from NWTS-33(1) - Program Objectives, Functional Requirements and System Performance Criteria. Appendix A, entitled Comparison with Other Siting Criteria compares the NWTS criteria with those recommended by other agencies. Appendix B contains DOE responses to public comments received on the January 1980 draft of this document. Appendix C is a glossary.

  19. Intercomparison of numerical simulation codes for geologic disposal of CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten; Garcia, Julio; Kovscek, Tony; Oldenburg, Curt; Rutqvist, Jonny; Steefel, Carl; Xu, Tianfu

    2002-11-27

    Numerical simulation codes were exercised on a suite of eight test problems that address CO2 disposal into geologic storage reservoirs, including depleted oil and gas reservoirs, and brine aquifers. Processes investigated include single- and multi-phase flow, gas diffusion, partitioning of CO2 into aqueous and oil phases, chemical interactions of CO2 with aqueous fluids and rock minerals, and mechanical changes due to changes in fluid pressures. Representation of fluid properties was also examined. In most cases results obtained from different simulation codes were in satisfactory agreement, providing confidence in the ability of current numerical simulation approaches to handle the physical and chemical processes that would be induced by CO2 disposal in geologic reservoirs. Some discrepancies were also identified and can be traced to differences in fluid property correlations, and space and time discretization.

  20. ICRP PUBLICATION 122: radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W; Larsson, C-M; McKenney, C; Minon, J-P; Mobbs, S; Schneider, T; Umeki, H; Hilden, W; Pescatore, C; Vesterlind, M

    2013-06-01

    This report updates and consolidates previous recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) related to solid waste disposal (ICRP, 1985, 1997b, 1998). The recommendations given apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the ICRP system of radiological protection described in Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007) can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. Although the report is written as a standalone document, previous ICRP recommendations not dealt with in depth in the report are still valid. The 2007 ICRP system of radiological protection evolves from the previous process-based protection approach relying on the distinction between practices and interventions by moving to an approach based on the distinction between three types of exposure situation: planned, emergency and existing. The Recommendations maintains the Commission's three fundamental principles of radiological protection namely: justification, optimisation of protection and the application of dose limits. They also maintain the current individual dose limits for effective dose and equivalent dose from all regulated sources in planned exposure situations. They re-enforce the principle of optimisation of radiological protection, which applies in a similar way to all exposure situations, subject to restrictions on individual doses: constraints for planned exposure situations, and reference levels for emergency and existing exposure situations. The Recommendations also include an approach for developing a framework to demonstrate radiological protection of the environment. This report describes the different stages in the life time of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that

  1. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Part II. Geologic and hydrologic characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Sargent, K.A.; Bedinger, M.S.

    1985-12-31

    The geology and hydrology of the Basin and Range Province of the western conterminous United States are characterized in a series of data sets depicted in maps compiled for evaluation of prospective areas for further study of geohydrologic environments for isolation of high-level radioactive waste. The data sets include: (1) average precipitation and evaporation; (2) surface distribution of selected rock types; (3) tectonic conditions; and (4) surface- and ground-water hydrology and Pleistocene lakes and marshes. Rocks mapped for consideration as potential host media for the isolation of high-level radioactive waste are widespread and include argillaceous rocks, granitic rocks, tuffaceous rocks, mafic extrusive rocks, evaporites, and laharic breccias. The unsaturated zone, where probably as thick as 150 meters (500 feet), was mapped for consideration as an environment for isolation of high-level waste. Unsaturated rocks of various lithologic types are widespread in the Province. Tectonic stability in the Quaternary Period is considered the key to assessing the probability of future tectonism with regard to high-level radioactive waste disposal. Tectonic conditions are characterized on the basis of the seismic record, heat-flow measurements, the occurrence of Quaternary faults, vertical crustal movement, and volcanic features. Tectonic activity, as indicated by seismicity, is greatest in areas bordering the western margin of the Province in Nevada and southern California, the eastern margin of the Province bordering the Wasatch Mountains in Utah and in parts of the Rio Grande valley. Late Cenozoic volcanic activity is widespread, being greatest bordering the Sierra Nevada in California and Oregon, and bordering the Wasatch Mountains in southern Utah and Idaho. 43 refs., 22 figs.

  2. Reversed mining and reversed-reversed mining: the irrational context of geological disposal of nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, A. J.

    2000-06-01

    Man does not only extract material from the Earth but increasingly uses the underground for storage and disposal purposes. One of the materials that might be disposed of this way is high-level nuclear waste. The development of safe disposal procedures, the choice of suitable host rocks, and the design of underground facilities have taken much time and money, but commissions in several countries have presented reports showing that — and how — safe geological disposal will be possible in such a way that definite isolation from the biosphere is achieved. Political views have changed in the past few years, however, and there is a strong tendency now to require that the high-level waste disposed of will be retrievable. Considering the underlying arguments for isolation from the biosphere, and also considering waste policy in general, this provides an irrational context. The development of new procedures and the design of new disposal facilities that allow retrieval will take much time again. A consequence may be that the high-active, heat-generating nuclear waste will be stored temporarily for a much longer time than objectively desirable. The delay in disposal and the counterproductive requirement of retrievability are partly due to the fact that earth-science organisations have failed to communicate in the way they should, possibly fearing public (and financial) reactions if taking a position that is (was?) considered as politically incorrect. Such an attitude should not be maintained in modern society, which has the right to be informed reliably by the scientific community.

  3. Temperature-package power correlations for open-mode geologic disposal concepts.

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Ernest.

    2013-02-01

    Logistical simulation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management in the U.S. combines storage, transportation and disposal elements to evaluate schedule, cost and other resources needed for all major operations leading to final geologic disposal. Geologic repository reference options are associated with limits on waste package thermal power output at emplacement, in order to meet limits on peak temperature for certain key engineered and natural barriers. These package power limits are used in logistical simulation software such as CALVIN, as threshold requirements that must be met by means of decay storage or SNF blending in waste packages, before emplacement in a repository. Geologic repository reference options include enclosed modes developed for crystalline rock, clay or shale, and salt. In addition, a further need has been addressed for open modes in which SNF can be emplaced in a repository, then ventilated for decades or longer to remove heat, prior to permanent repository closure. For each open mode disposal concept there are specified durations for surface decay storage (prior to emplacement), repository ventilation, and repository closure operations. This study simulates those steps for several timing cases, and for SNF with three fuel-burnup characteristics, to develop package power limits at which waste packages can be emplaced without exceeding specified temperature limits many years later after permanent closure. The results are presented in the form of correlations that span a range of package power and peak postclosure temperature, for each open-mode disposal concept, and for each timing case. Given a particular temperature limit value, the corresponding package power limit for each case can be selected for use in CALVIN and similar tools.

  4. Investigations of the Nizhnekanskiy granitoid massif (Middle Siberia, Russia) as a promising territory for deep geological disposal of HLW: Results of pre-exploration stages of the work

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.B.; Shabalev, S.I.; Savonenkov, V.G.; Lyubtseva, E.F.; Rogozin, Y.M.

    1999-07-01

    To decide the final fate of high-level radioactive wastes that are in Krasnoyarsk Land, Russia, and, most importantly the wastes from a weapons complex at the Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC, Krasnoyarsk-26), suitable sites for geological disposal of the wastes are being sought in Middle Siberia. The ultimate goal is to select one site for development of a repository for these wastes. As a result of complex geological-geophysical work completed to date, the two most promising sites are in the northern part of the Nizhnekanskiy granitoid massif (the Yenisei Ridge). These sites are approximately 25 km from the MCC. Based on geotectonic analysis and electrical surveying data, these sites are composed of low-permeability biotite granite that extends to relatively great depth. At present, both sites are undergoing more detailed studies to define the most suitable one for detailed geological exploration. Radiogeochemical studies showed that granitoid rock samples from the massif exhibited high retention for major long-lived radionuclides in the wastes. The general results of the investigations are presented.

  5. Bacterial Diversity in Bentonites, Engineered Barrier for Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Fernandez, Margarita; Cherkouk, Andrea; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Jauregui, Ruy; Pieper, Dietmar; Boon, Nico; Sanchez-Castro, Ivan; Merroun, Mohamed L

    2015-11-01

    The long-term disposal of radioactive wastes in a deep geological repository is the accepted international solution for the treatment and management of these special residues. The microbial community of the selected host rocks and engineered barriers for the deep geological repository may affect the performance and the safety of the radioactive waste disposal. In this work, the bacterial population of bentonite formations of Almeria (Spain), selected as a reference material for bentonite-engineered barriers in the disposal of radioactive wastes, was studied. 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene-based approaches were used to study the bacterial community of the bentonite samples by traditional clone libraries and Illumina sequencing. Using both techniques, the bacterial diversity analysis revealed similar results, with phylotypes belonging to 14 different bacterial phyla: Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae, Verrucomicrobia and an unknown phylum. The dominant groups of the community were represented by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. A high diversity was found in three of the studied samples. However, two samples were less diverse and dominated by Betaproteobacteria.

  6. Deep geologic disposal of mixed waste in bedded salt: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, N.T.

    1993-12-01

    Mixed waste (i.e., waste that contains both chemically hazardous and radioactive components) poses a moral, political, and technical challenge to present and future generations. But an international consensus is emerging that harmful byproducts and residues can be permanently isolated from the biosphere in a safe and environmentally responsible manner by deep geologic disposal. To investigate and demonstrate such disposal for transuranic mixed waste, derived from defense-related activities, the US Department of Energy has prepared the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. This research and development facility was excavated approximately at the center of a 600 m thick sequence of salt (halite) beds, 655 m below the surface. Proof of the long-term tectonic and hydrological stability of the region is supplied by the fact that these salt beds have remained essentially undisturbed since they were deposited during the Late Permian age, approximately 225 million years ago. Plutonium-239, the main radioactive component of transuranic mixed waste, has a half-life of 24,500 years. Even ten half-lives of this isotope - amounting to about a quarter million years, the time during which its activity will decline to background level represent only 0.11 percent of the history of the repository medium. Therefore, deep geologic disposal of transuranic mixed waste in Permian bedded salt appears eminently feasible.

  7. Importance of geologic characterization of potential low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weibel, C.P.; Berg, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Using the example of the Geff Alternative Site in Wayne County, Illinois, for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, this paper demonstrates, from a policy and public opinion perspective, the importance of accurately determining site stratigraphy. Complete and accurate characterization of geologic materials and determination of site stratigraphy at potential low-level waste disposal sites provides the frame-work for subsequent hydrologic and geochemical investigations. Proper geologic characterization is critical to determine the long-term site stability and the extent of interactions of groundwater between the site and its surroundings. Failure to adequately characterize site stratigraphy can lead to the incorrect evaluation of the geology of a site, which in turn may result in a lack of public confidence. A potential problem of lack of public confidence was alleviated as a result of the resolution and proper definition of the Geff Alternative Site stratigraphy. The integrity of the investigation was not questioned and public perception was not compromised. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  8. The geology and hydrogeology of Bear Creek Valley Waste Disposal Areas A and B

    SciTech Connect

    1984-05-01

    A study was undertaken of the Oil Landfarm and Burial Grounds A and B, which are three disposal sites within the Bear Creek Waste Disposal Area. The area is located west of the Y-12 plant, about 3 miles southwest of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of this interim report is to present data collected at the Burial Grounds A and B, and to provide the results of hydrogeologic analyses. The Oil Landfarm geologic and hydrogeologic data and analyses have been submitted in a January 1984 interim report. The overall objectives of the study were to characterize the types and extent of wastes present and to define the occurrence and movement of ground water beneath the sites. The intention of this work is to provide criteria on which a design for containing the waste can be developed. Specific activities performed by Bechtel included: drilling for subsurface geologic data; installing monitoring wells; measuring permeability and ground-water flow directions; and collecting soil, sediment, surface- and ground-water, and liquid-waste samples for chemical analysis. Results are presented on the geology and ground waters.

  9. Treatment and geological disposal of waste from NET pre-design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodén, Karin; Aggeryd, Ingrid; Lindberg, Maria; Olsson, Gunnar

    1993-06-01

    Within the European Fusion Technology programs Studsvik RadWaste AB has performed studies on fusion waste treatment and disposal for several years. This paper deals with the treatment and geological disposal of radioactive waste from NET operation and decommissioning. Results from calculations on radioactive waste fluxes for the operation and decommissioning of NET are reported. The calculations are based on the NET predesign report published 1993 and include results for the exchangeable in-vessel and external parts of the machine as well as permanent reactor components. Different aspects of treatment, packaging, transportation, and interim storage of the waste are discussed. The volumes of waste conditioned for final disposal are preliminarily quantified, according to German and Swedish scenarios for radioactive waste disposal. A total repository volume of approximately 45,000 m3 is required in the German Scenario and 35,000 m3 is required in the Swedish Scenario. Results from dose rate calculations for NET waste in final repositories are presented for the Swedish Scenario. This work was financially supported by the Swedish Natural Science Research Council (NFR) and the European Atomic Energy Community, under an association contract between Euratom and Sweden.

  10. EC MoDeRn Project: In-situ Demonstration of Innovative Monitoring Technologies for Geological Disposal - 12053

    SciTech Connect

    Breen, B.J.; Garcia-Sineriz, J.L.; Mayer, S.; Schroeder, T.J.; Verstricht, J.

    2012-07-01

    Monitoring to provide information on the evolution of geological disposal presents several challenges. The 4-year, euros M 5, EC MoDeRn Project (http://www.modern-fp7.eu/), which commenced in 2009, addresses monitoring processes, state-of-the-art technology and innovative research and development of monitoring techniques. This paper discusses some of the key drivers for the development of innovative monitoring techniques and provides outlines of the demonstration programmes being conducted within MoDeRn. The aim is to develop these innovative monitoring techniques and to demonstrate them under realistic conditions present in underground laboratories. These demonstration projects, applying a range of different monitoring techniques, are being carried out at underground research facilities in different geological environments at HADES URL in Belgium (plastic clay), Bure in France (indurated clay) and at Grimsel Test Site (granite) in Switzerland. These are either built upon existing infrastructure (EC ESDRED Low pH shotcrete and TEM experiments at Grimsel; and PRACLAY experiment and underground galleries in HADES) or will be attached to infrastructure that is being developed and financed by resources outside of this project (mock-up disposal cell in Bure). At Grimsel Test Site, cross-hole and hole-to-tunnel seismic methods are being employed as a means to monitor induced changes in an artificially saturated bentonite wall confined behind a shotcrete plug. Recognising the limitations for travel-time tomography for monitoring a disposal cell, full waveform inversion techniques are being employed to enhance the capacity to monitor remote from the excavation. At the same Grimsel location, an investigation will be conducted of the potential for using a high frequency wireless (HFW) sensor network embedded within the barrier system; this will include the possibility of providing energy remotely to isolated sensors. At the HADES URL, the monitoring programme will utilise

  11. Summary of key directives governing permanent disposal in a geologic repository

    SciTech Connect

    Sands, S.C. III

    1993-11-01

    This document was developed in support of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP). It is largely comprised of flow diagrams summarizing the key regulatory requirements which govern permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The key purposes are (1) to provide an easy and effective tool for referencing or cross referencing federal directives (i.e., regulations and orders), (2) to provide a method for examining the requirements in one directive category against the requirements in another, and (3) to list actions that must be taken to ensure directive compliance. The document is categorically broken down into a Transportation section and a Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) section to ensure that the interrelationship of the entire disposal system is considered. The Transportation section describes the transportation packaging requirements, testing methods, and safety requirements imposed on fissile material shipments. The MGDS section encompasses technical aspects involved in siting, licensing, waste interaction with the container, container design features, physical characteristics of the surrounding environment, facility design features, barrier systems, safety features, criticality considerations, migration restrictions, implementation guidelines, and so forth. For purposes of illustration, the worst case scenario is outlined. It is important that the approaches and considerations contained in this document be integrated into the efforts of the SF&WMTDP so that every applicable aspect of the regulatory requirements can be evaluated to avoid investing large sums of money into projects that do not take into account all of the aspects of permanent waste disposal. Not until an overall picture and clear understanding of these regulations is established can a basis be developed to govern the direction of future activities of the SF&WMTDP.

  12. Microbial reduction of Fe(III) under alkaline conditions relevant to geological disposal.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Adam J; Morris, Katherine; Shaw, Sam; Byrne, James M; Boothman, Christopher; Lloyd, Jonathan R

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether biologically mediated Fe(III) reduction is possible under alkaline conditions in systems of relevance to geological disposal of radioactive wastes, a series of microcosm experiments was set up using hyperalkaline sediments (pH ~11.8) surrounding a legacy lime working site in Buxton, United Kingdom. The microcosms were incubated for 28 days and held at pH 10. There was clear evidence for anoxic microbial activity, with consumption of lactate (added as an electron donor) concomitant with the reduction of Fe(III) as ferrihydrite (added as the electron acceptor). The products of microbial Fe(III) reduction were black and magnetic, and a range of analyses, including X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism confirmed the extensive formation of biomagnetite in this system. The addition of soluble exogenous and endogenous electron shuttles such as the humic analogue anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate and riboflavin increased both the initial rate and the final extent of Fe(III) reduction in comparison to the nonamended experiments. In addition, a soluble humic acid (Aldrich) also increased both the rate and the extent of Fe(III) reduction. These results show that microbial Fe(III) reduction can occur in conditions relevant to a geological disposal facility containing cement-based wasteforms that has evolved into a high pH environment over prolonged periods of time (>100,000 years). The potential impact of such processes on the biogeochemistry of a geological disposal facility is discussed, including possible coupling to the redox conditions and solubility of key radionuclides.

  13. Microbial Reduction of Fe(III) under Alkaline Conditions Relevant to Geological Disposal

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Adam J.; Morris, Katherine; Shaw, Sam; Byrne, James M.; Boothman, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether biologically mediated Fe(III) reduction is possible under alkaline conditions in systems of relevance to geological disposal of radioactive wastes, a series of microcosm experiments was set up using hyperalkaline sediments (pH ∼11.8) surrounding a legacy lime working site in Buxton, United Kingdom. The microcosms were incubated for 28 days and held at pH 10. There was clear evidence for anoxic microbial activity, with consumption of lactate (added as an electron donor) concomitant with the reduction of Fe(III) as ferrihydrite (added as the electron acceptor). The products of microbial Fe(III) reduction were black and magnetic, and a range of analyses, including X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism confirmed the extensive formation of biomagnetite in this system. The addition of soluble exogenous and endogenous electron shuttles such as the humic analogue anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate and riboflavin increased both the initial rate and the final extent of Fe(III) reduction in comparison to the nonamended experiments. In addition, a soluble humic acid (Aldrich) also increased both the rate and the extent of Fe(III) reduction. These results show that microbial Fe(III) reduction can occur in conditions relevant to a geological disposal facility containing cement-based wasteforms that has evolved into a high pH environment over prolonged periods of time (>100,000 years). The potential impact of such processes on the biogeochemistry of a geological disposal facility is discussed, including possible coupling to the redox conditions and solubility of key radionuclides. PMID:23524677

  14. Reference analysis on the utility of engineered barriers for geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel: overview

    SciTech Connect

    Cloninger, M.O.

    1981-09-01

    The development and characterization of waste forms, containers and other engineered barriers destined for use in the isolation of nuclear waste in deep geologic repositories has progressed to the point where there are several options for barrier systems that are available to help assure safe disposal of nuclear wastes. However, a rigorous basis has not yet developed to define whether various concepts or products are required or desirable, or how effective they should be for how long. This analysis is an attempt to contribute to that basis. Intent of the study is to determine what incentives exist for providing highly effective engineered barriers for the isolation of radioactive waste (spent fuel in this case) in a deep geologic repository. 6 figures.

  15. Geological site characterization for the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Reneau, S.L.; Raymond, R. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents the results of geological site characterization studies conducted from 1992 to 1994 on Pajarito Mesa for a proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (MWDF). The MWDF is being designed to receive mixed waste (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) generated during Environmental Restoration Project cleanup activities at Los Alamos. As of 1995, there is no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted disposal site for mixed waste at the Laboratory, and construction of the MWDF would provide an alternative to transport of this material to an off-site location. A 2.5 km long part of Pajarito Mesa was originally considered for the MWDF, extending from an elevation of about 2150 to 2225 m (7060 to 7300 ft) in Technical Areas (TAs) 15, 36, and 67 in the central part of the Laboratory, and planning was later concentrated on the western area in TA-67. The mesa top lies about 60 to 75 m (200 to 250 ft) above the floor of Pajarito Canyon on the north, and about 30 m (100 ft) above the floor of Threemile Canyon on the south. The main aquifer used as a water supply for the Laboratory and for Los Alamos County lies at an estimated depth of about 335 m (1100 ft) below the mesa. The chapters of this report focus on surface and near-surface geological studies that provide a basic framework for siting of the MWDF and for conducting future performance assessments, including fulfillment of specific regulatory requirements. This work includes detailed studies of the stratigraphy, mineralogy, and chemistry of the bedrock at Pajarito Mesa by Broxton and others, studies of the geological structure and of mesa-top soils and surficial deposits by Reneau and others, geologic mapping and studies of fracture characteristics by Vaniman and Chipera, and studies of potential landsliding and rockfall along the mesa-edge by Reneau.

  16. The Pan-African high-K calc-alkaline peraluminous Elat granite from southern Israel: geology, geochemistry and petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyal, M.; Litvinovsky, B. A.; Katzir, Y.; Zanvilevich, A. N.

    2004-10-01

    Calc-alkaline leucocratic granites that were emplaced at the late post-collision stage of the Pan-African orogeny are abundant in the northern half of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Commonly, they are referred to as the Younger Granite II suite. In southern Israel such rocks are known as Elat granite. Studies of these rocks enable to recognize two types of granites: coarse-grained, massive Elat granite (EG), and fine- to medium-grained Shahmon gneissic granite (SGG). Both granite types are high-K and peraluminous ( ASI ranges from 1.03 to 1.16). They are similar in modal composition, mineral and whole-rock chemistry. Within the EG, a noticeable distinction in whole-rock chemistry and mineral composition is observed between rocks making up different plutons. In particular, the granite of Wadi Shelomo, as compared to the Rehavam pluton, is enriched in SiO 2, FeO∗, K 2O, Ba, Zr, Th, LREE and impoverished in MgO, Na 2O, Sr, and HREE. The Eu/Eu∗ values in the granite are low, up to 0.44. Mass-balance calculations suggest that chemical and mineralogical variations were caused by fractionation of ˜16 wt.% plagioclase from the parental Rehavam granite magma at temperature of 760-800 °C (muscovite-biotite geothermometer). The Rb-Sr isochrons yielded a date of 623 ± 24 Ma for the EG, although high value of age-error does not allow to constrain time of emplacement properly. The Rb-Sr date for SGG is 640 ± 9 Ma; however, it is likely that this date points to the time of metamorphism. A survey of the literature shows that peraluminous, high-K granites, similar to the EG, are abundant among the Younger Granite II plutons in the Sinai Peninsula and Eastern Desert, Egypt. They were emplaced at the end of the batholithic (late post-collision) stage. The most appropriate model for the generation of the peraluminous granitic magma is partial melting of metapelite and metagreywacke.

  17. Geologic and hydrologic investigations of a potential nuclear waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, M.D.; Yount, J.C.

    1988-12-31

    Yucca Mountain in southern Nye County, Nevada, has been selected by the United States Department of Energy as one of three potential sites for the nation`s first high-level nuclear waste repository. Its deep water table, closed-basin ground-water flow, potentially favorable host rock, and sparse population have made the Yucca Mountain area a viable candidate during the search for a nuclear waste disposal site. Yucca Mountain, however, lies within the southern Great Basin, a region of known contemporary tectonism and young volcanic activity, and the characterization of tectonism and volcanism remains as a fundamental problem for the Yucca Mountain site. The United States Geological Survey has been conducting extensive studies to evaluate the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain, as well as the timing and rates of tectonic and volcanic activity in the region. A workshop was convened by the Geologic Survey in Denver, Colorado, on August 19, 20, and 21, 1985, to review the scientific progress and direction of these studies. Considerable debate resulted. This collection of papers represents the results of some of the studies presented at the workshop, but by no means covers all of the scientific results and viewpoints presented. Rather, the volume is meant to serve as a progress report on some of the studies within the Geological Survey`s continuing research program toward characterizing the tectonic framework of Yucca Mountain. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  18. Geology, structure, geochemistry and ASTER-based mapping of Neoproterozoic Gebel El-Delihimmi granites, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asran, Asran Mohamed; Emam, Ashraf; El-Fakharani, Abdelhamid

    2017-06-01

    The Gebel El-Delihimmi granite intrusion, located in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt, cuts the core of a major anticlinal structure of calc-alkaline metavolcanics and ophiolitic mélange rocks. The intrusion is microscopically differentiated into granodiorite, monzogranite, syenogranite and alkali-feldspar granite. Decorrelation stretch and band-ratio techniques were applied to Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data. Processing of ASTER-SWIR bands enabled discrimination of El-Delihimmi granite phases and generation of a detailed lithologic map of the study area. The structural and microfabric data suggest that the El-Delihimmi granite underwent at least two phases of deformations. The first was related to the Najd fault system during which the older granodiorite phase of the intrusion was affected by sinistral ductile shearing. During the second phase, monzogranite and syenogranite in the intrusion were affected by brittle E-W compressional deformation. Geochemical data reported here reveal that the granodiorite phase has K2O/Na2O ratio < 1 and represents an evolved calc-alkaline granite. The monzogranite, syenogranite and alkali-feldspar granite phases have K2O/Na2O ratio > 1. The granite phases are generally I-type, metaluminous to slightly peraluminous and are interpreted as formed above subducted slabs of oceanic lithosphere rather than in continental collision zones.

  19. Acoustic mapping of the regional seafloor geology in and around Hawaiian ocean dredged-material disposal sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torresan, Michael E.; Gardner, James V.

    2000-01-01

    During January and February 1998 the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Team (USGS) conducted regional high-resolution multibeam mapping surveys of the area surrounding EPA-designated ocean disposal sites located offshore of the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, and Hawaii. The sites are all located within 5 nautical miles of shore on insular shelves or slopes. Regional maps were required of areas much larger than the disposal sites themselves to assess both the regional seafloor geology and the immediate vicinity of the disposal sites. The purpose of the disposal site surveys was to delimit the extent of disposal material by producing detailed bathymetric and backscatter maps of the seafloor with a ± 1 m spatial accuracy and <1% depth error. The advantage of using multibeam over conventional towed, single-beam sidescan sonar is that the multibeam data are accurately georeferenced for precise location of all imaged features. The multibeam produces a coregistered acoustic-backscatter map that is often required to locate individual disposal deposits. These data were collected by the USGS as part of its regional seafloor mapping and in support of ocean disposal site monitoring studies conducted in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE).

  20. Research on Geo-information Data Model for Preselected Areas of Geological Disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, M.; Huang, S. T.; Wang, P.; Zhao, Y. A.; Wang, H. B.

    2016-11-01

    The geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (hereinafter referred to "geological disposal") is a long-term, complex, and systematic scientific project, whose data and information resources in the research and development ((hereinafter referred to ”R&D”) process provide the significant support for R&D of geological disposal system, and lay a foundation for the long-term stability and safety assessment of repository site. However, the data related to the research and engineering in the sitting of the geological disposal repositories is more complicated (including multi-source, multi-dimension and changeable), the requirements for the data accuracy and comprehensive application has become much higher than before, which lead to the fact that the data model design of geo-information database for the disposal repository are facing more serious challenges. In the essay, data resources of the pre-selected areas of the repository has been comprehensive controlled and systematic analyzed. According to deeply understanding of the application requirements, the research work has made a solution for the key technical problems including reasonable classification system of multi-source data entity, complex logic relations and effective physical storage structures. The new solution has broken through data classification and conventional spatial data the organization model applied in the traditional industry, realized the data organization and integration with the unit of data entities and spatial relationship, which were independent, holonomic and with application significant features in HLW geological disposal. The reasonable, feasible and flexible data conceptual models, logical models and physical models have been established so as to ensure the effective integration and facilitate application development of multi-source data in pre-selected areas for geological disposal.

  1. Report of ICRP Task Group 80: 'radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste'.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W

    2012-01-01

    The report of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Task Group 80 entitled 'Radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste' updates and consolidates previous ICRP recommendations related to solid waste disposal (ICRP Publications 46, 77, and 81). The recommendations given in this report apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the 2007 system of radiological protection, described in ICRP Publication 103, can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report is written as a self-standing document. It describes the different stages in the lifetime of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that influences application of the protection system over the different phases in the lifetime of a disposal facility is the level of oversight that is present. The level of oversight affects the capability to reduce or avoid exposures. Three main time frames have to be considered for the purpose of radiological protection: time of direct oversight when the disposal facility is being implemented and active oversight is taking place; time of indirect oversight when the disposal facility is sealed and indirect oversight is being exercised to provide additional assurance on behalf of the population; and time of no oversight when oversight is no longer exercised because memory is lost. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The Belgian R and D feasibility programme on the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Van Marcke, Philippe; Wacquier, William

    2013-07-01

    ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, considers geological disposal in poorly indurated clay as the reference solution for the long-term management of high-level waste (HLW) and intermediate and low level waste, long-lived (ILLW-LL). The disposal concept entails the post-conditioning of the waste in disposal packages and the subsequent disposal of these packages in an underground repository. The R and D feasibility programme on geological disposal aims at demonstrating, at a conceptual level, that the proposed disposal system can be constructed, operated and closed. (authors)

  3. The consideration of geological uncertainty in the siting process for a Geological Disposal Facility for radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathers, Steve; McEvoy, Fiona; Shaw, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Any decision about the site of a Geological Disposal Facility at depth for medium to high level radioactive waste is based on a safety case which in turn is based on an understanding of the geological environment which enables, for example, understanding groundwater flows and groundwater chemical composition. Because the information on which geological understanding is based cannot be fully understood, it is important to ensure that: i. Inferences are made from data in a way that is consistent with the data. ii. The uncertainty in the inferred information is described, quantitatively where this is appropriate. Despite these uncertainties decisions can and must be made, and so the implications of the uncertainty need to be understood and quantified. To achieve this it is important to ensure that: i. An understanding of how error propagates in all models and decision tools. Information which is collected to support the decision-making process may be used as input into models of various kinds to generate further information. For example, a process model may be used to predict groundwater flows, so uncertainty in the properties which are input to the model (e.g. on rock porosity and structure) will give rise to uncertainty in the model predictions. Understanding how this happens is called the analysis of error propagation. It is important that there is an understanding of how error propagates in all models and decision tools, and therefore knowledge of how much uncertainty remains in the process at any stage. As successive phases of data collection take place the analysis of error propagation shows how the uncertainty in key model outputs is gradually reduced. ii. The implications of all uncertainties can be traced through the process. A clear analysis of the decision-making process is necessary so that the implications of all uncertainties can be traced through the process. This means that, when a final decision is made, one can state with a high level of confidence

  4. Analytical model for radionuclide transport in the buffer zone of the deep geological disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, L. D.; Chen, J. S.; Li, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    Radioactive nuclear waste poses long-term threat to human beings and the environment because that remains radioactive after millions of years. Therefore, radioactive wastes must be isolated from the living environment for millennia. A deep geological disposal entails a combination of four parts: vitrified waste form, imaginary zone, buffer zone and excavation-affected zone. The buffer zone constituted by bentonite clay provides a high level of containment of the radioactivity in the wastes over a very long time period. Analytical solution is an efficient tool for the performance evaluation of the buffer zone. This study develops a new analytical model to diffusion equation in cylindrical coordinate for describing radionuclide transport in the buffer zone. The derived solution is compared against the previous solution to illustrate the validity of previous solution which was derived using a diffusion equation in Cartesian coordinates.

  5. Radioactive waste management: the relation between geological disposal and advanced nuclear technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Schroder, Jantine

    2013-07-01

    Throughout this paper we aim to scope the most pregnant themes, issues and research questions concerning the relation between geological disposal and advanced nuclear technologies in the broad context of radioactive waste management. Especially from a socio-technical point of view the mutual impacts, divergences and complementarities between both strategies seem to have received limited dedicated examination up until today. Specific attention is paid to the main arguments that seem to underpin both research streams, related to how the issue of radioactive waste is contextualized and which problems and solutions are consequently identified and proposed. Ultimately we aim to encourage scientifically integer communication and constructive dialogue between both fields, to investigate the common possibilities of enhancing radioactive waste management as a whole. (authors)

  6. Birds of a Feather - Developments towards shared, regional geological disposal in the EU?

    SciTech Connect

    Codee, H.D.K.; Verhoef, E.V.; McCombie, Ch.

    2008-07-01

    Geological disposal is an essential component of the long-term management of spent fuel, high level and other long-lived radioactive waste. In the EU, all 25 member states generate radioactive waste. Of course, there are large differences in type and quantity between the member states, but all of them need a long-term solution. Even a country with only lightning rods with radium will need a long-term solution for the disposal. The 1600 year half-life of radium does not fit in a solution with a span of control of just a few hundred years. Implementation of a suitable deep repository may, however, be difficult or impossible for countries with small volumes of waste, because of the high costs involved. Will economy of scale force these birds of a feather to wait to flock together and share a repository? Implementing a small repository and operating it for very long times is very costly. There are past and current examples of countries being prepared to accept radioactive waste from others if a better environmental solution is thus achieved and if the arrangements are fair for all parties involved. The need for supranational surveillance also points to shared solutions. Although the European Parliament and the Commission have both supported the concept of shared regional repositories in Europe, (national) political and societal constraints have hampered the realization of such facilities up to now. The first step in this staged process was the EC funded project, SAPIERR I. The project (2003 to 2005) studied the feasibility of shared regional storage facilities and geological repositories, for use by European countries. It showed that, if shared regional repositories are to be implemented even some decades ahead, efforts must already be increased now. The next step in the process is to develop a practical implementation strategy and organizational structures to work on shared EU radioactive waste storage and disposal activities. This is addressed in the EC funded

  7. Performance assessment for the geological disposal of Deep Burn spent fuel using TTBX

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Akker, B.P.; Ahn, J.

    2013-07-01

    The behavior of Deep Burn Modular High Temperature Reactor Spent Fuel (DBSF) is investigated in the Yucca Mountain geological repository (YMR) with respect to the annual dose (Sv/yr) delivered to the Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual (RMEI) from the transport of radionuclides released from the graphite waste matrix. Transport calculations are performed with a novel computer code, TTBX which is capable of modeling transport pathways that pass through heterogeneous geological formations. TTBX is a multi-region extension of the existing single region TTB transport code. Overall the peak annual dose received by the RMEI is seen to be four orders of magnitude lower than the regulatory threshold for exposure, even under pessimistic scenarios. A number of factors contribute to the favorable performance of DBSF. A reduction of one order of magnitude in the peak annual dose received by the RMEI is observed for every order of magnitude increase in the waste matrix lifetime, highlighting the importance of the waste matrix durability and suggesting graphite's utility as a potential waste matrix for the disposal of high-level waste. Furthermore, we see that by incorporating a higher fidelity far-field model the peak annual dose calculated to be received by the RMEI is reduced by two orders of magnitude. By accounting for the heterogeneities of the far field we have simultaneously removed unnecessary conservatisms and improved the fidelity of the transport model. (authors)

  8. Considerations of human inturison in U.S. programs for deep geologic disposal of radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, Peter N.

    2013-01-01

    Regulations in the United States that govern the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories require the explicit consideration of hypothetical future human intrusions that disrupt the waste. Specific regulatory requirements regarding the consideration of human intrusion differ in the two sets of regulations currently in effect in the United States; one defined by the Environmental Protection Agencys 40 Code of Federal Regulations part 197, applied only to the formerly proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the other defined by the Environmental Protection Agencys 40 Code of Federal Regulations part 191, applied to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico and potentially applicable to any repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States other than the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This report reviews the regulatory requirements relevant to human intrusion and the approaches taken by the Department of Energy to demonstrating compliance with those requirements.

  9. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste: Part II, Geologic and hydrologic characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargent, Kenneth A.; Bedinger, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    The geology and hydrology of the Basin and Range Province of the western conterminous United States are characterized in a series of data sets depicted in maps compiled for evaluation of prospective areas for further study of geohydrologic environments for isolation of high-level radioactive waste. The data sets include: (1) Average precipitation and evaporation; (2) surface distribution of selected rock types; (3) tectonic conditions; and (4) surface- and ground -water hydrology and Pleistocene lakes and marshes.Rocks mapped for consideration as potential host media for the isolation of high-level radioactive waste are widespread and include argillaceous rocks, granitic rocks, tuffaceous rocks, mafic extrusive rocks, evaporites, and laharic breccias. The unsaturated zone, where probably as thick as 150 meters (500 feet), was mapped for consideration as an environment for isolation of high-level waste. Unsaturated rocks of various lithologic types are widespread in the Province.Tectonic stability in the Quaternary Period is considered the key to assessing the probability of future tectonism with regard to high-level radioactive waste disposal. Tectonic conditions are characterized on the basis of the seismic record, heat-flow measurements, the occurrence of Quaternary faults, vertical crustal movement, and volcanic features. Tectonic activity, as indicated by seismicity, is greatest in areas bordering the western margin of the Province in Nevada and southern California, the eastern margin of the Province bordering the Wasatch Mountains in Utah and in parts of the Rio Grande valley. Late Cenozoic volcanic activity is widespread, being greatest bordering the Sierra Nevada in California and Oregon, and bordering the Wasatch Mountains in southern Utah and Idaho.he arid to semiarid climate of the Province results in few perennial streams and lakes. A large part of the surface drainage is interior and the many closed basins commonly are occupied by playas or dry lake

  10. Geologic, hydrologic, and cultural factors in the selection of sites for the land disposal of wastes in Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dion, N.P.; Alvord, R.C.; Olson, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    As part of a program to deal with the problems of waste disposal in Washington, the Department of Ecology (WDOE), in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey, completed a study designed to provide the geologic, hydrologic, and cultural data needed to evaluate the suitability of State land areas for the disposal of wastes. Data portraying the distribution of factors that could affect the suitability of areas in Washington for waste disposal were presented in a series of 18 maps (overlays). The factors selected include major geologic units; natural hazards from earthquakes, faulting, and volcanoes; climate; locations of major surface-water and groundwater bodies; population density; and land and water uses. Within each factor (map) the data were grouped into class intervals and the intervals for most factors ranked according to their relative suitability/unsuitability for land disposal of wastes following criteria supplied by WDOE. Areas of the State considered completely unsuitable (as determined by WDOE personnel) for waste disposal because of current or proposed land uses were excluded from ranking. (USGS)

  11. Impacts on non-human biota from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste: some key assessment issues.

    PubMed

    Robinson, C A; Smith, K L; Norris, S

    2010-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of key issues associated with the application of currently available biota dose assessment methods to consideration of potential environmental impacts from geological disposal facilities. It explores philosophical, methodological and practical assessment issues and reviews the implications of test assessment results in the context of recent and on-going challenges and debates.

  12. Three stages of geological evolution of granites from the Uralian part of the basement of the West Siberian platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, K. S.; Koroteev, V. A.; Erokhin, Yu. V.; Khiller, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    Granites, especially those that were decompressed as a result of processes of secondary transformations and tectonic movements, hold the greatest potential in the search for oil-bearing rocks in basements of sedimentary basins. Owing to the chemical dating of monazites from collision granites of the East Shebur area, the isochrone age of 274.5 ± 21 Ma was obtained. Zircons (SHRIMP-II) yield a concordant age of 277.5 ± 2 Ma (MSWD = 0.77). The Rb-Sr isochrone age of granites (247.4 ± 9.1 Ma) coincides with the emplacement time of the West Siberian rift system. This age records the process of intruding East Shebur granites into the upper crust level during riftogenesis and the extension of the study area. The younger age datings (231 Ma, 60 Ma (U-Pb); 220 Ma (K-Ar)) record the stages of tectonomagmatic activation, recorded in the basement of the Western Siberia oil-bearing areas.

  13. Geology and mineralization of the Jabalat alkali-feldspar granite, northern Asir region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Tayyar, Jaffar; Jackson, Norman J.; Al-Yazidi, Saeed

    The Jabalat post-tectonic granite pluton is composed of albite- and oligoclase-bearing, low-calcium, F-, Sn- and Rb-rich subsolvus granites. These granites display evidence of late-magmatic, granitophile- and metallic-element specialization, resulting ultimately in the development of post-magmatic, metalliferous hydrothermal systems characterized by a Mo sbnd Sn sbnd Cu sbnd Pb sbnd Zn sbnd Bi sbnd Ag sbnd F signature. Two main types of mineralization are present within the pluton and its environs: (1) weakly mineralized felsic and aplitic dikes and veins enhanced in Mo, Bi, Ag, Pb and Cu; and (2) pyrite—molybdenite—chalcopyrite-bearing quartz and quartz—feldspar veins rich in Mo, Sn, Bi, Cu, Zn and Ag. A satellite stock, 3 km north of the main intrusion, is composed of fine-grained, miarolitic, muscovite—albite—microcline (microperthite) granite. The flanks of this intrusion and adjacent dioritic rocks are greisenized and highly enriched in Sn, Bi and Ag. Quartz veins which transect the satellite stock contain molybdenite and stannite.

  14. Potential scenarios for broadening stakeholder involvement in the implementing geological disposal technology platform

    SciTech Connect

    Martell, Meritxell; Bergmans, Anne

    2013-07-01

    This paper analyses the potential for the involvement of different types of stakeholders in the Implementing Geological Disposal Technology Platform (IGD-TP). This analysis was conducted as part of the InSOTEC project, a three-year (2011- 2014) collaborative research project funded under the 7. Euratom Framework Programme (Grant Agreement nr. 269906). In our analysis, we consider the extent to which the IGDTP's practice as regards to stakeholder involvement matches its discourse, and what potential for improvement exists given its structural organisation as a European Technology Platform (ETPs). Technology Platforms (TPs) can be understood as knowledge networks, deliberately set up to influence (research) policy in a specific domain. We therefore use knowledge networks as a conceptual approach and look at the IGD-TP as a complex network which includes actors, knowledge and practices across different countries, focusing on a very specific topic (i.e. implementing geological disposal). We compare the way different stakeholders are involved in the IGD-TP to the practice of other ETPs, and explore how the IGD-TP is viewed by its members and by outsiders to the platform Applying Callon's framework of knowledge co-production (1999) we come to define different degrees of interaction between science, society and policy in view of defining research and development (R and D) priorities [1]. Subsequently we describe how these interactions could be conceptualised and interpreted for the IGD-TP. The current approach of the IGDTP can be mainly understood as classical model involving mainly expert stakeholders and scientists. Where there seems to be a good representation among IGD-TP members of industry, research institutes, and some members of the academic community this is not the case for other types of stakeholders, such as public authorities or civil society. At this stage, the overall approach of the IGD-TP would seem to restrict the scope of stakeholder involvement, as it

  15. Use of the Fracture Continuum Model for Numerical Modeling of Flow and Transport of Deep Geologic Disposal of Nuclear Waste in Crystalline Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadgu, T.; Kalinina, E.; Klise, K. A.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Numerical modeling of disposal of nuclear waste in a deep geologic repository in fractured crystalline rock requires robust characterization of fractures. Various methods for fracture representation in granitic rocks exist. In this study we used the fracture continuum model (FCM) to characterize fractured rock for use in the simulation of flow and transport in the far field of a generic nuclear waste repository located at 500 m depth. The FCM approach is a stochastic method that maps the permeability of discrete fractures onto a regular grid. The method generates permeability fields using field observations of fracture sets. The original method described in McKenna and Reeves (2005) was designed for vertical fractures. The method has since then been extended to incorporate fully three-dimensional representations of anisotropic permeability, multiple independent fracture sets, and arbitrary fracture dips and orientations, and spatial correlation (Kalinina et al. 20012, 2014). For this study the numerical code PFLOTRAN (Lichtner et al., 2015) has been used to model flow and transport. PFLOTRAN solves a system of generally nonlinear partial differential equations describing multiphase, multicomponent and multiscale reactive flow and transport in porous materials. The code is designed to run on massively parallel computing architectures as well as workstations and laptops (e.g. Hammond et al., 2011). Benchmark tests were conducted to simulate flow and transport in a specified model domain. Distributions of fracture parameters were used to generate a selected number of realizations. For each realization, the FCM method was used to generate a permeability field of the fractured rock. The PFLOTRAN code was then used to simulate flow and transport in the domain. Simulation results and analysis are presented. The results indicate that the FCM approach is a viable method to model fractured crystalline rocks. The FCM is a computationally efficient way to generate realistic

  16. Microbiology and Biogeochemical Study of Underground Research Tunnel for the Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Y.; Oh, J.; Seo, H.; Rhee, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Underground Research Tunnel (URT) located in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon, South Korea was recently constructed as an experimental site to study radionuclide transport, biogeochemistry, radionuclide-mineral interactions for the geological disposal of high level nuclear waste. Groundwater sampled from URT was used to examine microbial diversity and to enrich metal reducing bacteria for studying microbe- metal interactions. Genomic analysis indicated that the groundwater contained diverse microorganisms such as metal reducers, metal oxidizers, anaerobic denitrifying bacteria, and bacteria for reductive dechlorination. Metal- reducing bacteria enriched from the groundwater was used to study metal reduction and biomineralization. The metal-reducing bacteria enriched with acetate or lactate as the electron donors showed the bacteria reduced Fe(III)-citrate, Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, Mn(IV) oxide, and Cr(VI) as the electron acceptors. Preliminary study indicated that the enriched bacteria were able to use glucose, lactate, acetate, and hydrogen as electron donors while reducing Fe(III)-citrate or Fe(III) oxyhydroxide as the electron acceptor. The bacteria exhibited diverse mineral precipitation capabilities including the formation of magnetite, siderite, and rhodochrosite. The results indicated that Fe(III)- and metal-reducing communities are present in URT at the KAERI.

  17. Thermal impact of waste emplacement and surface cooling associated with geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Mangold, D.C.; Spencer, R.K.; Tsang, C.F.

    1982-08-01

    The thermal effects associated with the emplacement of aged radioactive wastes in a geologic repository were studied, with emphasis on the following subjects: the waste characteristics, repository structure, and rock properties controlling the thermally induced effects; the current knowledge of the thermal, thermomechanical, and thermohydrologic impacts, determined mainly on the basis of previous studies that assume 10-year-old wastes; the thermal criteria used to determine the repository waste loading densities; and the technical advantages and disadvantages of surface cooling of the wastes prior to disposal as a means of mitigating the thermal impacts. The waste loading densities determined by repository designs for 10-year-old wastes are extended to older wastes using the near-field thermomechanical criteria based on room stability considerations. Also discussed are the effects of long surface cooling periods determined on the basis of far-field thermomechanical and thermohydrologic considerations. The extension of the surface cooling period from 10 years to longer periods can lower the near-field thermal impact but have only modest long-term effects for spent fuel. More significant long-term effects can be achieved by surface cooling of reprocessed high-level waste.

  18. Image processing techniques revealing the relationship between the field-measured ambient gamma dose equivalent rate and geological conditions at a granitic area, Velence Mountains, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltran Torres, Silvana; Petrik, Attila; Zsuzsanna Szabó, Katalin; Jordan, Gyozo; Szabó, Csaba

    2017-04-01

    In order to estimate the annual dose that the public receive from natural radioactivity, the identification of the potential risk areas is required which, in turn, necessitates understanding the relationship between the spatial distribution of natural radioactivity and the geogenic risk factors (e.g., rock types, dykes, faults, soil conditions, etc.). A detailed spatial analysis of ambient gamma dose equivalent rate was performed in the western side of Velence Mountains, the largest outcropped granitic area in Hungary. In order to assess the role of local geology in the spatial distribution of ambient gamma dose rates, field measurements were carried out at ground level at 300 sites along a 250 m x 250 m regular grid in a total surface of 14.7 km2. Digital image processing methods were applied to identify anomalies, heterogeneities and spatial patterns in the measured gamma dose rates, including local maxima and minima determination, digital cross sections, gradient magnitude and gradient direction, second derivative profile curvature, local variability, lineament density, 2D autocorrelation and directional variogram analyses. Statistical inference showed that different gamma dose rate levels are associated with the rock types (i.e., Carboniferous granite, Pleistocene colluvial, proluvial, deluvial sediments and talus, and Pannonian sand and pebble), with the highest level on the Carboniferous granite including outlying values. Moreover, digital image processing revealed that linear gamma dose rate spatial features are parallel to the SW-NE dyke system and possibly to the NW-SE main fractures. The results of this study underline the importance of understanding the role of geogenic risk factors influencing the ambient gamma dose rate received by public. The study also demonstrates the power of the image processing techniques for the identification of spatial pattern in field-measured geogenic radiation.

  19. The discovery of late Triassic mylonitic granite and geologic significance in the middle Gangdese batholiths, southern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shiwei; Meng, Yuanku; Xu, Zhiqin; Liu, Xiaojia

    2017-02-01

    The Gangdese magmatic belt, located in the southern margin of the Lhasa terrain and carrying significant copper poly-metallic mineralization, preserves important information related to the tectonics associated with the Neo-Tethys Ocean subduction, Indian-Asian collision and the crustal growth of southern Tibet. Here, we investigated the Namling batholiths in the central domain of the Gangdese magmatic belt and report for the first time the occurrence of late Triassic mylonitic granite, and present its petrologic, zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopes and the whole-rock chemistry dataset. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating from three mylonitic granitic samples yields crystallization ages of 209.4 ± 1.1 Ma, 206.7 ± 1.1 Ma and 212 ± 1.1Ma, indicating a late Triassic magmatic event in the Gangdese magmatic belt. Geochemically, the mylonitic granite exhibits magnesian genesis and calcic and calc-alkalic features. The depletions of Nb, Ta and Ti and enrichments of LREEs together suggest that the magmas from which these rocks crystallized were generated in an active continental margin. Besides, all the analyzed samples also demonstrate highly positive εHf(t) values of 8.95-12.91 (mean value 10.84), corresponding to single stage model ages (tDM1) in the range of 326 Ma-486 Ma (mean 414 Ma), attesting to crustal growth in southern Lhasa terrain. The mylonitic pluton are likely sourced from partial melting of the lower crustal components (amphibolite or basaltic stuff) that was heated and metasomatized by underplating basaltic magmas, and subsequently might undergo fractional crystallization and upper sediments contamination during parental magmas ascent. In light of the distribution of the early Mesozoic magmatic events and robust sedimentary evidence together suggest that the northward subduction of the Neo-Tethys oceanic crust beneath the Lhasa terrain should commence prior to late Triassic (∼210 Ma).

  20. Spent nuclear fuel as a waste form for geologic disposal: Assessment and recommendations on data and modeling needs

    SciTech Connect

    Van Luik, A.E.; Apted, M.J.; Bailey, W.J.; Haberman, J.H.; Shade, J.S.; Guenther, R.E.; Serne, R.J.; Gilbert, E.R.; Peters, R.; Williford, R.E.

    1987-09-01

    This study assesses the status of knowledge pertinent to evaluating the behavior of spent nuclear fuel as a waste form in geologic disposal systems and provides background information that can be used by the DOE to address the information needs that pertain to compliance with applicable standards and regulations. To achieve this objective, applicable federal regulations were reviewed, expected disposal environments were described, the status of spent-fuel modeling was summarized, and information regarding the characteristics and behavior of spent fuel was compiled. This compiled information was then evaluated from a performance modeling perspective to identify further information needs. A number of recommendations were made concerning information still needed to enhance understanding of spent-fuel behavior as a waste form in geologic repositories. 335 refs., 22 figs., 44 tabs.

  1. International Socio-Technical Challenges for Geological Disposal (InSOTEC): Project Aims and Preliminary Results - 12236

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmans, Anne; Schroeder, Jantine; Simmons, Peter; Barthe, Yannick; Meyer, Morgan; Sundqvist, Goeran; Martell, Merixell; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate

    2012-07-01

    InSOTEC is a social sciences research project which aims to generate a better understanding of the complex interplay between the technical and the social in radioactive waste management and, in particular, in the design and implementation of geological disposal. It currently investigates and analyses the most striking socio-technical challenges to implementing geological disposal of radioactive waste in 14 national programs. A focus is put on situations and issues where the relationship between the technical and social components is still unstable, ambiguous and controversial, and where negotiations are taking place in terms of problem definitions and preferred solutions. Such negotiations can vary from relatively minor contestation, over mild commotion, to strong and open conflicts. Concrete examples of socio-technical challenges are: the question of siting, introducing the notion of reversibility / retrievability into the concept of geological disposal, or monitoring for confidence building. In a second stage the InSOTEC partners aim to develop a fine-grained understanding of how the technical and the social influence, shape, build upon each other in the case of radioactive waste management and the design and implementation of geological disposal. How are socio-technical combinations in this field translated and materialized into the solutions finally adopted? With what kinds of tools and instruments are they being integrated? Complementary to providing better theoretical insight into these socio-technical challenges/combinations, InSOTEC aims to provide concrete suggestions on how to address these within national and international contexts. To this end, InSOTEC will deliver insights into how mechanisms for interaction between the technical community and a broad range of socio-political actors could be developed. (authors)

  2. An integrated approach to geological disposal of UK wastes containing carbon-14

    SciTech Connect

    Vines, Sarah; Lever, David

    2013-07-01

    Carbon-14 is a key radionuclide in the assessment of the safety of a geological disposal facility for radioactive waste because of the calculated assessment of the radiological consequences of gaseous carbon-14 bearing species [i]. It may be that such calculations are based on overly conservative assumptions and that better understanding could lead to considerably reduced assessment of the radiological consequences from these wastes. Alternatively, it may be possible to mitigate the impact of these wastes through alternative treatment, packaging or design options. The Radioactive Waste Management Directorate of the UK's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA RWMD) has established an integrated project team in which the partners are working together to develop a holistic approach to carbon-14 management in the disposal system [ii]. For a waste stream containing carbon-14 to be an issue: There must be a significant inventory of carbon-14 in the waste stream; and That waste stream has to generate carbon-14 bearing gas; and a bulk gas phase has to entrain the carbon-14 bearing gas: and these gases must migrate through the engineered barriers in significant quantities; and these gases must migrate through the overlying geological environment (either as a distinct gas phase or as dissolved gas); and these gases must interact with materials in the biosphere (i.e. plants) in a manner that leads to significant doses and risks to exposed groups or potentially exposed groups. The project team has developed and used this 'and' approach to structure and prioritise the technical work and break the problem down in a manageable way. We have also used it to develop our approach to considering alternative treatment, packaging and design options. For example, it may be possible to pre-treat some wastes to remove some of the inventory or to segregate other wastes so that they are removed from any bulk gas phase which might facilitate migration through the geosphere. Initially, the

  3. Granite Symposia and Working Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Calvin

    In addition to the Hutton Symposium on Granites and Related Rocks to be held in Canberra, Australia, Sept. 23-28, 1991, two other international symposia on granitoids will take place during 1991: the inaugural meeting and field excursion of the proposed IGCP project Rapakivi Granites and Related Rocks, to be held in Helsinki, Finland, July 29-August 4, and Granites and Geodynamics, to be held in Moscow, August 6-9. Contacts for these meetings are: Hutton Symposium, Bruce Chappell, Dept. of Geology, Australian National University, GPO Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia; Rapakivi Granites, Ilmari Haapala or Tapani Ramo, Dept. of Geology, Division of Geology and Mineralogy, University of Helsinki, Snelmaninkatu 5, 60170 Helsinki 17, Finland. Melt segregation and migration in partly molten rocks will be the topic of a special session at the Geological Association/Mineralogical Association of Canada meeting in Toronto, May 27-29, 1991.

