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Sample records for geological isolation research

  1. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the fields of earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high level waste (HLW) which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. Essentially every country that is generating electricity in nuclear power plants is faced with the problem of isolating the radioactive wastes that are produced. The general consensus is that this can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the rock repository. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. The 28th International Geologic Congress that was held July 9--19, 1989 in Washington, DC provided an opportunity for earth scientists to gather for detailed discussions on these problems. Workshop W3B on the subject, Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation -- A World Wide Review'' was organized by Paul A Witherspoon and Ghislain de Marsily and convened July 15--16, 1989 Reports from 19 countries have been gathered for this publication. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  2. CASP: Geological exploration and research

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.I.M.; Scott, R.A.

    1995-08-01

    The Cambridge Arctic Shelf Programme (CASP) is an independent, non-profit-making geological research organization based in the University of Cambridge. It originated in 1948 as Cambridge Spitsbergen Expeditions, and was incorporated as CASP in 1975. Initially, support came from companies with an interest in Svalbard and the Barents Shelf. Since then, CASP has greatly increased its scope, diversifying to new areas of research outside the Arctic and to new methods of data presentation. CASP now offers a unique programme of research, specialising in field- and literature-based studies of remote areas. Projects are currently being undertaken in the Arctic, Russia, China, East Greenland and Eastern Europe; all projects involve fieldwork and ail involve collaboration with research groups in other institutions. Most projects are oriented towards sedimentology, stratigraphy, tectonics, basin analysis and regional geology. CASP has a unique status: it shares elements in common with universities (undertaking long-term research programmes for eventual publication), consultancies (carrying out applied projects oriented towards hydrocarbon exploration and production) and national surveys (compiling and managing large datasets). Individual projects are funded by annual subscription from interested companies, with research material being supplied on a non-exclusive basis. Input and feedback from subscribers is welcomed, and an annual consortium meeting is organised for each project. As a non-profit-making Organization with low overheads, all additional income raised for a project is used to develop the research programme. CASP projects are supported by an outstanding library/information centre and linguistic expertise (Russian and Chinese), and these facilities are available to subscribing companies.

  3. Geologic research at The Geysers

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.; Moore, J.N.; Nielson, D.L.

    1996-04-10

    Geologic research at The Geysers vapor-dominated geothermal field during the past year has yielded new information on the nature of steam-reservoir porosity and permeability; the origin of the caprock; mechanisms of lateral sealing; the evolution of The Geysers hydrothermal system; and specific reservoir controls in and immediately above {open_quotes}the felsite{close_quotes}, an hypabyssal, batholith-sized pluton largely responsible for The Geysers` existence. Our research has shown that (1) fluid conduits above the felsite may be dominantly vuggy, high-angle hydrothermal veins; (2) latest-stage hydrothermal calcite in such veins may seal them at the margins of the steam reservoir; mixed-layer clays are probably the corresponding seals in the caprock; (3) steam entries in the felsite are concentrated along the top of the youngest intrusive phase in the pluton - a 1 m.y.-old granodiorite; (4) steam entries in the felsite show a negative correlation with massive borosilicate enrichments.

  4. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - second worldwide review

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    The first world wide review of the geological problems in radioactive waste isolation was published by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1991. This review was a compilation of reports that had been submitted to a workshop held in conjunction with the 28th International Geological Congress that took place July 9-19, 1989 in Washington, D.C. Reports from 15 countries were presented at the workshop and four countries provided reports after the workshop, so that material from 19 different countries was included in the first review. It was apparent from the widespread interest in this first review that the problem of providing a permanent and reliable method of isolating radioactive waste from the biosphere is a topic of great concern among the more advanced, as well as the developing, nations of the world. This is especially the case in connection with high-level waste (HLW) after its removal from nuclear power plants. The general concensus is that an adequate isolation can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the underground system with its engineered barriers. This document contains the Second Worldwide Review of Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation, dated September 1996.

  5. Geological Survey Research 1966, Chapter A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1966-01-01

    'Geological Survey Research 1966' is the seventh annual review of the econamic and scientific work of the U.S. Geological Survey. As in previous years the purpose of the volume is to make available promptly to the public the highlights of Survey investigations. This year the volume consists of 4 chapters (A through D) of Professional Paper 550. Chapter A contains a summary of significant results, and the remaining chapters are made up of collections of short technical papers. Many of the results summarized in chapter A are discussed in greater detail in the short papers or in reports listed in 'Publications in Fiscal Year 1966,' beginning on page A265. The tables of contents for chapters B through D are listed on pages A259-A264. Numerous Federal, State, county, and municipal agencies listed on pages A211-A215 cooperated financially with the Geological Survey during fiscal 1966 and have contributed significantly to the results reported here. They are identified where appropriate in the short technical papers that have appeared in Geological Survey Research and in papers published cooperatively, but generally are not identified in the brief statements in chapter A. Many individuals on the staff of the Geological Survey have contributed to 'Geological Survey Research 1966.' Reference is made to only a few. Frank W. Trainer, Water Resources Division, was responsible for organizing and assembling chapter A and for critical review of papers in chapters B-D, assisted by Louis Pavlides, Geologic Division. Marston S. Chase, Publications Division, was in charge of production aspects of the series, assisted by Jesse R. Upperco in technical editing, and William H. Elliott and James R. Hamilton in planning and preparing illustrations. The volume for next year, 'Geological Survey Research 1967,' will be published as chapters af Professional Paper 5715. Previous volumes are listed below, with their series designations. Gealagical Survey Research 1960-Prof. Paper 400 Gealagical

  6. Geological challenges in radioactive waste isolation: Third worldwide review

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon Editor, P.A.; Bodvarsson Editor, G.S.

    2001-12-01

    The broad range of activities on radioactive waste isolation that are summarized in Table 1.1 provides a comprehensive picture of the operations that must be carried out in working with this problem. A comparison of these activities with those published in the two previous reviews shows the important progress that is being made in developing and applying the various technologies that have evolved over the past 20 years. There are two basic challenges in perfecting a system of radioactive waste isolation: choosing an appropriate geologic barrier and designing an effective engineered barrier. One of the most important developments that is evident in a large number of the reports in this review is the recognition that a URL provides an excellent facility for investigating and characterizing a rock mass. Moreover, a URL, once developed, provides a convenient facility for two or more countries to conduct joint investigations. This review describes a number of cooperative projects that have been organized in Europe to take advantage of this kind of a facility in conducting research underground. Another critical development is the design of the waste canister (and its accessory equipment) for the engineered barrier. This design problem has been given considerable attention in a number of countries for several years, and some impressive results are described and illustrated in this review. The role of the public as a stakeholder in radioactive waste isolation has not always been fully appreciated. Solutions to the technical problems in characterizing a specific site have generally been obtained without difficulty, but procedures in the past in some countries did not always keep the public and local officials informed of the results. It will be noted in the following chapters that this procedure has caused some problems, especially when approval for a major component in a project was needed. It has been learned that a better way to handle this problem is to keep all

  7. Recovery Act: Geologic Sequestration Training and Research

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Peter; Esposito, Richard; Theodorou, Konstantinos; Hannon, Michael; Lamplugh, Aaron; Ellison, Kirk

    2013-06-30

    Work under the project entitled "Geologic Sequestration Training and Research," was performed by the University of Alabama at Birmingham and Southern Company from December 1, 2009, to June 30, 2013. The emphasis was on training of students and faculty through research on topics central to further development, demonstration, and commercialization of carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS). The project had the following components: (1) establishment of a laboratory for measurement of rock properties, (2) evaluation of the sealing capacity of caprocks, (3) evaluation of porosity, permeability, and storage capacity of reservoirs, (4) simulation of CO{sub 2} migration and trapping in storage reservoirs and seepage through seal layers, (5) education and training of students through independent research on rock properties and reservoir simulation, and (6) development of an advanced undergraduate/graduate level course on coal combustion and gasification, climate change, and carbon sequestration. Four graduate students and one undergraduate student participated in the project. Two were awarded Ph.D. degrees for their work, the first in December 2010 and the second in August 2013. A third graduate student has proposed research on an advanced technique for measurement of porosity and permeability, and has been admitted to candidacy for the Ph.D. The fourth graduate student is preparing his proposal for research on CCUS and solid waste management. The undergraduate student performed experimental measurements on caprock and reservoir rock samples and received his B.S.M.E. degree in May 2012. The "Caprock Integrity Laboratory," established with support from the present project, is fully functional and equipped for measurement of porosity, permeability, minimum capillary displacement pressure, and effective permeability to gas in the presence of wetting phases. Measurements are made at ambient temperature and under reservoir conditions, including supercritical CO{sub 2

  8. Geological research for public outreach and education in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Guobyte, Rimante

    2013-04-01

    Successful IYPE activities and implementation of Geoheritage day in Lithuania increased public awareness in geology. A series of projects introducing geology to the general public and youth, supported by EU funds and local communities, were initiated. Researchers from the scientific and applied geology institutions of Lithuania participated in these projects and provided with the geological data. In one case, the Lithuanian Survey of Protected Areas supported the installation of a series of geological exhibitions in several regional and national parks. An animation demonstrating glacial processes was chosen for most of these because the Lithuanian surface is largely covered with sedimentary deposits of the Nemunas (Weichselian) glaciation. Researchers from the Lithuanian Geological Survey used the mapping results to demonstrate real glacial processes for every chosen area. In another case, 3D models showing underground structures of different localities were based on detailed geological maps and profiles obtained for that area. In case of the Sartai regional park, the results of previous geological research projects provided the possibility to create a movie depicting the ca. 2 Ga geological evolution of the region. The movie starts with the accretion of volcanic island arcs on the earlier continental margin at ca. 2 Ga and deciphers later Precambrian tectonic and magmatic events. The reconstruction is based on numerous scientific articles and interpretation of geophysical data. Later Paleozoic activities and following erosion sculptured the surface which was covered with several ice sheets in Quaternary. For educational purpose, a collection of minerals and rocks at the Forestry Institute was used to create an exhibition called "Cycle of geological processes". Forestry scientists and their students are able to study the interactions of geodiversity and biodiversity and to understand ancient and modern geological processes leading to a soil formation. An aging

  9. U.S. Geological Survey coastal and marine geology research; recent highlights and achievements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Barnes, Peter W.; Prager, Ellen J.

    2000-01-01

    The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program has large-scale national and regional research projects that focus on environmental quality, geologic hazards, natural resources, and information transfer. This Circular highlights recent scientific findings of the program, which play a vital role in the USGS endeavor to understand human interactions with the natural environment and to determine how the fundamental geologic processes controlling the Earth work. The scientific knowledge acquired through USGS research and monitoring is critically needed by planners, government agencies, and the public. Effective communication of the results of this research will enable the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program to play an integral part in assisting the Nation in responding the pressing Earth science challenges of the 21st century.

  10. A DEPTH OPTIMIZATION STUDY FOR GEOLOGIC ISOLATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Thadani, M.

    1980-02-01

    Current Federal plans for the isolation of high-level radioactive wastes and spent fuel include the possible placement of these wastes in deep geologic repositories. It is generally assumed that increasing the emplacement depth increases safety because the wastes are farther removed from the phenomena that might compromise the integrity of their isolation. Also, the path length for the migration of radionuclides to the biosphere increases with depth, thus delaying their arrival. However, increasing the depth of emplacement adds cost and operatiunal penalties. Therefore, a trade-off between the safety and the cost of waste isolation exists. A simple algorithm has been developed to relate the repository construction and operation costs, the costs associated with construction and operational hazards, and the costs resulting from radiological exposures to future generations to the depth of emplacement: The application of the algorithm is illustrated by SdDlP 1 e ca leul at ions u t il i zing se 1 ec ted parameters. The cost-optimum emplacement depths are estimated by summing the cost elements and determining the depth at which the sum would be the least. The relationship between the repository construction costs and the depth of the depository was derived from simplified rock mechanics and stability considerations applied to repository design concepts selected from the current literature and the available data base on mining and excavation costs. In developing the relationship between the repository costs and the depth of the depository, a worldwide cost information data base was used. The relationships developed are suitable for application to bedded sa1t, shale, and basalt geologies. The incremental impacts of hazards as a function of repository depth resulting from drilling, construction of repositories and hoisting systems, and operation of repositories were developed from the reported data on accidents involving shafts and mine construction activities and shaft

  11. Research in Geology at Undergraduate Institutions. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertzman, Stanley A., Ed.; Wobus, Reinhard A., Ed.

    This is a directory devoted to undergraduate research in geology at private and public colleges and universities of the United States. It has been compiled from the responses to a questionnaire sent in late 1987 to the geology or earth science departments of 375 institutions. These departments were selected on the basis of the following criteria:…

  12. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - A world wide review

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1991-06-01

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high-level waste (HLW), which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. The most widely accepted method of doing this is to seal the radioactive materials in metal canisters that are enclosed by a protective sheath and placed underground in a repository that has been carefully constructed in an appropriate rock formation. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised, and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. Table 1 presents a summary of the various formations under investigation according to the reports submitted for this world wide review. It can be seen that in those countries that are searching for repository sites, granitic and metamorphic rocks are the prevalent rock type under investigation. Six countries have developed underground research facilities that are currently in use. All of these investigations are in saturated systems below the water table, except the United States project, which is in the unsaturated zone of a fractured tuff.

  13. Deep geologic disposal of mixed waste in bedded salt: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, N.T.

    1993-12-01

    Mixed waste (i.e., waste that contains both chemically hazardous and radioactive components) poses a moral, political, and technical challenge to present and future generations. But an international consensus is emerging that harmful byproducts and residues can be permanently isolated from the biosphere in a safe and environmentally responsible manner by deep geologic disposal. To investigate and demonstrate such disposal for transuranic mixed waste, derived from defense-related activities, the US Department of Energy has prepared the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. This research and development facility was excavated approximately at the center of a 600 m thick sequence of salt (halite) beds, 655 m below the surface. Proof of the long-term tectonic and hydrological stability of the region is supplied by the fact that these salt beds have remained essentially undisturbed since they were deposited during the Late Permian age, approximately 225 million years ago. Plutonium-239, the main radioactive component of transuranic mixed waste, has a half-life of 24,500 years. Even ten half-lives of this isotope - amounting to about a quarter million years, the time during which its activity will decline to background level represent only 0.11 percent of the history of the repository medium. Therefore, deep geologic disposal of transuranic mixed waste in Permian bedded salt appears eminently feasible.

  14. Directory of research projects, 1991. Planetary geology and geophysics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, Ted A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Information is provided about currently funded scientific research within the Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program. The directory consists of the proposal summary sheet from each proposal funded by the program during fiscal year 1991. Information is provided on the research topic, principal investigator, institution, summary of research objectives, past accomplishments, and proposed investigators.

  15. Directory of research projects: Planetary geology and geophysics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Henry (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Information about currently funded scientific research within the Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program is provided, including the proposal summary sheet from each proposal funded under the program during fiscal year 1990. Information about the research project, including title, principal investigator, institution, summary of research objectives, past accomplishments, and proposed new investigations is also provided.

  16. Institutionalizing Undergraduate Research for Geology Majors through Creative Inquiry Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, John R.; Bixler, Robert D.; Carraway, Elizabeth R.; Moysey, Stephen M.; Murdoch, Lawrence R.; Schlautman, Mark R.; Warner, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    The geology program at Clemson University has instituted a new, six-semester-long undergraduate research course sequence that requires student participation in ongoing departmental research projects from their sophomore through senior years. As a part of a university-wide initiative focusing on undergraduate research, termed Creative Inquiry at…

  17. Directory of research projects: Planetary geology and geophysics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Henry (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Information about currently funded scientific research within the Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program is provided. The directory consists of the proposal summary sheet from each proposal funded under the program during Fiscal Year 1992. The sheets provide information about the research project, including title, principal investigator, institution, summary of research objectives, past accomplishments, and proposed new investigations.

  18. Geology

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Stephen P.

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms in the context of the region’s geologic history. This chapter is based on the information in the geology data package for the SST waste management areas and SST RFI Appendix E, which builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  19. Exploring the assessment of geological observation with design research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, John Y.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the assessment of geological observation through the development and field testing of performance tasks. The study addressed a central challenge in geoscience education: for students to observe the world around them and make real-world connections. Yet, there existed no cohesive research approach for the study of observation in geoscience education. The research goal was to understand the assessment of geological observation. The design research of geological observation encountered the situation where few performance assessments existed and few domain-specific learning theories were available. Design research is suited to inquiries in which a domain of learning is unexplored and the phenomena needs to be supported in the classroom in order to study it. This dissertation addressed one general research question and four subquestions: (RQ) How should geological observation be assessed? (S1) What role did perception play in assessing students' geological observations? (S2) What role did explanation play in assessing students' geological observations? (S3) What role did gestures play in assessing students' geological observations? (S4) Were there performance differences between the first and second trial of the GO Inquire prototype with fourth graders? Students were supported in making geological observations with three performance tasks: GO Inquire stamp task, Cutting task, and Fieldguide task. The data set for this study consisted of student response data, videorecordings, and participant observations from seven field tests across one fourth and one fifth grade class. Three data-analytic methods, qualitative coding, item-difficulty analysis, and non-parametric comparisons, were utilized based on four mixed-method data analysis strategies: typology development, data transformation, extreme case analysis, and data consolidation. Analysis revealed that assessment should take into account the separation of visual from verbal

  20. Teachers doing science: An authentic geology research experience for teachers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemler, D.; Repine, T.

    2006-01-01

    Fairmont State University (FSU) and the West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey (WVGES) provided a small pilot group of West Virginia science teachers with a professional development session designed to mimic experiences obtained by geology majors during a typical summer field camp. Called GEOTECH, the program served as a research capstone event complimenting the participants' multi-year association with the RockCamp professional development program. GEOTECH was funded through a Improving Teacher Quality Grant administered by West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission. Over the course of three weeks, eight GEOTEACH participants learned field measurement and field data collection techniques which they then applied to the construction of a surficial geologic map. The program exposed participants to authentic scientific processes by emphasizing the authentic scientific application of content knowledge. As a secondary product, it also enhanced their appreciation of the true nature of science in general and geology particular. After the session, a new appreciation of the effort involved in making a geologic map emerged as tacit knowledge ready to be transferred to their students. The program was assessed using pre/post instruments, cup interviews, journals, artifacts (including geologic maps, field books, and described sections), performance assessments, and constructed response items. Evaluation of the accumulated data revealed an increase in participants demonstrated use of science content knowledge, an enhanced awareness and understanding of the processes and nature of geologic mapping, positive dispositions toward geologic research and a high satisfaction rating for the program. These findings support the efficacy of the experience and document future programmatic enhancements.

  1. Geologic research at the Geysers -- 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.

    1997-12-31

    In response to the onset of field-wide pressure declines at The Geysers geothermal field in northern California the Department of Energy`s Geothermal Division in 1990 inaugurated sponsorship of a dedicated, multiyear research effort designed to mitigate the pressure drop and to allow steamfield operators to make more informed forecasts of steam supply and quality well into the 21st century. EGI and its predecessor, the University of Utah Research Institute, have from the onset been key participants in this important research effort. For example, utilizing fluid-inclusion and stable-isotopic methods, deciphered the field`s intricate magmatic-hydrothermal history. Hulen et al. (1991, 1992) and Hulen and Nielson (1995a) identified major textural and mineralogic differences between the productive steam reservoir and its relatively impermeable caprock.

  2. HYDRAULIC RESEARCH - U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Verne R.; ,

    1984-01-01

    Research at the Gulf Coast Hydroscience Center near Bay St. Louis, Mississippi, is being conducted in an indoor laboratory, and an outdoor laboratory. Much of the current indoor lab research is directed at improved methods of measuring flow. A towing tank and submerged jet tank are used for calibrating velocity meters. The outdoor laboratory consists of a flood-plain simulation facility. Much emphasis has been placed on applying results to the development of numerical simulation models. Laboratory data are used to develop and validate the models. These models are also validated with actual field data. Various algorithms for one- and two-dimensional flow and transport models based on finite difference and finite element schemes are being developed.

  3. Geologic research in support of sustainable agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, L.P.; Herring, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The importance and role of the geosciences in studies of sustainable agriculture include such traditional research areas as, agromineral resource assessments, the mapping and classification of soils and soil amendments, and the evaluation of landscapes for their vulnerability to physical and chemical degradation. Less traditional areas of study, that are increasing in societal importance because of environmental concerns and research into sustainable systems in general, include regional geochemical studies of plant and animal trace element deficiencies and toxicities, broad-scale water quality investigations, agricultural chemicals and the hydrogeologic interface, and minimally processed and ion-exchange agrominerals. We discuss the importance and future of phosphate in the US and world based on human population growth, projected agromineral demands in general, and the unavailability of new, high-quality agricultural lands. We also present examples of studies that relate geochemistry and the hydrogeologic characteristics of a region to the bioavailability and cycling of trace elements important to sustainable agricultural systems. ?? 1993.

  4. Geologic mapping of the air intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, R.M.; Powers, D.W. )

    1990-12-01

    The air intake shaft (AS) was geologically mapped from the surface to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon. The entire shaft section including the Mescalero Caliche, Gatuna Formation, Santa Rosa Formation, Dewey Lake Redbeds, Rustler Formation, and Salado Formation was geologically described. The air intake shaft (AS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was constructed to provide a pathway for fresh air into the underground repository and maintain the desired pressure balances for proper underground ventilation. It was up-reamed to minimize construction-related damage to the wall rock. The upper portion of the shaft was lined with slip-formed concrete, while the lower part of the shaft, from approximately 903 ft below top of concrete at the surface, was unlined. As part of WIPP site characterization activities, the AS was geologically mapped. The shaft construction method, up-reaming, created a nearly ideal surface for geologic description. Small-scale textures usually best seen on slabbed core were easily distinguished on the shaft wall, while larger scale textures not generally revealed in core were well displayed. During the mapping, newly recognized textures were interpreted in order to refine depositional and post-depositional models of the units mapped. The objectives of the geologic mapping were to: (1) provide confirmation and documentation of strata overlying the WIPP facility horizon; (2) provide detailed information of the geologic conditions in strata critical to repository sealing and operations; (3) provide technical basis for field adjustments and modification of key and aquifer seal design, based upon the observed geology; (4) provide geological data for the selection of instrument borehole locations; (5) and characterize the geology at geomechanical instrument locations to assist in data interpretation. 40 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Geological hazards programs and research in the U. S. A

    SciTech Connect

    Filson, J.R. )

    1988-01-01

    Geological hazards have been studied for centuries, but government support of research to lessen their effects is relatively new. This article briefly describes government programs and research underway in the U.S.A. that are directed towards reducing losses of life and property from earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and landslides. The National Earthquake program is described, including four basic research areas: plate tectonics; estimation of the earthquakes; and effects and hazards assessment. The Volcano Studies Program has three areas of research: fundamentals of volcanoes; hazards assessments; and volcano monitoring. Three research areas are included in landslide studies: land slide processes; prediction; inventory and susceptibility studies.

  6. Cooperative research in terrestrial planetary geology and geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This final report for the period of July 1991 to August 1994 covered a variety of topics concerning the study of Earth and Mars. The Earth studies stressed the interpretation of the MAGSAT crustal magnetic anomalies in order to determine the geological structure, mineralogical composition, magnetic nature, and the historical background of submarine features, and also featured work in the area of terrestrial remote sensing. Mars research included the early evolution of the Martian atmosphere and hydrosphere and the investigations of the large Martian impact basins. Detailed summaries of the research is included, along with lists of the publications resulting from this research.

  7. Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. K.; Sabins, F. F., Jr.; Rowan, L. C.; Short, N. M.

    1975-01-01

    Papers from private industry reporting applications of remote sensing to oil and gas exploration were presented. Digitally processed LANDSAT images were successfully employed in several geologic interpretations. A growing interest in digital image processing among the geologic user community was shown. The papers covered a wide geographic range and a wide technical and application range. Topics included: (1) oil and gas exploration, by use of radar and multisensor studies as well as by use of LANDSAT imagery or LANDSAT digital data, (2) mineral exploration, by mapping from LANDSAT and Skylab imagery and by LANDSAT digital processing, (3) geothermal energy studies with Skylab imagery, (4) environmental and engineering geology, by use of radar or LANDSAT and Skylab imagery, (5) regional mapping and interpretation, and digital and spectral methods.

  8. U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY MARINE-MINERALS RESEARCH.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1984-01-01

    Summary form only given. The US Exclusive Economic Zone is an area approximately one and two-thirds the size of the land area of the United States. In this frontier area, US Geological Survey (USGS) research in marine minerals is aimed at three objectives: (1) defining geologic settings of potential mineral resources; (2) understanding the processes by which seafloor nonliving resources form; and (3) estimating the resource potential. Potential resources of primary interest are cobalt-rich manganese seafloor crusts, polymetallic sulfides in hydrothermal vent areas on the seafloor, and heavy-mineral placer deposits. Research activities include studies of manganese-crust samples from oceanographic-institution archives and a USGS research cruise through the central and southern Pacific. Preliminary results confirm that cobalt is concentrated by as much as 2. 5% in the manganese crusts at water depths of 1000-2600 m; further research on the precipitation processes and patterns of crust formation will be needed to understand the origin, occurrence patterns, and resource potential of these crusts. Research cruises have revealed a zone of polymetallic sulfide vent deposits a few hundred meters long in the Juan de Fuca spreading center.

  9. Current research in geological applications of remote sensing techniques and implications for petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Settle, M.; Taranik, J.V.

    1983-03-01

    Exploration geologists have made extensive use of aerial photography and orbital Landsat imagery, primarily for purposes of structural mapping. The Landsat 4 spacecraft launched in July 1982 is carrying a new imaging instrument called the Thematic Mapper which represents a significant advance over earlier Landsat sensors. Experimental studies with airborne Thematic Mapper simulators tentatively indicate that these measurement capabilities will have a major payoff in terms of our ability to detect variations in clay mineralogy and abundance, to map bleaching effects in surficial rocks and soils that may be produced by hydrocarbon seepage, and to detect variations in the distribution and vigor of natural vegetation that are also related to seepage phenomena. The improved spatial resolution of the Thematic Mapper will enable photogeologists to identify smaller scale landforms and drainage features which will also contribute to improved structural mapping capabilities. Research is currently underway to determine the utility of Thematic Mapper measurements for geologic mapping in complex areas characterized by large relief and extensive vegetation. Radar imaging techniques also represent an important source of information concerning geological conditions at the earth's surface. Exploration geologists have made extensive use of airborne radar surveys for terrain analysis and structural mapping, particularly in tropical environments. Orbital radar techniques may provide an important new tool for mapping facies variations within sedimentary basins.

  10. The Geologic and Hydrogeologic Setting of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, P.N.; Corbet, T.F.

    1999-03-04

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a mined repository constructed by the US Department of Energy for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes generated since 1970 by activities related to national defense. The WIPP is located 42 km east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, in bedded salt (primarily halite) of the Late Permian (approximately 255 million years old) Salado Formation 655 m below the land surface. Characterization of the site began in the mid-1970s. Construction of the underground disposal facilities began in the early 1980s, and the facility received final certification from the US Environmental Protection Agency in May 1998. Disposal operations are planned to begin following receipt of a final permit from the State of New Mexico and resolution of legal issues. Like other proposed geologic repositories for radioactive waste, the WIPP relies on a combination of engineered and natural barriers to isolate the waste from the biosphere. Engineered barriers at the WIPP, including the seals that will be emplaced in the access shafts when the facility is decommissioned, are discussed in the context of facility design elsewhere in this volume. Physical properties of the natural barriers that contribute to the isolation of radionuclides are discussed here in the context of the physiographic, geologic, and hydrogeologic setting of the site.

  11. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic factors in the isolation of nuclear waste: evaluation of long-term geomorphic processes and catastrophic events

    SciTech Connect

    Mara, S.J.

    1980-03-01

    SRI International has projected the rate, duration, and magnitude of geomorphic processes and events in the Southwest and Gulf Coast over the next million years. This information will be used by the Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as input to a computer model, which will be used to simulate possible release scenarios and the consequences of the release of nuclear waste from geologic containment. The estimates in this report, although based on best scientific judgment, are subject to considerable uncertainty. An evaluation of the Quaternary history of the two study areas revealed that each had undergone geomorphic change in the last one million years. Catastrophic events were evaluated in order to determine their significance to the simulation model. Given available data, catastrophic floods are not expected to occur in the two study areas. Catastrophic landslides may occur in the Southwest, but because the duration of the event is brief and the amount of material moved is small in comparison to regional denudation, such events need not be included in the simulation model. Ashfalls, however, could result in removal of vegetation from the landscape, thereby causing significant increases in erosion rates. Because the estimates developed during this study may not be applicable to specific sites, general equations were presented as a first step in refining the analysis. These equations identify the general relationships among the important variables and suggest those areas of concern for which further data are required. If the current model indicates that geomorphic processes (taken together with other geologic changes) may ultimately affect the geologic containment of nuclear waste, further research may be necessary to refine this analysis for application to specific sites.

  12. Evidence for isolated evolution of deep-sea ciliate communities through geological separation and environmental selection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Deep hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs) are isolated habitats at the bottom of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, which originate from the ancient dissolution of Messinian evaporites. The different basins have recruited their original biota from the same source, but their geological evolution eventually constituted sharp environmental barriers, restricting genetic exchange between the individual basins. Therefore, DHABs are unique model systems to assess the effect of geological events and environmental conditions on the evolution and diversification of protistan plankton. Here, we examine evidence for isolated evolution of unicellular eukaryote protistan plankton communities driven by geological separation and environmental selection. We specifically focused on ciliated protists as a major component of protistan DHAB plankton by pyrosequencing the hypervariable V4 fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA. Geospatial distributions and responses of marine ciliates to differential hydrochemistries suggest strong physical and chemical barriers to dispersal that influence the evolution of this plankton group. Results Ciliate communities in the brines of four investigated DHABs are distinctively different from ciliate communities in the interfaces (haloclines) immediately above the brines. While the interface ciliate communities from different sites are relatively similar to each other, the brine ciliate communities are significantly different between sites. We found no distance-decay relationship, and canonical correspondence analyses identified oxygen and sodium as most important hydrochemical parameters explaining the partitioning of diversity between interface and brine ciliate communities. However, none of the analyzed hydrochemical parameters explained the significant differences between brine ciliate communities in different basins. Conclusions Our data indicate a frequent genetic exchange in the deep-sea water above the brines. The “isolated island

  13. Geologic isolation of nuclear waste at high latitudes: the role of ice sheets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, M.; McIntosh, J.; Iverson, N.; Neuzil, C.E.; Bense, V.

    2012-01-01

    Geologic isolation of high-level nuclear waste from the biosphere requires special consideration in countries at high latitudes (>40°N) owing to the possibility of future episodes of continental glaciation (Talbot 1999). It is now widely recognized that Pleistocene continental glaciations have had a profound effect on rates of sediment erosion (Cuffey & Paterson 2010) and deformation including tectonic thrusting (Pedersen 2005) as well as groundwater flow (Person et al. 2007; Lemieux et al. 2008a,b,c). In addition, glacial mechanical loads may have generated anomalous, or fossil, pore pressures within certain clay-rich confining units (e.g. Vinard et al. 2001). Because high-level nuclear wastes must be isolated from the biosphere as long as 1 million years (McMurry et al. 2003), the likelihood of one or more continental ice sheets overrunning high-latitude sites must be considered.

  14. Module voltage isolation and corrosion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mon, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of recent research at JPL on two topics related to achieving long term reliability of photovoltaic modules: voltage isolation and electrochemical corrosion is presented. Special emphasis is given to similarities and differences in performance between crystalline silicon modules and amorphous silicon modules.

  15. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. CIRMIS data system. Volume 3. Generator routines

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrichs, D.R.; Argo, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. The various input parameters required in the analysis are compiled in data systems. The data are organized and prepared by various input subroutines for utilization by the hydraulic and transport codes. The hydrologic models simulate the groundwater flow systems and provide water flow directions, rates, and velocities as inputs to the transport models. Outputs from the transport models are basically graphs of radionuclide concentration in the groundwater plotted against time. After dilution in the receiving surface-water body (e.g., lake, river, bay), these data are the input source terms for the dose models, if dose assessments are required. The dose models calculate radiation dose to individuals and populations. CIRMIS (Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence) Data System, a storage and retrieval system for model input and output data, including graphical interpretation and display is described. This is the third of four volumes of the description of the CIRMIS Data System.

  16. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. CIRMIS data system. Volume 1. Initialization, operation, and documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrichs, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. The various input parameters required in the analysis are compiled in data systems. The data are organized and prepared by various input subroutines for use by the hydrologic and transport codes. The hydrologic models simulate the groundwater flow systems and provide water flow directions, rates, and velocities as inputs to the transport models. Outputs from the transport models are basically graphs of radionuclide concentration in the groundwater plotted against time. After dilution in the receiving surface-water body (e.g., lake, river, bay), these data are the input source terms for the dose models, if dose assessments are required. The dose models calculate radiation dose to individuals and populations. CIRMIS (Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence) Data System, a storage and retrieval system for model input and output data, including graphical interpretation and display is described. This is the first of four volumes of the description of the CIRMIS Data System.

  17. The NASA Langley Isolator Dynamics Research Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Troy F.; Balla, Robert J.; Baurle, Robert A.; Humphreys, William M.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    2010-01-01

    The Isolator Dynamics Research Lab (IDRL) is under construction at the NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. A unique test apparatus is being fabricated to support both wall and in-stream measurements for investigating the internal flow of a dual-mode scramjet isolator model. The test section is 24 inches long with a 1-inch by 2-inch cross sectional area and is supplied with unheated, dry air through a Mach 2.5 converging-diverging nozzle. The test section is being fabricated with two sets (glass and metallic) of interchangeable sidewalls to support flow visualization and laser-based measurement techniques as well as static pressure, wall temperature, and high frequency pressure measurements. During 2010, a CFD code validation experiment will be conducted in the lab in support of NASA s Fundamental Aerodynamics Program. This paper describes the mechanical design of the Isolator Dynamics Research Lab test apparatus and presents a summary of the measurement techniques planned for investigating the internal flow field of a scramjet isolator model.

  18. Short papers in geology, hydrology, and topography; Articles 1-59: Geological Survey Research 1962

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1962-01-01

    This collection of 59 short papers on subjects in the fields of geology, hydrology, topography, and related sciences is one of a, series to be relea~ed during the year as chapters of Professional Paper 450. The papers in this chapter report on the scientific and economic· results of current work by members of the Geologic, Topographic, and 'Vater Resources Division of the United States Geological Survey. Some of the pa.pers annom1ce new discoveries or present observations on problems of limited scope; other papers draw conclusions from more extensive or continuing investigations that in large part will be discussed in greater detail in reports to be published in the future.

  19. On the isolation of halophilic microorganisms from salt deposits of great geological age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stan-Lotter, Helga; Denner, Ewald

    1993-01-01

    From salt sediments of Triassic or Permian age from various locations in the world halophilic microorganisms were isolated. Molecular characteristics of several of the isolates suggested they belong to the archaebacteria. One group appears to represent novel strains; several properties of one such isolate, strain BIp, are described here. The existence of viable microorganisms in ancient sediment would have great implications with respect to our notions on evolution, the research for life in extraterrestrial environments, and the longterm survival of functional biological structures. Of crucial importance is thus the question if these microorganisms existed in the salt since the time of deposition or invaded at some later date. Some suggestions to address these issues experimentally are discussed.

  20. ERTS-A data as a teaching and research tool in the Department of Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grybeck, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 prints have been used extensively in a geology of Alaska class to give a basic framework of the geology of the state. In addition, they have been intermittantly used in such diverse classes as: (1) Economic Geology (e.g. the Sn-bearing granites of the Seward Peninsula are particularly noticeable due to their wide contact metamorphic aureoles.) (2) A canned geology of Alaska lecture which has been given to two different introductory geology courses. (3) Structural Geology (e.g. the Fairweather and Denali faults are striking obvious). It was found most convenient for larger classes to prepare 35mm slides of the ERTS-1 prints that are used in conjunction with slides of the topographic and geologic maps at about the same scale. Thus the emphasis has been in integration of the ERTS-1 material into existing courses. As such, the ERTS-1 data has provided a unique and striking viewpoint that never fails to initiate favorable comment. In addition, prints have been examined by numerous researchers to develop a regional, integrated overview of such varied topics as regional geology to a background for local geologic mapping to studies of ore deposits and to the definition of a formation to be studied in detail at its type locality.

  1. Applications of Landsat imagery to geological research in Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiblen, P. W.; Morey, G. B.; Walton, M. S.

    1975-01-01

    A large part of northeastern Minnesota north of Lake Superior was studied using Landsat images. The area is being studied for its intercontinental rift and for large, low grade, copper-nickel deposits. By using Landsat imagery in conjunction with field data, it is possible to develop a much higher level of continuity and structural resolution in interpretations of the bedrock geology. Preliminary results indicate that it is possible to distinguish various surficial morphological features such as the Vermilion and Highland moraines, the Toimi drumlin field, and an unnamed drumlin field apparently associated with the Highland moraine.

  2. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Bradley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  3. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Raymond, J. R.; Brandley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K.; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  4. Stability of multilayer earthen barriers used to isolate mill tailings: geologic and geotechnological considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, J.T.

    1981-08-01

    This report briefly discusses how seismic activity, erosion, climatic change, slope stability, differential settlement, and cover design could affect the long-term integrity of multilayer earthen cover systems. In addition, the report suggests ways to design and construct covers so that adverse impacts can be avoided or minimized. The stability of multilayer earthen barriers used to isolate uranium mill tailings depends on the morphology of the disposal site, the engineering of the barrier, the condition of the tailings, and the possible impacts of earthquakes, erosion, and climatic changes. When designing a cover for or siting a tailings pile, one must take into account both geologic and geotechnological variables. To alleviate the adverse effects of possible seismic activity, tailings piles should never be located on or near active or capable faults. Existing piles near faults should be moved to safer sites or engineered to withstand possible displacement and shaking. Liquefaction generally can be prevented if the tailings and their underlying material are compacted to a relative density of 60% or greater, or if they are kept dry. If the tailings are saturated, dewatering schemes may have to be used. Erosion may be caused by streams, glaciers, or wind, depending on the geomorphic and atmospheric conditions at the site. Fluvial erosion can be prevented by using dikes (and avoided by initially siting the pile a safe distance away from stream courses). In some cases, fluvial waters or rainfall may have to be rerouted over the pile via armored ditches. Eolian erosion can be minimized by vegetating the disposal site or covering it with gravel. Because of the wide geomorphic and geotechnological variations extant at most sites, a single cover design cannot be cost-effectively and efficiently used at all sites.

  5. Continuous Improvement and the Safety Case for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geologic Repository - 13467

    SciTech Connect

    Van Luik, Abraham; Patterson, Russell; Nelson, Roger; Leigh, Christi

    2013-07-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a geologic repository 2150 feet (650 m) below the surface of the Chihuahuan desert near Carlsbad, New Mexico. WIPP permanently disposes of transuranic waste from national defense programs. Every five years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) submits an application to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to request regulatory-compliance re-certification of the facility for another five years. Every ten years, DOE submits an application to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) for the renewal of its hazardous waste disposal permit. The content of the applications made by DOE to the EPA for re-certification, and to the NMED for permit-renewal, reflect any optimization changes made to the facility, with regulatory concurrence if warranted by the nature of the change. DOE points to such changes as evidence for its having taken seriously its 'continuous improvement' operations and management philosophy. Another opportunity for continuous improvement is to look at any delta that may exist between the re-certification and re-permitting cases for system safety and the consensus advice on the nature and content of a safety case as being developed and published by the Nuclear Energy Agency's Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC) expert group. DOE at WIPP, with the aid of its Science Advisor and teammate, Sandia National Laboratories, is in the process of discerning what can be done, in a reasonably paced and cost-conscious manner, to continually improve the case for repository safety that is being made to the two primary regulators on a recurring basis. This paper will discuss some aspects of that delta and potential paths forward to addressing them. (authors)

  6. Geothermal Research Program of the US Geological Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Duffield, W.A.; Guffanti, M.

    1981-01-01

    The beginning of the Geothermal Research Program, its organization, objectives, fiscal history, accomplishments, and present emphasis. The projects of the Geothermal Research Program are presented along with a list of references.

  7. Modeling the Long-Term Isolation Performance of Natural and Engineered Geologic CO2 Storage Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J W; Nitao, J J; Morris, J P

    2004-07-26

    Long-term cap rock integrity represents the single most important constraint on the long-term isolation performance of natural and engineered geologic CO{sub 2} storage sites. CO{sub 2} influx that forms natural accumulations and CO{sub 2} injection for EOR/sequestration or saline-aquifer disposal both lead to concomitant geochemical alteration and geomechanical deformation of the cap rock, enhancing or degrading its seal integrity depending on the relative effectiveness of these interdependent processes. This evolution of cap-rock permeability can be assessed through reactive transport modeling, an advanced computational method based on mathematical models of the coupled physical and chemical processes catalyzed by the influx event. Using our reactive transport simulator (NUFT), supporting geochemical databases and software (SUPCRT92), and distinct-element geomechanical model (LDEC), we have shown that influx-triggered mineral dissolution/precipitation reactions within typical shale cap rocks continuously reduce microfrac apertures, while pressure and effective-stress evolution first rapidly increase then slowly constrict them. For a given shale composition, the extent of geochemical enhancement is nearly independent of key reservoir properties (permeability and lateral continuity) that distinguish saline aquifer and EOR/sequestration settings and CO{sub 2} influx parameters (rate, focality, and duration) that distinguish engineered disposal sites and natural accumulations, because these characteristics and parameters have negligible impact on mineral reaction rates. In contrast, the extent of geomechanical degradation is highly dependent on these reservoir properties and influx parameters, because they effectively dictate magnitude of the pressure perturbation. Specifically, initial geomechanical degradation has been shown inversely proportional to reservoir permeability and lateral continuity and proportional to influx rate. As a result, while the extent of

  8. Forty Years of Research on Isolated Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulentic, J.

    2010-10-01

    Isolated galaxies have not been a hot topic over the past four decades. This is partly due to uncertainties about their existence. Are there galaxies isolated enough to be interesting? Do they exist in sufficient numbers to be statistically useful? Most attempts to compile isolated galaxy lists were marginally successful-too small number and not very isolated galaxies. If really isolated galaxies do exist then their value becomes obvious in a Universe where effects of interactions and environment (i.e. nurture) are important. They provide a means for better quantifying effects of nurture. The Catalog of Isolated Galaxies (CIG) compiled by Valentina Karachentseva appeared near the beginning of the review period. It becomes the focus of this review because of its obvious strengths and because the AMIGA project has increased its utility through a refinement (a vetted CIG). It contains almost 1000 galaxies with nearest neighbor crossing times of 1--3 Gyr. It is large enough to serve as a zero-point or control sample. The galaxies in the CIG (and the distribution of galaxy types) may be significantly different than those in even slightly richer environments. The AMIGA-CIG, and future iterations, may be able to tell us something about galaxy formation. It may also allow us to better define intrinsic (natural) correlations like e.g. Fisher-Tully and FIR-OPTICAL. Correlations can be better defined when the dispersion added by external stimuli (nurture) is minimized or removed.

  9. Research of Hydro-Geological Precursors of Earthquakes in Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashayan, R.

    2007-12-01

    The observations of hydro-geological regime of underground waters in observed boreholes began in Armenia in 1986. Now these work is concentrated in National Seismic Service. For a long time observations are carried out studying several parameters (debit, temperature, chemical and gas composition) in several deposits of carbon mineral waters of Armenia. The interpretation of materials shows that that a number of strong and medium-strength earthquakes are accompanied by anomal changes in the level of underground waters. Regarding mineral waters, in connection with earthquakes some parameters are immediately changed: debit, temperature, chemical and gas composition. The study of hydrogeodynamic characteristics of precursors specify that the quantity of registered hydrogeodynamic precursors decreases with the increase of epicentrical distance. The majority of precursors is registered at the distance of 200 km from epicenter. There is a tendency of gradual increase of time and amplitude of a precursor of an earthquake depending on the rise of magnitude and epicentral distance. The behaviour of hydrogeodynamic precursors depends on the angle between the faults, to which this or that borehole reaches; with increase of this angle the deformation in the zone of the fault during the preparation of earthquakes is stronger, than in terms of small angles. 1. S1 2. Earthquake processes, Precursors and Forecasts 3. Garni Geophysical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, 375019, Yerevan, Republic of Armenia, email: hakhleon@sci.am 4. O 5. 10808801 6. Artavazd Payment Type: select 'Purchase Order' PO Number: AGU WAIVER Billing Address: Enter Your Institution City: Enter Your City Country Code: Enter Your Country Name: Enter Your Name Phone: Enter Your Telephone Number

  10. Migration of radionuclides in geologic media: Fundamental research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.T. ); Zachara, J.M.; Wildung, R.E. ); Wobber, F.J. )

    1990-01-01

    An assessment of the fundamental research needs in understanding and predicting the migration of radionuclides in the subsurface is provided. Emphasis is on the following three technical areas: (1) aqueous speciation of radionuclides, (2) the interaction of radionuclides with substrates, and (3) intermediate-scale interaction studies. This research relates to important issues associated with environmental restoration and remediation of DOE sites contaminated with mixed radionuclide-organic wastes. 64 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Analysis on the use of engineered barriers for geologic isolation of spent fuel in a reference salt site repository

    SciTech Connect

    Cloninger, M.O.; Cole, C.R.; Washburn, J.F.

    1980-12-01

    A perspective on the potential durability and effectiveness requirements for the waste form, container and other engineered barriers for geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel has been developed. This perspective is based on calculated potential doses to individuals who may be exposed to radioactivity released from a repository via a groundwater transport pathway. These potential dose commitments were calculated with an integrated geosphere transport and bioshpere transport model. A sensitivity analysis was accomplished by varying four important system parameters, namely the waste radionuclide release rate from the repository, the delay prior to groundwater contact with the waste (leach initiation), aquifer flow velocity and flow path length. The nuclide retarding capacity of the geologic media, a major determinant of the isolation effectiveness, was not varied as a parameter but was held constant for a particular reference site. This analysis is limited to looking only at engineered barriers whose net effect is either to delay groundwater contact with the waste form or to limit the rate of release of radionuclides into the groundwater once contact has occurred. The analysis considers only leach incident scenarios, including a water well intrusion into the groundwater near a repository, but does not consider other human intrusion events or catastrophic events. The analysis has so far been applied to a reference salt site repository system and conclusions are presented.Basically, in nearly all cases, the regional geology is the most effective barrier to release of radionuclides to the biosphere; however, for long-lived isotopes of carbon, technetium and iodine, which were poorly sorbed on the geologic media, the geology is not very effective once a leach incident is initiated.

  12. A history of early geologic research in the Deep River Triassic Basin, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, T.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Deep River Triassic basin has one of the longest recorded histories of geologic research in North Carolina. A quick perusal of nineteenth century geologic literature in North Carolina reveals the Deep River basin has received a tremendous amount of attention, second only, perhaps, to the gold deposits of the Carolina slate belt. While these early researchers' primary interests were coal deposits, many other important discoveries, observations, and hypotheses resulted from their investigations. This article highlights many of the important advances made by these early geo-explorers by trying to include information from every major geologic investigation made in the Deep River basin from 1820 to 1955. This article also provides as thorough a consolidated history as is possible to preserve the exploration history of the Deep River basin for future investigators.

  13. ERTS-A data as a teaching and research tool in the Department of Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grybeck, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The project was an attempt to integrate ERTS-1 data into teaching introductory, specialized, and graduate courses in the Department of Geology, University of Alaska. This data was to be utilized principally through a specially selected, high quality collection of black and white, and color 9.5 mosaics of the State of Alaska. In completing these tasks, the data accumulated has proved highly useful in a variety of ways including: (1) discussions of the uses and availability of ERTS imagery; (2) as a medium for talking about and showing various areas of Alaska; (3) in discussing geology in general; and (4) as an aid in doing research and as possible research topics themselves. Use of ERTS-1 imagery in geology proved highly successful and its use is now an integral part of many courses.

  14. Resident research associateships, postdoctoral research awards 1989: opportunities for research at the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; ,

    1989-01-01

    The scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey are engaged in a wide range of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, hydrologic, and cartographic programs, including the application of computer science to them. These programs offer exciting possibilities for scientific achievement and professional growth to young scientists through participation as Research Associates.

  15. Geographically Isolated Wetlands Research Workshop Summary

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the week of November 18–21, 2013, a team of research scientists from federal, academic, and non-profit research institutions across North America met at the Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center in Newton, Georgia to articulate the state of the science, identify...

  16. Alleviating Isolation: Research in the Conservatoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Scott; Dwyer, Rachael

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen an intensification of the external measurement of both the quality and the quantity of research, in Australia, and other parts of the Western world. This has led to a growing interest in the ways in which institutions develop a research environment that maximises research activity, particularly in the areas of research…

  17. USGS research on Florida's isolated freshwater wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres, Arturo E.; Haag, Kim H.; Lee, Terrie M.; Metz, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has studied wetland hydrology and its effects on wetland health and ecology in Florida since the 1990s. USGS wetland studies in Florida and other parts of the Nation provide resource managers with tools to assess current conditions and regional trends in wetland resources. Wetland hydrologists in the USGS Florida Water Science Center (FLWSC) have completed a number of interdisciplinary studies assessing the hydrology, ecology, and water quality of wetlands. These studies have expanded the understanding of wetland hydrology, ecology, and related processes including: (1) the effects of cyclical changes in rainfall and the influence of evapotranspiration; (2) surface-water flow, infiltration, groundwater movement, and groundwater and surfacewater interactions; (3) the effects of water quality and soil type; (4) the unique biogeochemical components of wetlands required to maintain ecosystem functions; (5) the effects of land use and other human activities; (6) the influences of algae, plants, and invertebrates on environmental processes; and (7) the effects of seasonal variations in animal communities that inhabit or visit Florida wetlands and how wetland function responds to changes in the plant community.

  18. Research in volcanic geology, petrology and planetary science at MIT, 1969 to 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgetchin, T. R.

    1974-01-01

    The behavior of volcanoes was studied by geologic mapping, petrologic investigations of lava and xenoliths, physical measurements, and theoretical modelling. Field observations were conducted in Alaska (Nunivak Island), Iceland, Hawaii (Mauna Kea), Italy (Etna, Stromboli), and Arizona. The results are discussed and compared with known data for lunar and planetary gelogy. Field methods used for the volcano research are cited and a list is given of all participating scientists and students. Publications and abstracts resulting from the research are also listed.

  19. Teaching Spatial Thinking in Undergraduate Geology Courses Using Tools and Strategies from Cognitive Science Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormand, C. J.; Shipley, T. F.; Dutrow, B. L.; Goodwin, L. B.; Hickson, T. A.; Tikoff, B.; Atit, K.; Gagnier, K. M.; Resnick, I.

    2015-12-01

    Spatial visualization is an essential skill in the STEM disciplines, including the geological sciences. Undergraduate students, including geoscience majors in upper-level courses, bring a wide range of spatial skill levels to the classroom. Students with weak spatial skills may struggle to understand fundamental concepts and to solve geological problems with a spatial component. However, spatial thinking skills are malleable. Using strategies that have emerged from cognitive science research, we developed a set of curricular materials that improve undergraduate geology majors' abilities to reason about 3D concepts and to solve spatially complex geological problems. Cognitive science research on spatial thinking demonstrates that predictive sketching, making visual comparisons, gesturing, and the use of analogy can be used to develop students' spatial thinking skills. We conducted a three-year study of the efficacy of these strategies in strengthening the spatial skills of students in core geology courses at three universities. Our methodology is a quasi-experimental quantitative design, utilizing pre- and post-tests of spatial thinking skills, assessments of spatial problem-solving skills, and a control group comprised of students not exposed to our new curricular materials. Students taught using the new curricular materials show improvement in spatial thinking skills. Further analysis of our data, to be completed prior to AGU, will answer additional questions about the relationship between spatial skills and academic performance, spatial skills and gender, spatial skills and confidence, and the impact of our curricular materials on students who are struggling academically. Teaching spatial thinking in the context of discipline-based exercises has the potential to transform undergraduate education in the geological sciences by removing one significant barrier to success.

  20. Research opportunities in interdisciplinary ground-water science in the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, W.E.; Caine, J.S.; Wilcox, D.A.; McWreath, H.C.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    This report is written for the scientifically literate reader but is not limited to those who are involved in ground-water science. The report is intended to encourage U.S. Geological Survey scientists to develop a sense of excitement about ground-water science in the agency, to inform scientists about existing and potential ground-water science opportunities, and to engage scientists and managers in interdisciplinary discussions and collaboration. The report is intended for use by U.S. Geological Survey and Department of the Interior management to formulate long-term ground-water science programs and to continue sustained support of ground-water monitoring and research, some of which may not have an immediate impact. Finally, the report can be used to communicate the U.S. Geological Survey's vision of ground-water science to Congress, partners, other agencies, and the research community at large with the goals of enhancing collaborative opportunities, sharing information, and maintaining dialogue regarding the directions of U.S. Geological Survey ground-water science.

  1. On the Isolation of Halophilic Microorganisms from Salt Deposits of Great Geological Age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stan-Lotter, Helga; Denner, Ewald; Orans, Robin (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    From salt sediments of Triassic or Permian ace from various locations in the world halophilic microorganisms were isolated. Molecular characteristics of several of the isolates suggested they belong to the archaebacteriae. One group appears to represent novel strains; several properties or one such isolate, strain BIp, are described here. The existence of viable microorganisms in ancient sediments would have great implications with respect to our notions on evolution, the search for life in extraterrestrial environments and the long- term survival of functional biological structures. Of crucial importance is thus the question if these microorganisms existed in the salt since the time of deposition or invaded at some later date. Some suggestions to address these issues experimentally are discussed.

  2. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Perspectives on the geological and hydrological aspects of long-term release scenario analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Stottlemyre, J.A.; Wallace, R.W.; Benson, G.L.; Zellmer, J.T.

    1980-06-01

    Information that may be relevant to individuals involved with analyzing long-term release scenarios of specific repositories for nuclear waste is presented. The bulk of the information is derived from recent studies in West Germany and the United States. Emphasis is on the specific geological and hydrological phenomena that, alone or in concert, could potentially perturb the area around specific repository sites. Research is continuing on most of the topics discussed within this report. Because research is ongoing, statements and conclusions described in this document are subject to change. The main topics of this report are: (1) fracturing, (2) geohydrology, (3) magmatic activity, and (4) geomorphology. Therefore, the site-specific nature of the problem cannot be overemphasized. As an example of how one might combine the many synergistic and time-dependent parameters into a concise format the reader is referred to A Conceputal Simulation Model for Release Scenario Analysis of a Hypothetical Site in Columbia Plateau Basalts, PNL-2892. For additional details on the topics in this report, the reader is referred to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) consultant report listed in the bibliography.

  3. Research by the U.S. Geological Survey on organic materials in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Robert Andrew

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has responsibility for investigating the Nation's water resources for source, availability, quantity, and quality. This paper describes the Geological Survey's research on organic substances in water and fluvial sediments. Results and ongoing studies are examined. Typical research includes: Separation, concentration, and chromatographic identification of volatile acids; free-flow electrophoresis fractionation of natural organic materials; identification of chlorinated insecticides in suspended sediments and bottom materials; fate of organics following underground disposal; determination of humic and fulvic acid stability constants and characterizations; identification of low-molecular weight chloroorganic constituents in water; PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl compound) distribution in aquatic environments; dissolved organic carbon in ground water; and improvement in separation and concentration schemes prior to analyses.

  4. Two Approaches to the Geologic Disposal of Long-Lived Nuclear Waste: Yucca Mountain, Nevada and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Levich, R. A.; Patterson, R. L.; Linden, R. M.

    2002-02-26

    A key component of the US energy program is to provide for the safe and permanent isolation of spent nuclear fuel and long-lived radioactive waste produced through programs related to national defense and the generation of electric power by nuclear utilities. To meet this challenge, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a multi-faceted approach to the geologic disposal of long-lived nuclear wastes. Two sites are being developed or studied as current or potential deep geologic repositories for long lived radioactive wastes, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico and Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  5. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. CIRMIS data system. Volume 4. Driller's logs, stratigraphic cross section and utility routines

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrichs, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. Analysis of the long-term, far-field consequences of release scenarios requires the application of numerical codes which simulate the hydrologic systems, model the transport of released radionuclides through the hydrologic systems to the biosphere, and, where applicable, assess the radiological dose to humans. The various input parameters required in the analysis are compiled in data systems. The data are organized and prepared by various input subroutines for use by the hydrologic and transport codes. The hydrologic models simulate the groundwater flow systems and provide water flow directions, rates, and velocities as inputs to the transport models. Outputs from the transport models are basically graphs of radionuclide concentration in the groundwater plotted against time. After dilution in the receiving surface-water body (e.g., lake, river, bay), these data are the input source terms for the dose models, if dose assessments are required. The dose models calculate radiation dose to individuals and populations. CIRMIS (Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence) Data System is a storage and retrieval system for model input and output data, including graphical interpretation and display. This is the fourth of four volumes of the description of the CIRMIS Data System.

  6. Preliminary subsurface hydrologic considerations: Columbia River Plateau Physiographic Province. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Veatch, M.D.