  4. Groundwater study using drill holes in the Abukuma granitic province, NE Japan: chemical and isotopic features in the fracture zone around the geological tectonic line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, H. A.; Tsukamoto, H.; Kazahaya, K.; Takahashi, M.; Morikawa, N.; Yasuhara, M.; Inamura, A.; Handa, H.; Nakamura, T.

    2010-12-01

    Chemical and isotopic features of groundwater in a granitic province are considered to be controlled by water origin, water-rock reaction and/or fracture connection in rocks. Under the depth of a weathering layer, groundwater is existed only in cracks of granite, and its chemical nature or origin has been poorly understood because of difficulties on collection of water samples preserving its natural conditions. On the other hand, a geological tectonic line in a granitic province might provide an influence to groundwater as a path for ascending deep fluid. We conducted a study for chemical processes of groundwater in cracks with investigation of an influence of tectonic line by drilling three bore holes at two sites in a same rock body; Miharu site is located ca. 1.2km west from the Morioka-Shirakawa tectonic line, and Shirasawa site is ca. 5km west. In situ sampling of waters in cracks of granite are done with the single and double packer methods. The drill holes were made 305m and 135m at the Miharu site and 230m at the Shirasawa site. Using these bole holes, groundwater features in the fracture zone around the geological tectonic line can be compared with those outside it. Chemical type of groundwater has a variety with depth; the shallower groundwater is categorized as Ca-HCO3- type with slight NO3 contamination whereas deeper groundwater has Na-HCO3- type. Stable isotope composition of water showed that all the sample water is meteoric origin. Those have significantly low values (ca. 10‰ of δD lower than shallow groundwater) obviously indicating that the groundwater does not originate from the present meteoric water. Groundwater with low δD and δ18O values is likely recharged in an ice age consistent with the 14C date showing the age of carbon ranging from 10000 to 15000 yrBP. The vertical trends of chemical and isotopic components are similar between the two holes at the Miharu site, but different between the two sites, Miharu and Shirasawa. The

  5. A tree diagram for compiling a methodology to evaluate suitability of host rock for geological disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayano, A.; Sawada, A.; Goto, J.; Ishii, E.; Moriya, T.; Inagaki, M.; Kubota, S.; Ebashi, T.

    2012-12-01

    In Japan, the Specified Radioactive Waste Final Disposal Act states that the siting process of geological repository for vitrified high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and low-level radioactive waste containing long-lived nuclides (TRU waste) shall consist of three stages. In the first stage, the Preliminary Investigation Areas (PIAs) will be selected by excluding these areas where future significant impacts of natural phenomena such as volcanism and rock deformation are expected based on literature information. The Detailed Investigation Areas (DIAs) will be then selected in the second stage among PIAs focusing on suitability of the host rock where the underground facility is constructed, as well as confirming the results of the first stage through a series of surface-based field activities such as regional geophysics and borehole investigations. The suitability of the host rock is evaluated taking account of thermal, hydrologic, mechanical and geochemical conditions and the volume of host rock, based on the site descriptive models which are constructed by integrating geoscientific information obtained from step-wise investigations. However, due to the limitation of such information in particular in the early stages of investigation, the relatively large uncertainties are associated with the developed site descriptive models. In addition, the integration of above-mentioned multi-disciplinary site investigation information into a site descriptive model is very complex task. It is therefore essential to clarify relationships between the important factors for both safety assessment (SA) and repository design (Design) and the information obtained by the site investigations via site descriptive models. Taking this into account, we have developed a method for evaluating the suitability of the host rock by linking site investigations, SA and Design. In this method, special attention has been paid to uncertainties associated with the site descriptive models and the degree

  6. Retention of Anionic Species on Granite: Influence of Granite Composition - 12129

    SciTech Connect

    Videnska, Katerina; Havlova, Vaclava

    2012-07-01

    Technetium (Tc-99, T{sub 1/2} = 2.1.10{sup 5} yrs) and selenium (Se-79, T{sub 1/2} = 6.5.10{sup 4} yrs) belong among fission products, being produced by fission of nuclear fuel. Both elements can significantly contribute to risk due to their complicated chemistry, long life times, high mobility and prevailing anionic character. Therefore, knowledge of migration behaviour under different conditions can significantly improve input into performance and safety assessment models. Granite is considered as a potential host rock for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in many countries. Granitic rocks consist usually of quartz, feldspar, plagioclase (main components), mica, chlorite, kaolinite (minor components). The main feature of the rock is advection governed transport in fractures, complemented with diffusion process from fracture towards undisturbed rock matrix. The presented work is focused on interaction of anionic species (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}, SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) with granitic rock. Furthermore, the importance of mineral composition on sorption of anionic species was also studied. The batch sorption experiments were conducted on the crushed granite from Bohemian Massive. Five fractions with defined grain size were used for static batch method. Mineral composition of each granitic fraction was evaluated using X-ray diffraction. The results showed differences in composition of granitic fractions, even though originating from one homogenized material. Sorption experiments showed influence of granite composition on adsorption of both TcO4{sup -} and SeO3{sup 2-} on granitic rock. Generally, Se(IV) showed higher retention than Tc(VII). Se(VI) was not almost sorbed at all. Fe containing minerals are pronounced as a selective Se and Tc sorbent, being reduced on their surface. As micas in granite are usually enriched in Fe, increased sorption of anionic species onto mica enriched fractions can be explained by this reason. On the other hand

  7. Monte Carlo simulations for generic granite repository studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Shaoping; Lee, Joon H; Wang, Yifeng

    2010-12-08

    In a collaborative study between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the DOE-NE Office of Fuel Cycle Technologies Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign project, we have conducted preliminary system-level analyses to support the development of a long-term strategy for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. A general modeling framework consisting of a near- and a far-field submodel for a granite GDSE was developed. A representative far-field transport model for a generic granite repository was merged with an integrated systems (GoldSim) near-field model. Integrated Monte Carlo model runs with the combined near- and farfield transport models were performed, and the parameter sensitivities were evaluated for the combined system. In addition, a sub-set of radionuclides that are potentially important to repository performance were identified and evaluated for a series of model runs. The analyses were conducted with different waste inventory scenarios. Analyses were also conducted for different repository radionuelide release scenarios. While the results to date are for a generic granite repository, the work establishes the method to be used in the future to provide guidance on the development of strategy for long-term disposal of high-level radioactive waste in a granite repository.

  8. Hydrogeology of a fractured shale (Opalinus Clay): Implications for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautschi, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Swiss programme for high-level radioactive-waste disposal, a Jurassic shale (Opalinus Clay) is being investigated as a potential host rock. Observations in clay pits and the results of a German research programme focusing on hazardous waste disposal have demonstrated that, at depths of 10-30 m, the permeability of the Opalinus Clay decreases by several orders of magnitude. Hydraulic tests in deeper boreholes (test intervals below 300 m) yielded hydraulic conductivities <10-12 m/s, even though joints and faults were included in some of the test intervals. These measurements are consistent with hydrogeological data from Opalinus Clay sections in ten tunnels in the Folded Jura of northern Switzerland. Despite extensive faulting, only a few indications of minor water inflow were encountered in more than 6,600 m of tunnel. All inflows were in tunnel sections where the overburden is less than 200 m. The hydraulic data are consistent with clay pore-water hydrochemical and isotopic data. The extensive hydrogeological data base - part of which derives from particularly unfavourable geological environments - provides arguments that advective transport through faults and joints is not a critical issue for the suitability of Opalinus Clay as a host rock for deep geological waste disposal. Résumé. Dans le cadre du programme suisse de stockage de déchets hautement radioactifs, une formation argileuse du Jurassique, l'argile à Opalinus, a été étudiée en tant que roche hôte potentielle. Des observations dans des cavités dans l'argile et les résultats du programme de recherche allemand consacré au stockage de déchets à risques ont démontré que, à des profondeur de 10 à 30 m, la perméabilité des argiles à Opalinus décroît de plusieurs ordres de grandeur. Des essais hydrauliques dans des forages plus profonds (intervalles de test á une profondeur de plus de 300 m) ont donné des conductivités hydrauliques inférieures à 10-12 m/s, m

  9. Interpretation and Modelling of Data from Site Investigations for a Geological Disposal facility located in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, H.; Bailey, L.; Parkes, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (RWMD) of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has been given the responsibility for implementing geological disposal in the United Kingdom. The implementation process envisaged is that once a candidate site or sites for a geological disposal facility have been identified, NDA-RWMD will undertake surface-based investigations at the site or sites. The information acquired through these investigations would be used as an input to the development of the safety case, for engineering design of the disposal facility and to demonstrate confidence to the key stakeholders that the potential disposal facility site is adequately understood. NDA-RWMD proposes to develop and present the information derived from site characterisation activities in the form of a single integrated Site Descriptive Model, i.e. a description of the geometry, properties of the bedrock and water, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms, which will be used to address the information requirements of all the end users (including the safety case). It is anticipated that, in a similar way to the approach adopted by international radioactive waste programmes led by SKB (Sweden) and Posiva (Finland), the integrated Site Descriptive Model will be divided into parts comprising clearly defined disciplines which may form either chapters or discipline-based models such as: • Geology; • Hydrogeology; • Hydrochemistry; • Geotechnical; • Radionuclide Transport Properties; • Thermal Properties; and • Biosphere. The integrated Site Descriptive Model will evolve as understanding of the particular site advances and will describe the current understanding of a specific site and, where relevant, the historical development of conditions at the site where this supports the conceptual understanding. The Site Descriptive Model will not include prediction of the future evolution of the conditions at the site: this will be an important component

  10. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Part III. Geologic and hydrologic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Brady, B.T.

    1985-12-31

    This report describes the first phase in evaluating the geology and hydrology of the Basin and Range Province for potential suitability of geohydrologic environments for isolation of high-level radioactive waste. The geologic and hydrologic factors considered in the Province evaluation include distribution of potential host rocks, tectonic conditions and data on ground-water hydrology. Potential host media considered include argillaceous rocks, tuff, basaltic rocks, granitic rocks, evaporites, and the unsaturated zone. The tectonic factors considered are Quaternary faults, late Cenozoic volcanics, seismic activity, heat flow, and late Cenozoic rates of vertical uplift. Hydrologic conditions considered include length of flow path from potential host rocks to discharge areas, interbasin and geothermal flow systems and thick unsaturated sections as potential host media. The Basin and Range Province was divided into 12 subprovinces; each subprovince is evaluated separately and prospective areas for further study are identified. About one-half of the Province appears to have combinations of potential host rocks, tectonic conditions, and ground-water hydrology that merit consideration for further study. The prospective areas for further study in each subprovince are summarized in a brief list of the potentially favorable factors and the issues of concern. Data compiled for the entire Province do not permit a complete evaluation of the favorability for high-level waste isolation. The evaluations here are intended to identify broad regions that contain potential geohydrologic environments containing multiple natural barriers to radionuclide migration. 13 refs., 14 figs.

  11. Hydrologic and geologic aspects of waste management and disposal; a bibliography of publications by U.S. Geological Survey authors, 1950-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handman, Elinor H.

    1983-01-01

    References to more than 550 reports, articles, and maps are listed alphabetically by author and are indexed by subject. The subject index includes geographic-area terms. Citations from 69 series are included; series are listed separately. The publications listed report the results of U.S. Geological Survey research and field projects throughout the Nation concerning earth-science aspects of waste management and disposal. They include organic, inorganic, and radioactive wastes and related topics such as mathematical models of solute transport. Most of the references are to (1) Geological Survey report series such as Water-Supply Papers, Professional Papers, Bulletins, Circulars, Water-Resources Investigations, and Open-File Reports, (2) technical journals of professional organizations, or (3) reports by other Federal and State agencies.

  12. A Methodology for Characterizing Potential Uranium Transport in Deep Geological Disposal Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, T. M.; Reimus, P. W.

    2013-12-01

    In order to make safe and reasonable decisions about radioactive waste disposal in deep geologic sites, it is important to understand the fate and potential transport of long half-life transuranic radionuclides over a wide range of time and distance scales. The objective of this study was to evaluate and demonstrate new experimental methods for quantifying the potential for actinide transport in deep fractured crystalline rock formations. We selected a fractured/weathered granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland as a model system because field experiments involving uranium, as well as other actinides, have already been conducted. Working on this system provides a unique opportunity to compare lab experimental results with field-scale observations. Drilled rock cores and weathered fracture fill material (FFM) from the GTS were shipped to Los Alamos National Laboratory, characterized by x-ray diffraction and microscopy, and used in batch sorption/desorption and column breakthrough experiments. Uranium solutions were made by adding uranium to a synthetic Grimsel groundwater that matched the natural water chemistry found in the GTS groundwater. Batch and breakthrough experiments were conducted using solutions between pH 6.9 and 9.0. All column experiments were conducted using syringe pumps at low flow rate (<0.3 ml h-1) in small columns containing 5 g of material with pore volumes of 2-3 ml. These small columns allow rapid and economical evaluation of sorption/desorption behavior under flowing conditions (and in duplicate or triplicate). Solutions were switched to uranium-free synthetic Grimsel groundwater after equilibration in batch experiments or after near-steady uranium breakthrough occurred in column experiments. The measurement of uranium concentrations as a function of time under these conditions allowed interrogation of desorption rates which we believe control uranium fate and transport over long time and distance scales. Uranium transport

  13. Generation and stability of bentonite colloids at the bentonite/granite interface of a deep geological radioactive waste repository.

    PubMed

    Missana, Tiziana; Alonso, Ursula; Turrero, Maria Jesús

    2003-03-01

    The possible mechanisms of colloid generation at the near field/far field interface of a radioactive repository have been investigated by means of novel column experiments simulating the granite/bentonite boundary, both in dynamic and in quasi-static water flow conditions. It has been shown that solid particles and colloids can be detached from the bulk and mobilised by the water flow. The higher the flow rate, the higher the concentration of particles found in the water, according to an erosion process. However, the gel formation and the intrinsic tactoid structure of the clay play an important role in the submicron particle generation even in the compacted clay and in a confined system. In fact, once a bentonite gel is formed, in the regions where the clay is contacted with water, clay colloids can be formed even in quasi-static flow conditions. The potential relevance of these colloids in radionuclide transport has been studied by evaluating their stability in different chemical environments. The coagulation kinetics of natural bentonite colloids was experimentally studied as a function of the ionic strength and pH, by means of time-resolved light scattering techniques. It has been shown that these colloids are very stable in low saline (approximately 1 x 10(-3) M) and alkaline (pH > or = 8) waters.

  14. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste: Part III, Geologic and hydrologic evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, Kenneth A.; Brady, Bruce T.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the first phase in evaluating the geology and hydrology of the Basin and Range Province for potential suitability of geohydrologic environments for isolation of high-level radioactive waste. The evaluation of the Province applies the guidelines, discussed in Part I (Bedinger, Sargent, and Reed, 1983) of this report to the geologic and hydrologic information compiled for the Province in Part II (Sargent and Bedinger, 1983).The geologic and hydrologic factors considered in the Province evaluation include distribution of potential host rocks, tectonic conditions and data on ground-water hydrology. Potential host media considered include argillaceous rocks, tuff, basaltic rocks, granitic rocks, evaporites, and the unsaturated zone. The tectonic factors considered are Quaternary faults, late Cenozoic volcanics, seismic activity, heat flow, and late Cenozoic rates of vertical uplift. Hydrologic conditions considered include length of flow path from potential host rocks to discharge areas, interbasin and geothermal flow systems and thick unsaturated sections as potential host media.The Basin and Range Province was divided into 12 subprovinces; each subprovince is evaluated separately and prospective areas for further study are identified. About onehalf of the Province appears to have combinations of potential host rocks, tectonic conditions, and ground-water hydrology that merit consideration for further study.The prospective areas for further study in each subprovince are summarized in a brief list of the potentially favorable factors and the issues of concern. Data compiled for the entire Province do not permit a complete evaluation of the favorability for high-level waste isolation. The evaluations here are intended to identify broad regions that contain potential geohydrologic environments containing multiple natural barriers to radionuclide migration.

  15. Geological setting and petrogenesis of symmetrically zoned, miarolitic granitic pegmatites at Stak Nala, Nanga Parbat - Haramosh Massif, northern Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laurs, B.M.; Dilles, J.H.; Wairrach, Y.; Kausar, A.B.; Snee, L.W.

    1998-01-01

    Miarolitic granitic pegmatites in the Stak valley in the northeast part of the Nanga Parbat - Haramosh Massif, in northern Pakistan, locally contain economic quantities of bi- and tricolored tourmaline. The pegmatites form flat-lying sills that range from less than 1 m to more than 3 m thick and show symmetrical internal zonation. A narrow outer or border zone of medium-to coarse-grained oligoclase - K-feldspar - quartz grades inward to a very coarse-grained wall zone characterized by K-feldspar - oligoclase - quartz - schorl tourmaline. Radiating sprays of schorl and flaring megacrysts of K-feldspar (intermediate microcline) point inward, indicating progressive crystallization toward the core. The core zone consists of variable mixtures of blocky K-feldspar (intermediate microcline), oligoclase, quartz, and sparse schorl or elbaite, with local bodies of sodic aplite and miarolitic cavities or "pockets". Minor spessartine-almandine garnet and lo??llingite are disseminated throughout the pegmatite, but were not observed in the pockets. The pockets contain well-formed crystals of albite, quartz, K-feldspar (maximum microcline ?? orthoclase overgrowths), schorl-elbaite tourmaline, muscovite or lepidolite, topaz, and small amounts of other minerals. Elbaite is color-zoned from core to rim: green (Fe2+- and Mn2+-bearing), colorless (Mn2+-bearing), and light pink (trace Mn3+). Within ???10 cm of the pegmatites, the granitic gneiss wallrock is bleached owing to conversion of biotite to muscovite, with local quartz and albite added. Schorl is disseminated through the altered gneiss, and veins of schorl with bleached selvages locally traverse the wallrock up to 1 m from the pegmatite contact. The schorl veins can be traced into the outer part of the wall zone, which suggests that they formed from aqueous fluids derived during early saturation of the pegmatite-forming leucogranitic magma rich in H2O, F, B, and Li. Progressive crystallization resulted in a late-stage sodic

  16. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: repository performance and development criteria. Public draft

    SciTech Connect

    1982-07-01

    This document, DOE/NWTS-33(3) is one of a series of documents to establish the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program criteria for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. For both repository performance and repository development it delineates the criteria for design performance, radiological safety, mining safety, long-term containment and isolation, operations, and decommissioning. The US Department of Energy will use these criteria to guide the development of repositories to assist in achieving performance and will reevaluate their use when the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules.

  17. Implementing Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste Technology Platform From the Strategic Research Agenda to its Deployment - 12015

    SciTech Connect

    Ouzounian, P.; Palmu, Marjatta; Eng, Torsten

    2012-07-01

    Several European waste management organizations (WMOs) have initiated a technology platform for accelerating the implementation of deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in Europe. The most advanced waste management programmes in Europe (i.e. Finland, Sweden, and France) have already started or are prepared to start the licensing process of deep geological disposal facilities within the next decade. A technology platform called Implementing Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste Technology Platform (IGD-TP) was launched in November 2009. A shared vision report for the platform was published stating that: 'Our vision is that by 2025, the first geological disposal facilities for spent fuel, high-level waste, and other long-lived radioactive waste will be operating safely in Europe'. In 2011, the IGD-TP had eleven WMO members and about 70 participants from academia, research, and the industry committed to its vision. The IGD-TP has started to become a tool for reducing overlapping work, to produce savings in total costs of research and implementation and to make better use of existing competence and research infrastructures. The main contributor to this is the deployment of the IGD-TP's newly published Strategic Research Agenda (SRA). The work undertaken for the SRA defined the pending research, development and demonstration (RD and D) issues and needs. The SRA document describing the identified issues that could be worked on collaboratively was published in July 2011. It is available on the project's public web site (www.igdtp.eu). The SRA was organized around 7 Key Topics covering the Safety Case, Waste forms and their behaviour, Technical feasibility and long-term performance of repository components, Development strategy of the repository, Safety of construction and operations, Monitoring, and Governance and stakeholder involvement. Individual Topics were prioritized within the Key Topics. Cross-cutting activities like Education and Training or Knowledge

  18. The USNRC's Final Regulations for Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in a Potential Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    McCartin, T.; Kotra, J.; Pohle, J.; Wittmeyer, G.

    2002-02-27

    On February 22, 1999, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) proposed licensing criteria in a new, separate part of its regulations, at 10 CFR Part 63 (hereafter referred to as Part 63), for disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in a potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (1). After publication of the proposed Part 63, the staff provided members of the public and other stakeholders multiple opportunities to discuss the proposed requirements. On June 13, 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued final environmental standards for a potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada at 40 CFR Part 197 (2), as mandated by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EnPA)(3). The NRC has prepared its final regulations based on careful review and consideration of the public comments received on its proposed rule and the statutory direction for NRC to adopt technical criteria consistent with final EPA standards.

  19. Annotated bibliography for the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wurm, K.J.; Miller, N.E.

    1982-11-01

    This bibliography identifies documents that are pertinent to the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The bibliography is divided into fourteen subject categories so that anyone wishing to review the subject of leaching, for example, can turn to the leaching section and review the abstracts of reports which are concerned primarily with leaching. Abstracts are also cross referenced according to secondary subject matter so that one can get a complete list of abstracts for any of the fourteen subject categories. All documents which by their title alone appear to deal with the design of waste packages for the geologic disposal of spent fuel or high-level waste were obtained and reviewed. Only those documents which truly appear to be of interest to a waste package designer were abstracted. The documents not abstracted are listed in a separate section. There was no beginning date for consideration of a document for review. About 1100 documents were reviewed and about 450 documents were abstracted.

  20. Hydrologic Nuclide Transport Models in Cyder, A Geologic Disposal Software Library - 13328

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, Kathryn D.

    2013-07-01

    Component level and system level abstraction of detailed computational geologic repository models have resulted in four rapid computational models of hydrologic radionuclide transport at varying levels of detail. Those models are described, as is their implementation in Cyder, a software library of interchangeable radionuclide transport models appropriate for representing natural and engineered barrier components of generic geology repository concepts. A proof of principle demonstration was also conducted in which these models were used to represent the natural and engineered barrier components of a repository concept in a reducing, homogenous, generic geology. This base case demonstrates integration of the Cyder open source library with the Cyclus computational fuel cycle systems analysis platform to facilitate calculation of repository performance metrics with respect to fuel cycle choices. (authors)

  1. The Belgian Research and Development Feasibility Programme for the Geological Disposal of High-Level and Long-Lived Radioactive Waste - 12338

    SciTech Connect

    Van Marcke, Philippe; Van Humbeeck, Hugues

    2012-07-01

    ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, considers geological disposal in the poorly indurated Boom Clay as the reference solution for the long-term management of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste. To develop a safety concept and design for geological disposal, ONDRAF/NIRAS follows an iterative process demonstrating that the repository will be both safe and feasible to implement. This process is called the safety strategy. A part of the safety strategy is the feasibility programme which aims at demonstrating, at a conceptual level, that the proposed geological disposal system can be constructed, operated and progressively closed. The followed methodology is based on the substantiation of a hierarchy of feasibility statements. These statements cover all activities from the removal of primary waste packages from interim storage buildings to the closure of the disposal site and a period of institutional control. They focus on engineering practicability, health and safety and environmental considerations, costs and quality assurance issues. A 4 year research project to support the R and D feasibility programme was launched in 2009 with several international partners coordinated by ONDRAF/NIRAS. It aims at confirming that there are no fundamental flaws or show-stoppers in the feasibility of building and operating the facilities for geological disposal in the Boom Clay. (authors)

  2. Albedo Neutron Dosimetry in a Deep Geological Disposal Repository for High-Level Nuclear Waste.

    PubMed

    Pang, Bo; Becker, Frank

    2016-06-24

    Albedo neutron dosemeter is the German official personal neutron dosemeter in mixed radiation fields where neutrons contribute to personal dose. In deep geological repositories for high-level nuclear waste, where neutrons can dominate the radiation field, it is of interest to investigate the performance of albedo neutron dosemeter in such facilities. In this study, the deep geological repository is represented by a shielding cask loaded with spent nuclear fuel placed inside a rock salt emplacement drift. Due to the backscattering of neutrons in the drift, issues concerning calibration of the dosemeter arise. Field-specific calibration of the albedo neutron dosemeter was hence performed with Monte Carlo simulations. In order to assess the applicability of the albedo neutron dosemeter in a deep geological repository over a long time scale, spent nuclear fuel with different ages of 50, 100 and 500 years were investigated. It was found out, that the neutron radiation field in a deep geological repository can be assigned to the application area 'N1' of the albedo neutron dosemeter, which is typical in reactors and accelerators with heavy shielding.

  3. The application of Quadtree algorithm to information integration for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Min; Huang, Shutao; Zhong, Xia

    2009-09-01

    The establishment of multi-source database was designed to promote the informatics process of the geological disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste, the integration of multi-dimensional and multi-source information and its application are related to computer software and hardware. Based on the analysis of data resources in Beishan area, Gansu Province, and combined with GIS technologies and methods. This paper discusses the technical ideas of how to manage, fully share and rapidly retrieval the information resources in this area by using open source code GDAL and Quadtree algorithm, especially in terms of the characteristics of existing data resources, spatial data retrieval algorithm theory, programming design and implementation of the ideas.

  4. The application of Quadtree algorithm to information integration for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Min; Huang, Shutao; Zhong, Xia

    2010-11-01

    The establishment of multi-source database was designed to promote the informatics process of the geological disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste, the integration of multi-dimensional and multi-source information and its application are related to computer software and hardware. Based on the analysis of data resources in Beishan area, Gansu Province, and combined with GIS technologies and methods. This paper discusses the technical ideas of how to manage, fully share and rapidly retrieval the information resources in this area by using open source code GDAL and Quadtree algorithm, especially in terms of the characteristics of existing data resources, spatial data retrieval algorithm theory, programming design and implementation of the ideas.

  5. Impact of iron-reducing bacteria on the corrosion rate of carbon steel under simulated geological disposal conditions.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Marta K; Schlegel, Michel L; Libert, Marie; Bildstein, Olivier

    2015-06-16

    The current projects for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste rely on underground burial and confinement by metallic envelopes that are susceptible to corrosion processes. The impact of microbial activity must be fully clarified in order to provide biological parameters for predictive reactive transport models. This study investigates the impact of hydrogenotrophic iron-reducing bacteria (Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1) on the corrosion rate of carbon steel under simulated geological disposal conditions by using a geochemical approach. It was found that corrosion damage changes mostly according to the experimental solution (i.e., chemical composition). Magnetite and vivianite were identified as the main corrosion products. In the presence of bacteria, the corrosion rate increased by a factor of 1.3 (according to weight loss analysis) to 1.8 (according to H2 measurements), and the detected amount of magnetite diminished. The mechanism likely to enhance corrosion is the destabilization and dissolution of the passivating magnetite layer by reduction of structural Fe(III) coupled to H2 oxidation.

  6. Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository - Volume 3: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Sanchez, L.C.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K.; Rath, J.S.

    1998-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3).

  7. Impact of nuclear data uncertainty on safety calculations for spent nuclear fuel geological disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, J. J.; Rochman, D.; Leray, O.; Vasiliev, A.; Pecchia, M.; Ferroukhi, H.; Caruso, S.

    2017-09-01

    In the design of a spent nuclear fuel disposal system, one necessary condition is to show that the configuration remains subcritical at time of emplacement but also during long periods covering up to 1,000,000 years. In the context of criticality safety applying burn-up credit, k-eff eigenvalue calculations are affected by nuclear data uncertainty mainly in the burnup calculations simulating reactor operation and in the criticality calculation for the disposal canister loaded with the spent fuel assemblies. The impact of nuclear data uncertainty should be included in the k-eff value estimation to enforce safety. Estimations of the uncertainty in the discharge compositions from the CASMO5 burn-up calculation phase are employed in the final MCNP6 criticality computations for the intact canister configuration; in between, SERPENT2 is employed to get the spent fuel composition along the decay periods. In this paper, nuclear data uncertainty was propagated by Monte Carlo sampling in the burn-up, decay and criticality calculation phases and representative values for fuel operated in a Swiss PWR plant will be presented as an estimation of its impact.

  8. Workshop on the role of natural analogs in geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Kovach, L.A.; Murphy, W.M.

    1995-09-01

    A Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste was held in San Antonio, Texas on July 22--25, 1991. The proceedings comprise seventeen papers submitted by participants at the workshop. A series of papers addresses the relation of natural analog studies to the regulation, performance assessment, and licensing of a geologic repository. Applications of reasoning by analogy are illustrated in papers on the role of natural analogs in studies of earthquakes, petroleum, and mineral exploration. A summary is provided of a recently completed, internationally coordinated natural analog study at Pocos de Caldas, Brazil. Papers also cover problems and applications of natural analog studies in four technical areas of nuclear waste management-. waste form and waste package, near-field processes and environment, far-field processes and environment, and volcanism and tectonics. Summaries of working group deliberations in these four technical areas provide reviews and proposals for natural analog applications. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  9. Modeling of concrete carbonation in deep geological disposal of intermediate level waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouvenot, P.; Bildstein, O.; Munier, I.; Cochepin, B.; Poyet, S.; Bourbon, X.; Treille, E.

    2013-07-01

    Simulations of atmospheric carbonation of Intermediate-Level Long-lived radioactive Waste (ILLW) concrete packages were conducted to evaluate their possible chemical degradations. Two-phase liquid water-air flow is combined with gas component diffusion processes leading to a progressive drying of the concrete.Complete drying of the 11 cm thick waste disposal package wall occurs over a period ranging from 2 years for the low-performance concrete to 10 years for the high-performance concrete. The drying process slows down when transport characteristics of concretes are enhanced. Carbonation depths in the order of 2 to 3 cm in 100 years are predicted for this cementitious component. However, these values are slightly overestimated compared to experimental data. Also the kinetic model of mineral reactivity requires improvements with respect to the protective effect of secondary carbonates and to thermodynamic data.

  10. The Belgian approach towards the study of the compatibility of Eurobitum with the geological disposal environment

    SciTech Connect

    Valcke, Elie; Gens, Robert

    2007-07-01

    In Belgium, EUROBITUM bituminized radioactive waste containing large amount of soluble salts (NaNO{sub 3}) is to be disposed of in a final repository in a clay formation. Since the emplacement of the waste will induce many interdependent processes that could negatively affect the interesting radionuclide retarding properties of the clay, the study of the compatibility of EUROBITUM is very complex. To better structure the research and to identify possible knowledge gaps, NIRAS/ONDRAF, the Belgian Radioactive Waste Management Agency, developed the safety functions and safety statements approach. In this paper, we present the application of this approach for the case of EUROBITUM. The approach is illustrated with new and old results on water uptake, swelling, swelling pressure build-up, and ageing, obtained from tests performed in the laboratories of SCK.CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre. (authors)

  11. Geochemical and zircon U-Pb geochronological study of the Yangshan A-type granite: Insights into the geological evolution in south Anhui, eastern Jiangnan Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Huangling; Yang, Xiaoyong; Deng, Jianghong; Duan, Liuan; Liu, Lei

    2017-07-01

    The Early Cretaceous Yangshan granite is an A-type granitic intrusion that was emplaced along the eastern Jiangnan Orogen in southern Anhui Province, South China. The Yangshan intrusion mainly consists of syenite porphyry (127.0 ± 0.6 Ma) and alkali-feldspar granite porphyry (126.0 ± 1.0 Ma). As a part of Qingyang-Jiuhuashan complex intrusion, the Yangshan A-type granites have lower MgO, CaO, Co, Sr, and higher Rb, Nb, Th and HREE contents, with enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE), and slightly negative Eu anomalies. However, the syenite porphyry and the alkali-feldspar granite porphyry differ in terms of zircon εHf(t) values: small variations in the syenite porphyry from - 5.5 to - 3.7, corresponding to Hf model ages (tDMC) between 1.42 Ga and 1.53 Ga, and large variations in the alkali-feldspar granite porphyry from - 6.4 to + 4.4, yielding tDMC of 0.90-1.59 Ga. While both rocks also have similar εNd(t) values ranging from - 7.02 to - 5.47, corresponding Nd model ages (TDMC) are 1.37-1.49 Ga, falling within the Hf model ages. We take these features to indicate that the Qingyang I-type granites, which are isotopically similar, and Yangshan A-type granites were originated from partial melting of Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic crust, with minor juvenile crust input for the alkali-feldspar granite porphyry, followed by fractional crystallization. In combination with previous studies, we propose that the Cretaceous A-type granitic rocks formed between 135 Ma and 122 Ma, implying an important Mesozoic extensional event in eastern Jiangnan Orogen, which facilitated underplating of mantle-derived magma and crustal heating. This may have occurred in a back-arc extension in response to the drift of subduction direction of the Paleo-Pacific plate, which started as early as 135 Ma ago.

  12. Assessment of spent-fuel waste-form/stabilizer alternatives for geologic disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Einziger, R.E.; Himes, D.A.

    1982-06-01

    The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) is studying the possibility of burying canisterized unreprocessed spent fuel in a deep geologic repository. One aspect of this study is an assessment of the possible spent fuel waste forms. The fuel performance portion of the Waste Form Assessment was to evaluate five candidate spent fuel waste forms for postemplacement performance with emphasis on their ability to retard the release of radionuclides to the repository geology. Spent fuel waste forms under general consideration were: (1) unaltered fuel assembly; (2) fuel assembly with end fittings removed to shorten the length; (3 rods vented to remove gases and resealed; (4) disassembled fuel bundles to close-pack the rods; and (5) rods chopped and fragments immobilized in a matrix material. Thirteen spent fuel waste forms, classified by generic stabilizer type, were analyzed for relative in-repository performance based on: (1) waste form/stabilizer support against lithostatic pressure; (2) long-term stability for radionuclide retention; (3) minimization of cladding degradation; (4) prevention of canister/repository breach due to pressurization; (5) stabilizer heat transfer; (6) the stabilizer as an independent barrier to radionuclide migration; and (7) prevention of criticality. The waste form candidates were ranked as follows: (1) the best waste form/stabilizer combination is the intact assembly, with or without end bells, vented (and resealed) or unvented, with a solid stabilizer; (2) a suitable alternative is the combination of bundled close-packed rods with a solid stabilizer around the outside of the bundle to resist lithostatic pressure; and (3) the other possible waste forms are of lower ranking with the worst waste form/stabilizer combination being the intact assembly with a gas stabilizer or the chopped fuel.

  13. Interfaces between transport and geologic disposal systems for high-level radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuel: A new international guidance document

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, R.B.; Baekelandt, L.; Hoorelbeke, J.M.; Han, K.W.; Pollog, T.; Blackman, D.; Villagran, J.E.

    1994-04-01

    An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Document (TECDOC) has been developed and will be published by the IAEA. The TECDOC addresses the interfaces between the transport and geologic disposal systems for, high-level waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The document is intended to define and assist in discussing, at both the domestic and the international level, regulatory, technical, administrative, and institutional interfaces associated with HLW and SNF transport and disposal systems; it identifies and discusses the interfaces and interface requirements between the HLW and SNF, the waste transport system used for carriage of the waste to the disposal facility, and the HLW/SNF disposal facility. It provides definitions and explanations of terms; discusses systems, interfaces and interface requirements; addresses alternative strategies (single-purpose packages and multipurpose packages) and how interfaces are affected by the strategies; and provides a tabular summary of the requirements.

  14. Geology of the Williston basin, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, with reference to subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandberg, C.A.

    1962-01-01

    The southern Williston basin, which underlies about 110,000 square miles #n North Dakota, South Dakota, and eastern Montana, is part of a large structural and sedimentary basin. Its surface is a flat to gently rolling plain, standing about 1,500 to 3,500 feet above sea level and locally studded by a few high buttes. The sedimentary sequence that fills the basin has a maximum thickness of about 16,700 feet and rests on Precambrian metamorphic rocks at depths of 500 to 13,900 feet below sea level. It contains rocks of every geologic system, from Cambrian to Quaternary. Rocks of Middle Cambrian through Middle Ordovician age are largely shale and sandstone, as much as 1,200 feet thick; rocks of Late Ordovician through Pennsylvanian age are largely limestone and dolomite, as much as 7,500 feet thick; and rocks of Permian through Tertiary age are predominantly shale and siltstone, as much as 8,000 feet thick. Pleistocene glacial drift mantles the northern and eastern parts of the area. Rocks of the Williston basin are gently folded and regional dips are 1? or less from the margins to the basin center. Dips on the flanks of the major anticlinal folds, the Nesson and cedar Creek anticlines and the Poplar and Bowdoin domes, generally are about 1? to 3? except on the steep west limb of the Cedar Creek anticline. The basin was shaped by Laramide orogeny during latest Cretaceous and early Tertiary time. Most of the present structural features, however, were initiated during the Precambrian and reactivated by several subsequent orogenies, of which the latest was the Laramide. The most important mineral resource of the area is oil, which is produced predominantly from the Paleozoic carbonate sequence and largely on three of the major anticlinal folds, and lignite, which is present near the surface in Paleocene rocks. The subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes at some places in the Williston basin appears to be geographically and geologically feasible. Many sites, at which

  15. Three-Dimensional Geologic Modeling of a Prospective Deep Underground Laboratory Site for High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. Y.; Lee, S.; Park, S. U.; Kim, J. M.; Kihm, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    A series of three-dimensional geologic modeling was performed using a geostatistical geologic model GOCAD (ASGA and Paradigm) to characterize quantitatively and to visualize realistically a prospective deep underground laboratory site for high-level radioactive waste disposal in Korea. The necessity of a deep underground laboratory arises from its in-situ conditions for related deep scientific experiments. However, the construction and operation of such a deep underground laboratory take great efforts and expenses owing to its larger depth and thus higher geologic uncertainty. For these reasons, quantitative characterization and realistic visualization of geologic formations and structures of a deep underground laboratory site is crucial before its construction and operation. The study area for the prospective deep underground laboratory site is mainly consists of Precambrian metamorphic rocks as a complex. First, various topographic and geologic data of the study area were collected from literature and boreholes and preliminarily analyzed. Based on the preliminary analysis results, a three-dimensional structural model, which consists of the boundaries between the geologic formations and structures, was established, and a three-dimensional grid model, which consists of hexahedral grid blocks, was produced. Three-dimensional geologic formation model was then established by polymerizing these two models. Finally, a series of three-dimensional lithofacies modeling was performed using the sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and truncated Gaussian simulation (TGS). The volume fractions of metamorphic rocks predicted using the TGS are more similar to the actual data observed in boreholes than those predicted using the SIS. These three-dimensional geologic modeling results can improve a quantitative and realistic understanding of geologic characteristics of the prospective deep underground laboratory site for high-level radioactive waste disposal and thus can provide

  16. Understanding Granites: Integrating New and Classical Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, Philip A.

    Many aspects of granite geology are covered in Understanding Granites: Integrating New and Classical Techniques, a 288-page volume edited by Antonio Castro, Carlos Ferñandez, and Jean-Louis Vigneresse. However, the topics chosen for this collection lean toward the physical, rather than the chemical end of the spectrum. In the introduction to this 16-chapter collection, the authors set the stage by reviewing the groundwork laid by Hutton, Reed, and Bowen; they then discuss the landmark work of Chappell and White, first published in the 1970s, which ushered in the new era of granite research—one that has continued unabated to the present day. Finally, the editors outline some of the perennial questions of granite science, such as the “room problem,” granite ascent and emplacement, and the thermal and petrochemical requirements for granite genesis.

  17. Geologic and hydrologic considerations for various concepts of high-level radioactive waste disposal in conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ekren, E.B.; Dinwiddie, G.A.; Mytton, J.W.; Thordarson, William; Weir, J.E.; Hinrichs, E.N.; Schroder, L.J.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate and identify which geohydrologic environments in conterminous United States are best suited for various concepts or methods of underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and to establish geologic and hydrologic criteria that are pertinent to high-level waste disposal. The unproven methods of disposal include (1) a very deep drill hole (30,000-50,000 ft or 9,140-15,240 m), (2) a matrix of (an array of multiple) drill holes (1,000-20,000 ft or 305-6,100 m), (3) a mined chamber (1,000-10,000 ft or 305-3,050 m), (4) a cavity with separate manmade structures (1,000-10,000 ft or 305-3,050 m), and (5) an exploded cavity (2,000-20,000 ft or 610-6,100 m) o The geohydrologic investigation is made on the presumption that the concepts or methods of disposal are technically feasible. Field and laboratory experiments in the future may demonstrate whether or not any of the methods are practical and safe. All the conclusions drawn are tentative pending experimental confirmation. The investigation focuses principally on the geohydrologic possibilities of several methods of disposal in rocks other than salt. Disposal in mined chambers in salt is currently under field investigation, and this disposal method has been intensely investigated and evaluated by various workers under the sponsorship of the Atomic Energy Commission. Of the various geohydrologic factors that must be considered in the selection of optimum waste-disposal sites, the most important is hydrologic isolation to assure that the wastes will be safely contained within a small radius of the emplacement zone. To achieve this degree of hydrologic isolation, the host rock for the wastes must have very low permeability and the site must be virtually free of faults. In addition, the locality should be in (1) an area of low seismic risk where the possibility of large earthquakes rupturing the emplacement zone is very low, (2) where the possibility- of flooding by

  18. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology of the Bear Creek Valley Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site

    SciTech Connect

    Lietzke, D.A.; Lee, S.Y.; Lambert, R.E.

    1988-04-01

    An intensive soil survey was conducted on the proposed Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site (LLWDDD) in Bear Creek Valley. Soils on the site were related to the underlying residuum and to the surficial colluvium and alluvium. Within any particular geologic formation, soils were subdivided based mostly on the degree of weathering, as reflected by saprolite weathering and morphologic features of the soils. Degree of weathering was related both to slope shape and gradient and to the joint-fracture system. Erosion classes were also used to make further subdivisions of any particular soil. Deep pits were dug in each of the major Conasauga Group formations (Pumpkin Valley, Rogersville, Maryville, and Nolichucky) for soil and saprolite characterization. Because of the widespread presence of alluvium and colluvium, which are potential sources of fill and final cover material, pits and trenches were dug to characterize the properties of these soils and to try to understand the past geomorphic history of the site. The results of the soil survey investigation indicated that the deeply weathered Pumpkin Valley residuum has good potential for the construction of tumuli or other types of belowground or aboveground burial of prepackaged compacted waste. 11 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Radionuclide release from spent fuel under geologic disposal conditions: An overview of experimental and theoretical work through 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, P.W.; Simonson, S.A.

    1988-04-01

    This report presents an overview of experimental and theoretical work on radionuclide release from spent fuel and uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/) under geologic disposal conditions. The purpose of the report is to provide a source book of information that can be used to develop models that describe radionuclide release from spent fuel waste packages. Modeling activities of this nature will be conducted within the Waste Package Program (WPP) of the Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project (SRP). The topics discussed include experimental methods for investigating radionuclide release, how results have been reported from radionuclide release experiments, theoretical studies of UO/sub 2/ and actinide solubility, results of experimental studies of radionuclide release from spent fuel and UO/sub 2/ (i.e., the effects of different variables on radionuclide release), characteristics of spent fuel pertinent to radionuclide release, and status of modeling of radionuclide release from spent fuel. Appendix A presents tables of data from spent fuel radionuclide release experiments. These data have been digitized from graphs that appear in the literature. An annotated bibliography of literature on spent fuel characterization is provided in Appendix B.

  20. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Part I. Introduction and guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Reed, J.E.

    1984-12-31

    The US Geological Survey`s program for geologic and hydrologic evaluation of physiographic provinces to identify areas potentially suitable for locating repository sites for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes was announced to the Governors of the eight states in the Basin and Range Province on May 5, 1981. Representatives of Arizona, California, Idaho, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Texas, and Utah, were invited to cooperate with the federal government in the evaluation process. Each governor was requested to nominate an earth scientist to represent the state in a province working group composed of state and US Geological Survey representatives. This report, Part I of a three-part report, provides the background, introduction and scope of the study. This part also includes a discussion of geologic and hydrologic guidelines that will be used in the evaluation process and illustrates geohydrologic environments and the effect of individual factors in providing multiple natural barriers to radionuclide migration. 27 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Part I. Introduction and guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Reed, J.E.

    1984-12-31

    The US Geological Survey`s program for geologic and hydrologic evaluation of physiographic provinces to identify areas potentially suitable for locating repository sites for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes was announced to the Governors of the eight states in the Basin and Range Province on May 5, 1981. Representatives of Arizona, California, Idaho, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Texas, and Utah, were invited to cooperate with the federal government in the evaluation process. Each governor was requested to nominate an earth scientist to represent the state in a province working group composed of state and US Geological Survey representatives. This report, Part I of a three-part report, provides the background, introduction and scope of the study. This part also includes a discussion of geologic and hydrologic guidelines that will be used in the evaluation process and illustrates geohydrologic environments and the effect of individual factors in providing multiple natural barriers to radionuclide migration. 27 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Preliminary report on the geology and gold mineralization of the South Pass granite-greenstone terrain, Wind River Mountains, western Wyoming (US)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausel, W. D.

    1986-01-01

    The South Pass granite-greenstone terrain lies near the southern tip of the Wind River Mountains of western Wyoming. This Archean supracrustal pile has been Wyoming's most prolific source of gold and iron ore. From 1962 to 1983, more than 90 million tons of iron ore were recovered from oxide-facies banded iron formation, and an estimated 325,000 ounces of gold were mined from metagreywacke-hosted shears and associated placers. Precambrian rocks at South Pass are unconformably overlain by Paleozoic sediments along the northeast flank, and a Tertiary pediment buries Archean supracrustals on the west and south. To the northwest, the supracrustals terminate against granodiorite of the Louis Lake batholith; to the east, the supracrustals terminate against granite of the Granite Mountains batholith. The Louis Lake granodiorite is approximately 2,630 + or - 20 m.y. old, and the Granite Mountains granite averages 2,600 m.y. old. The geometry of the greenstone belt is best expressed as a synform that has been modified by complex faulting and folding. Metamorphism is amphibolite grade surrounding a small island of greenschist facies rocks. The younger of the Archean supracrustal successions is the Miners Delight Formation. This unit yielded a Rb-Sr isochron of 2,800 m.y. A sample of galena from the Snowbird Mine within the Miners Delight Formation yielded a model age averaging 2,750 m.y. The Snowbird mineralization appears to be syngenetic and is hosted by metavolcanics of calc-alkaline affinity. Discussion follows.

  3. Illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic substances from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James C; Thorne, Michael C; Towler, George; Norris, Simon

    2011-12-01

    Many countries have a programme for developing an underground geological disposal facility for radioactive waste. A case study is provided herein on the illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic and radioactive substances from a generic geological disposal facility (GDF) for radioactive waste. The illustrative assessment uses a source-pathway-receptor methodology and considers a number of human exposure pathways. Estimated exposures are compared with authoritative toxicological assessment criteria. The possibility of additive and synergistic effects resulting from exposures to mixtures of chemical contaminants or a combination of radiotoxic and chemotoxic substances is considered. The case study provides an illustration of how to assess human health issues arising from chemotoxic species released from a GDF for radioactive waste and highlights potential difficulties associated with a lack of data being available with which to assess synergistic effects. It also highlights how such difficulties can be addressed.

  4. Possible effects of UO/sub 2/ oxidation on light water reactor spent fuel performance in long-term geologic disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Almassy, M.Y.; Woodley, R.E.

    1982-08-01

    Disposal of spent nuclear fuel in a conventionally mined geologic formation is the nearest-term option for permanently isolating radionuclides from the biosphere. Because irradiated uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/) fuel pellets retain 95 to 99% of the radionuclides generated during normal light water reactor operation, they may represent a significant barrier to radionuclide release. This document presents a technical assessment of published literature representing the current level of understanding of spent fuel characteristics and conditions that may degrade pellet integrity during a geologic disposal sequence. A significant deterioration mechanism is spent UO/sub 2/ oxidation with possible consequences identified as fission gas release, rod diameter increases, cladding breach extension, and release of solid fuel particles containing radionuclides. Areas requiring further study to support development of a comprehensive spent fuel performance prediction model are highlighted. A program and preliminary schedule to obtain the information needed to develop model correlations are also presented.

  5. Determination of Granites' Mineral Specific Porosities by PMMA Method and FESEM/EDAX

    SciTech Connect

    Leskinen, A.; Penttinen, L.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Alanso, U.; Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Missana, T.; Patelli, Alessandro

    2007-07-01

    Over extended periods, long-lived radionuclides (RN) or activation products within geologic disposal sites may be released from the fuel and migrate to the geo/biosphere. In the bedrock, contaminants will be transported along fractures by advection and retarded by sorption on mineral surfaces and by molecular diffusion into stagnant pore water in the matrix along a connected system of pores and micro-fissures. The objective of this paper was to determine the connective porosity and mineral-specific porosities for three granite samples by {sup 14}C methyl-methacrylate ({sup 14}C-PMMA) autoradiography. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analyses (FESEM/EDAX) were performed in order to study the pore apertures of porous regions in greater detail and to identify the corresponding minerals. Finally, the porosity results were used to evaluate the diffusion coefficients of RNs from previous experiments which determined apparent diffusion coefficients for the main minerals in three granite samples by the Rutherford Backscattering technique. The total porosity of the Grimsel granite (0.75%) was significantly higher than the porosities of the El Berrocal and Los Ratones granites (0.3%). The porosities of the Grimsel granite feldspars were two to three times higher than the porosities of the El Berrocal and Los Ratones granites feldspars. However, there was no significant difference between the porosities of the dark minerals. A clear difference was found between the various quartz grains. Quartz crystals were non-porous in the El Berrocal and Los Ratones granites when measured by the PMMA method, but the quartz crystals in the Grimsel granite showed 0.5% intra granular porosity. The apparent diffusion coefficients calculated for uranium diffusion within Grimsel granite on different minerals were very similar (2.10{sup -13} {+-} 0.5 m{sup 2}/s), but differences within both Spanish granites were found from one mineral to another (9 {+-} 1.10{sup -14} m

  6. The origin of granites and related rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Michael; Piccoli, Philip M.

    1995-01-01

    This Circular is a compilation of abstracts for posters and oral presentations given at the third Hutton symposium on the Origin of granites and related rocks. The symposium was co-sponsored by the Department of Geology, University of Maryland at College Park; the U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia; and the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism and Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington.

  7. Geology of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, with reference to subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beikman, Helen M.

    1962-01-01

    The Powder River Basin is a structural and topographic basin occupying an area of about 20,000 square miles in northeastern Wyoming arid southeastern Montana. The Basin is about 230 miles long in a northwest-southeast direction and is about 100 miles wide. It is bounded on three sides by mountains in which rocks of Precambrian age are exposed. The Basin is asymmetrical with a steep west limb adjacent to the Bighorn Mountains and a gentle east limb adjacent to the Black Hills. Sedimentary rocks within the Basin have a maximum thickness of about 18,000 feet and rocks of every geologic period are represented. Paleozoic rocks are about 2,500 feet thick and consist of marine bonate rocks and sandstone; Mesozoic rocks are about 9,500 feet thick and consist of both marine and nonmarine siltstone and sandstone; and Cenozoic rocks are from 4,000 to 6,000 feet thick and consist of coal-bearing sandstone and shale. Radioactive waste could be stored in the pore space of permeable sandstone or in shale where space could be developed. Many such rock units that could be used for storing radioactive wastes are present within the Powder River Basin. Permeable sandstone beds that may be possible reservoirs for storage of radioactive waste are present throughout the Powder River Basin. These include sandstone beds in the Flathead Sandstone and equivalent strata in the Deadwood Formation, the Tensleep Sandstone and equivalent strata in the Minnelusa Formation and the Sundance Formation in rocks of pre-Cretaceous age. However, most of the possible sandstone reservoirs are in rocks of Cretaceous age and include sandstone beds in the Fall River, Lakota, Newcastle, Frontier, Cody, and Mesaverde Formations. Problems of containment of waste such as clogging of pore space and chemical incompatibility would have to be solved before a particular sandstone unit could be selected for waste disposal. Several thick sequences of impermeable shale such as those in the Skull Creek, Mowry, Frontier

  8. Investigation of geological structures with a view to HLRW disposal, as revealed through 3D inversion of aeromagnetic and gravity data and the results of CSAMT exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Zhiguo; Di, Qingyun

    2016-12-01

    The Alxa area in Inner Mongolia has been selected as a possible site for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW). Based on results of a previous study on crustal stability, the Tamusu rock mass has been chosen as the target. To determine the geological structure of this rock mass, aeromagnetic and gravity data are collected and inverted. Three-dimensional (3D) inversion horizontal slices show that the internal density of the rock mass and the distribution of magnetic properties are not uniform, with fractures and fragmentation being present. To confirm this result, the controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric method (CSAMT) was applied to explore the geological structures, the typical CSAMT sounding curve was analyzed, and the response characteristics of the geological structure and surrounding rock are distinguished. The original data were processed and interpreted in combination with data from surface geology and drilling and logging data. It is found that the CSAMT results were consistent with those from 3D inversion of the gravity and magnetic data, confirming the existence of fractures and fragmentation in the exploration area.

  9. Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. K.; Sabins, F. F., Jr.; Rowan, L. C.; Short, N. M.

    1975-01-01

    Papers from private industry reporting applications of remote sensing to oil and gas exploration were presented. Digitally processed LANDSAT images were successfully employed in several geologic interpretations. A growing interest in digital image processing among the geologic user community was shown. The papers covered a wide geographic range and a wide technical and application range. Topics included: (1) oil and gas exploration, by use of radar and multisensor studies as well as by use of LANDSAT imagery or LANDSAT digital data, (2) mineral exploration, by mapping from LANDSAT and Skylab imagery and by LANDSAT digital processing, (3) geothermal energy studies with Skylab imagery, (4) environmental and engineering geology, by use of radar or LANDSAT and Skylab imagery, (5) regional mapping and interpretation, and digital and spectral methods.

  10. Failure Behavior of Granite Affected by Confinement and Water Pressure and Its Influence on the Seepage Behavior by Laboratory Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Cheng; Li, Xiao; Li, Shouding; Zheng, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Failure behavior of granite material is paramount for host rock stability of geological repositories for high-level waste (HLW) disposal. Failure behavior also affects the seepage behavior related to transportation of radionuclide. Few of the published studies gave a consistent analysis on how confinement and water pressure affect the failure behavior, which in turn influences the seepage behavior of the rock during the damage process. Based on a series of laboratory experiments on NRG01 granite samples cored from Alxa area, a candidate area for China’s HLW disposal, this paper presents some detailed observations and analyses for a better understanding on the failure mechanism and seepage behavior of the samples under different confinements and water pressure. The main findings of this study are as follows: (1) Strength reduction properties were found for the granite under water pressure. Besides, the complete axial stress–strain curves show more obvious yielding process in the pre-peak region and a more gradual stress drop in the post-peak region; (2) Shear fracturing pattern is more likely to form in the granite samples with the effect of water pressure, even under much lower confinements, than the predictions from the conventional triaxial compressive results; (3) Four stages of inflow rate curves are divided and the seepage behaviors are found to depend on the failure behavior affected by the confinement and water pressure. PMID:28773157

  11. Failure Behavior of Granite Affected by Confinement and Water Pressure and Its Influence on the Seepage Behavior by Laboratory Experiments.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng; Li, Xiao; Li, Shouding; Zheng, Bo

    2017-07-14

    Failure behavior of granite material is paramount for host rock stability of geological repositories for high-level waste (HLW) disposal. Failure behavior also affects the seepage behavior related to transportation of radionuclide. Few of the published studies gave a consistent analysis on how confinement and water pressure affect the failure behavior, which in turn influences the seepage behavior of the rock during the damage process. Based on a series of laboratory experiments on NRG01 granite samples cored from Alxa area, a candidate area for China's HLW disposal, this paper presents some detailed observations and analyses for a better understanding on the failure mechanism and seepage behavior of the samples under different confinements and water pressure. The main findings of this study are as follows: (1) Strength reduction properties were found for the granite under water pressure. Besides, the complete axial stress-strain curves show more obvious yielding process in the pre-peak region and a more gradual stress drop in the post-peak region; (2) Shear fracturing pattern is more likely to form in the granite samples with the effect of water pressure, even under much lower confinements, than the predictions from the conventional triaxial compressive results; (3) Four stages of inflow rate curves are divided and the seepage behaviors are found to depend on the failure behavior affected by the confinement and water pressure.

  12. ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE EFFECTS ON THE TREATMENT OF UNCERTAINTY IN THE LONG-TERM ASSESSMENT OF GEOLOGIC DISPOSAL SYSTEMS - EBS INPUT

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, M; Blink, J A; Greenberg, H R; Sharma, M

    2012-04-25

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign within the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technology (FCT) program has been tasked with investigating the disposal of the nation's spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for a range of potential waste forms and geologic environments. The planning, construction, and operation of a nuclear disposal facility is a long-term process that involves engineered barriers that are tailored to both the geologic environment and the waste forms being emplaced. The UFD Campaign is considering a range of fuel cycles that in turn produce a range of waste forms. The UFD Campaign is also considering a range of geologic media. These ranges could be thought of as adding uncertainty to what the disposal facility design will ultimately be; however, it may be preferable to thinking about the ranges as adding flexibility to design of a disposal facility. For example, as the overall DOE-NE program and industrial actions result in the fuel cycles that will produce waste to be disposed, and the characteristics of those wastes become clear, the disposal program retains flexibility in both the choice of geologic environment and the specific repository design. Of course, other factors also play a major role, including local and State-level acceptance of the specific site that provides the geologic environment. In contrast, the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) repository license application (LA) is based on waste forms from an open fuel cycle (PWR and BWR assemblies from an open fuel cycle). These waste forms were about 90% of the total waste, and they were the determining waste form in developing the engineered barrier system (EBS) design for the Yucca Mountain Repository design. About 10% of the repository capacity was reserved for waste from a full recycle fuel cycle in which some actinides were extracted for weapons use, and the remaining fission products and some minor actinides were encapsulated

  13. Regional geological assessment of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence of the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins relative to potential storage/disposal of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lomenick, T.F.; Gonzales, S.; Johnson, K.S.; Byerly, D.

    1983-01-01

    The thick and regionally extensive sequence of shales and associated clastic sedimentary rocks of Late Devonian and Early Mississippian age has been considered among the nonsalt geologies for deep subsurface containment of high-level radioactive wastes. This report examines some of the regional and basin-specific characteristics of the black and associated nonblack shales of this sequence within the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins of the north-central and eastern United States. Principal areas where the thickness and depth of this shale sequence are sufficient to warrant further evaluation are identified, but no attempt is made to identify specific storage/disposal sites. Also identified are other areas with less promise for further study because of known potential conflicts such as geologic-hydrologic factors, competing subsurface priorities involving mineral resources and groundwater, or other parameters. Data have been compiled for each basin in an effort to indicate thickness, distribution, and depth relationships for the entire shale sequence as well as individual shale units in the sequence. Included as parts of this geologic assessment are isopach, depth information, structure contour, tectonic elements, and energy-resource maps covering the three basins. Summary evaluations are given for each basin as well as an overall general evaluation of the waste storage/disposal potential of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence,including recommendations for future studies to more fully characterize the shale sequence for that purpose. Based on data compiled in this cursory investigation, certain rock units have reasonable promise for radioactive waste storage/disposal and do warrant additional study.

  14. Spent-Fuel Test - Climax: An evaluation of the technical feasibility of geologic storage of spent nuclear fuel in granite: Executive summary of final results

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, W.C.

    1986-09-02

    This summary volume outlines results that are covered in more detail in the final report of the Spent-Fuel Test - Climate project. The project was conducted between 1978 and 1983 in the granitic Climax stock at the Nevada Test Site. Results indicate that spent fuel can be safely stored for periods of years in this host medium and that nuclear waste so emplaced can be safely retrieved. We also evaluated the effects of heat and radiation (alone and in combination) on emplacement canisters and the surrounding rock mass. Storage of the spent-fuel affected the surrounding rock mass in measurable ways, but did not threaten the stability or safety of the facility at any time.

  15. Geological and petrological considerations relevant to the disposal of radioactive wastes by hydraulic fracturing: an example at the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory the Pumpkin Valley Shale is used as a host formation for hydraulic fracturing waste disposal. Determination of the relationships between the distribution of different lithologies and porosity-permeability trends within this host formation allows these properties, important to hydraulic fracturing operations, to be related to measurable and mappable geological and petrological parameters. It also permits extrapolation of such patterns to little-studied portions of the Pumpkin Valley Shale. Such knowledge better allows for the satisfactory operation and assessment of the hydraulic fracturing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  16. Geochemical reanalysis of historical U.S. Geological Survey sediment samples from the Inmachuk, Kugruk, Kiwalik, and Koyuk River drainages, Granite Mountain, and the northern Darby Mountains, Bendeleben, Candle, Kotzebue, and Solomon quadrangles, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Granitto, Matthew; Azain, Jaime S.

    2015-01-01

    The State of Alaska’s Strategic and Critical Minerals (SCM) Assessment project, a State-funded Capital Improvement Project (CIP), is designed to evaluate Alaska’s statewide potential for SCM resources. The SCM Assessment is being implemented by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), and involves obtaining new airborne-geophysical, geological, and geochemical data. As part of the SCM Assessment, thousands of historical geochemical samples from DGGS, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Bureau of Mines archives are being reanalyzed by DGGS using modern, quantitative, geochemical-analytical methods. The objective is to update the statewide geochemical database to more clearly identify areas in Alaska with SCM potential. The USGS is also undertaking SCM-related geologic studies in Alaska through the federally funded Alaska Critical Minerals cooperative project. DGGS and USGS share the goal of evaluating Alaska’s strategic and critical minerals potential and together created a Letter of Agreement (signed December 2012) and a supplementary Technical Assistance Agreement (#14CMTAA143458) to facilitate the two agencies’ cooperative work. Under these agreements, DGGS contracted the USGS in Denver to reanalyze historical USGS sediment samples from Alaska. For this report, DGGS funded reanalysis of 653 historical USGS sediment samples from the statewide Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2; Granitto and others, 2013). Samples were chosen from an area covering portions of the Inmachuk, Kugruk, Kiwalik, and Koyuk river drainages, Granite Mountain, and the northern Darby Mountains, located in the Bendeleben, Candle, Kotzebue, and Solomon quadrangles of eastern Seward Peninsula, Alaska (fig. 1). The USGS was responsible for sample retrieval from the National Geochemical Sample Archive (NGSA) in Denver, Colorado through the final quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) of the geochemical analyses obtained through the USGS contract

  17. Hydraulic-gas transient processes within the overall phenomenological evolution of the French HLW deep geological disposal: current knowledge in PA perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendling, J.; Plas, F.

    2009-04-01

    Because of the creation of the disposal underground facilities, then of the ventilation of whole or part of these facilities during operating period, and finally of hydrogen production, mainly by anoxic corrosion of metallic components, in post-closure period, the phenomenological evolution of a radwaste deep geological repository and its surrounding host rock will be characterized by an hydraulic and gas transient phase until the overall system reach an equilibrium state. This paper presents the analysis of this transient phase carried out in France within the framework of the feasibility study of a HLW and ILLW deep geological disposal in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay layer (Meuse/Haute Marne site) (Dossier 2005 Argile) according to the current state of knowledge: the broad outlines of the expected evolution are described in time and space from operating period to post closure period, taking into consideration the studied design concept (overall architecture, disposal zones, disposal modules, disposal cells, various types of waste, operating conditions…). More particularly for hydrogen, emphasis is focused on space and time organization of production and migration, in particular the various sources of production, the various pathways of migrations and interactions with hydraulics. Although the description is supported by a sound data base on hydraulic and gas production and migration (clay media, engineered materials, corrosion, radiolysis…) and numerical calculations at different scales of time and space, uncertainties exist both in phenomenology (Hydrogen production mechanisms, Hydrogen migration mechanisms in clay media, modeling of mechanisms, values of parameters…) and in simulation (in particular limitations to achieve the various time and space scales and some couplings). So deviations of the expected evolution are discussed. Results of this analysis show that the hydraulic and gas transient phase may present a complex organization in time and space

  18. Spent Fuel Test-Climax: An evaluation of the technical feasibility of geologic storage of spent nuclear fuel in granite: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, W.C.

    1986-03-30

    In the Climax stock granite on the Nevada Test Site, eleven canisters of spent nuclear reactor fuel were emplaced, and six electrical simulators were energized. When test data indicated that the test objectives were met during the 3-year storage phase, the spent-fuel canisters were retrieved and the thermal sources were de-energized. The project demonstrated the feasibility of packaging, transporting, storing, and retrieving highly radioactive fuel assemblies in a safe and reliable manner. In addition to emplacement and retrieval operations, three exchanges of spent-fuel assemblies between the SFT-C and a surface storage facility, conducted during the storage phase, furthered this demonstration. The test led to development of a technical measurements program. To meet these objectives, nearly 1000 instruments and a computer-based data acquisition system were deployed. Geotechnical, seismological, and test status data were recorded on a continuing basis for the three-year storage phase and six-month monitored cool-down of the test. This report summarizes the engineering and scientific endeavors which led to successful design and execution of the test. The design, fabrication, and construction of all facilities and handling systems are discussed, in the context of test objectives and a safety assessment. The discussion progresses from site characterization and experiment design through data acquisition and analysis of test data in the context of design calculations. 117 refs., 52 figs., 81 tabs.

  19. Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste: Investigating the Thermo-Hygro-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) Coupled Processes at the Waste Canister- Bentonite Barrier Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, C. W.; Davie, D. C.; Charles, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geological disposal of nuclear waste is being increasingly considered to deal with the growing volume of waste resulting from the nuclear legacy of numerous nations. Within the UK there is 650,000 cubic meters of waste safely stored and managed in near-surface interim facilities but with no conclusive permanent disposal route. A Geological Disposal Facility with incorporated Engineered Barrier Systems are currently being considered as a permanent waste management solution (Fig.1). This research focuses on the EBS bentonite buffer/waste canister interface, and experimentally replicates key environmental phases that would occur after canister emplacement. This progresses understanding of the temporal evolution of the EBS and the associated impact on its engineering, mineralogical and physicochemical state and considers any consequences for the EBS safety functions of containment and isolation. Correlation of engineering properties to the physicochemical state is the focus of this research. Changes to geotechnical properties such as Atterberg limits, swelling pressure and swelling kinetics are measured after laboratory exposure to THMC variables from interface and batch experiments. Factors affecting the barrier, post closure, include corrosion product interaction, precipitation of silica, near-field chemical environment, groundwater salinity and temperature. Results show that increasing groundwater salinity has a direct impact on the buffer, reducing swelling capacity and plasticity index by up to 80%. Similarly, thermal loading reduces swelling capacity by 23% and plasticity index by 5%. Bentonite/steel interaction studies show corrosion precipitates diffusing into compacted bentonite up to 3mm from the interface over a 4 month exposure (increasing with temperature), with reduction in swelling capacity in the affected zone, probably due to the development of poorly crystalline iron oxides. These results indicate that groundwater conditions, temperature and corrosion

  20. Digital version of "Open-File Report 92-183: Geologic map of the Granite Spring Quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilshire, Howard G.; Bedford, David R.; Coleman, Teresa

    2002-01-01

    3. Plottable map representations of the database at 1:24,000 scale in PostScript and Adobe PDF formats. The plottable files consist of a color geologic map derived from the spatial database, composited with a topographic base map in the form of the USGS Digital Raster Graphic for the map area. Color symbology from each of these datasets is maintained, which can cause plot file sizes to be large.

  1. Zircon U-Pb geochronology, Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic composition and geological significance of the Late Triassic Baijiazhuang and Lvjing granitic plutons in West Qinling Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Meng; Niu, Yaoling; Kong, Juanjuan; Sun, Pu; Hu, Yan; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Shuo; Li, Jiyong

    2016-09-01

    The Qinling Orogen was a consequence of continental collision of the South China Craton with the North China Craton in the Triassic and caused widespread granitoid magmatism. However, the petrogenesis of these granitoids remains controversial. In this paper, we choose the Baijiazhuang (BJZ) and Lvjing (LJ) plutons in the West Qinling Orogen for a combined study of the zircon U-Pb geochronology, whole-rock major and trace element compositions and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic characteristics. We obtained zircon crystallization ages of 216 Ma and 212 Ma for the BJZ and the LJ plutons, respectively. The granitoid samples from both plutons have high K2O metaluminous to peraluminous compositions. They are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs), light rare earth elements (LREEs) and depleted in high field-strength elements (HFSEs) with significant negative Eu anomalies. The BJZ samples have initial Sr isotopic ratios of 0.7032 to 0.7078, εNd(t) of - 10.99 to - 8.54 and εHf (t) of - 10.22 to - 6.41. The LJ granitoids have initial Sr isotopic ratios of 0.7070 to 0.7080, εNd(t) of - 5.37 to - 4.58 and εHf(t) of - 3.64 to - 1.78. The enriched isotopic characteristics of the two plutons are consistent with their source being dominated by ancient continental crust. However, two BJZ samples show depleted Sr isotope compositions, which may infer possible involvement of mantle materials. Mantle-derived melt, which formed from partial melting of mantle wedge peridotite facilitated by dehydration of the subducted/subducting Mianlue ocean crust, provide the required heat for the crustal melting while also contributing to the compositions of these granitoids. That is, the two granitic plutons are magmatic responses to the closure of the Mianlue ocean basin and the continental collision between the Yangtze and South Qinling crustal terranes.

  2. Vision and framework for technical and management support to facilitate foreign spent fuel storage and geologic disposal in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, W G; Jardine, L J; Smith, C F

    1999-07-01

    This ''Technical and Management Support'' program would facilitate the transfer of spent fuel from commercial power plants in Taiwan to a storage and geologic repository site near Krasnoyarsk, Russia. This program resolves issues of disposition of Taiwan spent fuel (including US origin fuel) and provides revenue for Russia to develop an integrated spent fuel storage and radioactive waste management system including a geologic repository. LLNL has ongoing contracts and collaborations with all the principal parties and is uniquely positioned to facilitate the development of such a program. A three-phase approach over 20 years is proposed: namely, an initial feasibility investigation followed by an engineering development phase, and then implementation.

  3. LLNL Input to SNL L2 MS: Report on the Basis for Selection of Disposal Options

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, M; Blink, J A; Halsey, W G

    2011-03-02

    This mid-year deliverable has two parts. The first part is a synopsis of J. Blink's interview of the former Nevada Attorney General, Frankie Sue Del Papa, which was done in preparation for the May 18-19, 2010 Legal and Regulatory Framework Workshop held in Albuquerque. The second part is a series of sections written as input for the SNL L2 Milestone M21UF033701, due March 31, 2011. Disposal of high-level radioactive waste is categorized in this review into several categories. Section II discusses alternatives to geologic disposal: space, ice-sheets, and an engineered mountain or mausoleum. Section III discusses alternative locations for mined geologic disposal: islands, coastlines, mid-continent, and saturated versus unsaturated zone. Section IV discusses geologic disposal alternatives other than emplacement in a mine: well injection, rock melt, sub-seabed, and deep boreholes in igneous or metamorphic basement rock. Finally, Secton V discusses alternative media for mined geologic disposal: basalt, tuff, granite and other igneous/metamorphic rock, alluvium, sandstone, carbonates and chalk, shale and clay, and salt.

  4. Salt Disposal Investigations to Study Thermally Hot Radioactive Waste In A Deep Geologic Repository in Bedded Rock Salt - 12488

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Roger A.; Buschman, Nancy

    2012-07-01

    A research program is proposed to investigate the behavior of salt when subjected to thermal loads like those that would be present in a high-level waste repository. This research would build upon results of decades of previous salt repository program efforts in the US and Germany and the successful licensing and operation of a repository in salt for disposal of defense transuranic waste. The proposal includes a combination of laboratory-scale investigations, numerical simulations conducted to develop validated models that could be used for future repository design and safety case development, and a thermal field test in an underground salt formation with a configuration that replicates a small portion of a conceptual repository design. Laboratory tests are proposed to measure salt and brine properties across and beyond the range of possible repository conditions. Coupled numerical models will seek to describe phenomenology (thermal, mechanical, and hydrological) observed in the laboratory tests. Finally, the field test will investigate many phenomena that have been variously cited as potential issues for disposal of thermally hot waste in salt, including buoyancy effects and migration of pre-existing trapped brine up the thermal gradient (including vapor phase migration). These studies are proposed to be coordinated and managed by the Carlsbad Field Office of DOE, which is also responsible for the operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) within the Office of Environmental Management. The field test portion of the proposed research would be conducted in experimental areas of the WIPP underground, far from disposal operations. It is believed that such tests may be accomplished using the existing infrastructure of the WIPP repository at a lower cost than if such research were conducted at a commercial salt mine at another location. The phased field test is proposed to be performed over almost a decade, including instrumentation development, several years

  5. GRANITE PEAK ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huber, Donald F.; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    The Granite Peak Roadless Area occupies an area of about 5 sq mi in the southern part of the Trinity Alps of the Klamath Mountains, about 12 mi north-northeast of Weaverville, California. Rock and stream-sediment samples were analyzed. All streams draining the roadless area were sampled and representative samples of the rock types in the area were collected. Background values were established for each element and anomalous values were examined within their geologic settings and evaluated for their significance. On the basis of mineral surveys there seems little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources.

  6. A Proposal for Geologic Radioactive Waste Disposal Environmental Zero-State and Subsequent Monitoring Definition - First Lessons Learned from the French Environment Observatory - 13188

    SciTech Connect

    Landais, Patrick; Leclerc, Elisabeth; Mariotti, Andre

    2013-07-01

    Obtaining a reference state of the environment before the beginning of construction work for a geological repository is essential as it will be useful for further monitoring during operations and beyond, thus keeping a memory of the original environmental state. The area and the compartments of the biosphere to be observed and monitored as well as the choice of the markers (e.g. bio-markers, biodiversity, quality of the environment, etc.) to be followed must be carefully selected. In parallel, the choice and selection of the environmental monitoring systems (i.e. scientific and technical criteria, social requirements) will be of paramount importance for the evaluation of the perturbations that could be induced during the operational phase of the repository exploitation. This paper presents learning points of the French environment observatory located in the Meuse/Haute-Marne that has been selected for studying the feasibility of the underground disposal of high level wastes in France. (authors)

  7. Assessment of the impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System. [Preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this report was to evaluate four possible alternative methods of preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal against the Reference Process of unmodified spent fuel. The four alternative processes were: (1) End fitting removal, (2) Fission gas venting and resealing, (3) Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins, and (4) Fuel shearing and immobilization. Systems analysis was used to develop a basis of comparison of the alternatives. Conceptual processes and facility layouts were devised for each of the alternatives, based on technology deemed feasible for the purpose. Assessments were made of 15 principal attributes from the technical, operational, safety/risk, and economic considerations related to each of the alternatives, including both the surface packaging and underground repository operations. Specific attributes of the alternative processes were evaluated by assigning a number for each that expressed its merit relative to the corresponding attribute of the Reference Process. Each alternative process was then ranked by summing the numbers for attributes in each of the four assessment areas and collectively. Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins was ranked the preferred method of disposal of spent fuel. 63 references, 46 figures, 46 tables.

  8. Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository--Volume 1: Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Sanchez, L.Z.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K.; Rath, J.S.

    1998-10-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3).

  9. Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository--Volume 2: Methodology and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Sanchez, L.C.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K.; Rath, J.S.

    1998-10-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3).

  10. AMS studies in Portuguese variscan granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sant'Ovaia, Helena; Martins, Helena; Noronha, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    A large volume of Variscan granitic rocks outcrop in Central Iberian Zone which are well documented concerning geological mapping, petrography and geochemistry but whose magnetic characteristics and fabric remain unknown. In this study we summarize the available AMS data from approximately 644 sampling stations (5152 samples) on different massifs of Variscan Portuguese granites. Despite their different geological, petrographic and geochemical characteristics, magnetic susceptibility (K) values obtained for the majority of the studied granites range from 15 to 300 × 10-6 SI. The dominant paramagnetic behaviour of the granite bodies reflects the presence of ilmenite as the main iron oxide. This feature indicates the reduced conditions involved in the granite melt formation during the Variscan orogeny. The two-mica granites show K values ranging between 15 to 70 × 10-6 SI which are lower than values displayed by the biotite-rich facies scattered within the interval of 70 and 300 × 10-6 SI. The magnetite-bearing granites are scarce but represented in Lavadores, Gerês and Manteigas. Even so, only the Lavadores body could be considered as a true magnetite-type granite (K >3.0 × 10-3 SI) in face of its K, comprised between 1550 and 19303 × 10-6 SI. Magnetic anisotropy can be used as a "marker" for the deformation experienced by granite mushes during their crustal emplacement and further cooling. Magnetic anisotropy can thus be correlated with the finite deformation of a rock, as record by mineral fabrics. Post-tectonic granites, such as those from Vila Pouca de Aguiar, Pedras Salgadas, Caria, Vila da Ponte, Chaves and Lamas de Olo, have a magnetic anisotropy <2.5% which corresponds to a deformation hardly visible to the naked eye. Nevertheless, at microscopic scale, these granites display almost ubiquitous magmatic to submagmatic microstructures (rare wavy extinction in quartz, erratic subgrain boundaries in quartz and, eventually, folded or kinked biotites). For

  11. Preface to special issue: Granite magmatism in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; de Pinho Guimarães, Ignez; Nardi, Lauro Valentim Stoll

    2016-07-01

    Granites are important both to the geologic evolution and to the economy of Brazil. Deposits of precious and rare metals, such as Au, Sn and many others, are directly or indirectly associated with granites, especially in the geologically under-explored Amazon region. On the opposite eastern side of the country, expanding exploitation of natural granite as dimension stone makes Brazil currently the world's second largest exporter of granite blocks. Granites are a major constituent of the Brazilian Archean-Proterozoic cratonic domains (the Amazon and São Francisco cratons) and their surrounding Neoproterozoic fold belts. The granites are thus fundamental markers of the major events of crustal generation and recycling that shaped the South American Platform. As a result, Brazilian granites have received great attention from the national and international community, and a number of influential meetings focused on the study of granites were held in the country in the last three decades. These meetings include the two International Symposia on Granites and Associated Mineralization (Salvador, January 21-31, 1987, and August 24-29, 1997), the Symposium on Rapakivi Granites and Related Rocks (Belém, August 2-5, 1995) and the Symposium on Magmatism, Crustal Evolution, and Metallogenesis of the Amazonian Craton (Belém, August 2006). Special issues dedicated to contributions presented at these meetings in the Journal of South American Earth Sciences (Sial et al., 1998), Lithos (Stephens et al., 1999), Canadian Mineralogist (Dall'Agnol and Ramo, 2006), Precambrian Research (Ramo et al., 2002) and Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências (Dall'Agnol and Bettencourt, 1997; Sial et al., 1999a) are still important references on the knowledge of Brazilian granites and granite petrology in general.

  12. Non-Darcian flow in low-permeability media: key issues related to geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste in shale formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui-Hai

    2014-05-01

    In clay or other low-permeability media, water flow becomes non-Darcian and characterized by the non-linear relationship between water flux and hydraulic gradient. This work is devoted to addressing a number of key issues related to geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste in clay/shale formations. It is demonstrated that water flow velocity in the damaged zone (often considered as a potential preferential advection paths in a repository) surrounding the tunnel is extremely small, as a result of non-Darcian flow behavior, such that solute transport is dominated by diffusion, rather than advection. The finding is also consistent with the often-observed existence of persistent abnormal pressures in shale formations. While relative permeability is the key parameter for modeling the unsaturated flow process, without incorporating non-Darcian flow behavior, significant errors can occur in the determination of relative permeability values from traditional measurement methods. An approach for dealing with temperature impact on non-Darcian flow and a formulation to calculate non-Darcian water flux in an anisotropic medium are presented, taking into consideration that a geological repository is subject to temperature evolution in the near field as a result of heat generated by nuclear waste, and that shale formations are generally anisotropic.

  13. A Comparative Review of Hydrologic Issues Involved in Geologic Storage of CO2 and Injection Disposal of Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, C.-F.; Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.

    2008-04-15

    The paper presents a comparison of hydrologic issues and technical approaches used in deep-well injection and disposal of liquid wastes, and those issues and approaches associated with injection and storage of CO{sub 2} in deep brine formations. These comparisons have been discussed in nine areas: (1) Injection well integrity; (2) Abandoned well problems; (3) Buoyancy effects; (4) Multiphase flow effects; (5) Heterogeneity and flow channeling; (6) Multilayer isolation effects; (7) Caprock effectiveness and hydrogeomechanics; (8) Site characterization and monitoring; and (9) Effects of CO{sub 2} storage on groundwater resources There are considerable similarities, as well as significant differences. Scientifically and technically, these two fields can learn much from each other. The discussions presented in this paper should help to focus on the key scientific issues facing deep injection of fluids. A substantial but by no means exhaustive reference list has been provided for further studies into the subject.

  14. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: program objectives, functional requirements, and system performance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1981-04-01

    At the present time, final repository criteria have not been issued by the responsible agencies. This document describes general objectives, requirements, and criteria that the DOE intends to apply in the interim to the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. These objectives, requirements, and criteria have been developed on the basis of DOE's analysis of what is needed to achieve the National objective of safe waste disposal in an environmentally acceptable and economic manner and are expected to be consistent with anticipated regulatory standards. The qualitative statements in this document address the broad issues of public and occupational health and safety, institutional acceptability, engineering feasibility, and economic considerations. A comprehensive set of criteria, general and project specific, of which these are a part, will constitute a portion of the technical basis for preparation and submittal by the DOE of formal documents to support future license applications for nuclear waste repositories.

  15. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatheway, Allen W.

    1978-01-01

    Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

  16. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatheway, Allen W.

    1978-01-01

    Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

  17. FROGS (Friends of Granites) report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Calvin

    This VGP News, which is devoted to petrology, is a good one for noting the existence of FROGS. FROGS is, as the name suggests, an informal organization of people whose research relates in one way or another to granitic rocks. Its purpose has been to promote communication among geoscientists with different perspectives and concerns about felsic plutonism. Initially, a major focus was experimental petrology and integration of field-oriented and lab-oriented viewpoints; now that there is the opportunity to communicate with the Eos readership, an obvious additional goal will be to bring together volcanic and plutonic views of felsic magmatism.FROGS first gathered in late 1982 under the guidance of E-an Zen and Pete Toulmin (both at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Reston, Va.), who saw a need for greater interaction among those interested in granites and for renewed, focused experimental investigations. They produced two newsletters (which were sent out by direct mail) and organized an informal meeting at the Geological Society of America meeting at Indianapolis, Ind., and then turned over the FROG reins to Sue Kieffer (USGS, Flagstaff, Ariz.) and John Clemens (Arizona State University, Tempe). They generated another newsletter, which was directly mailed to a readership that had grown beyond 200.

  18. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste: Part I, Introduction and guidelines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, Kenneth A.; Reed, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's program for geologic and hydrologic evaluation of physiographic provinces to identify areas potentially suitable for locating repository sites for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes was announced to the Governors of the eight States in the Basin and Range Province on May 5, 1981. Representatives of Arizona, California, Idaho, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Texas, and Utah, were invited to cooperate with the Federal Government in the evaluation process. Each Governor was requested to nominate an Earth scientist to represent the State in a province working group composed of State and U.S. Geological Survey representatives. This report, Part I of a three-part report, provides the background, introduction and scope of the study. This part also includes a discussion of geologic and hydrologic guidelines that will be used in the evaluation process and illustrates geohydrologic environments and the effect of individual factors in providing multiple natural barriers to radionuclide migration.Part II is a reconnaissance characterization of the geologic and hydrologic factors to be used in the initial screening of the Basin and Range Province. Part III will be the initial evaluation of the Province and will identify regions that appear suitable for further study.The plan for study of the Province includes a stepwise screening process by which successively smaller land units are considered in increasing detail. Each step involves characterization of the geology and hydrology and selection of subunits for more intensive characterization. Selection of subunits for further study is by evaluation of geologic and hydrologic conditions following a set of guidelines. By representation on the Province Working Group, the States participate in a consultation and review role in: (1) Establishing geologic and hydrologic guidelines, and (2) characterizing and evaluating the Province. The States also participate in compilation of geologic and hydrologic data

  19. Potential migration of buoyant LNAPL from Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) emplaced in a geological disposal facility (GDF) for UK radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benbow, Steven J.; Rivett, Michael O.; Chittenden, Neil; Herbert, Alan W.; Watson, Sarah; Williams, Steve J.; Norris, Simon

    2014-10-01

    A safety case for the disposal of Intermediate Level (radioactive) Waste (ILW) in a deep geological disposal facility (GDF) requires consideration of the potential for waste-derived light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) to migrate under positive buoyancy from disposed waste packages. Were entrainment of waste-derived radionuclides in LNAPL to occur, such migration could result in a shorter overall travel time to environmental or human receptors than radionuclide migration solely associated with the movement of groundwater. This paper provides a contribution to the assessment of this issue through multiphase-flow numerical modelling underpinned by a review of the UK's ILW inventory and literature to define the nature of the associated ILW LNAPL source term. Examination has been at the waste package-local GDF environment scale to determine whether proposed disposal of ILW would lead to significant likelihood of LNAPL migration, both from waste packages and from a GDF vault into the local host rock. Our review and numerical modelling support the proposition that the release of a discrete free phase LNAPL from ILW would not present a significant challenge to the safety case even with conservative approximations. 'As-disposed' LNAPL emplaced with the waste is not expected to pose a significant issue. 'Secondary LNAPL' generated in situ within the disposed ILW, arising from the decomposition of plastics, in particular PVC (polyvinyl chloride), could form the predominant LNAPL source term. Released high molecular weight phthalate plasticizers are judged to be the primary LNAPL potentially generated. These are expected to have low buoyancy-based mobility due to their very low density contrast with water and high viscosity. Due to the inherent uncertainties, significant conservatisms were adopted within the numerical modelling approach, including: the simulation of a deliberately high organic material - PVC content wastestream (2D03) within an annular grouted waste package

  20. Potential migration of buoyant LNAPL from intermediate level waste (ILW) emplaced in a geological disposal facility (GDF) for U.K. radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Benbow, Steven J; Rivett, Michael O; Chittenden, Neil; Herbert, Alan W; Watson, Sarah; Williams, Steve J; Norris, Simon

    2014-10-15

    A safety case for the disposal of Intermediate Level (radioactive) Waste (ILW) in a deep geological disposal facility (GDF) requires consideration of the potential for waste-derived light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) to migrate under positive buoyancy from disposed waste packages. Were entrainment of waste-derived radionuclides in LNAPL to occur, such migration could result in a shorter overall travel time to environmental or human receptors than radionuclide migration solely associated with the movement of groundwater. This paper provides a contribution to the assessment of this issue through multiphase-flow numerical modelling underpinned by a review of the UK's ILW inventory and literature to define the nature of the associated ILW LNAPL source term. Examination has been at the waste package-local GDF environment scale to determine whether proposed disposal of ILW would lead to significant likelihood of LNAPL migration, both from waste packages and from a GDF vault into the local host rock. Our review and numerical modelling support the proposition that the release of a discrete free phase LNAPL from ILW would not present a significant challenge to the safety case even with conservative approximations. 'As-disposed' LNAPL emplaced with the waste is not expected to pose a significant issue. 'Secondary LNAPL' generated in situ within the disposed ILW, arising from the decomposition of plastics, in particular PVC (polyvinyl chloride), could form the predominant LNAPL source term. Released high molecular weight phthalate plasticizers are judged to be the primary LNAPL potentially generated. These are expected to have low buoyancy-based mobility due to their very low density contrast with water and high viscosity. Due to the inherent uncertainties, significant conservatisms were adopted within the numerical modelling approach, including: the simulation of a deliberately high organic material--PVC content wastestream (2D03) within an annular grouted waste package

  1. Numerical simulation of leakage from a geologic disposal reservoirfor CO2, with transitions between super- and sub-criticalconditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten

    2003-04-13

    The critical point of CO2 is at temperature and pressureconditions of Tcrit = 31.04oC, Pcrit = 73.82 bar. At lower (subcritical)temperatures and/or pressures, CO2 can exist in two different phases, aliquid and a gaseous state, as well as in two-phase mixtures of thesestates. Disposal of CO2 into brine formations would be made atsupercritical pressures. However, CO2 escaping from the storage reservoirmay migrate upwards towards regions with lower temperatures andpressures, where CO2 would be in subcritical conditions. An assessment ofthe fate of leaking CO2 requires a capability to model not onlysupercritical but also subcritical CO2, as well as phase changes betweenliquid and gaseous CO2 in sub-critical conditions. We have developed amethodology for numerically simulating the behavior of water-CO2 mixturesin permeable media under conditions that may include liquid, gaseous, andsupercritical CO2. This has been applied to simulations of leakage from adeep storage reservoir in which a rising CO2 plume undergoes transitionsfrom supercritical to subcritical conditions. We find strong coolingeffects when liquid CO2 rises to elevations where it begins to boil andevolve a gaseous CO2 phase. A three-phase zone forms (aqueous - liquid -gas), which over time becomes several hundred meters thick as decreasingtemperatures permit liquid CO2 to advance to shallower elevations. Fluidmobilities are reduced in the three-phase region from phase interferenceeffects. This impedes CO2 upflow, causes the plume to spread outlaterally, and gives rise to dispersed CO2 discharge at the land surface.Our simulations suggest that temperatures along a CO2 leakage path maydecline to levels low enough so that solid water ice and CO2 hydratephases may be formed.

  2. Properties of bentonite clay as buffer material in high-level waste geological disposal. Part I: Chemical species contained in bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, M.; Muroi, M.; Inoue, A.; Aoki, M.; Takizawa, M.; Ishigure, K.; Fujita, N.

    1987-02-01

    Bentonite clay is one of the most promising candidates for use as buffer material in the geological disposal systems of high-level waste. However, very little has been reported on the ionic species contained in bentonite clay itself, especially the anion species. Chemical analyses of bentonite clay materials were carried out. It was found that the major anion species contained in the bentonite clay materials are SO/sub 4//sup 2-/, Cl/sup -/, and CO/sub 2/ species. The amounts of these differ among the clay samples depending on the origins and the processing of the clay materials. A clay material used in a series of our experiments was also analyzed for cation species contained, and adsorption experiments were carried out for the major ions contained in the clay materials. No adsorption of the anions on the clay particles was observed, and it was found that the adsorption of Na/sup +/ can be explained as the ion exchange equilibrium between Na/sup +/ and H/sup +/.

  3. Physico-chemical investigation of clayey/cement-based materials interaction in the context of geological waste disposal: Experimental approach and results

    SciTech Connect

    Dauzeres, A.; Le Bescop, P.; Sardini, P.; Cau Dit Coumes, C.

    2010-08-15

    Within the concepts under study for the geological disposal of intermediate-level long-lived waste, cement-based materials are considered as candidate materials. The clayey surrounding rock and the cement-based material being considered differ greatly in their porewater composition. Experiments are conducted on the diffusion of solutes constituting those porewaters in a confined clay/cement composite system using cells. The test temperature was set at 25 {sup o}C and 2, 6 and 12 months. Results supply new information: carbonation is low and not clog the interface. Such absence of carbonation allows for the diffusion of aqueous species and, thus, for the degradation of the cement paste and the illitisation of illite/smectite interstratifications. The cement material is subjected to a decalcification: portlandite dissolution and a CaO/SiO{sub 2} reduction in the calcium silicate hydrate. The sulphate in diffusion induces non-destructive ettringite precipitation in the largest pores. After 12 months, about 800 {mu}m of cement material is concerned by decalcification.

  4. The Strength of Ethical Matrixes as a Tool for Normative Analysis Related to Technological Choices: The Case of Geological Disposal for Radioactive Waste.

    PubMed

    Kermisch, Céline; Depaus, Christophe

    2017-03-09

    The ethical matrix is a participatory tool designed to structure ethical reflection about the design, the introduction, the development or the use of technologies. Its collective implementation, in the context of participatory decision-making, has shown its potential usefulness. On the contrary, its implementation by a single researcher has not been thoroughly analyzed. The aim of this paper is precisely to assess the strength of ethical matrixes implemented by a single researcher as a tool for conceptual normative analysis related to technological choices. Therefore, the ethical matrix framework is applied to the management of high-level radioactive waste, more specifically to retrievable and non-retrievable geological disposal. The results of this analysis show that the usefulness of ethical matrixes is twofold and that they provide a valuable input for further decision-making. Indeed, by using ethical matrixes, implicit ethically relevant issues were revealed-namely issues of equity associated with health impacts and differences between close and remote future generations regarding ethical impacts. Moreover, the ethical matrix framework was helpful in synthesizing and comparing systematically the ethical impacts of the technologies under scrutiny, and hence in highlighting the potential ethical conflicts.

  5. Geologic observations at the 2800-meter radioactive waste disposal site and associated deepwater dumpsite 106 (DWD-106) in the Atlantic Ocean. (Revised). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rawson, M.D.; Ryan, W.B.F.

    1983-09-01

    During 1975 and 1976 a total of eight manned submersible dives with DSRV ALVIN were carried out in a relatively small region of the Atlantic 2800m radioactive waste dumpsite and were centered at 38 degrees 30'N and 72 degrees 09'W. Six other dives were distributed through the northern part of Deepwater Dumpsite 106 (DWD-106) near the boundary of the continental rise/continental slope. One of the primary purposes of these dives was to observe the geological conditions in this disposal region slightly south of the Hudson submarine Canyon. The lower continental slope was found to be incised by submarine canyons debouching into the northern side of DWD-106. The upper continental rise was incised by narrow meandering channels. One of these channels passed through the radioactive waste dumpsite and was surveyed in detail. On the upper continental rise the local terrain was relatively flat but studded with numerous tracks, trails, holes, and mounds of biological orgin. The sediment carpet was composed of a grapy silty-clay. Detailed mineralogical analysis was performed.

  6. Confocal {mu}-XRF, {mu}-XAFS, and {mu}-XRD Studies of Sediment from a Nuclear Waste Disposal Natural Analogue Site and Fractured Granite Following a Radiotracer Migration Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Denecke, Melissa A.; Brendebach, Boris; Rothe, Joerg; Simon, Rolf; Janssens, Koen; Nolf, Wout de; Vekemans, Bart; Falkenberg, Gerald; Somogyi, Andrea; Noseck, Ulrich

    2007-02-02

    Combined {mu}-XRF, {mu}-XAFS, and {mu}-XRD investigations of a uranium-rich tertiary sediment, from a nuclear repository natural analogue site, and a fractured granite bore core section after a column tracer experiment using a Np(V) containing cocktail have been performed. Most {mu}-XRF/{mu}-XAFS measurements are recorded in a confocal geometry to provide added depth information. The U-rich sediment results show uranium to be present as a tetravalent phosphate and that U(IV) is associated with As(V). Arsenic present is either As(V) or As(0). The As(0) forms thin coatings on the surface of pyrite nodules. A hypothesis for the mechanism of uranium immobilization is proposed, where arsenopyrite acted as reductant of ground water dissolved U(VI) leading to precipitation of less soluble U(IV) and thereby forming As(V). Results for the granite sample show the immobilized Np to be tetravalent and associated with facture material.

  7. Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1, Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.

    1993-12-01

    This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste. Although numerous caveats must be placed on the results, the general findings were as follows: Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories.

  8. Geology, hydrology, and results of tracer testing in the Galena-Platteville aquifer at a waste-disposal site near Byron, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, Robert T.; Yeskis, Douglas J.; Prinos, Scott T.; Morrow, William S.; Vendl, Mark

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency of the geohydrology of the dolomite bedrock at a waste-disposal site near Byron, Illinois. The study was designed to identify and characterize the flow pathways through the bedrock aquifer beneath the site. The geologic units of concern at the site are the Glenwood Formation of the Ancell Group, and the Platteville and Galena Groups. These deposits compose the Galena-Platteville aquifer and the underlying Harmony Hill Shale semiconfining unit. The Galena-Platteville aquifer is an unconfined aquifer. Geophysical logging, water levels, and aquifer-test data indicate the presence of interconnected, hydraulically active fractures in the middle of the Galena-Platteville aquifer (the upper flow pathway), and a second set of hydraulically active fractures (the lower flow pathway). The lower flow pathway may be present through much of the site. Few hydraulically active fractures are present in the upper part of the aquifer near the center of the site, but appear to be more numerous in the upper part of the aquifer in the western and northeastern parts of the site. Water-level data obtained during the tracer test indicate that pumping effects were present near the pumped wells. Pumping effects may have been present at several wells located along directions of identified fracture orientation from the pumped well. The upper part of the aquifer did not appear to be hydraulically well connected to the flow pathways supplying water to the pumped well. Large background changes in water levels obscured the effects of pumping and prevented calculation of aquifer properties. The velocity of the bromide tracer through the lower flow pathway under the hydraulic gradient resulting from the pumping was about 152 feet per day. Solution of the Darcy velocity equation results in a calculated effective porosity for this interval of 3.5 percent, indicating hydraulic interconnection between the

  9. Voluminous granitic magmas from common basaltic sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sisson, T.W.; Ratajeski, K.; Hankins, W.B.; Glazner, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    Granitic-rhyolitic liquids were produced experimentally from moderately hydrous (1.7-2.3 wt% H2O) medium-to-high K basaltic compositions at 700 MPa and f O2 controlled from Ni-NiO -1.3 to +4. Amount and composition of evolved liquids and coexisting mineral assemblages vary with fO2 and temperature, with melt being more evolved at higher fO2s, where coexisting mineral assemblages are more plagioclase- and Fe-Ti oxide-rich and amphibole-poor. At fO2 of Ni-NiO +1, typical for many silicic magmas, the samples produce 12-25 wt% granitic-rhyolitic liquid, amounts varying with bulk composition. Medium-to-high K basalts are common in subduction-related magmatic arcs, and near-solidus true granite or rhyolite liquids can form widely, and in geologically significant quantities, by advanced crystallization-differentiation or by low-degree partial remelting of mantle-derived basaltic sources. Previously differentiated or weathered materials may be involved in generating specific felsic magmas, but are not required for such magmas to be voluminous or to have the K-rich granitic compositions typical of the upper continental crust. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  10. Modeling and Analysis of Granite Matrix Pore Structure and Hydraulic Characteristics in 2D and 3D Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvozdik, L.; Polak, M.; Zaruba, J.; Vanecek, M.

    2010-12-01

    A geological environment labeled as a Granite massif represents in terms of groundwater flow and transport a distinct hydrogeological environment from that of sedimentary basins, the characterisation of which is generally more complex and uncertain. Massifs are composed of hard crystalline rocks with the very low effective porosity. Due to their rheological properties such rocks are predisposed to brittle deformation resulting from changes in stress conditions. Our specific research project (Research on the influence of intergrangular porosity on deep geological disposal: geological formations, methodology and the development of measurement apparatus) is focussed on the problem of permeable zones within apparently undisturbed granitic rock matrix. The project including the both laboratory and in-situ tracer tests study migration along and through mineral grains in fresh and altered granite. The objective of the project is to assess whether intergranular porosity is a general characteristic of the granitic rock matrix or subject to significant evolution resulting from geochemical and/or hydrogeochemical processes, geotechnical and/or mechanical processes. Moreover, the research is focussed on evaluating methods quantifying intergranular porosity by both physical testing and mathematical modelling using verified standard hydrological software tools. Groundwater flow in microfractures and intergranular pores in granite rock matrix were simulated in three standard hydrogeological modeling programs with completely different conceptual approaches: MODFLOW (Equivalent Continuum concept), FEFLOW (Discrete Fracture and Equivalent Continuum concepts) and NAPSAC (Discrete Fracture Network concept). Specialized random fracture generators were used for creation of several 2D and 3D models in each of the chosen program. Percolation characteristics of these models were tested and analyzed. Several scenarios of laboratory tests of the rock samples permeability made in triaxial

  11. Determining shallow aquifer vulnerability by the DRASTIC model and hydrochemistry in granitic terrain, southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, N. C.; Adike, S.; Singh, V. S.; Ahmed, S.; Jayakumar, K. V.

    2017-08-01

    Shallow aquifer vulnerability has been assessed using GIS-based DRASTIC model by incorporating the major geological and hydrogeological factors that affect and control the groundwater contamination in a granitic terrain. It provides a relative indication of aquifer vulnerability to the contamination. Further, it has been cross-verified with hydrochemical signatures such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Cl-, HCO3-, SO4^{2-} and Cl-/HCO3- molar ratios. The results show four zones of aquifer vulnerability (i.e., negligible, low, moderate and high) based on the variation of DRASTIC Vulnerability Index (DVI) between 39 and 132. About 57% area in the central part is found moderately and highly contaminated due to the 80 functional tannery disposals and is more prone to groundwater aquifer vulnerability. The high range values of TDS (2304-39,100 mg/l); Na+(239- 6,046 mg/l) and Cl- (532-13,652 mg/l) are well correlated with the observed high vulnerable zones. The values of Cl-/HCO3- (molar ratios: 1.4-106.8) in the high vulnerable zone obviously indicate deterioration of the aquifer due to contamination. Further cumulative probability distributions of these parameters indicate several threshold values which are able to demarcate the diverse vulnerability zones in granitic terrain.

  12. Investigating α-particle radiation damage in phyllosilicates using synchrotron microfocus-XRD/XAS: implications for geological disposal of nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, W. R.; Pearce, C. I.; Pimblott, S. M.; Haigh, S. J.; Mosselmans, J. F. W.; Pattrick, R. A. D.

    2014-12-01

    The response of mineral phases to the radiation fields that will be experienced in a geological disposal facility (GDF) for nuclear waste is poorly understood. Phyllosilicates are critical phases in a GDF with bentonite clay as the backfill of choice surrounding high level wastes in the engineered barrier, and clays and micas forming the most important reactive component of potential host rocks. It is essential that we understand changes in mineral properties and behaviour as a result of damage from both α and γ radiation over long timescales. Radiation damage has been demonstrated to affect the physical integrity and oxidation state1 of minerals which will also influence their ability to react with radionuclides. Using the University of Manchester's newly commissioned particle accelerator at the Dalton Cumbrian Facility, UK, model phyllosilicate minerals (e.g. biotite, chlorite) were irradiated with high energy (5MeV) alpha particles at controlled dose rates. This has been compared alongside radiation damage found in naturally formed 'radiohalos' - spherical areas of discolouration in minerals surrounding radioactive inclusions, resulting from alpha particle penetration, providing a natural analogue to study lattice damage under long term bombardment1,2. Both natural and artificially irradiated samples have been analysed using microfocus X-ray absorption spectroscopy and high resolution X-ray diffraction mapping on Beamline I18 at Diamond Light Source; samples were probed for redox changes and long/short range disorder. This was combined with lattice scale imaging of damage using HR-TEM (TitanTM Transmission Electron Microscope). The results show aberrations in lattice parameters as a result of irradiation, with multiple damage-induced 'domains' surrounded by amorphous regions. In the naturally damaged samples, neo-formed phyllosilicate phases are shown to be breakdown products of highly damaged regions. A clear reduction of the Fe(III) component has been

  13. Nuclear-waste disposal: Technical issues and status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, T. O.

    The nuclear waste from the defense programs of the United States and the commercial nuclear fuel cycle are planned for disposal in mined geologic repositories. High-level waste will require the development of one to three repositories. A number of technical issues are associated with the selection and characterization of a suitable site, the design of surface and underground facilities, development of an appropriate waste package, and methods to assess the performance of the system relative to regulatory requirements. These issues are being addressed by four major projects to evaluate salt, basalt, volcanic tuff, and other crystalline rocks such as granite. The key technical issues and the status of activities to resolve those issues are reviewed.

  14. IRETHERM: The geothermal energy potential of Irish radiothermal granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Thomas; Jones, Alan; Muller, Mark; Feely, Martin; Brock, Andrew; Long, Mike; Waters, Tim

    2014-05-01

    The IRETHERM project is developing a strategic understanding of Ireland's deep geothermal energy potential through integrated modelling of new and existing geophysical and geological data. One aspect of IRETHERM's research focuses on Ireland's radiothermal granites, where increased concentrations of radioelements provide elevated heat-production (HP), surface heat-flow (SHF) and subsurface temperatures. An understanding of the contribution of granites to the thermal field of Ireland is important to assessing the geothermal energy potential of this low-enthalpy setting. This study focuses on the Galway granite in western Ireland, and the Leinster and the buried Kentstown granites in eastern Ireland. Shallow (<250 m) boreholes were drilled into the exposed Caledonian Leinster and Galway granites as part of a 1980's geothermal project. These studies yielded HP = 2-3 μWm-3 and HF = 80 mWm-2 at the Sally Gap borehole in the Northern Units of the Leinster granite, to the SW of Dublin. In the Galway granite batholith, on the west coast of Ireland, the Costelloe-Murvey granite returned HP = 7 μWm-3 and HF = 77 mWm-2, measured at the Rossaveal borehole. The buried Kentstown granite, 35 km NW of Dublin, has an associated negative Bouguer anomaly and was intersected by two mineral exploration boreholes at depths of 660 m and 490 m. Heat production is measured at 2.4 μWm-3 in core samples taken from the weathered top 30 m of the granite. The core of this study consists of a program of magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data acquisition across the three granite bodies, over three fieldwork seasons. MT and AMT data were collected at 59 locations along two profiles over the Leinster granite. Preliminary results show that the northern units of the Leinster granite (40 km SW of Dublin) extend to depths of 2-5 km. Preliminary results from the southern profile suggest a greater thickness of granite to a depth of 6-9 km beneath the Tullow pluton, 75 km SW of

  15. Geological and petrological considerations relevant to the disposal of radioactive wastes by hydraulic fracturing: an example at the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [Pumpkin Valley shales

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory the Pumpkin Valley Shale is used as a host formation for hydraulic-fracturing waste disposal. Determination of the relationships between the distribution of different lithologies and porosity-permeability trends within this host formation allows these properties, important to hydraulic-fracturing operations, to be related to measurable and mappable geological and petrological parameters. It also permits extrapolation of such patterns to little-studied portions of the Pumpkin Valley Shale. Such knowledge better allows for the satisfactory operation and assessment of the hydraulic fracturing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  16. GRANITE CHIEF WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harwood, David S.; Federspiel, Francis E.

    1984-01-01

    The Granite Chief Wilderness study area encompasses 57 sq mi near the crest of the Sierra Nevada 6 mi west of Tahoe City, California. Geologic, geochemical, and mines and prospect studies were carried out to assess the mineral-resource potential of the area. On the basis of the mineral-resource survey, it is concluded that the area has little promise for the occurrence of precious or base metals, oil, gas, coal, or geothermal resources. Sand, gravel, and glacial till suitable for construction materials occur in the area, but inaccessability and remoteness from available markets preclude their being shown on the map as a potential resource.

  17. Focusing transformations -- the reliable way to search for safe locations for nuclear waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Pozdniakov, V.A.; Tcheverda, V.A.; Safonov, D.V.

    1997-10-01

    At present pre-stack migration is widely used in seismic data processing in order to get wave image of a medium under investigation. Of course it is rather time-consuming procedure but its application is justified by necessity to deal with complicated geological structures and to recover them as completely as possible. The paper is devoted to the approach to pre-stack migration of multicoverage seismic data by means of diffraction and focusing transformation in application to the problem of careful geological investigation of consolidated rocky blocks in order to choose as safety as possible location of nuclear waste deposit. Results of some real seismic data processing gathered at Nijnekanskaja area near Krasnoyarsk city, where a granite block is searching for as a suitable candidate for disposal of radioactive waste, are presented and discussed.

  18. Peralkaline and peraluminous granites and related mineral deposits of the Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, James E.

    1983-01-01

    Existing geochemical and geologic data for many parts of the Arabian Shield were compiled as a basis for evaluating the resource potential of the granites of the Shield. Commodities associated with granites that have potential for economic mineral deposits include tin, tungsten, molybdenum, beryllium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, uranium, thorium, rare-earth elements, and fluorite. Prospecting methods useful in discriminating those granites having significant economic potential include reconnaissance geologic mapping, petrographic and mineralogic studies, geochemical sampling of rock and wadi sediment, and radiometric surveying.

  19. Preliminary report on the geology and hydrology of Mortandad Canyon near Los Alamos, New Mexico, with reference to disposal of liquid low-level radioactive waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baltz, E.H.; Abrahams, J.H.; Purtyman, W.D.

    1963-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, selected the upper part of Mortandad Canyon near Los Alamos, New Mexico for a site for disposal of treated liquid low-level radioactive waste. This report summarizes the part of a study of the geology and hydrology that was done from October 1960 through June 1961. Additional work is being continued. Mortandad Canyon is a narrow east-southeast-trending canyon about 9? miles long that heads on the central part of the Pajarito Plateau at an altitude of about 7,340 feet. The canyon is tributary to the Rio Grande. The drainage area of the part of Mortandad Canyon that was investigated is about 2 square miles, and the total drainage area is about 4.9 square miles. The Pajarito Plateau is capped by the Bandelier Tuff of Pleistocene age. Mortandad Canyon is cut in the Bandelier, and alluvium covers the floor of the canyon to depths ranging from less than 1 foot to as much as 100 feet. The Bandelier is underlain by silt, sand, conglomerate, and interbedded basalt of the Santa Fe Group of Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene(?) age. Some ground water is perched in the alluvium in the canyon; however, the top of the main aquifer is in the Santa Fe Group at a depth of about 990 feet below the canyon floor. Joints in the Bandelier Tuff probably were caused by shrinkage of the tuff during cooling. The joints range in width from hairline cracks to fissures several inches wide. Water can infiltrate along the open joints where the Bandelier is at the surface; however, soil, alluvial fill, and autochthonous clay inhibit infiltration on the tops of mesas and probably in the alluvium-floored canyons also. Thirty-three test holes, each less than 100 feet deep, were drilled in 10 lies across Mortandad Canyon from the western margin of the study area to just west of the Los Alamos-Santa Fe County line. Ten of the holes were cased for observation wells to measure

  20. The H2O content of granite embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, Omar; Cesare, Bernardo; Remusat, Laurent; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio; Poli, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    be applied to MI hosted in higher-temperature, granulite-facies rocks that represent the parents of many upper-crustal granites. This will result in a better understanding of formation and evolution of granitic magmas. [1] Cesare et al. (2009) Geology, 37, 627-630. [2] Bartoli et al. (2013) Geology, 41, 115-118. [3] Bartoli et al. (2014) EPSL, 395, 281-290.

  1. The GRANIT spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Baessler, Stefan; Beau, M; Kreuz, Michael; Nesvizhevsky, V.; Kurlov, V; Pignol, G; Protasov, K.; Vezzu, Francis; Voronin, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The existence of quantum states of matter in a gravitational field was demonstrated recently in the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble, in a series of experiments with ultra cold neutrons (UCN). UCN in low quantum states is an excellent probe for fundamental physics, in particular for constraining extra short-range forces; as well as a tool in quantum optics and surface physics. The GRANIT is a follow-up project based on a second-generation spectrometer with ultra-high energy resolution, permanently installed in ILL. It has been constructed in framework of an ANR grant; and will become operational in 2011.