    1980-04-01

    This report contains a discussion of the hydrologic conditions of the Columbia River Plateau physiographic province. The Columbia River Plateau is underlain by a thick basalt sequence. The Columbia River basalt sequence contains both basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds. These sedimentary interbeds, which are layers of sedimentary rock between lava flows, are the main aquifer zones in the basalt sequence. Permeable interflow zones, involving the permeable top and/or rubble bottom of a flow, are also water-transmitting zones. A number of stratigraphic units are present in the Pasco Basin, which is in the central part of the Columbia River Plateau. At a conceptual level, the stratigraphic sequence from the surface downward can be separated into four hydrostratigraphic systems. These are: (1) the unsaturated zone, (2) the unconfined aquifer, (3) the uppermost confined aquifers, and (4) the lower Yakima basalt hydrologic sequence. A conceptual layered earth model (LEM) has been developed. The LEM represents the major types of porous media (LEM units) that may be encountered at a number of places on the Columbia Plateau, and specifically in the Pasco Basin. The conceptual LEM is not representative of the actual three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic sequence and hydrologic conditions existing at any specific site within the Columbia Plateau physiographic province. However, the LEM may be useful for gaining a better understanding of how the hydrologic regime may change as a result of disruptive events that may interact with a waste repository in geologic media.

  7. Necessity for Industry-Academic Economic Geology Collaborations for Energy Critical Minerals Research and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitzman, M.

    2012-12-01

    Economic geology is a highly interdisciplinary field utilizing a diverse set of petrologic, geochemical, geophysical, and tectonic data for improved scientific understanding of element migration and concentration in the crust (ore formation). A number of elements that were once laboratory curiosities now figure prominently in new energy technologies (e.g. wind turbines, solar energy collectors). If widely deployed, such technologies have the capacity to transform the way we produce, transmit, store, and conserve energy. To meet domestic and worldwide renewable energy needs these systems must be scaled from laboratory, to demonstration, to widespread deployment. Such technologies are materials intensive. If widely deployed, the elements required by these technologies will be needed in significant quantities and shortage of these "energy critical elements" could significantly inhibit the adoption of otherwise game changing energy technologies. It is imperative to better understand the geology, metallurgy, and mining engineering of critical mineral deposits if we are to sustainably develop these new technologies. There is currently no consensus among federal and state agencies, the national and international mining industry, the public, and the U.S. academic community regarding the importance of economic geology to secure sufficient energy critical elements to undertake large-scale renewable energy development. Available federal funding for critical elements focuses on downstream areas such as metallurgy, substitutions, and recycling rather than primary deposits. Undertaking the required research to discover and mine critical element deposits in an environmentally friendly manner will require significant partnering with industry due to the current lack of federal research support.

  8. Site Selection and Geological Research Connected with High Level Waste Disposal Programme in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Tomas, J.

    2003-02-25

    Attempts to solve the problem of high-level waste disposal including the spent fuel from nuclear power plants have been made in the Czech Republic for over the 10 years. Already in 1991 the Ministry of Environment entitled The Czech Geological Survey to deal with the siting of the locality for HLW disposal and the project No. 3308 ''The geological research of the safe disposal of high level waste'' had started. Within this project a sub-project ''A selection of perspective HLW disposal sites in the Bohemian Massif'' has been elaborated and 27 prospective areas were identified in the Czech Republic. This selection has been later narrowed to 8 areas which are recently studied in more detail. As a parallel research activity with siting a granitic body Melechov Massif in Central Moldanubian Pluton has been chosen as a test site and the 1st stage of research i.e. evaluation and study of its geological, hydrogeological, geophysical, tectonic and structural properties has been already completed. The Melechov Massif was selected as a test site after the recommendation of WATRP (Waste Management Assessment and Technical Review Programme) mission of IAEA (1993) because it represents an area analogous with the host geological environment for the future HLW and spent fuel disposal in the Czech Republic, i.e. variscan granitoids. It is necessary to say that this site would not be in a locality where the deep repository will be built, although it is a site suitable for oriented research for the sampling and collection of descriptive data using up to date and advanced scientific methods. The Czech Republic HLW and spent fuel disposal programme is now based on The Concept of Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel Management (''Concept'' hereinafter) which has been prepared in compliance with energy policy approved by Government Decree No. 50 of 12th January 2000 and approved by the Government in May 2002. Preparation of the Concept was required, amongst other reasons in

  9. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic-simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau. Volume 2: results

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.; Baldwin, A.J.; Craig, R.G.

    1982-06-01

    This report contains the input data and computer results for the Geologic Simulation Model. This model is described in detail in the following report: Petrie, G.M., et. al. 1981. Geologic Simulation Model for a Hypothetical Site in the Columbia Plateau, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington. The Geologic Simulation Model is a quasi-deterministic process-response model which simulates, for a million years into the future, the development of the geologic and hydrologic systems of the ground-water basin containing the Pasco Basin. Effects of natural processes on the ground-water hydrologic system are modeled principally by rate equations. The combined effects and synergistic interactions of different processes are approximated by linear superposition of their effects during discrete time intervals in a stepwise-integration approach.

  10. Isolation Characterization and Fermented Research of High Producing Saccharamyces Cerevisae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhaochunhai

    In order to improve to alcoholic production,this paper researched on 122 strains of yeast isolated from orchard and vegetable plot through morphology and molecular biology, screening 17 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through NCBI-blast, selected four yeasts to ferment,amongof them T13 used sorghum as raw material production capacity of 12.48% (v/v).

  11. Technology demonstration: geostatistical and hydrologic analysis of salt areas. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, P.G.; Oberlander, P.L.; Rice, W.A.; Devary, J.L.; Nelson, R.W.; Tucker, P.E.

    1982-09-01

    The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) requested Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to: (1) use geostatistical analyses to evaluate the adequacy of hydrologic data from three salt regions, each of which contains a potential nuclear waste repository site; and (2) demonstrate a methodology that allows quantification of the value of additional data collection. The three regions examined are the Paradox Basin in Utah, the Permian Basin in Texas, and the Mississippi Study Area. Additional and new data became available to ONWI during and following these analyses; therefore, this report must be considered a methodology demonstration here would apply as illustrated had the complete data sets been available. A combination of geostatistical and hydrologic analyses was used for this demonstration. Geostatistical analyses provided an optimal estimate of the potentiometric surface from the available data, a measure of the uncertainty of that estimate, and a means for selecting and evaluating the location of future data. The hydrologic analyses included the calculation of transmissivities, flow paths, travel times, and ground-water flow rates from hypothetical repository sites. Simulation techniques were used to evaluate the effect of optimally located future data on the potentiometric surface, flow lines, travel times, and flow rates. Data availability, quality, quantity, and conformance with model assumptions differed in each of the salt areas. Report highlights for the three locations are given.

  12. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems: the feasibility of computer interrogation of experts for WISAP

    SciTech Connect

    Wight, L.H.

    1980-05-01

    Simulation of the response of a waste repository to events that could initiate a fault tree to breach and failure is currently a keystone to the Battelle Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). The repository simulation, which is part of the Disruptive Event Analysis Task, models the repository for its entire design life, one million years. This is clearly a challenging calculation, requiring input unlike any other response analysis by virtue of the long design life of the facility. What technology will provide design criteria for a million year design life. Answers to questions like this can, to some extent, be based on data, but always require some subjective judgments. The subjectivity, which is sometimes driven by inadequate or incomplete data or by a lack of understanding of the physical process, is therefore a crucial ingredient in an analysis of initiating events. Because of the variety of possible initiating events (glaciation, man-caused disruption, volcanism, etc.), many expert opinions will be solicited as input. The complexity of the simulation, the variety of experts involved, and the volume of applicable data all suggest that there may be a more direct, economical method to solicit the expert opinion. This report addresses the feasibility of such a system. Background information is presented that demonstrates the advantages of a computer interrogation system over conventional interrogation and assessment techniques. In the subsequent three sections the three elements - structure and decomposition, scaling, and synthesis - that are basic to any interrogation and assessment technique are reviewed. The interrelationship are schematically illustrated between these three fundamental elements and, therefore, serves as a useful guide to these three sections. Each of these three sections begins with a recommended approach to the particular element and ends with an illustration of representative dialogue.

  13. Linking geological Heritage Conservation to Education and Research at the University of Bucharest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrasanu, A.

    2012-04-01

    Since Rio Conference it is recognized that if the Earth's environment is to be respected, a better understanding of the geological, biological and physical processes that have left their mark on the Earth's surface is required. A good knowledge of geodiversity and a healthy respect for what it represents is an important factor in the holistic approach for sustainable development. Promote geosciences, raise public awareness, educate decision-makers, made children to discover the Earth, and young people to pursue a career in geosciences are continuous objectives of geoscientists, universities and institutions. Development of geoeducation was a response to the need of practical use in education and public awareness of all geological assets identified and classified by different professional geological associations, ProGEO, specialists from natural parks, geoparks, museums and other working groups (Gonggrijp, 1999, Page, 1999, Fassoulas, 2003, Weber, 2003, Andrasanu, 2005). Three events could be considered as milestone for the proces: (i) the 1st International Symposium on the Conservation of our Geological Heritage, Digne, France, in 1991; (ii) creation of the European Geoparks Network (EGN), in 2000; (iii) creation of the Global Geoparks Network (GGN), in 2004 (UNESCO, 2004). The geopark concept, as we know today, is the result of continuous efforts of dedicated specialists and innovative approaches in using local geological heritage as main resource for socio-economic development with geoeducation playing a key role (Frey, 2003; Martini, 2003; Zouros, 2004). The geoparks are places of practical use in geotourism, education and public awareness of all geological assets and for an integrated approach and a better understanding of the close connection of natural environment and socio-economic needs for sustainable development plans. In different countries, over the last years partnerships of universities and geoparks developed interdisciplinary research projects, new

  14. National Research Program of the Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey: Fiscal Year 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, Linda C.; Donato, Christine N.

    1989-01-01

    The National Research Program (NRP) of the US Geological Survey 's Water Resources Division (WRD) had its beginnings in the late 1950 's when ' core research ' was added as a line item to the Congressional budget. Since that time, the NRP has grown to encompass a broad spectrum of scientific investigations. The sciences of hydrology, mathematics, chemistry, physics, ecology, biology, geology, and engineering are used to gain a fundamental understanding of the processes that affect the availability, movement, and quality of the Nation 's water resources. The NRP is located principally in Reston, VA, Denver, CO, and Menlo Park , CA. The NRP is subdivided into six disciplines as follows: (1) Ecology; (2) Geomorphology and Sediment Transport; (3) Groundwater Chemistry; (4) Groundwater Hydrology; (5) Surface Water Chemistry; and (6) Surface Water Hydrology. The report provides current information about the NRP on an annual basis. Organized by the six research disciplines, the volume contains a summary of the problem, objective, approach, and progress for each project that was active during fiscal year 1988.

  15. ERTS-A data as a teaching and research tool in the Department of Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grybeck, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The ERTS-1 materials continue to be used in a number of courses including Geology of Alaska, Economic Geology, and Structural Geology. In addition, specific talks about the ERTS-1 material were given at a seminar at the Geophysical Institute, to the Geology Department, to numerous individuals, and were extensively used in a popularized talk on the Geology of Alaska to the local Historical Society.

  16. Characterization of Physical and Hydro-Geological Properties of Kanamaru Research Site in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, M.; Zhang, M.; Takeno, N.; Watanabe, Y.

    2004-12-01

    Establishing the comprehensive knowledge of applicability of the methods for investigating hydraulic properties of low permeability geologic strata is an urgent issue for supporting regulation of geological disposal of nuclear waste in the near future. As a beginning of this work, a systematic examination of various kinds of techniques for hydro-geological surveys has been started in Kanamaru Research Site in Japan. This paper briefly introduces the research plan and preliminary results obtained from the first year of investigation. The survey techniques include borehole excavation, borehole imaging, gamma-ray, caliper, acoustic, electrical resistivity and density loggings, permeability tests and flow direction measurement using a single borehole, permeability tests and flow direction measurement using multi boreholes, etc. Preliminary findings can be summarized as follows: (1) The stratigraphy at the survey area consists of topsoil, debris sediments, sandstone, mudstone, conglomeratic sandstone, mudstone, arkose sandstone, and granite. High uranium concentrations are detected at lower portion of the conglomeratic sandstone by gamma-ray logging. (2) The survey area is located at a slope inclined from the north to the south, and the dominant groundwater flow is considered to be in the direction form the north to the south. And the downward flow was also recognized by the flow direction measurements and water quality logging. (3) Hydraulic conductivities derived from permeability tests using a single borehole were in the range of 5E-10 to 1E-7 m/s. The hydraulic conductivities of the same lithology derived from different boreholes varied, and the discrepancies were up to an order. This result indicates that the formations in the survey area have hydraulic heterogeneity in both the vertical and horizontal directions. (4) On the whole, stratum with fast velocity of elastic wave showed large resistivity and low permeability. The degree of correlation between the

  17. Denali Rocks - An Innovative Geology Module for High School Students at the Alaska Summer Research Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, J. S.; Henton, S.; Chebul, E.; White, E.; Johnson, P.; Briggs, D.; Webley, P. W.; Drake, J.

    2011-12-01

    Scientific summer camps give high school students the unique opportunity to interact within the university environment. During July 2011, the Alaska Summer Research Academy (ASRA) provided such an opportunity for over 100 high school students. University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) instructors led a two-week long ASRA module, called 'Denali Rocks', where six student participants from across the USA learned the fundamentals of geology and went on a field expedition to Denali National Park and Preserve, with assistance from the National Park Service. The students documented their field experiences through photography and video recordings. For the videos, they were both news reporters and experts in the field. The module educated students in three important aspects of geosciences: natural hazards, natural resources, and the formation of geological landscapes. Students learned about natural hazards in Alaska by visiting two world leading monitoring facilities at UAF. Day excursions as part of the module included the Fort Knox Gold Mine and the Trans-Alaska Pipeline. The students learned how to identify major rock types, their emplacement, and their deposition in the field. They learned how to read topographic and geologic maps as well as how to use a geologic compass to take strike and dip measurements. Students also used technological equipment such as GPS to track the hikes, a Gigapan camera to create panoramic photos, and a handheld Niton X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for compositional analyses. All observations were documented in their field notebooks. By the end of the field camp, the six students were seasoned naturalists. The video and photographic documentation was used in a final presentation to 150 of their peers and instructors in the other ASRA modules. This was in the format of an evening news program complete with anchors, meteorologists, and lighting and camera crews. The students performed all duties during the presentation, and prepared all the footage

  18. Comparing geological and statistical approaches for element selection in sediment tracing research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laceby, J. Patrick; McMahon, Joe; Evrard, Olivier; Olley, Jon

    2015-04-01

    Elevated suspended sediment loads reduce reservoir capacity and significantly increase the cost of operating water treatment infrastructure, making the management of sediment supply to reservoirs of increasingly importance. Sediment fingerprinting techniques can be used to determine the relative contributions of different sources of sediment accumulating in reservoirs. The objective of this research is to compare geological and statistical approaches to element selection for sediment fingerprinting modelling. Time-integrated samplers (n=45) were used to obtain source samples from four major subcatchments flowing into the Baroon Pocket Dam in South East Queensland, Australia. The geochemistry of potential sources were compared to the geochemistry of sediment cores (n=12) sampled in the reservoir. The geochemical approach selected elements for modelling that provided expected, observed and statistical discrimination between sediment sources. Two statistical approaches selected elements for modelling with the Kruskal-Wallis H-test and Discriminatory Function Analysis (DFA). In particular, two different significance levels (0.05 & 0.35) for the DFA were included to investigate the importance of element selection on modelling results. A distribution model determined the relative contributions of different sources to sediment sampled in the Baroon Pocket Dam. Elemental discrimination was expected between one subcatchment (Obi Obi Creek) and the remaining subcatchments (Lexys, Falls and Bridge Creek). Six major elements were expected to provide discrimination. Of these six, only Fe2O3 and SiO2 provided expected, observed and statistical discrimination. Modelling results with this geological approach indicated 36% (+/- 9%) of sediment sampled in the reservoir cores were from mafic-derived sources and 64% (+/- 9%) were from felsic-derived sources. The geological and the first statistical approach (DFA0.05) differed by only 1% (σ 5%) for 5 out of 6 model groupings with only

  19. The U.S. Geological Survey cartographic and geographic information science research activities 2006-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E. Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produces geospatial databases and topographic maps for the United States of America. A part of that mission includes conducting research in geographic information science (GIScience) and cartography to support mapping and improve the design, quality, delivery, and use of geospatial data and topographic maps. The Center of Excellence for Geospatial Information Science (CEGIS) was established by the USGS in January 2006 as a part of the National Geospatial Program Office. CEGIS (http://cegis.usgs.gov) evolved from a team of cartographic researchers at the Mid-Continent Mapping Center. The team became known as the Cartographic Research group and was supported by the Cooperative Topographic Mapping, Geographic Analysis and Monitoring, and Land Remote Sensing programs of the Geography Discipline of the USGS from 1999-2005. In 2006, the Cartographic Research group and its projects (http://carto-research.er.usgs.gov/) became the core of CEGIS staff and research. In 2006, CEGIS research became focused on The National Map (http://nationalmap.gov).

  20. Incorporating Content, Pedagogy, and Research in a Preservice Geology Teaching Degree Program at Montana State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, J.; Mogk, D.; Swanson, E.; Woolbaugh, W.

    2001-05-01

    With funding from the American Geophysical Union's Linkages Program, faculty from the Departments of Earth Sciences and Education at Montana State University (MSU), and a local master teacher, have endeavored to develop a training program in Geology for future geoscience teachers in Montana. Presently, biology and geoscience are the most common taught secondary science subjects in Montana public schools and yet MSU lacks a pre-service teacher training program in geology. The goal of this degree program is to produce future geoscience teachers capable of applying in-depth understanding of Earth Systems Science, expertise in scientific research design and implementation, and a strong pedagogical foundation to their teaching. Graduates will receive a degree in Earth Sciences and be certified to teach General Science, Physical Science, and Geoscience in Montana schools. The degree program will include geology curricular components that achieve content goals and meet University graduation and State certification requirements, and pedagogical components aimed at instilling excellence in teaching. Majors will develop expertise in Earth System Science, including an understanding of the connections of the geosciences to societal issues and student's everyday lives, as well as an understanding of scientific inquiry through first-hand experience in research design and implementation. Advisors will target students early in their undergraduate career for participation in this 5-year program. Curricula will include 39 credits of Education coursework necessary for certification by the State, 36 credits of geology coursework, 51 credits of allied science and math courses, and 14 credits of University core. Development of this program coincides with a major institution-funded reassessment of the entire undergraduate Earth Sciences curriculum that will result in introduction of skills training and utilization of alternative instructional methods at appropriate curricular levels

  1. An Approach for Group, Undergraduate Research Experiences in Courses Across the Geology Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, M.; Kinner, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    At Western Carolina University, a past NSF CCLI grant helped embed project-based learning throughout the geology curriculum, including a senior capstone seminar in which groups of students conduct authentic undergraduate research (UR). These curricular changes showed many high-level educational benefits to the group senior capstone research and the benefits of complex, technical projects at all levels of the curriculum if project goals and guidance for students is appropriate for their level, skills, and experiences. A current NSF TUES grant, now in its 3rd year, is formally assessing the impact of students participating in group UR experiences embedded in traditional courses at all curricular levels to determine if they have similar benefits to students conducting individually-mentored research. An ancillary goal is to develop a transferable, sustainable model for this approach, so UR experiences can formally broaden to more students at more levels. At this time, we have taught about 100 students in five research-based courses at all levels of the curriculum. Student's perceived strong benefits of their UR experience, and have been evaluated with quantitative (URSSA) and qualitative (focus groups) data. Benefits of their experiences are high related to personal growth and the scientific process and relatively low in research skills. Qualitative data shows students value 1) the open-ended nature of the authentic research questions, 2) group collaboration, and 3) hands-on learning. Similarity of student results across different courses reflect a now stable approach we have developed for courses with group UR experiences. Key elements to our approach are 1) an ongoing, broad research program (in our case, an on-campus hydrologic research station), 2) strategically assigned student groups (no. 3-6), group responsibilities that include a mix of individual and group assignments, and peer assessments, 3) student research fellows that help run the research station and

  2. The Use of U.S. Geological Survey Digital Geospatial Data Products for Science Research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varanka, Dalia E.; Deering, Carol; Caro, Holly

    2012-01-01

    The development of geographic information system (GIS) transformed the practice of geographic science research. The availability of low-cost, reliable data by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) supported the advance of GIS in the early stages of the transition to digital technology. To estimate the extent of the scientific use of USGS digital geospatial data products, a search of science literature databases yielded numbers of articles citing USGS products. Though this method requires careful consideration to avoid false positives, these citation numbers of three types of products (vector, land-use/land-cover, and elevation data) were graphed, and the frequency trends were examined. Trends indicated that the use of several, but not all, products increased with time. The use of some products declined and reasons for these declines are offered. To better understand how these data affected the design and outcomes of research projects, the study begins to build a context for the data by discussing digital cartographic research preceding the production of mass-produced products. The data distribution methods used various media for different system types and were supported by instructional material. The findings are an initial assessment of the affect of USGS products on GIS-enabled science research. A brief examination of the specific papers indicates that USGS data were used for science and GIS conceptual research, advanced education, and problem analysis and solution applications.

  3. Geologic and hydrologic research on the Moana geothermal system, Washoe County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, T.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1983-12-01

    The Moana geothermal area is the largest single low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource in the State of Nevada presently employed for direct-use applications. Approximately 150 individual wells, representing a total estimated investment of $5 to $7 million, are presently used to provide heat ahd hot water to more than 130 private residences, several churches and two large motels. Although most of the wells are constructed to meet the heating needs of individual homes, a large-scale district space heating system, designed to supply heat to 60 houses from a single well, is now being developed. Usable temperatures range from 50 to 99/sup 0/C (120 to 210/sup 0/F); well depths range from 60 to 400 m (100 to 1300 ft). The number of new wells coming on-line in Moana is two to three per month. Development of the resource has been largely unregulated and questions dealing with reported reservoir temperature and water level declines, loss of artesian flow, and fluid disposal have recently surfaced. In October 1982, a geologic and hydrologic research program began that was designed to provide detailed geothermal reservoir data to present or prospective developers. The program combines geophysical, geochemical, and geological surveys of the Moana resource area with a drilling program for 5 monitor/observation wells. Data from this program are supplied directly to developers as well as state and local government agencies to provide for prudent resource development. This paper summarizes the program elements and describes the present status.

  4. Student Research Projects in Geophysics Through a Consortium of Undergraduate Geology Departments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroeger, G. C.

    2003-12-01

    Beginning in 1987, and continuing to the present, the Keck Geology Consortium, a group of 12 undergraduate institutions, has sponsored a series of summer research projects. These projects typically involve from 9 to 12 students and 3 to 4 faculty members and consist of a 4 to 5 week summer research program followed by continuation of the research at the students' home institutions, often as a senior thesis. Many of these projects have included extensive field and laboratory geophysical components. In order for students to carry out successful research projects in geophysics, several hurdles have to be cleared. Frequently these students have not had a formal course in geophysics, so although they may have strong geologic and quantitative skills, there is usually the need for a concentrated classroom immersion in the geophysical theory and methods related to the project. Field geophysics projects are labor intensive, so it is common for a group of three or more students to produce only one or two complete data sets in the course of the summer program. Generating individualized projects so that students feel ownership of their thesis research can be challenging. Most of the departments do not have a geophysicist on the faculty, so follow-up support for the student research involves continued long-distance collaboration between project directors, students and sponsoring faculty. The impact of the internet on this collaboration cannot be overstated. Finally, diverse computing environments at the participating institutions were a significant problem in the early years. Migration of geophysical software to Windows from Unix, and the widespread availability of Linux has mitigated these problems in recent years. The geophysical components of these projects have been largely successful. A series of vignettes is presented showing the range and nature of geophysical projects that have been carried out. In addition to anecdotal evidence of student satisfaction, there is

  5. Research Into the Role of Students’ Affective Domain While Learning Geology in Field Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins, J.

    2009-12-01

    Existing research programs in field-based geocognition include assessment of cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains. Assessment of the affective domain often involves the use of instruments and techniques uncommon to the geosciences. Research regarding the affective domain also commonly results in the collection and production of qualitative data that is difficult for geoscientists to analyze due to their lack of familiarity with these data sets. However, important information about students’ affective responses to learning in field environments can be obtained by using these methods. My research program focuses on data produced by students’ affective responses to field-based learning environments, primarily among students at the introductory level. For this research I developed a Likert-scale Novelty Space Survey, which presents student ‘novelty space’ (Orion and Hofstien, 1993) as a polygon; the larger the polygons, the more novelty students are experiencing. The axises for these polygons correspond to novelty domains involving geographic, social, cognitive, and psychological factors. In addition to the Novelty Space Survey, data which I have collected/generated includes focus group interviews on the role of recreational experiences in geology field programs. I have also collected data concerning the motivating factors that cause students to take photographs on field trips. The results of these studies give insight to the emotional responses students have to learning in the field and are important considerations for practitioners of teaching in these environments. Collaborative investigations among research programs that cross university departments and include multiple institutions is critical at this point in development of geocognition as a field due to unfamiliarity with cognitive science methodology by practitioners teaching geosciences and the dynamic nature of field work by cognitive scientists. However, combining the efforts of cognitive

  6. Treading lightly on shifting ground: The direction and motivation of future geological research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witt, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The future of the geosciences and geological research will involve complex scientific challenges, primarily concerning global and regional environmental issues, in the next 20-30 years. It is quite reasonable to suspect, based on current political and socioeconomic events, that young geoscientists will be faced with and involved in helping to resolve some well defined problems: water and energy security, the effects of anthropogenic climate change, coastal sea level rise and development, and the mitigation of geohazards. It is how we choose to approach these challenges that will define our future. Interdisciplinary applied research, improved modeling and prediction augmented with faster and more sophisticated computing, and a greater role in creating and guiding public policy, will help us achieve our goals of a cleaner and safer Earth environment in the next 30 years. In the far future, even grander possibilities for eliminating the risk of certain geohazards and finding sustainable solutions to our energy needs can be envisioned. Looking deeper into the future, the possibilities for geoscience research push the limits of the imagination.

  7. Thermal Infrared Geologic Remote Sensing Research at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartholomew, M. J.; Kahle, A. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    Remotely sensed thermal infrared spectral data have great potential to improve rock type discrimination if the factors that control thermal infrared spectral reflection and emission can be better understood. Improved rock type discrimination in turn leads to better and more efficient geologic mapping which is carried out in the exploration, assessment and documentation of mineral resources and geologic hazards. Geologic maps also contribute significantly to the understanding of the natural history of the Earth and neighboring planetary bodies.

  8. Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program. Task 4. Third Contractor Information Meeting. [Adsorption-desorption on geological media

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The study subject of this meeting was the adsorption and desorption of radionuclides on geologic media under repository conditions. This volume contans eight papers. Separate abstracts were prepared for all eight papers. (DLC)

  9. Microbiology and Biogeochemical Study of Underground Research Tunnel for the Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Y.; Oh, J.; Seo, H.; Rhee, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Underground Research Tunnel (URT) located in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon, South Korea was recently constructed as an experimental site to study radionuclide transport, biogeochemistry, radionuclide-mineral interactions for the geological disposal of high level nuclear waste. Groundwater sampled from URT was used to examine microbial diversity and to enrich metal reducing bacteria for studying microbe- metal interactions. Genomic analysis indicated that the groundwater contained diverse microorganisms such as metal reducers, metal oxidizers, anaerobic denitrifying bacteria, and bacteria for reductive dechlorination. Metal- reducing bacteria enriched from the groundwater was used to study metal reduction and biomineralization. The metal-reducing bacteria enriched with acetate or lactate as the electron donors showed the bacteria reduced Fe(III)-citrate, Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, Mn(IV) oxide, and Cr(VI) as the electron acceptors. Preliminary study indicated that the enriched bacteria were able to use glucose, lactate, acetate, and hydrogen as electron donors while reducing Fe(III)-citrate or Fe(III) oxyhydroxide as the electron acceptor. The bacteria exhibited diverse mineral precipitation capabilities including the formation of magnetite, siderite, and rhodochrosite. The results indicated that Fe(III)- and metal-reducing communities are present in URT at the KAERI.

  10. History of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Mott T.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: (1) geologists and the history of geology; (2) American historians and the history of geology; (3) history of geology in the 1980s; (4) sources for the history of geology (bibliographies, dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, periodicals, public/official histories, compilations, and books); (5) research opportunities; and (6) other…

  11. A geoethical approach to the geological and astrobiological exploration and research of the Moon and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Horneck, Gerda; de La Torre Noetzel, Rosa; Rull, Fernando

    Lunar and Mars exploration and research require not only scientific and technological inter-disciplinary cooperation, but also the consideration of budding ethical and scientific integrity issues. COSPAR's planetary protection policy (in coordination with the United Nations Com-mittee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space as well as various other bilateral and multilateral organizations) serves as the consensus standard for biological contamination prevention under the 1967 Outer Space Treaty1 . Space agencies Planetary Protection Policies are mostly consis-tent with the COSPAR policy. Geoethics was formerly promoted in 1991 as a new discipline, involving scientific and societal aspects2 , and its institutionalization was officially established in 2004 with the backing of the Association of Geoscientists for International Development, AGID3 (IUGS/ICSU). Recently, it has been proposed that the integration of geoethical issues in studies on planetary geology and astrobiology would enrich their methodological and con-ceptual character4-6 . The incorporation through geoethics of new questions and approaches associated to the "abiotic world" would involve: 1) extrapolating to space the recently defined and approved IUCN/UNESCO guidelines and recommendations on geodiversity7 as "planetary geodiversity", and 2) widening the classical concept of Planetary Protection, giving an addi-tional "abiotic" dimension to the exploration and research of the Moon and Mars. Given the geological characteristics and planetary evolution of the Moon and Mars, it is obvious that they require tailored geoethical approaches. Some fundamental aspects include, among others: the interrelation with bioethics and organics vs. inorganic contamination in Planetary Protection, the appropriate regulations of some necessary natural disturbances (e.g. on the Moon) dur-ing robotic and manned planetary missions, wilderness/planetary parks8,9 , the correct use of mineralogical and geochemical analytical

  12. USC Undergraduate Team Research, Geological Field Experience and Outdoor Education in the Tuolumne Batholith and Kings Canyon, High Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culbert, K. N.; Anderson, J. L.; Cao, W.; Chang, J.; Ehret, P.; Enriquez, M.; Gross, M. B.; Gelbach, L. B.; Hardy, J.; Paterson, S. R.; Ianno, A.; Iannone, M.; Memeti, V.; Morris, M.; Lodewyk, J.; Davis, J.; Stanley, R.; van Guilder, E.; Whitesides, A. S.; Zhang, T.

    2009-12-01

    Within four years, USC’s College of Letters, Arts and Sciences and Earth Science department have successfully launched the revolutionary undergraduate team research (UTR) program “Geologic Wonders of Yosemite at Two Miles High”. A diverse group of professors, graduate students and undergraduates spent two weeks mapping the Boyden Cave in Kings Canyon National Park, the Iron Mountain pendants south of Yosemite, the Western Metamorphic belt along the Merced River, and the Tuolumne Batholith (TB) in June and August 2009. During their experience in the field, the undergraduates learned geologic field techniques from their peers, professors, and experienced graduate students and developed ideas that will form the basis of the independent and group research projects. Apart from teaching undergraduates about the geology of the TB and Kings Canyon, the two weeks in the field were also rigorous exercise in critical thinking and communication. Every day spent in the field required complete cooperation between mentors and undergraduates in order to successfully gather and interpret the day’s data. Undergraduates were to execute the next day’s schedule and divide mapping duties among themselves. The two-week field experience was also the ideal setting in which to learn about the environmental impacts of their work and the actions of others. The UTR groups quickly adapted to the demanding conditions of the High Sierra—snow, grizzly bears, tourists, and all. For many of the undergraduates, the two weeks spent in the field was their first experience with field geology. The vast differences in geological experience among the undergraduates proved to be advantageous to the ‘team-teaching’ focus of the program: more experienced undergraduates were able to assist less experienced undergraduates while cementing their own previously gained knowledge about geology. Over the rest of the academic year, undergraduates will learn about the research process and scientific

  13. U.S. Geological Survey—Energy and Wildlife Research Annual Report for 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khalil, Mona

    2016-09-09

    Recent growth and development of renewable energy and unconventional oil and gas extraction are rapidly diversifying the energy supply of the United States. Yet, as our Nation works to advance energy security and conserve wildlife, some conflicts have surfaced. To address these challenges, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting innovative research and developing workable solutions to reduce the impacts of energy production on wildlife. USGS scientists collaborate on many studies with scientists from other Federal, State, and local government agencies; Tribal nations; academic research institutions; and nongovernmental and private organizations.The mix of fuels used for electricity generation is evolving. Solar, natural gas, and wind energy made up most electricity generation additions in 2015 and 2016. The United States now leads the world in natural gas production, with new record highs for each year from 2011 through 2015. More than 48,000 wind turbines now contribute to power grids in most States, providing about 5 percent of U.S. end-use electricity demand in an average year. The number of utility-scale solar-energy projects is growing rapidly with solar energy projected to contribute to the largest electricity generation addition in 2016.A substantial number of large energy projects have been constructed on undeveloped public lands, and more are anticipated at an increasing rate, creating new stress to wildlife. Direct impacts include collisions with wind turbines and structures at solar facilities and loss of habitat which may negatively affect sensitive species. Recent estimates suggest 250,000 to 500,000 birds die each year at wind turbine facilities. Bat fatality rates at wind turbine facilities are less certain, but may average several hundred thousand per year throughout North America. Because new projects may be located in or near sensitive wildlife habitats, ecological science plays a key role in helping to guide project siting and operational

  14. Overview of Internal Research on Geological Sequestration of CO2 at ORD

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is widely acknowledged that leakage through transmissive faults (and associated fractures) and well penetrations (operational, non-operational, and abandoned wells) are the most likely pathways for migration out of a storage formation at sites selected for geological sequestra...

  15. Establishing MICHCARB, a geological carbon sequestration research and education center for Michigan, implemented through the Michigan Geological Repository for Research and Education, part of the Department of Geosciences at Western Michigan University

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, David A.; Harrison, William B.

    2014-01-28

    The Michigan Geological Repository for Research and Education (MGRRE), part of the Department of Geosciences at Western Michigan University (WMU) at Kalamazoo, Michigan, established MichCarb—a geological carbon sequestration resource center by: • Archiving and maintaining a current reference collection of carbon sequestration published literature • Developing statewide and site-specific digital research databases for Michigan’s deep geological formations relevant to CO2 storage, containment and potential for enhanced oil recovery • Producing maps and tables of physical properties as components of these databases • Compiling all information into a digital atlas • Conducting geologic and fluid flow modeling to address specific predictive uses of CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery, including compiling data for geological and fluid flow models, formulating models, integrating data, and running the models; applying models to specific predictive uses of CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery • Conducting technical research on CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery through basic and applied research of characterizing Michigan oil and gas and saline reservoirs for CO2 storage potential volume, injectivity and containment. Based on our research, we have concluded that the Michigan Basin has excellent saline aquifer (residual entrapment) and CO2/Enhanced oil recovery related (CO2/EOR; buoyant entrapment) geological carbon sequestration potential with substantial, associated incremental oil production potential. These storage reservoirs possess at least satisfactory injectivity and reliable, permanent containment resulting from associated, thick, low permeability confining layers. Saline aquifer storage resource estimates in the two major residual entrapment, reservoir target zones (Lower Paleozoic Sandstone and Middle Paleozoic carbonate and sandstone reservoirs) are in excess of 70-80 Gmt (at an overall 10% storage efficiency factor; an approximately

  16. Geophysics & Geology Inspected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, E. R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes findings of a recently published report of the Canadian Geoscience Council, which includes the following topics regarding college geology: facilities; teaching; undergraduate enrollments; postgraduate enrollments; geologic research; and integration of Canadian geoscience with other countries. (CS)

  17. Geologic spatial analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the development of geologic spatial analysis research which focuses on conducting comprehensive three-dimensional analysis of regions using geologic data sets that can be referenced by latitude, longitude, and elevation/depth. (CBS)

  18. US Geological Survey research on the environmental fate of uranium mining and milling wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Gray, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Studies by the US Geological Survey (USGS) of uranium mill tailings (UMT) have focused on characterizing the forms in which radionuclides are retained and identifying factors influencing the release of radionuclides to air and water. Selective extraction studies and studies of radionuclide sorption by and leaching from components of UMT showed alkaline earth sulfate and hydrous ferric oxides to be important hosts of radium-226 (226Ra) in UMT. Extrapolating from studies of barite dissolution in anerobic lake sediments, the leaching of 226Ra from UMT by sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated; a marked increase in 226Ra release to aqueous solution as compared to sterile controls was demonstrated. A similar action of iron(III)-reducing bacteria was later shown. Ion exchangers such as clay minerals can also promote the dissolution of host-phase minerals and thereby influence the fate of radionuclides such as 226Ra. Radon release studies examined particle size and ore composition as variables. Aggregation of UMT particles was shown to mask the higher emanating fraction of finer particles. Studies of various ores and ore components showed that UMT cannot be assumed to have the same radon-release characteristics as their precursor ores, nor can 226Ra retained by various substrates be assumed to emanate the same fraction of radon. Over the last decade, USGS research directed at offsite mobility of radionuclides from uranium mining and milling processes has focused on six areas: the Midnite Mine in Washington; Ralston Creek and Reservoir, Colorado; sites near Canon City, Colorado; the Monument Valley District of Arizona and Utah; the Cameron District of Arizona; and the Puerco River basin of Arizona and New Mexico.

  19. Keck Geology Consortium Lava Project: Undergraduate Research Linking Natural and Experimental Basaltic Lava Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karson, J. A.; Hazlett, R. W.; Wysocki, R.; Bromfield, M. E.; Browne, N. C.; Davis, N. C.; Pelland, C. G.; Rowan, W. L.; Warner, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Undergraduate students in the Keck Geology Consortium Lava Project participated in a month-long investigation of features of basaltic lava flows from two very different perspectives. The first half of the project focused on field relations in basaltic lava flows from the 1984 Krafla Fires eruption in northern Iceland. Students gained valuable experience in the collection of observations and samples in the field leading to hypotheses for the formation of selected features related to lava flow dynamics. Studies focused on a wide range of features including: morphology and heat loss in lava tubes (pyroducts), growth and collapse of lava ponds and overflow deposits, textural changes of lava falls (flow over steep steps), spaced spatter cones from flows over wet ground, and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility related to flow kinematics. In the second half of the program students designed, helped execute, documented, and analyzed features similar to those they studied in the field with large-scale (50-250 kg) basaltic lava flows created in the Syracuse University Lava Project (http://lavaproject.syr.edu). Data collected included video from multiple perspectives, infrared thermal (FLIR) images, still images, detailed measurements of flow dimensions and rates, and samples for textural and magnetic analyses. Experimental lava flow features provided critical tests of hypotheses generated in the field and a refined understanding of the behavior and final morphology of basaltic lava flows. The linked field and experimental studies formed the basis for year-long independent research projects under the supervision of their faculty mentors, leading to senior theses at the students' respective institutions.

  20. US Geological Survey research on the environmental fate of uranium mining and milling wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landa, E. R.; Gray, J. R.

    1995-07-01

    Studies by the US Geological Survey (USGS) of uranium mill tailings (UMT) have focused on characterizing the forms in which radionuclides are retained and identifying factors influencing the release of radionuclides to air and water. Selective extraction studies and studies of radionuclide sorption by and leaching from components of UMT showed alkaline earth sulfate and hydrous ferric oxides to be important hosts of radium-226 (226Ra) in UMT. Extrapolating from studies of barite dissolution in anerobic lake sediments, the leaching of226Ra from UMT by sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated; a marked increase in226Ra release to aqueous solution as compared to sterile controls was demonstrated. A similar action of iron(III)-reducing bacteria was later shown. Ion exchangers such as clay minerals can also promote the dissolution of host-phase minerals and thereby influence the fate of radionuclides such as226Ra. Radon release studies examined particle size and ore composition as variables. Aggregation of UMT particles was shown to mask the higher emanating fraction of finer particles. Studies of various ores and ore components showed that UMT cannot be assumed to have the same radon-release characteristics as their precursor ores, nor can226Ra retained by various substrates be assumed to emanate the same fraction of radon. Over the last decade, USGS research directed at offsite mobility of radionuclides from uranium mining and milling processes has focused on six areas: the Midnite Mine in Washington; Ralston Creek and Reservoir, Colorado; sites near Canon City, Colorado; the Monument Valley District of Arizona and Utah; the Cameron District of Arizona; and the Puerco River basin of Arizona and New Mexico.

  1. Comprenhensive Program of Engineering and Geologic Surveys for Designing and Constructing Radioactive Waste Storage Facilities in Hard Rock Massifs

    SciTech Connect

    Gupalo, T; Milovidov, V; Prokopoca, O; Jardine, L

    2002-12-27

    Geological, geophysical, and engineering-geological research conducted at the 'Yeniseisky' site obtained data on climatic, geomorphologic, geological conditions, structure and properties of composing rock, and conditions of underground water recharge and discharge. These results provide sufficient information to make an estimate of the suitability of locating a radioactive waste (R W) underground isolation facility at the Nizhnekansky granitoid massif

  2. Geology and geohydrology of the east Texas Basin. Report on the progress of nuclear waste isolation feasibility studies (1979)

    SciTech Connect

    Kreitler, C.W.; Agagu, O.K.; Basciano, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The program to investigate the suitability of salt domes in the east Texas Basin for long-term nuclear waste repositories addresses the stability of specific domes for potential repositories and evaluates generically the geologic and hydrogeologic stability of all the domes in the region. Analysis during the second year was highlighted by a historical characterization of East Texas Basin infilling, the development of a model to explain the growth history of the domes, the continued studies of the Quaternary in East Texas, and a better understanding of the near-dome and regional hydrology of the basin. Each advancement represents a part of the larger integrated program addressing the critical problems of geologic and hydrologic stabilities of salt domes in the East Texas Basin.

  3. AEGIS technology demonstration for a nuclear waste repository in basalt. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dove, F.H.; Cole, C.R.; Foley, M.G.

    1982-09-01

    A technology demonstration of current performance assessment techniques as applied to a nuclear waste repository in the Columbia Plateau Basalts was conducted. Hypothetical repository coordinates were selected for an actual geographical setting on the Hanford Reservation in the state of Washington. Published hydrologic and geologic data used in the analyses were gathered in 1979 or earlier. The following report documents the technology demonstration in basalt. Available information has been used to establish the data base and initial hydrologic and geologic interpretations for this site-specific application. A simplified diagram of the AEGIS analyses is shown. Because an understanding of the dynamics of ground-water flow is essential to the development of release scenarios and consequence analyses, a key step in the demonstration is the systems characterization contained in the conceptual model. Regional and local ground-water movement patterns have been defined with the aid of hydrologic computer models. Hypothetical release scenarios have been developed and evaluated by a process involving expert opinion and a Geologic Simulation Model for basalt. (The Geologic Simulation Model can also be used to forecast future boundary conditions for the hydrologic simulation.) Chemical reactivity of the basalt with ground water will influence the leaching and transport of radionuclides; solubility equilibria based on available data are estimated with geochemical models. After the radionuclide concentrations are mathematically introduced into the ground-water movement patterns, waste movement patterns are outlined over elapsed time. Contaminant transport results are summarized for significant radionuclides that are hypothetically released to the accessible environment and to the biosphere.

  4. Geologic and well-construction data for the H-9 borehole complex near the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site, southeastern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drellack, S.L.; Wells, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    The H-9 complex, a group of three closely spaced boreholes, is located 5.5 miles south of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in east-central Eddy County, New Mexico. The holes were drilled during July, August, and September 1979 to obtain geologic and hydrologic data to better define the regional ground-water-flow system. The geologic data presented in this report are part of a site-characterization study for the possible storage of defense-associated radioactive wastes within salt beds of the Salado Formation of Permian age. The geologic data include detailed descriptions of cores, cuttings, and geophysical logs. Each borehole was designed to penetrate a distinct water-bearing zone: H-9a (total depth 559 feet) was completed just below the Magenta Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation; H-9b (total depth 708 feet) was completed just below the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation; H-9c (total depth 816 feet) was completed below the Rustler Formation-Salado Formation contact. The geologic units penetrated in borehole H-9c are eolian sand of Holocene age (0-5 feet); the Gatuna Formation of Pleistocene age; (5-25 feet); and the Dewey Lake Red Beds (25-455 feet), the Rustler Formation (455.791 feet), and part of the Salado Formation (791-816 feet), all of Permian age. Three sections (494-501 feet, 615-625 feet, 692-712 feet) in the Rustler Formation penetrated by borehole H-9c are composed of remnant anhydrite (locally altered to gypsum) and clay and silt residue from the dissolution of much thicker seams of argillaceous and silty halite. This indicates that the eastward-moving dissolution within the Rustler Formation, found just to the west of the WIPP site, is present at the H-9 site. (USGS)

  5. Geologic and well-construction data for the H-8 borehole complex near the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site, southeastern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, J.G.; Drellack, S.L.

    1982-01-01

    The H-8 complex, a group of three closely-spaced boreholes, is located 9 miles south of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site in southeastern Eddy County, New Mexico. The holes were drilled during July, August, and September of 1979 to obtain geologic and hydrologic data to better define the regional ground-water-flow system. The geologic data presented in this report are part of a site-characterization study for the possible disposal of defense-associated radioactive wastes within salt beds of the Salado Formation of Permian age. The geologic data include detailed descriptions of cores, cuttings, and geophysical logs. Each borehole was designed to penetrate a distinct water-bearing zone: H-8a (total depth 505 feet) was completed just below the Magenta Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation of Permian Age; H-8b (total depth 624 feet) was completed just belows the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation; and H-8c (total depth 808 feet) was completed just below the Rustler Formation-Salado Formation contact. The geologic units penetrated in borehole H-8c are surficial alluvium and eolian sand of Holocene age (0-4 feet); the Mescalero caliche (4-10 feet) and Gatuna Formation (10-153 feet) , both of Pleistocene age; and the Dewey Lake Red Beds (153-399 feet), the Rustler Formation (399-733 feet), and part of the Salado Formation penetrated by borehole H-8c is composed of residue from dissolution of halite and associated rocks, and the hydration of anhydrite to gypsum, indicating that the eastward-moving dissolution front on top of the Salado, found just to the west of the WIPP site, has reached the H-8 site. (USGS)

  6. Coal assessments and coal research in the Appalachian basin: Chapter D.4 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tewalt, Susan J.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    State geological surveys are concentrating on mapping and correlating coal beds and coal zones and studying CBM potential and production. Both State surveys and the USGS are researching the potential for carbon dioxide sequestration in unmined coal beds and other geologic reservoirs. In addition, the State geological surveys continue their long-term collaboration with the USGS and provide coal stratigraphic data to the National Coal Resources Data System (NCRDS).

  7. The Necessity of Geologic Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    R. Linden

    2004-07-01

    Nuclear wastes are the radioactive byproducts of nuclear power generation, nuclear weapons production, and other uses of nuclear material. Experts from around the world agree that deep geologic disposal of nuclear waste in a mined repository is the most environmentally sound means of removing these potential sources of radiation from interaction with the biosphere. Of the 360 millirem of background radiation received annually by the average American, from both natural and man-made sources, less than 1 millirem results from the nuclear fuel cycle. Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, destined for geologic disposal, are located at 126 sites in 39 states. The proposed repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is far more isolated from the general population than any sites where these radioactive materials are presently located. Only solid forms of high-level wastes will be transported for disposal in a geologic repository. For more than 50 years, nuclear materials have been safely transported in North America, Europe, and Asia, without a single significant radiation release. Since the 1950s, select panels from the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council and interagency advisory groups, and international experts selected by the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency, have examined the environmental, ethical, and intergenerational aspects of nuclear waste disposal, plus alternatives to geologic disposal. All have concluded that deep geologic disposal in a mined repository is clearly the preferred option. The concept of deep geologic disposal is based on the analogy to ore deposits, which are formed deep within the Earth's crust, commonly remain isolated from the biosphere for millions to billions of years, and are, generally, extremely difficult to detect. Before selecting the unsaturated tuffs at Yucca Mountain, DOE evaluated salt formations, basalts, and both crystalline and sedimentary rocks. Other nations generating nuclear power also plan to use

  8. Contribution of Satellite Altimetry Data in Geological Structure Research in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dung Tran, Tuan; Ho, Thi Huong Mai

    2016-06-01

    The study area is bordered on the East China Sea, the Philippine Sea, and the Australian-Indo plate in the Northeast, in the East and in the South, respectively. It is a large area with the diversely complicated conditions of geological structure. In spite of over the past many years of investigation, marine geological structure in many places have remained poorly understood because of a thick seawater layer as well as of the sensitive conflicts among the countries in the region. In recent years, the satellite altimeter technology allows of enhancement the marine investigation in any area. The ocean surface height is measured by a very accurate radar altimeter mounted on a satellite. Then, that surface can be converted into marine gravity anomaly or bathymetry by using the mathematical model. It is the only way to achieve the data with a uniform resolution in acceptable time and cost. The satellite altimetry data and its variants are essential for understanding marine geological structure. They provide a reliable opportunity to geologists and geophysicists for studying the geological features beneath the ocean floor. Also satellite altimeter data is perfect for planning the more detailed shipboard surveys. Especially, it is more meaningful in the remote or sparsely surveyed regions. In this paper, the authors have effectively used the satellite altimetry and shipboard data in combination. Many geological features, such as seafloor spreading ridges, fault systems, volcanic chains as well as distribution of sedimentary basins are revealed through the 2D, 3D model methods of interpretation of satellite-shipboard-derived data and the others. These results are improved by existing boreholes and seismic data in the study area.

  9. New data on geology of the Southern Urals: a concise summary of research after the period of EUROPROBE activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchkov, Victor N.

    2016-08-01

    The period of official activity of the EUROPROBE commission was conducted in the Urals with implementation of the URALIDES program, which stimulated many qualified geologists from western research institutes and universities to come to the region and work with local geologists on topical problems of Uralian geology. The author aims to answer questions as to what interesting results have been obtained in the Southern Urals in the last decade, after most foreign researchers left the Urals, and how these results correspond to the scientific conclusions that had been reached before.

  10. Using Volunteer Data in Scientific Research: Combining GLOBE and USGS Data to Relate Surface Water Alkalinity With Regional Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, M. H.; Morrill, J. C.; Bales, R. C.; Whitter, J.; Brice, R.

    2001-12-01

    Many volunteer datasets lack the spatial or temporal coverage necessary to make them useful to researchers without supplemental data. Alkalinity data from 35 GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) and 619 USGS (United States Geological Survey) surface water quality sites were compared with each other and the large-scale regional geology. Past analyses of GLOBE data, collected mostly by K 12 students, have shown that the majority of water sites tend to have lower alkalinity than observed at professionally monitored sites, but this may be a function of stream size rather than sampling error. GLOBE data tends to come from smaller streams than those monitored by the USGS, and thus represent a different sampling population. Both datasets displayed the same geographic trends in alkalinity, but the greater number of USGS sites made the trends easier to visualize spatially. The alkalinity of natural water in a region should reflect the geology of an area's bedrock, which provides the source material for mineral weathering. This is especially true for rivers, which integrate over an area, but should be reflected also in many smaller streams that drain representative parts of a basin. GLOBE and USGS observations were both consistent with the regional geology in all areas of the United States except the southeast, where either the mineralogy of silicate sedimentary layers deposited over the carbonate bedrock is a more important influence, or acidic precipitation and deposition has destroyed the buffering capacity of the water. This paper examines how GLOBE water quality data compares with and can be used in regional studies to supplement professional data. The example research project shows how teachers and students can compare their data with outside data, integrate different datasets using GIS, and use them together to understand one of the basic principles of hydrogeology.

  11. A standard bacterial isolate set for research on contemporary dairy spoilage.

    PubMed

    Trmčić, A; Martin, N H; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M

    2015-08-01

    Food spoilage is an ongoing issue that could be dealt with more efficiently if some standardization and unification was introduced in this field of research. For example, research and development efforts to understand and reduce food spoilage can greatly be enhanced through availability and use of standardized isolate sets. To address this critical issue, we have assembled a standard isolate set of dairy spoilers and other selected nonpathogenic organisms frequently associated with dairy products. This publicly available bacterial set consists of (1) 35 gram-positive isolates including 9 Bacillus and 15 Paenibacillus isolates and (2) 16 gram-negative isolates including 4 Pseudomonas and 8 coliform isolates. The set includes isolates obtained from samples of pasteurized milk (n=43), pasteurized chocolate milk (n=1), raw milk (n=1), cheese (n=2), as well as isolates obtained from samples obtained from dairy-powder production (n=4). Analysis of growth characteristics in skim milk broth identified 16 gram-positive and 13 gram-negative isolates as psychrotolerant. Additional phenotypic characterization of isolates included testing for activity of β-galactosidase and lipolytic and proteolytic enzymes. All groups of isolates included in the isolate set exhibited diversity in growth and enzyme activity. Source data for all isolates in this isolate set are publicly available in the FoodMicrobeTracker database (http://www.foodmicrobetracker.com), which allows for continuous updating of information and advancement of knowledge on dairy-spoilage representatives included in this isolate set. This isolate set along with publicly available isolate data provide a unique resource that will help advance knowledge of dairy-spoilage organisms as well as aid industry in development and validation of new control strategies.

  12. Using the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for testing, demonstration and training for the mined geological system surface waste handling

    SciTech Connect

    Bali, M.; Kelley, C.

    1995-08-01

    This paper explores the possibility of using the Remote Handled Transuranic) (RH TRU) side of WIPP to test and demonstrate mined geologic disposal system (MGDS) equipment and concepts of operation, and to train MGDS personnel. The authors believe that the experience gained from this interaction could lead to significant saving for both the WIPP and MGDS. The paper compares the operations at both facilities; identifies MGBS operations that can be duplicated without change at WIPP; identifies MGDS operations that can be simulated at a smaller scale at WIPP; identifies MGDS operations that require modifications at WIPP and determines the extent of modifications required and whether the modifications impact WIPP`s mission of disposing of RH TRU wastes; and finally the paper estimates the cost of using WIPP for the above testing, demonstration, and training. The paper concludes that using WIPP for the benefit of the MGDS is feasible without impacting WIPP`s mission and suggests a schedule for implementation.

  13. ERTS-1 data as a teaching and research tool in the Department of Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grybeck, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. During the sixth bi-monthly period, a mosaic was constructed in MSS band 6 of the southeastern one-half of Alaska. A mosaic of the whole state awaits additional coverage to fill in some gaps. In addition, new material is being monitored as it arrived at the Geophysical Institute and from the NASA Indices for inclusion into the departmental collections. No geology courses are being taught during the summer.

  14. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. A conceptual simulation model for release scenario analysis of a hypothetical site in Columbia Plateau Basalts

    SciTech Connect

    Stottlemyre, J.A.; Petrie, G.M.; Benson, G.L.; Zellmer, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    This report is a status report for an evolving methodology for release scenario development for underground nuclear waste repositories. As such, it is intended for use as a reference point and a preliminary description of an evolving geoscience methodology. When completed this methodology will be used as a tool in developing disruptive release scenarios for analyzing the long-term safety of geological nuclear waste repositories. While a basalt environment is used as an example, this report is not intended to reflect an actual site safety assessment for a repository in a media. It is rather intended to present a methodology system framework and to provide discussions of the geological phenomena and parameters that must be addressed in order to develop a methodology for potential release scenarios. It is also important to note that the phenomena, their interrelationships, and their relative importance along with the overall current structure of the model will change as new geological information is gathered through additional peer review, geotechnical input, site specific field work, and related research efforts.

  15. Implementing Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste Technology Platform From the Strategic Research Agenda to its Deployment - 12015

    SciTech Connect

    Ouzounian, P.; Palmu, Marjatta; Eng, Torsten

    2012-07-01

    Several European waste management organizations (WMOs) have initiated a technology platform for accelerating the implementation of deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in Europe. The most advanced waste management programmes in Europe (i.e. Finland, Sweden, and France) have already started or are prepared to start the licensing process of deep geological disposal facilities within the next decade. A technology platform called Implementing Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste Technology Platform (IGD-TP) was launched in November 2009. A shared vision report for the platform was published stating that: 'Our vision is that by 2025, the first geological disposal facilities for spent fuel, high-level waste, and other long-lived radioactive waste will be operating safely in Europe'. In 2011, the IGD-TP had eleven WMO members and about 70 participants from academia, research, and the industry committed to its vision. The IGD-TP has started to become a tool for reducing overlapping work, to produce savings in total costs of research and implementation and to make better use of existing competence and research infrastructures. The main contributor to this is the deployment of the IGD-TP's newly published Strategic Research Agenda (SRA). The work undertaken for the SRA defined the pending research, development and demonstration (RD and D) issues and needs. The SRA document describing the identified issues that could be worked on collaboratively was published in July 2011. It is available on the project's public web site (www.igdtp.eu). The SRA was organized around 7 Key Topics covering the Safety Case, Waste forms and their behaviour, Technical feasibility and long-term performance of repository components, Development strategy of the repository, Safety of construction and operations, Monitoring, and Governance and stakeholder involvement. Individual Topics were prioritized within the Key Topics. Cross-cutting activities like Education and Training or Knowledge

  16. Research about the Control of Geological Structure on Karst Groundwater system in Zhangfang, Beijing,China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, X.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonate formations are intensively distributed throughout Zhangfang, fangshan, in West Mountain area in Beijing. Karst groundwater exits among the geological fracture network which is characterized by the different arrangements and levels in different types of fracture networks and structures. The influence of the tectonic environment on the dynamic change rule and the enrichment regulation of karst system is significant for the exploitation and protection of karst groundwater resources. From the control function of fault and fracture point of view, based on the developmental and distribution pattern of multi-episodic tectonism, this study analyzed fractures in the three-fold structural units characterized by NE-NW and NS trends and discussed the influence of multi-episodic tectonism on the groundwater flow system and rich water zones. The results showed that the geological fracture underwent two episodes of tectonism, thrusting nappe in the Jurassic and extension in the Cretaceous. The overprint of two episodes resulted in a number of faults with high hydraulic conductivity, which serve as conduits. The superiority joints groups are in the NE and NW directions, with conjugated characteristics. The high-angle or vertical dips directly benefit infiltration. The fractures in the intersection areas have formed groundwater runoff channels and strong space, controlling water-rich zones such as Baidai, Ganchi-Changgou and Gaozhuang-Shiwo. Magmatic rock and the aquiclude also contribute to the rich water zones and the location of springs, all of which have important significance for water supply. Keywords: system of Karst groundwater, geological structure, fracture network, hydrogeological flow field, Zhangfang karst area

  17. Geologic research of conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon resources. Quarterly report, October 1, 1992--March 1, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-02

    This report covers the period from October 1, 1992 to March 1, 1993. The overall goals of the program task are to provide a final synthesis of six deep seismic reflection profiles and other geological and geophysical data from the southern Washington Cascades region where a probable extensive deep sedimentary basin has been discovered. This deep sedimentary basin is hypothesized from geological, regional magnetotelluric (MT), gravity, magnetic , and seismic reflection data as described in the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) article by Stanley and others (1992). This report analyzed three seismic reflection profiles acquired by the Morgantown Energy Technology Centers in combination with the extensive MT and other data to outline a probable geological model for a thick conductive section of rocks in the southern Washington Cascades (called the Southern Washington Cascades conductor, SWCC). Earlier MT models suggested that the section consisted of an east-dipping package that extended to depths of as much as 20 km but appeared to surface in the Bear Canyon area near Morton, Washington and along the axis of the Carbon River and Morton anticlines. Interpretation of the first three DOE seismic reflection approximately confirmed the MT interpretation and added new information on anticlinal structures and detailed stratigraphy. In this quarterly report, we summarize the progress over the first two quarters of the program for FY93, and project the possible findings during the remainder of the project. A milestone chart for the first two quarters has been submitted separately, along with cost reports, but a copy of these items are attached for completeness.

  18. U.S. Geological Survey research on surrogate measurements for suspended sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John R.; Melis, Theodore S.; Patiño, Eduardo; Larsen, Matthew C.; Topping, David J.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Figueroa-Alamo, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is evaluating potentially useful surrogate instruments and methods for inferring the physical characteristics of suspended sediments. Instruments operating on bulk acoustic, bulk and digital optic, laser, and pressure-differential technologies are being tested in riverine and laboratory settings for their usefulness to Federal agencies toward providing quantifiably reliable information on bed-material and bed-topography characteristics, and on concentrations, size distributions and transport rates of sediments in suspension and as bedload. The efficacy of four suspended-sediment surrogate technologies has been demonstrated to varying degrees of success in Kansas, Florida, Arizona, and Puerto Rico.

  19. Spatial Distribution of Uranium in Groundwater and Associated Geologic Material at the NABIR Field Research Center Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, D. H.; Watson, D. B.

    2001-05-01

    The Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research Program (NABIR) has established a Field Research Center (FRC) on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The FRC provides a site for investigators to conduct research and obtain samples related to in situ bioremediation. This site is in the form of four buried unlined ponds where uranium and other contaminants were disposed in nitric acid for 32 years. In 1984, the ponds were neutralized with limestone, RCRA capped and paved with a parking lot. Analysis of groundwater and geologic material sampled from the site show that uranium is preferentially migrating away from the ponds and towards the nearby Bear Creek. Preferential flow appears to be associated with an ancient buried stream bed and remnant fractures in the saprolite where the uranium content of the groundwater is as high as 7 ppm. Due to the greater discharge of the contaminant source in this portion of the regolith, there is higher weathering of the shallow regolith (top 20 ft)and a greater accumulation of uranium compared to other sections of geologic material surrounding the disposal site.

  20. Investigations and research in Nevada by the Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katzer, Terry; Moosburner, Otto; Nichols, W.D.

    1984-01-01

    The Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, is charged with (1) maintaining a hydrologic network in Nevada that provides information on the status of the State 's water resources and (2) engaging in technical water-resources investigations that have a high degree of transferability. To meet these broad objectives, 26 projects were active during fiscal year 1982, in cooperation with 36 Federal, State, and local agencies. Total funds were $3,319,455, of which State and local cooperative funding amounted to $741,500 and Federal funding (comprised of Geological Survey Federal and cooperative program plus funds from six other Federal agencies) amounted to $2,577,955 for the fiscal year. Projects other than continuing programs for collection of hydrologic data included the following topics of study: geothermal resources, areal ground-water resources and ground-water modeling, waste disposal , paleohydrology, acid mine drainage, the unsaturated zone, stream and reservoir sedimentation, river-quality modeling, flood hazards, and remote sensing in hydrology. In total, 26 reports and symposium abstracts were published or in press during fiscal year 1982. (USGS)

  1. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Test case release consequence analysis for a spent fuel repository in bedded salt

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, J.R.; Bond, F.W.; Cole, C.R.; Nelson, R.W.; Reisenauer, A.E.; Washburn, J.F.; Norman, N.A.; Mote, P.A.; Segol, G.

    1980-01-01

    Geologic and geohydrologic data for the Paradox Basin have been used to simulate movement of ground water and radioacrtive contaminants from a hypothetical nuclear reactor spent fuel repository after an assumed accidental release. The pathlines, travel times and velocity of the ground water from the repository to the discharge locale (river) were determined after the disruptive event by use of a two-dimensional finite difference hydrologic model. The concentration of radioactive contaminants in the ground water was calculated along a series of flow tubes by use of a one-dimensional mass transport model which takes into account convection, dispersion, contaminant/media interactions and radioactive decay. For the hypothetical site location and specific parameters used in this demonstration, it is found that Iodine-129 (I-129) is tthe only isotope reaching the Colorado River in significant concentration. This concentration occurs about 8.0 x 10/sup 5/ years after the repository has been breached. This I-129 ground-water concentration is about 0.3 of the drinking water standard for uncontrolled use. The groundwater concentration would then be diluted by the Colorado River. None of the actinide elements reach more than half the distance from the repository to the Colorado River in the two-million year model run time. This exercise demonstrates that the WISAP model system is applicable for analysis of contaminant transport. The results presented in this report, however, are valid only for one particular set of parameters. A complete sensitivity analysis must be performed to evaluate the range of effects from the release of contaminants from a breached repository.

  2. Theoretical analysis and experimental research on the finline ferrite isolator (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Sheng-chuan; Hao, Yan-ming; Zhang, Yao-xi

    1991-04-01

    Recently, the finline ferrite devices have attracted people's attention. Beyer et al. have done theoretical and experimental researches for a finline isolator.1,2 In order to make it convenient for theoretical design and experimental adjustment of this device, we have developed a synthetical theory and have carried out the experimental research successfully.3 In this paper, we have done the further theoretical analysis and experimental researches for the finline ferrite isolator, such as the impedance matching, the effects of device structure on performances, and the transplantation of a waveguide isolator to a finline isolator problem. Good agreement between design and experiment is obtained. The performances of a X-band finline isolator are as follows A+<1.5 dB, A-≳18 dB, VSWR<1.5 in a 8% bandwidth, and the bia-field is lower (about 1000 Oe).

  3. NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Undergraduate Research Program (PGGURP): The Value of Undergraduate Geoscience Internships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, T. K.

    2008-12-01

    NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program began funding PGGURP in 1978, in an effort to help planetary scientists deal with what was then seen as a flood of Viking Orbiter data. Each subsequent year, PGGURP has paired 8 - 15 undergraduates with NASA-funded Principal Investigators (PIs) around the country for approximately 8 weeks during the summer. Unlike other internship programs, the students are not housed together, but are paired, one-on-one, with a PI at his or her home institution. PGGURP interns have worked at sites ranging from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Through NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, the interns' travel and lodging costs are covered, as are a cost-of-living stipend. Approximately 30% of the undergraduate PGGURP participants continue on to graduate school in the planetary sciences. We consider this to be an enormous success, because the participants are among the best and brightest undergraduates in the country with a wide range of declared majors (e.g., physics, chemistry, biology, as well as geology). Furthermore, those students that do continue tend to excel, and point to the internship as a turning point in their scientific careers. The NASA PIs who serve as mentors agree that this is a valuable experience for them, too, and many of them have been hosting interns annually for well over a decade. The PI obtains enthusiastic and intelligent undergraduate, free of charge, for a summer, while having the opportunity to work closely with today's students who are the future of planetary science. The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in Houston, TX, also sponsors a summer undergraduate internship. Approximately 12 students are selected to live together in apartments located near the Lunar and Planetary Institute and the Johnson Space Center. Similar to PGGURP, the LPI interns are carefully selected to work one-on-one for ~10 weeks during the summer with one of the LPI staff scientists

  4. Loesses Near KRAKÓW in Light of Geological-Engineering Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borecka, Aleksandra; Olek, Bartłomiej

    2013-03-01

    This work is only a preliminary study on the evaluation of geological engineering properties of loess area of Kraków. It has been expanded to include field tests (CPTU, DMT), which is an alternative to expensive and time-consuming laboratory tests. The field tests allow enough detail to track the variability of physical and mechanical properties of soils, but in many cases, provide too much information, because their interpretation is often based only on a qualitative analysis. Laboratory and field tests are complementary and should be continued in order to determine best the correlation between the measured values of the resistance probes (CPTU, DMT) and the results obtained from laboratory tests. This will provide new calculation formulas for the evaluation of geotechnical parameters of loess in situ.

  5. THREE-COMPONENT BOREHOLE MAGNETOMETER PROBE FOR MINERAL INVESTIGATIONS AND GEOLOGIC RESEARCH.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, James H.; Olson, Gary G.

    1985-01-01

    A small-diameter three-component fluxgate magnetometer probe with gyroscopic and inclinometer orientation has been developed to meet U. S. Geological Survey design and performance specifications for measurement of the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field in vertical and inclined boreholes. The orthogonal fluxgate magnetometer elements have a measurement resolution of 10 nanoteslas (nT) and a range of plus or minus 80,000 nT. The gyroscope has an effective resolution of one degree, and the orthogonal inclinometers, 0. 1 degree. The magnetometer probe has been field tested in several holes drilled through volcanic rocks in Nevada. Results indicate that reversals of polarization can be detected, and some rock units in this area appear to be characterized by unique magnetic signatures.

  6. U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY'S RESEARCH PROGRAM IN THE NEWLY PROCLAIMED EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, Gary

    1984-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been developing a program which would emphasize broad-scale surveys of the continental margin and intensive studies of 'baseline corridors' in various areas of the U. S. EEZ to gather energy and mining information in this new frontier as quickly as possible. Of twelve baseline corridors identified to date along the east and west coasts and the Gulf of Mexico, the highest priority would be placed on areas off the west coast, including Juan De Fuca and Gorda Ridges and off Hawaii. Each corridor assessment will involve collection of multi-channel and high resolution geophysical data, bottom relief and sampling, and production of reports and cartographic products displaying the scientific findings of the assessments.

  7. NOVEL CONCEPTS RESEARCH IN GEOLOGIC STORAGE OF CO2 PHASE III

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj Gupta

    2006-01-23

    As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) initiative on developing new technologies for storage of carbon dioxide in geologic reservoirs, Battelle has been investigating the feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in the deep saline reservoirs in the Ohio River Valley region. In addition to the DOE, the project is being sponsored by American Electric Power (AEP), BP, The Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) of the Ohio Air Quality Development Authority, Schlumberger, and Battelle. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate that CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep formations is feasible from engineering and economic perspectives, as well as being an inherently safe practice and one that will be acceptable to the public. In addition, the project is designed to evaluate the geology of deep formations in the Ohio River Valley region in general and in the vicinity of AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant in particular, in order to determine their potential use for conducting a long-term test of CO{sub 2} disposal in deep saline formations. The current technical progress report summarizes activities completed for the October through December 2005 period of the project. As discussed in the following report, the main field activity was reservoir testing in the Copper Ridge ''B-zone'' in the AEP No.1 well. In addition reservoir simulations were completed to assess feasibility of CO{sub 2} injection for the Mountaineer site. These reservoir testing and computer simulation results suggest that injection potential may be substantially more than anticipated for the Mountaineer site. Work also continued on development of injection well design options, engineering assessment of CO{sub 2} capture systems, permitting, and assessment of monitoring technologies as they apply to the project site. Overall, the current design feasibility phase project is proceeding according to plans.

  8. New Insights on the Geologic Framework of Alaska and Potential Targets of Opportunity for Future Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, K.; Trop, J. M.; Finzel, E.; Brennan, P. R.; Gilbert, H. J.; Flesch, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Studies the past decade have fundamentally changed our perspective on the Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic configuration of Alaska. New concepts include: 1) A link exists between Mesozoic collisional zones, Cenozoic strike-slip fault systems, and active deformation that is related to lithospheric heterogeneities that remain over geologic timescales. The location of the active Denali fault and high topography, for example, is within a Mesozoic collisional zone. Rheological differences between juxtaposed crustal blocks and crustal thickening in this zone have had a significant influence on deformation and exhumation in south-central Alaska. In general, the original configuration of the collisional zone appears to set the boundary conditions for long-term and active deformation. 2) Subduction of a spreading ridge has significantly modified the convergent margin of southern Alaska. Paleocene-Eocene ridge subduction resulted in surface uplift, unconformity development and changes in deposystems in the forearc region, and magmatism that extended from the paleotrench to the retroarc region. 3) Oligocene to Recent shallow subduction of an oceanic plateau has markedly reconfigured the upper plate of the southern Alaska convergent margin. This ongoing process has prompted growth of some of the largest mountain ranges on Earth, exhumation of the forearc and backarc regions above the subducted slab, development of a regional gap in arc magmatism above the subducted slab as well as slab-edge magmatism, and displacement on the Denali fault system. In the light of these new tectonic concepts for Alaska, we will discuss targets of opportunity for future integrated geologic and geophysical studies. These targets include regional strike-slip fault systems, the newly recognized Bering plate, and the role of spreading ridge and oceanic plateau subduction on the location and pace of exhumation, sedimentary basin development, and magmatism in the upper plate.

  9. Cascadia GeoSciences: Community-Based Earth Science Research Focused on Geologic Hazard Assessment and Environmental Restoration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, T. B.; Patton, J. R.; Leroy, T. H.

    2007-12-01

    Cascadia GeoSciences (CG) is a new non-profit membership governed corporation whose main objectives are to conduct and promote interdisciplinary community based earth science research. The primary focus of CG is on geologic hazard assessment and environmental restoration in the Western U.S. The primary geographic region of interest is Humboldt Bay, NW California, within the southern Cascadia subduction zone (SCSZ). This region is the on-land portion of the accretionary prism to the SCSZ, a unique and exciting setting with numerous hazards in an active, dynamic geologic environment. Humboldt Bay is also a region rich in history. Timber harvesting has been occurring in California's coastal forestlands for approximately 150 years. Timber products transported with ships and railroads from Mendocino and Humboldt Counties helped rebuild San Francisco after the 1906 earthquake. Historic land-use of this type now commonly requires the services of geologists, engineers, and biologists to restore road networks as well as provide safe fish passage. While Humboldt Bay is a focus of some of our individual research goals, we welcome regional scientists to utilize CG to support its mission while achieving their goals. An important function of CG is to provide student opportunities in field research. One of the primary charitable contributions of the organization is a student grant competition. Funds for the student grant will come from member fees and contributions, as well as a percent of all grants awarded to CG. A panel will review and select the student research proposal annually. In addition to supporting student research financially, professional members of CG will donate their time as mentors to the student researchers, promoting a student mentor program. The Humboldt Bay region is well suited to support annual student research. Thorough research like this will help unravel some of the mysteries of regional earthquake-induced land-level changes, as well as possible fault

  10. Geologic and well-construction data for the H-10 borehole complex near the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site, southeastern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, J.G.; Drellack, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    The H-10 borehole complex, a group of three closely spaced boreholes, is located 3 1/2 miles southeast of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site in west-central Lea County, New Mexico. The geological data presented in this report are part of a site-characterization study for the possible storage of defense-associated radioactive wastes within salt beds of the Salado Formation of Permian age. Each borehole was designated to penetrate a distinct water-bearing zone: H-10a (total depth 1 ,318 feet) was completed just below the Magenta Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation of Permian age; H-10b (total depth 1 ,398 feet) was completed just below the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation; and H-10c (total depth 1,538 feet) was completed below the Rustler Formation-Salado Formation contact. The geologic units penetrated in borehole H-10c are surficial alluvium and eolian sand of Holocene age (0-5 feet); the Mescalero caliche (5-9 feet) and the Gatuna Formation (9-90 feet) of Pleistocene age; formation in the Dockum Group (Chinle Formation, 90-482 feet and Santa Rosa Sandstone, 482-658 feet) of Late Triassic age; and the Dewey Lake Red Beds (658-1,204 feet), the Rustler Formation (1,204-1,501 feet), and part of the Salado Formation (1,501-1,538 feet), all of Permian age. The sections of the Rustler and Salado Formations penetrated by borehole H-10c are complete and contain little or no evidence of dissolution of halite and associated rocks, indicating that the eastward-moving dissolution on top of the Salado, found just to the west of the WIPP site, has not reached the H-10 site. (USGS)

  11. The U.S. Geological Survey National Research Program in the hydrologic sciences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baedecker, Mary Jo.; Friedman, Linda C.

    2000-01-01

    The National Research Program (NRP) conducts a wide variety of scientific studies related to hydrology, focusing on long-term investigations. This circular conveys general information about the NRP and highlights a few of the program's research activities.

  12. Seismic Response of a Deep Underground Geologic Repository for Nuclear Waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, P.E.

    1998-11-02

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a deep underground nuclear waste repository certified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ,(EPA) to store transuranic defense-related waste contaminated by small amounts of radioactive materials. Located at a depth of about 655 meters below the surface, the facility is sited in southeastern New Mexico, about 40 Department of Energy underground facilities, waste disposal. kilometers east of the city of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The U.S. (DOE) managed the design and construction of the surface and and remains responsible for operation and closure following The managing and operating contractor for the DOE at the WIPP, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, maintains two rechmiant seismic monitoring systems located at the surface and in the underground. This report discusses two earthquakes detected by the seismic monitoring system, one a duratior magnitude 5.0 (Md) event located approximately 60 km east-southeast of the facility, and another a body-wave magnitude 5.6 (rob) event that occurred approximately 260 kilometers to the south-southeast.

  13. Researching and Respecting the Intricacies of Isolated Communities

    PubMed Central

    Blumling, Amy A.; Thomas, Tami L.; Stephens, Dionne P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Conducting research in a rural area can be challenging for nurses for a variety of different reasons. The task at hand can be especially difficult when it involves discussing a sensitive topic, such as Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. This study was conducted to describe parental perceptions of the HPV vaccine in rural areas, while simultaneously describing a method for engaging in successful nursing research in rural areas. Methods A team of nurse researchers completed a planned process to first understand rural culture in southeastern Georgia, and then more specifically, the families living in these three separate counties. This process initially involved developing a connection and working relationship with key community leaders, such as school principals. Following this, researchers worked on establishing rapport and trust with local parents and research participants themselves. Qualitative methods were then used to collect focus group and interview data on parental views of HPV, HPV vaccination, and HPV-related cancers. Findings Results indicated that parents had little knowledge of the HPV vaccine in rural Georgia, including misconceptions that the vaccine is for females only. In addition, many parents continually voiced the concern that the HPV vaccine would promote promiscuity in their children. Conclusions Providing consistent, timely, and open communication with the community members was crucial throughout the entire research process. This focused approach with respect to total community, culture, and religious value is essential in conducting research. Future studies conducted in rural areas should focus on specific intervention points that improve Parental HPV knowledge. PMID:24817833

  14. Improving Undergraduate Research Experiences With An Intentional Mentoring Program: Lessons Learned Through Assessment of Keck Geology Consortium Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, K. R.; Garver, J. I.; Greer, L.; Pollock, M.; Varga, R. J.; Davidson, C. M.; Frey, H. M.; Hubbard, D. K.; Peck, W. H.; Wobus, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Keck Geology Consortium, with support from the National Science Foundation (REU Program) and ExxonMobil, is a collaborative effort by 18 colleges to improve geoscience education through high-quality research experiences. Since its inception in 1987 more than 1350 undergraduate students and 145 faculty have been involved in 189 yearlong research projects. This non-traditional REU model offers exceptional opportunities for students to address research questions at a deep level, to learn and utilize sophisticated analytical methods, and to engage in authentic collaborative research that culminates in an undergraduate research symposium and published abstracts volume. The large numbers of student and faculty participants in Keck projects also affords a unique opportunity to study the impacts of program design on undergraduate research experiences in the geosciences. Students who participate in Keck projects generally report significant gains in personal and professional dimensions, as well as in clarification of educational and career goals. Survey data from student participants, project directors, and campus advisors identify mentoring as one of the most critical and challenging elements of successful undergraduate research experiences. Additional challenges arise from the distributed nature of Keck projects (i.e., participants, project directors, advisors, and other collaborators are at different institutions) and across the span of yearlong projects. In an endeavor to improve student learning about the nature and process of science, and to make mentoring practices more intentional, the Consortium has developed workshops and materials to support both project directors and campus research advisors (e.g., best practices for mentoring, teaching ethical professional conduct, benchmarks for progress, activities to support students during research process). The Consortium continues to evolve its practices to better support students from underrepresented groups.

  15. The Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples: Improving Sample Accessibility and Enabling Current and Future Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples is a community designed and maintained resource enabling researchers to locate and request sea floor and lakebed geologic samples archived by partner institutions. Conceived in the dawn of the digital age by representatives from U.S. academic and government marine core repositories and the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) at a 1977 meeting convened by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Index is based on core concepts of community oversight, common vocabularies, consistent metadata and a shared interface. Form and content of underlying vocabularies and metadata continue to evolve according to the needs of the community, as do supporting technologies and access methodologies. The Curators Consortium, now international in scope, meets at partner institutions biennially to share ideas and discuss best practices. NGDC serves the group by providing database access and maintenance, a list server, digitizing support and long-term archival of sample metadata, data and imagery. Over three decades, participating curators have performed the herculean task of creating and contributing metadata for over 195,000 sea floor and lakebed cores, grabs, and dredges archived in their collections. Some partners use the Index for primary web access to their collections while others use it to increase exposure of more in-depth institutional systems. The Index is currently a geospatially-enabled relational database, publicly accessible via Web Feature and Web Map Services, and text- and ArcGIS map-based web interfaces. To provide as much knowledge as possible about each sample, the Index includes curatorial contact information and links to related data, information and images; 1) at participating institutions, 2) in the NGDC archive, and 3) at sites such as the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) and the System for Earth Sample Registration (SESAR). Over 34,000 International GeoSample Numbers (IGSNs) linking to SESAR are

  16. Geologic development and characteristics of the continental margins, Gulf of Mexico. Research report, 1983-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.M.; Prior, D.B.; Roberts, H.H.

    1986-01-01

    The continental slope of the Gulf Basin covers more than 500,000 sq km and consists of smooth and gently sloping surfaces, prominent escarpments, knolls, intraslope basins, and submarine canyons and channels. It is an area of extremely diverse topographic and sedimentologic conditions. The slope extends from the shelf break, roughly at the 200 m isobath, to the upper limit of the continental rise, at a depth of 2800 m. The most-complex province in the basin, and the one of most interest to the petroleum industry, is the Texas-Louisiana slope, occupying 120,000 sq km and in which bottom slopes range from < 1 deg to > 20 deg around the knolls and basins. The near-surface geology and topography of the slope are functions of the interplay between episodes of rapid shelf-edge and slope progradation and contemporaneous modification of the depositional sequence by diapirism. Development of discrete depo-centers throughout the Neogene results in rapid shelf-edge progradation, often in excess of 15-20 km/my. This rapid progradation of the shelf edge leads to development of thick wedges of sediment accumulation on the continental slope. Oversteeping, high pore pressures in rapidly deposited soft sediments and changes in eustatic sea level cause subaqueous slope instabilities such as landsliding and debris flows. Large scale features such as shelf edge separation scars and landslide related canyons often results from such processes.

  17. Research and investigation of geology, mineral, and water resources of Maryland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, K. N. (Principal Investigator); Crowley, W. P.; Edwards, J., Jr.; Kerhin, R. T.; Slaughter, T. H.

    1974-01-01

    The authors have identified the following significant results. Field work in Baltimore County revealed that the signature returns of serpentinitic and nonserpentinitic rocks correlates with the vegetation cover and land use pattern. In Maryland Piedmont, bedrock lithology and structure are enhanced only to the extent that land use is geologically dictated. Two prominent sets of linear features are detected on ERTS-1 imagery at N 45 deg E and N 20 deg E. Beaches of Chesapeake Bay are classified as broad and narrow beaches based on the width of the backshore zone. It is shown by comparing historical shorelines of Ocean City, from the inlet to the Maryland-Delaware line that reversal zones of erosion and accretion occur at different locations for different periods. High reflectance levels (high marsh-high topographic areas) for the lower Eastern Shore are found to be distributed as two distinct trending linear ridge systems. Observations of MSS band 5 dated 9 April 1974 exhibited an unique sedimentation pattern for Chesapeake Bay. Following a 1.5 inch rainfall, heavy concentration of suspended sediments is observed on the imagery, particularly in the area of the turbidity maximum.

  18. The effects of conducting authentic field-geology research on high school students' understanding of the nature of science, and their views of themselves as research scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millette, Patricia M.

    Authentic field geology research is a inquiry method that encourages students to interact more with their local environment, and by solving genuine puzzles, begin to increase their intuitive understanding of the nature and processes of science. The goal of the current study was to determine if conducting authentic field research and giving high school students the opportunity to present findings to adult audiences outside of the school setting 1) enhances students' understanding of the nature of science, and 2) affects students views of themselves as researchers. To accomplish this, ninth-grade students from a public school in northern New England engaged in a community-initiated glacial geology problem, completed a field research investigation, and presented their findings at several professional conferences. Following the completion of this student-centered field research, I investigated its effects by using a mixed methods approach consisting of qualitative and quantitative data from two sources. These included selected questions from an open-response survey (VNOS-c), and interviews that were conducted with fifteen of the students of different ages and genders. Findings show that conducting original field research seems to have a positive influence on these students' understanding of the NOS as well as the processes of science. Many of the students reported feelings of accomplishment, acceptance of responsibility for the investigation, a sense of their authentic contribution to the body of scientific knowledge in the world, and becoming scientists. This type of authentic field investigation is significant because recent reforms in earth-science education stress the importance of students learning about the nature and processes of scientific knowledge along with science content.

  19. Geology and geohydrology of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle. Report on the progress of nuclear waste isolation feasibility studies, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavson, T.C.; Presley, M.W.; Handford, C.R.; Finley, R.J.; Dutton, S.P.; Baumgardner, R.W. Jr.; McGillis, K.A.; Simpkins, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    Since early 1977, the Bureau of Economic Geology has been evaluating several salt-bearing basins within the State of Texas as part of the national nuclear repository program. The Bureau, a research unit of The University of Texas at Austin and the State of Texas, is carrying out a long-term program to gather and interpret all geologic and hydrologic information necessary for description, delineation, and evaluation of salt-bearing strata in the Palo Duro and Dalhart Basins of the Texas Panhandle. The program in FY 79 has been subdivided into four broad research tasks, which are addressed by a basin analysis group, a surface studies group, a geohydrology group, and a host-rock analysis group. The basin analysis group has delineated the structural and stratigraphic framework of the basins, initiated natural resource assessment, and integrated data from 8000 ft (2400 m) of core material into salt-stratigraphy models. Salt depth and thickness have been delineated for seven salt-bearing stratigraphic units. Concurrently, the surface studies group has collected ground and remotely sensed data to describe surficial processes, including salt solution, slope retreat/erosion mechanisms, geomorphic evolution, and fracture system development. The basin geohydrology group has begun evaluating both shallow and deep fluid circulation within the basins. The newly formed host-rock analysis group has initiated study of cores from two drilling sites for analysis of salt and the various lithologies overlying and interbedded with salt units. This paper, a summary report of progress in FY 79, presents principal conclusions and reviews methods used and types of data and maps generated.

  20. The U.S. Geological Survey Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative-2011 Annual Update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, M.J.; Muths, E.; Grant, E.H.C.; Miller, David A.; Waddle, J.H.; Ball, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the inaugural issue of ARMI's Annual Update. This update provides highlights and significant milestones of this innovative program. ARMI is uniquely qualified to provide research and monitoring results that are scalable from local to national levels, and are useful to resource managers. ARMI has produced nearly 400 peer-reviewed publications, including 18 in 2011. Some of those publications are highlighted in this fact sheet. ARMI also has a new Website (armi.usgs.gov). You can now use it to explore an up-to-date list of ARMI products, to find summaries of research topics, to search for ARMI activities in your area, and to obtain amphibian photographs. ARMI's annual meeting was organized by Walt Sadinski, Upper Midwest Environmental Science Center, and held in St Louis, Missouri. We met with local scientists and managers in herpetology and were given a tour of the herpetology collection at the St. Louis Zoo.

  1. U.S. Geological Survey research in Handcart Gulch, Colorado—An alpine watershed with natural acid-rock drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Andrew H.; Caine, Jonathan Saul; Verplanck, Philip L.; Bove, Dana J.; Kahn, Katherine G.

    2009-01-01

    Handcart Gulch is an alpine watershed along the Continental Divide in the Colorado Rocky Mountain Front Range. It contains an unmined mineral deposit typical of many hydrothermal mineral deposits in the intermountain west, composed primarily of pyrite with trace metals including copper and molybdenum. Springs and the trunk stream have a natural pH value of 3 to 4. The U.S. Geological Survey began integrated research activities at the site in 2003 with the objective of better understanding geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic controls on naturally occurring acid-rock drainage in alpine watersheds. Characterizing the role of groundwater was of particular interest because mountain watersheds containing metallic mineral deposits are often underlain by complexly deformed crystalline rocks in which groundwater flow is poorly understood. Site infrastructure currently includes 4 deep monitoring wells high in the watershed (300– 1,200 ft deep), 4 bedrock (100–170 ft deep) and 5 shallow (10–30 ft deep) monitoring wells along the trunk stream, a stream gage, and a meteorological station. Work to date at the site includes: geologic mapping and structural analysis; surface sample and drill core mineralogic characterization; geophysical borehole logging; aquifer testing; monitoring of groundwater hydraulic heads and streamflows; a stream tracer dilution study; repeated sampling of surface and groundwater for geochemical analyses, including major and trace elements, several isotopes, and groundwater age dating; and construction of groundwater flow models. The unique dataset collected at Handcart Gulch has yielded several important findings about bedrock groundwater flow at the site. Most importantly, we find that bedrock bulk permeability is nontrivial and that bedrock groundwater apparently constitutes a substantial fraction of the hydrologic budget. This means that bedrock groundwater commonly may be an underappreciated component of the hydrologic system in studies of

  2. Research Opportunities in Solid Earth Science (RESESS): Broadening Participation in Geology and Geophysics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, S. C.; Hubenthal, M.

    2009-12-01

    RESESS is a multi-year, paid, summer research internship program designed for students from underrepresented groups. The students receive extensive mentoring in science research and communication and become part of a community that provides ongoing support. This has been possible in the initial 5 years of the program through collaboration with Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science (SOARS), where solid earth students have been an integral part of the SOARS cohort, benefiting from social as well as educational interactions. 11 students have taken part in RESESS for at least one year and of these, four students have graduated in geoscience and entered graduate programs in geophysics and one was recently awarded an NSF graduate fellowship. Students have presented over 20 posters at national science meetings, and one has co-authored a peer-reviewed article. 23 scientists have mentored students over the past 5 years and 17 percent of these mentors are from underrepresented groups in science; 19 other scientists and university/science consortia staff have mentored students in written and verbal presentations and supported their integration into the local communities. Mentorship over a period of years is one important hallmark of this program as students have benefited from the support of UNAVCO, IRIS, USGS, and university scientists and staff during the summer, academic year, and at professional meetings such as AGU, GSA, NABGG, and SACNAS as well as consortia and project science workshops (UNAVCO, IRIS, and EarthScope). One goal of the project has been to educate the scientific community on the benefits of mentoring undergraduate students from underrepresented groups in STEM fields. Increasingly, scientists are approaching RESESS to include this program in their implementation of broader impacts. RESESS has been funded by NSF for the next five years with plans to expand the number of students, geographic and scientific diversity, and sources of

  3. International Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1977-01-01

    Briefly discusses recent international programs in various areas of geology, including land-use problems, coping with geological hazards, and conserving the environment while searching for energy and mineral resources. (MLH)

  4. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas A.

    1983-01-01

    Mathematical techniques used to solve geological problems are briefly discussed (including comments on use of geostatistics). Highlights of conferences/meetings and conference papers in mathematical geology are also provided. (JN)

  5. NOVEL CONCEPTS RESEARCH IN GEOLOGIC STORAGE OF CO2 PHASE III THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY CO2 STORAGE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj Gupta

    2005-05-26

    As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) initiation on developing new technologies for storage of carbon dioxide in geologic reservoir, Battelle has been awarded a project to investigate the feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in the deep saline reservoirs in the Ohio River Valley region. This project is the Phase III of Battelle's work under the Novel Concepts in Greenhouse Gas Management grant. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate that CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep formations is feasible from engineering and economic perspectives, as well as being an inherently safe practice and one that will be acceptable to the public. In addition, the project is designed to evaluate the geology of deep formations in the Ohio River Valley region in general and in the vicinity of AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant in particular, in order to determine their potential use for conducting a long-term test of CO{sub 2} disposal in deep saline formations and potentially in nearby deep coal seams. The current technical progress report summarizes activities completed for the January through March 2005 period of the project. As discussed in the report, the technical activities focused on development of injection well design, preparing a Class V Underground Injection Control permit, assessment of monitoring technologies, analysis of coal samples for testing the capture system by Mitsubishi Heavy Industry, and presentation of project progress at several venues. In addition, related work has progressed on a collaborative risk assessment project with Japan research institute CREIPI and technical application for the Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership.

  6. Training and Research on Probabilistic Hydro-Thermo-Mechanical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration in Fractured Porous Rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, Marte

    2013-05-31

    Colorado School of Mines conducted research and training in the development and validation of an advanced CO{sub 2} GS (Geological Sequestration) probabilistic simulation and risk assessment model. CO{sub 2} GS simulation and risk assessment is used to develop advanced numerical simulation models of the subsurface to forecast CO2 behavior and transport; optimize site operational practices; ensure site safety; and refine site monitoring, verification, and accounting efforts. As simulation models are refined with new data, the uncertainty surrounding the identified risks decrease, thereby providing more accurate risk assessment. The models considered the full coupling of multiple physical processes (geomechanical and fluid flow) and describe the effects of stochastic hydro-mechanical (H-M) parameters on the modeling of CO{sub 2} flow and transport in fractured porous rocks. Graduate students were involved in the development and validation of the model that can be used to predict the fate, movement, and storage of CO{sub 2} in subsurface formations, and to evaluate the risk of potential leakage to the atmosphere and underground aquifers. The main major contributions from the project include the development of: 1) an improved procedure to rigorously couple the simulations of hydro-thermomechanical (H-M) processes involved in CO{sub 2} GS; 2) models for the hydro-mechanical behavior of fractured porous rocks with random fracture patterns; and 3) probabilistic methods to account for the effects of stochastic fluid flow and geomechanical properties on flow, transport, storage and leakage associated with CO{sub 2} GS. The research project provided the means to educate and train graduate students in the science and technology of CO{sub 2} GS, with a focus on geologic storage. Specifically, the training included the investigation of an advanced CO{sub 2} GS simulation and risk assessment model that can be used to predict the fate, movement, and storage of CO{sub 2} in

  7. Geologic framework of the 2005 Keathley Canyon gas hydrate research well, northern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, D.R.; Hart, P.E.; Collett, T.S.; Edwards, K.M.; Twichell, D.C.; Snyder, F.

    2008-01-01

    ., 2000. Sedimentary dynamics of the salt-dominated continental slope, Gulf of Mexico: integration of observations from the seafloor, near-surface, and deep subsurface. In: Proceedings of the GCSSEPM Foundation 20th Annual Research Conference, Deep-water Reservoirs of the World, pp. 1059-1086]. The presence of sand within the gas hydrate stability zone (in units c and d) is not sufficient to concentrate gas hydrate even though dispersed gas hydrate occurs deeper in the fractured mud/clay-rich sections of units e and f.

  8. Recent Research and Application on Seismic Isolation, Energy Dissipation and Control for Structures in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Fulin; Tan Ping; Cui Jie; Xian Qiaoling; Wei Lushun; Huang Dongyang

    2008-07-08

    This paper briefly introduces the recent research, testing analysis, design and application on seismic isolation, energy dissipation, tuned mass damper and active control for buildings and bridges in mainland China. Paper introduces some typical researches, testing and analysis, including the mechanical tests for bearings and control devices, and the shaking table tests for structural models with different control systems. Paper also introduces the Chinese design codes for structures with seismic isolation and energy dissipation. Paper describes the recent application status and typical examples, especially introduces the largest isolation buildings group in the world, and the using passive and semi active control for structures. Also the paper makes discussion some problems existed on passive and active control technique now and the tendency of development on seismic control in future.

  9. Seventy-five years of science—The U.S. Geological Survey’s Western Fisheries Research Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    As of January 2010, 75 years have elapsed since Dr. Frederic Fish initiated the pioneering research program that would evolve into today’s Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC). Fish began his research working alone in the basement of the recently opened Fisheries Biological Laboratory on Lake Union in Seattle, Washington. WFRC’s research began under the aegis of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and ends its first 75 years as part of the U.S. Geological Survey with a staff of more than 150 biologists and support personnel and a heritage of fundamental research that has made important contributions to our understanding of the biology and ecology of the economically important fish and fish populations of the Nation. Although the current staff may rarely stop to think about it, WFRC’s antecedents extend many years into the past and are intimately involved with the history of fisheries conservation in the Western United States. Thus, WFRC Director Lyman Thorsteinson asked me to write the story of this laboratory “while there are still a few of you around who were here for some of the earlier years” to document the rich history and culture of WFRC by recognizing its many famous scientists and their achievements. This historyalso would help document WFRC’s research ‘footprint’ in the Western United States and its strategic directions. Center Director Thorsteinson concluded that WFRC’s heritage told by an emeritus scientist also would add a texture of legitimacy based on personal knowledge that will all-to-soon be lost to the WFRC and to the USGS. The WFRC story is important for the future as well as for historical reasons. It describes how we got to the place we are today by documenting the origin, original mission, and our evolving role in response to the constantly changing technical information requirements of new environmental legislation and organizational decision-making. The WFRC research program owes its existence to the policy requirements

  10. ``Out To Sea: Life as a Crew Member Aboard a Geologic Research Ship'' - Production of a Video and Teachers Guide.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rack, F. R.; Tauxe, K.

    2004-12-01

    In May 2002, Joint Oceanographic Institutions (JOI) received a proposal entitled "Motivating Middle School Students with the JOIDES Resolution", from a middle school teacher in New Mexico named Katie Tauxe. Katie was a former Marine Technician who has worked aboard the R/V JOIDES Resolution in the early years of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). She proposed to engage the interest of middle school students using the ODP drillship as the centerpiece of a presentation focused on the lives of the people who work aboard the ship and the excitement of science communicated through an active shipboard experience. The proposal asked for travel funds to and from the ship, the loan of video camera equipment from JOI, and a small amount of funding to cover expendable supplies, video editing, and production at the local Public Broadcasting Station in Los Alamos, NM. Katie sailed on the transit of the JOIDES Resolution through the Panama Canal, following the completion of ODP Leg 206 in late 2002. This presentation will focus on the outcome of this video production effort, which is a 19 minute-long video entitled "Out to Sea: Life as a Crew Member Aboard a Geologic Research Ship", and a teacher's guide that can be found online.

  11. The subsurface geology of Río Tinto: material examined during a simulated Mars drilling mission for the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE).

    PubMed

    Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Schutt, John; Sutter, Brad; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Bell, Mary Sue; Battler, Melissa; Cannon, Howard; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    The 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project conducted a simulated 1-month Mars drilling mission in the Río Tinto district, Spain. Dry robotic drilling, core sampling, and biological and geological analytical technologies were collectively tested for the first time for potential use on Mars. Drilling and subsurface sampling and analytical technologies are being explored for Mars because the subsurface is the most likely place to find life on Mars. The objectives of this work are to describe drilling, sampling, and analytical procedures; present the geological analysis of core and borehole material; and examine lessons learned from the drilling simulation. Drilling occurred at an undisclosed location, causing the science team to rely only on mission data for geological and biological interpretations. Core and borehole imaging was used for micromorphological analysis of rock, targeting rock for biological analysis, and making decisions regarding the next day's drilling operations. Drilling reached 606 cm depth into poorly consolidated gossan that allowed only 35% of core recovery and contributed to borehole wall failure during drilling. Core material containing any indication of biology was sampled and analyzed in more detail for its confirmation. Despite the poorly consolidated nature of the subsurface gossan, dry drilling was able to retrieve useful core material for geological and biological analysis. Lessons learned from this drilling simulation can guide the development of dry drilling and subsurface geological and biological analytical technologies for future Mars drilling missions.

  12. The Subsurface Geology of Río Tinto: Material Examined During a Simulated Mars Drilling Mission for the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Schutt, John; Sutter, Brad; Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Bell Johnson, Mary Sue; Battler, Melissa; Cannon, Howard; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R.

    2008-10-01

    The 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project conducted a simulated 1-month Mars drilling mission in the Río Tinto district, Spain. Dry robotic drilling, core sampling, and biological and geological analytical technologies were collectively tested for the first time for potential use on Mars. Drilling and subsurface sampling and analytical technologies are being explored for Mars because the subsurface is the most likely place to find life on Mars. The objectives of this work are to describe drilling, sampling, and analytical procedures; present the geological analysis of core and borehole material; and examine lessons learned from the drilling simulation. Drilling occurred at an undis closed location, causing the science team to rely only on mission data for geological and biological interpretations. Core and borehole imaging was used for micromorphological analysis of rock, targeting rock for biological analysis, and making decisions regarding the next day's drilling operations. Drilling reached 606 cm depth into poorly consolidated gossan that allowed only 35% of core recovery and contributed to borehole wall failure during drilling. Core material containing any indication of biology was sampled and analyzed in more detail for its confirmation. Despite the poorly consolidated nature of the subsurface gossan, dry drilling was able to retrieve useful core material for geological and biological analysis. Lessons learned from this drilling simulation can guide the development of dry drilling and subsurface geological and biological analytical technologies for future Mars drilling missions.

  13. The subsurface geology of Río Tinto: material examined during a simulated Mars drilling mission for the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE).

    PubMed

    Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Schutt, John; Sutter, Brad; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Bell, Mary Sue; Battler, Melissa; Cannon, Howard; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    The 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project conducted a simulated 1-month Mars drilling mission in the Río Tinto district, Spain. Dry robotic drilling, core sampling, and biological and geological analytical technologies were collectively tested for the first time for potential use on Mars. Drilling and subsurface sampling and analytical technologies are being explored for Mars because the subsurface is the most likely place to find life on Mars. The objectives of this work are to describe drilling, sampling, and analytical procedures; present the geological analysis of core and borehole material; and examine lessons learned from the drilling simulation. Drilling occurred at an undisclosed location, causing the science team to rely only on mission data for geological and biological interpretations. Core and borehole imaging was used for micromorphological analysis of rock, targeting rock for biological analysis, and making decisions regarding the next day's drilling operations. Drilling reached 606 cm depth into poorly consolidated gossan that allowed only 35% of core recovery and contributed to borehole wall failure during drilling. Core material containing any indication of biology was sampled and analyzed in more detail for its confirmation. Despite the poorly consolidated nature of the subsurface gossan, dry drilling was able to retrieve useful core material for geological and biological analysis. Lessons learned from this drilling simulation can guide the development of dry drilling and subsurface geological and biological analytical technologies for future Mars drilling missions. PMID:19105757

  14. Analysis of Geological Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Neville J.; Cosgrove, John W.

    1990-08-01

    A knowledge of structural geology is fundamental to understanding the processes by which the earth's crust has evolved. It is a subject of fundamental importance to students of geology, experienced field geologists and academic researchers as well as to petroleum and mining engineers. In contrast to many structural textbooks which dwell upon geometrical descriptions of geological structures, this book emphasises mechanical principles and the way in which they can be used to understand how and why a wide range of geological structures develop. Structures on all scales are considered but the emphasis of the book is on those that can be seen on the scale of hand specimen or outcrop. Drawing on their considerable teaching experience the authors present a coherent and lucid analysis of geological structures which will be welcomed by a wide variety of earth scientists.

  15. Remote sensing data exploiration for geologic characterization of difficult targets : Laboratory Directed Research and Development project 38703 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Costin, Laurence S.; Walker, Charles A.; Lappin, Allen R.; Hayat, Majeed M. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Ford, Bridget K.; Paskaleva, Biliana (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Moya, Mary M.; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Stormont, John C.; Smith, Jody Lynn

    2003-09-01

    Characterizing the geology, geotechnical aspects, and rock properties of deep underground facility sites can enhance targeting strategies for both nuclear and conventional weapons. This report describes the results of a study to investigate the utility of remote spectral sensing for augmenting the geological and geotechnical information provided by traditional methods. The project primarily considered novel exploitation methods for space-based sensors, which allow clandestine collection of data from denied sites. The investigation focused on developing and applying novel data analysis methods to estimate geologic and geotechnical characteristics in the vicinity of deep underground facilities. Two such methods, one for measuring thermal rock properties and one for classifying rock types, were explored in detail. Several other data exploitation techniques, developed under other projects, were also examined for their potential utility in geologic characterization.

  16. High-resolution geophysical data collected aboard the U.S. Geological Survey research vessel Rafael to supplement existing datasets from Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Andrews, Brian D.; Danforth, William W.; Foster, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Geophysical and geospatial data were collected in Buzzards Bay, in the shallow-water areas of Vineyard Sound, and in the nearshore areas off the eastern Elizabeth Islands and northern coast of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, on the U.S. Geological Survey research vessel Rafael between 2007 and 2011, in a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management. This report describes results of this collaborative effort, which include mapping the geology of the inner shelf zone of the Elizabeth Islands and the sand shoals of Vineyard Sound and studying geologic processes that contribute to the evolution of this area. Data collected during these surveys include: bathymetry, acoustic backscatter, seismic-reflection profiles, sound velocity profiles, and navigation. The long-term goals of this project are (1) to provide high-resolution geophysical data that will support research on the influence of sea-level change and sediment supply on coastal evolution and (2) to inventory subtidal marine habitats and their distribution within the coastal zone of Massachusetts.

  17. Role of environmental geology in US Department of Energy's advanced research and development programs to promote energy security in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. E.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the research programs and program activities of the US Department of Energy (DOE) that most directly relate to topics in the field of environmental geology. In this light, the mission of the DOE and the definition of environmental geology will be discussed. In a broad sense, environmental geology is that branch of earth science that emphasizes the entire spectrum of human interactions with the physical environment that include environmental health, mineral exploration and exploitation, waste management, energy use and conservation, global change, environmental law, natural and man-made hazard assessment, and land-use planning. A large number of research, development, and demonstration programs are under DOE's administration and guidance that directly or indirectly relate to topics in environmental geology. The primary mission of the DOE is to contribute to the welfare of the nation by providing the scientific foundation, technology, policy, and institutional leadership necessary to achieve efficiency in energy use, diversity in energy sources, a more productive and competitive economy, improved environmental quality, and a secure national defense. The research and development funding effort has most recently been redirected toward greater utilization of clean fossil fuels, especially natural gas, weatherization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, fusion energy, and high-energy physics. This paper will summarize the role that environmental geology has played and will continue to play in the execution of DOE's mission and the energy options that DOE has investigated closely. The specific options are those that center around energy choices, such as alternative-fueled transportation, building technologies, energy-efficient lighting, and clean energy.

  18. Summary of Research Issues in Behavior and Performance in Isolated and Confined Extreme (ICE) Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2000-01-01

    The papers presented in this section describe changes in behavior and performance in various isolated and confined extreme (ICE) environments, including Antarctic expeditions and research stations, space simulators and isolation chambers, and submarines. Each of these environments possesses characteristics that are in some way analogous to those found on long-duration space missions. Despite differences in length of mission, characteristics of mission personnel or crew, and characteristics in the physical environment, the various ICE environments described in this collection of papers appear to produce similar changes in behavior and performance. These changes include increased disturbances of mood, increased rates of psychiatric disorder, increased interpersonal tension, and a disruption of circadian rhythms. However, these environments do not inherently produce decrements in performance. Palinkas and colleagues suggest that prolonged exposure to the isolation and confinement in the Antarctic can actually have positive or "salutogenic" effects as well, evidenced by a decrease in mood disturbances and increase in performance measures.

  19. Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, William L.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in geologic time with an introduction to the subject. Separate sections discuss the relative time scale, major divisions in geologic time, index fossils used as guides for telling the age of rocks, the atomic scale, and the age of the earth.…

  20. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatheway, Allen W.

    1978-01-01

    Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

  1. Physical geology

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, B.; Porter, S.

    1987-01-01

    The book integrates current thinking on processes (plate techtonics, chemical cycles, changes throughout geologic time). It is an introduction to investigations into the way the earth works, how mountains are formed, how the atmosphere, hydrosphere, crust and mantle interact with each other. Treatments on climate, paleoclimatology and landscape evolution are included, as is a discussion on how human activity affects geological interactions.

  2. Seventy-five years of science—The U.S. Geological Survey’s Western Fisheries Research Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    As of January 2010, 75 years have elapsed since Dr. Frederic Fish initiated the pioneering research program that would evolve into today’s Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC). Fish began his research working alone in the basement of the recently opened Fisheries Biological Laboratory on Lake Union in Seattle, Washington. WFRC’s research began under the aegis of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and ends its first 75 years as part of the U.S. Geological Survey with a staff of more than 150 biologists and support personnel and a heritage of fundamental research that has made important contributions to our understanding of the biology and ecology of the economically important fish and fish populations of the Nation. Although the current staff may rarely stop to think about it, WFRC’s antecedents extend many years into the past and are intimately involved with the history of fisheries conservation in the Western United States. Thus, WFRC Director Lyman Thorsteinson asked me to write the story of this laboratory “while there are still a few of you around who were here for some of the earlier years” to document the rich history and culture of WFRC by recognizing its many famous scientists and their achievements. This historyalso would help document WFRC’s research ‘footprint’ in the Western United States and its strategic directions. Center Director Thorsteinson concluded that WFRC’s heritage told by an emeritus scientist also would add a texture of legitimacy based on personal knowledge that will all-to-soon be lost to the WFRC and to the USGS. The WFRC story is important for the future as well as for historical reasons. It describes how we got to the place we are today by documenting the origin, original mission, and our evolving role in response to the constantly changing technical information requirements of new environmental legislation and organizational decision-making. The WFRC research program owes its existence to the policy requirements

  3. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip. A report of a field trip to the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant project in Southeastern New Mexico, June 16 to 18, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, L

    1980-10-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, on January 17-18, 1980. On the basis of the January conference and the June field trip, EEG has formed the following conclusions: (1) it has not been clearly established that the site or the surrounding area has been attacked by deep dissolution to render it unsuitable for the nuclear waste pilot repository; (2) the existence of an isolated breccia pipe at the site unaccompanied by a deep dissolution wedge, is a very remote possibility; (3) more specific information about the origin and the nature of the brine reservoirs is needed. An important question that should be resolved is whether each encounter with artesian brine represents a separate pocket or whether these occurrences are interconnected; (4) Anderson has postulated a major tectonic fault or a fracture system at the Basin margin along the San Simon Swale; (5) the area in the northern part of the WIPP site, identified from geophysical and bore hole data as the disturbed zone, should be further investigated to cleary understand the nature and significance of this structural anomaly; and (6) a major drawback encountered during the discussions of geological issues related to the WIPP site is the absence of published material that brings together all the known information related to a particular issue.

  4. Geologic and hydrologic research at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, West Valley, New York. Final report, August 1982-December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Albanese, J.R.; Anderson, S.L.; Fakundiny, R.H.; Potter, S.M.; Rogers, W.B.; Whitbeck, L.F.; LaFleur, R.G.; Boothroyd, J.C.; Timson, B.S.

    1984-06-01

    This report is the last in a series by the New York State Geological Survey on studies funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report covers five important aspects of the geology and hydrology of the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, near West Valley, New York: geomorphology, stratigraphy, sedimentology, surface water, and radionuclide analyses. We reviewed past research on these subjects and present new data obtained in the final phase of NYSGS research at the site. Also presented are up-to-date summaries of the present knowledge of geomorphology and stratigraphy. The report contains a significant bibliography of previous West Valley studies. Appendices include a report on the Fall 1983 Drilling Project and the procedures used, history and prognosis of Cattaraugus Creek and tributaries down cutting, and bar modification and landslide processes of Buttermilk Valley. 100 references, 7 figures, 7 tables.

  5. Geologic controls on movement of produced-water releases at US geological survey research Site A, Skiatook lake, Osage county, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, J.K.; Zielinski, R.A.; Smith, B.D.; Abbott, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Highly saline produced water was released from multiple sources during oil field operations from 1913 to 1973 at the USGS research Site A on Skiatook Lake in northeastern Oklahoma. Two pits, designed to hold produced water and oil, were major sources for release of these fluids at the site. Produced water spills from these and other features moved downslope following topography and downdip by percolating through permeable eolian sand and colluvium, underlying permeable sandstone, and, to a lesser extent, through shales and mudstones. Saline water penetrated progressively deeper units as it moved through the gently dipping bedrock to the north and NW. A large eroded salt scar north of the pits coincides with underlying fine-grained rocks that have retained substantial concentrations of salt, causing slow revegetation. Where not eroded, thick eolian sand or permeable sandstone bedrock is near the surface, and vegetation has been little affected or has reestablished itself after the introduced salt was flushed by precipitation. The extent of salt-contaminated bedrock extends well beyond existing surface salt scars. These results indicate that one of the legacies of surface salt spills can be a volume of subsurface salinization larger than the visible surface disturbance. ?? 2007.

  6. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCammon, Richard B.

    1979-01-01

    The year 1978 marked a continued trend toward practical applications in mathematical geology. Developments included work in interactive computer graphics, factor analysis, the vanishing tons problem, universal kriging, and resource estimating. (BB)

  7. Practical Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Ian

    1975-01-01

    Geology is an ideal subject in which to introduce the "discovery" method of learning. Available from: National Institute of Adult Education (England and Wales), 35 Queen Anne St., London W1M OBL England. (BP)

  8. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Fitzhugh T.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly reviews the increasing application of geologic principles, techniques and data to engineering practices in the areas of land use and zoning controls, resource management energy programs and other fields. (BR)

  9. Origins of Sinuous and Braided Channels on Ascraeus Mons, Mars - A Keck Geology Consortium Undergraduate Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Wet, A. P.; Bleacher, J. E.; Garry, W. B.

    2012-01-01

    Water has clearly played an important part in the geological evolution of Mars. There are many features on Mars that were almost certainly formed by fluvial processes -- for example, the channels Kasei Valles and Ares Vallis in the Chryse Planitia area of Mars are almost certainly fluvial features. On the other hand, there are many channel features that are much more difficult to interpret -- and have been variously attributed to volcanic and fluvial processes. Clearly unraveling the details of the role of water on Mars is extremely important, especially in the context of the search of extinct or extant life. In this project we built on our recent work in determining the origin of one channel on the southwest rift apron of Ascraeus Mons. This project, funded by the Keck Geology Consortium and involving 4 undergraduate geology majors took advantage of the recently available datasets to map and analyze similar features on Ascraeus Mons and some other areas of Mars. A clearer understanding of how these particular channel features formed might lead to the development of better criteria to distinguish how other Martian channel features formed. Ultimately this might provide us with a better understanding of the role of volcanic and fluvial processes in the geological evolution of Mars.