  2. Hercynian Granite and Related Mineralisation in Beni Snouss, Western Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nacera, Hadj Mohamed; Abdelhak, Boutaleb

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this research is to describe the mineralisation related to the Hercynian granite located in western Algeria by combining geologic, tectonic, mineralogical and fluid inclusion studies. Quartz veins bearing sulphides occur in close spatial association with granitoids, which, representing hydrothermal activities associated with them. Visible but rare gold occurs in a very small quantity connected with arsenopyrite. Barite veins and stock works are developed in the granites where are observed at Mallal and Bouabdous. The vein varies in thickness from a few centimetres up to 2 meters, and their length varies from 10 up to up 100 m. Most of veins are N50 - N75 and 60 to 90 dip.

  3. Seismogenic faulting in the Meruoca granite, NE Brazil, consistent with a local weak fracture zone.

    PubMed

    Moura, Ana Catarina A; Oliveira, Paulo H S DE; Ferreira, Joaquim M; Bezerra, Francisco H R; Fuck, Reinhardt A; Nascimento, Aderson F DO

    2014-10-24

    A sequence of earthquakes occurred in 2008 in the Meruoca granitic pluton, located in the northwestern part of the Borborema Province, NE Brazil. A seismological study defined the seismic activity occurring along the seismically-defined Riacho Fundo fault, a 081° striking, 8 km deep structure. The objective of this study was to analyze the correlation between this seismic activity and geological structures in the Meruoca granite. We carried out geological mapping in the epicentral area, analyzed the mineralogy of fault rocks, and compared the seismically-defined Riacho Fundo fault with geological data. We concluded that the seismically-defined fault coincides with ∼E-W-striking faults observed at outcrop scale and a swarm of Mesozoic basalt dikes. We propose that seismicity reactivated brittle structures in the Meruoca granite. Our study highlights the importance of geological mapping and mineralogical analysis in order to establish the relationships between geological structures and seismicity at a given area.

  4. Seismogenic faulting in the Meruoca granite, NE Brazil, consistent with a local weak fracture zone.

    PubMed

    Moura, Ana Catarina A; De Oliveira, Paulo H S; Ferreira, Joaquim M; Bezerra, Francisco H R; Fuck, Reinhardt A; Do Nascimento, Aderson F

    2014-12-01

    A sequence of earthquakes occurred in 2008 in the Meruoca granitic pluton, located in the northwestern part of the Borborema Province, NE Brazil. A seismological study defined the seismic activity occurring along the seismically-defined Riacho Fundo fault, a 081° striking, 8 km deep structure. The objective of this study was to analyze the correlation between this seismic activity and geological structures in the Meruoca granite. We carried out geological mapping in the epicentral area, analyzed the mineralogy of fault rocks, and compared the seismically-defined Riacho Fundo fault with geological data. We concluded that the seismically-defined fault coincides with ∼E-W-striking faults observed at outcrop scale and a swarm of Mesozoic basalt dikes. We propose that seismicity reactivated brittle structures in the Meruoca granite. Our study highlights the importance of geological mapping and mineralogical analysis in order to establish the relationships between geological structures and seismicity at a given area.

  5. Bibliography of reports by US Geological Survey personnel pertaining to underground nuclear testing and radioactive waste disposal at the Nevada Test Site, and radioactive waste disposal at the WIPP Site, New Mexico, January 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Glanzman, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography presents reports released to the public between January 1, 1979, and December 31, 1979, by personnel of the US Geological Survey. Reports include information on underground nuclear testing and waste management projects at the NTS (Nevada Test Site) and radioactive waste projects at the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site, New Mexico. Reports on Project Dribble, Tatum Dome, Mississippi, previously prepared as administrative reports and released to the public as 474-series reports during 1979 are also included in this bibliography.

  6. A slingram survey on the Nevada Test Site: part of an integrated geologic geophysical study of site evaluation for nuclear waste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanigan, Vincent J.

    1979-01-01

    A slingram geophysical survey was made in early 1978 as part of the integrated geologlcal-geophysical study aimed at evaluating the Eleana Formation as a possible repository for nuclear waste. The slingram data were taken over an alluvial fan and pediments along the eastern flank of Syncline Ridge about 45 km north of Mercury, Nevada, on the Nevada Test Site. The data show that the more conductive argillaceous Eleana Formation varies in depth from 40 to 85 m from west to east along traverse lines. Northeast-trending linear anomalies suggest rather abrupt changes in subsurface geology that may be associated with faults and fractures. The results of the slingram survey will, when interpreted in the light of other geologic and geophysical evidence, assist in understanding the shallow parts of the geologic setting of the Eleana Formation.

  7. Parameters of Seismic Velocities and their Relationship to the Geomechanical Characteristic of the Podlesí Granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broz, M.; Novakova, L.; Sosna, K.; Najser, J.; Novak, P.

    2012-04-01

    In the Czech Republic, the optimal rock environment for geological waste disposal is granite. The ongoing research aims to analyze and evaluate rock matrix properties across a range of granites within the Czech Republic. Thegeophysical, physical, and geomechanical parameters of the Podlesí granites in the western part of the Krušné hory Mts., near the village of Potůčky are analyzed in the presented study. The samples were collected at depths of between 35 and 105 metres. Seismic P-wave and S-wave velocities were measured using ultrasonic scanning. The samples were water-saturated, unsaturated, and dried. The measured data were used to calculate dynamic Young's modulus, dynamic shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio. The deformational characteristics of the rock were specified from uniaxial loading. The shear and longitudinal deformation of each sample was measured using a resistive strain gauge fixed directly on the sample. Intermittent loading of the symplex proceeded using a uniform gradient of axial stress of 1 MPa.s-1. Static Young's and shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio were calculated. All the obtained data demonstrate a correlation between the properties of the granite and depth within the borehole. P-wave velocities do not show any anisotropy in the studied samples, their velocities vary from 4.15 km.s-1 to 6.03 km.s-1 while S-wave velocities vary from 2.74 km.s-1 to 3.63 km.s-1. The highest velocities were measured in the saturated samples while the lowest velocities were measured in the dried samples. Dynamic Young's modulus varies from 42.5 GPa to 83.9 GPa while static Younǵs modulus varies from 31.4 GPa to 57.1 GPa. Dynamic Young's modulus is approximately 44% higher than static Young's modulus. Dynamic and static shear moduli show a similar relationship. Dynamic shear modulus varies from 19.0 GPa to 34.5 GPa whist static shear modulus varies from 13.0 GPa to 23.4 GPa. Poisson's ratio between 0.16 and 0.25 was measured. The porosity of the studied

  8. Nuclear Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Meyer, Philip D.; Ward, Andy L.

    2005-01-12

    Nuclear wastes are by-products of nuclear weapons production and nuclear power generation, plus residuals of radioactive materials used by industry, medicine, agriculture, and academia. Their distinctive nature and potential hazard make nuclear wastes not only the most dangerous waste ever created by mankind, but also one of the most controversial and regulated with respect to disposal. Nuclear waste issues, related to uncertainties in geologic disposal and long-term protection, combined with potential misuse by terrorist groups, have created uneasiness and fear in the general public and remain stumbling blocks for further development of a nuclear industry in a world that may soon be facing a global energy crisis.

  9. Climax granite test results

    SciTech Connect

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1980-01-15

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL), as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) program, is carrying out in situ rock mechanics testing in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This summary addresses only those field data taken to date that address thermomechanical modeling for a hard-rock repository. The results to be discussed include thermal measurements in a heater test that was conducted from October 1977 through July 1978, and stress and displacement measurements made during and after excavation of the canister storage drift for the Spent Fuel Test (SFT) in the Climax granite. Associated laboratory and field measurements are summarized. The rock temperature for a given applied heat load at a point in time and space can be adequately modeled with simple analytic calculations involving superposition and integration of numerous point source solutions. The input, for locations beyond about a meter from the source, can be a constant thermal conductivity and diffusivity. The value of thermal conductivity required to match the field data is as much as 25% different from laboratory-measured values. Therefore, unless we come to understand the mechanisms for this difference, a simple in situ test will be required to obtain a value for final repository design. Some sensitivity calculations have shown that the temperature field is about ten times more sensitive to conductivity than to diffusivity under the test conditions. The orthogonal array was designed to detect anisotropy. After considering all error sources, anisotropic efforts in the thermal field were less than 5 to 10%.

  10. A model for heat flow in deep borehole disposals of high-level nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibb, Fergus G. F.; Travis, Karl P.; McTaggart, Neil A.; Burley, David

    2008-05-01

    Deep borehole disposal (DBD) is emerging as a viable alternative to mined repositories for many forms of highly radioactive waste. It is geologically safer, more secure, less environmentally disruptive and potentially more cost-effective. All high-level wastes generate heat leading to elevated temperatures in and around the disposal. In some versions of DBD this heat is an essential part of the disposal while in others it affects the performances of materials and waste forms and can threaten the success of the disposal. Different versions of DBD are outlined, for all of which it is essential to predict the distribution of temperature with time. A generic physical model is established and a mathematical model set up involving the transient conductive heat flow differential equation for a cylindrical source term with realistic decay. This equation is solved using the method of Finite Differences. A Fortran computer code (GRANITE) has been developed for the model in the context of DBD and validated against theoretical and other benchmarks. The limitations of the model, code, input parameters and data used are discussed and it is concluded that the model provides a satisfactory basis for predicting temperatures in DBD. Examples of applications to some DBD scenarios are given and it is shown that the results are essential to the design strategy of the DBD versions, geometric details and choice of materials used. Without such modeling it would be impossible to progress DBD of nuclear wastes; something that is now being given serious consideration in several countries.

  11. Geologic and hydrologic data collected during 1976-1983 at the Sheffield low-level radioactive waste disposal site and adjacent areas, Sheffield, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, J.B.; Garklavs, George; Mackey, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogeologic studies were conducted at the low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois, from 1976-84. Data in this report include water levels in wells, lake stages, inorganic, organic, and radiometric chemical analyses of ground and surface water, hydraulic conductivities of glacial materials, grain-size distribution, clay and carbonate mineralogy, and cation exchange capacities of the glacial materials. Also included are results of petrographic analyses, physical measurements of wells, stratigraphy and lithology of cores collected from test wells, and horizontal coordinates of wells.

  12. Silicified Granites (Bleeding Stone and Ochre Granite) as Global Heritage Stones Resources from Avila (Central of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo C.; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago; Molina-Ballesteros, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    Silicified Granites have been widely used to build the main Romanesque monuments in the 12 th century of Avila city that was designated a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO in 1985. The stone was used in the Cathedral (12 th century); churches located interior and exterior of the Walls (e.g. Saint Vincent; Saint Peter). During the Renaissance and Gothic period, 15 th century Silicified Granites have been used mainly to buid ribbed vaults in Avila city (e.g. Royal Palace of the Catholic Monarchs, and Chapel of Mosén Rubí). Silicified Granites are related to an intermediate and upper parts of a complex palaeoweathering mantle developed on the Iberian Hercynian Basement (the greatest part of the western Iberian Peninsula and its oldest geological entity). In the Mesozoic the basement underwent tropical weathering processes. The weathered mantle were truncated by the Alpine tectonic movements during the Tertiary, and Its remnants were unconformably covered by more recent sediments and are located in the west and south part of the Duero Basin and in the north edge of the Ambles Valley graben. For the weathering profiles developed on the Hercynian Basement is possible to define three levels from bottom to top: 1) Lower level (biotitic granodiorite/porphyry and aplite dykes); 2) Intermediate level (ochre granite); 3) Upper level (red/white granite). The lower level has been much used as a source of ornamental stone, Avila Grey granite. The porphyry and applite dykes are mainly used to built the Walls of the City. The intermediate level is called Ochre granite or Caleño and was formed from the previous level through a tropical weathering process that, apart from variations in the petrophysical characteristics of the stone, has been accompanied by important mineralogical changes (2:1 and 1:1 phyllosilicates) and decreases in the contents of the most mobile cations. The upper level has received several names, Bleeding stone, Red and White granite or Silcrete and was formed

  13. Geologic remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goetz, A.F.H.; Rowan, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    Remote-sensing techniques are now being used routinely in geologic interpretation for mineral and energy exploration, plant siting, waste disposal, and the development of models for regional and continental tectonics. New spaceborne methods and associated technologies are being developed to produce data from which geologic information about large areas can be derived much more rapidly than by conventional techniques. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  14. Numerical Studies of Fluid Leakage from a Geologic DisposalReservoir for CO2 Show Self-Limiting Feedback between Fluid Flow and HeatTransfer

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten

    2005-03-22

    Leakage of CO2 from a hypothetical geologic storage reservoir along an idealized fault zone has been simulated, including transitions between supercritical, liquid, and gaseous CO2. We find strong non-isothermal effects due to boiling and Joule-Thomson cooling of expanding CO2. Leakage fluxes are limited by limitations in conductive heat transfer to the fault zone. The interplay between multiphase flow and heat transfer effects produces non-monotonic leakage behavior.

  15. Some Fundamental Experiments on Apparent Dissolution Rate of Gas Phase in the Groundwater Recovery Processes of the Geological Disposal System - 12146

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshii, Taiki; Niibori, Yuichi; Mimura, Hitoshi

    2012-07-01

    The apparent dissolution rates of gas phase in the co-presence of solid phase were examined by in-room experiments in this study. The apparent dissolution rate of gas phase q (mol/m{sup 3}.s) was generally defined by q=aK{sub L}(γP{sub g}-c), where a (1/m) is specific surface area of the interface between gas and liquid phases, K{sub L} (m/s) is overall mass transfer coefficient, γ (mol/(Pa.m{sup 3})) is reciprocal number of Henry constant, P{sub g} (Pa) is partial pressure of gas phase, and c (mol/m{sup 3}) is the concentration of gas component in liquid phase. As a model gas, CO{sub 2} gas was used. For evaluating the values of K{sub L}, this study monitored pH or the migration rate of the interface between water/gas phases, using some experiments such as the packed beds and the micro channel consisting of granite chip and rubber sheet including a slit. In the results, the values of K{sub L} were distributed in the range from 5.0x10{sup -6} m/s to 5.0x10{sup -7} m/s. These values were small, in comparison with that (7.8x10{sup -4} m/s) obtained from the bubbling test where gas phase was continually injected into deionized water without solid phase. This means that the solid phase limits the local mixing of water phase near gas-liquid interfaces. (authors)

  16. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available.

  17. Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical (THM) Coupled Simulation of a Generic Site for Disposal of High Level Nuclear Waste in Claystone in Germany: Exemplary Proof of the Integrity of the Geological Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massmann, J.; Ziefle, G.; Jobmann, M.

    2016-12-01

    Claystone is investigated as a potential host rock for the disposal of high level nuclear waste (HLW). In Germany, DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, the BGR and the "Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS)" are developing an integrated methodology for safety assessment within the R&D project "ANSICHT". One part herein is the demonstration of integrity of the geological barrier to ensure safe containment of radionuclides over 1 million years. The mechanical excavation of an underground repository, the ex­po­si­tion of claystone to at­mos­pheric air, the insertion of backfill, buffer, sealing and supporting material as well as the deposition of heat producing waste constitute a sig­nif­i­cant disturbance of the underground system. A complex interacting scheme of thermal, hydraulic and mechanical (THM) processes can be expected. In this work, the finite element software OpenGeoSys, main­ly de­vel­oped at the "Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research GmbH (UFZ)", is used to simulate and evaluate several THM coupled effects in the repository surroundings up to the surface over a time span of 1 million years. The numerical setup is based on two generic geological models inspired by the representative geology of potentially suitable regions in North- and South Germany. The results give an insight into the evolution of temperature, pore pressure, stresses as well as deformation and enables statements concerning the extent of the significantly influenced area. One important effect among others is the temperature driven change in the densities of the solid and liquid phase and its influence on the stress field. In a further step, integrity criteria have been quantified, based on specifications of the German federal ministry of the environment. The exemplary numerical evaluation of these criteria demonstrates, how numerical simulations can be used to prove the integrity of the geological barrier and detect potential vulnerabilities. Fig.: Calculated zone of

  18. New data on the age and geodynamic interpretation of the Kalba-Narym granitic batholith, eastern Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotler, P. D.; Khromykh, S. V.; Vladimirov, A. G.; Navozov, O. V.; Travin, A. V.; Karavaeva, G. S.; Kruk, N. N.; Murzintsev, N. G.

    2015-06-01

    Geological and new geochronological data are summarized for the Kalba-Narym granitic batholith in eastern Kazakhstan, and their geodynamic interpretation is suggested. In the structure of the batholith, we consider (from late to early) the Kunush plagiogranitic complex, the Kalguta granodiorite-granitic association, and the Kalba granitic, Monastery leucogranitic, and Kainda granitic complexes. The granitic complexes of the Kalba-Narym batholith were formed between the Carboniferous-Permian and the Early-Middle Permian (˜30 Ma). New data indicate that formation of the Kalba-Narym batholith was related to the activity of the Tarim mantle plume. Heating of the lithosphere by the plume coincided with postcollision collapse of the orogenic structure and led to the crust melting and formation of the studied granitic complexes in a relatively short period.

  19. Late Paleozoic granitic rocks of the Chukchi Peninsula: Composition and location in the structure of the Russian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sokolov, S. D.; Kotov, A. B.; Natapov, L. M.; Belousova, E. A.; Katkov, S. M.

    2015-07-01

    An Early Carboniferous (352-359 Ma) U-Pb (TIMS, SIMS) age is established for granitic rocks of the Kibera pluton, quartz sienites of the Kuekvun pluton, and granites from the pebbles in the basement of Carboniferous rocks of the Kuul and Kuekvun uplifts in the Central Chukotka region. These data support the suggestion of granitic magmatism to occur in the region in the Late Paleozoic. The petrogeochemistry of most granitic rocks of the Kibera and Kuekvun plutons is similar to that of I-type granites, and their age coincides with tectonic events of Ellesmerian Orogeny in the Arctic region at the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous boundary. The Devonian-Early Carboniferous granitic complexes extend to the territories of the Arctic Alaska, Yukon, and Arctic Canada, which indicates a common geological evolution within the Chukotka-Arctic Alaska block, which experienced a motion away from Arctic Canada.

  20. Granite microcracks: Structure and connectivity at different depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Fan; Dong, Yan-Hui; Xu, Zhi-Fang; Zhou, Peng-Peng; Wang, Li-Heng; Tong, Shao-Qing; Duan, Rui-Qi

    2016-07-01

    Granite is one rock type used to host high-level radioactive waste repositories, and the structure of microcracks in the rock can influence its hydraulic characteristics. Thus, a quantitative analysis of granite microcracks is relevant for understanding the hydrogeological characteristics of the rocks surrounding geological repositories. The analysis can also contribute scientific data to a seepage model for low permeability rocks and materials with microscopic pores. In this study, seven granite core samples were drilled from different depths up to 600 m in Alxa, Inner Mongolia, China. Using a grid survey method and image processing technology, micrographs were converted into binary images of microcracks. The geometric parameters of the microcracks, including their quantity, width, cranny ratio, crack intersections and dimensional parameters of the fracture network, were analyzed in order to fully describe their spatial distribution. In addition, the morphological characteristics and elemental compositions of the microcracks were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDS), and the natural moisture content was also determined through heated. Finally, two-dimensional microcrack network seepage models of the granite samples were simulated using the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), which revealed the influence of the microcrack structure on their connectivity. The results show that the growth and development of microcracks in the granite samples generally decreases as sampling depth increases in this study area. Connectivity is positively correlated with a number of the geometric parameters: the quantity of microcracks, the cranny ratio, the number of crack intersections and dimensional parameters of the fracture network, which is revealed in the two-dimensional microcrack network seepage models for these granite samples.

  1. A 3D Magnetotelluric Perspective on the Galway Granite, Western Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Thomas; Muller, Mark; Vozar, Jan; Feely, Martin; Hogg, Colin

    2017-04-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) and audi-magnetotelluric (AMT) data were acquired at 75 locations across the exposed calc-alkaline Caledonian Galway granite batholith and surrounding country rocks into which the granite intruded. The Galway granite is located in western Ireland on the north shore of Galway bay, and has an ESE-WNW long axis. The granite is cut by trans-batholith faults, the Shannawona Fault Zone (SFZ) in the western part of the batholith, which has a NE-SW trend, and the Bearna Fault Zone (BFZ) in the eastern sector that has a NW-SE trend. Geobarometry data indicate that the central granite block between these fault zones has been uplifted, with the interpretation being that the granite in this central block is thinned. To the west of the SFZ, much of the Galway granite is below sea level, with the majority of the southern granite contact also beneath the sea in Galway bay. To the east of the batholith, the Carboniferous successions, consisting of mainly limestone with shale, overlie the basement rocks. The country rock to the north includes the metagabbro-gneiss suite, which itself intruded the deformed Dalradian successions that were deposited on the Laurentian margin of the Iapetus Ocean. The deformation of the Dalradian rocks, the intrusion of the metagabbro-gneiss suite and the intrusion of the Galway granite were major events in the protracted closure of the Iapetus Ocean. It is clear from geological mapping, from geobarometry and from the present submergence by the sea of a large part of the Galway granite, that inversion of MT data in this structurally complex geology is likely to require a 3D approach. We present a summary of 3D inversion of the Galway MT and AMT data. The study shows that the structure of the Galway granite is quite different from the pre-existing perspective. The central block, thought by its uplifting to be thinned, is shown to be the thickest part of the batholith. A geological model of granite intrusion is offered to explain this

  2. Contribution of Portuguese two-mica granites to stone built heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Angela; Begonha, Arlindo

    2013-04-01

    The present study deals with the importance of the application of natural stone in monuments in urban setting, both as the main building material during the historical evolution of a city and as a means to increase the public awareness of the social role of geological resources of a specific region. The City of Oporto, World Heritage of the Humanity , has been selected to illustrate the use of the local granite since ancient times to the present day, a two-mica peraluminous granite ,classified as syn-tectonic relatively to the third tectonic deformation phase of the Hercynian orogeny, included in an expressive group that occurs extensively in northern Portugal . The Oporto granite has been the object of several geochemical, structural and geotechnical approaches. Despite the urban development, outcrops of this granite can be observed in different areas of the city, side by side with the urban constructions, and particularly in the imposing and intensely fractured escarpments carved by the river Douro. Oporto monumental heritage goes back to Roman occupation and the profile has been developed by the construction of granite buildings, following history and the social evolution, of an impressive grey architecture according to different styles of granite work that characterize the city in all its aspects, namely the old city wall, the medieval and baroque churches, the neoclassic houses but also the small humble habitations. The Oporto granite is always affected by weathering processes and the buildings exhibit various aspects of stone decay such as granular desintegration, plates, flakes, black crusts, thin black layers, efflorescences and biological colonization. The description of selected sites within the historical centre , where it is possible to recognize the importance of the granite in the character of the city, aims to call the attention to the inextricable role of geology in built heritage and in the culture, as well as to diagnose the deterioration

  3. Vermont granite workers' mortality study.

    PubMed

    Costello, J; Graham, W G

    1988-01-01

    A cohort mortality study was carried out in Vermont granite workers who had been employed between the years 1950 and 1982. The cohort included men who had been exposed to high levels of granite dust prior to 1938-1940 (average cutters to 40 million parts/cubic foot), and those employed at dust levels after 1940, which on average were less than 10 million parts/cubic foot. Deaths were coded by a qualified nosologist and standardized mortality ratios were calculated. The results confirm previous studies that show that death rates from silicosis and tuberculosis, the major health threats in the years before 1940, were essentially eliminated after dust controls. However, we found excessive mortality rates from lung cancer in stone shed workers who had been employed prior to 1930, and hence had been exposed to high levels of granite dust. When information was available, 100% of those dying from lung cancer had been smokers.

  4. New methodical developments for GRANIT

    SciTech Connect

    Baessler, Stefan; Nesvizhevsky, V.; Toperverg, B; Zhernenkov, K.; Gagarski, A; Lychagin, E; Muzychka, A; Strelkov, A; Mietke, A

    2011-01-01

    New methodical developments for the GRANIT spectrometer address further improvements of the critical parameters of this experimental installation, as well as its applications to new fields of research. Keeping in mind an extremely small fraction of ultra cold neutrons (UCN) that could be bound in gravitational quantum states, we look for methods to increase statistics due to: developing UCN sources with maximum phase-space density, counting simultaneously a large fraction of neutrons using position-sensitive detectors, and decreasing detector backgrounds. Also we explore an eventual application of the GRANIT spectrometer beyond the scope of its initial goals, for instance, for reflectometry with UCN.

  5. Numerical simulation of CO2 leakage from a geologic disposal reservoir including transitions from super- to sub-critical conditions, and boiling of liquid of CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten

    2003-03-31

    The critical point of CO{sub 2} is at temperature and pressure conditions of T{sub crit} = 31.04 C, P{sub crit} = 73.82 bar. At lower (subcritical) temperatures and/or pressures, CO{sub 2} can exist in two different phase states, a liquid and a gaseous state, as well as in two-phase mixtures of these states. Disposal of CO{sub 2} into brine formations would be made at supercritical pressures. However, CO{sub 2} escaping from the storage reservoir may migrate upwards towards regions with lower temperatures and pressures, where CO{sub 2} would be in subcritical conditions. An assessment of the fate of leaking CO{sub 2} requires a capability to model not only supercritical but also subcritical CO{sub 2}, as well as phase changes between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2} in sub-critical conditions. We have developed a methodology for numerically simulating the behavior of water-CO{sub 2} mixtures in permeable media under conditions that may include liquid, gaseous, and supercritical CO{sub 2}. This has been applied to simulations of leakage from a deep storage reservoir in which a rising CO{sub 2} plume undergoes transitions from supercritical to subcritical conditions. We find strong cooling effects when liquid CO{sub 2} rises to elevations where it begins to boil and evolve a gaseous CO{sub 2} phase. A three-phase zone forms (aqueous - liquid - gas), which over time becomes several hundred meters thick as decreasing temperatures permit liquid CO{sub 2} to advance to shallower elevations. Fluid mobilities are reduced in the three-phase region from phase interference effects. This impedes CO{sub 2} upflow, causes the plume to spread out laterally, and gives rise to dispersed CO{sub 2} discharge at the land surface. Our simulation suggests that temperatures along a CO{sub 2} leakage path may decline to levels low enough so that solid water ice and CO{sub 2} hydrate phases may be formed.

  6. Granites in the Sawuer region of the west Junggar, Xinjiang Province, China: Geochronological and geochemical characteristics and their geodynamic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Fan, Yu; Zhang, Dayu; Cooke, David; Zhao, Guochun

    2008-12-01

    The Sawuer region is located in the west Junggar, Jimunai County of Altay district and Hefeng County of Tacheng district, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, in northwest China. In the study area granitic intrusions are widespread and can be subdivided into I-type granites (Tasite pluton, Sentasi pluton, Wokensala pluton and Kaerjia pluton) and A-type (A 2) granites (Kuoyitasi pluton and Qiaqihai pluton). The I-type granites consist of granite, adamelite, granodiorite, and the A-type granites are mainly represented by alkali granite. SHRIMP U-Pb dating results indicate that the granites in Sawuer region were formed between 337 Ma and 290.7 Ma (late Carboniferous and early Permian), with the I-type granites being formed between 337 Ma and 302.6 Ma, and the A-type between 297.9 and 290.7 Ma. From the older to the youngest granites, their composition changes from calc-alkalic to high-K calc-alkalic, to alkali series, and from I-type to A-type, based on the characteristics of whole rock trace element and rare earth elements geochemistry. This compositional range is the result of a change in the geodynamic regime from compressional to tensional during the late Paleozoic. Strontium, Nd, Pb, O isotope systematics suggest that both the I-type and A-type granites in Sawuer were sourced from the mantle (DM), but with some crustal contamination for the Kuoyitasi pluton. The I-type granites were formed by equilibrium partial melting, while the A-type granites were formed mainly by fractional crystallization. Based on the Rb-Y + Nb and Nb-Y-Ce discrimination criteria by Eby [Eby G.N., 1992. Chemical subdivision of the A-type granitoids: Petrogenetic and tectonic implications. Geology 20, 641-644] and Pearce [Pearce J.A., 1996. Sources and settings of granitic rocks. Episodes 19, 120-125] and comparisons with granites in other regions of northern Xinjiang, the I-type granites were emplaced during a transition from compressional to extensional settings in a post-collision regime, whereas

  7. Subseabed disposal program. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinga, K. R.

    1982-02-01

    This is the seventh annual report describing the results of the investigations of the Subseabed Disposal Program. The program, international in scope, is evaluating the feasibility of disposing of high-level radioactive wastes by burial in certain geologically stable and economically valueless sediments of the deep sea floor.

  8. Microbial activity in argillite waste storage cells for the deep geological disposal of French bituminous medium activity long lived nuclear waste: Impact on redox reaction kinetics and potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, A.; Leone, L.; Charlet, L.

    2009-04-01

    Micro-organisms are ubiquitous and display remarkable capabilities to adapt and survive in the most extreme environmental conditions. It has been recognized that microorganisms can survive in nuclear waste disposal facilities if the required major (P, N, K) and trace elements, a carbon and energy source as well as water are present. The space constraint is of particular interest as it has been shown that bacteria do not prosper in compacted clay. An evaluation of the different types of French medium and high level waste, in a clay-rich host rock storage environment at a depth between 500 and 600 m, has shown that the bituminous waste is the most likely candidate to accommodate significant microbial activity. The waste consists of a mixture of bitumen (source of bio-available organic matter and H2 as a consequence of its degradation and radiolysis) and nitrates and sulphates kept in a stainless steel container. The assumption, that microbes only have an impact on reaction kinetics needs to be reassessed in the case where nitrates and sulphates are present since both are known not to react at low temperatures without bacterial catalysis. The additional impact of both oxy-anions and their reduced species on redox conditions, radionuclide speciation and mobility gives this evaluation their particular relevance. Storage architecture proposes four primary waste containers positioned into armoured cement over packs and placed with others into the waste storage cell itself composed of a cement mantle enforcing the argillite host rock, the latter being characterized by an excavation damaged zone constricted both in space and in time and a pristine part of 60 m thickness. Bacterial activity within the waste and within the pristine argillite is disregarded because of the low water activity (< 0.7) and the lack of space, respectively. The most probable zones of microbial activity, those likely to develop sustainable biofilms are within the interface zones. A major restriction

  9. Multiple-staged granite evolution and TaNb mineralization in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yin; Jinchu, Zhu; Shouxi, Hu

    The Mesozoic post-orogenic granites in South China are widespread. Hundreds of tungsten and tin mineral deposits are closely associated with these granites. However, the number of TaNb deposits including those of the granite-type and the pegmatite-type, are relatively less. On the basis of geology, petrology, geochemistry and mineralization data from 8 ore deposits and related granites, we suggest that the TaNb mineralized granites are the special products of well-evolved granite magmas. The most important W and Sn deposits are clustered in post-Caledonian uplift and adjacent Hercynian-Indosinian depression of the South China orogenic belt. Most of the TaNb mineralizations are found within 20 km from the boundary faults surrounding the South Jiangxi post-Caledonian uplift. The paragenetic features of rare metal elements show that TaNb are accompanied by W in the uplift region, and by Sn in the depression region. The general intrusive sequence of a rare metal-bearing granite complex is: rare metal barren (porphyrytic) biotite granite—W and/or Sn ore-forming granite—TaNb (Sn) mineralized granite. The geological and geochemical data from eight mineralization districts indicate that the TaNb mineralizations are always developed in the last stage of a multiple-stage granite evolution. Albite-rich granite is the most common rock type of the TaNb ore-bearing granite, while the maximum albite contents in different deposits vary from more than 60% to less than 30%. Quartz with "snow ball" structure, topaz, and Li-micas (lepidolite, zinnwaldite, Li-muscovite and protolithionite) exist as common typomorphic minerals. The typical TaNb host are Mn-rich columbite-Tantalite and sometimes microlite and Ta-cassiterite. The pegmatoid crust (stockscheider) can be used as one of the most distinctive indicators for the degree of rare metal-tearing granite evolution based on its thickness and zonation. Compared with the normal granites, the Ta

  10. Textural and chemical evolution of a fractionated granitic system: the Podlesí stock, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, Karel; Müller, Axel; Leichmann, Jaromír; Gabašová, Ananda

    2005-03-01

    The Podlesí granite stock (Czech Republic) is a fractionated, peraluminous, F-, Li- and P-rich, and Sn, W, Nb, Ta-bearing rare-metal granite system. Its magmatic evolution involved processes typical of intrusions related to porphyry type deposits (explosive breccia, comb layers), rare-metal granites (stockscheider), and rare metal pegmatites (extreme F-P-Li enrichment, Nb-Ta-Sn minerals, layering). Geological, textural and mineralogical data suggest that the Podlesí granites evolved from fractionated granitic melt progressively enriched in H 2O, F, P, Li, etc. Quartz, K-feldspar, Fe-Li mica and topaz bear evidence of multistage crystallization that alternated with episodes of resorption. Changes in chemical composition between individual crystal zones and/or populations provide evidence of chemical evolution of the melt. Variations in rock textures mirror changes in the pressure and temperature conditions of crystallization. Equilibrium crystallization was interrupted several times by opening of the system and the consequent adiabatic decrease of pressure and temperature resulted in episodes of nonequilibrium crystallization. The Podlesí granites demonstrate that adiabatic fluctuation of pressure ("swinging eutectic") and boundary-layer crystallization of undercooled melt can explain magmatic layering and unidirectional solidification textures (USTs) in highly fractionated granites.

  11. Long-term environmental impacts of geologic repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Pigford, T.H.

    1983-05-01

    This paper summarizes a study of the long-term environmental impacts of geologic repositories for radioactive wastes. Conceptual repositories in basalt, granite, salt, and tuff were considered. Site-specific hydrological and geochemical parameters were used wherever possible, supplemented with generic parameters when necessary. Radiation doses to future maximally exposed individuals who use the contaminated groundwater and surface water were calculated and compared with a performance criterion of 10/sup -4/ Sv/yr for radiation exposures from probable events. The major contributors to geologic isolation are the absence of groundwater if the repository is in natural salt, the slow dissolution of key radioelements as limited by solubility and by diffusion and convection in groundwater, long water travel times from the waste to the environment, and sorption retardation in the media surrounding the repository. In addition, dilution by surface water can considerably reduce the radiation exposures that result from the small fraction of the waste radioactivity that may ultimately reach the environment. Estimates of environmental impacts are made both for unreprocessed spent fuel and for reprocessing wastes. Accelerated dissolution of waste exposed to groundwater during the period of repository heating is also considered. This study of environmental impacts is a portion of a more comprehensive study of geologic waste disposal carried out by the Waste Isolation System Panel of the US National Research Council.

  12. Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.

    1993-12-01

    This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste, as mandated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The waste forms comprised about 700 metric tons of initial heavy metal (or equivalent units) stored at the INEL: graphite spent fuel, experimental low enriched and highly enriched spent fuel, and high-level waste generated during reprocessing of some spent fuel. Five different waste treatment options were studied; in the analysis, the options and resulting waste forms were analyzed separately and in combination as five waste disposal groups. When the waste forms were studied in combination, the repository was assumed to also contain vitrified high-level waste from three DOE sites for a common basis of comparison and to simulate the impact of the INEL waste forms on a moderate-sized repository, The performance of the waste form was assessed within the context of a whole disposal system, using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191, promulgated in 1985. Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories.

  13. Natural polish in granitic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siman-Tov, S.; Brodsky, E. E.; Stock, G. M.; White, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    Fault mirrors are highly smooth and reflective rock surfaces that are found in many shear zones around the world. Recent studies suggest that fault mirrors are formed during high velocity slip on faults and therefore may serve as an indicator for seismic slip. In contrast, other studies suggest that fault mirrors may form under high normal stress at sub-seismic velocities and at room temperature. Fault mirrors are observed within the fault core of many rock type environments including limestone, dolomite, chert and rhyolite. However, to the best of our knowledge, they are missing in faults hosted in granite. Moreover, mirror-like surfaces form during high velocity rotary shear experiments in many types of rock but not in sheared granite blocks. The absence of fault mirrors in granite is surprising, particularly since there exists extensive glacial polish on granitic bedrock. Glacial polish describes the smooth and reflective rock surfaces formed at the base of glaciers that carved the underlying bedrock. In addition to their import for studies of glacial dynamics and geomorphology, glacially polished surfaces may hold some significance for fault mechanics. Glacial polish and fault mirrors share many similarities. At field exposures they both present highly smooth surfaces and striations that clearly point in the slip direction. Studies on carbonate fault mirrors showed that individual highly reflective surfaces are composed of a thin nanograin layer. Preliminary SEM observations on samples collected from granitic rocks at Yosemite National Park suggest that these polished surfaces are also coated by an ultrathin cohesive layer composed of nanograins. Although there are clear differences between glacial and fault-zone environments, the similarity between these textures, and the fact that both are formed during shear, suggest that a similar mechanism is responsible for their formation. The comparison raises questions about the importance of high fluid contents and

  14. Disposing of Canada's used fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Torgerson, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is assessing the permanent disposal of used nuclear fuel in a waste vault located 500 to 1,000 m deep in the Precambrian granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. The specific objectives of the program are to develop and demonstrate the technology to site, design, build, and operate a disposal facility in a way that creates no, or negligible, burden on future generations. In addition, the program must develop a methodology to evaluate the performance of the disposal system against safety criteria and demonstrate that sites are likely to exist in the Canadian Shield that satisfy regulatory criteria. These criteria are very stringent. As in other national high-level waste management programs, the Canadian concept for the permanent disposal of nuclear fuel wastes employs a multiple barrier system for isolating contaminants from the environment. The current phase of the work is generic in nature and is not site specific. Research and development (R and D) has advanced to the point where the generic concept will be evaluated under the Canadian environmental assessment review process, which involves public hearings and independent scientific review.

  15. IRETHERM: Magnetotelluric studies of Irish radiothermal granites and their geothermal energy potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, T. F.; Jones, A. G.; Muller, M. R.; Feely, M.

    2013-12-01

    The IRETHERM project seeks to develop a strategic understanding of Ireland's deep geothermal energy potential through integrated modeling of new and existing geophysical and geological data. One aspect of IRETHERM's research focuses on Ireland's radiothermal granites, where increased concentrations of radioelements provide elevated heat-production (HP), heat-flow (HF) and subsurface temperatures. An understanding of the contribution of granites to the thermal field of Ireland is of key importance in assessing the geothermal energy potential of this low-enthalpy setting. This study focuses on the Leinster granite, the Galway granite and the buried Kentstown granite. Shallow (<250 m) boreholes were drilled into the exposed Caledonian Leinster and Galway granites as part of an early 1980's EU-funded geothermal project. These studies yielded HP = 2-3 μWm-3 and HF = 80 mWm-2 at the Sally Gap borehole in the Northern Units of the Leinster granite. In the Galway granite batholith, the Costelloe-Murvey granite returned HP = 7 μWm-3 and HF = 77 mWm-2, measured at the Ros a Mhil borehole. The lower heat-flow encountered at the Ros a Mhil borehole suggests that the associated high heat production does not extend to great depth. The buried Kentstown granite has associated with it a significant negative Bouguer anomaly and was intersected by two mineral exploration boreholes at depths of 660 m and 485 m. Heat production has been measured at 2.4 μWm-3 in core samples taken from the weathered top 30m of the granite. The core of this study consists of an ambitious program of magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data acquisition across the three granite bodies, extending over three fieldwork seasons. MT and AMT data were collected at 59 locations along two profiles over the Leinster granite. Preliminary results show that the northern units of the Leinster granite extend to depths of 2-5 km. Over the Galway granite, MT and AMT data have been collected at a total

  16. Archaean greenstone belts and associated granitic rocks - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anhaeusser, Carl R.

    2014-12-01

    Archaean greenstone belts and associated granitic rocks comprise some of the most diverse rock types on the Earth's surface and were formed during the early stages of the development of the planet from Eoarchaean to Neoarchaean times - a period extending back from about 4000 to 2500 million years ago. Because of their great age, these rocks have received unprecedented attention from a wide spectrum of Earth scientists striving to learn more about the evolution of the Earth, including its crust, hydrosphere, atmosphere, the commencement of life, and the nature and distribution of mineral deposits. The knowledge gained thus far has accumulated incrementally, beginning with solid field-based studies, the latter being supplemented with increasingly advanced technological developments that have enabled scientists to probe fundamental questions of Earth history. Archaean granite-greenstone terranes display considerable variability of lithologies and geotectonic events, yet there are unifying characteristics that distinguish them from other geological environments. Most greenstone belts consist of a wide variety of volcanic and sedimentary rocks that reflect different evolutionary conditions of formation and all have invariably been influenced by subsequent geotectonic factors, including the intrusion of ultramafic, mafic and granitic complexes, resulting in widespread deformation, metamorphism, metasomatism, as well as mineralization. Geochemical and isotopic age determinations have shown how complex these ancient rocks are and efforts at understanding the nature and evolution of the hydrosphere, atmosphere and primitive life have made Archaean terranes exciting environments in which to study. Conflicting views as to the nature, history and origin of many of the rock types and events in Archaean terranes has been ongoing and stimulating. This review attempts to describe the main lithotypes and other characteristics of granite-greenstone belt geology and points to some

  17. Military nuclear waste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robb, David W.

    1984-04-01

    A National Research Council (NRC) panel has endorsed a plan for a proposed underground military nuclear waste disposal facility located on a site near Carlsbad, N.M. The Department of Energy (DOE) asked NRC to evaluate the geologic suitability of the site.The NRC panel, chaired by Frank L. Parker of Vanderbilt University, concluded in its final report that “the important issues about the geology of the site have been resolved…” Those issues include the purity and volume of salt, the absence of brine pockets at the repository horizon in the areas excavated, the absence of breccia pipes and of toxic gases, and the nearly horizontal bedding of the salt. Thick underground salt beds have long been considered prime candidates for nuclear waste repositories. The existence of salt beds is believed to indicate long-term stability. In addition, the salt is flexible and will seal cracks and discontinuities over time.

  18. Disposable rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  19. Disposal rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.

    1983-10-12

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  20. Disposable Scholarship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Fredrick

    2004-01-01

    The digital materials that faculty produce for their classrooms often are saved only to storage devices that might become obsolete in a few years. Without an institutional effort to provide access systems, storage, and services for their digital media, are campuses in danger of creating "Disposable Scholarship"? In this article, the author…

  1. Emanation of radon from household granite.

    PubMed

    Kitto, Michael E; Haines, Douglas K; Arauzo, Hernando Diaz

    2009-04-01

    Emanation of radon (222Rn) from granite used for countertops and mantels was measured with continuous and integrating radon monitors. Each of the 24 granite samples emitted a measurable amount of radon. Of the two analytical methods that utilized electret-based detectors, one measured the flux of radon from the granite surfaces, and the other one measured radon levels in a glass jar containing granite cores. Additional methods that were applied utilized alpha-scintillation cells and a continuous radon monitor. Measured radon flux from the granites ranged from 2 to 310 mBq m-2 s-1, with most granites emitting <20 mBq m-2 s-1. Emanation of radon from granites encapsulated in airtight containers produced equilibrium concentrations ranging from <0.01 to 11 Bq kg-1 when alpha-scintillation cells were used, and from <0.01 to 4.0 Bq kg-1 when the continuous radon monitor was used.

  2. 3D density modelling of Gemeric granites of the Western Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šefara, Ján; Bielik, Miroslav; Vozár, Jozef; Katona, Martin; Szalaiová, Viktória; Vozárová, Anna; Šimonová, Barbora; Pánisová, Jaroslava; Schmidt, Sabine; Götze, Hans-Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    The position of the Gemeric Superunit within the Western Carpathians is unique due to the occurrence of the Lower Palaeozoic basement rocks together with the autochthonous Upper Palaeozoic cover. The Gemeric granites play one of the most important roles in the framework of the tectonic evolution of this mountain range. They can be observed in several small intrusions outcropping in the western and south-eastern parts of the Gemeric Superunit. Moreover, these granites are particularly interesting in terms of their mineralogy, petrology and ages. The comprehensive geological and geophysical research of the Gemeric granites can help us to better understand structures and tectonic evolution of the Western Carpathians. Therefore, a new and original 3D density model of the Gemeric granites was created by using the interactive geophysical program IGMAS. The results show clearly that the Gemeric granites represent the most significant upper crustal anomalous low-density body in the structure of the Gemeric Superunit. Their average thickness varies in the range of 5-8 km. The upper boundary of the Gemeric granites is much more rugged in comparison with the lower boundary. There are areas, where the granite body outcrops and/or is very close to the surface and places in which its upper boundary is deeper (on average 1 km in the north and 4-5 km in the south). While the depth of the lower boundary varies from 5-7 km in the north to 9-10 km in the south. The northern boundary of the Gemeric granites along the tectonic contact with the Rakovec and Klátov Groups (North Gemeric Units) was interpreted as very steep (almost vertical). The results of the 3D modelling show that the whole structure of the Gemeric Unit, not only the Gemeric granite itself, has an Alpine north-vergent nappe structure. Also, the model suggests that the Silicicum-Turnaicum and Meliaticum nappe units have been overthrusted onto the Golčatov Group.

  3. The geochemical and Srsbnd Nd isotopic characteristics of Paleozoic fractionated S-types granites of north Queensland: Implications for S-type granite petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champion, David C.; Bultitude, Robert J.

    2013-03-01

    -type granites were derived from unexposed metasedimentary source rocks at depth, consistent with the geology and accretionary tectonic models for the region. Comparison of the S-type granites with nearby similarly extensively fractionated Carboniferous I-type granites shows contrasting geochemical behaviour which appears to relate to ASI-driven changes in solubility of accessory phases. Fractionating peraluminous magmas, like the North Queensland S-type granites, are characterised by increasing ASI, P2O5 and strongly decreasing Th, LREE, HREE, Zr and Y. In contrast, P2O5 strongly decreases while ASI, Th, LREE, HREE, Zr and Y increase or are constant within the I-type granites. These differences, which are also observable between I- and S-type granites elsewhere, provide evidence of how the nature of the source can control the behaviour of even the most fractionated granites.

  4. Disposability Assessment: Aluminum-Based Spent Nuclear Fuel Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D.W.

    1998-11-06

    This report provides a technical assessment of the Melt-Dilute and Direct Al-SNF forms in disposable canisters with respect to meeting the requirements for disposal in the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) and for interim dry storage in the Treatment and Storage Facility (TSF) at SRS.

  5. Thermomechanical properties of Stripa granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myer, L.

    1982-09-01

    The Stripa material properties testing program was initiated to study, by laboratory testing, the thermomechanical behavior of the Stripa rock mass and to provide material properties for input into numerical programs for simulation of the in situ heater experiments at Stripa. Measurement of elastic moduli and coefficients of thermal expansion of dry, intact samples of Stripa granite was completed in fiscal year 1980. A summary of the most significant findings resulting from tests on six samples are presented.

  6. The nature of flow and sediment movement in Little Granite Creek near Bondurant, Wyoming

    Treesearch

    Sandra E. Ryan; William W. Emmett

    2002-01-01

    Sediment and flow measurements were made during the course of 13 runoff seasons between 1982 and 1997 on a gravel-bed stream near Bondurant, Wyoming. The data for Little Granite Creek, compiled through the efforts of the U.S. Geological Survey and USDA Forest Service, is one of the most comprehensive databases on transport processes for an individual site available as...

  7. The density of dry and hydrous granitic magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malfait, W. J.; Sanchez-Valle, C.; Seifert, R.; Petitgirard, S.; Perrillat, J.

    2011-12-01

    volatile content of the samples. Our results, combined with literature data on granite melt density at atmospheric pressure, provides the first experimentally derived equation of state of dry and hydrous granitic liquids at crustal and upper mantle conditions. This equation of state enables the prediction of the partial molar volume of water and granite melt density for the pressures, temperatures and water contents relevant for partial melting in the lower crust, melt migration through the middle crust and the emplacement of intrusions in the upper crust. [1] N. Petford, A.R. Cruden, K.J.W. McCaffrey, J.-L. Vigneresse, 2000, Nature, 408, 669. [2] Y. Tatsumi, 2000, Geology, 29, 323. [3] N.L. Bowen, 1956, The evolution of igneous rocks. [4] W.A. Chrichton, M. Mezouar, 2002, High Temp.-High Press, 34, 235.

  8. Crustal structure of the Archaean granite-greenstone terrane in the northern portion of the Kaapvaal Craton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debeer, J. H.; Stettler, E. H.; Barton, J. M., Jr.; Vanreenen, D. D.; Bearncombe, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    Recent investigations of the electrical resistivity, gravity and aeromagnetic signatures of the various granite-greenstone units in the northern portion of the Kaapvaal craton have revealed three features of significance: (1) the Archean greenstone belts are shallow features, rarely exceeding 5 km in depth; (2) the high resistivity upper crustal layer typical of the lower grade granite-greenstone terranes is absent in the granulite facies terrane; and (3) the aeromagnetic lineation patterns allow the granite-greenstone terrane to be subdivided into geologically recognizable tectono-metamorphic domains on the basis of lineation frequency and direction. A discussion follows.

  9. Geochemical characteristics of the Bulgarmarse Granite of the Fall River Pluton in the Avalonian Superterrane of southeastern New England

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, C.I.; Puffer, J.H. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    The 600 m.y. Bulgarmarsh Granite of the Fall River Pluton crops out along the SE margin of the Pennsylvanian-age Narragansett Basin in the Dedham terrane of the New England Avalonian Superterrane. The Bulgarmarsh is a coarse-grained, quartz-rich, very leucooratic granite, in which mafic minerals, generally less than 5--8%, occur chiefly as chlorite, biotite and garnet disequilibrium intergrowths. Most of the granite is very slightly deformed, but there are many localized zones of deformation, both brittle and plastic, that vary in degree of intensity. The Bulgarmarsh intrudes Basin margin metavolcanics similar to those of Price Neck Formation that crop out within the Basin in Newport and on Gould Island. The Bulgarmarsh Granite has many of the mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of an A-type granite. Its geochemistry places it in the post-orogenic classification of Maniar and Piccoli (1989). New major and minor element geochemical data clearly discriminate between the Bulgarmarsh Granite and the adjacent calc-alkaline Metacom Granite Gneiss. Avalonian Orogeny, occupying a place in geologic history similar to that of the Newport Granite.

  10. Granite petrogenesis revealed by combined gravimetric and radiometric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartèse, Romain; Boulvais, Philippe; Poujol, Marc; Vigneresse, Jean-Louis

    2011-03-01

    In peneplaned terranes, it is often impossible to get a full 3D view of geological objects. In the case of granitic plutons, for which intrusive relationships between constituent units can provide first order information regarding their petrogenesis, this lack of 3D field evidence is a major issue. Indirect observations can be provided by geophysical surveys. Here, we interpret field gravity data and airborne gamma ray radiometric maps with whole rock geochemistry data in order to obtain information on granite petrogenesis. First, we test our proposed combined geophysical and geochemical approach on the Huelgoat Variscan intrusion (Armorican Massif, France) and we show that ternary radiometric maps are a good proxy for the distribution of K, U and Th radioelements. Then, we apply our method to the Lizio and Questembert Variscan granitic intrusions (Armorican Massif) and show that some features characteristic of the intrusions, such as the feeding zones, can be localised by geophysical imaging. Indeed, radiometric maps constitute a frozen image of the latest stage of the magmatic building of plutons.

  11. Study of the contaminant transport into granite microfractures using nuclear ion beam techniques.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Ursula; Missana, Tiziana; Patelli, Alessandro; Rigato, Valentino; Rivas, Pedro

    2003-03-01

    Hydrated bentonite is a very plastic material and it is expected to enter in the rock microfractures at the granite/bentonite boundary of a deep geological high-level waste repository. This process is enhanced by the high swelling pressure of the clay. Since bentonite has a very good sorption capability for many radionuclides, the displacement of the clay might lead to a "clay-mediated" contaminant transport into the rock. The aim of this work is to study the contaminant transport into granite microfractures using nuclear ion beam techniques, and to determine to what extent the clay can favour it. To do so, bentonite previously doped with uranium, cesium and europium was put in contact with the surface of granite sheets. Granite sheets contacted with non-doped bentonite and with radionuclide solutions were also prepared as references. This allowed analysing the differences in the diffusion behaviour of the three systems: clay, radionuclides and clay plus radionuclides. A combination of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and other nuclear ion-beam techniques such as particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and microPIXE was used to study the depth and lateral distribution of clay and contaminants inside granite. It was also tried to evaluate not only the diffusion depth and diffusion coefficients but also the different areas of the granite where the diffusants have a preferential access.

  12. Rapakivi Granite: An architectural emblem of St Petersburg and its utilisation in other world cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulakh, Andrey; Gavrilenko, Vladimir; Panova, Helen

    2015-04-01

    . (In Russian). 3) Bulakh, A. G. Stone Town Guide, St Petersburg, 1-5. URL: [PDF] stone - GTK - Projects projects.gtk.fi/export/.../Bulakh_Stone_Guide 4) Paavo, H, Selonen, O, Luodes, H. The Wiborg Granite Batholith. The Main Production Area for Granite in Finland. Engineering Geology for Society and Territory - Volume 5. Springer. 2015. P. 259-262. 5) Bulakh, A. G. Ornamental Stone in the History of St Petersburg Architecture. Geological Society, London, 2015. SP407. Global Heritage Stone: Towards International Recognition of Building and Ornamental Stones.

  13. Differential weathering of basaltic and granitic catchments from concentration-discharge relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Daniel E.; Caves, Jeremy K.; Moon, Seulgi; Thomas, Dana L.; Hartmann, Jens; Chamberlain, C. Page; Maher, Kate

    2016-10-01

    A negative feedback between silicate weathering rates and climate is hypothesized to play a central role in moderating atmospheric CO2 concentrations on geologic timescales. However, uncertainty regarding the processes that regulate the operation of the negative feedback limits our ability to interpret past variations in the ocean-atmosphere carbon cycle. In particular, the mechanisms that determine the flux of weathered material for a given climatic state are still poorly understood. Here, we quantify the processes that determine catchment-scale solute fluxes for two lithologic end-members-basalt and granite-by applying a recently developed solute production model that links weathering fluxes to both discharge and the reactivity of the weathering material. We evaluate the model against long-term monitoring of concentration-discharge relationships from basaltic and granitic catchments to determine the parameters associated with solute production in each catchment. Higher weathering rates in basaltic catchments relative to granitic catchments are driven by differing responses to increases in runoff, with basaltic catchments showing less dilution with increasing runoff. In addition, results from the solute production model suggest that thermodynamic constraints on weathering reactions could explain higher concentrations in basaltic catchments at lower runoff compared to granitic catchments. To understand how the response to changing discharge controls weathering fluxes under different climatic states, we define basalt/granite weatherability as the ratio of the basalt catchment flux to the granite catchment flux. This weatherability is runoff-dependent and increases with increasing runoff. For HCO3- and SiO2(aq) fluxes, for modern global runoff, the derived mean basalt/granite weatherability is 2.2 (1.3-3.7, 2σ) and 1.7 (1.6-2.1, 2σ), respectively. Although we cannot determine the array of individual processes resulting in differences among catchments, the relative

  14. Disposal phase experimental program plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility comprises surface and subsurface facilities, including a repository mined in a bedded salt formation at a depth of 2,150 feet. It has been developed to safely and permanently isolate transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes in a deep geological disposal site. On April 12, 1996, the DOE submitted a revised Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The DOE anticipates receiving an operating permit from the NMED; this permit is required prior to the start of disposal operations. On October 29, 1996, the DOE submitted a Compliance Certification Application (CCA) to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in accordance with the WIPP land Withdrawal Act (LWA) of 1992 (Public Law 102-579) as amended, and the requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR) Parts 191 and 194. The DOE plans to begin disposal operations at the WIPP in November 1997 following receipt of certification by the EPA. The disposal phase is expected to last for 35 years, and will include recertification activities no less than once every five years. This Disposal Phase Experimental Program (DPEP) Plan outlines the experimental program to be conducted during the first 5-year recertification period. It also forms the basis for longer-term activities to be carried out throughout the 35-year disposal phase. Once the WIPP has been shown to be in compliance with regulatory requirements, the disposal phase gives an opportunity to affirm the compliance status of the WIPP, enhance the operations of the WIPP and the national TRU system, and contribute to the resolution of national and international nuclear waste management technical needs. The WIPP is the first facility of its kind in the world. As such, it provides a unique opportunity to advance the technical state of the art for permanent disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes.