  10. Destination: Geology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  11. Standardization of sample collection, isolation and analysis methods in extracellular vesicle research

    PubMed Central

    Witwer, Kenneth W.; Buzás, Edit I.; Bemis, Lynne T.; Bora, Adriana; Lässer, Cecilia; Lötvall, Jan; Nolte-‘t Hoen, Esther N.; Piper, Melissa G.; Sivaraman, Sarada; Skog, Johan; Théry, Clotilde; Wauben, Marca H.; Hochberg, Fred

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of publications on extracellular RNA (exRNA) and extracellular vesicles (EV) has highlighted the potential of these molecules and vehicles as biomarkers of disease and therapeutic targets. These findings have created a paradigm shift, most prominently in the field of oncology, prompting expanded interest in the field and dedication of funds for EV research. At the same time, understanding of EV subtypes, biogenesis, cargo and mechanisms of shuttling remains incomplete. The techniques that can be harnessed to address the many gaps in our current knowledge were the subject of a special workshop of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) in New York City in October 2012. As part of the “ISEV Research Seminar: Analysis and Function of RNA in Extracellular Vesicles (evRNA)”, 6 round-table discussions were held to provide an evidence-based framework for isolation and analysis of EV, purification and analysis of associated RNA molecules, and molecular engineering of EV for therapeutic intervention. This article arises from the discussion of EV isolation and analysis at that meeting. The conclusions of the round table are supplemented with a review of published materials and our experience. Controversies and outstanding questions are identified that may inform future research and funding priorities. While we emphasize the need for standardization of specimen handling, appropriate normative controls, and isolation and analysis techniques to facilitate comparison of results, we also recognize that continual development and evaluation of techniques will be necessary as new knowledge is amassed. On many points, consensus has not yet been achieved and must be built through the reporting of well-controlled experiments. PMID:24009894

  12. Thermodynamic Properties of Magnesium Chloride Hydroxide Hydrate (Mg3Cl(OH)5:4H2O, Phase 5), and Its importance to Nuclear Waste Isolation in Geological Repositories in Salt Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Y.; Deng, H.; Nemer, M. B.; Johnsen, S.

    2009-12-01

    MgO (bulk, pure MgO corresponding to the mineral periclase) is the only engineered barrier certified by the Environmental Protection Agency for emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the US, and an Mg(OH)2-based engineered barrier (bulk, pure Mg(OH)2 corresponding to brucite) is to be employed in the Asse repository in Germany. Both the WIPP and the Asse are located in salt formations. The WIPP is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository being used for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic waste (TRU waste). The repository is 655 m below the surface, and is situated in the Salado Formation, a Permian salt bed mainly composed of halite, and of lesser amounts of polyhalite, anhydrite, gypsum, magnesite, clays and quartz. The WIPP Generic Weep Brine (GWB), a Na-Mg-Cl dominated brine, is associated with the Salado Formation. The previous vendor for MgO for the WIPP was Premier Chemicals and the current vendor is Martin Marietta Materials. Experimental studies of both Premier MgO and Martin Marietta MgO with the GWB at SNL indicate the formation of magnesium chloride hydroxide hydrate, Mg3Cl(OH)5:4H2O, termed as phase 5. However, this important phase is lacking in the existing thermodynamic database. In this study, the solubility constant of phase 5 is determined from a series of solubility experiments in MgCl2-NaCl solutions. The solubility constant at 25 oC for the following reaction, Mg3Cl(OH)5:4H2O + 5H+ = 3Mg2+ + 9H2O(l) + Cl- is recommended as 43.21±0.33 (2σ) based on the Specific Interaction Theory (SIT) model for extrapolation to infinite dilution. The log K obtained via the Pitzer equations is identical to the above value within the quoted uncertainty. The Gibbs free energy and enthalpy of formation for phase 5 at 25 oC are derived as -3384±2 (2σ) kJ mol-1 and -3896±6 (2σ) kJ mol-1, respectively. The standard entropy and heat capacity of phase 5 at 25 oC are estimated as 393±20 J mol-1 K-1 and 374±19 J mol-1 K

  13. Collaborative Research: Bringing Problem Solving in the Field into the Classroom: Developing and Assessing Virtual Field Trips for Teaching Sedimentary and Introductory Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Caldwell, M.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal Florida offers a unique setting for the facilitation of learning about a variety of modern sedimentary environments. Despite the conflicting concept of "virtual" and "actual" field trip, and the uncertainties associated with the implementation and effectiveness, virtual trips provide likely the only way to reach a large diversified student population and eliminate travel time and expenses. In addition, with rapidly improving web and visualization technology, field trips can be simulated virtually. It is therefore essential to systematically develop and assess the educational effectiveness of virtual field trips. This project is developing, implementing, and assessing a series of virtual field trips for teaching undergraduate sedimentary geology at a large four-year research university and introductory geology at a large two-year community college. The virtual field trip is based on a four-day actual field trip for a senior level sedimentary geology class. Two versions of the virtual field trip, one for advanced class and one for introductory class, are being produced. The educational outcome of the virtual field trip will be compared to that from actual field trip. This presentation summarizes Year 1 achievements of the three-year project. The filming, editing, and initial production of the virtual field trip have been completed. Formative assessments were conducted by the Coalition for Science Literacy at the University of South Florida. Once tested and refined, the virtual field trips will be disseminated through broadly used web portals and workshops at regional and national meetings.

  14. Theoretical geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikeš, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical geology Present day geology is mostly empirical of nature. I claim that geology is by nature complex and that the empirical approach is bound to fail. Let's consider the input to be the set of ambient conditions and the output to be the sedimentary rock record. I claim that the output can only be deduced from the input if the relation from input to output be known. The fundamental question is therefore the following: Can one predict the output from the input or can one predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? If one can, than the empirical/deductive method has changes, if one can't than that method is bound to fail. The fundamental problem to solve is therefore the following: How to predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? It is interesting to observe that this question is never asked and many a study is conducted by the empirical/deductive method; it seems that the empirical method has been accepted as being appropriate without question. It is, however, easy to argument that a sedimentary system is by nature complex and that several input parameters vary at the same time and that they can create similar output in the rock record. It follows trivially from these first principles that in such a case the deductive solution cannot be unique. At the same time several geological methods depart precisely from the assumption, that one particular variable is the dictator/driver and that the others are constant, even though the data do not support such an assumption. The method of "sequence stratigraphy" is a typical example of such a dogma. It can be easily argued that all the interpretation resulting from a method that is built on uncertain or wrong assumptions is erroneous. Still, this method has survived for many years, nonwithstanding all the critics it has received. This is just one example of the present day geological world and is not unique. Even the alternative methods criticising sequence stratigraphy actually depart from the same

  15. Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albritton, Claude C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the historical development of the concept of geologic time. Develops the topic by using the major discoveries of geologists, beginning with Steno and following through to the discovery and use of radiometric dating. An extensive reference list is provided. (JM)

  16. City Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  17. Attenuation-difference radar tomography: results of a multiple-plane experiment at the U.S. Geological Survey Fractured-Rock Research Site, Mirror Lake, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, J.W.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Harris, J.M.; Haeni, F.P.; Gorelick, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Attenuation-difference, borehole-radar tomography was used to monitor a series of sodium chloride tracer injection tests conducted within the FSE, wellfield at the U.S. Geological Survey Fractured-Rock Hydrology Research Site in Grafton County, New Hampshire, USA. Borehole-radar tomography surveys were conducted using the sequential-scanning and injection method in three boreholes that form a triangular prism of adjoining tomographic image planes. Results indicate that time-lapse tomography methods provide high-resolution images of tracer distribution in permeable zones.

  18. MAJOR SOURCE OF SIDE-LOOKING AIRBORNE RADAR IMAGERY FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION: THE U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kover, Allan N.; Jones, John Edwin; ,

    1985-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) instituted a program in 1980 to acquire side-looking airbore radar (SLAR) data and make these data readily available to the public in a mosaic format comparable to the USGS 1:250,000-scale topographic map series. The SLAR data are also available as strip images at an acquisition scale of 1:250,000 or 1:400,000 (depending on the acquisition system), as a variety of print products and indexes, and in a limited amount in digital form on computer compatible tapes. Three different commercial X-band (3-cm) systems were used to acquire the imagery for producing the mosaics.

  19. Land-cover change research at the U.S. Geological Survey-assessing our nation's dynamic land surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Tamara S.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an unprecedented, 27-year assessment of land-use and land-cover change for the conterminous United States. For the period 1973 to 2000, scientists generated estimates of change in major types of land use and land cover, such as development, mining, agriculture, forest, grasslands, and wetlands. To help provide the insight that our Nation will need to make land-use decisions in coming decades, the historical trends data is now being used by the USGS to help model potential future land use/land cover under different scenarios, including climate, environmental, economic, population, public policy, and technological change.

  20. Geological and Inorganic Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, L. L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review focusing on techniques and their application to the analysis of geological and inorganic materials that offer significant changes to research and routine work. Covers geostandards, spectroscopy, plasmas, microbeam techniques, synchrotron X-ray methods, nuclear activation methods, chromatography, and electroanalytical methods.…

  1. Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustic Measurements in a Highly Back-Pressured Scramjet Isolator Model: A Research Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Troy F.; Balla, Robert J.; Baurle, Robert A.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    2008-01-01

    Under the Propulsion Discipline of NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program s Hypersonics Project, a test apparatus, for testing a scramjet isolator model, is being constructed at NASA's Langley Research Center. The test apparatus will incorporate a 1-inch by 2-inch by 15-inch-long scramjet isolator model supplied with 2.1 lbm/sec of unheated dry air through a Mach 2.5 converging-diverging nozzle. The planned research will incorporate progressively more challenging measurement techniques to characterize the flow field within the isolator, concluding with the application of the Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustic (LITA) measurement technique. The primary goal of this research is to use the data acquired to validate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models employed to characterize the complex flow field of a scramjet isolator. This paper describes the test apparatus being constructed, pre-test CFD simulations, and the LITA measurement technique.

  2. Geologic and hydrologic research on the Moana geothermal system, Washoe County, Nevada. Final report October 1, 1982-December 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, T.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Combined geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and drilling exploration surveys were used to assess the Moana geothermal resource in Washoe County, Nevada, and to determine its relationship with nearby Steamboat Hot Springs. Moana is the largest single moderate-temperature resource in Nevada that supports geothermal space heating applications. Results show that the general geology and structure for the two systems is similar, but important differences exist with respect to reservoir rocks. Gravity data delineated the contact between important volcanic and sedimentary rocks in Moana, but contour trends did not correlate well with mapped faults. Fluid geochemistry data show major differences in bulk chemical composition, stable-light isotope ratios, and radiocarbon ages for Moana and Steamboat geothermal waters. Water level measurements in observation wells in Moana show simultaneous increasing and decreasing values in different sections of the geothermal area. Temperature-depth profiles changed little during the six-month monitoring period. Direct use of the resource is increasing and longer-lasting, more efficient down-hole heat exchangers are replacing previous equipment that was prone to scaling and corrosion. A computer program that calculates heat output for state-of-the-art heat exchangers is described. Recommendations for continued monitoring, heat exchanger design, and fluid reinjection studies are included. Data are available to government agencies responsible for regulation as well as local residents and potential developers to ensure prudent resource utilization.

  3. M.E.S.A, not Just a Seat at the Table: a Chicano Geology Student's Experience with Investigative Field Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce-Zepeda, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    The MESA (math, engineering, science achievement) program in California engages educationally disadvantaged students, primarily minority groups, providing the opportunity to excel in math and science and graduate with math-based degrees. MESA at East Los Angeles Community College selected me, a returning 24 year-old Chicano student, for the SCEC (Southern California Earthquake Center) summer internship at Utah State University (USU). The project coordinators assigned me to a group with three other undergraduate geology students from across the continent and from a variety of socioeconomic backgrounds to investigate geothermal systems in the Salton Trough and northern Utah. The peer-driven field work transformed student to investigator by forcing each participant to be responsible for the success of the entire group. In this environment, I rose to expectations along with my fellow interns managing a detailed field notebook, sampling, planning routes, level logger maintenance, and x-ray diffractometer analysis interpretation, among other things. Mentorship from and challenges proposed by the USU project advisor further built on this scaffolding of field experience. First hand fieldwork provides a battery of beneficial skills that many undergraduate geology students, especially at the two- year college level, rarely get an opportunity to participate in. The advantage of including non-traditional students from two- year colleges allows for a dynamic research network nationwide. Key sample collection by the East Los Angeles College (ELAC) Geology Club, a student- run club at an inner city community college, facilitated ongoing examination by collecting mud samples from gryphons and mudpots in the Salton Trough and testing temperature, pH levels, electrical conductivity, and total dissolved solids in the field. The samples were sent back to students at USU for further analysis. This collaborative effort is symbiotic as sharing the sampling responsibility allowed USU to

  4. Global sedimentary geology program

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsburg, R.N.; Clifton, H.E.; Weimer, R.J.

    1986-07-01

    The Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, in collaboration with the International Association of Sedimentologists and the International Union of Geological Sciences Committee on Sedimentology, is developing a new international study under the provisional title of Global Sedimentary Geology Program (GSGP). Initially, three research themes are being considered: (1) event stratigraphy-the documentation of examples of mass extinctions, eustatic fluctuations in sea level, major episodes of volcanisms, and changes in ocean composition; (2) facies models in time and space-an expansion of the existing data base of examples of facies models (e.G., deltas, fluvial deposits, and submarine fans) and global-scale study of the persistence of facies at various times in geologic history; and (3) sedimentary indices of paleogeography and tectonics-the use of depositional facies and faunas in paleogeography and in assessing the timing, locus, and characteristics of tectonism. Plans are being developed to organize pilot projects in each of these themes.

  5. U.S. Geological Survey applied research studies of the Cheyenne River System, South Dakota; description and collation of data, water years 1987-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goddard, K. E.

    1990-01-01

    The Cheyenne River System in western South Dakota has been impacted by the discharge of about 100 million metric tons of gold-mill tailings to Whitewood Creek near Lead, South Dakota. In April 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated an extensive series of research studies to investigate the magnitude of the impact and to define important processes acting on the contaminated sediments present in the system. The report presents all data collected during the 1987 and 1988 water years for these research studies. Some of the data included have been published previously. Data collected in the 1985 and 1986 water years have been published in a companion report (U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 88-484). Hydrologic, geochemical, and biologic data are available for sites on Whitewood Creek, and the Belle Fourche and Cheyenne Rivers. Data complexity varies from routine discharge and water-quality to very complex energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. Methods for sample collection, handling and preservation, and laboratory analysis are also presented. No interpretations or complex statistical summaries are included. (See also W89-08390) (USGS)

  6. Advances in research of Asian geology—A summary of 1:5M International Geological Map of Asia project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jishun; Niu, Baogui; Wang, Jun; Jin, Xiaochi; Zhao, Lei; Liu, Renyan

    2013-08-01

    The International Geological Map of Asia at a 1:5,000,000 scale (IGMA5000) is the first digital Asian geological map under the standard of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW). Major advances that have been achieved in compiling the map are manifested in the following understandings. Large amounts of Mesozoic volcanic rocks occurring in the eastern Asian coastal area are mainly Cretaceous instead of Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous. Most of the Carboniferous-Permian volcanic rocks in Central Asia seem not to be arc volcanics, but the product of an extensional stage. The basal boundary of the Meso-Neoproterozoic Jixian section in China is not dated at 1.8 Ga as defined previously, but less than 1.68 Ga. The most significant Neoarchean tectono-thermal events in the Sino-Korean craton and the Indian craton took place at 2.5 Ga rather than at 2.7 Ga. The basement of the Yangtze craton was finally formed at 0.75-0.8 Ga, which is 0.2-0.3 Ga later than the Greenville orogenic cycle. Geologically, South China is identified to be an Early Paleozoic Caledonian foldbelt. The Qinling belt, where no oceanic basin was developed in Triassic times, is not an Indosinian collisional orogen, but a continental crust subduction one. When Pangea was formed, Indo-Australian Gondwana had been joined to Paleo-Asia and between them there was no oceanic basin, i.e. no Paleo-Tethys which continued from Paleozoic to Mesozoic. A huge Indosinian orogenic belt existed on the southern margin of Paleo-Asia to the north of the Zagros-Himalayas. Asia is a composite continent consisting of three major cratons—the Siberian, Indian and Arabian and three huge orogenic belts with a number of minor cratons and numerous microcontinents included. The main body of the Asian continent took its shape during the Mesozoic. The orogenic belts belong respectively to three global tectonic domains: the Paleo-Asian, Tethyan and Pacific. The small cratons, such as Sino-Korea, Yangtze, Tarim, and

  7. Backfill barriers: the use of engineered barriers based on geologic materials to assure isolation of radioactive wastes in a repository. [Nickel-iron alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Apps, J.A.; Cook, N.G.W.

    1981-06-01

    A preliminary assessment is made to show that canisters fabricated of nickel-iron alloys, and surrounded by a suitable backfill, may produce an engineered barrier where the canister material is thermodynamically stable with respect to its environment. As similar conditions exist in nature, the performance of such systems as barriers to isolate radionuclides can be predicted over very long periods, of the order of 10/sup 6/ years.

  8. Isolation and Culture of Bovine Oviductal Epithelial Cells for Use in the Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory and Undergraduate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Amy L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents methods for the isolation and culture of epithelial cells from the bovine oviduct for use in both research and the teaching laboratory and provides examples of ways that an oviductal cell culture can be incorporated into an undergraduate research program. Cow reproductive tracts are readily available from area butchers, and…

  9. Contributions of natural and sexual selection to the evolution of premating reproductive isolation: a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Safran, Rebecca J; Scordato, Elizabeth S C; Symes, Laurel B; Rodríguez, Rafael L; Mendelson, Tamra C

    2013-11-01

    Speciation by divergent natural selection is well supported. However, the role of sexual selection in speciation is less well understood due to disagreement about whether sexual selection is a mechanism of evolution separate from natural selection, as well as confusion about various models and tests of sexual selection. Here, we outline how sexual selection and natural selection are different mechanisms of evolutionary change, and suggest that this distinction is critical when analyzing the role of sexual selection in speciation. Furthermore, we clarify models of sexual selection with respect to their interaction with ecology and natural selection. In doing so, we outline a research agenda for testing hypotheses about the relative significance of divergent sexual and natural selection in the evolution of reproductive isolation.

  10. Assessment of the impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System. [Preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this report was to evaluate four possible alternative methods of preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal against the Reference Process of unmodified spent fuel. The four alternative processes were: (1) End fitting removal, (2) Fission gas venting and resealing, (3) Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins, and (4) Fuel shearing and immobilization. Systems analysis was used to develop a basis of comparison of the alternatives. Conceptual processes and facility layouts were devised for each of the alternatives, based on technology deemed feasible for the purpose. Assessments were made of 15 principal attributes from the technical, operational, safety/risk, and economic considerations related to each of the alternatives, including both the surface packaging and underground repository operations. Specific attributes of the alternative processes were evaluated by assigning a number for each that expressed its merit relative to the corresponding attribute of the Reference Process. Each alternative process was then ranked by summing the numbers for attributes in each of the four assessment areas and collectively. Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins was ranked the preferred method of disposal of spent fuel. 63 references, 46 figures, 46 tables.

  11. Research note: Salmonella enteritidis and Arizona hinshawii isolated from wild sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.; Trainer, D.O.; Duncan, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Salmonella enteritidis serotype Rubislaw and Arizona hinshawii were isolated from cloacal swabs of 'healthy' live-trapped sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) in Indiana and Wisconsin. These respective isolations were the first reported from wild sandhill cranes.

  12. Geological Corrections in Gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikuška, J.; Marušiak, I.

    2015-12-01

    Applying corrections for the known geology to gravity data can be traced back into the first quarter of the 20th century. Later on, mostly in areas with sedimentary cover, at local and regional scales, the correction known as gravity stripping has been in use since the mid 1960s, provided that there was enough geological information. Stripping at regional to global scales became possible after releasing the CRUST 2.0 and later CRUST 1.0 models in the years 2000 and 2013, respectively. Especially the later model provides quite a new view on the relevant geometries and on the topographic and crustal densities as well as on the crust/mantle density contrast. Thus, the isostatic corrections, which have been often used in the past, can now be replaced by procedures working with an independent information interpreted primarily from seismic studies. We have developed software for performing geological corrections in space domain, based on a-priori geometry and density grids which can be of either rectangular or spherical/ellipsoidal types with cells of the shapes of rectangles, tesseroids or triangles. It enables us to calculate the required gravitational effects not only in the form of surface maps or profiles but, for instance, also along vertical lines, which can shed some additional light on the nature of the geological correction. The software can work at a variety of scales and considers the input information to an optional distance from the calculation point up to the antipodes. Our main objective is to treat geological correction as an alternative to accounting for the topography with varying densities since the bottoms of the topographic masses, namely the geoid or ellipsoid, generally do not represent geological boundaries. As well we would like to call attention to the possible distortions of the corrected gravity anomalies. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract APVV-0827-12.

  13. Geologic nozzles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, Kieffer S.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of the low characteristic velocities of geologic fluids has not been widely recognized, and as a result, the importance of supercritical and supersonic flow in geological processes has generally been underestimated. The lateral blast at Mount St. Helens, Washington, propelled a gas heavily laden with dust into the atmosphere. Because of the low sound speed in this gas (about 100 m/s), the flow was internally supersonic. Old Faithful Geyser, Wyoming, is a converging-diverging nozzle in which liquid water refilling the conduit during the recharge cycle changes during eruption into a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture with a very low sound velocity. The high sound speed of liquid water determines the characteristics of harmonic tremor observed at the geyser during the recharge interval, whereas the low sound speed of the liquid-vapor mixture influences the fluid flow characteristics of the eruption. At the rapids of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, the channel is constricted into the shape of a converging-diverging nozzle by the debris flows that enter from tributary canyons. Both subcritical and supercritical flow occur within the rapids. -from Author

  14. INTEGRATING GEOPHYSICS, GEOLOGY, AND HYDROLOGY TO DETERMINE BEDROCK GEOMETRY CONTROLS ON THE ORIGIN OF ISOLATED MEADOW COMPLEXES WITHIN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN, NEVADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian meadow complexes found in mountain ranges of the Central Great Basin physiographic region (western United States) are of interest to researchers as they contain significant biodiversity relative to the surrounding basin areas. These meadow complexes are currently degradi...

  15. Properties of Subsurface Soil Cores from Four Geologic Provinces Surrounding Mars Desert Research Station, Utah: Characterizing Analog Martian Soil in a Human Exploration Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Clarke, J. D. A.; Direito, S.; Foing, B.

    2011-01-01

    The DOMEX program is a NASA-MMAMA funded project featuring simulations of human crews on Mars focused on science activities that involve collecting samples from the subsurface using both manual and robotic equipment methods and analyzing them in the field and post mission. A crew simulating a human mission to Mars performed activities focused on subsurface science for 2 weeks in November 2009 at Mars Desert Research Station near Hanksville, Utah --an important chemical and morphological Mars analog site. Activities performed included 1) survey of the area to identify geologic provinces, 2) obtaining soil and rock samples from each province and characterizing their mineralogy, chemistry, and biology; 3) site selection and reconnaissance for a future drilling mission; 4) deployment and testing of Mars Underground Mole, a percussive robotic soil sampling device; and 5) recording and analyzing how crew time was used to accomplish these tasks. This paper summarizes results from analysis of soil cores

  16. Marine Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Andel, Tjeerd H.

    Marine geology was blessed early, about 30 years ago, with two great textbooks, one by P.H. Kuenen, the other by Francis P. Shepard, but in more recent years, no one has dared synthesize a field that has become so diverse and is growing so rapidly. There are many texts written for the beginning undergraduate student, mostly by marine geologists, but none can be handed conveniently to a serious advanced student or given to a colleague interested in what the field has wrought. The reason for this regrettable state is obvious; only an active, major scholar could hope to write such a book well, but the years would pass, his students dwindle, his grants vanish. He himself might be out of date before his book was. Kennett has earned a large measure of gratitude for his attempt to undertake this task. His personal price must have been high but so are our rewards.

  17. The Modular Borehole Monitoring Program. A research program to optimize well-based monitoring for geologic carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Freifeld, Barry; Daley, Tom; Cook, Paul; Trautz, Robert; Dodds, Kevin

    2014-12-31

    Understanding the impacts caused by injection of large volumes of CO2 in the deep subsurface necessitates a comprehensive monitoring strategy. While surface-based and other remote geophysical methods can provide information on the general morphology of a CO2 plume, verification of the geochemical conditions and validation of the remote sensing data requires measurements from boreholes that penetrate the storage formation. Unfortunately, the high cost of drilling deep wellbores and deploying instrumentation systems constrains the number of dedicated monitoring borings as well as limits the technologies that can be incorporated in a borehole completion. The objective of the Modular Borehole Monitoring (MBM) Program was to develop a robust suite of well-based tools optimized for subsurface monitoring of CO2 that could meet the needs of a comprehensive well-based monitoring program. It should have enough flexibility to be easily reconfigured for various reservoir geometries and geologies. The MBM Program sought to provide storage operators with a turn-key fully engineered design that incorporated key technologies, function over the decades long time-span necessary for post-closure reservoir monitoring, and meet industry acceptable risk profiles for deep-well installations. While still within the conceptual design phase of the MBM program, the SECARB Anthropogenic Test in Citronelle, Alabama, USA was identified as a deployment site for our engineered monitoring systems. The initial step in designing the Citronelle MBM system was to down-select from the various monitoring tools available to include technologies that we considered essential to any program. Monitoring methods selected included U-tube geochemical sampling, discrete quartz pressure and temperature gauges, an integrated fibre-optic bundle consisting of distributed temperature and heat-pulse sensing, and a sparse string of conventional 3C-geophones. While not originally planned

  18. High resolution 3D ERT to help GPR data interpretation for researching archaeological items in a geologically complex subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negri, S.; Leucci, G.; Mazzone, F.

    2008-09-01

    Muro Leccese (Lecce) contains one the most important Messapian archaeological sites in southern Italy. The archaeological interest of the site arises from the discovery of the remains of Messapian walls, tombs, roads, etc. (4th-2nd centuries BC) in the neighbourhood. The archaeological remains were found at about 0.3 m depth. At present the site belongs to the municipality, which intends to build a new sewer network through it. The risk of destroying potentially interesting ancient archaeological structures during the works prompted an archaeological survey of the area. The relatively large dimensions of the area (almost 10,000 m 2), together with time and cost constraints, made it necessary to use geophysical investigations as a faster means to ascertain the presence of archaeological items. Since the most important targets were expected to be located at a soil depth of about 0.3 m, a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey was carried out in an area located near the archaeological excavations. Unfortunately the geological complexity did not allow an easy interpretation of the GPR data. Therefore a 3D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) scan was conducted in order to resolve these interpretation problems. A three-way comparison of the results of the dense ERT measurements parallel to the x axis, the results of the measurements parallel to the y axis and the combined results was performed. Subsequently the synthetic model approach was used to provide a better characterization of the resistivity anomalies visible on the ERT field data. The 3D inversion results clearly illustrate the capability to resolve in view of quality 3D structures of archaeological interest. According to the presented data the inversion models along one direction ( x or y) seems to be adequate in reconstructing the subsurface structures. Naturally field data produce good quality reconstructions of the archaeological features only if the x-line and y-line measurements are considered together

  19. The Modular Borehole Monitoring Program. A research program to optimize well-based monitoring for geologic carbon sequestration

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Freifeld, Barry; Daley, Tom; Cook, Paul; Trautz, Robert; Dodds, Kevin

    2014-12-31

    Understanding the impacts caused by injection of large volumes of CO2 in the deep subsurface necessitates a comprehensive monitoring strategy. While surface-based and other remote geophysical methods can provide information on the general morphology of a CO2 plume, verification of the geochemical conditions and validation of the remote sensing data requires measurements from boreholes that penetrate the storage formation. Unfortunately, the high cost of drilling deep wellbores and deploying instrumentation systems constrains the number of dedicated monitoring borings as well as limits the technologies that can be incorporated in a borehole completion. The objective of the Modular Borehole Monitoring (MBM)more » Program was to develop a robust suite of well-based tools optimized for subsurface monitoring of CO2 that could meet the needs of a comprehensive well-based monitoring program. It should have enough flexibility to be easily reconfigured for various reservoir geometries and geologies. The MBM Program sought to provide storage operators with a turn-key fully engineered design that incorporated key technologies, function over the decades long time-span necessary for post-closure reservoir monitoring, and meet industry acceptable risk profiles for deep-well installations. While still within the conceptual design phase of the MBM program, the SECARB Anthropogenic Test in Citronelle, Alabama, USA was identified as a deployment site for our engineered monitoring systems. The initial step in designing the Citronelle MBM system was to down-select from the various monitoring tools available to include technologies that we considered essential to any program. Monitoring methods selected included U-tube geochemical sampling, discrete quartz pressure and temperature gauges, an integrated fibre-optic bundle consisting of distributed temperature and heat-pulse sensing, and a sparse string of conventional 3C-geophones. While not originally planned within the initial MBM

  20. Geologic Wonders of Yosemite at Two Miles High: an Undergraduate, Learner-Centered, Team Research Program at the University of Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.; Anderson, J. L.; Cao, W.; Gao, Y.; Ikeda, T.; Jacobs, R.; Johanesen, K.; Mai, J.; Memeti, V.; Padilla, A.; Paterson, S. R.; Seyum, S.; Shimono, S.; Thomas, T.; Thompson, J.; Zhang, T.

    2007-12-01

    This program is a multidisciplinary student research experience that is largely outside of the classroom, involving undergraduate students in an international-level research project looking at the magmatic plumbing systems formed underneath volcanoes. We bring together a blend of students across the disciplines, both from within and outside the sciences. Following a "learner-centered" teaching philosophy, we formed student teams where more advanced students worked with and taught those more junior, under the guidance of mentors, which include USC professors, graduate students, and visiting international scholars. This program truly covers the full breadth of the research process, from field work and data collection to analysis to presentation. In the summers of 2006 and 2007, research groups of undergraduates and mentors camped in the high Sierra backcountry and worked in small mapping groups by day, generating a detailed geologic map of the field area. Evenings consisted of student led science meetings where the group discussed major research problems and developed a plan to address them. Upon returning from the field, the research group transitions to more lab- based work, including rock dating, XRF geochemistry, microscope, and mineral microprobe analyses, and by spring semester the groups also begins writing up and presenting the results. The summer 2006 research group consisted of 5 undergraduate students and 5 mentors, and was a huge success resulting in presentations at a university undergraduate research symposium as well as the Cordilleran Section meeting of GSA. The summer 2007 group was even larger, with 10 undergraduates and 6 mentors, including two international scholars. Undergraduates also participated in research in China and Mongolia. Aside from rewarding research experiences, students learn rapidly through these research experiences, were much more engaged in the learning process, and benefited from teaching their peers. Several students expressed

  1. Proceedings of the U.S. Geological Survey 2004 Mercury Workshop - Mercury Research and Its Relation to Department of the Interior Resource Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, John A.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction As part of the Department of the Interior (DOI) program Science on the DOI Landscape Initiative, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Eastern Region, held a workshop during August 17-18, 2004, in Reston, VA, on mercury in the environment as it relates to DOI resource management. DOI bureaus manage millions of acres of land and offshore resources subject to mercury deposition and to the effects of mercury on ecosystems and human health. The goals of the workshop were to (1) summarize information on mercury sources and cycling on DOI lands in the eastern United States, (2) learn the perspectives of the DOI bureaus regarding mercury on DOI lands, (3) provide information to DOI land managers about monitoring mercury and minimizing mercury accumulation in wildlife and humans, and (4) consider future directions for mercury monitoring and research on DOI lands. The workshop focused on mercury research as it relates to DOI resource-management issues primarily in the eastern part of the United States (east of the Mississippi River). Topics included the influence of ecosystem setting on mercury biogeochemical transformation, land- and air-management practices as they affect mercury in the environment, mercury source issues, and effects of mercury on humans and wildlife. Mercury research topics were addressed by 24 invited oral presentations and 30 contributed posters. The perspectives of the DOI bureaus and land managers were addressed through a panel of scientists from the DOI resource-management bureaus and a Chippewa Indian Tribe of Minnesota. Discussion at the conclusion of the workshop was directed toward goals and long-term strategies for mercury research that will benefit DOI resource management. The panel, presentations, and discussions were videotaped and are available at the following URL, along with the slides presented: http://www.usgs.gov/mercury/2004workshop/ Abstracts from the presentations and posters are included in this report, together with

  2. Understanding controls on flow permanence in intermittent rivers to aid ecological research: integrating meteorology, geology and land cover

    EPA Science Inventory

    Intermittent rivers, those channels that periodically cease to flow, constitute over half of the total discharge of the global river network and will likely increase in their extent due to climatic shifts and/or water resources development. Burgeoning research on intermittent riv...

  3. Actinide chemistry research supporting the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): FY94 results

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, C.F.

    1995-08-01

    This document contains six reports on actinide chemistry research supporting the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These reports, completed in FY94, are relevant to the estimation of the potential dissolved actinide concentrations in WIPP brines under repository breach scenarios. Estimates of potential dissolved actinide concentrations are necessary for WIPP performance assessment calculations. The specific topics covered within this document are: the complexation of oxalate with Th(IV) and U(VI); the stability of Pu(VI) in one WIPP-specific brine environment both with and without carbonate present; the solubility of Nd(III) in a WIPP Salado brine surrogate as a function of hydrogen ion concentration; the steady-state dissolved plutonium concentrations in a synthetic WIPP Culebra brine surrogate; the development of a model for Nd(III) solubility and speciation in dilute to concentrated sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solutions; and the development of a model for Np(V) solubility and speciation in dilute to concentrated sodium Perchlorate, sodium carbonate, and sodium chloride media.

  4. Membrane protein isolation and identification by covalent binding for proteome research.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiying; Yan, Guoquan; Gao, Mingxia; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2015-11-01

    A novel method to achieve highly efficient identification of membrane proteins (MPs) has been developed based on a covalent binding (CB) strategy. For this purpose, magnetic nanoparticles coated with a PEG layer were synthesized. The PEG chain end was functionalized to form the PEG-tresyl group, which is an octopus-like long arm to capture the free amino groups of MPs. The long arm could be used to bind proteins in a high concentration of the SDS medium. Then, the SDS and interfering substances were completely depleted by washing. The CB proteins could form a molecular monolayer on the surface of the nanoparticles in the denatured state, which was significantly favorable for the proteolysis of MPs. Therefore, isolation with CB and highly efficient digestion resulted in a larger scale of MPs. The method has been verified by a proteome identification of mouse liver samples. A total of 2946 MPs were identified in an MP fraction. A total of 1505 proteins were characterized as integral MPs, and 735 MPs were identified beyond the largest database summarized by PeptideAtlas. This approach has great potential for membrane proteome research. PMID:26376103

  5. Complete genome sequence of Cupriavidus basilensis 4G11, isolated from the Oak Ridge Field Research Center site

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ray, Jayashree; Waters, R. Jordan; Skerker, Jeffrey M.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Price, Morgan N.; Huang, Jiawen; Chakraborty, Romy; Arkin, Adam P.; Deutschbauer, Adam

    2015-05-14

    Cupriavidus basilensis 4G11 was isolated from groundwater at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center (FRC) site. Here, we report the complete genome sequence and annotation of Cupriavidus basilensis 4G11. The genome contains 8,421,483 bp, 7,661 predicted protein-coding genes, and a total GC content of 64.4%.

  6. Assessing understanding of the nature of science and science self-efficacy in undergraduates involved in research in an introductory geology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Elizabeth Louise

    As part of a campus-wide effort to transform introductory science courses to be more engaging and to more accurately convey the excitement of discovery in science, we have re-created the curriculum of our introductory geology lab. We have transformed what was a series of `cookbook' lab activities into a series of activities based in scientific inquiry and cooperative learning and have included a six-week, student driven research project focused on local groundwater and surface water issues, seeking to determine whether or not this new curriculum was an effective means to increase students' understanding of the nature of science and self-efficacy towards science. In addition to developing the research project curriculum, we worked with other university faculty to create a local hydrology research station which included eight monitoring wells and a stream gage, allowing students to collect their own water-level and water-quality data as well as to retrieve automatically collected data. In order to measure nature of science understanding, we used a modified version of the Student Understanding of Science and Scientific Inquiry questionnaire (Liang et al., 2005; Clough, 2010). We modified a vocational self-efficacy survey (Riggs et al. 1994) to measure science self-efficacy. Both instruments had average Cronbach's alpha values >0.8, making them reliable for our study. After three semesters of collecting data, we have found that an authentic research project slightly improves, but does not significantly increase overall nature of science understanding or science self-efficacy. Dis-aggregating the data into demographic sub-groups, nature of science understanding increased relatively more in non-STEM students than STEM students, and science self-efficacy increased relatively more in STEM students than non-STEM students. We also measured changes in students' understanding of geologic concepts in the Fall 2011 and Spring 2012 semesters. We gave students enrolled in the lab

  7. Old Geology and New Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 28 May 2003

    Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in

  8. Research note: isolation of a herpesvirus from a bald eagle nestling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Docherty, D.E.; Romaine, R.I.; Knight, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Cloacal swabs collected from wild bald eagle nestlings (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were tested for viruses. A virus isolated from one of these samples had a lipid coat and contained DNA. Electron microscopy confirmed that it was a herpesvirus. This appears to be the first report of a herpesvirus isolation from a wild bald eagle.

  9. Q&A: Geological historian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witze, Alexandra

    2015-04-01

    The first geological map of a nation was made 200 years ago by British surveyor William Smith; the rediscovery of a first-edition copy in the archives of the Geological Society of London was announced last month (see go.nature.com/oogpht). As researchers gather for a conference to celebrate the anniversary of the 1815 chart of England and Wales, John Henry, chair of the society's history group, talks about the map and its pioneering creator.

  10. The Geologic History of the Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundquist, E. T.; Visser, K.

    2003-12-01

    Geologists, like other scientists, tend to view the global carbon cycle through the lens of their particular training and experience. The study of Earth's history requires a view both humbled by the knowledge of past global transformations and emboldened by the imagination of details not seen in the fragments of the rock record. In studying the past behavior of the carbon cycle, geologists are both amazed by unexpected discoveries and reassured by the extent to which "the present is the key to the past." Understanding the present-day carbon cycle has become a matter of societal urgency because of concerns about the effects of human activities on atmospheric chemistry and global climate. This public limelight has had far-reaching consequences for research on the geologic history of the carbon cycle as well as for studies of its present and future. The burgeoning new "interdiscipline" of biogeochemistry claims among its adherents many geologists as well as biologists, chemists, and other scientists. The pace of discovery demands that studies of the geologic history of the carbon cycle cannot be isolated from the context of present and future events.This chapter describes the behavior of the carbon cycle prior to human influence. It describes events and processes that extend back through geologic time and include the exchange of carbon between the Earth's surface and the long-term reservoirs in the lithosphere. Chapter 8.10 emphasizes carbon exchanges that are important over years to decades, with a focus on relatively recent human influences and prospects for change during the coming century. Chapter 4.03 presents an overview of the biogeochemistry of methane, again with emphasis on relatively recent events. In these chapters as well as in the present chapter, relationships between the carbon cycle and global climate are a central concern. Together, these chapters provide an overview of how our knowledge of the present-day carbon cycle can be applied both to

  11. Geology of the Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillon, William P.; Edgar, N.T.; Scanlon, K.M.; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1987-01-01

    The Venezuelan and Colombian basins are located on the Caribbean Plate whilst the Yucatan basin is on the North American Plate. The processes occurring at the boundaries between the Caribbean Plate and the adjacent North American, South American and Cocos Plates, and the resulting surface features and patterns of volcanic and earthquake activity are described. Most of the Caribbean area is floored by atypical oceanic crust and its most valuable main geologic resources identified so far are petroleum, together with sand and gravel. Geological research is being carried out with techniques for broad-range swath imaging of the seafloor, such as GLORIA, and for directly measuring the movement between plates. -J.G.Harvey

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Mobile Genetic Elements from Microbial Assemblages Obtained from the Field Research Center Site

    SciTech Connect

    Patricia Sobecky; Cassie Hodges; Kerri Lafferty; Mike Humphreys; Melanie Raimondo; Kristin Tuttle; Tamar Barkay

    2004-03-17

    Considerable knowledge has been gained from the intensive study of a relatively limited group of bacterial plasmids. Recent efforts have begun to focus on the characterization of, at the molecular level, plasmid populations and associated mobile genetic elements (e.g., transposons, integrons) occurring in a wider range of aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Surprisingly, however, little information is available regarding the incidence and distribution of mobile genetic elements extant in contaminated subsurface environments. Such studies will provide greater knowledge on the ecology of plasmids and their contributions to the genetic plasticity (and adaptation) of naturally occurring subsurface microbial communities. We requested soil cores from the DOE NABIR Field Research Center (FRC) located on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The cores, received in February 2003, were sampled from four areas on the Oak Ridge Site: Area 1, Area 2, Area 3 (representing contaminated subsurface locales) and the background reference sites. The average core length (24 in) was subdivided into three profiles and soil pH and moisture content were determined. Uranium concentration was also determined in bulk samples. Replicate aliquots were fixed for total cell counts and for bacterial isolation. Four different isolation media were used to culture aerobic and facultative microbes from these four study areas. Colony forming units ranged from a minimum of 100 per gram soil to a maximum of 10,000 irrespective of media composition used. The vast majority of cultured subsurface isolates were gram-positive isolates and plasmid characterization was conducted per methods routinely used in the Sobecky laboratory. The percentage of plasmid incidence ranged from 10% to 60% of all isolates tested. This frequency appears to be somewhat higher than the incidence of plasmids we have observed in other habitats and we are increasing the number of isolates screened to confirm this observation. We are also

  13. U.S. Geological Survey applied research studies of the Cheyenne River system, South Dakota; description and collation of data, water years 1985-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goddard, Kimball E.

    1988-01-01

    The Cheyenne River system in Western South Dakota has been impacted by the discharge of about 100 million metric tons of gold-mill tailings to Whitewood Creek near Lead, South Dakota. In April 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated an extensive series of research studies to investigate the magnitude of the impact and to define important processes acting on the contaminated sediments present in the system. The report presents all data collected during the 1985 and 1986 water years for these research studies. Some of the data included have been published previously. Hydrologic, geochemical, and biologic data are available for sites on Whitewood Creek, the Belle Fourche and Cheyenne Rivers, and for the Cheyenne River arm of Lake Oahe. Data complexity varies from routine discharge and water quality to very complex photon-correlation spectroscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. Methods for sample collection, handling and preservation, and laboratory analysis are also presented. No interpretations or complex statistical summaries are included. (USGS)

  14. Geologic Technician New Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Stanley E.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a developing two-year geologic technician program at Bakersfield College in which a student may major in five areas - geologic drafting, land and legal, geologic assistant, engineering or paleontology. (RR)

  15. Research project on CO2 geological storage and groundwaterresources: Large-scale hydrological evaluation and modeling of impact ongroundwater systems

    SciTech Connect

    Birkholzer, Jens; Zhou, Quanlin; Rutqvist, Jonny; Jordan,Preston; Zhang,K.; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2007-10-24

    If carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies areimplemented on a large scale, the amounts of CO2 injected and sequesteredunderground could be extremely large. The stored CO2 then replaces largevolumes of native brine, which can cause considerable pressureperturbation and brine migration in the deep saline formations. Ifhydraulically communicating, either directly via updipping formations orthrough interlayer pathways such as faults or imperfect seals, theseperturbations may impact shallow groundwater or even surface waterresources used for domestic or commercial water supply. Possibleenvironmental concerns include changes in pressure and water table,changes in discharge and recharge zones, as well as changes in waterquality. In compartmentalized formations, issues related to large-scalepressure buildup and brine displacement may also cause storage capacityproblems, because significant pressure buildup can be produced. Toaddress these issues, a three-year research project was initiated inOctober 2006, the first part of which is summarized in this annualreport.

  16. Applications of research from the U.S. Geological Survey program, assessment of regional earthquake hazards and risk along the Wasatch Front, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gori, Paula L.

    1993-01-01

    INTERACTIVE WORKSHOPS: ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF THE EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS RESEARCH AND REDUCTION PROGRAM IN THE WASATCH FRONT, UTAH: Interactive workshops provided the forum and stimulus necessary to foster collaboration among the participants in the multidisciplinary, 5-yr program of earthquake hazards reduction in the Wasatch Front, Utah. The workshop process validated well-documented social science theories on the importance of interpersonal interaction, including interaction between researchers and users of research to increase the probability that research will be relevant to the user's needs and, therefore, more readily used. REDUCING EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS IN UTAH: THE CRUCIAL CONNECTION BETWEEN RESEARCHERS AND PRACTITIONERS: Complex scientific and engineering studies must be translated for and transferred to nontechnical personnel for use in reducing earthquake hazards in Utah. The three elements needed for effective translation, likelihood of occurrence, location, and severity of potential hazards, and the three elements needed for effective transfer, delivery, assistance, and encouragement, are described and illustrated for Utah. The importance of evaluating and revising earthquake hazard reduction programs and their components is emphasized. More than 30 evaluations of various natural hazard reduction programs and techniques are introduced. This report was prepared for research managers, funding sources, and evaluators of the Utah earthquake hazard reduction program who are concerned about effectiveness. An overview of the Utah program is provided for those researchers, engineers, planners, and decisionmakers, both public and private, who are committed to reducing human casualties, property damage, and interruptions of socioeconomic systems. PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF EARTHQUAKE MITIGATION POLICIES ALONG THE WASATCH FRONT IN UTAH: The earthquake hazard potential along the Wasatch Front in Utah has been well defined by a number of scientific and

  17. Visible Geology - Interactive online geologic block modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockett, R.

    2012-12-01

    Geology is a highly visual science, and many disciplines require spatial awareness and manipulation. For example, interpreting cross-sections, geologic maps, or plotting data on a stereonet all require various levels of spatial abilities. These skills are often not focused on in undergraduate geoscience curricula and many students struggle with spatial relations, manipulations, and penetrative abilities (e.g. Titus & Horsman, 2009). A newly developed program, Visible Geology, allows for students to be introduced to many geologic concepts and spatial skills in a virtual environment. Visible Geology is a web-based, three-dimensional environment where students can create and interrogate their own geologic block models. The program begins with a blank model, users then add geologic beds (with custom thickness and color) and can add geologic deformation events like tilting, folding, and faulting. Additionally, simple intrusive dikes can be modelled, as well as unconformities. Students can also explore the interaction of geology with topography by drawing elevation contours to produce their own topographic models. Students can not only spatially manipulate their model, but can create cross-sections and boreholes to practice their visual penetrative abilities. Visible Geology is easy to access and use, with no downloads required, so it can be incorporated into current, paper-based, lab activities. Sample learning activities are being developed that target introductory and structural geology curricula with learning objectives such as relative geologic history, fault characterization, apparent dip and thickness, interference folding, and stereonet interpretation. Visible Geology provides a richly interactive, and immersive environment for students to explore geologic concepts and practice their spatial skills.; Screenshot of Visible Geology showing folding and faulting interactions on a ridge topography.

  18. Isolating Science from the Humanities: The Third Dogma of Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    2009-01-01

    The demand for scientifically-based educational research has fostered a new methodological orthodoxy exemplified by documents such as the National Research Council's "Scientific Research in Education" and "Advancing Scientific Research in Education" and American Educational Research Association's "Standards for Reporting on Empirical Social…

  19. Multidisciplinary Studies of the Fate and Transport of Contaminants in Ground Water at the U.S. Geological Survey Cape Cod Toxic Substances Hydrology Program Research Site, Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, D. R.; Smith, R. L.; Kent, D. B.; Barber, L. B.; Harvey, R. W.

    2008-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducts multidisciplinary research on the physical, chemical, and microbiological processes affecting ground-water contaminants of global concern at its Cape Cod Toxic Substances Hydrology Program site in Massachusetts, USA. The work centers on a 6-kilometer-long plume of treated wastewater in a glacial sand and gravel aquifer. The plume is characterized by distinct geochemical zones caused by the biodegradation of organic materials in treated wastewater that was disposed to the aquifer by rapid infiltration during the period 1936-95. A core group of hydrogeologists, geochemists, microbiologists, and geophysicists has been involved in the research effort for more than two decades. The effort has been enhanced by stable funding, a readily accessible site, a relatively simple hydrologic setting, and logistical support from an adjacent military base. The research team uses a three-part approach to plan and conduct research at the site. First, detailed spatial and temporal monitoring of the plume since the late 1970s provides field evidence of important contaminant-transport processes and provides the basis for multidisciplinary, process-oriented studies. Second, ground-water tracer experiments are conducted in various geochemical zones in the plume to study factors that control the rate and extent of contaminant transport. Several arrays of multilevel sampling devices, including an array with more than 15,000 individual sampling points, are used to conduct these experiments. Plume-scale (kilometers) and tracer-test-scale (1- 100 meters) studies are complemented by laboratory experiments and mathematical modeling of flow and reactive transport. Third, results are applied to the treated-wastewater plume, other contaminant plumes at the military base, and other sites nationally to evaluate the applicability of the findings and to point toward further research. Examples of findings to date include that (1) macrodispersivity can be related to

  20. Practical petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the scope and content of the field of petroleum geology from the standpoint of the practicing petroleum geologist. Includes chapters on basic geological concepts, the sedimentation process, accumulation of hydrocarbons, exploration, economic examination, drilling of exploratory wells, recovering oil and gas (reservoir geology), and the relationship of geology to the petroleum industry as a whole.

  1. Project plan-Surficial geologic mapping and hydrogeologic framework studies in the Greater Platte River Basins (Central Great Plains) in support of ecosystem and climate change research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berry, Margaret E.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Slate, Janet L.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Sawyer, David A.; VanSistine, D. Paco

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Platte River Basin area spans a central part of the Midcontinent and Great Plains from the Rocky Mountains on the west to the Missouri River on the east, and is defined to include drainage areas of the Platte, Niobrara, and Republican Rivers, the Rainwater Basin, and other adjoining areas overlying the northern High Plains aquifer. The Greater Platte River Basin contains abundant surficial deposits that were sensitive to, or are reflective of, the climate under which they formed: deposits from multiple glaciations in the mountain headwaters of the North and South Platte Rivers and from continental ice sheets in eastern Nebraska; fluvial terraces (ranging from Tertiary to Holocene in age) along the rivers and streams; vast areas of eolian sand in the Nebraska Sand Hills and other dune fields (recording multiple episodes of dune activity); thick sequences of windblown silt (loess); and sediment deposited in numerous lakes and wetlands. In addition, the Greater Platte River Basin overlies and contributes surface water to the High Plains aquifer, a nationally important groundwater system that underlies parts of eight states and sustains one of the major agricultural areas of the United States. The area also provides critical nesting habitat for birds such as plovers and terns, and roosting habitat for cranes and other migratory birds that travel through the Central Flyway of North America. This broad area, containing fragile ecosystems that could be further threatened by changes in climate and land use, has been identified by the USGS and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln as a region where intensive collaborative research could lead to a better understanding of climate change and what might be done to adapt to or mitigate its adverse effects to ecosystems and to humans. The need for robust data on the geologic framework of ecosystems in the Greater Platte River Basin has been acknowledged in proceedings from the 2008 Climate Change Workshop and in draft

  2. Pharmaceuticals, hormones, personal-care products, and other organic wastewater contaminants in water resources: Recent research activities of the U.S. Geological Survey's toxic substances hydrology program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Focazio, Michael J.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Buxton, Herbert T.

    2003-01-01

    Recent decades have brought increasing concerns for potential contamination of water resources that could inadvertently result during production, use, and disposal of the numerous chemicals offering improvements in industry, agriculture, medical treatment, and even common household products. Increasing knowledge of the environmental occurrence or toxicological behavior of these contaminants from various studies in Europe, United States, and elsewhere has resulted in increased concern for potential adverse environmental and human health effects (Daughton and Ternes, 1999). Ecologists and public health experts often have incomplete understandings of the toxicological significance of many of these contaminants, particularly long-term, low-level exposure and when they occur in mixtures with other contaminants (Daughton and Ternes, 1999; Kümmerer, 2001). In addition, these ‘emerging contaminants’ are not typically monitored or assessed in ambient water resources. The need to understand the processes controlling the transport and fate of these contaminants in the environment, and the lack of knowledge of the significance of long-term exposures have increased the need to study environmental occurrence down to trace (nanogram per liter) levels. Furthermore, the possibility that mixtures of environmental contaminants may interact synergistically or antagonistically has increased the need to characterize the types of mixtures that are found in our waters. The U.S. Geological Survey’s Toxic Substances Hydrology Program (Toxics Program) is developing information and tools on emerging water-quality issues that will be used to design and improve water-quality monitoring and assessment programs of the USGS and others, and for proactive decision-making by industry, regulators, the research community, and the public (http://toxics.usgs.gov/regional/emc.html). This research on emerging water-quality issues includes a combination of laboratory work to develop new analytical

  3. Research Review: I. Lunar Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Sally

    1972-01-01

    An interview with a scientist associated with the lunar rock analysis program in which discoveries concerning the moon and their contribution to the understanding of the origins of the earth-moon system are discussed. (Author/AL)

  4. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces (e.g., Varnes, 1974). Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962 (Hackman, 1962). Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete

  5. Nasa's Planetary Geologic Mapping Program: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. A.

    2016-06-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Division supports the geologic mapping of planetary surfaces through a distinct organizational structure and a series of research and analysis (R&A) funding programs. Cartography and geologic mapping issues for NASA's planetary science programs are overseen by the Mapping and Planetary Spatial Infrastructure Team (MAPSIT), which is an assessment group for cartography similar to the Mars Exploration Program Assessment Group (MEPAG) for Mars exploration. MAPSIT's Steering Committee includes specialists in geological mapping, who make up the Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS). I am the GEMS Chair, and with a group of 3-4 community mappers we advise the U.S. Geological Survey Planetary Geologic Mapping Coordinator (Dr. James Skinner) and develop policy and procedures to aid the planetary geologic mapping community. GEMS meets twice a year, at the Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in March, and at the Annual Planetary Mappers' Meeting in June (attendance is required by all NASA-funded geologic mappers). Funding programs under NASA's current R&A structure to propose geological mapping projects include Mars Data Analysis (Mars), Lunar Data Analysis (Moon), Discovery Data Analysis (Mercury, Vesta, Ceres), Cassini Data Analysis (Saturn moons), Solar System Workings (Venus or Jupiter moons), and the Planetary Data Archiving, Restoration, and Tools (PDART) program. Current NASA policy requires all funded geologic mapping projects to be done digitally using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software. In this presentation we will discuss details on how geologic mapping is done consistent with current NASA policy and USGS guidelines.

  6. Research Experience for Teachers at NRAO-Green Bank: Identifying Extended Regions of Neutral Hydrogen Surrounding Isolated Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarty, Amy; Pisano, D. J., III; Maddalena, R. J.

    2007-12-01

    Funded by the National Science Foundation's Research Experience for Teachers program, we compared single dish and interferometer data in order to facilitate the identification of regions of diffuse neutral hydrogen surrounding a pre-selected set of isolated galaxies. These galaxies are also being utilized as the focal point of a curriculum on scientific research for high school physics students. The spectra of 31 isolated galaxies at 21 cm were previously observed with the VLA and the Green Bank Telescope. It was expected that areas of diffuse neutral hydrogen surrounding a galaxy would be manifested by a greater flux density in the GBT spectrum data than in the VLA spectrum. Twenty two of the galaxies exhibited a significant flux difference between the VLA and GBT spectrum. Of these, ten had VLA flux that was greater than the GBT flux - an unexpected result. Several of these galaxies will be re-observed with the GBT in order to determine if there was a calibration or pointing error resulting in the GBT flux being less than the VLA flux. The study of these galaxies is ongoing. The curriculum that we have designed for physics students focuses on the nature of astronomical research. Students are traditionally instructed that scientific research is carried out according to the rigid structure of the "scientific method.” This fails to expose them to the evolutionary nature of research that occurs in astronomy and its largely descriptive nature. Students will utilize online astronomical databases to facilitate the characterization, and then categorization, of the isolated galaxies. The culmination of the unit will be student presentations and defenses of their categorization of the galaxies to an astronomer.

  7. Global Geologic Map of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, T.; Figueredo, P.; Greeley, R.; Hare, T.; Kolb, E.; Mullins, K.; Senske, D.; Tanaka, K.; Weiser, S.

    2008-01-01

    Europa, with its indications of a sub-ice ocean, is of keen interest to astrobiology and planetary geology. Knowledge of the global distribution and timing of Europan geologic units is a key step for the synthesis of data from the Galileo mission, and for the planning of future missions to the satellite. The first geologic map of Europa was produced at a hemisphere scale with low resolution Voyager data. Following the acquisition of higher resolution data by the Galileo mission, researchers have identified surface units and determined sequences of events in relatively small areas of Europa through geologic mapping using images at various resolutions acquired by Galileo's Solid State Imaging camera. These works provided a local to subregional perspective and employed different criteria for the determination and naming of units. Unified guidelines for the identification, mapping and naming of Europan geologic units were put forth by and employed in regional-to-hemispheric scale mapping which is now being expanded into a global geologic map. A global photomosaic of Galileo and Voyager data was used as a basemap for mapping in ArcGIS, following suggested methodology of all-stratigraphy for planetary mapping. The following units have been defined in global mapping and are listed in stratigraphic order from oldest to youngest: ridged plains material, Argadnel Regio unit, dark plains material, lineaments, disrupted plains material, lenticulated plains material and Chaos material.