  15. Analyses of SRS waste glass buried in granite in Sweden and salt in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.P.; Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Lodding, A.R.

    1991-12-31

    Simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste glass forms have been buried in the granite geology of the Stirpa mine in Sweden for two years. Analyses of glass surfaces provided a measure of the performance of the waste glasses as a function of time. Similar SRS waste glass compositions have also been buried in salt at the WIPP facility in Carlsbad, New Mexico for a similar time period. Analyses of the SRS waste glasses buried in-situ in granite will be presented and compared to the performance of these same compositions buried in salt at WIPP.

  16. Analyses of SRS waste glass buried in granite in Sweden and salt in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.P. ); Wicks, G.G. ); Clark, D.E. ); Lodding, A.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste glass forms have been buried in the granite geology of the Stirpa mine in Sweden for two years. Analyses of glass surfaces provided a measure of the performance of the waste glasses as a function of time. Similar SRS waste glass compositions have also been buried in salt at the WIPP facility in Carlsbad, New Mexico for a similar time period. Analyses of the SRS waste glasses buried in-situ in granite will be presented and compared to the performance of these same compositions buried in salt at WIPP.

  17. 6. Photocopied August 1971 from Photo 13731, Granite Folder #1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopied August 1971 from Photo 13731, Granite Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. GRANITE STATION, MAY 24, 1915. - Utah Power Company, Granite Hydroelectric Plant, Holladay, Salt Lake County, UT

  18. Potential source for crushed granite aggregate in Heard County, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkins, R.L.; Higgins, Michael W.; Dickerson, Robert P.

    1981-01-01

    The production of crushed stone suitable for highway and general construction is a major industry in Georgia. The state ranks eighth in the nation in overall crushed stone production, and first in crushed granite production. Crushed stone production in Georgia in 1979 was 40,902,000 short tons worth $154,021,000 (D.H. White, Jr., US Bureau of Mines, personal commun., Aug. 1980). More than 3,000 people were employed by the crushed stone industry in Georgia during that year.Presently, the only active quarry in Heard County is located in an amphibolite. Amphibolite is not a conventional aggregate. It has a high specific gravity, a tendency to make elongate fragments, and varies considerably in abrasion tests.Because the nearest approved aggregate quarry is more than 25 miles from Franklin, the county seat, the purpose of this brief report is to describe a body of granite gneiss that may provide suitable aggregate for the crushed stone industry, potential quarry operators and various agencies in Heard County. This report is part of a project to study the geology and mineral resources of the Piedmont south of the Brevard Zone, and is not intended to supplant detailed site investigations by industry or consultants. The report is a joint effort between the Georgia Geologic Survey and the Office of Materials and Research of the Georgia Department of Transportation.

  19. URANIUM-SERIES DISEQUILIBRIUM IN TUFF AND GRANITE:HYDROGEOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    M. Gasscoyne; N.H. Miller

    2000-10-27

    Uranium occurs naturally at trace levels in the major rock-forming minerals (quartz, feldspars, micas) in volcanic and plutonic rocks and is concentrated in accessory minerals (zircon, sphene, apatite). It may attain concentrations as high as 1000 ppm in the accessory minerals. Radiometric age determinations on zircon and sphene have shown that uranium migration from these minerals is generally negligible over prolonged periods of geologic time. Zircon grains separated from highly weathered igneous rocks have been found to retain most of their uranium. In contrast, the uranium fixed onto mineral grain boundaries or present in less-resistant minerals such as biotite or hornblende can be readily leached by groundwater. The ubiquitous presence of uranium in a rock makes it an ideal ''natural analogue'' for understanding the mobility of uranium at a potential site for nuclear fuel waste disposal and one that is easily overlooked in the search for suitable analogues for a disposal site. Several of the intermediate radionuclides in the decay series of the two long-lived isotopes of uranium ({sup 238}U and {sup 235}U) have half-lives greater than one year and are, therefore, of geological interest. In a sealed rock mass with no water-rock interactions, all intermediate radionuclides attain radioactive equilibrium with one another within a maximum 1-2 million years. Because rocks of the Yucca Mountain area and the Canadian Shield (both potential sites for nuclear waste disposal in the United States and Canadian programs, respectively) are considerably older, this condition (known as secular equilibrium) should exist in these rocks, and all daughter/parent radionuclide activity ratios should equal unity (1.000). If the ratios are found not to equal unity, then the rock has been disturbed, probably by groundwater transport of more soluble radionuclides into or away from the rock. How recently this migration has occurred can be determined from the half-life of the

  20. Geochemical evaluation of different groundwater-host rock systems for radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Metz, V; Kienzler, B; Schüssler, W

    2003-03-01

    The geochemical suitability of a deep bedrock repository for radioactive waste disposal is determined by the composition of geomatrix and groundwater. Both influence radionuclide solubility, chemical buffer capacity and radionuclide retention. They also determine the chemical compatibility of waste forms, containers and backfill materials. Evaluation of different groundwater-host rock systems is performed by modeling the geochemical environments and the resulting radionuclide concentrations. In order to demonstrate the evaluation method, model calculations are applied to data sets available for various geological formations such as granite, clay and rocksalt. The saturation state of the groundwater-geomatrix system is found to be fundamental for the evaluation process. Hence, calculations are performed to determine if groundwater is in equilibrium with mineral phases of the geological formation. In addition, corrosion of waste forms in different groundwater is examined by means of reaction path modeling. The corrosion reactions change the solution compositions and pH, resulting in significant changes of radionuclide solubilities. The results demonstrate that geochemical modeling of saturation state and compatibility of the host formation environment with the radioactive waste proves to be a feasible tool for evaluation of various sites considered as deep underground repositories. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  1. Fracture process zone in granite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zang, A.; Wagner, F.C.; Stanchits, S.; Janssen, C.; Dresen, G.

    2000-01-01

    In uniaxial compression tests performed on Aue granite cores (diameter 50 mm, length 100 mm), a steel loading plate was used to induce the formation of a discrete shear fracture. A zone of distributed microcracks surrounds the tip of the propagating fracture. This process zone is imaged by locating acoustic emission events using 12 piezoceramic sensors attached to the samples. Propagation velocity of the process zone is varied by using the rate of acoustic emissions to control the applied axial force. The resulting velocities range from 2 mm/s in displacement-controlled tests to 2 ??m/s in tests controlled by acoustic emission rate. Wave velocities and amplitudes are monitored during fault formation. P waves transmitted through the approaching process zone show a drop in amplitude of 26 dB, and ultrasonic velocities are reduced by 10%. The width of the process zone is ???9 times the grain diameter inferred from acoustic data but is only 2 times the grain size from optical crack inspection. The process zone of fast propagating fractures is wider than for slow ones. The density of microcracks and acoustic emissions increases approaching the main fracture. Shear displacement scales linearly with fracture length. Fault plane solutions from acoustic events show similar orientation of nodal planes on both sides of the shear fracture. The ratio of the process zone width to the fault length in Aue granite ranges from 0.01 to 0.1 inferred from crack data and acoustic emissions, respectively. The fracture surface energy is estimated from microstructure analysis to be ???2 J. A lower bound estimate for the energy dissipated by acoustic events is 0.1 J. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  3. Ulkan-Dzhugdzhur ore-bearing anorthosite-rapakivi granite-peralkaline granite association, Siberian Craton: Age, tectonic setting, sources, and metallogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, A. M.

    2014-07-01

    The paper systematizes and integrates the results of geological, isotopic geochronological, and geochemical studies of the igneous rocks that make up the Ulkan-Dzhugdzhur anorthosite-rapakivi granite-peralkaline granite association and related mineralization. This association is a typical example of anorogenic igneous rocks that formed in the within-plate geodynamic setting most likely under effect of the mantle superplume, which was active in the territory of the Siberian Craton 1.75-1.70 Ga ago. The igneous rock association formed in a discrete regime that reflected the pulsatory evolution of a sublithospheric mantle source. The prerift (1736-1727 Ma) and rift proper (1722-1705 Ma) stages and a number of substages are distinguished. All igneous rocks pertaining to this association have mixed mantle-crustal origin. Basic rocks crystallized from the OIB-type basaltic magma, which underwent crustal contamination at various depths. Felsic rocks are products of mantle and crustal magma mixing. The contribution of mantle component progressively increased in a time-dependent sequence: moderately alkaline subsolvus granite → moderately alkaline and alkaline hypersolvus granites → peralkaline hypersolvus granite. All endogenic deposits in the studied district are related to a single source represented by the mantle plume and its derivatives. The Fe-Ti-apatite deposits hosted in anorthosite formed as a result of intense lower crustal contamination of basaltic magma near the Moho discontinuity and two stages of fractional crystallization at lower and upper crustal depth levels. The rare-metal deposits are genetically related to peralkaline granite. Formation of uranium deposits was most likely caused by Middle Riphean rejuvenation of the region, which also involved rocks of the Ulkan-Dzhugdzhur association.

  4. DOE SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    F. Habashi

    1998-06-26

    The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container (SNF DC) supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the access mains, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container provides long term confinement of DOE SNF waste, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. The DOE SNF Disposal Containers provide containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limit radionuclide release thereafter. The disposal containers maintain the waste in a designated configuration, withstand maximum handling and rockfall loads, limit the individual waste canister temperatures after emplacement. The disposal containers also limit the introduction of moderator into the disposal container during the criticality control period, resist corrosion in the expected repository environment, and provide complete or limited containment of waste in the event of an accident. Multiple disposal container designs may be needed to accommodate the expected range of DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel. The disposal container will include outer and inner barrier walls and outer and inner barrier lids. Exterior labels will identify the disposal container and contents. Differing metal barriers will support the design philosophy of defense in depth. The use of materials with different failure mechanisms prevents a single mode failure from breaching the waste package. The corrosion-resistant inner barrier and inner barrier lid will be constructed of a high-nickel alloy and the corrosion-allowance outer barrier and outer barrier lid will be made of carbon steel. The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Containers interface with the emplacement drift environment by transferring heat from the waste to the external environment and by protecting

  5. Two-mica granites of northeastern Nevada.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, D.E.; Kistler, R.W.; Friedman, I.; Van Loenen, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The field settings are described and analytical data are presented for six two-mica granites from NE Nevada. High delta 18O and 87Sr/86Sr values indicate that all are S-type granite, derived from continental crust. The major element chemistry and accessory mineral contents of these rocks also are characteristic of S-type granites. Chemical, X ray, and other data are presented for the micas recovered from these granites. The muscovites are notably high in Fe2O3, FeO, and MgO. Except for one hydrobiotite, each of the biotites has an MgO content near 6.0 wt%. Two different types of two-mica granites are recognized in the area of this study. One type is distinguished by the presence of many biotite euhedra within muscovite phenocrysts and by an unusual suite of accessory minerals completely devoid of opaque oxides. This type probably resulted from anatexis of late Precambrian argillites under conditions of relatively low oxygen fugacity, along a line that roughly coincides with the westward disappearance of continental basement. In the other textural type of two-mica granite the micas are equigranular and there is a greater variety of accessory minerals. The magmatic evolution of this type also appears to reflect the influence of late Precambrian argillites; there may be age differences between the two types of two-mica granites.-Author

  6. Lunar granites with unique ternary feldspars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, G.; Stoeser, D. B.; Marvin, U. B.; Bower, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    An unusually high concentration of granitic fragments, with textures ranging from holocrystalline to glassy, occurs throughout Boulder 1, a complex breccia of highland rocks from Apollo 17, Station 2. Among the minerals included in the granites are enigmatic K-Ca-rich feldspars that fall in the forbidden region of the ternary diagram. The great variability in chemistry and texture is probably the result of impact degradation and melting of a granitic source-rock. Studies of the breccia matrix suggest that this original granitic source-rock may have contained more pyroxenes and phosphates than most of the present clasts contain. Petrographic observations on Apollo 15 KREEP basalts indicate that granitic liquids may be produced by differentiation without immiscibility, and the association of the granites with KREEP-rich fragments in the boulder suggests that the granites represent a residual liquid from the plutonic fractional crystallization of a KREEP-rich magma. Boulder 1 is unique among Apollo 17 samples in its silica-KREEP-rich composition. We conclude that the boulder represents a source-rock unlike the bedrock of South Massif.

  7. Sorption and diffusion of selenium oxyanions in granitic rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikonen, Jussi; Voutilainen, Mikko; Söderlund, Mervi; Jokelainen, Lalli; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja; Martin, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    The processes controlling diffusion and sorption of radionuclides have been studied extensively in the laboratory, whereas, only a few in-situ experiments have been carried out in order to study in-situ diffusion over the long-term (several years). This is largely due to the fact that in-situ experiments are typically time consuming and cost intensive, and it is commonly accepted that laboratory scale tests are well-established approaches to characterizing the properties of geological media. In order to assess the relevance of laboratory experiments, the Swiss National Cooperative for Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) have been conducting extensive experiments in the Underground Rock Laboratory (URL) at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in order to study radionuclide transport and retention in-situ. One of the elements used in these experiments is non-radioactive selenium, as an analog for the radiotoxic isotope Se-79, which is present in radioactive waste. In this work, two laboratory through-diffusion experiments using selenium as a tracer were carried out in block (decimeter) scale rock specimens to support one of the ongoing radionuclide transport and retention in-situ experiment at the GTS mentioned above. The though-diffusion tests of selenium were performed under atmospheric conditions in both Kuru grey granite (KGG) and Grimsel granodiorite (GG). The decrease of selenium concentration in an inlet hole drilled into each of the rock samples and the breakthrough of selenium into sampling holes drilled around the inlet were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The effective diffusion (De) and distribution coefficients (Kd) of selenium were then determined from the changes of selenium concentration in the inlet and sampling holes using a Time-Domain Diffusion (TDD) simulations. In addition, Kd of selenium was measured by batch sorption experiments as a function of pH and Se concentration in atmospheric conditions and nitrogen

  8. Sorption and diffusion of selenium oxyanions in granitic rock.

    PubMed

    Ikonen, Jussi; Voutilainen, Mikko; Söderlund, Mervi; Jokelainen, Lalli; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja; Martin, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    The processes controlling diffusion and sorption of radionuclides have been studied extensively in the laboratory, whereas, only a few in-situ experiments have been carried out in order to study in-situ diffusion over the long-term (several years). This is largely due to the fact that in-situ experiments are typically time consuming and cost intensive, and it is commonly accepted that laboratory scale tests are well-established approaches to characterizing the properties of geological media. In order to assess the relevance of laboratory experiments, the Swiss National Cooperative for Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) have been conducting extensive experiments in the Underground Rock Laboratory (URL) at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in order to study radionuclide transport and retention in-situ. One of the elements used in these experiments is non-radioactive selenium, as an analog for the radiotoxic isotope Se-79, which is present in radioactive waste. In this work, two laboratory through-diffusion experiments using selenium as a tracer were carried out in block (decimeter) scale rock specimens to support one of the ongoing radionuclide transport and retention in-situ experiment at the GTS mentioned above. The though-diffusion tests of selenium were performed under atmospheric conditions in both Kuru grey granite (KGG) and Grimsel granodiorite (GG). The decrease of selenium concentration in an inlet hole drilled into each of the rock samples and the breakthrough of selenium into sampling holes drilled around the inlet were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The effective diffusion (De) and distribution coefficients (Kd) of selenium were then determined from the changes of selenium concentration in the inlet and sampling holes using a Time-Domain Diffusion (TDD) simulations. In addition, Kd of selenium was measured by batch sorption experiments as a function of pH and Se concentration in atmospheric conditions and nitrogen

  9. CO2 laser cutting of natural granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveiro, A.; Mejías, A.; Soto, R.; Quintero, F.; del Val, J.; Boutinguiza, M.; Lusquiños, F.; Pardo, J.; Pou, J.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial black granite boards (trade name: "Zimbabwe black granite") 10 mm thick, were successfully cut by a 3.5 kW CO2 laser source. Cutting quality, in terms of kerf width and roughness of the cut wall, was assessed by means of statistically planned experiments. No chemical modification of the material in the cutting walls was detected by the laser beam action. Costs associated to the process were calculated, and the main factors affecting them were identified. Results reported here demonstrate that cutting granite boards could be a new application of CO2 laser cutting machines provided a supersonic nozzle is used.

  10. Potassium-argon dating of the cape granite and a granitized xenolith at sea point.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, G D; Basson, H H; Verbeek, A A

    1968-11-01

    Ages obtained by potassium-argon dating are reported for the total rock, light mineral fraction and heavy mineral fractions of the Cape Granite, and of a granitized xenolith derived from the Malmesbury sediments. These ages lie between 430 and 554 million years. The heavy mineral fractions from each rock type show the oldest age, 540 (granite) and 554 (xenolith) million years. These ages are interpreted as lower limits, and the granite age confirms the age of 553 million years found by rubidium-strontium dating. The coincidence of the ages of the different fractions of the granite and xenolith samples is discussed in the light of the different suggestions about the age of the Malmesbury sediments. The conclusion is reached that all pre-granitization history has been eliminated. The possibility of the use of argon retention as a measure of metamorphic activity is suggested.

  11. Radionuclide migration in clayrock host formations for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste: advances in process understanding and up-scaling methods resulting from the EC integrated project `Funmig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmann, S.; Tournassat, C.; Goutelard, F.; Parneix, J. C.; Gimmi, T.; Maes, N.

    2009-04-01

    One of the ‘pillars' supporting Safety Cases for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in clayrock formations is the knowledge base regarding radionuclide (Rn) retention by sorption and diffusion-driven transport which is why the EC integrated project ‘Funmig' focused a major part of its effort on advancing understanding of these two macroscopic phenomena. This talk presents some of the main results of this four year effort (2005-2008). One of the keys to understanding diffusion-driven transport of anionic and cationic radionuclide species in clayrocks lies in a detailed understanding of the phenomena governing Rn total concentration and speciation (dissolved, adsorbed) in the different types of pore spaces present in highly-compacted masses of permanently charged clay minerals. Work carried out on a specifically synthesized montmorillonite (a model for the clay mineral fraction in clayrocks) led to development, and preliminary experimental validation, of a conceptually coherent set of theoretical models (molecular dynamics, electrostatic double layer, thermodynamic) describing dissolved ion and water solvent behavior in this material. This work, complemented by the existing state of the art, provides a sound theoretical basis for explaining such important phenomena as anion exclusion, cation exchange and the diffusion behavior of anions, weakly sorbing cations and water tracers. Concerning the behavior of strongly sorbing and/or redox-reactive radionuclides in clay systems, project research improved understanding of the nature of sorption reactions and sorbed species structure for key radioelements, or analogues (U, Se, Eu, Sm, Yb, Nd) on the basal surfaces and in the interlayers of synthetic or purified clay minerals. A probable mechanism for Se(IV) retention by reduction to Se° in Fe2+-containing clays was brought to light; this same process was also studied on the Callovo-Oxfordien clayrock targeted by the French radwaste management program. The

  12. Grusification of granite (scheme based on the study of granites from Sudety Mts., SW Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajdas, Bartlomiej; Michalik, Marek

    2014-05-01

    Gruses that are developed on the Karkonosze granite (three outcrops) and the Izera granite (one outcrop) were investigated using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS and electron microprobe, X-ray diffraction, IR spectrometry, chemical analysis (ICP-AES and ICP-MS), hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratio determination and K-Ar dating. Three groups of samples were distinguished according to the degree of grusification (group I - compact granite; group II - friable granite; group III - granitic grus). The results of the examination allowed to present the simplified scheme of the grusification: 1. Development of microcracks (caused by tectonic stress, mechanical upload or magma cooling processes) promote circulation of hydrothermal fluids in granites; 2. The presence of the microcracks in granite facilitate the circulation of low-temperature fluids (low-temperature hydrothermal or weathering fluids). Fluids cause hydration and expansion of primary biotite (vermiculitization), what leads to development of secondary cracks in a rock. Fluids can also induce advanced alteration of plagioclases into clay minerals (mainly smectite or vermiculite). Expansion of biotite during vermiculitization is the most important factor in grusification. Other processes of alteration also contribute to grusification. Hydrothermal fluids in granite contribute the increase of alteration degree of primary minerals (e.g. sericitization and albitization of feldspar, chloritization or muscovitization of biotite, decomposition of monazite-(Ce) and formation of secondary REE phosphates). If primary biotite is subjected to muscovitization or chloritization, complete grusification of granite does not occur because of lack of vermiculitation.

  13. The use of protective barriers to deter inadvertent human intrusion into a mined geologic facility for the disposal of radioactive waste: A review of previous investigations and potential concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Tolan, T.L.

    1993-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is evaluating the feasibility of developing protective barrier system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to thwart inadvertent human intrusion into this radioactive-waste disposal system for a period of 9,900 years after assumed loss of active institutional controls. The protective barrier system would be part of a series of enduring passive institutional controls whose long-term function will be to reduce the likelihood of inadvertent human activities (e.g., exploratory drilling for resources) that could disrupt the WIPP disposal system.

  14. Trace-element compositions and Br/Cl ratios of fluid inclusions in the Tsushima granite, Japan: Significance for formation of granite-derived fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosawa, Masanori; Sasa, Kimikazu; Shin, Ki-Choel; Ishii, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    Fluid inclusions in quartz samples from a miarolitic cavity, two quartz veins, and a hydrothermal ore vein in the Tsushima granite, Japan, were analyzed by particle-induced X-ray emission to examine the chemistry and process of formation of hydrothermal fluids in an island-arc granite. Most of the inclusions were polyphase or vapor, and there were smaller numbers of two-phase aqueous inclusions. The inclusions contained Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ge, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba, and Pb. For each inclusion, there was a strong positive correlation between Cl content and contents of other elements identified. Concentration ranges for most elements (other than Rb and Ge) in polyphase inclusions from the miarolitic cavity were comparable to those from cavities in alkaline granites; those from the ore vein were comparable to large-scale continental hydrothermal ore deposits. The lower Rb and higher Ge contents in the polyphase inclusions of the Tsushima granite may be characteristic of hydrothermal fluids from calc-alkaline granites in an island-arc setting. Br/Cl ratios (by weight) for the vapor and two-phase inclusions were 0.0013-0.0030 and differed among the three geological settings. Br/Cl ratios of polyphase inclusions increased with increasing Cl content in single-crystal and polycrystalline quartz, and high values of more than 0.0100 were found. The high Br/Cl ratios and the differences among the geological settings sampled may be due to pressure dependences of partitioning of Cl and Br between fluid and magma during fluid segregation and between liquid and vapor during boiling. Using a simple model based on these dependences, we calculated Br/Cl ratios greater than 0.01 in brine generated at pressures <0.89 kbar. Differences in Br/Cl ratios in polyphase and vapor inclusions from each geological setting were attributed to mixing between two end-member fluids: a high Br/Cl fluid generated at low pressure and a low Br/Cl fluid generated at high pressure. Br/Cl ratios of

  15. Neutrons and Granite: Transport and Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Bedrossian, P J

    2004-04-13

    In typical ground materials, both energy deposition and radionuclide production by energetic neutrons vary with the incident particle energy in a non-monotonic way. We describe the overall balance of nuclear reactions involving neutrons impinging on granite to demonstrate these energy-dependencies. While granite is a useful surrogate for a broad range of soil and rock types, the incorporation of small amounts of water (hydrogen) does alter the balance of nuclear reactions.

  16. Granite Exfoliation, Cosumnes River Watershed, Somerset, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, I. Q.; Neiss-Cortez, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the Sierra Nevada foothills of California there are many exposed granite plutons within the greater Sierra Nevada batholith. As with most exposed parts of the batholith, these granite slabs exfoliate. It is important to understand exfoliation for issues of public safety as it can cause rock slides near homes, roads, and recreation areas. Through observation, measuring, and mapping we characterize exfoliation in our Cosumnes River watershed community.

  17. Petroleum Engineering Techniques for HLW Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    van den Broek, W. M. G. T.

    2002-02-25

    This paper describes why petroleum engineering techniques are of importance and can be used for underground disposal of HLW (high-level radioactive waste). It is focused on rock salt as a geological host medium in combination with disposal of the HLW canisters in boreholes drilled from the surface. Both permanent disposal and disposal with the option to retrieve the waste are considered. The paper starts with a description of the disposal procedure. Next disposal in deep boreholes is treated. Then the possible use of deviated boreholes and of multiple boreholes is discussed. Also waste isolation aspects and the implications of the HLW heat generation are treated. It appears that the use of deep boreholes can be beneficial, and also that--to a certain extent--borehole deviation offers possibilities. The benefits of using multiple boreholes are questionable for permanent disposal, while this technique cannot be applied for retrievable disposal. For the use of casing material, the additional temperature rise due to the HLW heat generation must be taken into account.

  18. Radiological implications of granite of northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Asghar, M; Tufail, M; Sabiha-Javied; Abid, A; Waqas, M

    2008-09-01

    Granite is an igneous rock that contains natural radioactivity of primordial radionuclides. In Pakistan, granite is distributed in a vast area called the Ambela Granitic Complex (AGC) in North West Frontier Province (NWFP). Granite is a hard rock that exists in different colours and is used to decorate floors, kitchen counter tops, etc. The use of granite in a building as a decor material is a potential source of radiation dose; therefore, natural radioactivity has been measured in 20 granite samples of the AGC with an HPGe (high purity germanium) based gamma ray spectrometer. The average specific activities and their range (given in parentheses) for primordial radionuclides (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were 1218 (899-1927), 659 (46-6120) and 598 (92-3214) Bq kg(-1), respectively. The measured activity concentrations were used for the assessment of hazard indices and radiation dose which were evaluated based on the permissible limits defined for these parameters. The measured specific activities and the derived quantities, hazard indices and radiation dose, have been compared with those given in the literature for these parameters.

  19. Thermal-Mechanical Modeling of Deep Borehole Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, B. W.; Clayton, D. J.; Herrick, C. G.; Hadgu, T.

    2010-12-01

    Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes from the surface and near-surface environment. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically reducing conditions, exist at depth in many locations, particularly in geologically stable continental regions. Isolation of waste depends, in part, on the effectiveness of borehole seals and potential alteration of permeability in the disturbed host rock surrounding the borehole. Coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic processes induced by heat from the radioactive waste may impact the disturbed zone near the borehole and borehole wall stability. Numerical simulations of the coupled thermal-mechanical response in the host rock surrounding the borehole were conducted with three software codes or combinations of software codes. Software codes used in the simulations were FEHM, JAS3D, Aria, and Adagio. Simulations were conducted for disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and for the higher heat output of vitrified waste from the reprocessing of fuel. Simulations were also conducted for both isotropic and anisotropic ambient horizontal stress in the host rock. Physical, thermal, and mechanical properties representative of granite host rock at a depth of 4 km were used in the models. Simulation results indicate peak temperature increases at the borehole wall of about 30 °C and 180 °C for disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Peak temperatures near the borehole occur within about 10 years and decline rapidly within a few hundred years and with distance. The host rock near the borehole is placed under additional compression. Peak mechanical stress is increased by about 15 MPa (above the assumed ambient

  20. Thermal-mechanical modeling of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Bill Walter; Hadgu, Teklu

    2010-12-01

    Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes from the surface and near-surface environment. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically reducing conditions, exist at depth in many locations, particularly in geologically stable continental regions. Isolation of waste depends, in part, on the effectiveness of borehole seals and potential alteration of permeability in the disturbed host rock surrounding the borehole. Coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic processes induced by heat from the radioactive waste may impact the disturbed zone near the borehole and borehole wall stability. Numerical simulations of the coupled thermal-mechanical response in the host rock surrounding the borehole were conducted with three software codes or combinations of software codes. Software codes used in the simulations were FEHM, JAS3D, Aria, and Adagio. Simulations were conducted for disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and for the higher heat output of vitrified waste from the reprocessing of fuel. Simulations were also conducted for both isotropic and anisotropic ambient horizontal stress in the host rock. Physical, thermal, and mechanical properties representative of granite host rock at a depth of 4 km were used in the models. Simulation results indicate peak temperature increases at the borehole wall of about 30 C and 180 C for disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Peak temperatures near the borehole occur within about 10 years and decline rapidly within a few hundred years and with distance. The host rock near the borehole is placed under additional compression. Peak mechanical stress is increased by about 15 MPa (above the assumed ambient

  1. Characterization of weathering profile in granites and volcanosedimentary rocks in West Africa under humid tropical climate conditions. Case of the Dimbokro Catchment (Ivory Coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koita, M.; Jourde, H.; Koffi, K. J. P.; da Silveira, K. S.; Biaou, A.

    2013-06-01

    In granitic rocks, various models of weathering profile have been proposed, but never for the hard rocks of West Africa. Besides, in the literature there is no description of the weathering profile in volcanosedimentrary rocks. Therefore, we propose three models describing the weathering profiles in granites, metasediments, and volcanic rocks for hard rock formations located in West Africa. For each of these models proposed for granitic and volcanosedimentary rocks of the Dimbokro catchment, vertical layered weathering profiles are described, according to the various weathering and erosion cycles (specific to West Africa) that the geological formations of the Dimbokro catchment experienced from the Eocene to the recent Quaternary period. The characterization of weathering profiles is based on: i) bedrocks and weathering profile observations at outcrop, and ii) interpretation and synthesis of geophysical data and lithologs from different boreholes. For each of the geological formations (granites, metasediments, and volcanic rocks), their related weathering profile model depicted from top to bottom comprises four separate layers: alloterite, isalterite, fissured layer, and fractured fresh basement. These weathering profiles are systematically covered by a soil layer. Though granites, metasediments and volcanic rocks of the Dimbokro catchment experience the same weathering and erosion cycles during the palaeoclimatic fluctuations from Eocene to recent Quaternary period, they exhibit differences in thickness. In granites, the weathering profile is relatively thin due to the absence of iron crust which protects weathering products against dismantling. In metasediments and volcanic rocks iron crusts develop better than in granites; in these rocks the alterite are more resistant to dismantling.

  2. Formation of a Granite Bodies in Depleted Granulite Terranes: the Wuluma Granite, Central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavaure, S.; Sawyer, E. W.

    2009-05-01

    The Wuluma Granite (ca.17 km2) is hosted by Palaeoproterozoic, granulite facies metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks. It is believed to have formed by in situ partial melting of quartzo-feldspathic gneisses at 1728±3 Ma due to the influx of an externally derived aqueous fluid after the granulite facies metamorphism. We have reinvestigated the Wuluma Granite and find that most contacts between the granite and the host granulites are intrusive, not gradational. Granite occurs as thin (<1m) subconcordant sheets and dykes in country rocks that contain fresh orthopyroxene and cordierite without much replacement by hydrous minerals. Screens of country rock are common within the granite, and many contain metapelitic rocks that have leucosome and melanosome structures similar those found in the country rocks. Although some of the migmatite structures in the screens still contain garnet, cordierite and orthopyroxene, in most these minerals are replaced by biotite. Biotite is the only ferromagnesian mineral in the thinnest screens of country rock. All the screens contain subconcordant sheets and dykes of granite; typically a narrow selvedge is developed between the intrusive granite and the rocks of the screen; selvedges are either rich in biotite or in quartz depending on the host rock type. Schlieren are common throughout the granite and represent the last vestiges of the country rocks in the granite; there is much morphological and mineralogical variation among the schlieren. The Wuluma granite consists of innumerable thin (less than a metre) subparallel sheets and cross-cutting dykes, that are distinguished by variations in grain size, microstructure and the proportion of minerals present. The earliest phase to be porphyritic and rich in biotite, whereas the last is leucocratic, coarse grained and locally forms dykes up to 20m wide. The centre of the granite contains large (1 cm) crystals of garnet and, more rarely, cordierite. However, in many places these have been

  3. Geochronology, geochemistry, and petrology of the Precambrian Sandia granite, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, A.

    1985-01-01

    The Precambrian Sandia granite of north-central New Mexico belongs to the 1.2-1.6 Ga crustal province of the western USA. The granite shows an intrusive contact with the metamorphic country rocks. The Rb-Sr whole rock isochron age of the country rocks is 1.61 +/- 0.06 Ga, (/sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr)/sub 0/ = 0.705 +/- 0.001. The culmination of the intrusion of the Sandia granite took place at 1.44 +/- 0.04 GA. (/sup 87/Sr//sup 86/)/sub 0/ = 0.7054 +/- 0.0005. Rb-Sr ages on biotite-whole rock pairs and an /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar dating of a biotite from the granite indicate final cooling to 300-350/sup 0/C at 1.33 Ga. This suggests slow cooling of the granite at rates which averaged 4/sup 0/C/Ma for about 100 Ma after its emplacement; during this period the Rb-Sr isotope system perhaps remained partially open. The Sandia granite shows compositional variation from granodiorite to quartz monzonite in both the northern and southern blocks. The field geology, petrology, and geochemistry of the two blocks suggest that they form a single pluton. Both the Sandia granite and mesocratic, two pyroxene granulite xenoliths therein give an ..delta../sup 18/O value of +8.0 +/- 0.5% indicating (meta)igneous source ricks for each of them. These values tend to rule out Condie's (1978) favored hypothesis for magma generation of 30-50% partial melting of siliceous gradulites. Rather, they favor an alternative hypothesis, equally satisfactory from the geochemical viewpoint, involving 5-10% melt of a gabbroic or two-pyroxene granulite parent rock in the lower crust. The Sandia granite, and by implication, the other high-Ca granitic rocks of the western USA thus do not seem to represent addition of new mantle-derived materials to the middle-late Proterozoic crust of this section of the continent.

  4. Geological repository for nuclear high level waste in France from feasibility to design within a legal framework

    SciTech Connect

    Voizard, Patrice; Mayer, Stefan; Ouzounian, Gerald

    2007-07-01

    Over the past 15 years, the French program on deep geologic disposal of high level and long-lived radioactive waste has benefited from a clear legal framework as the result of the December 30, 1991 French Waste Act. To fulfil its obligations stipulated in this law, ANDRA has submitted the 'Dossier 2005 Argile' (clay) and 'Dossier 2005 Granite' to the French Government. The first of those reports presents a concept for the underground disposal of nuclear waste at a specific clay site and focuses on a feasibility study. Knowledge of the host rock characteristics is based on the investigations carried out at the Meuse/Haute Marne Underground Research Laboratory. The repository concept addresses various issues, the most important of which relates to the large amount of waste, the clay host rock and the reversibility requirement. This phase has ended upon review and evaluation of the 'Dossier 2005' made by different organisations including the National Review Board, the National Safety Authority and the NEA International Review Team. By passing the 'new', June 28, 2006 Planning Act on the sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste, the French parliament has further defined a clear legal framework for future work. This June 28 Planning Act thus sets a schedule and defines the objectives for the next phase of repository design in requesting the submission of a construction authorization application by 2015. The law calls for the repository program to be in a position to commission disposal installations by 2025. (authors)

  5. Age of granites of Wrangel Island metamorphic complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchitskaya, Marina; Sergeev, Sergey; Sokolov, Sergey; Tuchkova, Marianna

    2014-05-01

    Within huge arctic shelf of Eastern-Siberian and Chukchi seas the metamorphic basement (Wrangel complex, Berri Formation) is exposed only on the Wrangel Island. There are different points of views on the age of metamorphic rocks of Wrangel complex (Berri Formation): (1) Neoproterozoic (Kameneva, 1970; Ageev, 1979; Kos'ko et al., 1993, 2003), (2) Devonian (Til'man et al., 1964, 1970; Ganelin, 1989). Metamorphic basement is represented by stratified complex, composed of dislocated metavolcanic, metavolcaniclastic and metasedimentary rocks (schists, metasandstones, metaconglomerated) with single lenses and layers of carbonate rocks (Wrangel Island…, 2003). Among basement rocks in the central part of Wrangel Island there are felsic intrusive bodies. They form small tabular bodies from tens centimeters to 70-80 meters in thickness, rarely dikes and small stocks (up to 20 x 30 m) and are composed of granite-porphyres, rarely muscovite porphyr-like granites and granosyenites (Wrangel Island…, 2003). The age of intrusions allow to determine the age of basement formation. Earlier the age of intrusions was determined by different methods and correlated to the boundary between Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic: K-Ar 570-603 Ma, Pb-Pb 590±50 Ma (S.M. Pavlov, Institute of Precambrian Geology and Geochronology, USSR Academy of Sciences), Rb-Sr 475±31 Ma (I.M.Vasil'eva, Institute of Precambrian Geology and Geochronology, USSR Academy of Sciences), U-Pb 609, 633, 677 Ma (Geological Survey of Canada) (Wrangel Island…, 2003; Kos'ko et al., 1993; Cecile et al., 1991). In the lower part of metamorphic rocks of Wrangel complex there are conformable tabular bodies of gneissosed and foliated granitoides. The latter are meramorphosed and transformed in biotite-muscovite-feldspar-quartz-sericite and muscovite-feldspar-quartz-sericite gneisses and schists, where relics of primary minerals (quartz, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, rarely biotite and muscovite) and equigranular granitic

  6. "Gris Quintana": a Spanish granite from the Past into the Future.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Tejado, Juan; Mota, M. Isabel; Pereira, Dolores

    2014-05-01

    "Gris Quintana" is a medium-grained, biotite and amphibole granodiorite extracted in the Pluton of Quintana de la Serena (Extremadura, Spain). It is a constant light grey granite from the Hercynian geologic with excellent physicomechanical and physicochemical properties. The granodiorite is composed of plagioclase, biotite, quartz and alkali feldspar, with accessory allanite, titanite, apatite, zircon and ilmenite, mostly as inclusions within the biotite crystals. This commercial variety is extracted from many quarries in the late Hercynian plutons located in the Iberian Massif in Spain period (transition between Central Iberian and Ossa-Moren Zones), having large reserves of granite. Many of the quarries have their own transformation factory (high production zone), with which the sector is offered an endless variety of finishes and constructive rock typologies. A wide range of solutions to architects and designers are offered. Gris Quintana granite is one of the materials with highest technological benefits that are used in arquitecture. "Gris Quintana" granite has been used since ancient times, not only at a regional, but also at national and international level: paving, building (structural, exterior façadas, interior uses), urban decoration and funeral art. It can be found in monuments and more recently, in buildings of different styles and uses, that stand out in beauty and splendor, lasting in time. Some singular works in "Gris Quintana" granite all over the world: extension to the "Congreso de Diputados" (Parliament) in Madrid, "Puerta de San Vicente" in Madrid, Andalucia Parliament columns in Sevilla, New Senate Buiding in Madird, "Gran Vía" pavement in Madrid, "Teatro Real façade" in Madrid… "Gris Quintana" granite accomplishes all the requirements for its nomination as Global Heritage Stone Resource, for both its use in construction and for artistic purposes.

  7. Deep Borehole Disposal Safety Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Stein, Emily; Price, Laura L.; MacKinnon, Robert J.; Tillman, Jack Bruce

    2016-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary safety analysis for the deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept, using a safety case framework. A safety case is an integrated collection of qualitative and quantitative arguments, evidence, and analyses that substantiate the safety, and the level of confidence in the safety, of a geologic repository. This safety case framework for DBD follows the outline of the elements of a safety case, and identifies the types of information that will be required to satisfy these elements. At this very preliminary phase of development, the DBD safety case focuses on the generic feasibility of the DBD concept. It is based on potential system designs, waste forms, engineering, and geologic conditions; however, no specific site or regulatory framework exists. It will progress to a site-specific safety case as the DBD concept advances into a site-specific phase, progressing through consent-based site selection and site investigation and characterization.

  8. Origin of late Archean granite: geochemical evidence from the Vermilion Granitic Complex of northern Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Warren C.; Weiblen, P. W.

    1986-07-01

    The 2,700-Ma Vermilion Granitic Complex of northern Minnesota is a granite-migmatite terrane composed of supracrustal metasedimentary rocks, mafic rocks, tonalitic and granodioritic plutonic rocks, and granite. The metasedimentary rocks are predominantly graywacke, which has been regionally metamorphosed to garnet-sillimanite-muscovite-bearing biotite schist, and has locally undergone anatexis. The mafic rocks form early phases within the complex and are of two types: (1) basaltic amphibolite, and (2) monzodiorite and essexite rich in large ion lithophile elements (LILE). The members of the early plutonic suite form small bodies that intrude the metasedimentary rocks and mafic rocks, producing an early migmatite. The granite is of two distinct varieties: (1) white garnet-muscovite-biotite leucogranite ( S-type; Chappell and White 1974) and (2) grayish-pink biotite-magnetite Lac La Croix Granite ( I-type). The leucogranite occurs in the early migmatite and in paragneissic portions of the complex, whereas the Lac La Croix Granite is a late-stage intrusive phase that invades the early migmatite and metasediment (producing a late migmatite) and forms a batholith. This study focuses specifically on the origin of granite in the Vermilion Granitic Complex. Chemical mass-balance calculations suggest that the S-type two-mica leucogranite had a metagraywacke source, and that the I-type Lac La Croix Granite formed via partial fusion of calc-alkaline tonalitic material, which may have been similar to rocks of the early plutonic suite. This model is satisfactory for petrogenesis of similar Late Archean post-kinematic granites throughout the Canadian Shield.

  9. Origin of late Archean granite: geochemical evidence from the Vermilion Granitic Complex of northern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, W.C.; Weiblen, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    The 2,700-Ma Vermilion Granitic Complex of northern Minnesota is a granite-migmatite terrane composed of supracrustal metasedimentary rocks, mafic rocks, tonalitic and granodioritic plutonic rocks, and granite. The metasedimentary rocks are predominantly graywacke, which has been regionally metamorphosed to garnet-sillimanite-muscovite-bearing biotite schist, and has locally undergone anatexis. The mafic rocks form early phases within the complex and are of two types: (1) basaltic amphibolite, and (2) monzodiorite and essexite rich in large ion lithophile elements (LILE). The members of the early plutonic suite form small bodies that intrude the metasedimentary rocks and mafic rocks, producing an early migmatite. The granite is of two distinct varieties: (1) white garnet-muscovite-biotite leucogranite (S-type; Chappell and White 1974) and (2) grayish-pink biotite-magnetite Lac La Croix Granite (I-type). The leucogranite occurs in the early migmatite and in paragneissic portions of the complex, whereas the Lac La Croix Granite is a late-stage intrusive phase that invades the early migmatite and metasediment (producing a late migmatite) and forms a batholith. This study focuses specifically on the origin of granite in the Vermilion Granitic Complex. Chemical mass-balance calculations suggest that the S-type two-mica leucogranite had a metagraywacke source, and that the I-type Lac La Croix Granite formed via partial fusion of calc-alkaline tonalitic material, which may have been similar to rocks of the early plutonic suite. This model is satisfactory for petrogenesis of similar Late Archean post-kinematic granites throughout the Canadian Shield. ?? 1986 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by

  11. Indoor radon risk associated to post-tectonic biotite granites from Vila Pouca de Aguiar pluton, northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Martins, L M O; Gomes, M E P; Teixeira, R J S; Pereira, A J S C; Neves, L J P F

    2016-11-01

    At Vila Pouca de Aguiar area, northern Portugal, crops out a post-tectonic Variscan granite pluton, related with the Régua-Vila Real-Verín fault zone, comprising three types of biotite granites. Among these granites, PSG granite yield the highest average contents of U, probably due to its enrichment in accessory U-bearing minerals such as zircon. In the proximity of faults and joints, these granites are often affected by different degrees of hydrothermal alteration, forming reddish altered rocks, commonly known as "episyenites". These altered rocks are probably associated to the occurrence of hydrothermal processes, which led to uranium enrichment in the most advanced stages of episyenitization. In these granites, both average gamma absorbed dose rates in outdoor and indoor air are higher than those of the world average. Furthermore, even in the worst usage scenario, all these granites can be used as a building material, since their annual effective doses are similar to the limit defined by the European Commission. The geometric mean of radon activity of 91 dwellings located at the Vila Pouca de Aguiar pluton is 568Bqm(-3), exceeding that of other northern Portuguese granites. Measurements carried out during a winter season, indicate that 62.6% of the analysed dwellings yield higher indoor radon average values than the Portuguese legislation limit (400Bqm(-3)), and annual effective doses due higher than the world's average value (1.2mSvy(-1)). The interaction of geogenic, architectural and anthropogenic features is crucial to explain the variance in the geometric mean of radon activity of dwellings from Vila Pouca de Aguiar pluton, but the role of geologic faults is probably the most important decisive factor to increase the indoor radon concentration in dwellings. Hence, the development of awareness campaigns in order to inform population about the incurred radiological risks to radon exposure are highly recommended for this specific area. Copyright © 2016

  12. Estimation of crystallization pressure of granite intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xue-Ming

    2017-08-01

    A numerical method is presented to estimate the crystallization pressure of granite intrusions based on two polynomial equations obtained by an analysis of the existing haplogranite ternary phase diagram and associated dataset. The results indicate that the pressure is correlated respectively with normative quartz (Qtz) content and with normative albite (Ab) plus orthoclase (Or) contents of granitic rocks as follows. where P is pressure in MPa, and R denotes correlation coefficient. It is noted that the procedure of normalizing the sum of CIPW norm (quartz, albite, orthoclase) contents to 100% is required before using Eqs. (1) and (2). The difference in pressure calculations between these two equations is ≤ 16 MPa for the range of normative quartz contents from 15 to 40 wt%. An example of how to use these equations to estimate the crystallization pressure of a granite intrusion is also provided to show the validity and convenience of this method. The uncertainty of such pressure estimation is not well known, although it must fall into the uncertainty range of the existing experimental work on pressure constraints. The simplicity of this empirical method is appreciable, although its applicability to natural granitoids needs further test. More experimental work is required to constrain the effects of components, such as CaO, FeO, MgO, F, Cl, CO2, on the granite phase equilibria. These equations, however, can be used for estimating crystallization pressures of water-saturated and quartz-oversaturated granitic systems.

  13. Frictional slip of granite at hydrothermal conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanpied, M.L.; Lockner, D.A.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    To measure the strength, sliding behavior, and friction constitutive properties of faults at hydrothermal conditions, laboratory granite faults containing a layer of granite powder (simulated gouge) were slid. The mechanical results define two regimes. The first regime includes dry granite up to at least 845?? and wet granite below 250??C. In this regime the coefficient of friction is high (?? = 0.7 to 0.8) and depends only modestly on temperature, slip rate, and PH2O. The second regime includes wet granite above ~350??C. In this regime friction decreases considerably with increasing temperature (temperature weakening) and with decreasing slip rate (velocity strengthening). These regimes correspond well to those identified in sliding tests on ultrafine quartz. The results highlight the importance of fluid-assisted deformation processes active in faults at depth and the need for laboratory studies on the roles of additional factors such as fluid chemistry, large displacements, higher concentrations of phyllosilicates, and time-dependent fault healing. -from Authors

  14. Origin of peralkaline granites of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radain, A. A. M.; Fyfe, W. S.; Kerrich, R.

    1982-01-01

    Small volumes of peralkaline granites were generated as the final phase of a Pan African calc-alkaline igneous event which built the Arabian Peninsula. The peralkaline granites are closely associated with trends or sutures related to ophiolites. Peralkaline rocks are chemically heterogeneous, with anomalous abundances of Zr (average 2,150 ppm±2,600 1σ), Y (200±190), and Nb (105±100), representing up to ten-fold enrichments of these elements relative to abundances in calc alkaline granite counterparts. Large enrichments of some rare earth elements and fluorine are also present. The peralkaline granites have scattered whole rock 18O values, averaging 8.7±0.6% in the Hadb Aldyaheen Complex and 10.7±1% in the Jabal Sayid Complex. Quartz-albite fractionations of 0.5 to 1.5% signify that the heavier whole rock δ-values probably represent the oxygen isotope composition of the peralkaline magma. Small variable enrichments of 18O, in conjunction with slightly elevated 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios relative to broadly contemporaneous calc alkaline granites, are both suggestive of a small degree of involvement of crustal, or crustal derived material in the peralkaline magmas. It is proposed that the peculiar magma genesis is associated with a relaxation event which followed continental collision and underthrusting of salt rich sediments.

  15. Preliminary risk benefit assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.; Priest, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the recent work of the authors on the evaluation of health risk benefits of space disposal of nuclear waste. The paper describes a risk model approach that has been developed to estimate the non-recoverable, cumulative, expected radionuclide release to the earth's biosphere for different options of nuclear waste disposal in space. Risk estimates for the disposal of nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository and the short- and long-term risk estimates for space disposal were developed. The results showed that the preliminary estimates of space disposal risks are low, even with the estimated uncertainty bounds. If calculated release risks for mined geologic repositories remain as low as given by the U.S. DOE, and U.S. EPA requirements continue to be met, then no additional space disposal study effort in the U.S. is warranted at this time. If risks perceived by the public are significant in the acceptance of mined geologic repositories, then consideration of space disposal as a complement to the mined geologic repository is warranted.

  16. Preliminary risk benefit assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.; Priest, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the recent work of the authors on the evaluation of health risk benefits of space disposal of nuclear waste. The paper describes a risk model approach that has been developed to estimate the non-recoverable, cumulative, expected radionuclide release to the earth's biosphere for different options of nuclear waste disposal in space. Risk estimates for the disposal of nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository and the short- and long-term risk estimates for space disposal were developed. The results showed that the preliminary estimates of space disposal risks are low, even with the estimated uncertainty bounds. If calculated release risks for mined geologic repositories remain as low as given by the U.S. DOE, and U.S. EPA requirements continue to be met, then no additional space disposal study effort in the U.S. is warranted at this time. If risks perceived by the public are significant in the acceptance of mined geologic repositories, then consideration of space disposal as a complement to the mined geologic repository is warranted.

  17. Fluid paleocirculations at the cover/granite interface in the Rhine graben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerouge, Catherine; Dezayes, Chrystel; Bailly, Laurent; Flehoc, Christine; Guerrot, Catherine; Wille, Guillaume

    2017-04-01

    The Rhine Graben is a major site of development for the geothermal heating production in France. Targeted geothermal reservoirs are in deep Hercynian granitic basement which is fractured dominated system, and more recently at the cover/basement interface. In this framework of geothermal exploration, a better understanding of the hydraulic behaviour of the fracture network and fluid/rock interactions is needed. For that fracture fillings in Hercynian granitic basement and in the formations of the cover (Permian rhyolites, Permian and Triassic sediments) were studied for mineralogy, fluid inclusion microthermometry and (C, O, Sr) isotopes in order to trace paleocirculations at the cover/granite interface in the Rhine Graben. Data were acquired on fracture fillings in samples of the basement/cover interfaces from the EPS1 borehole at Soultz-sous-Forêt in the Rhine graben at 1417 meters depth, and from outcrops in quarries on the flanks of the graben (Waldhambach, Saint Pierre Bois, Windstein, Heidelberg). Mineral sequences of polyphased fillings were interpreted in relation with the geological context including late evolution of the Hercynian basement and major extensive tectonic events. Quartz, carbonates, sulfates and illite are major minerals identified in fractures crosscutting Hercynian granites, Permian rhyolite (Waldhambach) and Permian and Triassic sedimentary cover. Although quartz being considered as a major mineral filling fractures, petrological observations showed that carbonates are also an important and probably underestimated phase of filling, and of interest for two reasons. Firstly, from a geothermal point of view, they contribute to the clogging of fractures. Secondly, from a scientific point of view, they are informative on the variations of fluid chemistry through geological times. Among carbonates, dominant dolomite with minor ankerite, Mn-bearing carbonates and siderite was identified by CL, SEM and EPMA in fractures. A same generation of

  18. Geology Data Package for the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve P.; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2007-01-01

    This data package discusses the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms and the geologic history of the area. The focus of this report is to provide the most recent geologic information available for the SST farms. This report builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  19. Geology Data Package for the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Stephen P.; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2007-12-14

    This data package discusses the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms and the geologic history of the area. The purpose of this report is to provide the most recent geologic information available for the SST farms. This report builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  20. Trace-element geochemistry of postorogenic granites from the northeastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckless, John S.; Knight, R.J.; VanTrump, G.; Budahn, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Concentrations determined for all of the trace elements included in this study of postorogenic granites from the northeastern Arabian Shield are best described by log-normal distributions. The trace elements are divided into two groups: (1) compatible lithophile and siderophile elements (strontium, cobalt, scandium, manganese, europium, and titanium) and (2) incompatible lithophile elements (uranium, thorium, tantalum, rubidium, and rare-earth elements, except europium). The compatible elements exhibit greatest concentrations in the metaluminous postorogenic granites, and concentrations decrease with increasing degree of magma evolution. Economic potential for these elements and other geochemically similar elements is considered to be low. The concentrations of the incompatible elements increase with increasing degree of magma evolution and are greatest in the peralkaline and peraluminous granites. There is some geologic evidence that pegmatite and vein-forming processes were operative toward the end stage of postorogenic magmatism in the northeastern Arabian Shield, and therefore there is some probability for economic potential for these elements. It is suggested that such potential is greatest where highly evolved postorogenic granites intruded volatile (generally water )-rich country rocks.

  1. A-type stratoid granites of Madagascar: evidence of Rodinia rifting at ca 790 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelec, Anne; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Bouchez, Jean-Luc

    2015-04-01

    The so-called stratoid granites are sheet-like granites emplaced as conformable sills in the Precambrian basement of central Madagascar. Most of them have A-type affinities (Nédélec et al. 1995). They are everywhere characterized by the same structural pattern evidencing two stages of deformation. The first one (foliations mildly dipping to the west and lineations trending WSW) is regarded as the consequence of synkinematic magma emplacement. The second stage, characterized by interference folds, steeply dipping foliations and subhorizontal lineations trending to the north, corresponds to a more or less pronounced reworking in ductile conditions, regarded as the result of Late Pan-African transcurrent tectonics. To the north of Antananarivo, the stratoid granites are associated with comagmatic quartz-syenites. New U-Pb zircons ages obtained by in situ analyses reveal two group of ages: upper intercept ages of ca 790 Ma, and younger ages of ca 550 Ma corresponding to crystal rims. These new data question the geological significance of former TIMS ages of ca 630 Ma formerly obtained from the same rocks (Paquette & Nédélec 1998). It is suggested that the stratoid granites and syenites were emplaced during a crustal thinning event corresponding to an early Rodinia rifting stage. The Pan-African imprint on these rocks is therefore limited to reheating, tectonic reworking and deep fluid transfer in the vicinity of Late-Neoproterozoic shear zones at ca 550 Ma (Nédélec et al. 2014).