  8. The geologic story of Isle Royale National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huber, N. King

    1975-01-01

    Isle Royale is an outstanding example of relatively undisturbed northwoods lake wilderness. But more than simple preservation of such an environment is involved in its inclusion in our National Park System. Its isolation from the mainland provides an almost untouched laboratory for research in the natural sciences, especially those studies whose very nature depends upon such isolation. One excellent example of such research is the intensive study of the predator-prey relationship of the timber wolf and moose, long sponsored by the National Park Service and Purdue University. In probably no other place in North America are the necessary ecological conditions for such a study so admirably fulfilled as on Isle Royale. The development of a natural laboratory with such conditions is ultimately dependent upon geologic processes and events that although not unique in themselves, produced in their interplay a unique result, the island archipelago as we know it today, with its hills and valleys, swamps and bogs the ecological framework of the plant and animal world. Even the most casual visitor can hardly fail to be struck by the fiordlike nature of many of the bays, the chains of fringing islands, the ridge-and-valley topography, and the linear nature of all these features. The distinctive topography of the archipelago is, of course, only the latest manifestation of geologic processes in operation since time immemorial. Fragments of geologic history going back over a billion years can be read from the rocks of the island, and with additional data from other parts of the Lake Superior region, we can fill in some of the story of Isle Royale. After more than a hundred years of study by man, the story is still incomplete. But then, geologic stories are seldom complete, and what we do know allows a deeper appreciation of one of our most naturally preserved parks and whets our curiosity about the missing fragments.

  9. Summary of presentation for research on social structure, agreement, and conflict in groups in extreme and isolated environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Despite a vast amount of research, little is known concerning the effect of group structure, and individuals' understanding of that structure, on conflict in Antarctic groups. The overall objective of the research discussed is to determine the interrelationships of group structure, social cognition, and group function and conflict in isolated and extreme environments. In the two decades following WWII, a large body of research focused on the physiological, psychological, and social psychological factors affecting the functioning of individuals and groups in a variety of extreme and isolated environments in both the Arctic and Antarctic. There are two primary reasons for further research of this type. First, Antarctic polar stations are considered to be natural laboratories for the social and behavioral sciences and provide an opportunity to address certain theoretical and empirical questions concerned with agreement and conflict in social groups in general and group behavior in extreme, isolated environments in particular. Recent advances in the analysis of social networks and intracultural variation have improved the methods and have shifted the theoretical questions. The research is motivated by three classes of questions: (1) What are the characteristics of the social relations among individuals working and living together in extreme and isolated environments?; (2) What do individuals understand about their group, how does that understanding develop, and how is it socially distributed?; and (3) What is the relationship between that understanding and the functioning of the social group? Answers to these questions are important if we are to advance our knowledge of how individuals and groups adapt to extreme environments. Second, although Antarctic winter-over candidates may be evaluated as qualified on the basis of individual characteristics, they may fail to adapt because of certain characteristics of the social group. Consequently, the ability of winter

  10. Scientific Journals as Fossil Traces of Sweeping Change in the Structure and Practice of Modern Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fratesi, Sarah E.; Vacher, H. L.

    2008-01-01

    In our attempts to track changes in geological practice over time and to isolate the source of these changes, we have found that they are largely connected with the germination of new geologic subdisciplines. We use keyword and title data from articles in 68 geology journals to track the changes in influence of each subdiscipline on geology over…

  11. County digital geologic mapping. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, R.H.; Johnson, G.L.; dePolo, C.M.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this project is to create quality-county wide digital 1:250,000-scale geologic maps from existing published 1:250,000-scale Geologic and Mineral Resource Bulletins published by the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG). An additional data set, based on current NBMG research, Major and Significant Quaternary and Suspected Quaternary Faults of Nevada, at 1:250,000 scale has also been included.

  12. USGS Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Sam; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies the coasts of the western United States, including Alaska and Hawai‘i. Team scientists conduct research, monitor processes, and develop information about coastal and marine geologic hazards, environmental conditions, habitats, and energy and mineral resources. This information helps managers at all levels of government and in the private sector make informed decisions about the use and protection of national coastal and marine resources.

  13. Petrophysical analysis of geophysical logs of the National Drilling Company-U.S. Geological Survey ground-water research project for Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, Donald G.; Petricola, Mario

    1994-01-01

    A program of borehole-geophysical logging was implemented to supply geologic and geohydrologic information for a regional ground-water investigation of Abu Dhabi Emirate. Analysis of geophysical logs was essential to provide information on geohydrologic properties because drill cuttings were not always adequate to define lithologic boundaries. The standard suite of logs obtained at most project test holes consisted of caliper, spontaneous potential, gamma ray, dual induction, microresistivity, compensated neutron, compensated density, and compensated sonic. Ophiolitic detritus from the nearby Oman Mountains has unusual petrophysical properties that complicated the interpretation of geophysical logs. The density of coarse ophiolitic detritus is typically greater than 3.0 grams per cubic centimeter, porosity values are large, often exceeding 45 percent, and the clay fraction included unusual clays, such as lizardite. Neither the spontaneous-potential log nor the natural gamma-ray log were useable clay indicators. Because intrinsic permeability is a function of clay content, additional research in determining clay content was critical. A research program of geophysical logging was conducted to determine the petrophysical properties of the shallow subsurface formations. The logging included spectral-gamma and thermal-decay-time logs. These logs, along with the standard geophysical logs, were correlated to mineralogy and whole-rock chemistry as determined from sidewall cores. Thus, interpretation of lithology and fluids was accomplished. Permeability and specific yield were calculated from geophysical-log data and correlated to results from an aquifer test. On the basis of results from the research logging, a method of lithologic and water-resistivity interpretation was developed for the test holes at which the standard suite of logs were obtained. In addition, a computer program was developed to assist in the analysis of log data. Geohydrologic properties were

  14. The U.S. Geological Survey Bird Banding Laboratory: an integrated scientific program supporting research and conservation of North American birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Bird Banding Laboratory (BBL) was established in 1920 after ratification of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act with the United Kingdom in 1918. During World War II, the BBL was moved from Washington, D.C., to what is now the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (PWRC). The BBL issues permits and bands to permittees to band birds, records bird band recoveries or encounters primarily through telephone and Internet reporting, and manages more than 72 million banding records and more than 4.5 million records of encounters using state-of-the-art technologies. Moreover, the BBL also issues bands and manages banding and encounter data for the Canadian Bird Banding Office (BBO). Each year approximately 1 million bands are shipped from the BBL to banders in the United States and Canada, and nearly 100,000 encounter reports are entered into the BBL systems. Banding data are essential for regulatory programs, especially migratory waterfowl harvest regulations. The USGS BBL works closely with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to develop regulations for the capture, handling, banding, and marking of birds. These regulations are published in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). In 2006, the BBL and the USFWS Division of Migratory Bird Management (DMBM) began a comprehensive revision of the banding regulations. The bird banding community has three major constituencies: Federal and State agency personnel involved in the management and conservation of bird populations that include the Flyway Councils, ornithological research scientists, and avocational banders. With increased demand for banding activities and relatively constant funding, a Federal Advisory Committee (Committee) was chartered and reviewed the BBL program in 2005. The final report of the Committee included six major goals and 58 specific recommendations, 47 of which have been addressed by the BBL. Specifically, the Committee recommended the BBL continue to support science

  15. General Dentists’ Use of Isolation Techniques During Root Canal Treatment: from the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Nathaniel C.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Funkhouser, Ellen; Eleazer, Paul D.; Benjamin, Paul L.; Worley, Donald C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A preliminary study done by a National Dental Practice-Based Research Network precursor observed that 44% of general dentists (GDs) reported always using a rubber dam (RD) during root canal treatment (RCT). This full-scale study quantified use of all isolation techniques, including RD use. Methods Network practitioners completed a questionnaire about isolation techniques used during RCT. Network Enrollment Questionnaire data provided practitioner characteristics. Results 1,490 of 1,716 eligible GDs participated (87%); 697 (47%) reported always using a RD. This percentage varied by tooth type. These GDs were more likely to always use a RD: do not own a private practice; perform less than 10 RCT/month; have postgraduate training. Conclusions Most GDs do not use a RD all the time. Ironically, RDs are used more frequently by GDs who do not perform molar RCT. RD use varies with tooth type and certain dentist, practice, and patient characteristics. PMID:26015159

  16. Measurement of smooth muscle function in the isolated tissue bath-applications to pharmacology research.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, Brian; Tykocki, Nathan R; Watts, Stephanie W; Cobbett, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Isolated tissue bath assays are a classical pharmacological tool for evaluating concentration-response relationships in a myriad of contractile tissues. While this technique has been implemented for over 100 years, the versatility, simplicity and reproducibility of this assay helps it to remain an indispensable tool for pharmacologists and physiologists alike. Tissue bath systems are available in a wide array of shapes and sizes, allowing a scientist to evaluate samples as small as murine mesenteric arteries and as large as porcine ileum - if not larger. Central to the isolated tissue bath assay is the ability to measure concentration-dependent changes to isometric contraction, and how the efficacy and potency of contractile agonists can be manipulated by increasing concentrations of antagonists or inhibitors. Even though the general principles remain relatively similar, recent technological advances allow even more versatility to the tissue bath assay by incorporating computer-based data recording and analysis software. This video will demonstrate the function of the isolated tissue bath to measure the isometric contraction of an isolated smooth muscle (in this case rat thoracic aorta rings), and share the types of knowledge that can be created with this technique. Included are detailed descriptions of aortic tissue dissection and preparation, placement of aortic rings in the tissue bath and proper tissue equilibration prior to experimentation, tests of tissue viability, experimental design and implementation, and data quantitation. Aorta will be connected to isometric force transducers, the data from which will be captured using a commercially available analog-to-digital converter and bridge amplifier specifically designed for use in these experiments. The accompanying software to this system will be used to visualize the experiment and analyze captured data. PMID:25650585

  17. Quantitative measurement of the chemical composition of geological standards with a miniature laser ablation/ionization mass spectrometer designed for in situ application in space research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuland, M. B.; Grimaudo, V.; Mezger, K.; Moreno-García, P.; Riedo, A.; Tulej, M.; Wurz, P.

    2016-03-01

    A key interest of planetary space missions is the quantitative determination of the chemical composition of the planetary surface material. The chemical composition of surface material (minerals, rocks, soils) yields fundamental information that can be used to answer key scientific questions about the formation and evolution of the planetary body in particular and the Solar System in general. We present a miniature time-of-flight type laser ablation/ionization mass spectrometer (LMS) and demonstrate its capability in measuring the elemental and mineralogical composition of planetary surface samples quantitatively by using a femtosecond laser for ablation/ionization. The small size and weight of the LMS make it a remarkable tool for in situ chemical composition measurements in space research, convenient for operation on a lander or rover exploring a planetary surface. In the laboratory, we measured the chemical composition of four geological standard reference samples USGS AGV-2 Andesite, USGS SCo-l Cody Shale, NIST 97b Flint Clay and USGS QLO-1 Quartz Latite with LMS. These standard samples are used to determine the sensitivity factors of the instrument. One important result is that all sensitivity factors are close to 1. Additionally, it is observed that the sensitivity factor of an element depends on its electron configuration, hence on the electron work function and the elemental group in agreement with existing theory. Furthermore, the conformity of the sensitivity factors is supported by mineralogical analyses of the USGS SCo-l and the NIST 97b samples. With the four different reference samples, the consistency of the calibration factors can be demonstrated, which constitutes the fundamental basis for a standard-less measurement-technique for in situ quantitative chemical composition measurements on planetary surface.

  18. Attenuation-difference radar tomography: results of a multiplane experiment at the U.S. Geological Survey Fractured-Rock Research Site, Mirror Lake, New Hampshire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, John W., Jr.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Harris, J. M.; Haeni, F. P.; Gorelick, S. M.

    2000-04-01

    Attenuation-difference, borehole-radar tomography was used to monitor a series of sodium chloride tracer injection tests conducted within the FSE wellfield at the U.S. Geological Survey Fractured-Rock Hydrology Research Site in Grafton County, New Hampshire, USA. Borehole-radar tomography surveys were conducted by using the sequential-scanning and injection method in three boreholes that form a triangular prism of adjoining tomographic image planes. Attenuation-difference data were inverted by using a weighted damped least-squares (WDLS) inversion method and several different solution simplicity schemes to suppress tomogram artifacts induced by the acquisition geometry, the location and magnitude of the anomaly, and noisy data. Qualitatively, flat tomograms generated by minimizing the norm of the first spatial derivative were most effective at suppressing artifacts. Although artifact suppression measures can be somewhat effective, negative consequences or artifact suppression include (1) reduction in the magnitude of the attenuation differences in the vicinity of the target anomaly and (2) blurring of the anomalies. These effects distort estimates of the location and magnitude of attenuation anomalies. In order to estimate robustly the location and magnitude of attenuation differences, areal constraints were imposed on the WDLS inversions to confine changes in attenuation to regions that are intersected by rays with large attenuation differences and bounded by rays with insignificant attenuation differences. Results from forward modeling support the application of these constraints. The resolution matrix was used to model the effects of acquisition geometry, target anomaly shape, location, and magnitude. For this study, the method of forward modeling indicates that estimates of pixel attenuation are improved by applying areal constraints to the WDLS inversions.

  19. Health benefits of geologic materials and geologic processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. "Terra sigillata," still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets). Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today's most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc.) that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease. ?? 2006 MDPI. All rights reserved.

  20. Health benefits of geologic materials and geologic processes.

    PubMed

    Finkelman, Robert B

    2006-12-01

    The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. "Terra sigillata," still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets). Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today's most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc.) that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease. PMID:17159275

  1. Geography for a Changing World – A science strategy for the geographic research of the U.S. Geological Survey, 2005-2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Gerard; Benjamin, Susan P.; Clarke, Keith; Findley, John E.; Fisher, Robert N.; Graf, William L.; Gundersen, Linda C.; Jones, John W.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Roth, Keven S.; Usery, E. Lynn; Wood, Nathan J.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a science strategy for the geographic research of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the years 2005-2015. The common thread running through the vision, mission, and science goals presented in the plan is that USGS geographers will provide national leadership to understand coupled human-environmental systems in the face of land change and will deliver pertinent information to decisionmakers on the vulnerability and resilience of these systems. We define land change science as the study of the human and environment dynamics that give rise to changed land use, cover, and surface form. A number of realities shape the strategic context of this plan: * The Department of Interior Strategic Plan focuses on meeting society's resource needs and sustaining the Nation's life support systems, underscoring the importance of characterizing and understanding coupled human-environmental systems. * In redefining its mission in the mid-1990s, the USGS envisions itself as an integrated natural science and information agency. The USGS will assume a national leadership role in the use of science to develop knowledge about the web of relations that couple biophysical and human systems and translate this knowledge into unbiased, reliable information that meets important societal information needs. * The following trends will influence USGS geography-oriented science activities over the next decade. Most of the emerging earth science issues that the USGS will address are geographic phenomena. A growing international concern for aligning society's development activities with environmental limits has led to an articulation of a science agenda associated with global environmental change, vulnerability, and resilience. Earth science investigations have evolved toward the study of very large areas, and the resulting huge volumes of data are challenging to manage and understand. Finally, scientists and the public face the challenge of gaining intelligent insights about

  2. DIGITAL GEOLOGIC MAP OF THE UNITED STATES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulton, Patricia

    1983-01-01

    The geologic map of the United States was published in 1974 by the U. S. Geological Survey. This major publication contains an enormous amount of information on the surficial geology of the United States. Many geologists have used this map as a research tool. Most have needed information from only specific parts of the map, and have manually extracted data from these areas. These data have then been combined with other geological information, much of which - especially that concerning minerals and energy - either is already in machine-readable computer files or is rapidly being converted to that form.

  3. Advances in planetary geology, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a continuation of volume 1; it is a compilation of reports focusing on research into the origin and evolution of the solar system with emphasis on planetary geology. Specific reports include a multispectral and geomorphic investigation of the surface of Europa and a geologic interpretation of remote sensing data for the Martian volcano Ascreaus Mons.

  4. Advances in planetary geology, volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    This publication is a continuation of volume 1; it is a compilation of reports focusing on research into the origin and evolution of the solar system with emphasis on planetary geology. Specific reports include a multispectral and geomorphic investigation of the surface of Europa and a geologic interpretation of remote sensing data for the Martian volcano Ascreaus Mons.

  5. SRS Geology/Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, M.E.

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of the Savannah River Site Geology and Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document (EID) is to provide geologic and hydrogeologic information to serve as a baseline to evaluate potential environmental impacts. This EID is based on a summary of knowledge accumulated from research conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and surrounding areas.

  6. Experimental determination of the solubility constant for magnesium chloride hydroxide hydrate (Mg 3Cl(OH) 5·4H 2O, phase 5) at room temperature, and its importance to nuclear waste isolation in geological repositories in salt formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yongliang; Deng, Haoran; Nemer, Martin; Johnsen, Shelly

    2010-08-01

    In this study, the solubility constant of magnesium chloride hydroxide hydrate, Mg 3Cl(OH) 5·4H 2O, termed as phase 5, is determined from a series of solubility experiments in MgCl 2-NaCl solutions. The solubility constant in logarithmic units at 25 °C for the following reaction, MgCl(OH)·4HO+5H=3Mg+9HO(l)+Cl is calculated as 43.21 ± 0.33 (2 σ) based on the specific interaction theory (SIT) model for extrapolation to infinite dilution. The Gibbs free energy and enthalpy of formation for phase 5 at 25 °C are derived as -3384 ± 2 (2 σ) kJ mol -1 and -3896 ± 6 (2 σ) kJ mol -1, respectively. MgO (bulk, pure MgO corresponding to the mineral periclase) is the only engineered barrier certified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the US, and an Mg(OH) 2-based engineered barrier (bulk, pure Mg(OH) 2 corresponding to brucite) is to be employed in the Asse repository in Germany. Phase 5, and its similar phase, phase 3 (Mg 2Cl(OH) 3·4H 2O), could have a significant role in influencing the geochemical conditions in geological repositories for nuclear waste in salt formations where MgO or brucite is employed as engineered barriers. Based on our solubility constant for phase 5 in combination with the literature value for phase 3, we predict that the composition for the invariant point of phase 5 and phase 3 would be mMg = 1.70 and pmH = 8.94 in the Mg-Cl binary system. The recent WIPP Compliance Recertification Application Performance Assessment Baseline Calculations indicate that phase 5, instead of phase 3, is indeed a stable phase when the WIPP Generic Weep Brine (GWB), a Na-Mg-Cl-dominated brine associated with the Salado Formation, equilibrates with actinide-source-term phases, brucite, magnesium carbonates, halite and anhydrite. Therefore, phase 5 is important to the WIPP, and potentially important to other repositories in salt formations.

  7. Okinawa, Japan: Geologic Battleground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waymack, S. W.; Carrington, M. P.; Harpp, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    One of our main goals as instructors, particularly in introductory courses, is to impart students with an appreciation of how geology has influenced the course of human events. Despite the apparent accessibility of such topics, communicating this in a lively, relevant, and effective way often proves difficult. We use a series of historical events, the Pacific island hopping campaign of WWII, to engage students in an active, guided inquiry exercise to explore how terrain and the underlying geology of an area can shape historical events. Teams of students are assigned the role of planning either the defense or occupation of Okinawa Island, in the Ryukyu arc, in a theoretical version of the 1945 conflict. Students are given a package of information, including geologic and topographic maps, a list of military resources available to them at the time, and some historical background. Students also have access to "reconnaissance" images, 360o digital panoramas of the landscape of Okinawa, keyed to their maps. Each team has a week to plan their strategies and carry out additional research, which they subsequently bring to the table in the form of a written battle plan. With an instructor as arbiter, teams alternate drawing their maneuvers on a map of the island, to which the other team then responds. This continues one move at a time, until the instructor declares a victor. Throughout the exercise, the instructor guides students through analysis of each strategic decision in light of the island's structure and topography, with an emphasis on the appropriate interpretation of the maps. Students soon realize that an understanding of the island's terrain literally meant the difference between life and death for civilians and military participants alike in 1945. The karst landscape of Okinawa posed unique obstacles to both the Japanese and the American forces, including difficult landing sites, networks of natural caves, and sequences of hills aligned perpendicular to the

  8. Haemonchus contortus: a multiple-resistant Brazilian isolate and the costs for its characterization and maintenance for research use.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Ana Carolina S; Katiki, Luciana M; Silva, Ives C; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Esteves, Sérgio N; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina S; Barioni Júnior, Waldomiro

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the resistance level of Haemonchus contortus isolated from the Santa Inês flock of the Embrapa (Brazilian government's Agricultural Research Company), Southeast Livestock Unit (CPPSE), as well as to determine costs of characterizing and maintaining this isolate in host donors. Forty-two male Santa Inês lambs were experimentally infected with 4000 H. contortus infective larvae of the field isolate of CPPSE, called Embrapa2010, and divided into six treatment groups, which received triclorfon, albendazol plus cobalt sulfate, ivermectin, moxidectin, closantel and levamisole phosphate, as well as a negative control group (water). Egg per gram (EPG) counts were performed at 0, 3, 7, 10 and 14 days post treatment when the animals were slaughtered for parasite count. The data were analyzed using the RESO statistical program, considering anthelmintic resistance under 95% of efficacy. EPG and worm count presented a linear and significant relation with 94% determination coefficient. The susceptibility results obtained by RESO through both criteria (EPG and worm count) were equal, except for closantel, showing that the isolate Embrapa2010 is resistant to benzimidazoles, macrocyclic lactones and imidazothiazoles. The need of a control group did not appear to be essential since the result for susceptibility in the analyses with or without this group was the same. Suppression in egg production after treatment did not occur in the ivermectin and moxidectin groups. In the control group, the establishment percentage was just 12.5 because of the low number of third-stage larvae, resistance (innate and infection immunity) of the animals studied plus good nutrition. Drug classes presented similar efficacy between adults and immature stages. The costs for isolate characterization were calculated for 42 animals during 60 days. The total cost based on local market rates was approximately US$ 8000. The precise identification of Brazilian isolates and

  9. Measuring student understanding of geological time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodick, Jeff; Orion, Nir

    2003-09-01

    There have been few discoveries in geology more important than deep time - the understanding that the universe has existed for countless millennia, such that man's existence is confined to the last milliseconds of the metaphorical geological clock. The influence of deep time is felt in a variety of sciences including geology, cosmology, and evolutionary biology. Thus, any student that wants to master these subjects must have a good understanding of geological time. Despite its critical importance, there has been very little attention given to geological time by science education researchers. Of the work that has been done, much of it ignores the cognitive basis for students' understanding of geological time. This work addresses this gap by presenting a validation study for a new instrument - the GeoTAT (Geological Time Aptitude Test). Consisting of a series of open puzzles, the GeoTAT tested the subjects' ability to reconstruct and represent the transformation in time of a series of geological structures. Montagnero (1992, 1996) terms this ability diachronic thinking. This instrument was distributed to a population of 285 junior and senior high school students with no background in geology, as well as 58 high school students majoring in geology. A comparison of the high school (grades 11-12) geology and non-geology majors indicated that the former group held a significant advantage over the latter in solving problems involving diachronic thinking. This relationship was especially strengthened by the second year of geological study (grade 12), with the key factor in this improvement being exposure to fieldwork. Fieldwork both improved the subjects' ability in understanding the 3-D factors influencing temporal organization, as well as providing them with experience in learning about the types of evidence that are critical in reconstructing a transformational sequence.

  10. Changing Conditions In The Yukon River Basin, Alaska: Biological, Geographical, And Hydrological Research Of The U.S. Geological Survey Alaska Science Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brabets, T. P.; Frenzel, S. A.; Markon, C.; Degange, A. R.

    2006-12-01

    To address the need for understanding past, present, and future conditions in the northern latitudes, the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Alaska Science Center conducts extensive research in the Yukon River Basin. The basin originates in Canada and spans Alaska from east to west encompassing diverse landscapes in the Arctic and sub-Arctic. Within this large watershed, USGS research is focused on understanding the rapidly changing conditions in the land cover and fires, fish and wildlife populations, and the hydrologic cycle. Some of Alaska largest and most extensive fires occur in the Yukon River Basin. Research suggests that recent fire frequency outpaces the forest replenishment. To provide a more thorough assessment of current fires, and prediction of future fire threats, Landsat imagery with its 30-m spatial resolution and 30-year history allow for unprecedented analysis of historical and existing landscape cover, the effects of fire and climate change on lake drying, and updating of fire burn boundaries. Additionally, caribou have been shown to avoid burned areas for at least 60 years because forage lichens were eliminated and preferred forage may require over 100 years to reach pre-fire abundance. Glaciers in Alaska and in Canada feed the Tanana River, a major tributary to the Yukon River. Gulkana Glacier is one such glacier where the USGS has measured the mass balance continuously since 1966. There has been a cumulative mass loss of more than 15 meters water equivalent since 1966, with two-thirds of that loss occurring since 1990. Streamflow statistics from long-term gaging stations show a tendency for earlier ice break up in the spring and earlier snowmelt peak flows. Glacier-fed streams show higher summer flows as warmer temperatures increased glacier melt. To provide a better understanding of the factors that regulate salmon production, USGS has examined the characteristics of chum salmon spawning habitats and survival of juvenile salmon at two

  11. History of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bork, Kennard B.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights geological history activities during 1982. These include formation of The History of Earth Sciences Societies, publication of a new journal ("Earth Sciences History: The Journal of the History of Earth Sciences Societies"), and presentation of the first history of geology award. Comments on geological history publications are also…

  12. An efficient and simple co-culture method for isolating primary human hepatic cells: Potential application for tumor microenvironment research.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wei; Lu, Aiguo; Zhao, Jingkun; Yin, Shuai; Ou, Baochi; Feng, Hao

    2016-10-01

    Co-cultivation of non-parenchymal cells (NPCs) and tumor cells from the same donor is important for metastatic cancer research. This study aimed to optimize a protocol for liver NPC isolation. Two novel 3D organotypic co‑culture models for hepatocyte, endothelial cell (EC) and Kupffer cell (KC) isolation were used. Long‑term cell co‑culture, density gradient centrifugation and magnetic‑activated cell sorting (MACS) were established. ECs were isolated from the co‑culture system; the purity of the ECs was 92±1.2%. The island‑like shape of hepatocytes was noted in the 3D co‑culture system, and spindle cells were found in the rest space. Immunofluorescence analysis showed a net structure; the connective tissue was positively stained with VE‑cadherin or CD68, which were ECs and KCs/macrophages. KCs were enriched in this system and separated by using selective adherence to plastic. Clec4f+ KCs consisted of 87±6.3% of these cells. Heterogeneous endothelium populations were detected, including sinusoid ECs, microvascular ECs and hepatic lymphatic vessel epithelial cells. In addition, hepatic progenitor cells were isolated and differentiated into hepatoblasts. Dendritic cells (DCs), invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells were further separated by density gradient centrifugation and magnetic bead sorting. In the present study, high protein expression levels of desmin and GFAP were observed in the hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Most of the HSCs were α‑SMA‑positive cells, which underlined the identity of activated HSCs. Intrahepatic human biliary epithelial cells (hBECs) were semi‑purified by centrifugation on a Percoll gradient and were further immunopurified. In conclusion, we provide an efficient long‑term culture method to obtain liver NPCs in sufficient number and purity. PMID:27498714

  13. Research note: the isolation of a herpes virus from captive cranes with an inclusion body disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Docherty, D.E.; Henning, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    A viral agent, identified as a herpesvirus and tentatively called 'inclusion body disease of cranes' (IBDC), was isolated from captive cranes involved in a die-off at the International Crane Foundation near Baraboo, Wisconsin. Preliminary animal susceptibility tests, based on experimental infections, suggested that White Pekin ducklings up to 17 days old and adult coots were susceptible to the IBDC virus whereas 16-day-old White Leghorn chicks and 64-day-old Muscovy ducks were not. No serum antibody to IBDC virus was detected in 95 wild sandhill cranes collected in Wisconsin or Indiana in 1976 and 1977. However, 9 of 11 captive cranes in the affected area at the ICF had antibody to this agent.

  14. Effects of carbon monoxide on isolated heart muscle cells. Research report, March 1989-February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenberg, B.A.; Wittenberg, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    By sequestering intracellular myoglobin of cardiac muscle cells in the nonfunctioning carboxymyoglobin form, carbon monoxide blocks myoglobin-facilitated diffusion of oxygen, as well as myoglobin-mediated oxidative phosphorylation. The authors explored the hypothesis that the carbon monoxide blockade of myoglobin function may be responsible at the cellular level for a component of the cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide observed during exercise. At physiological oxygen pressures no greater than 5 torr, after sequestration of approximately 50% of the myoglobin, steady-state oxygen uptake decreased significantly less than the respiration of cell groups for which the fraction of carboxymyoglobin was 0% to 40%. When respiration is diminished, the rate of oxidative phosphorylation also decreases. Thus, they concluded that sequestering intracellular myoglobin as carboxymyoglobin significantly decreased the rate of oxidative phosphorylation of isolated cardiac myocytes. They estimate that intracellular myoglobin-dependent oxidative phosphorylation will be inhibited when approximately 20% to 40% of the arterial hemoglobin in the whole animal is carboxyhemoglobin.

  15. Environmental impacts of oil production on soil, bedrock, and vegetation at the U.S. Geological Survey Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research site A, Osage County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, J.K.; Zielinski, R.A.; Smith, B.D.; Abbott, M.M.; Keeland, B.D.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the impacts of oil and gas production on soils, groundwater, surface water, and ecosystems in the United States. Two sites in northeastern Oklahoma (sites A and B) are presently being investigated under the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research project. Oil wells on the lease surrounding site A in Osage County, Oklahoma, produced about 100,000 bbl of oil between 1913 ard 1981. Prominent production features on the 1.5-ha (3.7-ac) site A include a tank battery, an oil-filled trench, pipelines, storage pits for both produced water and oil, and an old power unit. Site activities and historic releases have left open areas in the local oak forest adjacent to these features and a deeply eroded salt scar downslope from the pits that extends to nearby Skiatook Lake. The site is underlain by surficial sediments comprised of very fine-grained eolian sand and colluvium as much as 1.4 m (4.6 ft) thick, which, in turn, overlie flat-lying, fractured bedrock comprised of sandstone, clayey sandstone, mudstone, and shale. A geophysical survey of ground conductance and concentration measurements of aqueous extracts (1:1 by weight) of core samples taken in the salt scar and adjacent areas indicate that unusual concentrations of NaCl-rich salt are present at depths to at least 8 m (26 ft) in the bedrock; however, little salt occurs in the eolian sand. Historic aerial photographs, anecdotal reports from oil-lease operators, and tree-ring records indicate that the surrounding oak forest was largely established after 1935 and thus postdates the majority of surface damage at the site. Blackjack oaks adjacent to the salt scar have anomalously elevated chloride (>400 ppm) in their leaves and record the presence of NaCl-rich salt or salty water in the shallow subsurface. The geophysical measurements also indicate moderately elevated conductance beneath the oak forest adjoining the salt scar. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of

  16. Mode of occurrence and environmental mobility of oil-field radioactive material at US Geological Survey research site B, Osage-Skiatook Project, northeastern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Budahn, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Two samples of produced-water collected from a storage tank at US Geological Survey research site B, near Skiatook Lake in northeastern Oklahoma, have activity concentrations of dissolved 226Ra and 228Ra that are about 1500 disintegrations/min/L (dpm/L). Produced-water also contains minor amounts of small (5-50 ??m) suspended grains of Ra-bearing BaSO4 (barite). Precipitation of radioactive barite scale in the storage tank is probably hindered by low concentrations of dissolved SO4 (2.5 mg/L) in the produced-water. Sediments in a storage pit used to temporarily collect releases of produced-water have marginally elevated concentrations of "excess" Ra (several dpm/g), that are 15-65% above natural background values. Tank and pit waters are chemically oversaturated with barite, and some small (2-20 ??m) barite grains observed in the pit sediments could be transferred from the tank or formed in place. Measurements of the concentrations of Ba and excess Ra isotopes in the pit sediments show variations with depth that are consistent with relatively uniform deposition and progressive burial of an insoluble Ra-bearing host (barite?). The short-lived 228Ra isotope (half-life = 5.76 a) shows greater reductions with depth than 226Ra (half-life = 1600 a), that are likely explained by radioactive decay. The 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio of excess Ra in uppermost pit sediments (1.13-1.17) is close to the ratio measured in the samples of produced-water (0.97, 1.14). Declines in Ra activity ratio (excess) with sediment depth can be used to estimate an average rate of burial of 4 cm/a for the Ra-bearing contaminant. Local shallow ground waters contaminated with NaCl from produced-water have low dissolved Ra (<20 dpm/L) and also are oversaturated with barite. Barite is a highly insoluble Ra host that probably limits the environmental mobility of Ra at site B.

  17. Research-Focused Isolation of Human Islets From Donors With and Without Diabetes at the Alberta Diabetes Institute IsletCore.

    PubMed

    Lyon, James; Manning Fox, Jocelyn E; Spigelman, Aliya F; Kim, Ryekjang; Smith, Nancy; O'Gorman, Doug; Kin, Tatsuya; Shapiro, A M James; Rajotte, Raymond V; MacDonald, Patrick E

    2016-02-01

    Recent years have seen an increased focus on human islet biology, and exciting findings in the stem cell and genomic arenas highlight the need to define the key features of mature human islets and β-cells. Donor and organ procurement parameters impact human islet yield, although for research purposes islet yield may be secondary in importance to islet function. We examined the feasibility of a research-only human islet isolation, distribution, and biobanking program and whether key criteria such as cold ischemia time (CIT) and metabolic status may be relaxed and still allow successful research-focused isolations, including from donors with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Through 142 isolations over approximately 5 years, we confirm that CIT and glycated hemoglobin each have a weak negative impacts on isolation purity and yield, and extending CIT beyond the typical clinical isolation cutoff of 12 hours (to ≥ 18 h) had only a modest impact on islet function. Age and glycated hemoglobin/type 2 diabetes status negatively impacted secretory function; however, these and other biological (sex, body mass index) and procurement/isolation variables (CIT, time in culture) appear to make only a small contribution to the heterogeneity of human islet function. This work demonstrates the feasibility of extending acceptable CIT for research-focused human islet isolation and highlights the biological variation in function of human islets from donors with and without diabetes.

  18. Geochemical Impacts of CO2 Intrusion into Ground Water due to Carbon Dioxide Release from Geologic Sequestration Projects: Overview of ORD Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Even with the large physical separation between storage reservoirs and surficial environments, there is concern that CO2 stored in reservoirs may eventually leak back to the surface through abandoned wells or along geological features such as faults. Leakage of CO2 into...

  19. Current concept in neural regeneration research: NSCs isolation, characterization and transplantation in various neurodegenerative diseases and stroke: A review

    PubMed Central

    Vishwakarma, Sandeep K.; Bardia, Avinash; Tiwari, Santosh K.; Paspala, Syed A.B.; Khan, Aleem A.

    2013-01-01

    Since last few years, an impressive amount of data has been generated regarding the basic in vitro and in vivo biology of neural stem cells (NSCs) and there is much far hope for the success in cell replacement therapies for several human neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. The discovery of adult neurogenesis (the endogenous production of new neurons) in the mammalian brain more than 40 years ago has resulted in a wealth of knowledge about stem cells biology in neuroscience research. Various studies have done in search of a suitable source for NSCs which could be used in animal models to understand the basic and transplantation biology before treating to human. The difficulties in isolating pure population of NSCs limit the study of neural stem behavior and factors that regulate them. Several studies on human fetal brain and spinal cord derived NSCs in animal models have shown some interesting results for cell replacement therapies in many neurodegenerative diseases and stroke models. Also the methods and conditions used for in vitro culture of these cells provide an important base for their applicability and specificity in a definite target of the disease. Various important developments and modifications have been made in stem cells research which is needed to be more specified and enrolment in clinical studies using advanced approaches. This review explains about the current perspectives and suitable sources for NSCs isolation, characterization, in vitro proliferation and their use in cell replacement therapies for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases and strokes. PMID:25685495

  20. North Dakota geology school receives major gift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-10-01

    Petroleum geology and related areas of study at the University of North Dakota (UND) received a huge financial boost with the announcement on 24 September of $14 million in private and public partnership funding. The university announced the naming of the Harold Hamm School of Geology and Geological Engineering, formerly a department within the College of Engineering and Mines, in recognition of $10 million provided as a gift by oilman Harold Hamm and Continental Resources, Inc. Hamm is the chair and chief executive officer of Continental, the largest leaseholder in the Bakken Play oil formation in North Dakota and Montana, and he is also an energy policy advisor to Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney. UND also received $4 million from the Oil and Gas Research Program of the North Dakota Industrial Commission to support geology and geological engineering education and research.

  1. Geology of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Chyba, C.; Head, J. W.; McCord, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Europa is a rocky object of radius 1565 km (slightly smaller than Earth s moon) and has an outer shell of water composition estimated to be of order 100 km thick, the surface of which is frozen. The total volume of water is about 3 x 10(exp 9) cubic kilometers, or twice the amount of water on Earth. Moreover, like its neighbor Io, Europa experiences internal heating generated from tidal flexing during its eccentric orbit around Jupiter. This raises the possibility that some of the water beneath the icy crust is liquid. The proportion of rock to ice, the generation of internal heat, and the possibility of liquid water make Europa unique in the Solar System. In this chapter, we outline the sources of data available for Europa (with a focus on the Galileo mission), review previous and on-going research on its surface geology, discuss the astrobiological potential of Europa, and consider plans for future exploration.

  2. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planetary bodies, to techniques and instrument development for exploration.

  3. [Molecular combing method in the research of DNA replication parameters in isolated organs of Drosophyla melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Ivankin, A V; Kolesnikova, T D; Demakov, S A; Andreenkov, O V; Bil'danova, E R; Andreenkova, N G; Zhimulev, I F

    2011-01-01

    Methods of physical DNA mapping and direct visualization of replication and transcription in specific regions of genome play crucial role in the researches of structural and functional organization of eukaryotic genomes. Since DNA strands in the cells are organized into high-fold structure and present as highly compacted chromosomes, the majority of these methods have lower resolution at chromosomal level. One of the approaches to enhance the resolution and mapping accuracy is the method of molecular combing. The method is based on the process of stretching and alignment of DNA molecules that are covalently attached with one of the ends to the cover glass surface. In this article we describe the major methodological steps of molecular combing and their adaptation for researches of DNA replication parameters in polyploidy and diploid tissues of Drosophyla larvae.

  4. Improving the geological interpretation of magnetic and gravity satellite anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, William J.; Braile, Lawrence W.; Vonfrese, Ralph R. B.

    1987-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the geologic component of observed satellite magnetic and gravity fields requires accurate isolation of the geologic component of the observations, theoretically sound and viable inversion techniques, and integration of collateral, constraining geologic and geophysical data. A number of significant contributions were made which make quantitative analysis more accurate. These include procedures for: screening and processing orbital data for lithospheric signals based on signal repeatability and wavelength analysis; producing accurate gridded anomaly values at constant elevations from the orbital data by three-dimensional least squares collocation; increasing the stability of equivalent point source inversion and criteria for the selection of the optimum damping parameter; enhancing inversion techniques through an iterative procedure based on the superposition theorem of potential fields; and modeling efficiently regional-scale lithospheric sources of satellite magnetic anomalies. In addition, these techniques were utilized to investigate regional anomaly sources of North and South America and India and to provide constraints to continental reconstruction. Since the inception of this research study, eleven papers were presented with associated published abstracts, three theses were completed, four papers were published or accepted for publication, and an additional manuscript was submitted for publication.

  5. Sedimentology and petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorlykke, K.O. )

    1989-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to sedimentology as well as petroleum geology. It integrates both subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately. The author covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modelling forms the base for the part on petroleum geology. Subjects discussed include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

  6. Geological considerations in hazardouswaste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartwright, K.; Gilkeson, R.H.; Johnson, T.M.

    1981-01-01

    Present regulations assume that long-term isolation of hazardous wastes - including toxic chemical, biological, radioactive, flammable and explosive wastes - may be effected by disposal in landfills that have liners of very low hydraulic conductivity. In reality, total isolation of wastes in humid areas is not possible; some migration of leachate from wastes buried in the gound will always occur. Regulations should provide performance standards applicable on a site-by-site basis rather than rigid criteria for site selection and design. The performance standards should take into account several factors: (1) the categories, segregation, degradation and toxicity of the wastes; (2) the site hydrogeology, which governs the direction and rate of contaminant transport; (3) the attenuation of contaminants by geochemical interactions with geologic materials; and (4) the release rate of unattenuated pollutants to surface or groundwater. An adequate monitoring system is essential. The system should both test the extent to which the operation of the site meets performance standards and provide sufficient warning of pollution problems to allow implementation of remedial measures. In recent years there has been a trend away from numerous, small disposal sites toward fewer and larger sites. The size of a disposal site should be based on the attenuation capacity of the geologic material, which has a finite, though generally not well-defined, limit. For slowly degradable wastes, engineered sites with leachate-collection systems appear to be only a temporary solution since the leachate collected will also require final disposal. ?? 1981.

  7. Joint document concerning geological studies from 1971 - 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    In 1971, a joint Soviet-Americam Working Group on Remote Sensing of the Natural Environment was established. It was organized into a number of discipline panels, one of which was on geology. Membership on this panel came from the Geological Survey of the United States and from the Institute of Geology of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and Ministry Geology of the U.S.S.R.. During the period 1971-1975, this panel conducted coordinated research in the use of space remote sensing data in the field of geology. A summary of that coordinated research effort is presented.

  8. GDA (Geologic Data Assistant), an ArcPad extension for geologic mapping: code, prerequisites, and instructions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    GDA (Geologic Data Assistant) is an extension to ArcPad, a mobile mapping software program by Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) designed to run on personal digital assistant (PDA) computers. GDA and ArcPad allow a PDA to replace the paper notebook and field map traditionally used for geologic mapping. GDA allows easy collection of field data.

  9. Research highlights: challenges in the characterization, storage, and isolation of natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Lin, Vivian S

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a critical component of natural waters, providing an important nutrient source for the microbial community, binding and interacting with metals and pollutants, and serving as a major reservoir of carbon in the global carbon cycle. Differences in organic material origin as well as biotic and abiotic transformation processes produce DOM of varying composition. These highly complex mixtures are difficult to characterize due to the diversity of compounds found in DOM. This Highlight examines three recent publications that study the methods used to characterize DOM and how storage and handling of DOM samples may affect its composition. Collectively, these publications underscore the challenges that researchers face when working with natural organic matter and offer important considerations for natural organic matter handling and analysis. PMID:26580294

  10. A decentralized fault detection and isolation scheme for spacecraft: bridging the gap between model-based fault detection and isolation research and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indra, S.; Travé-Massuyès, L.; Chanthery, E.

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces a decentralized fault diagnosis and isolation (FDI) architecture for spacecraft and applies it to the attitude determination and control system (ADCS) of a satellite. A system is decomposed into functional subsystems. The architecture is composed of local diagnosers for subsystems which work with local models. Fault ambiguities due to interactions between subsystems are resolved at a higher level by a supervisor, which combines the partial view of the local diagnosers and performs isolation on request. The architecture is hierarchically scalable. The structure of the ADCS is modeled as constraints and variables and used to demonstrate the decentralized architecture.

  11. Interpreting Urban Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannibal, Joseph Timothy; Schmidt, Mark Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Describes field trips to urban locations for geological instruction. The program was developed by the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Authors claim these field trips have been an effective and enjoyable way of conveying a wide variety of geological information to participants at all levels and backgrounds and have created favorable publicity.…

  12. People and Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on the many natural resources we extract from the earth's crust, including metals, graphite, and other minerals, as well as fossil fuels. Contains teaching activities such as a geologic scavenger hunt, a geology chronology, and the recycling of aluminum. Includes a reproducible handout for the activity on aluminum.…

  13. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    This second issue in a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications includes (1) a catalog of terrestrial craterform structures for northern Europe; (2) abstracts of results of the Planetary Geology Program, and (3) a list of the photographic holdings of regional planetary image facilities.

  14. Radiometric Dating in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

  15. Glossary of geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, R.L.; Jackson, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    This third edition of the Glossary of Geology contains approximately 37,000 terms, or 1,000 more than the second edition. New entries are especially numerous in the fields of carbonate sedimentology, hydrogeology, marine geology, mineralogy, ore deposits, plate tectonics, snow and ice, and stratigraphic nomenclature. Many of the definitions provide background information.

  16. Geology of the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, William P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes some of the geologic characteristics of the Caribbean region. Discusses the use of some new techniques, including broad-range swath imaging of the sea floor that produces photograph-like images, and satellite measurement of crustal movements, which may help to explain the complex geology of the region. (TW)

  17. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Advances in Planetary Geology is a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications. There are no set lists of acceptable topics or formats, and submitted manuscripts will not undergo a formal review. All submissions should be in a camera ready form, preferably spaced, and submitted to the editor.

  18. Geologic time scale bookmark

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    This bookmark, designed for use with U.S. Geological Survey activities at the 2nd USA Science and Engineering Festival (April 26–29, 2012), is adapted from the more detailed Fact Sheet 2010–3059 "Divisions of Geologic Time." The information that it presents is widely sought by educators and students.

  19. Field Geology/Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  20. Report on geologic exploration activities

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the geological exploration activities being carried out as part of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program, which has been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop the technology and provide the facilities for the safe, environmentally acceptable isolation of civilian high-level and transuranic nuclear wastes, including spent fuel elements, for which the Federal government is reponsible. The principal programmatic emphasis is on disposal in mined geologic repositories. Explorations are being conducted or planned in various parts of the country to identify potential sites for such repositories. The work is being undertaken by three separate but coordinated NWTS project elements. Under the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP), basalt formations underlying DOE's Hanford Reservation are being investigated. Granite, tuff, and shale formations at the DOE Nevada Test Site (NTS) are being similarly studied in the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI). The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) is investigating domed salt formations in several Gulf Coast states and bedded salt formations in Utah and Texas. Th ONWI siting studies are being expanded to include areas overlying crystalline rocks, shales, and other geohydrologic systems. The current status of these NWTS efforts, including the projected budgets for FY 1981, is summarized, and the criteria and methodology being employed in the explorations are described. The consistency of the overall effort with the recommendations presented in the Report to the President by the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG), as well as with documents representing the national technical consensus, is discussed.

  1. Installation restoration research program: Assessment of geophysical methods for subsurface geologic mapping, cluster 13, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, D.K.; Sharp, M.K.; Sjostrom, K.J.; Simms, J.E.; Llopis, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    Seismic refraction, electrical resistivity, and transient electromagnetic surveys were conducted at a portion of Cluster 13, Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Seismic refraction cross sections map the topsoil layer and the water table (saturated zone). The water table elevations from the seismic surveys correlate closely with water table elevations in nearby monitoring wells. Electrical resistivity cross sections reveal a very complicated distribution of sandy and clayey facies in the upper 10 - 15 m of the subsurface. A continuous surficial (topsoil) layer correlates with the surficial layer of the seismic section and nearby boring logs. The complexity and details of the electrical resistivity cross section correlate well with boring and geophysical logs from nearby wells. The transient electromagnetic surveys map the Pleistocene-Cretaceous boundary, the saprolite, and the top of the Precambrian crystalline rocks. Conducting the transient electromagnetic surveys on a grid pattern allows the construction of a three-dimensional representation of subsurface geology (as represented by variations of electrical resistivity). Thickness and depth of the saprolitic layer and depth to top of the Precambrian rocks are consistent with generalized geologic cross sections for the Edgewood Area and depths projected from reported depths at the Aberdeen Proving Ground NW boundary using regional dips.

  2. Developing Medical Geology in Uruguay: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mañay, Nelly

    2010-01-01

    Several disciplines like Environmental Toxicology, Epidemiology, Public Health and Geology have been the basis of the development of Medical Geology in Uruguay during the last decade. The knowledge and performance in environmental and health issues have been improved by joining similar aims research teams and experts from different institutions to face environmental problems dealing with the population’s exposure to metals and metalloids and their health impacts. Some of the Uruguayan Medical Geology examples are reviewed focusing on their multidisciplinary approach: Lead pollution and exposed children, selenium in critically ill patients, copper deficiency in cattle and arsenic risk assessment in ground water. Future actions are also presented. PMID:20623004

  3. Developing medical geology in Uruguay: a review.

    PubMed

    Mañay, Nelly

    2010-05-01

    Several disciplines like Environmental Toxicology, Epidemiology, Public Health and Geology have been the basis of the development of Medical Geology in Uruguay during the last decade. The knowledge and performance in environmental and health issues have been improved by joining similar aims research teams and experts from different institutions to face environmental problems dealing with the population's exposure to metals and metalloids and their health impacts. Some of the Uruguayan Medical Geology examples are reviewed focusing on their multidisciplinary approach: Lead pollution and exposed children, selenium in critically ill patients, copper deficiency in cattle and arsenic risk assessment in ground water. Future actions are also presented.

  4. Research on the vibration band gaps of isolators applied to ship hydraulic pipe supports based on the theory of phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhendong; Li, Baoren; Du, Jingmin; Yang, Gang

    2016-04-01

    According to the theory of phononic crystals, a new isolator applied to ship hydraulic pipe-support with a one-dimensional periodic composite structure is designed, which is composed of metal and rubber. The vibration of the ship hydraulic pipeline can be suppressed by the band gaps (BGs) of the isolator. The band structure and frequency response function of the isolator is figured out by the transfer matrix method and the finite element method respectively. The frequency ranges and width of the BGs can be modulated to obtain the best structure of the isolator by changing the geometrical parameters. The experimental results provide an attenuation of over 20 dB in the frequency range of the BGs, and the results show good agreement with those of the numeric calculations. The research provides an effective way to control the vibration of ship hydraulic pipelines.

  5. 3-DIMENSIONAL Geological Mapping and Modeling Activities at the Geological Survey of Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarna, A.; Bang-Kittilsen, A.; Haase, C.; Henderson, I. H. C.; Høgaas, F.; Iversen, S.; Seither, A.

    2015-10-01

    Geology and all geological structures are three-dimensional in space. Geology can be easily shown as four-dimensional when time is considered. Therefore GIS, databases, and 3D visualization software are common tools used by geoscientists to view, analyse, create models, interpret and communicate geological data. The NGU (Geological Survey of Norway) is the national institution for the study of bedrock, mineral resources, surficial deposits and groundwater and marine geology. The interest in 3D mapping and modelling has been reflected by the increase of number of groups and researches dealing with 3D in geology within NGU. This paper highlights 3D geological modelling techniques and the usage of these tools in bedrock, geophysics, urban and groundwater studies at NGU, same as visualisation of 3D online. The examples show use of a wide range of data, methods, software and an increased focus on interpretation and communication of geology in 3D. The goal is to gradually expand the geospatial data infrastructure to include 3D data at the same level as 2D.

  6. Essential Elements of Geologic Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Elmer James

    1988-01-01

    Described is a report outline for geologic reports. Essential elements include title; abstract; introduction; stratigraphy; petrography; geochemistry; petrology; geophysics; structural geology; geologic history; modeling; economics; conclusions; and recommendations. (Author/CW)

  7. Geology of caves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, I.M.

    1991-01-01

    A cave is a natural opening in the ground extending beyond the zone of light and large enough to permit the entry of man. Occurring in a wide variety of rock types and caused by widely differing geological processes, caves range in size from single small rooms to intercorinecting passages many miles long. The scientific study of caves is called speleology (from the Greek words spelaion for cave and logos for study). It is a composite science based on geology, hydrology, biology, and archaeology, and thus holds special interest for earth scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey.

  8. Formation evaluation: Geological procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, A.

    1985-01-01

    This volume goes beyond a discussion of petroleum geology and the techniques of hydrocarbon (oil and gas) logging as a reservoir evaluation tool. It provides the logging geologist with a review of geological techniques and classification systems that will ensure the maximum development of communicable geological information. Contents include: 1. Introduction--cuttings recovery, cutting sampling, core sampling, rock classification; 2. Detrital rocks--classification, description; 3. Carbonate rocks--classification, description; 4. Chemical rocks-introduction, siliceous rocks, ferruginous rocks, aluminous rocks, phosphatic rocks, aluminous rocks, carbonaceous rocks; 5. Igneous and metamorpbic rocks; Appendix; References and Index.

  9. Constructing Hydraulic Barriers in Deep Geologic Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, E.E.; Carter, P.E.; Cooper, D.C.

    2008-07-01

    Many construction methods have been developed to create hydraulic barriers to depths of 30 to 50 meters, but few have been proposed for depths on the order of 500 meters. For these deep hydraulic barriers, most methods are potentially feasible for soil but not for hard rock. In the course of researching methods of isolating large subterranean blocks of oil shale, the authors have developed a wax thermal permeation method for constructing hydraulic barriers in rock to depths of over 500 meters in competent or even fractured rock as well as soil. The technology is similar to freeze wall methods, but produces a permanent barrier; and is potentially applicable in both dry and water saturated formations. Like freeze wall barriers, the wax thermal permeation method utilizes a large number of vertical or horizontal boreholes around the perimeter to be contained. However, instead of cooling the boreholes, they are heated. After heating these boreholes, a specially formulated molten wax based grout is pumped into the boreholes where it seals fractures and also permeates radially outward to form a series of columns of wax-impregnated rock. Rows of overlapping columns can then form a durable hydraulic barrier. These barriers can also be angled above a geologic repository to help prevent influx of water due to atypical rainfall events. Applications of the technique to constructing containment structures around existing shallow waste burial sites and water shutoff for mining are also described. (authors)

  10. OneGeology-Europe - The Challenges and progress of implementing a basic geological infrastructure for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asch, Kristine; Tellez-Arenas, Agnes

    2010-05-01

    geological data. These datasets are registered in a multilingual catalogue, who is one the main part of this system. This catalogue and a common metadata profile allows the discovery of national geological and applied geological maps at all scapes, Such an architecture is facilitating re-use and addition of value by a wide spectrum of users in the public and private sector and identifying, documenting and disseminating strategies for the reduction of technical and business barriers to re-use. In identifying and raising awareness in the user and provider communities, it is moving geological knowledge closer to the end-user where it will have greater societal impact and ensure fuller exploitation of a key data resource gathered at huge public expense. The project is providing examples of best practice in the delivery of digital geological spatial data to users, e.g. in the insurance, property, engineering, planning, mineral resource and environmental sectors. The scientifically attributed map data of the project will provide a pan-European base for science research and, importantly, a prime geoscience dataset capable of integration with other data sets within and beyond the geoscience domain. This presentation will demonstrate the first results of this project and will indicate how OneGeology-Europe is ensuring that Europe may play a leading role in the development of a geoscience spatial data infrastructure (SDI) globally.

  11. Complete genome sequence of Cupriavidus basilensis 4G11, isolated from the Oak Ridge Field Research Center site

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Jayashree; Waters, R. Jordan; Skerker, Jeffrey M.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Price, Morgan N.; Huang, Jiawen; Chakraborty, Romy; Arkin, Adam P.; Deutschbauer, Adam

    2015-05-14

    Cupriavidus basilensis 4G11 was isolated from groundwater at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center (FRC) site. Here, we report the complete genome sequence and annotation of Cupriavidus basilensis 4G11. The genome contains 8,421,483 bp, 7,661 predicted protein-coding genes, and a total GC content of 64.4%.

  12. Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

  13. Geology of icy satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinnon, W. B.

    1985-01-01

    The geology of the major icy satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune is discussed in terms of the four major processes that shape icy satellite surfaces: impact cratering, volcanism, tectonism, and interactions with planetary magnetospheres and solar radiation. The role of these processes in creating the differences that exist among the satellites, in particular the orderly progression of geological properties in the Jovian satellites, is emphasized. Important questions left open after the Voyager missions are summarized.

  14. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, John A., III; Nedell, Susan S.

    1987-01-01

    The surface of Mars displays a broad range of channel and valley features. There is as great a range in morphology as in scale. Some of the features of Martian geography are examined. Geomorphic mapping, crater counts on selected surfaces, and a detailed study of drainage basins are used to trace the geologic evolution of the Margaritifer Sinus Quandrangle. The layered deposits in the Valles Marineris are described in detail and the geologic processes that could have led to their formation are analyzed.