  2. Drilling fluid disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, L.E.; Sanders, J.A.

    1981-12-01

    A maze of U.S. regulations and regulatory agencies coupled with uncertainty in interpretation of environmental data and an evolving system of disposal engineering will require industry action to monitor the area and derive a solid engineering basis for disposal of spent drilling fluid. A set of disposal methods with approximate costs is presented to serve as an initial guide for disposal. 16 refs.

  3. Thermometers and thermobarometers in granitic systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, J.L.; Barth, A.P.; Wooden, J.L.; Mazdab, F.; ,

    2008-01-01

    The ability to determine the thermal and barometric history during crystallization and emplacement of granitic plutons has been enhanced by several new calibrations applicable to granitic mineral assemblages. Other existing calibrations for granitic plutons have continued to be popular and fairly robust. Recent advances include the trace element thermometers Ti-in-quartz, Ti-in-zircon, and Zr-in-sphene (titanite), which need to be further evaluated on the roles of reduced activities due to lack of a saturating phase, the effect of pressure dependence (particularly for the Ti-in-zircon thermometer), and how resistive these thermometers are to subsolidus reequilibration. As zircon and sphene are also hosts to radiogenic isotopes, these minerals potentially also provide new insights into the temperature - time history of magmas. When used in conjunction with pressure-sensitive mineral equilibria in the same rocks, a complete assessment of the P-T-t (pressure-temperature-time) path is possible given that the mineralogy of plutons can reflect crystallization over a range of pressure and temperature during ascent and emplacement and that many intrusions are now seen as forming over several millions of years during the protracted history of batholith construction. Accessory mineral saturation thermometers, such as those for zircon, apatite, and allanite, provide a different and powerful perspective, specifically that of the temperature of the onset of crystallization of these minerals, which can allow an estimate of the range of temperature between the liquidus and solidus of a given pluton. In assessment of the depth of crystallization and emplacement of granitic plutons, the Al-in-hornblende remains popular for metaluminous granites when appropriately corrected for temperature. For peraluminous granites, potential new calibrations exist for the assemblages bearing garnet, biotite, plagioclase, muscovite, and quartz. Other thermometers, based on oxygen abundance, and

  4. Mesozoic Granitic Magmatism in Macao, Southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quelhas, P. M.; Mata, J.; Lou, U. T.; Ribeiro, M. L.; Dias, Á. A.

    2016-12-01

    Macao ( 30 Km2) is a territory characterized by small granitic intrusions, located along the coastal region of Southeast China (Cathaysia Block). Granitoids occur as different facies, including microgranite dykes, with distinct textural, mineralogical and geochemical features, for which a middle-upper Jurassic age ( 164 Ma) has been proposed. New data suggest that these granitoids are mostly high-K calc-alkaline metaluminous (A/CNK = 0.8 - 1.1) biotite granites, consistent with total absence of primary muscovite. They show variable amounts of SiO2 (67-77%), reflecting different degrees of magmatic evolution. There is also variability in terms of trace elements, particularly Rare Earth Elements (REEs), evidenced by decreasing (La/Sm)N, (Gd/Lu)N, (Ce/Yb)N and (Eu/Eu*)N towards the more evolved samples, which can be partly attributed to fractional crystallization processes. Most of the granitoids are characterized by (La/Yb)N = 3 - 10.8, showing negative Ba, Nb, Sr, Zr, P, Ti and Eu anomalies. On the other hand, microgranite dykes, along with a few more evolved granites, show an opposite tendency, being usually enriched in HREEs relatively to LREEs with (La/Yb)N = 0.4 - 1.1. Our data suggests intermediate genetic affinities between I-type and A-type granites. Although these granitoids are mostly metaluminous (characteristic of I-types), Ga/Al ratios, usually used to identify A-types, are close to the accepted boundary between A-type and other granite types. The affinities with A-type granites are more marked for the more evolved facies, which depict higher values of FeOt/MgO (14 - 60) and K2O/MgO (60 - 250). Their trace element characteristics are also transitional between WPG (Within-plate granites) and Syn-COLG (Collision Granites). We interpret those transitional characteristics (A/I and WPG/Syn-COLG) of Macao granitoids as reflecting an origin by melting of infracrustal sources over a period of high heat transfer from mantle to crust during an extensional tectonic

  5. OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTH, WITH UNQUARRIED GRANITE OUTCROP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTH, WITH UN-QUARRIED GRANITE OUTCROP IN BACKGROUND - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 3, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  6. International Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1977-01-01

    Briefly discusses recent international programs in various areas of geology, including land-use problems, coping with geological hazards, and conserving the environment while searching for energy and mineral resources. (MLH)

  7. International Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1977-01-01

    Briefly discusses recent international programs in various areas of geology, including land-use problems, coping with geological hazards, and conserving the environment while searching for energy and mineral resources. (MLH)

  8. Engineering Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, John B.

    1983-01-01

    Engineering geology activities in government and the private sector are highlighted. Also highlighted are conferences in this field, awards presented at conferences (including an award to an undergraduate geology student), and a new publication "Geotechnology in Massachusetts." (JN)

  9. Environmental Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James R.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses ways that geologic techniques can be used to help evaluate our environment, make economic realities and environmental requirements more compatible, and expand the use of geology in environmental analyses. (MLH)

  10. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas A.

    1983-01-01

    Mathematical techniques used to solve geological problems are briefly discussed (including comments on use of geostatistics). Highlights of conferences/meetings and conference papers in mathematical geology are also provided. (JN)

  11. Archeological Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, George

    1977-01-01

    Describes the rapid expansion of archeological geology, especially in the area of archeological excavations, where geologists use dating techniques and knowledge of geological events to interpret archeological sites. (MLH)

  12. Archeological Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, George

    1977-01-01

    Describes the rapid expansion of archeological geology, especially in the area of archeological excavations, where geologists use dating techniques and knowledge of geological events to interpret archeological sites. (MLH)

  13. Field geology of the Dago ring complex, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ike, E. C.; Sakoma, E. M.

    The Dago ring complex was only recently recognised as a Younger Granite unit and called the 'Dogo Dutse complex' after the main settlement of 'Dogo Dutse' which is now better recognised in its proper name and location as Dago. The newly completed geological map of the complex reveals an oval outline and a surface area of 60 km 2 defined by a discontinuous peripheral ring-dyke of granite porphyry. Volcanic rocks preceding the ring-dyke in time are sparsely preserved in the south while the ring-dyke is completely obliterated in the west by the granite intrusion. The latter is an aegirine arfvedsonite alkali feldspar granite which occurs as the only 'plutonic' phase of intrusion and thus by its composition identifies the Dago unit ass a truly peralkaline ring complex.

  14. Subseabed Disposal Program Plan. Volume I. Overview

    SciTech Connect

    1981-07-01

    The primary objective of the Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) is to assess the scientific, environmental, and engineering feasibility of disposing of processed and packaged high-level nuclear waste in geologic formations beneath the world's oceans. High-level waste (HLW) is considered the most difficult of radioactive wastes to dispose of in oceanic geologic formations because of its heat and radiation output. From a scientific standpoint, the understanding developed for the disposal of such HLW can be used for other nuclear wastes (e.g., transuranic - TRU - or low-level) and materials from decommissioned facilities, since any set of barriers competent to contain the heat and radiation outputs of high-level waste will also contain such outputs from low-level waste. If subseabed disposal is found to be feasible for HLW, then other factors such as cost will become more important in considering subseabed emplacement for other nuclear wastes. A secondary objective of the SDP is to develop and maintain a capability to assess and cooperate with the seabed nuclear waste disposal programs of other nations. There are, of course, a number of nations with nuclear programs, and not all of these nations have convenient access to land-based repositories for nuclear waste. Many are attempting to develop legislative and scientific programs that will avoid potential hazards to man, threats to other ocean uses, and marine pollution, and they work together to such purpose in meetings of the international NEA/Seabed Working Group. The US SDP, as the first and most highly developed R and D program in the area, strongly influences the development of subseabed-disposal-related policy in such nations.

  15. Review of science and technology for disposal of low-level waste on the seabed and high-level waste in the subseabed

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.R.; Boyer, D.G.; Hollister, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    In 1980 it was recommended that an effort be made to increase the scientific data base relating to the oceanographic and biological characteristic of the Northeast Atlantic dumping area. The overall safety of sea dumping operations depends on a number of factors such as the characteristics of the dumping site, the amount, composition, conditioning, and packaging of waste, and the way in which operations are organized and controlled. An NEA research and environmental surveillance program related to sea disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is proceeding. Information from these studies will apply to disposal of LLW such as reactors from nuclear submarines and contaminated soil, as well as to packaged LLW. In Sweden, construction has begun on a repository located in the granitic rock beneath the seabed. The feasibility of a concept of burying high-level radioactive waste within the geologically stable formations of the deep ocean floor is being assessed. These subseabed options for a waste repository are being considered for several reasons. The granitic rock selected for the Swedish repository has a low hydraulic gradient, thereby reducing the amount of radioactivity tht will diffuse out of the repository. The sea water that covers the repository will dilute and disperse any radioisotopes that do escape from the repository. The other nations studying the feasibility of a subseabed repository are examining the fine-grained clay formations within the stable, predictable deep-sea regions, away from the boundaries of the lithospheric plates and productive surface waters. This clay has properties that may serve to permanently isolate radioactive waste. The most important characteristics of such clays are their vertical and lateral uniformity, low permeability, very high cation retention capacity, and potential for self-healing when disturbed.

  16. 7. Photocopied August 1971 from Photo 13729, Granite Station Special ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopied August 1971 from Photo 13729, Granite Station Special Folder, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. GRANITE HYDRO-ELECTRIC PLANT (1500KW) STATION. PENSTOCK AND SPILWAY, NOVEMBER 1914. - Utah Power Company, Granite Hydroelectric Plant, Holladay, Salt Lake County, UT

  17. 9. Photocopied August 1971 from Photo 13730, Granite Folder #1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopied August 1971 from Photo 13730, Granite Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. GRANITE STATION: WESTINGHOUSE 750 K.V.A., 2- PHASE GENERATORS AND SWITCHBOARD, MAY 24, 1915. - Utah Power Company, Granite Hydroelectric Plant, Holladay, Salt Lake County, UT

  18. 8. Photocopied August 1971 from Photo 11479, Granite Station Special ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopied August 1971 from Photo 11479, Granite Station Special Folder, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. GRANITE HYDRO-ELECTRIC PLANT (1500 KW) STATION. PENSTOCK AND SPILWAY, NOVEMBER 1914. - Utah Power Company, Granite Hydroelectric Plant, Holladay, Salt Lake County, UT

  19. Geologic setting and mineralization of the Kougarok Sn(Ta-Nb) deposit, seaward peninsula, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Puchner, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Kougarok tin (tantalum-niobium) deposit is located in the north-central Seward Peninsula, roughly 130 kilometers north of Nome, Alaska. Tin and tantalum-niobium mineralization occur within granitic dikes, subhorizontal sheets, plugs, and in schists adjacent to the granite bodies. Rb/Sr and K/Ar age determinations indicate the granites at Kougarok are late Cretaceous in age and coeval with other tin granites of the Seward Peninsula. The host rock to the granites at Kougarok is polydeformed pelitic schists of possible Precambrian age. Known mineralization occurs in four geologic settings: 1) within steep cylindrical pipes of greisenized granite; 2) in greisenized dikes; 3) in greisen along the roof zone of a subhorizontal granite sheet; and 4) as stringer zones in schists. Tin mineralization is known in all the above geologic environments and occurs dominantly as disseminated cassiterite in quartz+/-tourmaline+/-topaz greisen. Grades of significant tin mineralization range from 0.1 to 15 percent tin and average approximately 0.5 percent tin. Tantalum-niobium mineralization is confined to the roof greisen environment. Tantalite-columbite occurs as disseminated grains in white mica altered granite lateral to tin-bearing quartz-tourmaline greisen. Grades for both tantalum and niobium range from 0.02 to 0.05 percent.

  20. Landslides and the weathering of granitic rocks

    Treesearch

    Philip B. Durgin

    1977-01-01

    Abstract - Granitic batholiths around the Pacific Ocean basin provide examples of landslide types that characterize progressive stages of weathering. The stages include (1) fresh rock, (2) corestones, (3) decomposed granitoid, and (4) saprolite. Fresh granitoid is subject to rockfalls, rockslides, and block glides. They are all controlled by factors related to...

  1. Subsurface drainage erodes forested granitic terrane

    Treesearch

    Philip Durgin

    1984-01-01

    Abstract - Solution and landsliding, the dominant erosion processes in undisturbed forested mountainous watersheds, are both influenced by subsurface drainage. Biological processes that generate organic acids accelerate loss of dissolved solids by promoting the dissolution of primary minerals in granitic rock. These organic acids can also disperse the secondary...

  2. The global age distribution of granitic pegmatites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCauley, Andrew; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2014-01-01

    An updated global compilation of 377 new and previously published ages indicates that granitic pegmatites range in age from Mesoarchean to Neogene and have a semi-periodic age distribution. Undivided granitic pegmatites show twelve age maxima: 2913, 2687, 2501, 1853, 1379, 1174, 988, 525, 483, 391, 319, and 72 Ma. These peaks correspond broadly with various proxy records of supercontinent assembly, including the age distributions of granites, detrital zircon grains, and passive margins. Lithium-cesium-tantalum (LCT) pegmatites have a similar age distribution to the undivided granitic pegmatites, with maxima at 2638, 1800, 962, 529, 485, 371, 309, and 274 Ma. Lithium and Ta resources in LCT pegmatites are concentrated in the Archean and Phanerozoic. While there are some Li resources from the Proterozoic, the dominantly bimodal distribution of resources is particularly evident for Ta. This distribution is similar to that of orogenic gold deposits, and has been interpreted to reflect the preservation potential of the orogenic belts where these deposits are formed. Niobium-yttrium-fluorine (NYF) pegmatites show similar age distributions to LCT pegmatites, but with a strong maximum at ca. 1000 Ma.

  3. Granite School District First Grade Reading Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castner, Myra H.; And Others

    A comparative study of first-grade reading instructional methods was undertaken with the support of the Granite School District Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction. This study was conducted in 19 schools of the district and involved approximately 1,295 students. Nine hypotheses concerning the various approaches used in reading instruction…

  4. Fractal patterns of fractures in granites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Velde, B.; Dubois, J.; Moore, D.; Touchard, G.

    1991-01-01

    Fractal measurements using the Cantor's dust method in a linear one-dimensional analysis mode were made on the fracture patterns revealed on two-dimensional, planar surfaces in four granites. This method allows one to conclude that: 1. (1)|The fracture systems seen on two-dimensional surfaces in granites are consistent with the part of fractal theory that predicts a repetition of patterns on different scales of observation, self similarity. Fractal analysis gives essentially the same values of D on the scale of kilometres, metres and centimetres (five orders of magnitude) using mapped, surface fracture patterns in a Sierra Nevada granite batholith (Mt. Abbot quadrangle, Calif.). 2. (2)|Fractures show the same fractal values at different depths in a given batholith. Mapped fractures (main stage ore veins) at three mining levels (over a 700 m depth interval) of the Boulder batholith, Butte, Mont. show the same fractal values although the fracture disposition appears to be different at different levels. 3. (3)|Different sets of fracture planes in a granite batholith, Central France, and in experimental deformation can have different fractal values. In these examples shear and tension modes have the same fractal values while compressional fractures follow a different fractal mode of failure. The composite fracture patterns are also fractal but with a different, median, fractal value compared to the individual values for the fracture plane sets. These observations indicate that the fractal method can possibly be used to distinguish fractures of different origins in a complex system. It is concluded that granites fracture in a fractal manner which can be followed at many scales. It appears that fracture planes of different origins can be characterized using linear fractal analysis. ?? 1991.

  5. North-south extension in the Tibetan crust triggered by granite emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoya, Mutsuki; Wallis, Simon R.; Terada, Kentaro; Lee, Jeffrey; Kawakami, Tetsuo; Wang, Yu; Heizler, Matt

    2005-11-01

    We combine zircon sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe U-Pb spot dating and mica 40Ar-39Ar plateau ages with field-geological and geochemical constraints from the Mala shan area of Southern Tibet to show that the deformed granite core of the North Himalayan metamorphic domes in this area is not Indian basement, but was intruded and deformed during the Himalayan orogeny. Microstructural observations reveal that a transition from top-to-the-south thrust-related to top-to-the-north extension-related deformation occurred during granite intrusion and related metamorphism. This suggests that intrusion triggered the onset of extensional tectonics in the Tibetan middle to upper crust. Expected positive feedback mechanisms between decompression melting leading to more intrusion and more extensional deformation suggest that this mechanism may have been important on a regional scale.

  6. Thermal cracking of Westerly granite: from physical to numerical experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrank, Christoph; Fusseis, Florian; Karrech, Ali; Revets, Stefan; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Liu, Jie

    2010-05-01

    Laboratory experiments provide some of the most comprehensive constraints on rock properties such as permeability, porosity, and rheology. However, in most cases such experiments are performed on length and time scales that are much smaller than geological scales. Upscaling, physically sound methods for extrapolation, of the obtained constitutive laws is therefore a matter of hot debate. Here, we present a numerical approach for the upscaling of the porosity evolution due to thermal cracking of Westerly granite. This project draws upon actual laboratory step-heating experiments of Westerly granite observed with high-resolution 3D synchrotron tomography (see Fusseis and others:" Formation of secondary porosity in 4D Synchrotron X-ray tomography experiments"). First, we use tomography time-series data to calibrate numerical simulations at the laboratory scale. In effect, the real-world sample is discretised and "heated" numerically. The software is an implicit Lagrangian finite-element code (Abaqus Standard) using elastoplastic rheologies in coupled temperature-displacement analysis. To minimize computational costs, indirect feedbacks, namely temperature-dependent functions of density, coefficient of thermal expansion, specific heat capacity, Poisson's ratio, and Young's modulus, are pre-calculated with PerpleX (Connolly 2005) and implemented as table input. Direct feedbacks are computed in the framework of thermodynamic equations and solved for explicitly. Next, we repeat the above numerical experiments for simplified stochastic models of the actual sample at the laboratory scale. Finally, we generate stochastic numerical models on increasing scales to determine the scale at which rock properties remain constant regardless of the specific microstructure. This empirical homogenization allows the derivation of constitutive laws which can be employed for large-scale simulations. In this contribution, we will briefly outline this workflow and present first results for

  7. Laboratory Simulation of Flow through Single Fractured Granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. K.; Singh, D. N.; Ranjith, P. G.

    2015-05-01

    Laboratory simulation on fluid flow through fractured rock is important in addressing the seepage/fluid-in-rush related problems that occur during the execution of any civil or geological engineering projects. To understand the mechanics and transport properties of fluid through a fractured rock in detail and to quantify the sources of non-linearity in the discharge and base pressure relationship, fluid flow experiments were carried out on a cylindrical sample of granite containing a `single rough walled fracture'. These experiments were performed under varied conditions of confining pressures, σ 3 (5-40 MPa), which can simulate the condition occurring about 1,000 m below in the earth crust, with elevated base pressure, b p (up to 25 MPa) and by changing fracture roughness. The details of the methodologies involved and the observations are discussed here. The obtained results indicate that most of the data in the Q verses b p plot, fall on the straight line and the flow through the single fracture in granite obeys Darcy's law or the well-known "cubic law" even at high value of b p (=4 MPa) and σ 3 (=5 MPa) combination. The Reynolds number is quite sensitive to the b p, σ 3 and fracture roughness, and there is a critical b p, beyond which transition in flow occurs from laminar to turbulent. It is believed that such studies will be quite useful in identifying the limits of applicability of well know `cubic law', which is required for precise calculation of discharge and/or aperture in any practical issues and in further improving theoretical/numerical models associated with fluid flow through a single fracture.

  8. Geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic implications of Late Triassic granites in the Mongolian Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Batulzii; Boldbaatar, Enkhjargal; Zorigtkhuu, Oyun-Erdene; Yin, An

    2016-03-01

    Although the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in western China and western Mongolia occurred in the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian, widespread intra-continental magmatism continued to occur across this region from the Late Permian to the end of the Triassic. In this study we document field relationships and geochemical characterization of a Late Triassic felsic intrusive complex in the western Mongolian Altai. The plutonic complex occurs as sills, dikes, and small stocks and its composition varies from biotite granite, two-mica granite, to leucogranite. Structurally, the plutonic complex occurs in the hanging wall of a segment of the regionally extensively (>1500 km long) Irtysh-Ertix-Bulgan thrust zone. As the plutonic bodies both cut and are deformed by the shear fabrics in this regional thrust shear zone, the duration of felsic magmatism and regional thrusting was temporally overlapping. This suggests that magmatism was coeval with crustal thickening. Major- and trace-element data and isotopic analysis of granitoid samples from our study area indicate that the felsic intrusions were derived from partial melting of meta-sediments, with the biotite and two-mica granite generated through vapor-absent melting and the leucogranite from flux melting. Although the Mongolian Altai intrusions were clearly originated from anatexis, coeval granite in the Chinese Altai directly west of our study area in the hanging wall of the Irtysh-Ertix-Bulgan thrust was derived in part from mantle melting. To reconcile these observations, we propose a Himalayan-style intracontinental-subduction model that predicts two geologic settings for the occurrence of felsic magmatism: (1) along the intracontinental thrust zone where granite was entirely generated by anatexis and (2) in the hanging wall of the intracontinental thrust where convective removal and/or continental subduction induced mantle melting.

  9. 10 CFR 60.112 - Overall system performance objective for the geologic repository after permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Technical Criteria Performance... their seals shall be designed to assure that releases of radioactive materials to the accessible...

  10. 10 CFR 60.112 - Overall system performance objective for the geologic repository after permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Technical Criteria Performance... their seals shall be designed to assure that releases of radioactive materials to the accessible...

  11. 10 CFR 60.112 - Overall system performance objective for the geologic repository after permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Technical Criteria Performance... their seals shall be designed to assure that releases of radioactive materials to the accessible...

  12. 10 CFR 60.112 - Overall system performance objective for the geologic repository after permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Technical Criteria Performance... their seals shall be designed to assure that releases of radioactive materials to the accessible...

  13. 10 CFR 60.112 - Overall system performance objective for the geologic repository after permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Technical Criteria Performance... their seals shall be designed to assure that releases of radioactive materials to the accessible...

  14. Identification of granite varieties from colour spectrum data.

    PubMed

    Araújo, María; Martínez, Javier; Ordóñez, Celestino; Vilán, José Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The granite processing sector of the northwest of Spain handles many varieties of granite with specific technical and aesthetic properties that command different prices in the natural stone market. Hence, correct granite identification and classification from the outset of processing to the end-product stage optimizes the management and control of stocks of granite slabs and tiles and facilitates the operation of traceability systems. We describe a methodology for automatically identifying granite varieties by processing spectral information captured by a spectrophotometer at various stages of processing using functional machine learning techniques.

  15. Identification of Granite Varieties from Colour Spectrum Data

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, María; Martínez, Javier; Ordóñez, Celestino; Vilán, José Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The granite processing sector of the northwest of Spain handles many varieties of granite with specific technical and aesthetic properties that command different prices in the natural stone market. Hence, correct granite identification and classification from the outset of processing to the end-product stage optimizes the management and control of stocks of granite slabs and tiles and facilitates the operation of traceability systems. We describe a methodology for automatically identifying granite varieties by processing spectral information captured by a spectrophotometer at various stages of processing using functional machine learning techniques. PMID:22163673

  16. Geology of the reading prong

    SciTech Connect

    Schutz, D.

    1987-03-01

    For over a billion years the geological terrain now called New Jersey has been the site of unusually high uranium concentrations. Although the highest of these concentrations occurs in the Reading Prong, the area is itself only part of a larger geologic province extending to the northeast and southwest. The rocks in the Reading Prong are not uniformly radioactive. High uranium concentrations tend to be associated with magnetite deposits - metamorphic equivalents of iron-rich formations - and with pegmatites - rocks formed by precipitation from mineralizing solutions in the late phases of granite emplacement. Because of the way they were formed, the uranium-bearing magnetite and pegmatite bodies tend to be long and narrow, and the resulting patterns of radon occurrence can be expected to be the same. This may explain why, in some places, adjacent houses have very different radon concentrations.

  17. Uranium in granites from the Southwestern United States: actinide parent-daughter systems, sites and mobilization. First year report

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, L T; Williams, I S; Woodhead, J A

    1980-10-01

    Some of the principal findings of the study on the Lawler Peak Granite are: the granite is dated precisely by this work at 1411 +- 3 m.y., confirming its synchroneity with a great regional terrane of granites. Uranium is presently 8-10 times crustal abundance and thorium 2-3 times in this granite. Uranium is found to be enriched in at least eight, possibly ten, primary igneous mineral species over the whole-rock values. Individual mineral species show distinct levels in, and characteristics ranges of, uranium concentration. It appears that in a uraniferous granite such as this, conventional accuracy mineral suites probably cannot account for most of the uranium in the rock, and more rare, high U-concentration phases also are present and are significant uranium hosts. It appears that at least two different geological episodes have contributed to the disturbance of the U-Th-Pb isotope systems. Studies of various sites for transient dispersal of uranium, thorium, and radiogenic lead isotopes indicate a non-uniform dispersal of these components. It appears that the bulk rock has lost at least 24 percent of its original uranium endowment, accepting limited or no radiogenic lead or thorium migration from the sample.

  18. Geotechnical properties of weathered and hydrothermally decomposed granite and their influence on slope stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuro, K.; Scholz, M.

    2003-04-01

    Weathering and alternation in granite has a deep inpact on both geotechnical properties of the rock as well as of the rock mass. In a granite rock mass, the discontinuity pattern together with joint cohesion and friction plays a major role especially when prone to sliding. These pheneomena could be exclusively studied at the Königshainer Berge Tunnel Project (Lausitz, Germany) where 3.5 km of tunnel and several kilometers of road cuts have been built in connection with the extension of the German Federal Freeway A4 to the Polish border. The two tubes provided an unique cross section through zones of intensive weathering and hydrothermal alteration within two-mica granites. During running excavation works, these zones could be studied intensively by proceeding a detailed engineering geological documentation, rock mass classification and rock and soil sampling, testing and monitoring. The main topics of the extensive field studies and laboratory work were the characterization of each weathering stage with rock or soil properties such as mineral composition, compressive and tensile strength, young´s modulus, specific destruction work, cohesion, friction angle etc. One of the main observations was the increase of pore volume with the degree of weathering and therefore a distinct decrease of most of the rock properties. A second topic was to get an idea of the distribution of the weathering zones in the rock mass along the tunnel section and the road cuts that are prone to sliding, and to evaluate the common geological model of granite weathering in dependence of discontinnuity pattern and depth. Some parts of the granites underwent two stages of hydrothermal alteration before beeing under surface conditions. Therefore it was necessary to distinguish between the effect of weathering and hydrothermal alteration on mineralogy as well as on geotechnical rock properties. Only after the endogene alteration processes had finished, the rock has been exposed to the exogene

  19. Application of Generic Disposal System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Mariner, Paul; Hammond, Glenn Edward; Sevougian, S. David; Stein, Emily

    2015-11-01

    This report describes specific GDSA activities in fiscal year 2015 (FY2015) toward the development of the enhanced disposal system modeling and analysis capability for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The GDSA framework employs the PFLOTRAN thermal-hydrologic-chemical multi-physics code (Hammond et al., 2011) and the Dakota uncertainty sampling and propagation code (Adams et al., 2013). Each code is designed for massively-parallel processing in a high-performance computing (HPC) environment. Multi-physics representations in PFLOTRAN are used to simulate various coupled processes including heat flow, fluid flow, waste dissolution, radionuclide release, radionuclide decay and ingrowth, precipitation and dissolution of secondary phases, and radionuclide transport through the engineered barriers and natural geologic barriers to a well location in an overlying or underlying aquifer. Dakota is used to generate sets of representative realizations and to analyze parameter sensitivity.

  20. Assessment of radiological hazard of commercial granites from Extremadura (Spain).

    PubMed

    Guillén, J; Tejado, J J; Baeza, A; Corbacho, J A; Muñoz, J G

    2014-06-01

    The term "commercial granite" comprises different natural stones with different mineralogical components. In Extremadura, western Spain, "commercial granites" can be classified in three types: granite s.s. (sensus stricti), granodiorite, and diorite. The content of naturally occurring radionuclides depended of the mineralogy. Thus, the (40)K content increased as the relative content of alkaline feldspar increased but decreased as the plagioclase content increased. The radioactive content decreased in the following order: granite s.s. > granodiorite > diorite. In this work, the radiological hazard of these granites as building material was analyzed in terms of external irradiation and radon exposure. External irradiation was estimated based on the "I" index, ranged between 0.073 and 1.36. Therefore, these granites can be use as superficial building materials with no restriction. Radon exposure was estimated using the surface exhalation rates in polished granites. The exhalation rate in granites depends of their superficial finishes (different roughness). For distinct mechanical finishes of granite (polish, diamond sawed, bush-hammered and flamed), the surface exhalation rate increased with the roughness of the finishes. Thermal finish presented the highest exhalation rate, because the high temperatures applied to the granite may increase the number of fissures within it. The exhalation rates in polished granites varied from 0.013 to 10.4 Bq m(-2) h(-1).

  1. Catastrophic Versus Uniformitarian Geology: Outline for Classroom Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carl, James D.; O'Brien, Neal R.

    1970-01-01

    Presents the two positions of the geological debate, as presented in 1796, between the Wernerians (uniformitarians) and the Huttonians (catastrophic supporters). Presentations stress importance of earth heat, the origin of granite and basalt, and the cyclic theme of Hutton's earth. (RR)

  2. Catastrophic Versus Uniformitarian Geology: Outline for Classroom Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carl, James D.; O'Brien, Neal R.

    1970-01-01

    Presents the two positions of the geological debate, as presented in 1796, between the Wernerians (uniformitarians) and the Huttonians (catastrophic supporters). Presentations stress importance of earth heat, the origin of granite and basalt, and the cyclic theme of Hutton's earth. (RR)

  3. Drilling fluid disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, L.E.; Sander, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper attempts to review the effect of the regulatory process on the selection and handling of drilling fluids for proper disposal. It is shown that a maze of regulations and regulatory agencies coupled with uncertainty in interpretation of environmental data and an evolving system of disposal engineering will require industry action to monitor the area and derive a solid engineering basis for disposal of spent drilling fluid. 16 refs.

  4. Physiography, geology, and land cover of four watersheds in Eastern Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    S.F. Murphy; R.F. Stallard; M.C. Larsen; W.A. Gould

    2012-01-01

    Four watersheds with differing geology and land cover in eastern Puerto Rico have been studied on a long-term basis by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate water, energy, and biogeochemical budgets. These watersheds are typical of tropical, island-arc settings found in many parts of the world. Two watersheds are located on coarse-grained granitic rocks that weather...

  5. Disposables in downstream processing.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Disposable equipment has been used for many years in the downstream processing industry, but mainly for filtration and buffer/media storage. Over the last decade, there has been increasing interest in the use of disposable concepts for chromatography, replacing steel and glass fixed systems with disposable plastic modules that can be discarded once exhausted, fouled or contaminated. These modules save on cleaning and validation costs, and their reduce footprints reduce buffer consumption, water for injection, labor and facility space, contributing to an overall reduction in expenditure that lowers the cost of goods. This chapter examines the practical and economic benefits of disposable modules in downstream processing.

  6. 3D imaging of geological structures by R-VSP utilizing vibrations caused by shaft excavations at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, T.; Hodotsuka, Y.; Ishigaki, K.; Lee, C.

    2009-12-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency is now conducting the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project. The MIU consists of two shafts (main shaft: 6.5m, ventilation shaft: 4.5m diameter) and horizontal research galleries, in sedimentary and granitic rocks at Mizunami City, Central Japan. The MIU project is a broad scientific study of the deep geological environment providing the basis for research and development for geological disposal of high level radioactive waste. One of the main goals is to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment in fractured crystalline rock. As a part of the MIU project, we carried out the Reverse-Vertical Seismic Profile (R-VSP) using vibrations from the blasting for the shaft excavations and drilling of boreholes in the horizontal research galleries and examined the applicability of this method to imaging of geological structures around underground facilities, such as the unconformity between the sedimentary rocks and the basal granite, and faults and fracture zones in the granite. R-VSP method is a seismic method utilizing the receiver arrays on surface and seismic sources underground (e.g. in boreholes). This method is advantageous in that planning of 3-dimensional surveys is easy compared with reflection seismic surveying and conventional VSP because seismic source arrays that are major constraint for conducting surveys on surface are unnecessary. The receiver arrays consist of six radial lines on surface with a central focus on the main shaft. Seven blast rounds for the main shaft excavation from GL-52.8m to GL-250m and the borehole drilling in the GL-200m horizontal research gallery were observed. Three types of data processing, conventional VSP data processing (VSP-CDP transform and VSP migration), Reflection data processing utilizing Seismic interferometry method (“Seismic interferometry”) and Reflection mapping utilizing Image Point transform method (“IP transform

  7. Silicosis in West Country Granite Workers

    PubMed Central

    Hale, L. W.; Sheers, G.

    1963-01-01

    The granite industry in Cornwall and Devon is briefly described, especially the production of dust in dressing the stone. In 1951, 210 granite masons were examined (about 84% of the total at that time) and 37 (17·6%) showed silicosis. These men were followed up for 10 years. No silicosis was seen in men with less than 15 years' exposure, but after this time the risk increased to 11 out of 14 in those with over 35 years' exposure. Nine deaths occurred, two of which were due to silicosis. Radiological progression was observed in 13 of the 28 survivors. It was not necessarily associated with additional exposure but was related to age. More young men progressed. In 1961, 132 of the granite masons (about 93% of the total at that time) were re-examined and nine new cases of silicosis were found to have developed during the 10-year interval. The exposure in the 1961 cases was comparable with that of similar cases in 1951. Thus the risk has not been much reduced over this period. Pulmonary tuberculosis occurred in eight of the 37 cases of silicosis in 1951, and between 1951 and 1961 a further five cases were diagnosed, four being from one locality. This was by far the most frequent and disabling complication. Only one case of progressive massive fibrosis was seen. More extensive use of protective antituberculous chemotherapy is advocated, and also better dust control. Images PMID:14046159

  8. SILICOSIS FROM QUARRYING AND WORKING OF GRANITE

    PubMed Central

    Ahlmark, A.; Bruce, T.; Nyström, Å

    1965-01-01

    Previous knowledge of silicosis in the Swedish granite industry suggested that the disease was neither common nor severe. In recent years, however, changes in working methods have involved a considerably increased formation of dust, and it was considered likely that the risk of contracting silicosis was increased. Reports from other countries supported this conjecture. The 34 known cases of silicosis caused by quarrying and working of granite in Sweden were therefore reviewed. The mean duration of exposure to siliceous dust when stage I silicosis was diagnosed was 32 years, and the mean age at diagnosis was 55 years. Despite the relatively long `prediagnosis' exposure to dust, the disease showed a pronounced tendency to progression, and six cases were complicated by pulmonary tuberculosis. Eighty per cent of the men were awarded disablement benefit because of their pulmonary lesions, and four men died from silicosis alone or in combination with tuberculosis. In Swedish granite works there is room for considerable improvement in dust suppression. Careful checks of such preventive measures and periodic medical examination of exposed persons are strongly advocated. PMID:5836568

  9. Deep sea waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Kester, D.R.; Burt, W.V.; Capuzzo, J.M.; Park, P.K.; Ketchum, B.W.; Duedall, I.W.

    1985-01-01

    The book presents papers on the marine disposal of wastes. Topics considered include incineration at sea, the modelling and biological effects of industrial wastes, microbial studies of ocean dumping, deep-sea mining wastes, the chemical analysis of ferromanganese nodules, and economic aspects of deep-sea disposal.

  10. Disposable Diapers Are OK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poore, Patricia

    1992-01-01

    A personal account of measuring the pros and cons of disposable diaper usage leads the author to differentiate between a garbage problem and environmental problem. Concludes the disposable diaper issue is a political and economic issue with a local environmental impact and well within our abilities to manage. (MCO)

  11. Disposable Diapers Are OK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poore, Patricia

    1992-01-01

    A personal account of measuring the pros and cons of disposable diaper usage leads the author to differentiate between a garbage problem and environmental problem. Concludes the disposable diaper issue is a political and economic issue with a local environmental impact and well within our abilities to manage. (MCO)

  12. Geological gyrocompass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, M. H.; Beason, S. C.

    1988-08-01

    The geological gyrocompass is an accurate, portable instrument useful for geologic mapping and surveying which employs an aircraft gyrocompass, strike reference bars, a pair of sights and levelling devices for horizontally levelling the instrument. A clinometer graduated in degrees indicates the dip of the surface being measured.

  13. Physical geology

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, B.; Porter, S.

    1987-01-01

    The book integrates current thinking on processes (plate techtonics, chemical cycles, changes throughout geologic time). It is an introduction to investigations into the way the earth works, how mountains are formed, how the atmosphere, hydrosphere, crust and mantle interact with each other. Treatments on climate, paleoclimatology and landscape evolution are included, as is a discussion on how human activity affects geological interactions.

  14. Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, William L.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in geologic time with an introduction to the subject. Separate sections discuss the relative time scale, major divisions in geologic time, index fossils used as guides for telling the age of rocks, the atomic scale, and the age of the earth.…

  15. Exploring Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissman, John W.

    2008-09-01

    I am willing to bet a nice bottle of chardonnay that much of the Eos readership has lugged around, fondled, and fumbled through an introductory physical geology textbook of some form or another, once upon a time. Mine, in 1970, was Physical Geology, by Longwell, Flint, and Sanders, which I still have, by the way. Most of us know how ``classical'' physical geology textbooks have been organized: first, a broad overview of Earth processes, then several sections devoted to groups of more specific subjects (e.g., mineralogy, sedimentary rocks, and environments, with one chapter per subject), then several sections devoted to a synthesis of geologic processes in the context of plate tectonics, and finally, typically, a discussion of Earth resources and environment- related issues. Some relatively new textbooks have ventured into new pedagogical formats, for example, emphasizing how we know what we know (e.g., How Does Earth Work: Physical Geology and the Process of Science by Smith and Pun).

  16. Disposal of drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, W.R.

    1983-06-01

    Prior to 1974 the disposal of drilling fluids was not considered to be much of an environmental problem. In the past, disposal of drilling fluids was accomplished in various ways such as spreading on oil field lease roads to stabilize the road surface and control dust, spreading in the base of depressions of sandy land areas to increase water retention, and leaving the fluid in the reserve pit to be covered on closure of the pit. In recent years, some states have become concerned over the indescriminate dumping of drilling fluids into pits or unauthorized locations and have developed specific regulations to alleviate the perceived deterioration of environmental and groundwater quality from uncontrolled disposal practices. The disposal of drilling fluids in Kansas is discussed along with a newer method or treatment in drilling fluid disposal.

  17. U.S.-Russian joint study report of geologic disposition options for excess plutonium from dismantled nuclear weapons: combined report, Group 5: burial in geological formations

    SciTech Connect

    Gupalo, T.A.; Jardine, L.J.

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the Joint U.S.-Russian Studies of the Geologic Disposal Working Group. The group evaluated a consistent set of geologic disposal options in conjunction with five other working groups for disposition of excess plutonium from dismantled weapons. Mutually agreed-to technical facts and findings were identified for all of the studied excess plutonium disposal forms. These findings were summarized in terms of five joint study criteria identified during the January 1994 Summit between Presidents Yeltsin and Clinton.

  18. Disposal of Vessels at Sea

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Vessel disposal general permits are issued by the EPA under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. Information is provided for vessel disposal permit applicants and where to dispose a vessel.

  19. Natural radioactivity of granites used as building materials.

    PubMed

    Pavlidou, S; Koroneos, A; Papastefanou, C; Christofides, G; Stoulos, S; Vavelides, M

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen kinds of different granites, used as building materials, imported to Greece mainly from Spain and Brazil, were sampled and their natural radioactivity was measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K of granites are presented and compared to those of other building materials as well as other granite types used all over the world. In order to assess the radiological impact from the granites investigated, the absorbed and the effective doses were determined. Although the annual effective dose is higher than the limit of 1mSvy(-1) for some studied granites, they could be used safely as building materials, considering that their contribution in most of the house constructions is very low. An attempt to correlate the relatively high level of natural radioactivity, shown by some of the granites, with their constituent radioactive minerals and their chemical composition, was also made.

  20. Cigeo, the French Geological Repository Project - 13022

    SciTech Connect

    Labalette, Thibaud; Harman, Alain; Dupuis, Marie-Claude; Ouzounian, Gerald

    2013-07-01

    The Cigeo industrial-scale geological disposal centre is designed for the disposal of the most highly-radioactive French waste. It will be built in an argillite formation of the Callovo-Oxfordian dating back 160 million years. The Cigeo project is located near the Bure village in the Paris Basin. The argillite formation was studied since 1974, and from the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory since end of 1999. Most of the waste to be disposed of in the Cigeo repository comes from nuclear power plants and from reprocessing of their spent fuel. (authors)

  1. Geotechnical characteristics of shallow ocean dredge spoil disposal mounds

    SciTech Connect

    Demars, K.R.; Dowling, J.J.; Long, R.P.; Morton, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    This paper summarizes the data obtained from site surveying and sediment sampling of dredge spoil disposal mounds at the Central Long Island Sound site. Emphasis is placed on the geotechnical and geological features of the mound and natural seabed. Since some of the spoil is contaminated, cappings of clean spoil have been used to isolate the spoil mounds from fauna and flora in the water column. Because of the contaminated spoil, improvements in the disposal techniques are needed and methodologies must be developed for evaluating short-term and long-term stability of these shallow ocean deposits which are subjected to loadings from waves, spoil disposal and capping operations.

  2. 886-857 Ma granites from Yenisey Ridge formed long before their collision with the western margin of the Siberian Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernikovskiy, V. A.; Vernikovskaya, A. E.; Metelkin, D. V.; Kazansky, A. Y.; Matushkin, N. Y.; Kadilnikov, P. I.; Romanova, I.; Larionov, A. N.; Wingate, M. T. D.

    2015-12-01

    Yenisei Ridge represents the key geological structure in the western framing of the Siberian Craton, playing a significant role in regional and global geodynamic paleoreconstructions. This Late Precambrian orogenic belt stretches along the Yenisei River and is built of terranes of different nature (Vernikovsky et al., 2003). The largest structure of the Yenisei Ridge is the Central Angara terrane enclosing 886-857 Ma Yeruda granites. Origin and age of Yeruda granites along with paleogeographic position of the Central Angara terrane at the time of their formation were investigated using combined petrological, geochemical, geochronological and paleomagnetic approach. Yeruda granites were emplaced 886-857 Ma and are characterized by fractionated compositions, transitional between I- and S-types. The final stage of 859-857 Ma marks the formation of leucocratic granites, including high-K adakites or continental type (C-type), which could be formed during post-orogenic phase following extreme crustal thickening as described in (Xiao, Clemens, 2007). The calculated apparent movement of polar wonder (APWP) for Yeruda granites is significantly different from the trajectory of Siberia during Early Neoproterozoic, corresponding to paleolatitude difference of more than 8.6°. This clearly indicates that the Central Angara terrane was thousands of kilometers away from Siberia at the time of Yeruda granites emplacement.

  3. Formation of Hadean granites by melting of igneous crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnham, A. D.; Berry, A. J.

    2017-06-01

    The oldest known samples of Earth, with ages of up to 4.4 Gyr, are detrital zircon grains in meta-sedimentary rocks of the Jack Hills in Australia. These zircons offer insights into the magmas from which they crystallized, and, by implication, igneous activity and tectonics in the first 500 million years of Earth’s history, the Hadean eon. However, the compositions of these magmas and the relative contributions of igneous and sedimentary components to their sources have not yet been resolved. Here we compare the trace element concentrations of the Jack Hills zircons to those of zircons from the locality where igneous (I-) and sedimentary (S-) type granites were first distinguished. We show that the Hadean zircons crystallized predominantly from I-type magmas formed by melting of a reduced, garnet-bearing igneous crust. Further, we propose that both the phosphorus content of zircon and the ratio of phosphorus to rare earth elements can be used to distinguish between detrital zircon grains from I- and S-type sources. These elemental discriminants provide a new geochemical tool to assess the relative contributions of primeval magmatism and melting of recycled sediments to the continents over geological time.

  4. Geologic time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, William L.

    2000-01-01

    The Earth is very old 4 1/2 billion years or more according to recent estimates. This vast span of time, called geologic time by earth scientists, is difficult to comprehend in the familiar time units of months and years, or even centuries. How then do scientists reckon geologic time, and why do they believe the Earth is so old? A great part of the secret of the Earth's age is locked up in its rocks, and our centuries-old search for the key led to the beginning and nourished the growth of geologic science.

  5. Characterization of Physical and Hydro-Geological Properties of Kanamaru Research Site in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, M.; Zhang, M.; Takeno, N.; Watanabe, Y.

    2004-12-01

    Establishing the comprehensive knowledge of applicability of the methods for investigating hydraulic properties of low permeability geologic strata is an urgent issue for supporting regulation of geological disposal of nuclear waste in the near future. As a beginning of this work, a systematic examination of various kinds of techniques for hydro-geological surveys has been started in Kanamaru Research Site in Japan. This paper briefly introduces the research plan and preliminary results obtained from the first year of investigation. The survey techniques include borehole excavation, borehole imaging, gamma-ray, caliper, acoustic, electrical resistivity and density loggings, permeability tests and flow direction measurement using a single borehole, permeability tests and flow direction measurement using multi boreholes, etc. Preliminary findings can be summarized as follows: (1) The stratigraphy at the survey area consists of topsoil, debris sediments, sandstone, mudstone, conglomeratic sandstone, mudstone, arkose sandstone, and granite. High uranium concentrations are detected at lower portion of the conglomeratic sandstone by gamma-ray logging. (2) The survey area is located at a slope inclined from the north to the south, and the dominant groundwater flow is considered to be in the direction form the north to the south. And the downward flow was also recognized by the flow direction measurements and water quality logging. (3) Hydraulic conductivities derived from permeability tests using a single borehole were in the range of 5E-10 to 1E-7 m/s. The hydraulic conductivities of the same lithology derived from different boreholes varied, and the discrepancies were up to an order. This result indicates that the formations in the survey area have hydraulic heterogeneity in both the vertical and horizontal directions. (4) On the whole, stratum with fast velocity of elastic wave showed large resistivity and low permeability. The degree of correlation between the

  6. Index of granitic rock masses in the state of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maldonado, Florian; Spengler, Richard W.; Hanna, W.F.; Dixon, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    A compilation of 205 areas of exposed granitic rock in Nevada was undertaken for the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose was to obtain data for evaluating granitic rock masses as potential underground nuclear waste repositories. Information, compiled by county for areas of granitic rock exposure, includes general location, coordinates, land classification, areal extent, accessibility, composition, age, rocks intruded, aeromagnetic expression, mining activity, and selected references.

  7. Status on disposal of greater-than-Class C

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a plan for the management and disposal of commercially generated greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 made DOE responsible for disposal of GTCC waste. The act requires that GTCC waste be disposed in a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed facility. The NRC has amended 10 CFR 61 to express a preference for geologic disposal of GTCC waste. Based on reassessment studies, legislative guidance, and stakeholder involvement, a revised plan has been formulated to provide for total management of GTCC waste. The plan has four major thrusts: (1) plan for GTCC waste storage at the generator site until disposal is available, (2) establish storage for GTCC sealed sources posing health and safety risk to the public, (3) facilitate storage for other GTCC waste posing health and safety risk to the public, and (4) plan for co-disposal of GTCC waste in a geologic disposal site with similar waste types. The revised plan focuses on applying available resources to near- and long-term needs.

  8. Early Mesozoic granites in the Nanling Belt, South China: Implications for intracontinental tectonics associated with stress regime transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Meijia; Shu, Liangshu; Santosh, M.

    2016-04-01

    The link between two tectono-magmatic events during Early and Late Mesozoic periods in the Nanling Belt of South China remains debated. Here we present zircon U-Pb geochronology, Hf isotopes and whole-rock geochemistry of granitic intrusions from Zhuguangshan in the Nanling Belt. The zircon data exhibit two magmatic episodes with 206Pb/238U ages of ca. 230 Ma and 150 Ma, representing the Indosinian (Early-Middle Triassic period) and Early Yanshanian (Jurassic-Cretaceous period) events, respectively. The Indosinian granites are characterized by strongly peraluminous nature with high A/CNK values (> 1.1), whereas the Early Yanshanian granites are weakly peraluminous (average A/CNK value of 1.06). Although the Early Yanshanian granites bear higher HREE contents and lower LREE/HREE ratios, the two-phase granites show enrichment in LREE, Rb, Th, U and Pb, depletion in Eu and negative Ba, Sr, Nb and Ti anomalies. All samples show variably negative εHf(t) values (- 5 to - 16) with two-stage Hf model ages clustered around 1.8-2.1 Ga. Our data indicate that the two-phase granitic magmas were generated from the partial melting of early Paleoproterozoic basement rocks with no input of mantle material. Combined with other geological evidence, we infer that the Indosinian tectono-magmatic event was closely related to intracontinental orogeny triggered by collisions along the boundaries of South China Craton, in relation to processes associated with the E-W trending Tethys tectonic domain. We envisage that the Early Yanshanian event might be a response to the back-arc extension of NW-directed paleo-Pacific plate subduction. The Nanling Belt is a critical zone that records the transformation from Tethys to paleo-Pacific tectonic regimes.

  9. Newly discovered uranium mineralization at 2.0 Ma in the Menggongjie granite-hosted uranium deposit, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jin-Cheng; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Fayek, Mostafa; Bi, Xian-Wu; Shi, Shao-Hua; Chen, You-Wei

    2017-04-01

    The southeastern part of the Nanling metallogenic province, South China contains numerous economically important granite-hosted, hydrothermal vein-type uranium deposits. The Miao'ershan (MES) uranium ore field is one of the most important uranium sources in China, hosts the largest Chanziping carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock-type uranium deposit and several representative granite-hosted uranium deposits. The geology and geochemistry of these deposits have been extensively studied. However, accurate and precise ages for the uranium mineralization are scarce because uranium minerals in these deposits are usually fine-grained, and may have formed in several stages, thus hindering the understanding of the uranium metallogenesis of this province. The Menggongjie (MGJ) uranium deposit is one of the largest granite-hosted uranium deposits in the MES ore field. Uranium mineralization in this deposit occurs at the central part of the MES granitic complex, accompanied with silicification, fluorination, K-metasomatism and hematitization. The ore minerals are dominated by uraninite, occurring in quartz or fluorite veinlets along fractures in altered granite. In-situ SIMS U-Pb dating on the uraninite yields the U-Pb isotopic age of 1.9 ± 0.7 Ma, which is comparable to the chemical U-Th-Pbtol uraninite age of 2.3 ± 0.1 Ma. Such ages agree well with the eruption ages of the extension-related Quaternary volcanics (2.1-1.2 Ma) in South China, suggesting that the uranium mineralization have formed at an extensional setting, possibly related to the Quaternary volcanic activities. Therefore, our robust, new dating results of the MGJ uranium deposit make it the youngest granite-hosted uranium deposit reported so far in South China and the mineralization event represents a newly identified mineralization epoch.

  10. The molybdenum isotopic compositions of I-, S- and A-type granitic suites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Barling, Jane; Siebert, Christopher; Fietzke, Jan; Stephens, Ed; Halliday, Alex N.

    2017-05-01

    This study reports Mo isotopic compositions for fifty-two Palaeozoic granitic rocks with contrasting source affinities (A-, I- and S-type) from the Lachlan Fold Belt (LFB) and the New England Batholith (NEB), both in SE Australia, and three compositionally zoned plutons (Loch Doon, Criffell, and Fleet) located in the Southern Uplands of Scotland. The results show relatively large variations in δ98Mo for igneous rocks ranging from -1.73‰ to 0.59‰ with significant overlaps between different types. No relationships between δ98Mo and δ18O or ASI (Alumina Saturation Index) are observed, indicating that Mo isotopes do not clearly distinguish igneous vs. sedimentary source types. Instead, effects of igneous processes, source mixing, regional geology, as well as hydrothermal activity control the Mo isotope compositions in these granites. It is found that Mo is mainly accommodated in biotite and to a lesser extent in hornblende. Hornblende and Fe3+-rich minerals may preferentially incorporate light isotopes, as reflected by negative correlations between δ98Mo and K/Rb and [Fe2O3]. There is a positive correlation between initial 87Sr/86Sr and δ98Mo in I-type granitic rocks, reflecting the admixing of material from isotopically distinct sources. Granitic rocks from Scotland and Australia display strikingly similar curvilinear trends in δ98Mo vs. initial 87Sr/86Sr despite the differing regional geology. Localized hydrothermal effects can result in low δ98Mo in granite, as seen in three samples from Loch Doon and Criffell which have anomalously light δ98Mo of <-1‰. Based on this study, an estimate of δ98Mo = 0.14 ± 0.07‰ (95% s.e.) for the Phanerozoic upper crust is proposed. This is slightly heavier than basalts indicating an isotopically light lower crust and/or a systematic change to the crust resulting from subduction of isotopically light dehydrated slab and/or pelagic sediment over time.

  11. Igneous phenocrystic origin of K-feldspar megacrysts in granitic rocks from the Sierra Nevada batholith

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.G.; Sisson, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    interpretation that the megacrysts formed ag igneous sanidine phenocrysts, that intrusion temperatures varied by only small amounts while the megacrysts grew, and that megacryst growth ceased before the intrusions cooled below the solidus. Individual Ba-enriched zones were apparently formed by repeated surges of new, hotter granitic melt that replenished these large magma chambers. Each recharge of hot magron offset cooling, maintained the partially molten or mushy character of the chamber, stirred up crystals, and induced convective currents that lofted, settling megacrysts back up into the chamber. Because of repeated reheating of the magma chamber and prolonged maintenance of the melt, this process apparently continued long enough to provide the ideal environment for the growth of these extraordinarily large K-feldspar phenocrysts. ??2008 Geological Society of America.

  12. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCammon, Richard B.

    1979-01-01

    The year 1978 marked a continued trend toward practical applications in mathematical geology. Developments included work in interactive computer graphics, factor analysis, the vanishing tons problem, universal kriging, and resource estimating. (BB)

  13. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Fitzhugh T.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly reviews the increasing application of geologic principles, techniques and data to engineering practices in the areas of land use and zoning controls, resource management energy programs and other fields. (BR)

  14. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Fitzhugh T.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly reviews the increasing application of geologic principles, techniques and data to engineering practices in the areas of land use and zoning controls, resource management energy programs and other fields. (BR)

  15. Geology, summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabins, F. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Trends in geologic application of remote sensing are identified. These trends are as follows: (1) increased applications of orbital imagery in fields such as engineering and environmental geology - some specific applications include recognition of active earthquake faults, site location for nuclear powerplants, and recognition of landslide hazards; (2) utilization of remote sensing by industry, especially oil and gas companies, and (3) application of digital image processing to mineral exploration.