  15. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Birkholzer, Jens; Apps, John; Zheng, Liange; Zhang, Yingqi; Xu, Tianfu; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2008-10-01

    One promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is injecting CO{sub 2} into suitable geologic formations, typically depleted oil/gas reservoirs or saline formations at depth larger than 800 m. Proper site selection and management of CO{sub 2} storage projects will ensure that the risks to human health and the environment are low. However, a risk remains that CO{sub 2} could migrate from a deep storage formation, e.g. via local high-permeability pathways such as permeable faults or degraded wells, and arrive in shallow groundwater resources. The ingress of CO{sub 2} is by itself not typically a concern to the water quality of an underground source of drinking water (USDW), but it will change the geochemical conditions in the aquifer and will cause secondary effects mainly induced by changes in pH, in particular the mobilization of hazardous inorganic constituents present in the aquifer minerals. Identification and assessment of these potential effects is necessary to analyze risks associated with geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This report describes a systematic evaluation of the possible water quality changes in response to CO{sub 2} intrusion into aquifers currently used as sources of potable water in the United States. Our goal was to develop a general understanding of the potential vulnerability of United States potable groundwater resources in the event of CO{sub 2} leakage. This goal was achieved in two main tasks, the first to develop a comprehensive geochemical model representing typical conditions in many freshwater aquifers (Section 3), the second to conduct a systematic reactive-transport modeling study to quantify the effect of CO{sub 2} intrusion into shallow aquifers (Section 4). Via reactive-transport modeling, the amount of hazardous constituents potentially mobilized by the ingress of CO{sub 2} was determined, the fate and migration of these constituents in the groundwater was predicted, and the likelihood that drinking water

  16. Geologic signatures of atmospheric effects on impact cratering on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Highlights of the research include geologic signatures of impact energy and atmospheric response to crater formation. Laboratory experiments were performed at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) to assess the interaction between disrupted impactor and atmosphere during entry, and to assess the energy coupling between impacts and the surrounding atmosphere. The Schlieren imaging at the AVGR was used in combination with Magellan imaging and theoretical studies to study the evolution of the impactor following impact. The Schlieren imaging documented the downrange blast front created by vaporization during oblique impacts. Laboratory experiments allowed assessing the effect of impact angle on coupling efficiency with an atmosphere. And the impact angle's effect on surface blasts and run-out flows allowed the distinction of crater clusters created by simultaneous impacts from those created by isolated regions of older age.

  17. Using 3D Geologic Models to Synthesize Large and Disparate Datasets for Site Characterization and Verification Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillesheim, M. B.; Rautman, C. A.; Johnson, P. B.; Powers, D. W.

    2008-12-01

    As we are all aware, increases in computing power and efficiency have allowed for the development of many modeling codes capable of processing large and sometimes disparate datasets (e.g., geological, hydrological, geochemical, etc). Because people sometimes have difficulty visualizing in three dimensions (3D) or understanding how multiple figures of various geologic features relate as a whole, 3D geologic models can be excellent tools to illustrate key concepts and findings, especially to lay persons, such as stakeholders, customers, and other concerned parties. In this presentation, we will show examples of 3D geologic modeling efforts using data collected during site characterization and verification work at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The WIPP is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southeastern New Mexico, designed for the safe disposal of transuranic wastes resulting from U.S. defense programs. The 3D geologic modeling efforts focused on refining our understanding of the WIPP site by integrating a variety of geologic data. Examples include: overlaying isopach surfaces of unit thickness and overburden thickness, a map of geologic facies changes, and a transmissivity field onto a 3D structural map of a geologic unit of interest. In addition, we also present a 4D hydrogeologic model of the effects of a large-scale pumping test on water levels. All these efforts have provided additional insights into the controls on transmissivity and flow in the WIPP vicinity. Ultimately, by combining these various types of data we have increased our understanding of the WIPP site's hydrogeologic system, which is a key aspect of continued certification. Sandia is a multi program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04- 94AL85000. This research is funded by WIPP programs administered by the Office of Environmental

  18. Chapter 4: Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, J; Herzog, H

    2006-06-14

    Carbon sequestration is the long term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. The largest potential reservoirs for storing carbon are the deep oceans and geological reservoirs in the earth's upper crust. This chapter focuses on geological sequestration because it appears to be the most promising large-scale approach for the 2050 timeframe. It does not discuss ocean or terrestrial sequestration. In order to achieve substantial GHG reductions, geological storage needs to be deployed at a large scale. For example, 1 Gt C/yr (3.6 Gt CO{sub 2}/yr) abatement, requires carbon capture and storage (CCS) from 600 large pulverized coal plants ({approx}1000 MW each) or 3600 injection projects at the scale of Statoil's Sleipner project. At present, global carbon emissions from coal approximate 2.5 Gt C. However, given reasonable economic and demand growth projections in a business-as-usual context, global coal emissions could account for 9 Gt C. These volumes highlight the need to develop rapidly an understanding of typical crustal response to such large projects, and the magnitude of the effort prompts certain concerns regarding implementation, efficiency, and risk of the enterprise. The key questions of subsurface engineering and surface safety associated with carbon sequestration are: (1) Subsurface issues: (a) Is there enough capacity to store CO{sub 2} where needed? (b) Do we understand storage mechanisms well enough? (c) Could we establish a process to certify injection sites with our current level of understanding? (d) Once injected, can we monitor and verify the movement of subsurface CO{sub 2}? (2) Near surface issues: (a) How might the siting of new coal plants be influenced by the distribution of storage sites? (b) What is the probability of CO{sub 2} escaping from injection sites? What are the attendant risks? Can we detect leakage if it occurs? (3) Will surface leakage negate or reduce the

  19. Use of the Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Model (WEBMOD) to Simulate Water Quality at Five U.S. Geological Survey Research Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, R. M.; Leavesley, G. H.; Shanley, J. B.; Peters, N. E.; Aulenbach, B. T.; Blum, A. E.; Campbell, D. H.; Clow, D. W.; Mast, M. A.; Stallard, R. F.; Larsen, M. C.; Troester, J. W.; Walker, J. F.; White, A. F.

    2003-12-01

    The Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Model (WEBMOD) was developed as an aid to compare and contrast basic hydrologic and biogeochemical processes active in the diverse hydroclimatic regions represented by the five U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budget (WEBB) sites: Loch Vale, Colorado; Trout Lake, Wisconsin; Sleepers River, Vermont; Panola Mountain, Georgia; and Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. WEBMOD simulates solute concentrations for vegetation canopy, snow pack, impermeable ground, leaf litter, unsaturated and saturated soil zones, riparian zones and streams using selected process modules coupled within the USGS Modular Modeling System (MMS). Source codes for the MMS hydrologic modules include the USGS Precipitation Runoff Modeling System, the National Weather Service Hydro-17 snow model, and TOPMODEL. The hydrologic modules distribute precipitation and temperature to predict evapotranspiration, snow accumulation, snow melt, and streamflow. Streamflow generation mechanisms include infiltration excess, saturated overland flow, preferential lateral flow, and base flow. Input precipitation chemistry, and fluxes and residence times predicted by the hydrologic modules are input into the geochemical module where solute concentrations are computed for a series of discrete well-mixed reservoirs using calls to the geochemical engine PHREEQC. WEBMOD was used to better understand variations in water quality observed at the WEBB sites from October 1991 through September 1997. Initial calibrations were completed by fitting the simulated hydrographs with those measured at the watershed outlets. Model performance was then refined by comparing the predicted export of conservative chemical tracers such as chloride, with those measured at the watershed outlets. The model succeeded in duplicating the temporal variability of net exports of major ions from the watersheds.

  20. Isolation and purification of an axenic diazotrophic drought-tolerant cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune, from natural cyanobacterial crusts and its utilization for field research on soils polluted with radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Jun; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Nishi, Yasuaki

    2012-08-01

    Nitrogen fixation and drought tolerance confer the ability to grow on dry land, and some terrestrial cyanobacteria exhibit these properties. These cyanobacteria were isolated in an axenic form from Nostoc commune clusters and other sources by modifying the method used to isolate the nitrogen-fixing and drought-tolerant cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. HK-01. Of these cyanobacteria, N. commune, which is difficult to isolate and purify, uses polysaccharides to maintain water, nitrogen fertilizers for nitrogen fixation, and can live in extreme environments because of desiccation tolerance. In this study, we examined the use of N. commune as biosoil for space agriculture and possible absorption of radioisotopes ((134)Cs, (137)Cs). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial.

  1. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2010. Appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces. Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962. Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete. Terrestrial geologic maps published by

  2. Geologic map of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Dohm, James M.; Irwin, Rossman P.; Kolb, Eric J.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Platz, Thomas; Michael, Gregory G.; Hare, Trent M.

    2014-01-01

    This global geologic map of Mars, which records the distribution of geologic units and landforms on the planet's surface through time, is based on unprecedented variety, quality, and quantity of remotely sensed data acquired since the Viking Orbiters. These data have provided morphologic, topographic, spectral, thermophysical, radar sounding, and other observations for integration, analysis, and interpretation in support of geologic mapping. In particular, the precise topographic mapping now available has enabled consistent morphologic portrayal of the surface for global mapping (whereas previously used visual-range image bases were less effective, because they combined morphologic and albedo information and, locally, atmospheric haze). Also, thermal infrared image bases used for this map tended to be less affected by atmospheric haze and thus are reliable for analysis of surface morphology and texture at even higher resolution than the topographic products.

  3. The geology of Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, E. M.; Lucchitta, B. K.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Plescia, J. B.; Squyres, S. W.

    1982-01-01

    A broad outline of the geologic history of Ganymede is presented, obtained from a first attempt to map the geology on a global scale and to interpret the characteristics of the observed geologic units. Features of the ancient cratered terrain such as craters and palimpsests, furrows and troughs, are discussed. The grooved terrain is described, including its sulci and cells, and the age relation of these units is considered along with the structure and origin of this terrain. The Gilgamesh Basin and Western Equatorial Basin in the post grooved terrain are treated, as are the bright and dark ray craters and the regolith. The development of all these regions and features is discussed in context. For the regolith, this includes the effect of water migration, sputtering, and thermal annealing. The histories of the ancient cratered terrain, the grooved terrain, and the post grooved terrain are presented.

  4. The geology of Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, E. M.; Lucchitta, B. K.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Plescia, J. B.; Squyres, S. W.

    A broad outline of the geologic history of Ganymede is presented, obtained from a first attempt to map the geology on a global scale and to interpret the characteristics of the observed geologic units. Features of the ancient cratered terrain such as craters and palimpsests, furrows and troughs, are discussed. The grooved terrain is described, including its sulci and cells, and the age relation of these units is considered along with the structure and origin of this terrain. The Gilgamesh Basin and Western Equatorial Basin in the post grooved terrain are treated, as are the bright and dark ray craters and the regolith. The development of all these regions and features is discussed in context. For the regolith, this includes the effect of water migration, sputtering, and thermal annealing. The histories of the ancient cratered terrain, the grooved terrain, and the post grooved terrain are presented.

  5. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    1993-05-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper.

  6. Geological fakes and frauds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffell, Alastair; Majury, Niall; Brooks, William E.

    2012-02-01

    Some geological fakes and frauds are carried out solely for financial gain (mining fraud), whereas others maybe have increasing aesthetic appeal (faked fossils) or academic advancement (fabricated data) as their motive. All types of geological fake or fraud can be ingenious and sophisticated, as demonstrated in this article. Fake gems, faked fossils and mining fraud are common examples where monetary profit is to blame: nonetheless these may impact both scientific theory and the reputation of geologists and Earth scientists. The substitution or fabrication of both physical and intellectual data also occurs for no direct financial gain, such as career advancement or establishment of belief (e.g. evolution vs. creationism). Knowledge of such fakes and frauds may assist in spotting undetected geological crimes: application of geoforensic techniques helps the scientific community to detect such activity, which ultimately undermines scientific integrity.

  7. Sedimentology and petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorlykke, K.

    1989-01-01

    In this introduction to sedimentology and petroleum geology the subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately, are integrated. The first part covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis, including brief discussions of flow in rivers and channels, types of sediment transport, lake and river deposits, deltas (river-dominated, tide-dominated, and wave-dominated) and the water budget. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modeling form the basis for the last part on petroleum geology. Here subjects include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Finally, short introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

  8. Alaskan North Slope Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Warren

    The discovery well for the Prudhoe Bay field, the largest oil accumulatn yet found in the United States, was drilled on the Arctic coast of Alaska by ARCO and Exxon in 1968. A decade of exploratory geology and increasingly detailed geophysical surveys, mostly by Sinclair and British Petroleum in the early years, but then by a number of companies, preceded the discovery. Systematic U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reconnaissance of the Brooks Range—the great mountain system of northern Alaska—had begun in the 1940s and was accelerated after the discovery, as was industry work. In the last decade, scientists from the Alaska Division of Geology and Geophysics and from various universities have become increasingly involved. This modestly priced two-volume work presents hitherto unavailable summaries of much of this modern work.

  9. Experimentation in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintala, Mark J.

    1987-01-01

    Laboratory simulations of geological processes on the terrestrial planets are described, summarizing results published during the period 1983-1986. Included are studies of wind-driven processes on Mars and Venus (using the special wind-tunnel facilities at NASA Ames); simulations of shock-induced loss of volatiles from solids; equation-of-state determinations; impact experiments simulating cratering, spallation, regolith formation, and disruption; fluid-flow simulations of channel formation on Mars; and dust studies. The use of the microgravity environment of the Space Station for planetary-geology experiments is briefly considered.

  10. Planetary geological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Solomonidou, Anezina

    2014-11-01

    In this introduction to planetary geology, we review the major geologic processes affecting the solid bodies of the solar system, namely volcanism, tectonism, impact cratering, and erosion. We illustrate the interplay of these processes in different worlds, briefly reviewing how they affect the surfaces of the Earth's Moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars, then focusing on two very different worlds: Jupiter's moon Io, the most volcanically active object in the solar system, and Saturn's moon Titan, where the interaction between a dense atmosphere and the surface make for remarkably earth-like landscapes despite the great differences in surface temperature and composition.

  11. Are isolated wetlands isolated?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Loren M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Haukos, David A.

    2011-01-01

    While federal regulations during the past 10 years have treated isolated wetlands as unconnected to aquatic resources protected by the Clean Water Act, they provide critical ecosystem services to society that extend well beyond their wetland boundaries. The authors offer well-documented examples from the scientific literature on some of the ecosystem services provided by isolated wetlands to society and other ecosystems.

  12. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology's report on the Petrographic, Stratigraphic, and Structural Evidence for Dissolution of Upper Permian Bedded Salt, Texas Panhandle

    SciTech Connect

    Fenster, D.F.; Anderson, R.Y.; Gonzales, S.; Baker, V.R.; Edgar, D.E.; Harrison, W.

    1984-08-01

    The following recommendations for improving the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology (TBEG) report entitled Petrographic, Stratigraphic, and Structural Evidence for Dissolution of Upper Permian Bedded Salt, Texas Panhandle have been abstracted from the body of this review report. The TBEG report should be resided to conform to one of the following alternatives: (1) If the report is intended to be a review or summary of previous work, it should contain more raw data, be edited to give equal treatment to all types of data, and include summary tables and additional figures. (2) If the report is intended to be a description and interpretation of petrographic evidence for salt dissolution, supported by collateral stratigraphic and structural evidence, the relevant indirect and direct data should become the focal point of the report. The following recommendations apply to one or both of the options listed above. (1) The text should differentiate more carefully between the data and inferences based on those data. (2) The authors should retain the qualifiers present in cited works. Statements in the report that are based on earlier papers are sometimes stronger than those in the papers themselves. (3) The next revision should present more complete data. (4) The authors should achieve a more balanced presentation of alternative hypotheses and interpretations. They could then discuss the relative merits of the alternative interpretations. (5) More attention should be given to clear exposition.

  13. Geology of Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    Included are a teacher's guidebook and two filmstrips, "Geology of Wisconsin," and associated materials. The following are described: outline of objectives; suggested use of the filmstrips and guidebook; outline of the filmstrip content; four pages of illustrations suitable for duplication; a test for each filmstrip; and a list of additional…

  14. Life on Guam: Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Gail

    This unit is part of a series of materials produced by a project to develop locally applicable class, lab, and field materials in ecology and social studies for Guam junior and senior high schools. While the materials were designed for Guam, they can be adapted to other localities. This unit is designed to acquaint the students with the geology of…

  15. Geological processes and evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Head, J.W.; Greeley, R.; Golombek, M.P.; Hartmann, W.K.; Hauber, E.; Jaumann, R.; Masson, P.; Neukum, G.; Nyquist, L.E.; Carr, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Geological mapping and establishment of stratigraphic relationships provides an overview of geological processes operating on Mars and how they have varied in time and space. Impact craters and basins shaped the crust in earliest history and as their importance declined, evidence of extensive regional volcanism emerged during the Late Noachian. Regional volcanism characterized the Early Hesperian and subsequent to that time, volcanism was largely centered at Tharsis and Elysium, continuing until the recent geological past. The Tharsis region appears to have been largely constructed by the Late Noachian, and represents a series of tectonic and volcanic centers. Globally distributed structural features representing contraction characterize the middle Hesperian. Water-related processes involve the formation of valley networks in the Late Noachian and into the Hesperian, an ice sheet at the south pole in the middle Hesperian, and outflow channels and possible standing bodies of water in the northern lowlands in the Late Hesperian and into the Amazonian. A significant part of the present water budget occurs in the present geologically young polar layered terrains. In order to establish more firmly rates of processes, we stress the need to improve the calibration of the absolute timescale, which today is based on crater count systems with substantial uncertainties, along with a sampling of rocks of unknown provenance. Sample return from carefully chosen stratigraphic units could calibrate the existing timescale and vastly improve our knowledge of Martian evolution.

  16. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A wide variety of topics on planetary geology are presented. Subjects include stratigraphy and geomorphology of Copernicus, the Mamers valle region, and other selected regions of Mars and the Moon. Crater density and distribution are discussed for Callisto and the lunar surface. Spectroscopic analysis is described for Europa and Ganymede.

  17. Geology: The Active Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Geology: The Active Earth." Contents are organized into the following…

  18. Geology 12. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This publication, developed by the Ministry of Education, Province of British Columbia, Canada, is a teaching guide for the Geology 12 course. The course is intended to provide secondary school students with the background and desire to investigate their earth, its materials and its processes. The guide consists of the following four sections: (1)…

  19. Digital solar system geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.; Kozak, R. C.; Isbell, Nancy K.

    1991-01-01

    All available synoptic maps of the solid-surface bodies of the Solar System were digitized for presentation in the planned Atlas of the Solar System by Greeley and Batson. Since the last report (Batson et al., 1990), preliminary Uranian satellite maps were replaced with improved versions, Galilean satellite geology was simplified and digitized, structure was added to many maps, and the maps were converted to a standard format, with corresponding standing colors for the mapped units. Following these changes, the maps were re-reviewed by their authors and are now undergoing final editing before preparation for publication. In some cases (for Mercury, Venus, and Mars), more detailed maps were digitized and then simplified for the Atlas. Other detailed maps are planned to be digitized in the coming year for the Moon and the Galilean satellites. For most of the remaining bodies such as the Uranian satellites, the current digitized versions contain virtually all the detail that can be mapped given the available data; those versions will be unchanged for the Atlas. These digital geologic maps are archived at the digital scale of 1/16 degree/ pixel, in sinusoidal format. The availability of geology of the Solar System in a digital database will facilitate comparisons and integration with other data: digitized lunar geologic maps have already been used in a comparison with Galileo SSI observations of the Moon.

  20. Appendix E: Geology

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2008-01-17

    This appendix provides a detailed description of geology under the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site, emphasizing the areas around tank farms. It is to be published by client CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., as part of a larger, multi-contractor technical report.

  1. Briefing on geological sequestration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geological sequestration (GS) is generally recognized as the injection and long-term (e.g., hundreds to thousands of years) trapping of gaseous, liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in subsurface media – primarily saline formations, depleted or nearly depleted oil and gas...

  2. Geological Processes and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.; Greeley, R.; Golombek, M. P.; Hartmann, W. K.; Hauber, E.; Jaumann, R.; Masson, P.; Neukum, G.; Nyquist, L. E.; Carr, M. H.

    2001-04-01

    Geological mapping and establishment of stratigraphic relationships provides an overview of geological processes operating on Mars and how they have varied in time and space. Impact craters and basins shaped the crust in earliest history and as their importance declined, evidence of extensive regional volcanism emerged during the Late Noachian. Regional volcanism characterized the Early Hesperian and subsequent to that time, volcanism was largely centered at Tharsis and Elysium, continuing until the recent geological past. The Tharsis region appears to have been largely constructed by the Late Noachian, and represents a series of tectonic and volcanic centers. Globally distributed structural features representing contraction characterize the middle Hesperian. Water-related processes involve the formation of valley networks in the Late Noachian and into the Hesperian, an ice sheet at the south pole in the middle Hesperian, and outflow channels and possible standing bodies of water in the northern lowlands in the Late Hesperian and into the Amazonian. A significant part of the present water budget occurs in the present geologically young polar layered terrains. In order to establish more firmly rates of processes, we stress the need to improve the calibration of the absolute timescale, which today is based on crater count systems with substantial uncertainties, along with a sampling of rocks of unknown provenance. Sample return from carefully chosen stratigraphic units could calibrate the existing timescale and vastly improve our knowledge of Martian evolution.

  3. Geological impacts on nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  4. Glacial Geology of Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    This publication is a teacher's resource and guidebook for the presentation of the three filmstrips in the "Glacial Geology of Wisconsin" series. The first filmstrip is subtitled, "Evidence of the Glaciers," the second "How the Glaciers Reshaped the Landscape," and the third "Fossils of the Ice Age." Included are a list of objectives, an outline…

  5. Geological Field Trip Guidebooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Harriet E.

    1978-01-01

    Geological field trip guidebooks, developed for use during a field trip or field conference, are considered ephemeral publications by their compilers and publishers. Too few copies are printed and little attention is paid to bibliographic format and information. These difficulties are discussed and recommendations are made to alleviate the…

  6. Public perceptions of geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Anderson, Mark; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2014-05-01

    Geological issues are increasingly intruding on the everyday lives of ordinary people. Whether it be onshore exploration and extraction of oil and gas, deep injection of water for geothermal power or underground storage of carbon dioxide and radioactive waste, many communities across Europe are being faced with potentially contested geological activity under their backyard. As well as being able to communicate the technical aspects of such work, geoscience professionals also need to appreciate that for most people the subsurface is an unfamiliar realm. In order to engage communities and individuals in effective dialogue about geological activities, an appreciation of what 'the public' already know and what they want to know is needed, but this is a subject that is in its infancy. In an attempt to provide insight into these key issues, this study examines the concerns the public have, relating to geology, by constructing 'Mental Models' of people's perceptions of the subsurface. General recommendations for public engagement strategies will be presented based on the results of selected case studies; specifically expert and non-expert mental models for communities in the south-west of England.

  7. Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting. Volume 3, Primary system integrity; Aging research, products and applications; Structural and seismic engineering; Seismology and geology: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Monteleone, S.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25-27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Collaborative Research. Damage and Burst Dynamics in Failure of Complex Geomaterials. A Statistical Physics Approach to Understanding the Complex Emergent Dynamics in Near Mean-Field Geological Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rundle, John B.; Klein, William

    2015-09-29

    We have carried out research to determine the dynamics of failure in complex geomaterials, specifically focusing on the role of defects, damage and asperities in the catastrophic failure processes (now popularly termed “Black Swan events”). We have examined fracture branching and flow processes using models for invasion percolation, focusing particularly on the dynamics of bursts in the branching process. We have achieved a fundamental understanding of the dynamics of nucleation in complex geomaterials, specifically in the presence of inhomogeneous structures.

  9. Comparison of antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation and conjugative transfer of Staphylococcus and Enterococcus isolates from International Space Station and Antarctic Research Station Concordia.

    PubMed

    Schiwon, Katarzyna; Arends, Karsten; Rogowski, Katja Marie; Fürch, Svea; Prescha, Katrin; Sakinc, Türkan; Van Houdt, Rob; Werner, Guido; Grohmann, Elisabeth

    2013-04-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) and the Antarctic Research Station Concordia are confined and isolated habitats in extreme and hostile environments. The human and habitat microflora can alter due to the special environmental conditions resulting in microbial contamination and health risk for the crew. In this study, 29 isolates from the ISS and 55 from the Antarctic Research Station Concordia belonging to the genera Staphylococcus and Enterococcus were investigated. Resistance to one or more antibiotics was detected in 75.8 % of the ISS and in 43.6 % of the Concordia strains. The corresponding resistance genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction in 86 % of the resistant ISS strains and in 18.2 % of the resistant Concordia strains. Plasmids are present in 86.2 % of the ISS and in 78.2 % of the Concordia strains. Eight Enterococcus faecalis strains (ISS) harbor plasmids of about 130 kb. Relaxase and/or transfer genes encoded on plasmids from gram-positive bacteria like pIP501, pRE25, pSK41, pGO1 and pT181 were detected in 86.2 % of the ISS and in 52.7 % of the Concordia strains. Most pSK41-homologous transfer genes were detected in ISS isolates belonging to coagulase-negative staphylococci. We demonstrated through mating experiments that Staphylococcus haemolyticus F2 (ISS) and the Concordia strain Staphylococcus hominis subsp. hominis G2 can transfer resistance genes to E. faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Biofilm formation was observed in 83 % of the ISS and in 92.7 % of the Concordia strains. In conclusion, the ISS isolates were shown to encode more resistance genes and possess a higher gene transfer capacity due to the presence of three vir signature genes, virB1, virB4 and virD4 than the Concordia isolates.

  10. Geologic spatial analysis. 1988 performance report, August 30, 1987--January 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.

    1989-12-31

    This report describes the development of geologic spatial analysis research which focuses on conducting comprehensive three-dimensional analysis of regions using geologic data sets that can be referenced by latitude, longitude, and elevation/depth. (CBS)

  11. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1981 NASA Planetary Geology Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. The evolution of the solar system, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planets are considered. Galilean satellites and small bodies, Venus, geochemistry and regoliths, volcanic and aeolian processes and landforms, fluvial and periglacial processes, and planetary impact cratering, remote sensing, and cartography are discussed.

  12. Significant achievements in the Planetary Geology Program, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, H.E.

    1981-09-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1981 NASA Planetary Geology Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. The evolution of the solar system, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planets are considered. Galilean satellites and small bodies, Venus, geochemistry and regoliths, volcanic and aeolian processes and landforms, fluvial and periglacial processes, and planetary impact cratering, remote sensing, and cartography are discussed.

  13. RNase One Gene Isolation, Expression, and Affinity Purification Models Research Experimental Progression and Culminates with Guided Inquiry-Based Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Cheryl P.

    2009-01-01

    This new biochemistry laboratory course moves through a progression of experiments that generates a platform for guided inquiry-based experiments. RNase One gene is isolated from prokaryotic genomic DNA, expressed as a tagged protein, affinity purified, and tested for activity and substrate specificity. Student pairs present detailed explanations…

  14. Vesta: A Geological Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.

    2012-04-01

    Observations from the Dawn spacecraft [1] enable the derivation of the asteroid 4Vesta's shape, facilitate mapping of the surface geology, and provide the first evidence for interpreting Vesta's geological evolution. Science data were acquired during the approach to Vesta, a circular polar (Survey) orbit at an altitude of 2700 km providing ~ 230 m/pix camera scale, and during a circular high-altitude mapping orbit (HAMO) at 700 km altitude with a camera scale of ~ 65 m/pixel. Currently Dawn is orbiting Vesta in a low-altitude mapping orbit (LAMO) at 210 km altitude, yielding a global image coverage of ~20 m/pixel at the time of EGU [2,3,4,5]. Geomorphology and distribution of surface features provide evidence for impact cratering, tectonic activity, and regolith and probable volcanic processes. Craters with dark rays, bright rays, and dark rim streaks have been observed, suggesting buried stratigraphy. The largest fresh craters retain a simple bowl-shaped morphology, with depth/diameter ratios roughly comparable to lunar values. The largest crater Rheasilvia, an ~500 km diameter depression at the south pole, includes an incomplete inward facing cuspate scarp and a large central mound surrounded by unusual complex arcuate ridge and groove patterns, and overlies an older ~400 km wide basin. A set of large equatorial troughs is related to these south polar structures. Vesta exhibits rugged topography ranging from -22 km to +19 km relative to a best fit ellipsoidal shape. Vesta's topography has a much greater range in elevation relative to its radius (15%) than do the Moon and Mars (1%) or the Earth (0.3%), but less than highly battered smaller asteroids like Lutetia (40%). This also identifies Vesta as a transitional body between asteroids and planets. The surface of Vesta exhibits very steep topographic slopes that are near the angle of repose. Impacts onto these steep surfaces, followed by slope failure, make resurfacing - due to impacts and their associated

  15. A geologic study of the Michigan Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, R. E.

    1982-05-01

    The Michigan Basin contains sediments from Cambrian through Pennsylvanian age. The geologic basin is of greatest depth in Central Michigan with approximately 15,000 ft of strata. To assess efficiently which formations have suitable reservoir characteristics to be included in the Gas Research Institute tight gas sands program, a catalog of the lower-permeability formations and their characteristics was required. The lack of geologic units that were considered to have sufficient extent reservoir characteristics or gas reserves to be of interest as blanket-like gas sands precluded a more detailed inventory and characterization. An overview of all gas productive formations in the Michigan Basin is given.

  16. Role of geology in diamond project development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubec, Jaroslav

    2004-09-01

    design, mine safety (mudrush risk assessment) and mine dewatering. There is no doubt that a better understanding of the kimberlite and country rock geology has a direct impact on the safety and economics of the mining operations. The process of mine design can start at the beginning of kimberlite discovery by incorporating the critical geological information without necessarily increasing the exploration budget. It is important to appreciate the usefulness of fundamental geological research and its impact on increased confidence in the mine design. Such studies should be viewed as worthwhile investments, not as cost items.

  17. Geologic Map Database of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeser, Douglas B.; Shock, Nancy; Green, Gregory N.; Dumonceaux, Gayle M.; Heran, William D.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to release a digital geologic map database for the State of Texas. This database was compiled for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Program, National Surveys and Analysis Project, whose goal is a nationwide assemblage of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and other data. This release makes the geologic data from the Geologic Map of Texas available in digital format. Original clear film positives provided by the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology were photographically enlarged onto Mylar film. These films were scanned, georeferenced, digitized, and attributed by Geologic Data Systems (GDS), Inc., Denver, Colorado. Project oversight and quality control was the responsibility of the U.S. Geological Survey. ESRI ArcInfo coverages, AMLs, and shapefiles are provided.

  18. Using Snow to Teach Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Charles

    1991-01-01

    A lesson plan, directed at middle school students and older, describes using snow to study the geological processes of solidification of molten material, sedimentation, and metamorphosis. Provides background information on these geological processes. (MCO)

  19. Geology of California. Second Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, R.M.; Webb, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Two introductory chapters familiarize readers with basic geologic concepts. The following chapters describe the geology of each of California's 11 geomorphic provinces; the San Andreas fault and offshore geology are discussed in two separate chapters. Four appendices acquaint readers with technical words and terms, common minerals and rocks in California, geologic time, and geologic theories that pertain to California. During the 1960s evidence collected from the east Pacific sea floor off the western coast of North America gave scientists supporting data for Alfred Wegener's 1910 theory of continental drift. In addition to the confirmation of continental drift, since the 1960s scientists have discovered paleomagnetism, sea-floor spreading, exotic and suspect terranes, and polar wandering. These important concepts have had far reaching effects about how we understand the geology of California and how this region has evolved through geologic time. Improved investigative procedures enable earth scientists to comprehend previously puzzling aspects of California's geology.

  20. Geology in the news: Incorporating research on the Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake into an intermediate-level undergraduate Neotectonics course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinen, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake of March 11, 2011 - with its combination of a very large earthquake, subsequent tsunami and damage to nuclear power plants - was a disaster of historically unprecedented proportions that dominated news reports and captured the attention of the world. It also provided an opportunity to engage students in the classroom via active research into an on-going major seismic event. As part of an intermediate-level undergraduate course in Neotectonics, six students participated in a 4-week research project to assess the Tohoku-Oki earthquake and its aftereffects, and make general predictions for similar events on the active margin of the western United States. In a series of guided inquiries, student teams addressed questions of: [1] Regional setting (e.g., tectonic plates, convergence velocities and directions, and distribution of population, nuclear plants and topography); [2] Historic and present-day seismicity (e.g., earthquake recurrence, and aftershock adherence to predicted Bath, Omori, and Gutenberg-Richter relationships); and [3] Application to the western United States (Cascadia or Southern California). With each subsequent question set student independence increased, moving from initial steps of the tectonic setting and historical seismicity of Japan, to the important components on which teams could focus their efforts for the Cascadia or Southern California regions. I will present results from this teaching experiment and examples of the student projects, including the students' preparation for this assignment. Discussion and suggestions (particularly about effective means of conducting rigorous long-term assessment of student learning) are strongly encouraged.

  1. License for the Konrad Deep Geological Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Biurrun, E.; Hartje, B.

    2003-02-24

    Deep geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste is currently considered a major challenge. Until present, only three deep geological disposal facilities have worldwide been operated: the Asse experimental repository (1967-1978) and the Morsleben repository (1971-1998) in Germany as well as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the USA (1999 to present). Recently, the licensing procedure for the fourth such facility, the German Konrad repository, ended with a positive ''Planfeststellung'' (plan approval). With its plan approval decision, the licensing authority, the Ministry of the Environment of the state of Lower Saxony, approved the single license needed pursuant to German law to construct, operate, and later close down this facility.

  2. Introduction to ore geology

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This textbook on ore geology is for second and third year undergraduates and closely parallels the undergraduate course given in this subject at England's University of Leicester. The volume covers three major areas: (1) principles of ore geology, (2) examples of the most important types of ore deposits, and (3) mineralization in space and time. Many chapters have been thoroughly revised for this edition and a chapter on diamonds has been added. Chapters on greisen and pegmatite have also been added, the former in response to the changing situation in tin mining following the recent tin crisis, and the latter in response to suggestions from geologists in a number of overseas countries. Some chapters have been considerably expanded and new sections added, including disseminated gold deposits and unconformity-associated uranium deposits. The author also expands on the importance of viewing mineral deposits from an economic standpoint.

  3. Borehole geological assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuck, W. H., III (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus are discussed for performing geological assessments of a formation located along a borehole, and a boring tool that bores a pair of holes into the walls of the borehole and into the surrounding strata along with a pair of probes which are installed in the holes. One of the probes applies an input such as a current or pressured fluid, and the other probe senses a corresponding input which it receives from the strata.

  4. Principles of nuclear geology

    SciTech Connect

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    1985-01-01

    This book treats the basic principles of nuclear physics and the mineralogy, geochemistry, distribution and ore deposits of uranium and thorium. The application of nuclear methodology in radiogenic heat and thermal regime of the earth, radiometric prospecting, isotopic age dating, stable isotopes and cosmic-ray produced isotopes is covered. Geological processes, such as metamorphic chronology, petrogenesis, groundwater movement, and sedimentation rate are focussed on.

  5. Geologic map of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.; Mull, Charles G.; Karl, Susan M.

    2015-12-31

    This Alaska compilation is unique in that it is integrated with a rich database of information provided in the spatial datasets and standalone attribute databases. Within the spatial files every line and polygon is attributed to its original source; the references to these sources are contained in related tables, as well as in stand-alone tables. Additional attributes include typical lithology, geologic setting, and age range for the map units. Also included are tables of radiometric ages.

  6. Integrating geology and perforating

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, P.F. de; Souza Padilha, S.T.C. de

    1997-02-01

    Perforating is a very common well completion operation. Usually, it is considered to be as simple as making holes in casing. Actually, perforating is one of the most critical tasks for establishing a path from reservoir rock to borehole form which hydrocarbons can flow to surface. The objective of this article is to relate perforating technology with geological aspects and completion type to determine the best shooting equipment (gun type, charge and differential pressure) to perform the most efficient perforating job. Several subjects related to formation geology are taken into account for a shooting job, such as: compressive strength, reservoir pressure and thickness, lithology type, porosity and permeability, ratio between horizontal and vertical permeabilities, and fluid type. Gun geometry used in the oil industry incorporates several parameters, including shot density, hole entrance diameter, gun phase and jet penetration. API tests are done on perforating guns to define applicability and performance. A new geometrical parameter is defined as the relative angle of the jet, which is the angle between the jet tunnel and formation dip. GEOCAN is a methodology which relates geology to gun geometry and type to define the most efficient gun system for perforated completions. It uses the intelligent perforating technique with the SPAN (Schlumberger Perforating Analysis) program to confirm optimum gun choice.

  7. The Geology of Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    The geology of Callisto is not boring. Although cratered terrain dominates Callisto (a key end-member of the Jovian satellite system), a number of more interesting features are apparent. Cratered terrain is broken into irregular map-able bright and dark subunits that vary in albedo by a factor of 2, and several relatively smooth units are depleted of small craters. Some of these areas may have been volcanically resurfaced. Lineaments, including parallel and radial sets, may be evidence for early global tectonism. Frost deposition occurs in cold traps, and impact scars have formed from tidally disrupted comets. Geologic evidence suggests that Callisto does have a chemically differentiated crust. Central pit and central dome craters and palimpsests are common. The preferred interpretation is that a relatively ice-rich material, at depths of 5 km or more, has been mobilized during impact and exposed as domes or palimpsests. The close similarity in crater morphologies and dimensions indicates that the outermost 10 km or so of Callisto may be as differentiated as on Ganymede. The geology of cratered terrain on Callisto is simpler than that of cratered terrain on Ganymede, however. Orbital evolution and tidal heating may provide the answer to the riddle of why Callisto and Ganymede are so different (Malhotra, 1991). We should expect a few surprises and begins to answer some fundamental questions when Callisto is observed by Galileo in late 1996.

  8. Interactive geologic modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Glaeser, J.D.; Krajewski, S.A.

    1984-04-01

    Improved success in finding hydrocarbons and minerals depends on developing geologic models from seismic, gravity, and magnetic data that most closely approximate real-world settings. Although data processing remains the chore of mainframe and minicomputers, interpretations and modeling of geologic and geophysical information now are best accomplished on personal computers because these computers afford the explorationist maximum freedom to shape and fine tune geophysical evaluations. Three case histories use the GEOSIM geophysical modeling systems to delineate exploration targets. The first example is Silurian Niagaran reef trends in the Michigan basin. Here, differences in seismic reef anomalies result from variations in carbonate-evaporite stratigraphy encasing the reefs, reef geometry, and reef reservoir parameters. These variations which influence real seismic-response differences can be successfully matched using appropriate geologic models in generating synthetic seismic reef anomalies. The second example applies gravity and magnetic data to seismic modeling of a Wyoming coal field. Detailed seismic stratigraphy helps locate those portions of the field having multiple seams, although it does not resolve individual economic zones. Gravity data do identify pinchout margins of multiseam zones and pinchouts between principal coals. Magnetic data are then used to delineate the burn (clinker) margin. Seismic modeling of subtle stratigraphic traps is the broader area of exploration interest contained in the first 2 examples. In the third, successfully modeled and tested examples of lateral changes in deltaic facies and of faulted, unconformity-bounded continent-margin sequences are shown to be successful guides to reinterpretation of seismic data.

  9. Study on the interaction mechanism between the special geological environment and their extreme geo-microbes in Dagang Oilfield by combined methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jun

    2010-05-01

    Geo-microbes and their function were widespread ever since life appeared on the earth. Geo-microbiological process has left a rich and colorful material record in the geological body of earth, the most critical record of which is all sorts of organic hieroglyph and various forms of organic matter derived from bio-organisms, and oil field is the most ideal geological location to preserve these organic matters. It have already produced or might produce petroleum and natural gas sedimentary rocks under natural conditions, also known as olefiant (gas) rock or the parent rock, which is the product of the interaction between the life-system and earth environmental system in the specific geological conditions and integrate the whole microbial ecosystem in the geological time. The microbial community under extreme geological environment of Dagang Oilfield is relatively simple, therefore it is quite easy to investigate the special relationship between geo-microbes and biogeochemistry. We have mastered a large number of information related with the geological condition and biological species of Dagang Oilfield; what's more we also have isolated a number of archimycetes strains with different extremophiles capacity from the core samples collected in the Dagang oil field. At present, we are to proceed with the cooperative research at Environment School of Yale University and Institute of the Earth's biosphere using these strains. In the future, we will work together to carry out geological surveys in the field using international first-class equipment and methods and study the geological environment of Dagang Oilfield utilizing isotope techniques and mineral phase analysis method. Meanwhile we are going to undertake the on-line monitoring of the overall microbial activity of these collected geological samples, the specific metabolic activity of these extreme strains of microorganisms and the biomarkers produced during their metabolic processes under laboratory conditions

  10. Geological Sequestration Training and Research Program in Capture and Transport: Development of the Most Economical Separation Method for CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Vahdat, Nader

    2013-09-30

    The project provided hands-on training and networking opportunities to undergraduate students in the area of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and transport, through fundamental research study focused on advanced separation methods that can be applied to the capture of CO2 resulting from the combustion of fossil-fuels for power generation . The project team’s approach to achieve its objectives was to leverage existing Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) course materials and teaching methods to create and implement an annual CCS short course for the Tuskegee University community; conduct a survey of CO2 separation and capture methods; utilize data to verify and develop computer models for CO2 capture and build CCS networks and hands-on training experiences. The objectives accomplished as a result of this project were: (1) A comprehensive survey of CO2 capture methods was conducted and mathematical models were developed to compare the potential economics of the different methods based on the total cost per year per unit of CO2 avoidance; and (2) Training was provided to introduce the latest CO2 capture technologies and deployment issues to the university community.

  11. Tsunami geology in paleoseismology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yuichi Nishimura,; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku-oki disasters dramatically demonstrated the destructiveness and deadliness of tsunamis. For the assessment of future risk posed by tsunamis it is necessary to understand past tsunami events. Recent work on tsunami deposits has provided new information on paleotsunami events, including their recurrence interval and the size of the tsunamis (e.g. [187–189]). Tsunamis are observed not only on the margin of oceans but also in lakes. The majority of tsunamis are generated by earthquakes, but other events that displace water such as landslides and volcanic eruptions can also generate tsunamis. These non-earthquake tsunamis occur less frequently than earthquake tsunamis; it is, therefore, very important to find and study geologic evidence for past eruption and submarine landslide triggered tsunami events, as their rare occurrence may lead to risks being underestimated. Geologic investigations of tsunamis have historically relied on earthquake geology. Geophysicists estimate the parameters of vertical coseismic displacement that tsunami modelers use as a tsunami's initial condition. The modelers then let the simulated tsunami run ashore. This approach suffers from the relationship between the earthquake and seafloor displacement, the pertinent parameter in tsunami generation, being equivocal. In recent years, geologic investigations of tsunamis have added sedimentology and micropaleontology, which focus on identifying and interpreting depositional and erosional features of tsunamis. For example, coastal sediment may contain deposits that provide important information on past tsunami events [190, 191]. In some cases, a tsunami is recorded by a single sand layer. Elsewhere, tsunami deposits can consist of complex layers of mud, sand, and boulders, containing abundant stratigraphic evidence for sediment reworking and redeposition. These onshore sediments are geologic evidence for tsunamis and are called ‘tsunami deposits’ (Figs. 26

  12. California and Saudi Arabia: geologic contrasts

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, R.G. Jr.

    1984-09-01

    Assessing hydrocarbon futures in unexplored basins involves geology by analogy. Through 1978, approximately 265 fields were discovered in California containing 22 billion bbl of oil, 53% being in the 10 largest fields, ranging in size from 0.6 to 2.4 billion bbl. Through 1978, about 50 fields were found in Saudi Arabia containing 206 billion bbl of oil, 78% in the 10 largest fields, ranging in size from 7 to 83 billion bbl. The contrasts in field size distribution and in the total amount of oil present are explained by the dramatically different geology and geologic histories. California's surface geology is characterized by rare Precambrian, isolated Paleozoic, and widespread Mesozoic accreted terranes and intrusions, and by highly uplifted and depressed Tertiary sedimentary prisms bounded by widespread high-angle thrusting and strike-slip and normal faulting. Numerous families of medium to small anticlines and fault traps, commonly involving moderately dipping to overturned beds, have resulted from Tertiary tectonism, which segmented California dramatically. Saudi Arabia is characterized by a broad Precambrian shield area, flanked on the east by very long, gently dipping cuestas of Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments, with an upper thin veneer of nearly flat Tertiary strata. Most structures involving the Mesozoic and Cenozoic are large, but gentle and unfaulted, representing a passive reaction of the sediments to underlying mild basement distortion and/or movement of Cambrian salt, all occurring while the arabian plate continued to subside and tip to the northeast. The contrasts between California and Saudi Arabia oil field and geology result from contrasting plate-tectonic settings and history.

  13. Proceedings of the eighth thematic conference on geologic remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers presented at the Eighth Thematic Conference on Geologic Remote Sensing. This meeting was held April 29-May 2, 1991, in Denver, Colorado, USA. The conference was organized by the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, in Cooperation with an international program committee composed primarily of geologic remote sensing specialists. The meeting was convened to discuss state-of-the-art exploration, engineering, and environmental applications of geologic remote sensing as well as research and development activities aimed at increasing the future capabilities of this technology. The presentations in these volumes address the following topics: Spectral Geology; U.S. and International Hydrocarbon Exploration; Radar and Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing; Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology; Minerals Exploration; Remote Sensing for Marine and Environmental Applications; Image Processing and Analysis; Geobotanical Remote Sensing; Data Integration and Geographic Information Systems.

  14. Preliminary results of the 3D magnetotelluric characterization of the Research Laboratory on Geological Storage of CO2 in Hontomín (Burgos, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogaya, X.; Queralt, P.; Ledo, J.; Marcuello, A.; Jones, A. G.

    2012-04-01

    The work presented here is a component of an on-going project in the framework of establishing a Technical Development Plant (PDT) for carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in a deep saline aquifer. The Research Laboratory is located at the Spanish town of Hontomín, and the project is funded by Fundación Ciudad de la Energía-CIUDEN (http://www.ciuden.es) on behalf of the Spanish Government. In this setting, magnetotelluric (MT) data are providing a baseline model for estimating CO2 plume distribution after injection. The bulk electrical resistivity of rocks is expected to increase significantly due to the presence of CO2 inside the pores of the reservoir rock since the effective volume available for the ionic transport will be reduced. We present the preliminary results of the electromagnetic characterization of the Hontomín site. In total, 109 broadband magnetotelluric (BBMT) soundings were acquired in the area covering an extent of 3 x 4 km2. The data are organized mainly along five north-south profiles, each of around 4 km in length, in the period range of 15 to 4096 Hz. The stations were deployed at approximately 200 m intervals, recording data during 24 to 48 hours, and the average distance between profiles was 500 m. The instrumentation consisted of Metronix ADU06, Metronix ADU07 and Phoenix V8. A remote reference station was permanently placed around 20 km away from the study area. Different robust processing codes using remote reference methods have been tested and used at all stations to derive optimal MT responses. The 3D electrical resistivity model of the subsurface is being computed using different 3D inversion codes: commercial 3D inversion of Winglink® (Mackie and Madden, 1993), WSINV3DMT (Siripunvaraporn et al., 2005) and modEM (Egbert and Kelbert, 2012). The model is discretized on 73 x 114 x 113-layer grid and the inversions were undertaken using the 4 elements of the impedance tensor (8 responses) and more than 16 periods in the range of 0.001 to 10

  15. Current developments in laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for use in geology, forensics, and nuclear nonproliferation research

    SciTech Connect

    Messerly, Joshua D.

    2008-08-26

    the street. Even if the match was not strong enough to be evidence, the knowledge that many samples of a drug are being produced from a similar location could help law enforcement find and shut down the lab. Future nuclear nonproliferation research would also be helped by the ability to get more analyte signal from smaller and smaller amounts of material. One possible future line of research would be to find a way to make the collodion layer as thin as possible so less laser shots are needed to get to the particle of interest. Collodion and gelatin analysis could also be used for environmental applications where spatial resolution of particles is needed. Individual particles could give information about the contaminants present in a given location. The wide versatility of LA-ICP-MS makes it a useful tool for nearly nondestructive analysis of a variety of samples and matrices.

  16. The encyclopedia of applied geology

    SciTech Connect

    Finkl, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    This compendium of engineering geology data includes contributions by experts from many countries. Topics center around the field of engineering geology, with special focus on landscapes, earth materials, and the ''management'' of geological processes. How to use geology to serve man is given particular attention. More than 80 entries deal with hydrology, rock structure monitoring, soil mechanics, and engineering geology. Facts are provided on earth science information and sources, electrokinetics, forensic geology, geogryology, nuclear plant siting, photogrammetry, tunnels and tunneling, urban geomorphology, and well data systems. This guide explains the geology of alluvial plains, arid lands, beaches and coasts, delataic plains, cold regions, glacial landscapes, and urban environments. Detailed analyses are given of the geotechnical properties of caliche, clay, duricrust, soil, laterite, marine sediments, and rocks.

  17. Geologic and Mineral Resource Map of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doebrich, Jeff L.; Wahl, Ronald R.; With Contributions by Ludington, Stephen D.; Chirico, Peter G.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Orris, Greta J.; Bliss, James D.; Wasy, Abdul; Younusi, Mohammad O.

    2006-01-01

    Data Summary The geologic and mineral resource information shown on this map is derived from digitization of the original data from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977) and Abdullah and others (1977). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults as presented in Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977); however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. Labeling of map units has not been attempted where they are small or narrow, in order to maintain legibility and to preserve the map's utility in illustrating regional geologic and structural relations. Users are encouraged to refer to the series of USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) 1:250,000-scale geologic quadrangle maps of Afghanistan that are being released concurrently as open-file reports. The classification of mineral deposit types is based on the authors' interpretation of existing descriptive information (Abdullah and others, 1977; Bowersox and Chamberlin, 1995; Orris and Bliss, 2002) and on limited field investigations by the authors. Deposit-type nomenclature used for nonfuel minerals is modified from published USGS deposit-model classifications, as compiled in Stoeser and Heran (2000). New petroleum localities are based on research of archival data by the authors. The shaded-relief base is derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) data having 85-meter resolution. Gaps in the original SRTM DEM dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). The marginal extent of geologic units corresponds to the position of the international boundary as defined by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977), and the international boundary as shown on this map was acquired from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af) in

  18. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1980 NASA Planetology Program Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution and comparative planetology to geologic processes active on other planetary bodies.

  19. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1975 - 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Developments in planetology research as reported at the 1976 NASA Planetology Program Principal Investigators' meeting are summarized. Topics range from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes to techniques and instrument development for future exploration.

  20. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes, to techniques and instrument development for future exploration.

  1. A Geologic Map of the Caloris Basin, Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczkowski, D. L.; Goosmann, E.; Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Fasset, C. I.; Byrne, P. K.

    2016-06-01

    We present a geologic map of the Caloris basin, which will serve to synthesize the results of previous studies into a contextual framework for quickly viewing the thematic research that has been performed on this interesting region.

  2. Reports of planetary geology and geophysics program, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Henry (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Abstracts of reports from Principal Investigators of NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program are compiled. The research conducted under this program during 1989 is summarized. Each report includes significant accomplishments in the area of the author's funded grant or contract.

  3. Meteorites, the Moon and the History of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvin, Ursula B.

    1986-01-01

    Traces the historical events that linked geology with the planetary sciences. Reviews the origins of meteorities as a modern science and highlights the advances made in this area. Discusses lunar related theories and research. (ML)

  4. Reports of Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts of reports from NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program are presented. Research is documented in summary form of the work conducted. Each report reflects significant accomplishments within the area of the author's funded grant or contract.

  5. Constructing a Geology Ontology Using a Relational Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, W.; Yang, L.; Yin, S.; Ye, J.; Clarke, K.

    2013-12-01

    relationship. Based on a Quaternary database of downtown of Foshan city, Guangdong Province, in Southern China, a geological ontology was constructed using the proposed method. To measure the maintenance of semantics in the conversation process and the results, an inverse mapping from the ontology to a relational database was tested based on a proposed conversation rule. The comparison of schema and entities and the reduction of tables between the inverse database and the original database illustrated that the proposed method retains the semantic information well during the conversation process. An application for abstracting sandstone information showed that semantic relationships among concepts in the geological database were successfully reorganized in the constructed ontology. Key words: geological ontology; geological spatial database; multiple inheritance; OWL Acknowledgement: This research is jointly funded by the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (RFDP) (20100171120001), NSFC (41102207) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (12lgpy19).

  6. Method of analysis and quality-assurance practices by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group; determination of geosmin and methylisoborneol in water using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, L.R.; Ziegler, A.C.; Thurman, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    A method for the determination of two common odor-causing compounds in water, geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, was modified and verified by the U.S. Geological Survey's Organic Geochemistry Research Group in Lawrence, Kansas. The optimized method involves the extraction of odor-causing compounds from filtered water samples using a divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane cross-link coated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber. Detection of the compounds is accomplished using capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Precision and accuracy were demonstrated using reagent-water, surface-water, and ground-water samples. The mean accuracies as percentages of the true compound concentrations from water samples spiked at 10 and 35 nanograms per liter ranged from 60 to 123 percent for geosmin and from 90 to 96 percent for 2-methylisoborneol. Method detection limits were 1.9 nanograms per liter for geosmin and 2.0 nanograms per liter for 2-methylisoborneol in 45-milliliter samples. Typically, concentrations of 30 and 10 nanograms per liter of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, respectively, can be detected by the general public. The calibration range for the method is equivalent to concentrations from 5 to 100 nanograms per liter without dilution. The method is valuable for acquiring information about the production and fate of these odor-causing compounds in water.

  7. Spatial Visualization in Introductory Geology Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, S. J.

    2004-12-01

    Visualization is critical to solving most geologic problems, which involve events and processes across a broad range of space and time. Accordingly, spatial visualization is an essential part of undergraduate geology courses. In such courses, students learn to visualize three-dimensional topography from two-dimensional contour maps, to observe landscapes and extract clues about how that landscape formed, and to imagine the three-dimensional geometries of geologic structures and how these are expressed on the Earth's surface or on geologic maps. From such data, students reconstruct the geologic history of areas, trying to visualize the sequence of ancient events that formed a landscape. To understand the role of visualization in student learning, we developed numerous interactive QuickTime Virtual Reality animations to teach students the most important visualization skills and approaches. For topography, students can spin and tilt contour-draped, shaded-relief terrains, flood virtual landscapes with water, and slice into terrains to understand profiles. To explore 3D geometries of geologic structures, they interact with virtual blocks that can be spun, sliced into, faulted, and made partially transparent to reveal internal structures. They can tilt planes to see how they interact with topography, and spin and tilt geologic maps draped over digital topography. The GeoWall system allows students to see some of these materials in true stereo. We used various assessments to research the effectiveness of these materials and to document visualization strategies students use. Our research indicates that, compared to control groups, students using such materials improve more in their geologic visualization abilities and in their general visualization abilities as measured by a standard spatial visualization test. Also, females achieve greater gains, improving their general visualization abilities to the same level as males. Misconceptions that students carry obstruct

  8. The emerging Medical and Geological Association.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.; Centeno, J.A.; Selinus, O.

    2005-01-01

    The impact on human health by natural materials such as water, rocks, and minerals has been known for thousands of years but there have been few systematic, multidisciplinary studies on the relationship between geologic materials and processes and human health (the field of study commonly referred to as medical geology). In the past few years, however, there has been a resurgence of interest in medical geology. Geoscientists working with medical researchers and public health scientists have made important contributions to understanding novel exposure pathways and causes of a wide range of environmental health problems such as: exposure to toxic levels of trace essential and non-essential elements such as arsenic and mercury; trace element deficiencies; exposure to natural dusts and to radioactivity; naturally occurring organic compounds in drinking water; volcanic emissions, etc. By linking with biomedical/public health researchers geoscientists are finally taking advantage of this age-old opportunity to help mitigate environmental health problems. The International Medical Geology Association has recently been formed to support this effort.

  9. Geologic characterization of tight gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Law, B.E.

    1990-12-01

    The objectives of US Geological Survey (USGS) work during FY 89 were to conduct geologic research characterizing tight gas-bearing sandstone reservoirs and their resources in the western United States. Our research has been regional in scope but, in some basins, our investigations have focused on single wells or small areas containing several wells where a large amount of data is available. The investigations, include structure, stratigraphy, petrography, x-ray mineralogy, source-rock evaluation, formation pressure and temperature, borehole geophysics, thermal maturity mapping, fission-track age dating, fluid-inclusion thermometry, and isotopic geochemistry. The objectives of these investigations are to provide geologic models that can be compared and utilized in tight gas-bearing sequences elsewhere. Nearly all of our work during FY 89 was devoted to developing a computer-based system for the Uinta basin and collecting, analyzing, and storage of data. The data base, when completed will contain various types of stratigraphic, organic chemistry, petrographic, production, engineering, and other information that relate to the petroleum geology of the Uinta basin, and in particular, to the tight gas-bearing strata. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  10. The Emerging Medical and Geological Association

    PubMed Central

    Finkelman, Robert B; Centeno, Jose A; Selinus, Olle

    2005-01-01

    The impact on human health by natural materials such as water, rocks, and minerals has been known for thousands of years but there have been few systematic, multidisciplinary studies on the relationship between geologic materials and processes and human health (the field of study commonly referred to as medical geology). In the past few years, however, there has been a resurgence of interest in medical geology. Geoscientists working with medical researchers and public health scientists have made important contributions to understanding novel exposure pathways and causes of a wide range of environmental health problems such as: exposure to toxic levels of trace essential and non-essential elements such as arsenic and mercury; trace element deficiencies; exposure to natural dusts and to radioactivity; naturally occurring organic compounds in drinking water; volcanic emissions, etc. By linking with biomedical/public health researchers geoscientists are finally taking advantage of this age-old opportunity to help mitigate environmental health problems. The International Medical Geology Association has recently been formed to support this effort. PMID:16555612

  11. Geologic Mapping of Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High- Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were

  12. Co2 geological sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu

    2004-11-18

    Human activities are increasingly altering the Earth's climate. A particular concern is that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) may be rising fast because of increased industrialization. CO{sub 2} is a so-called ''greenhouse gas'' that traps infrared radiation and may contribute to global warming. Scientists project that greenhouse gases such as CO{sub 2} will make the arctic warmer, which would melt glaciers and raise sea levels. Evidence suggests that climate change may already have begun to affect ecosystems and wildlife around the world. Some animal species are moving from one habitat to another to adapt to warmer temperatures. Future warming is likely to exceed the ability of many species to migrate or adjust. Human production of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuels (such as at coal-fired power plants) is not likely to slow down soon. It is urgent to find somewhere besides the atmosphere to put these increased levels of CO{sub 2}. Sequestration in the ocean and in soils and forests are possibilities, but another option, sequestration in geological formations, may also be an important solution. Such formations could include depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and deep saline aquifers. In many cases, injection of CO2 into a geological formation can enhance the recovery of hydrocarbons, providing value-added byproducts that can offset the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Before CO{sub 2} gas can be sequestered from power plants and other point sources, it must be captured. CO{sub 2} is also routinely separated and captured as a by-product from industrial processes such as synthetic ammonia production, H{sub 2} production, and limestone calcination. Then CO{sub 2} must be compressed into liquid form and transported to the geological sequestration site. Many power plants and other large emitters of CO{sub 2} are located near geological formations that are amenable to CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  13. Assesing Geographic Isolation of the Galapagos Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, D.; Smith, F.

    2016-06-01

    The Galapagos Archipelago is one of the most important ecological spots in the planet due its unique biodiversity, active geology, and relatively well-preserved ecosystems. These characteristics are strongly based on the geographical isolation of the islands. On the one hand this isolation allowed the evolution processes that gave the islands their international fame and on the other hand it kept them from major human impacts that affected the vast majority of the Earth's surface. Galapagos' geographical isolation is therefore of mayor value, but it is rapidly diminishing due to the increase of marine and air transportation among islands and with the rest of the world. This increased accessibility implies enhanced risks for the ecological dynamics on the archipelago (e.g. increased risk of biological invasions, uncontrolled tourism growth, more water and energy consumption). Here, we introduce a general accessibility model to assess geographical isolation of the Galapagos Islands. The model aims to characterize accessibility in terms of human mobility by evaluating travel time to each point of the archipelago using all available transportation modalities. Using a multi criteria cost surface for marine and land areas, we estimated travel time for each surface unit using the fastest route and mode of transportation available while considering several friction factors such as surface type, slope, infrastructure, transfer points, legal restrictions, and physical barriers. We created maps to evaluate the isolation of different islands and places, highlighting the potential risks for several habitats and ecosystems. The model can be used for research and decision-making regarding island conservation, such as estimating spreading paths for invasive species, informing decisions on tourism management, and monitoring isolation changes of sensitive ecosystems.

  14. Application of remote sensor data to geologic analysis of the Bonanza test site Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. (Compiler); Butler, R. W.; Fisher, J. C.; Huntley, D.; Hulstrom, R. L.; Knepper, D. H., Jr.; Muhm, J. R.; Sawatzky, D. L.; Worman, K. E.; Wychgram, D.

    1973-01-01

    Research activities on geologic remote sensing applications for Colorado are summarized. Projects include: regional and detailed geologic mapping, surficial and engineering geology, fracture studies, uranium exploration, hydrology, and data reduction and enhancement. The acquisition of remote sensor data is also discussed.

  15. Geologic Mapping of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Katherine H.

    1998-05-01

    Planetary geologic mapping involves integrating a terrestrial-based understanding of surface and subsurface processes and mapping principles to investigate scientific questions. Mars mappers must keep in mind that physical processes, such as wind and flowing water on Mars, are or were different from terrestrial processes because the planetary atmospheres have changed differently over time. Geologic mapping of Mars has traditionally been done by hand using overlays on photomosaics of Viking Orbiter and Mariner images. Photoclinometry and shadow measurements have been used to determine elevations, and the distribution and size of craters have been used to determine the relative ages of surfaces- more densely cratered surfaces are older. Some mappers are now using computer software (ranging from Photoshop to ArcInfo) to facilitate mapping, though their applications must be carefully executed so that registration of the images remains true. Images and some mapping results are now available on the internet, and new data from recent missions to Mars (Pathfinder and Surveyor) will offer clarifying information to mapping efforts. This paper consists chiefly of pictures and diagrams.

  16. Geology of Kilauea volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.B. . Federal Center); Trusdell, F.A. . Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower east rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. 71 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Geology of kilauea volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, R.B.; Trusdell, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower cast rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. ?? 1993.

  18. Terrestrial analogs, planetary geology, and the nature of geological reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Victor R.

    2014-05-01

    Analogical reasoning is critical to planetary geology, but its role can be misconstrued by those unfamiliar with the practice of that science. The methodological importance of analogy to geology lies in the formulation of genetic hypotheses, an absolutely essential component of geological reasoning that was either ignored or denigrated by most 20th century philosophers of science, who took the theoretical/ experimental methodology of physics to be the sole model for all of scientific inquiry. Following the seminal 19th century work of Grove Karl Gilbert, an early pioneer of planetary geology, it has long been recognized that broad experience with and understanding of terrestrial geological phenomena provide geologists with their most effective resource for the invention of potentially fruitful, working hypotheses. The actions of (1) forming such hypotheses, (2) following their consequences, and (3) testing those consequences comprise integral parts of effective geological practice in regard to the understanding of planetary surfaces. Nevertheless, the logical terminology and philosophical bases for such practice will be unfamiliar to most planetary scientists, both geologists and nongeologists. The invention of geological hypotheses involves both inductive inferences of the type Gilbert termed “empiric classification” and abductive inferences of a logical form made famous by the 19th century American logician Charles Sanders Peirce. The testing and corroboration of geological hypotheses relies less on the correspondence logic of theoretical/ experimental sciences, like physics, and more on the logic of consistency, coherence, and consilience that characterizes the investigative and historical sciences of interpretation exemplified by geology.

  19. Geologically current plate motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMets, Charles; Gordon, Richard G.; Argus, Donald F.

    2010-04-01

    We describe best-fitting angular velocities and MORVEL, a new closure-enforced set of angular velocities for the geologically current motions of 25 tectonic plates that collectively occupy 97 per cent of Earth's surface. Seafloor spreading rates and fault azimuths are used to determine the motions of 19 plates bordered by mid-ocean ridges, including all the major plates. Six smaller plates with little or no connection to the mid-ocean ridges are linked to MORVEL with GPS station velocities and azimuthal data. By design, almost no kinematic information is exchanged between the geologically determined and geodetically constrained subsets of the global circuit-MORVEL thus averages motion over geological intervals for all the major plates. Plate geometry changes relative to NUVEL-1A include the incorporation of Nubia, Lwandle and Somalia plates for the former Africa plate, Capricorn, Australia and Macquarie plates for the former Australia plate, and Sur and South America plates for the former South America plate. MORVEL also includes Amur, Philippine Sea, Sundaland and Yangtze plates, making it more useful than NUVEL-1A for studies of deformation in Asia and the western Pacific. Seafloor spreading rates are estimated over the past 0.78 Myr for intermediate and fast spreading centres and since 3.16 Ma for slow and ultraslow spreading centres. Rates are adjusted downward by 0.6-2.6mmyr-1 to compensate for the several kilometre width of magnetic reversal zones. Nearly all the NUVEL-1A angular velocities differ significantly from the MORVEL angular velocities. The many new data, revised plate geometries, and correction for outward displacement thus significantly modify our knowledge of geologically current plate motions. MORVEL indicates significantly slower 0.78-Myr-average motion across the Nazca-Antarctic and Nazca-Pacific boundaries than does NUVEL-1A, consistent with a progressive slowdown in the eastward component of Nazca plate motion since 3.16 Ma. It also

  20. 3D Geological modelling - towards a European level infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kathryn A.; van der Krogt, Rob; Busschers, Freek S.

    2013-04-01

    The joint European Geological Surveys are preparing the ground for a "European Geological Data Infrastructure" (EGDI), under the framework of the FP7-project EGDI-Scope. This scoping study, started in June 2012, for a pan-European e-Infrastructure is based on the successes of earlier joint projects including 'OneGeology-Europe' and aims to provide the backbone for serving interoperable, geological data currently held by European Geological Surveys. Also data from past, ongoing and future European projects will be incorporated. The scope will include an investigation of the functional and technical requirements for serving 3D geological models and will look to research the potential for providing a framework to integrate models at different scales, and form a structure for enabling the development of new and innovative model delivery mechanisms. The EGDI-scope project encourages pan-European inter-disciplinary collaboration between all European Geological Surveys. It aims to enhance emerging web based technologies that will facilitate the delivery of geological data to user communities involved in European policy making and international industry, but also to geoscientific research communities and the general public. Therefore, stakeholder input and communication is imperative to the success, as is the collaboration with all the Geological Surveys of Europe. The most important functional and technical requirements for delivery of such information at pan-European level will be derived from exchanges with relevant European stakeholder representatives and providers of geological data. For handling and delivering 3D geological model data the project will need to address a number of strategic issues: • Which are the most important issues and queries for the relevant stakeholders, requiring 3D geological models? How can this be translated to functional requirements for development and design of an integrated European application? • How to handle the very large

  1. Geological Survey research 1969, Chapter D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1969-01-01

    The postglacial Mount Edgecumbe volcanic field contains at least 14 rock units ranging in composition from olivine-augite basalt to augite-bearing quartz latite. Mesozoic graywacke and slate and Tertiary granitic intrusions underlie the gently dipping basalt which forms the base of the pile. Andesite and basaltic andesite overlie the basalt near Mount Edgecumbe and, in turn, they are probably overlain by the dacitic rocks which make up the composite cone of Mount Edgecumbe proper and by dacite flows and cinder cones on its southwest flank. Mount Edgecumbe and a nearby remnant of a similar cone are cut by latite domes. The remnant is now the site of a caldera 1.6 kilometers in diameter and 240 meters deep. Widespread dacite(?) lapilli and ash probably resulted from explosive eruptions during the formation of the composite cones. Nine chemical analyses define a smooth compositional trend that correlates with the relative age of the map units. The magma series is calc-alkaline and has a close relationship to the high-alumina basalt series.

  2. Geology and religion in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Ana; Simoes, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Mota, Teresa Salomé

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between geology and religion in Portugal by focusing on three case studies of naturalists who produced original research and lived in different historical periods, from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. Whereas in non-peripheral European countries religious themes and even controversies between science and religion were dealt with by scientists and discussed in scientific communities, in Portugal the absence of a debate between science and religion within scientific and intellectual circles is particularly striking. From the historiographic point of view, in a country such as Portugal, where Roman Catholicism is part of the religious and cultural tradition, the influence of religion in all aspects of life has been either taken for granted by those less familiar with the national context or dismissed by local intellectuals, who do not see it as relevant to science. The situation is more complex than these dichotomies, rendering the study of this question particularly appealing from the historiographic point of view, geology being by its very nature a well-suited point from which to approach the theme. We argue that there is a long tradition of independence between science and religion, agnosticism and even atheism among local elites. Especially from the eighteenth century onwards, they are usually portrayed as enlightened minds who struggled against religious and political obscurantism. Religion—or, to be more precise, the Roman Catholic Church and its institutions—was usually identified with backwardness, whereas science was seen as the path to progress; consequently men of science usually dissociated their scientific production from religious belief.

  3. Geologic map of Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, David A.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Crown, David A.; Yff, Jessica A.; Jaeger, Windy L.; Schenk, Paul M.; Geissler, Paul E.; Becker, Tammy L.

    2011-01-01

    Io, discovered by Galileo Galilei on January 7–13, 1610, is the innermost of the four Galilean satellites of the planet Jupiter (Galilei, 1610). It is the most volcanically active object in the Solar System, as recognized by observations from six National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) spacecraft: Voyager 1 (March 1979), Voyager 2 (July 1979), Hubble Space Telescope (1990–present), Galileo (1996–2001), Cassini (December 2000), and New Horizons (February 2007). The lack of impact craters on Io in any spacecraft images at any resolution attests to the high resurfacing rate (1 cm/yr) and the dominant role of active volcanism in shaping its surface. High-temperature hot spots detected by the Galileo Solid-State Imager (SSI), Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS), and Photopolarimeter-Radiometer (PPR) usually correlate with darkest materials on the surface, suggesting active volcanism. The Voyager flybys obtained complete coverage of Io's subjovian hemisphere at 500 m/pixel to 2 km/pixel, and most of the rest of the satellite at 5–20 km/pixel. Repeated Galileo flybys obtained complementary coverage of Io's antijovian hemisphere at 5 m/pixel to 1.4 km/pixel. Thus, the Voyager and Galileo data sets were merged to enable the characterization of the whole surface of the satellite at a consistent resolution. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) produced a set of four global mosaics of Io in visible wavelengths at a spatial resolution of 1 km/pixel, released in February 2006, which we have used as base maps for this new global geologic map. Much has been learned about Io's volcanism, tectonics, degradation, and interior since the Voyager flybys, primarily during and following the Galileo Mission at Jupiter (December 1995–September 2003), and the results have been summarized in books published after the end of the Galileo Mission. Our mapping incorporates this new understanding to assist in map unit definition and to provide a global synthesis

  4. Conflation and integration of archived geologic maps and associated uncertainties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoberg, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Old, archived geologic maps are often available with little or no associated metadata. This creates special problems in terms of extracting their data to use with a modern database. This research focuses on some problems and uncertainties associated with conflating older geologic maps in regions where modern geologic maps are, as yet, non-existent as well as vertically integrating the conflated maps with layers of modern GIS data (in this case, The National Map of the U.S. Geological Survey). Ste. Genevieve County, Missouri was chosen as the test area. It is covered by six archived geologic maps constructed in the years between 1928 and 1994. Conflating these maps results in a map that is internally consistent with these six maps, is digitally integrated with hydrography, elevation and orthoimagery data, and has a 95% confidence interval useful for further data set integration.

  5. The Geological information and modelling Thematic Core Service of EPOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robida, François; Wächter, Joachim; Tulstrup, Jørgen; Lorenz, Henning; Carter, Mary; Cipolloni, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    Geological data and models are important assets for the EPOS community. The Geological information and modelling Thematic Core Service of EPOS will be designed and implemented in an efficient and sustainable access system for geological multi-scale data assets for EPOS through the integration of distributed infrastructure components (nodes) of geological surveys, research institutes and the international drilling community (ICDP) . The TCS will develop and take benefit of the synergy between the existing data infrastructures of the Geological Surveys of Europe (EuroGeoSurveys / OneGeology-Europe / EGDI) and on the large amount of information produced by the research organisations. These nodes will offer a broad range of resources including: digitised geological maps, borehole data, geophysical data (seismic data, borehole log data), archived information on physical material (samples, cores), geochemical and other analyses of rocks, soils and minerals, and Geological models (3D, 4D). The services will be implemented on international standards (such as INSPIRE, IUGS/CGI, OGC, W3C, ISO) in order to guarantee their interoperability with other EPOS TCS as well as their compliance with INSPIRE European Directive or international initiatives (such as OneGeology). This will provide future virtual research environments with means to facilitate the use of existing information for future applications. In addition, workflows will be established that allow the integration of other existing and new data and applications. Processing and the use of simulation and visualization tools will subsequently support the integrated analysis and characterization of complex subsurface structures and their inherent dynamic processes. This will in turn aid in the overall understanding of complex multi-scale geo-scientific questions. This TCS will work alongside other EPOS TCSs to create an efficient and comprehensive multidisciplinary research platform for the Earth Sciences in Europe.

  6. The Geological information and modelling Thematic Core Service of EPOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robida, François; Wächter, Joachim; Tulstrup, Jørgen; Lorenz, Henning; Carter, Mary; Cipolloni, Carlo; Morel, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Geological data and models are important assets for the EPOS community. The Geological information and modelling Thematic Core Service of EPOS is being designed and will be implemented in an efficient and sustainable access system for geological multi-scale data assets for EPOS through the integration of distributed infrastructure components (nodes) of geological surveys, research institutes and the international drilling community (ICDP/IODP). The TCS will develop and take benefit of the synergy between the existing data infrastructures of the Geological Surveys of Europe (EuroGeoSurveys / OneGeology-Europe / EGDI) and of the large amount of information produced by the research organisations. These nodes will offer a broad range of resources including: geological maps, borehole data, geophysical data (seismic data, borehole log data), archived information on physical material (samples, cores), geochemical and other analyses of rocks, soils and minerals, and Geological models (3D, 4D). The services will be implemented on international standards (such as INSPIRE, IUGS/CGI, OGC, W3C, ISO) in order to guarantee their interoperability with other EPOS TCS as well as their compliance with INSPIRE European Directive or international initiatives (such as OneGeology). This will provide future virtual research environments with means to facilitate the use of existing information for future applications. In addition, workflows will be established that allow the integration of other existing and new data and applications. Processing and the use of simulation and visualization tools will subsequently support the integrated analysis and characterization of complex subsurface structures and their inherent dynamic processes. This will in turn aid in the overall understanding of complex multi-scale geo-scientific questions. This TCS will work alongside other EPOS TCSs to create an efficient and comprehensive multidisciplinary research platform for the Earth Sciences in Europe.

  7. Practical aspects of geological prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Mallio, W.J.; Peck, J.H.

    1981-11-01

    Nuclear waste disposal requires that geology be a predictive science. The prediction of future events rests on (1) recognizing the periodicity of geologic events; (2) defining a critical dimension of effect, such as the area of a drainage basin, the length of a fault trace, etc; and (3) using our understanding of active processes the project the frequency and magnitude of future events in the light of geological principles. Of importance to nuclear waste disposal are longer term processes such as continental denudation and removal of materials by glacial erosion. Constant testing of projections will allow the practical limits of predicting geological events to be defined. 11 refs.

  8. Geologic Resource Evaluation of Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Hawai'i: Geology and Coastal Landforms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Bruce M.; Gibbs, Ann E.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues that link the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast National Parks of the Island of Hawai'i are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO) was established in 1978 in order to preserve and protect traditional native Hawaiian culture and cultural sites. The park is the site of an ancient Hawaiian settlement, occupies 469 ha and is considered a locale of considerable cultural and historical

  9. Goethe's Italian Journey and the geological landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coratza, Paola; Panizza, Mario

    2015-04-01

    "integrated", meaning integration between natural components, including geological, biological and anthropogenic elements, climate, history, architecture, literature etc. Secondly, Goethe's scientific intuitions (in this case the geological ones) were compared with the evolution of scientific knowledge up to most recent times, which at times confirm what Goethe had already realised. This project is based on the description of the stages of his journey, in the light of modern results of investigations carried out in geology, geomorphology, mineralogy etc. This research is grateful for the contributions of many geologists from various universities and Italian research institutions from the Alps to Sicily. Goethe's Italian journey as revisited in this paper aims to stimulate the interest of the reader in the "geological" component of the environment in which we live by means of an "integrated" approach.

  10. Geologic map of Big Bend National Park, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, Kenzie J.; Berry, Margaret E.; Page, William R.; Lehman, Thomas M.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Scott, Robert B.; Miggins, Daniel P.; Budahn, James R.; Cooper, Roger W.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Eric D.; Williams, Van S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this map is to provide the National Park Service and the public with an updated digital geologic map of Big Bend National Park (BBNP). The geologic map report of Maxwell and others (1967) provides a fully comprehensive account of the important volcanic, structural, geomorphological, and paleontological features that define BBNP. However, the map is on a geographically distorted planimetric base and lacks topography, which has caused difficulty in conducting GIS-based data analyses and georeferencing the many geologic features investigated and depicted on the map. In addition, the map is outdated, excluding significant data from numerous studies that have been carried out since its publication more than 40 years ago. This report includes a modern digital geologic map that can be utilized with standard GIS applications to aid BBNP researchers in geologic data analysis, natural resource and ecosystem management, monitoring, assessment, inventory activities, and educational and recreational uses. The digital map incorporates new data, many revisions, and greater detail than the original map. Although some geologic issues remain unresolved for BBNP, the updated map serves as a foundation for addressing those issues. Funding for the Big Bend National Park geologic map was provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program and the National Park Service. The Big Bend mapping project was administered by staff in the USGS Geology and Environmental Change Science Center, Denver, Colo. Members of the USGS Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center completed investigations in parallel with the geologic mapping project. Results of these investigations addressed some significant current issues in BBNP and the U.S.-Mexico border region, including contaminants and human health, ecosystems, and water resources. Funding for the high-resolution aeromagnetic survey in BBNP, and associated data analyses and

  11. Geology orbiter comparison study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, J. A. J.; Blasius, K. R.; Davis, D. R.; Pang, K. D.; Shreve, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Instrument requirements of planetary geology orbiters were examined with the objective of determining the feasibility of applying standard instrument designs to a host of terrestrial targets. Within the basic discipline area of geochemistry, gamma-ray, X-ray fluorescence, and atomic spectroscopy remote sensing techniques were considered. Within the discipline area of geophysics, the complementary techniques of gravimetry and radar were studied. Experiments using these techniques were analyzed for comparison at the Moon, Mercury, Mars and the Galilean satellites. On the basis of these comparative assessments, the adaptability of each sensing technique was judged as a basic technique for many targets, as a single instrument applied to many targets, as a single instrument used in different mission modes, and as an instrument capability for nongeoscience objectives.

  12. Geological consequences of superplumes

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, R.L. )

    1991-10-01

    Superplumes are suggested to have caused the period of constant normal magnetic polarity in mid-Cretaceous time (124-83 Ma) and, possibly, the period of constant reversed polarity in Pennsylvania-Permian time (323-248 Ma). These times coincide with increases in world temperature, deposition of black shales, oil generation, and eustatic sea level in the mid-Cretaceous, and increased coal generation and gas accumulation in the Pennsylvanian-Permian, accompanied by an intracratonic Pennsylvanian transgression of epicontinental seas. These geologic anomalies are associated with episodes of increased world-wide ocean-crust production and mantle outgassing, especially of carbon and nutrients. These superplumes originated just above the core-mantle boundary, significantly increased convection in the outer core, and stopped the magnetic field reversal process for 41 m.y. in the Cretaceous and 75 m.y. in Pennsylvanian-Permian time.

  13. Geology of National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2008-01-01

    This is a set of two sheets of 3D images showing geologic features of many National Parks. Red-and-cyan viewing glasses are need to see the three-dimensional effect. A search on the World Wide Web will yield many sites about anaglyphs and where to get 3D glasses. Red-blue glasses will do but red-cyan glasses are a little better. This publication features a photo quiz game: Name that park! where you can explore, interpret, and identify selected park landscapes. Can you identify landscape features in the images? Can you explain processes that may have helped form the landscape features? You can get the answers online.

  14. Geologic mapping of Europa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeley, R.; Figueredo, P.H.; Williams, D.A.; Chuang, F.C.; Klemaszewski, J.E.; Kadel, S.D.; Prockter, L.M.; Pappalardo, R.T.; Head, J. W.; Collins, G.C.; Spaun, N.A.; Sullivan, R.J.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Senske, D.A.; Tufts, B.R.; Johnson, T.V.; Belton, M.J.S.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2000-01-01

    Galileo data enable the major geological units, structures, and surface features to be identified on Europa. These include five primary units (plains, chaos, band, ridge, and crater materials) and their subunits, along with various tectonic structures such as faults. Plains units are the most widespread. Ridged plains material spans a wide range of geological ages, including the oldest recognizable features on Europa, and appears to represent a style of tectonic resurfacing, rather than cryovolcanism. Smooth plains material typically embays other terrains and units, possibly as a type of fluid emplacement, and is among the youngest material units observed. At global scales, plains are typically mapped as undifferentiated plains material, although in some areas differences can be discerned in the near infrared which might be related to differences in ice grain size. Chaos material is composed of plains and other preexisting materials that have been severely disrupted by inferred internal activity; chaos is characterized by blocks of icy material set in a hummocky matrix. Band material is arrayed in linear, curvilinear, wedge-shaped, or cuspate zones with contrasting albedo and surface textures with respect to the surrounding terrain. Bilateral symmetry observed in some bands and the relationships with the surrounding units suggest that band material forms by the lithosphere fracturing, spreading apart, and infilling with material derived from the subsurface. Ridge material is mapped as a unit on local and some regional maps but shown with symbols at global scales. Ridge material includes single ridges, doublet ridges, and ridge complexes. Ridge materials are considered to represent tectonic processes, possibly accompanied by the extrusion or intrusion of subsurface materials, such as diapirs. The tectonic processes might be related to tidal flexing of the icy lithosphere on diurnal or longer timescales. Crater materials include various interior (smooth central

  15. Geology and land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The geologic limitations for building sites of some areas can be overcome, in part, by skilled engineering and expensive construction practices. But the costs can be prohibitively high, and the solutions are not always completely effective. In "earthquake country," history has shown that costs are highest and risk factors most uncertain in a few easily recognized settings: unstable hill sloped, land at the edge of rapidly eroding sea cliffs, lowlands underlain by saturated estuarine mud of ill, and areas near faults capable of producing magnitude 7 or greater earthquakes. Safety immediately after an earthquake is also a concern in these places, for extreme damage and ground distortion may impede or prevent timely access by emergency equipment. 

  16. Geologic investigations for Ohio SSC proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Pavey, R.R.

    1987-09-01

    The proposed Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) will be the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator for high-energy particle physics research. The primary feature of this scientific instrument is a 10-ft diameter tunnel, 53 mi in circumference. The geologic setting for such a tunneling effort is of paramount importance for selection of the SSC site. The SSC study area comprises portions of 16 quadrangles within Marion, Union, Delaware, and Morrow Counties, Ohio. Very little modern geologic information was available for this area. However, the Ohio Division of Geological Survey's existing mapping and drilling programs were ideally suited to produce the geologic framework needed to determine an optimum SSC site. Thus, the Survey's commitment to the state of Ohio's SSC proposal has been substantial. Project results include a comprehensive series of maps, including glacial materials to 50 ft, bedrock topography, drift thickness, bedrock unit subcrop, and structure maps for several bedrock units. Also added to the knowledge base of this area are numerous field sections and cores, several gravity profiles, and an improved understanding of the area's glacial and bedrock stratigraphy.

  17. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group : determination of selected herbicides and their degradation products in water using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kish, J.L.; Thurman, E.M.; Scribner, E.A.; Zimmerman, L.R.

    2000-01-01

    A method for the extraction and analysis of eight herbicides and five degradation products using solid-phase extraction from natural water samples followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry is presented in this report. This method was developed for dimethenamid; flufenacet; fluometuron and its degradation products, demethylfluometuron (DMFM), 3-(trifluromethyl)phenylurea (TFMPU), 3-(trifluromethyl)-aniline (TFMA); molinate; norflurazon and its degradation product, demethylnorflurazon; pendamethalin; the degradation product of prometryn, deisopropylprometryn; propanil; and trifluralin. The eight herbicides are used primarily in the southern United States where cotton, rice, and soybeans are produced. The exceptions are dimethenamid and flufenacet, which are used on corn in the Midwest. Water samples received by the U.S. Geological Survey's Organic Geochemistry Research Group in Lawrence, Kansas, are filtered to remove suspended particulate matter and then passed through disposable solid-phase extraction columns containing octadecyl-bonded porous silica (C-18) to extract the compounds. The herbicides and their degradation products are removed from the column by ethyl acetate elution. The eluate is evaporated under nitrogen, and components then are separated, identified, and quantified by injecting an aliquot of the concentrated extract into a high-resolution, fused-silica capillary column of a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer under selected-ion mode. Method detection limits ranged from 0.02 to 0.05 ?g/L for all compounds with the exception of TFMPU, which has a method detection limit of 0.32 ?g/L. The mean absolute recovery is 107 percent. This method for the determination of herbicides and their degradation products is valuable for acquiring information about water quality and compound fate and transport in water.

  18. On the Geological History of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Head, J. W.

    2008-09-01

    mostly based on the analysis of data acquired by the Magellan mission: SAR images with 100-200 m resolution and the maps of topography, surface radar reflectivity, emissivity, roughness and gravity anomalies [1]. After initial analysis of the data summarized in [2, 3] several groups of researchers continued to study the geology and geophysics of the planet, resulting in numerous publications, some of which are referenced below. Very important for the studies emphasizing the geologic history of Venus was, and still is, a program of 1:5,000,000 geologic mapping coordinated by the US Geological Survey [4]. A recent summary of these studies can be found in [5]. Observations and analysis: All researchers in this study area analyze the same data sets and follow the same guidelines [4, 6] so geologic units identified by them and their time sequences are generally similar, although different researchers may name the same units differently and may interpret differently some details of local time sequences. Figure 1 shows a time sequence of geologic units suggested by [7, 8]: materials of tessera terrain (tt), densely fractured plains (pdf), fractured and ridged plains (pfr), shield plains (psh), plains with wrinkle ridges (pwr), lobate (pl) and smooth (ps) plains as well as materials of radar-dark craterassociated parabolas (cdp). These are material units. In addition, some researchers identify and map structural units. In Figure 1 examples of these are fracture belts (fb) and rifted terrain (rt). synchronous on a global scale. The first option can be visualized with Figure 1, suggesting that it is applicable for Venus globally. This option was suggested by Basilevsky and Head [e.g., 7, 8] as well as by Ivanov and Head [e.g., 9]. The second option, first clearly formulated by [10], can be visualized by the upper part of Figure 2 showing the situation in three different hypothetical geologic provinces on Venus. In these provinces the unit time sequences are the same: tt

  19. Economic Geology (Metals)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gair, Jacob E.

    1972-01-01

    Reviews metalliferous ore-deposit research reported in 1971. Research was dominated by isotopic studies, and worldwide metals exploration was marked by announcements of important new discoveries of base metals, iron ore, nickel, titanium, and uranium. (Author/PR)

  20. Agency, Isolation, and the Coming of New Technologies: Exploring "Dependency" in Coastal Communities of Newfoundland Through Participatory Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clover, Darlene; Harris, Carol E.

    2005-01-01

    How does one effectively and ethically conduct research with community members who are steeped in histories of economic and social dependency, so that the people themselves take charge of their futures? This question is explored in a Canadian context as the authors study the potential of new technologies to bring hope to traditional coastal…

  1. Isolation and characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants defective in chromosome transmission in an undergraduate genetics research course.

    PubMed

    Sleister, Heidi Major

    2007-10-01

    An upper-level genetics research course was developed to expose undergraduates to investigative science. Students are immersed in a research project with the ultimate goal of identifying proteins important for chromosome transmission in mitosis. After mutagenizing yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, students implement a genetic screen that allows for visual detection of mutants with an increased loss of an ADE2-marked yeast artificial chromosome (YAC). Students then genetically characterize the mutants and begin efforts to identify the defective genes in these mutants. While engaged in this research project, students practice a variety of technical skills in both classical and molecular genetics. Furthermore, students learn to collaborate and gain experience in sharing scientific findings with others in the form of written papers, poster presentations, and oral presentations. Previous students indicated that, relative to a traditional laboratory course, this research course improved their understanding of scientific concepts and technical skills and helped them make connections between concepts. Moreover, this course allowed students to experience scientific inquiry and was influential for students as they considered future endeavors.

  2. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    SciTech Connect

    T. Vogt

    2004-08-26

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M&O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in the

  3. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levich, R.A.; Stuckless, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthetic geology - Exploring the "what if?" in geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J. F.; Robertson, J.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial and temporal extent of geological phenomena makes experiments in geology difficult to conduct, if not entirely impossible and collection of data is laborious and expensive - so expensive that most of the time we cannot test a hypothesis. The aim, in many cases, is to gather enough data to build a predictive geological model. Even in a mine, where data are abundant, a model remains incomplete because the information at the level of a blasting block is two orders of magnitude larger than the sample from a drill core, and we have to take measurement errors into account. So, what confidence can we have in a model based on sparse data, uncertainties and measurement error? Synthetic geology does not attempt to model the real world in terms of geological processes with all their uncertainties, rather it offers an artificial geological data source with fully known properties. On the basis of this artificial geology, we can simulate geological sampling by established or future technologies to study the resulting dataset. Conducting these experiments in silico removes the constraints of testing in the field or in production, and provides us with a known ground-truth against which the steps in a data analysis and integration workflow can be validated.Real-time simulation of data sources can be used to investigate crucial questions such as the potential information gain from future sensing capabilities, or from new sampling strategies, or the combination of both, and it enables us to test many "what if?" questions, both in geology and in data engineering. What would we be able to see if we could obtain data at higher resolution? How would real-time data analysis change sampling strategies? Does our data infrastructure handle many new real-time data streams? What feature engineering can be deducted for machine learning approaches? By providing a 'data sandbox' able to scale to realistic geological scenarios we hope to start answering some of these questions.

  5. Geologic mapping of Argyre Planitia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorsline, Donn S.; Parker, Timothy J.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the results from the geologic mapping of the central and southern Argyre basin of Mars. At the Mars Geologic Mapper's Meeting in Flagstaff during July, 1993, Dave Scott (United States Geological Survey, Mars Geologic Mapping Steering Committee Chair) recommended that all four quadrangles be combined into a single 1:1,000,000 scale map for publication. It was agreed that this would be cost-effective and that the decrease in scale would not compromise the original science goals of the mapping. Tim Parker completed mapping on the 1:500,000 scale base maps, for which all the necessary materials had already been produced, and included the work as a chapter in his dissertation, which was completed in the fall of 1994. Geologic mapping of the two southernmost quadrangles (MTM -55036 and MTM -55043; MTM=Mars Transverse Mercator) was completed as planned during the first year of work. These maps and a detailed draft of the map text were given a preliminary review by Dave Scott during summer, 1993. Geologic mapping of the remaining two quadrangles (MTM -50036 and MTM -50043) was completed by summer, 1994. Results were described at the Mars Geologic Mappers Meeting, held in Pocatello, Idaho, during July, 1994. Funds for the third and final year of the project have been transferred to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, where Tim Parker will revise and finalize all maps and map text for publication by the United States Geological Survey at the 1:1,000,000 map scale.

  6. Creationism, Uniformitarianism, Geology and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, James H.

    1983-01-01

    Points out that the most basic of creationist attacks of geology, their claim that uniformitarianism is an unreliable basis for interpreting the past, fail because the uniformitarianism they describe is no longer a part of geology. Indicates that modern uniformitarianism is merely the philosophical principle of simplicity. (Author/JN)

  7. Photomicrography in the Geological Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the conversion of a standard biological brightfield microscope for examination of thin sections and characterize, in detail, the use of both black and white and color photomicrography in the geological sciences. Several illustrative examples on the use of transmitted and reflected polarized-light microscopy to solve geological problems…

  8. The Geophysical Revolution in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter J.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the physicists' impact on the revolution in the earth sciences particularly involving the overthrow of the fixist notions in geology. Topics discussed include the mobile earth, the route to plate tectonics, radiometric dating, the earth's magnetic field, ocean floor spreading plate boundaries, infiltration of physics into geology and…

  9. Formal representation of 3D structural geological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Yang, Hongjun; Du, Qunle

    2016-05-01

    The development and widespread application of geological modeling methods has increased demands for the integration and sharing services of three dimensional (3D) geological data. However, theoretical research in the field of geological information sciences is limited despite the widespread use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in geology. In particular, fundamental research on the formal representations and standardized spatial descriptions of 3D structural models is required. This is necessary for accurate understanding and further applications of geological data in 3D space. In this paper, we propose a formal representation method for 3D structural models using the theory of point set topology, which produces a mathematical definition for the major types of geological objects. The spatial relationships between geologic boundaries, structures, and units are explained in detail using the 9-intersection model. Reasonable conditions for describing the topological space of 3D structural models are also provided. The results from this study can be used as potential support for the standardized representation and spatial quality evaluation of 3D structural models, as well as for specific needs related to model-based management, query, and analysis.

  10. Remote sensing aids geologic mapping.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H., Jr.; Marrs, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been applied to general geologic mapping along the Rio Grande rift zone in central Colorado. A geologic map of about 1,100 square miles was prepared utilizing (1) prior published and unpublished maps, (2) detailed and reconnaissance field maps made for this study, and (3) remote sensor data interpretations. The map is to be used for interpretation of the complex Cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic histories of the area. Regional and local geologic mapping can be aided by the proper application of remote sensing techniques. Conventional color and color infrared photos contain a large amount of easily-extractable general geologic information and are easily used by geologists untrained in the field of remote sensing. Other kinds of sensor data used in this study, with the exception of SLAR imagery, were generally found to be impractical or unappropriate for broad-scale general geologic mapping.

  11. The Geologic Nitrogen Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. W.; Goldblatt, C.

    2013-12-01

    N2 is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, and has been so through the majority of the planet's history. Originally thought to only be cycled in significant amounts through the biosphere, it is becoming increasingly clear that a large degree of geologic cycling can occur as well. N is present in crustal rocks at 10s to 100s of ppm and in the mantle at 1s to perhaps 10s of ppm. In light of new data, we present an Earth-system perspective of the modern N cycle, an updated N budget for the silicate Earth, and venture to explain the evolution of the N cycle over time. In an fashion similar to C, N has a fast, biologically mediated cycle and a slower cycle driven by plate tectonics. Bacteria fix N2 from the atmosphere into bioavailable forms. N is then cycled through the food chain, either by direct consumption of N-fixing bacteria, as NH4+ (the primary waste form), or NO3- (the most common inorganic species in the modern ocean). Some organic material settles as sediment on the ocean floor. In anoxic sediments, NH4+ dominates; due to similar ionic radii, it can readily substitute for K+ in mineral lattices, both in sedimentary rocks and in oceanic lithosphere. Once it enters a subduction zone, N may either be volatilized and returned to the atmosphere at arc volcanoes as N2 or N2O, sequestered into intrusive igneous rocks (as NH4+?), or subducted deep into the mantle, likely as NH4+. Mounting evidence indicates that a significant amount of N may be sequestered into the solid Earth, where it may remain for long periods (100s m.y.) before being returned to the atmosphere/biosphere by volcanism or weathering. The magnitude fluxes into the solid Earth and size of geologic N reservoirs are poorly constrained. The size of the N reservoirs contained in the solid Earth directly affects the evolution of Earth's atmosphere. It is possible that N now sequestered in the solid Earth was once in the atmosphere, which would have resulted in a higher atmospheric pressure, and

  12. Combination of nucleic acid and protein isolation with tissue array construction: using defined histologic regions in single frozen tissue blocks for multiple research purposes.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Sun, Yuan; Kong, Qing-You; Zhang, Kai-Li; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Qian; Liu, Jia

    2003-09-01

    Precise dissection of defined histological regions for nucleic acid and protein isolation is a precedent step in finding out cancer-related alterations, and high quality tissue microarrays are demanded in the validation of screened genetic alterations by multiple in situ approaches. In this study, a combined technique was developed by which sample isolation and tissue array construction could be performed on the defined morphological region(s) in single tissue block. The RNA and protein samples generated from the selected portions were of good quality and sufficient for multiple experimental purposes. The frozen tissue arrays constructed on a novel recipient are suitable for multiple in situ evaluations including immunohistochemical staining and mRNA hybridisation. In most cases, the data obtained from in situ assays coincided well with the ones revealed by RT-PCR and Western blot hybridisation. The potential experimental bias caused by cell contamination can be amended by tissue array-based retrospective examination. The combination of tissue-selective sample preparations with tissue array construction thus provide a tool by which comprehensive cancer research can be performed on defined histological regions in a series of single frozen tissue blocks.

  13. Geologic mapping of Kentucky; a history and evaluation of the Kentucky Geological Survey--U.S. Geological Survey Mapping Program, 1960-1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cressman, Earle Rupert; Noger, Martin C.

    1981-01-01

    . Paleontologists and stratigraphers of the U.S. Geological Survey cooperated closely with the program. Paleontologic studies were concentrated in the Ordovician of central Kentucky, the Pennsylvanian of eastern and western Kentucky, and the Mesozoic and Cenozoic of westernmost Kentucky. In addition to financial support, the Kentucky Geological Survey provided economic data, stratigraphic support, and drillhole records to the field offices. Geologists of the State Survey made subsurface structural interpretations, constructed bedrock topography maps, and mapped several quadrangles. Some of the problems encountered were the inadequacy of much of the existing stratigraphic nomenclature, the uneven quality of some of the mapping, and the effects of relative isolation on the professional development of some of the geologists. The program cost a total of $20,927,500. In terms of 1960 dollars, it cost $16,035,000; this compares with an original estimate of $12,000,000. Although it is difficult to place a monetary value on the geologic mapping, the program has contributed to newly discovered mineral wealth, jobs, and money saved by government and industry. The maps are used widely in the exploration for coal, oil and gas, fluorspar, limestone, and clay. The maps are also used in planning highways and locations of dams, in evaluating foundation and excavation conditions, in preparing environmental impact statements, and in land-use planning.

  14. Geologic Sequestration Software Suite

    2013-11-04

    GS3 is the bundling of the Geological Sequestration Software Suite domain tools with the Velo wiki user interface, rich client interface, and data store. Velo is an application domain independent collaborative user environment for modeling and simulation. Velo has a web browser based wiki interface integrated with a sophisticated content management system supporting data and knowledge management required for large-scale scientific modeling projects. GS3 adds tools and capability specifically in the area of modeling subsurfacemore » reservoirs for the purpose of carbon sequestration. Velo is a core software framework to create scientific domain user environments. Velo is not tied to a specific domain although it provides novel capability needed by many application areas. A well-defined Velo integration layer allows custom applications such as GS3 to leverage the core Velo components to reduce development cost/time and ultimately provide a more capable software product. Compared with previous efforts like ECCE and SALSSA, Velo is a major advancement being a web browser based interface, having a more comprehensive data management architecture, and having intrinsic support for collaboration through the wiki. GS3 adds specific domain tools for looking at site data, developing conceptual and numerical models, building simulation input files, launching and monitoring the progress of those simulations and being able to look at and interpret simulation output.« less

  15. Geologic Sequestration Software Suite

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Gary; Bonneville, PNNL Alain; Sivaramakrishnan, PNNL Chandrika; Purohit, PNNL Sumit; White, PNNL Signe; Lansing, PNNL Carina; Gosink, PNNL Luke; Guillen, PNNL Zoe; Moeglein, PNNL William; Gorton, PNNL Ian; PNNL,

    2013-11-04

    GS3 is the bundling of the Geological Sequestration Software Suite domain tools with the Velo wiki user interface, rich client interface, and data store. Velo is an application domain independent collaborative user environment for modeling and simulation. Velo has a web browser based wiki interface integrated with a sophisticated content management system supporting data and knowledge management required for large-scale scientific modeling projects. GS3 adds tools and capability specifically in the area of modeling subsurface reservoirs for the purpose of carbon sequestration. Velo is a core software framework to create scientific domain user environments. Velo is not tied to a specific domain although it provides novel capability needed by many application areas. A well-defined Velo integration layer allows custom applications such as GS3 to leverage the core Velo components to reduce development cost/time and ultimately provide a more capable software product. Compared with previous efforts like ECCE and SALSSA, Velo is a major advancement being a web browser based interface, having a more comprehensive data management architecture, and having intrinsic support for collaboration through the wiki. GS3 adds specific domain tools for looking at site data, developing conceptual and numerical models, building simulation input files, launching and monitoring the progress of those simulations and being able to look at and interpret simulation output.

  16. Multiwell experiment: Geology

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The general objective of the Multiwell Experiment geology study is the detailed characterization of the low-permeability gas reservoirs of the Mesaverde Formation at the MWX site. The ultimate objective of the study is the understanding of how the detailed characteristics affect completion, stimulation, and production of these reservoirs, and the successful extrapolation of this knowledge to other low-permeability reservoirs. Low-permeability sandstone reservoirs contain significant reserves of natural gas in the US, but these reserves are difficult to exploit. Much of this difficulty is attributable to an insufficient data base on the sedimentological and fracture characteristics of the reservoirs. These characteristics strongly control not only reservoir porosity and permeability, but they also control total reservoir volume, internal reservoir heterogeneity, and susceptibility of the reservoir to damage by different drilling and stimulation techniques. The recognition alone by operators that these are indeed controlling factors is a significant step in the utilization of the low-permeability reserves, and this is one of the important results of this study. However, the implementation of techniques that have been derived using the data base assembled from this study is the next step of the program. 15 refs.

  17. GIS-technologies as a mechanism to study geological structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapatov, Abish

    2014-05-01

    Specialized GIS-technologies allow creating multi-parameter models, completing multi-criteria optimisation tasks, and issues of geological profile forecasts using miscellaneous data. Pictorial and attributive geological and geophysical information collected to create GIS database is supplemented by the ERS (Earth's Remote Sensing) data, air spectrometry, space images, and topographic data. Among the important tasks are as follows: a unification of initial geological, geophysical and other types of information on a tectonic position, rock classification and stratigraphic scale; topographic bases (various projectures, scales); the levels of detail and exhaustibility; colors and symbols of legends; data structures and their correlation; units of measurement of physical quantities, and attribute systems of descriptions. Methods of the geological environment investigation using GIS-technology are based on a principle of the research target analogy with a standard. A similarity ratio is quantitative estimate. A geological forecast model is formed by structuring of geological information based on detailed analysis and aggregation of geological and formal knowledge bases on standard targets. Development of a bank of models of the analyzed geological structures of various range, ore-bearing features described by numerous prospecting indicators is the way to aggregate geological knowledge. The south terrain of the Valerianovskaya structure-facies zone (SFZ) of the Torgai paleo-rift structure covered with thick Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks up to 2,000m is considered a so-called training ground for the development of GIS-technology. Parameters of known magnetite deposits located in the north of the SFZ (Sarybaiskoye, Sokolovskoye, etc.) are used to create the standard model. A meaning of the job implemented involves the following: - A goal-seeking nature of the research being performed and integration of the geological, geo-physical and other data (in many cases, efforts of the

  18. 3D Geological Model for "LUSI" - a Deep Geothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabi, Reza; Jansen, Gunnar; Mazzini, Adriano; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal applications require the correct simulation of flow and heat transport processes in porous media, and many of these media, like deep volcanic hydrothermal systems, host a certain degree of fracturing. This work aims to understand the heat and fluid transport within a new-born sedimentary hosted geothermal system, termed Lusi, that began erupting in 2006 in East Java, Indonesia. Our goal is to develop conceptual and numerical models capable of simulating multiphase flow within large-scale fractured reservoirs such as the Lusi region, with fractures of arbitrary size, orientation and shape. Additionally, these models can also address a number of other applications, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration (Carbon Capture and Storage CCS), and nuclear waste isolation. Fractured systems are ubiquitous, with a wide-range of lengths and scales, making difficult the development of a general model that can easily handle this complexity. We are developing a flexible continuum approach with an efficient, accurate numerical simulator based on an appropriate 3D geological model representing the structure of the deep geothermal reservoir. Using previous studies, borehole information and seismic data obtained in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126), we present here the first 3D geological model of Lusi. This model is calculated using implicit 3D potential field or multi-potential fields, depending on the geological context and complexity. This method is based on geological pile containing the geological history of the area and relationship between geological bodies allowing automatic computation of intersections and volume reconstruction. Based on the 3D geological model, we developed a new mesh algorithm to create hexahedral octree meshes to transfer the structural geological information for 3D numerical simulations to quantify Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) physical processes.

  19. Geologic remote sensing - New technology, new information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, F. A.

    1992-01-01

    Results of geologic studies using data collected by the NASA/JPL Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (TIMS), Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), and the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) are discussed. These instruments represent prototypes for the Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite instruments ASTER, High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS), and EOS SAR. Integrated analysis of this data type is one of the keys to successful geologic research using EOS. TIMS links the physical properties of surface materials in the 8-12-*mm region to their composition. Calibrated aircraft data make direct lithological mapping possible. AVIRIS, an analog for HIRIS, provides quantitative information about the surface composition of materials based on their detailed visible and infrared spectral signatures (0.4-2.45 mm). Calibrated AVIRIS data make direct identification of minerals possible. The AIRSAR provides additional complementary information about the surface morphology of rocks and soils.

  20. Geology of Damon Mound Salt Dome, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.W.

    1989-01-01

    Geological investigation of the stratigraphy, cap-rock characteristics, deformation and growth history, and growth rate of a shallow coastal diapir. Damon Mound salt dome, located in Brazoria County, has salt less than 600 feet and cap rock less than 100 feet below the surface; a quarry over the dome provides excellent exposures of cap rock as well as overlying Oligocene to Pleistocene strata. These conditions make it ideal as a case study for other coastal diapirs that lack bedrock exposures. Such investigations are important because salt domes are currently being considered by chemical waste disposal companies as possible storage and disposal sites. In this book, the author reviews previous research, presents additional data on the subsurface and surface geology at Damon Mound, and evaluates Oligocene to post-Pleistocene diapir growth.

  1. Apparatus investigates geological aspects of gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booth, J.S.; Winters, W.J.; Dillon, William P.

    1999-01-01

    The US Geological Survey has developed a laboratory research system which allows the study of the creation and dissociation of gas hydrates under deepwater conditions and with different sediment types and pore fluids. The system called GHASTLI (gas hydrate and sediment test laboratory instrument) comprises a pressure chamber which holds a sediment specimen, and which can simulate water depths to 2,500m and different sediment overburden. Seawater and gas flow through a sediment specimen can be precisely controlled and monitored. It can simulate a wide range of geology and processes and help to improve understanding of gas hydrate processes and aid prediction of geohazards, their control and potential use as an energy source. This article describes GHASTLI and how it is able to simulate natural conditions, focusing on fluid volume, acoustic velocity-compressional and shear wave, electric resistance, temperature, pore pressure, shear strength, and permeability.

  2. Geological Survey data as a support for EPOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulstrup, Jørgen; Robida, Francois; Harrison, Matthew; Bogaard, Paul; Pedersen, Mikael

    2015-04-01

    The National Geological Surveys of Europe have through many years collaborated on making their large possessions of geological data available for researchers, the general public and decision makers at all levels. Numerous projects have been carried out with the aim of harmonizing data across national boundaries and making data interoperable by delivering them according to international standards like those defined by INSPIRE, OGC, CGI and others. In 2012 - 2014 an EU co-funded study was carried out with the title of EGDI-Scope. The study showed how an integrated European Geological Data Infrastructure (EGDI) can be established so that all sorts of geological data form the Geological Surveys can be accessed in a common way by the relevant stakeholders. The establishment of such an EGDI is a cornerstone of the strategy of the organization of the Geological Surveys of Europe, EuroGeoSurveys, and the organization has decided to start implementing the infrastructure and establishing an organization which will ensure that this will be sustained. One of the most obvious user groups for the geological information is EPOS, the European Plate Observing System, which will be implemented in the coming years. The EPOS implementation project therefore contains a specific workpackage to establish the connection between the Geological Survey data and the rest of EPOS. A Thematic Core Service (TCS) for geological data and modeling will be built for making the data available for the Integrated Core Services of EPOS. The TCS will deal with borehole data, digital geological maps, geophysical data like seismics and borehole logs, archived physical geological material like samples and cores, geochemical and other analyses of rocks, soil and minerals as well as with 3D and 4D geological models of the subsurface. Great emphasis will be put on making the system sustainable and with easy access and the idea is also to further develop and promote the international standards for data exchange

  3. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  4. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  5. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  6. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  7. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  8. Environmental Responses to Carbon Mitigation through Geological Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, Alfred; Bromenshenk, Jerry

    2013-08-30

    In summary, this DOE EPSCoR project is contributing to the study of carbon mitigation through geological storage. Both deep and shallow subsurface research needs are being addressed through research directed at improved understanding of environmental responses associated with large scale injection of CO{sub 2} into geologic formations. The research plan has two interrelated research objectives. Objective 1: Determine the influence of CO{sub 2}-related injection of fluids on pore structure, material properties, and microbial activity in rock cores from potential geological carbon sequestration sites. Objective 2: Determine the Effects of CO{sub 2} leakage on shallow subsurface ecosystems (microbial and plant) using field experiments from an outdoor field testing facility.

  9. Studies in Aeolian geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the research was to assess the significance of aeolian (windblown) processes in the evolution of planetary surfaces. The approach was to use wind tunnel simulations, field studies of possible analogs, and analyses of spacecraft data.

  10. Genetic approach to reconstruct complex regional geological setting of the Baltic basin in 3D geological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovs, K.; Saks, T.; Ukass, J.; Jatnieks, J.

    2012-04-01

    Interpretation of geological structures in 3D geological models is a relatively new research topic that is already standardized in many geological branches. Due to its wide practical application, these models are indispensable and become one of the dominant interpretation methods in reducing geological uncertainties in many geology fields. Traditionally, geological concepts complement quantitative as much as qualitative data to obtain a model deemed acceptable, however, available data very often is insufficient and modeling methods primarily focus on spatial data but geological history usually is mostly neglected for the modeling of large sedimentary basins. A need to better integrate the long and often complex geological history and geological knowledge into modeling procedure is very acute to gain geological insight and improve the quality of geological models. During this research, 3D geological model of the Baltic basin (BB) was created. Because of its complex regional geological setting - wide range of the data sources with multiple scales, resolution and density as well as its various source formats, the study area provides a challenge for the 3D geological modeling. In order to create 3D regional geometrical model for the study area algorithmic genetic approach for model geometry reconstruction was applied. The genetic approach is based on the assumption that post-depositional deformation produce no significant change in sedimentary strata volume, assuming that the strata thickness and its length in a cross sectional plane remains unchanged except as a result of erosion. Assuming that the tectonic deformation occurred in sequential cycles and subsequent tectonic stage strata is separated by regional unconformity as is the case of the BB, there is an opportunity for algorithmic approach in reconstructing these conditions by sequentially reconstructing the layer original thickness. Layer thicknesses were sliced along fault lines, where applicable layer

  11. A primer in lunar geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (Editor); Schultz, P. H. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    Primary topics in lunar geology range from the evolution of the solar system to lunar photointerpretation, impact crater formation, and sampling to analyses on various Apollo lunar landing site geomorphologies.

  12. Perspectives in geology. Circular 525

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this symposium present diverse perspectives in geology, mineral resources, paleontology, and environmental concerns. Papers within the scope of EDB have been entered individually into the data base. (ACR)

  13. Terrestrial and Lunar Geological Terminology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This section is largely a compilation of defining geological terms concepts. Broader topics, such as the ramifications for simulant design and in situ resource utilization, are included as necessary for context.

  14. Novice to Expert Cognition During Geologic Bedrock Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petcovic, H. L.; Libarkin, J.; Hambrick, D. Z.; Baker, K. M.; Elkins, J. T.; Callahan, C. N.; Turner, S.; Rench, T. A.; LaDue, N.

    2011-12-01

    Bedrock geologic mapping is a complex and cognitively demanding task. Successful mapping requires domain-specific content knowledge, visuospatial ability, navigation through the field area, creating a mental model of the geology that is consistent with field data, and metacognition. Most post-secondary geology students in the United States receive training in geologic mapping, however, not much is known about the cognitive processes that underlie successful bedrock mapping, or about how these processes change with education and experience. To better understand cognition during geologic mapping, we conducted a 2-year research study in which 67 volunteers representing a range from undergraduate sophomore to 20+ years professional experience completed a suite of cognitive measures plus a 1-day bedrock mapping task in the Rocky Mountains, Montana, USA. In addition to participants' geologic maps and field notes, the cognitive suite included tests and questionnaires designed to measure: (1) prior geologic experience, via a self-report survey; (2) geologic content knowledge, via a modified version of the Geoscience Concept Inventory; (3) visuospatial ability, working memory capacity, and perceptual speed, via paper-and-pencil and computerized tests; (4) use of space and time during mapping via GPS tracking; and (5) problem-solving in the field via think-aloud audio logs during mapping and post-mapping semi-structured interviews. Data were examined for correlations between performance on the mapping task and other measures. We found that both geological knowledge and spatial visualization ability correlated positively with accuracy in the field mapping task. More importantly, we found a Visuospatial Ability × Geological Knowledge interaction, such that visuospatial ability positively predicted mapping performance at low, but not high, levels of geological knowledge. In other words, we found evidence to suggest that visuospatial ability mattered for bedrock mapping for the

  15. An overview of Venus geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, R. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Head, J. W.; Schaber, G. G.; Stofan, E. R.; Solomon, S. C.

    1991-04-01

    The Magellan spacecraft is producing comprehensive image and altimetry data for the planet Venus. Initial geologic mapping of the planet reveals a surface dominated by volcanic plains and characterized by extensive volcanism and tectonic deformation. Geologic and geomorphologic units include plains terrains, tectonic terrains, and surficial material units. Understanding the origin of these units and the relation between them is an ongoing task of the Magellan team.