  16. Cambro-Ordovician post-collisional granites of the Ribeira belt, SE-Brazil: A case of terminal magmatism of a hot orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeriano, Claudio de Morisson; Mendes, Julio Cezar; Tupinambá, Miguel; Bongiolo, Everton; Heilbron, Monica; Junho, Maria do Carmo Bustamante

    2016-07-01

    This work presents an overview of the geology and chemical composition of the Cambrian-Ordovician post-collisional (COPC) granites and associated rocks of Ribeira belt, SE-Brazil. These COPC granites make up some of the most picturesque and highest (>2000 m) rocky peaks and cliffs of Rio de Janeiro state, an accessible case of post-orogenic granitic magmatism associated with the terminal stages of a hot Ediacaran-Cambrian (Brasiliano-Panafrican) orogen. The COPC magmatism intruded tonalitic to granitic orthogneisses of the Rio Negro arc (∼790-600 Ma) and associated paragneisses of the São Fidelis Group. Post-collisional magmatism started ∼10 m.y. after the latest collisional event, the Buzios Orogeny, lasting discontinuously from ∼510 Ma until ∼470 Ma. The 15 largest intrusive bodies in Rio de Janeiro State are referred to in the literature as the Parati/Mangaratiba, Vila Dois Rios, Pedra Branca, Suruí, Silva Jardim, Favela, Andorinha, Teresópolis, Frade, Nova Friburgo, Conselheiro Paulino, São José do Ribeirão, Sana and Itaoca granites. They crop out as rounded/elliptical stocks or gently-dipping sheets, always with sharp contacts with the country rocks, along with pegmatite and aplitic veins and dykes. COPC granites are grey and pink undeformed medium-grained biotite monzogranites with (K-feldspar) porphyritic, mega-crystic, equigranular and serial textures. Magmatic flow foliation is frequently observed. Peripheric xenolith zones are common as well as isolated xenoliths from the country rocks. In a compilation of more than 100 chemical compositions, SiO2 contents display a major mode at 71wt%. The COPC magmatism generated high-K calc-alkaline granites and quartz monzonites with predominantly metaluminous granites. Meso to melanocratic gabbroic and dioritic enclaves also have calc-alkaline affinity and likely represent more resistant mafic xenoliths from the Rio Negro Arc.

  17. Characterization of Climax granite ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Isherwood, D.; Harrar, J.; Raber, E.

    1982-08-01

    The Climax ground water fails to match the commonly held views regarding the nature of deep granitic ground waters. It is neither dilute nor in equilibrium with the granite. Ground-water samples were taken for chemical analysis from five sites in the fractured Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. The waters are high in total dissolved solids (1200 to 2160 mg/L) and rich in sodium (56 to 250 mg/L), calcium (114 to 283 mg/L) and sulfate (325 to 1060 mg/L). Two of the samples contained relatively high amounts of uranium (1.8 and 18.5 mg/L), whereas the other three contained uranium below the level of detection (< 0.1 mg/L). The pH is in the neutral range (7.3 to 8.2). The differences in composition between samples (as seen in the wide range of values for the major constituents and total dissolved solids) suggest the samples came from different, independent fracture systems. However, the apparent trend of increasing sodium with depth at the expense of calcium and magnesium suggests a common evolutionary chemical process, if not an interconnected system. The waters appear to be less oxidizing with depth (+ 410 mV at 420 m below the surface vs + 86 mV at 565 m). However, with Eh measurements on only two samples, this correlation is questionable. Isotopic analyses show that the waters are of meteoric origin and that the source of the sulfate is probably the pyrite in the fracture-fill material. Analysis of the measured water characteristics using the chemical equilibrium computer program EQ3 indicates that the waters are not in equilibrium with the local mineral assemblage. The solutions appear to be supersaturated with respect to the mineral calcite, quartz, kaolinite, muscovite, k-feldspar, and many others.

  18. Multivariate analyses of Erzgebirge granite and rhyolite composition: Implications for classification of granites and their genetic relations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forster, H.-J.; Davis, J.C.; Tischendorf, G.; Seltmann, R.

    1999-01-01

    High-precision major, minor and trace element analyses for 44 elements have been made of 329 Late Variscan granitic and rhyolitic rocks from the Erzgebirge metallogenic province of Germany. The intrusive histories of some of these granites are not completely understood and exposures of rock are not adequate to resolve relationships between what apparently are different plutons. Therefore, it is necessary to turn to chemical analyses to decipher the evolution of the plutons and their relationships. A new classification of Erzgebirge plutons into five major groups of granites, based on petrologic interpretations of geochemical and mineralogical relationships (low-F biotite granites; low-F two-mica granites; high-F, high-P2O5 Li-mica granites; high-F, low-P2O5 Li-mica granites; high-F, low-P2O5 biotite granites) was tested by multivariate techniques. Canonical analyses of major elements, minor elements, trace elements and ratio variables all distinguish the groups with differing amounts of success. Univariate ANOVA's, in combination with forward-stepwise and backward-elimination canonical analyses, were used to select ten variables which were most effective in distinguishing groups. In a biplot, groups form distinct clusters roughly arranged along a quadratic path. Within groups, individual plutons tend to be arranged in patterns possibly reflecting granitic evolution. Canonical functions were used to classify samples of rhyolites of unknown association into the five groups. Another canonical analysis was based on ten elements traditionally used in petrology and which were important in the new classification of granites. Their biplot pattern is similar to that from statistically chosen variables but less effective at distinguishing the five groups of granites. This study shows that multivariate statistical techniques can provide significant insight into problems of granitic petrogenesis and may be superior to conventional procedures for petrological interpretation.

  19. Multivariate analyses of Erzgebirge granite and rhyolite composition: implications for classification of granites and their genetic relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, Hans-Jürgen; Davis, John C.; Tischendorf, Gerhard; Seltmann, Reimar

    1999-06-01

    High-precision major, minor and trace element analyses for 44 elements have been made of 329 Late Variscan granitic and rhyolitic rocks from the Erzgebirge metallogenic province of Germany. The intrusive histories of some of these granites are not completely understood and exposures of rock are not adequate to resolve relationships between what apparently are different plutons. Therefore, it is necessary to turn to chemical analyses to decipher the evolution of the plutons and their relationships. A new classification of Erzgebirge plutons into five major groups of granites, based on petrologic interpretations of geochemical and mineralogical relationships (low-F biotite granites; low-F two-mica granites; high-F, high-P 2O 5 Li-mica granites; high-F, low-P 2O 5 Li-mica granites; high-F, low-P 2O 5 biotite granites) was tested by multivariate techniques. Canonical analyses of major elements, minor elements, trace elements and ratio variables all distinguish the groups with differing amounts of success. Univariate ANOVA's, in combination with forward-stepwise and backward-elimination canonical analyses, were used to select ten variables which were most effective in distinguishing groups. In a biplot, groups form distinct clusters roughly arranged along a quadratic path. Within groups, individual plutons tend to be arranged in patterns possibly reflecting granitic evolution. Canonical functions were used to classify samples of rhyolites of unknown association into the five groups. Another canonical analysis was based on ten elements traditionally used in petrology and which were important in the new classification of granites. Their biplot pattern is similar to that from statistically chosen variables but less effective at distinguishing the five groups of granites. This study shows that multivariate statistical techniques can provide significant insight into problems of granitic petrogenesis and may be superior to conventional procedures for petrological

  20. Rare accessory uraninite in a Sierran granite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snetsinger, K. G.; Polkowski, G.

    1977-01-01

    One grain of uraninite was found in a single thin-section of Sierran granite. Electron and ion microprobe analysis were used to determine the composition. Since the U-Pb age calculated for the uraninite does not differ greatly from the K-Ar age of the unit in which it occurs, it is suggested that the mineral is primary and not reworked from a preexisting rock. No uraninite has been detected in heavy mineral concentrates from other rocks of the local area.

  1. Strain localization during deformation of Westerly granite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodsky, N. S.; Spetzler, H. A.

    1984-01-01

    A specimen of Westerly granite was cyclically loaded to near failure at 50 MPa confining pressure. Holographic interferometry provided detailed measurements of localized surface deformations during loading and unloading. The data are consistent with deformation occurring primarily elastically at low differential stress; in conjunction with one incipient fault zone between approximately 350 and 520 MPa differential stress; and in conjunction with a second incipient fault zone above 580 MPa and/or during creep. During unloading only one fault zone, that which is active at the intermediate stress levels during loading, is seen to recede.

  2. SIMFUEL dissolution studies in granitic groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollila, K.

    1992-08-01

    The dissolution behaviour of an unirradiated chemical analogue of spent nuclear fuel, SIMFUEL, has been studied in synthetic, granitic groundwater under anoxic conditions. The release of U and the minor components Mo, Ru, Sr, Ba, La, Zr, Ce, Y, Rh, Pd and Nd was monitored during static (batch) leaching experiments. For molybdenum, ruthenium, strontium and barium, the leaching results (the total experimental time of 300 days) show a trend to congruent dissolution with the UO 2 matrix. The release rates of lanthanum, zirconium and cerium are higher relative to uranium. Sorption, colloidal and/or precipitation phenomena appear to play an important role under these experimental conditions.

  3. Status of UFD Campaign International Activities in Disposal Research

    SciTech Connect

    Birkholzer, Jens

    2012-09-01

    While the United States research program for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste over the past decades focused solely on an open tunnel emplacement in unsaturated densely fractured tuff, several international organizations have made significant progress in the characterization and performance evaluation of other disposal design options and host rock characteristics, most of which were very different from those studied in the U.S. As a result, areas of direct collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) and international geologic disposal programs were quite limited during that time. Recently, the decision by DOE to no longer pursue the geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel at the Yucca Mountain site has shifted the nation’s focus to disposal design options and geologic environments similar to those being investigated by other nations. DOE started to recognize that close international collaboration is a beneficial and costeffective strategy for advancing disposal science and, in FY12, embarked on a comprehensive effort to identify international collaboration opportunities, to interact with international organizations and advance promising collaborations, and to plan/develop specific R&D activities in cooperation with international partners. This report describes the active collaboration opportunities available to U.S. researchers as a result of this effort, and presents specific cooperative research activities that have been recently initiated within DOE’s disposal research program. The focus in this report is on those opportunities that provide access to field data (and respective interpretation/modeling), and/or may allow participation in ongoing and planned field experiments.

  4. The influence of hydraulic conductivity, open porosity, and formation factor on P-wave velocities in granitic rock matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosna, K.; Najser, J.; Havlova, V.; Vecernik, P.; Zaruba, J.

    2012-12-01

    This laboratory study of the hydraulic and physical properties of granite rocks focuses on granitic rock matrix. The investigation specifically relates to the planned disposal of radioactive waste in the Czech Republic. 118 samples from nine granitic rock massifs were subjected to hydraulic conductivity, open porosity, and P-wave velocity measurements. Hydraulic conductivity was measured in pressure cells. The constant hydraulic head was applied by pressure controllers and the volume of water that passed through the specimen was recorded. Open porosity was obtained by weighing saturated and dry specimens. P-wave velocities were measured in oven dried specimens using an apparatus that consisted of two pairs of piezosensors (Olympus V103 and V153) used as transmitter and receiver, a precise impulse generator, and an oscilloscope. The formation factor was calculated from forty-five through-diffusion experiments, measured using 3H tracers. The activities in both input and output reservoirs were regularly monitored using liquid scintillation spectrometry. Hydraulic conductivities of different granitic rocks varied from 2.29×10-9 to 1×10-14 m.s-1. Open porosities were determined between 11.89 and 0.23%. Formation factors were calculated between 1.14×10-2 and 1.65×10-4 while the P-wave velocities ranged from 2.26 to 5.91 km.s-1. The tests results show that increasing hydraulic conductivity, open porosity, and formation factor correlates with decreasing P-wave velocities in the laboratory specimens. Ultrasonic measurements of the oven dried laboratory specimens are able to predict anomalies in the hydraulic and physical parameters of the granitic rock.

  5. Waste disposal in underground mines -- A technology partnership to protect the environment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Environmentally compatible disposal sites must be found despite all efforts to avoid and reduce the generation of dangerous waste. Deep geologic disposal provides the logical solution as ever more categories of waste are barred from long-term disposal in near-surface sites through regulation and litigation. Past mining in the US has left in its wake large volumes of suitable underground space. EPA studies and foreign practice have demonstrated deep geologic disposal in mines to be rational and viable. In the US, where much of the mined underground space is located on public lands, disposal in mines would also serve the goal of multiple use. It is only logical to return the residues of materials mined from the underground to their origin. Therefore, disposal of dangerous wastes in mined underground openings constitutes a perfect match between mining and the protection and enhancement of the environment.

  6. High-spatial resolution SIMS U-Pb zircon dating on Malay tin granites: New insights to crustal evolution of the Malaysian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, S.; Searle, M. P.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Chung, S.; Robb, L. J.; Ghani, A. A.; Sone, M.

    2012-12-01

    characteristics, such as in sodium, potassium, ferric and ferrous ion concentration. Exceptionally high rubidium concentration in some samples also hinders the classification. The ɛNd(T) values of most of the samples lie between -2.5 and -9.7, suggesting that crustal remelting played an important role in the granite petrogenesis. Likewise tin mineralization is not restricted to S-type granites throughout all provinces. Further field studies and continuation of the U-Pb dating programme through southern Malaysia to Singapore Island should result in tighter constraints on the magmatic and tectonic evolution of the region. References Cobbing, E. J., Mallick, D. I. J., Pitfield, P. E. J., and Teoh, L. H., 1986, The granites of the Southeast Asian Tin Belt: Journal of Geological Society, v. 143, p. 537-550. Searle, M. P., Whitehouse, M. J., Robb, L. J., Ghani, A. A., Hutchison, C. S., Sone, M., Ng, S. W.-p., Roselee, M. H., Chung, S.-l., and Oliver, G. J. H., 2012, Tectonic evolution of the Sibumasu-Indochina terrane collision zone in Thailand and Malaysia; constraints from new U-Pb zircon chronology of SE Asian tin granitoids: Journal of Geological Society, v. 169, p. 489-500.

  7. Linking the initial subduction of the South Tianshan Oceanic Plate and associated magmatism to Kazakhstan orocline: insights from petrogenesis of granites in the southern Yili Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Zihe; Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Wang, Yannan; Wang, Xiangsong; Xia, Xiaoping

    2017-04-01

    The Kazakhstan orocline is a striking collage system of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. It has been documented to be a composite continent via assembly of several orogenic components by the Devonian and finally to attain its U-shaped structure through oroclinal bending in the Late Paleozoic. In order to reveal the relationship between the Kazakhstan orocline and regional magmatism, granitic rocks including monzogranites and K-feldspar granites in the south limb of the orocline have been conducted geochronological and geochemical studies. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of the monzogranites gave crystallization ages of 360±1.8 Ma and 360.5±1.7 Ma, and the K-feldspar granites have a coeval age (361.3±1.8 Ma). Both of the granites are high-K granites, and show enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREE) and obvious negative Eu anomalies. They display negative anomalies in Ba, Nb, Sr, Eu, and Ti. The K-feldspar granites have higher SiO2, K2O contents and lower MgO, Fe2O3T, Zr contents than those of the monzogranites. Geochemical data support that the K-feldspar granites are highly fractionated I-type granites, and the monzogranites are unfractionated I-type granites. Distinguishable Nd and Hf isotope suggest that the K-feldspar granites and the monzogranites may share a common magma chamber. The negative Eu anomalies and depletions of Ba and Sr possibly imply plagioclase as residue in the magma source. The Sr-Nd isotopic data and the ɛHf(t) values (-3.6 - 2.9) indicate that the parental magma was probably derived from crustal rock with minor mantle-derived melt. The new geochemical data and regional geology evidences indicate that the granites may be generated in a continental back-arc environment, which was inferred to be a response to the initial subduction of the South Tianshan Oceanic Plate. Given that the Kazakhstan orocline was developed during this period, it is plausible to link the initial subduction of the South Tianshan Oceanic Plate and associated

  8. Destination: Geology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  9. Correlation between magnetic fabrics, strain and biotite microstructure with increasing mylonitisation in the pretectonic Wyangala Granite, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennox, P. G.; de Wall, H.; Durney, D. W.

    2016-04-01

    The Wyangala Granite is a foliated, porphyritic Silurian granite from the Palaeozoic Circum-Pacific type Eastern Lachlan Orogen (ELO) of Australia. It is a paramagnetic ilmenite-bearing, S/marginal I type two-mica- to mainly biotite-granite with different biotite contents and local chlorite alteration. Very highly strained quartz-epidote bands are present. In this contribution, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is compared with independently measured intensity and 3D style of strain, biotite microstructure and degree of mylonitisation for low-strain granites with weak S-foliations, through medium-strain protomylonitic granites with moderate S- and C-foliations to a high-strain altered granite with a strong single foliation. The samples are further analysed for possible contributions from sample heterogeneity, magmatic flow and 'sub-magmatic' deformation. A good correlation, P‧AMS ~ 1.02 + 0.04 ln P‧(e)Qtz, is obtained between site-average degree of AMS (P‧AMS) in the granite and degree of finite-strain anisotropy (P‧(e)Qtz) from aspect ratios of quartz aggregates in S-foliations in hand specimen and outcrop (P‧AMS 1.03-1.14, P‧(e)Qtz 1.4-19). The magnetic fabric ellipsoids agree with a kinematic regime between neutral and pure oblate predicted by the March model. The observed quartz strains, however, exceed the AMS March strains and are near neutral, plano-linear character. The geological factors that may have contributed to these differences include intra- and inter-crystalline deformation of biotite and bimodality in S and C. Magmatic fabric is not clearly evident in either the AMS or the biotite data. New data for synkinematic oligoclase, low-titanium biotite and low-sodium K-feldspar show that conditions during deformation were approximately transitional greenschist-amphibolite facies: i.e., well below solidus. This agrees with published age data that put the granite emplacement in an extensional, back-arc setting in already deformed

  10. Effectiveness of granite cleaning procedures in cultural heritage: A review.

    PubMed

    Pozo-Antonio, J S; Rivas, T; López, A J; Fiorucci, M P; Ramil, A

    2016-11-15

    Most of the Cultural Heritage built in NW Iberian Peninsula is made of granite which exposition to the environment leads to the formation of deposits and coatings, mainly two types: biological colonization and sulphated black crusts. Nowadays, another form of alteration derives from graffiti paints when these are applied as an act of vandalism. A deep revision needs to be addressed considering the severity of these deterioration forms on granite and the different cleaning effectiveness achieved by cleaning procedures used to remove them. The scientific literature about these topics on granite is scarcer than on sedimentary carbonate stones and marbles, but the importance of the granite in NW Iberian Peninsula Cultural Heritage claims this review centred on biological colonization, sulphated black crusts and graffiti on granite and their effectiveness of the common cleaning procedures. Furthermore, this paper carried out a review of the knowledge about those three alteration forms on granite, as well as bringing together all the major studies in the field of the granite cleaning with traditional procedures (chemical and mechanical) and with the recent developed technique based on the laser ablation. Findings concerning the effectiveness evaluation of these cleaning procedures, considering the coating extraction ability and the damage induced on the granite surface, are described. Finally, some futures research lines are pointed out.

  11. Ponderosa pine progenies: differential response to ultramafic and granitic soils

    Treesearch

    James L. Jenkinson

    1974-01-01

    Progenies of nine ponderosa pines native to one granitic and several ultramafic soils in the northern Sierra Nevada were grown on both soil types in a greenhouse. The progenies differed markedly in first-year growth on infertile ultramafic soils, but not on a fertile granitic soil. Growth differences between progenies were primarily related to differences in calcium...

  12. Detail of south granite pier revealing riveted truss ends and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of south granite pier revealing riveted truss ends and iron footing plates on top of granite cap stones. View north - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. Experimental methods of determining thermal properties of granite

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Determination of thermal properties of granite using the block method is discussed and compared with other methods. Problems that limit the accuracy of contact method in determining thermal properties of porous media are evaluated. Thermal properties of granite is determined in the laboratory with a...

  14. Disposal of Surplus Weapons Grade Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    H. Alsaed; P. Gottlieb

    2000-09-12

    The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is responsible for disposing of inventories of surplus US weapons-usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium as well as providing, technical support for, and ultimate implementation of, efforts to obtain reciprocal disposition of surplus Russian plutonium. On January 4, 2000, the Department of Energy issued a Record of Decision to dispose of up to 50 metric tons of surplus weapons-grade plutonium using two methods. Up to 17 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be immobilized in a ceramic form, placed in cans and embedded in large canisters containing high-level vitrified waste for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. Approximately 33 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be used to fabricate MOX fuel (mixed oxide fuel, having less than 5% plutonium-239 as the primary fissile material in a uranium-235 carrier matrix). The MOX fuel will be used to produce electricity in existing domestic commercial nuclear reactors. This paper reports the major waste-package-related, long-term disposal impacts of the two waste forms that would be used to accomplish this mission. Particular emphasis is placed on the possibility of criticality. These results are taken from a summary report published earlier this year.

  15. Structural Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, John; Frankel, Kurt L.

    2011-05-01

    Structural geology and continental tectonics were ushered in to the modern quantitative age of geosciences with the arrival of the global plate tectonics paradigm (circa 1968), derived using new data from the oceans' depths, and John Ramsay's 1967 seminal work, Folding and Fracturing of Rocks. Fossen is to be applauded for crafting a unique, high-caliber, and accessible undergraduate textbook on structural geology that faithfully reflects this advance and the subsequent evolution of the discipline. This well-written text draws on Fossen's wealth of professional experience, including his broad and diverse academic research and experience in the petroleum industry. This book is beautifully illustrated, with excellent original color diagrams and with impressive color field photographs that are all keyed to locations and placed into geologic context.

  16. Geophysical Studies of Irish Granites Using Magnetotelluric and Gravity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, T. F.; Muller, M. R.; Rath, V.; Feely, M.; Hogg, C.

    2014-12-01

    We present results of on-going geophysical studies of Caledonian radiothermal granite bodies in Ireland, which are being undertaken to investigate the volumetric depth extent and structural features of these granites. During three field seasons, magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data were acquired at 156 sites targeting three separate granite bodies. These studies will contribute to a crustal-scale investigation of the geothermal energy potential of the granites and their contribution to the thermal field of the Irish crust. Across the calc-alkaline Galway granite, located on the Irish west coast, MT and AMT data were acquired at 75 sites distributed in a grid. Preliminary 3D inversion reveals the presence of a resistor, thickest beneath the central block of the granite where it extends to depths of 11 - 12 km. The greater depth of the resistor beneath the central block is in contrast to previous thinking that proposed the central block granites to have shallower depth extent than those of the western block, based on Bouguer anomaly maps of the area in which the western block exhibited a more pronounced negative Bouguer anomaly than the central block. At the S-type Leinster granite, in eastern Ireland and to the south of Dublin, MT and AMT data were acquired along two profiles (LGN - 27 sites and LGS - 32 sites). Preliminary 1D inversions of AMT data along profile LGN show the Northern Units of the Leinster granite to extend to a depth of 4.5 km and the Lugnaquilla pluton extending to 2.5 km depth. MT and AMT data were acquired at 22 sites along a profile across the buried Kentstown granite, 35 km to the NW of Dublin. The Kentstown granite was intersected by two mineral exploration boreholes at depths of 492 m and 663 m. Preliminary 2D inversions do not yet satisfactorily resolve the top of the buried granite. Inversion of MT and AMT data is continuing, with the electrical conductivity structures revealed by these inversions being used to

  17. Applications to Subseabed Disposal: (ISHTE) - A Model Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    International. Holland; Earl Doyle, Shell Development Company, Texas; Ben C. Gerwick, Jr., University of California; S. K. Gulhati, Indian Institute of...coefficient of vertical EA environmental assessment consolidation FSA fuel sphere assembly g acceleration of gravity GISSP geotechnical in situ... assessing the technologic and environmental feasibility of using geologic formations in the deep ocean as possible disposal sites for nuclear waste (Bishop

  18. Lower Granite Pool and Turbine Survival Study, 1987.

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgi, Albert E.; Stuehrenberg, Lowell

    1988-06-01

    Survival of yearling spring chinook salmon was estimated as they traversed Lower Granite Reservoir and passed through a turbine at Lower Granite Dam. Fish were PIT tagged at Rapid River Hatchery and transported to release sites near Asotin, Washington, and at Lower Granite Dam. Recovery ratios of treatment and control groups were used to estimate survival. Estimates were based on tags intercepted at both Lower Granite and Little Goose dams. Turbine survival was estimated to be 83.1% (95% CI = 74.1 to 92.2%). A qualified estimate of survival from Asotin to Lower Granite Dam for a single release group was calculated as 71.9%. Uncertainties associated with satisfying certain key mark and recapture statistical assumptions are examined. As a result of these uncertainties, an alternate study design and analytical procedure are recommended for future investigations. 14 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Geological Gyrocompass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, M. H.; Beason, S. C.

    1990-10-01

    The invention relates to a new and improved geologic mapping and surveying apparatus for providing accurate, dependable, and portable measurement of attitudes of planar surfaces in situations where magnetic compasses will not work. The invention provides a unique arrangement of the gyrocompass and power supply in a portable carrying case. A gyroscope is not dependent on the earth's magnetic field for a reference as is a magnetic compass. Therefore, the invention of a geological gyrocompass is immune to disturbances in the earth's magnetic field and nearly duplicates the Brunton compass accuracy but does not require an environment free of magnetic anomalies.

  20. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the southeast United States-Southern Piedmont subregion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    A literature study was conducted on the geology of the Southern Piedmont province in the states of Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The purpose was to identify geologic areas potentially suitable for containment of a repository for the long-term isolation of solidified radioactive waste. The crystalline rocks of the Southern Piedmont province range in age from Precambrian to Paleozoic, and are predominantly slates, phyllites, argillites, schists, metavolcanics, gneisses, gabbros, and granites. These rock units were classified as either favorable, potentially favorable, or unfavorable as potential study areas based on an evaluation of the geologic, hydrologic, and geotechnical characteristics. No socio-economic factors were considered. Rocks subjected to multiple periods of deformation and metamorphism, or described as highly fractured, or of limited areal extent were generally ranked as unfavorable. Potentially favorable rocks are primarily the high-grade metamorphic gneisses and granites. Sixteen areas were classified as being favorable for additional study. These areas are primarily large igneous granite plutons as follows: the Petersburg granite in Virginia; the Rolesville-Castallia, Churchland, and Landis plutons in North Carolina; the Liberty Hill, Winnsboro, and Ogden plutons in South Carolina; and the Siloam, Elberton, and six unnamed granite plutons in Georgia.

  1. Disposal of radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dorp, Frits; Grogan, Helen; McCombie, Charles

    The aim of radioactive and non-radioactive waste management is to protect man and the environment from unacceptable risks. Protection criteria for both should therefore be based on similar considerations. From overall protection criteria, performance criteria for subsystems in waste management can be derived, for example for waste disposal. International developments in this field are summarized. A brief overview of radioactive waste sorts and disposal concepts is given. Currently being implemented are trench disposal and engineered near-surface facilities for low-level wastes. For low-and intermediate-level waste underground facilities are under construction. For high-level waste site selection and investigation is being carried out in several countries. In all countries with nuclear programmes, the predicted performance of waste disposal systems is being assessed in scenario and consequence analyses. The influences of variability and uncertainty of parameter values are increasingly being treated by probabilistic methods. Results of selected performance assessments show that radioactive waste disposal sites can be found and suitable repositories can be designed so that defined radioprotection limits are not exceeded.

  2. Theoretical geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikeš, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical geology Present day geology is mostly empirical of nature. I claim that geology is by nature complex and that the empirical approach is bound to fail. Let's consider the input to be the set of ambient conditions and the output to be the sedimentary rock record. I claim that the output can only be deduced from the input if the relation from input to output be known. The fundamental question is therefore the following: Can one predict the output from the input or can one predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? If one can, than the empirical/deductive method has changes, if one can't than that method is bound to fail. The fundamental problem to solve is therefore the following: How to predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? It is interesting to observe that this question is never asked and many a study is conducted by the empirical/deductive method; it seems that the empirical method has been accepted as being appropriate without question. It is, however, easy to argument that a sedimentary system is by nature complex and that several input parameters vary at the same time and that they can create similar output in the rock record. It follows trivially from these first principles that in such a case the deductive solution cannot be unique. At the same time several geological methods depart precisely from the assumption, that one particular variable is the dictator/driver and that the others are constant, even though the data do not support such an assumption. The method of "sequence stratigraphy" is a typical example of such a dogma. It can be easily argued that all the interpretation resulting from a method that is built on uncertain or wrong assumptions is erroneous. Still, this method has survived for many years, nonwithstanding all the critics it has received. This is just one example of the present day geological world and is not unique. Even the alternative methods criticising sequence stratigraphy actually depart from the same

  3. Radiation damage measurements on rock salt and other minerals for waste disposal applications. Quarterly report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Swyler, K J; Loman, J M; Teutonico, L J; Elgort, G E; Levy, P W

    1980-04-10

    Different aspects of radiation damage in both synthetic NaCl crystals and various natural rock salt samples as well as granite, basalt and other minerals which will be important for radioactive waste disposal applications are being investigated. The principal means of measuring radiation damage is the determination of F-center concentrations, and the concentration and size of sodium metal colloid particles. Formation of these and other defects during irradiation and the annealing of defects and characterization of other processes occurring after irradiation are being studied as a function of dose rate, total dose, sample temperature during irradiation, strain applied prior to and during irradiation, etc. Measurements are being made on synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt samples from different geological locations, including some potential repository sites. It will be necessary to determine if radiation damage in the minerals from different localities is similar. If non-negligible differences are observed a detailed study must be made for each locality under consideration. Almost all current studies are being made on rock salt but other minerals particularly granite and basalt are being phased into the program. It is now established that radiation damage formation in both natural and synthetic rock salt is strongly dependent on strain. The strain related effects strongly indicate that the damage formation processes and in particular the colloid nucleation processes are related to the strain induced disolcations. A temporary theoretical effort has been started to determine which dislocation related effects are important for radiation damage processes and, most importantly, what dislocation interactions are most likely to create nucleation sites for colloid particles. If these preliminary studies indicate that additional theoretical studies will be useful an effort will be made to have them extended.

  4. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description

    SciTech Connect

    2000-10-12

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms (IPWF)) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as 'co-disposal'. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. Different materials

  5. Chemical characteristics of zircon from A-type granites and comparison to zircon of S-type granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, Karel; Lamarão, Claudio Nery; Borges, Régis Munhoz Krás; Dall'Agnol, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    The trace element content in zircons from A-type granites and rhyolites was investigated by using back-scattered electron images and electron microprobe analyses. The studied Proterozoic (Wiborg batholith, Finland and Pará, Amazonas and Goiás states, Brazil) and Variscan (Krušné Hory/Erzgebirge, Czech Republic and Germany) plutons cover a wide range of rocks, from large rapakivi-textured geochemically primitive plutons to small intrusions of F-, Li-, Sn-, Nb-, Ta-, and U-enriched rare-metal granites. While zircon is one of the first crystallized minerals in less fractionated metaluminous and peraluminous granites, it is a late-crystallized phase in peralkaline granites and in evolved granites that may crystallize during the whole process of magma solidification. The early crystals are included in mica, quartz, and feldspar; the late grains are included in fluorite or cryolite or are interstitial. The zircon in hornblende-biotite and biotite granites from the non-mineralized plutons is poor in minor and trace elements; the zircon in moderately fractionated granite varieties is slightly enriched in Hf, Th, U, Y, and HREEs; whereas the zircon in highly fractionated ore-bearing granites may be strongly enriched in Hf (up to 10 wt.% HfO2), Th (up to 10 wt.% ThO2), U (up to 10 wt.% UO2), Y (up to 12 wt.% Y2O3), Sc (up to 3 wt.% Sc2O3), Nb (up to 5 wt.% Nb2O5), Ta (up to 1 wt.% Ta2O5), W (up to 3 wt.% WO3), F (up to 2.5 wt.% F), P (up to 11 wt.% P2O5), and As (up to 1 wt.% As2O5). Metamictized zircons may also be enriched in Bi, Ca, Fe, and Al. The increase in the Hf content coupled with the decrease in the Zr/Hf value in zircon is one of the most reliable indicators of granitic magma evolution. In the zircon of A-type granites, the Zr/Hf value decreases from 41-67 (porphyritic granite) to 16-19 (equigranular granite) in the Kymi stock, Finland, and from 49-52 (biotite granite) to 18-36 (leucogranite) in the Pedra Branca pluton, Brazil. In the in situ strongly

  6. Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albritton, Claude C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the historical development of the concept of geologic time. Develops the topic by using the major discoveries of geologists, beginning with Steno and following through to the discovery and use of radiometric dating. An extensive reference list is provided. (JM)

  7. City Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  8. Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albritton, Claude C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the historical development of the concept of geologic time. Develops the topic by using the major discoveries of geologists, beginning with Steno and following through to the discovery and use of radiometric dating. An extensive reference list is provided. (JM)

  9. Enigmatic reticulated filaments in subsurface granite.

    PubMed

    Miller, A Z; Hernández-Mariné, M; Jurado, V; Dionísio, A; Barquinha, P; Fortunato, E; Afonso, M J; Chaminé, H I; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    2012-12-01

    In the last few years, geomicrobiologists have focused their researches on the nature and origin of enigmatic reticulated filaments reported in modern and fossil samples from limestone caves and basalt lava tubes. Researchers have posed questions on these filaments concerning their nature, origin, chemistry, morphology, mode of formation and growth. A tentative microbial origin has been elusive since these filaments are found as hollow tubular sheaths and could not be affiliated to any known microorganism. We describe the presence of similar structures in a 16th century granite tunnel in Porto, Northwest Portugal. The reticulated filaments we identify exhibit fine geometry surface ornamentation formed by cross-linked Mn-rich nanofibres, surrounded by a large amount of extracellular polymeric substances. Within these Mn-rich filaments we report for the first time the occurrence of microbial cells.

  10. Magnesium battery disposal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffer, Louis; Atwater, Terrill

    1994-12-01

    This study assesses the disposal characteristics of U.S. Army procured military magnesium batteries under current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste identification regulations administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Magnesium batteries were tested at 100, 50, 10 and 0 percent remaining state of charge. Present findings indicate that magnesium batteries with less than 50 percent remaining charge do not exceed the federal regulatory limit of 5.0 mg/L for chromium. All other RCRA contaminates were below regulatory limits at all levels of remaining charge. Assay methods, findings, disposal requirements and design implications are discussed.

  11. Mineralogical and chemical evolution of a rare-element granite-pegmatite system: Harney Peak Granite, Black Hills, South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.; Laul, J. C.

    1987-03-01

    The Harney Peak Granite (1.7 b.y.) in the Black Hills, South Dakota, is a well-exposed granite complex surrounded by a rare-element pegmatite field (barren to Nb-, Ta-, Be, Li-enriched pegmatites). It consists of a multitude of large and small sills and dikes, which exhibit great variation in texture, mineralogy and geochemistry. This granite is moderately to strongly peraluminous with the following mineralogy: plagioclase (An 0-An 21) + potassium feldspar (Or 70-96) + quartz + muscovite ± apatite ± biotite ± garnet ± tourmaline. The granitic intrusions in the interior of the complex have similar K/Rb ratios (> 190), whereas this ratio decreases and is more variable for intrusions which are structurally higher or along the perimeter of the complex. Substitutions of (Fe, Mn)Mg -1 in the ferromagnesian minerals, NaCa -1 in plagioclase and RbK -1 in muscovite and potassium feldspar increase in the perimeter granites and vary systematically with K/Rb. These more evolved intrusions are commonly enriched in incompatible elements such as Nb, Li, Cs, Be, and B and depleted in Ba, Ca, and Sr relative to the interior, primitive granites. Biotite-bearing assemblages are common in the interior granites but are replaced by tourmaline-bearing granites in the more evolved intrusions. A series of discontinuous reactions may explain this assemblage transition. Observations and trace element modeling suggest that: (1) within individual units volatile transfer mechanisms have resulted in mineral and chemical segregation; (2) 75-80% fractional crystallization of a primitive biotite-muscovite granite was the dominant mechanism in producing the more evolved tourmaline-bearing granites; and (3) extreme fractional crystallization aided by high volatile activity produced the associated rare-element pegmatites.

  12. Uranium-lead isotope systematics and apparent ages of zircons and other minerals in precambrian granitic rocks, Granite Mountains, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, K. R.; Stuckless, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    Zircon suites from the two main types of granite in the Granite Mountains, Wyoming, yielded concordia-intercept ages of 2,640??20 m.y. for a red, foliated granite (granite of Long Creek Mountain) and 2,595??40 m.y. for the much larger mass of the granite of Lankin Dome. These ages are statistically distinct (40??20 m.y. difference) and are consistent with observed chemical and textural differences. The lower intercepts of the zircon chords of 50??40 and 100+ 75 m.y. for the granite of Long Creek Mountain and granite of Lankin Dome, respectively, are not consistent with reasonable continuous diffusion lead-loss curves but do correspond well with the known (Laramide) time of uplift of the rocks. Epidote, zircon, and apatite from silicified and epidotized zones in the granites all record at least one postcrystallization disturbance in addition to the Laramide event and do not define a unique age of silicification and epidotization. The lower limit of ???2,500 m.y. provided by the least disturbed epidote, however, suggests that these rocks were probably formed by deuteric processes shortly after emplacement of the granite of the Lankin Dome. The earlier of the two disturbances that affected the minerals of the silicified-epidotized rock can be bracketed between 1,350 and 2,240 m.y. ago and is probably the same event that lowered mineral K-Ar and ages in the region. Zircon suites from both types of granite show well-defined linear correlations among U content, common-Pb content, and degree of discordance. One of the zircon suites has an extremely high common-Pb content (up to 180 ppm) and exhibits a component of radiogenic-Pb loss that is apparently unrelated to radiation damage. ?? 1978 Springer-Verlag.

  13. Origin of allanite in gneiss and granite in the Dabie orogenic belt, Central East China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Haihao; Xiao, Yilin; Xu, Lijuan; Sun, He; Huang, Jian; Hou, Zhenhui

    2017-03-01

    Allanite is a common accessory mineral phase, representing an important carrier of rare earth elements, Th, U, Sr and other trace elements in most continental rocks. As Th and U can be incorporated into the allanite lattice, the mineral is a good geochronological tool for constraining geological events. Moreover, the trace element features δEu, Th/U ratio and common lead content of allanite are indicators of the forming conditions. Allanite and coexisting epidote-group minerals are abundant in ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks from the Dabie-Sulu orogen in central East China. However, if these minerals formed in the Neoproterozoic as magmatic phases, or in the Triassic as metamorphic phases is a matter of long-standing controversy. We report major and trace element analyses of whole rocks, allanite and coexisting epidote-group minerals, together with U-Th-Pb isotopic compositions of allanite in UHP gneiss from the Dabie-Sulu orogen, and allanite in the adjacent Jingshan granite. The granite is emplaced along the southeastern margin of the North China Craton and considered a product of partial melting of the subducted Dabie-Sulu gneiss. Trace elements (low Th/U and La/Sm, high δEu and high Sr) and high common lead concentrations indicate a metamorphic origin of allanite-epidote in the UHP gneiss. On the other hand, coarse-grained allanite from the Jingshan granite shows a corrosion core and a magmatic rim with common 208Pb up to 70% in the core and less than 30% in the rim. The allanite cores are of peritectic and the rims of magmatic origin with ages of ∼160 Ma, consistent with the granite crystallization age. In combination with previous studies, we conclude that the allanite of the Jingshan granite has form from the subducted and remolten Dabie-Sulu gneiss. Allanite records Triassic UHP metamorphic ages as well as Jurassic peritectic-magmatic ages as a part of the evolution of the Dabie-Sulu orogen.

  14. Permeability reduction in granite under hydrothermal conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, C.A.; Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    The formation of impermeable fault seals between earthquake events is a feature of many models of earthquake generation, suggesting that earthquake recurrence may depend in part on the rate of permeability reduction of fault zone materials under hydrothermal conditions. In this study, permeability measurements were conducted on intact, fractured, and gouge-bearing Westerly granite at an effective pressure of 50 MPa and at temperatures from 150?? to 500??C, simulating conditions in the earthquake-generating portions of fault zones. Pore fluids were cycled back and forth under a 2 MPa pressure differential for periods of up to 40 days. Permeability of the granite decreased with time t, following the exponential relation k = c(10-rt). For intact samples run between 250?? and 500??C the time constant for permeability decrease r was proportional to temperature and ranged between 0.001 and 0.1 days-1 (i.e., between 0.4 and 40 decades year-1 loss of permeability). Values of r for the lower-temperature experiments differed little from the 250??C runs. In contrast, prefractured samples showed higher rates of permeability decrease at a given temperature. The surfaces of the fractured samples showed evidence of dissolution and mineral growth that increased in abundance with both temperature and time. The experimentally grown mineral assemblages varied with temperature and were consistent with a rock-dominated hydrothermal system. As such mineral deposits progressively seal the fractured samples, their rates of permeability decrease approach the rates for intact rocks at the same temperature. These results place constraints on models of precipitation sealing and suggest that fault rocks may seal at a rate consistent with earthquake recurrence intervals of typical fault zones.

  15. Installation-Restoration Program Preliminary Assessment, Granite Mountain Radio Relay Station, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    The Hazardous Materials Technical Center (HMTC) was retained in January 1988 to conduct the Installation-Restoration Program (IRP) Preliminary Assessment of Granite Mountain Radio Relay Station (RRS), Alaska; DoD policy is to identify and fully evaluate suspected problems associated with past hazardous material disposal sites on DoD facilities, control the migration of hazardous contamination from such facilities, and control hazards to health and welfare that may have resulted from these past operations. The major operations of the installation that used and diposed of hazardous materials/hazardous waste (HM/HW) included management of fuel and electrical equipment, maintenance of the facility and vehicles, and use of asbestos as a construction material. Based on information obtained through interviews with Air Force personnel and review of installation records, hazardous materials were used at Granite Mountain RRS while the facility was in operation. Although no evidence of contamination was visible at the time of the site visit, it was common practice at similar facilities to bury drums and waste liquids and these wastes may be present in the solid-waste landfill at the RRS. In addition, asbestos may remain within the buildings.

  16. Sampling of brine in cores of Precambrian granite from northern Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couture, Rex A.; Seitz, Martin G.; Steindler, Martin J.

    1983-09-01

    The composition of groundwater in deep-seated rocks is of great interest, both geochemically and in connection with the disposal of radioactive waste. However, sampling of deep-seated groundwater is expensive and often difficult. We describe here a simple technique for the elution of pore fluid (groundwater) from cores of igneous rocks, and we describe brine eluted from a core of Precambrian granite from Northern Illinois drill hole UPH-3. The brine is predominantly NaCl and CaCl2, with a Ca/Na mole ratio of about 0.05 to 0.1. From analysis of soluble chloride in a crushed sample the chloride concentration in the pore water is estimated as 2.3 M. The brine is similar to brine in the Illinois Basin, and it was probably derived from the overlying sediments.

  17. Geologic investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Orkild, P.P.; Baldwin, M.J.; Townsend, D.R.

    1983-12-31

    The Climax stock is a composite granitic intrusive of Cretaceous age, composed of quartz monzonite and granodiorite, which intrudes rocks of Paleozoic and Precambrian age. Tertiary volcanic rocks, consisting of ash-flow and ash-fall tuffs, and tuffaceous sedimentary rocks overlie the sedimentary rocks and the stock. Erosion has removed much of the Tertiary volcanic rocks. Hydrothermal alteration of quartz monzonite and granodiorite is found mainly along joints and faults and varies from location to location. The Paleozoic carbonate rocks have been thermally and metasomatically altered to marble and tactite as much as 457 m (1500 ft) from the contact with the stock, although minor discontinuous metasomatic effects are noted in all rocks out to 914 m (3000 ft). Three major faults which define the Climax area structurally are the Tippinip, Boundary and Yucca faults. North of the junction of the Boundary and Yucca faults, the faults are collectively referred to as the Butte fault. The dominant joint sets and their average attitudes are N 32{degrees} W, 22{degrees} NE; N 60{degrees} W, vertical and N 35{degrees} E, vertical. Joints in outcrop are weathered and generally open, but in subsurface, the joints are commonly filled and healed with secondary minerals. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Assessment of site conditions for disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: a case study in southern China.

    PubMed

    Yi, Shuping; Ma, Haiyi; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zhu, Xiaobin; Wang, Hua'an; Li, Xueshan; Hu, Xueling; Qin, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    Near surface disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (LILW) requires evaluating the field conditions of the candidate site. However, assessment of the site conditions may be challenging due to the limited prior knowledge of some remote sites, and various multi-disciplinary data requirements at any given site. These situations arise in China as in the rest of the industrialized world, particularly since a regional strategy for LILW disposal has been implemented to protect humans and the environment. This paper presents a demonstration of the site assessment process through a case study focusing mainly on the geologic, hydrogeologic and geochemical characteristics of the candidate site. A joint on-site and laboratory investigation, supplemented by numerical modeling, was implemented in this assessment. Results indicate that no fault is present in the site area, although there are some minor joints and fractures, primarily showing a north-south trend. Most of the joints are filled with quartz deposits and would thus function hydraulically as impervious barriers. Investigation of local hydrologic boundaries has shown that the candidate site represents an essentially isolated hydrogeologic unit, and that little or no groundwater flow occurs across its boundaries on the north or east, or across the hilly areas to the south. Groundwater in the site area is recharged by precipitation and discharges primarily by evapo-transpiration and surface flow through a narrow outlet to the west. Groundwater flows slowly from the hilly area to the foot of the hills and discharges mainly into the inner brooks and marshes. Some groundwater circulates in deeper granite in a slower manner. The vadose zone in the site was investigated specially for their significant capability for restraining the transport of radionuclides. Results indicate that the vadose zone is up to 38m in thickness and is made up of alluvial clay soils and very highly weathered granite. The vadose

  19. The Feasibility of Using an Ultrasonic Fish Tracking System in the Tailrace of Lower Granite Dam in 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, Derrek M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Cash, Kenneth; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2003-09-10

    This report describes a study conducted by PNNL in Spring 2002 at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River for the US Army Corps of Engineers Portland District. Our goal was to determine the feasibility of using ultrasonic fish tracking in the untested environment of a hydroelectric dam tailrace. If fish tracking were determined to be feasible, we would track the movement of juvenile hatchery chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), juvenile hatchery steelhead (O. mykiss), and juvenile wild steelhead (O. mykiss) and relate their movement to dam operations. The majority of fish to be tracked were released as a part of a separate study conducted by the Biological Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey (BRD), which was investigating the movement of juvenile salmon in the forebay of Lower Granite Dam in relation to Removable Spillway Weir (RSW) testing. The two studies took place consecutively from April 14 to June 7, 2002.

  20. Radon exhalation from granites used in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    al-Jarallah, M

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of radon exhalation for a total of 50 selected samples of construction materials used in Saudi Arabia were taken using a radon gas analyzer. These materials included sand, aggregate, cement, gypsum, hydrated lime, ceramics and granite. It was found that the granite samples were the main source of radon emanations. A total of 32 local and imported granite samples were tested. It was found that the radon exhalation rates per unit area from these granite samples varied from not detectable to 10.6 Bq m-2 h-1 with an average of 1.3 Bq m-2 h-1. The linear correlation coefficient between emanated radon and radium content was 0.92. The normalized radon exhalation rates from 2.0 cm thick granite samples varied from not detectable to 0.068 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1) with an average of 0.030 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1). The average radon emanation of the granite samples was found to be 21% of the total radium concentration. Therefore, granite can be a source of indoor radon as well as external gamma-radiation from the uranium decay series.

  1. Petrogenesis of pegmatites and granites in southwestern Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Tomascak, P.B.; Walker, R.J.; Krogstad, E.J. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Granitic pegmatites occurring near the town of Topsham in southwestern Maine are mineralogically diverse, featuring abundant dikes and contain rare earth element minerals as well as one pegmatite that contains Li minerals. The pegmatite series crops out near the Brunswick granite, a texturally diverse granitic pluton, and lies 13 km southeast of the Mississippian age Sebago batholith. Areas intruded by pegmatites that possess such different mineral assemblages are globally rare. The origins of these mixed'' pegmatite series have not been comprehensively investigated. There is no known pattern of regional zonation (mineral/chemical) among Topsham series pegmatites, hence simple fractionation processes are probably not responsible for the compositional variations. The authors are attempting to clarify pegmatite petrogenesis using common Pb isotopic ratios of feldspars and Sm-Nd isotopic data from whole rocks and minerals. Pb isotopic ratios from leached feldspars reflect the Pb ratios of the source from which they were derived. The range of Pb isotopic compositions of alkali feldspars from 7 granitic pegmatites is as follows: [sup 206]Pb/[sup 204]Pb = 18.5-19.1; [sup 207]Pb/[sup 204]Pb = 15.53-15.69; [sup 208]Pb/[sup 204]Pb = 38.3-38.6. The Brunswick granite has K-feldspars with [sup 206]Pb/[sup 204]Pb = 18.40-18.47, [sup 207]/[sup 204]Pb = 15.64-15.66 and [sup 208]Pb/[sup 204]Pb = 38.29-38.39. The Pb isotopic compositions of both pegmatites and granites are significantly more radiogenic than existing data for the Sebago granite and argue against the consanguinity of Topsham pegmatites and the Sebago batholith. These data instead support a genetic link between the pegmatites and the Brunswick granite, which ranges from a fine-grained two-mica granite to a garnet-bearing pegmatitic leucogranite.

  2. The Blaník Gneiss in the southern Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic): a rare rock composition among the early palaeozoic granites of Variscan Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    René, Miloš; Finger, Fritz

    2016-08-01

    Metamorphosed and deformed tourmaline-bearing leucogranites with a Cambro-Ordovician formation age are widespread in the Monotonous Group of the Variscan southern Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic. The rocks, known locally as Blaník gneiss, are strongly peraluminous and classify as phosphorus-rich low-T, S-type granite. The magma formed from a metapelitic source, most likely through muscovite dehydration melting. With respect to its low-T origin and the abundance of tourmaline, the Blaník gneiss is exotic within the spectrum of Early Palaeozoic granites of the Variscan fold belt of Central Europe. Coeval granitic gneisses in the neighbouring Gföhl unit of the Bohemian Massif can be classified as higher T S-type granites and were probably generated through biotite dehydration melting. The geochemical differences between the Early Palaeozoic granitic magmatism in the Gföhl unit and the Monotonous Group support models claiming that these two geological units belonged to independent peri-Gondwana terranes before the Variscan collision. It is suggested here, that the Gföhl unit and the Monotonous Group represent zones of higher and lower heat flow within the Early Palaeozoic northern Gondwana margin, respectively. The geochemical data presented in this study could be helpful for terrane correlations and palaeogeographic reconstructions.

  3. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  4. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration

    EPA Science Inventory

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which ...

  5. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration

    EPA Science Inventory

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which ...

  6. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) in Arkansas. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the PBA and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site- specific study. This dependent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at PBA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources, and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  9. Plumbing and Sewage Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine enlisted personnel with the principles of plumbing and sewage disposal used by Marine Hygiene Equipment Operators to perform their mission. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the…

  10. Waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  11. Disposal of Liquid Propellants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-13

    concentrate (formaldehydestrongly catalyzes the formation of nitrosamines from nitrite and secondary amines ). I ° Minimize concentrations of catalytically ...components, as interest in these compounds is relatively new. Therefore, methods for disposing of similar compounds such as triethanol- amine ...appears to have the greatest potential for accomplishing degradation of HAN- based liquid propellant residues in an economical, environmentally safe manner

  12. Alternative Trench Disposal Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhite, E.

    2001-09-05

    During Fiscal Year 2000, a number of activities were conducted to expand the use of trenches for disposal of low-level waste in the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (LLWF). This document presents a summary and interpretation of these activities in the context of future work.

  13. Geology Fulbrights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulbright grants in geology for 1988-89 remain open. Specific opportunities are available in Egypt, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Iceland, Iraq, Kuwait, Morocco, Mozambique, Oman, Poland, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Turkey, U.S.S.R., West Bank, Yemen, and Zimbabwe. Other countries are also open to applications in any discipline, and geology is among their preferred fields.The grants are available until awarded and are open only to U.S. citizens. In Central and South America and French-speaking Africa, knowledge of host-country language is required. For more information, contact the Council for International Exchange of Scholars (CIES), 11 Dupont Circle N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036; tel. 202-939-5401.

  14. Geology team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Evaluating of the combined utility of narrowband and multispectral imaging in both the infrared and visible for the lithologic identification of geologic materials, and of the combined utility of multispectral imaging in the visible and infrared for lithologic mapping on a global bases are near term recommendations for future imaging capabilities. Long term recommendations include laboratory research into methods of field sampling and theoretical models of microscale mixing. The utility of improved spatial and spectral resolutions and radiometric sensitivity is also suggested for the long term. Geobotanical remote sensing research should be conducted to (1) separate geological and botanical spectral signatures in individual picture elements; (2) study geobotanical correlations that more fully simulate natural conditions; and use test sites designed to test specific geobotanical hypotheses.

  15. Oil field waste disposal costs at commercial disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    The exploration and production segment of the U.S. oil and gas industry generates millions of barrels of nonhazardous oil field wastes annually. In most cases, operators can dispose of their oil fields wastes at a lower cost on-site than off site and, thus, will choose on-site disposal. However, a significant quantity of oil field wastes are still sent to off-site commercial facilities for disposal. This paper provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in different states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and how much they charge. There appear to be two major off-site disposal trends. Numerous commercial disposal companies that handle oil field wastes exclusively are located in nine oil-and gas-producing states. They use the same disposal methods as those used for on-site disposal. In addition, the Railroad Commission of Texas has issued permits to allow several salt caverns to be used for disposal of oil field wastes. Twenty-two other oil- and gas-producing states contain few or no disposal companies dedicated to oil and gas industry waste. The only off-site commercial disposal companies available handle general industrial wastes or are sanitary landfills. In those states, operators needing to dispose of oil field wastes off-site must send them to a local landfill or out of state. The cost of off-site commercial disposal varies substantially, depending on the disposal method used, the state in which the disposal company is located, and the degree of competition in the area.

  16. Performance of Granite Asphalt Mixture Modified by Silane Coupling Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhihang; Li, Xia; Wang, Li; Kang, Rongling

    2017-06-01

    In order to improve pavement performance of granite asphalt mixture, the surface of granite mineral powder was organic modified by silane coupling agent. The water stability and high temperature stability of the asphalt mixture were analyzed by Marshall tests, immersion Marshall test, freeze-thaw splitting test and rutting test. The results show that the mixing amount of silane coupling agent in the range from 0.5% to 2.5% can significantly improve the high temperature stability and water stability of the asphalt mixture. Taking into account the performance and economic factors, 2.0% silane coupling agent on the surface of granite filler was recommended.

  17. 48 CFR 2845.603 - Disposal methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 2845.603 Disposal methods. Policies pertaining to reutilization and disposal of DOJ property, including requirements for internal...

  18. Disposal of Some Problem Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes procedures for the disposal of chemicals commonly used in secondary school chemistry laboratories. Special reference is given to inorganic salts. It is suggested that cyanides and other highly toxic salts should be disposed of by experts. (MA)

  19. Disposal of Some Problem Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes procedures for the disposal of chemicals commonly used in secondary school chemistry laboratories. Special reference is given to inorganic salts. It is suggested that cyanides and other highly toxic salts should be disposed of by experts. (MA)

  20. Single And Multiple Jet Penetration Experiments Into Geologic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kuklo, R; Murphy, M J; Rambur, T A; Switzer, L L; Summers, M A

    2003-12-19

    This paper presents the results of experiments that investigate the effect of single and multiple jet penetration into geologic materials. In previous studies of jet penetration into concrete targets, we demonstrated that an enhanced surface crater could be created by the simultaneous penetration of multiple shaped charge jets and that an enhanced target borehole could be created by the subsequent delayed penetration of a single shaped charge jet. This paper describes an extension of the multiple jet penetration research to limestone and granite.

  1. Granitoid magmatism of Alarmaut granite-metamorphic dome, West Chukotka, NE Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sokolov, S. D.; Bondarenko, G. E.; Katkov, S. M.

    2009-04-01

    .L. Phanerozoic granite-metamorphic domes at Russian North-East. Paper 2. Magmatism, metamorphism and migmatization in Late Mesozoic domes // Pacific geology. 1996. V. 15. № 1. P. 84-93. (in Russian) 13. Bering Strait Geologic Field Party, Koolen metamorphic complex, NE Russia: implications for the tectonic evolution of the Bering Strait region // Tectonics, vol. 16, no. 5, p. 713-729 14. Bondarenko G.E., Luchitskaya M.V. Mesozoic tectonic evolution of Alarmaut rise // Byul. MOIP. Otd. Geol. V. 78. Is. 3. P. 25-38. (in Russian) 15. Katkov S.M., Strikland A., Miller E.L. Age of granite batholiths in the Anyui-Chukotka Foldbelt // Doklady. Earth Sciences. 2007. Vol. 414. № 4. P. 515-518. 16. Amato J.M., Wright J.E. Potassic mafic magtism in the Kigluaik gneiss dome, northern Alaska: a geochemical study of arc magmatism in an extensional tectonic setting // J. Geophys. Res. 1997. Vol.102. N B4. P.8065-8084 17. Tikhomirov P.L., Luchitskaya M.V., Kravchenko-Berezhnoy I.R. Comparison of Cretaceous granitoids of the Chaun tectonic zone to those of the Taigonos Peninsula, NE Asia: rock chemistry, composition of rock forming minerals, and conditions of formation // Stephan Mueller series. Geology and Tectonic Origins of Northeast Russia: A Tribute to Leonid Parfenov (in press) 28. Velikoslavinsky S.D. Geochemical typification of acid magmatic rocks of leading geodynamic settings // Petrology. 2003. V. 11. № 4. P.363-380. (in Russian) 19. Pearce J.A. Sources and settings of granitic rocks // Episodes. 1996. V. 19. N. 4. P. 120-125

  2. 5. VIEW SHOWING DREDGING OF ARIZONA CANAL NEAR THE GRANITE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING DREDGING OF ARIZONA CANAL NEAR THE GRANITE REEF DAM. SOUTH INTAKE OF THE DAM IS IN THE BACKGROUND Photographer: Walter J. Lubken. March 1908 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. 6. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY, INTERIOR SHOWING ORIGINAL GRANITE COLUMNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY, INTERIOR SHOWING ORIGINAL GRANITE COLUMNS AND COLUMN BRICKFACED AFTER THE GREAT FIRE 1904 - Old U.S. Appraisers Stores, Gay & Lombard Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  4. 10. Lighthouse boathouse and granite wharf, view north northeast, southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Lighthouse boathouse and granite wharf, view north northeast, southwest and southeast sides of boathouse, west and south sides of dock - Whitehead Light Station, Whitehead Island, East northeast of Tenants Harbor, Spruce Head, Knox County, ME

  5. Lift Off (Granite City C. U. School District 9)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodall, Robert C.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the ESEA Title I program in Granite City (Illinois) target area schools which provide preschool classes, remedial reading, and supportive health and counseling services. The programs are considered to be efficient. (DM)

  6. 9. VIEW NORTH, ACROSS DECK AT EAST SIDE SHOWING GRANITE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW NORTH, ACROSS DECK AT EAST SIDE SHOWING GRANITE BLOCK PAVING, EXPANSION JOINT AND NORTH SIDE PIPE RAILING - Route 1 Extension, South Street Viaduct, Spanning Conrail & Wheeler Point Road at South Street, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  7. Detail of track girder, south portal and granite piers at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of track girder, south portal and granite piers at low tide. View Northwest - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  8. Granite Monument Plaza Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Granite Monument Plaza - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  9. 7. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, LOOKING EAST ON NORTH SIDE OF INDIA STREET FROM DRIVEWAY OF 31 INDIA STREET - India Street Neighborhood Study, 15-45 India Street, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  10. 8. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. July, 1970 DETAIL OF BRICK SIDEWALK AND GRANITE CURB, LOOKING EAST ON NORTH SIDE OF INDIA STREET FROM DRIVEWAY OF 31 INDIA STREET - India Street Neighborhood Study, 15-45 India Street, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  11. Diaper area and disposable diapers.

    PubMed

    Erasala, G N; Romain, C; Merlay, I

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, cloth diapers have been replaced by disposable diapers. The evolution of healthier skin in the diaper area has been demonstrated in parallel to that of disposable diapers. The improvements of disposable diapers--fit, dryness, comfort--have been based on the understanding of factors playing a role in the development of diaper dermatitis.

  12. Multi-Bandwidth GPR Profiles of Granite in New Hampshire: Attributes of Fracture Horizons and Wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcone, S. A.; Campbell, S. W.

    2012-12-01

    Sheet and tectonic fractures transport water and facilitate erosion on geologic time scales. We discuss ground-penetrating radar profiles of fractures recorded with 150, 350, 600 and 1000 MHz pulse dominant frequencies, and quantitative data obtained from their horizons and pulse wavelet attributes. We recorded the profiles along dirt roads and bare rock transects, beneath which include the mid Ordovician Oliverian granodiorite and binary granite of western New Hampshire and just north of the Presidential Range, respectively, and the late Devonian biotite granite just west of the Presidential Range. The overriding till is characterized by numerous diffractions, and from 0 to about 5 m thick. We use a known relative dielectric permittivity of 6.6 for granodiorite and assume the same for the other types to calibrate depth from the reflection time scale. Dielectric permittivity values for the till range from about 13-21. The sheet fracture responses are up to 25 m deep while the deepest tectonic fracture horizon extends to at least 35 m depth. Some horizons are associated with numerous diffractions originating along their length, while others have very few. The less clear horizons recorded in seasonal profiles of the binary granite suggest grusification, a possible factor to help explain the greater height of the more durable metamorphic Presidential Range. Sheet fracture spacing can be closer than one meter, with horizons comprised of thin layer responses because the wavelets, even at 1000 MHz, are similar to the transmitted wavelet. Therefore, the fractures are likely less than a few cm thick, as is apparent from quarry wall exposures, and from models that predict that even one mm fractures are detectable. The wavelet phase structure generally indicates a higher dielectric medium, which could mean calcite, and more likely water, but this structure is not consistent along individual horizons. The higher frequency profiles reveal a complex fracture network that

  13. Frogs report: Friends of Granite, Winter 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FROGS reports present information on current research relevant to felsic magmatism, including commentaries on problems of current interest. Please contact Calvin Miller (Geology, 6028B, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, tel. 615-322-2986) about your own research, conferences, and ideas for stimulating commentaries.

  14. A Global compilation of Heat Production in Granitic Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsen, Kiki; Sørensen, Nanna K.; Nielsen, Louise S. K.; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina M.

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of the heat production in the crust is important for understanding the energy balance in Earth. It is assumed that the crust produces a substantial part of the heat in Earth, but its proportion in comparison to the mantle and the contribution from core solidification is not well known. Knowledge of the crustal heat production is required for assessing the mantle heat flow at the crust-mantle interface. Granites probably are the main heat producing rock types in the crust, and therefore their heat production is of crucial importance for understanding Earth heat balance. As part of a B.Sc. thesis study we have compiled a new database based on published values of heat production in various types of granites. The database has about 500 entries for concentrations of U, Th, and K and the total heat generation in different continental regions. The database also includes information on crustal age and the emplacement age of granites, where available. Some of the main conclusions that may be drawn from analyses of this new database are: • Distribution of heat production values is narrow in Archean-early Proterozoic granites but very broad in middle-late Proterozoic granites. • We observe no correlation between granite type and heat production. • Some correlation may be inferred between age and heat production - heat production is relatively low in Archaean-early Proterozoic granites. • Proterozoic granites are dominated by A-type which have high heat production; the I-type Archean granitic rocks seem to have the highest Th/U ratio. • The Th/U ratio is supposed to be 3.7-4.0 based on relative time constants. This is in general correct with a global average value of 3.7. However, it is ca. 3.8 for Phanerozoic and Archaean-early Proterozoic granites and 3.3 for middle-late Proterozoic granites. We speculate if this variation may be caused by major plate reorganization or perhaps by change in global plate tectonic style?

  15. Lithium Isotopes; a Potential aid to Understanding Granite Petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, C.; Chappell, B.; Bennett, V.

    2002-12-01

    Significant enrichment in 6Li occurs during the weathering of continental crustal materials to clays, contributing to depleted δ7Li in the resultant sedimentary rocks. As such Li isotopes potentially provide a unique perspective on the nature of crustal components involved granite genesis. Carboniferous-Permian granites of the New England Batholith (NEB), Australia, emplaced in a Devonian-Triassic arc setting, are subdivided into 5 major supersuites1. Bundarra and Hillgrove are both S-types, interpreted to be derived from strongly weathered arc rocks1, and immature greywackes2, respectively. Moonbi, Uralla and Clarence River represent three distinct I-type supersuites. Moonbi granites are high-K and strongly oxidised. Uralla granites are medium-high-K, and more reduced. Clarence River are low-K, isotopically primitive granites, equivalent to arc magmas. Li isotopes were evaluated using MC-ICP-MS analysis under conditions of reduced RF power. This 'cool' plasma technique yields precision equivalent to TIMS (2\\sigma SD; 0.5‰ , 680W; 0.7‰ , 800W)3. Overall variations of ~10‰ δ 7Li are observed, greater than the differences observed in arc lavas worldwide (δ 7Li = ~2 to 7‰ ). Clarence River granites typically have δ7Li > 4‰ , similar to lavas from sediment poor island arcs (e.g. Izu-Bonin and Kuriles). Bundarra granites have low δ7Li, consistent with involvement of more strongly weathered source components. The higher δ7Li (< 4.9‰ ) observed for Hillgrove supports the inferred derivation from immature arc sediments2. Moonbi and Uralla overlap with the lighter values observed for arc lavas. The slightly heavier values for Uralla granites are consistent with the greater involvement of sedimentary components in the latter. Although no simple delineation exists between NEB S- and I-type granites, Li isotopes provide important insights into the nature of the crustal components involved in granite magma-genesis. 1Shaw, S.E. and Flood, R.H. 1981. JGR, 86

  16. Natural radioactivity content of granite tiles used in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papaefthymiou, H

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations in commercial granite tiles imported in Greece were performed using gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K ranged from 1 to 434, 2 to 239 and 71 to 1576 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The calculated activity concentration index (I) values for all granite samples examined were found to be within the EC limit values for superficial and other materials with restricted use.

  17. Activity concentrations and dose rates from decorative granite countertops.

    PubMed

    Llope, W J

    2011-06-01

    The gamma radiation emitted from a variety of commercial decorative granites available for use in U.S. homes has been measured with portable survey meters as well as an NaI(Th) gamma spectrometer. The (40)K, U-nat, and (232)Th activity concentrations were determined using a full-spectrum analysis. The dose rates that would result from two different arrangements of decorative granite slabs as countertops were explored in simulations involving an adult anthropomorphic phantom.

  18. Radionuclide Transport in Fracture-Granite Interface Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Mori, A

    2007-09-12

    In situ radionuclide migration experiments, followed by excavation and sample characterization, were conducted in a water-conducting shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland to study diffusion paths of radionuclides in fractured granite. In this work, we employed a micro-scale mapping technique that interfaces laser ablation sampling with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA/ICP-MS) to measure the fine-scale (micron-range) distribution of actinides ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np) in the fracture-granite interface zones. Long-lived {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np were detected in flow channels, as well as in the adjacent rock matrix, using the sensitive, feature-based mapping of the LA/ICP-MS technique. The injected sorbing actinides are mainly located within the advective flowing fractures and the immediately adjacent regions. The water-conducting fracture studied in this work is bounded on one side by mylonite and the other by granitic matrix regions. These actinides did not penetrate into the mylonite side as much as the relatively higher-porosity granite matrix, most likely due to the low porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and diffusivity of the fracture wall (a thickness of about 0.4 mm separates the mylonite region from the fracture) and the mylonite region itself. Overall, the maximum penetration depth detected with this technique for the more diffusive {sup 237}Np over the field experimental time scale of about 60 days was about 10 mm in the granitic matrix, illustrating the importance of matrix diffusion in retarding radionuclide transport from the advective fractures. Laboratory tests and numerical modeling of radionuclide diffusion into granitic matrix was conducted to complement and help interpret the field results. Measured apparent diffusivity of multiple tracers in granite provided consistent predictions for radionuclide transport in the fractured granitic rock.

  19. Applicability of ERTS-1 to Montana geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidman, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Alt, D. D.; Berg, R.; Johns, W.; Flood, R.; Hawley, K.; Wackwitz, L.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Late autumn imagery provides the advantages of topographic shadow enhancement and low cloud cover. Mapping of rock units was done locally with good results for alluvium, basin fill, volcanics, inclined Paleozoic and Mesozoic beds, and host strata of bentonite beds. Folds, intrusive domes, and even dip directions were mapped where differential erosion was significant. However, mapping was not possible for belt strata, was difficult for granite, and was hindered by conifers compared to grass cover. Expansion of local mapping required geologic control and encountered significant areas unmappable from ERTS imagery. Annotation of lineaments provided much new geologic data. By extrapolating test site comparisons, it is inferred that 27 percent of some 1200 lineaments mapped from western Montana represent unknown faults. The remainder appear to be localized mainly by undiscovered faults and sets of minor faults or joints.

  20. Mortality experience of Vermont granite workers

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, L.K.; Wegman, D.H.; Monson, R.R.; Froines, J.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison was made between the chief cause of death among 969 deceased white male granite workers in Vermont and the causes of death among other individuals not in that occupation. Tuberculosis deaths were ten times the number predicted, based on the U.S. white male experience. Of the 65 tuberculosis deaths, 48 were silicotuberculosis and 16 were pulmonary tuberculosis. A notable increase was found for deaths due to all respiratory diseases, with 28 deaths due to silicosis. Excluding deaths due to silicosis and tuberculosis left a small excess of emphysema-related deaths. For 25 men in the respiratory disease category whose cause of death was not listed as silicosis, ten had evidence of silicosis in their x-ray records suggesting some misdiagnoses may have occurred. An excess of lung cancer deaths was noted among sawyers and polishers, suggesting possible effects of abrasive exposures. No tuberculosis deaths were noted in men who started work in the post dust control period, after 1950. There was an excess of suicide deaths before 1970.

  1. Hydraulic fracturing in granite under geothermal conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solberg, P.; Lockner, D.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental hydraulic fracturing of granite under geothermal conditions produces tensile fracture at rapid fluid injection rates and shear fracture at slow injection rates and elevated differential stress levels. A sudden burst of acoustic emission activity accompanies tensile fracture formation whereas the acoustic emission rate increases exponentially prior to shear fracture. Temperature does not significantly affect the failure mechanism, and the experimental results have not demonstrated the occurrence of thermal fracturing. A critical result of these experiments is that fluid injection at intermediate rates and elevated differential stress levels increases permeability by more than an order of magnitude without producing macroscopic fractures, and low-level acoustic emission activity occurs simultaneously near the borehole and propagates outward into the specimen with time. Permeability measurements conducted at atmospheric pressure both before and after these experiments show that increased permeability is produced by permanent structural changes in the rock. Although results of this study have not demonstrated the occurrence of thermal fracturing, they suggest that fluid injection at certain rates in situ may markedly increase local permeability. This could prove critical to increasing the efficiency of heat exchange for geothermal energy extraction from hot dry rock. ?? 1980.

  2. Review of Yucca Mountain Disposal Criticality Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Scaglione, John M; Wagner, John C

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, submitted a license application for construction authorization of a deep geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in June of 2008. The license application is currently under review by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. However,on March 3, 2010 the DOE filed a motion requesting withdrawal of the license application. With the withdrawal request and the development of the Blue Ribbon Commission to seek alternative strategies for disposing of spent fuel, the status of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is uncertain. What is certain is that spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will continue to be generated and some long-lived components of the SNF will eventually need a disposition path(s). Strategies for the back end of the fuel cycle will continue to be developed and need to include the insights from the experience gained during the development of the Yucca Mountain license application. Detailed studies were performed and considerable progress was made in many key areas in terms of increased understanding of relevant phenomena and issues regarding geologic disposal of SNF. This paper reviews selected technical studies performed in support of the disposal criticality analysis licensing basis and the use of burnup credit. Topics include assembly misload analysis, isotopic and criticality validation, commercial reactor critical analyses, loading curves, alternative waste package and criticality control studies, radial burnup data and effects, and implementation of a conservative application model in the criticality probabilistic evaluation as well as other information that is applicable to operations regarding spent fuel outside the reactor. This paper summarizes the work and significant accomplishments in these areas and provides a resource for future, related activities.

  3. U.S. Geological Survey silicate rock standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanagan, F.J.

    1967-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has processed six silicate rocks to provide new reference samples to supplement G-1 and W-1. Complete conventional, rapid rock, and spectrochemical analyses by the U.S. Geological Survey are reported for a granite (replacement for G-1), a granodiorite, an andesite, a peridotite, a dunite, and a basalt. Analyses of variance for nickel, chromium, copper, and zirconium in each rock sample showed that for these elements, the rocks can be considered homogeneous. Spectrochemical estimates are given for the nickel, chromium, copper, and zirconium contents of the samples. The petrography of five of the six rocks is described and CIPW norms are presented. ?? 1967.

  4. Space disposal of nuclear wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, C. C.; Nixon, R. F.; Rice, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    The DOE has been studying several options for nuclear waste disposal, among them space disposal, which NASA has been assessing. Attention is given to space disposal destinations noting that a circular heliocentric orbit about halfway between Earth and Venus is the reference option in space disposal studies. Discussion also covers the waste form, showing that parameters to be considered include high waste loading, high thermal conductivity, thermochemical stability, resistance to leaching, fabrication, resistance to oxidation and to thermal shock. Finally, the Space Shuttle nuclear waste disposal mission profile is presented.

  5. Space disposal of nuclear wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, C. C.; Nixon, R. F.; Rice, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    The DOE has been studying several options for nuclear waste disposal, among them space disposal, which NASA has been assessing. Attention is given to space disposal destinations noting that a circular heliocentric orbit about halfway between Earth and Venus is the reference option in space disposal studies. Discussion also covers the waste form, showing that parameters to be considered include high waste loading, high thermal conductivity, thermochemical stability, resistance to leaching, fabrication, resistance to oxidation and to thermal shock. Finally, the Space Shuttle nuclear waste disposal mission profile is presented.

  6. Physical property measurements on analog granites related to the joint verification experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Randolph J., III; Coyner, Karl B.; Haupt, Robert W.

    1990-08-01

    A key element in JVE (Joint Verification Experiment) conducted jointly between the United States and the USSR is the analysis of the geology and physical properties of the rocks in the respective test sites. A study was initiated to examine unclassified crystalline rock specimens obtained from areas near the Soviet site, Semipalatinsk and appropriate analog samples selected from Mt. Katadin, Maine. These rocks were also compared to Sierra White and Westerly Granite which have been studied in great detail. Measurements performed to characterize these rocks were: (1) Uniaxial strain with simultaneous compressional and shear wave velocities; (2) Hydrostatic compression to 150 MPa with simultaneous compressional and shear wave velocities; (3) Attenuation measurements as a function of frequency and strain amplitude for both dry and water saturated conditions. Elastic moduli determined from the hydrostatic compression and uniaxial strain test show that the rock matrix/mineral properties were comparable in magnitudes which vary within 25 percent from sample to sample. These properties appear to be approximately isotropic, especially at high pressures. However, anisotropy evident for certain samples at pressures below 35 MPa is attributed to dominant pre-existing microcrack populations and their alignments. Dependence of extensional attenuation and Young's modulus on strain amplitude were experimentally determined for intact Sierra White granite using the hysteresis loop technique.

  7. Alpine tectonics of granites in basement of Ysyk-Köl Basin, northern Tien Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonov, M. G.; Przhiyalgovsky, E. S.; Lavrushina, E. V.; Poleshchuk, A. V.; Rybin, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    The Ysyk-Köl Basin filled with Lower Jurassic-Quaternary sedimentary rocks is the largest intermontane negative structural unit of the northern Tien Shan. The basement of this basin is composed of Precambrian-Paleozoic rocks, largely of Ordovician and Silurian granitoids exposed in mountain ranges of the basin framework and as separate anticlinal domes situated in areas occupied by the Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary cover. The postmagmatic tectonic internalstructure of the Chonkurchak (Chunkurchak), Kyzyl-Choku, Kyzyl-Bulak, and Prishib massifs emplaced in the basement, as well as their relationships to the sedimentary cover, are described in the paper. The study was carried out using the morphostructural method, detailed geological mapping, structural kinematic analysis, and petrographic examination of rocks. The internalstructure of Paleozoic granites in the basement and indications of their 3D tectonic flow are characterized. It is shown that granites underwent 3D deformation after their emplacement in the consolidated crust, and this process had a substantial influence on tectonic processes at the plate and orogenic stages of regional evolution.

  8. Geology and U-Pb Zircon ages of the Kavacik Leucogranite in the Bornova Flysch Zone (Western Anatolia, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güngör, Talip; Hasözbek, Altuǧ; Akal, Cüneyt; Mertz-Kraus, Regina; Peştemalci Üregel, Reyhan

    2016-04-01

    The Bornova Flysch Zone comprises an olistostrome-melange situated NE-SW direction between the Izmir Ankara Suture Zone and the Menderes Massif. The Bornova Flysch Zone is mainly composed of slightly deformed Late Cretaceous to Paleocene sandstone and shale with Mesozoic limestone and oceanic crustal associations. These large-scale blocks in the matrix of the Bornova Flysch Zone are mostly defined as limestone, basalt, serpentinite and radiolarian cherts. In this study, granitic bodies, situated in the Bornova Flysch Zone, named as Kavacik leucogranite is examined for the first time, in terms its geological features and its U-Pb zircon crystallization ages. Kavacik leucogranite displays a typical granitic texture and its composition indicates ranging between granitic to granodioritic in composition with lack of mafic minerals. The geochemical features of the granite indicate the I-type and subalkaline nature of the granitic body. The geochemical signatures of the Kavacik granite points out Volcanic Arc Granitoids as similarly seen in Karaburun granite. U-Pb zircon LA ages were also obtained from the Kavacik granite ranging between 224.5 ± 2.0 Ma and 230.0 ± 2.8 Ma. Early Triassic zircon ages are also previously observed in the Karaburun Peninsula (Karaburun Granite) and the Menderes Massif (Odemis-Kiraz Submassif). The initial geological boundary relation of the Kavacik Leucogranite is not clear in the field and likely displays tectonic boundary features in the matrix of the Bornova Flysch Zone. Overall, the geochemical features of the Kavacik leucogranite and similar leucomagmatic bodies in the Western Anatolia points out the subduction-related tectonic setting is favorable during the Triassic time.

  9. Integration of geophysical and geological data for delimitation of mineralized zones in Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaafar, Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    An integrated approach for geophysical, geological and mineralogical data was followed for Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt, in order to delineate its mineralized zones. The albitized granites are well-defined on the Th- and U-channel images, by their anomalous shapes, reaching 150 ppm and 90 ppm respectively, beside low K content. Interpretations of the aeromagnetic maps delineated four regional structural trends oriented due NNW, NW, ENE and E-W directions. They are identified as strike-slip faults, which coincide well with field observations, where NW-trending faults cut and displace right laterally ENE-trending older ones. The interaction between these two strike-slip fault systems confining the albite granite is easily identified on the regional data presenting longer wavelength anomalies, implying deep-seated structures. They could represent potential pathways for migration of enriched mineralized fluids. Geochemically, albite granites of peraluminous characteristics that had suffered extensive post-magmatic metasomatic reworking, resulted into development of (Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, U, Th, Sn) and albite-enriched and greisenized granite body of about 600 m thick, and more than 3 km in strike length. The albite granite is characterized by sharp increase in average rare metal content: Zr (830 ppm), Hf (51 ppm), Nb (340 ppm), Ta (44 ppm), and U (90 ppm). Thorite, uranothorite, uraninite and zircon are the main uranium-bearing minerals of magmatic origin within the enclosing granite. However, with respect to Zr, Nb, and Ta, the albitized granite can be categorized as rare metal granite. The integration of airborne geophysical (magnetic and γ-ray spectrometric), geological, geochemical and mineralogical data succeeded in assigning the albite granite of Um Naggat pluton as a mineralized zone. This zone is characterized by its high thorium and uranium of hydrothermal origin as indicated by its low Th/U ratio, with rare metals mineralization controlled by two

  10. Geologic nozzles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, Kieffer S.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of the low characteristic velocities of geologic fluids has not been widely recognized, and as a result, the importance of supercritical and supersonic flow in geological processes has generally been underestimated. The lateral blast at Mount St. Helens, Washington, propelled a gas heavily laden with dust into the atmosphere. Because of the low sound speed in this gas (about 100 m/s), the flow was internally supersonic. Old Faithful Geyser, Wyoming, is a converging-diverging nozzle in which liquid water refilling the conduit during the recharge cycle changes during eruption into a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture with a very low sound velocity. The high sound speed of liquid water determines the characteristics of harmonic tremor observed at the geyser during the recharge interval, whereas the low sound speed of the liquid-vapor mixture influences the fluid flow characteristics of the eruption. At the rapids of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, the channel is constricted into the shape of a converging-diverging nozzle by the debris flows that enter from tributary canyons. Both subcritical and supercritical flow occur within the rapids. -from Author

  11. Landfill disposal systems

    PubMed Central

    Slimak, Karen M.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of landfill disposal of hazardous wastes in the United States is indicated by presenting descriptions of six operating landfills. These landfills illustrate the variety of techniques that exist in landfill disposal of hazardous wastes. Although some landfills more effectively isolate hazardous waste than others, all landfills must deal with the following problems. Leachate from hazardous waste landfills is generally highly polluted. Most landfills attempt to contain leachate at the site and prevent its discharge to surface or groundwaters. To retain leachate within a disposal area, subsurface barriers of materials such as concrete, asphalt, butyl rubber, vinyl, and clay are used. It is difficult to assure that these materials can seal a landfill indefinitely. When a subsurface barrier fails, the leachate enters the groundwater in a concentrated, narrow band which may bypass monitoring wells. Once a subsurface barrier has failed, repairs are time-consuming and costly, since the waste above the repair site may have to be removed. The central problem in landfill disposal is leachate control. Recent emphasis has been on developing subsurface barriers to contain the wastes and any leachate. Future emphasis should also be on techniques for removing water from hazardous wastes before they are placed in landfills, and on methods for preventing contact of the wastes with water during and after disposal operations. When leachate is eliminated, the problems of monitoring, and subsurface barrier failure and repair can be addressed, and a waste can be effectively isolated. A surface seal landfill design is recommended for maintaining the dry state of solid hazardous wastes and for controlling leachate. Any impervious liner is utilized over the top of the landfill to prevent surface water from seeping into the waste. The surface barrier is also the site where monitoring and maintenance activities are focused. Barrier failure can be detected by visual

  12. Element mobility during metasomatism of granitic rocks in the Saint-Chély d'Apcher area (Lozère, France).

    PubMed

    El Maghraoui, M; Joron, J L; Raimbault, L; Treuil, M

    2002-11-01

    This paper summarises the behaviour of major and trace elements during hydrothermal alteration processes in the Vareilles albite deposit, Saint-Chély d' Apcher area (Lozère, France). Sampling focused mainly on fine- to medium-grained two-mica granite facies surrounding albitite veins in two open pits. The primary chemical variability inherent in sampling parent rock and analytical uncertainties can seriously affect element mobility calculations. Here we present a simple model that allows to discriminate between magmatic and alteration effects and to make a proper evaluation of the chemical changes that have caused the alteration. For this reason, a range of unaltered granites and albitites were sampled to evaluate the degree of parent rock heterogeneity. Duplicate measurements were performed by epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) to obtain a reliable mean concentration for trace elements and to evaluate results reproducibility. ENAA measurements are completed by analysis of major elements by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The enrichment or depletion of an element during alteration, relative to its concentration in fresh parent rock, can be calculated on the basis of the assumed immobility of some elements during the process. In this study, we have assumed Ta as immobile element on the basis for his inert behaviour. The distinct differences in chemical change between altered and unaltered granite suggest the need to consider alteration event as an important parameter in evaluating granitic rocks for nuclear waste disposal.

  13. The petrogenesis of sodic granites in the Niujuanzi area and constraints on the Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the Beishan region, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiyuan; Guo, Lin; Li, Jianxing; Li, Yanguang; Smithies, Robert H.; Wingate, Michael T. D.; Meng, Yong; Chen, Shefa

    2016-07-01

    Ordovician to Devonian sodic granites dominate the newly recognized Luotuojuan composite granite in the Lebaquan-Luotuojuan-Niujuanzi region of Beishan, along the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in NW China. The granites include sodic (K2O/Na2O > 0.5) tonalites with low Y (< 7 ppm), Yb (< 0.7 ppm), high Sr/Y (> 68) that formed during at least two events at c. 435 and c. 370-360 Ma. Their compositions are consistent with high-pressure melting of basaltic crust, although relatively non-radiogenic Nd isotope compositions (εNd(t) + 0.9) require some crustal assimilation. The interpretation that these granites reflect melts of a subducted slab (i.e. adakite) is supported by independent local and regional geological evidence for an oceanic subduction-accretion setting, including a long history of calc-alkaline magmatism and the identification of a series of early Paleozoic ophiolite belts. Other sodic granites forming the Luotuojuan composite granite are mainly quartz-diorite and granodiorite formed between c. 391 and c. 360 Ma. These rocks are not adakites, having Sr concentrations and Sr/Y ratios too low and Y and Yb concentrations too high. They are low- to medium-K calc-alkaline rocks more typical of magmas derived through melting in a subduction modified mantle wedge. Compositional changes from sodic to potassic granites, over time frames consistent with subduction processes, suggest at least two separate cycles, or pulses, of hot subduction in the Lebaquan-Luotuojuan-Niujuanzi region. Although early Paleozoic adakites have been inferred to exist elsewhere in the Beishan region, many of the reported adakitic rocks have compositions inconsistent with melting of subducted oceanic lithosphere and so tectonic interpretation of hot subduction might not be valid in these cases. A study of regional granite data also shows not only that adakite magmatism does not extend into the Permian but that if subduction-accretion processes extended into the late

  14. The H2O Content of Granite Embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, O.; Cesare, B.; Remusat, L.; Acosta-Vigil, A.; Poli, S.

    2014-12-01

    Quantification of H2O contents of natural granites has been an on-going challenge owing to the extremely fugitive character of H2O during cooling and ascent of melts and magmas. Here we approach this problem by studying granites in their source region (i.e. the partially melted continental crust) and we present the first NanoSIMS analyses of anatectic melt inclusions (MI) hosted in peritectic phases of migmatites and granulites. These MI which totally crystallized upon slow cooling represent the embryos of the upper-crustal granites. The approach based on the combination of MI and NanoSIMS has been here tested on amphibolite-facies migmatites at Ronda (S Spain) that underwent fluid-present to fluid-absent melting at ~700 °C and ~5 kbar. Small (≤ 5 µm) crystallized MI trapped in garnet have been remelted using a piston-cylinder apparatus and they show leucogranitic compositions. We measure high and variable H2O contents (mean of 6.5±1.4 wt%) in these low-temperature, low-pressure granitic melts. We demonstrate that, when the entire population from the same host is considered, MI reveal the H2O content of melt in the specific volume of rock where the host garnet grew. Mean H2O values for the MI in different host crystals range from 5.4 to 9.1 wt%. This range is in rather good agreement with experimental models for granitic melts at the inferred P-T conditions. Our study documents for the first time the occurrence of H2O heterogeneities in natural granitic melts at the source region. These heterogeneities are interpreted to reflect the birth of granitic melts under conditions of "mosaic" equilibrium, where the distinct fractions of melt experience different buffering assemblages at the micro-scale, with concomitant differences in melt H2O content. These results confirm the need for small-scale geochemical studies on natural samples to improve our quantitative understanding of crustal melting and granite formation. The same approach adopted here can be applied to

  15. Magmatic Enclaves in Granitic Rocks: Paragons or Parasites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, John; Stevens, Gary; Elburg, Marlina

    2017-04-01

    Granitic rocks form the fundamental building blocks of Earth's continents and provide us with a wide range of resources, so their formation is worth trying to understand. Fine-grained, igneous-textured microgranular enclaves of tonalitic to monzogranitic composition (ME) are common in granitic rocks and their origins have been hotly debated, with some workers suggesting that ME are not igneous. These ME have been studied intensively enough that we are now certain that they are of igneous origin - globules of mingled and quenched magma. Although a mantle connection is evident in many cases, their ultimate origin (including where in the lithosphere they originate) is still debated. This contribution explores the systematics of chemical variation in ME and their host granites, with the aim of uncovering any systematics in their behaviour and modelling the processes that have led to the variations that we measure, comparing host-rock series to their respective ME series. As always, the hope is that the study of ME may lead to improved understanding and modelling of the processes that are responsible for the formation of the host granitic magmas. Using variations between the molecular quantities Ti and M (Fe+Mn+Mg), we demonstrate that the petrogenetic processes that operated within a diverse group of S- and I-type granitic host magmas and their ME suites are dissimilar. Variations within the granitic series result from a variety of what might be called 'orderly' processes, resulting in linear or curvilinear trends in chemical variation diagrams. In contrast, processes that affected the ME series commonly resulted in scattered, chaotic variations. Even in cases in which an ME series displays more orderly variation, it can be shown that the hypothesis of simple mixing between a parent enclave magma and its host granitic magma, to produce the overall variations, cannot be supported. ME magmas had vastly smaller volumes compared with their host granitic magmas. Thus, they

  16. Magnetic Properties of the Precambrian Granitic Rocks in Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, N.; Jackson, M.; Kogiso, T.; Sato, M.; Seita, K.; Tsunakawa, H.

    2008-12-01

    It has been known that granitic rocks have stable components of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) as well as unstable NRM. It is noted that remanent magnetization of plagioclase crystals in granitic and basaltic rocks can yield reliable paleomagnetic data (e.g. Wu et al., 1974; Geissman et al., 1988; Tarduno et al., 2001; Wakabayashi et al., 2006). The acquisition process of thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) of granitic rocks is not well-understood because the size of magnetic grains varies from less than a few μm to hundreds of μm and parts of them are included in each crystal of granitic rocks. Thus we have made rock-magnetic studies and microscopic observations on granitic rocks and their separated crystals. Samples used in this study are collected from multiple sites of the Sacred Heart Granite (2.6 Ga U-Pb zircon ages) and the St. Cloud Granite and Granodiorite (1.8 Ga U-Pb zircon age) in Minnesota. For most of the bulk samples from granitic rocks, the Verwey transition at 120 K is clearly recognized. Susceptibility- temperature (χ-T) curves show an abrupt drop at about 580°C. Hysteresis parameters of bulk samples are distributed along a mixing line between the multi-domain (MD) and pseudo-single-domain (PSD) areas on the Day plot. Saturation isothermal remanence (SIRM) cooling and warming curves indicate that low-temperature memories range in a few to several tens % of the initial SIRM. These results indicate the MD magnetite grains dominate the magnetic properties but more or less PSD (or single-domain (SD)) magnetite grains are present in the granitic rocks. The separated crystals of feldspar and quartz show the Verwey transition at 120 K and the Curie temperature of about 580°C. Hysteresis properties of them are similar to those of bulk samples. These suggest that the MD and PSD (or SD) magnetite are included in both feldspar and quartz, suggesting that those magnetite grains primarily formed during the initial formation of the granitic rocks. We

  17. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Nelson, V. Lance

    1990-04-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout O. mykiss smolts during the 1989 spring outmigration at a migrant trap on the Snake River and the Clearwater River. Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was much higher in 1989 than in either of the 1987 or 1988 drought years. The 1989 Snake River trap catch was similar to 1986. Effort was the same during the four years. Steelhead trout catch was greater than in any previous year. Chinook salmon and steelhead trout catch at the Clearwater River trap was similar to 1986, even though effort was greatly reduced in 1989 due to high runoff during most of the season. The 1989 Clearwater River trap catch was lower than in the two drought years (1987 and 1988) and was due to the minimal number of days the trap was operated. Fish tagged with Passive Interrogated Transponder (PIT) tags at the Snake River trap were recovered at the three dams (Lower Granite, Little Goose, and McNary) with PIT tag detection systems. Travel time (days) and migration rate (km/d) through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT-tagged chinook salmon and steelhead trout, marked at the head of the reservoir, was affected by discharge. Statistical analysis showed that as discharge increased from 40 kcfs to 80 kcfs, chinook salmon travel time decreased three-fold and steelhead trout travel time decreased two-fold. 11 refs., 8 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. Status of geologic/environmental characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-08

    Studies within the NWTS program directed ultimately at siting one or more radioactive waste repositories consist principally of geologic and environmental characterizations. A draft criteria document has been developed which addresses both geologic and environmental characteristics of any potential site. Several media have been identified as having generic features that could make them acceptable as host media for geologic repositories. Evaluations of these media are being carried out by relating them to the draft criteria document and are currently in various stages of the screening process. The end result will be the identification of at least four sites within the contiguous United States which would be suitable for construction of a repository. The following nine presentations were made: (1) Status of Geologic/Environmental Characterization Studies of Gulf Coast Interior Salt Dome Basins; (2) Status of Geological/Environmental Characterization Studies in the Parodox Basin; (3) Nuclear Waste Isolation Studies of the Palo Duro and Dalhart Basins, Texas Panhandle, FY 1980; (4) Geologic Investigations for Nuclear Waste Repository Sites in Columbia River Basalt - Hanford Site; (5) Method for Screening for Repository Locations on and Contiguous to the Nevada Test Site; (6) Nationwide Review of Shales and Other Argillaceous Strata; (7) Geological Survey Program for Identification of Suitable Geohydrologic Environments for the Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste; (8) National Geologic/Environmental Screening for Repositories; (9) States of Characterizations.

  19. Structural record of mechanisms of granite intrusion in the Achaean gneisses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perchuk, L. L.; van Reenen, D. D.

    2009-04-01

    A model of diapiric formation of granite domes within green-stone areas is based on gravitational re-distribution mechanisms of rocks in the Precambrian continental crust (e.g. McGregor, 1951; Ramberg, 1951; Perchuk, 1989, 1993; Perchuk et al., 1992). In addition, the gravitational re-distribution is the leading mechanism to form Precambrian granulite facies terrains among green-stone belts. It has been proven by data on general geology, tectonics, petrology, geochemistry, isotopic geology, geophysics, and numerical modeling (Perchuk et al., 2001; Gerya et al., 2000, 2002). However the behavior of granite melt within gneisses of similar bulk composition is questionable. If the above mechanisms works well in the case of "granitic gneiss - granite melt", the ascending rocks must have structural features that indicate upward movement, while the adjacent wall rocks must demonstrate structural features of the opposite movement. In metamorphic rocks these features are represented by lineation, drag folds, orientation of fold hinges etc. Apart from "straight gneisses" (Davidson, 1984; Smit & van Reenen, 1997) no direct evidence for the internal dynamics of the formation of high-grade terrains has ever been considered. In this paper we formulate a rule allowing discrimination between cylindrical metamorphogenic and magmatogenic structures and demonstrate a model of their formation. Two types of ring structures are considered as indicators of ascending granulites toward the surface, i.e. cylindrical folds (sheath fold) and granite stocks. Systematic studies of such structures at diverse erosion sections allowing the conclusion on their formation. During exhumation (decompression) of granulite facies terrains the formation of sheath folds are resulted from generation of the granite magma within the same granitogneissic material and subsequent uprising due to difference in densities of contacting materials because all sheath folds con. This is recorded in the contrasting

  20. Geologic map of the Peach Springs 30' x 60' quadrangle, Mohave and Coconino counties, northwestern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billingsley, George H.; Block, Debra L.; Dyer, Helen C.

    2006-01-01

    This map is a product of a cooperative project of the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. National Park Service, and the Bureau of Land Management to provide geologic map coverage and regional geologic information for visitor services and resource management of Grand Canyon National Park, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Grand Canyon-Parashant-National Monument, and adjacent lands in northwestern Arizona. This map is a synthesis of previous and new geologic mapping that encompasses the Peach Springs 30' x 60' quadrangle, Arizona. The geologic data will support future geologic, biologic, hydrologic, and other science resource studies of this area conducted by the National Park Service, the Hualapai Indian Tribe, the Bureau of Land Management, the State of Arizona, and private organizations. The Colorado River and its tributaries have dissected the southwestern Colorado Plateau into what is now the southwestern part of Grand Canyon. The erosion of Grand Canyon has exposed about 426 m (1,400 ft) of Proterozoic crystalline metamorphic rocks and granite, about 1,450 m (4,760 ft) of Paleozoic strata, and about 300 m (1,000 ft) of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. Outcrops of Proterozoic crystalline rocks are exposed at the bottom of Grand Canyon at Granite Park from Colorado River Mile 207 to 209, at Mile 212, and in the Lower Granite Gorge from Colorado River Mile 216 to 262, and along the Grand Wash Cliffs in the southwest corner of the map area.

  1. Uncanistered Spent Nuclear fuel Disposal Container System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Uncanistered Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded with intact uncanistered assemblies and/or individually canistered SNF assemblies and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the access drifts, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container provides long-term confinement of the commercial SNF placed inside, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual SNF assembly temperatures after emplacement, limits the introduction of moderator into the disposal container during the criticality control period, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident.

  2. Gamma-ray spectrometry of granitic suites of the Paranaguá Terrane, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihermann, Jessica Derkacz; Ferreira, Francisco José Fonseca; Cury, Leonardo Fadel; da Silveira, Claudinei Taborda

    2016-09-01

    The Paranaguá Terrane, located in the coastal portion of the states of Santa Catarina, Paraná and São Paulo in Southern Brazil is a crustal segment constituted mainly by an igneous complex, with a variety of granitic rocks inserted into the Serra do Mar ridge. The average altitude is approximately 1200 m above sea level, with peaks of up to 1800 m. Due to the difficulty of accessing the area, a shortage of outcrops and the thick weathering mantle, this terrane is understudied. This research aims to evaluate the gamma-ray spectrometry data of the granitic suites of the Paranaguá Terrane, in correspondence with the geological, petrographical, lithogeochemical, relief and mass movement information available in the literature. Aerogeophysical data were acquired along north-south lines spaced at 500 m, with a mean terrain clearance of 100 m. These data cover potassium (K, %), equivalent in thorium (eTh, ppm) and equivalent in uranium (eU, ppm). After performing a critical analysis of the data, basic (K, eU, eTh) and ternary (R-K/G-eTh/B-eU) maps were generated and then superimposed on the digital elevation model (DEM). The investigation of the radionuclide mobility across the relief and weathering mantle consisted of an analysis of the schematic profiles of elevation related with each radionuclide; a comparison of the K, eU and eTh maps with their 3D correspondents; and the study of mass movements registered in the region. A statistical comparison of lithogeochemical (K, U, Th) and geophysical (K, eU, eTh) data showed consistency in all the granitic suites studied (Morro Inglês, Rio do Poço and Canavieiras-Estrela). Through gamma-ray spectrometry, it was possible to establish relationships between scars (from mass movements) and the gamma-ray responses as well as the radionuclide mobility and the relief and to map the granitic bodies.

  3. Marine Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Andel, Tjeerd H.

    Marine geology was blessed early, about 30 years ago, with two great textbooks, one by P.H. Kuenen, the other by Francis P. Shepard, but in more recent years, no one has dared synthesize a field that has become so diverse and is growing so rapidly. There are many texts written for the beginning undergraduate student, mostly by marine geologists, but none can be handed conveniently to a serious advanced student or given to a colleague interested in what the field has wrought. The reason for this regrettable state is obvious; only an active, major scholar could hope to write such a book well, but the years would pass, his students dwindle, his grants vanish. He himself might be out of date before his book was. Kennett has earned a large measure of gratitude for his attempt to undertake this task. His personal price must have been high but so are our rewards.

  4. Determination of Matrix Diffusion Properties of Granite

    SciTech Connect

    Holtta, Pirkko; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja; Huittinen, Nina; Poteri, Antti

    2007-07-01

    Rock-core column experiments were introduced to estimate the diffusion and sorption properties of Kuru Grey granite used in block-scale experiments. The objective was to examine the processes causing retention in solute transport through rock fractures, especially matrix diffusion. The objective was also to estimate the importance of retention processes during transport in different scales and flow conditions. Rock-core columns were constructed from cores drilled into the fracture and were placed inside tubes to form flow channels in the 0.5 mm gap between the cores and the tube walls. Tracer experiments were performed using uranin, HTO, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 131}I, {sup 22}Na and {sup 85}Sr at flow rates of 1-50 {mu}L.min{sup -1}. Rock matrix was characterized using {sup 14}C-PMMA method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray micro analysis (EDX) and the B.E.T. method. Solute mass flux through a column was modelled by applying the assumption of a linear velocity profile and molecular diffusion. Coupling of the advection and diffusion processes was based on the model of generalised Taylor dispersion in the linear velocity profile. Experiments could be modelled applying a consistent parameterization and transport processes. The results provide evidence that it is possible to investigate matrix diffusion at the laboratory scale. The effects of matrix diffusion were demonstrated on the slightly-sorbing tracer breakthrough curves. Based on scoping calculations matrix diffusion begins to be clearly observable for non-sorbing tracer when the flow rate is 0.1 {mu}L.min{sup -1}. The experimental results presented here cannot be transferred directly to the spatial and temporal scales that prevail in an underground repository. However, the knowledge and understanding of transport and retention processes gained from this study is transferable to different scales from laboratory to in-situ conditions. (authors)

  5. Monazite trumps zircon: applying SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology to systematically evaluate emplacement ages of leucocratic, low-temperature granites in a complex Precambrian orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piechocka, Agnieszka M.; Gregory, Courtney J.; Zi, Jian-Wei; Sheppard, Stephen; Wingate, Michael T. D.; Rasmussen, Birger

    2017-08-01

    Although zircon is the most widely used geochronometer to determine the crystallisation ages of granites, it can be unreliable for low-temperature melts because they may not crystallise new zircon. For leucocratic granites U-Pb zircon dates, therefore, may reflect the ages of the source rocks rather than the igneous crystallisation age. In the Proterozoic Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia, leucocratic granites are associated with several pulses of intracontinental magmatism spanning 800 million years. In several instances, SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of these leucocratic granites either yielded ages that were inconclusive (e.g., multiple concordant ages) or incompatible with other geochronological data. To overcome this we used SHRIMP U-Th-Pb monazite geochronology to obtain igneous crystallisation ages that are consistent with the geological and geochronological framework of the orogen. The U-Th-Pb monazite geochronology has resolved the time interval over which two granitic supersuites were emplaced; a Paleoproterozoic supersuite thought to span 80 million years was emplaced in less than half that time (1688-1659 Ma) and a small Meso- to Neoproterozoic supersuite considered to have been intruded over 70 million years was instead assembled over 130 million years and outlasted associated regional metamorphism by 100 million years. Both findings have consequences for the duration of associated orogenic events and any estimates for magma generation rates. The monazite geochronology has contributed to a more reliable tectonic history for a complex, long-lived orogen. Our results emphasise the benefit of monazite as a geochronometer for leucocratic granites derived by low-temperature crustal melting and are relevant to other orogens worldwide.

  6. NRC disposed to site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    A committee of the National Research Council (NRC) has found the risk of human exposure to radiation from nuclear waste to be minimal at a proposed underground disposal site. In a report on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico, the NRC committee asserted that the danger of radioactive exposure at the site is unlikely to exceed U.S. and international standards for protection from radiation. Unless the site is breached by humans—most likely those drilling for gas or oil—there is no credible or probable chance of the release of the radioactive waste, the committee said.

  7. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-10-24

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

  8. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  9. Interactions between extensional shear zones and syn-tectonic granitic intrusions: the example of Ikaria Island (Cyclades, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Valentin; Beaudoin, Alexandre; Jolivet, Laurent; Arbaret, Laurent; Augier, Romain; Rabillard, Aurelien

    2014-05-01

    The Aegean domain is an ideal place to investigate the development of Metamorphic Core Complex (MCC) and to study the role of syn-tectonic granites on their development. MCCs of the Aegean domain are dynamically associated with a few major detachments, especially the North Cycladic Detachment System (NCDS) and the West Cycladic Detachment System (WCDS), which have accommodated a large part of the crustal thinning during the Oligocene and Miocene. The NCDS extends toward the East within the Simav Detachment that has exhumed the northern high-temperature part of the Menderes massif. The transition between the NCDS and the Simav Detachments is located above a major tear in the Aegean slab whose effects on lithospheric deformation are far from understood. The Aegean granitoids were emplaced during the Middle Miocene within a zone of high-temperature during the episode of slab tearing and recorded increments of extensional tectonics within this complex zone. Ikaria Island (Cyclades, Greece) is a metamorphic dome intruded by three Miocene granitoid plutons (one I-type intrusion, two S-type ones) including the largest pluton of the Aegean domain. However, geometry, structures and kinematics are still debated with several recent yet conflicting studies. We have reconsidered the geology of Ikaria to settle the geological and structural context of these plutons. The intrusion depth of the Raches granite has been estimated at 10-15 km by the Al-in-hornblende barometer. Our field study has led to the identification of two major structures: the Gialiskari and Kalamos detachments, which we interpret as belonging to the NCDS. A study of deformation in the granites has highlighted a continuum during cooling that can be described in three stages: i) magmatic deformation, ii) high-temperature ductile deformation from late magmatic stage until complete crystallization of the granite, iii) low-temperature brittle deformation. Throughout this evolution, the same top-to-the-NE shearing

  10. Accretionary history of the Altai-Mongolian terrane: perspectives from granitic zircon U-Pb and Hf-isotope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2014-05-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) consists of many tectonic terranes with distinct origin and complicated evolutionary history. Understanding of individual block is crucial to reconstruct the geodynamic history of the gigantic accetionary collage. This study presents zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes for the granitoid rocks in the Russian Altai mountain range (including Gorny Altai, Altai-Mongolian terrane and CTUS suture zone between them), in order to clarify the timing of granitic magmatism, source nature, continental crustal growth and tectonic evolution. Our dating results suggest that granitic magmatism of the Russian Altai mountain range occurred in three major episodes including 445~429 Ma, 410~360 Ma and ~241 Ma. Most of the zircons within the Paleozoic granitoids present comparable positive ɛHf(t) values and Neoproterozoic crustal model ages, which favor the interpretation that the juvenile crustal materials produced in the early stage of CAOB were probably dominant sources for the Paleozoic magmatism in the region. The inference is also supported by widespread occurrence of short-lived juvenile materials including ophiolites, seamount relics and arc assemblages in the north CAOB. Consequently, the Paleozoic massive granitic rocks maybe not represent continental crustal growth at the time when they were emplaced, but rather record reworking of relatively juvenile Proterozoic crustal rocks although mantle-derived mafic magma was possibly involved to sever as heat engine during granitic magma generation. The Early Triassic granitic intrusion may be product in an intra-plate environment, as the case of same type rocks in the adjacent areas. The positive ɛHf(t) values (1.81~7.47) and corresponding Hf model ages (0.80~1.16 Ga) together with evidence of petrology are consistent with the interpretation that the parental magma of the Triassic granitic intrusion was produced from enriched mantle-derived sources under an usually high temperature condition

  11. Geochemical evolution of magmatism in Archean granite-greenstone terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonov, A. V.; Larionova, Yu. O.

    2006-05-01

    Evolution of Archean magmatism is one of the key problems concerning the early formation stages of the Earth crust and biosphere, because that evolution exactly controlled variable concentrations of chemical elements in the World Ocean, which are important for metabolism. Geochemical evolution of magmatism between 3.5 and 2.7 Ga is considered based on database characterizing volcanic and intrusive rock complexes of granite-greenstone terrains (GGT) studied most comprehensively in the Karelian (2.9-2.7 Ga) and Kaapvaal (3.5-2.9 Ga) cratons and in the Pilbara block (3.5-2.9 Ga). Trends of magmatic geochemical evolution in the mentioned GGTs were similar in general. At the early stage of their development, tholeiitic magmas were considerably enriched in chalcophile and siderophile elements Fe2O3, MgO, Cr, Ni, Co, V, Cu, and Zn. At the next stage, calc-alkaline volcanics of greenstone belts and syntectonic TTG granitoids were enriched in lithophile elements Rb, Cs, Ba, Th, U, Pb, Nb, La, Sr, Be and others. Elevated concentrations of both the “crustal” and “mantle-derived” elements represented a distinctive feature of predominantly intrusive rocks of granitoid composition, which were characteristic of the terminal stage of continental crust formation in the GGTs, because older silicic rocks and lithospheric mantle were jointly involved into processes of magma generation. On the other hand, the GGTs different in age reveal specific trends in geochemical evolution of rock associations close in composition and geological position. First, the geochemical cycle of GGT evolution was of a longer duration in the Paleoarchean than in the Meso-and Neoarchean. Second, the Paleoarche an tholeiitic associations had higher concentrations of LREE and HFSE (Zr, Ti, Th, Nb, Ta, Hf) than their Meso-and Neoarchean counterparts. Third, the Y and Yb concentrations in Paleoarchean calc-alkaline rock associations are systematically higher than in Neoarchean rocks of the same type

  12. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon O. nerka smolts during the 2004 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2004 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 1.1 times greater in 2004 than in 2003. The wild Chinook catch was 1.1 times greater than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 1.2 times greater than in 2003. Wild steelhead trout catch was 1.6 times greater than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 978 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2004, the Snake River trap captured 23 hatchery and 18 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 60 coho salmon O. kisutch of unknown rearing. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. Trap operations began on March 7 and were terminated on June 4. The trap was out of operation for a total of zero days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 10.8% less and wild Chinook salmon catch was 19.0% less than in 2003. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2004 was 20.0% less and wild steelhead trout collection was 22.3% less than the previous year. Trap operations began on March 7 and were terminated on May 28 due to high flows. There were two days when the trap was taken out of service because wild Chinook catch was very low, hatchery Chinook catch was very high, and the weekly quota of PIT tagged hatchery Chinook had been met. Travel time (d) and migration rate (km

  13. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka during the 2002 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. In 2002 fish management agencies released significant numbers of hatchery Chinook salmon and steelhead trout above Lower Granite Dam that were not marked with a fin clip or coded-wire tag. Generally, these fish were distinguishable from wild fish by the occurrence of fin erosion. Total annual hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 11.4 times greater in 2002 than in 2001. The wild Chinook catch was 15.5 times greater than the previous year. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 2.9 times greater than in 2001. Wild steelhead trout catch was 2.8 times greater than the previous year. The Snake River trap collected 3,996 age-0 Chinook salmon of unknown rearing. During 2002, the Snake River trap captured 69 hatchery and 235 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 114 hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with flow. The significant increase in catch in 2002 was due to a 3.1 fold increase in hatchery Chinook production and a more normal spring runoff. Trap operations began on March 10 and were terminated on June 7. The trap was out of operation for a total of four days due to mechanical failure or debris. Hatchery Chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 4.2 times greater and wild Chinook salmon catch was 2.4 times greater than in 2001. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 2002 was 81% of the 2001 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 2002 was 81% of the previous year's catch. Trap operations began on March 10 and were terminated on May 29 due to high flows. The trap was out of operation for four days due to high flow or debris. The increase

  14. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2009-02-18

    This project monitored the daily passage of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon O. nerka smolts during the 2005 spring out-migration at migrant tra