  16. Bedrock geologic map of Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratcliffe, Nicholas M.; Stanley, Rolfe S.; Gale, Marjorie H.; Thompson, Peter J.; Walsh, Gregory J.; With contributions by Hatch, Norman L.; Rankin, Douglas W.; Doolan, Barry L.; Kim, Jonathan; Mehrtens, Charlotte J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; McHone, J. Gregory; Cartography by Masonic, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    The Bedrock Geologic Map of Vermont is the result of a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the State of Vermont. The State's complex geology spans 1.4 billion years of Earth's history. The new map comes 50 years after the most recent map of the State by Charles G. Doll and others in 1961 and a full 150 years since the publication of the first geologic map of Vermont by Edward Hitchcock and others in 1861. At a scale of 1:100,000, the map shows an uncommon level of detail for State geologic maps. Mapped rock units are primarily based on lithology, or rock type, to facilitate derivative studies in multiple disciplines. The 1961 map was compiled from 1:62,500-scale or smaller maps. The current map was created to integrate more detailed (1:12,000- to 1:24,000-scale) modern and older (1:62,500-scale) mapping with the theory of plate tectonics to provide a framework for geologic, tectonic, economic, hydrogeologic, and environmental characterization of the bedrock of Vermont. The printed map consists of three oversize sheets (52 x 76 inches). Sheets 1 and 2 show the southern and northern halves of Vermont, respectively, and can be trimmed and joined so that the entire State can be displayed as a single entity. These sheets also include 10 cross sections and a geologic structure map. Sheet 3 on the front consists of descriptions of 486 map units, a correlation of map units, and references cited. Sheet 3 on the back features a list of the 195 sources of geologic map data keyed to an index map of 7.5-minute quadrangles in Vermont, as well as a table identifying ages of rocks dated by uranium-lead zircon geochronology.

  17. Working towards a European Geological Data Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Krogt, Rob; Hughes, Richard; Pedersen, Mikael; Serrano, Jean-Jacques; Lee, Kathryn A.; Tulstrup, Jørgen; Robida, François

    2013-04-01

    The increasing importance of geological information for policy, regulation and business needs at European and international level has been recognized by the European Parliament and the European Commission, who have called for the development of a common European geological knowledge base. The societal relevance of geoscience data/information is clear from many current issues such as shale gas exploration (including environmental impacts), the availability of critical mineral resources in a global economy, management and security with regard to geohazards (seismic, droughts, floods, ground stability), quality of (ground-)water and soil and societal responses to the impacts of climate change. The EGDI-Scope project responds to this, aiming to prepare an implementation plan for a pan-European Geological Data Infrastructure (EGDI), under the umbrella of the FP7 e- Infrastructures program. It is envisaged that the EGDI will build on geological datasets and models currently held by the European Geological Surveys at national and regional levels, and will also provide a platform for datasets generated by the large number of relevant past, ongoing and future European projects which have geological components. With European policy makers and decision makers from (international) industry as the main target groups (followed by research communities and the general public) stakeholder involvement is imperative to the successful realization and continuity of the EGDI. With these ambitions in mind, the presentation will focus on the following issues, also based on the first results and experiences of the EGDI-Scope project that started mid-2012: • The organization of stakeholder input and commitment connected to relevant 'use cases' within different thematic domains; a number of stakeholder representatives is currently involved, but the project is open to more extensive participation; • A large number of European projects relevant for data delivery to EGDI has been reviewed

  18. A Study of the Education of Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglin, R. S.; Baldridge, A. M.; Buxner, S.; Crown, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Geology course and then complete the assessment process, with the same rock again. Data will be compared to see how the thought process has changed. By studying the initial thought process, teachers can meet students at their level. At the end of the student research, this project will also be applied to elementary and middle school teachers in Tucson, Arizona at WISER workshops. This study will draw conclusions on how participants' thought processes change through WISER-type instruction.

  19. Titan's global geologic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaska, Michael; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Schoenfeld, Ashley; Birch, Samuel; Hayes, Alexander; Williams, David A.; Solomonidou, Anezina; Janssen, Michael A.; Le Gall, Alice; Soderblom, Jason M.; Neish, Catherine; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2016-10-01

    We have mapped the Cassini SAR imaged areas of Saturn's moon Titan in order to determine the geological properties that modify the surface [1]. We used the SAR dataset for mapping, but incorporated data from radiometry, VIMS, ISS, and SARTopo for terrain unit determination. This work extends our analyses of the mid-latitude/equatorial Afekan Crater region [2] and in the southern and northern polar regions [3]. We placed Titan terrains into six broad terrain classes: craters, mountain/hummocky, labyrinth, plains, dunes, and lakes. We also extended the fluvial mapping done by Burr et al. [4], and defined areas as potential cryovolcanic features [5]. We found that hummocky/mountainous and labyrinth areas are the oldest units on Titan, and that lakes and dunes are among the youngest. Plains units are the largest unit in terms of surface area, followed by the dunes unit. Radiometry data suggest that most of Titan's surface is covered in high-emissivity materials, consistent with organic materials, with only minor exposures of low-emissivity materials that are consistent with water ice, primarily in the mountain and hummocky areas and crater rims and ejecta [6, 7]. From examination of terrain orientation, we find that landscape evolution in the mid-latitude and equatorial regions is driven by aeolian processes, while polar landscapes are shaped by fluvial, lacrustine, and possibly dissolution or volatilization processes involving cycling organic materials [3, 8]. Although important in deciphering Titan's terrain evolution, impact processes play a very minor role in the modification of Titan's landscape [9]. We find no evidence for large-scale aqueous cryovolcanic deposits.References: [1] Lopes, R.M.C. et al. (2010) Icarus, 205, 540–558. [2] Malaska, M.J. et al. (2016) Icarus, 270, 130–161. [3] Birch et al., in revision. [4] Burr et al. (2013) GSA Bulletin 125, 299–321. [5] Lopes et al. JGR: Planets, 118, 1–20. [6] Janssen et al., (2009) Icarus, 200, 222–239. [7

  20. Geologic effects of hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coch, Nicholas K.

    1994-08-01

    Hurricanes are intense low pressure systems of tropical origin. Hurricane damage results from storm surge, wind, and inland flooding from heavy rainfall. Field observations and remote sensing of recent major hurricanes such as Hugo (1989), Andrew (1992) and Iniki (1992) are providing new insights into the mechanisms producing damage in these major storms. Velocities associated with hurricanes include the counterclockwise vortex winds flowing around the eye and the much slower regional winds that steer hurricane and move it forward. Vectorial addition of theseof these two winds on the higher effective wind speed than on the left side. Coast-parallel hurricane tracks keep the weaker left side of the storm against the coast, whereas coast-normal tracks produce a wide swath of destruction as the more powerful right side of the storm cuts a swath of destruction hundreds of kilometers inland. Storm surge is a function of the wind speed, central pressure, shelf slope, shoreline configuration, and anthropogenic alterations to the shoreline. Maximum surge heights are not under the eye of the hurricane, where the pressure is lowest, but on the right side of the eye at the radius of maximum winds, where the winds are strongest. Flood surge occurs as the hurricane approaches land and drives coastal waters, and superimposed waves, across the shore. Ebb surge occurs when impounded surface water flows seaward as the storm moves inland. Flood and ebb surge damage have been greatly increased in recent hurricanes as a result of anthropogenic changes along the shoreline. Hurricane wind damage occurs on three scales — megascale, mesoscale and microscale. Local wind damage is a function of wind speed, exposure and structural resistance to velocity pressure, wind drag and flying debris. Localized extreme damage is caused by gusts that can locally exceed sustained winds by a factor of two in areas where there is strong convective activity. Geologic changes occuring in hurricanes

  1. Geological myths and reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrihansky, Lubor

    2014-05-01

    Myths are the result of man's attempts to explain noteworthy features of his environment stemming from unfounded imagination. It is unbelievable that in 21st century the explanation of evident lithospheric plates movements and origin of forces causing this movement is still bound to myths, They are the myth about mantle convection, myth about Earth's expansion, myth about mantle heterogeneities causing the movement of plates and myth about mantle plumes. From 1971 to 1978 I performed extensive study (Ostřihanský 1980) about the terrestrial heat flow and radioactive heat production of batholiths in the Bohemian Massive (Czech Republic). The result, gained by extrapolation of the heat flow and heat production relationship, revealed the very low heat flow from the mantle 17.7mW m-2 close to the site of the Quarterly volcano active only 115,000 - 15,000 years ago and its last outbreak happened during Holocene that is less than 10,000 years ago. This volcano Komorní Hůrka (Kammerbühls) was known by J. W. Goethe investigation and the digging of 300 m long gallery in the first half of XIX century to reach the basaltic plug and to confirm the Stromboli type volcano. In this way the 19th century myth of neptunists that basalt was a sedimentary deposit was disproved in spite that famous poet and scientist J.W.Goethe inclined to neptunists. For me the result of very low heat flow and the vicinity of almost recent volcanoes in the Bohemian Massive meant that I refused the hypothesis of mantle convection and I focused my investigation to external forces of tides and solar heat, which evoke volcanic effects, earthquakes and the plate movement. To disclose reality it is necessary to present calculation of acting forces using correct mechanism of their action taking into account tectonic characteristics of geologic unites as the wrench tectonics and the tectonic of planets and satellites of the solar system, realizing an exceptional behavior of the Earth as quickly rotating

  2. Integral description of the geological heritage of Michoacan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jose teodoro, S. G.; Gonzalez, C.; Estrada, F.; Moncayo, R.; Cruz, G.

    2013-12-01

    Geological heritage studies are among the most recent research areas incorporated into the geological sciences. These represent a new understanding of man's relationship with earth. Particularly, the Geosites Global Project was structured as an international initiative aimed to establish the geological heritage. Similarly, UNESCO in 1996 launched the Geoparks Program, in order to register in confined areas peculiar aspects for scientific research, uniqueness and beauty that could perpetuate the geological history and the processes that formed them. This initiative includes the global geological record, which selects the most representative and illustrative places. The analysis of the geological heritage can be approached in different ways, either through cataloging, valuation, preservation or disclosure, all of these activities, together, provide an integrated management model. In a first step, we addressed the first two approaches for the north-central portion of the state of Michoacan Mexico. The Paricutin and Jorullo volcanoes, the overlapping tectonic sequences Tzitzio-Huetamo, and the Michoacán-Guanajuato Volcanic Belt, are just some examples. We pretend to focus the inventory and valuation activities, to formulate protection schemes and management strategies as cultural resources.

  3. Groundwater quality and simulation of sources of water to wells in the Marsh Creek valley at the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Appalachian Research Laboratory, Tioga County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, Dennis W.; Breen, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a November 2010 snapshot of groundwater quality and an analysis of the sources of water to wells at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Northern Appalachian Research Laboratory (NARL) near Wellsboro, Pennsylvania. The laboratory, which conducts fisheries research, currently (2011) withdraws 1,000 gallons per minute of high-quality groundwater from three wells completed in the glacial sand and gravel aquifer beneath the Marsh Creek valley; a fourth well that taps the same aquifer provides the potable supply for the facility. The study was conducted to document the source areas and quality of the water supply for this Department of Interior facility, which is surrounded by the ongoing development of natural gas from the Marcellus Shale. Groundwater samples were collected from the four wells used by the NARL and from two nearby domestic-supply wells. The domestic-supply wells withdraw groundwater from bedrock of the Catskill Formation. Samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace metals, radiochemicals, dissolved gases, and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in water and carbon in dissolved carbonate to document groundwater quality. Organic constituents (other than hydrocarbon gases) associated with hydraulic fracturing and other human activities were not analyzed as part of this assessment. Results show low concentrations of all constituents. Only radon, which ranged from 980 to 1,310 picocuries per liter, was somewhat elevated. These findings are consistent with the pristine nature of the aquifer in the Marsh Creek valley, which is the reason the laboratory was sited at this location. The sources of water and areas contributing recharge to wells were identified by the use of a previously documented MODFLOW groundwater-flow model for the following conditions: (1) withdrawals of 1,000 to 3,000 gallons per minute from the NARL wells, (2) average or dry hydrologic conditions, and (3) withdrawals of 1,000 gallons per minute from a new

  4. Structural geology of the Hawthorne and Tonopah quadrangles, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferguson, H.G.; Muller, S.W.

    1949-01-01

    The area lies in west-central Nevada near the western border of the Basin and Range province. Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks the chief subject of this report occur in isolated mountain ranges separated by stretches of Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic rocks, lacustrine deposits and alluvium. The report is concerned principally with the geology of the pre-Tertiary rocks and attempt is made to unravel the complex diastrophisni that occurred in the area during the Jurassic. 

  5. Geology on the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stonehouse, H. B.

    1979-01-01

    Presents three activities that allow students to practice some of the techniques used by lunar researchers, and to become more familiar with lunar features through scrutiny of lunar photography. Topics include dimensions of a crater, different surface ages, and types of rilles. (Author/MA)

  6. Comparing Geologic Data Sets Collected by Planetary Analog Traverses and by Standard Geologic Field Mapping: Desert Rats Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Wanda; Evans, Cynthia; Gruener, John; Eppler, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Geologic mapping involves interpreting relationships between identifiable units and landforms to understand the formative history of a region. Traditional field techniques are used to accomplish this on Earth. Mapping proves more challenging for other planets, which are studied primarily by orbital remote sensing and, less frequently, by robotic and human surface exploration. Systematic comparative assessments of geologic maps created by traditional mapping versus photogeology together with data from planned traverses are limited. The objective of this project is to produce a geologic map from data collected on the Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) 2010 analog mission using Apollo-style traverses in conjunction with remote sensing data. This map is compared with a geologic map produced using standard field techniques.

  7. EKG isolator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, E.; Rasquin, J. R.; Smith, H. E.

    1971-01-01

    Light beam transmits heartbeat signal from electrodes on patient to electrocardiograph without exposing patient to possible severe electrical shock. System provides complete isolation between patient and EKG instrumentation.

  8. Cigeo, the French Geological Repository Project - 13022

    SciTech Connect

    Labalette, Thibaud; Harman, Alain; Dupuis, Marie-Claude; Ouzounian, Gerald

    2013-07-01

    The Cigeo industrial-scale geological disposal centre is designed for the disposal of the most highly-radioactive French waste. It will be built in an argillite formation of the Callovo-Oxfordian dating back 160 million years. The Cigeo project is located near the Bure village in the Paris Basin. The argillite formation was studied since 1974, and from the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory since end of 1999. Most of the waste to be disposed of in the Cigeo repository comes from nuclear power plants and from reprocessing of their spent fuel. (authors)

  9. Lake Ontario geological and geophysical data sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Wold, Richard J.

    1979-01-01

    A bibliography of various geological and geophysical data sources was compiled as part of an overall effort to evaluate the status of research on the Great Lakes.  We hope that such a summary will be a catalyst for additional work and be an aid in planning future work.  Our presentation has two forms: maps showing the locations of the different data types and a bibliography which lists the references from the maps and additional relevant papers.  The charts shown in this map summarize the data source for Lake Ontario.

  10. Remnants of Lost Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    In eastern Arabia Terra, remnants of a once vast layered terrain are evident as isolated buttes, mesas, and deeply-filled craters. The origin of the presumed sediments that created the layers is unknown, but those same sediments, now eroded, may be the source of the thick mantle of dust that covers much of Arabia Terra today.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 20.5, Longitude 50 East (310 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  11. Geology Field Trips as Performance Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Callan

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important goals the author has for students in his introductory-level physical geology course is to give them the conceptual skills for solving geologic problems on their own. He wants students to leave his course as individuals who can use their knowledge of geologic processes and logic to figure out the extended geologic history…

  12. Utilizing an Artificial Outcrop to Scaffold Learning between Laboratory and Field Experiences in a College-Level Introductory Geology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Meredith

    2012-01-01

    Geologic field trips are among the most beneficial learning experiences for students as they engage the topic of geology, but they are also difficult environments to maximize learning. This action research study explored one facet of the problems associated with teaching geology in the field by attempting to improve the transition of undergraduate…

  13. Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, S. M.

    2003-04-01

    Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide has emerged as one of the most promising options for making deep cuts in carbon dioxide emissions. Geologic sequestration involves the two-step process of first capturing carbon dioxide by separating it from stack emissions, followed by injection and long term storage in deep geologic formations. Sedimentary basins, including depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep unminable coal seams, and brine-filled formations, provide the most attractive storage reservoirs. Over the past few years significant advances have been made in this technology, including development of simulation models and monitoring systems, implementation of commercial scale demonstration projects, and investigation of natural and industrial analogues for geologic storage of carbon dioxide. While much has been accomplished in a short time, there are many questions that must be answered before this technology can be employed on the scale needed to make significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions. Questions such as how long must the carbon dioxide remain underground, to what extent will geochemical reactions completely immobilize the carbon dioxide, what can be done in the event that a storage site begins to leak at an unacceptable rate, what is the appropriate risk assessment, regulatory and legal framework, and will the public view this option favorably? This paper will present recent advances in the scientific and technological underpinnings of geologic sequestration and identify areas where additional information is needed.

  14. Recent geologic activity on Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Z.; Strom, R. G.; Blewett, D. T.; Solomon, S. C.; Head, J. W.; Watters, T. R.; Chabot, N. L.; Banks, M. E.; Chapman, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    Since the MESSENGER spacecraft was inserted into orbit about Mercury in March 2011, global and targeted high-resolution image data sets have been acquired. These images support the conclusion that internal geological activity on Mercury did not end early in planetary history, as had generally been previously thought, but continued to geologically recent times. Three lines of evidence point to recent geological activity on Mercury. (1) There are smooth plains with surface areas up to 1.5×105 km2 that postdate young (morphological class 1) craters, indicating probable Kuiperian-aged volcanism. No volcanic vents, fissures, or flow fronts have been identified on these plains, suggesting that they are products of low-viscosity lavas, consistent with komatiite-like compositions of large areas on Mercury indicated by MESSENGER X-Ray Spectrometer observations. (2) Young lobate scarps transect class 1 craters as large as 30 km in diameter, indicating comparably recent crustal contraction. (3) A number of fresh-appearing, high-reflectance, irregularly shaped and rimless shallow depressions interpreted as pyroclastic vents have few superposed craters, suggesting that they have been recently active. Growing evidence from geological and geochemical observations indicates that Mercury's interior contains a higher abundance of volatile materials than was previously appreciated. Together these findings support the inference that Mercury experienced relatively recent volcanism and tectonic deformation, and the possibility that the planet is geologically active today cannot be discounted.

  15. Geology of 243 Ida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, R.; Greeley, R.; Pappalardo, R.; Asphaug, E.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Morrison, D.; Belton, M.J.S.; Carr, M.; Chapman, C.R.; Geissler, P.; Greenberg, R.; Granahan, J.; Head, J. W.; Kirk, R.; McEwen, A.; Lee, P.; Thomas, P.C.; Veverka, J.

    1996-01-01

    The surface of 243 Ida is dominated by the effects of impacts. No complex crater morphologies are observed. A complete range of crater degradation states is present, which also reveals optical maturation of the surface (darkening and reddening of materials with increasing exposure age). Regions of bright material associated with the freshest craters might be ballistically emplaced deposits or the result of seismic disturbance of loosely-bound surface materials. Diameter/depth ratios for fresh craters on Ida are ???1:6.5, similar to Gaspra results, but greater than the 1:5 ratios common on other rocky bodies. Contributing causes include rim degradation by whole-body "ringing," relatively thin ejecta blankets around crater rims, or an extended strength gradient in near-surface materials due to low gravitational self-packing. Grooves probably represent expressions in surface debris of reactivated fractures in the deeper interior. Isolated positive relief features as large as 150 m are probably ejecta blocks related to large impacts. Evidence for the presence of debris on the surface includes resolved ejecta blocks, mass-wasting scars, contrasts in color and albedo of fresh crater materials, and albedo streaks oriented down local slopes. Color data indicate relatively uniform calcium abundance in pyroxenes and constant pyroxene/olivine ratio. A large, relatively blue unit across the northern polar area is probably related to regolith processes involving ejecta from Azzurra rather than representing internal compositional heterogeneity. A small number of bluer, brighter craters are randomly distributed across the surface, unlike on Gaspra where these features are concentrated along ridges. This implies that debris on Ida is less mobile and/or consistently thicker than on Gaspra. Estimates of the average depth of mobile materials derived from chute depths (20-60 m), grooves (???30 m), and shallowing of the largest degraded craters (20-50 m minimum, ???100 m maximum

  16. Map showing geology, oil and gas fields, and geologic provinces of the Gulf of Mexico region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, Christopher D.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    This map was created as part of a worldwide series of geologic maps for the U.S. Geological Survey's World Energy Project. These products are available on CD-ROM and the Internet. The goal of the project is to assess the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world. Two previously published digital geologic data sets (U.S. and Caribbean) were clipped to the map extent, while the dataset for Mexico was digitized for this project. Original attributes for all data layers were maintained, and in some cases, graphically merged with common symbology for presentation purposes. The world has been divided into geologic provinces that are used for allocation and prioritization of oil and gas assessments. For the World Energy Project, a subset of those provinces is shown on this map. Each province has a set of geologic characteristics that distinguish it from surrounding provinces. These characteristics may include dominant lithologies, the age of the strata, and/or structural type. The World Geographic Coordinate System of 1984 is used for data storage, and the data are presented in a Lambert Conformal Conic Projection on the OFR 97-470-L map product. Other details about the map compilation and data sources are provided in metadata documents in the data section on this CD-ROM. Several software packages were used to create this map including: Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI) ArcGIS 8.3, ArcInfo software, Adobe Photoshop CS, Illustrator CS, and Acrobat 6.0.

  17. Geology shapes biogeography: Quaternary river-capture explains New Zealand's biologically 'composite' Taieri River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Jonathan M.; Wallis, Graham P.; Burridge, Christopher P.; Craw, Dave

    2015-07-01

    Geological processes are hypothesised to strongly affect species distributions. In particular, a combination of geological and biological data has suggested that tectonic processes can drive vicariant isolation and speciation in freshwater-limited taxa. Here we synthesise geological and biological evidence to demonstrate a composite geological and biological history for New Zealand's 290-km long Taieri River. Specifically, we assess evidence from structural geology and petrology, combined with phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of galaxiid fishes, to show that the modern Taieri River was formed via capture of the ancestral Kye Burn during the mid-late Quaternary. Molecular dating analyses support a late-Quaternary timeframe for the geologically-mediated divergence between formerly-connected sister taxa Galaxias depressiceps and G. 'teviot'. Fish biogeography lends further support to the geological hypothesis, as there is a substantial biogeographic disjunction between the lower- (ancestral) and upper (captured) portions of the Taieri River. Geological and biological data are assessed independently yet yield consilient patterns and timeframes for the evolutionary events inferred. Broadly, this study highlights the interplay between physical and biological processes in a geologically dynamic setting.

  18. Geologic information from satellite images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K.; Knepper, D. H.; Sawatzky, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    Extracting geologic information from ERTS and Skylab/EREP images is best done by a geologist trained in photo-interpretation. The information is at a regional scale, and three basic types are available: rock and soil, geologic structures, and landforms. Discrimination between alluvium and sedimentary or crystalline bedrock, and between units in thick sedimentary sequences is best, primarily because of topographic expression and vegetation differences. Discrimination between crystalline rock types is poor. Folds and fractures are the best displayed geologic features. They are recognizable by topographic expression, drainage patterns, and rock or vegetation tonal patterns. Landforms are easily discriminated by their familiar shapes and patterns. Several examples demonstrate the applicability of satellite images to tectonic analysis and petroleum and mineral exploration.

  19. Desert wetlands in the geologic record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Rech, Jason A.; Quade, Jay; Bright, Jordon

    2014-05-01

    Desert wetlands support flora and fauna in a variety of hydrologic settings, including seeps, springs, marshes, wet meadows, ponds, and spring pools. Over time, eolian, alluvial, and fluvial sediments become trapped in these settings by a combination of wet ground conditions and dense plant cover. The result is a unique combination of clastic sediments, chemical precipitates, and organic matter that is preserved in the geologic record as ground-water discharge (GWD) deposits. GWD deposits contain information on the timing and magnitude of past changes in water-table levels and, therefore, are a potential source of paleohydrologic and paleoclimatic information. In addition, they can be important archeological and paleontological archives because desert wetlands provide reliable sources of fresh water, and thus act as focal points for human and faunal activities, in some of the world's harshest and driest lands. Here, we review some of the physical, sedimentological, and geochemical characteristics common to GWD deposits, and provide a contextual framework that researchers can use to identify and interpret geologic deposits associated with desert wetlands. We discuss several lines of evidence used to differentiate GWD deposits from lake deposits (they are commonly confused), and examine how various types of microbiota and depositional facies aid in reconstructing past environmental and hydrologic conditions. We also review how late Quaternary GWD deposits are dated, as well as methods used to investigate desert wetlands deeper in geologic time. We end by evaluating the strengths and limitations of hydrologic and climatic records derived from GWD deposits, and suggest several avenues of potential future research to further develop and utilize these unique and complex systems.

  20. Desert wetlands in the geologic record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pigati, Jeff S.; Rech, Jason A.; Quade, Jay; Bright, Jordon; Edwards, L.; Springer, A.

    2014-01-01

    Desert wetlands support flora and fauna in a variety of hydrologic settings, including seeps, springs, marshes, wet meadows, ponds, and spring pools. Over time, eolian, alluvial, and fluvial sediments become trapped in these settings by a combination of wet ground conditions and dense plant cover. The result is a unique combination of clastic sediments, chemical precipitates, and organic matter that is preserved in the geologic record as ground-water discharge (GWD) deposits. GWD deposits contain information on the timing and magnitude of past changes in water-table levels and, therefore, are a potential source of paleohydrologic and paleoclimatic information. In addition, they can be important archeological and paleontological archives because desert wetlands provide reliable sources of fresh water, and thus act as focal points for human and faunal activities, in some of the world's harshest and driest lands. Here, we review some of the physical, sedimentological, and geochemical characteristics common to GWD deposits, and provide a contextual framework that researchers can use to identify and interpret geologic deposits associated with desert wetlands. We discuss several lines of evidence used to differentiate GWD deposits from lake deposits (they are commonly confused), and examine how various types of microbiota and depositional facies aid in reconstructing past environmental and hydrologic conditions. We also review how late Quaternary GWD deposits are dated, as well as methods used to investigate desert wetlands deeper in geologic time. We end by evaluating the strengths and limitations of hydrologic and climatic records derived from GWD deposits, and suggest several avenues of potential future research to further develop and utilize these unique and complex systems.

  1. Geological evaluation and applications of ERTS-1 imagery over Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, S. M.; Jones, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 70mm and 9 x 9 film negatives are being used by conventional and color enhancement methods as a tool for geologic investigation. Geologic mapping and mineral exploration by conventional methods is very difficult in Georgia. Thick soil cover and heavy vegetation cause outcrops of bed rock to be small, rare and obscure. ERTS imagery, and remote sensing in general have helped delineate: (1) major tectonic boundaries; (2) lithologic contacts; (3) foliation trends; (4) topographic lineaments; and (5) faults. The ERTS-1 MSS imagery yields the greatest amount of geologic information on the Piedomont, Blue Ridge, and Valley and Ridge Provinces of Georgia where topography is strongly controlled by the bedrock geology. ERTS imagery, and general remote sensing techniques, have provided us with a powerful tool to assist geologic research; have significantly increased the mapping efficiency of our field geologists; have shown new lineaments associated with known shear and fault zones; have delineated new structural features; have provided a tool to re-evaluate our tectonic history; have helped to locate potential ground water sources and areas of aquifer recharge; have defined areas of geologic hazards; have shown areas of heavy siltation in major reservoirs; and by its close interval repetition, have aided in monitoring surface mine reclamation activities and the environmental protection of our intricate marshland system.

  2. Sketch-based geologic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rood, M. P.; Jackson, M.; Hampson, G.; Brazil, E. V.; de Carvalho, F.; Coda, C.; Sousa, M. C.; Zhang, Z.; Geiger, S.

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) maps and cross-sections, and 3D conceptual models, are fundamental tools for understanding, communicating and modeling geology. Yet geologists lack dedicated and intuitive tools that allow rapid creation of such figures and models. Standard drawing packages produce only 2D figures that are not suitable for quantitative analysis. Geologic modeling packages can produce 3D models and are widely used in the groundwater and petroleum communities, but are often slow and non-intuitive to use, requiring the creation of a grid early in the modeling workflow and the use of geostatistical methods to populate the grid blocks with geologic information. We present an alternative approach to rapidly create figures and models using sketch-based interface and modelling (SBIM). We leverage methods widely adopted in other industries to prototype complex geometries and designs. The SBIM tool contains built-in geologic rules that constrain how sketched lines and surfaces interact. These rules are based on the logic of superposition and cross-cutting relationships that follow from rock-forming processes, including deposition, deformation, intrusion and modification by diagenesis or metamorphism. The approach allows rapid creation of multiple, geologically realistic, figures and models in 2D and 3D using a simple, intuitive interface. The user can sketch in plan- or cross-section view. Geologic rules are used to extrapolate sketched lines in real time to create 3D surfaces. Quantitative analysis can be carried our directly on the models. Alternatively, they can be output as simple figures or imported directly into other modeling tools. The software runs on a tablet PC and can be used in a variety of settings including the office, classroom and field. The speed and ease of use of SBIM enables multiple interpretations to be developed from limited data, uncertainty to be readily appraised, and figures and models to be rapidly updated to incorporate new data or concepts.

  3. Geology of the American Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldridge, W. Scott

    2004-06-01

    Scott Baldridge presents a concise guide to the geology of the Southwestern U.S. Two billion years of Earth history are represented in the rocks and landscape of the Southwest U.S., creating natural wonders such as the Grand Canyon, Monument Valley, and Death Valley. This region is considered a geologist's "dream", attracting a large number of undergraduate field classes and amateur geologists. The volume will prove invaluable to students and will also appeal to anyone interested in the geology and landscape of the region's National Parks.

  4. Maps showing geology, oil and gas fields and geological provinces of Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Persits, Feliks M.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Charpentier, R.R.; Brownfield, M.E.; Takahashi, Kenneth

    1997-01-01

    The CD-ROM was compiled according to the methodology developed by the U.S. Geological Survey's World Energy Project . The goal of the project was to assess the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world and report these results by the year 2000. A worldwide series of geologic maps, published on CD-ROMs, was released by the U.S. Geological Survey's World Energy Project during 1997 - 2000. Specific details of the data sources and map compilation are given in the metadata files on this CD-ROM. These maps were compiled using Environmental Systems Research Institute Inc. (ESRI) ARC/INFO software. Political boundaries and cartographic representations on this map are shown (with permission) from ESRI's ArcWorld 1:3M digital coverage: they have no political significance and are displayed as general reference only. Portions of this database covering the coastline and country boundaries contain proprietary property of ESRI. (Copyright 1992 and 1996, Environmental Systems Research Institute Inc. All rights reserved.)

  5. The Sea Floor: An Introduction to Marine Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Randall

    The authors of the second edition of The Sea Floor: An Introduce on to Marine Geology are to be commended for providing an easily readable book on marine sedimentology, its history, and its profound foundations for interdisciplinary research. The explosive growth of marine geological research and knowledge during the last 2 decades could easily overwhelm anyone wishing to summarize it. The authors acknowledge this in their preface: “We attempted neither a balanced nor an encyclopedic survey,” and this is clearly evident in this 356-page tome with numerous figures and appendices. The book concentrates on sedimentary marine geology, with only enough geophysics and igneous petrology necessary to place scientific hypotheses in context.

  6. Teaching Geology in Situ: Modern Approaches and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhmenkulova, I. F.

    2014-12-01

    Geology and Geophysics Department of Novosibirsk State University (GGD NSU) is famous not only because of its specific location in Academgorodok (Novosibirsk, Russia) but because of its unique traditions: - conception of permanent geology education (starting from school to scientific research for postgraduate programs) - flexible curricula allowing students to be involved in research from the second year of study - field trips covering not only famous geologic objects in Siberia (Baikal, Siberian Traps, Altay, etc.), but places all over the world. GGD students traditionally participate in the following field trips: Altay (after the first year of study), Shira (Krasnoyarsk Krai) (after the second year of study). Further field trips are real research projects and cover various places in Siberia, Russia and other countries (China, Africa, USA, Mongolia, etc.). Shira field camp is of specific interest not only because of its various geology and interesting location (it is located in the resort area surrounded by beautiful landscapes, fresh and salt lakes of various salinity) but infrastructure. This year the Top 100 Project allows the department to upgrade the camp and therefore use it not only for field trips, but for other various purposes including international conferences, research projects, geo- and ecotourism. GGD NSU is ready to be involved into research, exchange educational programs and other projects (both domestically and internationally) based on the renewed Shira field camp.

  7. Ground-water contamination by crude oil at the Bemidji, Minnesota, research site- An introduction: Chapter A in Ground-water contamination by crude oil at the Bemidji, Minnesota, research site; US Geological Survey Toxic Waste--ground-water contamination study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has begun a research project to improve understanding of the mobilization, transport, and fate of petroleum contaminants in the shallow subsurface and to use this understanding to develop predictive models of contaminant behavior. The project site is near Bemidji in northern Minnesota where an accidental spill of 10,500 barrels of crude oil occurred when a pipeline broke on August 20, 1979. Regulatory and remedial actions have been completed. The site is in a remote area with neither man-made hydraulic stresses nor other anthropogenic sources of the compounds of interest. The spill is in the recharge area of a local flow system that discharges to a small closed lake approximately 1,000 feet down the hydraulic gradient. The aquifer is pitted outwash dissected by younger glacial channels and is underlain by poorly permeable till at a depth of about 80 feet. Ground water dissolves oil floating on the water table under the spill site and moves toward the lake. At the water table, ground water enters the lake through lacustrine sediments; at depth, flow may be underneath the lake through the outwash. Contaminant transport has been as rapid as 4 feet per day based on the rate of movement of contaminants monitored through wells installed within a few days of the spill, but average rates are undoubtedly much less. 

  8. Base isolation: Fresh insight

    SciTech Connect

    Shustov, V.

    1993-07-15

    The objective of the research is a further development of the engineering concept of seismic isolation. Neglecting the transient stage of seismic loading results in a widespread misjudgement: The force of resistance associated with velocity is mostly conceived as a source of damping vibrations, though it is an active force at the same time, during an earthquake type excitation. For very pliant systems such as base isolated structures with relatively low bearing stiffness and with artificially added heavy damping mechanism, the so called `damping`` force may occur even the main pushing force at an earthquake. Thus, one of the two basic pillars of the common seismic isolation philosophy, namely, the doctrine of usefulness and necessity of a strong damping mechanism, is turning out to be a self-deception, sometimes even jeopardizing the safety of structures and discrediting the very idea of seismic isolation. There is a way out: breaking with damping dependancy.

  9. Maps out, models in at the British Geological Survey!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathers, Steve; Kessler, Holger

    2013-04-01

    BGS has stopped its' systematic onshore geological surveying programme and the litho-printing of geological maps will cease after a final batch of completed maps are published. In future BGS will undertake integrated mapping and 3D modelling in user defined target areas considering all our available geospatial data (map, boreholes, geophysics etc) assessed in a single 3D workspace. The output will be 3D geological framework models that capture the understanding and interpretation of the survey geologist and honour all available data at the time. As well as building new models in these strategic areas, BGS is collating all existing models assembled over the last 25 years into a common framework to produce a multi-scaled National Geological Model of Britain. comprising crustal, bedrock and quaternary and anthropocene themes (http://www.bgs.ac.uk/research/UKGeology/nationalgeologicalmodel/home.html). Different to the traditional geological map, the national model will not be completed at any specific scale, but at every point in the model there may be a different geological resolution available, depending on the purpose mof the original model or the strategic national need for subsurface information. The need for a complete and robust nested stratigraphic framework (BGS Lexicon) is becoming more important as we advance this model. Archive copies of all legacy models will be approved and stored in their native formats. In addition a newly designed Geological Object Store will hold geological objects such as coverages, surfaces and cross-sections from these models inside a relational database to ensure versioning and long-term security of the National Geological Model. In the mid-term these models will be attributed with physical properties such as porosity and density and form inputs to process models such as groundwater and landslide models to help predict and simulate environmental change. A key challenge for geologists and their systems building the geological

  10. Complex pegmatite - apelitic of Cabecinha - strategies appreciation of geological heritage and economic development of the region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobre, José; Cabral, Tiago; Cabral, João; Gomes, Ana

    2014-05-01

    The Complex pegmatite - apelitic of Cabecinha corresponds to an isolated ridge that reaches 933 meters, located in the middle zone of transition between the Hesperian massif and the Cova da Beira being located in the NE central part of Portugal, more specifically in the Mountainous region of the province of Beira Alta, council of Sabugal. This complex lies embedded in porphyritic granites with terms of switching to a medium-grained granite rich in sodium feldspars in which they are muscovite granite intrusions. The lodes have pegmatites with NE-SW orientation, presenting phases of predominantly quartz crystallization with multiple parageneses. The inclusions observed are veins filonianian secondary. Some veins have structural discontinuity due to further their training tectonics. The apelitico material is basic in nature engaging in descontinuiddes of pegmatite material, showing no preferred orientation. The petrological characteristics of the area in question provide the appearance of motivating exotic landforms of scientific interest. These landforms, over time, have motivated the popular level the emergence of various myths, thus contributing to the enrichment of the local cultural heritage. This study proceeded to the geological and geomorphological mapping an area of about 6945,350 m2 with a maximum length of 182 m. The huge patent mineralogical, petrological and geomorphological level geodiversity, allied to the structural complexity and associated cultural heritage, allow geoconservation strategies and recovery, using new multimedia technologies including use of QR codes and 3D. All this geological framework and environment becomes an asset for the scientific, educational and economic development of the region. On the other hand, it has the vital Importance in the context of the strategy of forming a geological park, in the point of view of tourism, research and interpretation.

  11. Geological rhythms and cometary impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, M. R.; Strothers, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Time series analysis reveals two dominant, long-term periodicities approximately equal to 32 and 260 million years in the known series of geological and biological upheavals during the Phanerozoic Eon. The cycles of these episodes agree in period and phase with the cycles of impact cratering on Earth, suggesting that periodic comet impacts strongly influence Earth processes.

  12. Classroom Strategies for Introductory Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Joan

    1991-01-01

    The author describes her use of writing assignments, small-group discussions, note-taking strategies (learning logs), and professional simulations in an introductory geology course. The learning log process consists of note taking on one side of a divided page. After taking notes, students review the notes and record their questions, reactions,…

  13. A Nontraditional Geology Field Trip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, William Willard

    1989-01-01

    Describes the design and logistics of a one-month, 1600 km bicycle tour field trip in which the travel, not the stops, is the major teaching tool. Provides a map and a summarized itinerary of the geology experience of southern California and Nevada. (RT)

  14. Geology on a Sand Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…

  15. Briefing on geological sequestration (Tulsa)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geological sequestration (GS) is generally recognized as the injection and long-term (e.g., hundreds to thousands of years) trapping of gaseous, liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in subsurface media – primarily saline formations, depleted or nearly depleted oil and gas...

  16. Infrared Analysis of Geological Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alan; Clark, E. Roy

    1980-01-01

    Describes the infrared analysis of geological specimens which can form the basis of a laboratory exercise, allowing some minerals to be identified by "fingerprint" technique. Students can gain insight into the concept of symmetry and environment around an atom. (Author/SA)

  17. Social isolation

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, John T.; Hawkley, Louise C.; Norman, Greg J.; Berntson, Gary G.

    2011-01-01

    Social species, by definition, form organizations that extend beyond the individual. These structures evolved hand in hand with behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social isolation represents a lens through which to investigate these behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms. Evidence from human and nonhuman animal studies indicates that isolation heightens sensitivity to social threats (predator evasion) and motivates the renewal of social connections. The effects of perceived isolation in humans share much in common with the effects of experimental manipulations of isolation in nonhuman social species: increased tonic sympathetic tonus and HPA activation, and decreased inflammatory control, immunity, sleep salubrity, and expression of genes regulating glucocorticoid responses. Together, these effects contribute to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in older adults. PMID:21651565

  18. Hydromechanical coupling in geologic processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    Earth's porous crust and the fluids within it are intimately linked through their mechanical effects on each other. This paper presents an overview of such "hydromechanical" coupling and examines current understanding of its role in geologic processes. An outline of the theory of hydromechanics and rheological models for geologic deformation is included to place various analytical approaches in proper context and to provide an introduction to this broad topic for nonspecialists. Effects of hydromechanical coupling are ubiquitous in geology, and can be local and short-lived or regional and very long-lived. Phenomena such as deposition and erosion, tectonism, seismicity, earth tides, and barometric loading produce strains that tend to alter fluid pressure. Resulting pressure perturbations can be dramatic, and many so-called "anomalous" pressures appear to have been created in this manner. The effects of fluid pressure on crustal mechanics are also profound. Geologic media deform and fail largely in response to effective stress, or total stress minus fluid pressure. As a result, fluid pressures control compaction, decompaction, and other types of deformation, as well as jointing, shear failure, and shear slippage, including events that generate earthquakes. By controlling deformation and failure, fluid pressures also regulate states of stress in the upper crust. Advances in the last 80 years, including theories of consolidation, transient groundwater flow, and poroelasticity, have been synthesized into a reasonably complete conceptual framework for understanding and describing hydromechanical coupling. Full coupling in two or three dimensions is described using force balance equations for deformation coupled with a mass conservation equation for fluid flow. Fully coupled analyses allow hypothesis testing and conceptual model development. However, rigorous application of full coupling is often difficult because (1) the rheological behavior of geologic media is complex

  19. The Antarctic Region: Geological Evolution and Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quilty, Patrick G.

    The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) supports discipline- and issue-based meetings in Antarctic research, and these are forums for announcing developments in Antarctic science. Refereed symposia proceedings normally follow and generate a number of volumes that almost constitute serial publication. Meetings in the Earth sciences occur at roughly 4-year intervals. The resulting volumes cover Antarctic Earth science generally and provide convenient access to periodic bibliographic updates.The Antarctic Region: Geological Evolution and Processes is a collection of the Proceedings of the VII International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, held in Siena, Italy, in 1995 and sponsored by SCAR. It was by far the largest such meeting held to date—the next will be in New Zealand in 1999—but the book, even as large as it is, contains only a portion of the papers presented.

  20. Basic petroleum geology, 2nd ed. , revised

    SciTech Connect

    Link.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains revised and updated material, including approximately 200 additional illustrations and an extensive glossary of terms. A valuable reference for geology students and petroleum professionals, the text presents fundamental concepts of geology in terms of sedimentary deposition, petroleum occurrence, exploration, and recovery. This book contains information on geologic time, historical geology and stratigraphy; Minerals and rocks; Weathering erosion, and deposition; Marine erosion and deposition; Depositional basins; Lacustrine, desert and glacial environments; Subsurface water and diagenesis; Structural geology; petroleum traps; Petroleum and reservoirs; Geological considerations and engineering practices; Rocks, reservoirs, and recovery techniques; Exploration techniques for petroleum; Bibliography Glossary; Index.

  1. Geologic database for digital geology of California, Nevada, and Utah: an application of the North American Data Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedford, David R.; Ludington, Steve; Nutt, Constance M.; Stone, Paul A.; Miller, David M.; Miller, Robert J.; Wagner, David L.; Saucedo, George J.

    2003-01-01

    The USGS is creating an integrated national database for digital state geologic maps that includes stratigraphic, age, and lithologic information. The majority of the conterminous 48 states have digital geologic base maps available, often at scales of 1:500,000. This product is a prototype, and is intended to demonstrate the types of derivative maps that will be possible with the national integrated database. This database permits the creation of a number of types of maps via simple or sophisticated queries, maps that may be useful in a number of areas, including mineral-resource assessment, environmental assessment, and regional tectonic evolution. This database is distributed with three main parts: a Microsoft Access 2000 database containing geologic map attribute data, an Arc/Info (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, California) Export format file containing points representing designation of stratigraphic regions for the Geologic Map of Utah, and an ArcView 3.2 (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, California) project containing scripts and dialogs for performing a series of generalization and mineral resource queries. IMPORTANT NOTE: Spatial data for the respective stage geologic maps is not distributed with this report. The digital state geologic maps for the states involved in this report are separate products, and two of them are produced by individual state agencies, which may be legally and/or financially responsible for this data. However, the spatial datasets for maps discussed in this report are available to the public. Questions regarding the distribution, sale, and use of individual state geologic maps should be sent to the respective state agency. We do provide suggestions for obtaining and formatting the spatial data to make it compatible with data in this report. See section ‘Obtaining and Formatting Spatial Data’ in the PDF version of the report.

  2. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1) Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Levich; J.S. Stuckless

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation.

  3. Creationism Challenges Geology: A Retreat to the Eighteenth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eglin, Paula G.; Graham, Mildred W.

    1982-01-01

    Some contentions of scientific creationism that conflict with accepted principles of geology (catastrophism, fossil records, earth's age, rock formation, second law of thermodynamics) are reviewed, demonstrating that these claims are based not on scientific research or reasonable conjecture but on Biblical references. (Author/DC)

  4. Reports of planetary geology and geophysics program, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This is a compilation of abstracts of reports from Principal Investigators of NASA's PLanetary Geology and Geophysics program, Office of Space Science and Applications. The purpose is to document in summary form research work conducted in this program during 1987. Each report reflects significant accomplishments in the area of the author's funded grant or contract.

  5. Accessing seismic data through geological interpretation: Challenges and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, R. W.; Clayton, S.; McCaffrey, B.

    2008-12-01

    Between them, the world's research programs, national institutions and corporations, especially oil and gas companies, have acquired substantial volumes of seismic reflection data. Although the vast majority are proprietary and confidential, significant data are released and available for research, including those in public data libraries. The challenge now is to maximise use of these data, by providing routes to seismic not simply on the basis of acquisition or processing attributes but via the geology they image. The Virtual Seismic Atlas (VSA: www.seismicatlas.org) meets this challenge by providing an independent, free-to-use community based internet resource that captures and shares the geological interpretation of seismic data globally. Images and associated documents are explicitly indexed by extensive metadata trees, using not only existing survey and geographical data but also the geology they portray. The solution uses a Documentum database interrogated through Endeca Guided Navigation, to search, discover and retrieve images. The VSA allows users to compare contrasting interpretations of clean data thereby exploring the ranges of uncertainty in the geometric interpretation of subsurface structure. The metadata structures can be used to link reports and published research together with other data types such as wells. And the VSA can link to existing data libraries. Searches can take different paths, revealing arrays of geological analogues, new datasets while providing entirely novel insights and genuine surprises. This can then drive new creative opportunities for research and training, and expose the contents of seismic data libraries to the world.

  6. Reports of planetary geology and geophysics program, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Henry E. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This is a compilation of abstracts of reports from Principal Investigators of NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, Office of Space Science and Applications. The purpose is to document in summary form research work conducted in this program during 1988. Each report reflects significant accomplishments within the area of the author's funded grant or contract.

  7. The neuroendocrinology of social isolation.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Capitanio, John P; Cole, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Social isolation has been recognized as a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in humans for more than a quarter of a century. Although the focus of research has been on objective social roles and health behavior, the brain is the key organ for forming, monitoring, maintaining, repairing, and replacing salutary connections with others. Accordingly, population-based longitudinal research indicates that perceived social isolation (loneliness) is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality independent of objective social isolation and health behavior. Human and animal investigations of neuroendocrine stress mechanisms that may be involved suggest that (a) chronic social isolation increases the activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical axis, and (b) these effects are more dependent on the disruption of a social bond between a significant pair than objective isolation per se. The relational factors and neuroendocrine, neurobiological, and genetic mechanisms that may contribute to the association between perceived isolation and mortality are reviewed.

  8. Geologic Map of the Yukon-Koyukuk Basin, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, William W.; Wilson, Frederic H.; Labay, Keith A.; Shew, Nora

    2009-01-01

    This map and accompanying digital files represent part of a systematic effort to release geologic data for the United States in a uniform manner. All the geologic data in this series will be published as parts of the U.S. Geological Survey Data Series. The geologic data in this series have been compiled from a wide variety of sources, ranging from state and regional geologic maps to large-scale field mapping. The data are presented for use at a nominal scale of 1:500,000, although individual datasets may contain data suitable for use at larger scales. The metadata associated with each release will provide more detailed information on sources and appropriate scales for use. Associated attribute databases accompany the spatial database of the geology and are uniformly structured for ease in developing regional- and national-scale maps. The 1:500,000-scale geologic map of the Yukon-Koyukuk Basin, Alaska, covers more than 200,000 square kilometers of western Alaska or nearly 15 percent of the total land area of the state. It stretches from the Brooks Range on the north to the Kuskokwim River and lower reaches of the Yukon River on the south and from Kotzebue Sound, Seward Peninsula, and Norton Sound on the west to the Yukon-Tanana Uplands and Tanana-Kuskokwim Lowlands on the east. It includes not only the northern and central part of the basin, but also the lands that border the basin. The area is characterized by isolated clusters of hills and low mountain ranges separated by broad alluviated interior and coastal lowlands. Most of the lowlands, except those bordering Kotzebue Sound and Norton Sound, support a heavy vegetation cover. Exposures of bedrock are generally limited to rubble-strewn ridgetops and to cutbanks along the rivers. The map of the Yukon-Koyukuk Basin was prepared largely from geologic field data collected between 1953 and 1988 by the U.S. Geological Survey and published as 1:250,000-scale geologic quadrangle maps. Additional data for parts of the

  9. Mapping the Surficial Geology of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, D. C.; Jakobsson, M.; Gebhardt, C.; Mayer, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Surficial geologic mapping of the Arctic Ocean was undertaken to provide a basis for understanding different geologic environments in this polar setting. Mapping was based on data acquired from numerous icebreaker and submarine missions to the polar region. The intent was to create a geologic layer overlying the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean. Analysis of subbottom profiler and multibeam bathymetric data in conjunction with sediment cores and the regional morphology rendered from the IBCAO data were used to map different surficial geologic units. For a relatively small ocean basin, the Arctic Ocean reveals a plethora of margin and basin types reflecting both the complex tectonic origins of the basin and its diverse sedimentation history. Broad and narrow shelves were subjected to a complex ice-margin history in the Quaternary, and bear the sediment types and morphological features as a result. Some shelfal areas are heavily influenced by rivers. Extensive deep water ridges and plateaus are isolated from coastal input and have a long history of hemipelagic deposition. An active spreading ridge and regions of recent volcanism have volcani-clastic and heavily altered sediments. Some regions of the Arctic Ocean are proposed to have been influenced by bolide impact. The flanks of the basins demonstrate complex sedimentation patterns resulting from mass failures and ice-margin outflow. The deep basins of the Arctic Ocean are filled with turbidites resulting from these mass-flows and are interbedded with hemiplegic deposits.

  10. Geologic Resource Evaluation of Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site, Hawai'i: Part I, Geology and Coastal Landforms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Bruce M.; Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues forming a link between the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast National Parks of the Island of Hawai'i are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE) is the smallest (~86 acres) of three National Parks located on the leeward Kona coast of the Island of Hawai'i. The main structure at PUHE, Pu'ukohola Heiau, is an important historical temple that was built during 1790-91 by King Kamehameha I

  11. Global geological map of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.

    2011-10-01

    The surface area of Venus (∼460×106 km2) is ∼90% of that of the Earth. Using Magellan radar image and altimetry data, supplemented by Venera-15/16 radar images, we compiled a global geologic map of Venus at a scale of 1:10 M. We outline the history of geological mapping of the Earth and planets to illustrate the importance of utilizing the dual stratigraphic classification approach to geological mapping. Using this established approach, we identify 13 distinctive units on the surface of Venus and a series of structures and related features. We present the history and evolution of the definition and characterization of these units, explore and assess alternate methods and approaches that have been suggested, and trace the sequence of mapping from small areas to regional and global scales. We outline the specific defining nature and characteristics of these units, map their distribution, and assess their stratigraphic relationships. On the basis of these data, we then compare local and regional stratigraphic columns and compile a global stratigraphic column, defining rock-stratigraphic units, time-stratigraphic units, and geological time units. We use superposed craters, stratigraphic relationships and impact crater parabola degradation to assess the geologic time represented by the global stratigraphic column. Using the characteristics of these units, we interpret the geological processes that were responsible for their formation. On the basis of unit superposition and stratigraphic relationships, we interpret the sequence of events and processes recorded in the global stratigraphic column. The earliest part of the history of Venus (Pre-Fortunian) predates the observed surface geological features and units, although remnants may exist in the form of deformed rocks and minerals. We find that the observable geological history of Venus can be subdivided into three distinctive phases. The earlier phase (Fortunian Period, its lower stratigraphic boundary cannot be

  12. A bibliography of planetary geology principal investigators and their associates, 1981 - 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Over 800 publications submitted by researchers supported through NASA's Planetary Geology Program are cited and an author/editor index is provided. Entries are listed under the following subjects: (1) general interest topics; (2) solar system, comets, asteroids, and small bodies; (3) geologic mapping, geomorphology, and stratigraphy; (4) structure, tectonics, geologic and geophysical evolution; (5) impact craters: morphology, density, and geologic studies; (6) volcanism; (7) fluvial, mass wasting, and periglacial processes; (8) Eolian studies; (9) regolith, volatile, atmosphere, and climate; (10) remote sensing, radar, and photometry; and (11) cartography, photogrammetry, geodesy, and altimetry.

  13. Can Graduate Teaching Assistants Teach Inquiry-Based Geology Labs Effectively?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryker, Katherine; McConnell, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the implementation of teaching strategies by graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) in inquiry-based introductory geology labs at a large research university. We assess the degree of inquiry present in each Physical Geology lab and compare and contrast the instructional practices of new and experienced GTAs teaching these labs. We…

  14. Application of micro-PIXE method to ore geology

    SciTech Connect

    Murao, S.; Hamasaki, S.; Sie, S. H.; Maglambayan, V. B.; Hu, X.

    1999-06-10

    Specific examples of ore mineral analysis by micro-PIXE are presented in this paper. For mineralogical usage it is essential to construct a specimen chamber which is designed exclusively for mineral analysis. In most of the analysis of natural minerals, selection of absorbers is essential in order to obtain optimum results. Trace element data reflect the crystallographic characteristics of each mineral and also geologic settings of sampling locality, and can be exploited in research spanning mineral exploration to beneficiation. Micro-PIXE thus serves as a bridge between small-scale mineralogical experiments and understanding of large-scale geological phenomenon on the globe.

  15. Directions of the US Geological Survey Landslide Hazards Reduction Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) Landslide Hazards Reduction Program includes studies of landslide process and prediction, landslide susceptibility and risk mapping, landslide recurrence and slope evolution, and research application and technology transfer. Studies of landslide processes have been recently conducted in Virginia, Utah, California, Alaska, and Hawaii, Landslide susceptibility maps provide a very important tool for landslide hazard reduction. The effects of engineering-geologic characteristics of rocks, seismic activity, short and long-term climatic change on landslide recurrence are under study. Detailed measurement of movement and deformation has begun on some active landslides. -from Author

  16. The Geology of the Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H. (Editor); Saunders, R. S.; Strom, R. G.; Wilhelms, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    The geologic history of the terrestrial planets is outlined in light of recent exploration and the revolution in geologic thinking. Among the topics considered are planet formation; planetary craters, basins, and general surface characteristics; tectonics; planetary atmospheres; and volcanism.

  17. The Challenges of Standardized Planetary Geologic Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, J. A.

    2015-06-01

    The process and product of creating standardized geologic maps of planetary bodies has been met with particular challenges. Addressing these challenges helps ensure that benchmark contextual geologic map products remain a reliable community resource.

  18. Teaching Geology in a Penitentiary Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, William N.

    1986-01-01

    Describes geology teaching in a penal institution, considering class offerings, teaching structure, teaching schedule, security, cheating, student characteristics, women prisoners in geology classes, and outside field trips. Sample laboratory schedule is included. (JN)

  19. Publications of the Western Geologic Mapping Team 1997-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Paul; Powell, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    The Western Geologic Mapping Team (WGMT) of the U.S. Geological Survey, Geologic Division (USGS, GD), conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth-science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis currently include southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Pacific Northwest, the Las Vegas urban corridor, and selected National Park lands. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WGMT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WGMT released in calendar years 1997 and 1998. Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WGMT staff. However, the list also includes some publications authored by formal non-USGS cooperators with the WGMT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WGMT in cooperation with WGMT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Most of these Web publications are USGS open-file reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information. For these, the bibliographic citation refers specifically to an explanatory pamphlet containing information about the content and accessibility of the database, not to the actual map or related information comprising the database itself.

  20. Crosscutting Development- EVA Tools and Geology Sample Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    Exploration to all destinations has at one time or another involved the acquisition and return of samples and context data. Gathered at the summit of the highest mountain, the floor of the deepest sea, or the ice of a polar surface, samples and their value (both scientific and symbolic) have been a mainstay of Earthly exploration. In manned spaceflight exploration, the gathering of samples and their contextual information has continued. With the extension of collecting activities to spaceflight destinations comes the need for geology tools and equipment uniquely designed for use by suited crew members in radically different environments from conventional field geology. Beginning with the first Apollo Lunar Surface Extravehicular Activity (EVA), EVA Geology Tools were successfully used to enable the exploration and scientific sample gathering objectives of the lunar crew members. These early designs were a step in the evolution of Field Geology equipment, and the evolution continues today. Contemporary efforts seek to build upon and extend the knowledge gained in not only the Apollo program but a wealth of terrestrial field geology methods and hardware that have continued to evolve since the last lunar surface EVA. This paper is presented with intentional focus on documenting the continuing evolution and growing body of knowledge for both engineering and science team members seeking to further the development of EVA Geology. Recent engineering development and field testing efforts of EVA Geology equipment for surface EVA applications are presented, including the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATs) field trial. An executive summary of findings will also be presented, detailing efforts recommended for exotic sample acquisition and pre-return curation development regardless of planetary or microgravity destination.